These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Social dominance in adult female mountain goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The social behaviour of adult female mountain goats, Oreamnos americanus, was studied for 2 years in an unhunted population in west-central Alberta, Canada. Compared with other female ungulates, mountain goat females interacted aggressively much more frequently and their dominance ranks were less stable in time and less age-related. Goats were organized in a non-linear but non-random dominance hierarchy, with many

François Fournier; Marco Festa-Bianchet

1995-01-01

2

Understanding the Burden of Adult Female Acne  

PubMed Central

Objective: Typically regarded as an adolescent condition, acne among adult females is also prevalent. Limited data are available on the clinical characteristics and burden of adult female acne. The study objective was to describe clinical characteristics and psychosocial impact of acne in adult women. Design: Cross-sectional, web-based survey. Setting: Data were collected from a diverse sample of United States females. Participants: Women ages 25 to 45 years with facial acne (?25 visible lesions). Measurements: Outcomes included sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, perceptions, coping behaviors, psychosocial impact of acne (health-related quality of life using acne-specific Quality of Life questionnaire and psychological status using Patient Health Questionnaire), and work/productivity. Results: A total of 208 women completed the survey (mean age 35±6 years), comprising White/Caucasian (51.4%), Black/African American (24.5%), Hispanic/Latino (11.1%), Asian (7.7%), and Other (5.3%). Facial acne presented most prominently on cheeks, chin, and forehead and was characterized by erythema, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, and scarring. Average age of adult onset was 25±6 years, and one-third (33.7%) were diagnosed with acne as an adult. The majority (80.3%) had 25 to 49 visible facial lesions. Acne was perceived as troublesome and impacted self-confidence. Makeup was frequently used to conceal acne. Facial acne negatively affected health-related quality of life, was associated with mild/moderate symptoms of depression and/or anxiety, and impacted ability to concentrate on work or school. Conclusion: Results highlight the multifaceted impact of acne and provide evidence that adult female acne is under-recognized and burdensome. PMID:24578779

Kawata, Ariane K.; Daniels, Selena R.; Yeomans, Karen; Burk, Caroline T.; Callender, Valerie D.

2014-01-01

3

Adult Female English Language Learners: Investment, Identity and Benefits  

E-print Network

ELLs are a growing community in the United States and their learning needs are significantly different from younger learners, collegiate ELLs or Adult Basic Education students. Additionally, adult female ELLs have their own needs and motives...

Wharton, Anna

2013-07-31

4

Survival of Adult Female Elk in Yellowstone Following Wolf Restoration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Counts of northern Yellowstone elk (Cervus elaphus) in northwestern Wyoming and adjacent Montana, USA, have decreased at an average rate of 6-8% per year since wolves (Canis lupus) were reintroduced in 1995. Population growth rates of elk are typically sensitive to variations in adult female survival; populations that are stable or increasing exhibit high adult female survival. We used survival

SHANEY B. EVANS; L. DAVID MECH; P. J. WHITE; GLEN A. SARGEANT

2006-01-01

5

Female circumcision.  

PubMed

It is uncertain when female circumcision was first practiced, but it certainly preceded the founding of both Christianity and Islam. A review of past and current historical, popular and professional literature was undertaken, and 4 types of female circumcision were identified. Typically female circumcision is performed by a local village practitioner, lay person or by untrained midwives. Female genital mutilation is not accepted by any religious or medical opinion, and is a violation of human rights against helpless individuals who are unable to provide informed consent and who must therefore be protected through education and legislation. Complications of female circumcision can present after many years. Any medical practitioner (either for adult or pediatric) can be confronted with this issue of female circumcision, even in countries where this custom is not present, thus mandating the understanding of this complex issue. PMID:11369952

Abu Daia, J M

2000-10-01

6

Perceived body space and self-esteem in adult females with chronic low back pain.  

PubMed

This comparative descriptive study, an extension of previous research on adult males with chronic low back pain, investigated perceived body space (PBS) and self-esteem in adult females with chronic low back pain (CLBP). Findings were compared to adult males with CLBP and adult female populations without acute or chronic health conditions. Results indicated that no significant difference existed between adult females and males with CLBP regarding PBS and self-esteem. Additional analyses indicated that PBS in adult females with CLBP was significantly different from several groups of "healthy" adult females. Ancillary findings indicated that adult females with CLBP were significantly more depressed than adult males with CLBP. PMID:7854814

Lisanti, P; Verdisco, L A

1994-01-01

7

Female victims of child sexual abuse: Adult adjustment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A questionnaire administered to a University sample of 245 female victims of sexual child abuse and 750 nonvictims attempted to determine whether abuse is related to poor adult social and psychological adjustment. The instrument consisted of three outcome measures of adjustment, variables directly related to abuse, perceived satisfaction with early family life, and demographic data. Only one of the outcome

Seymour Parker; Hilda Parker

1991-01-01

8

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Transcriptome of the adult female malaria  

E-print Network

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Transcriptome of the adult female malaria mosquito vector Anopheles-Cerón9 , Salvador Hernández-Martínez1 and Mario H Rodríguez López1 Abstract Background: Human Malaria species from different branches of the mosquito evolutionary tree transmit malaria, suggesting

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

9

RESEARCH Open Access A global assembly of adult female mosquito  

E-print Network

RESEARCH Open Access A global assembly of adult female mosquito mark-release-recapture data to inform the control of mosquito-borne pathogens Carlos A Guerra1,2* , Robert C Reiner Jr1,3 , T Alex by mosquitos is known to be highly sensitive to mosquito bionomic parameters. Mosquito mark

Lloyd, Alun

10

Affiliative, playful, and homosexual interactions of adult female lowland gorillas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over a period of seven months four wild born adult female lowland gorillas were observed under semi-natural captive conditions.\\u000a Thirty instances of contact interactions were recorded during 80 hours of observation. These interactions were segregated\\u000a into categories operationally defined as connoting playful, homosexual, and affiliative activities. During observation periods\\u000a the animals' labial tumescence was rated and the stage of the

Robert B. Fischer; Ronald D. Nadler

1978-01-01

11

Motivational and mindfulness intervention for young adult female marijuana users  

PubMed Central

This pilot study tested the efficacy of a brief intervention using motivational interviewing (MI) plus mindfulness meditation (MM) to reduce marijuana use among young adult female. Thirty-four female marijuana users between the ages of 18–29 were randomized to either the intervention group (n = 22), consisting of 2 sessions of MI-MM or an assessment-only control group (n = 12). Participants’ marijuana use was assessed at baseline, 1, 2, and 3 months post-treatment. Fixed-effects regression modeling was used to analyze treatment effects. Participants randomized to the intervention group were found to use marijuana on 6.15 (z = ?2.42, p=.015), 7.81 (z = ?2.78, p=.005), and 6.83 (z = ?2.23, p=.026) fewer days at months 1, 2, and 3, respectively, than controls. Findings from this pilot study provide preliminary evidence for the feasibility and effectiveness of a brief MI-MM for young adult female marijuana users. PMID:21940136

de Dios, Marcel A.; Herman, Debra S.; Britton, Willoughby B.; Hagerty, Claire E.; Anderson, Bradley J.; Stein, Michael D.

2011-01-01

12

Could adult female acne be associated with modern life?  

PubMed

In recent years, the prevalence of adult female acne has increased, but the reason for this increase remains unclear. Acne is one of the most common skin disorders. It can be triggered or worsened by endogenous and exogenous factors, including genetic predisposition, hormone concentrations, diet, smoke and stress; although the interaction with this last factor is not well understood. Modern life presents many stresses including urban noises, socioeconomic pressures and light stimuli. Women are especially affected by stress during daily routine. The recent insertion in the labor market is added to the duties of the mother and wife. Women also have a higher risk of developing psychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety. Sleep restriction is added to these factors, with several negative consequences on health, including on hormonal secretion and the immune system. This is further complicated by the natural variation in sleep architecture across the menstrual cycle. Recent studies have brought new data about the mechanisms and possible factors involved. This review aims to establish a connection between stress, sleep deprivation and adult female acne. PMID:24952024

Albuquerque, R G R; Rocha, M A D; Bagatin, E; Tufik, S; Andersen, M L

2014-10-01

13

The effects of adult male mouse urine odor on evoked potentials in adult female mice  

E-print Network

OF SCIENCE MAY 1985 Major Subject: Bioengineering THE EFFECTS OF ADULT MALE MOUSE URINE ODOR ON EVOKED POTENTIALS IN ADULT FEMALE MICE A Thesis by TROY EDWIN BROWN Approved as to style and content by: Jon F. Hunter (Co ? C airman of Committee... OF SCIENCE MAY 1985 Major Subject: Bioengineering THE EFFECTS OF ADULT MALE MOUSE URINE ODOR ON EVOKED POTENTIALS IN ADULT FEMALE MICE A Thesis by TROY EDWIN BROWN Approved as to style and content by: Jon F. Hunter (Co ? C airman of Committee...

Brown, Troy Edwin

2012-06-07

14

Adult female hamsters avoid interspecific mating after exposure to heterospecific males  

Microsoft Academic Search

When females mate with a heterospecific male, they do not usually produce viable offspring. Thus, there is a selective pressure\\u000a for females to avoid interspecific mating. In many species, females innately avoid heterospecific males; females can also\\u000a imprint on their parents to avoid later sexual interactions with heterospecific males. However, it was previously unknown\\u000a whether adult females can learn to

Javier delBarco-Trillo; M. E. McPhee; Robert E. Johnston

2010-01-01

15

Chronic vomiting and diarrhea in a young adult female  

PubMed Central

Patient: Female, 25 Final Diagnosis: Rumination syndrome Symptoms: Diarrhea • nausea • vomiting Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Psychology Objective: Rare disease Background: Rumination syndrome is a behavioral disorder that consists of an effortless regurgitation of undigested food that is subsequently either re-swallowed or ejected within minutes of meal ingestion occurring with liquids and solids. It was first described in children that are mentally disadvantaged but has gained more attention to also occur among both adolescents and adults of normal mental capacity. The prevalence has never accurately been assessed due to its rarity and frequent misdiagnosis. Case Report: A 25-year-old Caucasian female presented to our care with a chronic history of nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. She has vomited during the postprandial period for the last four years. She also has much as ten bouts of diarrhea per day. There is no definitive evidence of chronic laxative use or self-induced vomiting. Physical examination had no significant findings except a cachectic female patient with a BMI of 16 and hypotension. Patient was eventually discharged home with nutrition recommendations for nocturnal psychology follow up for relaxation behavioral techniques. Conclusions: Due to its elusiveness rumination syndrome is both underdiagnosed and a misdiagnosed condition. One of the reasons for a delayed diagnosis in patients with rumination syndrome is that many physicians are unaware of it, or are even reluctant to make this diagnosis as it could easily be confused with an eating disorder or with other gastrointestinal motility disorders. Because this syndrome may be left undiagnosed for months to years, patients often undergo many expensive and invasive procedures. PMID:24222814

Cooper, Chad J.; Said, Sarmad; Nunez, Angelica; Alkhateeb, Haider; McCallum, Richard W.

2013-01-01

16

Evidence of Uncultivated Bacteria in the Adult Female Bladder  

PubMed Central

Clinical urine specimens are usually considered to be sterile when they do not yield uropathogens using standard clinical cultivation procedures. Our aim was to test if the adult female bladder might contain bacteria that are not identified by these routine procedures. An additional aim was to identify and recommend the appropriate urine collection method for the study of bacterial communities in the female bladder. Consenting participants who were free of known urinary tract infection provided urine samples by voided, transurethral, and/or suprapubic collection methods. The presence of bacteria in these samples was assessed by bacterial culture, light microscopy, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Bacteria that are not or cannot be routinely cultivated (hereinafter called uncultivated bacteria) were common in voided urine, urine collected by transurethral catheter (TUC), and urine collected by suprapubic aspirate (SPA), regardless of whether the subjects had urinary symptoms. Voided urine samples contained mixtures of urinary and genital tract bacteria. Communities identified in parallel urine samples collected by TUC and SPA were similar. Uncultivated bacteria are clearly present in the bladders of some women. It remains unclear if these bacteria are viable and/or if their presence is relevant to idiopathic urinary tract conditions. PMID:22278835

Wolfe, Alan J.; Toh, Evelyn; Shibata, Noriko; Rong, Ruichen; Kenton, Kimberly; FitzGerald, MaryPat; Mueller, Elizabeth R.; Schreckenberger, Paul; Dong, Qunfeng; Nelson, David E.

2012-01-01

17

Habitual use of vocal fry in young adult female speakers.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the use of vocal fry in young adult Standard American-English (SAE) speakers. This was a preliminary attempt (1) to determine the prevalence of the use of this register in young adult college-aged American speakers and (2) to describe the acoustic characteristics of vocal fry in these speakers. Subjects were 34 female college students. They were native SAE speakers aged 18-25 years. Data collection procedures included high quality recordings of two speaking conditions, (1) sustained isolated vowel /a/ and (2) sentence reading task. Data analyses included both perceptual and acoustic evaluations. Results showed that approximately two-thirds of this population used vocal fry and that it was most likely to occur at the end of sentences. In addition, statistically significant differences between vocal fry and normal register were found for mean F(0) minimum, F(0) maximum, F(0) range, and jitter local. Preliminary findings were taken to suggest that use of the vocal fry register may be common in some adult SAE speakers. PMID:21917418

Wolk, Lesley; Abdelli-Beruh, Nassima B; Slavin, Dianne

2012-05-01

18

Smoking topography and abstinence in adult female smokers.  

PubMed

Preliminary evidence, within both adults and adolescents, suggests that the intensity with which cigarettes are smoked (i.e., smoking topography) is predictive of success during a cessation attempt. These reports have also shown topography to be superior compared to other variables, such as cigarettes per day, in the prediction of abstinence. The possibility that gender may influence this predictive relationship has not been evaluated but may be clinically useful in tailoring gender-specific interventions. Within the context of a clinical trial for smoking cessation among women, adult daily smokers completed a laboratory session that included a 1-hour ad libitum smoking period in which measures of topography were collected (N=135). Participants were then randomized to active medication (nicotine patch vs. varenicline) and abstinence was monitored for 4weeks. Among all smoking topography measures and all abstinence outcomes, a moderate association was found between longer puff duration and greater puff volume and continued smoking during the active 4-week treatment phase, but only within the nicotine patch group. Based on the weak topography-abstinence relationship among female smokers found in the current study, future studies should focus on explicit gender comparisons to examine if these associations are specific to or more robust in male smokers. PMID:24018226

McClure, Erin A; Saladin, Michael E; Baker, Nathaniel L; Carpenter, Matthew J; Gray, Kevin M

2013-12-01

19

Meat-eating by adult female Sumatran orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus abelii).  

PubMed

Information about meat-eating behavior by wild orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) is scant. The first article about such a case dates from 1981. Since 1989, seven incidents of adult female Sumatran orangutans eating slow lorises (Nycticebus coucang) have been witnessed. Three females from two study sites were involved. In three cases the females were seen catching the prey. There are too few cases to conclude whether this behavior is typically female. PMID:9327098

Utami, S S; Van Hooff, J A

1997-01-01

20

Adult female hamsters require long and sustained exposures to heterospecific males to avoid interspecific mating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interspecific mating normally decreases female fitness. In many species, females avoid heterospecific males innately or by\\u000a imprinting on their parents. Alternatively, adult females could learn to discriminate against heterospecific males after exposure\\u000a to such males. For example, Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) females learn to discriminate between conspecific males and Turkish hamster (M. brandti) males during adulthood by exposure to males

Javier delBarco-Trillo; Robert E. Johnston

2011-01-01

21

Social relationships between adult females and the alpha male in wild tufted capuchin monkeys.  

PubMed

Primates are notable for the widespread presence of long-term female-male associations which go beyond the mating context. However, little attention has been given to the factors that affect within-species variation in female-male relationships, especially among New World primates. Although detailed accounts of heterosexual relationships in Cebus species are scarce, a few studies have suggested the occurrence of strong associations between adult females and high-ranking males. This study explores affiliative relationships between females and the alpha male during the nonbreeding season in wild tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella nigritus). Affiliative relationships were explored through female-male patterns of spatial proximity and grooming. By adopting a social network approach, we analyzed: (1) whether the alpha male is the preferred male partner for females and, (2) whether variation (if any) in female-alpha male affiliation can be explained through both female individual characteristics and social network metrics. Our results showed that alpha males were the favorite male partner for adult females in the proximity networks, but this did not hold true in the grooming networks. In addition, female-alpha male interaction patterns showed considerable variation, with only some females being strongly associated with the alpha male. Our results suggest that such a variation can be explained by female dominance rank, level of centrality (the quantity and intensity of spatial connection with other females) and prestige (the quantity of grooming received by other females) in female-female social networks. Taken together, these findings highlight two aspects of female-alpha male relationships in tufted capuchin monkeys: the alpha male represents the most socially integrated male in the group, and females with high dominance ranks and high centrality in both proximity and grooming networks show stronger relationships with the alpha male. PMID:21698660

Tiddi, Barbara; Aureli, Filippo; Schino, Gabriele; Voelkl, Bernhard

2011-08-01

22

Psychological sequelae in adult females reporting childhood ritualistic abuse.  

PubMed

The present study sought to increase current scientific knowledge about the controversial issue of subjectively reported childhood ritualistic abuse by addressing several key unresolved issues. In particular, the possibility that those reporting ritualistic abuse may be characterized primarily by the severity of their abuse histories or the severity of their present psychological symptoms, rather than the veridicality of the ritualistic events, was explored. Adult female outpatients reporting childhood sexual abuse with ritualistic features were compared with a second group of women who reported childhood sexual abuse without ritualism. Measures included characteristics of childhood sexual and physical abuse, current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnostic status and symptom severity, and severity of current dissociative experiences. Women reporting ritualistic features scored significantly higher on measures of childhood sexual and physical abuse. Neither PTSD diagnostic status nor severity for PTSD nor dissociative experiences were significantly different between the groups. While preliminary in nature, these results suggest that it may be helpful to conceptualize reported childhood ritualistic abuse as indicative of the need to assess carefully for severe abuse and its predictable sequelae within existing traumatic victimization conceptual frameworks. PMID:7583756

Lawrence, K J; Cozolino, L; Foy, D W

1995-08-01

23

Social cognitions about adult male victims of female sexual assault  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although men are far less likely than women to be victims of heterosexual assault, such cases have been reported with increasing frequency in recent years. We compared social judgments about male and female victims of heterosexual and homosexual rape and tested hypotheses concerning social cognitions that are assumed to underlie a male rape mythology. In a 2 × 2 ×

Ronald E. Smith; Charles J. Pine; Mark E. Hawley

1988-01-01

24

Predicting Adolescent and Adult Antisocial Behavior among Adjudicated Delinquent Females  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies identifying the mechanisms underlying the causes and consequences of antisocial behavior among female delinquents as they transit to adulthood are scarce and have important limitations: Most are based on official statistics, they typically are restricted to normative samples, and rarely do they gather prospective data from samples of…

Cernkovich, Stephen A.; Lanctot, Nadine; Giordano, Peggy C.

2008-01-01

25

Mate choice in adult female Bengalese finches: females express consistent preferences for individual males and prefer female-directed song performances.  

PubMed

In the process of mate selection by female songbirds, male suitors advertise their quality through reproductive displays in which song plays an important role. Females evaluate the quality of each signal and the associated male, and the results of that evaluation guide expression of selective courtship displays. Some studies reveal broad agreement among females in their preferences for specific signal characteristics, indicating that those features are especially salient in female mate choice. Other studies reveal that females differ in their preference for specific characteristics, indicating that in those cases female evaluation of signal quality is influenced by factors other than simply the physical properties of the signal. Thus, both the physical properties of male signals and specific traits of female signal evaluation can impact female mate choice. Here, we characterized the mate preferences of female Bengalese finches. We found that calls and copulation solicitation displays are equally reliable indicators of female preference. In response to songs from an array of males, each female expressed an individual-specific song preference, and those preferences were consistent across tests spanning many months. Across a population of females, songs of some males were more commonly preferred than others, and females preferred female-directed songs more than undirected songs, suggesting that some song features are broadly attractive. Preferences were indistinguishable for females that did or did not have social experience with the singers, indicating that female preference is strongly directed by song features rather than experiences associated with the singer. Analysis of song properties revealed several candidate parameters that may influence female evaluation. In an initial investigation of those parameters, females could be very selective for one song feature yet not selective for another. Therefore, multiple song parameters are evaluated independently. Together these findings reveal the nature of signal evaluation and mate choice in this species. PMID:24558501

Dunning, Jeffery L; Pant, Santosh; Bass, Aaron; Coburn, Zachary; Prather, Jonathan F

2014-01-01

26

Oestradiol modulation of cognition in adult female marmosets (Callithrix jacchus).  

PubMed

The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) provides many advantages over traditional rodent and macaque species as a model for human ageing and may be very useful for studying the effects of sex steroids on cognitive and brain ageing. We present the first study examining the effects of oestrogens on cognitive function in female marmosets. Adult monkeys (3-5 years of age) were trained to a specific learning criterion on a battery of cognitive tasks preoperatively (object discrimination, delayed response with increasing delays and detour reaching with opaque box) and were tested on different versions of these tasks (object reversals, delayed response with randomised delays and detour reaching with clear box) after ovariectomy and simultaneous implantation with 17?-oestradiol (E2 ) (n = 6) or blank (n = 6) Silastic capsules. Acquisition of a delayed matching-to-position task with a 1-s delay was also administered after completion of these tests. E2 -treated monkeys were significantly impaired on the second reversal and showed an increase in perseverative responding from reversals 1-3. Their performance also tended to be worse than that of control monkeys on the delayed response task. Performance acquisition on the delayed matching-to-position tended to be better in E2 -treated relative to control monkeys, although the group difference did not reach statistical significance. No effect of treatment was detected for detour reaching or affiliative behaviours. Overall, the findings indicate that E2 compromises performance on prefrontally-mediated tasks. The suggestion that E2 may improve acquisition on tasks dependent on the hippocampus will require further validation. These results are discussed in the context of dopaminergic and serotonergic signalling. We conclude that the marmoset is a useful new primate model for examining the effects of oestrogens on cognitive function. PMID:24617856

Lacreuse, A; Chang, J; Metevier, C M; LaClair, M; Meyer, J S; Ferris, C M

2014-05-01

27

An archival exploration of 19th-century American adult female offender parricides.  

PubMed

Social and behavioral scientists have increasingly attended to the contexts and motivational dynamics underlying parricidal events. These efforts notwithstanding, most research has focused on adolescent or adult male offender populations. One largely neglected area of study is that of adult female offender parricide. The present study utilizes archival records to examine the contexts and sources of conflict that gave rise to adult female offender parricides in the late 19th century. Three general themes emerged, representing the primary contexts behind adult female offender parricide: (1) abuse and neglect; (2) instrumental, financially-motivated killings; and (3) expressive killings, often during the course of arguments. Each of these contexts is explored. PMID:24344555

Shon, Phillip Chong Ho; Williams, Christopher R

2013-01-01

28

Female Infertility  

MedlinePLUS

... keeps having miscarriages, it is also called infertility. Female infertility can result from physical problems, hormone problems, ... or environmental factors. Most cases of infertility in women result from problems with producing eggs. One problem ...

29

Effects of Testosterone on Sexual Behavior and Morphology in Adult Female Leopard Geckos,  

E-print Network

implants in intact, adult female leopard geckos. Females had low ( 1 ng/ml), medium ( 100 ng/ml), or high ( 200 ng/ml) T levels for either a short (8 days) or a long (35 days) duration. Behavior tests with males were conducted on days 1­5 in the short- duration group or on days 29­33 in the long

Crews, David

30

Serotonin signaling in the brain of adult female mice is required for sexual preference  

PubMed Central

A role for serotonin in male sexual preference was recently uncovered by our finding that male mutant mice lacking serotonin have lost sexual preference. Here we show that female mouse mutants lacking either central serotonergic neurons or serotonin prefer female over male genital odors when given a choice, and displayed increased female–female mounting when presented either with a choice of a male and a female target or only with a female target. Pharmacological manipulations and genetic rescue experiments showed that serotonin is required in adults. Behavioral changes caused by deficient serotonergic signaling were not due to changes in plasma concentrations of sex hormones. We demonstrate that a genetic manipulation reverses sexual preference without involving sex hormones. Our results indicate that serotonin controls sexual preference. PMID:23716677

Zhang, Shasha; Liu, Yan; Rao, Yi

2013-01-01

31

Female zebra finches require early song exposure to prefer high-quality song as adults  

E-print Network

to judge song quality. We show that early exposure to adult song is required in the development of normal that varied in the exposure to song. As young adults, these females were tested for song preference using phrases and inconsistent frequency modu- lations (Price 1979; Eales 1987). Young adult zebra finches

Devoogd, Timothy John

32

Estrogen receptor 1 modulates circadian rhythms in adult female mice.  

PubMed

Estradiol influences the level and distribution of daily activity, the duration of the free-running period, and the behavioral phase response to light pulses. However, the mechanisms by which estradiol regulates daily and circadian rhythms are not fully understood. We tested the hypothesis that estrogens modulate daily activity patterns via both classical and "non-classical" actions at the estrogen receptor subtype 1 (ESR1). We used female transgenic mice with mutations in their estrogen response pathways; ESR1 knock-out (ERKO) mice and "non-classical" estrogen receptor knock-in (NERKI) mice. NERKI mice have an ESR1 receptor with a mutation in the estrogen-response-element binding domain, allowing only actions via "non-classical" genomic and second messenger pathways. Ovariectomized female NERKI, ERKO, and wildtype (WT) mice were given a subcutaneous capsule with low- or high-dose estradiol and compared with counterparts with no hormone replacement. We measured wheel-running activity in a light:dark cycle and constant darkness, and the behavioral phase response to light pulses given at different points during the subjective day and night. Estradiol increased average daily wheel-running, consolidated activity to the dark phase, and shortened the endogenous period in WT, but not NERKI and ERKO mice. The timing of activity onset during entrainment was advanced in all estradiol-treated animals regardless of genotype suggesting an ESR1-independent mechanism. We propose that estradiol modifies period, activity level, and distribution of activity via classical actions of ESR1 whereas an ESR1 independent mechanism regulates the phase of rhythms. PMID:24527952

Blattner, Margaret S; Mahoney, Megan M

2014-06-01

33

Intermittent Brugada Syndrome Presenting with Syncope in an Adult Female  

PubMed Central

Background. Brugada syndrome accounts for 4–12% of all sudden deaths worldwide and at least 20% of sudden deaths in patients with structurally normal hearts. Case Report. A 48-year-old female presented to the emergency department after two witnessed syncopal episodes. While awaiting discharge had a third collapse followed by cardiac arrest with shockable rhythm. Initial electrocardiogram showed wide QRS complex with left axis deviation, ST-segment elevation of <1?mm in V1 and V2, and flattening of T waves in V1. The angiogram did not demonstrate obstructive coronary disease. The electrocardiogram obtained two days after these events showed a right bundle branch block with ST-segment elevation of >2?mm followed by a negative T wave with no isoelectric separation, suggestive of spontaneous intermittent Brugada type 1 pattern. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated neither structural heart disease nor abnormal myocardium. After placement of an implantable cardioverter defibrillator the patient was discharged. Why should an emergency physician be aware of this? Brugada syndrome is an infrequently encountered clinical entity which may have a fatal outcome. This syndrome primarily presents with syncope. It should be considered as a component of differential diagnosis in patients with family history of syncope and sudden cardiac death. PMID:25371832

Chavez, Patricia; Bhandary, Akshai; Herzog, Eyal

2014-01-01

34

Patient-specific FDG dosimetry for adult males, adult females, and very low birth weight infants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorodeoxyglucose is the most commonly used radiopharmaceutical in Positron Emission Tomography, with applications in neurology, cardiology, and oncology. Despite its routine use worldwide, the radiation absorbed dose estimates from FDG have been based primarily on data obtained from two dogs studied in 1977 and 11 adults (most likely males) studied in 1982. In addition, the dose estimates calculated for FDG have been centered on the adult male, with little or no mention of variations in the dose estimates due to sex, age, height, weight, nationality, diet, or pathological condition. Through an extensive investigation into the Medical Internal Radiation Dose schema for calculating absorbed doses, I have developed a simple patient-specific equation; this equation incorporates the parameters necessary for alterations to the mathematical values of the human model to produce an estimate more representative of the individual under consideration. I have used this method to determine the range of absorbed doses to FDG from the collection of a large quantity of biological data obtained in adult males, adult females, and very low birth weight infants. Therefore, a more accurate quantification of the dose to humans from FDG has been completed. My results show that per unit administered activity, the absorbed dose from FDG is higher for infants compared to adults, and the dose for adult women is higher than for adult men. Given an injected activity of approximately 3.7 MBq kg-1, the doses for adult men, adult women, and full-term newborns would be on the order of 5.5, 7.1, and 2.8 mSv, respectively. These absorbed doses are comparable to the doses received from other nuclear medicine procedures.

Niven, Erin

35

Possible negative effects of adult male mortality on female grizzly bear reproduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied 2 grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) populations to test 3 hypotheses on the effects of adult male mortality on female reproduction. The “no effect” hypothesis predicts that reproduction should be higher in the population with superior overall diet quality, regardless of mortality of adult males. The “increased reproduction” hypothesis predicts that reproduction should be higher in the hunted population

Robert B Wielgus; Fred L Bunnell

2000-01-01

36

Energy cost of running in young and adult female athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2imax.kg) and energy cost of running were determined on the treadmill in groups of differently trained young and adult athletes. The VO2 max.kg was in all cases higher in adults than in young athletes. These differences were significant (p<005) in long-distance runners (n = 12, mean age = 24-2 ±2-2 vs 17-3 ±0-9 yrs, mean VO2max.kg= 66-9

VACLAV BUNC; JAN HELLER

1994-01-01

37

In vivo effect of Neuropeptide F on ecdysteroidogenesis in adult female desert locusts (Schistocerca gregaria).  

PubMed

Neuropeptides are important regulatory factors that mediate key life processes, both in vertebrates and invertebrates. Many insect neuropeptides display pleiotropic activities, which means that they can influence multiple aspects of insect physiology. In the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, Neuropeptide F (NPF) mediates diverse physiological processes, such as learning, stress responses, feeding and male courtship behavior. In locusts, only a truncated form of the predicted "full-length" NPF, the nonapeptide "trNPF", has been isolated. This nonapeptide previously proved to be biologically active, since it was shown to influence food intake and weight increase, as well as oocyte growth in adult female desert locusts (Schistocerca gregaria [Forskål]). In the present study, we have further analyzed the effect of trNPF on female reproductive physiology in S. gregaria. We confirmed that daily trNPF injections in adult females elicit an increase of oocyte size. In addition, an RNAi-mediated knockdown of the Schgr-NPF precursor transcript in adult female locusts resulted in the opposite effect, i.e. significantly smaller oocytes. Moreover, we discovered that daily injections of trNPF in adult female S. gregaria, caused higher ecdysteroid titers in the ovaries and accelerated the appearance of ecdysteroid peaks in the hemolymph of these animals. The RNAi-based knockdown of the Schgr-NPF precursor transcript clearly resulted in reduction of both hemolymph and ovarian ecdysteroid concentrations, confirming the stimulatory effects of trNPF injections on adult female ecdysteroid levels. The observed results are discussed in relation to previous reports on NPF activities in locusts and other insects. PMID:23524065

Van Wielendaele, Pieter; Wynant, Niels; Dillen, Senne; Badisco, Liesbeth; Marchal, Elisabeth; Vanden Broeck, Jozef

2013-06-01

38

Percutaneous absorption of triadimefon in the adult and young male and female rat  

SciTech Connect

The percutaneous absorption of /sup 14/C-phenoxy ring labeled triadimefon was studied in adult and young male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. Triadimefon was applied (41.1 to 46.4 micrograms/cm2) in 0.2 ml of acetone to areas comprising 3% of the body surface (7.0 to 14.5 cm2). Thirty-six animals were treated at the initiation of each study. Groups of three animals were subsequently killed at 1, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, 168, and 192 hr after treatment. Skin from the treated area as well as blood, heart, liver, kidneys, remaining carcass, urine, and feces were analyzed for /sup 14/C by scintillation counting techniques. Based on /sup 14/C counts, triadimefon was lost more rapidly from the skin of young animals (t 1/2, 20 to 25 hr) than from the skin of adult animals (t 1/2, 29 to 53 hr). Recovery studies indicated that adult males, adult females, young males, and young females, respectively, absorbed 53, 82, 57, and 52% of the dose. The rest of the dose based on material balance was presumably lost by evaporation. Approximately 2.5 to 3.9% of the dose penetrated the skin in one hour and was available for absorption. The rate of entry triadimefon into blood was 2 to 2.5 times faster for young than that observed in adult animals. Elimination of it from blood was faster in the case of the young animals. Triadimefon was absorbed through the skins of the adult male, adult female, young male, and young female rats, respectively, at rates of 0.20, 0.50, 0.58, and 0.48 micrograms/hr/cm2 of skin.

Knaak, J.B.; Yee, K.; Ackerman, C.R.; Zweig, G.; Wilson, B.W.

1984-03-15

39

Major depressive disorder symptoms in male and female young adults.  

PubMed

This research aimed to compare the prevalence rates of major depressive disorder (MDD) and to differentiate the presence and severity of depressive symptoms between women and men aged 18-24?years. In this population-based, cross-sectional study (n?=?1560), young adults were screened with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for MDD (n?=?137). Participants then completed a self-report questionnaire to gather sociodemographic data, and the presence of each symptom of depression was assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory. The proportion of women (12.2%) with MDD was higher than that of men (5.3%). The symptoms of depression found to be significantly more prevalent in women were sadness, crying, difficulty making decisions, and lack of energy, as well as self-criticism, irritability, changes in self-image, work difficulty, and loss of interest in sex. Sadness and self-criticism were significantly more severe in women than in men. The presentation of depressive symptoms in young adults with MDD differed between men and women. PMID:23651450

Lopez Molina, Mariane Acosta; Jansen, Karen; Drews, Cláudio; Pinheiro, Ricardo; Silva, Ricardo; Souza, Luciano

2014-01-01

40

Adolescent Cannabis Problems and Young Adult Depression: Male-Female Stratified Propensity Score Analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cannabis use and depression are two of the most prevalent conditions worldwide. Adolescent cannabis use is linked to depression in many studies, but the effects of adolescent cannabis involvement on young adult de- pression remain unclear and may differ for males versus females. In this cohort study of youth from a mid-Atlantic metropolitan area of the United States, repeated assessments

Valerie S. Harder; Elizabeth A. Stuart; James C. Anthony

2008-01-01

41

Prevalence and Correlates of Suicidal Behavior among Adult Female Victims of Intimate Partner Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The prevalence and correlates of suicidal threats and attempts among 662 racially and ethnically diverse adult female victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) were studied. One in five women had threatened or attempted suicide during her lifetime. They observed that multiple logistic regression results indicated that women at greater risk of…

Cavanaugh, Courtenay E.; Messing, Jill Theresa; Del-Colle, Melissa; O'Sullivan, Chris; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.

2011-01-01

42

Self-Mutilating Behavior of Sexually Abused Female Adults in Turkey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Self-mutilating behavior (SMB), suicide, and eating disorders are examined in adult females (N=42) in relation to childhood sexual abuse. A statistically significant relationship was found between SMB and suicide attempts. Findings support the contention that SMB and sexual abuse are closely related to eating disorders. (Author/EMK)

Baral, Isin; Kora, Kaan; Yuksel, Sahika; Sezgin, Ufuk

1998-01-01

43

Preference for Pastoral Counseling Roles as Perceived by Male and Female Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Forty-six adults responded to a questionnaire in which they ranked their preferred counseling person in four problem areas: home or work, children, spiritual matters, and marital problems. Males' first choice in all areas was their spouse; females chose their spouse for work and child problems, their pastor for spiritual matters, and themselves…

Pierce, Norma F.

44

Factor Structure Invariance of the Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test across Male and Female Samples  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multisample confirmatory factor analysis (MCFA) and latent mean structures analysis (LMS) were used to test measurement invariance and latent mean differences on the Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Scale[TM] (KAIT) across males and females in the standardization sample. MCFA found that the parameters of the KAIT two-factor model were…

Immekus, Jason C.; Maller, Susan J.

2010-01-01

45

GENETICS OF LIFE HISTORY IN DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER. I. SIB ANALYSIS OF ADULT FEMALES  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sib analysis of adult life-history characters was performed on about twelve hundred females from a laboratory Drosophila melanogaster popula- tion that had been sampled from nature and cultured so as to preserve its genetic variability. The following results were found. There was no detectable trend with age in additive or dominance genetic variances for age-specific fecundity. Environmental variance for

MICHAEL R. ROSE; BRIAN CHARLESWORTH

46

Juvenile hormone titer versus juvenile hormone synthesis in female nymphs and adults of the German  

E-print Network

Juvenile hormone titer versus juvenile hormone synthesis in female nymphs and adults of the German of Forensic Medicine, Ignaz Harrerstr, 79, 5020 Salzburg, Austria Abstract Patterns of juvenile hormone have. However, data have been mainly obtained in vitro, and refer to hormone synthesized by isolated corpora

Piulachs, M. Dolors

47

When Your "Problem" Becomes Mine: Adult Female Siblings' Perspectives of Having a Brother with a Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is a retrospective look at adult female siblings' perspectives of their childhoods and present identities based on having a brother with a disability. This paper focuses on siblings' experiences within educational and public domains, and how such experiences have shaped their personalities and career choices. Qualitative findings were…

Pompeo, Michelle N.

2009-01-01

48

Therapy with adult female incest survivors: Guidelines for a time-limited group  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project focuses on group work with adult female survivors of incest. With more and more well known people coming forward to disclose incestuous backgrounds, it is becoming vitally important that therapists gain insight and understanding into the major issues and effects of this type of abuse. The school psychologist that is familiar with the effects and symptoms will be

Patricia Brodie-Colontino

1994-01-01

49

Are Males and Females Sexually Abused As Children Socially Anxious Adults?  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well documented that childhood sexual abuse is associated with deleterious outcomes in the areas of anxiety, depression, and sexual functioning. However, very little research has been conducted to specifically investigate childhood sexual abuse's relationship to adult social anxiety in both males and females. Participants included 250 undergraduate students from a large metropolitan university. Results indicated that almost one-third

Ariz Rojas; Bill N. Kinder

2009-01-01

50

Correlates of Serious Suicidal Ideation and Attempts in Female Adult Sexual Assault Survivors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relations between (a) serious suicidal ideation and attempts and (b) demographics, trauma history, assault characteristics, post-assault outcomes, and psychosocial variables were examined among female adult sexual assault survivors. Younger, minority, and bisexual survivors reported greater ideation. More traumas, drug use, and assault disclosure…

Ullman, Sarah E.; Najdowski, Cynthia J.

2009-01-01

51

Adult Female and Male Siblings of Persons with Disabilities: Findings from a National Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the authors used a national, Web-based survey to examine female and male siblings of individuals with disabilities. More than 1,160 adult siblings completed a 163-question survey about themselves, their siblings, and their sibling relationships. Most respondents reported fairly close contact with their siblings and positive sibling…

Hodapp, Robert M.; Urbano, Richard C.; Burke, Meghan M.

2010-01-01

52

An insight into the salivary transcriptome and proteome of the adult female mosquito Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

To obtain an insight into the salivary transcriptome and proteome (sialome) of the adult female mosquito Culex quinquefascia- tus, a cDNA library was randomly sequenced, and aminoterminal information for selected proteins and peptides was obtained. cDNA sequence clusters coding for secreted proteins were further analyzed. The transcriptome revealed messages coding for sev- eral proteins of known families previously reported in

C. Ribeiro; Rosane Charlab; Mark Garfield; Jesus G. Valenzuela

2004-01-01

53

Health and Access to Health Care of Female Family Caregivers of Adults With Developmental Disabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physical and mental health status of women providing care to adult relatives with developmental disabilities was compared with that of the general female population in the United States. There were no differences on physical health across four age groups. However, the mental health of midlife caregivers (45—54 years of age) and older caregivers (older than 65 years) was worse

Joe Caldwell

2008-01-01

54

Transgenerational epigenetic effects of the endocrine disruptor vinclozolin on pregnancies and female adult onset disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endocrine disruptor exposure during gonadal sex determination was previously found to induce male rat adult onset transgenerational disease (F1-F4 generation), and this was associated with an alteration in the epigenetic (i.e., DNA methylation) programming of the male germ line. The current study was designed to characterize the transgenerational disease phenotypes of the female adult offspring. Pregnant rats (F0 generation) were

Eric E Nilsson; Matthew D Anway; Jacob Stanfield; Michael K Skinner

2008-01-01

55

Evaluating and treating the adult female patient with acne.  

PubMed

Acne vulgaris is a common disease of the pilosebacous unit that affects an estimated 40-50 million Americans. Greater than 95% of teenage boys and between 83% and 85% of teenage girls suffer from acne. The condition frequently continues into adulthood. While boys more commonly suffer from acne in the teenage years, greater numbers of women suffer into adulthood. It is unclear if the number of post-adolescent women with acne is rising as compared to the past, or whether women are now seeking out treatment more than in the past.(4) Post-adolescent acne is a significant problem for women. One survey-based United States study found that approximately 50% of women continue to suffer from acne in their twenties, 35% in their thirties, 26% in their forties, and 15% in their fifties. The prevalence of acne was shown to be higher in women than in men in each of these age groups.(7) A similar study from Europe showed that beyond the age of 23, acne is more prevalent in women than men. In their forties and fifties, 5% and 8% of women suffered from acne, respectively. Several other studies have provided similar data, showing that larger numbers of adult women suffer from acne as compared to age matched men. Acne is the number one reason that patients visit a dermatologist. While the mean age at which patients are seen for acne is 24 years old, 10% of visits occur in patients in their mid-thirties and forties. Approximately two thirds of dermatology visits for acne are made by women, and one-third of total acne office visits are made by women over 25 years old. Acne patients suffer from a significant psychological burden, which has been compared to that of patients with systemic diseases like diabetes, asthma, arthritis, or epilepsy. Up to 50% of adolescents with acne experience disturbances to their psyche, including issues with body image, anxiety, depression, poor self-esteem, social impairment, and thoughts of suicide. Moreover, acne treatment is expensive. The average total cost of care related to an acne patient's visit to the dermatologist is estimated to be $689.(14) PMID:24301244

Zeichner, Joshua A

2013-12-01

56

Analysis of infant handling and the effects of female rank among Tana River adult female yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus cynocephalus) using permutation/randomization tests.  

PubMed

Infant handling has been documented in numerous species. Among cercopithecines, interaction motivations are reported to range from aunting to kidnapping; these interactions are often distressful for both mother and infant. Here we examine handling by adult female yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus cynocephalus) at the Tana River National Primate Reserve, Kenya, using a relatively new, computer-intensive statistical approach of permutation/randomization tests to deal with repeated measures effects and a skewed sample. We hypothesized 1) a tendency for handlers to handle the infants of females ranked similarly or lower than themselves, and 2) more successful infant handling by higher-ranked females, particularly with very young infants. We collected focal data on 23 females (11 mother-infant pairs) over an 11-mo period, with a total of 303 attempted and/or successful "handles" utilized in the permutation analyses. The general patterns apparent in the data seemed to support our hypotheses. However, the permutation tests showed that while females are somewhat more likely to attempt to handle the infants of females ranked "same or lower" than themselves, lower-ranked females are able to prevent more than three-fourths of the attempted interactions, and there is no statistically significant trend for females to successfully handle these infants. Further refinement of the analyses showed no significant tendencies for females to handle those infants ranked "lower" or "immediately lower" than themselves, casting doubt on the significant finding for "same or lower" attempts. Further, there was no significant effect for higher-ranked females to successfully handle an infant during its first month. Thus, rank does not seem to offer any privileges in terms of handling an infant in this population. We believe the permutation tests are an effective way to analyze repeated measures data and offer a more sensitive analysis tool for determining true significance. PMID:11668529

Bentley-Condit, V K; Moore, T; Smith, E O

2001-10-01

57

Differentiation in boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain: a BNCT approach.  

PubMed

Boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain after boron carrier injection (0.005 g Boric Acid+0.005 g Borax+10 ml distilled water, pH: 7.4) was studied in this research. Coronal sections of control and trial animal tissue samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons. Using alpha autoradiography, significant differences in boron concentration were seen in forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain sections of male and female animal groups with the highest value, four hours after boron compound injection. PMID:22484141

Goodarzi, Samereh; Pazirandeh, Ali; Jameie, Seyed Behnamedin; Khojasteh, Nasrin Baghban

2012-06-01

58

Juvenile Rank Can Predict Male-Typical Adult Mating Behavior in Female Sheep Treated Prenatally with Testosterone1  

PubMed Central

Previous research with female sheep indicates that exposure to excess testosterone for 60 days (from Gestational Days 30–90 of the 147-day gestation) leads to virilized genitalia, severe neuroendocrine deficits, as well as masculinization and defeminization of sexual behavior (T60 females). In contrast, 30 days of testosterone exposure (Gestational Days 60–90) produce animals with female-typical genitalia, less severe neuroendocrine alterations, and variable gender patterns of sexual behavior (T30 females). Variation in adult sexual behavior of male ungulates is influenced by early social experience, but this has never been tested in females. Here we investigate the influence of rank in the dominance hierarchy on the expression of adult sexual behavior in females. Specifically, we hypothesized that juvenile rank would predict the amount of male- and female-typical mating behavior exhibited by adult female sheep. This hypothesis was tested in two treatment groups and their controls (group 1: T60 females; group 2: T30 females). Dominance hierarchies were determined by observing competition over resources. Both groups of prenatal testosterone-treated females were higher ranking than controls (T60: P = 0.05; T30: P < 0.01). During the breeding season, both T60 and T30 females exhibited more male-typical mating behavior than did controls; however, the T30 animals also exhibited female-typical behavior. For the T60 group, prenatal treatment, not juvenile rank, best predicted male-typical sex behavior (P = 0.007), while juvenile rank better predicted male mating behavior for the T30 group (P = 0.006). Rank did not predict female mating behavior in the hormone-treated or control ewes. We conclude that the effect of prenatal testosterone exposure on adult male-specific but not female-specific mating behavior is modulated by juvenile social experiences. PMID:19122184

Roberts, Eila K.; Flak, Jonathan N.; Ye, Wen; Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Lee, Theresa M.

2009-01-01

59

Increased incidence of serotype-1 invasive pneumococcal disease in young female adults in The Netherlands.  

PubMed

Analysis of the Dutch national invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) surveillance data by sex reveals an increase in the incidence of serotype-1 disease in young female adults in The Netherlands after the introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in the national immunization schedule. This has led to an overall increase in IPD in women aged 20-45 years, which was not observed in men of the same age. No other differences in serotype shifts possibly induced by the introduction of PCV7 were observed between the sexes in this age group. Serotype 1 is a naturally fluctuating serotype in Europe and it has been associated with disease in young healthy adults before. It remains uncertain whether or not there is an association between the observed increase in serotype-1 disease in young female adults and the implementation of PCV7 in The Netherlands. PMID:24229845

Van Mens, S P; Van Deursen, A M M; Meijvis, S C A; Vlaminckx, B J M; Sanders, E A M; De Melker, H E; Schouls, L M; Van Der Ende, A; De Greeff, S C; Rijkers, G T

2014-09-01

60

Feeding rates and selectivity among nauplii, copepodites and adult females of Calanus finmarchicus and Calanus helgolandicus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study focuses on selective feeding by developmental stages of two oceanic copepods, Calanus finmarchicus and Calanus helgolandicus from nauplii to adults. A mixture of four algal species of different biochemical composition, Prorocentrum nanum (dinoflagellate), Thalassiosira minima (diatom), Rhodomonas baltica (cryptophyte) and Dunaliella tertiolecta (chlorophyte), added in an equal biovolume, was used in three different experimental set-ups. In set-up 1 the algal species were present as single cells of similar size (14 µm). In set-up 2 the diatom T. minima was present in chains of two or three cells and was therefore larger than the other algae, while the biovolume of all species remained the same. In set-up 3, the diatom T. minima was excluded from the mixture. Feeding selectivity of the copepods was assessed in relation to the quality of the algal species expressed in terms of carbon and nitrogen content, fatty acid composition, and chain length of the diatom. The results show that younger stages and adult females of C. finmarchicus and C. helgolandicus did not show a preference for an algal species when the algae were of similar size. In the feeding experiments where the diatoms were offered as chains, both copepod species showed a selective behaviour only on the basis of algal size. Individual ingestion rates increased from 0.4 to 0.7 µg C day-1 for nauplii of both species to 5 µg C day-1 for adult females of C. helgolandicus to 12 µg C day-1 for C. finmarchicus. Individual filtration rates ranged from 5 ml day-1 for C. finmarchicus nauplii to 70-98 ml day-1 for adult females, and from 3 ml day-1 for C. helgolandicus nauplii to 35-46 ml day-1 for adult females. Ingestion and filtration rates per unit body carbon decreased gradually in both copepod species with increasing body carbon. The daily ingested amount of food decreased for C. finmarchicus from 124-134% of the body carbon for nauplii to 19% of the body carbon for adult females, and for C. helgolandicus from 117-137% of the body carbon for nauplii to 13-26% of the body carbon of adult females.

