Sample records for adult females females

  1. Social dominance in adult female mountain goats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    François Fournier; Marco Festa-Bianchet

    1995-01-01

    The social behaviour of adult female mountain goats, Oreamnos americanus, was studied for 2 years in an unhunted population in west-central Alberta, Canada. Compared with other female ungulates, mountain goat females interacted aggressively much more frequently and their dominance ranks were less stable in time and less age-related. Goats were organized in a non-linear but non-random dominance hierarchy, with many

  2. Standardization of Malaysian Adult Female Nasal Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Mohd. Zulkifly; Ahmad, Kamarul Arifin; Lutfi Shuaib, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    This research focuses on creating a standardized nasal cavity model of adult Malaysian females. The methodology implemented in this research is a new approach compared to other methods used by previous researchers. This study involves 26 females who represent the test subjects for this preliminary study. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis was carried out to better understand the characteristics of the standardized model and to compare it to the available standardized Caucasian model. This comparison includes cross-sectional areas for both half-models as well as velocity contours along the nasal cavities. The Malaysian female standardized model is larger in cross-sectional area compared to the standardized Caucasian model thus leading to lower average velocity magnitudes. The standardized model was further evaluated with four more Malaysian female test subjects based on its cross-sectional areas and average velocity magnitudes along the nasal cavities. This evaluation shows that the generated model represents an averaged and standardized model of adult Malaysian females. PMID:23840279

  3. Understanding the Burden of Adult Female Acne

    PubMed Central

    Kawata, Ariane K.; Daniels, Selena R.; Yeomans, Karen; Burk, Caroline T.; Callender, Valerie D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Typically regarded as an adolescent condition, acne among adult females is also prevalent. Limited data are available on the clinical characteristics and burden of adult female acne. The study objective was to describe clinical characteristics and psychosocial impact of acne in adult women. Design: Cross-sectional, web-based survey. Setting: Data were collected from a diverse sample of United States females. Participants: Women ages 25 to 45 years with facial acne (?25 visible lesions). Measurements: Outcomes included sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, perceptions, coping behaviors, psychosocial impact of acne (health-related quality of life using acne-specific Quality of Life questionnaire and psychological status using Patient Health Questionnaire), and work/productivity. Results: A total of 208 women completed the survey (mean age 35±6 years), comprising White/Caucasian (51.4%), Black/African American (24.5%), Hispanic/Latino (11.1%), Asian (7.7%), and Other (5.3%). Facial acne presented most prominently on cheeks, chin, and forehead and was characterized by erythema, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, and scarring. Average age of adult onset was 25±6 years, and one-third (33.7%) were diagnosed with acne as an adult. The majority (80.3%) had 25 to 49 visible facial lesions. Acne was perceived as troublesome and impacted self-confidence. Makeup was frequently used to conceal acne. Facial acne negatively affected health-related quality of life, was associated with mild/moderate symptoms of depression and/or anxiety, and impacted ability to concentrate on work or school. Conclusion: Results highlight the multifaceted impact of acne and provide evidence that adult female acne is under-recognized and burdensome. PMID:24578779

  4. Treatment of adult female acne: a new challenge.

    PubMed

    Dréno, B

    2015-06-01

    Acne is affecting an increasing number of adult females and so can no longer be considered as a disease of adolescence. The disease has a greater negative impact on the quality of life of adult females than their younger counterparts. Adult female acne may persist from adolescence or may have its first occurrence once adulthood has been reached. The clinical presentation and pathogenesis of adult female acne may be somewhat different to that of adolescent acne and this may require a different treatment approach. Genetic and hormonal factors are thought to play key roles in the pathogenesis of adult female acne and the disease is characterized by a chronic evolution with frequent relapses requiring long-term maintenance therapy. Fixed-dose retinoid/antimicrobial combinations may be of interest for the treatment of adult female acne given that subgroup analysis of clinical trials has indicated that they are effective against both inflammatory and non-inflammatory lesions in these patients. These treatments may also be of interest, given the chronic course of the disease in adult females, the high likelihood of the presence of antibiotic-resistant P. acnes and the poor adherence of patients to other long-term therapies. Oral hormonal treatment or isotretinoin may be required in patients with severe acne or disease that is refractory to other treatments. Additional clinical studies of acne treatments specifically conducted in adult female patients are required to increase the evidence base on which future treatment recommendations can be based. PMID:26059821

  5. Hispanic adults' beliefs, attitudes, and intentions regarding the female condom.

    PubMed

    Bogart, L M; Cecil, H; Pinkerton, S D

    2000-04-01

    The present study used the theory of planned behavior (TPB) (Ajzen, 1985) augmented by AIDS knowledge to investigate factors influencing intentions of Hispanic adults to use the female condom. A total of 146 persons (75 women and 71 men; mean age, 27 years) recruited from community-based organizations completed an anonymous survey regarding intentions to use the female condom with their main sex partner. The TPB model had greater predictive utility for women's, than for men's, female condom use intentions. For men, attitudes and norms did not predict female condom use intentions, but greater AIDS knowledge was related to lower intentions to use the female condom, above and beyond the TPB constructs. Perceived behavioral control, operationalized as self-efficacy, significantly increased the predictive utility of the TPB model for women's female condom use intentions but not for men's. Behavior change strategies to increase female condom use are discussed in light of these findings. PMID:10833679

  6. Nutrition for optimal predatory performance of adult female Orius insidiosus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reproduction in a female predator, Orius insidiosus, is a nutritionally stringent process. Adult females acquire the nutrition needed for egg development from their prey, and rates of egg development are dependent on nutrients acquired in that life stage. When released as a biological control agen...

  7. Radio Tagged Adult Female Walrus on Ice Floe

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Adult female walrus on ice floe photographed shortly after receiving a behavior monitoring satellite-linked radio tag from USGS researchers.  Data acquired from such radio-tags are providing insights on the distribution and behavior of Pacific walruses during a time when their summer sea ice h...

  8. RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Transcriptome of the adult female malaria

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Transcriptome of the adult female malaria mosquito vector Anopheles-Cerón9 , Salvador Hernández-Martínez1 and Mario H Rodríguez López1 Abstract Background: Human Malaria species from different branches of the mosquito evolutionary tree transmit malaria, suggesting

  9. Litter Size Predicts Adult Stereotypic Behavior in Female Laboratory Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bechard, Allison; Nicholson, Anthony; Mason, Georgia

    2012-01-01

    Stereotypic behaviors are repetitive invariant behaviors that are common in many captive species and potentially indicate compromised welfare and suitability as research subjects. Adult laboratory mice commonly perform stereotypic bar-gnawing, route-tracing, and back-flipping, although great individual variation in frequency occurs. Early life factors (for example, level of maternal care received) have lasting effects on CNS functioning and abilities to cope with stress and therefore may also affect stereotypic behavior in offspring. Access to maternal resources and care are influenced by the number of pups in a litter; therefore, we examined both litter size and its potential correlate, weight at weaning, as early environmental predictors of adult stereotypic behavior in laboratory mice. Further, we assessed the effects on offspring stereotypic behavior of delaying the separation of mother and pups (weaning) beyond the standard 21 d of age. Analyzing stereotypic behavior in 3 different mouse colonies composed of 2 inbred strains (C57BL/6N and C57BL/6J) and an outbred stock (CD1[ICR]) revealed significant positive correlation between litter size and stereotypic behavior in female, but not male, mice. Weight and age at weaning did not significantly affect levels of stereotypy in either sex. Litter size therefore may be a useful indicator of individual predisposition to stereotypic behavior in female laboratory mice. PMID:23043805

  10. A spontaneous depressive pattern in adult female rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Qin, Dongdong; Rizak, Joshua; Chu, Xunxun; Li, Zhifei; Yang, Shangchuan; Lü, Longbao; Yang, Lichuan; Yang, Qing; Yang, Bo; Pan, Lei; Yin, Yong; Chen, Lin; Feng, Xiaoli; Hu, Xintian

    2015-01-01

    Non-human primates offer unique opportunities to study the development of depression rooted in behavioral and physiological abnormalities. This study observed adult female rhesus macaques within social hierarchies and aimed to characterize the physiological and brain abnormalities accompanying depressive-like behavior. The behaviors of 31 female rhesus macaques from 14 different breeding groups were video recorded, and the footage was analyzed using the focal animal technique. There were 13 monkeys who never displayed huddling behavior (non-huddlers). The remaining 18 monkeys were divided into two groups according the mean time spent in the huddle posture. Four monkeys were designated as high huddlers, whereas the other 14 monkeys were low huddlers. An inverse relationship was discovered between social rank and depression. High huddlers spent more time engaging in physical contact and in close proximity to other monkeys, as well as less time spontaneously and reactively locomoting, than low huddlers and/or non-huddlers. Cortisol levels measured from the hair were elevated significantly in high huddlers compared with low huddlers and non-huddlers, and the measured cortisol levels were specifically higher in high huddlers than subordinate or dominant control monkeys. Regional cerebral blood flow data revealed significant and widespread decreases in high huddlers compared with non-huddlers. PMID:26059851

  11. A spontaneous depressive pattern in adult female rhesus macaques

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Dongdong; Rizak, Joshua; Chu, Xunxun; Li, Zhifei; Yang, Shangchuan; Lü, Longbao; Yang, Lichuan; Yang, Qing; Yang, Bo; Pan, Lei; Yin, Yong; Chen, Lin; Feng, Xiaoli; Hu, Xintian

    2015-01-01

    Non-human primates offer unique opportunities to study the development of depression rooted in behavioral and physiological abnormalities. This study observed adult female rhesus macaques within social hierarchies and aimed to characterize the physiological and brain abnormalities accompanying depressive-like behavior. The behaviors of 31 female rhesus macaques from 14 different breeding groups were video recorded, and the footage was analyzed using the focal animal technique. There were 13 monkeys who never displayed huddling behavior (non-huddlers). The remaining 18 monkeys were divided into two groups according the mean time spent in the huddle posture. Four monkeys were designated as high huddlers, whereas the other 14 monkeys were low huddlers. An inverse relationship was discovered between social rank and depression. High huddlers spent more time engaging in physical contact and in close proximity to other monkeys, as well as less time spontaneously and reactively locomoting, than low huddlers and/or non-huddlers. Cortisol levels measured from the hair were elevated significantly in high huddlers compared with low huddlers and non-huddlers, and the measured cortisol levels were specifically higher in high huddlers than subordinate or dominant control monkeys. Regional cerebral blood flow data revealed significant and widespread decreases in high huddlers compared with non-huddlers. PMID:26059851

  12. Transcriptome of the adult female malaria mosquito vector Anopheles albimanus

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Human Malaria is transmitted by mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles. Transmission is a complex phenomenon involving biological and environmental factors of humans, parasites and mosquitoes. Among more than 500 anopheline species, only a few species from different branches of the mosquito evolutionary tree transmit malaria, suggesting that their vectorial capacity has evolved independently. Anopheles albimanus (subgenus Nyssorhynchus) is an important malaria vector in the Americas. The divergence time between Anopheles gambiae, the main malaria vector in Africa, and the Neotropical vectors has been estimated to be 100 My. To better understand the biological basis of malaria transmission and to develop novel and effective means of vector control, there is a need to explore the mosquito biology beyond the An. gambiae complex. Results We sequenced the transcriptome of the An. albimanus adult female. By combining Sanger, 454 and Illumina sequences from cDNA libraries derived from the midgut, cuticular fat body, dorsal vessel, salivary gland and whole body, we generated a single, high-quality assembly containing 16,669 transcripts, 92% of which mapped to the An. darlingi genome and covered 90% of the core eukaryotic genome. Bidirectional comparisons between the An. gambiae, An. darlingi and An. albimanus predicted proteomes allowed the identification of 3,772 putative orthologs. More than half of the transcripts had a match to proteins in other insect vectors and had an InterPro annotation. We identified several protein families that may be relevant to the study of Plasmodium-mosquito interaction. An open source transcript annotation browser called GDAV (Genome-Delinked Annotation Viewer) was developed to facilitate public access to the data generated by this and future transcriptome projects. Conclusions We have explored the adult female transcriptome of one important New World malaria vector, An. albimanus. We identified protein-coding transcripts involved in biological processes that may be relevant to the Plasmodium lifecycle and can serve as the starting point for searching targets for novel control strategies. Our data increase the available genomic information regarding An. albimanus several hundred-fold, and will facilitate molecular research in medical entomology, evolutionary biology, genomics and proteomics of anopheline mosquito vectors. The data reported in this manuscript is accessible to the community via the VectorBase website (http://www.vectorbase.org/Other/AdditionalOrganisms/). PMID:22646700

  13. Sterols in various organs of adult female swine Jocelyne AIGUEPERSE, J. REMY, F. CHEVALLIER

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Sterols in various organs of adult female swine Jocelyne AIGUEPERSE, J. REMY, F. CHEVALLIER Orsay Cedex, France. Summary. Adult female swine were maintained at a constant weight of 70 kg and compared with those previously obtained with swine or rats. Gas chromatographic analyses showed

  14. Distribution of kisspeptin neurones in the adult female mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Clarkson, J; d'Anglemont de Tassigny, X; Colledge, W H; Caraty, A; Herbison, A E

    2009-08-01

    Kisspeptin-GPR54 signalling is essential for normal reproductive functioning. However, the distribution of kisspeptin neuronal cell bodies and their projections is not well established. The present study aimed to provide a detailed account of kisspeptin neuroanatomy in the mouse brain. Using a polyclonal rabbit antibody AC566, directed towards the final ten C-terminal amino acids of murine kisspeptin, three populations of kisspeptin-expressing cell bodies were identified in the adult female mouse brain. One exists as a dense periventricular continuum of cells within the rostral part of the third ventricle, another is found within the arcuate nucleus, and another is identified as a low-density group of scattered cells within the dorsomedial nucleus and posterior hypothalamus. Kisspeptin-immunoreactive fibres were abundant within the ventral aspect of the lateral septum and within the hypothalamus running in periventricular and ventral retrochiasmatic pathways. Notable exclusions from the kisspeptin fibre innervation were the suprachiasmatic and ventromedial nuclei. Outside of the hypothalamus, a small number of kisspeptin fibres were identified in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, subfornical organ, medial amygdala, paraventricular thalamus, periaqueductal grey and locus coerulus. All kisspeptin cell body and fibre immunoreactivity was absent in brain tissue from Kiss1 knockout mice. These observations provide a map of kisspeptin neurones in the mouse brain and indicate that a limited number of mostly medial hypothalamic and lateral septal brain regions are innervated by the three hypothalamic kisspeptin cell populations; the functions of these projections remain to be established. PMID:19515163

  15. Mate Choice in Adult Female Bengalese Finches: Females Express Consistent Preferences for Individual Males and Prefer Female-Directed Song Performances

    PubMed Central

    Dunning, Jeffery L.; Pant, Santosh; Bass, Aaron; Coburn, Zachary; Prather, Jonathan F.

    2014-01-01

    In the process of mate selection by female songbirds, male suitors advertise their quality through reproductive displays in which song plays an important role. Females evaluate the quality of each signal and the associated male, and the results of that evaluation guide expression of selective courtship displays. Some studies reveal broad agreement among females in their preferences for specific signal characteristics, indicating that those features are especially salient in female mate choice. Other studies reveal that females differ in their preference for specific characteristics, indicating that in those cases female evaluation of signal quality is influenced by factors other than simply the physical properties of the signal. Thus, both the physical properties of male signals and specific traits of female signal evaluation can impact female mate choice. Here, we characterized the mate preferences of female Bengalese finches. We found that calls and copulation solicitation displays are equally reliable indicators of female preference. In response to songs from an array of males, each female expressed an individual-specific song preference, and those preferences were consistent across tests spanning many months. Across a population of females, songs of some males were more commonly preferred than others, and females preferred female-directed songs more than undirected songs, suggesting that some song features are broadly attractive. Preferences were indistinguishable for females that did or did not have social experience with the singers, indicating that female preference is strongly directed by song features rather than experiences associated with the singer. Analysis of song properties revealed several candidate parameters that may influence female evaluation. In an initial investigation of those parameters, females could be very selective for one song feature yet not selective for another. Therefore, multiple song parameters are evaluated independently. Together these findings reveal the nature of signal evaluation and mate choice in this species. PMID:24558501

  16. Coming to terms with coming of age: Constructions of female adolescence in contemporary fiction for adults and young adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tracy Ann Nashel

    2006-01-01

    This study explores the constructions of female adolescence in late twentieth-century American novels by women, written for both adult and young adult readers. It analyzes theories of adolescence by examining sociological and psychological studies of girlhood, literary discussions of the female bildungsroman, and current debates about the genre of young adult fiction. This project examines several young adult coming-of-age novels

  17. Effects of Age on Cerebrospinal Fluid Oxytocin Levels in Free-Ranging Adult Female and Infant Rhesus Macaques

    E-print Network

    Maestripieri, Dario

    Effects of Age on Cerebrospinal Fluid Oxytocin Levels in Free-Ranging Adult Female and Infant as plasma cortisol levels. CSF oxytocin concentrations ranged from 36.02 to 134.41 pg/ml in adult females were positively correlated with adult female age and negatively correlated with infant age. The former

  18. Behavioural Processes 55 (2001) 157162 Adult female prairie voles and meadow voles do not

    E-print Network

    Dunlap, Aimee Sue

    2001-01-01

    Behavioural Processes 55 (2001) 157­162 Adult female prairie voles and meadow voles do not suppress on several species of rodents, including the prairie vole, Microtus ochrogaster, but not meadow voles, M. pennsyl6anicus. We exposed female prairie voles and meadow voles to two treatments: a mother and one 23

  19. Infl uence of Atopy on Asthma Severity in Adult Female Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C Koca; E Mete; R Yigitoglu

    ? Abstract Background: Although allergy is known to play an important role in the development of asthma, its infl uence on the severity of the disease remains under discussion. Objective: The aim of our study was to examine the relationship between asthma severity and intensity of atopy in adult female asthmatic patients. Methods: One hundred two consecutive female patients (mean

  20. Serotonin signaling in the brain of adult female mice is required for sexual preference

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shasha; Liu, Yan; Rao, Yi

    2013-01-01

    A role for serotonin in male sexual preference was recently uncovered by our finding that male mutant mice lacking serotonin have lost sexual preference. Here we show that female mouse mutants lacking either central serotonergic neurons or serotonin prefer female over male genital odors when given a choice, and displayed increased female–female mounting when presented either with a choice of a male and a female target or only with a female target. Pharmacological manipulations and genetic rescue experiments showed that serotonin is required in adults. Behavioral changes caused by deficient serotonergic signaling were not due to changes in plasma concentrations of sex hormones. We demonstrate that a genetic manipulation reverses sexual preference without involving sex hormones. Our results indicate that serotonin controls sexual preference. PMID:23716677

  1. Balancing Act: A Phenomenological Study of Female Adult Learners Who Successfully Persisted in Graduate Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepherd, Jeff; Nelson, Barbara Mullins

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted utilizing Cross' (1981) barriers to adult learning as a framework to better understand how adults successfully complete their graduate studies. Participants in the study were solicited via Facebook and LinkedIn. Three female adult learners who persisted in their graduate studies while balancing demands outside academics…

  2. Female competition in chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Pusey, Anne E.; Schroepfer-Walker, Kara

    2013-01-01

    Female chimpanzees exhibit exceptionally slow rates of reproduction and raise their offspring without direct paternal care. Therefore, their reproductive success depends critically on long-term access to high-quality food resources over a long lifespan. Chimpanzee communities contain multiple adult males, multiple adult females and their offspring. Because males are philopatric and jointly defend the community range while most females transfer to new communities before breeding, adult females are typically surrounded by unrelated competitors. Communities are fission–fusion societies in which individuals spend time alone or in fluid subgroups, whose size depends mostly on the abundance and distribution of food. To varying extents in different populations, females avoid direct competition by foraging alone or in small groups in distinct, but overlapping core areas within the community range to which they show high fidelity. Although rates of aggression are low, females compete for space and access to food. High rank correlates with high reproductive success, and high-ranking females win direct contests for food and gain preferential access to resource-rich sites. Females are aggressive to immigrant females and even kill the newborn infants of community members. The intensity of such aggression correlates with population density. These patterns are compared to those in other species, including humans. PMID:24167307

  3. Patient-specific FDG dosimetry for adult males, adult females, and very low birth weight infants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niven, Erin

    Fluorodeoxyglucose is the most commonly used radiopharmaceutical in Positron Emission Tomography, with applications in neurology, cardiology, and oncology. Despite its routine use worldwide, the radiation absorbed dose estimates from FDG have been based primarily on data obtained from two dogs studied in 1977 and 11 adults (most likely males) studied in 1982. In addition, the dose estimates calculated for FDG have been centered on the adult male, with little or no mention of variations in the dose estimates due to sex, age, height, weight, nationality, diet, or pathological condition. Through an extensive investigation into the Medical Internal Radiation Dose schema for calculating absorbed doses, I have developed a simple patient-specific equation; this equation incorporates the parameters necessary for alterations to the mathematical values of the human model to produce an estimate more representative of the individual under consideration. I have used this method to determine the range of absorbed doses to FDG from the collection of a large quantity of biological data obtained in adult males, adult females, and very low birth weight infants. Therefore, a more accurate quantification of the dose to humans from FDG has been completed. My results show that per unit administered activity, the absorbed dose from FDG is higher for infants compared to adults, and the dose for adult women is higher than for adult men. Given an injected activity of approximately 3.7 MBq kg-1, the doses for adult men, adult women, and full-term newborns would be on the order of 5.5, 7.1, and 2.8 mSv, respectively. These absorbed doses are comparable to the doses received from other nuclear medicine procedures.

  4. A Behavioral Comparison of Male and Female Adults with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Meng-Chuan; Lombardo, Michael V.; Pasco, Greg; Ruigrok, Amber N. V.; Wheelwright, Sally J.; Sadek, Susan A.; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2011-01-01

    Autism spectrum conditions (ASC) affect more males than females in the general population. However, within ASC it is unclear if there are phenotypic sex differences. Testing for similarities and differences between the sexes is important not only for clinical assessment but also has implications for theories of typical sex differences and of autism. Using cognitive and behavioral measures, we investigated similarities and differences between the sexes in age- and IQ-matched adults with ASC (high-functioning autism or Asperger syndrome). Of the 83 (45 males and 38 females) participants, 62 (33 males and 29 females) met Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) cut-off criteria for autism in childhood and were included in all subsequent analyses. The severity of childhood core autism symptoms did not differ between the sexes. Males and females also did not differ in self-reported empathy, systemizing, anxiety, depression, and obsessive-compulsive traits/symptoms or mentalizing performance. However, adult females with ASC showed more lifetime sensory symptoms (p?=?0.036), fewer current socio-communication difficulties (p?=?0.001), and more self-reported autistic traits (p?=?0.012) than males. In addition, females with ASC who also had developmental language delay had lower current performance IQ than those without developmental language delay (p<0.001), a pattern not seen in males. The absence of typical sex differences in empathizing-systemizing profiles within the autism spectrum confirms a prediction from the extreme male brain theory. Behavioral sex differences within ASC may also reflect different developmental mechanisms between males and females with ASC. We discuss the importance of the superficially better socio-communication ability in adult females with ASC in terms of why females with ASC may more often go under-recognized, and receive their diagnosis later, than males. PMID:21695147

  5. A behavioral comparison of male and female adults with high functioning autism spectrum conditions.

    PubMed

    Lai, Meng-Chuan; Lombardo, Michael V; Pasco, Greg; Ruigrok, Amber N V; Wheelwright, Sally J; Sadek, Susan A; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2011-01-01

    Autism spectrum conditions (ASC) affect more males than females in the general population. However, within ASC it is unclear if there are phenotypic sex differences. Testing for similarities and differences between the sexes is important not only for clinical assessment but also has implications for theories of typical sex differences and of autism. Using cognitive and behavioral measures, we investigated similarities and differences between the sexes in age- and IQ-matched adults with ASC (high-functioning autism or Asperger syndrome). Of the 83 (45 males and 38 females) participants, 62 (33 males and 29 females) met Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) cut-off criteria for autism in childhood and were included in all subsequent analyses. The severity of childhood core autism symptoms did not differ between the sexes. Males and females also did not differ in self-reported empathy, systemizing, anxiety, depression, and obsessive-compulsive traits/symptoms or mentalizing performance. However, adult females with ASC showed more lifetime sensory symptoms (p = 0.036), fewer current socio-communication difficulties (p = 0.001), and more self-reported autistic traits (p = 0.012) than males. In addition, females with ASC who also had developmental language delay had lower current performance IQ than those without developmental language delay (p<0.001), a pattern not seen in males. The absence of typical sex differences in empathizing-systemizing profiles within the autism spectrum confirms a prediction from the extreme male brain theory. Behavioral sex differences within ASC may also reflect different developmental mechanisms between males and females with ASC. We discuss the importance of the superficially better socio-communication ability in adult females with ASC in terms of why females with ASC may more often go under-recognized, and receive their diagnosis later, than males. PMID:21695147

  6. Intermittent Brugada Syndrome Presenting with Syncope in an Adult Female

    PubMed Central

    Chavez, Patricia; Bhandary, Akshai; Herzog, Eyal

    2014-01-01

    Background. Brugada syndrome accounts for 4–12% of all sudden deaths worldwide and at least 20% of sudden deaths in patients with structurally normal hearts. Case Report. A 48-year-old female presented to the emergency department after two witnessed syncopal episodes. While awaiting discharge had a third collapse followed by cardiac arrest with shockable rhythm. Initial electrocardiogram showed wide QRS complex with left axis deviation, ST-segment elevation of <1?mm in V1 and V2, and flattening of T waves in V1. The angiogram did not demonstrate obstructive coronary disease. The electrocardiogram obtained two days after these events showed a right bundle branch block with ST-segment elevation of >2?mm followed by a negative T wave with no isoelectric separation, suggestive of spontaneous intermittent Brugada type 1 pattern. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated neither structural heart disease nor abnormal myocardium. After placement of an implantable cardioverter defibrillator the patient was discharged. Why should an emergency physician be aware of this? Brugada syndrome is an infrequently encountered clinical entity which may have a fatal outcome. This syndrome primarily presents with syncope. It should be considered as a component of differential diagnosis in patients with family history of syncope and sudden cardiac death. PMID:25371832

  7. Ovary-dependent emphysema augmentation and osteopontin induction in adult female mice.

    PubMed

    Niikura, Yuichi; Ishii, Takashi; Hosoki, Keisuke; Nagase, Takahide; Yamashita, Naomi

    2015-06-12

    Biological differences between the sexes greatly impact the development and severity of pulmonary disorders such as emphysema. Recent studies have demonstrated crucial roles for osteopontin (OPN, also known as SPP1) in lung inflammation and alveolar destruction in human and experimental emphysema, but the impact of gender on OPN action remains unknown. Here, we report ovary-dependent induction of Opn mRNA with augmentation of experimental emphysema in adult female mice. Both male and female mice developed emphysematous lungs following intra-tracheal administration of porcine pancreatic elastase; however, compared with male mice, female mice developed more severe injury-related inflammation and pathologic alterations of the lungs. Notably, we observed female-specific induction of the Opn gene upon lung injury. Ovariectomy blocked this induction, with attenuation of lung inflammation and alveolar destruction, demonstrating the essential role of ovaries in injury-related Opn induction and augmentation of emphysema in adult female mice. Lastly, pre-treatment of adult female mice with pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulfonic acid, which blocks ATP-mediated wound response, suppressed Opn mRNA induction upon lung injury, resulting in attenuation of enhanced lung inflammation. Together, our findings define a novel, ovary-dependent mechanism underlying gender-specific augmentation of emphysema through transcriptional control of the Opn gene. PMID:25912141

  8. Effects of ammonium metavanadate on fertility and reproductive performance of adult male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Ashraf M; El-Tawil, Osama S

    2003-01-01

    Vanadium is a ubiquitous trace metal present in most plant and animal tissues. Environmental exposure to trivalent and pentavalent inorganic vanadium compounds has been related to impaired different phases of reproduction. Therefore, the effects of a pentavalent inorganic vanadium compound on general reproductive performance and fertility were investigated in male and female rats. Sexually mature male and female rats were exposed to 200 ppm ammonium metavanadate in drinking water. Male rats were exposed for 70 days, while the female rats exposed for 14 days premating, during mating, and throughout the whole length of gestation and lactation periods till weaning. The effects on male sex organ weights and fertility were evaluated at the end of exposure period. However, the effects on female fertility as well as developmental and postnatal effects were evaluated throughout the exposure period. The fertility was significantly reduced in both treated groups, with more pronounced suppressive effects in the male treated group. The number of implantation sites and the number of viable fetuses were significantly reduced in pregnant females of both treated groups. However, the number of resorptions, dead fetuses, and pre- and postimplantation losses were significantly increased. The incidence of resorptions was significantly increased in treated female group compared with untreated female group. The behavioral responses as well as fetal survival and viability indices were decreased in both treated groups during the lactation period. The incidence of these effects was more pronounced in the treated female group. The morphological, visceral, and skeletal anomalies were recorded significantly increased in fetuses of both treated groups, with more pronounced effects on fetuses of treated females. In conclusion, the exposure of adult male and female rats to ammonium metavanadate would cause adverse effects on fertility and reproduction. PMID:12526865

  9. Comparative Efficacy and Tolerability of Dapsone 5% Gel in Adult Versus Adolescent Females with Acne Vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Kircik, Leon; Gallagher, Conor J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether the response to dapsone 5% gel was similar in adolescent girls and adult women with facial acne vulgaris. Design and setting: Subgroup analysis of female subjects with acne vulgaris receiving active treatment enrolled in two randomized, double-blind Phase 3 clinical trials. Treatment: Twice-daily applications of dapsone 5% gel over 12 weeks. Participants: Adolescent (12-17 years of age) and adult (?18 years of age) females. Measurements: At baseline and at Weeks 2,4,6,8, and 12, subjects were evaluated using the global acne assessment score and by counts of inflammatory, noninflammatory, and total acne vulgaris lesions. Adverse events were monitored. Results: A total of 347 adolescent and 434 adult women were included in the subgroup analysis. At Week 12, dapsone 5% gel significantly reduced mean global acne assessment score in both subgroups (p<0.001); however, the proportion of subjects with clinical success (no or minimal acne based on global acne assessment score) at Week 12 was greater in adult women (53.5%) versus adolescent females (45.3%, p=0.022). Significantly greater percentage reductions in both noninflammatory (p<0.0001) and total lesion counts (p=0.0008) were observed in the adult group as compared to the adolescent group. Percentage reductions from baseline in inflammatory lesions were similar in both groups. No major safety issues and no previously unrecognized safety signals were noted. Conclusion: This subgroup analysis of female patients indicates that dapsone 5% gel twice daily is effective in reducing inflammatory and noninflammatory acne vulgaris lesions in both adolescent and adult women, and is safe in these subgroups. Overall, these data suggest that efficacy of dapsone 5% gel twice daily for facial acne vulgaris may be greater in the adult female population. PMID:25610522

  10. Fig. 1. Female (left) and male (right) adult pepper maggots. Introduction

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    the bell pepper. Pepper maggot occurrence in pep- per is patchy and sporadic. However, infestation can in Sweet (Bell) Pepper Vonny M. Barlow, Graduate Research Associate, Virginia Tech Tom Kuhar, AssistantFig. 1. Female (left) and male (right) adult pepper maggots. Introduction The pepper maggot

  11. Are Males and Females Sexually Abused as Children Socially Anxious Adults?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojas, Ariz; Kinder, Bill N.

    2009-01-01

    It is well documented that childhood sexual abuse is associated with deleterious outcomes in the areas of anxiety, depression, and sexual functioning. However, very little research has been conducted to specifically investigate childhood sexual abuse's relationship to adult social anxiety in both males and females. Participants included 250…

  12. Factor Structure Invariance of the Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test across Male and Female Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Immekus, Jason C.; Maller, Susan J.

    2010-01-01

    Multisample confirmatory factor analysis (MCFA) and latent mean structures analysis (LMS) were used to test measurement invariance and latent mean differences on the Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Scale[TM] (KAIT) across males and females in the standardization sample. MCFA found that the parameters of the KAIT two-factor model were…

  13. An insight into the sialome of the adult female mosquito Aedes albopictus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruno Arcà; Fabrizio Lombardo; Ivo M. B. Francischetti; Van My Pham; Montserrat Mestres-Simon; John F. Andersen; José M. C. Ribeiro

    2007-01-01

    To gain insight into the molecular repertoire of the adult female salivary glands of the tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus, we performed transcriptome and proteome analysis. cDNA clones were sequenced and assembled in clusters of related sequences and the corresponding genes assigned to one of three categories: housekeeping (H; 31%), secreted (S; 34%), or unknown (U; 35%) function. Among the putative

  14. Prevalence and Correlates of Suicidal Behavior among Adult Female Victims of Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanaugh, Courtenay E.; Messing, Jill Theresa; Del-Colle, Melissa; O'Sullivan, Chris; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence and correlates of suicidal threats and attempts among 662 racially and ethnically diverse adult female victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) were studied. One in five women had threatened or attempted suicide during her lifetime. They observed that multiple logistic regression results indicated that women at greater risk of…

  15. Correlates of Serious Suicidal Ideation and Attempts in Female Adult Sexual Assault Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullman, Sarah E.; Najdowski, Cynthia J.

    2009-01-01

    Relations between (a) serious suicidal ideation and attempts and (b) demographics, trauma history, assault characteristics, post-assault outcomes, and psychosocial variables were examined among female adult sexual assault survivors. Younger, minority, and bisexual survivors reported greater ideation. More traumas, drug use, and assault disclosure…

  16. New Insights into the Comorbidity between ADHD and Major Depression in Adolescent and Young Adult Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biederman, Joseph; Ball, Sarah W.; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Mick, Eric; Spencer, Thomas J.; McCreary, Michelle; Cote, Michelle; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2008-01-01

    The association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and major depression (MD) in adolescent and young adult females is evaluated. Findings indicate that MD emerging in the context of ADHD is an impairing and severe comorbidity that needs to be considered further clinically and scientifically.

  17. Young adult female fragile X premutation carriers show age-and genetically-modulated cognitive impairments

    E-print Network

    Nguyen, Danh

    the biological basis for fragile X syndrome (FXS), which results in intellectual dis- ability (HagermanYoung adult female fragile X premutation carriers show age- and genetically-modulated cognitive Article history: Accepted 3 January 2011 Available online 3 February 2011 Keywords: Fragile X premutation

  18. Adolescent Cannabis Problems and Young Adult Depression: Male-Female Stratified Propensity Score Analyses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valerie S. Harder; Elizabeth A. Stuart; James C. Anthony

    2008-01-01

    Cannabis use and depression are two of the most prevalent conditions worldwide. Adolescent cannabis use is linked to depression in many studies, but the effects of adolescent cannabis involvement on young adult de- pression remain unclear and may differ for males versus females. In this cohort study of youth from a mid-Atlantic metropolitan area of the United States, repeated assessments

  19. Isoflurane to prolong medetomidine\\/ketamine anaesthesia in six adult female chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. A. Adams; K. J. Robinson; R. S. Jones; S. Sanderson

    2003-01-01

    Six adult female chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) were anaesthetised for the placement of intrauterine contraceptive devices, microchips for identification, routine blood sampling, and physical measurements. Anaesthesia was induced with medetomidine in combination with ketamine administered by intramuscular injection with a projectile syringe. Induction was smooth and rapid, but five of the animals were insufficiently relaxed for orotracheal intubation. The plane of

  20. CULEX STIGMATOSOMA AND CX. PEUS: IDENTIFICATION OF FEMALE ADULTS IN THE UNITED STATES1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DANIEL STRICKMAN

    A recent taxonomic study (Strickman 1988) has resulted in nomenclatorial changes in the names Culex stigmatosoma Dyar 1907, Cx. peus Speiser 1904, and Cx. thriambus Dyar 1921. Careful examination of the holotype of Cx. peus (a female adult originally collected in Oak Creek Canyon, Coconino County, Arizona) demon- strated that the specimen is actually conspecific with Cx. thriambus, not Cx.

  1. Differentiation in boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain: a BNCT approach.

    PubMed

    Goodarzi, Samereh; Pazirandeh, Ali; Jameie, Seyed Behnamedin; Khojasteh, Nasrin Baghban

    2012-06-01

    Boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain after boron carrier injection (0.005 g Boric Acid+0.005 g Borax+10 ml distilled water, pH: 7.4) was studied in this research. Coronal sections of control and trial animal tissue samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons. Using alpha autoradiography, significant differences in boron concentration were seen in forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain sections of male and female animal groups with the highest value, four hours after boron compound injection. PMID:22484141

  2. The reproductive hormone cycle of adult female American alligators from a barrier island population.

    PubMed

    Hamlin, Heather J; Lowers, Russell H; Kohno, Satomi; Mitsui-Watanabe, Naoko; Amano, Haruna; Hara, Akihiko; Ohta, Yasuhiko; Miyagawa, Shinichi; Iguchi, Taisen; Guillette, Louis J

    2014-06-01

    Comparatively, little data are available detailing the geographic variation that exists in the reproductive endocrinology of adult alligators, especially those living in barrier islands. The Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge (MI) is a unique barrier island environment and home to the Kennedy Space Center (FL, USA). Seasonal patterns of sex steroids were assessed in adult female American alligators from MI monthly from 2008 to 2009, with additional samples collected at more random intervals in 2006, 2007, and 2010. Plasma 17?-estradiol and vitellogenin concentrations peaked in April, coincident with courtship and mating, and showed patterns similar to those observed in adult female alligators in other regions. Plasma concentrations of progesterone, however, showed patterns distinctly different than those reported for alligator populations in other regions and remained relatively constant throughout the year. Plasma DHEA peaked in July around the time of oviposition, decreased in August, and then remained constant for the remaining months, except for a moderate increase in October. Circulating concentrations of DHEA have not been previously assessed in a female crocodilian, and plasma concentrations coincident with reproductive activity suggest a reproductive and/or behavioral role. Interestingly, plasma testosterone concentrations peaked in May of 2008, as has been shown in female alligator populations in other regions, but showed no peak in 2009, demonstrating dramatic variability from year to year. Surveys showed 2009 to be particularly depauperate of alligator nests in MI, and it is possible that testosterone could serve as a strong indicator of breeding success. PMID:24608737

  3. Evaluating and treating the adult female patient with acne.

    PubMed

    Zeichner, Joshua A

    2013-12-01

    Acne vulgaris is a common disease of the pilosebacous unit that affects an estimated 40-50 million Americans. Greater than 95% of teenage boys and between 83% and 85% of teenage girls suffer from acne. The condition frequently continues into adulthood. While boys more commonly suffer from acne in the teenage years, greater numbers of women suffer into adulthood. It is unclear if the number of post-adolescent women with acne is rising as compared to the past, or whether women are now seeking out treatment more than in the past.(4) Post-adolescent acne is a significant problem for women. One survey-based United States study found that approximately 50% of women continue to suffer from acne in their twenties, 35% in their thirties, 26% in their forties, and 15% in their fifties. The prevalence of acne was shown to be higher in women than in men in each of these age groups.(7) A similar study from Europe showed that beyond the age of 23, acne is more prevalent in women than men. In their forties and fifties, 5% and 8% of women suffered from acne, respectively. Several other studies have provided similar data, showing that larger numbers of adult women suffer from acne as compared to age matched men. Acne is the number one reason that patients visit a dermatologist. While the mean age at which patients are seen for acne is 24 years old, 10% of visits occur in patients in their mid-thirties and forties. Approximately two thirds of dermatology visits for acne are made by women, and one-third of total acne office visits are made by women over 25 years old. Acne patients suffer from a significant psychological burden, which has been compared to that of patients with systemic diseases like diabetes, asthma, arthritis, or epilepsy. Up to 50% of adolescents with acne experience disturbances to their psyche, including issues with body image, anxiety, depression, poor self-esteem, social impairment, and thoughts of suicide. Moreover, acne treatment is expensive. The average total cost of care related to an acne patient's visit to the dermatologist is estimated to be $689.(14) PMID:24301244

  4. Testosterone stimulates growth and secretory activity of the female prostate in the adult gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus).