Meyer, B.; Irigoien, X.; Graeve, M.; Head, R. N.; Harris, R. P.

2002-04-01

61

Perinatal iron deficiency affects locomotor behavior and water maze performance in adult male and female rats.  

PubMed

Iron deficiency during early growth and development adversely affects multiple facets of cognition and behavior in adult rats. The purpose of this study was to assess the nature of the learning and locomotor behavioral deficits observed in male and female rats in the absence of depressed brain iron levels at the time of testing. Adult female Wistar rats were fed either an iron-enriched diet (>225 mg/kg Fe) or an iron-restricted diet (3 mg/kg Fe) for 2 wk prior to and throughout gestation, and a nonpurified diet (270 mg/kg Fe) thereafter. Open-field (OF) and Morris water maze (MWM) testing began when the offspring reached early adulthood (12 wk). At birth, perinatal iron-deficient (PID) offspring had reduced (P < 0.001) hematocrits (-33%), liver iron stores (-83%), and brain iron concentrations (-38%) compared with controls. Although there were no differences in iron status in adults, the PID males and females exhibited reduced OF exploratory behavior, albeit only PID males had an aversion to the center of the apparatus (2.5 vs. 6.9% in controls, P < 0.001). Additionally, PID males required greater path lengths to reach the hidden platform in the MWM, had reduced spatial bias for the target quadrant, and had a tendency for greater thigmotactic behavior in the probe trials (16.5 vs. 13.0% in controls; P = 0.06). PID females had slower swim speeds in all testing phases (-6.2%; P < 0.001). These results suggest that PID has detrimental programming effects in both male and female rats, although the behaviors suggest different mechanisms may be involved in each sex. PMID:18424604

Bourque, Stephane L; Iqbal, Umar; Reynolds, James N; Adams, Michael A; Nakatsu, Kanji

2008-05-01

62

[Psychodynamik focal therapy of bulimia nervosa for female adolescents and young adults].  

PubMed

A manual for a disorder oriented psychodynamic treatment of bulimia nevosa and atypical bulimia nervosa of female adolescents and young adults is presented. This manual is applied in a therapy project, which started in 2007. The work on conflicts and structural dysfunctions is meant to lead to the removal or alleviation of the symptoms and an improvement of eating behavior and body image. The bulimic symptoms are contextualized and focussed according to the conflicts and ego-structural deficits of the patients. Typical patterns of interpersonal relationships, transference, conflict, defence and structural problems as well as therapeutic steps are described. The typical psychosocial situation of female adolescence and young adult age is taken into account. Special emphasis is laid on the limitedness of the therapy to 60 sessions and the active structuring of the final phase of he therapy by the therapist. PMID:24693801

Reich, Günter; Horn, Hildegard; Winkelmann, Klaus; Kronmüller, Klaus-Thomas; Stefini, Anette

2014-01-01

63

Male and Female Adult Population Health Status in China: A Cross-Sectional National Survey  

PubMed Central

Background With rapid economic growth and globalization, lifestyle in China has been changing dramatically. This study aimed to describe the male and female adult Chinese population health status. Methods The Chinese Third National Health Services Survey was conducted in 2003 to collect information about health status and quality of life from randomly selected residents. Of the 193,689 respondents to the survey (response rate 77.8%), 139,831 (69,748 male and 70,083 female) respondents who were 18 years of age or older were analyzed. Results Among the respondents, fewer males than females rated their overall wellbeing as being poor or very poor (4.8% versus 6.2%), reported illness in the last 2 weeks (14.1% versus 17.4%), presence of physician diagnosed chronic disease (15.0% versus 17.7%) and at least one functional problem in seven items of the quality of life (26.9% versus 32.8%). More males than females were currently smoking (52.4% versus 3.4%) and drank alcohol more than three times per week (16.5% versus 1.1%). Physically inactive rate was similar between males and females (85.8% versus 87.0%). Fewer rural respondents reported chronic disease than urban respondents (13.0% versus 19.9% for males and 15.5% versus 22.8% for females). In all seven items of the quality of life measured, rural respondents reported less problems than urban respondents (26.2% versus 28.7% for males and 32.0% versus 34.7% for females). Conclusion Males had better health status than females in terms of self-perceived wellbeing, presence of illness, chronic disease, and quality of life. However, smoking and frequent alcohol drinking was more prevalent among males than that among females. In contrast with the social-economic gradient in health commonly found in the literature, the wealthier urban population in China was not found to be healthier than the rural population in terms of physician diagnosed chronic disease. PMID:18681978

Shi, Jing; Liu, Meina; Zhang, Qiuju; Lu, Mingshan; Quan, Hude

2008-01-01

64

Sex Differences in Adults’ Relative Visual Interest in Female and Male Faces, Toys, and Play Styles  

Microsoft Academic Search

An individual’s reproductive potential appears to influence response to attractive faces of the opposite sex. Otherwise, relatively\\u000a little is known about the characteristics of the adult observer that may influence his or her affective evaluation of male\\u000a and female faces. An untested hypothesis (based on the proposed role of attractive faces in mate selection) is that most women\\u000a would show

Gerianne M. Alexander; Nora Charles

2009-01-01

65

Pesticide Methoxychlor Promotes the Epigenetic Transgenerational Inheritance of Adult-Onset Disease through the Female Germline  

PubMed Central

Environmental compounds including fungicides, plastics, pesticides, dioxin and hydrocarbons can promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult-onset disease in future generation progeny following ancestral exposure during the critical period of fetal gonadal sex determination. This study examined the actions of the pesticide methoxychlor to promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult-onset disease and associated differential DNA methylation regions (i.e. epimutations) in sperm. Gestating F0 generation female rats were transiently exposed to methoxychlor during fetal gonadal development (gestation days 8 to 14) and then adult-onset disease was evaluated in adult F1 and F3 (great-grand offspring) generation progeny for control (vehicle exposed) and methoxychlor lineage offspring. There were increases in the incidence of kidney disease, ovary disease, and obesity in the methoxychlor lineage animals. In females and males the incidence of disease increased in both the F1 and the F3 generations and the incidence of multiple disease increased in the F3 generation. There was increased disease incidence in F4 generation reverse outcross (female) offspring indicating disease transmission was primarily transmitted through the female germline. Analysis of the F3 generation sperm epigenome of the methoxychlor lineage males identified differentially DNA methylated regions (DMR) termed epimutations in a genome-wide gene promoters analysis. These epimutations were found to be methoxychlor exposure specific in comparison with other exposure specific sperm epimutation signatures. Observations indicate that the pesticide methoxychlor has the potential to promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease and the sperm epimutations appear to provide exposure specific epigenetic biomarkers for transgenerational disease and ancestral environmental exposures. PMID:25057798

Manikkam, Mohan; Haque, M. Muksitul; Guerrero-Bosagna, Carlos; Nilsson, Eric E.; Skinner, Michael K.

2014-01-01

66

A novel hormone is required for the development of reproductive phenotypes in adult female crabs.  

PubMed

The crustacean male-specific androgenic hormone is widely accepted as a key factor in sexual differentiation and in the development of secondary sex characteristics. However, the mechanism by which the plethora of different reproductive strategies are controlled and executed in crustaceans is not known. We discovered in the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, a hitherto unknown neurohormone, named crustacean female sex hormone (CFSH), in distinct neurosecretory cells in the eyestalk ganglia. CFSH is highly expressed in females but weakly in males, and its crucial role in developing adult female phenotypes has now been established. CFSH cDNA encodes a 225-amino acid (aa) novel protein composed of a 23-aa predicted signal peptide, 33-aa precursor-related peptide and 167-aa mature protein that did not match any other sequence in GenBank. CFSH RNA interference knockdown by multiple administrations of double-stranded RNA at the prepubertal stage causes abnormal development of brooding and mating systems upon puberty. These systems include a pair of gonopores and an egg attachment system for brooding, comprised of an enlarged semicircular abdomen and ovigerous setae. The ovigerous setae in CFSH knocked-down females were fewer and 50% shorter and the gonopores were either significantly smaller than those of controls, misplaced, or absent. We also identified CFSH in the green crab, Carcinus maenas, a species that shares a similar reproductive strategy with C. sapidus. Together, our data provide the first evidence for the presence of a female hormone in crustaceans and its importance in positively controlling anatomic features associated with brooding and mating systems. From an evolutionary standpoint, the endocrine control supporting a female-specific reproductive strategy, as previously described for many vertebrate species, has now been demonstrated for the first time in crustaceans. PMID:24280057

Zmora, Nilli; Chung, J Sook

2014-01-01

67

Developmental Origins of Pregnancy Loss in the Adult Female Common Marmoset Monkey (Callithrix jacchus)  

PubMed Central

Background The impact of the intrauterine environment on the developmental programming of adult female reproductive success is still poorly understood and potentially underestimated. Litter size variation in a nonhuman primate, the common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus), allows us to model the effects of varying intrauterine environments (e.g. nutrient restriction, exposure to male womb-mates) on the risk of losing fetuses in adulthood. Our previous work has characterized the fetuses of triplet pregnancies as experiencing intrauterine nutritional restriction. Methodology/Principal Findings We used over a decade of demographic data from the Southwest National Primate Research Center common marmoset colony. We evaluated differences between twin and triplet females in the number of pregnancies they produce and the proportion of those pregnancies that ended in fetal loss. We found that triplet females produced the same number of total offspring as twin females, but lost offspring during pregnancy at a significantly higher rate than did twins (38% vs. 13%, p?=?0.02). Regardless of their own birth weight or the sex ratio of the litter the experienced as fetuses, triplet females lost more fetuses than did twins. Females with a male littermate experienced a significant increase in the proportion of stillbirths. Conclusions/Significance These striking findings anchor pregnancy loss in the mother’s own fetal environment and development, underscoring a "Womb to Womb" view of the lifecourse and the intergenerational consequences of development. This has important translational implications for understanding the large proportion of human stillbirths that are unexplained. Our findings provide strong evidence that a full understanding of mammalian life history and reproductive biology requires a developmental foundation. PMID:24871614

Rutherford, Julienne N.; deMartelly, Victoria A.; Layne Colon, Donna G.; Ross, Corinna N.; Tardif, Suzette D.

2014-01-01

68

Anomalous origin of left coronary artery from the pulmonary trunk in a mildly symptomatic adult female.  

PubMed

Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary trunk, also known as Garland-Bland-White syndrome, is an extremely rare but potentially fatal congenital cardiovascular anomaly, and it often exists as an isolated condition. We hereby report an adult female who was admitted for mild chest discomfort and was accidentally diagnosed to have anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary trunk. This anomaly was simply repaired by using a bovine pericardial patch to obliterate the anomalous opening in the pulmonary trunk and a single coronary artery bypass graft. This report highlights the characteristic events of the anomaly in an adult with only mild symptoms. PMID:24224108

Tseng, Kevin Fan-Ying

2013-01-01

69

Anomalous Origin of Left Coronary Artery from the Pulmonary Trunk in a Mildly Symptomatic Adult Female  

PubMed Central

Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary trunk, also known as Garland-Bland-White syndrome, is an extremely rare but potentially fatal congenital cardiovascular anomaly, and it often exists as an isolated condition. We hereby report an adult female who was admitted for mild chest discomfort and was accidentally diagnosed to have anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary trunk. This anomaly was simply repaired by using a bovine pericardial patch to obliterate the anomalous opening in the pulmonary trunk and a single coronary artery bypass graft. This report highlights the characteristic events of the anomaly in an adult with only mild symptoms. PMID:24224108

Tseng, Kevin Fan-Ying

2013-01-01

70

Social isolation impairs adult neurogenesis in the limbic system and alters behaviors in female prairie voles.  

PubMed

Disruptions in the social environment, such as social isolation, are distressing and can induce various behavioral and neural changes in the distressed animal. We conducted a series of experiments to test the hypothesis that long-term social isolation affects brain plasticity and alters behavior in the highly social prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster). In Experiment 1, adult female prairie voles were injected with a cell division marker, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU), and then same-sex pair-housed (control) or single-housed (isolation) for 6 weeks. Social isolation reduced cell proliferation, survival, and neuronal differentiation and altered cell death in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and the amygdala. In addition, social isolation reduced cell proliferation in the medial preoptic area and cell survival in the ventromedial hypothalamus. These data suggest that long-term social isolation affects distinct stages of adult neurogenesis in specific limbic brain regions. In Experiment 2, isolated females displayed higher levels of anxiety-like behaviors in both the open field and elevated plus maze tests and higher levels of depression-like behavior in the forced swim test than controls. Further, isolated females showed a higher level of affiliative behavior than controls, but the two groups did not differ in social recognition memory. Together, our data suggest that social isolation not only impairs cell proliferation, survival, and neuronal differentiation in limbic brain areas, but also alters anxiety-like, depression-like, and affiliative behaviors in adult female prairie voles. These data warrant further investigation of a possible link between altered neurogenesis within the limbic system and behavioral changes. PMID:22465453

Lieberwirth, Claudia; Liu, Yan; Jia, Xixi; Wang, Zuoxin

2012-09-01

71

Female Reproductive System  

MedlinePLUS

... and female reproductive systems. Continue What Is the Female Reproductive System? Most species have two sexes: male ... some reason other than pregnancy. Infections of the Female Reproductive System Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) . Also called ...

72

Gut transcriptome of replete adult female cattle ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, feeding upon a Babesia bovis-infected bovine host.  

PubMed

As it feeds upon cattle, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is capable of transmitting a number of pathogenic organisms, including the apicomplexan hemoparasite Babesia bovis, a causative agent of bovine babesiosis. The R. microplus female gut transcriptome was studied for two cohorts: adult females feeding on a bovine host infected with B. bovis and adult females feeding on an uninfected bovine. RNA was purified and used to generate a subtracted cDNA library from B. bovis-infected female gut, and 4,077 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were sequenced. Gene expression was also measured by a microarray designed from the publicly available R. microplus gene index: BmiGI Version 2. We compared gene expression in the tick gut from females feeding upon an uninfected bovine to gene expression in tick gut from females feeding upon a splenectomized bovine infected with B. bovis. Thirty-three ESTs represented on the microarray were expressed at a higher level in female gut samples from the ticks feeding upon a B. bovis-infected calf compared to expression levels in female gut samples from ticks feeding on an uninfected calf. Forty-three transcripts were expressed at a lower level in the ticks feeding upon B. bovis-infected female guts compared with expression in female gut samples from ticks feeding on the uninfected calf. These array data were used as initial characterization of gene expression associated with the infection of R. microplus by B. bovis. PMID:23749091

Heekin, Andrew M; Guerrero, Felix D; Bendele, Kylie G; Saldivar, Leo; Scoles, Glen A; Dowd, Scot E; Gondro, Cedric; Nene, Vishvanath; Djikeng, Appolinaire; Brayton, Kelly A

2013-09-01

73

Impaired acclimatization to chronic hypoxia in adult male and female rats following neonatal hypoxia.  

PubMed

We tested the hypothesis that neonatal exposure to hypoxia alters acclimatization to chronic hypoxia later in life. Rat pups were exposed to normobaric hypoxia (12% O(2); nHx group) in a sealed chamber, or to normoxia (21% O(2); nNx group) from the day before birth to postnatal day 10. The animals were then raised in normal conditions until reaching 12 wk of age. At this age, we assessed ventilatory and hematological acclimatization to chronic hypoxia by exposing male and female nHx and nNx rats for 2 wk to 10% O(2). Minute ventilation, metabolic rate, hypoxic ventilatory response, hematocrit, and hemoglobin levels were measured both before and after acclimatization. We also quantified right ventricular hypertrophy as an index of pulmonary hypertension both before and after acclimatization. There was a significant effect of neonatal hypoxia that decreases ventilatory response (relative to metabolic rate, VE/VCO(2)) to acute hypoxia before acclimatization in males but not in females. nHx rats had an impaired acclimatization to chronic hypoxia characterized by altered respiratory pattern and elevated hematocrit and hemoglobin levels after acclimatization, in both males and females. Right ventricular hypertrophy was present before and after acclimatization in nHx rats, indicating that neonatal hypoxia results in pulmonary hypertension in adults. We conclude that neonatal hypoxia impairs acclimatization to chronic hypoxia in adults and may be a factor contributing to the establishment of chronic mountain sickness in humans living at high altitude. PMID:19494172

Lumbroso, Delphine; Joseph, Vincent

2009-08-01

74

Sexual Abuse Perpetrated by Adult and Juvenile Females: An Ultimate Attempt to Resolve a Conflict Associated with Maternal Identity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective:: The purpose of this article is to report the descriptive and phenomenological aspects of adult females (AF) and juvenile females (JF) who sexually abuse children and adolescents. A major focus is to study the relational problems during childhood and adulthood of this specific population and how they echo the relational aspects of their…

Tardif, M.; Auclair, N.; Jacob, M.; Carpentier, J.

2005-01-01

75

ESTIMATION OF ANNUAL AND SEMI-ANNUAL SURVIVAL OF ADULT FEMALE BLUE CRABS AND ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE  

E-print Network

ESTIMATION OF ANNUAL AND SEMI-ANNUAL SURVIVAL OF ADULT FEMALE BLUE CRABS AND ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE VIRGINIA BLUE CRAB SANCTUARY USING TAG-RETURN METHODOLOGY _________________ A Thesis CRABS Abstract...................................................................................10

Hilton, Eric J.

76

Racial Differences in Clinical Characteristics, Perceptions and Behaviors, and Psychosocial Impact of Adult Female Acne  

PubMed Central

Objective: Limited data are available on racial differences in clinical characteristics and burden in adult female acne. The objective was to describe racial differences in clinical characteristics, psychosocial impact, perceptions, behaviors, and treatment satisfaction in facial adult female acne. Design: Cross-sectional, web-based survey. Setting: Diverse sample of United States women. Participants: Women between the ages of 25 and 45 years with facial acne (?25 visible lesions). Measurements: Outcomes included sociodemographic characteristics, psychosocial impacts, perceptions, behaviors, and treatment satisfaction. Racial differences were evaluated using descriptive statistics and t-test/chi-square analyses. Results: 208 females participated (mean age 35±6 years); 51.4 percent were White/Caucasian and 48.6 percent were non-White/Caucasian women [Black/African American (n=51); Hispanic/Latina (n=23); Asian (n=16); Other (n=ll)]. Age of acne onset (mean 14.8±5 vs. 17.0±8 years, p<0.05) and acne concern occurred earlier (16.6±7 vs. 19.3±9 years, p<0.05) in White/Caucasian than non-White/Caucasian subjects. Facial acne primarily presented on chin (28.0%) and cheeks (30.8%) for White/Caucasian women versus cheeks (58.4%) for non-White/Caucasian women. Non-White/Caucasian women experienced more postinflammatory hyperpigmentation than White/Caucasian women (p<0.0001). Facial acne negatively affected quality of life (QoL) in both groups, and most participants (>70%) reported some depression/anxiety symptoms. More White/Caucasian than non-White/Caucasian women were troubled by facial acne (88.8% vs. 76.2%, p<0.05). Lesion clearance was most important to White/Caucasian women (57.9 vs. non-White/Caucasian 31.7%, p<0.001); non-White/Caucasian females focused on postinflammatory hyperpigmentation clearance (41.6% vs. Caucasian 8.4%, p<0.0001). Conclusion: Results highlight racial differences in participant-reported clinical characteristics, attitudes, behaviors, and treatment satisfaction. These findings may inform clinicians about racial differences in facial adult female acne and guide treatment recommendations toward improving care. PMID:25053980

Alexis, Andrew F.; Daniels, Selena R.; Kawata, Ariane K.; Burk, Caroline T.; Wilcox, Teresa K.; Taylor, Susan C.

2014-01-01

77

Genetics of Life History in DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER. I. Sib Analysis of Adult Females  

PubMed Central

A sib analysis of adult life-history characters was performed on about twelve hundred females from a laboratory Drosophila melanogaster population that had been sampled from nature and cultured so as to preserve its genetic variability. The following results were found. There was no detectable trend with age in additive or dominance genetic variances for age-specific fecundity. Environmental variance for age-specific fecundity increased with age. The genetic variance for fecundity characters was primarily additive. The genetic variance for longevity was primarily dominance variance. There were negative genetic correlations between early fecundity and lifespan, as well as between mean egg-laying rate and longevity. PMID:6790340

Rose, Michael R.; Charlesworth, Brian

1981-01-01

78

Comparative profiling of microRNAs in male and female adults of Ascaris suum.  

PubMed

Ascaris nematodes, which cause ascariasis in humans and pigs, are among the most important nematodes from both health and economic perspectives. microRNA (miRNA) is now recognized as key regulator of gene expression at posttranscription level. The public availability of the genome and transcripts of Ascaris suum provides powerful resources for the research of miRNA profiles of the parasite. Therefore, we investigated and compared the miRNA profiles of male and female adult A. suum using Solexa deep sequencing combined with bioinformatic analysis and stem-loop reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Deep sequencing of small RNAs yielded 11.71 and 11.72 million raw reads from male and female adults of A. suum, respectively. Analysis showed that the noncoding RNA of the two genders, including tRNA, rRNA, snRNA, and snoRNA, were similar. By mapping to the A. suum genome, we obtained 494 and 505 miRNA candidates from the female and male parasite, respectively, and 87 and 82 of miRNA candidates were consistent with A. suum miRNAs deposited in the miRBase database. Among the miRNA candidates, 154 were shared by the two genders, and 340 and 351 were female and male specific with their target numbers ranged from one to thousands, respectively. Functional prediction revealed a set of elongation factors, heat shock proteins, and growth factors from the targets of gender-specific miRNAs, which were essential for the development of the parasite. Moreover, major sperm protein and nematode sperm cell motility protein were found in targets of the male-specific miRNAs. Ovarian message protein was found in targets of the female-specific miRNAs. Enrichment analysis revealed significant differences among Gene Ontology terms of miRNA targets of the two genders, such as electron carrier and biological adhesion process. The regulating functions of gender-specific miRNAs was therefore not only related to the fundamental functions of cells but also were essential to the germ development of the parasite. The present study provides a framework for further research of Ascaris miRNAs, and consequently leads to the development of potential nucleotide vaccines against Ascaris of human and animal health significance. PMID:23306386

Xu, Min-Jun; Fu, Jing-Hua; Nisbet, Alasdair J; Huang, Si-Yang; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Lin, Rui-Qing; Song, Hui-Qun; Zhu, Xing-Quan

2013-03-01

79

Maternal separation exaggerates spontaneous recovery of extinguished contextual fear in adult female rats.  

PubMed

Early life stress increases the risk of posttraumatic stress disorders (PTSD). Patients with PTSD show impaired extinction of traumatic memory, and in women, this occurs more often when PTSD is preceded by child trauma. However, it is still unclear how early life stress accounts for extinction impairment. Here, we studied the effects of maternal separation (MS, postnatal day 2 to 14) on contextual fear extinction in adult female rats. Additionally, to examine changes in synaptic function affected by MS, we measured long-term potentiation (LTP) in prefrontal cortex and hippocampus in vitro, both of which have been implicated in fear extinction. We found that adult female rats had been subjected to MS exhibited significant spontaneous recovery of fear to the extinguished context. Furthermore, MS exposure resulted in LTP impairment in both infralimbic prefrontal cortex layer 2/3-layer 5 and hippocampal SC-CA1 pathways. Interestingly, no obvious effects of MS on contextual fear conditioning, fear recall as well as extinction training and recall were observed. Innate fear in the elevated plus maze or open field test remained nearly unaffected. These findings provided the first evidence that MS may exaggerate spontaneous recovery after contextual fear extinction, for which LTP impairment in the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus may be responsible, thereby possibly leading to impaired extinction associated with PTSD. PMID:24746487

Xiong, Gui-Jing; Yang, Yuan; Wang, Li-Ping; Xu, Lin; Mao, Rong-Rong

2014-08-01

80

Voxel models representing the male and female ICRP reference adult: a dosimetric tool for medical imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For optimisation in diagnostic medical imaging it is important to consider the relation between diagnostic image quality and patient dose. In the past, schematic representations of the human body were commonly used for dosimetric simulations together with Monte Carlo codes. During the last two decades, voxel models were introduced as an improvement to these body models. Studies performed by various research groups have shown that the more realistic organ topology of voxel models constructed from medical image data of real persons has an impact on calculated doses for external as well as internal exposures. As a consequence of these findings, the ICRP decided to use voxel models for the forthcoming update of organ dose conversion coefficients. These voxel models should be representative of an average population, i.e. they should resemble the ICRP reference anatomical data with respect to their external dimensions and their organ masses. To meet the ICRP requirements, our group at the Helmholtz Zentrum München (formerly known as GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health) constructed voxel models of a male and female adult, based on the voxel models of two individuals whose body height and weight resembled those of the male and female ICRP reference adult. The organ masses of both models were adjusted to the ICRP reference anatomical data, without spoiling their realistic anatomy. The paper describes the method used for this process and the resulting voxel models.

Zankl, M.; Schlattl, H.; Becker, J.; Petoussi-Henss, N.; Hoeschen, C.

2008-03-01

81

Vocal control region sizes of an adult female songbird change seasonally in the absence of detectable circulating testosterone concentrations.  

PubMed

Previous research established that in several species of seasonally breeding oscine birds, brain areas [vocal control regions (VCRs)] that control vocal behavior learning and expression exhibit seasonal plasticity, being larger during than outside the reproductive period. In adult males, this seasonal decrease correlates with circulating testosterone (T) concentrations. VCRs contain androgen receptors and T plays an important role in neural plasticity and in the control of singing behavior. In behaviorally dimorphic species, VCRs are larger in males than females and change seasonally also in females, but the dependency of these changes on circulating T levels in females has not been established. In free-living adult dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis), a species in which females do not normally sing, the sizes of three VCRs (high vocal center, robust nucleus of the archistriatum, and Area X) were larger in males than females and decreased between summer and fall in both sexes. In males, this decrease was associated with changes in circulating T concentrations. Females, however, had on average undetectable T levels throughout the breeding season. Seasonal changes in VCR volumes in adult females may depend on very low (below detection limit) circulating T concentrations, on nonandrogenic plasma steroids, on androgen (or androgen metabolites) produced in brain tissues, and/or on nonsteroidal factors such as photoperiod or social interactions with conspecific birds. PMID:10640327

Deviche, P; Gulledge, C C

2000-02-01

82

Oestradiol and diet modulate energy homeostasis and hypothalamic neurogenesis in the adult female mouse.  

PubMed

Leptin and oestradiol have overlapping functions in energy homeostasis and fertility, and receptors for these hormones are localised in the same hypothalamic regions. Although, historically, it was assumed that mammalian adult neurogenesis was confined to the olfactory bulbs and the hippocampus, recent research has found new neurones in the male rodent hypothalamus. Furthermore, some of these new neurones are leptin-sensitive and affected by diet. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that diet and hormonal status modulate hypothalamic neurogenesis in the adult female mouse. Adult mice were ovariectomised and implanted with capsules containing oestradiol (E2 ) or oil. Within each group, mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or maintained on standard chow (STND). All animals were administered i.c.v. 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) for 9 days and sacrificed 34 days later after an injection of leptin to induce phosphorylation of signal transducer of activation and transcription 3 (pSTAT3). Brain tissue was immunohistochemically labelled for BrdU (newly born cells), Hu (neuronal marker) and pSTAT3 (leptin sensitive). Although mice on a HFD became obese, oestradiol protected against obesity. There was a strong interaction between diet and hormone on new cells (BrdU+) in the arcuate, ventromedial hypothalamus and dorsomedial hypothalamus. HFD increased the number of new cells, whereas E2 inhibited this effect. Conversely, E2 increased the number of new cells in mice on a STND diet in all hypothalamic regions studied. Although the total number of new leptin-sensitive neurones (BrdU-Hu-pSTAT3) found in the hypothalamus was low, HFD increased these new cells in the arcuate, whereas E2 attenuated this induction. These results suggest that adult neurogenesis in the hypothalamic neurogenic niche is modulated by diet and hormonal status and is related to energy homeostasis in female mice. PMID:25182179

Bless, E P; Reddy, T; Acharya, K D; Beltz, B S; Tetel, M J

2014-11-01

83

Prenatal Testosterone Induces Sex-Specific Dysfunction in Endothelium-Dependent Relaxation Pathways in Adult Male and Female Rats1  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Prenatal testosterone (T) exposure impacts postnatal cardiovascular function, leading to increases in blood pressure with associated decreased endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation in adult females. Endothelial function in males is not known. Furthermore, which of the endothelial pathways contributes to endothelial dysfunction and if there exists sex differences are not known. The objective of this study was to characterize the relative contribution of nitric oxide (NO) and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) to the impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation in prenatal T-exposed adult males and females. Offspring of pregnant rats treated with T propionate or its vehicle were examined. Telemetric blood pressure levels and endothelium-dependent vascular reactivity were assessed with wire myography. Levels of nitric oxide synthase (NOS3) and Kcnn3 and Kcnn4 channel expression were examined in mesenteric arteries. Mean arterial pressure was significantly higher in T males and females than in controls. Endothelium-dependent acetylcholine relaxation was significantly lower in both T males and females. EDHF-mediated relaxation was specifically blunted in T males (Emax = 48.64% ± 3.73%) compared to that in control males (Emax = 81.71% ± 3.18%); however, NO-mediated relaxation was specifically impaired in T females (Emax = 36.01% ± 4.29%) compared with that in control females (Emax = 54.56% ± 6.37%). Relaxation to sodium nitroprusside and levcromakalim were unaffected with T-treatment. NOS3 protein was decreased in T females but not in T males. Kcnn3 expression was decreased in both T males and females compared to controls. These findings suggest that prenatal T leads to an increase in blood pressure in the adult offspring, associated with blunting of endothelial cell-associated relaxation and that the effects are sex-specific: EDHF-related in males and NO-related in females. PMID:23966325

Chinnathambi, Vijayakumar; Yallampalli, Chandrasekhar; Sathishkumar, Kunju

2013-01-01

84

Childhood Sexual Abuse as a Predictor of Adult Female Sexual Dysfunction: A Study of Couples Seeking Sex Therapy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of 359 married women who sought sex therapy with their spouses found a connection between adult female sexual dysfunction and childhood sexual abuse. Abuse involving sexual penetration was specifically associated with adult sexual dysfunction. Future research on additional variables that contribute to sexual dysfunction is urged. (CR)

Sarwer, David B.; Durlak, Joseph A.

1996-01-01

85

Impact characteristics of female children running in adult versus youth shoes of the same size.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine if ground reaction forces were influenced by shoe design (adult vs. youth) for female children when running. Subjects (n = 10, 12.0 ± 1.1 years old; 154 ± 4.9 cm; 46.2 ± 14.3 kg; shoe size 3.5-7 youth) were fit with a shoe model available in youth and adult sizes. Subjects ran 10 trials per shoe condition across a force platform placed in the middle of a 9-m runway. Impact force, second maximum force, loading rate, stance time and average vertical ground reaction forces were recorded for each trial. Shoes underwent a mechanical impact test with peak force, peak acceleration, and percent energy returned recorded. Each variable was compared between shoe conditions. From the impact testing, it was determined that peak force, peak acceleration and percent energy return were 7.1%, 7.1%, and 18.9% greater, respectively, for the youth vs. adult shoe (p < .001). From the running tests, it was determined that loading rate was different (p = .009) between shoe conditions whereas impact force, second maximum force, average force and stance time were not different between shoes (p > .01). Young girls had a greater loading rate when running in youth vs. adult shoes even though the shoe size was the same. PMID:22695252

Forrest, Dana; Dufek, Janet S; Mercer, John A

2012-11-01

86

Peripubertal exposure to male odors influences female puberty and adult expression of male-directed odor preference in mice.  

PubMed

Testosterone-dependent olfactory signals emitted by male are well known to accelerate female puberty in mice (Vandenbergh effect). However, it remains unclear whether these chemosignals also influence adult expression of male-directed odor preference. Therefore, we exposed female mice to intact or castrated male bedding (vs clean bedding as control) during the peripubertal period (postnatal day (PD) 21-38) and measured male-directed odor preference in adulthood. At PD45 or PD60, females exposed to intact male odors, and thus showing puberty acceleration, preferred to investigate odors from intact males over females or castrated males. Females exposed to castrated male odors did not show puberty acceleration but preferred male (intact or castrated) over female odors. Finally, control females did not show any odor preference when tested at PD45, although a preference for male odors emerged later (PD60). In a second experiment, females that were exposed to intact male odors after pubertal transition (PD36-53) also preferred intact male over castrated male odors. In conclusion, our results indicate that peripubertal exposure to male odors induced early expression of male-directed odor preference regardless of puberty-accelerating effect and that induction of male-directed odor preference is not specific to the peripubertal period. PMID:24361197

Jouhanneau, Mélanie; Cornilleau, Fabien; Keller, Matthieu

2014-02-01

87

Kinetic analysis of the thumb in jar-opening activity among female adults.  

PubMed

Jar opening is commonly viewed as a challenging task for female adults in daily living. The thumb plays a particular role in grasping the jar lid and leading the turning activity through opposition to the other digits. This study measured and compared the force, torque and torque contribution of the thumb in the activity under ordinary grasp patterns and jar-holding positions. A steel jar-like cylinder was custom made to measure the force and torque generated simultaneously by thumb and wrist. Sixteen young females without a history of hand injury were recruited as subjects. The force and torque of the thumb were found to be influenced significantly only by the grasp pattern but its torque contribution was significantly affected only by the jar-holding position. However, overall torque was influenced by both the grasp pattern and the jar-holding position. The torque contribution of the thumb under the four different grasp patterns and jar-holding positions was found to range from 17.4% to 23.9%. The contribution ratios suggest that the thumb may offer a force equivalent to the other digits rather than just a counter force in this activity. PMID:18484399

Chang, Jer-Hao; Ho, Kun-Yueh; Su, Fong-Chin

2008-06-01

88

Psychological and neural correlates of emotional intelligence in a large sample of adult males and females  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research is needed that investigates the correlates of emotional intelligence (EI) as a function of sex, especially biological and psychological correlates such as personality, brain activity, cognitions and mood. A large group of healthy males and females were tested for EI, personality, mood, cognitive function, brain activity and heart rate variability. Females were found to have slightly higher EI scores

A. Craig; Y. Tran; G. Hermens; L. M. Williams; A. Kemp; C. Morris; E. Gordon

2009-01-01

89

Prenatal Androgenization of Females  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical studies of human female hermaphrodites prenatally exposed to certain synthetic progestins, and of female hermaphrodites with the adrenogenital syndrome, complement experimental studies of animals prenatally exposed to androgens. The clinical data on human females indicate elevated IQ and some behavioral masculinization, without gender-identity disorders, subsequent to prenatal exposure to androgenic substances. However, suppression of feminine behavior was minor in

P. A. Walker; J. Money

1972-01-01

90

Female Prisoners in Malaysia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a study on 422 female prisoners in peninsular Malaysia. More than half of the female prisoners are foreigners, mainly from Indonesia and Thailand. This study surveys the background of the respondents and identifies factors that may have influenced them to commit the offences. Female prisoners in Malaysia, particularly those who are…

Teh, Yik Koon

2006-01-01

91

Adolescent Female Identify Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to (a) add to the current literature on female identity development and (b) determine whether a gender specific pattern of identity formation is evident in females during their early and middle adolescent years. The Measures of Psychosocial Development (MPD) was administered by graduate students to 317 males and 332 females in sixth, eighth, tenth,

L. Jean Lytle; Linda Bakken; Charles Romig

1997-01-01

92

Beyond “The Female Homosexual”  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay offers a brief history of how the stereotype “the female homosexual” was created through three installments of psychoanalytic theorizing, starting with Freud's (1920) case study. A second, brief history presents the various strands of critical theorizing that have identified “the female homosexual” as a stereotype. The essay then makes a contribution to current discussion of female homosexuality by

Elisabeth Young-Bruehl

2000-01-01

93

Female Circumcision\\/Female Genital Mutilation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female circumcision\\/female genital mutilation (FC\\/FGM) refers to any alteration of the genitalia by excision or covering of the introitus done for nonmedical reasons. This procedure is widely prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa and is traditionally performed on children and young adolescents. FC\\/FGM is associated with acute and long-term genitourinary and reproductive disorders that may require medical intervention. Due to turbulent economic

Julie Lubker Strickland

2001-01-01

94

Adult Reports of Child and Adult Attributions of Blame for Childhood Sexual Abuse: Predicting Adult Adjustment and Suicidal Behaviors in Females.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of 126 female survivors of childhood sexual abuse (n=126) found participants reporting abuse by immediate family members and before age 10 tended make internal attributions of blame when they were children. Reports of childhood internal attributions of blame were significantly predictive of overall adult symptomatology and suicide…

Barker-Collo, Suzanne L.

2001-01-01

95

Media Ideals… Unattainable to Most Females  

Microsoft Academic Search

The images of females displayed in the media today are thinner than the images of male, thinner than media images of females in the past, than the actual female population, and than the criteria for anorexia (Schooler, Ward, Merriwether, & Caruthers, 2004). This study investigated the stereotypical representations of adult females in mass media. It was hypothesized that exposure to

Jennifer Smith; Amber Taylor

96

A Case of Unifocal Eosinophilic Granuloma of the Mandible in an Adult Female: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic granuloma of bone is a disease with an incidence of one new case per 350,000 to 2 million per year, which is an uncommon disease of maxillofacial region, and presents in more than 90% in children under the age of ten with predominance for males. As a result, eosinophilic granuloma of the jaw is always unconsidered in the differential diagnosis of similar lesions by many clinicians. It is difficult to make a correct diagnosis on it without proof of a pathological diagnosis, which correlates with the diverse clinical and radiographic presentations of eosinophilic granuloma in the jaws. In the present paper we report a rare case of unifocal eosinophilic granuloma of mandible occurring in an adult female. PMID:22953070

Agarwal, Anshita; Agrawal, Gaurav P.; Alam, Sarwar; Husain, Benazeer

2012-01-01

97

A natural model of behavioral depression in postpartum adult female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).  

PubMed

Postpartum depression (PPD) is a modified form of major depressive disorders (MDD) that can exert profound negative effects on both mothers and infants than MDD. Within the postpartum period, both mothers and infants are susceptible; but because PPD typically occurs for short durations and has moderate symptoms, there exists challenges in exploring and addressing the underlying cause of the depression. This fact highlights the need for relevant animal models. In the present study, postpartum adult female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) living in breeding groups were observed for typical depressive behavior. The huddle posture behavior was utilized as an indicator of behavioral depression postpartum (BDP) as it has been established as the core depressive-like behavior in primates. Monkeys were divided into two groups: A BDP group (n=6), which were found to spend more time huddling over the first two weeks postpartum than other individuals that formed a non-depression control group (n=4). The two groups were then further analyzed for locomotive activity, stressful events, hair cortisol levels and for maternal interactive behaviors. No differences were found between the BDP and control groups in locomotive activity, in the frequencies of stressful events experienced and in hair cortisol levels. These findings suggested that the postpartum depression witnessed in the monkeys was not related to external factors other than puerperium period. Interestingly, the BDP monkeys displayed an abnormal maternal relationship consisting of increased infant grooming. Taken together, these findings suggest that the adult female cynomolgus monkeys provide a natural model of behavioral postpartum depression that holds a number of advantages over commonly used rodent systems in PPD modeling. The cynomolgus monkeys have a highly-organized social hierarchy and reproductive characteristics without seasonal restriction-similar to humans-as well as much greater homology to humans than rodents. As such, this model may provide a greater translational efficiency and research platform for systematically investigating the etiology, treatment, prevention of PPD. PMID:24866487

Chu, Xun-Xun; Dominic Rizak, Joshua; Yang, Shang-Chuan; Wang, Jian-Hong; Ma, Yuan-Ye; Hu, Xin-Tian

2014-05-18

98

Amphetamine-induced incentive sensitization of sign-tracking behavior in adolescent and adult female rats.  

PubMed

Age-specific behavioral and neural characteristics may predispose adolescents to initiate and escalate use of alcohol and drugs. Adolescents may avidly seek novel experiences, including drugs of abuse, because of enhanced incentive motivation for drugs and natural rewards, perhaps especially when that incentive motivation is sensitized by prior drug exposure. Using a Pavlovian conditioned approach (PCA) procedure, sign-tracking (ST) and goal-tracking (GT) behavior was examined in amphetamine-sensitized and control adolescent and adult female Sprague-Dawley rats, with expression of elevated ST behavior used to index enhanced incentive motivation for reward-associated cues. Rats were first exposed to a sensitizing regimen of amphetamine injections (3.0 mg/kg/ml d-amphetamine per day) or given saline (0.9% wt/vol) once daily for 4 days. Expression of ST and GT was then examined over 8 days of PCA training consisting of 25 pairings of an 8-s presentation of an illuminated lever immediately followed by response-independent delivery of a banana-flavored food pellet. Results showed that adults clearly displayed more ST behavior than adolescents, reflected via both more contacts with, and shorter latencies to approach, the lever. Prior amphetamine sensitization increased ST (but not GT) behaviors regardless of age. Thus, when indexed via ST, incentive motivation was found to be greater in adults than adolescents, with a prior history of amphetamine exposure generally sensitizing incentive motivation for cues predicting a food reward regardless of age. PMID:21534648

Doremus-Fitzwater, Tamara L; Spear, Linda P

2011-08-01

99

Coping with incest: the relationship between recollections of childhood coping and adult functioning in female survivors of incest.  

PubMed

One hundred and one adult female survivors' recollections of coping with childhood incest, abuse characteristics, and current functioning in adulthood were studied. Analyses controlling for characteristics of the trauma indicated that recollections of using avoidance coping and seeking social support were related to poor adult functioning whereas recollections of using distancing coping were related to better functioning. As a set of variables, abuse characteristics also predicted a significant amount of variance in adult functioning. Implications for future research were discussed. PMID:12816342

Brand, Bethany L; Alexander, Pamela C

2003-06-01

100

Breeding sex ratios in adult leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) may compensate for female-biased hatchling sex ratios.  

PubMed

For vertebrates with temperature-dependent sex determination, primary (or hatchling) sex ratios are often skewed, an issue of particular relevance to concerns over effects of climate change on populations. However, the ratio of breeding males to females, or the operational sex ratio (OSR), is important to understand because it has consequences for population demographics and determines the capacity of a species to persist. The OSR also affects mating behaviors and mate choice, depending on the more abundant sex. For sea turtles, hatchling and juvenile sex ratios are generally female-biased, and with warming nesting beach temperatures, there is concern that populations may become feminized. Our purpose was to evaluate the breeding sex ratio for leatherback turtles at a nesting beach in St. Croix, USVI. In 2010, we sampled nesting females and later sampled their hatchlings as they emerged from nests. Total genomic DNA was extracted and all individuals were genotyped using 6 polymorphic microsatellite markers. We genotyped 662 hatchlings from 58 females, matching 55 females conclusively to their nests. Of the 55, 42 females mated with one male each, 9 mated with 2 males each and 4 mated with at least 3 males each, for a multiple paternity rate of 23.6%. Using GERUD1.0, we reconstructed parental genotypes, identifying 47 different males and 46 females for an estimated breeding sex ratio of 1.02 males for every female. Thus we demonstrate that there are as many actively breeding males as females in this population. Concerns about female-biased adult sex ratios may be premature, and mate choice or competition may play more of a role in sea turtle reproduction than previously thought. We recommend monitoring breeding sex ratios in the future to allow the integration of this demographic parameter in population models. PMID:24505403

Stewart, Kelly R; Dutton, Peter H

2014-01-01

101

Replicated origin of female-biased adult sex ratio in introduced populations of the trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata).  

PubMed

There are many theoretical and empirical studies explaining variation in offspring sex ratio but relatively few that explain variation in adult sex ratio. Adult sex ratios are important because biased sex ratios can be a driver of sexual selection and will reduce effective population size, affecting population persistence and shapes how populations respond to natural selection. Previous work on guppies (Poecilia reticulata) gives mixed results, usually showing a female-biased adult sex ratio. However, a detailed analysis showed that this bias varied dramatically throughout a year and with no consistent sex bias. We used a mark-recapture approach to examine the origin and consistency of female-biased sex ratio in four replicated introductions. We show that female-biased sex ratio arises predictably and is a consequence of higher male mortality and longer female life spans with little effect of offspring sex ratio. Inconsistencies with previous studies are likely due to sampling methods and sampling design, which should be less of an issue with mark-recapture techniques. Together with other long-term mark-recapture studies, our study suggests that bias in offspring sex ratio rarely contributes to adult sex ratio in vertebrates. Rather, sex differences in adult survival rates and longevity determine vertebrate adult sex ratio. PMID:24816221

Arendt, Jeffrey D; Reznick, David N; López-Sepulcre, Andres

2014-08-01

102

Den site activity patterns of adult male and female swift foxes, Vulpes velox, in Northwestern Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Activity of Swift Foxes (Vulpes velox) at den sites was studied in northwestern Texas during pup rearing seasons in 2000 and 2001 to determine role of males in parental care. Twenty-four percent of radio-collared females with a potential to breed successfully raised pups to eight weeks of age. We intensively monitored presence and absence of male and female Swift Foxes at two den sites each year. Females were present >2.6 times more at den sites than males during the pup rearing season. Female and male Swift Foxes largely stayed at dens during diurnal hours and were active away from dens during nocturnal and crepuscular hours. Females and males spent 12.4% and 3.0% more time at dens before pups emerged, than after pups emerged, respectively. Following depredation of one male parent, the female spent 29% less time at the den site. Decrease in time spent at the den by the female following loss of her mate suggested that loss of one parent might severely impact recruitment of Swift Foxes. Our observations indicated that intense Coyote (Canis latrans) depredation may severely impact pup-rearing success as well as the parental care within Swift Fox family groups.

Lemons, P. R.; Ballard, W. B.; Sullivan, R. M.; Sovada, M. A.

2003-01-01

103

Adult female prairie voles and meadow voles do not suppress reproduction in their daughters.  

PubMed

Reproductive suppression of young females by conspecific females has been reported from laboratory studies on several species of rodents, including the prairie vole, Microtus ochrogaster, but not meadow voles, M. pennsylvanicus. We exposed female prairie voles and meadow voles to two treatments: a mother and one 23-26-day-old daughter paired with a strange male and a 23-26-day-old daughter paired with a different strange male. We found no differences in the proportion of daughters breeding or the time to sexual maturation for daughters raised in the two treatments for either species. Thus, we have no indication that mothers had any adverse effect on reproductive efforts of their daughters. These results differ from previous studies that concluded young female prairie voles were reproductively suppressed by female relatives. The difference between our and previous studies on reproductive suppression is that we examined breeding in young females rather than proximate measures of growth and reproductive development. We question the evolutionary significance of reproductive suppression among related female microtine rodents, especially in that it has not been documented from field populations. PMID:11483353

Wolff, J O.; Dunlap, A S.; Ritchhart, E

2001-09-01

104

Effects of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate on the hypothalamus-pituitary-ovarian axis in adult female rats.  