    PubMed

    Santos, Fernanda C A; Leite, Rodrigo P; Custódio, Ana M G; Carvalho, Karina P; Monteiro-Leal, Luiz H; Santos, Adriana B; Góes, Rejane M; Carvalho, Hernandes F; Taboga, Sebastião R

    2006-09-01

    The prostate of the female gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) is similar to the human female prostate (Skene gland) and, despite its reduced size, it is functional and shows secretory activity. However, virtually nothing is known about its physiological regulation. This study was thus undertaken to evaluate the behavior of the gerbil female prostate in a hyperandrogenic condition. Adult females received subcutaneous injections of testosterone cypionate (1 mg/kg body weight every 48 h) up to 21 days. Circulating levels of testosterone and estradiol were monitored, and the prostate and ovaries subjected to structural and immunocytochemical analyses. The treatment resulted in sustained high levels of circulating testosterone, and caused a transient increase in estradiol. There was an increase in epithelial cell proliferation accompanied by significant reorganization of the epithelium and an apparent reduction in secretory activity, followed by a progressive increase in luminal volume density and accumulation of secretory products. Immunocytochemistry identified the expression of androgen receptor and a prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-related antigen in prostatic epithelial cells. A circulating PSA-related antigen was also found, and its concentration showed strong negative correlation with circulating estrogen. Epithelial dysplasia was detected in the prostate of treated females. Analysis of the ovaries showed the occurrence of a polycystic condition and stromal cell hyperplasia. The results indicate that testosterone has a stimulatory effect on the female prostate, inducing epithelial cell proliferation, differentiation, secretory activity, and dysplasia. The results also suggest that prostatic growth and activity, polycystic ovaries, and ovarian stromal cell hyperplasia are related to a hyperandrogenic condition in females. PMID:16707769

  5. Lepidium meyenii (Maca) increases litter size in normal adult female mice

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Luna, Ana C; Salazar, Stephanie; Aspajo, Norma J; Rubio, Julio; Gasco, Manuel; Gonzales, Gustavo F

    2005-01-01

    Background Lepidium meyenii, known as Maca, grows exclusively in the Peruvian Andes over 4000 m altitude. It has been used traditionally to increase fertility. Previous scientific studies have demonstrated that Maca increases spermatogenesis and epididymal sperm count. The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of Maca on several fertility parameters of female mice at reproductive age. Methods Adult female Balb/C mice were divided at random into three main groups: i) Reproductive indexes group, ii) Implantation sites group and iii) Assessment of uterine weight in ovariectomized mice. Animals received an aqueous extract of lyophilized Yellow Maca (1 g/Kg BW) or vehicle orally as treatment. In the fertility indexes study, animals received the treatment before, during and after gestation. The fertility index, gestation index, post-natal viability index, weaning viability index and sex ratio were calculated. Sexual maturation was evaluated in the female pups by the vaginal opening (VO) day. In the implantation study, females were checked for implantation sites at gestation day 7 and the embryos were counted. In ovariectomized mice, the uterine weight was recorded at the end of treatment. Results Implantation sites were similar in mice treated with Maca and in controls. All reproductive indexes were similar in both groups of treatment. The number of pups per dam at birth and at postnatal day 4 was significantly higher in the group treated with Maca. VO day occurred earlier as litter size was smaller. Maca did not affect VO day. In ovariectomized mice, the treatment with Maca increased significantly the uterine weights in comparison to their respective control group. Conclusion Administration of aqueous extract of Yellow Maca to adult female mice increases the litter size. Moreover, this treatment increases the uterine weight in ovariectomized animals. Our study confirms for the first time some of the traditional uses of Maca to enhance female fertility. PMID:15869705

  6. Developmental origins of neurotransmitter and transcriptome alterations in adult female zebrafish exposed to atrazine during embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wirbisky, Sara E; Weber, Gregory J; Sepúlveda, Maria S; Xiao, Changhe; Cannon, Jason R; Freeman, Jennifer L

    2015-07-01

    Atrazine is an herbicide applied to agricultural crops and is indicated to be an endocrine disruptor. Atrazine is frequently found to contaminate potable water supplies above the maximum contaminant level of 3?g/L as defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The developmental origin of adult disease hypothesis suggests that toxicant exposure during development can increase the risk of certain diseases during adulthood. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying disease progression are still unknown. In this study, zebrafish embryos were exposed to 0, 0.3, 3, or 30?g/L atrazine throughout embryogenesis. Larvae were then allowed to mature under normal laboratory conditions with no further chemical treatment until 7 days post fertilization (dpf) or adulthood and neurotransmitter analysis completed. No significant alterations in neurotransmitter levels was observed at 7dpf or in adult males, but a significant decrease in 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and serotonin turnover was seen in adult female brain tissue. Transcriptomic analysis was completed on adult female brain tissue to identify molecular pathways underlying the observed neurological alterations. Altered expression of 1928, 89, and 435 genes in the females exposed to 0.3, 3, or 30?g/L atrazine during embryogenesis were identified, respectively. There was a high level of overlap between the biological processes and molecular pathways in which the altered genes were associated. Moreover, a subset of genes was down regulated throughout the serotonergic pathway. These results provide support of the developmental origins of neurological alterations observed in adult female zebrafish exposed to atrazine during embryogenesis. PMID:25929836

  7. Pesticide Methoxychlor Promotes the Epigenetic Transgenerational Inheritance of Adult-Onset Disease through the Female Germline

    PubMed Central

    Manikkam, Mohan; Haque, M. Muksitul; Guerrero-Bosagna, Carlos; Nilsson, Eric E.; Skinner, Michael K.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental compounds including fungicides, plastics, pesticides, dioxin and hydrocarbons can promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult-onset disease in future generation progeny following ancestral exposure during the critical period of fetal gonadal sex determination. This study examined the actions of the pesticide methoxychlor to promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult-onset disease and associated differential DNA methylation regions (i.e. epimutations) in sperm. Gestating F0 generation female rats were transiently exposed to methoxychlor during fetal gonadal development (gestation days 8 to 14) and then adult-onset disease was evaluated in adult F1 and F3 (great-grand offspring) generation progeny for control (vehicle exposed) and methoxychlor lineage offspring. There were increases in the incidence of kidney disease, ovary disease, and obesity in the methoxychlor lineage animals. In females and males the incidence of disease increased in both the F1 and the F3 generations and the incidence of multiple disease increased in the F3 generation. There was increased disease incidence in F4 generation reverse outcross (female) offspring indicating disease transmission was primarily transmitted through the female germline. Analysis of the F3 generation sperm epigenome of the methoxychlor lineage males identified differentially DNA methylated regions (DMR) termed epimutations in a genome-wide gene promoters analysis. These epimutations were found to be methoxychlor exposure specific in comparison with other exposure specific sperm epimutation signatures. Observations indicate that the pesticide methoxychlor has the potential to promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease and the sperm epimutations appear to provide exposure specific epigenetic biomarkers for transgenerational disease and ancestral environmental exposures. PMID:25057798

  8. Young Women's Leadership Alliance: Youth-Adult Partnerships in an All-Female After-School Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denner, Jill; Meyer, Beth; Bean, Steve

    2005-01-01

    This article describes program strategies and adult practices that can build youth-adult partnerships. In particular, it focuses on strategies to empower girls in all-female after-school programs. The Young Women's Leadership Alliance has involved 164 girl leaders and five adult women leaders over three years. To build the partnerships, adults

  9. A novel hormone is required for the development of reproductive phenotypes in adult female crabs.

    PubMed

    Zmora, Nilli; Chung, J Sook

    2014-01-01

    The crustacean male-specific androgenic hormone is widely accepted as a key factor in sexual differentiation and in the development of secondary sex characteristics. However, the mechanism by which the plethora of different reproductive strategies are controlled and executed in crustaceans is not known. We discovered in the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, a hitherto unknown neurohormone, named crustacean female sex hormone (CFSH), in distinct neurosecretory cells in the eyestalk ganglia. CFSH is highly expressed in females but weakly in males, and its crucial role in developing adult female phenotypes has now been established. CFSH cDNA encodes a 225-amino acid (aa) novel protein composed of a 23-aa predicted signal peptide, 33-aa precursor-related peptide and 167-aa mature protein that did not match any other sequence in GenBank. CFSH RNA interference knockdown by multiple administrations of double-stranded RNA at the prepubertal stage causes abnormal development of brooding and mating systems upon puberty. These systems include a pair of gonopores and an egg attachment system for brooding, comprised of an enlarged semicircular abdomen and ovigerous setae. The ovigerous setae in CFSH knocked-down females were fewer and 50% shorter and the gonopores were either significantly smaller than those of controls, misplaced, or absent. We also identified CFSH in the green crab, Carcinus maenas, a species that shares a similar reproductive strategy with C. sapidus. Together, our data provide the first evidence for the presence of a female hormone in crustaceans and its importance in positively controlling anatomic features associated with brooding and mating systems. From an evolutionary standpoint, the endocrine control supporting a female-specific reproductive strategy, as previously described for many vertebrate species, has now been demonstrated for the first time in crustaceans. PMID:24280057

  10. Female mice lack adult germ-line stem cells but sustain oogenesis using stable primordial follicles

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Lei; Spradling, Allan C.

    2013-01-01

    Whether or not mammalian females generate new oocytes during adulthood from germ-line stem cells to sustain the ovarian follicle pool has recently generated controversy. We used a sensitive lineage-labeling system to determine whether stem cells are needed in female adult mice to compensate for follicular losses and to directly identify active germ-line stem cells. Primordial follicles generated during fetal life are highly stable, with a half-life during adulthood of 10 mo, and thus are sufficient to sustain adult oogenesis without a source of renewal. Moreover, in normal mice or following germ-cell depletion with Busulfan, only stable, single oocytes are lineage-labeled, rather than cell clusters indicative of new oocyte formation. Even one germ-line stem cell division per 2 wk would have been detected by our method, based on the kinetics of fetal follicle formation. Thus, adult female mice neither require nor contain active germ-line stem cells or produce new oocytes in vivo. PMID:23630252

  11. Paternal relatedness and age proximity regulate social relationships among adult female rhesus macaques

    PubMed Central

    Widdig, Anja; Nürnberg, Peter; Krawczak, Michael; Streich, Wolf Jürgen; Bercovitch, Fred B.

    2001-01-01

    Kin selection promotes the evolution of social behavior that increases the survival and reproductive success of close relatives. Among primates, maternal kinship frequently coincides with a higher frequency of grooming and agonistic aiding, but the extent to which paternal kinship influences adult female social relationships has not yet been investigated. Here, we examine the effect of both maternal and paternal kinship, as well as age proximity, on affiliative interactions among semifree-ranging adult female rhesus macaques, Macaca mulatta. Kinship was assessed by using both microsatellites and DNA-fingerprinting. Our study confirms that the closest affiliative relationships characterize maternal half-sisters. We provide evidence that adult females are significantly more affiliative with paternal half-sisters than with nonkin. Furthermore, paternal kin discrimination was more pronounced among peers than among nonpeers, indicating that age proximity has an additional regulatory effect on affiliative interactions. We propose that kin discrimination among cercopithecine primates emerges from ontogenetic processes that involve phenotype matching based on shared behavioral traits, such as inherited personality profiles, rather than physiological or physical characteristics. PMID:11698652

  12. Gut transcriptome of replete adult female cattle ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, feeding upon a Babesia bovis-infected bovine host.

    PubMed

    Heekin, Andrew M; Guerrero, Felix D; Bendele, Kylie G; Saldivar, Leo; Scoles, Glen A; Dowd, Scot E; Gondro, Cedric; Nene, Vishvanath; Djikeng, Appolinaire; Brayton, Kelly A

    2013-09-01

    As it feeds upon cattle, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is capable of transmitting a number of pathogenic organisms, including the apicomplexan hemoparasite Babesia bovis, a causative agent of bovine babesiosis. The R. microplus female gut transcriptome was studied for two cohorts: adult females feeding on a bovine host infected with B. bovis and adult females feeding on an uninfected bovine. RNA was purified and used to generate a subtracted cDNA library from B. bovis-infected female gut, and 4,077 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were sequenced. Gene expression was also measured by a microarray designed from the publicly available R. microplus gene index: BmiGI Version 2. We compared gene expression in the tick gut from females feeding upon an uninfected bovine to gene expression in tick gut from females feeding upon a splenectomized bovine infected with B. bovis. Thirty-three ESTs represented on the microarray were expressed at a higher level in female gut samples from the ticks feeding upon a B. bovis-infected calf compared to expression levels in female gut samples from ticks feeding on an uninfected calf. Forty-three transcripts were expressed at a lower level in the ticks feeding upon B. bovis-infected female guts compared with expression in female gut samples from ticks feeding on the uninfected calf. These array data were used as initial characterization of gene expression associated with the infection of R. microplus by B. bovis. PMID:23749091

  13. Condition and mass impact oxygen stores and dive duration in adult female northern elephant seals.

    PubMed

    Hassrick, J L; Crocker, D E; Teutschel, N M; McDonald, B I; Robinson, P W; Simmons, S E; Costa, D P

    2010-02-15

    The range of foraging behaviors available to deep-diving, air-breathing marine vertebrates is constrained by their physiological capacity to breath-hold dive. We measured body oxygen stores (blood volume and muscle myoglobin) and diving behavior in adult female northern elephant seals, Mirounga angustirostris, to investigate age-related effects on diving performance. Blood volume averaged 74.4+/-17.0 liters in female elephant seals or 20.2+/-2.0% of body mass. Plasma volume averaged 32.2+/-7.8 liters or 8.7+/-0.7% of body mass. Absolute plasma volume and blood volume increased independently with mass and age. Hematocrit decreased weakly with mass but did not vary with age. Muscle myoglobin concentration, while higher than previously reported (7.4+/-0.7 g%), did not vary with mass or age. Pregnancy status did not influence blood volume. Mean dive duration, a proxy for physiological demand, increased as a function of how long seals had been at sea, followed by mass and hematocrit. Strong effects of female body mass (range, 218-600 kg) on dive duration, which were independent of oxygen stores, suggest that larger females had lower diving metabolic rates. A tendency for dives to exceed calculated aerobic limits occurred more frequently later in the at-sea migration. Our data suggest that individual physiological state variables and condition interact to determine breath-hold ability and that both should be considered in life-history studies of foraging behavior. PMID:20118309

  14. Agonistic and Affiliative Relationships of Adult Female Howlers ( Alouatta palliata ) in Costa Rica Over a 4Year Period

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evan L. Zucker; Margaret R. Clarke

    1998-01-01

    We observed 12 adult female mantled howlers (Alouatta palliata), which have been part of Group 2 at Hacienda La Pacifica, Guanacaste Province, Costa Rica, via focal animal sampling during portions of July and August of 1988 and 1990–1992 (7–9 females\\/year, 955.3 hr of observation). We used agonistic interactions and time in proximity (

  15. Pathogenesis and epidemiology of Brucellosis in Yellowstone bison: serologic and culture results from adult females and their offspring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this prospective study was to follow the natural course of Brucella abortus infection in cohorts of seropositive and seronegative female bison and their offspring in Yellowstone National Park over a 5 year period. Specimens were collected from 53 adult, female bison at least once a...

  16. Reproductive performance and fertility in male and female adult mice chronically treated with hexarelin.

    PubMed

    Puechagut, P B; Martini, A C; Stutz, G; Santillán, M E; Luque, E M; Fiol de Cuneo, M; Ruiz, R D; Vincenti, L M

    2012-01-01

    Hexarelin (HEXr), a synthetic ghrelin analogue, has been associated with modifications of reproductive physiology. In previous studies of adult mice, we detected that HEXr induced significantly reduced ovulation rate and significant correlation coefficients between sexual maturation and corporal weight in offspring. In this study, we investigated the effects of chronic HEXr administration on sperm concentration and functional activity, oestrous cyclicity and pregnancy index, in addition to the number of fetuses and its correlation with the number of corpora lutea. Adult Albino swiss mice were injected (sc) daily with HEXr: 100 ?gkg(-1) day(-1) (HEXr D1) or 200 ?gkg(-1) day(-1) (HEXr D2) for 53 days in males and 30 days in females. We detected a significantly decreased ratio in the number of fetuses per corpora lutea in females treated with HEXr D2 for 30 days before mating and during the first 6 days of pregnancy, in addition to a downward trend in the pregnancy index and percentage of females impregnated by each male treated with both doses of the analogue. Although we did not find any significant effect on additional parameters evaluated in both genders, we propose certain effects of HEXr on the implantation process and/or early development of embryos and over the in vivo reproductive capability of males. PMID:22401277

  17. The effects of adult male mouse urine odor on evoked potentials in adult female mice 

    E-print Network

    Brown, Troy Edwin

    1985-01-01

    potential due to castrate male mouse urine odor. An olfactometer was designed for saturating air with the urine and then delivering this stimulus to a female mouse during inspiration. Respiration was monitored by impedance pneumography. Evoked potential... data were collected from three mice for each stimulus (water, castrate mouse urine, and intact mouse urine) and subsequently analyzed. The power spectrum and coherence spectrum were used to locate and identify the odor evoked potentials. The results...

  18. Estimating total population size for adult female sea turtles: Accounting for non-nesters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kendall, W.L.; Richardson, J.I.

    2008-01-01

    Assessment of population size and changes therein is important to sea turtle management and population or life history research. Investigators might be interested in testing hypotheses about the effect of current population size or density (number of animals per unit resource) on future population processes. Decision makers might want to determine a level of allowable take of individual turtles of specified life stage. Nevertheless, monitoring most stages of sea turtle life histories is difficult, because obtaining access to individuals is difficult. Although in-water assessments are becoming more common, nesting females and their hatchlings remain the most accessible life stages. In some cases adult females of a given nesting population are sufficiently philopatric that the population itself can be well defined. If a well designed tagging study is conducted on this population, survival, breeding probability, and the size of the nesting population in a given year can be estimated. However, with published statistical methodology the size of the entire breeding population (including those females skipping nesting in that year) cannot be estimated without assuming that each adult female in this population has the same probability of nesting in a given year (even those that had just nested in the previous year). We present a method for estimating the total size of a breeding population (including nesters those skipping nesting) from a tagging study limited to the nesting population, allowing for the probability of nesting in a given year to depend on an individual's nesting status in the previous year (i.e., a Markov process). From this we further develop estimators for rate of growth from year to year in both nesting population and total breeding population, and the proportion of the breeding population that is breeding in a given year. We also discuss assumptions and apply these methods to a breeding population of hawksbill sea turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) from the Caribbean. We anticipate that this method could also be useful for in-water studies of well defined populations.

  19. Effect of sericea lespedeza leaf meal pellets on adult female Haemonchus contortus in goats.

    PubMed

    Kommuru, D S; Whitley, N C; Miller, J E; Mosjidis, J A; Burke, J M; Gujja, S; Mechineni, A; Terrill, T H

    2015-01-15

    Sericea lespedeza (SL; Lespedeza cuneata) is a perennial warm-season forage rich in condensed tannins (CT) that has been reported to have anthelmintic activity against small ruminant gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN), particularly Haemonchus contortus, a highly pathogenic blood-feeder, but the mechanism of action of CT against H. contortus is not clearly understood. An experiment with young goats was designed to study the effect of SL leaf meal pellets on (1) a mature H. contortus infection, and (2) the surface appearance of adult H. contortus female worms. Thirty-six female and castrated male Boer crossbred goats artificially infected with H. contortus larvae were fed 75% SL leaf meal pellets or alfalfa pellets (18 goats/treatment group) in a 28-day confinement feeding trial. Fecal and blood samples were collected weekly for fecal egg count (FEC) and packed cell volume (PCV) determination, respectively, and all goats were slaughtered at the end of the trial for adult GIN recovery and counting. Five adult female H. contortus were recovered from the abomasum of two goats from each treatment group and from a prior study in which 75% and 95% SL leaf meal pellets or a commercial feed pellet were group-fed to grazing goats (270 days old, Spanish males, 10/treatment group) at 0.91 kg/head/d for 11 weeks. Adult GIN collected were fixed and examined for evidence of surface damage using scanning electron microscopy. Feeding 75% SL pellets to young goats in confinement reduced (P<0.05) FEC compared with control animals, while total worm numbers and PCV were not influenced by treatment. Three out of the 5 adult H. contortus recovered from SL treatment goats in the confinement feeding trial had cuticular surface damage, while no damage was observed on worms from the control group. All five worms observed from both SL treatments in the grazing study showed a shrunken, disheveled cuticular surface, whereas this was not observed on worms from control animals. Overall, this work suggests that a possible mechanism of action of SL against female H. contortus in the animal's abomasum is a direct action of CT on the cuticle of the worm. PMID:25465738

  20. Racial Differences in Clinical Characteristics, Perceptions and Behaviors, and Psychosocial Impact of Adult Female Acne

    PubMed Central

    Alexis, Andrew F.; Daniels, Selena R.; Kawata, Ariane K.; Burk, Caroline T.; Wilcox, Teresa K.; Taylor, Susan C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Limited data are available on racial differences in clinical characteristics and burden in adult female acne. The objective was to describe racial differences in clinical characteristics, psychosocial impact, perceptions, behaviors, and treatment satisfaction in facial adult female acne. Design: Cross-sectional, web-based survey. Setting: Diverse sample of United States women. Participants: Women between the ages of 25 and 45 years with facial acne (?25 visible lesions). Measurements: Outcomes included sociodemographic characteristics, psychosocial impacts, perceptions, behaviors, and treatment satisfaction. Racial differences were evaluated using descriptive statistics and t-test/chi-square analyses. Results: 208 females participated (mean age 35±6 years); 51.4 percent were White/Caucasian and 48.6 percent were non-White/Caucasian women [Black/African American (n=51); Hispanic/Latina (n=23); Asian (n=16); Other (n=ll)]. Age of acne onset (mean 14.8±5 vs. 17.0±8 years, p<0.05) and acne concern occurred earlier (16.6±7 vs. 19.3±9 years, p<0.05) in White/Caucasian than non-White/Caucasian subjects. Facial acne primarily presented on chin (28.0%) and cheeks (30.8%) for White/Caucasian women versus cheeks (58.4%) for non-White/Caucasian women. Non-White/Caucasian women experienced more postinflammatory hyperpigmentation than White/Caucasian women (p<0.0001). Facial acne negatively affected quality of life (QoL) in both groups, and most participants (>70%) reported some depression/anxiety symptoms. More White/Caucasian than non-White/Caucasian women were troubled by facial acne (88.8% vs. 76.2%, p<0.05). Lesion clearance was most important to White/Caucasian women (57.9 vs. non-White/Caucasian 31.7%, p<0.001); non-White/Caucasian females focused on postinflammatory hyperpigmentation clearance (41.6% vs. Caucasian 8.4%, p<0.0001). Conclusion: Results highlight racial differences in participant-reported clinical characteristics, attitudes, behaviors, and treatment satisfaction. These findings may inform clinicians about racial differences in facial adult female acne and guide treatment recommendations toward improving care. PMID:25053980

  1. Estradiol treatment decreases cell proliferation in the neurogenic zones of adult female zebrafish (Danio rerio) brain.

    PubMed

    Makantasi, P; Dermon, C R

    2014-09-26

    While estrogens are known to play a crucial role in the neurogenesis of the mammalian and avian brain, their role in teleost adult proliferation pattern is not yet fully understood. The present study aimed to determine the estrogen effects in adult brain proliferation zones, using zebrafish, as a model organism. Indeed, teleost fish brain provides a unique adult neurogenesis model, based on its extensive proliferation, contrasting the restricted adult telencephalic neurogenesis observed in birds and mammals. To determine the effect of estrogens, 17-? estradiol was administrated for 7 days in adult female zebrafish, followed by bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-immunohistochemistry and double immunofluorescence. Stereological analyses of the BrdU-positive cells within the neurogenic zones, showed region-specific decreases of actively proliferating cells in the estrogen-treated animals, compared to matched controls. Interestingly, the most prominent estradiol effects were found in the number of cycling cells of the ventral nucleus of ventral telencephalic area (Vv) and cerebellar areas. Significant decreases were also determined in the dorso-lateral telencephalic, preoptic and dorsal hypothalamic areas. In contrast, medial dorsal telencephalic, caudal (Hc) and ventral (Hv) hypothalamic areas were unaffected by estrogen treatment. The majority of the BrdU-labeled cells were found to co-express PCNA proliferating marker in Hc, Hv and Vv. Additionally, a population of proliferating cells co-expressed the early neuronal marker TOAD in all areas studied. These results provide significant evidence on the 17-? estradiol impact on adult neurogenesis, down-regulating the fast-cycling and post-mitotic cells within the female zebrafish brain neurogenetic zones. PMID:25034512

  2. The effect of increased overjet on the magnitude and reproducibility of smiling in adult females.

    PubMed

    Campbell, C M; Millett, D T; O'Callaghan, A; Marsh, A; McIntyre, G T; Cronin, M

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if increased overjet (greater than 6 mm) influences the magnitude and reproducibility of natural smile and maximal smile in Caucasian adult females. Twenty adult females with an increased overjet (6-10 mm) and 20 control adult females (overjet 2-4 mm) with no history of orthodontic treatment volunteered to participate. The mean age in the control group was 30.1 ± 6.4 years and the mean age in the test group was 31.9 ± 10.8 years. Three-dimensional stereophotogrammetric images were captured of each subject for three expressions: at rest, natural smile, and maximal smile. The images were recorded twice on two separate occasions, 6 weeks apart. Images were landmarked and a partial ordinary Procrustes superimposition was used to adjust for the differences in head posture between the same expressions. The magnitude of movement relative to the rest position, averaged over all the landmarks, was calculated and compared between the groups using analysis of variance (linear mixed-effects model); the intra- and inter-session reproducibility of both expressions was assessed. There was greater mean movement, averaged over all the landmarks, in the control group than in the increased overjet group for both natural smile and maximal smile (P = 0.0068). For these expressions, there were no statistically significant differences in reproducibility within sessions (P = 0.5403) or between sessions (P = 0.3665). Increased overjet had a statistically significant effect on the magnitude of smiling but did not influence the reproducibility of natural or maximal smile relative to controls. PMID:21791712

  3. Use of Q methodology to assess the concerns of adult female individuals seeking orthodontic treatment

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Linjie; Xu, Xingqiao; Ni, Zhenyu; Zheng, Minling; Lin, Feiou

    2015-01-01

    Background Orthodontic treatment may cause functional restrictions, discomfort, and pain, which may lead to dental anxiety and noncooperation among patients. This study aimed to assess the concerns of adult female patients with respect to such treatment. Patients and methods We conducted an explorative study using Q methodology among 40 adult female patients with different educational and social backgrounds in Wenzhou, People’s Republic of China. We asked participants to rank a set of 41 statements about seeking orthodontic treatment on an 11-point scale from “agree most” to “disagree most”. The collected data were analyzed using the PQ Method 2.35 program. We extracted significant viewpoints using centroid factor extraction and varimax rotation. Results We identified major factors based on how the patients ranked statements. Patients in group 1 worried about lack of information about orthodontic treatment, and may have suffered from dental phobia; patients in group 2 were all single women, and they were worried that the braces might lower their chances of finding a partner; patients in group 3 worried about appearance and speech with braces; and patients in group 4 worried about cost, pain, and dental hygiene. The remaining participants who had other viewpoints did not load to any of these four groups. Conclusion The concerns of adult female individuals seeking orthodontic treatment are complex. A significant feature of this study was using Q methodology to analyze the psychological characteristics of the patients. This study identified four typical characterizations that are associated with each group, and our findings may aid orthodontists in improving doctor–patient relationships. PMID:25609926

  4. Acne-Related Quality of Life Among Female Adults of Different Races/Ethnicities

    PubMed Central

    Gorelick, Joe; Daniels, Selena R.; Kawata, Ariane K.; Degboe, Arnold; Wilcox, Teresa K.; Burk, Caroline T.; Douse-Dean, Tracee

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Background Acne impairs quality of life, but its effect on different races/ethnicities is unclear. This study evaluated racial/ethnic differences in acne-related quality of life and psychological symptoms among female adults. Methods A Web-based survey was conducted with U.S. female adults (25–45 years old) with facial acne (?25 visible lesions). Outcomes included sociodemographics, clinical characteristics, acne-related quality of life (Acne-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire), psychological symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire), and work/school productivity. Racial/ethnic differences were evaluated using descriptive statistics and analysis of variance/chi-square analyses. Results Three-hundred twelve subjects (Black = 30.8%, Hispanic = 17.6%, Asian/other = 17.3%, White = 34.3%) completed the survey (mean age = 35.3 ± 5.9 years). Acne negatively impacted quality of life for all subjects. Black subjects reported significantly less negative impact on self-perception versus Asian/other (Black = 12.6 ± 9.9, Asian/other = 8.4 ± 8.6; p = .05). Social functioning was less negatively impacted in White and Black subjects versus Asian/other (White = 12.7 ± 7.5, Asian/other = 8.4 ± 7.8, p < .05; Black = 12.1 ± 9.2, Asian/other = 8.4 ± 7.8, p = .06). Over one third (total sample = 40.7%, Black = 31.3%, Hispanic = 36.4%, Asian/other = 50.0%, White = 46.7%) reported moderate/severe anxiety/depression symptoms. Acne also impacted ability to concentrate on work/school. Conclusion Racial/ethnic differences were observed in acne-related quality of life and psychological symptoms in female adults; acne negatively impacted self-perceptions and social/emotional functioning.

  5. What is the association of heme aggregates with the peritrophic matrix of adult female mosquitoes?

    PubMed

    Magalhaes, Tereza

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this Letter is to call attention to the presence of iron-containing or heme aggregates seen within or near the peritrophic matrix (PM) in published Anopheles gambiae and Aedes aegypti midgut micrographs. The micrographs shown here suggest that the PM of An. gambiae adult female is not a homogenous layer and instead may have a peritrophin layer surrounded by heme aggregates that are possibly associated to other molecules involved in their formation. In depth studies addressing PM structure in different mosquito species are needed, as these will be important to continue clarifying the roles of the PM. PMID:25123232

  6. Organ doses for reference adult male and female undergoing computed tomography estimated by Monte Carlo simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Choonsik; Kim, Kwang Pyo; Long, Daniel; Fisher, Ryan; Tien, Chris; Simon, Steven L.; Bouville, Andre; Bolch, Wesley E. [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institute of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20852 (United States); Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institute of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20852 (United States); Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: To develop a computed tomography (CT) organ dose estimation method designed to readily provide organ doses in a reference adult male and female for different scan ranges to investigate the degree to which existing commercial programs can reasonably match organ doses defined in these more anatomically realistic adult hybrid phantomsMethods: The x-ray fan beam in the SOMATOM Sensation 16 multidetector CT scanner was simulated within the Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNPX2.6. The simulated CT scanner model was validated through comparison with experimentally measured lateral free-in-air dose profiles and computed tomography dose index (CTDI) values. The reference adult male and female hybrid phantoms were coupled with the established CT scanner model following arm removal to simulate clinical head and other body region scans. A set of organ dose matrices were calculated for a series of consecutive axial scans ranging from the top of the head to the bottom of the phantoms with a beam thickness of 10 mm and the tube potentials of 80, 100, and 120 kVp. The organ doses for head, chest, and abdomen/pelvis examinations were calculated based on the organ dose matrices and compared to those obtained from two commercial programs, CT-EXPO and CTDOSIMETRY. Organ dose calculations were repeated for an adult stylized phantom by using the same simulation method used for the adult hybrid phantom. Results: Comparisons of both lateral free-in-air dose profiles and CTDI values through experimental measurement with the Monte Carlo simulations showed good agreement to within 9%. Organ doses for head, chest, and abdomen/pelvis scans reported in the commercial programs exceeded those from the Monte Carlo calculations in both the hybrid and stylized phantoms in this study, sometimes by orders of magnitude. Conclusions: The organ dose estimation method and dose matrices established in this study readily provides organ doses for a reference adult male and female for different CT scan ranges and technical parameters. Organ doses from existing commercial programs do not reasonably match organ doses calculated for the hybrid phantoms due to differences in phantom anatomy, as well as differences in organ dose scaling parameters. The organ dose matrices developed in this study will be extended to cover different technical parameters, CT scanner models, and various age groups.

  7. The Effect of Lead on Bone Mineral Properties From Female Adult C57/BL6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Monir, A. U.; Gundberg, C.M.; Yagerman, S. E.; van der Meulen, M. C. H.; Budell, W.; Boskey, A. L.; Dowd, T. L.

    2010-01-01

    Lead toxicity is a significant problem in the U.S. with elevated blood lead levels being highest among very young children and older adults > 50 years old. Bone is the major reservoir of body lead, accounting for 75% in children and 90% in adults. Very little is known about the effect of lead on bone mineral properties in adults. We investigated the effect of lead on the femora from adult, 6 month old female C57/BL6 mice who were administered lead in the drinking water (250 ppm, blood lead 33 ?g/dl) for 4 months. Bone mineral properties were examined using Fourier Transform Infrared Microscopy (FTIRM), quantitative microcomputed tomography (microCT) and whole bone mechanical testing. Lead significantly decreased the bone mineral density in the cortical and proximal cancellous bone and increased the marrow area in the cortical bone with microCT. Whole bone three-point bending showed a trend of decreased maximum and failure moments in the lead treated bones compared to controls. Lead significantly decreased the mineral/matrix ratio, collagen maturity and crystallinity in the trabecular bone as measured by FTIRM. In the cortical bone lead significantly decreased collagen maturity and bone crystal size by FTIRM. In contrast to cell culture studies, lead significantly increased serum osteocalcin levels. Lead also significantly increased the bone formation and resorption markers suggesting increased bone turnover. These data show lead increases bone turnover resulting in weaker cortical bone in adult female mice and suggest that lead may exacerbate bone loss and osteoporosis in the elderly. PMID:20643234

  8. Hybrid computational phantoms representing the reference adult male and adult female: construction and applications for retrospective dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Hurtado, Jorge L; Lee, Choonsik; Lodwick, Daniel; Goede, Timothy; Williams, Jonathan L; Bolch, Wesley E

    2012-03-01

    Currently, two classes of computational phantoms have been developed for dosimetry calculation: (1) stylized (or mathematical) and (2) voxel (or tomographic) phantoms describing human anatomy through mathematical surface equations and 3D voxel matrices, respectively. Mathematical surface equations in stylized phantoms are flexible, but the resulting anatomy is not as realistic. Voxel phantoms display far better anatomical realism, but they are limited in terms of their ability to alter organ shape, position, and depth, as well as body posture. A new class of computational phantoms called hybrid phantoms takes advantage of the best features of stylized and voxel phantoms-flexibility and anatomical realism, respectively. In the current study, hybrid computational phantoms representing the adult male and female reference anatomy and anthropometry are presented. These phantoms serve as the starting framework for creating patient or worker sculpted whole-body phantoms for retrospective dose reconstruction. Contours of major organs and tissues were converted or segmented from computed tomography images of a 36-y-old Korean volunteer and a 25-y-old U.S. female patient, respectively, with supplemental high-resolution CT images of the cranium. Polygon mesh models for the major organs and tissues were reconstructed and imported into Rhinoceros™ for non-uniform rational B-spline (NURBS) surface modeling. The resulting NURBS/polygon mesh models representing body contour and internal anatomy were matched to anthropometric data and reference organ mass data provided by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and International Commission on Radiation Protection, respectively. Finally, two hybrid adult male and female phantoms were completed where a total of eight anthropometric data categories were matched to standard values within 4% and organ volumes matched to ICRP data within 1% with the exception of total skin. The hybrid phantoms were voxelized from the NURBS phantoms at resolutions of 0.158 × 0.158 × 0.158 cm and 0.126 × 0.126 × 0.126 cm for the male and female, respectively. To highlight the flexibility of the hybrid phantoms, graphical displays are given of (1) underweight and overweight adult male phantoms, (2) a sitting position for the adult female phantom, and (3) extraction and higher-resolution voxelization of the small intestine for localized dosimetry of mucosal and stem cell layers. These phantoms are used to model radioactively contaminated individuals and to then assess time-dependent detector count rate thresholds corresponding to 50, 250, and 500 mSv effective dose, as might be needed during in-field radiological triage by first responders or first receivers. PMID:22315022

  9. Acne treatment patterns, expectations, and satisfaction among adult females of different races/ethnicities

    PubMed Central

    Rendon, Marta I; Rodriguez, David A; Kawata, Ariane K; Degboe, Arnold N; Wilcox, Teresa K; Burk, Caroline T; Daniels, Selena R; Roberts, Wendy E

    2015-01-01

    Background Limited data are available on acne treatment patterns, expectations, and satisfaction in the adult female subpopulation, particularly among different racial and ethnic groups. Objective Describe acne treatment patterns and expectations in adult females of different racial/ethnic groups and analyze and explore their potential effects on medication compliance and treatment satisfaction. Methods A cross-sectional, Web-based survey was administered to US females (25–45 years) with facial acne (?25 visible lesions). Data collected included sociodemographics, self-reported clinical characteristics, acne treatment use, and treatment expectations and satisfaction. Results Three hundred twelve subjects completed the survey (mean age, 35.3±5.9 years), comprising black (30.8%), Hispanic (17.6%), Asian/other (17.3%), and white (34.3%). More than half of the subjects in each racial group recently used an acne treatment or procedure (black, 63.5%; Hispanic, 54.5%; Asian/other, 66.7%; white, 66.4%). Treatment use was predominantly over-the-counter (OTC) (47.4%) versus prescription medications (16.6%). OTC use was highest in white subjects (black, 42.7%; Hispanic, 34.5%; Asian/other, 44.4%; white, 59.8%; P<0.05). The most frequently used OTC treatments in all racial/ethnic groups were salicylic acid (SA) (34.3%) and benzoyl peroxide (BP) (32.1%). Overall, compliance with acne medications was highest in white versus black (57.0±32.4 vs 42.7±33.5 days, P>0.05), Hispanic (57.0±32.4 vs 43.2±32.9 days, P>0.05), and Asian/other (57.0±32.4 vs 46.9±37.2 days, P>0.05) subjects. Most subjects expected OTC (73.7%) and prescription (74.7%) treatments to work quickly. Fewer than half of the subjects were satisfied with OTC treatment (BP, 47.0%; SA, 43.0%), often due to skin dryness (BP, 26.3%; SA, 44.3%) and flakiness (BP, 12.3%; SA, 31.1%). No statistically significant differences were observed among racial/ethnic groups in their level of satisfaction with OTC or prescription acne treatments. Conclusion Racial/ethnic differences were observed in acne treatment patterns in adult females, while treatment expectations were similar. Results indicate that treatment patterns and expectations may impact treatment satisfaction and medication compliance. PMID:25999752

  10. Reproductive state modulates testosterone-induced singing in adult female European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Rouse, Melvin L; Stevenson, Tyler J; Fortune, Eric S; Ball, Gregory F

    2015-06-01

    European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) exhibit seasonal changes in singing and in the volumes of the neural substrate. Increases in song nuclei volume are mediated at least in part by increases in day length, which is also associated with increases in plasma testosterone (T), reproductive activity, and singing behavior in males. The correlations between photoperiod (i.e. daylength), T, reproductive state and singing hamper our ability to disentangle causal relationships. We investigated how photoperiodic-induced variation in reproductive state modulates the effects of T on singing behavior and song nuclei volumes in adult female starlings. Female starlings do not naturally produce measureable levels of circulating T but nevertheless respond to exogenous T, which induces male-like singing. We manipulated photoperiod by placing birds in a photosensitive or photorefractory state and then treated them with T-filled or empty silastic implants. We recorded morning singing behavior for 3weeks, after which we assessed reproductive condition and measured song nuclei volumes. We found that T-treated photosensitive birds sang significantly more than all other groups including T-treated photorefractory birds. All T-treated birds had larger song nuclei volumes than with blank-treated birds (despite photorefractory T-treated birds not increasing song-rate). There was no effect of photoperiod on the song nuclei volumes of T-treated birds. These data show that the behavioral effects of exogenous T can be modulated by reproductive state in adult female songbirds. Furthermore, these data are consistent with other observations that increases in singing rate in response to T are not necessarily due to the direct effects of T on song nuclei volume. PMID:25989596

  11. Generation, annotation, and analysis of ESTs from midgut tissue of adult female Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Deepak P; Atanur, Santosh; Dhotre, Dhiraj P; Anantharam, D; Mahajan, Vineet S; Walujkar, Sandeep A; Chandode, Rakesh K; Kulkarni, Girish J; Ghate, Pankaj S; Srivastav, Abhishek; Dayananda, Kannayakanahalli M; Gupta, Neha; Bhagwat, Bhakti; Joshi, Rajendra R; Mourya, Devendra T; Patole, Milind S; Shouche, Yogesh S

    2009-01-01

    Background Malaria is a tropical disease caused by protozoan parasite, Plasmodium, which is transmitted to humans by various species of female anopheline mosquitoes. Anopheles stephensi is one such major malaria vector in urban parts of the Indian subcontinent. Unlike Anopheles gambiae, an African malaria vector, transcriptome of A. stephensi midgut tissue is less explored. We have therefore carried out generation, annotation, and analysis of expressed sequence tags from sugar-fed and Plasmodium yoelii infected blood-fed (post 24 h) adult female A. stephensi midgut tissue. Results We obtained 7061 and 8306 ESTs from the sugar-fed and P. yoelii infected mosquito midgut tissue libraries, respectively. ESTs from the combined dataset formed 1319 contigs and 2627 singlets, totaling to 3946 unique transcripts. Putative functions were assigned to 1615 (40.9%) transcripts using BLASTX against UniProtKB database. Amongst unannotated transcripts, we identified 1513 putative novel transcripts and 818 potential untranslated regions (UTRs). Statistical comparison of annotated and unannotated ESTs from the two libraries identified 119 differentially regulated genes. Out of 3946 unique transcripts, only 1387 transcripts were mapped on the A. gambiae genome. These also included 189 novel transcripts, which were mapped to the unannotated regions of the genome. The EST data is available as ESTDB at . Conclusion 3946 unique transcripts were successfully identified from the adult female A. stephensi midgut tissue. These data can be used for microarray development for better understanding of vector-parasite relationship and to study differences or similarities with other malaria vectors. Mapping of putative novel transcripts from A. stephensi on the A. gambiae genome proved fruitful in identification and annotation of several genes. Failure of some novel transcripts to map on the A. gambiae genome indicates existence of substantial genomic dissimilarities between these two potent malaria vectors. PMID:19695102

  12. Effects of Extended Exposure to the Antibacterial Triclosan in the the Adult Female Rat

    EPA Science Inventory

    Triclosan (TCS), an antibacterial, has been shown to have endocrine disrupting activity in the rat. We reported previously that TCS advanced puberty in the female rat in the female pubertal assay and potentiated the estrogenic effect of ethinyl estradiol (EE) on uterine growth i...

  13. Effects of ammonium metavanadate on fertility and reproductive performance of adult male and female rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ashraf M. Morgan; Osama S. El-Tawil

    2003-01-01

    Vanadium is a ubiquitous trace metal present in most plant and animal tissues. Environmental exposure to trivalent and pentavalent inorganic vanadium compounds has been related to impaired different phases of reproduction. Therefore, the effects of a pentavalent inorganic vanadium compound on general reproductive performance and fertility were investigated in male and female rats. Sexually mature male and female rats were

  14. Natal Attraction in Adult Female Baboons (Papio cynocephalus ursinus) in the Moremi Reserve, Botswana

    E-print Network

    Seyfarth, Robert

    might be a form of reproductive competition if females' interest in infants causes distress to mothers.g. elephants: Lee 1987; lions: Packer & Pusey 1984; dolphins: Mann & Smuts 1998; sperm whales: Whitehead 1996 of the group (Clutton-Brock 2001). In this paper, we explore the pattern and possible function of females

  15. Oral administration of leaf extracts of Momordica charantia affect reproductive hormones of adult female Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Adewale, Osonuga Odusoga; Oduyemi, Osonuga Ifabunmi; Ayokunle, Osonuga

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the effect of graded doses of aqueous leaf extracts of Momordica charantia on fertility hormones of female albino rats. Methods Twenty adult, healthy, female Wistar rats were divided into four groups: low dose (LD), moderate dose (MD) and high dose (HD) groups which received 12.5 g, 25.0 g, 50.0 g of the leaf extract respectively and control group that was given with water ad libatum. Result Estrogen levels reduced by 6.40 nmol/L, 10.80 nmol/L and 28.00 nmol/L in the LD, MD and HD groups respectively while plasma progesterone of rats in the LD, MD and HD groups reduced by 24.20 nmol/L, 40.8 nmol/L and 59.20 nmol/L respectively. Conclusion Our study has shown that the antifertility effect of Momordica charantia is achieved in a dose dependent manner. Hence, cautious use of such medication should be advocated especially when managing couples for infertility. PMID:25183143

  16. Crime, Females and Statistics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dennis Challinger

    1982-01-01

    Inspection of Victoria Police data shows that females proceeded against account for an increasing volume of crime, and have higher offending rates over 1960–1979. The bulk of female offences remain in the property area and in particular theft from shops accounts for most female activity. Changes in retail security procedures may explain some of the increase and that, in turn,

  17. Breeding Sex Ratios in Adult Leatherback Turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) May Compensate for Female-Biased Hatchling Sex Ratios

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Kelly R.; Dutton, Peter H.

    2014-01-01

    For vertebrates with temperature-dependent sex determination, primary (or hatchling) sex ratios are often skewed, an issue of particular relevance to concerns over effects of climate change on populations. However, the ratio of breeding males to females, or the operational sex ratio (OSR), is important to understand because it has consequences for population demographics and determines the capacity of a species to persist. The OSR also affects mating behaviors and mate choice, depending on the more abundant sex. For sea turtles, hatchling and juvenile sex ratios are generally female-biased, and with warming nesting beach temperatures, there is concern that populations may become feminized. Our purpose was to evaluate the breeding sex ratio for leatherback turtles at a nesting beach in St. Croix, USVI. In 2010, we sampled nesting females and later sampled their hatchlings as they emerged from nests. Total genomic DNA was extracted and all individuals were genotyped using 6 polymorphic microsatellite markers. We genotyped 662 hatchlings from 58 females, matching 55 females conclusively to their nests. Of the 55, 42 females mated with one male each, 9 mated with 2 males each and 4 mated with at least 3 males each, for a multiple paternity rate of 23.6%. Using GERUD1.0, we reconstructed parental genotypes, identifying 47 different males and 46 females for an estimated breeding sex ratio of 1.02 males for every female. Thus we demonstrate that there are as many actively breeding males as females in this population. Concerns about female-biased adult sex ratios may be premature, and mate choice or competition may play more of a role in sea turtle reproduction than previously thought. We recommend monitoring breeding sex ratios in the future to allow the integration of this demographic parameter in population models. PMID:24505403

  18. Epigenetic modifications of gene promoter DNA in the liver of adult female mice masculinized by testosterone.

    PubMed

    Dkhil, Mohamed A; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Abdel-Baki, Abdel-Azeem; Ghanjati, Foued; Arauzo-Bravo, Marcos J; Delic, Denis; Wunderlich, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Testosterone (T) is known to masculinize the female phenotype of the liver, evidenced as up- and down-regulated expressions of male- and female-predominant genes, respectively, involved in hepatic metabolism. This study is aimed at identifying epigenetic modifications of promoters of these differently expressed genes in the liver after masculinization by T of adult female C57BL/6 mice using methylated DNA immunoprecipitation and NimbleGen microarrays. Among the 17,354 promoters examined, 82 promoters in the liver have been identified to be significantly changed by T (p<0.05), with 47 and 35 promoters exhibiting increased and decreased DNA methylation, respectively. Most of these promoters display the changes of DNA methylation in their Ups-regions, which are between +500 and +2000 bp upstream from the transcription start site (TSS) of the genes. Less T-induced modifications have been detected in the Cor-regions of the promoters, i.e., +500 to -500 bp around the TSS. Only 13 and 7 Cor-promoters are hyper- and hypo-methylated, respectively, among which are 10 hyper- and 5 hypo-methylated promoters of genes with annotated functions. Surprisingly, the promoters are largely unmethylated in those genes whose expression has been previously found to be permanently deregulated by T in the liver, as e.g. the T-upregulated male-predominant genes Cyp7b1, Cyp2d9, Cyp4a10, Ugt2b1, Ugt2b38, Hsd3b5, Slco1a1 as well as the T-downregulated female-predominant genes Cyp2b9, Cyp2b13, Cyp3a41, Cyp3a44, Fmo3, Sult2a2, respectively. Though methylatable, the promoter DNA of Ar, Esr1, and Esr2 remained unaffected by T. However, T decreases DNA-methylation of the Cor-promoter region of Ddc encoding the AR-coactivator dopa decarboxylase. Among the identified 15 Cor-promoters of genes with annotated functions are also those of Defb43, Cst11, and Sele involved in innate immunity. Our data support the view that T may exert long-lasting epigenetic effects on functions of the liver-inherent immune system. PMID:25448745

  19. HIV and STI risk behaviors, knowledge, and testing among female adult film performers as compared to other California women.

    PubMed

    Grudzen, Corita R; Meeker, Daniella; Torres, Jacqueline; Du, Qingling; Andersen, Ronald M; Gelberg, Lillian

    2013-02-01

    A cross-sectional structured online survey was self-administered to a convenience sample of current female adult film performers via the Internet; bivariate analyses compared HIV and other STI risk behaviors, knowledge, and testing in female adult performers to California Women's Health Survey respondents. 134 female adult film performers (mean age 27.8 years) were compared to the 1,773 female respondents (mean age 31.3 years) to the 2007 CWHS. Female performers initiated sex on average 3 years younger and had 6.8 more personal sexual partners in the prior year than other California women. The majority of performers reported HIV and Chlamydia testing (94 and 82%, respectively) in the prior 12 months. They more likely to use condoms consistently in their personal life than other California women (21 vs 17%), though this difference disappeared after controlling for other variables. Adult performers are routinely tested for HIV and Chlamydia, yet they have multiple sexual partners and use condoms inconsistently. PMID:22101890

  20. Coping with incest: the relationship between recollections of childhood coping and adult functioning in female survivors of incest.

    PubMed

    Brand, Bethany L; Alexander, Pamela C

    2003-06-01

    One hundred and one adult female survivors' recollections of coping with childhood incest, abuse characteristics, and current functioning in adulthood were studied. Analyses controlling for characteristics of the trauma indicated that recollections of using avoidance coping and seeking social support were related to poor adult functioning whereas recollections of using distancing coping were related to better functioning. As a set of variables, abuse characteristics also predicted a significant amount of variance in adult functioning. Implications for future research were discussed. PMID:12816342

  1. Cycling of ecdysteroid levels in adult female stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans in relation to blood feeding.

    PubMed

    Chen, A C.; Kelly, T J.

    1997-08-01

    The effect of blood-feeding on total and specific immunoreactive ecdysteroids in Stomoxys calcitrans adult females was examined following the fourth and fifth blood meals when total whole body and hemolymph ecdysteroids showed a dramatic increase in the titer. In general, for both total and specific immunoreactive ecdysteroids that included highly polar material, 20,26-dihydroxyecdysone, 20-hydroxyecdysone and ecdysone, there were clear differences between the effects of the fourth and fifth meals. Following the fifth meal, the titers rose sooner, reached higher levels and remained high longer than those following the fourth meal. This is the first examination of the effects of back-to-back blood meals on total and specific ecdysteroid levels in an intermittent, blood-feeding fly. These results suggest that both rates of synthesis and degradation are affected by blood-feeding and that the number and possibly quantity of blood ingested affect the biochemical mechanisms that regulate ecdysteroid titers in S. calcitrans. PMID:12770457

  2. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Female Sexual Orientation, Childhood Gender Typicality and Adult Gender Identity

    PubMed Central

    Burri, Andrea; Cherkas, Lynn; Spector, Timothy; Rahman, Qazi

    2011-01-01

    Background Human sexual orientation is influenced by genetic and non-shared environmental factors as are two important psychological correlates – childhood gender typicality (CGT) and adult gender identity (AGI). However, researchers have been unable to resolve the genetic and non-genetic components that contribute to the covariation between these traits, particularly in women. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we performed a multivariate genetic analysis in a large sample of British female twins (N?=?4,426) who completed a questionnaire assessing sexual attraction, CGT and AGI. Univariate genetic models indicated modest genetic influences on sexual attraction (25%), AGI (11%) and CGT (31%). For the multivariate analyses, a common pathway model best fitted the data. Conclusions/Significance This indicated that a single latent variable influenced by a genetic component and common non-shared environmental component explained the association between the three traits but there was substantial measurement error. These findings highlight common developmental factors affecting differences in sexual orientation. PMID:21760939

  3. Prevalence and Correlates of Suicidal Behavior among Adult Female Victims of Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Cavanaugh, Courtenay E.; Messing, Jill Theresa; Del-Colle, Melissa; O’Sullivan, Chris; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence and correlates of suicidal threats and attempts among 662 racially and ethnically diverse adult female victims of intimate partner violence (IPV). One in five women had threatened or attempted suicide during her lifetime. Multiple logistic regression results indicated that women at greater risk of severe or potentially lethal assaults as measured by the Danger Assessment and those who reported having a chronic or disabling illness were more likely to have threatened or attempted suicide. A linear association was found between age and suicide threats/attempts, with younger women having increased odds. Finally, African American IPV victims were less likely to have threatened or attempted suicide as compared to Latina victims. Study implications are discussed. PMID:21535096

  4. Azelaic acid in the treatment of acne in adult females: case reports.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Diez, E; Hofmann, M A; Bravo, B; Malgazhdarova, G; Katkhanova, O A; Yutskovskaya, Y

    2014-01-01

    Acne, one of the most common skin problems in dermatological practice, is a condition that affects not only adolescents but also adults. While approximately 80% of cases occurring in adulthood are persistent from teenage years, around 20% are described as 'late-onset' disease, appearing for the first time in adulthood. The disease can be triggered by hormonal changes (including a change from one contraceptive to another), or it can be induced by certain nonhormonal medications, emotional stress, and various underlying diseases such as polycystic ovary syndrome. In many cases acne becomes a chronic skin condition with undulating activity, including improvement and relapse phases, and is often experienced as a major psychological burden. It is, therefore, even more important to provide an effective as well as a safe and tolerable treatment. The spectrum of topical acne treatments has expanded substantially in recent years and various topical medications are available, ranging from azelaic acid, antibiotics, retinoids and benzoyl peroxide to several fixed combinations of these active compounds. The following case collection illustrates how 15% azelaic acid gel, as a well-established monotherapy, can be successfully employed to treat mild-to-moderate forms of adult female acne. PMID:24280645

  5. Spatial distribution of juvenile and adult female Tanner crabs (Chionoecetes bairdi) in a glacial fjord ecosystem: Implications for recruitment processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nielsen, J.K.; Taggart, S.J.; Shirley, T.C.; Mondragon, J.

    2007-01-01

    A systematic pot survey in Glacier Bay, Alaska, was conducted to characterize the spatial distribution of juvenile and adult female Tanner crabs, and their association with depth and temperature. The information was used to infer important recruitment processes for Tanner crabs in glaciated ecosystems. High-catch areas for juvenile and adult female Tanner crabs were identified using local autocorrelation statistics. Spatial segregation by size class corresponded to features in the glacial landscape: high-catch areas for juveniles were located at the distal ends of two narrow glacial fjords, and high-catch areas for adults were located in the open waters of the central Bay. Juvenile female Tanner crabs were found at nearly all sampled depths (15-439 m) and temperatures (4-8??C), but the biggest catches were at depths <150 m where adults were scarce. Because adults may prey on or compete with juveniles, the distribution of juveniles could be influenced by the distribution of adults. Areas where adults or predators are scarce, such as glacially influenced fjords, could serve as refuges for juvenile Tanner crabs. ?? 2007 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea. Published by Oxford Journals. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of Anethum graveolens L. (dill) on Oocyte and Fertility of Adult Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Monsefi, Malihezaman; Ghasemi, Aazam; Alaee, Sanaz; Aliabadi, Elham

    2015-01-01

    Background Our previous studies revealed Anethum graveolens L. caused some changes in female reproductive system that induced infertility. Therefore, in this study, oocyte changes as one of probable reasons of infertility were investigated. Methods In this study, 59 adult female rats were divided into 3 groups of control, low dose (0.5 g/kg) and high dose (5 g/kg) of dill seed aqueous extract (LDE and HDE) treated groups that were gavaged with 1 ml of each dose for 10 days (2 estrous cycles). Vaginal smears were prepared daily. Oocytes of superovulated animals were extracted and their morphometrical changes were measured (n = 5). Oocyte cell membrane glycoconjugates were stained with UEA, PNA, and DBA-FITC lectins (n = 5). Ultrastructural studies of oocytes were performed using TEM (n = 5). The number, weight, and crown-rump length of newborns were examined in three groups after mating with untreated males (n = 5). Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results Results demonstrated that the duration of the estrous cycle, the diestrus phase and progesterone concentration in the experimental groups increased significantly compared to the control group (p < 0.05). Granulosa cells of corpus luteum in HDE-treated group were larger and clearer. The intensity reactions of galactose/Nacetylgalactoseamine terminal sugar of oocyte decreased insignificantly in experimental groups compared to the control group p > 0.05. Duration of mating to pregnancy increased and the weight and crown-rump length of newborns decreased in experimental groups significantly (p < 0.05). Conclusion Dill seed aqueous extract can induce infertility without any effect on oocyte structure. PMID:25717430

  7. Female common lizards (Lacerta vivipara) do not adjust their sex-biased investment in relation to the adult sex ratio

    E-print Network

    Alvarez, Nadir

    Female common lizards (Lacerta vivipara) do not adjust their sex-biased investment in relation to the adult sex ratio J.-F. LE GALLIARD,*, ,# P. S. FITZE,*,à,# J. COTE,* M. MASSOT* & J. CLOBERT differential investment into the sexes, such that higher fitness returns in one sex selects for stronger

  8. Individual variation in feeding habitat use by adult female green sea turtles ( Chelonia mydas ): are they obligately neritic herbivores?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hideo Hatase; Katsufumi Sato; Manami Yamaguchi; Kotaro Takahashi; Katsumi Tsukamoto

    2006-01-01

    Satellite telemetry and stable isotope analysis were used to confirm that oceanic areas (where water depths are >200 m) are alternative feeding habitats for adult female green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas), which have been thought to be obligate herbivores in neritic areas (where depths are 20 m, implying that they not only rested, but also foraged on macroplankton that exhibit diel vertical

  9. Shame and adult sexual assault: a study with a group of female survivors recruited from an East London population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Elena Vidal Chartered Clinical Psychologist

    2007-01-01

    This study assessed feelings of shame in a group of 25 female survivors of adult sexual assault by using a series of self-rating scales. Women were recruited from a sexual health service and via media advertisement within East London. Findings demonstrated how shame was a noteworthy psychological response for this group of women (up to 75% of women reported feeling

  10. Care and feeding of Orius insidiosus (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae): Assessing the impact of diet on predation following adult female eclosion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reproduction in female Orius insidiosus Say (Hemiptera, Anthocoridae) is a stringent process, and requires a source of nutrition high in quantity and quality of protein and lipid for optimal production of eggs. Adults can survive solely on a source of carbohydrates, but at the cost of suspending th...

  11. Photo Gallery Photo 1. Adult female watching her nest cavity as we checked its contents with a micro

    E-print Network

    Montana, University of

    Photo Gallery Photo 1. Adult female watching her nest cavity as we checked its contents DESERT All photographs by Aaron D. Flesch 446 Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America #12;Photo Gallery Photo 2. Nest site located in a giant saguaro cactus (Carnegiea gigantea) near the western edge

  12. Logical Reasoning in the Supermarket: Adult Females' Use of a Proportional Reasoning Strategy in an Everyday Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capon, Noel; Kuhn, Deanna

    1979-01-01

    Results showed that only 32 percent of adult female shoppers in a supermarket were able to use a proportional reasoning strategy to determine which of two sizes of a common item (size ratio 2:3) was the better buy. Performance declined when the ratio was more complex. (JMB)

  13. Characteristics Associated With Initiation of the HPV Vaccine Among a National Sample of Male and Female Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Bernat, Debra H.; Gerend, Mary A.; Chevallier, Kenya; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Bauermeister, Jose A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To examine rates of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine initiation, and characteristics associated with initiation, among a national sample of male and female young adults. Methods Participants (n=3,448; 48% female) were recruited using a web-based respondent driven sampling strategy and completed a web-based survey between October and December 2010. Results Forty-five percent of females and four percent of males initiated the vaccine. Females who were younger, never married, in school, attended religious services less than once a month, sexually active, reported a greater number of lifetime sex partners, and who had been tested for HIV were more likely to report initiation. Males who were African American, attended religious services less than once a month, reported a greater number of sex partners in their lifetime and who had been tested for HIV were more likely to report initiation. Conclusions Factors associated with HPV vaccine initiation may differ for males and females. Further research, with larger samples of males, is needed to fully understand characteristics associated with male initiation. Regardless of gender, however, the majority of young adults who have not initiated sexual activity have not received the vaccine. Further research is needed to examine how to increase vaccination rates among this population, as they may benefit most from vaccination. PMID:24138764

  14. Prenatal Testosterone Exposure Leads to Hypertension That Is Gonadal Hormone-Dependent in Adult Rat Male and Female Offspring1

    PubMed Central

    Chinnathambi, Vijayakumar; Balakrishnan, Meena; Yallampalli, Chandrasekhar; Sathishkumar, Kunju

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Prenatal testosterone exposure impacts postnatal reproductive and endocrine function, leading to alterations in sex steroid levels. Because gonadal steroids are key regulators of cardiovascular function, it is possible that alteration in sex steroid hormones may contribute to development of hypertension in prenatally testosterone-exposed adults. The objectives of this study were to evaluate whether prenatal testosterone exposure leads to development of hypertension in adult males and females and to assess the influence of gonadal hormones on arterial pressure in these animals. Offspring of pregnant rats treated with testosterone propionate or its vehicle (controls) were examined. Subsets of male and female offspring were gonadectomized at 7 wk of age, and some offspring from age 7 to 24 wk received hormone replacement, while others did not. Testosterone exposure during prenatal life significantly increased arterial pressure in both male and female adult offspring; however, the effect was greater in males. Prenatal androgen-exposed males and females had more circulating testosterone during adult life, with no change in estradiol levels. Gonadectomy prevented hyperandrogenism and also reversed hypertension in these rats. Testosterone replacement in orchiectomized males restored hypertension, while estradiol replacement in ovariectomized females was without effect. Steroidal changes were associated with defective expression of gonadal steroidogenic genes, with Star, Sf1, and Hsd17b1 upregulation in testes. In ovaries, Star and Cyp11a1 genes were upregulated, while Cyp19 was downregulated. This study showed that prenatal testosterone exposure led to development of gonad-dependent hypertension during adult life. Defective steroidogenesis may contribute in part to the observed steroidal changes. PMID:22302690

  15. Potential for female kin associations in wild western gorillas despite female dispersal

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Brenda J; Doran-Sheehy, Diane M; Vigilant, Linda

    2007-01-01

    Female philopatry and male dispersal are the norm for most mammals, and females that remain in their natal region often derive foraging or social benefits from proximity to female kin. However, other factors, such as constraints on group size or a shortage of potential mates, may promote female dispersal even when female kin associations would be beneficial. In these cases, female kin associations might develop, not through female philopatry, but through female emigration to the same group. To date, little attention has been focused on the potential for kin-biased behaviour between females in female-dispersing species. Here we investigate the genetic relationships among adults in eight wild groups of unhabituated western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) at the Mondika Research Center using microsatellite genotyping of DNA collected from hair and faeces. We found that almost half (40%) of adult females had an adult female relative in the same group and average within-group relatedness among females was significantly higher than that expected under a model of random dispersal. This provides the first genetic evidence that females can maintain social associations with female relatives in spite of routine natal and secondary dispersal. In addition, we show that females appear to avoid related silverback males when making dispersal decisions, suggesting that a strategy of non-random female dispersal may also function to avoid inbreeding. PMID:17609183

  16. Social experience affects neuronal responses to male calls in adult female zebra finches.

    PubMed

    Menardy, F; Touiki, K; Dutrieux, G; Bozon, B; Vignal, C; Mathevon, N; Del Negro, C

    2012-04-01

    Plasticity studies have consistently shown that behavioural relevance can change the neural representation of sounds in the auditory system, but what occurs in the context of natural acoustic communication where significance could be acquired through social interaction remains to be explored. The zebra finch, a highly social songbird species that forms lifelong pair bonds and uses a vocalization, the distance call, to identify its mate, offers an opportunity to address this issue. Here, we recorded spiking activity in females while presenting distance calls that differed in their degree of familiarity: calls produced by the mate, by a familiar male, or by an unfamiliar male. We focused on the caudomedial nidopallium (NCM), a secondary auditory forebrain region. Both the mate's call and the familiar call evoked responses that differed in magnitude from responses to the unfamiliar call. This distinction between responses was seen both in single unit recordings from anesthetized females and in multiunit recordings from awake freely moving females. In contrast, control females that had not heard them previously displayed responses of similar magnitudes to all three calls. In addition, more cells showed highly selective responses in mated than in control females, suggesting that experience-dependent plasticity in call-evoked responses resulted in enhanced discrimination of auditory stimuli. Our results as a whole demonstrate major changes in the representation of natural vocalizations in the NCM within the context of individual recognition. The functional properties of NCM neurons may thus change continuously to adapt to the social environment. PMID:22512260

  17. Predictors of delayed disclosure of rape in female adolescents and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Bicanic, Iva A. E.; Hehenkamp, Lieve M.; van de Putte, Elise M.; van Wijk, Arjen J.; de Jongh, Ad

    2015-01-01

    Background Delayed disclosure of rape has been associated with impaired mental health; it is, therefore, important to understand which factors are associated with disclosure latency. The purpose of this study was to compare various demographics, post-rape characteristics, and psychological functioning of early and delayed disclosers (i.e., more than 1-week post-rape) among rape victims, and to determine predictors for delayed disclosure. Methods Data were collected using a structured interview and validated questionnaires in a sample of 323 help-seeking female adolescents and young adults (12–25 years), who were victimized by rape, but had no reported prior chronic child sexual abuse. Results In 59% of the cases, disclosure occurred within 1 week. Delayed disclosers were less likely to use medical services and to report to the police than early disclosers. No significant differences were found between delayed and early disclosers in psychological functioning and time to seek professional help. The combination of age category 12–17 years [odds ratio (OR) 2.05, confidence intervals (CI) 1.13–3.73], penetration (OR 2.36, CI 1.25–4.46), and closeness to assailant (OR 2.64, CI 1.52–4.60) contributed significantly to the prediction of delayed disclosure. Conclusion The results point to the need of targeted interventions that specifically encourage rape victims to disclose early, thereby increasing options for access to health and police services. PMID:25967381

  18. Limited seasonality effects on blood lead for a small cohort of female adults and children.

    PubMed

    Gulson, B L; Mizon, K J; Korsch, M J; Mahaffey, K R; Pederson, D

    2000-05-15

    Many blood lead surveys, especially during the 1970s and 1980s have shown variations of up to 35% in blood lead concentration, with higher values in summer over winter. We have monitored 13 adult females and seven children for periods from 348 to 1337 days as non-pregnant controls in a longitudinal study of mobilization of lead from the maternal skeletal during pregnancy and lactation. Samples of blood, 6-day duplicate diet and environmental samples were analyzed by high-precision thermal ionization mass spectrometry for lead isotope ratios and lead concentrations. There was no statistically significant difference between seasons for blood lead concentrations and dietary intake although there were small differences in the isotopic composition for blood. One explanation for the lack of a seasonal effect in blood lead of our cohort may be the absence of climatic extremes in Sydney. The minimal effects from seasonality observed in this cohort make this an especially useful cohort within which to study effects that could be obscured by seasonal factors. PMID:10843336

  19. PERFUMED FEMALE'S SEX APPEAL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yfke van Bergen; Jean-Francois Ferveur

    2004-01-01

    When a male fruit fly wants to track down a gal, he follows his nose along her attractive scent trail. Jean-François Ferveur explains that this alluring bouquet is a complicated mixture of 16 hydrocarbon compounds, but it wasn't clear which of the cocktail's components turns a female fruit fly into a femme fatale. He adds that two of the female's

  20. Female infanticide and amniocentesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger Jeffery; Patricia Jeffery; Andrew Lyon

    1984-01-01

    Clinical services offering amniocentesis to inform women of the sex of their foetuses have appeared in North India in the past 10 years. They fit into cultural patterns in which girls are devalued, and some authors have seen direct links between female infanticide (assumed to have been eradicated by 1900), female neglect leading to higher infant and child mortality rates

  1. The Female Athlete Triad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Roberta Trattner; Thompson, Ron A.

    2004-01-01

    The Female Athlete Triad is a syndrome of the interrelated components of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. Sometimes inadvertently, but more often by willful dietary restriction, many female athletes do not ingest sufficient calories to adequately fuel their physical or sport activities, which can disrupt menstrual functioning,…

  2. Understanding the Female Offender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Although boys engage in more delinquent and criminal acts than do girls, female delinquency is on the rise. In 1980, boys were four times as likely as girls to be arrested; today they are only twice as likely to be arrested. In this article, the author explores how the juvenile justice system is and should be responding to the adolescent female

  3. The female child as a surrogate object

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kurt Freund; C. K. McKnight; R. Langevin; S. Cibiri

    1972-01-01

    Because most heterosexual pedophilic offenses are committed by males who in fact erotically prefer adult females, the hypothesis was tested that males with nondeviant erotic preferences are generally prone to react in a sexual way to female children. With nondeviant subjects, penile volume changes (PVCs) were measured to stimulus slides and movie pictures of males and females, varying in age.

  4. BURSAE, REPRODUCTIVE STRUCTURES, AND SCAPULAR COLOR IN WINTERING FEMALE OLDSQUAWS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    STEVEN R. PETERSON; ROBERT S. ELLARSON

    Female Oldsquaws were collected on Lake Michigan between December and May 1951-55 and 1969-73. Measurements taken on bursae, ovaries, and oviducts were related to age class and scapular color. Bursae were significantly deeper in juveniles than in adults, and the adult females with gray scapulars had significantly deeper bursae than adult females with brown scapu- lars. Juvenile female ovaries were

  5. Description of female nymphal instars and adult female of Kermes echinatus Balachowsky (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Kermesidae) based on specimens from Crete and mainland Greece, with a discussion on geographical variation.

    PubMed

    Porcelli, Francesco; Pellizzari, Giuseppina

    2014-01-01

    The first-instar nymph, second- and third-instar female nymphs and the adult female of Kermes echinatus Balachowsky (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Kermesidae) are described and illustrated; micrographs of morphological details are also provided. The species was collected on the island of Crete (Greece) and on mainland Greece, new localities for this species, and are compared with Israeli specimens from where it was originally described. PMID:25544434

  6. Male sexual harassment alters female social behaviour towards other females.

    PubMed

    Darden, Safi K; Watts, Lauren

    2012-04-23

    Male harassment of females to gain mating opportunities is a consequence of an evolutionary conflict of interest between the sexes over reproduction and is common among sexually reproducing species. Male Trinidadian guppies Poecilia reticulata spend a large proportion of their time harassing females for copulations and their presence in female social groups has been shown to disrupt female-female social networks and the propensity for females to develop social recognition based on familiarity. In this study, we investigate the behavioural mechanisms that may lead to this disruption of female sociality. Using two experiments, we test the hypothesis that male presence will directly affect social behaviours expressed by females towards other females in the population. In experiment one, we tested for an effect of male presence on female shoaling behaviour and found that, in the presence of a free-swimming male guppy, females spent shorter amounts of time with other females than when in the presence of a free-swimming female guppy. In experiment two, we tested for an effect of male presence on the incidence of aggressive behaviour among female guppies. When males were present in a shoal, females exhibited increased levels of overall aggression towards other females compared with female only shoals. Our work provides direct evidence that the presence of sexually harassing males alters female-female social behaviour, an effect that we expect will be recurrent across taxonomic groups. PMID:21976624

  7. Male sexual harassment alters female social behaviour towards other females

    PubMed Central

    Darden, Safi K.; Watts, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    Male harassment of females to gain mating opportunities is a consequence of an evolutionary conflict of interest between the sexes over reproduction and is common among sexually reproducing species. Male Trinidadian guppies Poecilia reticulata spend a large proportion of their time harassing females for copulations and their presence in female social groups has been shown to disrupt female–female social networks and the propensity for females to develop social recognition based on familiarity. In this study, we investigate the behavioural mechanisms that may lead to this disruption of female sociality. Using two experiments, we test the hypothesis that male presence will directly affect social behaviours expressed by females towards other females in the population. In experiment one, we tested for an effect of male presence on female shoaling behaviour and found that, in the presence of a free-swimming male guppy, females spent shorter amounts of time with other females than when in the presence of a free-swimming female guppy. In experiment two, we tested for an effect of male presence on the incidence of aggressive behaviour among female guppies. When males were present in a shoal, females exhibited increased levels of overall aggression towards other females compared with female only shoals. Our work provides direct evidence that the presence of sexually harassing males alters female–female social behaviour, an effect that we expect will be recurrent across taxonomic groups. PMID:21976624

  8. Electron specific absorbed fractions for the adult male and female ICRP/ICRU reference computational phantoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zankl, Maria; Schlattl, Helmut; Petoussi-Henss, Nina; Hoeschen, Christoph

    2012-07-01

    The calculation of radiation dose from internally incorporated radionuclides is based on so-called absorbed fractions (AFs) and specific absorbed fractions (SAFs). SAFs for monoenergetic electrons were calculated for 63 source regions and 67 target regions using the new male and female adult reference computational phantoms adopted by the ICRP and ICRU and the Monte Carlo radiation transport programme package EGSnrc. The SAF values for electrons are opposed to the simplifying assumptions of ICRP Publication 30. The previously applied assumption of electrons being fully absorbed in the source organ itself is not always true at electron energies above approximately 300-500 keV. High-energy electrons have the ability to leave the source organ and, consequently, the electron SAFs for neighbouring organs can reach the same magnitude as those for photons for electron energies above 1 MeV. The reciprocity principle known for photons can be extended to electron SAFs as well, thus making cross-fire electron SAFs mass-independent. To quantify the impact of the improved electron dosimetry in comparison to the dosimetry using the simple assumptions of ICRP Publication 30, absorbed doses per administered activity of three radiopharmaceuticals were evaluated with and without explicit electron transport. The organ absorbed doses per administered activity for the two evaluation methods agree within 2%-3% for most organs for radionuclides with decay spectra having electron energies below a few hundred keV and within approximately 20% if higher electron energies are involved. An important exception is the urinary bladder wall, where the dose is overestimated by 60-150% using the simplified ICRP 30 approach for the radiopharmaceuticals of this study.

  9. Cytokine profiling of young overweight and obese female African American adults with prediabetes

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, Rudolf; Parikh, Samip J.; Sridhar, Supriya; Guo, De-Huang; Bhagatwala, Jigar; Dong, Yutong; Caldwell, Ruth; Mellor, Andrew; Caldwell, William; Zhu, Haidong; Dong, Yanbin

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 5–10% of subjects with prediabetes become diabetic every year. Inflammation is involved in the development of obesity-related type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, to date, the relationship between inflammation and prediabetes, defined by hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) ? 5.7 and < 6.5%, remains largely unexplored, especially in African Americans. Therefore, in this study we examined a comprehensive panel of 13 cytokines involved in the inflammatory response in overweight/obese subjects with prediabetes. A total of 21 otherwise healthy, overweight/obese, young adult African American females with prediabetes, together with 20 matched overweight/obese controls, were selected for this study. Plasma cytokines were assessed by multiplex cytokine profiling. Plasma concentrations of interleukin (IL)-5, IL-6, IL-7, tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), and granulocyte-monocyte colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) were significantly higher in the prediabetic group, as compared to the control group (all p < 0.05). Plasma concentrations of all the other cytokines, interferon-? (IFN-?), IL-1?, IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70 and IL-13, seemed to be elevated in the prediabetic group, but failed to reach statistical significances. Upon merging both groups, HbA1c was found to be positively correlated with IFN- ?, IL-1?, IL-2, IL-5, IL-7, IL-8, TNF-? and GM-CSF. This study demonstrates elevated levels of various pro-inflammatory cytokines in overweight/obese young subjects with prediabetes, which place them at higher risk of developing T2D and cardiovascular diseases. Our data also call for further investigations in animal models and population cohorts to establish the roles of a variety of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the early development of obesity-related T2D. PMID:23769592

  10. Phthalate concentrations in personal care products and the cumulative exposure to female adults and infants in Shanghai.

    PubMed

    Bao, Jiaqin; Wang, Min; Ning, Xiaojun; Zhou, Yaobin; He, Yuping; Yang, Jielin; Gao, Xi; Li, Shuguang; Ding, Zhuoping; Chen, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Phthalate esters (PE) are synthetic chemicals widely used in industry, and have been detected in personal care products (PCP). Recent findings of human reports demonstrated endocrine-disrupting action associated with phthalate exposures. The aims of this study were to (1) measure levels of 11 PE in 198 PCP collected from retail markets in Shanghai and (2) assess daily dermal exposure in adult females and infants. The health risk of cumulative exposure to eight PE on reproductive system function derived from dermal PCP use was further assessed by utilizing the hazard index (HI) approach. Diethyl phthalate (DEP) was the most frequently detected compound (29.8%), followed by diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) (6.6%). The geometric mean (GM) concentrations of daily exposure to DEP, bis(2-methoxyethyl) phthalate (DMEP), DiBP, dibutyl phthalate (DBP), diphenyl phthalate (DPP), and bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in female adults were 0.018, 0.012, 0.002, 0.001, 0.003, and 0.002 ?g/kg body weight (bw)/d, respectively. The GM daily exposure levels to PE in infants and adult females were similar except for DEHP, which was higher in infants. DEP exposure was highest in both subpopulations at either GM or maximal level. All HI of 8 PE were far less than 1, ranging from 0.0002 to 0.005, indicating no cumulative reproductive risks to these populations. DBP, DMEP, and DEHP were three major contributors to the cumulative HI. In summary, the level of phthalate in PCP from Shanghai retail markets posed no apparent cumulative risk to adult females and infants in China. PMID:25734628

  11. Female Athlete Triad

    MedlinePLUS

    ... triad include: Weight loss Absent or irregular periods Fatigue Stress fractures Restrictive dieting Binge eating Induced vomiting ... the risk factors for female athlete triad? Being a competitive athlete Playing sports that require you to check your weight often ...

  12. The female athlete triad.

    PubMed

    Hobart, J A; Smucker, D R

    2000-06-01

    The female athlete triad is defined as the combination of disordered eating, amenorrhea and osteoporosis. This disorder often goes unrecognized. The consequences of lost bone mineral density can be devastating for the female athlete. Premature osteoporotic fractures can occur, and lost bone mineral density may never be regained. Early recognition of the female athlete triad can be accomplished by the family physician through risk factor assessment and screening questions. Instituting an appropriate diet and moderating the frequency of exercise may result in the natural return of menses. Hormone replacement therapy should be considered early to prevent the loss of bone density. A collaborative effort among coaches, athletic trainers, parents, athletes and physicians is optimal for the recognition and prevention of the triad. Increased education of parents, coaches and athletes in the health risks of the female athlete triad can prevent a potentially life-threatening illness. PMID:10865930

  13. Female sexual dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Wright, Jennifer J; O'Connor, Kim M

    2015-05-01

    Female sexual dysfunction is a common patient concern. After providing an overview regarding the various types of female sexual dysfunction, we will focus on history taking and treatment options for desire, arousal, orgasm, and pain disorders. Testosterone therapy and management of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor-associated sexual dysfunction are reviewed. Treatments for atrophic vaginitis are appraised. Patient cases lead the discussion, providing the reader with clinically relevant information. PMID:25841603

  14. Female Patrons of Porn

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard McCleary; Richard Tewksbury

    2010-01-01

    Although the proportion of women who patronize sexually oriented book-video-novelty stores appears to be growing, little is known about the phenomenon generally or about male–female differences. In the only studies of “female patrons of porn,” both Hefley (2007) and Berkowitz (2006) report that half of the customers that they observed entering two stores were women. Compared to men, women were

  15. Selected Dietary Nutrients and the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Adult Males and Females in Saudi Arabia: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Al-Daghri, Nasser M.; Khan, Nasiruddin; Alkharfy, Khalid M.; Al-Attas, Omar S.; Alokail, Majed S.; Alfawaz, Hanan A.; Alothman, Abdulaziz; Vanhoutte, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    During the last decade, the rapid economic development in Saudi Arabia resulted in an unbalanced dietary intake pattern within the general population. Consequently, metabolic syndrome was also documented to be highly prevalent in the Middle-East region. We aimed to examine the relationship between selected dietary nutrient intakes and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the general adult population of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. In this cross-sectional study, 185 adult Saudis aged 19 to 60 years (87 males and 98 females (mean age 35.6 ± 13.2 and 37.6 ± 11.7 years, respectively)) were included. The criteria for metabolic syndrome were based on the International Diabetes Foundation (IDF) criteria, and the dietary food intake was assessed by two 24-h dietary recall methods. The odd ratios (ORs) of metabolic syndrome risk across quartiles of selected dietary nutrients were significantly lower for carbohydrates and proteins, as well as for vitamins A, C, E and K, calcium, zinc and magnesium (p < 0.05 for all) in the female group with metabolic syndrome than those without. The pattern of daily dietary intake of selected nutrients among the general population of Saudi Arabia raises concern, and this dietary imbalance could increase the risk of metabolic syndrome, particularly in adult Saudi females. PMID:24284611

  16. Blood vitamin D(3) metabolite concentrations of adult female bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) remain stable after ceasing UVb exposure.

    PubMed

    Oonincx, D G A B; van de Wal, M D; Bosch, G; Stumpel, J B G; Heijboer, A C; van Leeuwen, J P T M; Hendriks, W H; Kik, M

    2013-07-01

    Vitamin D deficiency can lead to several health problems collectively called metabolic bone disease (MBD). One commonly kept reptile species prone to develop MBD if managed incorrectly is the bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps). This study aimed to determine the extent to which adult female bearded dragons fed a diet low in vitamin D can use stored vitamin D and its metabolites to maintain plasma 25(OH)D(3) and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) concentrations after discontinuing UVb exposure. Blood samples of healthy adult female bearded dragons, exposed to UVb radiation for over 6 months were collected (day 0) after which UVb exposure was discontinued for 83 days and blood was collected. Blood plasma was analysed for concentrations of total Ca, total P, ionized Ca, uric acid, 25(OH)D(3) and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3). There was no significant change in plasma 25(OH)D(3) and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) concentrations during the study. While total Ca and P in whole blood was found to significantly decrease over time (P < 0.0088 and 0.0016, respectively), values were within the reference range. Plasma ionized Ca tended (P = 0.0525) to decrease during the study. Adult female bearded dragons, previously exposed to UVb, are able to maintain blood vitamin D metabolite concentrations when UVb exposure is discontinued for a period of up to 83 days. PMID:23648288

  17. Induction of Female-to-Male Sex Change in Adult Zebrafish by Aromatase Inhibitor Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takatsu, Kanae; Miyaoku, Kaori; Roy, Shimi Rani; Murono, Yuki; Sago, Tomohiro; Itagaki, Hideyuki; Nakamura, Masaru; Tokumoto, Toshinobu

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated whether undifferentiated germ and/or somatic stem cells remain in the differentiated ovary of a species that does not undergo sex changes under natural conditions and retain their sexual plasticity. The effect of aromatase inhibitor (AI)-treatment on sexually mature female zebrafish was examined. A 5-month AI treatment caused retraction of the ovaries after which testes-like organs appeared, and cyst structures filled with spermatozoa-like cells were observed in sections of these tissues. Electron microscopic observations revealed that these cells appeared as large sperm heads without tails. Sperm formation was re-examined after changing the diet to an AI-free food. A large number of normal sperm were obtained after eight weeks, and no formation of ovarian tissue was observed. Artificial fertilization using sperm from the sex-changed females was successful. These results demonstrated that sex plasticity remains in the mature ovaries of this species.