PubMed

Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), an environmental endocrine disruptor, is widely present in the environment and some products with phthalate plasticizer. It has become a serious problem in recent years. The effect of DEHP on female reproductive system is still not well-studied. This study was to investigate the effects of DEHP on hypothalamus-pituitary-ovarian axis in adult female rats. Compared with control rats, the DEHP-treated rats showed: (1) lower body weight; (2) lower organ coefficient of ovary; (3) higher GnRH level in the hypothalamus; (4) higher mRNA and protein levels of GnRHR in the pituitary; and (5) lower serum sex hormone levels. Our data reveal that DEHP exposure may lead to the disruption of estrogen biosynthesis pathways in female rats and imbalance of hypothalamus-pituitary-ovarian axis. DEHP may impose negative influence on the development and function of the reproductive system in female rats. PMID:24675100

Liu, Te; Li, Na; Zhu, Jian; Yu, Guangyan; Guo, Kun; Zhou, Liting; Zheng, Dongchun; Qu, Xiaofeng; Huang, Jian; Chen, Xin; Wang, Shuyue; Ye, Lin

2014-07-01

105

The Effects of Ovariectomy on Binge Eating Proneness in Adult Female Rats  

PubMed Central

Ovarian hormones are associated with binge eating in women, however findings are limited by the lack of experimental control inherent in human studies. Animal research that manipulates ovarian hormone status and examines individual differences in extreme binge eating proneness are needed to model clinical phenotypes in humans and to confirm causal effects. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of adult ovariectomy on overall binge eating risk and extreme binge eating phenotypes using the binge eating resistant (BER)/ binge eating prone (BEP) rat model. We predicted that palatable food consumption would significantly increase after ovariectomy in all rats because ovarian hormones generally suppress food intake. If differences in responsiveness to ovarian hormones underlie BER/BEP phenotypes, then differences in binge eating between BER and BEP rats would be eliminated or diminished after ovariectomy. Changes in palatable food (PF) intake were compared in BER and BEP rats before and after ovariectomy in two samples of adult females. Findings were highly similar in the two samples. PF intake increased significantly following ovariectomy in all rats. However, BEP rats consistently consumed larger amounts of PF than BER rats, both before and after ovariectomy. The consistency of findings across two samples of rats provides strong support for activational effects of ovarian hormones on binge eating. However, the immunity of extreme binge eating phenotypes to ovarian hormone ablation suggests that other, earlier mechanisms (e.g., organizational hormone effects or hormone-independent effects) determine the expression of binge eating phenotypes. PMID:21376721

Klump, Kelly L.; Suisman, Jessica L.; Culbert, Kristen M.; Kashy, Deborah A.; Keel, Pamela K.; Sisk, Cheryl L.

2011-01-01

106

Differences in Brachypelma albopilosa (Theraphosidae) hemolymph proteome between subadult and adult females.  

PubMed

The changes in the hemolymph proteome of mygalomorph Brachypelma albopilosa females were examined for the first time in relation to their developmental stage (subadult and adult period). Seven distinct subunits of hemocyanin (a, b, c, d, e, f, and g chains), as well as actin were clearly identified and their sequence partly characterized using a combination of one- and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. The different structures determined along with possible post-translational modifications may reflect a role of hemocyanin in molting, immunity, and reproduction. In addition, despite no precise identification, additional peptide sequences from eight protein bands (four bands >200 kDa and four bands in the 95-200 kDa mass range) were determined. As reported in other spider species, the putative corresponding structures are the coagulogen protein and/or lipoproteins (HDL-1, HDL-2, VHDL) for which quantitative differences between adult and subadult individuals could be related to the molting process and/or cuticle lipid and protein composition according to the developmental stage. PMID:20717997

Trabalon, Marie; Carapito, Christine; Voinot, Florian; Martrette, Jean-Marc; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Gilbert, Caroline; Bertile, Fabrice

2010-12-01

107

Azelaic acid in the treatment of acne in adult females: case reports.  

PubMed

Acne, one of the most common skin problems in dermatological practice, is a condition that affects not only adolescents but also adults. While approximately 80% of cases occurring in adulthood are persistent from teenage years, around 20% are described as 'late-onset' disease, appearing for the first time in adulthood. The disease can be triggered by hormonal changes (including a change from one contraceptive to another), or it can be induced by certain nonhormonal medications, emotional stress, and various underlying diseases such as polycystic ovary syndrome. In many cases acne becomes a chronic skin condition with undulating activity, including improvement and relapse phases, and is often experienced as a major psychological burden. It is, therefore, even more important to provide an effective as well as a safe and tolerable treatment. The spectrum of topical acne treatments has expanded substantially in recent years and various topical medications are available, ranging from azelaic acid, antibiotics, retinoids and benzoyl peroxide to several fixed combinations of these active compounds. The following case collection illustrates how 15% azelaic acid gel, as a well-established monotherapy, can be successfully employed to treat mild-to-moderate forms of adult female acne. PMID:24280645

Vargas-Diez, E; Hofmann, M A; Bravo, B; Malgazhdarova, G; Katkhanova, O A; Yutskovskaya, Y

2014-01-01

108

Relative influence of human harvest, carnivores, and weather on adult female elk survival across  

E-print Network

to predation in snowy winters. Baseline mortality was unrelated to puma Puma concolor presence, forest cover with both pumas and wolves because managers reduced female harvest in areas with abundant or diverse

Hebblewhite, Mark

109

Vocal Control Region Sizes of an Adult Female Songbird Change Seasonally in the Absence of  

E-print Network

dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis), a species in which females do not normally sing, the sizes of three­211, 2000 Keywords: junco; androgen; HVc; sexual dimorphism; plasticity In oscine birds, song is a learned

Deviche, Pierre

110

Ovariectomy Results in Variable Changes in Nociception, Mood and Depression in Adult Female Rats  

PubMed Central

Decline in the ovarian hormones with menopause may influence somatosensory, cognitive, and affective processing. The present study investigated whether hormonal depletion alters the nociceptive, depressive-like and learning behaviors in experimental rats after ovariectomy (OVX), a common method to deplete animals of their gonadal hormones. OVX rats developed thermal hyperalgesia in proximal and distal tail that was established 2 weeks after OVX and lasted the 7 weeks of the experiment. A robust mechanical allodynia was also occurred at 5 weeks after OVX. In the 5th week after OVX, dilute formalin (5%)-induced nociceptive responses (such as elevating and licking or biting) during the second phase were significantly increased as compared to intact and sham-OVX females. However, chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve-induced mechanical allodynia did not differ as hormonal status (e.g. OVX and ovarian intact). Using formalin-induced conditioned place avoidance (F-CPA), which is believed to reflect the pain-related negative emotion, we further found that OVX significantly attenuated F-CPA scores but did not alter electric foot-shock-induced CPA (S-CPA). In the open field and forced swimming test, there was an increase in depressive-like behaviors in OVX rats. There was no detectable impairment of spatial performance by Morris water maze task in OVX rats up to 5 weeks after surgery. Estrogen replacement retrieved OVX-induced nociceptive hypersensitivity and depressive-like behaviors. This is the first study to investigate the impacts of ovarian removal on nociceptive perception, negative emotion, depressive-like behaviors and spatial learning in adult female rats in a uniform and standard way. PMID:24710472

Li, Li-Hong; Wang, Zhe-Chen; Yu, Jin; Zhang, Yu-Qiu

2014-01-01

111

Spatial distribution of juvenile and adult female Tanner crabs (Chionoecetes bairdi) in a glacial fjord ecosystem: Implications for recruitment processes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A systematic pot survey in Glacier Bay, Alaska, was conducted to characterize the spatial distribution of juvenile and adult female Tanner crabs, and their association with depth and temperature. The information was used to infer important recruitment processes for Tanner crabs in glaciated ecosystems. High-catch areas for juvenile and adult female Tanner crabs were identified using local autocorrelation statistics. Spatial segregation by size class corresponded to features in the glacial landscape: high-catch areas for juveniles were located at the distal ends of two narrow glacial fjords, and high-catch areas for adults were located in the open waters of the central Bay. Juvenile female Tanner crabs were found at nearly all sampled depths (15-439 m) and temperatures (4-8??C), but the biggest catches were at depths <150 m where adults were scarce. Because adults may prey on or compete with juveniles, the distribution of juveniles could be influenced by the distribution of adults. Areas where adults or predators are scarce, such as glacially influenced fjords, could serve as refuges for juvenile Tanner crabs. ?? 2007 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea. Published by Oxford Journals. All rights reserved.

Nielsen, J.K.; Taggart, S.J.; Shirley, T.C.; Mondragon, J.

2007-01-01

112

Environmental tracking by females  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human females are generally reserved in their sexuality, in keeping with their heavy investment in reproduction. Males tend\\u000a to be less reserved. Relative to males, however, females demonstrate more variability in sexuality and are more likely to\\u000a inhibit or express high levels of sexuality. The heightened variability may in part originate with genetic mechanisms that\\u000a predispose females toward greater variability

Del Thiessen

1994-01-01

113

Risk Factors and Protective Factors in Relation to Subjective Health among Adult Female Victims of Child Sexual Abuse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To investigate the relationships between risk and protective factors and health outcome in a sample of adult females who had been victims of child sexual abuse. Method: Both person- and variable-oriented analyses were applied to questionnaire data from a non-clinical group of women (n=152) reporting sexual abuse during childhood.…

Jonzon, Eva; Lindblad, Frank

2006-01-01

114

Female common lizards (Lacerta vivipara) do not adjust their sex-biased investment in relation to the adult sex ratio  

E-print Network

Female common lizards (Lacerta vivipara) do not adjust their sex-biased investment in relation to the adult sex ratio J.-F. LE GALLIARD,*, ,# P. S. FITZE,*,à,# J. COTE,* M. MASSOT* & J. CLOBERT differential investment into the sexes, such that higher fitness returns in one sex selects for stronger

Alvarez, Nadir

115

Oviposition-altering and ovicidal potentials of five essential oils against female adults of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oviposition deterrence and ovicidal potential of five different essential oils, peppermint oil (Mentha piperita), basil oil (Ocimum basilicum), rosemary oil (Rosemarinus officinalis), citronella oil (Cymbopogon nardus), and celery seed oil (Apium graveolens), were assessed against female adults of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti L. Multiple concentration tests were carried out where cups containing 1 mL of different concentrations (100%, 10%,

Radhika Warikoo; Naim Wahab; Sarita Kumar

116

Associations between adult attachment style and health risk behaviors in an adult female primary care population  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the relationship between adult attachment style and health risk behaviors among adult women in a primary care setting. Methods In this analysis of a population of women enrolled in a large health maintenance organization (N=701), we examined the relationship between anxious and avoidant dimensions of adult attachment style and a variety of sexual, substance-related, and other health risk behaviors. After conducting descriptive statistics of the entire population, we determined the relationships between the two attachment dimensions and health behaviors using multiple regression analyses in which we controlled for demographic and socioeconomic factors. Results After adjustment for covariates, the anxious dimension of attachment style was significantly associated with increased odds of self-report of having sex without knowing a partner’s history, having multiple (?2) male partners in the past year, and history of having a sexually transmitted infection (ORs [95% CIs]=1.11 [1.03, 1.20], 1.23 [1.04, 1.45]; and 1.17 [1.05, 1.30], respectively). The avoidant attachment dimension was associated with increased odds of being a smoker and not reporting regular seatbelt use (ORs [95% CIs]=1.15 [1.01, 1.30] and 1.16 [1.01, 1.33], respectively). Conclusions Both anxious and avoidant dimensions of attachment were associated with health risk behaviors in this study. This framework may be a useful tool to allow primary care clinicians to guide screening and intervention efforts. PMID:22469278

Ahrens, Kym R.; Ciechanowski, Paul; Katon, Wayne

2013-01-01

117

Characteristics Associated With Initiation of the HPV Vaccine Among a National Sample of Male and Female Young Adults  

PubMed Central

Purpose To examine rates of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine initiation, and characteristics associated with initiation, among a national sample of male and female young adults. Methods Participants (n=3,448; 48% female) were recruited using a web-based respondent driven sampling strategy and completed a web-based survey between October and December 2010. Results Forty-five percent of females and four percent of males initiated the vaccine. Females who were younger, never married, in school, attended religious services less than once a month, sexually active, reported a greater number of lifetime sex partners, and who had been tested for HIV were more likely to report initiation. Males who were African American, attended religious services less than once a month, reported a greater number of sex partners in their lifetime and who had been tested for HIV were more likely to report initiation. Conclusions Factors associated with HPV vaccine initiation may differ for males and females. Further research, with larger samples of males, is needed to fully understand characteristics associated with male initiation. Regardless of gender, however, the majority of young adults who have not initiated sexual activity have not received the vaccine. Further research is needed to examine how to increase vaccination rates among this population, as they may benefit most from vaccination. PMID:24138764

Bernat, Debra H.; Gerend, Mary A.; Chevallier, Kenya; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Bauermeister, Jose A.

2013-01-01

118

Prenatal Testosterone Exposure Leads to Hypertension That Is Gonadal Hormone-Dependent in Adult Rat Male and Female Offspring1  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Prenatal testosterone exposure impacts postnatal reproductive and endocrine function, leading to alterations in sex steroid levels. Because gonadal steroids are key regulators of cardiovascular function, it is possible that alteration in sex steroid hormones may contribute to development of hypertension in prenatally testosterone-exposed adults. The objectives of this study were to evaluate whether prenatal testosterone exposure leads to development of hypertension in adult males and females and to assess the influence of gonadal hormones on arterial pressure in these animals. Offspring of pregnant rats treated with testosterone propionate or its vehicle (controls) were examined. Subsets of male and female offspring were gonadectomized at 7 wk of age, and some offspring from age 7 to 24 wk received hormone replacement, while others did not. Testosterone exposure during prenatal life significantly increased arterial pressure in both male and female adult offspring; however, the effect was greater in males. Prenatal androgen-exposed males and females had more circulating testosterone during adult life, with no change in estradiol levels. Gonadectomy prevented hyperandrogenism and also reversed hypertension in these rats. Testosterone replacement in orchiectomized males restored hypertension, while estradiol replacement in ovariectomized females was without effect. Steroidal changes were associated with defective expression of gonadal steroidogenic genes, with Star, Sf1, and Hsd17b1 upregulation in testes. In ovaries, Star and Cyp11a1 genes were upregulated, while Cyp19 was downregulated. This study showed that prenatal testosterone exposure led to development of gonad-dependent hypertension during adult life. Defective steroidogenesis may contribute in part to the observed steroidal changes. PMID:22302690

Chinnathambi, Vijayakumar; Balakrishnan, Meena; Yallampalli, Chandrasekhar; Sathishkumar, Kunju

2012-01-01

119

The relationship between religiosity and health behaviors in female caregivers of older adults with dementia  

PubMed Central

The current study explored the relationship between three dimensions of religiosity: (a) organizational religiosity (e.g. attendance at religious events), (b) non-organizational religiosity (e.g. prayer), and (c) subjective religiosity (e.g. importance of religion) and caregiver health behavior patterns in a sample of Latina and Caucasian female caregivers of older adult relatives with dementia. It was hypothesized that religiosity would have a significant association with reduced cumulative health risk as determined by an index of health behaviors. It was also hypothesized that, when examining the individual health behaviors subsumed in the overarching index, religiosity would be positively associated with adaptive health behaviors like exercise and negatively associated with health risk behaviors like smoking. Amongst Caucasians, increased subjective religiosity was related to increased cumulative health risk. Conversely, in Latinas, non-organizational religiosity was positively correlated with improved dietary practices (reduced dietary restriction). Increased levels of subjective religiosity were significantly associated with decreased maintenance of a routine exercise regimen across ethnic groups. Recommendations for clinicians and religious leaders, and avenues of future research are discussed. PMID:19888699

Rabinowitz, Yaron G.; Mausbach, Brent T.; Atkinson, Philip J.; Gallagher-Thompson, Dolores

2011-01-01

120

Female Memory in Narrative  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author searches past ages to trace the development of a specific women’s memory. She attempts to show how this memory is made up, describing the female memory in the Bible, in Greek and Roman history and mythology, and its hidden trajectory behind the scenes of conventional (male) history. She suggests that social exile made female memory a matrix from

Nélida Piñon

2004-01-01

121

Shakespeare's Female Victims  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores female victimization in literary works and introduces contemporary research to make parallels. More specifically, the study analyzes how William Shakespeare employed theatrical scenarios relevant to both historical and contemporary theories relating to female victimization. Three characters purposely selected form the basis of the study. They are: Desdemona in Othello, Lavina in Titus Andronicus, and Lucrece in The

2003-01-01

122

Adolescent female prostitutes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characteristics and functioning of adolescent female prostitutes were studied with nonprostitute delinquents and normal female adolescents constituting the control groups. All subjects were administered psychometric instruments and a life-history inventory. The most salient finding was that the adolescents displayed greater psychopathology as assessed by all of the Mini-Mult clinical scales. Other findings include that prostitutes exhibit a more negative

Ivan Gibson-Ainyette; Donald I. Templer; Ric Brown; Lelia Veaco

1988-01-01

123

Understanding the Female Offender  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although boys engage in more delinquent and criminal acts than do girls, female delinquency is on the rise. In 1980, boys were four times as likely as girls to be arrested; today they are only twice as likely to be arrested. In this article, the author explores how the juvenile justice system is and should be responding to the adolescent female

Cauffman, Elizabeth

2008-01-01

124

Female Sexuality: An Enigma.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes constructions of sexuality that have occurred within social context in which language, culture, and behavior interact to reinforce male power. Against backdrop of these patriarchal examples of female sexual expression and experience, discusses difficulties of female clients. Addresses critical counseling concerns in terms of contextual…

Daniluk, Judith

1991-01-01

125

The Female Athlete Triad  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Female Athlete Triad is a syndrome of the interrelated components of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. Sometimes inadvertently, but more often by willful dietary restriction, many female athletes do not ingest sufficient calories to adequately fuel their physical or sport activities, which can disrupt menstrual functioning,…

Sherman, Roberta Trattner; Thompson, Ron A.

2004-01-01

126

Perinatal exposure of mice to the pesticide DDT impairs energy expenditure and metabolism in adult female offspring.  

PubMed

Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) has been used extensively to control malaria, typhus, body lice and bubonic plague worldwide, until countries began restricting its use in the 1970s. Its use in malaria control continues in some countries according to recommendation by the World Health Organization. Individuals exposed to elevated levels of DDT and its metabolite dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) have an increased prevalence of diabetes and insulin resistance. Here we hypothesize that perinatal exposure to DDT disrupts metabolic programming leading to impaired metabolism in adult offspring. To test this, we administered DDT to C57BL/6J mice from gestational day 11.5 to postnatal day 5 and studied their metabolic phenotype at several ages up to nine months. Perinatal DDT exposure reduced core body temperature, impaired cold tolerance, decreased energy expenditure, and produced a transient early-life increase in body fat in female offspring. When challenged with a high fat diet for 12 weeks in adulthood, female offspring perinatally exposed to DDT developed glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, and altered bile acid metabolism. Perinatal DDT exposure combined with high fat feeding in adulthood further impaired thermogenesis as evidenced by reductions in core temperature and in the expression of numerous RNA that promote thermogenesis and substrate utilization in the brown adipose tissue of adult female mice. These observations suggest that perinatal DDT exposure impairs thermogenesis and the metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids which may increase susceptibility to the metabolic syndrome in adult female offspring. PMID:25076055

La Merrill, Michele; Karey, Emma; Moshier, Erin; Lindtner, Claudia; La Frano, Michael R; Newman, John W; Buettner, Christoph

2014-01-01

127

Postmortem Evaluation of Left Flank Laparoscopic Access in an Adult Female Giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis).  

PubMed

There are still few reports of laparoscopy in megavertebrates. The giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) is the tallest land mammal, and the largest ruminant species. An 18-year-old multiparous female hybrid giraffe, weighing 650 kg, was euthanized for chronic health problems, and left flank laparoscopy was performed less than 30 minutes after death. Safe primary access was achieved under visualisation using an optical bladed trocar (Visiport Plus, Tyco healthcare UK Ltd) without prior abdominal insufflation. A left paralumbar fossa approach allowed access to the spleen, rumen, left kidney, and intestines, but did not allow access to the reproductive tract which in nongravid females is intrapelvic in nature. PMID:20445792

Pizzi, R; Cracknell, J; Dalrymple, L

2010-01-01

128

Postmortem Evaluation of Left Flank Laparoscopic Access in an Adult Female Giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis)  

PubMed Central

There are still few reports of laparoscopy in megavertebrates. The giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) is the tallest land mammal, and the largest ruminant species. An 18-year-old multiparous female hybrid giraffe, weighing 650?kg, was euthanized for chronic health problems, and left flank laparoscopy was performed less than 30 minutes after death. Safe primary access was achieved under visualisation using an optical bladed trocar (Visiport Plus, Tyco healthcare UK Ltd) without prior abdominal insufflation. A left paralumbar fossa approach allowed access to the spleen, rumen, left kidney, and intestines, but did not allow access to the reproductive tract which in nongravid females is intrapelvic in nature. PMID:20445792

Pizzi, R.; Cracknell, J.; Dalrymple, L.

2010-01-01

129

A possible physiological role of taurine in the adult female rat liver  

E-print Network

intraperitoneally into the lactating female rat, is secreted in the milk and then transferred to the pups (Sturman were immediately removed, weighed, homogenized in cold distilled water (w/v = 1 g/3 ml), and the homogenate was treated as described in the above method. Expression of results. - Dietary taurine

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

130

Acute Stress Differentially Affects Aromatase Activity in Specific Brain Nuclei of Adult Male and Female Quail  

PubMed Central

The rapid and temporary suppression of reproductive behavior is often assumed to be an important feature of the adaptive acute stress response. However, how this suppression operates at the mechanistic level is poorly understood. The enzyme aromatase converts testosterone to estradiol in the brain to activate reproductive behavior in male Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). The discovery of rapid and reversible modification of aromatase activity (AA) provides a potential mechanism for fast, stress-induced changes in behavior. We investigated the effects of acute stress on AA in both sexes by measuring enzyme activity in all aromatase-expressing brain nuclei before, during, and after 30 min of acute restraint stress. We show here that acute stress rapidly alters AA in the male and female brain and that these changes are specific to the brain nuclei and sex of the individual. Specifically, acute stress rapidly (5 min) increased AA in the male medial preoptic nucleus, a region controlling male reproductive behavior; in females, a similar increase was also observed, but it appeared delayed (15 min) and had smaller amplitude. In the ventromedial and tuberal hypothalamus, regions associated with female reproductive behavior, stress induced a quick and sustained decrease in AA in females, but in males, only a slight increase (ventromedial) or no change (tuberal) in AA was observed. Effects of acute stress on brain estrogen production, therefore, represent one potential way through which stress affects reproduction. PMID:21878510

Cornil, Charlotte A.; Balthazart, Jacques

2011-01-01

131

Acute stress differentially affects aromatase activity in specific brain nuclei of adult male and female quail.  

PubMed

The rapid and temporary suppression of reproductive behavior is often assumed to be an important feature of the adaptive acute stress response. However, how this suppression operates at the mechanistic level is poorly understood. The enzyme aromatase converts testosterone to estradiol in the brain to activate reproductive behavior in male Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). The discovery of rapid and reversible modification of aromatase activity (AA) provides a potential mechanism for fast, stress-induced changes in behavior. We investigated the effects of acute stress on AA in both sexes by measuring enzyme activity in all aromatase-expressing brain nuclei before, during, and after 30 min of acute restraint stress. We show here that acute stress rapidly alters AA in the male and female brain and that these changes are specific to the brain nuclei and sex of the individual. Specifically, acute stress rapidly (5 min) increased AA in the male medial preoptic nucleus, a region controlling male reproductive behavior; in females, a similar increase was also observed, but it appeared delayed (15 min) and had smaller amplitude. In the ventromedial and tuberal hypothalamus, regions associated with female reproductive behavior, stress induced a quick and sustained decrease in AA in females, but in males, only a slight increase (ventromedial) or no change (tuberal) in AA was observed. Effects of acute stress on brain estrogen production, therefore, represent one potential way through which stress affects reproduction. PMID:21878510

Dickens, Molly J; Cornil, Charlotte A; Balthazart, Jacques

2011-11-01

132

Behavioural Processes 55 (2001) 157162 Adult female prairie voles and meadow voles do not  

E-print Network

on several species of rodents, including the prairie vole, Microtus ochrogaster, but not meadow voles, M, Mus domesticus, (Drickamer, 1977; Massey and Vandenbergh, 1980), prairie voles, Microtus ochrogaster reserved. Keywords: Female; Microtus; Reproduction; Suppression; Vole www.elsevier.com/locate/behavproc 1

Dunlap, Aimee Sue

133

Antidiabetic-drug combination treatment for glucose intolerance in adult female rats treated acutely with olanzapine.  

PubMed

Second generation antipsychotic drugs are routinely used as treatment for psychotic disorders. Many of these compounds, including olanzapine, cause metabolic side-effects such as impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance. Individual antidiabetic drugs can help control elevated glucose levels in patients treated with antipsychotics, but the effects of combining antidiabetics, which routinely occurs with Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients, have never been studied. Presently, we compared the effects of the three different antidiabetics metformin (500mg/kg, p.o.), rosiglitazone (30mg/kg, p.o.) and glyburide (10mg/kg, p.o.) on metabolic dysregulation in adult female rats treated acutely with olanzapine. In addition, dual combinations of each of these antidiabetics were compared head-to-head against each other and the individual drugs. The animals received two daily treatments with antidiabetics and were then treated acutely with olanzapine (10mg/kg, i.p.). Fasting glucose and insulin levels were measured, followed by a 2h glucose tolerance test. Olanzapine caused a large and highly significant glucose intolerance compared to vehicle treated rats. Rosiglitazone decreased glucose levels non-significantly, while both metformin and glyburide significantly decreased glucose levels compared to olanzapine-only treated animals. For antidiabetic dual-drug combinations, the rosiglitazone-metformin group showed an unexpected increase in glucose levels compared to all of the single antidiabetic drugs. However, both the metformin-glyburide and rosiglitazone-glyburide groups showed significantly greater reductions in glucose levels following olanzapine than with single drug treatment alone for metformin or rosiglitazone, bringing glucose levels down to values equivalent to vehicle-only treated animals. These findings indicate that further study of antidiabetic dual-drug combinations in patients treated with antipsychotic drugs is warranted. PMID:24140931

Boyda, Heidi N; Procyshyn, Ric M; Asiri, Yahya; Wu, Claire; Wang, Cathy K; Lo, Ryan; Pang, Catherine C Y; Honer, William G; Barr, Alasdair M

2014-01-01

134

Effects of dietary fibers with different physicochemical properties on feeding motivation in adult female pigs.  

PubMed

The satiating effects of dietary fiber may depend more on physicochemical properties of the fiber than on total fiber intake. These properties are expected to affect satiety feelings and feeding motivation due to different effects in the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of the current study was to assess the effects of fibers with varying physicochemical properties (bulkiness, viscosity and fermentability) on feeding motivation in adult female pigs. Sixteen pair-housed pigs received four diets: lignocellulose (LC), pectin (PEC), resistant starch (RS), and control (C) without fiber, in four periods in a Latin square design. Each fiber was fed at a low (L) followed by a high (H) inclusion level (7 days each). At 1h, 3h, and 7h after the morning meal, feeding motivation was assessed in an operant test, where turning a wheel yielded multiple food rewards, and in a runway test, where walking a fixed U-shaped track yielded one food reward. Pigs were observed in their home pen for 6h, using 90-s instantaneous scan sampling. In the operant test, throughout the day feeding motivation was higher for pigs on PEC compared with pigs on LC. In the runway, feeding motivation increased particularly at 1h after the meal for pigs on PEC compared with pigs on RS. Also at 7h, feeding motivation tended to decrease for pigs on RS compared with pigs fed other diets. In their home pen, pigs on PEC showed more feeder-directed behavior compared with pigs on RS. In conclusion, PEC was the least satiating fiber. LC and RS, despite a lower supply of available energy, were the most satiating fibers, possibly due to their bulky and fermentation properties, respectively. PMID:22796465

da Silva, Carol Souza; van den Borne, Joost J G C; Gerrits, Walter J J; Kemp, Bas; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth

2012-09-10

135

External urethral sphincter motoneuron properties in adult female rats studied in vitro.  

PubMed

The external urethral sphincter (EUS) muscle plays a crucial role in lower urinary tract function: its activation helps maintain continence, whereas its relaxation contributes to micturition. To determine how the intrinsic properties of its motoneurons contribute to its physiological function, we have obtained intracellular current-clamp recordings from 49 EUS motoneurons in acutely isolated spinal cord slices from adult female rats. In all, 45% of EUS motoneurons fired spontaneously and steadily (average rate = 12-27 pulses/s). EUS motoneurons were highly excitable, having lower rheobase, higher input resistance, and smaller threshold depolarization than those of rat hindlimb motoneurons recorded in vitro. Correlations between these properties and afterhyperpolarization half-decay time are consistent with EUS motoneurons having characteristics of both fast and slow motor unit types. EUS motoneurons with a slow-like spectrum of properties exhibited spontaneous firing more often than those with fast-like characteristics. During triangular current ramp-induced repetitive firing, recruitment typically occurred at lower current levels than those at derecruitment, although the opposite pattern occurred in 10% of EUS motoneurons. This percentage was likely underestimated due to firing rate adaptation. These findings are consistent with the presence of a basal level of persistent inward current (PIC) in at least some EUS motoneurons. The low EUS motoneuron current and voltage thresholds make them readily recruitable, rendering them well suited to their physiological role in continence. The expression of firing behaviors consistent with PIC activation in this highly reduced preparation raises the possibility that in the intact animal, PICs contribute to urinary function not only through neuromodulator-dependent but also through neuromodulator-independent mechanisms. PMID:20573976

Carp, Jonathan S; Tennissen, Ann M; Liebschutz, Jennifer E; Chen, Xiang Yang; Wolpaw, Jonathan R

2010-09-01

136

External Urethral Sphincter Motoneuron Properties in Adult Female Rats Studied In Vitro  

PubMed Central

The external urethral sphincter (EUS) muscle plays a crucial role in lower urinary tract function: its activation helps maintain continence, whereas its relaxation contributes to micturition. To determine how the intrinsic properties of its motoneurons contribute to its physiological function, we have obtained intracellular current-clamp recordings from 49 EUS motoneurons in acutely isolated spinal cord slices from adult female rats. In all, 45% of EUS motoneurons fired spontaneously and steadily (average rate = 12–27 pulses/s). EUS motoneurons were highly excitable, having lower rheobase, higher input resistance, and smaller threshold depolarization than those of rat hindlimb motoneurons recorded in vitro. Correlations between these properties and afterhyperpolarization half-decay time are consistent with EUS motoneurons having characteristics of both fast and slow motor unit types. EUS motoneurons with a slow-like spectrum of properties exhibited spontaneous firing more often than those with fast-like characteristics. During triangular current ramp-induced repetitive firing, recruitment typically occurred at lower current levels than those at derecruitment, although the opposite pattern occurred in 10% of EUS motoneurons. This percentage was likely underestimated due to firing rate adaptation. These findings are consistent with the presence of a basal level of persistent inward current (PIC) in at least some EUS motoneurons. The low EUS motoneuron current and voltage thresholds make them readily recruitable, rendering them well suited to their physiological role in continence. The expression of firing behaviors consistent with PIC activation in this highly reduced preparation raises the possibility that in the intact animal, PICs contribute to urinary function not only through neuromodulator-dependent but also through neuromodulator-independent mechanisms. PMID:20573976

Tennissen, Ann M.; Liebschutz, Jennifer E.; Chen, Xiang Yang; Wolpaw, Jonathan R.

2010-01-01

137

Raloxifene Prevents Skeletal Fragility in Adult Female Zucker Diabetic Sprague-Dawley Rats  

PubMed Central

Fracture risk in type 2 diabetes is increased despite normal or high bone mineral density, implicating poor bone quality as a risk factor. Raloxifene improves bone material and mechanical properties independent of bone mineral density. This study aimed to determine if raloxifene prevents the negative effects of diabetes on skeletal fragility in diabetes-prone rats. Adult Zucker Diabetic Sprague-Dawley (ZDSD) female rats (20-week-old, n?=?24) were fed a diabetogenic high-fat diet and were randomized to receive daily subcutaneous injections of raloxifene or vehicle for 12 weeks. Blood glucose was measured weekly and glycated hemoglobin was measured at baseline and 12 weeks. At sacrifice, femora and lumbar vertebrae were harvested for imaging and mechanical testing. Raloxifene-treated rats had a lower incidence of type 2 diabetes compared with vehicle-treated rats. In addition, raloxifene-treated rats had blood glucose levels significantly lower than both diabetic vehicle-treated rats as well as vehicle-treated rats that did not become diabetic. Femoral toughness was greater in raloxifene-treated rats compared with both diabetic and non-diabetic vehicle-treated ZDSD rats, due to greater energy absorption in the post-yield region of the stress-strain curve. Similar differences between groups were observed for the structural (extrinsic) mechanical properties of energy-to-failure, post-yield energy-to-failure, and post-yield displacement. These results show that raloxifene is beneficial in preventing the onset of diabetes and improving bone material properties in the diabetes-prone ZDSD rat. This presents unique therapeutic potential for raloxifene in preserving bone quality in diabetes as well as in diabetes prevention, if these results can be supported by future experimental and clinical studies. PMID:25243714

Hill Gallant, Kathleen M.; Gallant, Maxime A.; Brown, Drew M.; Sato, Amy Y.; Williams, Justin N.; Burr, David B.

2014-01-01

138

Electron specific absorbed fractions for the adult male and female ICRP/ICRU reference computational phantoms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The calculation of radiation dose from internally incorporated radionuclides is based on so-called absorbed fractions (AFs) and specific absorbed fractions (SAFs). SAFs for monoenergetic electrons were calculated for 63 source regions and 67 target regions using the new male and female adult reference computational phantoms adopted by the ICRP and ICRU and the Monte Carlo radiation transport programme package EGSnrc. The SAF values for electrons are opposed to the simplifying assumptions of ICRP Publication 30. The previously applied assumption of electrons being fully absorbed in the source organ itself is not always true at electron energies above approximately 300-500 keV. High-energy electrons have the ability to leave the source organ and, consequently, the electron SAFs for neighbouring organs can reach the same magnitude as those for photons for electron energies above 1 MeV. The reciprocity principle known for photons can be extended to electron SAFs as well, thus making cross-fire electron SAFs mass-independent. To quantify the impact of the improved electron dosimetry in comparison to the dosimetry using the simple assumptions of ICRP Publication 30, absorbed doses per administered activity of three radiopharmaceuticals were evaluated with and without explicit electron transport. The organ absorbed doses per administered activity for the two evaluation methods agree within 2%-3% for most organs for radionuclides with decay spectra having electron energies below a few hundred keV and within approximately 20% if higher electron energies are involved. An important exception is the urinary bladder wall, where the dose is overestimated by 60-150% using the simplified ICRP 30 approach for the radiopharmaceuticals of this study.

Zankl, Maria; Schlattl, Helmut; Petoussi-Henss, Nina; Hoeschen, Christoph

2012-07-01

139

Late summer survival of adult female and juvenile spectacled eiders on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We used radio-telemetry to examine survival of adult female and juvenile Spectacled Eiders (Somateria fischeri) from 30 days after hatch until departure from the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (YKD) during 1997-1999. Juvenile survival was 71.4%; adult female survival was 88.5%. Mink (Mustella vison) were the most common predator identified for both adults and juveniles. Detectable levels of lead were found in bones of 74% of juvenile carcasses recovered and 21% had levels indicative of acute exposure. Average age at departure was 59 ?? 1 days old for juveniles and 56 ?? 1 days after hatch for adults. Most broods (60.5%) departed the YKD synchronously. Overall our data indicate that mortality during the latter half of brood-rearing is higher than previously thought. We conclude that brood rearing is a period of high mortality for brood-rearing females and that lead poisoning is responsible for reductions in juvenile survival to fledging. Received 15 February 2000, accepted 1 April 2000.

Flint, P.L.; Barry, Grand J.; Morse, J.A.; Fondell, T.F.

2000-01-01

140

[Female circumcision opposed in Haninge].  

PubMed

Less radical forms of female circumcision are called infibulation and Pharaonic circumcision. It is estimated that 113 million women in the world are exposed to female circumcision of one form or another. In Sweden about 16,000 women originate from countries where female circumcision is practiced. 60% of them are from Somalia or Ethiopia, and 11,000 of these women are of reproductive age. About 5000 girls are under 18 years of age and are at risk of female circumcision if it has not already taken place. Sweden has ratified a UN convention on the right of children, and since 1982 there has been a law in force that prohibits female circumcision. A great number of African refugees have been settling in Jordbro, in the county of Haninge, south of Stockholm, since 1992. 35 central African families live there, one-third of them from Somalia. The mother and child health care agency has confronted several problems related to female circumcision: infibulated women do not get traditional gynecological examinations, families demand that women get infibulated after delivery, and some families have asked for circumcision of their newborn daughters. The agency organized African family group sessions, held for a month during evenings, in which all families were invited to discuss topics related to the improvement of women's and children's health and the fight against female circumcision. At each family group meeting 10-15 adults participated. Several sessions dealt with children's diseases, reproductive physiology, and the role of female circumcision in religion and tradition. Most women were illiterate and this was their first encounter with the Swedish health system whereby they were informed about the functioning of the human body. African traditions are deeply rooted. In Gambia female circumcision is practiced by 50-60% of people, although in milder forms. Since 1993, when the group discussions started, not a single case of circumcision was reported in pre-school-age girls. PMID:7500713

Tindberg, Y

1995-11-22

141

Effects of dietary fibers with different fermentation characteristics on feeding motivation in adult female pigs.  

PubMed

Dietary fibers can be fermented in the colon, resulting in production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and secretion of satiety-related peptides. Fermentation characteristics (fermentation kinetics and SCFA-profile) differ between fibers and could impact their satiating potential. We investigated the effects of fibers with varying fermentation characteristics on feeding motivation in adult female pigs. Sixteen pair-housed pigs received four diets in four periods in a Latin square design. Starch from a control (C) diet was exchanged, based on gross energy, for inulin (INU), guar gum (GG), or retrograded tapioca starch (RS), each at a low (L) and a high (H) inclusion level. This resulted in a decreased metabolizable energy intake when feeding fiber diets as compared with the C diet. According to in vitro fermentation measurements, INU is rapidly fermentable and yields relatively high amounts of propionate, GG is moderately rapidly fermentable and yields relatively high amounts of acetate, and RS is slowly fermentable and yields relatively high amounts of butyrate. Feeding motivation was assessed using behavioral tests at 1h, 3h and 7h after the morning meal, and home pen behavioral observations throughout the day. The number of wheel turns paid for a food reward in an operant test was unaffected by diet. Pigs on H-diets ran 25% slower for a food reward in a runway test than pigs on L-diets, and showed less spontaneous physical activity and less stereotypic behavior in the hours before the afternoon meal, reflecting increased interprandial satiety. Reduced feeding motivation with increasing inclusion level was most pronounced for RS, as pigs decreased speed in the runway test and tended to have a lower voluntary food intake in an ad libitum food intake test when fed RS-H. In conclusion, increasing levels of fermentable fibers in the diet seemed to enhance satiety in adult pigs, despite a reduction in metabolizable energy supply. RS was the most satiating fiber, possibly due to its slow rate of fermentation and high production of butyrate. PMID:23313406

Souza da Silva, Carol; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth; Gerrits, Walter J J; Kemp, Bas; van den Borne, Joost J G C

2013-02-17

142

aallll IIrreell aanndd ccaanncceerr ssttaattiissttiiccss sseeccoonndd rreeppoorrtt 11999988--22000000 Breast cancer (female) Breast cancer (female)  

E-print Network

--22000000 22 Breast cancer (female) Breast cancer (female) Breast cancer (female) Breast cancer (female) Breast cancer (female) Breast cancer (female) Breast cancer (female) Breast cancer (female) Breast cancer (female) Breast cancer (female) Breast cancer (female) Breast cancer (female) Breast cancer (female

Paxton, Anthony T.

143

Female Pattern Alopecia  

MedlinePLUS

... or cyproterone acetate (not available in the US). Finasteride, also an oral medication, is approved for male ... show no effect for female pattern hair loss. Finasteride, spironolactone, and cyproterone should not be used in ...

144

Female Reproductive System  

MedlinePLUS

... may be fertilized by sperm, provide a favorable environment for the developing fetus , move the fetus to the outside at the end of the development period, and produce the female sex hormones. The ...

145

Male sexual harassment alters female social behaviour towards other females.  

PubMed

Male harassment of females to gain mating opportunities is a consequence of an evolutionary conflict of interest between the sexes over reproduction and is common among sexually reproducing species. Male Trinidadian guppies Poecilia reticulata spend a large proportion of their time harassing females for copulations and their presence in female social groups has been shown to disrupt female-female social networks and the propensity for females to develop social recognition based on familiarity. In this study, we investigate the behavioural mechanisms that may lead to this disruption of female sociality. Using two experiments, we test the hypothesis that male presence will directly affect social behaviours expressed by females towards other females in the population. In experiment one, we tested for an effect of male presence on female shoaling behaviour and found that, in the presence of a free-swimming male guppy, females spent shorter amounts of time with other females than when in the presence of a free-swimming female guppy. In experiment two, we tested for an effect of male presence on the incidence of aggressive behaviour among female guppies. When males were present in a shoal, females exhibited increased levels of overall aggression towards other females compared with female only shoals. Our work provides direct evidence that the presence of sexually harassing males alters female-female social behaviour, an effect that we expect will be recurrent across taxonomic groups. PMID:21976624

Darden, Safi K; Watts, Lauren

2012-04-23

146

The female condom.  

PubMed

A female condom has been developed which is effective in preventing pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including HIV infections. The condom is a soft, loose-fitting polyurethane sheath which has a closed inner ring which covers the cervix and an open outer ring, which protrudes visibly from the vagina and covers the labia. The female condom may be more effective than the male condom in preventing transmission of HIV and herpes. The polyurethane is stronger and probably less likely to tear than the latex used in male condoms. In a 6-month trial of use in 240 US women, 12.4% became pregnant with "typical" use and 2.6% with "perfect" use. These rates are comparable with other female barrier contraceptives. Some aspects of the female condom are unacceptable to some women, including the protrusion from the vagina and the fact that it covers the clitoris. Other women found that the device enhanced clitoral sensation. Problems with the condom being pushed into the vagina or pulled out during intercourse may be addressed by the application of additional lubrication. A substantial number of users reported that the female condom was an acceptable method of contraception. It is the only female-controlled contraceptive which provides protection against pregnancy and STDs. It will cost approximately US $1.25 for family planning clinics and $2.50 for individuals. PMID:8264504

1993-12-24

147

Female athlete triad  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To describe the components of female athlete triad, the proposed mechanisms that may relate to its causation, and some screening and treatment options that may be used by the clinician who encounters this clinical entity in patients. Data Sources A qualitative review of the literature was performed. Results This article provides the clinician with current information relevant to understanding and recognizing female athlete triad in at-risk patients. The components of the triad—amenorrhea, disordered eating, and osteoporosis—are interrelated in multifactorial etiology, pathogenesis, and consequences. Proposed causal factors include inadequate nutrition, menstrual status, training intensity and frequency, body size and composition, and psychological and physiological stress. There should be a high index of suspicion in all females athletes for the presence of and/or increased risk for female athlete triad. An increased awareness of the existence of the problem and its presenting signs and symptoms is the key to screening for this syndrome. The most efficacious treatment lies in its prevention. Conclusions Female athlete triad is an interrelated, multifactorial syndrome comprised of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. It is a common entity among female athletes. Prevention, early detection, and early treatment are absolutely essential to maintain the athletes health into maturity and to prevent the serious consequences of this triad. The long-term effects of some triad components are still unknown. PMID:19674568

Morgenthal, A. Paige

2002-01-01

148

BURSAE, REPRODUCTIVE STRUCTURES, AND SCAPULAR COLOR IN WINTERING FEMALE OLDSQUAWS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female Oldsquaws were collected on Lake Michigan between December and May 1951-55 and 1969-73. Measurements taken on bursae, ovaries, and oviducts were related to age class and scapular color. Bursae were significantly deeper in juveniles than in adults, and the adult females with gray scapulars had significantly deeper bursae than adult females with brown scapu- lars. Juvenile female ovaries were

STEVEN R. PETERSON; ROBERT S. ELLARSON

149

Differences in sperm storage and remating propensity between adult females of two morphotypes of the Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) cryptic species complex.  

PubMed

The South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus, is a complex of cryptic species composed of at least seven morphotypes. Some of them, such as the Peruvian and Brazilian 1 morphotypes (which include Argentinean populations), exhibit strong pre-copulatory isolation, yet it is possible to obtain heterotypic crosses when forcing copulation of adults under laboratory conditions. The cross involving Peruvian males and Argentinean females produces F1 offspring with reduced viability in terms of egg hatch. This low hatchability could be caused by a reduced amount of sperm transferred to and stored by females mated with heterotypic males, which in turn could affect their post-copulatory behaviour. To test these hypotheses, we investigated sperm transfer and female mating and remating behaviour for homotypic and heterotypic crosses between adults of two morphotypes (Brazilian 1 [Argentina] and Peruvian [Peru]) of the A. fraterculus cryptic species complex. As reported before, Argentinean males and females mated earlier in the day than the other three mating combinations. Peruvian females engaged in shorter copulation times than Argentinean females. Peruvian females tended to store smaller quantities of sperm than Argentinean females, and almost a half of the crosses involving Argentinean males and Peruvian females were unsuccessful (no sperm transfer). However, there was no evidence that the cross between Peruvian males and Argentinean females resulted in storage of a critically small amount of sperm (posing risk of sperm shortage). Argentinean females were more willing to remate than Peruvian females, irrespective of male morphotype, but latency to remating was not affected by male or female morphotype. This study shows that mating behaviour differs between some of the A. fraterculus complex morphotypes, with female but not male morphotype determining female likelihood to remate. PMID:24702958

Abraham, S; Rull, J; Mendoza, M; Liendo, M C; Devescovi, F; Roriz, A K; Kovaleski, A; Segura, D F; Vera, M T

2014-06-01

150

Effects of age on cerebrospinal fluid oxytocin levels in free-ranging adult female and infant rhesus macaques  

PubMed Central

There is growing interest in studying oxytocin biology in the context of social functioning in human and non-human primates. Studies of human subjects are typically restricted to peripheral oxytocin assessments because opportunities to collect cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are rare. A few studies have examined CSF oxytocin levels in captive adult primates, but none to our knowledge have been conducted under free-ranging conditions and inclusive of young infants. The main goal of the present study was to establish feasibility of quantifying CSF oxytocin levels in free-ranging adult female and infant rhesus monkeys living on the island of Cayo Santiago, Puerto Rico. CSF oxytocin levels were examined in relation to individuals’ demographic and reproductive characteristics, as well as in relation to plasma cortisol levels. CSF oxytocin concentrations ranged from 36.02 to 134.41 pg/ml in adult females (ages 7–26 years; N = 31) and 35.94 to 77.3 pg/ml in infants (ages 38–134 days; N = 17). CSF oxytocin levels were positively correlated with adult female age and negatively correlated with infant age. The former correlation was driven by reproductive status. CSF oxytocin levels were unrelated to dominance rank or plasma cortisol levels. In contrast to a previous study of plasma oxytocin concentrations in this population, CSF oxytocin levels did not differ significantly between lactating and non-lactating females. In summary, these findings: 1) provide feasibility data for examining CSF oxytocin biology in free-ranging nonhuman primates and 2) indicate that CSF oxytocin levels may be a biomarker of age-related central nervous system changes across lifespan development. Although our study did not report significant associations between CSF oxytocin levels and socially-relevant demographic variables, the relationships between CSF oxytocin levels and assessments of social functioning warrant future investigation. PMID:20528088

Parker, Karen J.; Hoffman, Christy L.; Hyde, Shellie A.; Cummings, Carl S.; Maestripieri, Dario

2013-01-01

151

Masculine Female Adolescents at School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current literatures on girls, queer youth, and multicultural education have ignored a significant group of young people and their experiences in school. This research is a retrospective exploratory study of masculine female adolescent schooling experiences, focusing on the school experiences of adults aged 18-54 who were socially defined as…

Ma'ayan, Hadar Dubowsky

2003-01-01

152

Decreased duration of pentobarbital-induced narcosis in immature and adult female rats prenatally exposed to cimetidine  

SciTech Connect

The effect of prenatal cimetidine exposure (PreCM) on the duration of pentobarbital-induced narcosis (DPN) was assessed in immature (14- and 28-day old) and adult (50-60-day old) male and female rats. PreCM exposure was accomplished by treating mothers with cimetidine (CM) (20 mg/kg, ip) daily for the last two days of gestation and then (0.01% in drinking water) throughout lactation. Pregnant mothers of untreated offspring (Con) received saline. PreCM decreased DPN to 505 +/- 33 min (from 611 +/- 23 min in Con) and 393 +/- 190 min (from 686 +/- 44 min in Con) in 14-day old male and female rats, respectively. Similarly, PreCM decreased DPN to 88 +/- 15 min (from 134 +/- 3 min in Con) and 102 +/- 19 min (from 171 +/- 44 min in Con) in 28-day old male and female rats, respectively. At 21 days, PreCM did not alter DPN in either sex. At 50-60 days, however, it decreased DPN to 144 +/- 41 min (from 238 +/- 7 min in Con) in females but had no effect in males; PreCM also increased the plasma clearance of administered /sup 14/C-pentobarbital more in females than in males. The effects of PreCM, particularly the long-term effects, were most prominent in female rats and were the opposite of those of postnatal treatment with CM. The results together with those of studies with hepatic microsomes suggest that PreCM may have resulted in the induction of hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes during the perinatal period.