  18. Induction of female-to-male sex change in adult zebrafish by aromatase inhibitor treatment.

    PubMed

    Takatsu, Kanae; Miyaoku, Kaori; Roy, Shimi Rani; Murono, Yuki; Sago, Tomohiro; Itagaki, Hideyuki; Nakamura, Masaru; Tokumoto, Toshinobu

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether undifferentiated germ and/or somatic stem cells remain in the differentiated ovary of a species that does not undergo sex changes under natural conditions and retain their sexual plasticity. The effect of aromatase inhibitor (AI)-treatment on sexually mature female zebrafish was examined. A 5-month AI treatment caused retraction of the ovaries after which testes-like organs appeared, and cyst structures filled with spermatozoa-like cells were observed in sections of these tissues. Electron microscopic observations revealed that these cells appeared as large sperm heads without tails. Sperm formation was re-examined after changing the diet to an AI-free food. A large number of normal sperm were obtained after eight weeks, and no formation of ovarian tissue was observed. Artificial fertilization using sperm from the sex-changed females was successful. These results demonstrated that sex plasticity remains in the mature ovaries of this species. PMID:24292399

  19. Learning Curves: Body Image and Female Sexuality in Young Adult Literature. Scarecrow Studies in Young Adult Literature #35

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Younger, Beth

    2009-01-01

    Adolescence is a time of growth, change, and confusion for young women. During this transition from childhood to adulthood, sex and gender roles become more important. Meanwhile, depictions of females--from the hyper-sexualized girls of music videos to the chaste repression of Purity Balls--send mixed messages to young women about their bodies…

  20. Recruitment and Retention of Older Adolescent and Young Adult Female Survivors of Childhood Cancer in Longitudinal Research

    PubMed Central

    Cantrell, Mary Ann; Conte, Teresa; Hudson, Melissa; Shad, Aziza; Ruble, Kathy; Herth, Kaye; Canino, Alyssa; Kemmy, Sinead

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives To describe the challenges encountered in the recruitment and retention of a sample of older adolescent and young adult female survivors of childhood cancer for a longitudinal study testing a targeted psychosocial intervention aimed at enhancing hope. Data Sources Published literature on constructing longitudinal intervention studies and strategies in the recruitment and retention of childhood cancer survivors in research was used to develop the protocol of this study. Data Synthesis Using empirical literature to construct the study’s design resulted in achieving certain goals for the design, but not in the recruitment and retention of study participants. Using online technology to deliver the intervention and collect data was efficient and effective. Traditional approaches to recruitment and retention of those survivors, however, were not effective. Use of more novel approaches to enroll study participants demonstrated only modest success. Conclusions Additional research is needed on strategies to successfully recruit and retain older adolescents and young adult female survivors of childhood cancer in longitudinal intervention studies. Implications for Nursing The improvement in the psychological well-being of female survivors of childhood cancer remains an important outcome in ongoing care. The need to continue to identify creative and effective ways to recruit and retain those survivors is warranted. PMID:22940512

  1. Female physicist doctoral experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabney, Katherine P.; Tai, Robert H.

    2013-06-01

    The underrepresentation of women in physics doctorate programs and in tenured academic positions indicates a need to evaluate what may influence their career choice and persistence. This qualitative paper examines eleven females in physics doctoral programs and professional science positions in order to provide a more thorough understanding of why and how women make career choices based on aspects both inside and outside of school and their subsequent interaction. Results indicate that female physicists experience conflict in achieving balance within their graduate school experiences and personal lives and that this then influences their view of their future careers and possible career choices. Female physicists report both early and long-term support outside of school by family, and later departmental support, as being essential to their persistence within the field. A greater focus on informal and out-of-school science activities for females, especially those that involve family members, early in life may help influence their entrance into a physics career later in life. Departmental support, through advisers, mentors, peers, and women’s support groups, with a focus on work-life balance can help females to complete graduate school and persist into an academic career.

  2. Female coloration indicates female reproductive capacity in blue tits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. DOUTRELANT; A. GRÉGOIRE; N. GRNAC; D. GOMEZ; M. M. LAMBRECHTS; P. PERRET

    2007-01-01

    It is poorly understood whether female morphological and behavioural traits can be used as 'signals'. In particular, experimental tests of the hypothesis that female ornaments reflect quality are scarce. Here, we experimentally examine whether female plumage coloration might signal maternal quality in the blue tit, Cyanistes caeruleus by forcing half of the females breeding in our population to produce a

  3. Morphology of the first-instar nymph and adult female of Kermes echinatus Balachowsky, with a comparison to K. vermilio Planchon (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Kermesidae)

    PubMed Central

    Spodek, Malkie; Ben-Dov, Yair

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Thefirst-instar nymph and the adult female of Kermes echinatus Balachowsky (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Kermesidae) are described and illustrated. This species is compared with Kermes vermilio Planchon, a morphologically similar species known in the Palaeractic region. PMID:23275748

  4. The oxytocin system promotes resilience to the effects of neonatal isolation on adult social attachment in female prairie voles.

    PubMed

    Barrett, C E; Arambula, S E; Young, L J

    2015-01-01

    Genes and social experiences interact to create variation in social behavior and vulnerability to develop disorders of the social domain. Socially monogamous prairie voles display remarkable diversity in neuropeptide receptor systems and social behavior. Here, we examine the interaction of early-life adversity and brain oxytocin receptor (OTR) density on adult social attachment in female prairie voles. First, pups were isolated for 3?h per day, or unmanipulated, from postnatal day 1-14. Adult subjects were tested on the partner preference (PP) test to assess social attachment and OTR density in the brain was quantified. Neonatal social isolation impaired female PP formation, without affecting OTR density. Accumbal OTR density was, however, positively correlated with the percent of time spent huddling with the partner in neonatally isolated females. Females with high accumbal OTR binding were resilient to neonatal isolation. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that parental nurturing shapes neural systems underlying social relationships by enhancing striatal OTR signaling. Thus, we next determined whether early touch, mimicking parental licking and grooming, stimulates hypothalamic OT neuron activity. Tactile stimulation induced immediate-early gene activity in OT neurons in neonates. Finally, we investigated whether pharmacologically potentiating OT release using a melanocortin 3/4 agonist, melanotan-II (10?mg?kg(-1) subcutaneously), would mitigate the social isolation-induced impairments in attachment behavior. Neonatal melanotan-II administration buffered against the effects of early isolation on partner preference formation. Thus, variation in accumbal OTR density and early OT release induced by parental nurturing may moderate susceptibility to early adverse experiences, including neglect. PMID:26196439

  5. Successful Bone Marrow Transplantation of an Adolescent Young Adult Female With Pregnancy-associated Aplastic Anemia.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Azim, Hisham; Jovi-Usude, Baro; Balian, Chelsea; Shah, Ami J; Tang, Shinyi; Sinha, Arpan; Kapoor, Neena; Mahadeo, Kris M

    2015-05-01

    Cases of pregnancy-associated severe aplastic anemia (SAA) have been reported in the literature with historically high rates of mortality. We report the case of a 17-year-old female diagnosed with SAA at 26 weeks of gestation. She experienced intrauterine fetal demise and did not achieve hematologic remission after delivery. She received a histocompatible sibling donor bone marrow transplant 7 weeks after her diagnosis and remains in remission, at 1-year posttransplant. We review available literature and suggest that when a histocompatible sibling donor is available, bone marrow transplantation should be considered as a first-line therapy for patients with pregnancy-associated SAA. PMID:25774494

  6. Perceptual Characteristics of Female Voices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batstone, Susan; Tuomi, Seppo K.

    1981-01-01

    Male and females listeners rated 21 young female voices on seven scales representing unique vocal features. Voices were described as "passive", or traditionally female, and "active," characterized as "lively,""colorful," and "sexy." Females found active characteristics more salient; males preferred the passive characteristics. Implications for…

  7. Reduction of feral cat (Felis catus Linnaeus 1758) colony size following hysterectomy of adult female cats.

    PubMed

    Mendes-de-Almeida, Flavya; Remy, Gabriella L; Gershony, Liza C; Rodrigues, Daniela P; Chame, Marcia; Labarthe, Norma V

    2011-06-01

    The size of urban cat colonies is limited only by the availability of food and shelter; therefore, their population growth challenges all known population control programs. To test a new population control method, a free-roaming feral cat colony at the Zoological Park in the city of Rio de Janeiro was studied, beginning in 2001. The novel method consisted of performing a hysterectomy on all captured female cats over 6 months of age. To estimate the size of the colony and compare population from year to year, a method of capture-mark-release-recapture was used. The aim was to capture as many individuals as possible, including cats of all ages and gender to estimate numbers of cats in all population categories. Results indicated that the feral cat population remained constant from 2001 to 2004. From 2004 to 2008, the hysterectomy program and population estimates were performed every other year (2006 and 2008). The population was estimated to be 40 cats in 2004, 26 in 2006, and 17 cats in 2008. Although pathogens tend to infect more individuals as the population grows older and maintains natural behavior, these results show that free-roaming feral cat colonies could have their population controlled by a biannual program that focuses on hysterectomy of sexually active female cats. PMID:21440475

  8. Female Pallid Sturgeon

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Biologists prepare to perform ultrasound and an egg biopsy on female pallid sturgeon, radio code 30, to determine how close to spawning she is or whether spawning may already have occurred.  Biologists from Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks determined that code 30 eventually spawned in the Yello...

  9. Female athlete triad.

    PubMed

    Putukian, M

    1995-01-01

    Menstrual dysfunction is very common in female athletes, with close to 40-60% of freshman college athletes giving a history of menstrual irregularity. Pathogenic eating behavior is also very common in female athletes, and these numbers appear to be on the rise. Both of these disturbances have established morbidity, and eating disorders have a mortality rate as high as 18%. Both anorexia and amenorrhea have also been associated with decreased bone mineral density. For the young athlete, low bone mineral density may put them at increased risk for stress fractures. There may also be a long-term risk for premature osteoporosis. Disordered eating, menstrual dysfunction, and osteoporosis have become known together as the "female athlete triad." This discussion will discuss these clinical entities, and methods to recognize and treat them. If these abnormalities are sought out and education is provided to the young female athlete, the hope is that these entities can be detected early on and the complications of the triad can be prevented. PMID:17630519

  10. The female athlete triad

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Connie Lebrun

    2006-01-01

    Regular exercise brings health benefits, but for some young women it can also bring disordered eating, amenorrhea and osteoporosis. The ‘female athlete triad’ consists of three separate, but interrelated medical entities: (i) disordered eating; (ii) amenorrhea (or absence of menses), and; (iii) premature osteoporosis (altered bone mineral density). Although coaches, athletes, parents, and to some extent team physicians, have been

  11. The female athlete

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michelle P. Warren; Shanmugan Shantha

    2000-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, the number of women participating in organized sports has grown dramatically. Several forms of menstrual irregularities have been described in the female athlete: primary and secondary amenorrhoea, oligomenorrhoea, short luteal phases and anovulation. The incidence of menstrual irregularities is much higher in activities where a thin body is required for better performance. The hormonal pattern

  12. Services supporting female entrepreneurs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manuela Pardo-del-Val

    2010-01-01

    There are many public initiatives that fund services which support women entrepreneurship. In order to help them improve, this paper takes a closer look at the characteristics of female entrepreneurs, their motivations, and the difficulties they face in their ventures. Through a literature review and the results of a Delphi study with 25 technicians from an EU-funded support programme, this

  13. Female Reproductive System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, N. J.

    This autoinstructional lesson can be used with health education and/or biology classes in a high school curriculum. It deals with the study of human development with emphasis on the female reproductive organs and cycles. The behavioral objectives are given, and the materials and equipment needed to gain these objectives are itemized. Fifteen…

  14. Female Physicist Doctoral Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dabney, Katherine P.; Tai, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    The underrepresentation of women in physics doctorate programs and in tenured academic positions indicates a need to evaluate what may influence their career choice and persistence. This qualitative paper examines eleven females in physics doctoral programs and professional science positions in order to provide a more thorough understanding of why…

  15. Female gender is associated with dental care and dental hygiene, but not with complete dentition in the Swiss adult population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paola Coda Bertea; Katharina Staehelin; Julia Dratva; Elisabeth Zemp Stutz

    2007-01-01

    Aim  Little is known about the impact of gender on oral health, besides the influence of reproductive factors on female dentition.\\u000a The aim of this study was to analyse gender differences with regard to oral health and oral health behaviour in the Swiss\\u000a adult population, using data from the Swiss Health Survey of 2002.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Subjects and methods  The Swiss Health Survey regularly

  16. Effects of Dietary Exposure to 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in Adult Female Mink ( Mustela vison )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Hochstein; S. J. Bursian; R. J. Aulerich

    1998-01-01

    .   Adult female mink were fed diets supplemented with 0, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, or 100 ppb 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin\\u000a (TCDD) for up to 125 days. There was a dose-dependent decrease in feed consumption and body weights indicative of the “wasting\\u000a syndrome” previously reported for mink and other species exposed to chlorinated hydrocarbon compounds. Mortality reached 12.5,\\u000a 62.5, and 100% by

  17. Protein restriction during pregnancy induces hypertension and impairs endothelium-dependent vascular function in adult female offspring.

    PubMed

    Sathishkumar, Kunju; Elkins, Rebekah; Yallampalli, Uma; Yallampalli, Chandra

    2009-01-01

    Intrauterine undernutrition plays a role in the development of adult hypertension. Most studies are done in male offspring to delineate the mechanisms whereby blood pressure may be raised; however, the vascular mechanisms involved in female offspring are unclear. Female offspring of pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats fed either a control (C; 18%) or a low-protein (LP; 6%) diet during pregnancy were used. Birth weight and later growth were markedly lower in LP than in C offspring. LP offspring exhibited impaired estrous cyclicity with increased mean arterial pressure. Hypotensive response to acetylcholine (ACh) and the hypertensive response to phenylephrine (PE) were greater in LP than in C rats. N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) induced greater hypertensive responses in C than in LP rats. Endothelium-intact mesenteric arteries from LP offspring exhibited increased contractile responses to PE and reduced vasodilation in response to ACh. In endothelium-denuded arteries, relaxation responses to sodium nitroprusside were similar in both groups. Basal and ACh-induced increase in vascular nitrite/nitrate production was lower in LP than in C offspring. L-NAME or 1H-1,2,4-oxadiazolo-4,3-quinoxalin-1-one inhibited ACh relaxations and enhanced PE contractions in C offspring, but had minimal effect in LP rats. The decreased NO-mediated vascular response might explain the increased vascular contraction and arterial pressure in female offspring with low birth weight. PMID:18957856

  18. Characterization of endocrine-disrupting chemicals based on hormonal balance disruption in male and female adult rats.

    PubMed

    Quignot, Nadia; Arnaud, Marine; Robidel, Franck; Lecomte, Anthony; Tournier, Mikaël; Cren-Olivé, Cécile; Barouki, Robert; Lemazurier, Emmanuel

    2012-06-01

    Reproductive functions are controlled by a finely tuned balance between estrogens and androgens. To further characterize the gonadal pathways leading to hormonal balance disruption by atrazine, vinclozolin, methoxychlor, and bisphenol A in rat, we investigated their effects in male and female young adult animals. Specifically, we assessed reproductive tract alterations, sex hormone balance in serum and gonads, tissue dosimetry, and mRNA expression. Remarkably, we observed different aromatase regulation profiles between animals with similar estrogen-to-androgen ratios but with different chemical treatments. For example, increased estrogen-to-androgen ratios in atrazine-treated females could be partly linked to aromatase upregulation, while in methoxychlor- and bisphenol A-treated females, peripheral mechanisms such as conjugation/deconjugation processes might be more likely to elevate estrogen levels. In vinclozolin-treated animals, the decreased estrogen-to-androgen ratios reported might be due to an increase of peripheral (adrenal) steroidogenesis. Thus, measurement of many endpoints is necessary for good risk assessment. PMID:22285353

  19. The female stalker.

    PubMed

    Meloy, J Reid; Mohandie, Kris; Green, Mila

    2011-01-01

    A study of 143 female stalkers was conducted, part of a large North American sample of stalkers (N=1005) gathered from law enforcement, prosecutorial, and entertainment corporate security files (Mohandie, Meloy, Green McGowan, & Williams, 2006). The typical female stalker was a single, separated, or divorced woman in her mid-30s with a psychiatric diagnosis, most often a mood disorder. She was more likely to pursue a male acquaintance, stranger, or celebrity, rather than a prior sexual intimate. When compared with male stalkers, the female stalkers had significantly less frequent criminal histories, and were significantly less threatening and violent. Their pursuit behavior was less proximity based, and their communications were more benign than those of the males. The average duration of stalking was 17 months, but the modal duration was two months. Stalking recidivism was 50%, with modal time between intervention and re-contacting the victim of one day. Any prior actual relationship (sexual intimate or acquaintance) significantly increased the frequency of threats and violence with large effect sizes for the entire female sample. The most dangerous subgroup was the prior sexually intimate stalkers, of whom the majority both threatened and were physically violent. The least dangerous were the female stalkers of Hollywood celebrities. Two of the McEwan, Mullen, MacKenzie, and Ogloff (2009b) predictor variables for stalking violence among men were externally validated with moderate effect sizes for the women: threats were associated with increased risk of violence, and letter writing was associated with decreased risk of violence. PMID:21351135

  20. Prenatal alcohol exposure and adolescent stress increase sensitivity to stress and gonadal hormone influences on cognition in adult female rats.

    PubMed

    Comeau, Wendy L; Lee, Kristen; Anderson, Katie; Weinberg, Joanne

    2015-09-01

    Abnormal activity of stress hormone (hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal [HPA]), and gonadal hormone (hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal [HPG]) systems is reported following prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). PAE increases vulnerability of brain regions involved in regulation of these systems to stressors or challenges during sensitive periods of development, such as adolescence. In addition, HPA and HPG functions are linked to higher order functions such as executive function (EF), with dysregulation of either system adversely affecting EF processes, including attention and response inhibition, that influence cognition. However, how HPA and HPG systems interact to influence cognitive performance in individuals with an FASD is not fully understood. To investigate, we used a rat model of moderate PAE. Adolescent female PAE and control offspring were exposed to 10days of chronic mild stress (CMS) and cognitive function was assessed on the radial arm maze (RAM) in adulthood. On the final test day, animals were sacrificed, with blood collected for hormone analyses, and vaginal smears taken to assess estrus stage at the time of termination. Analyses showed that adolescent CMS significantly increased levels of CORT and RAM errors during proestrus in adult PAE but not control females. Moreover, CORT levels were correlated with estradiol levels and with RAM errors, but only in PAE females, with outcome dependent on adolescent CMS condition. These results suggest that PAE increases sensitivity to the influences of stress and gonadal hormones on cognition, and thus, in turn, that HPA and HPG dysregulation may underlie some of the deficits in executive function described previously in PAE females. PMID:25707383

  1. Female sexual dysfunction in young adult women - Impact of age and lifestyle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoian, Dana; PAter, Liana; Pater, Flavius; Craciunescu, Mihaela

    2014-12-01

    Female sexual function is a difficult entity to be assessed. Subjective factors and interview biases can change the perception of it. Using validated questionnaires can improve the scientific approach to this matter. There is a huge difference of severity and incidence among young, apparent healthy women, which are in a harmonious relationship. We evaluated 320 healthy women, with stable sexual active relationship, with no know depressive disease, endocrinological and metabolic pathology, no premature menopause, no malignancy. We compose a mathematic model to study the impact of age, and body weight on the sexual function, with FSFI total score as surrogate marker. We observed that even in healthy women, increase in age and/or weight/body mass significantly impair general sexual function.

  2. Pneumococcal meningitis in a young adult female with common variable immunodeficiency

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Chad J.; Said, Sarmad; Quansah, Raphael; Khalillullah, Sayeed; Alozie, Ogechika

    2013-01-01

    Patient: Female, 22 Final Diagnosis: Pneumococcal meningitis Symptoms: Fever • headache • neck stiffness • nuchal rigidity • photophobia Medication: Ceftriaxone Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Neurology Objective: Rare disease Background: Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a primary immunodeficiency associated with hypogammaglobulinemia and other various clinical manifestations. It is a rare disease with a prevalence of CVID is approximately 1: 50,000–200,000. Clinical manifestations of CVID include recurrent bacterial infections, autoimmune, gastrointestinal, lymphoproliferative, granulomatous, and malignancy. Case Report: Twenty-two year-old Hispanic female presented with a throbbing headache, nuchal rigidity, photophobia and a high grade fever. Lumbar puncture with CSF assessment revealed a turbid fluid with WBC of 6937 per uL, polymorphnuclear cells of 81%, protein 248 mg/dL, glucose <3 mg/Dl. CSF antigens were positive for Streptococcus pneumonia and CSF culture grew pansensitive Strepococcus pneumonia. Immunoglobin (Ig) levels of IgA, IgE, IgG and IgM were all decreased. Absolute cell counts of CD3, CD4 and CD8 were all low. Bone marrow biopsy was normocellular. Excisional lymph node biopsy revealed lymph nodes with reactive follicular hyperplasia. Common variable immunodeficiency disease (CVID) was diagnosed based on exclusion. IVIG therapy was given and patient received a two-week course of ceftriaxone. Conclusions: The diagnosis of CVID is made based on the following criteria: 1) Marked decrease of IgG and at least one of the IgM or IgA isotypes. 2) The onset of immunodeficiency at greater than 2 years old. 3) Absence of isohemagglutinins and/or poor response to vaccines 4) Exclusion of other defined causes of hypogammaglobulinemia. A definite diagnosis is often late because it is wrongly assumed that primary immunodeficiencies are extremely rare, hence many patients are already seriously ill at the time of presentation. PMID:24265845

  3. The Female Offender: A Selected Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton, Davis M., Comp.; Kravitz, Marjorie, Comp.

    Three themes run through this collection of citations which represent a small fraction of literature on the adult female offender. One is the ideology, implications, and impact of criminological theory to the study of female crime and criminality. A second theme treats the legal and procedural mechanics of justice administration. The final theme…

  4. Estradiol and GPER Activation Differentially Affect Cell Proliferation but Not GPER Expression in the Hippocampus of Adult Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Duarte-Guterman, Paula; Lieblich, Stephanie E.; Chow, Carmen; Galea, Liisa A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Estradiol increases cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus of the female rodent but it is not known whether the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER), a membrane receptor, is involved in this process, nor whether there are regional differences in estradiol’s effects on cell proliferation. Thus, we investigated whether estradiol exerts its effects on cell proliferation in the dorsal and ventral dentate gyrus through GPER, using the GPER agonist, G1, and antagonist, G15. Ovariectomized adult female rats received a single injection of either: 17?-estradiol (10 ?g), G1 (0.1, 5, 10 ?g), G15 (40 ?g), G15 and estradiol, or vehicle (oil, DMSO, or oil+DMSO). After 30 min, animals received an injection of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and were perfused 24 h later. Acute treatment with estradiol increased, while the GPER agonist G1 (5 ?g) decreased, the number of BrdU+ cells in the dentate gyrus relative to controls. The GPER antagonist, G15 increased the number of BrdU+ cells relative to control in the dorsal region and decreased the number of BrdU+ cells in the ventral region. However, G15 treatment in conjunction with estradiol partially eliminated the estradiol-induced increase in cell proliferation in the dorsal dentate gyrus. Furthermore, G1 decreased the expression of GPER in the dentate gyrus but not the CA1 and CA3 regions of the hippocampus. In summary, we found that activation of GPER decreased cell proliferation and GPER expression in the dentate gyrus of young female rats, presenting a potential and novel estrogen-independent role for this receptor in the adult hippocampus. PMID:26075609

  5. Acute exposure to gas-supersaturated water does not affect reproductive success of female adult chinook salmon late in maturation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gale, William L.; Maule, A.G.; Postera, A.; Peters, M.H.

    2004-01-01

    At times, total dissolved gas concentrations in the Columbia and Snake rivers have been elevated due to involuntary spill from high spring runoff and voluntary spill used as a method to pass juvenile salmonids over dams. The goal of this project was to determine if acute exposure to total dissolved gas supersaturation (TDGS) affects the reproductive performance of female chinook salmon late in their maturation. During this study, adult female spring chinook salmon were exposed to mean TDGS levels of 114.1 % to 125.5%. We ended exposures at first mortality, or at the appearance of impending death. Based on this criterion, exposures lasted from 10 to 68 h and were inversely related to TDGS. There was no effect of TDGS on pre-spawning mortality or fecundity when comparing treatment fish to experimental controls or the general hatchery population four to six weeks after exposures. Egg quality, based on egg weight and egg diameter, did not differ between treatment and control fish. Fertilization rate and survival to eyed-stage was high (>94%) for all groups. With the exception of Renibacterium salmoninarum (the causative agent of bacterial kidney disease; BKD), no viral or bacterial fish pathogens were isolated from experimental fish. The prevalence (about 45%) and severity of R. salmoninarum did not differ among the groups or the general hatchery population. We conclude that these acute exposures to moderate levels of gas-supersaturated water-perhaps similar to that experienced by immigrating adult salmon as they approach and pass a hydropower dam on the Columbia River-did not affect reproductive success of female chinook salmon late in their maturation. These results are most applicable to summer and fall chinook salmon, which migrate in the summer/fall and spawn shortly after reaching their natal streams. Published in 2004 by John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

  6. The Apyrase gene of the vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti, is expressed specifically in the adult female salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Smartt, C T; Kim, A P; Grossman, G L; James, A A

    1995-11-01

    The yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, expresses a gene, Apyrase (Apy), that encodes an ATP-diphosphohydrolase. The product of this gene is a secreted enzyme that facilitates hematophagy by preventing platelet aggregation in the host. Apy gene expression is limited to the cells of the distal-lateral and medial lobes of the adult female salivary glands. Apyrase protein levels, detectable by antibodies, peak in the salivary glands about 4 days after adult emergence and remain high after a blood meal. Primary sequence analysis of a genomic clone encoding apyrase reveals a unique TAAATA sequence and seven introns, as well as other conserved features of eukaryotic genes. The temporal, sex- and tissue-specific expression of the Apy gene is consistent with its role as encoding a platelet anti-aggregation factor that functions to facilitate hematophagy and decrease probing time. PMID:7498420

  7. Developmental exposure to the polybrominated diphenyl ether PBDE 209: Neurobehavioural and neuroprotein analysis in adult male and female mice.

    PubMed

    Buratovic, Sonja; Viberg, Henrik; Fredriksson, Anders; Eriksson, Per

    2014-09-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), used as flame retardants in polymer products, are reported to cause developmental neurotoxic effects in mammals. The present study have investigated neurotoxic effects arising from neonatal exposure to PBDE 209, including alterations in sex differences, spontaneous behaviour, learning and memory, neuroproteins and altered susceptibility of the cholinergic system in adults. Three-day-old NMRI mice, of both sexes, were exposed to PBDE 209 (2,2',3,3',4,4',5,5',6,6'-decaBDE at 0, 1.4, 6.0 and 14.0?mol/kg b.w.). At adult age (2-7 months) a similar developmental neurotoxic effects in both male and female mice were seen, including lack of or reduced habituation to a novel home environment, learning and memory defects, modified response to the cholinergic agent's paraoxon (males) and nicotine (females) indicating increased susceptibility of the cholinergic system. The behavioural defects were dose-response related and persistent. In mice of both sexes and showing behavioural defects, neuroprotein tau was increased. PMID:25194327

  8. Temporomandibular joint articulations on working side during chewing in adult females with cross-bite and mandibular asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Yashiro, K; Iwata, A; Takada, K; Murakami, S; Uchiyama, Y; Furukawa, S

    2015-03-01

    Influence of mandibular asymmetry and cross-bite on temporomandibular joint (TMJ) articulation remained unknown. This study aimed to investigate whether/how the working-side condylar movement irregularity and articular spaces during chewing differ between patients with mandibular asymmetry/cross-bite and control subjects. The cross-bite group and the control group consisted of 10 adult female patients and 10 adult female subjects, respectively. They performed unilateral gum-chewing. The mandibular movements were recorded using a video-based opto-electronic system. The 3D articular surface of the TMJ for each individual was reconstructed using CT/MRI data. For local condylar points, the normalised jerk cost (NJC) towards normal direction to the condylar surface, the angle between tangential velocity vector and condylar long axis and intra-articular space were measured. Three rotatory angles at centre of the condyle were also measured. During closing and intercuspation, (i) movements of posterior portion of the deviated side condyle showed significantly less smoothness as compared with those for the non-deviated side and control subjects, (ii) the rotations of the condyle on the deviated side induced greater intra-articular space at posterior and lateral portions. These findings suggest that chewing on the side of mandibular deviation/cross-bite may cause irregular movement and enlarged intra-articular space at posterior portion of the deviated side condyle. PMID:25545582

  9. The Stimulation Effect of Auricular Magnetic Press Pellets on Older Female Adults with Sleep Disturbance Undergoing Polysomnographic Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Chyi; Liao, Wen-Chun; Liaw, Jen-Jiuan; Hang, Liang-Wen; Lin, Jaung-Geng

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives. To examine the stimulation effect of auricular magnetic press pellet therapy on older female adults with sleep disturbance as determined by polysomnography (PSG). Design. Randomized, single-blind, experimental-controlled, parallel-group. Setting. Community. Participants. Twenty-seven older female adults with sleep disturbance according to the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) >5 for at least 3 months were recruited. Participants were screened by both the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), as well as polysomnography prior to randomization. Interventions. All eligible participants were randomly allocated into the experimental or control group. Both groups were taped with magnetic press pellet on auricular points for 3 weeks. The experimental group was treated by applying pressure on the magnetic press pellets 3 times per day while no stimulation was applied on the control group. Measurements and Results. Both groups were measured by PSG and PSQI at the beginning of the study and 3 weeks after the study. Both groups showed improvements on PSQI scores compared to the baseline. One-way analysis of covariance adjusted for baseline scores showed that significant improvements of PSG-derived sleep parameters, such as sleep efficiency, were found in the experimental group. However, no significant differences between groups were observed in the proportion of sleep stages with the exception of Stage 2. Conclusions. Auricular therapy using magnetic pellets and stimulation by pressing was more effective in improving the sleep quality compared to auricular therapy without any stimulation. PMID:23573133

  10. Estrogen-Induced Memory Enhancements Are Blocked by Acute Bisphenol A in Adult Female Rats: Role of Dendritic Spines

    PubMed Central

    Inagaki, T.; Frankfurt, M.

    2012-01-01

    Acute effects of bisphenol (BPA), an environmental chemical, on estradiol (17? or ?-E2)-dependent recognition memory and dendritic spines in the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus were investigated in adult female rats. Ovariectomized rats received BPA 30 min before or immediately after a sample trial (viewing objects), and retention trials were performed 4 h later. Retention trials tested discrimination between old and new objects (visual memory) or locations (place memory). When given immediately after the sample trial, BPA, 1–400 ?g/kg, did not alter recognition memory, but 1 and 40 ?g/kg BPA, respectively, blocked 17?-E2-dependent increases in place and visual memory. When ovariectomized rats were tested with 17?-E2, 1 ?g/kg BPA blocked place memory, but up to 40 ?g did not block visual memory. BPA, given to cycling rats at 40 ?g/kg, blocked visual, but not place, memory during proestrus when 2 h intertrial delays were given. Spine density was assessed at times of memory consolidation (30 min) and retention (4 h) after 17?-E2 or BPA + 17?-E2. In prefrontal cortex, BPA did not alter E2-dependent increases. In the hippocampus, BPA blocked E2 increases in basal spines at 4 h and was additive with E2 at 30 min. Thus, these novel data show that doses of BPA, below the current Environmental Protection Agency safe limit of 50 ?g/kg, rapidly alter neural functions dependent on E2 in adult female rats. PMID:22569790

  11. Female bladder exstrophy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. J. Crankson; S. Ahmed

    1997-01-01

    Bladder exstrophy is one of the most challenging congenital urinary tract abnormalities. Apart from the open bladder the patient\\u000a also has various other abnormalities, including urogenital, musculoskeletal and anorectal defects. The size of the exstrophic\\u000a bladder varies from patient to patient. In the female the clitoris is bifid and the vagina is anteriorly placed. In this paper\\u000a various aspects of

  12. Attitudes of female athletes toward their male and female coaches 

    E-print Network

    Newcomb, Connie Karcher

    1976-01-01

    ATTITUDES OF FEMALE ATHLETES TOWARD THEIR MALE AND FEMALE COACHES A Thesis by CONNIE KARCHER NEWCOMB Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AEM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... December 1976 Major Subject: Health and Physical Education ATTITUDES OF FEMALE ATHLETES TOWARD THEIR MALE AND FEMALE COACHES A Thesis by CONNIE KARCHER NEWCOMB Approved as to style and content by: Co-chair of C mmittee Head of epartment Member...

  13. Female Athletes Facing Discrimination: Curriculum Regarding Female Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palis, Regina

    There continues to be oppression among female athletes, even after the enactment of Title IX in 1972. Female athletes in secondary schools deal with low self-esteem, eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia, and depression. Female athletes struggle with societal pressures to maintain a model-like figure, while trying to train and perform for…

  14. Marijuana use subtypes in a community sample of young adult females

    PubMed Central

    de Dios, Marcel A.; Anderson, Bradley J.; Herman, Debra S.; Hagerty, Claire E.; Caviness, Celeste M.; Budney, Alan J.; Stein, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study sought to empirically derive marijuana user subtypes based on DSM abuse and dependence criteria and examine demographic and substance abuse distinctions of derived classes. Method A community sample of 308 female marijuana users between the ages of 18-24 were recruited in the Southern New England region. Latent class analysis was used to derive subgroups based on DSM criteria. The use and demographic characteristics of classes were further analyzed using ANOVA and chi-square tests. Results Based on fit criteria, a three class solution was selected. Class I (37%), an “unaffected/mild” group was characterized by very low endorsement rates of abuse and dependence criteria. This class was also found to have significantly lower rates of other substance use problems. Class II (41.6%) “moderate problem users” showed moderate endorsement rates of abuse and dependence criteria. Class III (21.4%) - “severe problem users” showed the greatest levels of abuse and dependence with 90% meeting DSM criteria for abuse and 100% meeting diagnostic criteria for marijuana dependence. Class III also showed the greatest levels of other substance use problems. Conclusion Three distinct marijuana abuse and dependence subtypes were derived using LCA. Findings may have implications for the development of more targeted treatment and prevention interventions for young women struggling with varying degrees of marijuana abuse and dependence. PMID:20457408

  15. Structure of the secretory cells of male and female adult guinea pigs Harderian gland.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Ola A; Elgamal, Dalia A; Elgayar, Sanaa A M

    2015-06-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the structure of the Harderian gland (HG) in male and female guinea pigs. A total number of sixteen animals of 4 months age were divided according to sex into two groups; eight animals each. Unfixed glands were weighed and their length and width were measured. Specimens from fixed glands were processed and examined using light, transmission electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry for the detection of the presence of chromogranin A (CgA). The gland consisted of a well-developed duct system which included both intra and extra parenchymal ducts and secretory end pieces lined by many types of cells of variable morphological features and modes of secretion. However, the holocrine mode of secretion was rare as mitotic figures were occasionally present. The interstitial cells included fibroblasts and immune cells (mast cells, lymphocyte, plasma cells and macrophages). The secretion produced by the gland included lipid, protein, neutral mucin and CgA which may be a newly identified constituent of biologically potent proteins stored in the cells of the guinea pig HG. Neutral mucin and CgA may function in photoprotection. The gland revealed sexual dimorphism in mast cells and blood capillaries number and chromogranin secretory activity. PMID:25960413

  16. PERFORMANCE OF FEMALE LESSER SCAUP

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ALAN D. AFTON

    I examined the influence of age and time on female reproductive performance in a marked population of Lesser Scaup (Aythya affinis) breeding in southwestern Manitoba from 1977 to 1980. Arrival date and length of prelaying period varied among years but were not related to female age. Rate of nonbreeding and nest-initiation date varied among years and by female age. Age

  17. Effects of hyperandrogenemia and increased adiposity on reproductive and metabolic parameters in young adult female monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, C. V.; Pohl, C. R.; Chang, R. J.; Marshall, J. C.; Pau, F. K.; Stouffer, R. L.; Cameron, J. L.

    2014-01-01

    Many patients with hyperandrogenemia are overweight or obese, which exacerbates morbidities associated with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). To examine the ability of testosterone (T) to generate PCOS-like symptoms, monkeys received T or cholesterol (control) implants (n = 6/group) beginning prepubertally. As previously reported, T-treated animals had increased neuroendocrine drive to the reproductive axis [increased luteinizing hormone (LH) pulse frequency] at 5 yr, without remarkable changes in ovarian or metabolic features. To examine the combined effects of T and obesity, at 5.5 yr (human equivalent age: 17 yr), monkeys were placed on a high-calorie, high-fat diet typical of Western cultures [Western style diet (WSD)], which increased body fat from <2% (pre-WSD) to 15–19% (14 mo WSD). By 6 mo on WSD, LH pulse frequency in the controls increased to that of T-treated animals, whereas LH pulse amplitude decreased in both groups and remained low. The numbers of antral follicles present during the early follicular phase increased in both groups on the WSD, but maximal follicular size decreased by 50%. During the late follicular phase, T-treated females had greater numbers of small antral follicles than controls. T-treated monkeys also had lower progesterone during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Although fasting insulin did not vary between groups, T-treated animals had decreased insulin sensitivity after 1 yr on WSD. Thus, while WSD consumption alone led to some features characteristic of PCOS, T + WSD caused a more severe phenotype with regard to insulin insensitivity, increased numbers of antral follicles at midcycle, and decreased circulating luteal phase progesterone levels. PMID:24735887

  18. Butachlor causes disruption of HPG and HPT axes in adult female rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lifei; Li, Wei; Zha, Jinmiao; Wang, Miao; Yuan, Lilai; Wang, Zijian

    2014-09-25

    Butachlor is a chloroacetamide herbicide widely used in Asia, and may enter the aquatic environment through agricultural application. In this study, plasma VTG and hormone levels (E2, 11-KT, T3 and T4) were determined after the female rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) was exposed to butachlor at environmental relevant concentrations (0, 0.1, 1, and 10?g/L) for 40days. The mRNA levels of the HPG axis-related genes (gnrh, er?, vtg, star, lhr, 3?-hsd, cyp11a, cyp17, cyp19a and cyp19b), and the HPT axis-related genes (tr?, dio1, dio2, and dio3) were quantified after 20 and 40days exposure to butachlor. For the HPG axis, the plasma 11-KT was increased at exposure concentration of 10?g/L, and VTG was significantly decreased at 1?g/L. Functional genes like gnrh and cyp19b in the brains, star, lhr, cyp11a, 3?-hsd, and cyp19a in the ovaries, and er? and vtg in livers were up-regulated. For the HPT axis, the results showed that plasma T4 levels were significantly increased, the gene expression of dio1 was up-regulated, dio2 showed no significant variation, and dio3 was down-regulated in the livers. These results indicated that butachlor may promote the accumulation of T4 in fish through inactive deiodinase type 3. The transcription of HPG axis-related genes could serve as an auto-regulation of hormone levels after exposure to butachlor. Furthermore, the activation of gnrh may play an important role as a feed-back mechanism in the regulation of hormone levels and crosstalk of endocrine axes. PMID:25108122

  19. First Comparative Transcriptomic Analysis of Wild Adult Male and Female Lutzomyia longipalpis, Vector of Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Christina B.; Santini, María Soledad; Pimenta, Paulo F. P.; Diambra, Luis A.

    2013-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease with a complex epidemiology and ecology. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is its most severe clinical form as it results in death if not treated. In Latin America VL is caused by the protist parasite Leishmania infantum (syn. chagasi) and transmitted by Lutzomyia longipalpis. This phlebotomine sand fly is only found in the New World, from Mexico to Argentina. However, due to deforestation, migration and urbanisation, among others, VL in Latin America is undergoing an evident geographic expansion as well as dramatic changes in its transmission patterns. In this context, the first VL outbreak was recently reported in Argentina, which has already caused 7 deaths and 83 reported cases. Insect vector transcriptomic analyses enable the identification of molecules involved in the insect's biology and vector-parasite interaction. Previous studies on laboratory reared Lu. longipalpis have provided a descriptive repertoire of gene expression in the whole insect, midgut, salivary gland and male reproductive organs. Nevertheless, the study of wild specimens would contribute a unique insight into the development of novel bioinsecticides. Given the recent VL outbreak in Argentina and the compelling need to develop appropriate control strategies, this study focused on wild male and female Lu. longipalpis from an Argentine endemic (Posadas, Misiones) and a Brazilian non-endemic (Lapinha Cave, Minas Gerais) VL location. In this study, total RNA was extracted from the sand flies, submitted to sequence independent amplification and high-throughput pyrosequencing. This is the first time an unbiased and comprehensive transcriptomic approach has been used to analyse an infectious disease vector in its natural environment. Transcripts identified in the sand flies showed characteristic profiles which correlated with the environment of origin and with taxa previously identified in these same specimens. Among these, various genes represented putative targets for vector control via RNA interference (RNAi). PMID:23554910

  20. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Patterns of Sexual Risk Behavior and Rates of Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Female Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Emily C.; Niccolai, Linda M.; Connell, Christian M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined patterns of sexual behavior and risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in young adulthood for Black, Hispanic, and White females. Methods. We used a nationally representative sample of 7015 female young adults from wave III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Sexual risk items assessed behaviors occurring in the previous 6 years and past year to determine classes of sexual risk and links to STIs in young adulthood. Results. Latent class analysis revealed 3 sexual risk classes for Black and Hispanic youths and 4 sexual risk classes for White youths. The moderate and high risk classes had the highest probabilities of risky sexual partners, inconsistent condom use, and early age of sexual initiation, which significantly increased odds for STIs compared with recent abstainers. Conclusions. We found different classes of sexual behavior by race/ethnicity, with Black and Hispanic young women most at risk for STIs in young adulthood. Preventive efforts should target younger adolescents and focus on sexual partner behavior. PMID:23488501

  1. Mediators involved in the relation between depressive symptoms and weight status in female adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Goldschmidt, A B; Wall, M M; Choo, T-H J; Larson, N I; Neumark-Sztainer, D

    2015-06-01

    Depression may be a risk factor for overweight status, but mechanisms involved in this relationship are unclear. This study explored behavioral factors involved in the relationship between adolescent depression symptoms and adult overweight status. A population-based cohort of female participants in Project EAT (n=1035) was followed over 10 years and reported on psychological functioning, weight status and eating and activity patterns in early/middle adolescence (1999=Time 1; T1), middle adolescence/early young adulthood (2004=Time 2; T2) and early/middle young adulthood (2009=Time 3; T3). Structural equation models were fit which included T1 depression scores predicting overweight status at T3, with T2 fruit and vegetable consumption, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and binge eating examined as mediators. There were small but significant effects of T1 depression scores predicting an increased likelihood of T3 overweight status (standardized estimate=0.038; P=0.007), and of T2 binge eating mediating the relation between T1 depression and T3 overweight status (standardized indirect effect estimate=0.036; P=0.009). Binge eating may be one pathway to overweight among depressed females, suggesting that recognition and treatment of eating pathology in individuals with depression may help prevent overweight. Examination of other behavioral (and non-behavioral) factors explaining the relationship between depression and overweight is warranted. PMID:25640769

  2. The young female athlete.

    PubMed

    Hurvitz, Michal; Weiss, Ram

    2009-12-01

    Participation of adolescents and young women in strenuous sports activity may lead to various metabolic and psychological derangements of clinical relevance to the endocrinologist. The most common manifestations encountered in practice are primary and secondary amenorrhea, reduced bone mineral density and eating disorders. The occurrence of all three together has been named "the athletic triad". The underlying hormonal drivers that lead to some of these manifestations are the reduced leptin level as well as the persistent low grade stress response commonly observed in such females. "Exercise-related female reproductive dysfunction" (ERFRD), can possibly include short-term (infertility) and long-term (osteoporosis) consequences. Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea, a manifestation of ERFRD in adolescence, is an integrated response to the combination of excessive physical and emotional stress, exercise, and/or reduced food intake characterized by decreased endogenous GNRH secretion. The primary aim of treating these athletes should be the prevention of the development of any component of the triad as well as the whole complex by educating athletes, trainers, parents and health care professionals about proper nutrition and safe training. The long term prognosis is good. However, significant long term morbidity may affect these young women later in life. PMID:20118893

  3. Factors affecting nutritional status in female adults in Dhaka slums, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Pryer, Jane A; Rogers, Stephen; Rahman, Ataur

    2003-01-01

    This study looks at women from the slums in Mohammadpur, Dhaka, Bangladesh, where 54 percent of women's BMI was less than 18.5. Fifty percent of the Dhaka slum population lived below the poverty line. Logistic regression showed that women with income above 1,500 taka per capita were 1.78 times more likely to have a higher BMI (odds ratio 1.7863; CI = 0.671-3.639). Women with their own savings were 1.89 times more likely to have higher BMI (odds ratio 1.879; CI = 0.01163-1.6431). Women were 4.5 times more likely to have a higher BMI when food expenditure per capita above 559 taka per month (odds ratio 4.55; CI = 1.0302-8.0799). Women were 1.82 times more likely to have higher BMI when there was a break even situation in financial status (odds ratio 1.8212; CI = -015709-3.6285). Female headed households were 3.3 times more likely to have a higher BMI compared to women living in male headed households (odds ratio 3.2966; CI = 0.33711-6.25620). Women who work 15-23 days per month were 2.3 times more likely to have a higher BMI (odds ratio 2.33; CI = 0.1133-4.5600). Women who are the budget manager are 1.12 times more likely to have a higher BMI (odds ratio 1.125; CI = 0.29296-2.0966). Where as a husband who beats his wife is 1.83 more likely to have a poorer BMI (odds ratio 1.8312; CI = -3.72596-0.17508). Women who have no marriage documents and women who take days off due to illness less than 11 days per month were more likely to have a poorer BMI (odds ratio 0.5567; CI = -0.049339-2.8379; odds ratio 0.7569; CI = 0.183167-2.0002). Women's nutritional status and well being can influence their ability to provide for themselves and their families and the demonstration of a relationship between measures of women's autonomy and control in the household and women's nutritional status is an important indication of the importance of these sociological constructs. Women's participation in work outside the home may be a factor increasing their autonomy. The identification of relationships between women's autonomy and control and their physical well being should provide further leverage for policy change that will enable women to escape some traditional roles and to contribute as more equal partners with men in the future of Bangladeshi society. PMID:16382815

  4. Feeding frequency, but not dietary water content, affects voluntary physical activity in young lean adult female cats.

    PubMed

    de Godoy, M R C; Ochi, K; de Oliveira Mateus, L F; de Justino, A C C; Swanson, K S

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether increased dietary water content and feeding frequency increased voluntary physical activity of young, lean adult female cats. A replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial treatment arrangement (feeding frequency and water content) was used. The 4 treatments consisted of 1 meal daily dry pet food without added water (1D; 12% moisture as is), 1 meal daily dry pet food with added water (1W; 70% total water content), 4 meals daily dry pet food without added water (4D; 12% moisture as is), and 4 meals daily dry pet food with added water (4W; 70% total water content). Eight healthy adult, lean, intact, young, female domestic shorthair cats were used in this experiment. Voluntary physical activity was evaluated using Actical activity monitors placed on collars and worn around the cats' necks for the last 7 d of each experimental period of 14 d. Food anticipatory activity (FAA) was calculated based on 2 h prior to feeding periods and expressed as a percentage of total daily voluntary physical activity. Increased feeding frequency (4 vs. 1 meal daily) resulted in greater average daily activity ( = 0.0147), activity during the light period ( = 0.0023), and light:dark activity ratio ( = 0.0002). In contrast, physical activity during the dark period was not altered by feeding frequency ( > 0.05). Cats fed 4 meals daily had increased afternoon FAA ( = 0.0029) compared with cats fed once daily. Dietary water content did not affect any measure of voluntary physical activity. Increased feeding frequency is an effective strategy to increase the voluntary physical activity of cats. Thus, it may assist in the prevention and management of obesity. PMID:26020354

  5. Dispersion of adult male Peromyscus leucopus in relation to female reproductive status Department of Zoology, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ont., Canada N6A 5B7

    E-print Network

    Xia, Xuhua

    Dispersion of adult male Peromyscus leucopus in relation to female reproductive status Department,X., and MILLAR,J. S. 1989. Dispersion of adult male Peromyscus leucopus in relation to female reproductive status. Can. J. Zool. 67: 1047- 1052. We studied dispersion of adult male Peromyscus leucopus in relation

  6. Evidence for intra-sexual selection in wild female baboons

    PubMed Central

    Cheney, Dorothy L.; Silk, Joan B.; Seyfarth, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Because female reproductive success in social mammals is determined largely by parental rather than mating effort, intra-sexual competition among females has typically been assumed to occur primarily over food. Recently, however, renewed attention has been paid to the importance of other sources of variation in female fitness, with a concomitant focus on a broader definition of intra-sexual selection that encompasses both competition for resources and competition for mates and social partners. We present behavioural and demographic data gathered over 15 years on a group of wild chacma baboons (Papio hamadryas ursinus) which show that females incur several costs when living in groups with many females and comparatively few males: increased intra-sexual aggression, less stable bonds with female partners, and increased mortality. Female-female aggression was higher in years when the adult sex ratio was more highly skewed toward females, with low-ranking female exhibiting particularly high rates of aggression toward other females. Females’ social bonds with other females also became less stable in years when the group contained many females. Finally, female mortality rates were highest in years when the group contained comparatively more females and fewer males. The negative correlation between the number of males and female mortality suggests that the increase in mortality was due to increased predation rather than food competition. Results indicate that intra-sexual competition for social partners, mates, paternal investment, and perhaps also male protection occurs even in species where females exhibit low reproductive skew. PMID:25558080

  7. Testosterone and estradiol differentially affect cell proliferation in the subventricular zone of young adult gonadectomized male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Farinetti, A; Tomasi, S; Foglio, B; Ferraris, A; Ponti, G; Gotti, S; Peretto, P; Panzica, G C

    2015-02-12

    Steroid hormones are important players to regulate adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, but their involvement in the regulation of the same phenomenon in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles is not completely understood. Here, in male rats, we tested the existence of activational effects of testosterone (T) on cell proliferation in the adult SVZ. To this aim, three groups of male rats: castrated, castrated and treated with T, and controls were treated with 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) and killed after 24h. The density of BrdU-labeled cells was significantly lower in castrated animals in comparison to the other two groups, thus supporting a direct correlation between SVZ proliferation and levels of circulating T. To clarify whether this effect is purely androgen-dependent, or mediated by the T metabolites, estradiol (E2) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT), we evaluated SVZ proliferation in castrated males treated with E2, DHT and E2+DHT, in comparison to T- and vehicle-treated animals, and sham-operated controls. The stereological analysis demonstrated that E2 and T, but not DHT, increase proliferation in the SVZ of adult male rats. Quantitative evaluation of cells expressing the endogenous marker of cell proliferation phosphorylated form of Histone H3 (PHH3), or the marker of highly dividing SVZ progenitors Mash1, indicated the effect of T/E2 is mostly restricted to SVZ proliferating progenitors. The same experimental protocol was repeated on ovariectomized female rats treated with E2 or T. In this case, no statistically significant difference was found among groups. Overall, our results clearly show that the gonadal hormones T and E2 represent important mediators of cell proliferation in the adult SVZ. Moreover, we show that such an effect is restricted to males, supporting adult neurogenesis in rats is a process differentially modulated in the two sexes. PMID:25481234

  8. Malignant Rhabdoid Tumor in a Pregnant Adult Female: Literature Review of Central Nervous System Rhabdoid Tumors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michelle L. Erickson; Randall Johnson; Serguei I. Bannykh; Alain de Lotbiniere; Jung H. Kim

    2005-01-01

    Summary Rhabdoid tumors of the central nervous system are uncommon, aggressive childhood malignancies. The 13 described adult cases comprise both primary CNS tumors and malignant transformation of previously existing gliomas, meningiomas, and astrocytomas. Central nervous system rhabdoid lesions of adults have been diagnosed as primary malignant rhabdoid tumors, atypical teratoid\\/rhabdoid tumors, and more recently, rhabdoid glioblastomas. We report a case

  9. Reversing song behavior phenotype: Testosterone driven induction of singing and measures of song quality in adult male and female canaries (Serinus canaria).

    PubMed

    Madison, Farrah N; Rouse, Melvin L; Balthazart, Jacques; Ball, Gregory F

    2015-05-01

    In songbirds, such as canaries (Serinus canaria), the song control circuit has been shown to undergo a remarkable change in morphology in response to exogenous testosterone (T). It is also well established that HVC, a telencephalic nucleus involved in song production, is significantly larger in males than in females. T regulates seasonal changes in HVC volume in males, and exposure to exogenous T in adult females increases HVC volume and singing activity such that their song becomes more male-like in frequency and structure. However, whether there are sex differences in the ability of T to modulate changes in the song system and song behavior has not been investigated in canaries. In this study, we compared the effects of increasing doses of T on singing and song control nuclei volumes in adult male and female American Singer canaries exposed to identical environmental conditions. Males were castrated and all birds were placed on short days (8L:16D) for 8weeks. Males and females were implanted either with a 2, 6 or 12mm long Silastic™ implant filled with crystalline T or an empty 12mm implant as control. Birds were then housed individually in sound-attenuated chambers. Brains were collected from six birds from each group after 1week or 3weeks of treatment. Testosterone was not equally effective in increasing singing activity in both males and females. Changes in song quality and occurrence rate took place after a shorter latency in males than in females; however, females did undergo marked changes in a number of measures of song behavior if given sufficient time. Males responded with an increase in HVC volume at all three doses. In females, T-induced changes in HVC volume only had limited amplitude and these volumes never reached male-typical levels, suggesting that there are sex differences in the neural substrate that responds to T. PMID:25260250

  10. Female obesity and infertility.

    PubMed

    Talmor, Alon; Dunphy, Bruce

    2015-05-01

    Infertility affects one in seven couples, and its rate is on the increase. Ovulatory defects and unexplained causes account for >50% of infertile aetiologies. It is postulated that a significant proportion of these cases are either directly or indirectly related to obesity. The prevalence of overweight and obese men and women has topped 50% in some developed countries. Obesity is on the increase worldwide; in turn, the consequences in terms of the associated morbidity and mortality have also been increasing. Obesity is associated with various reproductive sequelae including anovulation, subfertility and infertility, increased risk of miscarriage and poor neonatal and maternal pregnancy outcomes. Thus, the combination of infertility and obesity poses some very real challenges in terms of both the short- and long-term management of these patients. The mechanism with which obesity impacts female reproductive function is summarised in this review. PMID:25619586

  11. The sun, moon, wind, and biological imperative-shaping contrasting wintertime migration and foraging strategies of adult male and female northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus).

    PubMed

    Sterling, Jeremy T; Springer, Alan M; Iverson, Sara J; Johnson, Shawn P; Pelland, Noel A; Johnson, Devin S; Lea, Mary-Anne; Bond, Nicholas A

    2014-01-01

    Adult male and female northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) are sexually segregated in different regions of the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea during their winter migration. Explanations for this involve interplay between physiology, predator-prey dynamics, and ecosystem characteristics, however possible mechanisms lack empirical support. To investigate factors influencing the winter ecology of both sexes, we deployed five satellite-linked conductivity, temperature, and depth data loggers on adult males, and six satellite-linked depth data loggers and four satellite transmitters on adult females from St. Paul Island (Bering Sea, Alaska, USA) in October 2009. Males and females migrated to different regions of the North Pacific Ocean: males wintered in the Bering Sea and northern North Pacific Ocean, while females migrated to the Gulf of Alaska and California Current. Horizontal and vertical movement behaviors of both sexes were influenced by wind speed, season, light (sun and moon), and the ecosystem they occupied, although the expression of the behaviors differed between sexes. Male dive depths were aligned with the depth of the mixed layer during daylight periods and we suspect this was the case for females upon their arrival to the California Current. We suggest that females, because of their smaller size and physiological limitations, must avoid severe winters typical of the northern North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea and migrate long distances to areas of more benign environmental conditions and where prey is shallower and more accessible. In contrast, males can better tolerate often extreme winter ocean conditions and exploit prey at depth because of their greater size and physiological capabilities. We believe these contrasting winter behaviors 1) are a consequence of evolutionary selection for large size in males, important to the acquisition and defense of territories against rivals during the breeding season, and 2) ease environmental/physiological constraints imposed on smaller females. PMID:24722344

  12. The Sun, Moon, Wind, and Biological Imperative–Shaping Contrasting Wintertime Migration and Foraging Strategies of Adult Male and Female Northern Fur Seals (Callorhinus ursinus)

    PubMed Central

    Sterling, Jeremy T; Springer, Alan M.; Iverson, Sara J.; Johnson, Shawn P.; Pelland, Noel A.; Johnson, Devin S.; Lea, Mary-Anne; Bond, Nicholas A.

    2014-01-01

    Adult male and female northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) are sexually segregated in different regions of the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea during their winter migration. Explanations for this involve interplay between physiology, predator-prey dynamics, and ecosystem characteristics, however possible mechanisms lack empirical support. To investigate factors influencing the winter ecology of both sexes, we deployed five satellite-linked conductivity, temperature, and depth data loggers on adult males, and six satellite-linked depth data loggers and four satellite transmitters on adult females from St. Paul Island (Bering Sea, Alaska, USA) in October 2009. Males and females migrated to different regions of the North Pacific Ocean: males wintered in the Bering Sea and northern North Pacific Ocean, while females migrated to the Gulf of Alaska and California Current. Horizontal and vertical movement behaviors of both sexes were influenced by wind speed, season, light (sun and moon), and the ecosystem they occupied, although the expression of the behaviors differed between sexes. Male dive depths were aligned with the depth of the mixed layer during daylight periods and we suspect this was the case for females upon their arrival to the California Current. We suggest that females, because of their smaller size and physiological limitations, must avoid severe winters typical of the northern North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea and migrate long distances to areas of more benign environmental conditions and where prey is shallower and more accessible. In contrast, males can better tolerate often extreme winter ocean conditions and exploit prey at depth because of their greater size and physiological capabilities. We believe these contrasting winter behaviors 1) are a consequence of evolutionary selection for large size in males, important to the acquisition and defense of territories against rivals during the breeding season, and 2) ease environmental/physiological constraints imposed on smaller females. PMID:24722344

  13. Female Walrus Resting Beside a Yearling Walrus

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The coastal walrus haulouts that form during periods of sea ice scarcity in the Chukchi Sea are composed primarily of adult female walruses and young, as well as some adult male walruses.  (Photo taken during USGS research efforts permitted under US Fish and Wildlife Service Permit No. MA80165...

  14. FASH and MASH: female and male adult human phantoms based on polygon mesh surfaces: II. Dosimetric calculations.

    PubMed

    Kramer, R; Cassola, V F; Khoury, H J; Vieira, J W; Lima, V J de Melo; Brown, K Robson

    2010-01-01

    Female and male adult human phantoms, called FASH (Female Adult meSH) and MASH (Male Adult meSH), have been developed in the first part of this study using 3D animation software and anatomical atlases to replace the image-based FAX06 and the MAX06 voxel phantoms. 3D modelling methods allow for phantom development independent from medical images of patients, volunteers or cadavers. The second part of this study investigates the dosimetric implications for organ and tissue equivalent doses due to the anatomical differences between the new and the old phantoms. These differences are mainly caused by the supine position of human bodies during scanning in order to acquire digital images for voxel phantom development. Compared to an upright standing person, in image-based voxel phantoms organs are often coronally shifted towards the head and sometimes the sagittal diameter of the trunk is reduced by a gravitational change of the fat distribution. In addition, volumes of adipose and muscle tissue shielding internal organs are sometimes too small, because adaptation of organ volumes to ICRP-based organ masses often occurs at the expense of general soft tissues, such as adipose, muscle or unspecified soft tissue. These effects have dosimetric consequences, especially for partial body exposure, such as in x-ray diagnosis, but also for whole body external exposure and for internal exposure. Using the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code, internal and external exposure to photons and electrons has been simulated with both pairs of phantoms. The results show differences between organ and tissue equivalent doses for the upright standing FASH/MASH and the image-based supine FAX06/MAX06 phantoms of up to 80% for external exposure and up to 100% for internal exposure. Similar differences were found for external exposure between FASH/MASH and REGINA/REX, the reference voxel phantoms of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Comparison of effective doses for external photon exposure showed good agreement between FASH/MASH and REGINA/REX, but large differences between FASH/MASH and the mesh-based RPI_AM and the RPI_AF phantoms, developed at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI). PMID:20009181

  15. Characteristics of adult male and female firearm suicide decedents: findings from the National Violent Death Reporting System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M S Kaplan; B H McFarland; N Huguet

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To examine the risk factors and precipitating circumstances associated with firearm suicide.Methods:Data from the restricted National Violent Death Reporting System (2003–6) for 25 491 male and female suicide decedents aged 18 and older were analysed by multiple logistic regression to estimate the relative odds of firearm use with 95% CIs.Results:Firearms were often used in male (58.1%) and female (31.2%) suicides.

  16. Effect of leaded glasses and thyroid shielding on cone beam CT radiation dose in an adult female phantom

    PubMed Central

    Goren, AD; Prins, RD; Dauer, LT; Quinn, B; Al-Najjar, A; Faber, RD; Patchell, G; Branets, I; Colosi, DC

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This study aims to demonstrate the effectiveness of leaded glasses in reducing the lens of eye dose and of lead thyroid collars in reducing the dose to the thyroid gland of an adult female from dental cone beam CT (CBCT). The effect of collimation on the radiation dose in head organs is also examined. Methods: Dose measurements were conducted by placing optically stimulated luminescent dosemeters in an anthropomorphic female phantom. Eye lens dose was measured by placing a dosemeter on the anterior surface of the phantom eye location. All exposures were performed on one commercially available dental CBCT machine, using selected collimation and exposure techniques. Each scan technique was performed without any lead shielding and then repeated with lead shielding in place. To calculate the percent reduction from lead shielding, the dose measured with lead shielding was divided by the dose measured without lead shielding. The percent reduction from collimation was calculated by comparing the dose measured with collimation to the dose measured without collimation. Results: The dose to the internal eye for one of the scans without leaded glasses or thyroid shield was 0.450?cGy and with glasses and thyroid shield was 0.116?cGy (a 74% reduction). The reduction to the lens of the eye was from 0.396?cGy to 0.153?cGy (a 61% reduction). Without glasses or thyroid shield, the thyroid dose was 0.158?cGy; and when both glasses and shield were used, the thyroid dose was reduced to 0.091?cGy (a 42% reduction). Conclusions: Collimation alone reduced the dose to the brain by up to 91%, with a similar reduction in other organs. Based on these data, leaded glasses, thyroid collars and collimation minimize the dose to organs outside the field of view. PMID:23412460

  17. Positive, but not negative feedback actions of estradiol in adult female mice require estrogen receptor ? in kisspeptin neurons.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Sharon L; Acosta-Martínez, Maricedes; DeJoseph, Mary R; Wolfe, Andrew; Radovick, Sally; Boehm, Ulrich; Urban, Janice H; Levine, Jon E

    2015-03-01

    Hypothalamic kisspeptin (Kiss1) neurons express estrogen receptor ? (ER?) and exert control over GnRH/LH secretion in female rodents. It has been proposed that estradiol (E2) activation of ER? in kisspeptin neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) suppresses GnRH/LH secretion (negative feedback), whereas E2 activation of ER? in kisspeptin neurons in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) mediates the release of preovulatory GnRH/LH surges (positive feedback). To test these hypotheses, we generated mice bearing kisspeptin cell-specific deletion of ER? (KER?KO) and treated them with E2 regimens that evoke either negative or positive feedback actions on GnRH/LH secretion. Using negative feedback regimens, as expected, E2 effectively suppressed LH levels in ovariectomized (OVX) wild-type (WT) mice to the levels seen in ovary-intact mice. Surprisingly, however, despite the fact that E2 regulation of Kiss1 mRNA expression was abrogated in both the ARC and AVPV of KER?KO mice, E2 also effectively decreased LH levels in OVX KER?KO mice to the levels seen in ovary-intact mice. Conversely, using a positive feedback regimen, E2 stimulated LH surges in WT mice, but had no effect in KER?KO mice. These experiments clearly demonstrate that ER? in kisspeptin neurons is required for the positive, but not negative feedback actions of E2 on GnRH/LH secretion in adult female mice. It remains to be determined whether the failure of KER?KO mice to exhibit GnRH/LH surges reflects the role of ER? in the development of kisspeptin neurons, in the active signaling processes leading to the release of GnRH/LH surges, or both. PMID:25545386

  18. Female city officials in Texas

    E-print Network

    Polly, Jayne Doyle

    1972-01-01

    . And even when the facts give no support to this belief, they will persist in downgrading the competence--in particular, the intellectual and professional com- petence--of their fellow females. " ~St o~t 'n . The prejudice against women is supported... intelligence. Minorit rou status. Because females are victims of prejudice and stereotyping, Helen Hacker suggested that the consideration of females as a "minority group" might be fruitful. Accepting Louis ll Wirth's definition of a minority group...

  19. An Effective Strategy to Design Mediated Instruction for Female Adults--Compositional Syntactic Placement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Russ A.

    This research was conducted to examine the theoretical basis and findings of an experiment on televised adult instruction. The media coding system element, compositional syntactic placement, was investigated for potential aptitude-treatment interactions on a simple concept learning task. Compositional syntactic placement may be conceptualized as…

  20. STRUCTURE AND DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGES IN THE TERGEL GLANDS OF ADULT FEMALES OF COPTOTERMES FORMOSANUS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Formosan subterranean termite Coptotermes formosanus is a major urban pest attacking wooden structures and live trees in several southern states and Hawaii. Each mature colony can have several million individuals. Every year from April-June, these colonies produce swarms of winged adults. Aft...

  1. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LUNG FUNCTION AND PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS IN YOUNG ADULT BLACK AND WHITE MALES AND FEMALES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The relationships of lung function to physical characteristics in young adults have not been adequately described for different gender-race groups in the United States. s part of a study of the effects of ozone exposure upon Black and White men and women, we measured lung volumes...

  2. Resiliency Determinants and Resiliency Processes among Female Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogar, Christine B.; Hulse-Killacky, Diana

    2006-01-01

    This phenomenological, qualitative study examined resiliency determinants and resiliency formation among 10 women who had been sexually abused as children. An examination of the determinants and processes that facilitated resiliency in participants' adult lives revealed 5 determinant clusters (interpersonally skilled, competent, high self-regard,…

  3. Dermatoglyphics in 46, XY females.

    PubMed

    Bosco, J I; Rajangam, S; Shankar, J; Thomas, I M

    2001-08-01

    Dermatoglyphics is known to be one of the best available diagnostic tools in genetic disorders. This paper aims to find out the diagnostic characteristic dermatoglyphic features in cytogenetically confirmed 46, XY female patients. The total number of patients studied (46, XY females) were 31 and the control consisted of 30 males and 30 females. Dermatoglyphic features, studied and tabulated, were: (a) Finger pattern frequency, (b) total finger ridge count (TFRC), absolute finger ridge count (AFRC), a-b ridge count, 'atd' angle and (c) palmar patterns eg, simian crease, Sydney line, hypothenar pattern, interdigital patterns. Results confirmed significant differences between the 46, XY females and the control groups: (i) 46, XY females had increased ulnar loops but decreased whorls as compared to control males (overall finger pattern frequency). (ii) The right thumb in 46, XY females had less whorls and more ulnar loops than both male and female control groups (individual finger pattern frequency). (iii) 46, XY females had lowered TFRC, AFRC, a-b ridge count than corresponding control groups (both control males and females). Significant differences were not observed for the 'atd' angle, interdigital patterns, hypothenar pattern, simian crease and Sydney line. PMID:11881854

  4. Assessing the Long-Term Effects of EMDR: Results from an 18-Month Follow-Up Study with Adult Female Survivors of CSA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmond, Tonya; Rubin, Allen

    2004-01-01

    This 18-month follow-up study builds on the findings of a randomized experimental evaluation that found qualified support for the short-term effectiveness of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) in reducing trauma symptoms among adult female survivors of childhood sexual abuse (CSA). The current study provides preliminary evidence…

  5. A Look at the Use of Electronic Mail (e-mail) as a Learning Tool in the Writing Skills of Adult LEP Female Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosz-Gluckman, Viviana

    This study examined the utility of electronic mail (e-mail) as an instructional tool for limited-English-proficient (LEP) adult females who have made little progress in learning writing in English as a Second Language (ESL). Six subjects, aged 30-50 years, enrolled in a university ESL program produced 25 e-mail exchanges with the research over a…

  6. EFFECTS OF THE HERBICIDE 2,4-DICHLOROPHENYL(RHO)-NITROPHENYL ETHER (NIT) ON SERUM THYROID HORMONES IN ADULT FEMALE MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The administration of the herbicide 2,4-Dichlorophenyl-p-nitrophenyl ether (nitrofen; NIT) to adult female mice by i.p. injection at doses of 500 and 1000 mg/kg/day for 3 days, reduced serum thyroxine (T4) levels. T4 levels were reduced in the high-dosage group by 60% of the cont...

  7. The Efficacy and Tolerability of a Fixed Combination Clindamycin (1.2%) and Benzoyl Peroxide (3.75%) Aqueous Gel in Adult Female Patients with Facial Acne Vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the efficacy and tolerability of clindamycin phosphate 1.2%/benzoyl peroxide 3.75% gel or vehicle monotherapy in adult female acne patients. Methods: A post hoc analysis in 72 adult female patients (aged ?25 years) with moderate-to-severe acne receiving clindamycin phosphate 1.2%/benzoyl peroxide 3.75% gel or vehicle for 12 weeks. Results: The efficacy of clindamycin phosphate 1.2%/benzoyl peroxide 3.75% gel was significantly greater than vehicle. The mean percent change from baseline in inflammatory and noninflammatory lesion counts and the percentage of patients who achieved a 2-grade reduction in the Evaluator’s Global Severity Score was 68.7%, 60.4, and 52.7 percent, respectively (P=0.019, 0.020 and 0.074 versus vehicle). In addition, 44 percent of patients reported their acne to be “clear” or “almost clear” at Week 12 (P=0.026 versus vehicle). No substantive differences were seen in cutaneous tolerability among treatment groups, and no patients discontinued treatment because of adverse events. Limitations: It is not possible to determine the contributions of the individual active ingredients, and this study was not set up specifically to investigate the treatment of adult female acne. Conclusion: Clindamycin phosphate 1.2%/benzoyl peroxide 3.75% gel provides statistically significant greater efficacy than vehicle in treating acne in adult female patients and has a favorable safety and tolerability profile.

  8. Women Reading for Education, Affinity & Development (WREAD): An Evaluation of a Semistructured Reading Discussion Group for African American Female Adult-Literacy Students with Histories of Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jayatta D.

    2012-01-01

    Women Reading for Education, Affinity & Development (WREAD), a reading discussion group geared toward African American female adult-literacy students with self-defined histories of trauma, was an outgrowth of research identifying links between trauma, women's struggles with literacy, and the need to be conscious of emotional health…

  9. Are there reasons why adult asthma is more common in females?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbro N. Melgert; Anuradha Ray; Machteld N. Hylkema; Wim Timens; Dirkje S. Postma

    2007-01-01

    Many epidemiological studies suggest that women are at increased risk of developing adult-onset asthma and also suffer from\\u000a more severe disease than men. These gender differences appear to be the product of biological sex differences as well as sociocultural\\u000a and environmental differences. The biological sex differences include genetic, pulmonary, and immunological factors. There\\u000a is compelling evidence that sex hormones are

  10. Violence risk appraisal of male and female youth, adults, and individuals.

    PubMed

    Zagar, Robert John; Grove, William M

    2010-12-01

    Data from youth (n = 1,127), adults (n = 1,595), and individuals (N = 2,722, combined youth and adults) were followed 3 to 12 years in records to develop items to predict abuse, violence, and homicide in these 3 relevant groups for risk appraisal or safety scales. Shao's bootstrapped logistic regression yielded 14 predictors for youth (AUC = .91), 11 for adults (AUC = .99), and 13 for individuals (AUC = .96). Three regression equations were cross-validated with in-bag and out-of-bag techniques. Pearson coefficients were computed with intelligence, achievement, adaptive behavior, and perception tests. Test-retest reliability was acceptable. Using case-control quasi-experimental design, this study extends probation-parole decision-making tests to infants and children as young as 3 years, with convergent and divergent validity and reliability with other tests. Sensitivity and specificity were high and minimized over- or under-identification challenges in identifying potentially violent persons in the general population. PMID:21323157

  11. Oral p-tert-octylphenol exposures induce minimal toxic or estrogenic effects in adult female Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Sahambi, Sukhdeep K; Pelland, Amelie; Cooke, Gerard M; Schrader, Timothy; Tardif, Robert; Charbonneau, Michel; Krishnan, Kannan; Haddad, Sami; Cyr, Daniel G; Devine, Patrick J

    2010-01-01

    Contamination of the environment with endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC) has raised concerns about potential health hazards for humans and wildlife. Human and wildlife exposure to one such ubiquitous chemical, p-tert-octylphenol (OP), are likely, due to its persistence in the environment and its presence in food, water, and items of daily use. OP is reported to bind to the estrogen receptor (ER) and alter expression of estrogen-responsive genes. Detrimental effects of OP exposures on the reproductive system have been observed in most, but not all, in vivo experiments. This study examined estrogenic effects of oral exposures of adult female rats to OP. In vitro, OP bound weakly to human ER and a co-activator protein, and accelerated proliferation of MCF-7 cells. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were given OP by gavage daily for 35 d (25, 50, or 125 mg/kg/d). Body and organ weights and ovarian follicle populations were not significantly altered in OP-exposed adult rats, despite detectable levels of OP in reproductive organs. The estrous cycle of rats was slightly altered, but there were no significant estrogen-like changes in histomorphology or gene expression of the uterus. Prepubertal rats given 125 or 250 mg/kg OP by gavage for 3 d had reduced body weight compared to vehicle-exposed rats but failed to show any uterotrophic response, although 17alpha-ethinyl estradiol (EE, 10 microg/kg/d, ip) induced a threefold increase in uterine weight. Overall, results suggest that toxicity will occur before estrogenic effects with oral exposures to OP. Relevant environmental exposures likely pose little risk for estrogenic effects. PMID:20391140

  12. Female sexual arousal in amphibians.

    PubMed

    Wilczynski, Walter; Lynch, Kathleen S

    2011-05-01

    Rather than being a static, species specific trait, reproductive behavior in female amphibians is variable within an individual during the breeding season when females are capable of reproductive activity. Changes in receptivity coincide with changes in circulating estrogen. Estrogen is highest at the point when females are ready to choose a male and lay eggs. At this time female receptivity (her probability of responding to a male vocal signal) is highest and her selectivity among conspecific calls (measured by her probability of responding to a degraded or otherwise usually unattractive male signal) is lowest. These changes occur even though females retain the ability to discriminate different acoustic characteristics of various conspecific calls. After releasing her eggs, female amphibians quickly become less receptive and more choosy in terms of their responses to male sexual advertisement signals. Male vocal signals stimulate both behavior and estrogen changes in amphibian females making mating more probable. The changes in female reproductive behavior are the same as those generally accepted as indicative of a change in female sexual arousal leading to copulation. They are situationally triggered, gated by interactions with males, and decline with the consummation of sexual reproduction with a chosen male. The changes can be triggered by either internal physiological state or by the presence of stimuli presented by males, and the same stimuli change both behavior and physiological (endocrine) state in such a way as to make acceptance of a male more likely. Thus amphibian females demonstrate many of the same general characteristics of changing female sexual state that in mammals indicate sexual arousal. PMID:20816968

  13. An evolutionary perspective on adult female germline stem cell function from flies to humans.

    PubMed

    Woods, Dori C; Tilly, Jonathan L

    2013-01-01

    The concept that oogenesis continues into reproductive life has been well established in nonmammalian species. Recent studies of mice and women indicate that oocyte formation is also not, as traditionally believed, restricted to the fetal or perinatal periods. Analogous to de novo oocyte formation in flies and fish, newly formed oocytes in adult mammalian ovaries arise from germline stem cells (GSCs) or, more specifically, oogonial stem cells (OSCs). Studies of mice have confirmed that isolated OSCs, once delivered back into adult ovaries, are capable of generating fully functional eggs that fertilize to produce healthy embryos and offspring. Parallel studies of OSCs recently purified from ovaries of reproductive-age women indicate that these cells closely resemble their mouse ovary-derived counterparts, although the fertilization competency of oocytes generated by human OSCs awaits clarification. Despite the ability of OSCs to produce new oocytes during adulthood, oogenesis will still ultimately cease with age, contributing to ovarian failure. The causal mechanisms behind these events in mammals are unknown, but studies of flies have revealed that GSC niche dysfunction plays a critical role in age-related oogenic failure. Such insights derived from evaluation of nonmammalian species, in which postnatal oogenesis has been studied in depth, may aid in development of new strategies to alleviate ovarian failure and infertility in mammals. PMID:23329633

  14. Male Threat from Female Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pleck, Joseph H.

    1976-01-01

    Male threat from female competence (MTFC), a hypothesized personality disposition in males who experience competence in females as psychologically threatening, is assessed via a sentence-completion measure and validated in an experimental study of 91 ongoing college dating couples. Results are discussed. (Author)

  15. Should females prefer dominant males?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Qvarnström; Elisabet Forsgren

    1998-01-01

    It is generally believed that success in male–male competition genuinely reflects high quality and that female preference for dominant males should therefore be widespread. However, recent studies suggest that male dominance is not always attractive and that it does not necessarily predict superior parental quality, better genes or other forms of benefit to females. In fact, the costs of choosing

  16. Psychopathology in Female Juvenile Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Angela; Howie, Pauline; Starling, Jean

    2004-01-01

    Background: The aim was to document the spectrum of present and lifetime psychological disorders in female juvenile offenders, and to examine the relations between mental health status and socio-demographic, family and trauma variables. Method: One hundred juvenile offenders were matched with a comparison group of 100 females on age and…

  17. Female Physicians and Substance Abuse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark P. McGovern; Daniel H. Angres; Nina D. Uziel-Miller; Scott Leon

    1998-01-01

    As with women in general, the vicissitudes of the female physician who suffers from a substance use disorder have been understudied, and such persons remain underrepresented in treatment. The purpose of the present study is to describe the similarities and differences between female and male physicians presenting for assessment; 108 physicians in total were included in the study, 10 of

  18. Sneaking from a female perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Reichard; Steven C. Le Comber; Carl Smith

    2007-01-01

    Alternative male mating tactics in species with external fertilization are often viewed as coercive matings by low-quality males, when a male, unable to attract a female himself, steals fertilizations from a spawning pair by adopting 'sneaky' mating tactics, thereby eroding the interests of both the pair-mating male and female. Although a cost of sneaking to guarder males is inevitable, we

  19. Desire and the female analyst.

    PubMed

    Schaverien, J

    1996-04-01

    The literature on erotic transference and countertransference between female analyst and male patient is reviewed and discussed. It is known that female analysts are less likely than their male colleagues to act out sexually with their patients. It has been claimed that a) male patients do not experience sustained erotic transferences, and b) female analysts do not experience erotic countertransferences with female or male patients. These views are challenged and it is argued that, if there is less sexual acting out by female analysts, it is not because of an absence of eros in the therapeutic relationship. The literature review covers material drawn from psychoanalysis, feminist psychotherapy, Jungian analysis, as well as some sociological and cultural sources. It is organized under the following headings: the gender of the analyst, sexual acting out, erotic transference, maternal and paternal transference, gender and power, countertransference, incest taboo--mothers and sons and sexual themes in the transference. PMID:8666556

  20. The impact of baby schema on perceived attractiveness, beauty, and cuteness in female adults.

    PubMed

    Kuraguchi, Kana; Taniguchi, Kosuke; Ashida, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Beauty and cuteness are considered to represent different aspects of attractiveness and to be distinguishable from each other by their respective reliance on neonate and sexually mature features found in attractive faces. In this study, we investigated whether baby schema features in adult faces affect not only cuteness, but also beauty and attractiveness. We also investigated possible differences among attractiveness, beauty, and cuteness, and possible effects of perceived youth on these judgments. Results showed that baby schema features affected judgments of attractiveness, beauty, and cuteness, but that perceived youth did not significantly influence these judgments. Furthermore, the effect of each facial feature differed across rating types with the participants' naïve interpretation of rating categories. This suggests that beauty predominantly refers to sexual attraction, while attractiveness refers to a non-sexual attraction regardless of participants' gender. However, gender differences may exist in judging cuteness. Therefore, expressions related to attractiveness may incorporate different elements and this distinction may not be fully shared across gender. PMID:25883888

  1. Female sexual dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Freedman, Murray A

    2002-01-01

    Happiness is an attitude, not an event! The glass is either half-full or half-empty; it simply depends on the viewer. Some rich people are miserable...some poor people are ecstatic. You cannot change the world but you can change yourself. You, and you alone, control your destiny. With very little practice, you can learn to think positively. Postmenopausal estrogen deficiency leads to urogenital atrophy. Sexual dysfunction and urinary dysfunction are the most inevitable but least publicized consequences of estrogen deficiency, and these represent important quality-of-life issues that patients and health care providers are often reluctant to discuss. In addition to estrogen deficiency, oophorectomized women may be subject to androgen deficiency and problems with libido. While the relationship with one's partner is the quintessential factor in female sexuality, hormone deficiency remains important, especially in reference to genital atrophy. Humans are the products of learned behavior. We literally become what we think. "I am sick and tired" becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy. Self-esteem represents learned behavior just as ego does...but there is a world of difference between the two. Sexuality is enhanced by good self-esteem and hindered by ego: two partners working together can reach far greater heights than either alone ever imagined...one and one can equal three! There are good data to substantiate that happy people have more sex and that people who have more sex are happier. Partners need to learn to honor one another, communicate in a positive manner, develop touching salutations, be a spouse at home, and make their bedroom a sacred sanctuary. With a little behavior modification and hormone therapy, sexuality can remain a priority ad infinitum. PMID:11900270

  2. Sexual maturation of female Saguinus oedipus oedipus

    SciTech Connect

    Tardif, S.D.

    1982-01-01

    This study is an examination of the process of female sexual maturation in the cotton-top tamarin, Saguinus oedipus oedipus, a South-American primate of the family, Callitrichidae. Two types of questions are addressed. The first question is whether the type of social grouping in which a young female lives affects the rate of her sexual maturation. Specifically, is there a difference between the maturation rate of a female housed with a strange adult male and a female housed with her natal group (i.e., her parents and various siblings). Second, the effect of sexual maturation on various social interactions is examined. Specifically are male-female interactions in mated pairs and mother-daughter interactions in natal groups changed by the sexual maturation of the young females. The mother's presence was not related to the daughter's maturation age. However, whether the natal group, as a whole, inhibited maturation, or unrelated males accelerated maturation, or both, remains unknown. Most of the behavioral interactions involving maturing females were unchanged by maturation. There was some indication that certain behaviors were affected by maturation, but only if a strange unrelated male was present.

  3. Effects of chronic exercise and treatment with the antipsychotic drug olanzapine on hippocampal volume in adult female rats.

    PubMed

    Barr, A M; Wu, C H; Wong, C; Hercher, C; Töpfer, E; Boyda, H N; Procyshyn, R M; Honer, W G; Beasley, C L

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported that the hippocampus in schizophrenia patients is reduced in volume compared to the normal population. Antipsychotic medications have had mixed benefits in maintaining hippocampal volume or reversing volume loss. Recent evidence indicates that routine aerobic exercise represents a promising intervention for reversing hippocampal loss and cognitive deficits. In the present study, we measured the effects of chronic treatment with olanzapine and daily exercise on the hippocampal volumes of rats. Adult female rats were treated during the week with either olanzapine (10mg/kg) or vehicle for 9 consecutive weeks. Subgroups of animals were provided access to exercise running wheels for 1 or 3h per day during the same period, or were sedentary. Metabolic indices, including glucose tolerance, were measured on a weekly basis. At the conclusion of the study, brains were perfused and hippocampal sections were Nissl stained. Total hippocampal volume was measured using the Cavalieri estimator. Treatment with olanzapine caused a significant decrease in hippocampal volume in sedentary rats. However, exercise was able to reverse most of this volume loss. The hippocampal sub-regions of the dentate gyrus and CA1 were most strongly affected by olanzapine and exercise. Of interest, there was a strong and highly significant negative correlation between glucose intolerance and hippocampal volume, whereby greater glucose intolerance was associated with a smaller hippocampal volume. These findings indicate that exercise may have beneficial effects on the hippocampus when antipsychotic medication can contribute to changes in volume. PMID:24141179

  4. [Benign neoplasms of female urethra].