Donnelly, D.A.; Iba, M.M.

1986-03-01

153

Blood vitamin D(3) metabolite concentrations of adult female bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) remain stable after ceasing UVb exposure.  

PubMed

Vitamin D deficiency can lead to several health problems collectively called metabolic bone disease (MBD). One commonly kept reptile species prone to develop MBD if managed incorrectly is the bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps). This study aimed to determine the extent to which adult female bearded dragons fed a diet low in vitamin D can use stored vitamin D and its metabolites to maintain plasma 25(OH)D(3) and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) concentrations after discontinuing UVb exposure. Blood samples of healthy adult female bearded dragons, exposed to UVb radiation for over 6 months were collected (day 0) after which UVb exposure was discontinued for 83 days and blood was collected. Blood plasma was analysed for concentrations of total Ca, total P, ionized Ca, uric acid, 25(OH)D(3) and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3). There was no significant change in plasma 25(OH)D(3) and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) concentrations during the study. While total Ca and P in whole blood was found to significantly decrease over time (P < 0.0088 and 0.0016, respectively), values were within the reference range. Plasma ionized Ca tended (P = 0.0525) to decrease during the study. Adult female bearded dragons, previously exposed to UVb, are able to maintain blood vitamin D metabolite concentrations when UVb exposure is discontinued for a period of up to 83 days. PMID:23648288

Oonincx, D G A B; van de Wal, M D; Bosch, G; Stumpel, J B G; Heijboer, A C; van Leeuwen, J P T M; Hendriks, W H; Kik, M

2013-07-01

154

Selected Dietary Nutrients and the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Adult Males and Females in Saudi Arabia: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

During the last decade, the rapid economic development in Saudi Arabia resulted in an unbalanced dietary intake pattern within the general population. Consequently, metabolic syndrome was also documented to be highly prevalent in the Middle-East region. We aimed to examine the relationship between selected dietary nutrient intakes and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the general adult population of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. In this cross-sectional study, 185 adult Saudis aged 19 to 60 years (87 males and 98 females (mean age 35.6 ± 13.2 and 37.6 ± 11.7 years, respectively)) were included. The criteria for metabolic syndrome were based on the International Diabetes Foundation (IDF) criteria, and the dietary food intake was assessed by two 24-h dietary recall methods. The odd ratios (ORs) of metabolic syndrome risk across quartiles of selected dietary nutrients were significantly lower for carbohydrates and proteins, as well as for vitamins A, C, E and K, calcium, zinc and magnesium (p < 0.05 for all) in the female group with metabolic syndrome than those without. The pattern of daily dietary intake of selected nutrients among the general population of Saudi Arabia raises concern, and this dietary imbalance could increase the risk of metabolic syndrome, particularly in adult Saudi females. PMID:24284611

Al-Daghri, Nasser M.; Khan, Nasiruddin; Alkharfy, Khalid M.; Al-Attas, Omar S.; Alokail, Majed S.; Alfawaz, Hanan A.; Alothman, Abdulaziz; Vanhoutte, Paul M.

2013-01-01

155

ORIGINAL PAPER Competitive females are successful females; phenotype,  

E-print Network

of selection on males. Here, we examine females of a mildly dimorphic songbird (Junco hyemalis) to determine . Female aggression . Testosterone . Gonadotropin-releasing hormone . Junco hyemalis . Sexual dimorphism

156

Chemical immobilization of adult female Weddell seals with tiletamine and zolazepam: effects of age, condition and stage of lactation  

PubMed Central

Background Chemical immobilization of Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) has previously been, for the most part, problematic and this has been mainly attributed to the type of immobilizing agent used. In addition to individual sensitivity, physiological status may play an important role. We investigated the use of the intravenous administration of a 1:1 mixture of tiletamine and zolazepam (Telazol®) to immobilize adult females at different points during a physiologically demanding 5–6 week lactation period. We also compared performance between IV and IM injection of the same mixture. Results The tiletamine:zolazepam mixture administered intravenously was an effective method for immobilization with no fatalities or pronounced apnoeas in 106 procedures; however, there was a 25 % (one animal in four) mortality rate with intramuscular administration. Induction time was slightly longer for females at the end of lactation (54.9 ± 2.3 seconds) than at post-parturition (48.2 ± 2.9 seconds). In addition, the number of previous captures had a positive effect on induction time. There was no evidence for effects due to age, condition (total body lipid), stage of lactation or number of captures on recovery time. Conclusion We suggest that intravenous administration of tiletamine and zolazepam is an effective and safe immobilizing agent for female Weddell seals. Although individual traits could not explain variation in recovery time, we suggest careful monitoring of recovery times during longitudinal studies (> 2 captures). We show that physiological pressures do not substantially affect response to chemical immobilization with this mixture; however, consideration must be taken for differences that may exist for immobilization of adult males and juveniles. Nevertheless, we recommend a mass-specific dose of 0.50 – 0.65 mg/kg for future procedures with adult female Weddell seals and a starting dose of 0.50 mg/kg for other age classes and other phocid seals. PMID:16469105

Wheatley, Kathryn E; Bradshaw, Corey JA; Harcourt, Robert G; Davis, Lloyd S; Hindell, Mark A

2006-01-01

157

Learning Curves: Body Image and Female Sexuality in Young Adult Literature. Scarecrow Studies in Young Adult Literature #35  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adolescence is a time of growth, change, and confusion for young women. During this transition from childhood to adulthood, sex and gender roles become more important. Meanwhile, depictions of females--from the hyper-sexualized girls of music videos to the chaste repression of Purity Balls--send mixed messages to young women about their bodies…

Younger, Beth

2009-01-01

158

Female physicist doctoral experiences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The underrepresentation of women in physics doctorate programs and in tenured academic positions indicates a need to evaluate what may influence their career choice and persistence. This qualitative paper examines eleven females in physics doctoral programs and professional science positions in order to provide a more thorough understanding of why and how women make career choices based on aspects both inside and outside of school and their subsequent interaction. Results indicate that female physicists experience conflict in achieving balance within their graduate school experiences and personal lives and that this then influences their view of their future careers and possible career choices. Female physicists report both early and long-term support outside of school by family, and later departmental support, as being essential to their persistence within the field. A greater focus on informal and out-of-school science activities for females, especially those that involve family members, early in life may help influence their entrance into a physics career later in life. Departmental support, through advisers, mentors, peers, and womenâs support groups, with a focus on work-life balance can help females to complete graduate school and persist into an academic career.

Dabney, Katherine P.; Tai, Robert H.

2013-05-07

159

Stalking by females.  

PubMed

The aim of this review was to study "female stalking" in the sense of the specific traits characterizing the phenomenon of stalking behaviour committed by women. The main medical databases were searched (Medline, Social Science Research Network, Apa Psyc Net), and 67 articles were selected, reporting studies conducted in clinical populations, case series, reports, reviews, retrospective studies and original articles. We outline a variety of different tactics adopted by female stalkers and a lesser propensity to pass on to physical violence. Nevertheless, female stalkers are more frequently affected by erotomania, and this condition generally increases the risk of violence. If there have previously been intimate relations between the stalker and her victim, this will increase the risk of violence. In a significant proportion of female stalkers, the behavior is carried out in the occupational setting, especially in the field of psychotherapy, where the male-female ratio is reversed. No significant differences emerged between the motivations of heterosexual or homosexual stalkers. In the category of crimes of harassment committed by women, stalking, at least in Italy, seems to be among the most prominent. PMID:23761433

Carabellese, F; La Tegola, D; Alfarano, E; Tamma, M; Candelli, C; Catanesi, R

2013-07-01

160

Female genital mutilation.  

PubMed

Female genital mutilation, also misleadingly known as female circumcision, is usually performed on girls ranging in from 1 week to puberty. Immediate physical complications include severe pain, shock, infection, bleeding, acute urinary infection, tetanus, and death. Longterm problems include chronic pain, difficulties with micturition and menstruation, pelvic infection leading to infertility, and prolonged and obstructed labor during childbirth. An estimated 80 million girls and women have undergone female genital mutilation. In Britain alone an estimated 10,000 girls are currently at risk. Religious, cultural, medical, and moral grounds rationalize the custom which is practiced primarily in sub-Saharan Africa, the Arab world, Malaysia, Indonesia, and among migrant populations in Western countries. According to WHO it is correlated with poverty, illiteracy, and the low status of women. Women who escape mutilation are not sought in marriage. WHO, the UN Population Fund, the UN Children's Fund, the International Planned Parenthood Federation, and the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child have issued declarations on the eradication of female genital mutilation. In Britain, local authorities have intervened to prevent parents from mutilating their daughters. In 1984, the Inter-African Committee Against Harmful Traditional Practices Affecting Women and Children was established to work toward eliminating female genital mutilation and other damaging customs. National committees in 26 African countries coordinate projects run by local people using theater, dance, music, and storytelling for communication. In Australia, Canada, Europe, and the US women have organized to prevent the practice among vulnerable migrants and refugees. PMID:8400925

Ladjali, M; Rattray, T W; Walder, R J

1993-08-21

161

Female physicist doctoral experiences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The underrepresentation of women in physics doctorate programs and in tenured academic positions indicates a need to evaluate what may influence their career choice and persistence. This qualitative paper examines eleven females in physics doctoral programs and professional science positions in order to provide a more thorough understanding of why and how women make career choices based on aspects both inside and outside of school and their subsequent interaction. Results indicate that female physicists experience conflict in achieving balance within their graduate school experiences and personal lives and that this then influences their view of their future careers and possible career choices. Female physicists report both early and long-term support outside of school by family, and later departmental support, as being essential to their persistence within the field. A greater focus on informal and out-of-school science activities for females, especially those that involve family members, early in life may help influence their entrance into a physics career later in life. Departmental support, through advisers, mentors, peers, and women’s support groups, with a focus on work-life balance can help females to complete graduate school and persist into an academic career.

Dabney, Katherine P.; Tai, Robert H.

2013-06-01

162

The female athlete triad.  

PubMed

The female athlete triad is a spectrum of interrelated pathophysiologic consequences of low energy availability, menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density. Components of the triad are not only counterproductive to athletic performance goals, but can lead to serious long-term negative health outcomes. Practitioners caring for female athletes play an important role detecting at-risk athletes early in their course along the disease spectrum. Importantly, women who are evaluated for one component of the triad should always be screened for the other two. Detecting the disorder early is the most important factor for preventing the potentially severe consequences, and requires heightened vigilance on the part of all those who work with this special patient population. In this article, we discuss the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, evaluation, and management of the female athlete triad. [Full text available at http://rimed.org/rimedicaljournal-2014-11.asp, free with no login]. PMID:25365814

Horn, Elizabeth; Gergen, Nicole; McGarry, Kelly A

2014-01-01

163

Recruitment and Retention of Older Adolescent and Young Adult Female Survivors of Childhood Cancer in Longitudinal Research  

PubMed Central

Purpose/Objectives To describe the challenges encountered in the recruitment and retention of a sample of older adolescent and young adult female survivors of childhood cancer for a longitudinal study testing a targeted psychosocial intervention aimed at enhancing hope. Data Sources Published literature on constructing longitudinal intervention studies and strategies in the recruitment and retention of childhood cancer survivors in research was used to develop the protocol of this study. Data Synthesis Using empirical literature to construct the study’s design resulted in achieving certain goals for the design, but not in the recruitment and retention of study participants. Using online technology to deliver the intervention and collect data was efficient and effective. Traditional approaches to recruitment and retention of those survivors, however, were not effective. Use of more novel approaches to enroll study participants demonstrated only modest success. Conclusions Additional research is needed on strategies to successfully recruit and retain older adolescents and young adult female survivors of childhood cancer in longitudinal intervention studies. Implications for Nursing The improvement in the psychological well-being of female survivors of childhood cancer remains an important outcome in ongoing care. The need to continue to identify creative and effective ways to recruit and retain those survivors is warranted. PMID:22940512

Cantrell, Mary Ann; Conte, Teresa; Hudson, Melissa; Shad, Aziza; Ruble, Kathy; Herth, Kaye; Canino, Alyssa; Kemmy, Sinead

2014-01-01

164

[Female genital mutilation].  

PubMed

Female genital mutilation is a collective name for all traditional practices concerning the cutting of the female genitals. Approximately 130 million are genitally cut worldwide, more than 100 million live in Africa. Annually, 2 million girls are at risk of being circumcised. FGM is deeply rooted in culture, tradition, religion and the identity. Hence, the struggle against FGM must be a combined effort of law enforcement, targeted information- and sensibilization campaigns, education and training activities for various target groups that aim at establishing behavioural changes. PMID:11436419

Leye, E; Temmerman, M

2001-01-01

165

Reduction of feral cat (Felis catus Linnaeus 1758) colony size following hysterectomy of adult female cats.  

PubMed

The size of urban cat colonies is limited only by the availability of food and shelter; therefore, their population growth challenges all known population control programs. To test a new population control method, a free-roaming feral cat colony at the Zoological Park in the city of Rio de Janeiro was studied, beginning in 2001. The novel method consisted of performing a hysterectomy on all captured female cats over 6 months of age. To estimate the size of the colony and compare population from year to year, a method of capture-mark-release-recapture was used. The aim was to capture as many individuals as possible, including cats of all ages and gender to estimate numbers of cats in all population categories. Results indicated that the feral cat population remained constant from 2001 to 2004. From 2004 to 2008, the hysterectomy program and population estimates were performed every other year (2006 and 2008). The population was estimated to be 40 cats in 2004, 26 in 2006, and 17 cats in 2008. Although pathogens tend to infect more individuals as the population grows older and maintains natural behavior, these results show that free-roaming feral cat colonies could have their population controlled by a biannual program that focuses on hysterectomy of sexually active female cats. PMID:21440475

Mendes-de-Almeida, Flavya; Remy, Gabriella L; Gershony, Liza C; Rodrigues, Daniela P; Chame, Marcia; Labarthe, Norma V

2011-06-01

166

Female Psychology: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the differences between early psychoanalytic views of female development and current views, illustrating that recent suggested revisions offer an updated preliminary theoretical framework. The clinical implications of the differing views are discussed, and examples (two from the psychotherapy of children and a third from the psychoanalysis of a young woman) are offered to demonstrate particular clinical issues,

Shahla Chehrazi

1986-01-01

167

Female Sexual Dysfunction  

MedlinePLUS

... menopause-and-womens-health.cfm North American Menopause Society information about sexual health and menopause: www.menopause.org/ ... em-sexual-health-menopause-em-online Mayo Clinic information about female sexual ... www.hormone.org or call 1-800-HORMONE (1-800-467-6663)

168

Female Physicist Doctoral Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The underrepresentation of women in physics doctorate programs and in tenured academic positions indicates a need to evaluate what may influence their career choice and persistence. This qualitative paper examines eleven females in physics doctoral programs and professional science positions in order to provide a more thorough understanding of why…

Dabney, Katherine P.; Tai, Robert H.

2013-01-01

169

Models of female orgasm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-report instruments concerning personality and subjective responses to sexual orgasm were filled out by 281 female university undergraduates. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used to evaluate the dimensionality of women's subjective responsiveness to orgasm. The results did not support the concept of a unidimensional orgasm process; separate coital and masturbatory factors of orgasmic experience were obtained. Highly internally consistent

P. M. Bentler; William H. Peeler

1979-01-01

170

Female Athlete Triad  

MedlinePLUS

... medicines such as birth control pills, laxatives or diet pills. Treatment How is the female athlete triad treated? ... don't come back after you change your diet and exercise routine, your doctor may prescribe medicines such as birth control pills (like estrogen and progesterone) to stop your body ...

171

Mexican American Female Principals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explored concepts of leadership, power, and caring in the context of a predominantly Mexican-American community culture, based on extended interviews with six female Mexican-American principals in the Texas Rio Grande Valley. These women were challenged by working as professional educators in a bicultural, male-dominated community. Their insights…

Carr, Carolyn S.

1996-01-01

172

Female Sport Involvement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was undertaken in order to identify and describe the nature of socialization of females into sport. A fixed-alternative questionnaire was administered to 585 women who were currently active in sport. Results indicated that peers and family were the significant agents of socialization during childhood, peers and school were most…

Greendorfer, Susan L.

173

The Female Athlete Triad  

PubMed Central

Context: The female athlete triad (the triad) is an interrelationship of menstrual dysfunction, low energy availability (with or without an eating disorder), and decreased bone mineral density; it is relatively common among young women participating in sports. Diagnosis and treatment of this potentially serious condition is complicated and often requires an interdisciplinary team. Evidence Acquisition: Articles from 1981 to present found on PubMed were selected for review of major components of the female athlete triad as well as strategies for diagnosis and treatment of the conditions. Results: The main goal in treatment of young female athletes with the triad is a natural return of menses as well as enhancement of bone mineral density. While no specific drug intervention has been shown to consistently improve bone mineral density in this patient population, maximizing energy availability and optimizing vitamin D and calcium intake are recommended. Conclusions: Treatment requires a multidisciplinary approach involving health care professionals as well as coaches and family members. Prevention of this condition is important to minimize complications of the female athlete triad. PMID:23016101

Nazem, Taraneh Gharib; Ackerman, Kathryn E.

2012-01-01

174

Morphology of the first-instar nymph and adult female of Kermes echinatus Balachowsky, with a comparison to K. vermilio Planchon (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Kermesidae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Thefirst-instar nymph and the adult female of Kermes echinatus Balachowsky (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Kermesidae) are described and illustrated. This species is compared with Kermes vermilio Planchon, a morphologically similar species known in the Palaeractic region. PMID:23275748

Spodek, Malkie; Ben-Dov, Yair

2012-01-01

175

Mathematical models and specific absorbed fractions of photon energy in the nonpregnant adult female and at the end of each trimester of pregnancy  

SciTech Connect

Mathematical phantoms representing the adult female at three, six, and nine months of gestation are described. They are modifications of the 15-year-old male/adult female phantom (15-AF phantom) of Cristy and Eckerman (1987). The model of uterine contents includes the fetus, fetal skeleton, and placenta. The model is suitable for dose calculations for the fetus as a whole; individual organs within the fetus (other than the skeleton) are not modeled. A new model for the nonpregnant adult female is also described, comprising (1) the 15-AF phantom; (2) an adjustment to specific absorbed fractions for organ self-dose from photons to better match Reference Woman masses; and (3) computation of specific absorbed fractions with Reference Woman masses from ICRP Publication 23 for both penetrating and nonpenetrating radiations. Specific absorbed fractions for photons emitted from various source regions are tabulated for the new non;pregnant adult female model and the three pregnancy models.

Stabin, M.G.; Watson, E.E.; Cristy, M.; Ryman, J.C.; Eckerman, K.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Davis, J.L. [Tennessee Univ., Chattanooga, TN (United States)] [Tennessee Univ., Chattanooga, TN (United States); Marshall, D. [Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering] [Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Gehlen, M.K. [San Diego State Univ., CA (United States)] [San Diego State Univ., CA (United States)

1995-05-08

176

Role Modeling and Female Athletes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Survey of 165 high school and college female athletes revealed the following: (1) high school subjects tend to emulate another female player; (2) of those who perceived a difference between male and female coaches as role models, high school students preferred a female coach, and college students preferred a male coach. (Author/BJV)

Whitaker, Gail; Molstad, Susan

1988-01-01

177

Male pipefish prefer ornamented females  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the sex-role reversed pipefish Syngnathus typhle females compete for access to males and males are choosy. Females display a temporary ornament, a striped pattern. We show here for the first time in a sex role-reversed species that ornament display predicts how much time a female will devote to competitive behaviours, that males prefer ornamented females over nonornamented ones, and

Anders Berglund; Gunilla Rosenqvist

2001-01-01

178

Perceptual Characteristics of Female Voices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Male and females listeners rated 21 young female voices on seven scales representing unique vocal features. Voices were described as "passive", or traditionally female, and "active," characterized as "lively,""colorful," and "sexy." Females found active characteristics more salient; males preferred the passive characteristics. Implications for…

Batstone, Susan; Tuomi, Seppo K.

1981-01-01

179

Body image in bulimic, dieting, and normal females  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present investigation examined body-size estimation and overvaluation of a thin shape in bulimic females, females having been obese as adults who later lost weight, females with no history of obesity who were dieting, and females with no history of obesity as adults and not currently dieting. Each subject was presented with a set of seven silhouettes, one having been

Carol R. Counts; Henry E. Adams

1985-01-01

180

Adolescent cannabinoid exposure attenuates adult female sexual motivation but does not alter adulthood CB1R expression or estrous cyclicity.  

PubMed

Adolescence is a developmental period characterized by neuronal remodeling and the maturation of adult emotionality, reproductive behavior and social behavior. We examined whether chronic cannabinoid exposure in adolescent rats alters female sexual motivation, estrous cyclicity, sucrose preference, and CB(1)R expression in adulthood. Female rats were administered with the synthetic cannabinoid agonist, CP-55,940 (0.4 mg/kg, intraperitoneal), daily during adolescent development (PND 35-45). In a subset of subjects, socio-sexual motivation was investigated in adulthood (PND 75-86) using a runway apparatus. Estrous cyclicity was tracked in adulthood via vaginal cytology and a single-mount test. A two-bottle sucrose preference test was also conducted to determine whether predicted changes in socio-sexual motivation might be linked to alterations in hedonic processing. CB(1)R expression was examined in two separate subsets of subjects, one sacrificed following drug treatment (PND 46) and one before behavioral testing (PND 74). Drug treatment significantly decreased adult preference for a male conspecific (sexual motivation), as assessed by both Run Time and Proximity Time, but did not affect estrous cyclicity or sucrose preference. CP-55,940 treatment also induced immediate, but transient, decreases in CB(1)R expression in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus and amygdala. Drug treatment did not affect CB(1)R expression in the nucleus accumbens (core or shell) or globus pallidus at either time point. We suggest that the endocannabinoid system may play a role in the maturation of neuroendocrine axes and adult female reproductive behavior, and that chronic exposure to cannabinoids during adolescence disrupts these neurodevelopmental processes. PMID:21777606

Chadwick, Benjamin; Saylor, Alicia J; López, Hassan H

2011-11-01

181

Pneumococcal meningitis in a young adult female with common variable immunodeficiency  

PubMed Central

Patient: Female, 22 Final Diagnosis: Pneumococcal meningitis Symptoms: Fever • headache • neck stiffness • nuchal rigidity • photophobia Medication: Ceftriaxone Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Neurology Objective: Rare disease Background: Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a primary immunodeficiency associated with hypogammaglobulinemia and other various clinical manifestations. It is a rare disease with a prevalence of CVID is approximately 1: 50,000–200,000. Clinical manifestations of CVID include recurrent bacterial infections, autoimmune, gastrointestinal, lymphoproliferative, granulomatous, and malignancy. Case Report: Twenty-two year-old Hispanic female presented with a throbbing headache, nuchal rigidity, photophobia and a high grade fever. Lumbar puncture with CSF assessment revealed a turbid fluid with WBC of 6937 per uL, polymorphnuclear cells of 81%, protein 248 mg/dL, glucose <3 mg/Dl. CSF antigens were positive for Streptococcus pneumonia and CSF culture grew pansensitive Strepococcus pneumonia. Immunoglobin (Ig) levels of IgA, IgE, IgG and IgM were all decreased. Absolute cell counts of CD3, CD4 and CD8 were all low. Bone marrow biopsy was normocellular. Excisional lymph node biopsy revealed lymph nodes with reactive follicular hyperplasia. Common variable immunodeficiency disease (CVID) was diagnosed based on exclusion. IVIG therapy was given and patient received a two-week course of ceftriaxone. Conclusions: The diagnosis of CVID is made based on the following criteria: 1) Marked decrease of IgG and at least one of the IgM or IgA isotypes. 2) The onset of immunodeficiency at greater than 2 years old. 3) Absence of isohemagglutinins and/or poor response to vaccines 4) Exclusion of other defined causes of hypogammaglobulinemia. A definite diagnosis is often late because it is wrongly assumed that primary immunodeficiencies are extremely rare, hence many patients are already seriously ill at the time of presentation. PMID:24265845

Cooper, Chad J.; Said, Sarmad; Quansah, Raphael; Khalillullah, Sayeed; Alozie, Ogechika

2013-01-01

182

Effects of Dietary Exposure to 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in Adult Female Mink ( Mustela vison )  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Adult female mink were fed diets supplemented with 0, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, or 100 ppb 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin\\u000a (TCDD) for up to 125 days. There was a dose-dependent decrease in feed consumption and body weights indicative of the “wasting\\u000a syndrome” previously reported for mink and other species exposed to chlorinated hydrocarbon compounds. Mortality reached 12.5,\\u000a 62.5, and 100% by

J. R. Hochstein; S. J. Bursian; R. J. Aulerich

1998-01-01

183

Female gender is associated with dental care and dental hygiene, but not with complete dentition in the Swiss adult population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim  Little is known about the impact of gender on oral health, besides the influence of reproductive factors on female dentition.\\u000a The aim of this study was to analyse gender differences with regard to oral health and oral health behaviour in the Swiss\\u000a adult population, using data from the Swiss Health Survey of 2002.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Subjects and methods  The Swiss Health Survey regularly

Paola Coda Bertea; Katharina Staehelin; Julia Dratva; Elisabeth Zemp Stutz

2007-01-01

184

Relative influence of human harvest, carnivores, and weather on adult female elk survival across western North America  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Well-informed management of harvested species requires understanding how changing ecological conditions affect demography and population dynamics, information that is lacking for many species. We have limited understanding of the relative influence of carnivores, harvest, weather and forage availability on elk Cervus elaphus demography, despite the ecological and economic importance of this species. We assessed adult female survival, a key vital rate for population dynamics, from 2746 radio-collared elk in 45 populations across western North America that experience wide variation in carnivore assemblage, harvest, weather and habitat conditions. Proportional hazard analysis revealed that 'baseline' (i.e. not related to human factors) mortality was higher with very high winter precipitation, particularly in populations sympatric with wolves Canis lupus. Mortality may increase via nutritional stress and heightened vulnerability to predation in snowy winters. Baseline mortality was unrelated to puma Puma concolor presence, forest cover or summer forage productivity. Cause-specific mortality analyses showed that wolves and all carnivore species combined had additive effects on baseline elk mortality, but only reduced survival by <2%. When human factors were included, ‘total’ adult mortality was solely related to harvest; the influence of native carnivores was compensatory. Annual total mortality rates were lowest in populations sympatric with both pumas and wolves because managers reduced female harvest in areas with abundant or diverse carnivores. Mortality from native carnivores peaked in late winter and early spring, while harvest-induced mortality peaked in autumn. The strong peak in harvest-induced mortality during the autumn hunting season decreased as the number of native carnivore species increased. Synthesis and applications. Elevated baseline adult female elk mortality from wolves in years with high winter precipitation could affect elk abundance as winters across the western US become drier and wolves recolonize portions of the region. In the absence of human harvest, wolves had additive, although limited, effects on mortality. However, human harvest, and its apparent use by managers to offset predation, primarily controls overall variation in adult female mortality. Altering harvest quotas is thus a strong tool for offsetting impacts of carnivore recolonization and shifting weather patterns on elk across western North America.

Brodie, Jedediah; Johnson, Heather; Mitchell, Michael; Zager, Peter; Proffitt, Kelly; Hebblewhite, Mark; Kauffman, Matthew; Johnson, Bruce; Bissonette, John; Bishop, Chad; Gude, Justin; Herbert, Jeff; Hersey, Kent; Hurley, Mark; Lukacs, Paul M.; McCorquodale, Scott; McIntire, Eliot; Nowak, Josh; Sawyer, Hall; Smith, Douglas; White, P.J.

2013-01-01

185

D2 antagonist during development decreases anxiety and infanticidal behavior in adult female prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster).  

PubMed

On postnatal day 8, prairie vole pups were randomly assigned a treatment of 1mg/kg SKF38393 (D1 agonist), quinpirole (D2 agonist), SCH23390 (D1 antagonist), eticlopride (D2 antagonist), or saline vehicle. As adults, females treated with eticlopride exhibited reduced anxiety-like behavior in an elevated plus maze and a reduction in infanticidal behavior. These behavioral effects were not seen in males. These data demonstrate that a single exposure to a D2 antagonist during development can have persistent, sex-specific effects on behavior into adulthood. PMID:20152865

Hostetler, Caroline M; Harkey, Shanna L; Bales, Karen L

2010-06-26

186

Characterization of endocrine-disrupting chemicals based on hormonal balance disruption in male and female adult rats.  

PubMed

Reproductive functions are controlled by a finely tuned balance between estrogens and androgens. To further characterize the gonadal pathways leading to hormonal balance disruption by atrazine, vinclozolin, methoxychlor, and bisphenol A in rat, we investigated their effects in male and female young adult animals. Specifically, we assessed reproductive tract alterations, sex hormone balance in serum and gonads, tissue dosimetry, and mRNA expression. Remarkably, we observed different aromatase regulation profiles between animals with similar estrogen-to-androgen ratios but with different chemical treatments. For example, increased estrogen-to-androgen ratios in atrazine-treated females could be partly linked to aromatase upregulation, while in methoxychlor- and bisphenol A-treated females, peripheral mechanisms such as conjugation/deconjugation processes might be more likely to elevate estrogen levels. In vinclozolin-treated animals, the decreased estrogen-to-androgen ratios reported might be due to an increase of peripheral (adrenal) steroidogenesis. Thus, measurement of many endpoints is necessary for good risk assessment. PMID:22285353

Quignot, Nadia; Arnaud, Marine; Robidel, Franck; Lecomte, Anthony; Tournier, Mikaël; Cren-Olivé, Cécile; Barouki, Robert; Lemazurier, Emmanuel

2012-06-01

187

Sex-specific survival rates of adult roseate terns: are males paying a higher reproductive cost than females?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A long-term mark-recapture/resighting program has been carried out on the Roseate Terns (Sterna dougallii) nesting at Falkner Island, Connecticut, USA from the late 1980s through the mid 2000s, and from 1995-1998 an intensive collaborative study of food-provisioning of chicks by their parents also was conducted on many of the banded individuals at this site. Adult female Roseate Terns have significantly higher 'local survival' rates than do males. While both sexes feed their young, males usually have higher prey delivery rates than do females and do most feeding of the (oldest if more than one) chick just before it fledges. Males usually depart at the same time as the (oldest) fledgling, while successful females parents may linger at the colony site for up to two weeks. The lower 'local survival' rate of males probably does not represent lower colony-site fidelity, but instead may reflect the price they pay for doing more 'child care,' especially if fledglings are still dependant on them for food during post breeding dispersal and (at least early) migration.

Spendelow, J.A.; Shealer, D.A.; Hatfield, J.S.; Nichols, J.D.; Nisbet, I.C.T.

2005-01-01

188

Histochemical study of the hepatopancreas in adult females of the pink-shrimp Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis Latreille, 1817.  

PubMed

This study provides histochemical data of the hepatopancreatic cells of adult female pink-shrimp (Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis) at two different developmental stages (those with developed gonads and those with exhausted gonads). The F. brasiliensis females were collected in seawater off the Guarapari coast, Espirito Santo, Brazil. Five cell types were identified in this digestive gland: B (vesicular), E (embryonic), F (fibrillar), M (basal) and R (resorptive). The digestive gland was stained with the following techniques: PAS/Alcian blue (for polysaccharides), bromophenol blue (for protein), von Kossa (for bound calcium) and Baker (for lipids). Acid glycoconjugates were found inside vacuoles in the R cells, while neutral polysaccharides were present in the B cells and near to the microvilli. In females with exhausted gonads polysaccharides were also seen in the intertubular spaces and inside the lumina of the tubules. The F and M cells were the most marked by the presence of large amounts of proteins observed in R cells and also inside the vacuoles of B cells. The bound calcium was mainly found in the F and M cells. The F cells showed strong positive staining for lipid while the R cell only stained weakly. The E cells did not react to any of the applied staining techniques. The similarities in the histochemical composition of these hepatopancreatic cells in females with developed gonads, compared to exhausted ones, is justified by the fact that transfer of these elements to the oocytes occurs, in significant quantity, only during the initial stages of gonadal development in F. brasiliensis. Also, they may be more related to the molt stage, as in the case of calcium salts. PMID:23992941

Nunes, Erika Takagi; Braga, Adriane Araújo; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel

2014-01-01

189

The young female athlete.  

PubMed

It is important that girls and young women participate in sports and develop skills that promote lifelong athletic participation, because of the psychological, sociologic, and physiologic benefits associated with exercise. When an athlete begins intensive, competitive exercise training at a young age, or when the preoccupation with thinness supersedes a desire to be healthy, potential morbidity results. Lack of information and the strong desire to win contribute to this problem. There is relatively little known about the long-term physical and psychological effects of early intensive athletic training and the female athlete triad on the young female athlete. In addition to the need for further research in these areas, there is a need for education of physicians, coaches, trainers, athletes, and parents. The preparticipation physical examination is an excellent opportunity for the physician to screen for the triad disorders and educate athletes and parents on healthy nutrition, normal menstrual function, and the benefits of exercise. PMID:7553928

Van de Loo, D A; Johnson, M D

1995-07-01

190

HDRK-Woman: whole-body voxel model based on high-resolution color slice images of Korean adult female cadaver  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a previous study, we constructed a male reference Korean phantom; HDRK-Man (High-Definition Reference Korean-Man), to represent Korean adult males for radiation protection purposes. In the present study, a female phantom; HDRK-Woman (High-Definition Reference Korean-Woman), was constructed to represent Korean adult females. High-resolution color photographic images obtained by serial sectioning of a 26 year-old Korean adult female cadaver were utilized. The body height and weight, the skeletal mass, and the dimensions of the individual organs and tissues were adjusted to the reference Korean data. The phantom was then compared with the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) female reference phantom in terms of calculated organ doses and organ-depth distributions. Additionally, the effective doses were calculated using both the HDRK-Man and HDRK-Woman phantoms, and the values were compared with those of the ICRP reference phantoms.

Yeom, Yeon Soo; Jeong, Jong Hwi; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Han, Min Cheol; Ham, Bo Kyoung; Cho, Kun Woo; Hwang, Sung Bae

2014-07-01

191

Acute exposure to gas-supersaturated water does not affect reproductive success of female adult chinook salmon late in maturation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

At times, total dissolved gas concentrations in the Columbia and Snake rivers have been elevated due to involuntary spill from high spring runoff and voluntary spill used as a method to pass juvenile salmonids over dams. The goal of this project was to determine if acute exposure to total dissolved gas supersaturation (TDGS) affects the reproductive performance of female chinook salmon late in their maturation. During this study, adult female spring chinook salmon were exposed to mean TDGS levels of 114.1 % to 125.5%. We ended exposures at first mortality, or at the appearance of impending death. Based on this criterion, exposures lasted from 10 to 68 h and were inversely related to TDGS. There was no effect of TDGS on pre-spawning mortality or fecundity when comparing treatment fish to experimental controls or the general hatchery population four to six weeks after exposures. Egg quality, based on egg weight and egg diameter, did not differ between treatment and control fish. Fertilization rate and survival to eyed-stage was high (>94%) for all groups. With the exception of Renibacterium salmoninarum (the causative agent of bacterial kidney disease; BKD), no viral or bacterial fish pathogens were isolated from experimental fish. The prevalence (about 45%) and severity of R. salmoninarum did not differ among the groups or the general hatchery population. We conclude that these acute exposures to moderate levels of gas-supersaturated water-perhaps similar to that experienced by immigrating adult salmon as they approach and pass a hydropower dam on the Columbia River-did not affect reproductive success of female chinook salmon late in their maturation. These results are most applicable to summer and fall chinook salmon, which migrate in the summer/fall and spawn shortly after reaching their natal streams. Published in 2004 by John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

Gale, W. L.; Maule, A. G.; Postera, A.; Peters, M. H.

2004-01-01

192

Developmental exposure to the polybrominated diphenyl ether PBDE 209: Neurobehavioural and neuroprotein analysis in adult male and female mice.  

PubMed

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), used as flame retardants in polymer products, are reported to cause developmental neurotoxic effects in mammals. The present study have investigated neurotoxic effects arising from neonatal exposure to PBDE 209, including alterations in sex differences, spontaneous behaviour, learning and memory, neuroproteins and altered susceptibility of the cholinergic system in adults. Three-day-old NMRI mice, of both sexes, were exposed to PBDE 209 (2,2',3,3',4,4',5,5',6,6'-decaBDE at 0, 1.4, 6.0 and 14.0?mol/kg b.w.). At adult age (2-7 months) a similar developmental neurotoxic effects in both male and female mice were seen, including lack of or reduced habituation to a novel home environment, learning and memory defects, modified response to the cholinergic agent's paraoxon (males) and nicotine (females) indicating increased susceptibility of the cholinergic system. The behavioural defects were dose-response related and persistent. In mice of both sexes and showing behavioural defects, neuroprotein tau was increased. PMID:25194327

Buratovic, Sonja; Viberg, Henrik; Fredriksson, Anders; Eriksson, Per

2014-09-01

193

Female homosexual behavior in Macaca mulatta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Homosexual activity among adult females in a heterosexual group of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)is documented and discussed. The mounter was usually in the follicular stage of the menstrual cycle and the mountee was in the ovulatory period. Activity during the luteal phase was low for all animals. Female mounting did not appear to be a preparation or substitute for heterosexual

Jean S. Akers; Clinton H. Conaway

1979-01-01

194

Trade-offs between offspring fitness and future reproduction of adult female black brent.  

PubMed

1.?Successful reproduction requires numerous decisions, and some of which may require trade-offs between current and future reproduction. We studied effects of choice of foraging patches on gosling growth and future breeding by mothers in black brent (Branta bernicla nigricans) geese. 2.?Specific foraging areas consistently produced high-quality goslings over 21?years. We found a consistent ranking of gosling mass, corrected for age, across brood rearing areas (BRAs) and years [Akaike model weights, ?w(i) ?=?1·00 for models including additive effects of BRA and year]. Growth of goslings largely determines their future fitness, so areas where goslings grew most rapidly also produced goslings with the highest mean fitness. 3.?We used a multistate robust design capture-mark-recapture approach to estimate the probability of transitioning from a breeding state to a non-breeding (unobservable) state as a function of quality of BRA. 4.?In the best supported model, transition from a breeding state to a non-breeding state was positively related to gosling growth rates across BRAs. Thus, future reproduction was lower for females using BRAs that produced higher-quality goslings. Our results are consistent with trade-offs by individual brent between fitness of their current offspring and their own reproductive value. PMID:22303812

Nicolai, Christopher A; Sedinger, James S

2012-07-01

195

Female dispersal in a female-philopatric species, Cebus capucinus  

E-print Network

females immigrate into our study groups and 23 disappear/emigrate. We exam- ined long-term demographic Data on female dispersal in species characterized by female philopatry are by definition anomalous species characterized by sex-biased dis- persal, immigration by the philopatric sex is forcibly resisted

Jack, Katharine M.

196

Female Athletes Facing Discrimination: Curriculum Regarding Female Athletes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There continues to be oppression among female athletes, even after the enactment of Title IX in 1972. Female athletes in secondary schools deal with low self-esteem, eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia, and depression. Female athletes struggle with societal pressures to maintain a model-like figure, while trying to train and perform for…

Palis, Regina

197

Reference values of serum biochemical parameters in adult male and female ring-necked pheasants ( Phasianus colchicus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blood samples were randomly collected from 110 (40 male and 70 female) 20-week-old healthy ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus), and serum biochemical parameters were investigated. Significant differences in serum total protein, cholesterol, creatinine,\\u000a total bilirubin, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were found among both males and females. Total protein values were\\u000a higher in female ring-necked pheasants, whereas the values of cholesterol,

Saeed Nazifi; Najmeh Mosleh; Vahid Reza Ranjbar; Monire Khordadmehr

198

Effects of chronic oestradiol, progesterone and medroxyprogesterone acetate on hippocampal neurogenesis and adrenal mass in adult female rats.  

PubMed

Both natural oestrogens and progesterone influence synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis within the female hippocampus. However, less is known of the impact of synthetic hormones on hippocampal structure and function. There is some evidence that the administration of the synthetic progestin, medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) is not as beneficial as natural progesterone and can attenuate oestrogen-induced neuroprotection. Although the effects of oestradiol have been well studied, little is known about the effects of natural and synthetic progestins alone and in combination with oestradiol on adult neurogenesis in females. In the present study, we investigated the effects of chronic oestradiol, progesterone, MPA and the co-administration of each progestin with oestradiol on neurogenesis within the dentate gyrus of adult ovariectomised female rats. Twenty-four hours after a bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU; 200 mg/kg) injection, female rats were repeatedly administered either progesterone (1 or 4 mg), MPA (1 or 4 mg), oestradiol benzoate (EB), progesterone or MPA in combination with EB (10 ?g), or vehicle for 21 days. Rats were perfused on day 22 and brain tissue was analysed for the number of BrdU-labelled and Ki67 (an endogenous marker of cell proliferation)-expressing cells. EB alone and MPA + EB significantly decreased neurogenesis and the number of surviving BrdU-labelled cells in the dorsal region of the dentate gyrus, independent of any effects on cell proliferation. Furthermore, MPA (1 and 4 mg) and MPA + EB treated animals had significantly lower adrenal/body mass ratios and reduced serum corticosterone (CORT) levels. By contrast, progesterone + EB treated animals had significantly higher adrenal/body mass ratios and 1 mg of progesterone, progesterone + EB, and EB significantly increased CORT levels. The results of the present study demonstrate that different progestins alone and in combination with oestradiol can differentially affect neurogenesis (via cell survival) and regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. These findings have implications for women using hormone replacement therapies with MPA for both neuroprotection and stress-related disorders. PMID:24750490

Chan, M; Chow, C; Hamson, D K; Lieblich, S E; Galea, L A M

2014-06-01

199

Does long-term swimming participation have a deleterious effect on the adult female skeleton?  

PubMed

Swimming is a popular activity for Australian women with proven cardiovascular benefits yet lacks the features thought necessary to stimulate positive adaptive changes in bone. Given that peak bone mass is attained close to the end of the second decade, we asked whether swimming was negatively associated with bone mineral density in premenopausal women beyond this age. Bone mass and retrospective physical activity data were gathered from 43 female swimmers and 44 controls (mean ages 40.4 and 43.8 years, respectively). Swimmers were recruited from the Australian Union of Senior Swimmers International while controls were healthy community dwellers with similar lean mass, fat mass, height, weight and body mass index. None of the participants had a history of medical complaints nor use of medications known to affect bone. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to determine areal bone mineral density at total body, lumbar spine, proximal femur, distal radius and tibia while self-administered questionnaires were used to approximate historical and recent physical activity and calcium intake. Swimmers had averaged over 2 hours of swimming per week for the past 5 years and 1.45 h/week over lifetime with no systematic swimming exposure for controls. Lifetime exposure to weight bearing and impact exercise were similar. There were no intergroup differences for bone mass at any site though controls had higher incidence of low bone mass/osteoporosis. No differences in bone mass were detected between swimmers in the upper and lower quartiles for swim participation for any period. Long-term swim participation did not compromise areal bone mineral density. PMID:22230920

Greenway, Kate Gwendoline; Walkley, Jeff Whenan; Rich, Peter Adrian

2012-09-01

200

Effects of hyperandrogenemia and increased adiposity on reproductive and metabolic parameters in young adult female monkeys.  

PubMed

Many patients with hyperandrogenemia are overweight or obese, which exacerbates morbidities associated with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). To examine the ability of testosterone (T) to generate PCOS-like symptoms, monkeys received T or cholesterol (control) implants (n = 6/group) beginning prepubertally. As previously reported, T-treated animals had increased neuroendocrine drive to the reproductive axis [increased luteinizing hormone (LH) pulse frequency] at 5 yr, without remarkable changes in ovarian or metabolic features. To examine the combined effects of T and obesity, at 5.5 yr (human equivalent age: 17 yr), monkeys were placed on a high-calorie, high-fat diet typical of Western cultures [Western style diet (WSD)], which increased body fat from <2% (pre-WSD) to 15-19% (14 mo WSD). By 6 mo on WSD, LH pulse frequency in the controls increased to that of T-treated animals, whereas LH pulse amplitude decreased in both groups and remained low. The numbers of antral follicles present during the early follicular phase increased in both groups on the WSD, but maximal follicular size decreased by 50%. During the late follicular phase, T-treated females had greater numbers of small antral follicles than controls. T-treated monkeys also had lower progesterone during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Although fasting insulin did not vary between groups, T-treated animals had decreased insulin sensitivity after 1 yr on WSD. Thus, while WSD consumption alone led to some features characteristic of PCOS, T + WSD caused a more severe phenotype with regard to insulin insensitivity, increased numbers of antral follicles at midcycle, and decreased circulating luteal phase progesterone levels. PMID:24735887

McGee, W K; Bishop, C V; Pohl, C R; Chang, R J; Marshall, J C; Pau, F K; Stouffer, R L; Cameron, J L

2014-06-01

201

Nigeria: female circumcision row.  

PubMed

In October 1989 midwives and nurses held mass demonstrations in Benin city, the capital of Bendel State, Nigeria, to protest against female circumcision. This practice, which is firmly entrenched in the area, may involve cutting off the clitoris or more extensive removal of girls' genitalia, either in infancy or at puberty. Nigerian hospitals no longer perform circumcision, so people do it themselves or have traditional practitioners do so. Recent demonstrations reflect outrage on the part of Western-trained health care activists regarding aesthetic and obstetric complications, as well as added risk of spreading tetanus and AIDS by unsanitary procedures. PMID:12342692

Ezeh, P

1990-02-01

202

Increased seizure susceptibility induced by prenatal methamphetamine exposure in adult female rats is not affected by early postnatal cross-fostering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our previous studies repeatedly demonstrated that prenatal methamphetamine (MA) exposure alters seizure susceptibility in adult rats. Both the inhibitory GABA system and the excitatory NMDA system play a role in the effect of MA on epileptic seizures. On the basis of our previous behavioral results, the effect of cross-fostering on seizure susceptibility in adult female rats was examined in the

R. Šlamberová; L. Hrubá; I. Mat?jovská; K. Bernášková; R. Rokyta

2011-01-01

203

All-Female Computer Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Points out the sex differences in enrollment in computer science courses and less experience among females with computers. Discusses female confidence in computer use in single sex classrooms, and indicates the increasing confidence level and more risk taking among female students. Describes components of a successful program and the importance of…

Crombie, Gail; Abarbanel, Tracy; Anderson, Colin

2000-01-01

204

PERFORMANCE OF FEMALE LESSER SCAUP  

Microsoft Academic Search

I examined the influence of age and time on female reproductive performance in a marked population of Lesser Scaup (Aythya affinis) breeding in southwestern Manitoba from 1977 to 1980. Arrival date and length of prelaying period varied among years but were not related to female age. Rate of nonbreeding and nest-initiation date varied among years and by female age. Age

ALAN D. AFTON

205

Changing structure of the femoral neck across the adult female lifespan.  

PubMed

The anatomic distribution of cortical and cancellous bone in the femoral neck may be critical in determining resistance to fracture. We investigated the effects of aging on femoral neck bone in women. In this cross-sectional study, we used clinical multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) of the hips to investigate aging effects in 100 female volunteers aged 20 to 90 years. We developed a clinically efficient protocol to measure cortical thickness (C.Th) and cortical, trabecular, and integral bone mineral density (CtBMD, TrBMD, and iBMD in mg/cm(3)) in anatomic quadrants of the femoral neck. We used a nested ANOVA to evaluate their associations with height, weight, location in the femoral neck, and age of the subject. Age was the principal determinant of both cortical thickness and BMD. Age had significantly different effects within the anatomic quadrants; compared with young women, elderly subjects had relative preservation of the inferoanterior (IA) quadrant but strikingly reduced C.Th and BMD superiorly. A model including height, weight, and region of interest (and their interactions) explained 83% of the measurement variance (p < .0001). There were marked C.Th and BMD differences between age 25 and age 85 in the already thin superior quadrants. At 25 years the predicted C.Th of the superoposterior quadrant was 1.63 mm, whereas at 85 years it was 0.33 mm [-1.33 mm, 95% confidence interval (CI) of difference over 60 years -1.69 to -0.95]. By contrast, at 25 years mean C.Th of the IA quadrant was 3.9 mm, whereas at 85 years it was 3.3 mm (-0.6 mm, 95% CI -0.83 to -0.10). CtBMD of the IA region was equivalent at 25 and 85 years. In conclusion, elderly women had relative preservation of IA femoral neck bone over seven decades compared with young women but markedly lower C.Th and BMD in the other three quadrants. The IA quadrant transmits mechanical load from walking. Mechanical theory and laboratory tests on cadaveric femurs suggest that localized bone loss may increase the risk of fracture in elderly fallers. It remains to be determined whether this MDCT technique can provide better prediction of hip fracture than conventional clinical dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). PMID:19594320

Poole, Kenneth E S; Mayhew, Paul M; Rose, Collette M; Brown, J Keenan; Bearcroft, Philip J; Loveridge, Nigel; Reeve, Jonathan

2010-03-01

206

Racial/Ethnic Differences in Patterns of Sexual Risk Behavior and Rates of Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Female Young Adults  

PubMed Central

Objectives We examined patterns of sexual behavior and risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in young adulthood for Black, Hispanic, and White females. Methods We used a nationally representative sample of 7015 female young adults from Wave III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Sexual risk items assessed behaviors occurring in the previous 6 years and past year to determine classes of sexual risk and links to STIs in young adulthood. Results Latent class analysis revealed 3 sexual risk classes for Black and Hispanic youths and 4 sexual risk classes for White youths. The moderate and high risk classes had the highest probabilities of risky sexual partners, inconsistent condom use, and early age of sexual initiation, which significantly increased odds for STIs compared with recent abstainers. Conclusions We found different classes of sexual behavior by race/ethnicity, with Black and Hispanic young women most at risk for STIs in young adulthood. Preventive efforts should target younger adolescents and focus on sexual partner behavior. PMID:23488501

Pflieger, Jacqueline C.; Cook, Emily C.; Niccolai, Linda M.; Connell, Christian M.

2014-01-01

207

Comparison of craniofacial measurements of young adult African-American and North American white males and females.  

PubMed

Surgical correction of craniofacial disfigurements depends for its success on precise knowledge of the craniofacial norms of the patient's racial/ethnic groups. The norms of North American whites should be restricted to patients of Caucasian origin and not applied to members of other races. This study therefore sought to determine differences in anthropometric measurements of the craniofacial complex between African-American and North American white subjects of both sexes and of similar age (18-25 years old). The study group consisted of healthy young adult African-Americans, 50 males and 50 females. The analysis of craniofacial morphology was based on 51 anthropometric measurements: 9 cranial, 10 facial, 8 orbital, 14 nasal, 4 oral and 6 auricular. The results were compared with 51 norms previously established for North American whites in the same age group, generally based on 109 males and 200 females, fewer in comparisons of some nasal measurements (ac-ac, sbal-sbal, ac-sn, nostril axis). Highly significant differences between groups were found in every craniofacial region, especially in the orbital and nasal areas, and confirmed the need to establish separate norms for African-Americans to guide corrective surgery of the head and face. PMID:18046155

Farkas, Leslie G; Katic, Marko J; Forrest, Christopher R

2007-12-01

208

Cytological and biochemical biomarkers in adult female perch (Perca fluviatilis) in a chronically polluted gradient in the Stockholm recipient (Sweden).  

PubMed

By measuring a battery of cytological and biochemical biomarkers in adult female perch (Perca fluviatilis), the city of Stockholm (Sweden) was investigated as a point source of anthropogenic aquatic pollution. The investigation included both an upstream gradient, 46 km westwards through Lake Mälaren, and a downstream gradient, 84 km eastwards through the Stockholm archipelago. Indeed, there was a graded response for most of the biomarkers and for the muscle concentrations of ?PBDE, four organotin compounds and PFOS in the perch. The results indicated severe pollution in central Stockholm, with poor health of the perch, characterised by increased frequency of micronucleated erythrocytes, altered liver apoptosis, increased liver catalase activity, decreased brain aromatase activity, and decreased liver lysosomal membrane stability. Some biomarker responses were lowest in the middle archipelago and increased again eastwards, indicating a second, partly overlapping, gradient of toxic effects from the Baltic Sea. PMID:24655945

Hansson, Tomas; Baršien?, Janina; Tjärnlund, Ulla; Åkerman, Gun; Linderoth, Maria; Zebühr, Yngve; Sternbeck, John; Järnberg, Ulf; Balk, Lennart

2014-04-15

209

Adult Female Victims of Child Sexual Abuse: Multitype Maltreatment and Disclosure Characteristics Related to Subjective Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the impact of child sexual abuse and disclosure characteristics on adult psychological and psychosomatic symptoms. Data on abuse characteristics, disclosure-related events, and subjective health were collected through semistructured interviews and questionnaires from 123 adult women reporting having been sexually abused in…

Jonzon, Eva; Lindblad, Frank

2005-01-01

210

Career Values and Aspirations of Adult Female and Male Puerto Ricans, Blacks, and Anglos.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted (1) to examine career values and aspirations among adults of Puerto Rican, Black, and Anglo ethnic and cultural backgrounds; and (2) to determine the extent to which career values and aspirations vary between the men and women in each of these ethnic groups. The participants were 304 adult men and women representing 194…

Dillard, John M.; Campbell, N. Jo

211

Conservation and expression of PIWI-interacting RNA pathway genes in male and female adult gonad of amniotes.  

PubMed

The PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA) pathway is essential for germline development and transposable element repression. Key elements of this pathway are members of the piRNA-binding PIWI/Argonaute protein family and associated factors (e.g., VASA, MAELSTROM, and TUDOR domain proteins). PIWI-interacting RNAs have been identified in mouse testis and oocytes, but information about the expression of the different piRNA pathway genes, in particular in the mammalian ovary, remains incomplete. We investigated the evolution and expression of piRNA pathway genes in gonads of amniote species (chicken, platypus, and mouse). Database searches confirm a high level of conservation and revealed lineage-specific gain and loss of Piwi genes in vertebrates. Expression analysis in mammals shows that orthologs of Piwi-like (Piwil) genes, Mael (Maelstrom), Mvh (mouse vasa homolog), and Tdrd1 (Tudor domain-containing protein 1) are expressed in platypus adult testis. In contrast to mouse, Piwil4 is expressed in platypus and human adult testis. We found evidence for Mael and Piwil2 expression in mouse Sertoli cells. Importantly, we show mRNA expression of Piwil2, Piwil4, and Mael in oocytes and supporting cells of human, mouse, and platypus ovary. We found no Piwil1 expression in mouse and chicken ovary. The conservation of gene expression in somatic parts of the gonad and germ cells of species that diverged over 800 million yr ago indicates an important role in adult male and female gonad. PMID:24108303

Lim, Shu Ly; Tsend-Ayush, Enkhjargal; Kortschak, R Daniel; Jacob, Reuben; Ricciardelli, Carmela; Oehler, Martin K; Grützner, Frank

2013-12-01

212

Female analogies to perversion.  

PubMed

Unlike the intrapsychic mechanism for self-esteem regulation in males as a basic component of perversion--extrapsychically (compensationally) culminating in an output of sexual impulses--a functional stabilization of the female self-concept seems more likely if conflict drives were to be focused on reproductional aspects and not on sexuality. It therefore seems more suitable to use a new expression in linguistic analogy to perversion: "reproversion." The case history gives an example of a clinical manifestation of "reproverse" symptom formation. The general survey describes the main points of view in regard to clinically oriented differentiation, i.e., intensity, ego-proximity in the personality structure, and one's own self-acceptance within "reproverse" symptom formation. Underlying personality disturbances are also discussed. The significance of reproversion is relevant to many different specialized medical fields. This is explained in conclusion, using the examples of denied pregnancy and infanticide at birth based on initial empirical results. PMID:10693118

Beier, K M

2000-01-01

213

The Influence of ADHD and Adolescent Romantic Relationships on Early Adult Psychopathology in Females.  

E-print Network

??The Influence of ADHD and Adolescent Romantic Relationships on Early Adult Psychopathology in FemalesbyAndrea Lynne Stier Doctor of Philosophy in PsychologyUniversity of California, BerkeleyProfessor Stephen… (more)

Stier, Andrea Lynne

2009-01-01

214

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Adult Female Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse: A Comparison Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a group of 45 adult women in outpatient treatment for childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and a group of 31 women who reported no CSA. The comparison group consisted of women in outpatient treatment for problems in their committed relationships with male living partners. This research also investigated the traumatic impact

Ned Rodriguez; Susan W. Ryan; Hendrika Vande Kemp; David W. Foy

1997-01-01

215

Resiliency Determinants and Resiliency Processes among Female Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This phenomenological, qualitative study examined resiliency determinants and resiliency formation among 10 women who had been sexually abused as children. An examination of the determinants and processes that facilitated resiliency in participants' adult lives revealed 5 determinant clusters (interpersonally skilled, competent, high self-regard,…

Bogar, Christine B.; Hulse-Killacky, Diana

2006-01-01

216

Locus of Control and Adjustment in Female Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A sample of 84 college women retrospectively reporting childhood sexual abuse and 285 women failing to report such a history participated in a study designed to investigate the relationship between victimization history and locus of control and the role of locus of control in predicting the adjustment of adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse.…

Porter, Chebon A.; Long, Patricia J.

1999-01-01

217

Social isolation impairs adult neurogenesis in the limbic system and alters behaviors in female prairie voles  

E-print Network

environment, such as social isolation, are distressing and can induce various behav- ioral and neural changes in the distressed animal. We conducted a series of experiments to test the hypoth- esis that long-term social- gest that long-term social isolation affects distinct stages of adult neurogenesis in specific limbic

Hull, Elaine

218

The association between childhood sexual abuse and adult female sexual difficulties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has been associated with a number of long-term negative consequences, including depression, anxiety and psychosomatic symptomology. Sexual trauma has also been linked to problematic sexual functioning and sexual behaviour in adulthood. This paper critically evaluates the current literature on CSA and adult sexuality and identifies the main sexual difficulties experienced by women with a history of

Savannah Zwickl; Gareth Merriman

2011-01-01

219

The Satir Model with Female Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Child sexual abuse is a recognized problem in the United States and Canada. There are several approaches to therapy with adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. This article discusses Virginia Satir's model of therapy as it applies to sexual abuse. The emphasis of the Satir model is on transforming the impact of the abuse, no matter how the client chooses

Anne Morrison; Judy Ferris

2002-01-01

220

Dispersion of adult male Peromyscus leucopus in relation to female reproductive status Department of Zoology, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ont., Canada N6A 5B7  

E-print Network

Dispersion of adult male Peromyscus leucopus in relation to female reproductive status Department,X., and MILLAR,J. S. 1989. Dispersion of adult male Peromyscus leucopus in relation to female reproductive status. Can. J. Zool. 67: 1047- 1052. We studied dispersion of adult male Peromyscus leucopus in relation

Xia, Xuhua

221

Developmental GnRH Signaling Is Not Required for Sexual Differentiation of Kisspeptin Neurons but Is Needed for Maximal Kiss1 Gene Expression in Adult Females  

PubMed Central

Kisspeptin, encoded by Kiss1, stimulates reproduction. In rodents, one Kiss1 population resides in the hypothalamic anterior ventral periventricular nucleus and neighboring rostral periventricular nucleus (AVPV/PeN). AVPV/PeN Kiss1 neurons are sexually dimorphic (greater in females), yet the mechanisms regulating their development and sexual differentiation remain poorly understood. Neonatal estradiol (E2) normally defeminizes AVPV/PeN kisspeptin neurons, but emerging evidence suggests that developmental E2 may also influence feminization of kisspeptin, although exactly when in development this process occurs is unknown. In addition, the obligatory role of GnRH signaling in governing sexual differentiation of Kiss1 or other sexually dimorphic traits remains untested. Here, we assessed whether AVPV/PeN Kiss1 expression is permanently impaired in adult hpg (no GnRH or E2) or C57BL6 mice under different E2 removal or replacement paradigms. We determined that 1) despite lacking GnRH signaling in development, marked sexual differentiation of Kiss1 still occurs in hpg mice; 2) adult hpg females, who lack lifetime GnRH and E2 exposure, have reduced AVPV/PeN Kiss1 expression compared to wild-type females, even after chronic adulthood E2 treatment; 3) E2 exposure to hpg females during the pubertal period does not rescue their submaximal adult Kiss1 levels; and 4) in C57BL6 females, removal of ovarian E2 before the pubertal or juvenile periods does not impair feminization and maximal adult AVPV/PeN Kiss1 expression nor the ability to generate LH surges, indicating that puberty is not a critical period for Kiss1 development. Thus, sexual differentiation still occurs without GnRH, but GnRH or downstream E2 signaling is needed sometime before juvenile development for complete feminization and maximal Kiss1 expression in adult females. PMID:23825121

Kim, Joshua; Tolson, Kristen P.; Dhamija, Sangeeta

2013-01-01

222

FASH and MASH: female and male adult human phantoms based on polygon mesh surfaces: II. Dosimetric calculations.  

PubMed

Female and male adult human phantoms, called FASH (Female Adult meSH) and MASH (Male Adult meSH), have been developed in the first part of this study using 3D animation software and anatomical atlases to replace the image-based FAX06 and the MAX06 voxel phantoms. 3D modelling methods allow for phantom development independent from medical images of patients, volunteers or cadavers. The second part of this study investigates the dosimetric implications for organ and tissue equivalent doses due to the anatomical differences between the new and the old phantoms. These differences are mainly caused by the supine position of human bodies during scanning in order to acquire digital images for voxel phantom development. Compared to an upright standing person, in image-based voxel phantoms organs are often coronally shifted towards the head and sometimes the sagittal diameter of the trunk is reduced by a gravitational change of the fat distribution. In addition, volumes of adipose and muscle tissue shielding internal organs are sometimes too small, because adaptation of organ volumes to ICRP-based organ masses often occurs at the expense of general soft tissues, such as adipose, muscle or unspecified soft tissue. These effects have dosimetric consequences, especially for partial body exposure, such as in x-ray diagnosis, but also for whole body external exposure and for internal exposure. Using the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code, internal and external exposure to photons and electrons has been simulated with both pairs of phantoms. The results show differences between organ and tissue equivalent doses for the upright standing FASH/MASH and the image-based supine FAX06/MAX06 phantoms of up to 80% for external exposure and up to 100% for internal exposure. Similar differences were found for external exposure between FASH/MASH and REGINA/REX, the reference voxel phantoms of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Comparison of effective doses for external photon exposure showed good agreement between FASH/MASH and REGINA/REX, but large differences between FASH/MASH and the mesh-based RPI_AM and the RPI_AF phantoms, developed at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI). PMID:20009181

Kramer, R; Cassola, V F; Khoury, H J; Vieira, J W; Lima, V J de Melo; Brown, K Robson

2010-01-01

223

ICRP Publication 116—the first ICRP/ICRU application of the male and female adult reference computational phantoms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ICRP Publication 116 on ‘Conversion coefficients for radiological protection quantities for external radiation exposures’, provides fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients for organ-absorbed doses and effective dose for various types of external exposures (ICRP 2010 ICRP Publication 116). The publication supersedes the ICRP Publication 74 (ICRP 1996 ICRP Publication 74, ICRU 1998 ICRU Report 57), including new particle types and expanding the energy ranges considered. The coefficients were calculated using the ICRP/ICRU computational phantoms (ICRP 2009 ICRP Publication 110) representing the reference adult male and reference adult female (ICRP 2002 ICRP Publication 89), together with a variety of Monte Carlo codes simulating the radiation transport in the body. Idealized whole-body irradiation from unidirectional and rotational parallel beams as well as isotropic irradiation was considered for a large variety of incident radiations and energy ranges. Comparison of the effective doses with operational quantities revealed that the latter quantities continue to provide a good approximation of effective dose for photons, neutrons and electrons for the ‘conventional’ energy ranges considered previously (ICRP 1996, ICRU 1998), but not at the higher energies of ICRP Publication 116.

Petoussi-Henss, Nina; Bolch, Wesley E.; Eckerman, Keith F.; Endo, Akira; Hertel, Nolan; Hunt, John; Menzel, Hans G.; Pelliccioni, Maurizio; Schlattl, Helmut; Zankl, Maria

2014-09-01

224

A single exposure to bisphenol A alters the levels of important neuroproteins in adult male and female mice.  

PubMed

Bisphenol A (BPA) is widely used in polymer products in food and beverage containers, baby bottles, dental sealants and fillings, adhesives, protective coatings, flame retardants, water supply pipes, and compact discs, and is found in the environment and in placental tissue, fetuses and breast milk. We have recently reported that a single neonatal exposure to bisphenol A can induce persistent aberrations in spontaneous behavior, in a dose-dependent manner, and affect the adult response to the cholinergic agent nicotine. Furthermore, other recent reports indicate that pre- and perinatal exposure to bisphenol A can induce neurotoxic effects. The present study indicates that a single neonatal exposure to bisphenol A, on postnatal day 10, during the peak of the brain growth spurt, can alter the adult levels of proteins important for normal brain development (CaMKII and synaptophysin). These alterations are induced in both male and female mice and effects are seen in both hippocampus and cerebral cortex. These results further support our recent study showing that neonatal exposure to bisphenol A can act as a developmental neurotoxicant and the effects are similar to effects seen after a single postnatal exposure to other POPs, such as PBDEs, PCBs and PFCs. PMID:22981971

Viberg, Henrik; Lee, Iwa

2012-10-01

225

Neonatal handling alters learning in adult male and female rats in a task-specific manner  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrated that early life manipulations (neonatal isolation, neonatal handling, maternal separation) impaired fear conditioning in adult rats [Kosten, T.A., Miserendino, M.J.D., Bombace, J.C., Lee, H.J., Kim, J.J., 2005. Sex-selective effects of neonatal isolation on fear conditioning and foot shock sensitivity. Behav. Brain Res. 157, 235–244.; Kosten, T.A., Lee, H.J. and Kim, J.J., 2006. Early life stress impairs fear conditioning

Therese A. Kosten; Hongjoo J. Lee; Jeansok J. Kim

2007-01-01

226

Perinatal taurine imbalance alters the interplay of renin-angiotensin system and estrogen on glucose-insulin regulation in adult female rats.  

PubMed

Perinatal taurine depletion followed by high sugar intake (postweaning) alters the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and glucose regulation in adult female rats. This study tests the hypothesis that in adult female rats, RAS and estrogen contribute to insulin resistance resulting from perinatal taurine imbalance. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed normal rat chow with 3% ?-alanine (taurine depletion, TD), 3% taurine (taurine supplementation, TS), or water alone (control, C) from conception to weaning. Their female offspring were fed normal rat chow with 5% glucose in water (TDG, TSG, CG) or water alone (TDW, TSW, CW) throughout the experiment. At 7-8 weeks of age, animals were studied with or without captopril inhibition of the RAS and with or without estrogen receptor inhibition by tamoxifen. Compared to CW and CG groups, perinatal taurine depletion but not supplementation slightly increased plasma insulin levels. High sugar intake slightly increased plasma insulin only in TSG. Captopril treatment significantly increased plasma insulin in all groups except CG (the greatest increase was in TDG). Changes in insulin resistance and insulin secretion paralleled the changes in plasma insulin levels. In contrast, tamoxifen treatment increased insulin resistance and decreased insulin secretion only in TDG and this group displayed hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance. These data indicate that perinatal taurine imbalance alters the interplay of RAS and estrogen on glucose-insulin regulation in adult female rats. PMID:23392872

Roysommuti, Sanya; Thaeomor, Atcharaporn; Khimsuksri, Sawita; Lerdweeraphon, Wichaporn; Wyss, J Michael

2013-01-01

227

Variability of foraging and roosting activities in adult females of Daubenton’s bat ( Myotis daubentonii ) in different seasons  

Microsoft Academic Search

We radio-tracked fifteen reproductive females (5 pregnant, 5 lactating, 5 in post-lactation) of the Daubenton’s bat in summer\\u000a 2005 in order to reveal the effect of reproductive state on their foraging and roosting activity. Spatial activity of females\\u000a decreased from pregnancy to lactation and increased again in the post-lactation period. Overall time spent foraging did not\\u000a differ among the three

Radek K. Lu?an; Jan Radil

2010-01-01

228

Characteristics of adult male and female firearm suicide decedents: findings from the National Violent Death Reporting System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To examine the risk factors and precipitating circumstances associated with firearm suicide.Methods:Data from the restricted National Violent Death Reporting System (2003–6) for 25 491 male and female suicide decedents aged 18 and older were analysed by multiple logistic regression to estimate the relative odds of firearm use with 95% CIs.Results:Firearms were often used in male (58.1%) and female (31.2%) suicides.

M S Kaplan; B H McFarland; N Huguet

2009-01-01

229

Female genital mutilation: an overview.  

PubMed

The literature on female genital mutilation (also known as female circumcision) within a feminist theoretical context is discussed. Issues of culture, politics and religion in the literature will be examined in relation to feminist thought and the paper will also assess the effects of female genital mutilation on women's health and status within developing societies. Parallels with other similar practices in developed and developing countries will be drawn and policy strategies discussed. PMID:8858427

Wright, J

1996-08-01

230

The Sun, Moon, Wind, and Biological Imperative-Shaping Contrasting Wintertime Migration and Foraging Strategies of Adult Male and Female Northern Fur Seals (Callorhinus ursinus)  

PubMed Central

Adult male and female northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) are sexually segregated in different regions of the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea during their winter migration. Explanations for this involve interplay between physiology, predator-prey dynamics, and ecosystem characteristics, however possible mechanisms lack empirical support. To investigate factors influencing the winter ecology of both sexes, we deployed five satellite-linked conductivity, temperature, and depth data loggers on adult males, and six satellite-linked depth data loggers and four satellite transmitters on adult females from St. Paul Island (Bering Sea, Alaska, USA) in October 2009. Males and females migrated to different regions of the North Pacific Ocean: males wintered in the Bering Sea and northern North Pacific Ocean, while females migrated to the Gulf of Alaska and California Current. Horizontal and vertical movement behaviors of both sexes were influenced by wind speed, season, light (sun and moon), and the ecosystem they occupied, although the expression of the behaviors differed between sexes. Male dive depths were aligned with the depth of the mixed layer during daylight periods and we suspect this was the case for females upon their arrival to the California Current. We suggest that females, because of their smaller size and physiological limitations, must avoid severe winters typical of the northern North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea and migrate long distances to areas of more benign environmental conditions and where prey is shallower and more accessible. In contrast, males can better tolerate often extreme winter ocean conditions and exploit prey at depth because of their greater size and physiological capabilities. We believe these contrasting winter behaviors 1) are a consequence of evolutionary selection for large size in males, important to the acquisition and defense of territories against rivals during the breeding season, and 2) ease environmental/physiological constraints imposed on smaller females. PMID:24722344

Sterling, Jeremy T; Springer, Alan M.; Iverson, Sara J.; Johnson, Shawn P.; Pelland, Noel A.; Johnson, Devin S.; Lea, Mary-Anne; Bond, Nicholas A.

2014-01-01

231

Female orgasmic disorder.  

PubMed

Female orgasmic disorder (FOD) is defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision, as a persistent or recurrent delay in, or absence of, orgasm following a 'normal' sexual excitement phase. FOD is a common problem affecting sexual function in a substantial proportion of women. Studies suggest that it is prevalent in 11-41% of women worldwide and can have a tremendous impact on the individual's quality of life, relational satisfaction and general well-being. The etiology of FOD tends to be multifactorial as it relates to genetics, medical conditions, medications, alcohol and drug use, other sexual dysfunctions, mental illness, life stressors, communication deficits and relationship issues. It is critical that sexual functioning in patients is assessed frequently through interview and/or validated questionnaires to aid in treatment strategy and/or referral. Currently, there are no approved medications to treat FOD. However, there are medications and psychological treatments that have shown promise in either treating FOD or thwarting the side effects of medications that can cause FOD. This chapter discusses the epidemiology and etiology of FOD and provides a comprehensive critical review of the literature on assessment and treatment of FOD. PMID:22005203

Rellini, Alessandra H; Clifton, Jessica

2011-01-01

232

Bone assessment of female long-distance runners  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of long-distance training on the bones in different growth stages by evaluating the bones of female high school athletes and female adult athletes who engage in long-distance training. Thirteen female high school athletes (aged 15–17 years) and 7 female adult athletes (aged 21–25 years) were enrolled in the present

Masaru Kaga; Kayo Takahashi; Tomoyuki Ishihara; Hisao Suzuki; Hiroyuki Tanaka; Yoshiki Seino; Hirofumi Makino

2004-01-01

233

Nurturing and Individuation in Female/Female Therapy Relationships.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As therapy relationships between female therapists and female clients become more prevalent, there is a need to address the attributes of these relationships. Psychoanalytic object relations theory and feminist theory can be used to arrive at a meaningful context for viewing the dimension of intimacy. Psychoanalytic literature on the mother/infant…

Levy, Sandra Beth

234

Feisty Females: Using Children's Literature with Strong Female Characters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a strategy to present girls with models of hardy female personalities through examples of young problem solvers found in children's literature to nurture and build the strength in female students to tackle problem-solving situations. Contains 17 references. (ASK)

Karp, Karen; Allen, Candy; Allen, Linda G.; Brown, Elizabeth Todd

1998-01-01

235

Body mass index and body fat percentage are associated with decreased physical fitness in adolescent and adult female volleyball players  

PubMed Central

Background: The objectives of this study were to examine (a) the prevalence of overweight/obesity, and (b) the relationship between body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (BF) and physical fitness in adolescent and adult female volleyball players. Materials and Methods: Adolescent (n = 102, aged 15.2 ± 2.0 year) and adult (n = 57, 25.9 ± 5.0 year) players were examined for anthropometric characteristics and body composition, and performed the physical working capacity in heart rate 170 min-1 test, a force-velocity test, the Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT), sit-and-reach test (SAR), handgrip strength test (HST) and countermovement vertical jump (CVJ). Results: Based on international BMI cut-off points, 27.5% (n = 28) of adolescent and 12.3% (n = 7) of adult participants were classified as overweight, with the prevalence of overweight being higher in girls than in women (?2 = 4.90, P = 0.027). BMI was correlated with BF in both age groups (r = 0.72, P < 0.001 in girls; r = 0.75, P < 0.001 in women). Normal participants had superior certain physical and physiological characteristics than those who were overweight. For instance, normal girls and women had higher mean power during WAnT than their overweight counterparts (P = 0.003 and P = 0.009 respectively). Except for flexibility, BMI and BF were inversely related with physical fitness (e.g., BMI vs. HST r = -0.39, P < 0.001 in girls; BF vs. CVJ r = -0.45, P < 0.001 in women). Conclusion: The findings confirmed the negative effect of overweight and fatness on selected parameters of physical fitness. The prevalence of overweight in adolescent volleyball players was higher than in general population, which was a novel finding, suggesting that proper exercise interventions should be developed to target the excess of body mass in youth volleyball clubs. PMID:23900100

Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theo

2013-01-01

236

Verbal Characteristics of Male and Female Transsexuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Slater’s Selective Vocabulary Test was given to a group of 56 male and a group of 14 female transsexuals and the results were compared with those of 15-year-old boys and girls, and a group of normal male adults. It was found that whereas normal males and females have a ratio of gender appropriate words to cross gender words of approximately

J. C. Kenna; J. Hoenig

1978-01-01

237

Female Sexual Arousal in Amphibians  

PubMed Central

Rather than being a static, species specific trait, reproductive behavior in female amphibians is variable within an individual during the breeding season when females are capable of reproductive activity. Changes in receptivity coincide with changes in circulating estrogen. Estrogen is highest at the point when females are ready to choose a male and lay eggs. At this time female receptivity (her probability of responding to a male vocal signal) is highest and her selectivity among conspecific calls (measured by her probability of responding to a degraded or otherwise usually unattractive male signal) is lowest. These changes occur even though females retain the ability to discriminate different acoustic characteristics of various conspecific calls. After releasing her eggs, female amphibians quickly become less receptive and more choosy in terms of their responses to male sexual advertisement signals. Male vocal signals stimulate both behavior and estrogen changes in amphibian females making mating more probable. The changes in female reproductive behavior are the same as those generally accepted as indicative of a change in female sexual arousal leading to copulation. They are situationally triggered, gated by interactions with males, and decline with the consummation of sexual reproduction with a chosen male. The changes can be triggered by either internal physiological state or by the presence of stimuli presented by males, and the same stimuli change both behavior and physiological (endocrine) state in such a way as to make acceptance of a male more likely. Thus amphibian females demonstrate many of the same general characteristics of changing female sexual state that in mammals indicate sexual arousal. PMID:20816968

Wilczynski, Walter; Lynch, Kathleen S.

2010-01-01

238

Women Reading for Education, Affinity & Development (WREAD): An Evaluation of a Semistructured Reading Discussion Group for African American Female Adult-Literacy Students with Histories of Trauma  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Women Reading for Education, Affinity & Development (WREAD), a reading discussion group geared toward African American female adult-literacy students with self-defined histories of trauma, was an outgrowth of research identifying links between trauma, women's struggles with literacy, and the need to be conscious of emotional health…

Jones, Jayatta D.

2012-01-01

239

Assessing the Long-Term Effects of EMDR: Results from an 18-Month Follow-Up Study with Adult Female Survivors of CSA  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 18-month follow-up study builds on the findings of a randomized experimental evaluation that found qualified support for the short-term effectiveness of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) in reducing trauma symptoms among adult female survivors of childhood sexual abuse (CSA). The current study provides preliminary evidence…

Edmond, Tonya; Rubin, Allen

2004-01-01

240

Child Sexual Abuse: Debate, Denial, and Denouement. A Feminist Perspective--Female Adults Molested as Children, Socialized Gender-Role Behavior, and Issues of Power and Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to examine the effect of perceived control in a non-clinical college student population that had experienced victimization (childhood molestation) and to examine predictor variables representing different types of controls. Subjects were 866 female undergraduates of whom 523 were identified as Adults Molested as Children…

Carlisle, Jane S.

241

Sella Turcica Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor Complicated with Lung Metastasis in an Adult Female  

PubMed Central

Here we present the case of a 60-year-old woman with a rare sellar region atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT), complicated by lung metastasis and treated with neurosurgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. The patient had recurrent headache associated with left cavernous sinus syndrome after a previous endonasal transsphenoidal resection for a presumptive pituitary macroadenoma. Pituitary magnetic resonance imaging showed a tumor regrowth in the original location with a haemorrhagic component involving the left cavernous sinus. A near complete transsphenoidal resection of the sellar mass was performed followed by 3 months of stereotactic radiotherapy. Because of a worsening of the general clinical conditions, respiratory failure, and asthenia, the patient underwent a contrast enhanced computer tomography of the whole body which showed the presence of lung metastasis. The histopathological diagnosis on samples from pituitary and lung tissues was AT/RT. The patient survived 30 months after diagnosis regardless chemotherapy. In the adult, the AT/RT should be considered as a possible rare, aggressive, and malignant neoplasm localized in the sella turcica. PMID:24324353

Moretti, Costanzo; Lupoi, Domenico; Spasaro, Francesca; Chioma, Laura; Di Giacinto, Paola; Colicchia, Martina; Frajoli, Mario; Mocini, Renzo; Ulisse, Salvatore; Antonelli, Manila; Giangaspero, Felice; Gnessi, Lucio

2013-01-01

242

Sella turcica atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor complicated with lung metastasis in an adult female.  

PubMed

Here we present the case of a 60-year-old woman with a rare sellar region atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT), complicated by lung metastasis and treated with neurosurgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. The patient had recurrent headache associated with left cavernous sinus syndrome after a previous endonasal transsphenoidal resection for a presumptive pituitary macroadenoma. Pituitary magnetic resonance imaging showed a tumor regrowth in the original location with a haemorrhagic component involving the left cavernous sinus. A near complete transsphenoidal resection of the sellar mass was performed followed by 3 months of stereotactic radiotherapy. Because of a worsening of the general clinical conditions, respiratory failure, and asthenia, the patient underwent a contrast enhanced computer tomography of the whole body which showed the presence of lung metastasis. The histopathological diagnosis on samples from pituitary and lung tissues was AT/RT. The patient survived 30 months after diagnosis regardless chemotherapy. In the adult, the AT/RT should be considered as a possible rare, aggressive, and malignant neoplasm localized in the sella turcica. PMID:24324353

Moretti, Costanzo; Lupoi, Domenico; Spasaro, Francesca; Chioma, Laura; Di Giacinto, Paola; Colicchia, Martina; Frajoli, Mario; Mocini, Renzo; Ulisse, Salvatore; Antonelli, Manila; Giangaspero, Felice; Gnessi, Lucio

2013-01-01

243

Augmented Acquisition of Cocaine Self-Administration and Altered Brain Glucose Metabolism in Adult Female but not Male Rats Exposed to a Cannabinoid Agonist during Adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marijuana consumption during adolescence has been proposed to be a stepping-stone for adult cocaine addiction. However, experimental evidence for this hypothesis is missing. In this work we chronically injected male and female Wistar rats with either the cannabinoid agonist CP 55,940 (CP; 0.4 mg\\/kg) or its corresponding vehicle. Adult acquisition (seven 30 min daily sessions) and maintenance (fourteen 2 h

Alejandro Higuera-Matas; María Luisa Soto-Montenegro; Nuria del Olmo; Miguel Miguéns; Isabel Torres; Juan José Vaquero; Javier Sánchez; Carmen García-Lecumberri; Manuel Desco; Emilio Ambrosio

2008-01-01

244

Female Adolescent Development. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book emphasizes female adolescents' healthy development within a psychoanalytic frame of reference for what is normative, that also indicates the boundaries of and transitions to what is deviant. The book's 12 articles relate to 3 general topics. The two articles in part 1 of the book, which addresses biological issues, are "Female Pubertal…

Sugar, Max, Ed.

245

Psychopathology in Female Juvenile Offenders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The aim was to document the spectrum of present and lifetime psychological disorders in female juvenile offenders, and to examine the relations between mental health status and socio-demographic, family and trauma variables. Method: One hundred juvenile offenders were matched with a comparison group of 100 females on age and…

Dixon, Angela; Howie, Pauline; Starling, Jean

2004-01-01

246

Dispelling Myths about Female Potential.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed are several myths and stereotypes about female physiology. Also included are new technical advances concerning the female reproduction physiology, new techniques in hormone measurement, hypotholomic-pituitary-ovarian axis, hormones and the monthly cycles, dysmenorrhea, menopause, infertility, and future areas for investigation about the…

Sloane, Ethel

1980-01-01

247

Female Political Leadership in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is a recognition and exploration of alternative accounts of female political leadership in India, other than dynastic succession. It explores the varied paths to power which female political leaders in India have followed in the past two decades within the changing institutional environment of electoral politics. The paper argues that gender is an important factor of the path

Carole Spary

2007-01-01

248

Female African wild dogs emigrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

AMONG mammals, the common mechanism of individual transfer between social groups is male emigration. While studying the African wild dog (Lycaon pictus Temminck) over a period of 2 yr, we have recorded four positive cases of female group emigration, three possible cases of single female emigration, and only one possible case of male group emigration. From this we conclude that

Lory Herbison Frame; George W. Frame

1976-01-01

249

Female Perpetrators of Intimate Abuse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review is made of female intimate abuse. It is concluded that females are as abusive as males in intimate relationships according to survey and epidemiological studies. This is especially so for younger "cohort" community samples followed longitudinally. Predictors of intimate violence with women appear to be similar to those of men; including…

Dutton, Donald G.; Nicholls, Tonia L.; Spidel, Alicia

2005-01-01

250

Psychopathology in female juvenile offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The aim was to document the spectrum of present and lifetime psychological disorders in female juvenile offenders, and to examine the relations between mental health status and socio- demographic, family and trauma variables. Method: One hundred juvenile offenders were matched with a comparison group of 100 females on age and socioeconomic status (SES). Psychological profiles and trauma histories of

Angela Dixon; Pauline Howie; Jean Starling

2004-01-01

251

Female Physicians and Substance Abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

As with women in general, the vicissitudes of the female physician who suffers from a substance use disorder have been understudied, and such persons remain underrepresented in treatment. The purpose of the present study is to describe the similarities and differences between female and male physicians presenting for assessment; 108 physicians in total were included in the study, 10 of

Mark P. McGovern; Daniel H. Angres; Nina D. Uziel-Miller; Scott Leon

1998-01-01

252

Female Genital Mutilations in Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Codes and ratings for female genital mutilations, virginity tests, premarital sex norms, and female initiation rites are presented for the 115 cultural clusters on the continent of Africa. Documenting the prevalence of these characteristics within clusters comprising sampling provinces is crucial for research on the pattern of variability both in Africa and in the world. In addition to the 11

Karen Paige Ericksen

1989-01-01

253

Egalitarianism in female African lions.  

PubMed

Because most cooperative societies are despotic, it has been difficult to test models of egalitarianism. Female African lions demonstrate a unique form of plural breeding in which companions consistently produce similar numbers of surviving offspring. Consistent with theoretical predictions from models of reproductive skew, female lions are unable to control each other's reproduction because of high costs of fighting and low access to each other's newborn cubs. A female also lacks incentives to reduce her companions' reproduction, because her own survival and reproduction depend on group territoriality and synchronous breeding. Consequently, female relationships are highly symmetrical, and female lions are "free agents" who only contribute to communal care when they have cubs of their own. PMID:11474110

Packer, C; Pusey, A E; Eberly, L E

2001-07-27

254

Depression-Like Behavioral Phenotypes by Social and Social Plus Visual Isolation in the Adult Female Macaca fascicularis  

PubMed Central

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a debilitating psychiatric mood disorder that affects millions of individuals globally. Our understanding of the biological basis of MDD is poor, and current treatments are ineffective in a significant proportion of cases. This current situation may relate to the dominant rodent animal models of depression, which possess translational limitations due to limited homologies with humans. Therefore, a more homologous primate model of depression is needed to advance investigation into the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying depression and to conduct pre-clinical therapeutic trials. Here, we report two convenient methods – social isolation and social plus visual isolation – which can be applied to construct a non-human primate model of depression in the adult female cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis). Both social and social plus visual isolation were shown to be effective in inducing depression-like behavior by significantly reducing socially dominant aggressive conflict behavior, communicative behavior, sexual behavior, and parental behavior. The addition of visual isolation produced more profound behavioral changes than social isolation alone by further reducing parental behavior and sexual behavior. Thus, the degree of behavioral pathology may be manipulated by the degree of isolation. These methods can be applied to construct a non-human primate model of depression in order to assess physiological, behavioral, and social phenomena in a controlled laboratory setting. PMID:24023857

Zhou, Qinmin; Wang, Tao; Shively, Carol; Wu, Qingyuan; Gong, Wei; Fang, Liang; Zhan, Qunlin; Melgiri, N. D.; Xie, Peng

2013-01-01

255

Management of a 59-year-old female patient with adult degenerative scoliosis using manipulation under anesthesia  

PubMed Central

Objective Manipulation under anesthesia (MUA) is an outpatient procedure that is performed to restore normal joint kinematics and musculoskeletal function. This article presents a case of a patient with idiopathic lumbar degenerative scoliosis who developed intractable pain as an adult and reports on the outcomes following a trial of MUA. Clinical Features A 59-year-old female patient presented to a chiropractic office with primary subjective symptoms of lower back and bilateral hip pain. Numerical pain rating scores were reported at 8 of 10 for the lower back and 9 of 10 for the sacroiliac joint/gluteal region. A disability score using a functional rating index demonstrated a score of 26 of 40 (or 64% disability). Over the preceding 5 years, the patient had tried a number of conservative therapies to relieve her pain without success. Intervention and Outcome The patient was evaluated for MUA. The patient was scheduled for a serial MUA over 3 days. Numerical pain rating scores 8 weeks after the MUA were 1 of 10 for the lower back and 3 of 10 for the sacroiliac joint. Her disability rating decreased to 11 of 40 (28%). Radiological improvements were also observed. These outcomes were maintained at 6-month follow-up. Conclusion Pain, functional, and radiographic outcomes demonstrated improvements immediately following treatment for this patient. PMID:21629554

Morningstar, Mark W.; Strauchman, Megan N.

2010-01-01

256

Attitudes of female athletes toward their male and female coaches  

E-print Network

preference as to the athletes' attitudes toward their coach. The attitudes of the female athletes toward their male coach and female coach are quite similar in most cases. They did not look toward either coach as a parent figure, but more often as good... friends. They did not consider either coach to have much influence on their personal- ity. The athletes respected the female coach as a person more than the male coach, but showed no preference with regard to respect as a coach or the respect shown...

Newcomb, Connie Karcher

2012-06-07

257

The influence of infant-caregiver experiences on amygdala Bdnf, OXTr, and NPY expression in developing and adult male and female rats.  

PubMed

Previous work with various animal models has demonstrated that alterations in the caregiving environment produce long-term changes in anxiety-related and social behaviors, as well as amygdala gene expression. We previously introduced a rodent model in which the timing and duration of exposure to maltreatment or nurturing care outside the home cage can be controlled to assess neurobiological outcomes. Here we sought to determine whether our brief experimental conditions produce changes in gene expression within the developing and adult amygdala. Using a candidate gene approach, we examined fold mRNA changes for the Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf), Oxytocin receptor (OXTr), and Neuropeptide Y (NPY) genes, which are all highly expressed in the amygdala and play important roles in anxiety-related and social behaviors. In adults, significant group differences were detected for only Bdnf, with higher levels of Bdnf mRNA for females that had been exposed to maltreatment and males exposed to nurturing care outside the home cage relative to littermate controls. For pups, significant group differences were detected for only OXTr, with lower levels of OXTr mRNA in females exposed to maltreatment. Finally, for adolescents, maltreated-females showed significant changes in Bdnf (decreased), OXTr (decreased), and NPY (increased) mRNA relative to controls. These data illustrate the ability of brief, but repeated exposure to different caregiving environments during the first postnatal week to have long-term effects on gene expression within the developing and adult amygdala, especially for females. PMID:25011012

Hill, Kathryn T; Warren, Megan; Roth, Tania L

2014-10-01

258

Early postnatal effects of noopept and piracetam on declarative and procedural memory of adult male and female rats.  

PubMed

We studied the effect of a new nootropic dipeptide Noopept and reference nootropic preparation piracetam injected subcutaneously on days 8-20 of life on learning of alternative feeding response in a 6-arm-maze in male and female rats. Early postnatal administration of Noopept disturbed the dynamics of learning by parameters of declarative and procedural memory. Piracetam impaired learning by parameters of procedural, but not declarative memory (only in males). Both preparations decreased the ratio of successfully learned males (but not females). The observed effects were not associated with changes in locomotor activity. PMID:16224581

Trofimov, S S; Voronina, T A; Guzevatykh, L S

2005-06-01

259

Labor participation rate, female (% of female population ages 15+)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Data set and map pertaining to labor force participation rates for women in all countries. The World Bank specifies female labor force participation as a World Development Indicator (WDI) -- the statistical benchmark that helps measure the progress of development.

Bank, World

260

Posture-specific phantoms representing female and male adults in Monte Carlo-based simulations for radiological protection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Does the posture of a patient have an effect on the organ and tissue absorbed doses caused by x-ray examinations? This study aims to find the answer to this question, based on Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of commonly performed x-ray examinations using adult phantoms modelled to represent humans in standing as well as in the supine posture. The recently published FASH (female adult mesh) and MASH (male adult mesh) phantoms have the standing posture. In a first step, both phantoms were updated with respect to their anatomy: glandular tissue was separated from adipose tissue in the breasts, visceral fat was separated from subcutaneous fat, cartilage was segmented in ears, nose and around the thyroid, and the mass of the right lung is now 15% greater than the left lung. The updated versions are called FASH2_sta and MASH2_sta (sta = standing). Taking into account the gravitational effects on organ position and fat distribution, supine versions of the FASH2 and the MASH2 phantoms have been developed in this study and called FASH2_sup and MASH2_sup. MC simulations of external whole-body exposure to monoenergetic photons and partial-body exposure to x-rays have been made with the standing and supine FASH2 and MASH2 phantoms. For external whole-body exposure for AP and PA projection with photon energies above 30 keV, the effective dose did not change by more than 5% when the posture changed from standing to supine or vice versa. Apart from that, the supine posture is quite rare in occupational radiation protection from whole-body exposure. However, in the x-ray diagnosis supine posture is frequently used for patients submitted to examinations. Changes of organ absorbed doses up to 60% were found for simulations of chest and abdomen radiographs if the posture changed from standing to supine or vice versa. A further increase of differences between posture-specific organ and tissue absorbed doses with increasing whole-body mass is to be expected.

Cassola, V. F.; Kramer, R.; Brayner, C.; Khoury, H. J.

2010-08-01

261

Body image and the female swimmer: muscularity but in moderation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate embodiment in a cohort of female swimmers. Relatively limited consideration has been given to body image in female swimmers and this study endeavoured to provide the first formal comparative insight into embodiment in adolescent swimmers and adult swimmers. Nineteen Scottish female swimmers took part in focus groups and interviews where they discussed

Karen Howells; Sarah Grogan

2012-01-01

262

Overuse Injuries in Female Athletes  

PubMed Central

The last three decades have witnessed a tremendous increase in female sports participation at all levels. However, increased sports participation of female athletes has also increased the incidence of sport-related injuries, which can be either acute trauma or overuse injuries. Overuse injuries may be defined as an imbalance caused by overly intensive training and inadequate recovery, which subsequently leads to a breakdown in tissue reparative mechanisms. This article will review the most frequent overuse injuries in female athletes in the context of anatomical, physiological, and psychological differences between genders. PMID:18074410

Ivkovic, Alan; Franic, Miljenko; Bojanic, Ivan; Pecina, Marko

2007-01-01

263

The culture of female circumcision.  

PubMed

The issue of female circumcision takes on special significance as more women migrate to the United States from countries where the practice has religious and traditional underpinnings. Female circumcision is a problem unfamiliar to most Western health care practitioners. This article describes an ethnographic study of the types of female circumcision, the reasons for and against the practice, the health implications of this practice, and cultural attitudes of circumcised women both in Western Africa and as migrant refugees living in the United States. Ethical dilemmas in dealing with this practice and implications for nurses and health care providers are discussed. PMID:8939287

Morris, R

1996-12-01

264

Associations between Food Insecurity, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) Benefits, and Body Mass Index among Adult Females  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obesity disproportionately affects low-income and minority individuals and has been linked with food insecurity, particularly among women. More research is needed to examine potential mechanisms linking obesity and food insecurity. Therefore, this study's purpose was to examine cross-sectional associations between food insecurity, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) benefits per household member, perceived stress, and body mass index (BMI) among female

Stephanie B. Jilcott; Elizabeth D. Wall-Bassett; Sloane C. Burke; Justin B. Moore

2011-01-01

265

Behavioral responses of adult female tobacco hornworms, Manduca sexta, to hostplant volatiles change with age and mating status  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present evidence for two behaviors influenced by intact, vegetative plant odor — upwind flight and abdomen curling — in female Manduca sexta and demonstrate the influence of the age and mating status of the moths on these behaviors. We compared the behavioral responses of laboratory-reared M. sexta. of discrete ages and physiological states (2,3, and 4 day old for

W. L. Mechaber; C. T. Capaldo; J. G. Hildebrand

266

Developmental Typologies of Identity Formation and Adjustment in Female Emerging Adults: A Latent Class Growth Analysis Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The developmental interplay between identity and adjustment was examined in a seven-wave longitudinal study of 428 European female college students (M[subscript age] = 18.8 years) over a period of 3 years, with semi-annual measurement waves each year. Latent Class Growth Analysis (LCGA) was used to identify developmental typologies of both…

Luyckx, Koen; Schwartz, Seth J.; Goossens, Luc; Soenens, Bart; Beyers, Wim

2008-01-01

267

Female dominance and female social relationships among yellow baboons (Papio hamadryas cynocephalus).  