    PubMed

    Usunova, I; Vladimirov, V

    2009-01-01

    In clinical practice neoplasms of female urethra are found usually in adult women. They can also be found in adolescent girls and as rare congenital abnormality. Those conditions are most frequently detected during gynecological or urological examination. Symptoms are few. Lesions are situated at the outer orifice of urethra at the broad basis. Authors have diagnosed and treated 331 patients between 26 and 87 years. Electro coagulation has been performed in 185 patients. Surgical excision has been performed in 41 patients. Excision with following electrocoagulation has been performed in 18 patients. Conservative treatment has been performed in 87 patients. Histological sample analysis has provided diagnosis of urethral polyp, caruncle and mucosal prolaps. Second electrocoagulation after surgical excision has been performed in 5 patients. Collaboration between urologists and gynecologists is essential for early diagnosis, prophylaxis and successful treatment of above mentioned diseases. PMID:19496462

  5. Stress hormone masculinizes female morphology and behaviour.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Rosemary; Marsh-Matthews, Edie; Vo, Luanne; Rosencrans, Sarah

    2011-02-23

    Sex steroids play major roles in vertebrate sexual differentiation. Unexpectedly, we now find that exposure to elevated levels of the naturally occurring stress hormone cortisol can also masculinize sexually dimorphic morphological characters and behaviour in adult female mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) in a dose-dependent manner. Females masculinized by cortisol developed elongated anal fins with distal tip features similar to those of mature males. Most masculinized females also attempted to copulate when placed with normal females. Although the mechanism of masculinization is currently unknown, we propose a role for an enzyme that both inactivates cortisol and catalyzes the final step in synthesis of a major teleost androgen. This mechanism may also help explain some previously reported effects of stress on sexual development across vertebrate taxa. Our findings underscore the need to understand the full range of chemicals, both naturally occurring hormones and human-produced endocrine disruptors, that can influence sexual differentiation and reproductive function. PMID:20659923

  6. Early postnatal effects of noopept and piracetam on declarative and procedural memory of adult male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Trofimov, S S; Voronina, T A; Guzevatykh, L S

    2005-06-01

    We studied the effect of a new nootropic dipeptide Noopept and reference nootropic preparation piracetam injected subcutaneously on days 8-20 of life on learning of alternative feeding response in a 6-arm-maze in male and female rats. Early postnatal administration of Noopept disturbed the dynamics of learning by parameters of declarative and procedural memory. Piracetam impaired learning by parameters of procedural, but not declarative memory (only in males). Both preparations decreased the ratio of successfully learned males (but not females). The observed effects were not associated with changes in locomotor activity. PMID:16224581

  7. Exposure to ethinylestradiol during prenatal development and postnatal supplementation with testosterone causes morphophysiological alterations in the prostate of male and female adult gerbils.

    PubMed

    Perez, Ana Paula Silva; Biancardi, Manoel Francisco; Góes, Rejane Maira; dos Santos, Fernanda Alcântara; Taboga, Sebastião Roberto

    2011-04-01

    Steroids perform significant functions in prostatic development and growth, so that interferences of this equilibrium may predispose the gland to the development of diseases during the life. Embryonic and neonatal exposure to xenoestrogens, many of them with endocrine-disrupting potential, has been related to the induction of disturbances in reproductive system organs. Thus, this study aimed to analyse morphological and immunocytochemical aspects of prostate in both male and female adult gerbils either exposed to ethinylestradiol during the prenatal phase (pregnant females received 10 ?g/kg, by gavage) (EE group) or exposed to testosterone (1 mg/kg) during the postnatal period (EE/T group). Serological analysis revealed a rise in estradiol levels in adult males and females of the EE group. A higher incidence of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) was observed in the male and female prostate of the treated groups, besides an increase in collagen and reticular fibres. Immunocytochemistry showed an increase in prostatic epithelial cells immunoreactive to AR and a presence of a smooth muscle layer, evidenced by ? actin, in injured regions this way absent in prostatic epithelial buds. These pieces of evidence suggest that the alterations verified in the prostate in adulthood of both sexes may be due to the high oestrogen levels. Either males or females of the EE/T group showed normalized estradiol levels, although prostatic lesions could be observed. While the prostatic gland of male gerbils was more affected than the female prostate, this study showed that the exposure to EE during this critical period of development disrupts the prostate of both sexes in terms of prostatic lesions. PMID:21314741

  8. Increased myogenic tone in 7-month-old adult male but not female offspring from rat dams exposed to hypoxia during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Hemmings, D G; Williams, S J; Davidge, S T

    2005-08-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) increases the risk of cardiovascular disease later in life. Vascular dysfunction occurs in adult offspring from animal models of IUGR including maternal undernutrition, but the influence of reduced fetal oxygen supply on adult vascular function is unclear. Myogenic responses, essential for vascular tone regulation, have not been evaluated in these offspring. We hypothesized that 7-mo-old offspring from hypoxic (12% O(2); H) or nutrient-restricted (40% of control; NR) rat dams would show greater myogenic responses than their 4-mo-old littermates or control (C) offspring through impaired modulation by vasodilators. Growth restriction occurred in male H (P < 0.01), male NR (P < 0.01), and female NR (P < 0.02), but not female H, offspring. Myogenic responses in mesenteric arteries from males but not females were increased at 7 mo in H (P < 0.01) and NR (P < 0.05) vs. C offspring. There was less modulation of myogenic responses after inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (P < 0.05), prostaglandin H synthase (P < 0.005), or both enzymes (P < 0.001) in arteries from 7-mo male H vs. C offspring. Thus reduced vasodilator modulation may explain elevated myogenic responses in 7-mo male H offspring. In contrast, there was increased modulation of myogenic responses in arteries from 7-mo female H vs. C or NR offspring after inhibition of both enzymes (P < 0.05). Thus increased vasodilator modulation may maintain myogenic responses in female H offspring at control levels. In summary, vascular responses in adult offspring from adverse intrauterine environments are impaired in a gender-specific, age-dependent, and maternal insult-dependent manner, with males more profoundly affected. PMID:15833805

  9. Purkinje cell number decreases in the adult female rat cerebellum following exposure to 900 MHz electromagnetic field

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Osman Fikret Sonmez; Ersan Odaci; Orhan Bas; Süleyman Kaplan

    2010-01-01

    The biological effects of electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure from mobile phones have growing concern among scientists since there are some reports showing increased risk for human health, especially in the use of mobile phones for a long duration. In the presented study, the effects on the number of Purkinje cells in the cerebellum of 16-week (16weeks) old female rats were

  10. 900 MHz electromagnetic field exposure affects qualitative and quantitative features of hippocampal pyramidal cells in the adult female rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Orhan Bas; Ersan Odaci; Suleyman Kaplan; Niyazi Acer; Kagan Ucok; Serdar Colakoglu

    2009-01-01

    The effects of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) emitted by mobile phones on humans hold special interest due to their use in close proximity to the brain. The current study investigated the number of pyramidal cells in the cornu ammonis (CA) of the 16-week-old female rat hippocampus following postnatal exposure to a 900 megahertz (MHz) EMF. In this study were three groups of

  11. The relationship between exposure to alcohol-related content on Facebook and predictors of alcohol consumption among female emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Miller, Joseph; Prichard, Ivanka; Hutchinson, Amanda; Wilson, Carlene

    2014-12-01

    Consuming an unhealthy level of alcohol is a significant problem for some young women. Potential determinants of excess consumption include perceptions of usual consumption among peers-perceptions of what is "normal." The present study examined whether perceptions of social normative endorsement of drinking, operationalized by measures of perceived alcohol consumption of close friends (proximal norms), the consumption of the "average student" (distal norms), and the extent of alcohol-related content posted by peers on Facebook were related to alcohol-related attitudes and self-reported consumption. Female university students (n=129; Mage=21.48 years, SD=3.00) completed an online questionnaire assessing Facebook use, perceived alcohol-related norms, and self-reported alcohol attitudes and consumption. Perceptions of the consumption of the average female student were a negative predictor of attitudes. Positive alcohol attitudes, extent of own alcohol-related photographic posts on Facebook, average female student alcohol consumption, and report of male close friend consumption predicted self-report of own alcohol consumption. Interestingly, female close friend norms failed to predict consumption, whereas male close friend norms predicted consumption but not attitudes, suggesting the possibility of separate cognitive pathways for alcohol-related attitudes and behavior. This study builds on existing research by casting new light on predictors of alcohol-related attitudes, as well as describing the potential role of social networking sites such as Facebook in the formation of social norms and the modulation of drinking behavior. PMID:25489875

  12. Developmental Typologies of Identity Formation and Adjustment in Female Emerging Adults: A Latent Class Growth Analysis Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luyckx, Koen; Schwartz, Seth J.; Goossens, Luc; Soenens, Bart; Beyers, Wim

    2008-01-01

    The developmental interplay between identity and adjustment was examined in a seven-wave longitudinal study of 428 European female college students (M[subscript age] = 18.8 years) over a period of 3 years, with semi-annual measurement waves each year. Latent Class Growth Analysis (LCGA) was used to identify developmental typologies of both…

  13. Measuring Rates of Sexual Development in Female

    E-print Network

    Galef Jr., Bennett G.

    , we have shown that age at vaginal introitus predicts adult patterns of reproductive, maternal the relationship in gerbils between age at vaginal patency and three other indices of rate of female sexual development: ovarian weight, occurrence of vaginal estrus, and onset of attractiveness to males. We found

  14. Angiogenesis in the female reproductive system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. REYNOLDS; S. DEREK; DALE A. REDMER

    In adult tissues, capillary growth (an- giogenesis) occurs normally during tissue repair, such as in healing of wounds and fractures. Rampant capillary growth is associated with various pathological conditions, including tumor growth, retinopathies, hemangiomas, fibroses and rheumatoid arthritis. The female reproduc- tive organs (i.e., ovary, uterus, and placenta) exhibit dynamic, periodic growth and regression accompanied by equally dramatic changes in

  15. Eating Disorders among Female Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borgen, Jorunn Sundgot; Corbin, Charles B.

    1987-01-01

    The paper describes a study of 168 college women to determine the extent to which preoccupation with weight and tendencies toward eating disorders are problems among female athletes. Results are presented. (Author/MT)

  16. Effects of neuron-specific estrogen receptor (ER) ? and ER? deletion on the acute estrogen negative feedback mechanism in adult female mice.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Rachel Y; Porteous, Robert; Chambon, Pierre; Abrahám, István; Herbison, Allan E

    2014-04-01

    The negative feedback mechanism through which 17?-estradiol (E2) acts to suppress the activity of the GnRH neurons remains unclear. Using inducible and cell-specific genetic mouse models, we examined the estrogen receptor (ER) isoforms expressed by neurons that mediate acute estrogen negative feedback. Adult female mutant mice in which ER? was deleted from all neurons in the neonatal period failed to exhibit estrous cycles or negative feedback. Adult mutant female mice with neonatal neuronal ER? deletion exhibited normal estrous cycles, but a failure of E2 to suppress LH secretion was seen in ovariectomized mice. Mutant mice with a GnRH neuron-selective deletion of ER? exhibited normal cycles and negative feedback, suggesting no critical role for ER? in GnRH neurons in acute negative feedback. To examine the adult roles of neurons expressing ER?, an inducible tamoxifen-based Cre-LoxP approach was used to ablate ER? from neurons that express calmodulin kinase II? in adults. This resulted in mice with no estrous cycles, a normal increase in LH after ovariectomy, but an inability of E2 to suppress LH secretion. Finally, acute administration of ER?- and ER?-selective agonists to adult ovariectomized wild-type mice revealed that activation of ER? suppressed LH secretion, whereas ER? agonists had no effect. This study highlights the differences in adult reproductive phenotypes that result from neonatal vs adult ablation of ER? in the brain. Together, these experiments expand previous global knockout studies by demonstrating that neurons expressing ER? are essential and probably sufficient for the acute estrogen negative feedback mechanism in female mice. PMID:24476134

  17. Social Representations of Female Orgasm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maya Lavie-Ajayi; Hélène Joffe

    2009-01-01

    This study examines women's social representations of female orgasm. Fifty semi-structured interviews were conducted with British women. The data were thematically analysed and compared with the content of female orgasm-related writing in two women's magazines over a 30-year period. The results indicate that orgasm is deemed the goal of sex with emphasis on its physiological dimension. However, the women and

  18. Female city officials in Texas 

    E-print Network

    Polly, Jayne Doyle

    1972-01-01

    council member. In order to determine whether Negroes, many of whom have matriarchal family structures, more readily accept females in a policymaking position than do whites, who have predominantly patriarchal family structures, a case study was made... whether Negroes, who have more mother-dominated families than other groups, voted in relatively greater numbers for the female candidate than did other groups who have more father-dominated families' A quantitative and analytical approach was used...

  19. Progress in Female Sexual Dysfunction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fatma Ferda Verit; Ercan Yeni; Hasan Kafali

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is a significant age-related, progressive and highly prevalent problem that affects a substantial number of women that causes personal distress and has negative effects on quality of life and interpersonal relationships. Definitions: The female sexual response cycle consists of three phases: desire, arousal, and orgasm, and is initiated by non-adrenergic\\/non-cholinergic, e.g. vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and

  20. [Comparative study of the long-term behavioral effects of noopept and piracetam in adult male rats and female rats in postnatal period].

    PubMed

    Voronina, T A; Guzevatykh, L S; Trofimov, S S

    2005-01-01

    Adult male and female rats were treated with the peptide nootrope drug noopept (daily dose, 0.1 mg/kg) and piracetam (200 mg/kg). In the period from 8th to 20th day, both drugs (cognitive enhancers) suppressed the horizontal and vertical activity and the anxiety in test animals as compared to the control group treated with 0.9 % aqueous NaCl solution. Early postnatal injections of the nootropes influenced neither the morphology development nor the behavior of adult female rats in the plus maze, extrapolational escape, passive avoidance, and pain sensitivity threshold tests. Animals in the "intact" group (having received neither drugs not physiological solution, that is, developing in a poor sensor environment), showed less pronounced habituation in the open field test as compared to the control and drug treated groups. PMID:15934357

  1. The relationship between empowerment support, motivation for self-care, mental health self-care, well-being, and incest trauma resolution in adult female survivors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joan C Urbancic

    1992-01-01

    This study advanced the scientific base of nursing knowledge by providing support for propositions in Orem's self-care deficit theory to explain incest trauma resolution and well-being in adult female incest survivors. Basic conditioning factors of incest trauma and empowerment support, and independent variables of motivation for self-care and mental health self-care accounted for a significant amount of variance in subjective

  2. Visceral Adipose Tissue and Metabolic Complications of Obesity Are Reduced in Prader-Willi Syndrome Female Adults: Evidence for Novel Influences on Body Fat Distribution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ANTHONY P. GOLDSTONE; E. LOUISE THOMAS; AUDREY E. BRYNES; JIMMY D. BELL; GARY FROST; NADEEM SAEED; JOSEPH V. HAJNAL; JANE K. HOWARD; ANTHONY HOLLAND; STEPHEN R. BLOOM

    Visceral obesity is detrimental to health, but the mechanisms controlling body fat distribution are not fully understood. In premenopausal adult females (30 nonobese, 14 obese (body mass index >30kg\\/m2)), variance in fasting insulin, glucose, insulin\\/ glucose ratio, C-peptide\\/insulin ratio, triglycerides, and high- density lipoprotein\\/low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol ratio, were independently influenced by visceral but not total sc or abdominal sc adipose tissue,

  3. Immune function is related to adult carotenoid and bile pigment levels, but not to dietary carotenoid access during development, in female mallard ducks.

    PubMed

    Butler, Michael W; McGraw, Kevin J

    2013-07-15

    Immune function can be modulated by multiple physiological factors, including nutrition and reproductive state. Because these factors can vary throughout an individual's lifetime as a result of environmental conditions (affecting nutrition) or life-history stage (e.g. entering the adult reproduction stage), we must carefully examine the degree to which developmental versus adult conditions shape performance of the immune system. We investigated how variation in dietary access to carotenoid pigments - a class of molecules with immunostimulatory properties that females deposit into egg yolks - during three different developmental time points affected adult immunological and reproductive traits in female mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos). In males and females of other avian species, carotenoid access during development affects carotenoid assimilation ability, adult sexual ornamentation and immune function, while carotenoid access during adulthood can increase immune response and reproductive investment (e.g. egg-laying capacity, biliverdin deposition in eggshells). We failed to detect effects of developmental carotenoid supplementation on adult immune function [phytohemagglutinin-induced cutaneous immune response, antibody production in response to the novel antigen keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), or oxidative burst, assessed by changes in circulating nitric oxide levels], carotenoid-pigmented beak coloration, ovarian development, circulating carotenoid levels or concentration of bile pigments in the gall bladder. However, we did uncover positive relationships between circulating carotenoid levels during adulthood and KLH-specific antibody production, and a negative relationship between biliverdin concentration in bile and KLH-specific antibody production. These results are consistent with the view that adult physiological parameters better predict current immune function than do developmental conditions, and highlight a possible, previously unstudied relationship between biliverdin and immune system performance. PMID:23531827

  4. Germline energetics, aging and female infertility

    PubMed Central

    Tilly, Jonathan L.; Sinclair, David A.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The role of metabolism in ovarian aging is poorly described, despite the fact that ovaries fail earlier than most other organs. Growing interest in ovarian function is being driven by recent evidence that mammalian females routinely generate new oocytes during adult life through the activity of germline stem cells. In this perspective, we overview the female reproductive system as a powerful and clinically relevant model to understand links between aging and metabolism, and we discuss new concepts for how oocytes and their precursor cells might be altered metabolically to sustain or increase ovarian function and fertility in women. PMID:23747243

  5. Large male advantage for access to females: evidence of male-male competition and female discrimination in a territorial salamander

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alicia Mathis

    1991-01-01

    In the natural habitat visited in this study, adult male red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) found near females were significantly larger than adult males found alone; there was no evidence for size assortative associations. Previous research has indicated that females associate preferentially with males that occupy high quality territories and that larger individuals are more successful at obtaining higher quality areas.

  6. Early Postnatal Effects of Noopept and Piracetam on Declarative and Procedural Memory of Adult Male and Female Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. S. Trofimov; T. A. Voronina; L. S. Guzevatykh

    2005-01-01

    We studied the effect of a new nootropic dipeptide Noopept and reference nootropic preparation piracetam injected subcutaneously on days 8–20 of life on learning of alternative feeding response in a 6-arm-maze in male and female rats. Early postnatal administration of Noopept disturbed the dynamics of learning by parameters of declarative and procedural memory. Piracetam impaired learning by parameters of procedural,

  7. Inactivation of the androgen receptor in bone-forming cells leads to trabecular bone loss in adult female mice

    PubMed Central

    Määttä, Jorma A; Büki, Kalman G; Ivaska, Kaisa K; Nieminen-Pihala, Vappu; Elo, Teresa D; Kähkönen, Tiina; Poutanen, Matti; Härkönen, Pirkko; Väänänen, Kalervo

    2013-01-01

    Removal of the androgen receptor (AR) from bone-forming cells has been shown to reduce trabecular bone volume in male mice. In female mice, the role of AR in the regulation of bone homeostasis has been poorly understood. We generated a mouse strain in which the AR is completely inactivated only in mineralizing osteoblasts and osteocytes by breeding mice carrying osteocalcin promoter-regulated Cre-recombinase with mice possessing loxP recombination sites flanking exon 2 of the AR gene (AR?OB/?OB mice). In female AR?OB/?OB mice, the trabecular bone volume was reduced owing to a smaller number of trabeculae at 6 months of age compared with the control ARfl/fl animals. In male AR?OB/?OB mice, an increase in trabecular bone separation could already be detected at 3.5 months of age, and at 6 months, the trabecular bone volume was significantly reduced compared with that of male ARfl/fl mice. No AR-dependent changes were observed in the cortical bone of either sex. On the basis of micro-computed tomography and histomorphometry, we conclude that in male mice, the AR is involved in the regulation of osteoclast number by osteoblasts, whereas in female mice, the lack of the AR in the bone-forming cells leads to a decreased number of trabeculae upon aging. PMID:24422138

  8. Female genital warts.

    PubMed

    Ghaemmaghami, Fatemeh; Nazari, Zeinab; Mehrdad, Nili

    2007-01-01

    Genital warts are a clinical manifestation of HPV types 6 and 11, and are estimated to affect 1% of sexually active adults aged between 15 and 49. HPV leading to a broad spectrum of human diseases, ranging from benign warts to malignant neoplasms, depending on the location of the lesion, the immune status of the patient and the type of HPV. Current therapies for human papillomavirus-associated disease are based on the excision or ablation of involved tissue and are associated with a high frequency of recurrent disease, discomfort and costs. PMID:18159964

  9. Reproductive ecology of female chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Melissa Emery

    2013-03-01

    An important adaptive problem for mammals in general, and primates in particular, is how females can manage the high costs of reproduction in the face of fluctuating energetic supplies. For many species, the best solution is to breed seasonally such that high costs are temporally coincident with predictable periods of resource abundance. This is an unreliable strategy for some primates, such as chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), for which large body size forces an increase in dietary complexity and prolonged reproductive efforts. Here, I review data on reproductive function in chimpanzees, a species that demonstrates a risk-averse reproductive strategy wherein reproductive investment is allocated in accordance with maternal condition. Life history parameters for chimpanzees indicate that most females produce very few surviving offspring. However, comparisons between captive and wild populations and within wild populations illustrate that variation in resource access leads to highly variable reproductive success. Focused hormonal studies have demonstrated these effects at a proximate level, with energetic influences on female dispersal, receptivity, cycle quality, conception success, and lactational amenorrhea. Downstream of these effects, female reproductive function affects sexual attractiveness, and by virtue of males' own optimal reproductive strategies, can lead to coercive aggression and decreased foraging efficiency. Because of their extreme reproductive costs, female chimpanzees utilize a highly conservative reproductive strategy, one that minimizes the costs of ecological variation but makes them vulnerable to sexual conflict and costs of sociality. PMID:23015287

  10. Oviposition-altering and ovicidal potentials of five essential oils against female adults of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti L.

    PubMed

    Warikoo, Radhika; Wahab, Naim; Kumar, Sarita

    2011-10-01

    The oviposition deterrence and ovicidal potential of five different essential oils, peppermint oil (Mentha piperita), basil oil (Ocimum basilicum), rosemary oil (Rosemarinus officinalis), citronella oil (Cymbopogon nardus), and celery seed oil (Apium graveolens), were assessed against female adults of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti L. Multiple concentration tests were carried out where cups containing 1 mL of different concentrations (100%, 10%, 1%, 0.1%) of the oils and 199 mL of water were used for oviposition. The number of eggs laid and the larvae hatched in each cup were scored to evaluate the oviposition deterrent and ovicidal potentials of the oils. Our investigations revealed that the addition of 100% oil (pure oil) caused complete oviposition deterrence except in A. graveolens which resulted in 75% effective repellency. The use of 10% oil resulted in the maximum deterrence of 97.5% as shown by the M. piperita oil while other oils caused 36-97% oviposition deterrence as against the control. The oviposition medium with 1% oil showed decreased deterrent potential with 30-64% effective repellency, the M. piperita oil being exceptional. However, as the concentrations of the oil were reduced further to 0.1%, the least effective oil observed was A. graveolens (25% ER). Also, the M. piperita oil showed much reduced activity (40%) as compared to the control, while the other oils exhibited 51-58% repellency to oviposition. The studies on the ovicidal effects of these oils revealed that the eggs laid in the water with 100% essential oils did not hatch at all, whereas when 10% oils were used, only the R. officinalis oil resulted in 28% egg hatch. At lower concentrations (1%), the oils of M. piperita, O. basilicum, and C. nardus showed complete egg mortality while those of A. graveolens and R. officinalis resulted in 71% and 34% egg hatches, respectively. When used at 0.1%, the O. basilicum oil was found to be the only effective oil with 100% egg mortality, whereas other oils resulted in 16-76% egg mortality, the least mortality caused by the A. graveolens oil. These results suggest that these essential oils can be employed in a resistance-management program against A. aegypti. Further detailed research is needed to identify the active ingredient in the extracts and implement the effective mosquito management program. PMID:21445613

  11. Winter survival of adult female harlequin ducks in relation to history of contamination by the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Esler, Daniel; Schmutz, J.A.; Jarvis, R.L.; Mulcahy, D.M.

    2000-01-01

    Harlequin duck (Histrionicus histrionicus) life-history characteristics make their populations particularly vulnerable to perturbations during nonbreeding periods. The 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill was a major perturbation to nonbreeding habitats of harlequin ducks in Prince William Sound, Alaska, which resulted in population injury. To assess the status of population recovery from the oil spill and to evaluate factors potentially constraining full recovery, we used radiotelemetry to examine survival of adult female harlequin ducks during winters of 1995-96, 1996-97, and 1997-98. We implanted 294 harlequin ducks (154 and 140 in oiled and unoiled areas, respectively) with transmitters and tracked their signals from aircraft during October through March. We examined variation in survival rates relative to area and season (early, mid, and late winter) through comparisons of models using Akaike's information criterion (AIC(c)) values. The 3 models best supported by the data indicated that survival of birds in oiled areas was lower than in unoiled areas. Inclusion of standardized body mass during wing molt in the 3 best models did not improve their fit, indicating that body mass during wing molt did not affect subsequent winter survival. In the model that best fit our data, survival was high in early winter for both areas, lower during mid and late winter seasons, and lowest in oiled areas during mid winter. Cumulative winter survival estimated from this model was 78.0% (SE = 3.3%) in oiled areas and 83.7% (SE = 2.9%) in unoiled areas. We determined that area differences in survival were more likely related to oiling history than intrinsic geographic differences. Based on a demographic model, area differences in survival offer a likely mechanism for observed declines in populations on oiled areas. Concurrent studies indicated that harlequin ducks continued to be exposed to residual Exxon Valdez oil as much as 9 years after the spill. We suggest that oil exposure, mortality, and population dynamics were linked and conclude that continued effects of the oil spill likely restricted recovery of harlequin duck populations through at least 1998.

  12. Sex differences in stress-induced social withdrawal: independence from adult gonadal hormones and inhibition of female phenotype by corncob bedding.

    PubMed

    Trainor, Brian C; Takahashi, Elizabeth Y; Campi, Katharine L; Florez, Stefani A; Greenberg, Gian D; Laman-Maharg, Abigail; Laredo, Sarah A; Orr, Veronica N; Silva, Andrea L; Steinman, Michael Q

    2013-03-01

    There is compelling evidence for important sex differences in behavioral and hormonal responses to psychosocial stress. Here we examined the effects of gonadal hormones on behavioral responses to social defeat stress in monogamous California mice (Peromyscus californicus). Three episodes of social defeat induced social withdrawal in intact females but not males. Gonadectomy blocked corticosterone responses to defeat in females and sensitized male corticosterone responses. However, gonadectomy had no effects on social interaction behavior, suggesting that social withdrawal is not dependent on gonadal hormones in the adult California mouse. In contrast, defeat reduced exploratory behavior in the open field test for intact but not castrated males. We also examined the effects of social defeat on social interaction behavior when California mice were raised on corncob bedding, which has estrogenic properties. In this dataset of over 300 mice, we observed that social defeat did not induce social withdrawal when females were raised on corncob bedding. This finding suggests that the use of corncob in rodent studies could mask important sex differences in the effects of stress on brain and behavior. Although gonadal hormones do not affect social withdrawal behavior in adults, our data suggest that hormones may act earlier in development to induce a more resilient social phenotype. PMID:23384773

  13. Sex differences in stress-induced social withdrawal: independence from adult gonadal hormones and inhibition of female phenotype by corncob bedding

    PubMed Central

    Trainor, Brian C.; Takahashi, Elizabeth Y.; Campi, Katharine L.; Florez, Stefani A.; Greenberg, Gian D.; Laman-Maharg, Abigail; Laredo, Sarah A.; Orr, Veronica N.; Silva, Andrea L.; Steinman, Michael Q.

    2013-01-01

    There is compelling evidence for important sex differences in behavioral and hormonal responses to psychosocial stress. Here we examined the effects of gonadal hormones on behavioral responses to social defeat stress in monogamous California mice (Peromyscus californicus). Three episodes of social defeat induced social withdrawal in intact females but not males. Gonadectomy blocked corticosterone responses to defeat in females and sensitized male corticosterone responses. However, gonadectomy had no effects on social interaction behavior, suggesting that social withdrawal is not dependent on gonadal hormones in the adult California mouse. In contrast, defeat reduced exploratory behavior in the open field test for intact but not castrated males. We also examined the effects of social defeat on social interaction behavior when California mice were raised on corncob bedding, which has estrogenic properties. In this dataset of over 300 mice, we observed that social defeat did not induce social withdrawal when females were raised on corncob bedding. This finding suggests that the use of corncob in rodent studies could mask important sex differences in the effects of stress on brain and behavior. Although gonadal hormones do not affect social withdrawal behavior in adults, our data suggest that hormones may act earlier in development to induce a more resilient social phenotype. PMID:23384773

  14. Testing the ‘Extreme Female Brain’ Theory of Psychosis in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder with or without Co-Morbid Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Felicity V.; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Wagner, Adam P.; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Holland, Anthony J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Males and females in the general population differ, on average, in their drive for empathizing (higher in females) and systemizing (higher in males). People with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show a drive for systemizing over empathizing, irrespective of sex, which led to the conceptualisation of ASD as an ‘extreme of the typical male brain’. The opposite cognitive profile, an ‘extreme of the typical female brain’, has been proposed to be linked to conditions such as psychosis and mania/hypomania. Methods We compared an empathizing-over-systemizing bias (for short ‘empathizing bias’) in individuals with ASD, who had experienced psychotic illness (N = 64) and who had not (N = 71). Results There were overall differences in the distribution of cognitive style. Adults with ASD who had experienced psychosis were more likely to show an empathizing bias than adults with ASD who had no history of psychosis. This was modulated by IQ, and the group-difference was driven mainly by individuals with above-average IQ. In women with ASD and psychosis, the link between mania/hypomania and an empathizing bias was greater than in men with ASD. Conclusions The bias for empathizing over systemizing may be linked to the presence of psychosis in people with ASD. Further research is needed in a variety of clinical populations, to understand the role an empathizing bias may play in the development and manifestation of mental illness. PMID:26069955

  15. The International Student: Female Circumcision Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bengston, Barbara; Baldwin, Cynthia

    1993-01-01

    Describes the process and practice of female circumcision, the impact it may have on circumcised female international college students, and some counseling strategies for the college counselor who works with this population. Explains variety of reasons for performing female circumcision, different types of female circumcisions, and psychological…

  16. Females avoid manipulative males and live longer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. M OORE; P. A. G OWATY; P. J. MOORE

    2003-01-01

    Female mate choice has been demonstrated in a wide variety of species and is now accepted as an important factor in sexual selection. One of the remaining questions, however, is why females prefer specific males. Do females or their offspring benefit from their choice? Or do females choose mates to minimize costs of mating? Here we show that, in the

  17. The UF/NCI family of hybrid computational phantoms representing the current US population of male and female children, adolescents, and adults—application to CT dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geyer, Amy M.; O'Reilly, Shannon; Lee, Choonsik; Long, Daniel J.; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2014-09-01

    Substantial increases in pediatric and adult obesity in the US have prompted a major revision to the current UF/NCI (University of Florida/National Cancer Institute) family of hybrid computational phantoms to more accurately reflect current trends in larger body morphometry. A decision was made to construct the new library in a gridded fashion by height/weight without further reference to age-dependent weight/height percentiles as these become quickly outdated. At each height/weight combination, circumferential parameters were defined and used for phantom construction. All morphometric data for the new library were taken from the CDC NHANES survey data over the time period 1999-2006, the most recent reported survey period. A subset of the phantom library was then used in a CT organ dose sensitivity study to examine the degree to which body morphometry influences the magnitude of organ doses for patients that are underweight to morbidly obese in body size. Using primary and secondary morphometric parameters, grids containing 100 adult male height/weight bins, 93 adult female height/weight bins, 85 pediatric male height/weight bins and 73 pediatric female height/weight bins were constructed. These grids served as the blueprints for construction of a comprehensive library of patient-dependent phantoms containing 351 computational phantoms. At a given phantom standing height, normalized CT organ doses were shown to linearly decrease with increasing phantom BMI for pediatric males, while curvilinear decreases in organ dose were shown with increasing phantom BMI for adult females. These results suggest that one very useful application of the phantom library would be the construction of a pre-computed dose library for CT imaging as needed for patient dose-tracking.

  18. Effects of amphetamine exposure in adolescence or young adulthood on inhibitory control in adult male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Hammerslag, Lindsey R; Waldman, Alex J; Gulley, Joshua M

    2014-04-15

    Heightened impulsivity is a feature of some psychiatric disorders, including addiction, that also have sex-specific patterns of expression. The relationship between addiction and impulsivity may be driven by drug-induced changes in behavior caused by long term adaptations in signaling within the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Here, we used a response inhibition task that is sensitive to changes in mPFC function to examine the effects of sex and exposure to amphetamine (AMPH) on impulsive action and vigilance. We also examined drug-induced alterations in glutamatergic and dopaminergic signaling through challenge injections with the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 (dizocilpine) and AMPH. Male and female Sprague Dawley rats were injected (i.p.) with saline or 3 mg/kg AMPH every other day during adolescence (postnatal day (P) 27-45) or adulthood (P85-103). Starting on P125-135, rats were tested for their ability to lever press for a food reward during periods of signaled availability and withhold responding during a "premature response" phase. In experiment 1, rats received challenge injections (i.p.) of MK-801 and AMPH followed by tests of task performance and locomotor activity. In experiment 2, rats received intra-mPFC infusion of MK-801. We found that females had better inhibitory control and poorer vigilance than males and that AMPH exposure had both sex- and age-of-exposure dependent effects on impulsivity. Systemic drug challenges disrupted task performance, particularly in females, and increased impulsivity while intra-mPFC infusions had modest effects. AMPH exposure did not affect responses to drug challenges. Together, these results suggest that sex mediates both trait and drug-induced impulsivity. PMID:24462963

  19. Effects of amphetamine exposure in adolescence or young adulthood on inhibitory control in adult male and female rats

    PubMed Central

    Hammerslag, Lindsey R.; Waldman, Alex J.; Gulley, Joshua M.

    2014-01-01

    Heightened impulsivity is a feature of some psychiatric disorders, including addiction, that also have sex-specific patterns of expression. The relationship between addiction and impulsivity may be driven by drug-induced changes in behavior caused by long term adaptations in signaling within the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Here, we used a response inhibition task that is sensitive to changes in mPFC function to examine the effects of sex and exposure to amphetamine (AMPH) on impulsive action and vigilance. We also examined drug-induced alterations in glutamatergic and dopaminergic signaling through challenge injections with the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 (dizocilpine) and AMPH. Male and female Sprague Dawley rats were injected (i.p.) with saline or 3 mg/kg AMPH every other day during adolescence (postnatal day (P) 27–45) or adulthood (P85–103). Starting on P125–135, rats were tested for their ability to lever press for a food reward during periods of signaled availability and withhold responding during a “premature response” phase. In experiment 1, rats received challenge injections (i.p.) of MK-801 and AMPH followed by tests of task performance and locomotor activity. In experiment 2, rats received intra-mPFC infusion of MK-801. We found that females had better inhibitory control and poorer vigilance than males and that AMPH exposure had both sex- and age-of-exposure dependent effects on impulsivity. Systemic drug challenges disrupted task performance, particularly in females, and increased impulsivity while intra-mPFC infusions had modest effects. AMPH exposure did not affect responses to drug challenges. Together, these results suggest that sex mediates both trait and drug-induced impulsivity. PMID:24462963

  20. Changes among male and female visitors to practitioners of complementary and alternative medicine in a large adult Norwegian population from 1997 to 2008 (The HUNT studies)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim was to investigate changes in the prevalence and characteristics of male and female visitors to practitioners of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in a large adult population from 1997 to 2008. Methods Two cross sectional adult total population health surveys from Central Norwegian (the Nord-Trøndelag Health Studies (HUNT)). In 1997 42,277 and in 2008 50,713 respondents were included. Variables included demographics (age, education, working status), lifestyle (daily smoker, did hard physical activities), health status (self-rated health status, recent complaints, chronic complaints, psychiatric complaints, a range of diseases) and health care use (visit general practitioner, chiropractor). A test of difference between the results of multivariable logistic regression models for each year, including all variables, was used to analyse changes from 1997 to 2008. Results In 1997 9.4% (95%CI 9.1-9.6) of the population had visited a CAM practitioner in the last 12 months and this increased to 12.6% (12.3-12.9) in 2008 (p < 0.001 for difference). Prevalence of CAM use in females was almost twice as high as that in males both years. For males, the significant changes from 1997 to 2008 (p < 0.05) were an increase in odds of visiting for those under 50 years, who had a recent complaint, were widower or did hard physical activities. There was a decrease for males who had a university degree, psychiatric complaint or hay fever. For females there was an increase in the odds for those under 50 years, who had a recent complaint or chronic complaint. It was a decrease for females with reported fair global health, psychiatric complaint, hay fever or if they had visited a chiropractor. Conclusion The increase in visits was mainly among younger people of both genders with more limited complaints. A larger proportion of the more healthy part of the population is increasing their visits to CAM practitioners. PMID:21835013

  1. Sexually selected females in the monogamous Western Australian seahorse

    PubMed Central

    Kvarnemo, Charlotta; Moore, Glenn I; Jones, Adam G

    2006-01-01

    Studies of sexual selection in monogamous species have hitherto focused on sexual selection among males. Here, we provide empirical documentation that sexual selection can also act strongly on females in a natural population with a monogamous mating system. In our field-based genetic study of the monogamous Western Australian seahorse, Hippocampus subelongatus, sexual selection differentials and gradients show that females are under stronger sexual selection than males: mated females are larger than unmated ones, whereas mated and unmated males do not differ in size. In addition, the opportunity for sexual selection (variance in mating success divided by its mean squared) for females is almost three times that for males. These results, which seem to be generated by a combination of a male preference for larger females and a female-biased adult sex ratio, indicate that substantial sexual selection on females is a potentially important but under-appreciated evolutionary phenomenon in monogamous species. PMID:17476772

  2. Adolescent Leadership: The Female Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archard, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This research investigated the female adolescent view of leadership by giving voice to student leaders through focus group discussions. The questions: What is leadership? Where/how was leadership taught?, and How was leadership practised? were explored within the context of girls' schools located in Australia, with one school located in South…

  3. DERMATOGLYPHICS IN FEMALE CATATONIC SCHIZOPHRENICS

    PubMed Central

    Jhingan, H.P.; Munjal, G.C.

    1989-01-01

    SUMMARY Dermatoglyphjc features of 50 ICD-9 diagnosed female catatonic schizophrenic patients in the age range of 15-60 years were compared with those ethnically matched controls of the same sex. Patients were found to differ from controls in qualitative as well as quantitative features. Most of the differences matched well with the previous studies. PMID:21927410

  4. Female circumcision and obstetric complications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. Larsen; F. E. Okonofua

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To examine whether complications at delivery are associated with female circumcision. Method: One thousand eight hundred and fifty-one women seeking family planning or antenatal care in three south-west Nigerian hospitals were interviewed and had a medical exam. The prevalence of complications at delivery for uncircumcised women and circumcised women with type 1 (partial or total removal of the clitoris)

  5. Female Biology Professor: Jennifer Dever

    E-print Network

    Dever, Jennifer A.

    Menstruation ­ biological process cloaked in shame, n Darwin's ideas on behavioral traits, courage, strength & vitality n Craniologists of the 19th century; Freud's penis envy Young, white, 70kg male is the norm for Biomedical Research: Female = "A deviation from the male norm" The "other" sex, Plato's & Aristotle

  6. Enticing Mature Females into College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loseth, Lexie; Moreau, Linda

    Following a review of the literature on mature female students, this paper examines enrollment trends in a selection of colleges in Alberta (Canada) and presents the findings of a survey of returning women students at Red Deer College. The literature review highlights factors related to the personal and professional development of women graduates…

  7. Hypnotherapy and Female Sexual Inadequacy

    PubMed Central

    Glick, Daniel

    1972-01-01

    Dr. Glick describes the use of hypnosis in the treatment of primary and secondary frigidity, dyspareunia and psychosomatic symptoms in female sexual inadequacy. He uses case histories to show the various techniques used and the results that can be expected. PMID:20468741

  8. Chapter 22: Female Reproductive Toxicology

    EPA Science Inventory

    The female reproductive system provides multiple targets for environmental toxicants with the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. Moreover, the functional impact of a chemical can differ, depending on the species involved and the parameters of exposure. While cross-species compa...

  9. Archetypes of Outstanding Female Superintendents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funk, Carole; Pankake, Anita; Schroth, Gwen

    This report documents a study of women superintendents. Specifically, the study identified professional and personal characteristics and styles of leadership to develop archetypes of six outstanding female superintendents in Texas. The intent of the research was also to reveal similarities between and among these superintendents that could provide…

  10. Reproductive cessation in female mammals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Craig Packer; Marc Tatar; Anthony Collins

    1998-01-01

    In female mammals, fertility declines abruptly at an advanced age. The human menopause is one example, but reproductive cessation has also been documented in non-human primates, rodents, whales, dogs, rabbits, elephants and domestic livestock. The human menopause has been considered an evolutionary adaptation assuming that elderly women avoid the increasing complications of continued childbirth to better nurture their current children

  11. Acute effects of 17beta -estradiol on femoral veins from adult gonadally intact and ovariectomized female pigs.

    PubMed

    Bracamonte, M P; Jayachandran, M; Rud, K S; Miller, V M

    2002-12-01

    Our experiments were designed to determine the acute effects of 17beta-estradiol on femoral veins from intact and ovariectomized female pigs. Rings of femoral veins with or without endothelium were suspended in organ chambers for measurement of isometric force. Concentration-response curves to 17beta-estradiol (10(-9) to 10(-5) M) were obtained in veins contracted with prostaglandin F(2alpha) in the absence and presence of inhibitors of either estrogen receptors (ICI-182780; 10(-5) M), nitric oxide synthase [N(G)-monomethyl-l-arginine (l-NMMA); 10(-4) M], soluble guanylate cyclase (1-H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one; 10(-5) M), or potassium channels (tetraethylammonium; 10(-2) M). Estrogen receptors were identified with the use of Western blotting and immunostaining in veins of both groups. 17beta-Estradiol caused acute endothelium-dependent relaxations in both groups. Relaxations to 17beta-estradiol were inhibited by l-NMMA and 1-H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one but not ICI-182780. Tetraethylammonium inhibited relaxations only in veins with endothelium from intact females. Results indicate that 17beta-estradiol causes acute endothelium-dependent relaxations in femoral veins. The relative contribution of nitric oxide and K(+) channels as mechanisms involved in relaxations to 17beta-estradiol in femoral veins is modulated by ovarian status. PMID:12388282

  12. Female brown-headed cowbirds', Molothrus ater, organization and behaviour reflects male social dynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meredith J. West; David J. White; Andrew P. King

    2002-01-01

    In four large aviaries, we studied social assortment and reproductive behaviour of female brown-headed cowbirds housed with males differing in age class and in corresponding levels of intrasexual interaction. Juvenile and adult females resided with either (1) adult males, (2) juvenile males, (3) adult and juvenile males, or (4) no males. We observed social behaviour of males and females from

  13. Fortuitous encounters between seagliders and adult female northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) off the Washington (USA) coast: upper ocean variability and links to top predator behavior.

    PubMed

    Pelland, Noel A; Sterling, Jeremy T; Lea, Mary-Anne; Bond, Nicholas A; Ream, Rolf R; Lee, Craig M; Eriksen, Charles C

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral responses by top marine predators to oceanographic features such as eddies, river plumes, storms, and coastal topography suggest that biophysical interactions in these zones affect predators' prey, foraging behaviors, and potentially fitness. However, examining these pathways is challenged by the obstacles inherent in obtaining simultaneous observations of surface and subsurface environmental fields and predator behavior. In this study, migratory movements and, in some cases, diving behavior of 40 adult female northern fur seals (NFS; Callorhinus ursinus) were quantified across their range and compared to remotely-sensed environmental data in the Gulf of Alaska and California Current ecosystems, with a particular focus off the coast of Washington State (USA)--a known foraging ground for adult female NFS and where autonomous glider sampling allowed opportunistic comparison of seal behavior to subsurface biophysical measurements. The results show that in these ecosystems, adult female habitat utilization was concentrated near prominent coastal topographic, riverine, or inlet features and within 200 km of the continental shelf break. Seal dive depths, in most ecosystems, were moderated by surface light level (solar or lunar), mirroring known behaviors of diel vertically-migrating prey. However, seal dives differed in the California Current ecosystem due to a shift to more daytime diving concentrated at or below the surface mixed layer base. Seal movement models indicate behavioral responses to season, ecosystem, and surface wind speeds; individuals also responded to mesoscale eddies, jets, and the Columbia River plume. Foraging within small scale surface features is consistent with utilization of the inner coastal transition zone and habitats near coastal capes, which are known eddy and filament generation sites. These results contribute to our knowledge of NFS migratory patterns by demonstrating surface and subsurface behavioral responses to a spatially and temporally dynamic ocean environment, thus reflecting its influence on associated NFS prey species. PMID:25153524

  14. Lifetime reproductive success of female mountain gorillas.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Andrew M; Stoinski, Tara; Fawcett, Katie; Robbins, Martha M

    2011-12-01

    Studies of lifetime reproductive success (LRS) are important for understanding population dynamics and life history strategies, yet relatively little information is available for long-lived species. This study provides a preliminary assessment of LRS among female mountain gorillas in the Virunga volcanoes region. Adult females produced an average of 3.6 ± 2.1 surviving offspring during their lifetime, which indicates a growing population that contrasts with most other great apes. The standardized variance in LRS (variance/mean(2) = 0.34) was lower than many other mammals and birds. When we excluded the most apparent source of environmental variability (poaching), the average LRS increased to 4.3 ± 1.8 and the standardized variance dropped in half. Adult lifespan was a greater source of variance in LRS than fertility or offspring survival. Females with higher LRS had significantly longer adult lifespans and higher dominance ranks. Results for LRS were similar to another standard fitness measurement, the individually estimated finite rate of increase (?(ind) ), but ?(ind) showed diminishing benefits for greater longevity. PMID:21989942

  15. Transgenerational consequences of adolescent morphine exposure in female rats: effects on anxiety-like behaviors and morphine sensitization in adult offspring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth M. Byrnes

    2005-01-01

    Rationale and objective  Opiate abuse in adolescent girls has increased in the past decade; however, few animal studies have examined the potential\\u000a consequences of opiate use occurring at this time. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether exposing female\\u000a rats to morphine during the peripubertal period can alter the adult behavior of their offspring.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Beginning at 30 days

  16. Allometric variation among juvenile, adult male and female eastern bearded dragons Pogona barbata (Cuvier, 1829), with comments on the behavioural implications.

    PubMed

    Wotherspoon, Danny; Burgin, Shelley

    2011-02-01

    The functional significance of allometric change in reptiles has received limited attention and the reason for such changes has been regarded as 'obscure'. In this paper we report data on the Australian Pogona barbata, the eastern bearded dragon, from across their range and review changes in allometric growth among juveniles, and adult males and females and consider the functional relevance of these changes. There were significant differences in the population for mass, tail length, tail width, rear leg length and jaw length. These differences were consistent with differences required in locomotor performance and thus habitat use, together with access to different preferred dietary components. PMID:21236651

  17. Do Tetranychus urticae males avoid mating with familiar females?

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, T; Yano, S

    2014-07-01

    The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, usually lives in kin groups under common webs. Because only the first mating results in fertilisation in female T. urticae, adult males guard quiescent deutonymph females, those at the stage immediately before maturation, to ensure paternity. Therefore, the cost of precopulatory guarding time seems considerable for males. Moreover, the fitness indices of daughters from intra-population crosses were significantly lower than those of daughters from inter-population crosses, indicating that inbreeding depression exists in T. urticae. Therefore, we hypothesised that T. urticae males should be choosy in guarding familiar females to avoid inbreeding depression. Furthermore, webs should be a key element of the environment shared by familiar individuals. In this study, we demonstrated the inbreeding avoidance mechanism of T. urticae males in relation to webs produced by familiar females (known webs) or unfamiliar females (unknown webs). Regardless of surrounding webs (known or unknown), males preferred unfamiliar to familiar females. We further examined whether males detect unfamiliar females by their webs. When males had experienced a female's web without encountering that female, they subsequently preferred females that did not produce the surrounding webs in which the choice experiment was conducted. Results suggest that putative kin recognition for inbreeding avoidance in T. urticae males is based on the relationship between webs and females, and not on the discrimination of webs in shared environments. PMID:24737758

  18. PROLACTIN-ADRENAL INTERACTIONS IN THE IMMATURE FEMALE RAT

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    PROLACTIN-ADRENAL INTERACTIONS IN THE IMMATURE FEMALE RAT Marie GELATO, J. DIBBET* S. MARSHALL J in the timing of the onset of puberty in female rats. GORSKI and I,AWTON (ig!2) reported that adrenalectomy up injections or median eminence implants of prolactin significantly enhanced vaginal opening. In the adult rat

  19. Dominance, fatness and fitness in female American bison, Bison bison

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hilde Vervaecke; Catherine Roden; Han de Vries

    2005-01-01

    In females of several mammalian species, it is becoming evident that benefits related to high dominance rank can result in increased fitness, albeit to a lesser degree than in males. We examined indicators of fitness in relation to dominance rank in a group of adult female American bison in semifree-ranging conditions. A significantly linear dominance hierarchy was found. Dominance rank

  20. Characterization of Aromatase Expression in the Adult Male and Female Mouse Brain. I. Coexistence with Oestrogen Receptors ? and ?, and Androgen Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Stani?, Davor; Dubois, Sydney; Chua, Hui Kheng; Tonge, Bruce; Rinehart, Nicole; Horne, Malcolm K.; Boon, Wah Chin

    2014-01-01

    Aromatase catalyses the last step of oestrogen synthesis. There is growing evidence that local oestrogens influence many brain regions to modulate brain development and behaviour. We examined, by immunohistochemistry, the expression of aromatase in the adult male and female mouse brain, using mice in which enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) is transcribed following the physiological activation of the Cyp19A1 gene. EGFP-immunoreactive processes were distributed in many brain regions, including the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, olfactory tubercle, medial amygdaloid nucleus and medial preoptic area, with the densest distributions of EGFP-positive cell bodies in the bed nucleus and medial amygdala. Differences between male and female mice were apparent, with the density of EGFP-positive cell bodies and fibres being lower in some brain regions of female mice, including the bed nucleus and medial amygdala. EGFP-positive cell bodies in the bed nucleus, lateral septum, medial amygdala and hypothalamus co-expressed oestrogen receptor (ER) ? and ?, or the androgen receptor (AR), although single-labelled EGFP-positive cells were also identified. Additionally, single-labelled ER??, ER?- or AR-positive cell bodies often appeared to be surrounded by EGFP-immunoreactive nerve fibres/terminals. The widespread distribution of EGFP-positive cell bodies and fibres suggests that aromatase signalling is common in the mouse brain, and that locally synthesised brain oestrogens could mediate biological effects by activating pre- and post-synaptic oestrogen ? and ? receptors, and androgen receptors. The higher number of EGFP-positive cells in male mice may indicate that the autocrine and paracrine effects of oestrogens are more prominent in males than females. PMID:24646567

  1. Mixed Cutaneous Infection Caused by Mycobacterium szulgai and Mycobacterium intermedium in a Healthy Adult Female: A Rare Case Report.

    PubMed

    Singh, Amresh Kumar; Marak, Rungmei S K; Maurya, Anand Kumar; Das, Manaswini; Nag, Vijaya Lakshmi; Dhole, Tapan N

    2015-01-01

    Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTMs) are ubiquitous and are being increasingly reported as human opportunistic infection. Cutaneous infection caused by mixed NTM is extremely rare. We encountered the case of a 46-year-old female, who presented with multiple discharging sinuses over the lower anterior abdominal wall (over a previous appendectomy scar) for the past 2 years. Microscopy and culture of the pus discharge were done to isolate and identify the etiological agent. Finally, GenoType Mycobacterium CM/AS assay proved it to be a mixed infection caused by Mycobacterium szulgai and M. intermedium. The patient was advised a combination of rifampicin 600?mg once daily, ethambutol 600?mg once daily, and clarithromycin 500?mg twice daily to be taken along with periodic follow-up based upon clinical response as well as microbiological response. We emphasize that infections by NTM must be considered in the etiology of nonhealing wounds or sinuses, especially at postsurgical sites. PMID:25789180

  2. Evaluating dysuria in adolescent females.

    PubMed

    Aughey, David R; Aschbacher, Carol

    2005-05-01

    Adolescent females presenting with acute dysuria in primary care settings are often assumed to have urinary tract infections and are evaluated accordingly. Dysuria, with or without a change in vaginal discharge, is also often associated with sexually transmitted infections, usually urethritis, even when the patient does not report a history of sexual activity. An adolescent female with dysuria, an abnormal urinalysis, and a negative urine culture has a high probability of having a sexually transmitted infection. Although providers who treat adolescents should not assume all of their patients are sexually active, it is essential that they ask questions about their patients' past and present sexual activity and consider the possibility of sexually transmitted diseases in young women presenting with this symptom. PMID:16022408

  3. Female Sex Offenders' Relationship Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Louanne

    2010-01-01

    Interventions for child sexual abusers should take into account their perspectives on the context of their offenses, but no descriptions of everyday life from the offender's point of view have been published. This study therefore explored female offenders' views of their strengths and challenges. Documented risk assessments of 20 female offenders were analyzed using inductive content analysis (Cavanagh, 1997; Priest, Roberts & Woods, 2002; Woods, Priest & Roberts, 2002). The Good Lives Model provided the initial coding framework and Atlas/ti software (Muhr, 1997) was used for simultaneous data collection and analysis. The content analysis yielded 999 coding decisions organized in three themes. The global theme was relationship experiences. Offenders described the quality of their relationship experiences, including their personal perspectives, intimate relationships and social lives. These descriptions have implications for treatment planning and future research with women who have molested children. PMID:18624098

  4. Disorders of Female Sexual Arousal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tuuli M. Kukkonen; Sabina Sarin

    \\u000a Joanne is one of approximately 11.3 million Americans with a history of cancer [1] and, like an increasing number of survivors,\\u000a she is struggling with adjustments to her quality of life following cancer treatment. Of particular interest to this chapter\\u000a is that, among other things, Joanne is suffering from female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD), which has been traditionally\\u000a defined as

  5. [Energy balance among female athletes].

    PubMed

    Arieli, Rakefet; Constantini, Naama

    2012-02-01

    Athletes need to consume sufficient energy to meet their training demands, maintain their health, and if young, to ensure their growth and development. Athletes are often preoccupied by their body weight and shape, and in some sports might be subjected to pressure to lose weight by coaches, peers or themselves. Eating disorders and poor eating habits are prevalent among female athletes, especially in sport disciplines where low body weight is required to improve performance or for "aesthetic" appearance or in weight category sports. Low energy intake has deleterious effects on many systems, including the cardiovascular system, several hormonal pathways, musculoskeletal system, fluids and electrolytes, thermoregulation, growth and development. Various fitness components and overall performance are also negatively affected. All these, together with poor nutritional status that causes vitamin and mineral deficiencies, poor concentration and depression, put the athlete at an increased injury risk. Energy availability is now recognized as the primary factor initiating these health problems. Energy availability is defined as dietary energy intake minus exercise energy expenditure. If below 30 kcal/kg fat free mass per day, reproductive system functions, as well as other metabolic systems, might be suppressed. The case presented is of a young female Judoka, who complained of fatigue and weakness. Medical and nutritional assessment revealed that she suffered from low energy availability, which slowed her growth and development, and negatively affected her health and athletic performance. This case study emphasizes the importance of adequate energy availability in young female athletes in order to ensure their health. PMID:22741207

  6. Reproductive cessation in female mammals.

    PubMed

    Packer, C; Tatar, M; Collins, A

    1998-04-23

    In female mammals, fertility declines abruptly at an advanced age. The human menopause is one example, but reproductive cessation has also been documented in non-human primates, rodents, whales, dogs, rabbits, elephants and domestic livestock. The human menopause has been considered an evolutionary adaptation, assuming that elderly women avoid the increasing complications of continued childbirth to better nurture their current children and grandchildren. But an abrupt reproductive decline might be only a non-adaptive by-product of life-history patterns. Because so many individuals die from starvation, disease and predation, detrimental genetic traits can persist (or even be favoured) as long as their deleterious effects are delayed until an advanced age is reached, and, for a given pattern of mortality, there should be an age by which selection would be too weak to prevent the onset of reproductive senescence. We provide a systematic test of these alternatives using field data from two species in which grandmothers frequently engage in kin-directed behaviour. Both species show abrupt age-specific changes in reproductive performance that are characteristic of menopause. But elderly females do not suffer increased mortality costs of reproduction, nor do post-reproductive females enhance the fitness of grandchildren or older children. Instead, reproductive cessation appears to result from senescence. PMID:9572138

  7. Management and Conservation Note Breeding Propensity of Female Harlequin Ducks

    E-print Network

    to quantify breeding propensity of adult female harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) in British, Histrionicus histrionicus, nonbreeders, radiotelemetry, vitellogenin, yolk precursors. Overall reproductive (Histrionicus histrionicus) specifically (Bengtson and Ulf- strand 1971, Robertson and Goudie 1999), have been

  8. Effect of arm position and foot placement on the five times sit-to-stand test completion times of female adults older than 50 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Shamay S.M.; Kwong, Patrick W.H.; Chau, Michael S.P.; Luk, Isaac C.Y.; Wan, Sam S.; Fong, Shirley S.M.

    2015-01-01

    The five times-sit-to stand test (FTSTS) is a clinical test which is commonly used to assessed the functional muscle strength of the lower limbs of older adults. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of different arm positions and foot placements on the FTSTS completion times of older female adults. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-nine healthy female subjects, aged 63.1±5.3?years participated in this cross-sectional study. The times required to complete the FTSTS with 3 different arm positions (hands on thighs, arms crossed over chest, and an augmented arm position with the arms extended forward) and 2 foot placements (neutral and posterior) were recorded. The interaction effect and main effect of arm positions and foot placements were examined using a 3 (arm position) × 2 (foot placement) two-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). [Results] There was no interaction effect among the 3 arm positions in the 2 foot placements. A significant main effect was identified for foot placement, but not arm position. Posterior foot placement led to a shorter FTSTS time compared to that of normal foot placement. [Conclusion] With the same arm position, FTSTS completion times with posterior foot placement tended to be shorter. Therefore, the standard foot placement should be used for FTSTS administration.

  9. Effects of Estrogen Receptor Agonists on Regulation of the Inflammatory Response in Astrocytes from Young Adult and Middle-Aged Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Danielle K; Johnson, Adam B.; Stohlgren, Shannon; Simpson, Ashley; Sohrabji, Farida

    2008-01-01

    Estrogen has been shown to attenuate the inflammatory response following injury or lipopolysaccharide treatment in several organ systems. Estrogen's actions are transduced through two estrogen receptor sub-types, estrogen receptor (ER) -alpha and estrogen receptor-beta, whose actions may be overlapping or independent of each other. The present study examined the effects of ER?- and ER?-specific ligands in regulating the inflammatory response in primary astrocyte cultures. Pre-treatment with 17?-estradiol (ER?/ER? agonist), HPTE (ER? agonist/ER? antagonist) and DPN (ER? agonist) led to attenuation of IL-1?, TNF?, and MMP-9 in astrocyte media derived from young adult (3-4 mos.) and reproductive senescent female (9-11 mos., acyclic) astrocyte cultures, while pretreatment with PPT (ER? agonist) attenuated IL-1? (but not TNF? or MMP-9) in both young and senescent-derived astrocyte cultures. Our previous work determined that 17?-estradiol was unable to attenuate the LPS-induced increase in IL-1? in olfactory bulb primary microglial cultures derived from either young adult or reproductive senescent females. In young adult-derived microglial cultures, the LPS-induced increase in IL-1? was not attenuated by pre-treatment with 17?-estradiol, PPT or HPTE. Interestingly, the ER? agonist, DPN significantly decreased IL-1? following LPS treatment in young adult-derived microglia. Thus while both microglia and astrocytes synthesize and release inflammatory mediators, the present data shows that compounds which bind ER? are more effective in attenuating proinflammatory cytokines in both cell types and may therefore be a more effective agent for future therapeutic use. PMID:18328572

  10. Why Do Female Callosobruchus maculatus Kick Their Mates?

    PubMed Central

    van Lieshout, Emile; McNamara, Kathryn B.; Simmons, Leigh W.

    2014-01-01

    Sexual conflict is now recognised as an important driver of sexual trait evolution. However, due to their variable outcomes and effects on other fitness components, the detection of sexual conflicts on individual traits can be complicated. This difficulty is exemplified in the beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, where longer matings increase the size of nutritious ejaculates but simultaneously reduce female future receptivity. While previous studies show that females gain direct benefits from extended mating duration, females show conspicuous copulatory kicking behaviour, apparently to dislodge mating males prematurely. We explore the potential for sexual conflict by comparing several fitness components and remating propensity in pairs of full sibling females where each female mated with a male from an unrelated pair of full sibling males. For one female, matings were terminated at the onset of kicking, whereas the other’s matings remained uninterrupted. While fecundity (number of eggs) was similar between treatments, uninterrupted matings enhanced adult offspring numbers and fractionally also longevity. However, females whose matings were interrupted at the onset of kicking exhibited an increased propensity to remate. Since polyandry can benefit female fitness in this species, we argue that kicking, rather than being maladaptive, may indicate that females prefer remating over increased ejaculate size. It may thus be difficult to assess the presence of sexual conflict over contested traits such as mating duration when females face a trade off between direct benefits gained from one mating and indirect benefits from additional matings. PMID:24752530

  11. Olfaction in the female sheep botfly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poddighe, Simone; Dekker, Teun; Scala, Antonio; Angioy, Anna Maria

    2010-09-01

    The nasal botfly Oestrus ovis (Diptera, Cyclorrhapha: Oestridae) is a myiasis-causing insect species, which affects the health of sheep, goats and humans. Gravid females are viviparous and larviposit into the animal’s nostrils. Host-searching and larvipositing flies are visually guided and influenced by climatic conditions, whereas olfaction seemed to play no role in this process. However, here, we show that the antennae of adult O. ovis female flies are relatively small but well developed and inhabited by several types of olfactory sensilla. Further, we show that the antennal lobes of this species receive input from antennal afferents and consist of a clearly defined glomerular organisation. We also give the first evidence of the fly’s ability to detect several synthetic odour compounds. Our findings provide a morpho-functional basis for future investigations on olfactory-mediated behaviour of this insect pest.

  12. Age determination of female redhead ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dane, C.W.; Johnson, D.H.

    1975-01-01

    Eighty-seven fall-collected wings from female redhead ducks (Aythya americana) were assigned to the adult or juvenile group based on 'tertial' and 'tertial covert' shape and wear. To obtain spring age-related characters from these fall-collected groupings, we considered parameters of flight feathers retained until after the first breeding season. Parameters measured included: markings on and width of greater secondary coverts, and length, weight, and diameter of primary feathers. The best age categorization was obtained with discriminant analysis based on a combination of the most accurately measured parameters. This analysis, applied to 81 wings with complete measurements, resulted in only 1 being incorrectly aged and 3 placed in a questionable category. Discriminant functions used with covert markings and the three 5th primary parameters were applied to 30 known-age juvenile, hand-reared redhead females, 28 were correctly aged, none was incorrectly aged, and only 2 were placed in the questionable category.

  13. Females lead population collapse of the endangered Hawaii creeper.

    PubMed

    Freed, Leonard A; Cann, Rebecca L

    2013-01-01

    Population collapses result from drastic environmental changes, but the sexes may differ in vulnerability. Collapse of the endangered Hawaii creeper (Oreomystis mana) at Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge resulted from food limitation associated with increased numbers of an introduced bird (Japanese white-eye, Zosterops japonicus), which competes with the creeper for food. Both creeper sexes had stunted bill growth and the greatest change in molt of native species in the community. With a surge in numbers of white-eyes, a recent cohort of adult females had very low survival after breeding, while adult males from the same cohort, and older females and males, continued to have high survival. Lower female survival resulted in a significantly more male-biased adult sex ratio. Recent low female survival was based on a great cost of reproduction, indicated by molt-breeding overlap that was previously avoided, and lower fat during the lengthy fledgling period. The difference in female survival between cohorts was associated with stunted bills from being reared in and then breeding in an increasingly poor food environment. Trend analysis of survey data indicate that the bird is declining throughout the refuge, with males being 72-80% of adults left six years after the white-eye increased. Competition over time was consistent with that previously documented over space on the Island of Hawaii. Adaptive management to recover the bird in this protected area needs to focus on improving both adult female survival and the adult sex ratio. PMID:23861831

  14. Sexual Attractiveness of Males and Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Peggy; And Others

    The most important characteristics for females judging the attractiveness of males, and for males judging females, were eyes, body build and facial complexion. Previously, females tended to place less importance on physical components of attraction for both themselves and men. Possible interpretations are: (1) women have become more egalitarian…

  15. Malemale competition facilitates female choice in sticklebacks

    E-print Network

    Helsinki, University of

    Male±male competition facilitates female choice in sticklebacks Ulrika Candolin{ Section of Ecology, secondary sexual characteristics are used in both male^male competition and in attracting females in sexual selection by functioning as both a threat signal in male^male competition and as a cue for female

  16. Female Representation by Type of Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physics Teacher, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Last month we saw that females make up about 47% of all high school physics students in the United States. This number has changed little since 1997. This month, we take a closer look at female representation by type of class. We last collected class-specific data in 1993; that year, 43% of all high school physics students were female. However,…

  17. Female Literacy in India: The Urban Dimension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raju, Saraswati

    This paper presents a sociogeographic analysis of female literacy in India and compares literacy rates of females and males in scheduled (reported separately on the census) and nonscheduled (reported as one group on the census) castes. In Indian cities, male literacy is higher than female literacy, and literacy rates are higher for nonscheduled…

  18. Survival of female Lesser Scaup: Effects of body size, age, and reproductive effort

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rotella, J.J.; Clark, R.G.; Afton, A.D.

    2003-01-01

    In birds, larger females generally have greater breeding propensity, reproductive investment, and success than do smaller females. However, optimal female body size also depends on how natural selection acts during other parts of the life cycle. Larger female Lesser Scaup (Aythya affinis) produce larger eggs than do smaller females, and ducklings from larger eggs survive better than those hatching from smaller eggs. Accordingly, we examined patterns of apparent annual survival for female scaup and tested whether natural selection on female body size primarily was stabilizing, a frequent assumption in studies of sexually dimorphic species in which males are the larger sex, or was directional, counter-acting reproductive advantages of large size. We estimated survival using mark-recapture methods for individually marked females from two study sites in Canada (Erickson, Manitoba; St. Denis, Saskatchewan). Structurally larger (adults) and heavier (ducklings) females had lower survival than did smaller individuals in Manitoba; no relationship was detected in adults from Saskatchewan. Survival of adult females declined with indices of increasing reproductive effort at both sites; consequently, the cost of reproduction could explain age-related patterns of breeding propensity in scaup. Furthermore, if larger females are more likely to breed than are smaller females, then cost of reproduction also may help explain why survival was lower for larger females. Overall, we found that advantages of large body size of female scaup during breeding or as young ducklings apparently were counteracted by natural selection favoring lightweight juveniles and structurally smaller adult females through higher annual survival.

  19. Adolescent Females and Their Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Volkman, Julie E.; Silk, Kami J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent research indicates environmental factors and personal behaviors are related to breast cancer risk, but adopting a healthy lifestyle as early as adolescence can serve a protective function. To investigate perceptions of breast cancer risk and the environment, 10 focus groups (N = 91) were conducted with adolescent females (n = 55) and mothers (n = 36) across four counties in the Midwest, USA. The Uncertainty Management Theory provides a framework for discussing statements, and results suggest that uncertainty is maintained through ambiguity about environmental risk factors and breast cancer. Recommendations for prevention messages are presented. PMID:18987091

  20. Measuring the Physical in Physical Attractiveness: Quasi-Experiments on the Sociobiology of Female Facial Beauty

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael R. Cunningham

    1986-01-01

    Two quasi-experiments investigated the relation between specific adult female facial features and the attraction, attribution, and altruistic responses of adult males. Precise measurements were obtained of the relative size of 24 facial features in an international sample of photographs of 50 females. Male subjects provided ratings of the attractiveness of each of the females. Positively correlated with attractiveness ratings were

  1. Hair-Pulling & Name Calling: A Study of Female/Female Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Jan

    Until recently the subject of females competing against other females has been rarely considered, while most of the literature on sex-related competition written since the 1960s concerns women's competition against men. This paper reviews current literature on female versus female competiton and explores: (1) cultural conditioning in relation to…

  2. Female pattern alopecia: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Lauren L; Emer, Jason J

    2013-01-01

    Hair loss is a commonly encountered problem in clinical practice, with men presenting with a distinctive pattern involving hairline recession and vertex balding (Norwood-Hamilton classification) and women exhibiting diffuse hair thinning over the crown (increased part width) and sparing of the frontal hairline (Ludwig classification). Female pattern hair loss has a strikingly overwhelming psychological effect; thus, successful treatments are necessary. Difficulty lies in successful treatment interventions, as only two medications – minoxidil and finasteride – are approved for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia, and these medications offer mediocre results, lack of a permanent cure, and potential complications. Hair transplantation is the only current successful permanent option, and it requires surgical procedures. Several other medical options, such as antiandrogens (eg, spironolactone, oral contraceptives, cyproterone, flutamide, dutasteride), prostaglandin analogs (eg, bimatoprost, latanoprost), and ketoconazole are reported to be beneficial. Laser and light therapies have also become popular despite the lack of a profound benefit. Management of expectations is crucial, and the aim of therapy, given the current therapeutic options, is to slow or stop disease progression with contentment despite patient expectations of permanent hair regrowth. This article reviews current perspectives on therapeutic options for female pattern hair loss. PMID:24039457

  3. Demography can favour female-advantageous alleles.

    PubMed

    Harts, Anna M F; Schwanz, Lisa E; Kokko, Hanna

    2014-09-01

    When female fecundity is relatively independent of male abundance, while male reproduction is proportional to female abundance, females have a larger effect on population dynamics than males (i.e. female demographic dominance). This population dynamic phenomenon might not appear to influence evolution, because male and female genomes still contribute equally much to the next generation. However, here we examine two evolutionary scenarios to provide a proof of principle that spatial structure can make female demographic dominance matter. Our two simulation models combine dispersal evolution with local adaptation subjected to intralocus sexual conflict and environmentally driven sex ratio biases, respectively. Both models have equilibria where one environment (without being intrinsically poorer) has so few reproductive females that trait evolution becomes disproportionately determined by those environments where females survive better (intralocus sexual conflict model), or where daughters are overproduced (environmental sex determination model). Surprisingly, however, the two facts that selection favours alleles that benefit females, and population growth is improved when female fitness is high, together do not imply that all measures of population performance are improved. The sex-specificity of the source-sink dynamics predicts that populations can evolve to fail to persist in habitats where alleles do poorly when expressed in females. PMID:25056617

  4. Condom Use at First Intercourse with a New Partner in Female Adolescents and Young Adults: The Role of Cognitive Planning and Motives for Having Sex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Winifred A. Gebhardt; Lisette Kuyper; Elise Dusseldorp

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which cognitive planning and motives for sex can explain condom use at first intercourse with young females' most recent partner. A total of 133 female adolescents completed a questionnaire on cognitive planning (i.e., mentally preparing oneself for discussing condom use and for managing condoms), motives for having sex (i.e., having sex to express love,

  5. Courtship and copulation in the adult male green anole: Effects of season, hormone and female contact on reproductive behavior and morphology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer K. Neal; Juli Wade

    2007-01-01

    Interactions among reproductive season, testosterone (T) and female presence were investigated on the structure and function of forebrain and neuromuscular systems controlling courtship and copulation in the green anole lizard. Under breeding (BS) or non-breeding (NBS) environmental conditions, male green anoles were implanted with either T or blank capsules and exposed to one of three female stimulus conditions: physical, visual

  6. Sex differences in stress-induced social withdrawal: Independence from adult gonadal hormones and inhibition of female phenotype by corncob bedding

    E-print Network

    Trainor, Brian

    and inhibition of female phenotype by corncob bedding Brian C. Trainor a,b,d,e,f, , Elizabeth Y. Takahashi Keywords: Social defeat Sex differences Stress Social behavior Phytoestrogens Anxiety-like behavior induced social withdraw- al in intact females but not males. Gonadectomy blocked corticosterone responses

  7. Cognitive and motor aging in female chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Lacreuse, Agnès; Russell, Jamie L.; Hopkins, William D.; Herndon, James G.

    2013-01-01

    We present the first longitudinal data on cognitive and motor aging in the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes). Thirty-eight adult female chimpanzees (10–54 years old) were studied. The apes were tested longitudinally for 3 years in a modified Primate Cognition Test Battery (Herrmann et al., 2007, Science 317,1360–1366), which comprised 12 tests of physical and social cognition. The chimpanzees were also administered a fine motor task requiring them to remove a steel nut from rods of various complexity. There was little evidence for an age-related decline in tasks of Physical Cognition: for most tasks, performance was either stable or improved with repeated testing across age groups. An exception was Spatial Memory, for which 4 individuals over 50 years old experienced a significant performance decline across the 3 years of testing. Poorer performance with age was found in two tasks of Social Cognition, an attention getting task and a gaze-following task. A slight motor impairment was also observed, with old chimpanzees improving less than younger animals with repeated testing on the simplest rod. Hormonal status effects were restricted to spatial memory, with non-cycling females outperforming cycling females independently of age. Unexpectedly, older chimpanzees were better than younger individuals in understanding causality relationships based on sound. PMID:24112794

  8. Maternal programming of sexual attractivity in female Long Evans rats.

    PubMed

    Sakhai, Samuel A; Kriegsfeld, Lance J; Francis, Darlene D

    2011-09-01

    In mammals, maternal care influences the developing offspring across multiple domains. In Long Evans rats, for example, the quality of maternal care received as a pup influences later cognitive function, neuroendocrine responses to stress and behavioral measures of emotionality. Data from humans, non-human primates, and rodents also suggest that early life events may similarly perturb measures of sexual reproduction, with possible consequences for reproductive fitness. The current study examined whether or not male conspecifics differentially prefer females, as adult mating partners, that were reared under varying maternal conditions (assessed via the quantity of licking and grooming received; LG). Additionally, the impact of maternal care on adult female sexual motivation and behavior were quantified to determine if these behavioral characteristics are associated with any preference observed. In a mate preference task, male rats chose, almost exclusively, to mount, copulate and ejaculate with female rats reared under Low LG conditions. Under non-paced mating conditions, female Low LG rats display significantly more paracopulatory and copulatory behaviors compared to High LG rats. Due to its critical role in female paracopulatory behavior, progesterone receptor immunoreactivity (PR-ir) in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) was also assessed in both groups of female rats. Estradiol induced PR-ir in the VMH was significantly higher in Low LG relative to High LG rats. Together, these data suggests that early life parental care may developmentally program aspects of behavior and physiology that subsequently influence sexual attractivity and behavior in adult females. PMID:21458163

  9. Along came a spider who sat down beside her: Perceived predation risk, but not female age, affects female mate choosiness.

    PubMed

    Atwell, Ashley; Wagner, William E

    2015-06-01

    Organisms often exhibit behavioral plasticity in response to changes in factors, such as predation risk, mate density, and age. Particularly, female mate choosiness (the strength of female's attraction to male traits as they deviate from preferred trait values) has repeatedly been shown to be plastic. This is due to the costs associated with searching for preferred males fluctuating with changes in such factors. Because these factors can interact naturally, it is important to understand how female mate choosiness responds to these interactions. We studied the interaction between perceived predation risk and female age on the variable field cricket, Gryllus lineaticeps. Females were either exposed or not exposed to predation cues from a sympatric, cursorial, wolf spider predator, Hogna sp. We then tested the females at one of three adult ages and measured their choosiness by recording their responsiveness to a low quality male song. We found female choosiness plasticity was affected by neither age nor the interaction between age and perceived predation risk. Perceived predation risk was the only factor to significantly affect the plasticity of female mate choosiness: females were less choosy when they perceived predation risk and were more choosy when they did not. Predation may be such a strong source of selection that, regardless of differences in other factors, most individuals respond similarly. PMID:25857998

  10. Female chacma baboons form strong, equitable, and enduring social bonds

    PubMed Central

    Beehner, Jacinta C.; Bergman, Thore J.; Crockford, Catherine; Engh, Anne L.; Moscovice, Liza R.; Wittig, Roman M.; Seyfarth, Robert M.; Cheney, Dorothy L.

    2010-01-01

    Analyses of the pattern of associations, social interactions, coalitions, and aggression among chacma baboons (Papio hamadryas ursinus) in the Okavango Delta of Botswana over a 16-year period indicate that adult females form close, equitable, supportive, and enduring social relationships. They show strong and stable preferences for close kin, particularly their own mothers and daughters. Females also form strong attachments to unrelated females who are close to their own age and who are likely to be paternal half-sisters. Although absolute rates of aggression among kin are as high as rates of aggression among nonkin, females are more tolerant of close relatives than they are of others with whom they have comparable amounts of contact. These findings complement previous work which indicates that the strength of social bonds enhances the fitness of females in this population and support findings about the structure and function of social bonds in other primate groups. PMID:20976293

  11. Self-Control and Impulsiveness in Nondieting Adult Human Females: Effects of Visual Food Cues and Food Deprivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forzano, Lori-Ann B.; Chelonis, John J.; Casey, Caitlin; Forward, Marion; Stachowiak, Jacqueline A.; Wood, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Self-control can be defined as the choice of a larger, more delayed reinforcer over a smaller, less delayed reinforcer, and impulsiveness as the opposite. Previous research suggests that exposure to visual food cues affects adult humans' self-control. Previous research also suggests that food deprivation decreases adult humans' self-control. The…

  12. The Lived Experience of the Adult African American Female Who Has Lived in Multiple Foster Care Placements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Avonda C.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine and describe the lived experiences of the adult African American woman who had lived in multiple foster care placements. Eleven adult African American women ages 22-25 participated in semi-structured, face-to-face interviews to tell their stories and provide data of the memories of the experience. The…

  13. Adolescent Erotica and Female Self-Concept Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurowitz, Laurie; Gaier, Eugene

    1976-01-01

    Focuses on one specific kind of information and guidance employed by many adolescent females as a source of information on sexuality, female erotica, and for information on the female role--the female self concept. (Author/RK)

  14. Neuroendocrine Consequences of Androgen Excess in Female Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Foecking, Eileen M.; McDevitt, Melissa A.; Acosta-Martínez, Maricedes; Horton, Teresa H.; Levine, Jon E.

    2008-01-01

    Androgens exert significant organizational and activational effects on the nervous system and behavior. Despite the fact that female mammals generally produce low levels of androgens, relative to the male of the same species, increasing evidence suggests that androgens can exert profound effects on the normal physiology and behavior of females during fetal, neonatal, and adult stages of life. This review examines the effects of exposure to androgens at three stages of development – as an adult, during early postnatal life and as a fetus, on reproductive hormone secretions in female rats. We examine the effects of androgen exposure both as a model of neuroendocrine sexual differentiation and with respect to the role androgens play in the normal female. We then discuss the hypothesis that androgens may cause epigenetic modification of estrogen target genes in the brain. Finally we consider the clinical consequences of excess androgen exposure in women. PMID:18374922

  15. Neuroendocrine consequences of androgen excess in female rodents.

    PubMed

    Foecking, Eileen M; McDevitt, Melissa A; Acosta-Martínez, Maricedes; Horton, Teresa H; Levine, Jon E

    2008-05-01

    Androgens exert significant organizational and activational effects on the nervous system and behavior. Despite the fact that female mammals generally produce low levels of androgens, relative to the male of the same species, increasing evidence suggests that androgens can exert profound effects on the normal physiology and behavior of females during fetal, neonatal, and adult stages of life. This review examines the effects of exposure to androgens at three stages of development--as an adult, during early postnatal life and as a fetus, on reproductive hormone secretions in female rats. We examine the effects of androgen exposure both as a model of neuroendocrine sexual differentiation and with respect to the role androgens play in the normal female. We then discuss the hypothesis that androgens may cause epigenetic modification of estrogen target genes in the brain. Finally we consider the clinical consequences of excess androgen exposure in women. PMID:18374922

  16. Paradoxical effects of injection stress and nicotine exposure experienced during adolescence on learning in a serial multiple choice (SMC) task in adult female rats.

    PubMed

    Renaud, Samantha M; Pickens, Laura R G; Fountain, Stephen B

    2015-01-01

    Nicotine exposure in adolescent rats has been shown to cause learning impairments that persist into adulthood long after nicotine exposure has ended. This study was designed to assess the extent to which the effects of adolescent nicotine exposure on learning in adulthood can be accounted for by adolescent injection stress experienced concurrently with adolescent nicotine exposure. Female rats received either 0.033 mg/h nicotine (expressed as the weight of the free base) or bacteriostatic water vehicle by osmotic pump infusion on postnatal days 25-53 (P25-53). Half of the nicotine-exposed rats and half of the vehicle rats also received twice-daily injection stress consisting of intraperitoneal saline injections on P26-53. Together these procedures produced 4 groups: No Nicotine/No Stress, Nicotine/No Stress, No Nicotine/Stress, and Nicotine/Stress. On P65-99, rats were trained to perform a structurally complex 24-element serial pattern of responses in the serial multiple choice (SMC) task. Four general results were obtained in the current study. First, learning for within-chunk elements was not affected by either adolescent nicotine exposure, consistent with past work (Pickens, Rowan, Bevins, and Fountain, 2013), or adolescent injection stress. Thus, there were no effects of adolescent nicotine exposure or injection stress on adult within-chunk learning typically attributed to rule learning in the SMC task. Second, adolescent injection stress alone (i.e., without concurrent nicotine exposure) caused transient but significant facilitation of adult learning restricted to a single element of the 24-element pattern, namely, the "violation element," that was the only element of the pattern that was inconsistent with pattern structure. Thus, adolescent injection stress alone facilitated violation element acquisition in adulthood. Third, also consistent with past work (Pickens et al., 2013), adolescent nicotine exposure, in this case both with and without adolescent injection stress, caused a learning impairment in adulthood for the violation element in female rats. Thus, adolescent nicotine impaired adult violation element learning typically attributed to multiple-item learning in the SMC task. Fourth, a paradoxical interaction of injection stress and nicotine exposure in acquisition was observed. In the same female rats in which violation-element learning was impaired by adolescent nicotine exposure, adolescent nicotine experienced without adolescent injection stress produced better learning for chunk-boundary elements in adulthood compared to all other conditions. Thus, adolescent nicotine without concurrent injection stress facilitated adult chunk-boundary element learning typically attributed to concurrent stimulus-response discrimination learning and serial-position learning in the SMC task. To the best of our knowledge, the current study is the first to demonstrate facilitation of adult learning caused by adolescent nicotine exposure. PMID:25527003

  17. Female sexual abusers' cognition: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Gannon, Theresa A; Alleyne, Emma K A

    2013-01-01

    Until recently, the sexual offending literature focused on male perpetrators and neglected to examine the characteristics of female perpetrators. As a result, treatment provision for female sexual abusers has been either nonexistent or inappropriately adapted from programs designed for males. What we do know is that male and female sexual abusers share similarities; however, there remain distinct differences that warrant empirical and theoretical study. The current review systematically examines the literature on offense-supportive cognition in female sexual abusers. The aim of this systematic review is to aid clinical practitioners who work with female sexual abusers by providing an evaluation of current available research regarding implicit theories, rape myth acceptance, violence-supportive cognition, gender stereotypes, beliefs about sex, and empathy. We conclude that further research examining the offense-supportive cognition of female sexual abusers is needed in order to facilitate more effective empirically driven clinical practice. PMID:23093577

  18. Cognition in Males and Females with Autism: Similarities and Differences

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Meng-Chuan; Lombardo, Michael V.; Ruigrok, Amber N. V.; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Wheelwright, Sally J.; Auyeung, Bonnie; Allison, Carrie; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2012-01-01

    The male bias in autism spectrum conditions (ASC) has led to females with ASC being under-researched. This lack of attention to females could hide variability due to sex that may explain some of the heterogeneity within ASC. In this study we investigate four key cognitive domains (mentalizing and emotion perception, executive function, perceptual attention to detail, and motor function) in ASC, to test for similarities and differences between males and females with and without ASC (n?=?128 adults; n?=?32 per group). In the mentalizing and facial emotion perception domain, males and females with ASC showed similar deficits compared to neurotypical controls. However, in attention to detail and dexterity involving executive function, although males with ASC showed poorer performance relative to neurotypical males, females with ASC performed comparably to neurotypical females. We conclude that performance in the social-cognitive domain is equally impaired in male and female adults with ASC. However, in specific non-social cognitive domains, performance within ASC depends on sex. This suggests that in specific domains, cognitive profiles in ASC are modulated by sex. PMID:23094036

  19. Behavioral Differences Between Late Preweanling and Adult Female Sprague-Dawley Rat Exploration of Animate and Inanimate Stimuli and Food

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kiersten S.; Morrell, Joan I.