PubMed

Adult females in a female-bonded, cercopithecine species such as baboons are characterized by hierarchically ranked matrilines, i.e., female offspring assume rankings just beneath those of their mothers. In this system of closely ranked matrilines, a female should engage in significantly more affiliative interactions with those individuals who are closely ranked to herself than with those individuals who are more distantly ranked. We examine the hypothesis that females in this troop of feral yellow baboons (Papio hamadryas cynocephalus) who are closely ranked will also show close social affiliation. We collected focal data on 23 feral, adult female subjects (253 possible dyads) over approximately 1 year at the Tana River National Primate Reserve, Kenya. Following Bramblett's [Behav Brain Sci 4: 435, 1981] method of dominance tabulation and utilizing a modified version of Smuts' [Sex and friendship in baboons, Hawthorne: Aldine Publishing Co., 1985] preferred partner index, we describe and compare the dominance matrix and hierarchy, preferred proximity partner and grooming partner sociograms, and the social networks of these 23 focal females. Over 1,400 interactions were utilized in the dominance tabulations, 41 statistically significant proximity partner preferences were documented, and 100 grooming dyads were recorded. We examine both partners' ranks and the presence of an infant as possible factors influencing proximity and grooming partner preferences. We find that in this population there is no direct correspondence between females' ranks and their affiliation partners. Neither proximity nor grooming preferences are consistently predictable from partners' ranks. While proximity preferences were not significantly influenced by the presence of an infant, grooming partner preferences were. Females with infants had more grooming partners and were more often involved in unidirectional grooming relationships as the recipients than were females without infants. We conclude that females' dominance rankings are not good predictors of either proximity partner or grooming partner preferences and that the presence of an infant does have a significant impact on grooming partner preferences in this population. PMID:10206209

Bentley-Condit, V K; Smith, E O

1999-01-01

268

Female suicide bombers and burdensomeness.  

PubMed

Brief case descriptions from journalists are presented to illustrate the role of traumatic experiences, the sense of being a burden to their families, and shame and humiliation in female suicide bombers. PMID:20402439

Lester, David

2010-02-01

269

What Is Female Sexual Dysfunction?  

MedlinePLUS

... only a temporary response to illness or other stress. In 2000, critics garnered additional support from a preliminary report by the Kinsey Institute, the organization that published a benchmark study on female sexual ...

270

Pharmacokinetics of bisphenol A in serum and adipose tissue following intravenous administration to adult female CD-1 mice.  

PubMed

Bisphenol A (BPA) is an important industrial chemical used as the monomer for polycarbonate plastic and in epoxy resins for use in food can liners. Worldwide biomonitoring studies consistently find high prevalence of BPA conjugates in urine consistent with pervasive exposure at levels typically below 1 ?g/kg bw/day. The current study used LC/MS/MS to measure serum pharmacokinetics of unconjugated (active) and conjugated (inactive) BPA in adult female CD-1 mice following intravenous (IV) injection, which produces higher serum levels by circumventing the processes of absorption from the GI tract and presystemic metabolism that occur after oral administration. Deuterated BPA (100 ?g/kg bw) was used to avoid interference by background contamination from trace amounts of native BPA. Additionally, the pharmacokinetics of unconjugated BPA were determined in adipose tissue, a proposed site of action and "depot" for BPA. After IV injection, unconjugated BPA rapidly distributed out of the circulation (t(1/2)=0.2 h) and terminal elimination also proceeded rapidly (t(1/2)=0.8 h). Consistent with the degree of aqueous solubility, lipid/water solubility ratio, and partitioning from blood into adipose tissue in vivo, the levels of unconjugated BPA in mouse adipose tissue rapidly reached a maximal level (0.25 h) that did not exceed the serum maximum at the initial sampling time (0.08 h). Terminal elimination of unconjugated BPA from adipose tissue (t(1/2)=7.0 h) was similar to that for conjugated BPA in serum (t(1/2)=6.6 h) and <0.01% of the administered dose remained in adipose tissue after 24 h. These plasma and tissue kinetics are consistent with rapid equilibria and underscore the non-persistent nature of BPA, particularly when compared with slowly metabolized lipophilic organic pollutants like halogenated dibenzodioxins. PMID:22465602

Doerge, Daniel R; Twaddle, Nathan C; Vanlandingham, Michelle; Fisher, Jeffrey W

2012-06-01

271

University total total Female Minority  

E-print Network

and Social Sciences $38,000 H. John Heinz III College $41,666 Mellon College of Science $40,000 School,267 1,665 40 Male 1,342 1,129 25 Female 925 536 15 race not reported 327 400 12 Male 183 249 7 Female 2013) Operating Revenue and Support $1,065,466,000 Operating Expenses $1,023,415,000 Endowment $1

Matsuda, Noboru

272

Social Representations of Female Orgasm  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines women's social representations of female orgasm. Fifty semi-structured interviews were conducted with British women. The data were thematically analysed and compared with the content of female orgasm-related writing in two women's magazines over a 30-year period. The results indicate that orgasm is deemed the goal of sex with emphasis on its physiological dimension. However, the women and

Maya Lavie-Ajayi; Hélène Joffe

2009-01-01

273

Female city officials in Texas  

E-print Network

helpful and supplied me with voting records essential to my investigation. For these services, I am grateful. Vli TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION ~ ~ ~ ~ Participation of Women in Local Government. Societal Forces Affecting the Female Role... family structure and ethnicity had upon support for a female candidate, a case study was made of a Texas city in which a woman was elected to a policymaking position in the city government structure. Precinct voting records were examined to ascertain...

Polly, Jayne Doyle

2012-06-07

274

Effects of neuron-specific estrogen receptor (ER) ? and ER? deletion on the acute estrogen negative feedback mechanism in adult female mice.  

PubMed

The negative feedback mechanism through which 17?-estradiol (E2) acts to suppress the activity of the GnRH neurons remains unclear. Using inducible and cell-specific genetic mouse models, we examined the estrogen receptor (ER) isoforms expressed by neurons that mediate acute estrogen negative feedback. Adult female mutant mice in which ER? was deleted from all neurons in the neonatal period failed to exhibit estrous cycles or negative feedback. Adult mutant female mice with neonatal neuronal ER? deletion exhibited normal estrous cycles, but a failure of E2 to suppress LH secretion was seen in ovariectomized mice. Mutant mice with a GnRH neuron-selective deletion of ER? exhibited normal cycles and negative feedback, suggesting no critical role for ER? in GnRH neurons in acute negative feedback. To examine the adult roles of neurons expressing ER?, an inducible tamoxifen-based Cre-LoxP approach was used to ablate ER? from neurons that express calmodulin kinase II? in adults. This resulted in mice with no estrous cycles, a normal increase in LH after ovariectomy, but an inability of E2 to suppress LH secretion. Finally, acute administration of ER?- and ER?-selective agonists to adult ovariectomized wild-type mice revealed that activation of ER? suppressed LH secretion, whereas ER? agonists had no effect. This study highlights the differences in adult reproductive phenotypes that result from neonatal vs adult ablation of ER? in the brain. Together, these experiments expand previous global knockout studies by demonstrating that neurons expressing ER? are essential and probably sufficient for the acute estrogen negative feedback mechanism in female mice. PMID:24476134

Cheong, Rachel Y; Porteous, Robert; Chambon, Pierre; Abrahám, István; Herbison, Allan E

2014-04-01

275

[Comparative study of the long-term behavioral effects of noopept and piracetam in adult male rats and female rats in postnatal period].  

PubMed

Adult male and female rats were treated with the peptide nootrope drug noopept (daily dose, 0.1 mg/kg) and piracetam (200 mg/kg). In the period from 8th to 20th day, both drugs (cognitive enhancers) suppressed the horizontal and vertical activity and the anxiety in test animals as compared to the control group treated with 0.9 % aqueous NaCl solution. Early postnatal injections of the nootropes influenced neither the morphology development nor the behavior of adult female rats in the plus maze, extrapolational escape, passive avoidance, and pain sensitivity threshold tests. Animals in the "intact" group (having received neither drugs not physiological solution, that is, developing in a poor sensor environment), showed less pronounced habituation in the open field test as compared to the control and drug treated groups. PMID:15934357

Voronina, T A; Guzevatykh, L S; Trofimov, S S

2005-01-01

276

A model of aftercare for female juveniles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the early 1980s, California's prison system has witnessed a boom. Of this growth, females represent the fastest growing population in both the adult and juvenile systems, often with youth feeding into the adult system. Although girls are the fastest-growing population in the juvenile justice system, there is a blatant lack of gender-specific programs to match this growth. Researchers have

Vivian Y. Lee

2005-01-01

277

The major acid soluble proteins of adult female Anopheles darlingi salivary glands include a member of the D7-related family of proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The salivary gland proteins of adult female Anopheles darlingi were fractionated by reverse-phase HPLC and the five major peaks were submitted for amino-terminal sequencing using automated Edman degradation. The amino acid sequence of one of the purified salivary gland proteins showed similarity with the D7r3 protein of An. gambiae. Cloning and sequencing of two cDNAs allowed the prediction of the

E Calvo; A. G deBianchi; A. A James; O Marinotti

2002-01-01

278

Behavioral responses of adult female tobacco hornworms, Manduca sexta, to hostplant volatiles change with age and mating status  

PubMed Central

We present evidence for two behaviors influenced by intact, vegetative plant odor — upwind flight and abdomen curling — in female Manduca sexta and demonstrate the influence of the age and mating status of the moths on these behaviors. We compared the behavioral responses of laboratory-reared M. sexta. of discrete ages and physiological states (2,3, and 4 day old for virgin; 2 and 3 day old for mated) as individual moths flew upwind in a flight tunnel to a source of hostplant volatiles. We monitored odor-modulated flight and abdomen curling in the presence of volatiles released by potted hostplants. Mated 3 day old females exhibited the highest incidence of odor-modulated flight and abdomen curling. Similarly, as virgin moths aged, a greater percentage of the individuals displayed odor-modulated flight patterns and abdomen curling. In contrast, younger virgin moths exhibited high levels of abdomen curling only after contact with the plant. PMID:15455039

Mechaber, W.L.; Capaldo, C.T.; Hildebrand, J.G.

2002-01-01

279

Female genital mutilation in Britain.  

PubMed

The practice of female genital mutilation predates the founding of both Christianity and Islam. Though largely confined among Muslims, the operation is also practiced in some Christian communities in Africa such that female genital mutilation takes place in various forms in more than twenty African countries, Oman, Yemen, the United Arab Emirates, and by some Muslims in Malaysia and Indonesia. In recent decades, ethnic groups which practice female genital mutilation have immigrated to Britain. The main groups are from Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia, and Yemen. In their own countries, an estimated 80% of women have had the operation. Female genital mutilation has been illegal in Britain since 1985, but it is practiced illegally or children are sent abroad to undergo the operation typically at age 7-9 years. It is a form of child abuse which poses special problems. The authors review the history of female genital mutilation and describe its medical complications. Assuming that the size of the population in Britain of ethnic groups which practice or favor female genital mutilation remains more or less unchanged, adaptation and acculturation will probably cause the practice to die out within a few generations. Meanwhile, there is much to be done. A conspiracy of silence exists in medical circles as well as widespread ignorance. Moreover, none of a number of well-known obstetric and pediatric textbooks mentions female genital mutilation, while the National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children has neither information nor instructional material. It is high time that the problem was more widely and openly discussed. PMID:7787654

Black, J A; Debelle, G D

1995-06-17

280

Early Postnatal Effects of Noopept and Piracetam on Declarative and Procedural Memory of Adult Male and Female Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the effect of a new nootropic dipeptide Noopept and reference nootropic preparation piracetam injected subcutaneously on days 8–20 of life on learning of alternative feeding response in a 6-arm-maze in male and female rats. Early postnatal administration of Noopept disturbed the dynamics of learning by parameters of declarative and procedural memory. Piracetam impaired learning by parameters of procedural,

S. S. Trofimov; T. A. Voronina; L. S. Guzevatykh

2005-01-01

281

Juvenoid Biosynthesis by Corpora Allata of Adult Female and Male Loreyi Leafworm, Mythimna loreyi Duponchel (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

ine in vitro was determined to be at 7 µM methionine concentration, and the greatest hourly incorporation (3.7 pmol\\/h\\/CA) occurred during 6-h incubations; both in vitro release of juvenile hormone (JH) II and JH III by female CA were age-dependent and showed similar trends, which peaked at day 4 (2.9 pmol JH III\\/4 h\\/CA) and day 9 (5.0 pmol JH

Rong Kou; Meng-Ping Tu

282

Effect of nail polish and henna on oxygen saturation determined by pulse oximetry in healthy young adult females  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe purpose of this study was to determine the effect of different colour nail polishes and henna on the measurement of oxygen saturation and the differences among the measurements of three pulse oximetry devices.Material and methods33 healthy females with a mean age of 19±1.0 years and no complaints or known disease were included into the study. All the participants applied

Hatice Sütçü Çiçek; Seyfettin Gümü?; Ömer Deniz; ?afak Yildiz; Cengiz Han Açikel; Erdinç Çakir; Ergun Tozkoparan; Ergün Uçar; Hayati Bilgiç

2010-01-01

283

Restricted maximum likelihood estimates of genetic parameters of adult male and female Rhode Island red chickens divergently selected for residual feed consumption.  

PubMed

In adult chickens, feed intake can be predicted by multiple linear regression from body weight, change in body weight during the recording period (for males and females), and egg mass (for females). Residual feed consumption (RFC) is estimated by the deviation of observed from predicted values for feed intake. A divergent selection experiment has been conducted since 1975 in a Rhode Island Red population. Each sex was selected on the basis of its own RFC, Line R+ for high values of RFC and Line R- for low values. In addition to the traits measured to obtain RFC, egg production traits and body measurements (BM) have been recorded, including wattle length, shank length, and rectal temperature. After pooling data from the two lines and the base population, the data set included 1,064 males, each with 7 variables, and 3,780 females, each with 11 variables. Genetic parameters were estimated by a multivariate derivative-free-restricted maximum likelihood procedure, which yields estimates free of bias due to selection and inbreeding. The RFC appeared to be moderately heritable in males (h2 = .33) and in females (h2 = .27) and poorly correlated between sexes, with a genetic correlation of .19 between RFC in males (RFCm) and in females (RFCf). The RFCm and RFCf were weakly correlated with egg production traits. Significant, positive correlations were found between RFCm and the BM traits that were related to heat dissipation. Correlations between feed intake, body weight, and BM traits recorded in males or in females were always < 1, except for shank length.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7479501

Tixier-Boichard, M; Boichard, D; Groeneveld, E; Bordas, A

1995-08-01

284

Administration of saccharin to neonatal mice influences body composition of adult males and reduces body weight of females.  

PubMed

Nutritional or pharmacological perturbations during perinatal growth can cause persistent effects on the function of white adipose tissue, altering susceptibility to obesity later in life. Previous studies have established that saccharin, a nonnutritive sweetener, inhibits lipolysis in mature adipocytes and stimulates adipogenesis. Thus, the current study tested whether neonatal exposure to saccharin via maternal lactation increased susceptibility of mice to diet-induced obesity. Saccharin decreased body weight of female mice beginning postnatal week 3. Decreased liver weights on week 14 corroborated this diminished body weight. Initially, saccharin also reduced male mouse body weight. By week 5, weights transiently rebounded above controls, and by week 14, male body weights did not differ. Body composition analysis revealed that saccharin increased lean and decreased fat mass of male mice, the latter due to decreased adipocyte size and epididymal, perirenal, and sc adipose weights. A mild improvement in glucose tolerance without a change in insulin sensitivity or secretion aligned with this leaner phenotype. Interestingly, microcomputed tomography analysis indicated that saccharin also increased cortical and trabecular bone mass of male mice and modified cortical bone alone in female mice. A modest increase in circulating testosterone may contribute to the leaner phenotype in male mice. Accordingly, the current study established a developmental period in which saccharin at high concentrations reduces adiposity and increases lean and bone mass in male mice while decreasing generalized growth in female mice. PMID:24456165

Parlee, Sebastian D; Simon, Becky R; Scheller, Erica L; Alejandro, Emilyn U; Learman, Brian S; Krishnan, Venkatesh; Bernal-Mizrachi, Ernesto; MacDougald, Ormond A

2014-04-01

285

Awareness of and attitude towards human papillomavirus infection and vaccination for cervical cancer prevention among adult males and females in Korea: a nationwide interview survey.  

PubMed

We assessed adult male and female awareness and acceptance of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and vaccination for cervical cancer prevention, as well as factors associated with willingness to be administered the HPV vaccine. A nationwide population-based interview survey was conducted in Korea. One thousand male and female adults were included with random sampling. Despite the fact that awareness of HPV infection (13.3%) and the preventive effect of HPV vaccination (8.6%) were low, willingness to vaccinate against HPV (55.0%) was relatively high, especially with regard to participants' daughters (77.0%). Those who were informed about HPV infection (adjusted odds ratio, aOR=2.5 and 95% confidence interval, CI=1.1-5.3 in males; aOR=2.5 and 95% CI=1.5-4.2 in females) or vaccination (aOR=2.9 and 95% CI=1.1-7.6 in males; aOR=2.9 and 95% CI=1.6-5.4 in females), or who perceived a susceptibility to HPV infection (aOR=3.6 and 95% CI=1.9-6.8 in males; aOR=2.8 and 95% CI=1.6-5.0 in females) were more accepting of vaccination than those who did not. Appropriate knowledge transfer, guidance from a health professional, and reductions in the cost of the vaccine are key issues in promoting awareness of HPV infection and vaccination for cervical cancer prevention. PMID:20005860

Oh, Jin-Kyoung; Lim, Min Kyung; Yun, E Hwa; Lee, Eun-Hye; Shin, Hai-Rim

2010-02-17

286

Immune function is related to adult carotenoid and bile pigment levels, but not to dietary carotenoid access during development, in female mallard ducks.  

PubMed

Immune function can be modulated by multiple physiological factors, including nutrition and reproductive state. Because these factors can vary throughout an individual's lifetime as a result of environmental conditions (affecting nutrition) or life-history stage (e.g. entering the adult reproduction stage), we must carefully examine the degree to which developmental versus adult conditions shape performance of the immune system. We investigated how variation in dietary access to carotenoid pigments - a class of molecules with immunostimulatory properties that females deposit into egg yolks - during three different developmental time points affected adult immunological and reproductive traits in female mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos). In males and females of other avian species, carotenoid access during development affects carotenoid assimilation ability, adult sexual ornamentation and immune function, while carotenoid access during adulthood can increase immune response and reproductive investment (e.g. egg-laying capacity, biliverdin deposition in eggshells). We failed to detect effects of developmental carotenoid supplementation on adult immune function [phytohemagglutinin-induced cutaneous immune response, antibody production in response to the novel antigen keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), or oxidative burst, assessed by changes in circulating nitric oxide levels], carotenoid-pigmented beak coloration, ovarian development, circulating carotenoid levels or concentration of bile pigments in the gall bladder. However, we did uncover positive relationships between circulating carotenoid levels during adulthood and KLH-specific antibody production, and a negative relationship between biliverdin concentration in bile and KLH-specific antibody production. These results are consistent with the view that adult physiological parameters better predict current immune function than do developmental conditions, and highlight a possible, previously unstudied relationship between biliverdin and immune system performance. PMID:23531827

Butler, Michael W; McGraw, Kevin J

2013-07-15

287

Hedging their bets? Male and female chacma baboons form friendships based on likelihood of paternity  

E-print Network

Hedging their bets? Male and female chacma baboons form friendships based on likelihood hamadryas ursinus), adult males and lactating females form preferential associations, or `friendships males and females form friendships, or the function of friendships for males. We examined

Seyfarth, Robert

288

Juggling priorities: female mating tactics in Phayre's leaf monkeys.  

PubMed

Extended sexual receptivity in primates is thought to facilitate paternity confusion, thus decreasing the risk of infanticide. However, females might also provide some indication of ovulation to attract preferred males during fertile periods. We examined female mate preferences across defined receptive periods (N = 59) in a group of wild Phayre's leaf monkeys (Trachypithecus phayrei crepusculus) at Phu Khieo Wildlife Sanctuary (February-September 2006; 2,603 contact hours). The group contained seven cycling adult females and three reproductively active males (one adult and two adolescents). We predicted that females would prefer the adult male during periovulatory (POP) receptive periods, but the adolescent males during nonperiovulatory (NPOP) and postconceptive (PC) periods. We collected focal and ad libitum data on sexual and agonistic behaviors to determine female preferences and male awareness of female fertility. We also determined the degree of mating overlap to assess if males were capable of monopolizing females. Our results indicate that females were more frequently proceptive and receptive toward the adult male during POP. By contrast, females were more proceptive and receptive toward one of the adolescent males during PC periods, but rarely interacted with the other adolescent. Patterns of attractivity and agonism across receptive periods suggested that the adult male could detect fertility, while the preferred adolescent could not. Finally, we found a high degree of overlap in total receptive period days, but a low degree of overlap in POP receptive days, suggesting that the adult male might have monopolized females, especially since he seemed to be aware of female fertility. Although these results suggest that females provide some information on ovulation, they also suggest that females attempt to confuse paternity, perhaps capitalizing on male differences in the ability to detect fertility. PMID:22318888

Lu, Amy; Beehner, Jacinta C; Czekala, Nancy M; Borries, Carola

2012-05-01

289

Germline energetics, aging and female infertility  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY The role of metabolism in ovarian aging is poorly described, despite the fact that ovaries fail earlier than most other organs. Growing interest in ovarian function is being driven by recent evidence that mammalian females routinely generate new oocytes during adult life through the activity of germline stem cells. In this perspective, we overview the female reproductive system as a powerful and clinically relevant model to understand links between aging and metabolism, and we discuss new concepts for how oocytes and their precursor cells might be altered metabolically to sustain or increase ovarian function and fertility in women. PMID:23747243

Tilly, Jonathan L.; Sinclair, David A.

2013-01-01

290

Plasma homocysteine levels in female patients with eating disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To examine plasma homocysteine, vitamin B(12), and folate levels in females with restricting and bingeing\\/purging eating disorders (EDs). METHOD: Adolescent and adult female patients were compared to appropriate control groups with regard to plasma homocysteine levels. RESULTS: The plasma homocysteine level of the adult ED patients was higher than that of controls for all age groups examined. In adolescents,

Joseph Levine; Eitan Gur; Ron Loewenthal; Tali Vishne; Tzvi Dwolatzky; I. M. van Beijnum; Ben-Ami Sela; Iris Vered; Galit Yosef; Daniel Stein

2007-01-01

291

A Female Homo erectus Pelvis from Gona, Ethiopia  

E-print Network

accumulation rates in the Busidima Formation narrows the likely age of the fossil to 0.9 to 1.4 Ma (8). To date describe a nearly complete early Pleistocene adult female H. erectus pelvis from the Busidima Formation fossil hom- inid adult pelves are from small-bodied females (such as the 3.2-million

Utrecht, Universiteit

292

Winter survival of adult female harlequin ducks in relation to history of contamination by the Exxon Valdez oil spill  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Harlequin duck (Histrionicus histrionicus) life-history characteristics make their populations particularly vulnerable to perturbations during nonbreeding periods. The 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill was a major perturbation to nonbreeding habitats of harlequin ducks in Prince William Sound, Alaska, which resulted in population injury. To assess the status of population recovery from the oil spill and to evaluate factors potentially constraining full recovery, we used radiotelemetry to examine survival of adult female harlequin ducks during winters of 1995-96, 1996-97, and 1997-98. We implanted 294 harlequin ducks (154 and 140 in oiled and unoiled areas, respectively) with transmitters and tracked their signals from aircraft during October through March. We examined variation in survival rates relative to area and season (early, mid, and late winter) through comparisons of models using Akaike's information criterion (AIC(c)) values. The 3 models best supported by the data indicated that survival of birds in oiled areas was lower than in unoiled areas. Inclusion of standardized body mass during wing molt in the 3 best models did not improve their fit, indicating that body mass during wing molt did not affect subsequent winter survival. In the model that best fit our data, survival was high in early winter for both areas, lower during mid and late winter seasons, and lowest in oiled areas during mid winter. Cumulative winter survival estimated from this model was 78.0% (SE = 3.3%) in oiled areas and 83.7% (SE = 2.9%) in unoiled areas. We determined that area differences in survival were more likely related to oiling history than intrinsic geographic differences. Based on a demographic model, area differences in survival offer a likely mechanism for observed declines in populations on oiled areas. Concurrent studies indicated that harlequin ducks continued to be exposed to residual Exxon Valdez oil as much as 9 years after the spill. We suggest that oil exposure, mortality, and population dynamics were linked and conclude that continued effects of the oil spill likely restricted recovery of harlequin duck populations through at least 1998.

Esler, D.; Schmutz, J.A.; Jarvis, R.L.; Mulcahy, D.M.

2000-01-01

293

Oviposition-altering and ovicidal potentials of five essential oils against female adults of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti L.  

PubMed

The oviposition deterrence and ovicidal potential of five different essential oils, peppermint oil (Mentha piperita), basil oil (Ocimum basilicum), rosemary oil (Rosemarinus officinalis), citronella oil (Cymbopogon nardus), and celery seed oil (Apium graveolens), were assessed against female adults of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti L. Multiple concentration tests were carried out where cups containing 1 mL of different concentrations (100%, 10%, 1%, 0.1%) of the oils and 199 mL of water were used for oviposition. The number of eggs laid and the larvae hatched in each cup were scored to evaluate the oviposition deterrent and ovicidal potentials of the oils. Our investigations revealed that the addition of 100% oil (pure oil) caused complete oviposition deterrence except in A. graveolens which resulted in 75% effective repellency. The use of 10% oil resulted in the maximum deterrence of 97.5% as shown by the M. piperita oil while other oils caused 36-97% oviposition deterrence as against the control. The oviposition medium with 1% oil showed decreased deterrent potential with 30-64% effective repellency, the M. piperita oil being exceptional. However, as the concentrations of the oil were reduced further to 0.1%, the least effective oil observed was A. graveolens (25% ER). Also, the M. piperita oil showed much reduced activity (40%) as compared to the control, while the other oils exhibited 51-58% repellency to oviposition. The studies on the ovicidal effects of these oils revealed that the eggs laid in the water with 100% essential oils did not hatch at all, whereas when 10% oils were used, only the R. officinalis oil resulted in 28% egg hatch. At lower concentrations (1%), the oils of M. piperita, O. basilicum, and C. nardus showed complete egg mortality while those of A. graveolens and R. officinalis resulted in 71% and 34% egg hatches, respectively. When used at 0.1%, the O. basilicum oil was found to be the only effective oil with 100% egg mortality, whereas other oils resulted in 16-76% egg mortality, the least mortality caused by the A. graveolens oil. These results suggest that these essential oils can be employed in a resistance-management program against A. aegypti. Further detailed research is needed to identify the active ingredient in the extracts and implement the effective mosquito management program. PMID:21445613

Warikoo, Radhika; Wahab, Naim; Kumar, Sarita

2011-10-01

294

Female circumcision: persistence amid conflict.  

PubMed

The continuing practice of female circumcision (removal of varying degrees of external genitalia) was perhaps the most emotional issue discussed at the Ninth International Congress on Women's Health Issues, held in June in Alexandria, Egypt. The results of two studies presented at the Congress have resulted to an argument. Others view female circumcision as a traditional folk practice, similar to scarring of the skin or elongation of the lips among certain African tribes and should not be subjected to "cultural imperialism" from abroad. Instead, the procedure could best be eradicated through focused education--telling patients that it is not required by Islam and that it can be detrimental to health. However, this suggestion was hotly debated by members of the audience who insisted that female circumcision should be considered as a form of child abuse and thus properly addressed as a political issue. PMID:9849193

Douglas, J H

1998-01-01

295

African perceptions of female attractiveness.  

PubMed

Little is known about mate choice preferences outside Western, educated, industrialised, rich and democratic societies, even though these Western populations may be particularly unrepresentative of human populations. To our knowledge, this is the first study to test which facial cues contribute to African perceptions of African female attractiveness and also the first study to test the combined role of facial adiposity, skin colour (lightness, yellowness and redness), skin homogeneity and youthfulness in the facial attractiveness preferences of any population. Results show that youthfulness, skin colour, skin homogeneity and facial adiposity significantly and independently predict attractiveness in female African faces. Younger, thinner women with a lighter, yellower skin colour and a more homogenous skin tone are considered more attractive. These findings provide a more global perspective on human mate choice and point to a universal role for these four facial cues in female facial attractiveness. PMID:23144734

Coetzee, Vinet; Faerber, Stella J; Greeff, Jaco M; Lefevre, Carmen E; Re, Daniel E; Perrett, David I

2012-01-01

296

African Perceptions of Female Attractiveness  

PubMed Central

Little is known about mate choice preferences outside Western, educated, industrialised, rich and democratic societies, even though these Western populations may be particularly unrepresentative of human populations. To our knowledge, this is the first study to test which facial cues contribute to African perceptions of African female attractiveness and also the first study to test the combined role of facial adiposity, skin colour (lightness, yellowness and redness), skin homogeneity and youthfulness in the facial attractiveness preferences of any population. Results show that youthfulness, skin colour, skin homogeneity and facial adiposity significantly and independently predict attractiveness in female African faces. Younger, thinner women with a lighter, yellower skin colour and a more homogenous skin tone are considered more attractive. These findings provide a more global perspective on human mate choice and point to a universal role for these four facial cues in female facial attractiveness. PMID:23144734

Coetzee, Vinet; Faerber, Stella J.; Greeff, Jaco M.; Lefevre, Carmen E.; Re, Daniel E.; Perrett, David I.

2012-01-01

297

Rural female adolescence: Indian scenario.  

PubMed

This article describes the life conditions of female adolescents in India and issues such as health, discrimination in nutrition and literacy, child labor, early marriage, juvenile delinquency, and violence against girls in rural areas of India. Data are obtained from interview samples conducted among 12 villages in north India. Female adolescents suffer from a variety of poverty-ridden village life conditions: caste oppression, lack of facilities, malnutrition, educational backwardness, early marriage, domestic burden, and gender neglect. Girls carry a heavy work burden. Adolescence in rural areas is marked by the onset of puberty and the thrust into adulthood. Girls have no independent authority to control their sexuality or reproduction. Girls are expected to get married and produce children. Control of female sexuality is shifted from the father to the husband. There is a strong push to marry girls soon after menstruation, due to the burden of imposing strict restrictions on female sexuality, the desire to reduce the burden of financial support, and the need to ensure social security for daughters. Girls may not go out alone or stay outside after dark. Many rural parents fear that education and freedom would ruin their daughter. Girls develop a low self-image. Rural villages have poor sanitation, toilet facilities, and drainage systems. Girls are ignorant of health and sex education and lack access to education. The neglect of female children includes malnutrition, sex bias, and early marriage. In 1981, almost 4 out of every 100 girls had to work. 5.527 million girls 5-14 years old were child laborers. Girls are veiled, footbound, circumcised, and burnt by dowry hungry in-laws. Female delinquents are subjected to sexual harassment and sometime to sexual abuse while in custody. Cows are treated better in rural India than women. Gender disparity is caused by the perpetuation of patriarchal masculine values. PMID:12158005

Kumari, R

1995-01-01

298

An Enriched Rearing Environment Calms Adult Male Rat Sexual Activity: Implication for Distinct Serotonergic and Hormonal Responses to Females  

PubMed Central

Early life events induce alterations in neural function in adulthood. Although rearing in an enriched environment (EE) has a great impact on behavioral development, the effects of enriched rearing on sociosexual behavior remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of rearing in an EE on male copulatory behavior and its underlying neurobiological mechanisms in Wistar-Imamichi rats. Three-week-old, recently weaned rats were continuously subjected to a standard environment (SE) or an EE comprised of a large cage with several objects, such as toys, tunnels, ladders, and a running wheel. After 6 weeks, rats reared in an EE (EE rats) showed decreased sexual activity compared with rats reared in a SE (SE rats). This included a lower number of ejaculations and longer latencies in three consecutive copulatory tests. In addition, EE rats showed decreased emotional responsiveness and less locomotor behavior in an open field. In a runway test, on the other hand, sexual motivation toward receptive females in EE males was comparable to that of SE males. Furthermore, following exposure to a female, increases in serotonin levels in the nucleus accumbens and the striatum were significantly suppressed in EE males, whereas dopaminergic responses were similar between the groups. Female-exposure-induced increases in the levels of plasma corticosterone and testosterone were also suppressed in EE rats compared to SE rats. These data suggest that rearing in an EE decreases male copulatory behavior, and serotonin and hormonal regulating systems may regulate the differences in sociosexual interactions that result from distinct rearing environments. PMID:24505330

Urakawa, Susumu; Mitsushima, Dai; Shimozuru, Michito; Sakuma, Yasuo; Kondo, Yasuhiko

2014-01-01

299

An enriched rearing environment calms adult male rat sexual activity: implication for distinct serotonergic and hormonal responses to females.  

PubMed

Early life events induce alterations in neural function in adulthood. Although rearing in an enriched environment (EE) has a great impact on behavioral development, the effects of enriched rearing on sociosexual behavior remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of rearing in an EE on male copulatory behavior and its underlying neurobiological mechanisms in Wistar-Imamichi rats. Three-week-old, recently weaned rats were continuously subjected to a standard environment (SE) or an EE comprised of a large cage with several objects, such as toys, tunnels, ladders, and a running wheel. After 6 weeks, rats reared in an EE (EE rats) showed decreased sexual activity compared with rats reared in a SE (SE rats). This included a lower number of ejaculations and longer latencies in three consecutive copulatory tests. In addition, EE rats showed decreased emotional responsiveness and less locomotor behavior in an open field. In a runway test, on the other hand, sexual motivation toward receptive females in EE males was comparable to that of SE males. Furthermore, following exposure to a female, increases in serotonin levels in the nucleus accumbens and the striatum were significantly suppressed in EE males, whereas dopaminergic responses were similar between the groups. Female-exposure-induced increases in the levels of plasma corticosterone and testosterone were also suppressed in EE rats compared to SE rats. These data suggest that rearing in an EE decreases male copulatory behavior, and serotonin and hormonal regulating systems may regulate the differences in sociosexual interactions that result from distinct rearing environments. PMID:24505330

Urakawa, Susumu; Mitsushima, Dai; Shimozuru, Michito; Sakuma, Yasuo; Kondo, Yasuhiko

2014-01-01

300

Cardiac contraction, calcium transients, and myofilament calcium sensitivity fluctuate with the estrous cycle in young adult female mice.  

PubMed

This study established conditions to induce regular estrous cycles in female C57BL/6J mice and investigated the impact of the estrous cycle on contractions, Ca2+ transients, and underlying cardiac excitation-contraction (EC)-coupling mechanisms. Daily vaginal smears from group-housed virgin female mice were stained to distinguish estrous stage (proestrus, estrus, metestrus, diestrus). Ventricular myocytes were isolated from anesthetized mice. Contractions and Ca2+ transients were measured simultaneously (4 Hz, 37 °C). Interestingly, mice did not exhibit regular cycles unless they were exposed to male pheromones in bedding added to their cages. Field-stimulated myocytes from mice in estrus had larger contractions (?2-fold increase), larger Ca2+ transients (?1.11-fold increase), and longer action potentials (>2-fold increase) compared with other stages. Larger contractions and Ca2+ transients were not observed in estrus myocytes voltage-clamped with shorter action potentials. Voltage-clamp experiments also demonstrated that estrous stage had no effect on Ca2+ current, EC-coupling gain, diastolic Ca2+, sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ content, or fractional release. Although contractions were largest in estrus, myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity was lowest (EC50 values ?1.15-fold higher) in conjunction with increased phosphorylation of myosin binding protein C in estrus. Contractions were enhanced in ventricular myocytes from mice in estrus because action potential prolongation increased SR Ca2+ release. These findings demonstrate that cyclical changes in reproductive hormones associated with the estrous cycle can influence myocardial electrical and contractile function and modify Ca2+ homeostasis. However, such changes are unlikely to occur in female mice housed in groups under conventional conditions, since these mice do not exhibit regular estrous cycles. PMID:24464757

MacDonald, Jennifer K; Pyle, W Glen; Reitz, Cristine J; Howlett, Susan E

2014-04-01

301

Effects of amphetamine exposure in adolescence or young adulthood on inhibitory control in adult male and female rats.  

PubMed

Heightened impulsivity is a feature of some psychiatric disorders, including addiction, that also have sex-specific patterns of expression. The relationship between addiction and impulsivity may be driven by drug-induced changes in behavior caused by long term adaptations in signaling within the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Here, we used a response inhibition task that is sensitive to changes in mPFC function to examine the effects of sex and exposure to amphetamine (AMPH) on impulsive action and vigilance. We also examined drug-induced alterations in glutamatergic and dopaminergic signaling through challenge injections with the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 (dizocilpine) and AMPH. Male and female Sprague Dawley rats were injected (i.p.) with saline or 3 mg/kg AMPH every other day during adolescence (postnatal day (P) 27-45) or adulthood (P85-103). Starting on P125-135, rats were tested for their ability to lever press for a food reward during periods of signaled availability and withhold responding during a "premature response" phase. In experiment 1, rats received challenge injections (i.p.) of MK-801 and AMPH followed by tests of task performance and locomotor activity. In experiment 2, rats received intra-mPFC infusion of MK-801. We found that females had better inhibitory control and poorer vigilance than males and that AMPH exposure had both sex- and age-of-exposure dependent effects on impulsivity. Systemic drug challenges disrupted task performance, particularly in females, and increased impulsivity while intra-mPFC infusions had modest effects. AMPH exposure did not affect responses to drug challenges. Together, these results suggest that sex mediates both trait and drug-induced impulsivity. PMID:24462963

Hammerslag, Lindsey R; Waldman, Alex J; Gulley, Joshua M

2014-04-15

302

Physical and Mental Health Status of Female Adolescent/Young Adult Survivors of Breast and Gynecological Cancer: A National, Population-Based, Case-Control Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose Each year nearly 21,000 adolescents and young adults (AYA) ages 15 to 29 years are diagnosed with cancer. Breast and gynecological cancers account for 25% of the cancers seen in AYA females. The purpose of this study was to compare the current physical and mental health status of female AYA cancer survivors with non-cancer female controls. Methods Using data from the population-based 2009 National Health Interview Survey, 100 cases of female AYA survivors of breast and gynecological cancers were identified (FCS group). FCS cases were matched with 300 female respondents without a history of cancer on age, education, marital status, and minority status (NCC group). The FCS and NCC groups were compared on a range of physical and mental health status indices using analysis of covariance and binary logistic regression. Results FCS group reported significantly poorer physical and mental health status than the matched controls. Relative to the NCC group, FCS survivors had significantly poorer scores on 7 of 8 mental health outcomes and were more likely to meet criteria for serious psychological distress (OR = 4.23, p ? 0.001). FCS group also reported greater lifetime and current prevalence of various medical conditions; more health-related disabilities; and greater functional limitations than the NCC group. Conclusion Diagnosis of breast and gynecological cancer during adolescence and young adulthood is associated with clinically important deficits in physical and mental health status. Given the young age of this cancer survivor cohort, increased attention should be devoted to minimizing these deficits. PMID:23306935

Phillips-Salimi, Celeste R.; Andrykowski, Michael A.

2013-01-01

303

Ovarian hormones and chronic administration during adolescence modify the discriminative stimulus effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (??-THC) in adult female rats.  

PubMed

Marijuana abuse during adolescence may alter its abuse liability during adulthood by modifying the interoceptive (discriminative) stimuli produced, especially in females due to an interaction with ovarian hormones. To examine this possibility, either gonadally intact or ovariectomized (OVX) female rats received 40 intraperitoneal injections of saline or 5.6 mg/kg of ??-THC daily during adolescence, yielding 4 experimental groups (intact/saline, intact/??-THC, OVX/saline, and OVX/??-THC). These groups were then trained to discriminate ??-THC (0.32-3.2 mg/kg) from saline under a fixed-ratio (FR) 20 schedule of food presentation. After a training dose was established for the subjects in each group, varying doses of ??-THC were substituted for the training dose to obtain dose-effect (generalization) curves for drug-lever responding and response rate. The results showed that: 1) the OVX/saline group had a substantially higher mean response rate under control conditions than the other three groups, 2) both OVX groups had higher percentages of THC-lever responding than the intact groups at doses of ??-THC lower than the training dose, and 3) the OVX/??-THC group was significantly less sensitive to the rate-decreasing effects of ??-THC compared to other groups. Furthermore, at sacrifice, western blot analyses indicated that chronic ??-THC in OVX and intact females decreased cannabinoid type-1 receptor (CB1R) levels in the striatum, and decreased phosphorylation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein (p-CREB) in the hippocampus. In contrast to the hippocampus, chronic ??-THC selectively increased p-CREB in the OVX/saline group in the striatum. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) was not significantly affected by either hormone status or chronic ??-THC. In summary, these data in female rats suggest that cannabinoid abuse by adolescent human females could alter their subsequent responsiveness to cannabinoids as adults and have serious consequences for brain development. PMID:22705493

Winsauer, Peter J; Filipeanu, Catalin M; Bailey, Evangeline M; Hulst, Jerielle L; Sutton, Jessie L

2012-09-01

304

Differences in Early Maladaptive Schemas between a Sample of Young Adult Female Substance Abusers and a Non-clinical Comparison Group  

PubMed Central

Early maladaptive schemas, defined as cognitive and behavioural patterns of viewing oneself and the world that cause considerable distress, are increasingly being recognized as an important underlying correlate of mental health problems. Recent research has begun to examine early maladaptive schemas among individuals seeking treatment for substance abuse. Unfortunately, there is limited research on whether substance abusers score higher on early maladaptive schemas than non-clinical controls. Thus, the current study examined whether a sample of young adult female substance abuse treatment seekers (n = 180) scored higher than a non-clinical group of female college students (n = 284) on early maladaptive schemas. Results demonstrated that the substance abuse group scored higher than the non-clinical group on 16 of the 18 early maladaptive schemas. In addition, a number of differences in early maladaptive schemas were large in effect size. Implications of these findings for future research and substance abuse treatment programmes are discussed. PMID:22615132

Shorey, Ryan C.; Stuart, Gregory L.; Anderson, Scott

2012-01-01

305

Bone disease in female athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regular exercise and physical activity have many health benefits for both females and males. In particular, weight-bearing exercise has a protective effect on the skeleton, and can even be osteogenic (stimulating to bone formation). However, achievement of optimal bone mineral density and regulation of bone maintenance depend upon a combination of mechanical, hormonal and dietary factors. Adequate hormonal status (oestrogen

Connie Lebrun

2006-01-01

306

An Update on Gifted Females.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses selected issues and literature concerning gifted female students, examining achievement and aptitude, career choice, self-perceptions of ability, course taking, parental influences, the glamorization of sex differences, stereotyping, effects of classroom groupings and teaching strategies, and effects of single-sex schools and…

Callahan, Carolyn M.

1991-01-01

307

Injury prediction in female gymnasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to identify injury-proneness in female competitive gymnasts, 20 measures of flexibility, hypermobility, spinal posture and anthropometry were performed on 40 competitive gymnasts and injury scores were derived from the severity and extent of previous gymnastic injury and inherent hypermobility traits. Results were compared between contrasting groups of \\

V A Steele; J A White

1986-01-01

308

Loneliness in the female adolescent  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of our study is to explore and describe loneliness in female adolescence as distinct from solitude and isolation. In keeping with other works by Ostrov and Offer [(1978) „Loneliness and the Adolescent,Adolescent Psychiatry, Vol. 6, p. 34], our concern is to define the preeminent aspects of the unfolding and evolving cycle of loneliness, and the features they may

M. Ammaniti; A. P. Ercolani; R. Tambelli

1988-01-01

309

The UF/NCI family of hybrid computational phantoms representing the current US population of male and female children, adolescents, and adults—application to CT dosimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Substantial increases in pediatric and adult obesity in the US have prompted a major revision to the current UF/NCI (University of Florida/National Cancer Institute) family of hybrid computational phantoms to more accurately reflect current trends in larger body morphometry. A decision was made to construct the new library in a gridded fashion by height/weight without further reference to age-dependent weight/height percentiles as these become quickly outdated. At each height/weight combination, circumferential parameters were defined and used for phantom construction. All morphometric data for the new library were taken from the CDC NHANES survey data over the time period 1999-2006, the most recent reported survey period. A subset of the phantom library was then used in a CT organ dose sensitivity study to examine the degree to which body morphometry influences the magnitude of organ doses for patients that are underweight to morbidly obese in body size. Using primary and secondary morphometric parameters, grids containing 100 adult male height/weight bins, 93 adult female height/weight bins, 85 pediatric male height/weight bins and 73 pediatric female height/weight bins were constructed. These grids served as the blueprints for construction of a comprehensive library of patient-dependent phantoms containing 351 computational phantoms. At a given phantom standing height, normalized CT organ doses were shown to linearly decrease with increasing phantom BMI for pediatric males, while curvilinear decreases in organ dose were shown with increasing phantom BMI for adult females. These results suggest that one very useful application of the phantom library would be the construction of a pre-computed dose library for CT imaging as needed for patient dose-tracking.

Geyer, Amy M.; O'Reilly, Shannon; Lee, Choonsik; Long, Daniel J.; Bolch, Wesley E.

2014-09-01

310

Familiality of female and male homosexuality  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined data from a large cohort of homosexual and heterosexual females and males concerning their siblings' sexual orientations. As in previous studies, both male and female homosexuality were familial. Homosexual females had an excess of homosexual brothers compared to heteroxual subjects, thus providing evidence that similar familial factors influence both male and female homosexuality. Furthermore, despite the large sample

J. Michael Bailey; Alan P. Bell

1993-01-01

311

Developing Female Coaches: Strategies from Women Themselves  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore strategies for the development of aspiring female coaches based on the ideas of existing high-performance female coaches. Drawing on semi-structured interviews with national-level female coaches in the United Kingdom, four recurrent ideas for developing female coaches in a male-dominated profession emerged.…

Norman, Leanne

2012-01-01

312

Recognizing Female's Sensibility in Assessing Traditional Clothes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study represents the research of Malay traditional clothing in Kansei perspective. The principal objective of this research is to classify female's sensibility in wearing traditional clothes. The analysis of female's emotion is important to identify the actual intentional of female's desire in clothing. This study will be looking into the significance between the Kansei and females perception in using

Nazlina SHAARI; Fumio TERAUCHI; Mitsunori KUBO; Hiroyuki AOKI

313

The effect of the juvenile hormone analog, fenoxycarb on the PBAN-receptor and pheromone production in adults of the moth Helicoverpa armigera: an "aging" hormone in adult females?  

PubMed

In a previous study we showed that juvenile hormone (JH) or its analog, fenoxycarb (FX), is involved in the up-regulation of pheromone biosynthesis-activating neuropeptide (PBAN) competence. JH causes induction of binding to a putative PBAN-receptor (PBAN-R) and the subsequent pheromone production by pheromone glands of pharate females. The present study demonstrates that pheromone production by the adult female is age-dependent. The pheromonotropic response increased to reach a maximum at 4 days, after which a decreased response was observed. Binding of the PBAN-R was also age-dependent. Treatment with FX inhibited both binding of PBAN to the PBAN-R and the pheromonotropic response as reflected by the production of the main pheromone component, Z-11-hexadecenal. Thus, in contrast to its up-regulatory role in pharate females, FX treatment of adult females causes down-regulation of both pheromone production and specific binding to the PBAN-R. In addition, behavioural observations showed that calling behaviour, mating success and subsequent egg-fertility are affected by treating females with FX. PMID:15890183

Rafaeli, A; Bober, R

2005-04-01

314

Fortuitous encounters between seagliders and adult female northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) off the Washington (USA) coast: upper ocean variability and links to top predator behavior.  

PubMed

Behavioral responses by top marine predators to oceanographic features such as eddies, river plumes, storms, and coastal topography suggest that biophysical interactions in these zones affect predators' prey, foraging behaviors, and potentially fitness. However, examining these pathways is challenged by the obstacles inherent in obtaining simultaneous observations of surface and subsurface environmental fields and predator behavior. In this study, migratory movements and, in some cases, diving behavior of 40 adult female northern fur seals (NFS; Callorhinus ursinus) were quantified across their range and compared to remotely-sensed environmental data in the Gulf of Alaska and California Current ecosystems, with a particular focus off the coast of Washington State (USA)--a known foraging ground for adult female NFS and where autonomous glider sampling allowed opportunistic comparison of seal behavior to subsurface biophysical measurements. The results show that in these ecosystems, adult female habitat utilization was concentrated near prominent coastal topographic, riverine, or inlet features and within 200 km of the continental shelf break. Seal dive depths, in most ecosystems, were moderated by surface light level (solar or lunar), mirroring known behaviors of diel vertically-migrating prey. However, seal dives differed in the California Current ecosystem due to a shift to more daytime diving concentrated at or below the surface mixed layer base. Seal movement models indicate behavioral responses to season, ecosystem, and surface wind speeds; individuals also responded to mesoscale eddies, jets, and the Columbia River plume. Foraging within small scale surface features is consistent with utilization of the inner coastal transition zone and habitats near coastal capes, which are known eddy and filament generation sites. These results contribute to our knowledge of NFS migratory patterns by demonstrating surface and subsurface behavioral responses to a spatially and temporally dynamic ocean environment, thus reflecting its influence on associated NFS prey species. PMID:25153524

Pelland, Noel A; Sterling, Jeremy T; Lea, Mary-Anne; Bond, Nicholas A; Ream, Rolf R; Lee, Craig M; Eriksen, Charles C

2014-01-01

315

Allometric variation among juvenile, adult male and female eastern bearded dragons Pogona barbata (Cuvier, 1829), with comments on the behavioural implications.  

PubMed

The functional significance of allometric change in reptiles has received limited attention and the reason for such changes has been regarded as 'obscure'. In this paper we report data on the Australian Pogona barbata, the eastern bearded dragon, from across their range and review changes in allometric growth among juveniles, and adult males and females and consider the functional relevance of these changes. There were significant differences in the population for mass, tail length, tail width, rear leg length and jaw length. These differences were consistent with differences required in locomotor performance and thus habitat use, together with access to different preferred dietary components. PMID:21236651

Wotherspoon, Danny; Burgin, Shelley

2011-02-01

316

Neonatal exposure to estradiol decreases hypothalamic allopregnanolone concentrations and alters agonistic and sexual but not affective behavior in adult female rats.  

PubMed

Exposure of developing female rats to estradiol during the perinatal period induced long-lasting dysregulation of gonadal axis and decreased cerebrocortical and plasma concentrations of allopregnanolone. We have now examined the effects of neonatal estradiol administration in female rats on hypothalamic allopregnanolone concentrations and on exploratory, affective, agonistic and sexual behaviors as well as social learning. A single administration of ?-estradiol 3-benzoate (EB, 10?g) on the day of birth resulted in a delay of vaginal opening, acyclicity and ovarian failure. These alterations were associated with a significant decrease in the concentrations of allopregnanolone in the hypothalamus at 21 and 60days, but not at 7days, after birth. Neonatal administration of EB also increased agonistic behaviors in adult rats, such as dominant behaviors and following of an ovariectomized intruder, while living attacks unaffected. EB-treated rats showed also an increase in anogenital investigation, associated with a drastic reduction in spontaneous and induced female sexual behaviors (receptivity and proceptivity). In contrast, neonatal administration of EB did not affect locomotor activity, anxiety- and mood-related behaviors, the social transmission of flavor preferences, and seizures sensitivity. These effects of estradiol suggest that it plays a major role in regulation of both the abundance of allopregnanolone and the expression of agonistic and sexual behaviors, while failing to influence affective behaviors and social learning. Thus, the pronounced and persistent decrease in hypothalamic allopregnanolone concentration may be related to the manifestation of agonistic and sexual behaviors. PMID:24368289

Berretti, R; Santoru, F; Locci, A; Sogliano, C; Calza, A; Choleris, E; Porcu, P; Concas, A

2014-02-01

317

Contraceptive practice before female sterilization.  

PubMed

The reproductive profile and contraceptive practice of 402 women undergoing female sterilization at the Central Women's Hospital are presented. Most (89%) of the interviewees were urban-dwellers and housewives with primary school education. Fifty-two percent were between 30 and 34 years with a mean of 4.2 living children. Sixty-nine percent were past contraceptive users, of them; 29.9% had used more than one method. A considerable gap between knowledge and practice of different methods was found. Education level and employment had a significant effect on contraceptive practice (p < 0.01 and p < 0.5). The majority knew and used combined oral contraceptive pills and injectable progestogens, whereas rhythm, withdrawal and barrier contraception were lesser known methods. Contraceptive use was primarily for child-spacing whereas the main reasons for female sterilization were socioeconomic and achievement of desired family size. PMID:8250756

Thike, K B; Wai, K T; Oo, N; Yi, K H

1993-09-01

318

Social representations of female orgasm.  

PubMed

This study examines women's social representations of female orgasm. Fifty semi-structured interviews were conducted with British women. The data were thematically analysed and compared with the content of female orgasm-related writing in two women's magazines over a 30-year period. The results indicate that orgasm is deemed the goal of sex with emphasis on its physiological dimension. However, the women and the magazines graft onto this scientifically driven representation the importance of relational and emotive aspects of orgasm. For the women, particularly those who experience themselves as having problems with orgasm, the scientifically driven representations induce feelings of failure, but are also resisted. The findings highlight the role played by the social context in women's subjective experience of their sexual health. PMID:19129342

Lavie-Ajayi, Maya; Joffe, Hélène

2009-01-01

319

Female Sex Offenders' Relationship Experiences  

PubMed Central

Interventions for child sexual abusers should take into account their perspectives on the context of their offenses, but no descriptions of everyday life from the offender's point of view have been published. This study therefore explored female offenders' views of their strengths and challenges. Documented risk assessments of 20 female offenders were analyzed using inductive content analysis (Cavanagh, 1997; Priest, Roberts & Woods, 2002; Woods, Priest & Roberts, 2002). The Good Lives Model provided the initial coding framework and Atlas/ti software (Muhr, 1997) was used for simultaneous data collection and analysis. The content analysis yielded 999 coding decisions organized in three themes. The global theme was relationship experiences. Offenders described the quality of their relationship experiences, including their personal perspectives, intimate relationships and social lives. These descriptions have implications for treatment planning and future research with women who have molested children. PMID:18624098

Lawson, Louanne

2010-01-01

320

Female genital mutilations - a testimony.  

PubMed

In Djibouti, the prevalence of female genital mutilations (FGMs) amounts to 98% and the practice is still in use. When I left, in 1999, I knew I would involve myself in the fight against FGMs and I describe here the outcome of an obstacle course of more than ten years duration. This paper is written on behalf of innumerable women, who could give you a similar account. PMID:23205512

Youssouf, Samia

2013-02-01

321

Do exaggerated sexual swellings function in female mating competition in primates? A comparative test of the reliable indicator hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reliable indicator hypothesis proposes that exaggerated sexual swellings in female primates serve as honest signals of female quality that function in female-female competition over mates. We examined a version of this hypothesis using interspecific data to test whether exaggerated sexual swellings are associated with female mating competition, as measured using the adult sex ratio, female canine size, and expected

Charles L. Nunn; Carel P. van Schaik; Dietmar Zinnerc

2001-01-01

322

Xavier Lambin Home range shifts by breeding female Townsend's voles  

E-print Network

Numerous accounts of partial or complete breeding dispersal by adult females reported in the lit- erature between successive litters I rejected the following pre- dictions: (1) that females with one or several critically reassess the empirical studies quoted as evidence that breeding dispersal is a form of parental

Lambin, Xavier

323

Diminished maternal responsiveness during pregnancy in multiparous female common marmosets  

E-print Network

and determined circulating hormone levels in adult females during early pregnancy, late pregnancy, and the early pregnant females never carried infants, and those that did rejected them quickly. Prolactin concentrations in parental or alloparental behavior (Yamamoto et al., 1996b). A striking exception may occur, however

Saltzman, Wendy

324

Distinguishing Characteristics Of Male And Female Child Sex Abusers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines child sexual abuser stereotypes by exploring the relationships among gender, gender role identity, emotional need, and sexual need in adult relationships of child sexual abusers and nonabusers. The sample consists of 71 male and 58 female offenders, and 38 male and 52 female nonoffenders. Masculinity and femininity are measured by the Bem Sex Role Inventory, and emotional

Craig M. Allen; Henry L. Pothast

1994-01-01

325

USE OF A PLUMAGE CRITERION FOR AGING FEMALE MERLINS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A key for distinguishing between adult and yearling female Merlins (Falco columbarius) based on the color of rump plumage was proposed by Temple (1972). Ex- amination of this characteristic in 34 known-age females from a wild population of F. c. richardsonii, caught during three breeding seasons and one winter, indicated discrepancies between the observed rump coloration and that expected based

IAN G. WARKENTIN; PAUL C. JAMES; LYNN W. OLIPHANT

326

Dominance, fatness and fitness in female American bison, Bison bison  

Microsoft Academic Search

In females of several mammalian species, it is becoming evident that benefits related to high dominance rank can result in increased fitness, albeit to a lesser degree than in males. We examined indicators of fitness in relation to dominance rank in a group of adult female American bison in semifree-ranging conditions. A significantly linear dominance hierarchy was found. Dominance rank

Hilde Vervaecke; Catherine Roden; Han de Vries

2005-01-01

327

Risk Factors Associated with Suicide Attempts by College Females.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research had concluded that a female's relationship with her father was of singular importance in regard to her suicidal risk. This study was designed to test this assumption, and it was hypothesized that the relationship that an adolescent or young adult female had with her mother would be of equal importance in predicting risk for a…

Bailey, Bruce E.; Matthews, Juliet L.

328

Female brown-headed cowbirds', Molothrus ater, organization and behaviour reflects male social dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In four large aviaries, we studied social assortment and reproductive behaviour of female brown-headed cowbirds housed with males differing in age class and in corresponding levels of intrasexual interaction. Juvenile and adult females resided with either (1) adult males, (2) juvenile males, (3) adult and juvenile males, or (4) no males. We observed social behaviour of males and females from

Meredith J. West; David J. White; Andrew P. King

2002-01-01

329

Female hierarchy instability, male immigration and infanticide increase glucocorticoid levels in female chacma baboons  

E-print Network

Female hierarchy instability, male immigration and infanticide increase glucocorticoid levels associated with female reproductive stage, male immigration and the threat of infanticide. Here, we extend that reproductive state, male immigration, in- fanticide, female rank instability and predation all had significant

Seyfarth, Robert

330

Influenza-related hospitalization of adults associated with low census tract socioeconomic status and female sex in New Haven County, Connecticut, 2007-2011  

PubMed Central

Objectives To help guide universal influenza vaccination efforts in the United States, it is important to know which demographic groups are currently at highest risk of costly complications of influenza infection. Few studies have examined the relationship between hospitalization with influenza and either socioeconomic status (SES) or sex. We examined associations between census tract-level SES and sex and incidence of influenza-related hospitalizations among adults. Design Descriptive analysis of data collected by active population-based surveillance for persons >18 years old hospitalized with laboratory confirmed influenza during the 2007–2008 through 2010–2011 influenza seasons. Case residential addresses were geocoded and linked to data from the 2006–2010 American Community Survey to obtain census-tract level (neighborhood) SES measures. Census-tract level SES variables included measures of poverty, education, crowding, primary language, and median income. Four levels were created for each. Setting New Haven, County, Connecticut. Sample Entire New Haven County population >18 years old. Main Outcome Measures Age-adjusted incidence of influenza hospitalizations and relative risk by sex and by each of five SES measures. Results Crude and age-adjusted incidence progressively increased with decreasing neighborhood SES for each measure both overall and for each influenza season. Female incidence was higher than male for each age group, and female age-adjusted incidence was higher for each SES level and influenza season. Conclusions Female sex and lower neighborhood SES were independently and consistently associated with higher incidence of hospitalization of adults with influenza. If this is more broadly the case, these findings have implications for future influenza vaccination efforts. Analysis using census tract SES measures can provide additional perspective on health disparities. PMID:24382111

Tam, Karman; Yousey-Hindes, Kimberly; Hadler, James L

2014-01-01

331

Female-directed aggression predicts paternal behavior, but female prairie voles prefer affiliative males to paternal males.  

PubMed

In the socially monogamous prairie vole, Microtus ochrogaster, male affiliation and parental care are influenced by the neuropeptide arginine vasopressin and expression of its receptor V1aR. If parental care and adult affiliation can be considered a behavioral syndrome, females might use male affiliative behavior as a cue to choose a good father. We investigated three questions: (1) do females prefer affiliative males; (2) do males that are affiliative with females demonstrate paternal behavior with pups; and (3) is male V1aR expression related to male behavior or female preference? We evaluated paternal behavior of individual males, then offered sexually receptive females a choice between paternal and non-paternal males and measured the proportion of time each male spent engaging in affiliative behavior with the choosing female. Females showed a preference for more affiliative males, but affiliation was not predictive of paternal care. Thus females did not discriminate between paternal and non-paternal males. Perhaps surprisingly, paternal behavior was correlated with the relative amount of aggression males directed toward females. Finally, females did not discriminate between males with high or low V1aR expression and V1aR expression did not predict male affiliative behavior or parental care. These data suggest that male affiliative behavior, but not paternal care, is associated with female mate choice. PMID:17878716

Ophir, Alexander G; Crino, Ondi L; Wilkerson, Quiana C; Wolff, Jerry O; Phelps, Steven M

2008-01-01

332

Stories from the road of recovery - How adult, female survivors of childhood trauma experience ways to positive change  

PubMed Central

Abstract The aim of this study was to explore how female survivors of childhood trauma who have sought treatment experience ways to positive change. Little knowledge exists regarding the first-person perspective of the recovery process following childhood trauma, and getting access to this perspective might contribute to better understanding of these processes, hence offering opportunities for health promotion. All clients (31, including 3 who dropped out) from six stabilization groups for women exposed to human-inflicted traumas were invited to participate in the study. Experiences of the recovery process were not restricted to the period of receiving treatment, and all clients who volunteered were included in the study. Qualitative, in-depth interviews with 13 consenting clients were carried out shortly after completion of the group treatment. All interviews were transcribed verbatim, and a hermeneutical-phenomenological approach to analysis was applied. The analysis resulted in five interrelated, but distinct main themes: finding new ways to understand one's emotions and actions, moving from numbness toward vital contact, becoming an advocate of one's own needs, experiencing increased sense of agency, and staying with difficult feelings and choices. The themes support, yet supplement trauma theory, by underlining the relationship between emotional contact and meaning-making, while downplaying the necessity of symptom elimination in the experience of recovery. The findings also underline that the active role trauma survivors play in their processes of recovery. PMID:24443662

Stige, Signe Hjelen; Binder, Per-Einar; Rosenvinge, Jan H.; Traeen, Bente

2013-01-01

333

Spontaneous resolution of symptoms associated with a facet synovial cyst in an adult female - a case report  

PubMed Central

Background: Facet cysts are implicated in neural compression in the lumbar spine. Surgery is the definitive treatment for symptomatic facet cysts since the failure rate for conservative treatment is quite high; however, the role of physical/manual medicine practitioners in the management of symptomatic facet cysts has not been well explored. This case report will add to the body of evidence of spontaneous resolution of symptoms associated with facet cysts in the chiropractic literature. Case: A 58 year old female presented with acute low back and right leg pain which she attributed to a series of exercise classes that involved frequent foot stomping. Physical examination did not elicit any objective evidence of radiculopathy but MRI and CT scans revealed a facet cyst impinging on the right L5 nerve root. Injections and surgery were recommended; however, the patient’s radicular symptoms completely resolved after three months without surgical intervention. Summary: There is currently a paucity of data in the literature regarding the chiropractor’s role in the management of symptomatic facet cysts. The case presented here has added to this literature and possible areas for future research have been explored. PMID:23483069

Ngo, Trung; Decina, Philip; Hsu, William

2013-01-01

334

Urine Is Not Sterile: Use of Enhanced Urine Culture Techniques To Detect Resident Bacterial Flora in the Adult Female Bladder  

PubMed Central

Our previous study showed that bacterial genomes can be identified using 16S rRNA sequencing in urine specimens of both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients who are culture negative according to standard urine culture protocols. In the present study, we used a modified culture protocol that included plating larger volumes of urine, incubation under varied atmospheric conditions, and prolonged incubation times to demonstrate that many of the organisms identified in urine by 16S rRNA gene sequencing are, in fact, cultivable using an expanded quantitative urine culture (EQUC) protocol. Sixty-five urine specimens (from 41 patients with overactive bladder and 24 controls) were examined using both the standard and EQUC culture techniques. Fifty-two of the 65 urine samples (80%) grew bacterial species using EQUC, while the majority of these (48/52 [92%]) were reported as no growth at 103 CFU/ml by the clinical microbiology laboratory using the standard urine culture protocol. Thirty-five different genera and 85 different species were identified by EQUC. The most prevalent genera isolated were Lactobacillus (15%), followed by Corynebacterium (14.2%), Streptococcus (11.9%), Actinomyces (6.9%), and Staphylococcus (6.9%). Other genera commonly isolated include Aerococcus, Gardnerella, Bifidobacterium, and Actinobaculum. Our current study demonstrates that urine contains communities of living bacteria that comprise a resident female urine microbiota. PMID:24371246

Hilt, Evann E.; McKinley, Kathleen; Pearce, Meghan M.; Rosenfeld, Amy B.; Zilliox, Michael J.; Mueller, Elizabeth R.; Brubaker, Linda; Gai, Xiaowu; Wolfe, Alan J.

2014-01-01

335

Socioecology of Marmots: Female Reproductive Strategies  

E-print Network

The relationship between female reproductive success and both spring food and hibernacula resources was examined in a high-altitude population of yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris). The number of offspring a female weaned...

Andersen, Douglas C.; Armitage, Kenneth; Hoffmann, Robert S.

1976-05-01

336

Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals and Female Reproduction  

E-print Network

Effects of EDCs on female reproduction in humans, wildlife and domestic animals What are the trends involvement in reproductive dysfunction in female domestic animals. ·Dr. Christine Wohlfahrt Veje, Denmark

337

The Female Image in Children's TV Commercials  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An analysis of advertising on children's television programs shows that more than half were male-dominant ads and fewer than one-seventh were female dominated. Female roles were almost entirely dependent and passive. (LS)

Verna, Mary Ellen

1975-01-01

338

Special concerns of the female athlete.  

PubMed

The majority of injuries sustained by female athletes are due to participation in sports rather than their sex. Anatomic, hormonal,and functional differences should be understood when treating the female athlete. Screening should be done for eating disorders and the female athlete triad. Female athletes have increased rates of injury to the anterior cruciate ligament and patellofemoral disorders compared with their male counterparts. PMID:15183572

Ireland, Mary Lloyd; Ott, Susan M

2004-04-01

339

Sexuality of Male-to-Female Transsexuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blanchard’s (J Nerv Ment Dis 177:616–623, 1989) theory of autogynephilia suggests that male-to-female transsexuals can be\\u000a categorized into different types based on their sexuality. Little previous research has compared the sexuality of male-to-female\\u000a transsexuals to biological females. The present study examined 15 aspects of sexuality among a non-clinical sample of 234\\u000a transsexuals and 127 biological females, using either an online

Jaimie F. Veale; Dave E. Clarke; Terri C. Lomax

2008-01-01

340

Seeking and Selecting Hispanic Female Superintendents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Among the 1,000 females who lead school districts in the United States, some 25 to 30 are Hispanic. Ways in which Hispanic females are sought and selected for the superintendency of a district are explored in this paper. The report is based on an analysis of 12 Hispanic female superintendents and how they were hired. Two of the women in the sample…

Ortiz, Flora Ida

341

Male Acceptance of Female Career Roles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Forty-two White, male university students rated five written female role statements matched with videotaped females on an 11-point probability of marriage scale. Preference was given to family-oriented women with some career involvement. Results also indicated interaction among work roles, female physical attractiveness, and male self-esteem. (JCD)

Hollender, John; Schafer, Leslie

1981-01-01

342

Sexual Attractiveness of Males and Females.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The most important characteristics for females judging the attractiveness of males, and for males judging females, were eyes, body build and facial complexion. Previously, females tended to place less importance on physical components of attraction for both themselves and men. Possible interpretations are: (1) women have become more egalitarian…

Taylor, Peggy; And Others

343

Guest editorial: Female and ethnic minority entrepreneurship  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been an increasing level of interest in diversity in small business enterprises. This diversity has been largely focused on female and ethnic minority entrepreneurs. Although there is evidence that female entrepreneurship can have a positive impact on economic prosperity, levels of earnings remain low. The articles in this special issue further our understanding of female and minority entrepreneurs.

Nerys Fuller-Love; Lynn Lim; Gary Akehurst

2006-01-01

344

Intraspecific sexual preferences of female hamsters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studied the sexual preference behavior of 32 estrous females of 3 species of hamsters of the genus Mesocricetus by introducing individual females into an arena with a pair of males from 2 different species. When 1 male of the pair was a conspecific, females of all 3 species spent significantly more time investigating the conspecific male. When neither male was

Michael R. Murphy

1977-01-01

345

Wellness of Minority Female Counselor Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Minority female counselor educators are faced with numerous challenges. This qualitative study revealed that for female minority counselor educators, these challenges continue to negatively affect their professional and personal experiences. It is through operational wellness practices and optimal balance and functioning that minority female

Shillingford, M. Ann; Trice-Black, Shannon; Butler, S. Kent

2013-01-01

346

Changing Female Religious Leadership in Christianity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Christianity in America has had a gender paradox for a long time. Female church adherents have been predominant in the churches, but males have dominated church leadership. As women female clergy rapidly increased their numbers during the 1970s, however,but the history of female leadership in Christianity is not monolithic. By focusing upon on a the historically nationwide American Methodism

Toru Takahashi

347

Why Do Female Callosobruchus maculatus Kick Their Mates?  

PubMed Central

Sexual conflict is now recognised as an important driver of sexual trait evolution. However, due to their variable outcomes and effects on other fitness components, the detection of sexual conflicts on individual traits can be complicated. This difficulty is exemplified in the beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, where longer matings increase the size of nutritious ejaculates but simultaneously reduce female future receptivity. While previous studies show that females gain direct benefits from extended mating duration, females show conspicuous copulatory kicking behaviour, apparently to dislodge mating males prematurely. We explore the potential for sexual conflict by comparing several fitness components and remating propensity in pairs of full sibling females where each female mated with a male from an unrelated pair of full sibling males. For one female, matings were terminated at the onset of kicking, whereas the other’s matings remained uninterrupted. While fecundity (number of eggs) was similar between treatments, uninterrupted matings enhanced adult offspring numbers and fractionally also longevity. However, females whose matings were interrupted at the onset of kicking exhibited an increased propensity to remate. Since polyandry can benefit female fitness in this species, we argue that kicking, rather than being maladaptive, may indicate that females prefer remating over increased ejaculate size. It may thus be difficult to assess the presence of sexual conflict over contested traits such as mating duration when females face a trade off between direct benefits gained from one mating and indirect benefits from additional matings. PMID:24752530

van Lieshout, Emile; McNamara, Kathryn B.; Simmons, Leigh W.

2014-01-01

348

Oviposition deterrent and ovicidal activities of seven herbal essential oils against female adults of housefly, Musca domestica L.  

PubMed

The oviposition deterrent and ovicidal of seven herbal essential oils derived from Citrus sinensis, Cymbopogon citratus, Eucalyptus glubulus, Illicium verum, Lavandula angustifolia, Mentha piperita, and Zingiber cussumunar were assessed against the gravid female of housefly, Musca domestica L., under laboratory conditions and compared with commercial insecticide (10% w/v cypermethrin). They were assayed at three concentrations (1.0, 5.0, and 10.0%) where plastic cups containing 1 ml of desired oil concentration and cotton pad soaked with 10 ml of milk solution (10% w/v) were used as oviposition substrate. The 0.1 ml of deferent concentrations was dropped on ten housefly eggs, which were used for ovicidal activity. The number of eggs laid and the hatched larvae in each cup was recorded to evaluate the oviposition deterrent and ovicidal activities of the herbal essential oils. High concentration (10%) of herbal essential oils showed high percent effective repellency (ER). The 10% I. verum oil caused complete oviposition deterrence (100% ER, oviposition activity index (OAI)?=?-1.0), followed by Z. cussumunar, M. piperita, L. angustifolia, C. citratus, C. sinensis, and E. glubulus oils with 97.20, 88.55, 88.14, 87.93, 76.68, and 57.00% ER, respectively. As the concentration of herbal essential oils increased from 1.0, 5.0, and up to 10.0% concentration, the hatching rate decreased. Ten percent I. verum oil gave the maximum inhibiting rate at 97.3% (LC50 value of 6.85%); in addition, the other herbal essential oils showed the minimum inhibiting rate of 3.3-22.7%. On the other hand, cypermethrin 10% w/v showed complete oviposition deterrence (100% ER, OAI?=?-1.0) and ovicidal activity (100% inhibiting rate). Our data showed that I. verum oil have high potential of oviposition deterrence and ovicide housefly control. PMID:24894080

Sinthusiri, Jirisuda; Soonwera, Mayura

2014-08-01

349

Female pattern alopecia: current perspectives.  

PubMed

Hair loss is a commonly encountered problem in clinical practice, with men presenting with a distinctive pattern involving hairline recession and vertex balding (Norwood-Hamilton classification) and women exhibiting diffuse hair thinning over the crown (increased part width) and sparing of the frontal hairline (Ludwig classification). Female pattern hair loss has a strikingly overwhelming psychological effect; thus, successful treatments are necessary. Difficulty lies in successful treatment interventions, as only two medications - minoxidil and finasteride - are approved for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia, and these medications offer mediocre results, lack of a permanent cure, and potential complications. Hair transplantation is the only current successful permanent option, and it requires surgical procedures. Several other medical options, such as antiandrogens (eg, spironolactone, oral contraceptives, cyproterone, flutamide, dutasteride), prostaglandin analogs (eg, bimatoprost, latanoprost), and ketoconazole are reported to be beneficial. Laser and light therapies have also become popular despite the lack of a profound benefit. Management of expectations is crucial, and the aim of therapy, given the current therapeutic options, is to slow or stop disease progression with contentment despite patient expectations of permanent hair regrowth. This article reviews current perspectives on therapeutic options for female pattern hair loss. PMID:24039457

Levy, Lauren L; Emer, Jason J

2013-01-01

350

Epigenetic Control of Female Puberty  

PubMed Central

The timing of puberty is controlled by many genes. The elements coordinating this process have not, however, been identified. Here we show that an epigenetic mechanism of transcriptional repression times the initiation of female puberty in rats. We identify silencers of the Polycomb group (PcG) as major contributors to this mechanism, and show that PcG proteins repress Kiss1, a puberty-activating gene. Hypothalamic expression of two key PcG genes, Eed and Cbx7, decreases and methylation of their promoters increases preceding puberty. Inhibiting DNA methylation blocks both events and results in pubertal failure. The pubertal increase in Kiss1 is accompanied by EED loss from the Kiss1 promoter and enrichment of histone H3 modifications associated with gene activation. Preventing the eviction of EED from the Kiss1 promoter disrupts pulsatile GnRH release, delays puberty, and compromises fecundity. Our results identify epigenetic silencing as a novel mechanism underlying the neuroendocrine control of female puberty. PMID:23354331

Lomniczi, Alejandro; Loche, Alberto; Castellano, Juan Manuel; Ronnekleiv, Oline K.; Bosch, Martha; Kaidar, Gabi; Knoll, J. Gabriel; Wright, Hollis; Pfeifer, Gerd. P.; Ojeda, Sergio R.

2013-01-01

351

VURD Syndrome in a Female  

PubMed Central

VURD syndrome has been repeatedly described as unilateral reflux into a nonfunctioning renal moiety. This syndrome is considered a pop-off mechanism dissipating pressure in lower urinary tract obstruction: it may be found in association with other protective mechanisms occurring in utero, such as ascites and/or urinomas, and has been exclusively described in male patients. A premature female baby with signs and symptoms of outflow obstruction underwent diagnostic workup revealing congenital urethral hypoplasia with unilateral reflux into a dysplastic kidney. Obstetrical history was positive for early onset, serologically negative ascites without cardiomegaly, which required serial aspirations. Reconstructive surgery was carried out with good results: ascites and VURD syndrome were both deemed to be perinatal protective mechanism against excess pressure in the urinary tract. Although rare, lower urinary tract obstruction in the female can lead to the same protective mechanisms seen in male fetuses/newborns. VURD syndrome and ascites should be interpreted as such and require perinatal specialist counselling. PMID:21253486

Zaccara, A.; Pascali, M. P.; Marciano, A.; Carnevale, E.; Salvatori, G.; Dotta, A.; Nahom, A.; De Gennaro, M.

2011-01-01

352

Material Benefits from Multiple Mating in Female Mealworm Beetles (Tenebrio molitor L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In yellow mealworm beetles (Tenebrio molitor), females are sexually receptive throughout their adult lives. We examined how access to mates affected female fecundity by varying the number of matings per female and quantifying cumulative egg production. Also, we dissected females at successive intervals after a single mating to assess the relationship among time since mating, sperm supplies, egg load, and

J. M. Drnevich; R. S. Papke; C. L. Rauser; R. L. Rutowski

2001-01-01

353

Evidence for intrasexual selection in wild female baboons Dorothy L. Cheney a,*, Joan B. Silk b  

E-print Network

competition mortality paternal investment predation sex ratio social bond Because female reproductive success online 4 April 2012 MS. number: A11-00848R2 Keywords: baboon female intrasexual selection mate when the adult sex ratio was more highly skewed towards females, with low-ranking females exhibiting

Jones, Ian L.

354

Greater efficacy of alfacalcidol in the red than in the yellow marrow skeletal sites in adult female rats.  

PubMed

The present study compared the bone anabolic effects of graded doses of alfacalcidol in proximal femurs (hematopoietic, red marrow skeletal site) and distal tibiae (fatty, yellow marrow skeletal site). One group of 8.5-month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were killed at baseline and 4 groups were treated 5 days on/2 days off/week for 12 weeks with 0, 0.025, 0.05 and 0.1 microg alfacalcidol/kg by oral gavage. The proximal femur, bone site with hematopoietic marrow, as well as the distal tibia bone site with fatty marrow, were processed undecalcified for quantitative bone histomorphometry. In the red marrow site of the proximal femoral metaphysis (PFM), 0.1 microg alfacalcidol/kg induced increased cancellous bone mass, improved architecture (decreased trabecular separation, increased connectivity), and stimulated local bone formation of bone 'boutons' (localized bone formation) on trabecular surfaces. There was an imbalance in bone resorption and formation, in which the magnitude of depressed bone resorption greater than depressed bone formation resulted in a positive bone balance. In addition, bone 'bouton' formation contributed to an increase in bone mass. In contrast, the yellow marrow site of the distal tibial metaphysis (DTM), the 0.1 microg alfacalcidol/kg dose induced a non-significant increased cancellous bone mass. The treatment decreased bone resorption equal to the magnitude of decreased bone formation. No bone 'bouton' formation was observed. These findings indicate that the highest dose of 0.1 microg alfacalcidol/kg for 12 weeks increased bone mass (anabolic effect) at the skeletal site with hematopoietic marrow of the proximal femoral metaphysis, but the increased bone mass was greatly attenuated at the fatty marrow site of the distal tibial metaphysis. In addition, the magnitude of the bone gain induced by alfacalcidol treatment in red marrow cancellous bone sites of the proximal femoral metaphysis was half that of the lumbar vertebral body. The latter data were from a previous report from the same animal and protocol. These findings indicated that alfacalcidol as an osteoporosis therapy is less efficacious as a positive bone balance agent that increased trabecular bone mass in a non-vertebral skeletal site where bone marrow is less hematopoietic. PMID:18799859

Tian, X Y; Liu, X Q; Chen, H Y; Setterberg, R B; Li, M; Jee, W S S

2008-01-01

355

Female Genital Mutilation: A Capabilities Approach  

E-print Network

through excision, the female takes the first step towards womanhood. Although some of this is done to girls as young infancy the majority are in their teens and a few are adults. 3 The fundamental societal motive for FGM is simple: It is widely agreed... mutilated and in agony—nothing is done that would lead to permanent, irreversible damage that may annihilate a capacity to participate in or enjoy a fundamental human activity as is the case with FGM. Tradition alone does not justify the psychological...

Alavi, Roksana

2003-06-01

356

Reproductive suppression in female cooperatively breeding cichlids.  

PubMed

Suppression by dominants of female subordinate reproduction has been found in many vertebrate social groups, but has rarely been shown experimentally. Here experimental evidence is provided for reproductive suppression in the group-living Lake Tanganyika cichlid Neolamprologus pulcher. Within groups of three unrelated females, suppression was due to medium- and small-sized females laying less frequently compared with large females, and compared with medium females in control pairs. Clutch size and average egg mass of all females depended on body size, but not on rank. In a second step, a large female was removed from the group and a very small female was added to keep the group size constant. The medium females immediately seized the dominant breeding position in the group and started to reproduce as frequently as control pairs, whereas clutch size and egg mass did not change. These results show that female subordinate cichlids are reproductively capable, but apparently suppressed with respect to egg laying. Nevertheless, some reproduction is tolerated, possibly to ensure continued alloparental care by subordinate females. PMID:18755658

Heg, Dik

2008-12-23

357

Demography can favour female-advantageous alleles.  

PubMed

When female fecundity is relatively independent of male abundance, while male reproduction is proportional to female abundance, females have a larger effect on population dynamics than males (i.e. female demographic dominance). This population dynamic phenomenon might not appear to influence evolution, because male and female genomes still contribute equally much to the next generation. However, here we examine two evolutionary scenarios to provide a proof of principle that spatial structure can make female demographic dominance matter. Our two simulation models combine dispersal evolution with local adaptation subjected to intralocus sexual conflict and environmentally driven sex ratio biases, respectively. Both models have equilibria where one environment (without being intrinsically poorer) has so few reproductive females that trait evolution becomes disproportionately determined by those environments where females survive better (intralocus sexual conflict model), or where daughters are overproduced (environmental sex determination model). Surprisingly, however, the two facts that selection favours alleles that benefit females, and population growth is improved when female fitness is high, together do not imply that all measures of population performance are improved. The sex-specificity of the source-sink dynamics predicts that populations can evolve to fail to persist in habitats where alleles do poorly when expressed in females. PMID:25056617

Harts, Anna M F; Schwanz, Lisa E; Kokko, Hanna

2014-09-01

358

Fat intake and injury in female runners  

PubMed Central

Background Our purpose was to determine the relationship between energy intake, energy availability, dietary fat and lower extremity injury in adult female runners. We hypothesized that runners who develop overuse running-related injuries have lower energy intakes, lower energy availability and lower fat intake compared to non-injured runners. Methods Eighty-six female subjects, running a minimum of 20 miles/week, completed a food frequency questionnaire and informed us about injury incidence over the next year. Results Injured runners had significantly lower intakes of total fat (63 ± 20 vs. 80 ± 50 g/d) and percentage of kilocalories from fat (27 ± 5 vs. 30 ± 8 %) compared with non-injured runners. A logistic regression analysis found that fat intake was the best dietary predictor, correctly identifying 64% of future injuries. Lower energy intake and lower energy availability approached, but did not reach, a significant association with overuse injury in this study. Conclusion Fat intake is likely associated with injury risk in female runners. By documenting these associations, better strategies can be developed to reduce running injuries in women. PMID:18173851

Gerlach, Kristen E; Burton, Harold W; Dorn, Joan M; Leddy, John J; Horvath, Peter J

2008-01-01

359

Conflict resolution in the Odonata: implications for understanding female mating patterns and female choice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predictions of mating patterns in animals have focused on males and how they compete for fertilizations by controlling females. With reference to the Odonata, a taxon in which mating requires cooperation of the female, the active role that females play in mating decisions is often ignored, leading to the premature conclusion that male coercion of females is common. A critical

OLA M. FINCKE

1997-01-01

360

The Influence of Males and Females on the Psychophysical Judgments of Females  

Microsoft Academic Search

A transfer paradigm was employed to test the hypothesis that females influenced by males on one task would show more carryover of the influence effect to other tasks than would females influenced by other females. Thirty female college students made judgments on three cross-modal matching tasks. Experimental subjects gave their judgments on one task along with two male or two

Herbert D. Saltzstein; Shelley Ast

1975-01-01

361

Anorexic Behavior, Female Competition and Stress: Developing the Female Competition Stress Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

The FCST (Female-Female Competition Stress Test) was constructed to assess stress from adolescent female-female competition. Such stress is particularly relevant to the Reproductive Suppression Hypothesis that has been suggested as one possible explanation for the development of anorexic type behavior in young women. A series of items generated an initial test in the first phase of development. In the second

Catherine Salmon; Charles B. Crawford

362

Influence of adult males, dietary phytoestrogens, and an index of in utero androgen exposure on sexual development in the female mouse (Mus musculus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The age at which a juvenile female reaches sexual maturity can be modulated by a variety of environmental and social factors. Experiments described in this thesis were designed to enhance the current understanding of the relationships among three variables that influence the onset of sexual maturation in female mice (Mus musculus), including: [1] exposure to dietary phytoestrogens during development, [2

Ayesha Khan

2009-01-01

363

Female genital mutilation in Greece.  

PubMed

The number of migrants and refugees with a female genital mutilation (FGM) living in Greece is rising. This study explores the characteristics and psychosexual issues of women with FGM who were examined in the 2nd Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Athens Medical School, Greece during the year 2009. The women were asked to fill out an anonymous questionnaire asking for demographic data, obstetric history, current complaints, and psychosexual problems. The results are presented and discussed, as FGM is a new reality for Greece. Healthcare providers have to familiarize themselves with issues related to FGM and improve their skills in transcultural care, so as to manage and support women with FGM adequately. PMID:23157041

Vrachnis, N; Salakos, N; Iavazzo, C; Iliodromiti, Z; Bakalianou, K; Kouiroukidou, P; Creatsas, G

2012-01-01

364

Closing the Gender Gap: Improved Performance of U.S.-Born Females on the National Assessment of Adult Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study analyzed the current state of the gender literacy gap and the change in the gender literacy gap between 1992 and 2003, using the 1992 National Adult Literacy Survey (NALS) and the 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy (NAAL). The results revealed that although there were significant gender literacy gaps in 1992, virtually all…

Cohen, Dale J.; White, Sheida; Cohen, Steffaney B.

2012-01-01

365

The Lived Experience of the Adult African American Female Who Has Lived in Multiple Foster Care Placements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the study was to examine and describe the lived experiences of the adult African American woman who had lived in multiple foster care placements. Eleven adult African American women ages 22-25 participated in semi-structured, face-to-face interviews to tell their stories and provide data of the memories of the experience. The…

Johnson, Avonda C.

2012-01-01

366

Female settlement in marsh wrens: is it affected by other females?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The influence of resident females on the settling patterns of subsequent females was examined for marsh wrens (Cistothorus palustris). Proportionally more females responded to a playback of a female intruder during the pre-laying stage than during the laying\\u000a and incubation stages. The strength of the response was also greatest during pre-laying and laying stages (Table 1). Female\\u000a wrens did not

Marty L. Leonard; Jaroslav Picman

1987-01-01

367

Digestion in adult females of the leaf-footed bug Leptoglossus zonatus (Hemiptera: Coreidae) with emphasis on the glycoside hydrolases ?-amylase, ?-galactosidase, and ?-glucosidase.  

PubMed

The leaffooted bug, Leptoglossus zonatus (Hemiptera: Coreidae) is an emerging pest of several crops around the World and up to now very little is known of its digestive system. In this article, glycoside hydrolase (carbohydrase) activities in the adult midgut cells and in the luminal contents of L. zonatus adult females were studied. The results showed the distribution of digestive carbohydrases in adults of this heteropteran species in the different intestinal compartments. Determination of the spatial distribution of ?-glucosidase activity in L. zonatus midgut showed only one major molecular form, which was not equally distributed between soluble and membrane-bound isoforms, being more abundant as a membrane-bound enzyme. The majority of digestive carbohydrases were found in the soluble fractions. Activities against starch, maltose and the synthetic substrate NP?Glu were found to show the highest levels of activity, followed by enzymes active against galactosyl oligosaccharides. Based on ion-exchange chromatography elution profiles and banding patterns in mildly denaturing electrophoresis, both midgut ?-amylases and ?-galactosidases showed at least two isoforms. The data suggested that the majority of carbohydrases involved in initial digestion were present in the midgut lumen, whereas final digestion of starch and of galactosyl oligosaccharides takes place partially within the lumen and partially at the cell surface. The complex of carbohydrases here described was qualitatively appropriate for the digestion of free oligosaccharides and oligomaltodextrins released by ?-amylases acting on maize seed starch granules. PMID:24481987

Rocha, Ariane A; Pinto, Carlos J C; Samuels, Richard I; Alexandre, Daniel; Silva, Carlos P

2014-03-01

368

The Development of Local Song Preferences in Female Cowbirds (Molothrus ater): Flock Living Stimulates Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

We carried out two experiments across 2 yr on song perception in female cowbirds (Molothrus ater). In the first experiment, juvenile and adult female brown-headed cowbirds, living in same-sex flocks in out- door aviaries, were periodically tutored with recordings of local male cowbirds' songs. In the spring, four adult male cowbirds were placed with half of the females for a

Meredith J. West; Andrew P. King; David J. White; Julie Gros-Louis; Grace Freed-Brown

2006-01-01

369

Female rats learn trace memories better than male rats and consequently retain a greater proportion  

E-print Network

Female rats learn trace memories better than male rats and consequently retain a greater proportion the survival of neurons generated in the adult hippocam- pus. Male and female adult rats were injected with one if they required many trials to do so. Because females emitted more learned responses than males did, they retained

Shors, Tracey J.

370

Reproductive behaviour of female Chorthippus biguttulus grasshoppers.  

PubMed

Female grasshoppers of acoustically communicating species assume series of reproductive states that are associated with particular behaviours. Studies on laboratory populations of Chorthippus biguttulus (L.) revealed that females of this species lack the period of 'passive copulatory readiness', increase their attractiveness to males by sound production and mate multiple times before their first oviposition. In particular, female Ch. biguttulus display a period of 'primary rejection' after their imaginal moult during which they reject male mating attempts followed by a period of 'active copulatory readiness' in which they produce acoustic signals and may copulate with courting males. Female stridulation generally stimulated male mating activity and stridulating females attracted more male mating attempts than mute females in the same cage, indicating that males preferentially court females that signal 'active copulatory readiness'. After receipt of a spermatophore, Ch. biguttulus females displayed periods of 'secondary rejection' followed by re-establishment of 'active copulatory readiness'. Acoustic responses of females to male songs, an indicator of reproductive readiness, were significantly reduced until 2 days after mating and remained slightly reduced in comparison to pre-mating levels. Some females mated multiple times before their first oviposition and cycled between 'secondary rejection' and 'active copulatory readiness'. PMID:20116380

Wirmer, Andrea; Faustmann, Melanie; Heinrich, Ralf

2010-07-01

371

Behavioral Differences Between Late Preweanling and Adult Female Sprague-Dawley Rat Exploration of Animate and Inanimate Stimuli and Food  

PubMed Central

The late preweanling rat has potential as a preclinical model for disorders initially manifested in early childhood that are characterized by dysfunctional interactions with specific stimuli (e.g., obsessive-compulsive disorder and autism). No reports, however, of specific-stimulus exploration in the late preweanling rat are found in the literature. We examined the behavioral responses of normal late preweanling (PND 18-19) and adult rats when presented with exemplars of categorically-varied stimuli, including inanimate objects systematically varied in size and interactive properties, biological stimuli, and food. Preweanlings were faster to initiate specific stimulus exploration and were more interactive with most specific stimuli than adults; the magnitude of these preweanling-adult quantitative differences ranged from fairly small to very large depending upon the stimulus. In contrast, preweanlings were adult-like in their interaction with food and prey. Preweanling response to some stimuli, for example to live pups, was qualitatively different from that of adults; the preweanling behavioral repertoire was characterized by pup-seeking while the adult response was characterized by pup-avoidance. The specific stimulus interactions of preweanlings were less impacted than those of adults by the time of day of testing and placement of a stimulus in an anxiety-provoking location. The impact of novelty was stimulus dependent. The differences in interactions of preweanlings versus adults with specific stimuli suggests that CNS systems underlying these behavior patterns are at different stages of immaturity at PND 18 such that there may be an array of developmental trajectories for various categories of specific stimuli. These data provide a basis for the use of the preweanling as a preclinical model for understanding and medicating human disorders during development that are characterized by dysfunctional interactions with specific stimuli. PMID:21056059

Smith, Kiersten S.; Morrell, Joan I.

2010-01-01

372

Self recognition in a jumping spider: Portia labiata females discriminate between their own draglines and those of conspecifics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult Portia labiata females are highly cannibalistic jumping spiders (Salticidae). The ability of P. labiata females to discriminate between their own draglines and those of other conspecific females is investigated experimentally. P. labiata females consistently spend more time walking on their own draglines than those of other conspecific females.

R. J. Clark; R. R. Jackson

1994-01-01

373

Female chacma baboons form strong, equitable, and enduring social bonds  

PubMed Central

Analyses of the pattern of associations, social interactions, coalitions, and aggression among chacma baboons (Papio hamadryas ursinus) in the Okavango Delta of Botswana over a 16-year period indicate that adult females form close, equitable, supportive, and enduring social relationships. They show strong and stable preferences for close kin, particularly their own mothers and daughters. Females also form strong attachments to unrelated females who are close to their own age and who are likely to be paternal half-sisters. Although absolute rates of aggression among kin are as high as rates of aggression among nonkin, females are more tolerant of close relatives than they are of others with whom they have comparable amounts of contact. These findings complement previous work which indicates that the strength of social bonds enhances the fitness of females in this population and support findings about the structure and function of social bonds in other primate groups. PMID:20976293

Beehner, Jacinta C.; Bergman, Thore J.; Crockford, Catherine; Engh, Anne L.; Moscovice, Liza R.; Wittig, Roman M.; Seyfarth, Robert M.; Cheney, Dorothy L.

2010-01-01

374

Neuroendocrine Responses to Social Regulation of Puberty in the Female House Mouse.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

First estrus is advanced in female house mice exposed to an adult male and delayed in those housed in groups. Experiments were conducted to explore possible mechanisms by which the hypothalamus integrates these puberty regulating social signals. Female mi...

K. J. Darney, J. M. Goldman, J. G. Vandenbergh

1992-01-01

375

Female sexual abusers' cognition: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Until recently, the sexual offending literature focused on male perpetrators and neglected to examine the characteristics of female perpetrators. As a result, treatment provision for female sexual abusers has been either nonexistent or inappropriately adapted from programs designed for males. What we do know is that male and female sexual abusers share similarities; however, there remain distinct differences that warrant empirical and theoretical study. The current review systematically examines the literature on offense-supportive cognition in female sexual abusers. The aim of this systematic review is to aid clinical practitioners who work with female sexual abusers by providing an evaluation of current available research regarding implicit theories, rape myth acceptance, violence-supportive cognition, gender stereotypes, beliefs about sex, and empathy. We conclude that further research examining the offense-supportive cognition of female sexual abusers is needed in order to facilitate more effective empirically driven clinical practice. PMID:23093577

Gannon, Theresa A; Alleyne, Emma K A

2013-01-01

376

Prenatal stress differentially affects habituation of corticosterone responses to repeated stress in adult male and female rats  

E-print Network

Prenatal stress differentially affects habituation of corticosterone responses to repeated stress of the adult organism. In particular, prenatal exposure to stress represents one category of adverse early. In the present studies, we examined whether prenatal stress alters the habituation of hypothalamic

Lee, Theresa

377

ROLE OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LEAF EXTRACT IN THE REGULATION OF THYROID HORMONE STATUS IN ADULT MALE AND FEMALE RATS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of Moringa oleifera aqueous leaf extract in the regulation of thyroid hormone status, was studied in adult Swiss rats. Other than the thyroid hormone concentrations, hepatic lipid peroxidation (LPO) and the activities of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were evaluated. In the first experiment, effects of the leaf extract (175 mg kg?1body wt. day?1for 10

PANKAJ TAHILIANI; ANAND KAR

2000-01-01

378

The female athlete. Before and beyond puberty.  

PubMed

As the twentieth century progressed, the female athlete became an accepted participant of sports at all levels. This article reviews various aspects of female sports participation. After an historical perspective, selected comments are provided on psychologic and physiologic aspects. Concepts of adolescent gynecology are reviewed, including breast and menstrual problems and pregnancy. Other areas reviewed include iron deficiency anemia, stress urinary incontinence, and sports injuries in female athletes. PMID:12119865

Greydanus, Donald E; Patel, Dilip R

2002-06-01

379

Female teneral mating in a monandrous species  

PubMed Central

Schultesia nitor is a gregarious species living in Cacicus and Psarocolius ssp. pouch-like nests. Due to gregariousness, opportunities for multiple copulations in both sexes are not supposed to be restricted. Females produce only one brood during their life and die within a few days following the birth of their nymphs, but this unique brood could be the result of either single or multiple mating events (i.e., monandry vs. polyandry). In this study, we first determined the age of sexual receptivity of both males and females. Larval development in this species is shorter in males than in females and thus, this species is protandric. Males were not able to copulate the day after emergence. Contrary to males, teneral females (i.e., females achieving their imaginal molt but not yet fully sclerotised and colored) were attractive and were able to mate with males. In the second experiment, we tested the existence of multiple matings in both sexes. Our results showed that females were monandrous whereas males were polygynous. Since we had observed that females were monoandrous, we expected them to be choosy and we determined their ability to discriminate between virgin and nonvirgin males. When given the choice, females preferred virgin males and overall, they were more successful at mating than experienced ones. Our results suggest that monandry may be primarily driven by the female’s short life-span fecundity. The occurrence of teneral mating in this species calls into question the existence of a male strategy for monopolizing females, and as well as the implication of female choice. Although further work is required, this species provides an interesting model for understanding sexual conflicts. PMID:22957151

Monceau, Karine; van Baaren, Joan

2012-01-01

380

Clinical Evaluation of Female Factor Infertility  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a An infertility evaluation is designed to detect problems responsible for preventing pregnancy and is traditionally divided\\u000a into male and female evaluations. The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the clinical evaluation of female infertility.\\u000a Causes of female infertility include failure to have or release oocytes, failure to possess a patent reproductive tract receptive\\u000a to an embryo, or a coexisting

Yulian Zhao; Lisa Kolp; Melissa Yates; Howard Zacur

381

The challenges of being a female gastroenterologist.  

PubMed

Women have started to enter gastroenterology (GI) in significant numbers over the past 5 years, although they are still underrepresented compared with the proportion of female graduating medical students. This underrepresentation is most likely caused by the culture of GI where female students and residents have felt undervalued and unwelcome. This type of discrimination is difficult to fight because it is behind the scenes. However, with increasing female role models in GI, this underrepresentation will likely change in the coming years. PMID:21601790

Elta, Grace H

2011-06-01

382

Physicians' attitudes toward female patients.  

PubMed

The relative impact of a patient's sex and expressivity (expression of a personal problem) on attitudes of physicians toward patients was assessed using case simulations and questionnaires. Eight simulated cases were used that varied by presenting complaint, patient sex, and inclusion or exclusion of a personal problem. Two non-identical cases were read by each of 253 primary-care physicians, yielding 506 questionnaires for analysis. Of the physicians, 25 per cent believed women were likely to make excessive demands on physician time, although only 14 per cent believed this likely of men (p less than 0.01); women's complaints were judged more likely to be influenced by emotional factors (65 per cent versus 51 per cent in men, p less than 0.01), and were identified as psychosomatic more frequently than were men's (21 per cent versus 9 per cent, p less than 0.01). No sex differences were observed for tranquilizer prescriptions. Sex differences persisted when complaint and expressiveness were controlled; however, physicians' reactions to expressivity were strong enough to equalize male-female differences in some items. Although non-expressive women were more likely to receive a psychosomatic diagnosis than non-expressive men (14 per cent versus 2 per cent, p less than 0.01), expressive men and women were almost equally likely to receive psychosomatic diagnoses. Thus, differences in labeling occurred as a function of the patient's sex and expressivity. The effects of these differences on quality of care remain to be determined. PMID:7266111

Bernstein, B; Kane, R

1981-06-01

383

Flibanserin for female sexual dysfunction.  

PubMed

Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is the most commonly described form of female sexual dysfunction. There is currently no pharmacological therapy approved to treat HSDD, and therefore, there is an unmet medical need for the development of efficacious treatment alternatives. Flibanserin is a novel, non-hormonal drug for the treatment of HSDD in pre- and postmenopausal women, although the application submitted to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration by Sprout Pharmaceuticals is only for premenopausal women. Flibanserin works by correcting an imbalance of the levels of the neurotransmitters that affect sexual desire. More specifically, flibanserin increases dopamine and norepinephrine, both responsible for sexual excitement, and decreases serotonin, responsible for sexual inhibition. Clinically, flibanserin has exhibited some encouraging results in terms of its ability to increase the frequency of satisfying sexual events, and the intensity of sexual desire. However, adverse events such as dizziness, nausea, fatigue and somnolence, typical of a centrally acting drug, are also frequently related to flibanserin treatment. PMID:25187905

Reviriego, C

2014-08-01

384

Conception of Male and Female Homosexual Stereotypes Among University Undergraduates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the procedure used by Broverman, Broverman, Clarkson, Rosenkrantz, & Vogel (1970), male and female undergraduates described a male homosexual, lesbian, and normal adult in terms of 41 adjective rating scales, each scale having a masculine and a feminine pole. Results indicated that compared to rating so the normal adult, the male homosexual was viewed unfavorably and was significantly different

Stewart Page; Mary Yee

1986-01-01

385

Neuroendocrine Consequences of Androgen Excess in Female Rodents  

PubMed Central

Androgens exert significant organizational and activational effects on the nervous system and behavior. Despite the fact that female mammals generally produce low levels of androgens, relative to the male of the same species, increasing evidence suggests that androgens can exert profound effects on the normal physiology and behavior of females during fetal, neonatal, and adult stages of life. This review examines the effects of exposure to androgens at three stages of development – as an adult, during early postnatal life and as a fetus, on reproductive hormone secretions in female rats. We examine the effects of androgen exposure both as a model of neuroendocrine sexual differentiation and with respect to the role androgens play in the normal female. We then discuss the hypothesis that androgens may cause epigenetic modification of estrogen target genes in the brain. Finally we consider the clinical consequences of excess androgen exposure in women. PMID:18374922

Foecking, Eileen M.; McDevitt, Melissa A.; Acosta-Martinez, Maricedes; Horton, Teresa H.; Levine, Jon E.

2008-01-01

386

Fitness benefits of polyandry for experienced females.  

PubMed

Females often mate with several different males, which may promote sperm competition and increase offspring viability. However, the potential benefits of polyandry remain controversial, particularly in birds where recent reviews have suggested that females gain few genetic benefits from extra-pair mating. In tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor), we found that females with prior breeding experience had more sires per brood when paired to genetically similar social mates, and, among experienced females, broods with more sires had higher hatching success. Individual females breeding in two consecutive years also produced broods with more sires when they were more genetically similar to their mate. Thus, experienced females were able to avoid the costs of mating with a genetically similar social mate and realize fitness benefits from mating with a relatively large number of males. This is one of the first studies to show that female breeding experience influences polyandry and female fitness in a natural population of vertebrates. Our results suggest that the benefits of polyandry may only be clear when considering both the number of mates females acquire and their ability to modify the outcome of sexual conflict. PMID:20444084

Whittingham, L A; Dunn, P O

2010-06-01

387

Survival and cause-specific mortality rates of female sika deer in eastern Hokkaido, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Survival and cause-specific mortality rates of female sika deer (Cervus nippon) were studied using radio telemetry in eastern Hokkaido, Japan. We captured and radio-collared 18 female deer, and monitored their survival from April 1993 to May 1996. Estimated annual survival rate for adult females was 0.779 (95% confidence interval was 0.609–0.997). The harvest mortality rate of adult females was higher

Hiroyuki Uno; Koichi Kaji

2006-01-01

388

Female Sterilization: Risk of Ectopic Pregnancy After Tubal Sterilization  

MedlinePLUS

... Female Sterilization: Ectopic Pregnancy Back to Female Sterilization Female Sterilization: Risk of Ectopic Pregnancy After Tubal Sterilization ... and Health Promotion Home Contraception Medical Eligibility Criteria Female Sterilization Vasectomy Reproductive Health Home Data and Statistics ...

389

A pubertal immune challenge alters the antidepressant-like effects of chronic estradiol treatment in inbred and outbred adult female mice.  

PubMed

Puberty is a period characterized by brain reorganization that contributes to the development of neural and behavioral responses to gonadal steroids. A single injection of the bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), during the pubertal period decreases sexual receptivity in response to ovarian hormones in adulthood. Because chronic estradiol treatment alleviates depression-like symptoms in ovariectomized adult mice, we investigated the effect of pubertal LPS treatment on estradiol's antidepressant effects. We hypothesized that pubertal LPS treatment would decrease the antidepressant-like effect of estradiol in adult ovariectomized female mice, as it decreases other behavioral responses to ovarian hormones. As expected, chronic estradiol treatment decreased depression-like behavior, as measured by the duration of immobility, in saline-treated mice from two different strains, as well as in mice treated with LPS in adulthood. In contrast, in mice treated pubertally with LPS, estradiol strikingly increased the duration of immobility. No difference in body weight and in locomotion was found among the groups, suggesting that the differences in depression-like behavior were not due to differences in body weight or locomotor activity between LPS-treated and control mice. These results suggest that exposure to an immune challenge during the pubertal period alters the responsiveness of depression-like behavior to estradiol. PMID:23036617

Ismail, N; Kumlin, A M; Blaustein, J D

2013-09-26

390

Acaricidal activity of ethanolic extract from aerial parts of Tagetes patula L. (Asteraceae) against larvae and engorged adult females of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806)  

PubMed Central

Background The tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus is the species with the largest worldwide distribution and is proven to be involved in the transmission of pathogens such as Babesia canis, Ehrlichia canis, Coxiella burnetii, Rickettsia ricketsii, Rickettsia conorii, among others. Studies have demonstrated acquisition of resistance to some of the active principles used in commercial formulations of acaricides. Tagetes patula (Asteraceae) is a plant with highlighted economic and commercial importance due to the production of secondary metabolites with insecticide and acaricide potential, mainly flavonoids, thiophenes and terpenes. Methods The in vitro acaricide action of the ethanolic 70% extract from aerial parts of T. patula, obtained by percolation, was evaluated against larvae and engorged adult females of Rhipicephalus sanguineus by immersion test for 5?minutes. The chemical characterization of this extract was done by liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS), using direct injection of sample. Results Despite T. patula not proving lethal to adults in any of the concentrations tested, at 50.0?mg/mL oviposition rate decreased by 21.5% and eliminated 99.78% of the larvae. Also it was determined that the best results were obtained with 5?minutes of immersion. From the chromatographic analysis twelve O-glycosylated flavonoids were identified. Conclusions This is the first report on the acaricidal activity of T. patula extract against Rh. sanguineus. If we consider the application of the product in the environment, we could completely eliminate the larval stage of development of the ixodid Rh. sanguineus. PMID:23244493

2012-01-01

391

Cognition in Males and Females with Autism: Similarities and Differences  

PubMed Central

The male bias in autism spectrum conditions (ASC) has led to females with ASC being under-researched. This lack of attention to females could hide variability due to sex that may explain some of the heterogeneity within ASC. In this study we investigate four key cognitive domains (mentalizing and emotion perception, executive function, perceptual attention to detail, and motor function) in ASC, to test for similarities and differences between males and females with and without ASC (n?=?128 adults; n?=?32 per group). In the mentalizing and facial emotion perception domain, males and females with ASC showed similar deficits compared to neurotypical controls. However, in attention to detail and dexterity involving executive function, although males with ASC showed poorer performance relative to neurotypical males, females with ASC performed comparably to neurotypical females. We conclude that performance in the social-cognitive domain is equally impaired in male and female adults with ASC. However, in specific non-social cognitive domains, performance within ASC depends on sex. This suggests that in specific domains, cognitive profiles in ASC are modulated by sex. PMID:23094036

Lai, Meng-Chuan; Lombardo, Michael V.; Ruigrok, Amber N. V.; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Wheelwright, Sally J.; Auyeung, Bonnie; Allison, Carrie; Baron-Cohen, Simon

2012-01-01

392

Microglia express distinct M1 and M2 phenotypic markers in the postnatal and adult CNS in male and female mice  

PubMed Central

Although microglial activation is associated with all CNS disorders, many of which are sexually dimorphic or age-dependent, little is known about whether microglial basal gene expression is altered with age in the healthy CNS or if it is sex-dependent. Analysis of microglia from the brains of 3 day (P3) - to 12 month-old male and female C57Bl/6 mice revealed distinct gene expression profiles during postnatal development that differ significantly from adulthood. Microglia at P3 are characterized by relatively high iNOS, TNF? and arginase-1 mRNA levels, whereas P21 microglia have increased expression of CD11b, TLR4 and FcR?I. Adult microglia (2-4 months) are characterized by low pro-inflammatory cytokine expression that increases by 12 months of age. Age-dependent differences in microglial gene expression suggest that microglia likely undergo phenotypic changes during ontogenesis, although in the healthy brain they did not exclusively express either M1 or M2 phenotypic markers at any time. Interestingly, microglia were sexually dimorphic only at P3 when females had higher expression of inflammatory cytokines than males, although there were no sex differences in estrogen receptor expression at this or any other time evaluated here. Compared to microglia in vivo, primary microglia prepared from P3 mice had considerably altered gene expression with higher levels of TNF?, CD11b, arginase-1 and VEGF suggesting that culturing may significantly alter microglial properties. In conclusion, age- and sex-specific variances in basal gene expression may enable differential microglial responses to the same stimulus at different ages, perhaps contributing to altered CNS vulnerabilities and/or disease courses. PMID:23686747

Crain, Jessica M.; Nikodemova, Maria; Watters, Jyoti J.

2013-01-01

393

Experience-based agonistic behavior in female crickets, Gryllus bimaculatus.  

PubMed

Fighting behavior in male crickets is already well described, and some of the mechanisms underlying aggression and aggressive motivation have already been revealed. Much less is known about female/female interactions. Here, we report that adult female crickets that had been isolated for several days readily entered into agonistic interactions with conspecific individuals. Characteristic dyadic encounters between isolated females escalated in a stepwise manner and were concluded with the establishment of a dominant/subordinate relationship. For 15 to 30 minutes following an initial fight, former subordinate females showed a dramatic change in agonistic behavior. If they were paired with the former dominant opponent during this interval, a significant majority did not enter into any aggressive interaction but instead actively avoided the opponent. A similar experience-based and time-dependent increase in avoidance was observed when former subordinate females were paired with unfamiliar naïve opponents. However, when faced with an unfamiliar subordinate individual in the second encounter, no such increase in avoidance behavior was observed. We propose that the observed changes in the behavior of former subordinate females are the consequence of a change in the general state of arousal and of the recognition of dominance status, but not of individual recognition. The fact that former dominant individuals did not show similar experience-based changes in agonistic behavior suggests that dominant/subordinate relationships between pairs of female crickets are maintained mainly by the behavior of subordinate individuals. PMID:17043399

Delago, Antonia; Aonuma, Hitoshi

2006-09-01

394

Estrogen regulation of cell proliferation and distribution of estrogen receptor-alpha in the brains of adult female prairie and meadow voles.  

PubMed

Adult female prairie (Microtus ochrogaster) and meadow (M. pennsylvanicus) voles were compared to examine neural cell proliferation and the effects of estrogen manipulation on cell proliferation in the amygdala, ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus (DG). Unlike prior studies, our study focused on the amygdala and VMH, because they are involved in social behaviors and may underlie behavioral differences between the species. Meadow voles had a higher density of cells labeled with the cell proliferation marker 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) in the amygdala and DG than did prairie voles. Treatment with estradiol benzoate (EB) for 3 days increased the density of BrdU-labeled cells in the amygdala, particularly in the posterior cortical (pCorA) and medial (pMeA) nuclei, in meadow, but not prairie, voles. Furthermore, the majority of the BrdU-labeled cells in the pCorA and pMeA displayed either a neuronal or a glial progenitor phenotype, but no species or treatment differences were found in the percentage of neuronal or glial progenitor cells. To understand better estrogen's effects on adult neurogenesis, we also examined estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha) distribution. Meadow voles had more ERalpha-labeled cells in the pCorA and VMH, but not in the pMeA or DG, than did prairie voles. In addition, more than one-half of the BrdU-labeled cells in the amygdala of both species coexpressed ERalpha labeling. Together, these data indicate that estrogen alters cell proliferation in a species- and region-specific manner, and some of these effects may lie in the specific localization of estrogen receptors in the adult vole brain. PMID:15984004

Fowler, Christie D; Johnson, Frank; Wang, Zuoxin

2005-08-22

395

The Effects of the Sexualization of Female Video Game Characters on Gender Stereotyping and Female Self-Concept  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study utilized an experimental design to investigate the short term effects of exposure to sexualized female video\\u000a game characters on gender stereotyping and female self-concept in emerging adults. Bussey and Bandura’s (1999) social cognitive theory of gender development and differentiation was used to explicate this relationship. Undergraduate\\u000a students (N?=?328) at a large U.S. Southwestern university participated in the

Elizabeth Behm-Morawitz; Dana Mastro

2009-01-01

396

Female Utopian Writers and the Environment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the differences between male and female utopian (and dystopian) writers. Notes that some male utopian and dystopian writers emphasize science and product, stressing social and political theories of class control and struggle, whereas some female utopian writers stress conservation, community, and collective action. (RS)

McLoughlin, Maryann

1992-01-01

397

Old and Female: The Double Whammy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The stigma of the ageing female in our society is a double barrelled one. She occupies two stigmatized statuses simultaneously. This paper addresses itself to the particular ageing dilemma of the female as it relates to sex role socialization and the way she is taught to feel about her body. (Author)

Posner, Judith

1977-01-01

398

Strong Female Characters in Recent Children's Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shares the authors' criteria for evaluating female characters as positive role models in children's literature. Explores the criteria by examining "The Ballad of Lucy Wipple" (Karen Cushman). Discusses other recently published picture books and novels which feature strong females in history, in contemporary times, and in fantasy. (SR)

Heine, Pat; Inkster, Christine; Kazemek, Frank; Williams, Sandra; Raschke, Sylvia; Stevens, Della

1999-01-01

399

Males and Females with Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, 15 male and 15 female patients with serious eating disorders were compared. The two groups were similar in terms of demographics, comorbid conditions, and physiological complications. All three males who had bone density assessed had significant osteopenia. Abuse histories were obtained from 10 males and 10 females; childhood sexual abuse was as common among males as among

Pauline S. Powers; Eve G. Spratt

1994-01-01

400

Female circumcision: at our doorsteps and beyond  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent trends in international travel and emigration have brought the practice of female circumcision, also known as female genital mutilation, to the awareness of an increasing number of physicians and public policy agencies in developed countries. The main reason for the continuation of this practice is deeply held tradition. The high incidence of complications attending the procedure leads to a

Godwin I Meniru; Bryan R Hecht; Michael P Hopkins

2000-01-01

401

Injury patterns among female field hockey players  

Microsoft Academic Search

MURTAUGH, K. Injury patterns among female field hockey players. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 33, No. 2, 2001, pp. 201-207. Purpose: To examine injury patterns among female field hockey players and to broaden the current base of knowledge by identifying the injury rates of different playing positions. It was hypothesized that goalkeepers would have the highest rate of injury, followed

KAREN MURTAUGH

2001-01-01

402

Career Patterns of Rural Female Educational Administrators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined the impact of the rural context upon the careers of women educational administrators in Saskatchewan. Surveys and interviews with 24 female rural administrators indicated that the behavior and career patterns of rural female administrators were influenced by the organizational context of the school and its community. A new…

Wallin, Dawn; Sackney, Larry

2003-01-01

403

Voices of Resilience from Successful Female Superintendents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School superintendents work in increasingly high stakes environments full of adversity. The purpose of this study was to examine how female superintendents apply strategies to confront adversity and become more resilient in the process. Fifteen female superintendents in New York State were interviewed. The findings about resilient leadership are…

Reed, Diane; Patterson, Jerry

2007-01-01

404

Modus operandi of female serial killers.  

PubMed

The modus operandi of female serial killers was examined from a chronology of 58 cases in America and 47 cases in 17 other countries, compiled over 25-year intervals. Female serial killers in other countries accounted for a disproportionately greater number of victims, but those in America managed a longer killing career when associated with a low profile modus operandi. PMID:9621726

Wilson, W; Hilton, T

1998-04-01

405

Human female orgasm and mate fluctuating asymmetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human, Homo sapiens, female orgasm is not necessary for conception; hence it seems reasonable to hypothesize that orgasm is an adaptation for manipulating the outcome of sperm competition resulting from facultative polyandry. If heritable differences in male viability existed in the evolutionary past, selection could have favoured female adaptations (e.g. orgasm) that biased sperm competition in favour of males possessing

Randy Thornhill; Steven W. Gangestad; Randall Comer

1995-01-01

406

VOCATIONAL INTERESTS OF FEMALE COMPUTER PROGRAMMERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

SCORES OF 293 FEMALE COMPUTER PROGRAMMERS ON THE SVIB FOR MEN WERE FOUND TO BE QUITE SIMILAR TO THOSE OF MALE PROGRAMMERS, ALTHOUGH INTERESTS OF THE WOMEN WERE SOMEWHAT HIGHER IN ESTHETIC AND SCIENTIFIC FIELDS AND LOWER IN TECHNICAL AND TECHNICAL-SUPERVISION OCCUPATIONS. FEMALE PROGRAMMERS INDICATED INTEREST IN ALL FORMS OF MATHEMATICS AND LACK OF INTEREST IN PEOPLE. A KEY COMPOSED

DALLIS K. PERRY; WILLIAM M. CANNON

1968-01-01

407

Gender Verification of Female Olympic Athletes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gender verification of female athletes has long been criticized by geneticists, endocrinologists, and others in the medical community. Recently, the International Olympic Committee's Athletic Commission called for discontinuation of mandatory laboratory-based gender verification of female athletes. This article discusses normal sexual…

Dickinson, Barry D.; Genel, Myron; Robinowitz, Carolyn B.; Turner, Patricia L.; Woods, Gary L.

2002-01-01

408

Male and Female Dominance in Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores male/female patterns of dominance in dyadic speech communication in order to determine the influence of speaker's sex, speaker's commitment to the women's movement, and observer feedback on those patterns. College students (30 males and 30 females) responded to an "attitudes-toward-women" questionnaire and were classified as…

Octigan, Mary Withrow

409

Male-Female Differences: A Computer Simulation  

E-print Network

male-female differences in work performance ratings and how a com- puter simulation might helpMale-Female Differences: A Computer Simulation Richard F. Martell Departmentof" (Eagly, March 1995) raised an important question: What consti- tutes a practically significant sex effect

Lane, David

410

Female homicidal strangulation in urban South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Female strangulation in South Africa occurs in a context of pervasive and often extreme violence perpetrated against women, and therefore represents a major public health, social and human rights concern. South African studies that provide accurate descriptions of the occurrence of strangulation incidents among female homicide victims are limited. The current study describes the extent, distribution and patterns of

Shahnaaz Suffla; Ashley Van Niekerk; Najuwa Arendse

2008-01-01

411

Male-Female Sexuality: An Annotated Bibliography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This annotated bibliography contains over 500 sources on the historical and contemporary development and expression of male and female sexuality. There are 68 topic headings which provide easy access for subject areas. A major portion of the bibliography is devoted to contemporary male-female sexuality. These materials consist of research findings…

Wilson, Janice

412

Injuries in Iranian elite female volleyball players  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volleyball is one of the most popular sports in the world. It is the fourth most common source of sports injuries. The purpose of this study was to investigate characteristics of injury among Iranian elite female volleyball players. Seventy-four players from five teams which participated in 2006–2007 Iran female volleyball leagues were studied. The information related to injury were collected

Aazam Barani; Nader Rahnama; Effat Bambaeichi

2010-01-01

413

MARGARET MEAD'S `MALE AND FEMALE' REVISITED  

Microsoft Academic Search

The book Male and Female, originally published in 1949, has been hailed as an early work of feminism. However, its connotations and objections were different in three respects from contemporary sociology of gender. First, the book envisaged gender as a male-female relationship which is socially structured albeit biologically based. Second, the book followed on from Mead's work anticipating political reconstruction

Uta Gerhardt

1995-01-01

414

Selective males and ardent females in pipefishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the pipefishes Syngnathus typhle and Nerophis ophidion, males have been shown to limit female reproductive rate, and females to compete for access to males. Hence, these species fit the criteria for sex-role reversal. Males brood the eggs and provide the offspring with nutrients, oxygen and an osmoregulated environment. Moreover, in S. typhle both sexes prefer a larger mate when

Anders Berglund; Gunilla Rosenqvist

1993-01-01

415

Coping Behaviors among Sexual Minority Female Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article summarizes data from a qualitative study investigating the ways in which female youth perceive and respond to challenges related to the interplay of late adolescence and a minority sexual orientation. Fifteen sexual minority females in late adolescence were interviewed individually and in focus groups. The interviews focused on participants’ perceptions of challenges, the impact those stressors have in

Diane K. Pendragon

2010-01-01

416

Negotiation and Resistance: The Female Tattooed Body  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the ways in which the female tattooed body is interpreted by others, and to what degree these perceptions impact the tattooing practices, the behaviour, and ultimately the social status of tattooed women. Broadly speaking, the study focuses on the process of 'meaning making' in relation to female tattoos, and how the various meanings that are ascribed to

Ariane Ellerbrok

2008-01-01

417

Female Gender Images in Adolescent Magazine Advertising  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the late 1960s, research into gender stereotypes in advertising has been prolific. The emergence of more magazines that target children and adolescents raises the question of whether the female images portrayed in these publications reinforce prevailing stereotypes of women and portray diversity in ethnicity. This study examines the female images shown by advertisers in the Australian editions of Barbie,

Julie Napoli; Marie Murgolo-Poore; Ian Boudville

2003-01-01

418

The nontraditional female athlete: A case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current research presents traditional female college student-athletes as unmarried and childless individuals between 18 and 24 years of age. However, many colleges\\/universities are experiencing increases in the number of nontraditional students returning to higher education following leave from academic involvement. Possibly, this has implications for an increase in nontraditional student athletes. This case study examined a Caucasian female (age 36),

Elizabeth A. Jambor; Esther M. Weekes

1996-01-01

419

Female Intercollegiate Athletes. Changes and Implications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from several surveys and studies which examined the sports experience of over 2,000 female college athletes is summarized. Issues explored include reasons for and conditions surrounding sport participation, academic performance of female athletes, reactions to college sport, and post-college sport participation patterns. (IAH)

Blinde, Elaine M.

1989-01-01

420

Aggression and coexistence in female caribou  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Female caribou (Rangifer tarandus) are highly gregarious, yet there has been little study of the behavioral mechanisms that foster coexistence. Quantifying patterns of aggression between male and female, particularly in the only cervid taxa where both sexes grow antlers, should provide insight into these mechanisms. We asked if patterns of aggression by male and female caribou followed the pattern typically noted in other polygynous cervids, in which males display higher frequencies and intensity of aggression. From June to August in 2011 and 2012, we measured the frequency and intensity of aggression across a range of group sizes through focal animal sampling of 170 caribou (64 males and 106 females) on Adak Island in the Aleutian Archipelago, Alaska. Males in same-sex and mixed-sex groups and females in mixed-sex groups had higher frequencies of aggression than females in same-sex groups. Group size did not influence frequency of aggression. Males displayed more intense aggression than females. Frequent aggression in mixed-sex groups probably reflects lower tolerance of males for animals in close proximity. Female caribou were less aggressive and more gregarious than males, as in other polygynous cervid species.

Weckerly, Floyd W.; Ricca, Mark A.

2014-01-01

421

Math = male, me = female, therefore math ? me  

Microsoft Academic Search

College students, especially women, demonstrated negativity toward math and science relative to arts and language on implicit measures. Group membership (being female), group identity (self female), and gender stereotypes (math male) were related to attitudes and identification with mathematics. Stronger implicit math male stereotypes corresponded with more negative implicit and explicit math attitudes for women but more positive attitudes for

Brian A. Nosek; Mahzarin R. Banaji; Anthony G. Greenwald

2002-01-01

422

Ovulatory Shifts in Female Sexual Desire  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women's reproductive biology imposes heavy obligatory costs of parental investment, creating strong selective forces hypothesized to shape female mating psychology around critical decisions such as the choice of partner, the timing of sexual intercourse, and the timing of reproduction. We propose that female sexual desire has evolved as one adaptation among several designed to regulate these decisions. We hypothesize (a)

Elizabeth G. Pillsworth; Martie G. Haselton; David M. Buss

2004-01-01

423

High-sensitivity C reactive protein: associations with cardiovascular risk factors and tracking in female adolescents and young adults.  

PubMed

Objective. We assessed adolescent anthropometry, lipids, insulin, glucose, and blood pressures to identify factors associated with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and its tracking in young adults. Methods. Ten-year prospective study of 589 schoolgirls, 321 black, 268 white. Results. HsCRP did not differ (P > .08) by race or oral contraceptive use. HsCRP tracked from age 16 to 25 (r = 0.77), 16 to 26 (r = 0.50), 24 to 26 (r = 0.66), and 25 to 26 (r = 0.71), all P ? .02. By stepwise regression, at age 16, waist circumference accounted for 44.8% of hsCRP variance; BMI accounted for 33.1%, 34.4%, and 31.1% at ages 24, 25, and 26, P < .0001 for all. Changes in cholesterol and BMI were associated with change in hsCRP from age 24-26 (partial R(2) = 12.3%??P < .0001, 6.6%??P = .0012). Changes in BMI and triglyceride (partial R(2) = 8.5%??P = .0001, 3.3%, P = .0045) were associated with change in hsCRP from age 25 to 26. Conclusions. HsCRP tracks from age 16 to 26, with BMI, waist circumference, and cholesterol as major determinants. PMID:22482065

Morrison, John A; Glueck, Charles J; Daniels, Stephen R; Wang, Ping; Stroop, Davis M; Horn, Paul S

2011-01-01

424

Development of the gravid Aedes trap for the capture of adult female container-exploiting mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).  

PubMed

Monitoring dengue vector control by sampling adult Aedes aegypti (L.) recently has been used to replace both larval and pupal surveys. We have developed and evaluated the Gravid Aedes Trap (GAT) through a sequential behavioral study. The GAT does not require electricity to function, and trapped mosquitoes are identified easily during trap inspections. The GAT concept relies on visual and olfactory cues to lure gravid Ae. aegypti and an insecticide to kill trapped mosquitoes. Gravid mosquitoes are lured to a black bucket base containing oviposition attractant (infusion) and are trapped in a translucent chamber impregnated with a pyrethroid insecticide where they are killed within 3-15 min. In semifield observations, the GAT captured a significantly higher proportion of gravid mosquitoes than the double sticky ovitrap. We also demonstrated that the visual cues of the prototype GAT-LgBF (large black base bucket with a black funnel at the top of the translucent chamber) captured a significantly higher proportion of gravid mosquitoes than the other prototypes. The visual contrast created by the addition of a white lid to the top of the black funnel significantly increased the number of captured gravid mosquitoes when compared with the GAT-LgBF in semifield trials. We conclude that the GAT is more efficient in recapturing gravid Ae. aegypti when compared with sticky ovitraps. The GAT is an effective, practical, low cost, and easily transportable trap, features that are essential in large-scale monitoring programs, particularly in areas where funding is limited. PMID:24605470

Eiras, Alvaro E; Buhagiar, Tamara S; Ritchie, Scott A

2014-01-01

425

Overexpression of Sir2 in the adult fat body is sufficient to extend lifespan of male and female Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Sir2 is the most intensively discussed longevity gene in current aging research. Although, the gene encoding for a NAD+-dependent histone deacetylase initially was found to extend lifespan of various organisms ranging from yeast to mammals, serious doubts regarding its role in longevity have been expressed recently. In this study, we tested whether tissue-specific overexpression of Sir2 in the adult fat body can extend lifespan when compared to genetically identical controls. We also wanted to elucidate the mechanisms by which fat body Sir2 promotes longevity by studying the phenotypic and transcriptional changes in the fat body. We found that moderate (3-fold) Sir2 overexpression in the fat body during adulthood only can promote longevity in both sexes by roughly 13 %. In addition, we obtained transcriptional profiles elicited by this overexpression and propose a role for Sir2 in lipid droplet biology especially under conditions of starvation. Furthermore, our data do not support the idea of Sir2 mediating the response to dietary restriction (DR) because transcriptional profiles of fat bodies after DR or Sir2 overexpression do not match. This study provides additional independent evidence for the concept of Sir2 as a longevity gene and as a promising pharmacological target to cure age-related diseases. PMID:23765091

Hoffmann, Julia; Romey, Renja; Fink, Christine; Yong, Li; Roeder, Thomas

2013-01-01

426

Patterns of female suicidal behavior in Ghana.  

PubMed

The suicidal behavior of African females is a rarely explored topic. The present study is a descriptive analysis of fatal and nonfatal female suicidal behavior in Ghana. Patterns of both fatal and nonfatal female suicidal behavior recorded by the Ghana Police Service during 2006-2008 are examined and described in depth. The data show that during the 3-yr. period, there were 11 fatal and 4 nonfatal suicidal acts by females, out of the total 243 fatal and 44 nonfatal suicidal acts found in the official data. The author describes the ages and occupations of the women and girls who engaged in fatal and nonfatal suicidal behavior, as well as the suicide method, location, circumstances, and police-assigned motives for the suicidal acts. The author concludes that additional research on female suicidal behavior in Africa and other non-Western societies is warranted to develop a more precise understanding of suicidality. PMID:22238863

Adinkrah, Mensah

2011-10-01

427

Acoustic mate copying: female cowbirds attend to other females' vocalizations to modify their song preferences.  

PubMed

We conducted a tutoring experiment to determine whether female brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) would attend to vocalizations of other females and use those cues to influence their own preferences for male courtship songs. We collected recordings of male songs that were unfamiliar to the subject females and paired half of the songs with female chatter vocalizations-vocalizations that females give in response to songs sung by males that are courting the females effectively. Thus, chatter immediately following a song provided a cue indicating that the song was sung by a male who was of high-enough quality to court a female successfully. Using a cross-over design, we tutored two groups of females with song-chatter pairings prior to the breeding season. In the breeding season, we placed the tutored females into sound-attenuating chambers and played them the same songs without the chatter. Females produced significantly more copulation solicitation displays in response to the songs that they had heard paired with chatter than to songs that had not been paired with chatter. This experiment is the first demonstration that females can modify their song preferences by attending to the vocal behaviour of other females. PMID:19535371

Freed-Brown, Grace; White, David J

2009-09-22

428

Human sperm competition: ejaculate manipulation by females and a function for the female orgasm (1993)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioural ecologists view monogamy as a subtle mixture of conflict and cooperation between the sexes. In part, conflict and cooperation is cryptic, taking place within the female’s reproductive tract. In this paper the cryptic interaction for humans was analysed using data from both a nationwide survey and counts of sperm inseminated into, and ejected by, females. On average, 35% of

R. Robin Baker; Mark A. Bellis

429

Risk Factors for the Female Athlete Triad among Female Collegiate and Noncollegiate Athletes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The female athlete triad, defined by eating disorders, menstrual dysfunction, and osteoporosis, has been increasing among female athletes. The purpose of this study was to examine eating disorders, performance-related injuries, menstrual dysfunction, exercise time, calcium intake, and orientation to exercise among undergraduate female collegiate…

Thompson, Sharon H.; Gabriel, Melissa

2004-01-01

430

Social isolation during puberty affects female sexual behavior in mice  

PubMed Central

Exposure to stress during puberty can lead to long-term behavioral alterations in adult rodents coincident with sex steroid hormone-dependent brain remodeling and reorganization. Social isolation is a stress for social animals like mice, but little is known about the effects of such stress during adolescence on later reproductive behaviors. The present study examined sexual behavior of ovariectomized, estradiol and progesterone primed female mice that were individually housed from 25 days of age until testing at approximately 95 days, or individually housed from day 25 until day 60 (during puberty), followed by housing in social groups. Mice in these isolated groups were compared to females that were group housed throughout the experiment. Receptive sexual behaviors of females and behaviors of stimulus males were recorded. Females housed in social groups displayed greater levels of receptive behaviors in comparison to both socially isolated groups. Namely, social females had higher lordosis quotients (LQs) and more often displayed stronger lordosis postures in comparison to isolated females. No differences between female groups were observed in stimulus male sexual behavior suggesting that female “attractiveness” was not affected by their social isolation. Females housed in social groups had fewer cells containing immunoreactive estrogen receptor (ER) ? in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) and in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) than both isolated groups. These results suggest that isolation during adolescence affects female sexual behavior and re-socialization for 1 month in adulthood is insufficient to rescue lordosis behavior from the effects of social isolation during the pubertal period. PMID:25324747

Kercmar, Jasmina; Tobet, Stuart A.; Majdic, Gregor

2014-01-01

431

Female sexuality, regulation and resistance.  

PubMed

India was the context for this discussion of female sexuality, rigid social norms, women's strategies for resistance, the evolution of norms from colonial India, prostitution, myths, and self-help women's activities. Sexuality is a changing set of ideas, and women have contributed to the redefinition. The biological view without consideration of the sociocultural and historical influences proscribes what is deviant and may be used to reinforce patriarchy and colonialism. Management and control of sexuality has been influenced by class, religion, caste, and ethnicity. During the colonial period, women's sexuality and treatment was challenged by the missionaries. The abolishment of "sati" as a traditional practice was used by the British to expand their rule and control over a wider regional area. Attempts were also made to regulate prostitution as means of protecting the health of the British army. The law requiring registration, examination, and commitment for treatment of prostitutes was not adhered to by the women involved. The notion of mothers as irresponsible came into being about 1900, and encouraged abandonment of traditional child- rearing ways for the Western standard of health and hygiene, and lifestyle. In Bengal, motherhood and mother qoddesses became the symbol of the liberation movement. The maternal role could be strengthened through education. The notion of mother and nationhood was supported by the women's movement in Great Britain and the US through positive eugenics ideas of quality race, which supported the ruling elite of British and Indians. Thus, the high class women were to be protected from early marriage, and encouraged to produce children fit to govern; the poor were to be protected from prostitution and overpopulation. Post colonial ideas about sexuality reflected a number of influences both from within and outside India. Health was a focus, and program targets were those who were outside the norm: women with too many children, homosexuals, and prostitutes. Protests have been made against dowry, rape, violence against women, and against specific contraceptives. Women's groups have challenged beliefs about the polluting aspect of women's sexuality, and linked sexuality with spirituality. Grassroots networks were set up in 1989 to teach self- help. PMID:12345529

Khanna, R; Price, J

1994-06-01

432

First Class of Female Astronauts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

From left to right are Shannon W. Lucid, Margaret Rhea Seddon, Kathryn D. Sullivan, Judith A. Resnik, Anna L. Fisher, and Sally K. Ride. NASA selected all six women as their first female astronaut candidates in January 1978, allowing them to enroll in a training program that they completed in August 1979. Shannon W. Lucid was born on January 14, 1943 in Shanghai, China but considers Bethany, Oklahoma to be her hometown. She spent many years at the University of Oklahoma, receiving a Bachelor in chemistry in 1963, a Master in biochemistry in 1970, and a Doctorate in biochemistry in 1973. Dr. Lucid flew on the STS-51G Discovery, STS-34 Atlantis, STS-43 Atlantis, and STS-58 Columbia shuttle missions, setting the record for female astronauts by logging 838 hours and 54 minutes in space. She also currently holds the United States single mission space flight endurance record for her 188 days on the Russian Space Station Mir. From February 2002 to September 2003, she served as chief scientist at NASA Headquarters before returning to JSC to help with the Return to Flight program after the STS-107 accident. Born November 8, 1947, in Murfreesboro, Tennessee, Margaret Rhea Seddon received a Doctorate of Medicine in 1973 from the University of Tennessee. She flew on space missions STS-51 Discovery, STS-40 Columbia, and STS-58 Columbia for a total of over 722 hours in space. Dr. Seddon retired from NASA in November 1997, taking on a position as the Assistant Chief Medical Officer of the Vanderbilt Medical Group in Nashville, Tennessee. Kathryn Sullivan was born October 3, 1951 in Patterson, New Jersey but considers Woodland Hills, California to be her hometown. She received a Bachelor in Earth Sciences from the University of California, Santa Cruz in 1973 and a Doctorate in Geology from Dalhousie University in Halifax, Nova Scotia in 1978. She flew on space missions STS-41G, STS-31, and STS-45 and logged a total of 532 hours in space. Dr. Sullivan left NASA in August 1992 to assume the position of Chief Scientist of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). She later went on to serve as President and CEO of the Center of Science and Industry in Columbus, Ohio. Dr. Judith Resnik was born April 5, 1949 in Akron, Ohio. She received a Bachelor of Science degree in Electrical Engineering from Carnegie-Mellon University in 1970, and a Doctorate in Electrical Engineering from University of Maryland in 1977. Dr. Resnik left a job as a senior systems engineer in product development with Xerox Corporation at El Segundo, California to work for NASA in 1978. She died on January 28, 1986 on her second mission, during the launch of Challenger STS-51-L. Anna Fisher was born August 24, 1949 in New York City, New York hometown. She received a Doctorate in Medicine in 1976 and a Master of Science in Chemistry in 1987, both from the University of California, Los Angeles. Dr. Fisher flew on STS-51A, the Space Shuttle Discovery's November 8, 1984 mission, and logged 192 hours in space; her second schedule mission was cancelled after the Space Shuttle Challenger STS-51L accident. She remains with NASA, where she has filled many positions over decades of service. Dr. Sally Ride was the first American woman in space. Born on May 26, 1951 in Los Angeles, California, she went on to receive a Bachelor in Physics and English in 1973 from Stanford University and, later, a Master in Physics in 1975 and a Doctorate in Physics in 1978, also from Stanford. She began her astronaut career as a mission specialist on STS-7, which launched from Kennedy Space Center, Florida on June 18, 1983, and later went on to fly on STS-41G. She withdrew from training for her third scheduled mission in order to serve on the investigative committee for the Space Shuttle Challenger accident and never returned to training, although she went on to work for headquarters and later to serve on the Columbia Accident Investigation Board before returning to the private sector as a physics professor.

1979-01-01

433

Measuring Virgin Female Aggression in the Female Intruder Test (FIT): Effects of Oxytocin, Estrous Cycle, and Anxiety  

PubMed Central

The costs of violence and aggression in our society have stimulated the scientific search for the predictors and causes of aggression. The majority of studies have focused on males, which are considered to be more aggressive than females in most species. However, rates of offensive behavior in girls and young women are considerable and are currently rising in Western society. The extrapolation of scientific results from males to young, non-maternal females is a priori limited, based on the profound sex differences in brain areas and functioning of neurotransmitters involved in aggression. Therefore, we established a paradigm to assess aggressive behavior in young virgin female rats, i.e. the female intruder test (FIT). We found that approximately 40% of un-manipulated adult (10–11 weeks old) female Wistar rats attack an intruder female during the FIT, independent of their estrous phase or that of their intruder. In addition, adolescent (7–8 weeks old) female rats selected for high anxiety behavior (HABs) displayed significantly more aggression than non-selected (NAB) or low-anxiety (LAB) rats. Intracerebroventricular infusion of oxytocin (OXT, 0.1 µg/5 µl) inhibited aggressive behavior in adult NAB and LAB, but not HAB females. Adolescent NAB rats that had been aggressive towards their intruder showed increased pERK immunoreactivity (IR) in the hypothalamic attack area and reduced pERK-IR in OXT neurons in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus compared to non-aggressive NAB rats. Taken together, aggressive behavior in young virgin female rats is partly dependent on trait anxiety, and appears to be under considerable OXT control. PMID:24614336

de Jong, Trynke R.; Beiderbeck, Daniela I.; Neumann, Inga D.

2014-01-01

434

Maternal care affects male and female offspring working memory and stress reactivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variations in maternal care affect the development of individual differences in learning and memory and neuroendocrine responses to stress in adult male offspring, but it is not known how variations in maternal care affect adult female offspring. The present study investigated the performance of adult Sprague–Dawley male and female offspring exposed to either low or high levels of maternal licking\\/grooming

Cindy K. Barha; Jodi L. Pawluski; Liisa A. M. Galea

2007-01-01

435

Testosterone decreases the expression of endometrial pinopode and L-selectin ligand (MECA-79) in adult female rats during uterine receptivity period  

PubMed Central

Pinopode, a progesterone-dependent endometrial projection which appears during uterine receptivity period, participates in blastocyst implantation. Blastocyst loosely attaches to pinopode via L-selectin ligand (MECA-79). We hypothesized that pinopode and MECA-79 expressions were affected by testosterone. Therefore, the effect of testosterone on pinopode and MECA-79 expressions during uterine receptivity period were investigated. Methods: Ovariectomized adult female rats received 8 days sex-steroid replacement intended to mimic hormonal changes in early pregnancy with day 6 to 8 represents uterine receptivity period. Testosterone (1 mg/kg/day) was injected together with flutamide or finasteride during the period of uterine receptivity. At the end of treatment, rats were sacrificed and uteri were removed. The existence of pinopodes in the endometrium was visualized by electron microscopy and uterine expression and distribution of MECA-79 protein were examined by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry (IHC) respectively. Results: Abundant pinopodes and MECA-79 expressions were observed in rats received normal steroid replacement regime. Administration of testosterone during uterine receptivity period reduced pinopodes and MECA-79 expressions, which were antagonized by flutamide and not finasteride. Conclusions: The decrease in uterine pinopodes and MECA-79 expressions during uterine receptivity period by testosterone may cause failure of blastocyst to implant in conditions associated with high level of this hormone. PMID:24966906

Mokhtar, Helmy Mohd; Giribabu, Nelli; Muniandy, Sekaran; Salleh, Naguib

2014-01-01

436

Comparing Adult Males and Females in the United States to Examine the Association between Body Mass Index and Frequent Mental Distress: An Analysis of Data from BRFSS 2011  

PubMed Central

Background. There is conflicting evidence regarding the association of body mass index (BMI) with mental distress. Studies have focused on different dimensions of mental health and used different definitions and many of them have not controlled for confounding factors. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between frequent mental distress (FMD) and BMI among adults in the United States, with special emphasis on gender differences. Methods. Data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) for the year 2011 were used in logistic regression models to predict FMD, defined as having 14 or more days of poor mental health in the previous month. Sociodemographic factors, tobacco and alcohol use, diet and physical activity, and number of chronic diseases were controlled for. Results. 11.95% (n = 53,715) of the participants with valid responses (n = 496,702) had FMD. The adjusted ORs of having FMD among underweight, overweight, and obese females were 1.13 (95% CI: 1.10, 1.60), 1.10 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.19), and 1.21 (95% CI: 1.13, 1.31), respectively, but they were not statistically significant