    2010-01-01

    The late preweanling rat has potential as a preclinical model for disorders initially manifested in early childhood that are characterized by dysfunctional interactions with specific stimuli (e.g., obsessive-compulsive disorder and autism). No reports, however, of specific-stimulus exploration in the late preweanling rat are found in the literature. We examined the behavioral responses of normal late preweanling (PND 18-19) and adult rats when presented with exemplars of categorically-varied stimuli, including inanimate objects systematically varied in size and interactive properties, biological stimuli, and food. Preweanlings were faster to initiate specific stimulus exploration and were more interactive with most specific stimuli than adults; the magnitude of these preweanling-adult quantitative differences ranged from fairly small to very large depending upon the stimulus. In contrast, preweanlings were adult-like in their interaction with food and prey. Preweanling response to some stimuli, for example to live pups, was qualitatively different from that of adults; the preweanling behavioral repertoire was characterized by pup-seeking while the adult response was characterized by pup-avoidance. The specific stimulus interactions of preweanlings were less impacted than those of adults by the time of day of testing and placement of a stimulus in an anxiety-provoking location. The impact of novelty was stimulus dependent. The differences in interactions of preweanlings versus adults with specific stimuli suggests that CNS systems underlying these behavior patterns are at different stages of immaturity at PND 18 such that there may be an array of developmental trajectories for various categories of specific stimuli. These data provide a basis for the use of the preweanling as a preclinical model for understanding and medicating human disorders during development that are characterized by dysfunctional interactions with specific stimuli. PMID:21056059

  20. Female teneral mating in a monandrous species

    PubMed Central

    Monceau, Karine; van Baaren, Joan

    2012-01-01

    Schultesia nitor is a gregarious species living in Cacicus and Psarocolius ssp. pouch-like nests. Due to gregariousness, opportunities for multiple copulations in both sexes are not supposed to be restricted. Females produce only one brood during their life and die within a few days following the birth of their nymphs, but this unique brood could be the result of either single or multiple mating events (i.e., monandry vs. polyandry). In this study, we first determined the age of sexual receptivity of both males and females. Larval development in this species is shorter in males than in females and thus, this species is protandric. Males were not able to copulate the day after emergence. Contrary to males, teneral females (i.e., females achieving their imaginal molt but not yet fully sclerotised and colored) were attractive and were able to mate with males. In the second experiment, we tested the existence of multiple matings in both sexes. Our results showed that females were monandrous whereas males were polygynous. Since we had observed that females were monoandrous, we expected them to be choosy and we determined their ability to discriminate between virgin and nonvirgin males. When given the choice, females preferred virgin males and overall, they were more successful at mating than experienced ones. Our results suggest that monandry may be primarily driven by the female’s short life-span fecundity. The occurrence of teneral mating in this species calls into question the existence of a male strategy for monopolizing females, and as well as the implication of female choice. Although further work is required, this species provides an interesting model for understanding sexual conflicts. PMID:22957151

  1. Fitness benefits of polyandry for experienced females.

    PubMed

    Whittingham, L A; Dunn, P O

    2010-06-01

    Females often mate with several different males, which may promote sperm competition and increase offspring viability. However, the potential benefits of polyandry remain controversial, particularly in birds where recent reviews have suggested that females gain few genetic benefits from extra-pair mating. In tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor), we found that females with prior breeding experience had more sires per brood when paired to genetically similar social mates, and, among experienced females, broods with more sires had higher hatching success. Individual females breeding in two consecutive years also produced broods with more sires when they were more genetically similar to their mate. Thus, experienced females were able to avoid the costs of mating with a genetically similar social mate and realize fitness benefits from mating with a relatively large number of males. This is one of the first studies to show that female breeding experience influences polyandry and female fitness in a natural population of vertebrates. Our results suggest that the benefits of polyandry may only be clear when considering both the number of mates females acquire and their ability to modify the outcome of sexual conflict. PMID:20444084

  2. The long term outcome of feminizing genital surgery for congenital adrenal hyperplasia: anatomical, functional and cosmetic outcomes, psychosexual development, and satisfaction in adult female patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nike M. M. L Stikkelbroeck; Catharina C. M Beerendonk; Wim N. P Willemsen; Conny A Schreuders-Bais; Wouter F. J Feitz; Paul N. M. A Rieu; Ad R. M. M Hermus; Barto J Otten

    2003-01-01

    BackgroundThere are only a few reports analyzing the long term outcome of feminizing surgery in females with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). Such analysis is crucial to evaluate the treatment and to make necessary adjustments.

  3. Acaricidal activity of ethanolic extract from aerial parts of Tagetes patula L. (Asteraceae) against larvae and engorged adult females of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus is the species with the largest worldwide distribution and is proven to be involved in the transmission of pathogens such as Babesia canis, Ehrlichia canis, Coxiella burnetii, Rickettsia ricketsii, Rickettsia conorii, among others. Studies have demonstrated acquisition of resistance to some of the active principles used in commercial formulations of acaricides. Tagetes patula (Asteraceae) is a plant with highlighted economic and commercial importance due to the production of secondary metabolites with insecticide and acaricide potential, mainly flavonoids, thiophenes and terpenes. Methods The in vitro acaricide action of the ethanolic 70% extract from aerial parts of T. patula, obtained by percolation, was evaluated against larvae and engorged adult females of Rhipicephalus sanguineus by immersion test for 5?minutes. The chemical characterization of this extract was done by liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS), using direct injection of sample. Results Despite T. patula not proving lethal to adults in any of the concentrations tested, at 50.0?mg/mL oviposition rate decreased by 21.5% and eliminated 99.78% of the larvae. Also it was determined that the best results were obtained with 5?minutes of immersion. From the chromatographic analysis twelve O-glycosylated flavonoids were identified. Conclusions This is the first report on the acaricidal activity of T. patula extract against Rh. sanguineus. If we consider the application of the product in the environment, we could completely eliminate the larval stage of development of the ixodid Rh. sanguineus. PMID:23244493

  4. Effects of dietary phenochlor DP5 on microsomal enzymes, liver, and blood lipids in adult male and female rats after subchronic and perinatal exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Poul, J.M.

    1987-08-01

    PCBs have numerous toxic effects on laboratory animals, namely hepatotoxicity, immunotoxicity, reproductive and hormonal effects, mutagenic and carcinogenic potency (Safe 1984). They have been recognized as potent inducers of many microsomal drug metabolizing enzymes in several species. Moreover, treatment of rats with PCBs gave rise to altered lipid metabolism with accumulation of lipids in the liver. In most of these studies male rats have been used. However, sex differences in the effects of xenobiotics on microsomal drug metabolizing enzymes have been shown particularly with PCBs and little was known about differences in the effects of PCBs on lipid metabolism. This study was designed to investigate the effects of a subchronic treatment with Phenochlor DP5 on some microsomal drug metabolizing enzyme activities and on liver and blood lipids of male and female rats. The long-term effects of DP5 administration during pre and postnatal period on adult microsomal enzyme activities and liver and blood lipids of both sexes have also been studied. A possible xenobiotic imprinting of the hepatic monooxygenase system during neonatal period has been shown recently, and it has been recognized that some functional defects which often manifest themselves in adult period may be induced prenatally or before weaning.

  5. A pubertal immune challenge alters the antidepressant-like effects of chronic estradiol treatment in inbred and outbred adult female mice

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Nafissa; Kumlin, Ashley M.; Blaustein, Jeffrey D.

    2012-01-01

    Puberty is a period characterized by brain reorganization that contributes to the development of neural and behavioral responses to gonadal steroids. A single injection of the bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), during the pubertal period decreases sexual receptivity in response to ovarian hormones in adulthood. Because chronic estradiol treatment alleviates depression-like symptoms in ovariectomized adult mice, we investigated the effect of pubertal LPS treatment on estradiol’s antidepressant effects. We hypothesized that pubertal LPS treatment would decrease the antidepressant-like effect of estradiol in adult ovariectomized female mice, as it decreases other behavioral responses to ovarian hormones. As expected, chronic estradiol treatment decreased depression-like behavior, as measured by the duration of immobility, in saline-treated mice from two different strains, as well as in mice treated with LPS in adulthood. In contrast, in mice treated pubertally with LPS, estradiol strikingly increased the duration of immobility. No difference in body weight and in locomotion was found among the groups, suggesting that the differences in depression-like behavior were not due to differences in body weight or locomotor activity between LPS-treated and control mice. These results suggest that exposure to an immune challenge during the pubertal period alters the responsiveness of depression-like behavior to estradiol. PMID:23036617

  6. Prenatal stress differentially affects habituation of corticosterone responses to repeated stress in adult male and female rats

    E-print Network

    Lee, Theresa

    Prenatal stress differentially affects habituation of corticosterone responses to repeated stress of the adult organism. In particular, prenatal exposure to stress represents one category of adverse early. In the present studies, we examined whether prenatal stress alters the habituation of hypothalamic

  7. Adult Female Twins' Recall of Childhood Social Class and Father's Education: A Validation Study for Public Health Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nancy Krieger; Akiko Okamoto; Joseph V. Selby

    To assess recall of childhood socioeconomic position for public health research, the authors conducted a cross-sectional study of 352 adult women twin pairs enrolled in Examination II of the Kaiser Permanente Women Twins Study carried out in 1989-1990 in Oakland, California. Among twin pairs, 91 % (95% confidence interval (Cl) 89-94%) agreed on their father's educational level and 81 %

  8. IDENTIFICATION OF METHYL FARNESOATE FROM IN VITRO CULTURE OF THE RETROCEREBRAL COMPLEX OF ADULT FEMALES OF THE MOTH, HELIOTHIS VIRESCENS (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE) AND ITS CONVERSION TO JUVENILE HORMONE III

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gas chromatographic-mass spectral analysis of extracts obtained from in vitro culture of isolated retrocerebral complexes obtained from adult females of the moth Heliothis virescens resulted in identification of methyl farnesoate as well as, juvenile hormone III (JH III) but not JH III acid. Inhibit...

  9. HIV Due to Female Sex Work: Regional and Global Estimates

    PubMed Central

    Prüss-Ustün, Annette; Wolf, Jennyfer; Driscoll, Tim; Degenhardt, Louisa; Neira, Maria; Calleja, Jesus Maria Garcia

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Female sex workers (FSWs) are at high risk of HIV infection. Our objective was to determine the proportion of HIV prevalence in the general female adult population that is attributable to the occupational exposure of female sex work, due to unprotected sexual intercourse. Methods Population attributable fractions of HIV prevalence due to female sex work were estimated for 2011. A systematic search was conducted to retrieve required input data from available sources. Data gaps of HIV prevalence in FSWs for 2011 were filled using multilevel modeling and multivariate linear regression. The fraction of HIV attributable to female sex work was estimated as the excess HIV burden in FSWs deducting the HIV burden in FSWs due to injecting drug use. Results An estimated fifteen percent of HIV in the general female adult population is attributable to (unsafe) female sex work. The region with the highest attributable fraction is Sub Saharan Africa, but the burden is also substantial for the Caribbean, Latin America and South and Southeast Asia. We estimate 106,000 deaths from HIV are a result of female sex work globally, 98,000 of which occur in Sub-Saharan Africa. If HIV prevalence in other population groups originating from sexual contact with FSWs had been considered, the overall attributable burden would probably be much larger. Discussion Female sex work is an important contributor to HIV transmission and the global HIV burden. Effective HIV prevention measures exist and have been successfully targeted at key populations in many settings. These must be scaled up. Conclusion FSWs suffer from high HIV burden and are a crucial core population for HIV transmission. Surveillance, prevention and treatment of HIV in FSWs should benefit both this often neglected vulnerable group and the general population. PMID:23717432

  10. Barrett's Esophagus in Females: A Comparative Analysis of Risk Factors in Females and Males

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Farzaneh Banki; Steven R. DeMeester; Rodney J. Mason; Guilherme Campos; Jeffrey A. Hagen; Jeffrey H. Peters; Cedric G. Bremner; Tom R. DeMeester

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES:Gastroesophageal reflux symptoms occur with similar frequency in males and females, yet Barrett's esophagus is less common in females. The reason for this disparity is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the factors related to Barrett's in females.METHODS:The records of 796 patients (462 male, 334 female) evaluated from 1990 to 2000 for symptoms of reflux were retrospectively

  11. Population transcriptomics of Drosophila melanogaster females

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lena Müller; Stephan Hutter; Rayna Stamboliyska; Sarah S Saminadin-Peter; Wolfgang Stephan; John Parsch

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Variation at the level of gene expression is abundant in natural populations and is thought to contribute to the adaptive divergence of populations and species. Gene expression also differs considerably between males and females. Here we report a microarray analysis of gene expression variation among females of 16 Drosophila melanogaster strains derived from natural populations, including eight strains from

  12. Sexual Selection in Males and Females

    E-print Network

    Sorenson, Michael

    Sexual Selection in Males and Females Tim Clutton-Brock Research on sexual selection shows that the evolution of secondary sexual characters in males and the distribution of sex differences are more complex involved. However, the operation of sexual selection in females has still received relatively little

  13. Multidimensionality of Locus of Control in Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearney, Maureen J.; Kearney, James F.

    The Internal-External (I-E) Locus of Control scale (Rotter, 1966) was administered to 185 male and 185 female university students. The resulting scores were factored, producing two factors for males and four for females. The male factors were the generally-accepted "luck" and "powerful others"; for women, however, the "powerful others" dimension…

  14. Immunity in the female sheep reproductive tract

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary Entrican; Nicholas M. Wheelhouse

    2006-01-01

    Immune surveillance in the female reproductive tract is dependent on the interplay of many factors that include the expression of pattern recognition receptors on epithelial cells, resident leukocyte populations and hormones, none of which are uniform. The lower reproductive tract must accommodate the presence of commensal organisms whereas the upper reproductive tract is sterile. However, the upper female reproductive tract

  15. Evolution of weaponry in female bovids

    PubMed Central

    Stankowich, Theodore; Caro, Tim

    2009-01-01

    Weaponry is ubiquitous in male ungulates and is driven by intrasexual selection, but the mystery surrounding its sporadic presence in females remains unsolved. Female horns are often smaller and shaped differently to male horns, suggesting a different function; indeed, hypotheses explaining the presence of female horns include competition for food, male mollification and defence against predators. Here we use comparative phylogenetic analyses to show that females are significantly more likely to bear horns in bovids that are conspicuous due to large body size and living in open habitats than inconspicuous species living in closed habitats or that are small. An inability to rely on crypsis or take refuge in deep vegetation has apparently driven the evolution of horns for defence against predators in female bovids, a finding supported by many field observations. Typically, exceptions are small species where females are territorial (e.g. duikers) and use horns in intrasexual contests. Furthermore, we suggest that conspicuousness and territoriality hypotheses may explain other instances of female cranial weaponry (i.e. antlers and ossicones) in other horned ruminants. Our phylogenetic reconstruction indicates that the primary function of horns in females is linked to antipredator defence in most clades, but occasionally to intrasexual competition in others. PMID:19759035

  16. Career Paths of Female Elementary Assistant Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baier, Hope C.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore the worklife experiences and personal issues of female elementary assistant principals and examine the influence of these factors on their intent to remain in their position or leave. The worklife experiences and perceptions of female elementary assistant principals were categorized as institutional or…

  17. Psychopathy and Recidivism Among Female Inmates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Randall T. Salekin; Richard Rogers; Karen L. Ustad; Kenneth W. Sewell

    1998-01-01

    Despite a plethora of studies investigating psychopathy among male offenders, little is known about the applicability of this construct to female populations. Research has shown that prevalence rate, symptom presentation, and diagnostic comorbidity differ for females as compared to males. The current study is the first to examine the relationship between psychopathy and recidivism among women. Recidivism data on a

  18. Counselors' Perceptions of Female and Male Clients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogel, David L.; Epting, Franz; Wester, Stephen R.

    2003-01-01

    Fifty-nine client cases were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. For female clients, themes of "vulnerability" and "attention to how clients assert themselves" were more pronounced than for male clients. For male clients, themes of "being stuck" and "attention to how the client connects to others" were more pronounced than for female

  19. Females' affective responses to reading erotic literature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald L. Mosher; Irene Greenberg

    1969-01-01

    The affective states of sexual arousal, guilt, anxiety, and 11 Nowlis mood factors were studied in 72 college females before and after reading either an erotic or an academically oriented literary passage, with a female E either present or absent, and as a function of the personality disposition of sex guilt. Ss who read the erotic passage showed a significant

  20. Rectal compliance in females with obstructed defecation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Gosselink; W. C. J. Hop; W. R. Schouten

    2001-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study was designed to investigate whether rectal compliance is altered in females with obstructed defecation. METHODS: Eighty female patients with obstructed defecation and 60 control subjects were studied. Rectal compliance was measured with an “infinitely compliant” polyethylene bag. This bag was inserted in the rectum and inflated with air to selected pressure plateaus (range, 0–60 mmHg; cumulative steps

  1. Career Patterns of Rural Female Educational Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallin, Dawn; Sackney, Larry

    2003-01-01

    A study examined the impact of the rural context upon the careers of women educational administrators in Saskatchewan. Surveys and interviews with 24 female rural administrators indicated that the behavior and career patterns of rural female administrators were influenced by the organizational context of the school and its community. A new…

  2. Characteristics Related to Female & Male Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Agnes M.

    2004-01-01

    The following research investigated gender and the leadership role and determined if there are differences in leadership styles, behaviors, traits, and characteristics between female leaders and male leaders. Literature suggests there are specific gender leadership differences between males and females in leadership styles, behaviors, traits, and…

  3. WHAT'S AHEAD IN 2014 Female Uniforms

    E-print Network

    to having hair secured to head. Hair restraining devices, if worn, will be black or navy blue in color 4221.c. Q ­ What are the appropriate female hair standards when wearing the PTU (Physical Training Uniform)? A ­ Hair grooming requirements for female Sailors while conducting command or unit PT

  4. The family relations of female juvenile delinquents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott W. Henggeler; James Edwards; Charles M. Borduin

    1987-01-01

    This study evaluated the assumption that the family relations of female delinquents are more dysfunctional than those of male delinquents. In a 2 × 2 (gender by delinquency status) design, 32 intact families were matched on demographic variables, and the male and female delinquents were matched on arrest data. Mothers, fathers, and adolescents were administered a selfreport personality inventory and

  5. Acoustic mate copying: female cowbirds attend to other females' vocalizations to modify their song preferences.

    PubMed

    Freed-Brown, Grace; White, David J

    2009-09-22

    We conducted a tutoring experiment to determine whether female brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) would attend to vocalizations of other females and use those cues to influence their own preferences for male courtship songs. We collected recordings of male songs that were unfamiliar to the subject females and paired half of the songs with female chatter vocalizations-vocalizations that females give in response to songs sung by males that are courting the females effectively. Thus, chatter immediately following a song provided a cue indicating that the song was sung by a male who was of high-enough quality to court a female successfully. Using a cross-over design, we tutored two groups of females with song-chatter pairings prior to the breeding season. In the breeding season, we placed the tutored females into sound-attenuating chambers and played them the same songs without the chatter. Females produced significantly more copulation solicitation displays in response to the songs that they had heard paired with chatter than to songs that had not been paired with chatter. This experiment is the first demonstration that females can modify their song preferences by attending to the vocal behaviour of other females. PMID:19535371

  6. Acoustic mate copying: female cowbirds attend to other females' vocalizations to modify their song preferences

    PubMed Central

    Freed-Brown, Grace; White, David J.

    2009-01-01

    We conducted a tutoring experiment to determine whether female brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) would attend to vocalizations of other females and use those cues to influence their own preferences for male courtship songs. We collected recordings of male songs that were unfamiliar to the subject females and paired half of the songs with female chatter vocalizations—vocalizations that females give in response to songs sung by males that are courting the females effectively. Thus, chatter immediately following a song provided a cue indicating that the song was sung by a male who was of high-enough quality to court a female successfully. Using a cross-over design, we tutored two groups of females with song–chatter pairings prior to the breeding season. In the breeding season, we placed the tutored females into sound-attenuating chambers and played them the same songs without the chatter. Females produced significantly more copulation solicitation displays in response to the songs that they had heard paired with chatter than to songs that had not been paired with chatter. This experiment is the first demonstration that females can modify their song preferences by attending to the vocal behaviour of other females. PMID:19535371

  7. Human sperm competition: ejaculate manipulation by females and a function for the female orgasm (1993)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Robin Baker; Mark A. Bellis

    Behavioural ecologists view monogamy as a subtle mixture of conflict and cooperation between the sexes. In part, conflict and cooperation is cryptic, taking place within the female’s reproductive tract. In this paper the cryptic interaction for humans was analysed using data from both a nationwide survey and counts of sperm inseminated into, and ejected by, females. On average, 35% of

  8. Risk Factors for the Female Athlete Triad among Female Collegiate and Noncollegiate Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Sharon H.; Gabriel, Melissa

    2004-01-01

    The female athlete triad, defined by eating disorders, menstrual dysfunction, and osteoporosis, has been increasing among female athletes. The purpose of this study was to examine eating disorders, performance-related injuries, menstrual dysfunction, exercise time, calcium intake, and orientation to exercise among undergraduate female collegiate…

  9. Management and Conservation Note Variation in Breeding Season Survival of Female

    E-print Network

    for 144 adult female harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) that we marked with radiotransmitters variation, harlequin duck, Histrionicus histrionicus, known-fate models, radiotelemetry, survival

  10. Homosexual behaviour increases male attractiveness to females.

    PubMed

    Bierbach, David; Jung, Christian T; Hornung, Simon; Streit, Bruno; Plath, Martin

    2013-02-23

    Male homosexual behaviour-although found in most extant clades across the Animal Kingdom-remains a conundrum, as same-sex mating should decrease male reproductive fitness. In most species, however, males that engage in same-sex sexual behaviour also mate with females, and in theory, same-sex mating could even increase male reproductive fitness if males improve their chances of future heterosexual mating. Females regularly use social information to choose a mate; e.g. male attractiveness increases after a male has interacted sexually with a female (mate choice copying). Here, we demonstrate that males of the tropical freshwater fish Poecilia mexicana increase their attractiveness to females not only by opposite-sex, but likewise, through same-sex interactions. Hence, direct benefits for males of exhibiting homosexual behaviour may help explain its occurrence and persistence in species in which females rely on mate choice copying as one component of mate quality assessment. PMID:23234866

  11. Homosexual behaviour increases male attractiveness to females

    PubMed Central

    Bierbach, David; Jung, Christian T.; Hornung, Simon; Streit, Bruno; Plath, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Male homosexual behaviour—although found in most extant clades across the Animal Kingdom—remains a conundrum, as same-sex mating should decrease male reproductive fitness. In most species, however, males that engage in same-sex sexual behaviour also mate with females, and in theory, same-sex mating could even increase male reproductive fitness if males improve their chances of future heterosexual mating. Females regularly use social information to choose a mate; e.g. male attractiveness increases after a male has interacted sexually with a female (mate choice copying). Here, we demonstrate that males of the tropical freshwater fish Poecilia mexicana increase their attractiveness to females not only by opposite-sex, but likewise, through same-sex interactions. Hence, direct benefits for males of exhibiting homosexual behaviour may help explain its occurrence and persistence in species in which females rely on mate choice copying as one component of mate quality assessment. PMID:23234866

  12. Perspective for Female Medical Physicists (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naqvi, Syed Mansoor; Hasnain, Aziz Fatima

    2009-04-01

    Due to cultural and religious reasons, Pakistani women can be reluctant to seek medical attention for disorders affecting their genitals or breasts. As a result, in the case of cervical and breast cancers, oncological treatment is often not received until the diseases are in the late stages. Once a cancer is classified and the tumor marked, the role of the medical physicist begins. Medical physicists' responsibilities include treatment planning, supervising treatment through radiation, dosimetry, contouring, training, equipment selection, education, research, and supervising radiotherapy facilities. In brachytherapy, isotopes are placed at the tumor site in the form of wires or seeds. There are very few female medical physicists in Pakistan. This leads to further hesitation on the part of many women to seek treatment. To help female patients obtain needed medical care, female physics students should be encouraged to pursue the emerging field of medical physics. This would provide a new professional opportunity for female physics students and give comfort to female patients.

  13. Female Athlete Triad: Past, Present, and Future.

    PubMed

    Matzkin, Elizabeth; Curry, Emily J; Whitlock, Kaitlyn

    2015-07-01

    After the passage of Title IX in 1972, female sports participation skyrocketed. In 1992, the female athlete triad was first defined; diagnosis required the presence of an eating disorder, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. However, many athletes remained undiagnosed because they did not meet all three of these criteria. In 2007, the definition was modified to a spectrum disorder involving low energy availability (with or without disordered eating), menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density. With the new definition, all three components need not be present for a diagnosis of female athlete triad. Studies using the 1992 definition of the disorder demonstrated a prevalence of 1% to 4% in athletes. However, in certain sports, many female athletes may meet at least one of these criteria. The actual prevalence of athletes who fall under the "umbrella" diagnosis of the female athlete triad remains unknown. PMID:26111876

  14. Is Age a More Salient Dimension for Males Than for Females?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kogan, Nathan; Mills, Montie

    Female aging, compared to male aging, is associated with a greater decline in status and attractiveness. To investigate whether sex differences in the perception of aging function at both the cognitive and affective levels, 76 college students (38 male, 38 female), with a mean age of 22.8, viewed slides of a male and female adult. Subjects were…

  15. Female sexual function and pelvic floor disorders

    PubMed Central

    Handa, Victoria L.; Cundiff, Geoffrey; Chang, Howard H.; Helzlsouer, Kathy J.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Sexual function is an important dimension of adult life and yet very little is known about the relationships between female sexuality and chronic health conditions, including pelvic floor disorders. Our goal was to investigate the hypothesis that pelvic floor disorders are associated with female sexual problems, independent of other related factors. Methods The study population included 301 adult women seeking outpatient gynecologic and urogynecologic care. Pelvic floor disorders were assessed with the Pelvic Floor Disorders Inventory-20 (PFDI) and the Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification examination. Sexual function was assessed with the Personal Experiences Questionnaire. Using ordinal regression analysis, we identified characteristics and conditions associated with decreased libido, infrequent orgasm, decreased arousal, and dyspareunia. Results Sexual function was poorer among 78 women (26%) without a current sexual partner than among 223 with a partner (p<0.01). Among the 223 with a current partner, women with a high PFDI score were significantly more likely to report decreased arousal (p<0.01), infrequent orgasm (p<0.01) and increased dyspareunia (p<0.01). A similar pattern was observed for the urinary, colorectal-anal, and prolapse scales of the PFDI, although some associations were marginally significant. Stage III–IV prolapse was significantly associated with infrequent orgasm (p=0.02), but other sexual complaints were not more common with increasing prolapse stage. Conclusion Pelvic floor symptoms are significantly associated with reduced sexual arousal, infrequent orgasm, and dyspareunia. Clinicians who care for women with pelvic floor disorders should be aware of this association and should specifically address sexual concerns with women seeking treatment of incontinence and prolapse. PMID:18448734

  16. The Pattern of Female Nuptiality in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Islam, M. Mazharul; Dorvlo, Atsu S.; Al-Qasmi, Ahmed M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine Omani patterns of female nuptiality, including the timing of marriage and determinants of age at a woman’s first marriage. Methods: The study utilised data from the 2000 Oman National Health Survey. Univariate, bivariate, and multivariate statistical methods, including logistic regression analysis, were used for data analysis. Results: One of the most important aspects of the marriage pattern in Oman is the high prevalence of consanguineous marriages, as more than half (52%) of the total marriages in Oman are consanguineous. First cousin unions are the most common type of consanguineous unions, constituting 39% of all marriages and 75% of all consanguineous marriages. About 11% of the marriages are polygynous. Early and universal marriage is still highly prevalent in Oman. Three-quarters (75%) of married women respondents aged 20–44 years were married by age 20, with their median age at their first wedding being 16 years. However, women’s average age upon marriage is gradually increasing. The change is especially apparent in more recent marriages or among younger cohorts of women, and for certain socio-cultural groups. Multivariate analysis identified female education, age cohort, residential status, region of residence, types of marriage, and employment as strong predictors of Omani women’s age at marriage. Conclusion: The growing number of young adults, accompanied by their tendency to delay marriage, may have serious demographic, social, economic, and political ramifications for Oman, highlighting the need to understand the new situation of youth, their unique characteristics, and their interests and demands. Culturally appropriate policies need to be implemented to address the issues and challenges of unmarried young adults. PMID:23573380

  17. Histopathology and ultrastructure features of the midgut of adult females of the tick Amblyomma cajennense Fabricius, 1787 (Acari: Ixodidae) in various feeding stages and submitted to three infestations.

    PubMed

    Caperucci, Débora; Camargo Mathias, Maria Izabel; Bechara, Gervásio Henrique

    2009-12-01

    The digestive tube of the tick Amblyomma cajennense is responsible for the digestion during feeding on the host. This study analyzed the midgut of unfed, partially engorged, and fully engorged fed females as well as three infestations in rabbits. In A. cajennense, the digestive tube is long and from the midgut, two pairs of diverticula ramify and lead to a blind end. In some midgut regions were observed for the first time in ticks, structures termed here "nodules." The midgut of unfed females possesses a pseudostratified epithelium composed of digestive and generative cells. In partially engorged and engorged females at 1st infestation and partially engorged at 2nd infestation, the epithelium becomes stratified. In partially engorged females at 2nd infestation, the epithelium exhibits a third cell type: secretory cell. So the intestinal epithelium undergoes several changes during the feeding process in ticks at subsequent infestations. As infestations progress in the same host, the latter becomes more resistant and female ticks require more days to complete their feeding cycle, which in A. cajennense is 25 days. PMID:19929171

  18. Novel GJB1 mutation causing adult-onset Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease in a female patient.

    PubMed

    Martikainen, Mika H; Majamaa, Kari

    2013-11-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT), which is the eponym for hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN), affects ?1 in 2500 individuals. The most common subtype of X-linked CMT, CMTX1, is caused by mutations in GJB1, the gene encoding connexin 32, a gap junction protein in myelinated Schwann cells. We report a woman, who presented at the age of 56 years with gait unsteadiness and tingling in her feet. Clinical investigation revealed impaired sensation to pinprick, light touch and vibration in her distal lower limbs. Ankle reflexes were bilaterally absent. Sequencing revealed a novel heterozygous c.712C>T (p.R238C) mutation in the GJB1 gene. This mutation is predicted to result in the loss of disulfide bonds and thus in abnormal protein structure. In this woman, the reported novel GJB1 mutation resulted in sensory abnormalities, slowly progressive loss of distal lower limb strength, and notable loss of balance, with onset of symptoms late in adult age. PMID:23838279

  19. Childhood Executive Function Continues to Predict Outcomes in Young Adult Females with and Without Childhood-Diagnosed ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Nevado-Montenegro, Adriana J.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.

    2014-01-01

    We prospectively followed an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of preadolescent girls with ADHD (n=140) and matched comparison girls (n=88) over a period of 10 years, from middle childhood through late adolescence/young adulthood. Our aim was to examine the ability of childhood measures of executive function (EF) to predict functional outcomes at follow-up. Measures of EF comprised the childhood predictors, with academic, socioemotional, occupational, and global functioning serving as young adult criterion measures. Results indicated that childhood EF – particularly measures of global EF and working memory – predicted academic and occupational functioning across our entire sample (independent of diagnostic group status), but diagnostic status (ADHD versus comparison) moderated the association between (a) working memory and reading achievement and (b) a global EF measure and suspensions/expulsions. That is, in the ADHD group, low working memory predicted poor reading scores and impaired global EF predicted higher suspensions/expulsions, but this was not the case in the comparison group. Overall, these results extend previous findings of associations between EF and adolescent outcomes in girls with and without ADHD into young adulthood. Findings continue to suggest the importance of assessing and developing interventions that target EF impairments early in life in order to prevent long-term difficulties across a range of important functional domains. PMID:22124540

  20. Regulation of reproduction- and biomarker-related gene expression by sex steroids in the livers and ovaries of adult female western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis).

    PubMed

    Huang, Guo-Yong; Ying, Guang-Guo; Liu, Shan; Fang, Yi-Xiang

    2012-05-01

    To assess the adverse toxicological effects of steroid hormones on western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis), 180 adult females were exposed to individual or binary combinations of progesterone (1?g/L), testosterone (1?g/L) and 17?-estradiol (1?g/L) for eight days. The expression patterns of vitellogenin, estrogen receptor, androgen receptor, metallothionein, and cytochrome P450 1A genes in mosquitofish varied according to tissue as well as the specificity of steroids. Treatment by progesterone or testosterone alone inhibited target gene expression in the livers. The expression levels of both vitellogenin A and vitellogenin B mRNAs were up-regulated by17?-estradiol, and a parallel induction of estrogen receptor ? mRNA expression was also observed in the livers. In addition, 17?-estradiol treatment alone suppressed androgen receptor ?, metallothionein and cytochrome P450 1A mRNA expression in the livers. In general, multiple hormone treatments had different effects on target gene expression compared with corresponding hormone alone. The results demonstrate that steroid hormones cause multiple biological responses including the expression of vitellogenin, estrogen receptor and androgen receptor mRNA in the hormone signaling pathways and the expression of metallothionein and cytochrome P450 1A mRNA in the xenobiotic signaling pathway. PMID:22353216

  1. Changes in volatile emissions from apple trees and associated response of adult female codling moths over the fruit-growing season.

    PubMed

    Vallat, Armelle; Dorn, Silvia

    2005-05-18

    Odors in the headspace of apple trees were characterized by in situ volatile collections in the orchard. Sixty-two compounds were quantitatively identified with thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry over the complete fruit-growing season. Overall quantities in the headspace of fruit-bearing twig were highest at petal fall and at the beginning of June and August. Interestingly, the latter two periods coincide with the flight maxima of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella, one of the principal pest insects of apple fruit worldwide. Dual-choice bioassays with mated adult female moths in a Y-tube olfactometer showed that the blend of plant-derived volatiles repelled this key pest of apple at petal fall and attracted it from July to mid-August. Single-component analysis indicated that benzaldehyde and butyl acetate might contribute to the observed repellent effect, but the constituents accounting for the attractant effect mid-season remain to be further elucidated. The attractant effect clearly originates from the apple fruit and not from the twig with leaves, as bioassays demonstrated conclusively. PMID:15884843

  2. Females exceed males in mercury concentrations of burbot Lota lota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Stapanian, Martin A.; Cott, Peter A.; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Edwards, William; Ogilvie, Lynn M.; Mychek-Londer, Justin G.; DeWild, John F.

    2015-01-01

    Examination of differences in contaminant concentrations between sexes of fish, across several fish species, may reveal clues for important behavioral and physiological differences between the sexes. We determined whole-fish total mercury (Hg) concentrations of 25 male and 25 female adult burbot Lota lota captured in Lake Erie during summer 2011, and of 14 male and 18 female adult burbot captured in Great Slave Lake (Northwest Territories, Canada) during winter 2013. On average, females were 22 % greater in Hg concentration than males. This difference was probably not due to a greater feeding rate by females, because results from previous studies based on polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) determinations of these same burbot indicated that males fed at a substantially greater rate than females. Based on our determinations of Hg concentrations in the gonads and somatic tissue of five ripe females and five ripe males, this difference was not attributable to changes in Hg concentration immediately after spawning due to release of gametes. Further, bioenergetics modeling results from previous studies indicated that growth dilution would not explain any portion of this observed difference in Hg concentrations between the sexes. We, therefore, conclude that this difference was most likely due to a substantially faster rate of Hg elimination by males compared with females. Male burbot exhibit among the greatest gonadosomatic indices (GSIs) of all male fishes, with their testes accounting for between 10 and 15 % of their body weight when the fish are in ripe condition. Androgens have been linked to enhanced Hg elimination rates in other vertebrates. If androgen production is positively related to GSI, then male burbot would be expected to have among the greatest androgen levels of all fishes. Thus, we hypothesize that male burbot eliminate Hg from their bodies faster than most other male fishes, and this explains the greater Hg concentration in females compared with males.

  3. Females exceed males in mercury concentrations of burbot Lota lota.

    PubMed

    Madenjian, Charles P; Stapanian, Martin A; Cott, Peter A; Krabbenhoft, David P; Edwards, William H; Ogilvie, Lynn M; Mychek-Londer, Justin G; DeWild, John F

    2015-05-01

    Examination of differences in contaminant concentrations between the sexes of fish, across several fish species, may show clues for important behavioral and physiological differences between the sexes. We determined whole-fish total mercury (Hg) concentrations of 25 male and 25 female adult burbot Lota lota captured in Lake Erie during summer 2011 and of 14 male and 18 female adult burbot captured in Great Slave Lake (Northwest Territories, Canada) during winter 2013. On average, females had 22 % greater Hg concentrations than males. This difference was probably not due to a greater feeding rate by females because results from previous studies based on polychlorinated biphenyl determinations of these same burbot indicated that males fed at a substantially greater rate than females. Based on our determinations of Hg concentrations in the gonads and somatic tissue of 5 ripe females and 5 ripe males, this difference was not attributable to changes in Hg concentration immediately after spawning due to the release of gametes. Furthermore, bioenergetics modeling results from previous studies indicated that growth dilution would not explain any portion of this observed difference in Hg concentrations between the sexes. We therefore conclude that this difference was most likely due to a substantially faster rate of Hg elimination by males compared with females. Male burbot exhibit among the greatest gonadosomatic indices (GSIs) of all male fishes, with their testes accounting for between 10 and 15 % of their body weight when the fish are in ripe condition. Androgens have been linked to enhanced Hg-elimination rates in other vertebrates. If androgen production is positively related to GSI, then male burbot would be expected to have among the greatest androgen levels of all fishes. Thus, we hypothesize that male burbot eliminate Hg from their bodies faster than most other male fishes and that this explains the greater Hg concentration in females compared with males. PMID:25628029

  4. 2-Bromopropane Causes Ovarian Dysfunction by Damaging Primordial Follicles and Their Oocytes in Female Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaozhong Yu; Michihiro Kamijima; Gaku Ichihara; Wenxin Li; Junzoh Kitoh; Zhenlin Xie; Eiji Shibata; Naomi Hisanaga; Yasuhiro Takeuchi

    1999-01-01

    Ovarian dysfunction induced by 2-bromopropane (2-BP) has been described in female factory workers and experimental animals. However, the underlying mechanism is still unclear. To establish the reproductive target site and define mechanisms of 2-BP toxicity in adult female rats, we examined the effects of different doses and duration of exposure to 2-BP in female rats. In the dose-dependent experiments, female

  5. PARTIAL MIGRATION, AND LEK AND NESTING AREA FIDELITY IN FEMALE GREAT BUSTARDS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan C. Alonso; Manuel B. Morales; Javier A. Alonso

    2000-01-01

    We examined the seasonal movements of wing-tagged and radio-marked adult female Great Bustards Otis tarda in a population in northwestern Spain. Four different movement patterns were found: females that migrated between breeding and wintering areas (20%) females that only left their year-round home range area to mate (32%), females that migrated from a wintering-mating area to a nesting-summering area (16%),

  6. Visual perception of female physical attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Fan, J; Liu, F; Wu, J; Dai, W

    2004-02-22

    On the basis of visual assessment of figure drawings and front/profile images, past researchers believed that the waist-hip ratio (WHR) and the body mass index (BMI) were two putative cues to female physical attractiveness. However, this view was not tested on three-dimensional (3D) female images. In the present study, 3D images of 31 Caucasian females having varying body weights (BMI ranged from 16 to 35) were shown to 29 male and 25 female viewers, who were asked to rate the physical attractiveness. The results showed that the body volume divided by the square of the height, defined as volume height index (VHI), is the most important and direct visual determinant of female physical attractiveness. In determining the female attractiveness, human observers may first use VHI as a visual cue, which is also a key indicator of health and fertility owing to its strong linear relation to BMI. To fine-tune the judgement, observers may then use body proportions, the most important of which are the ratio of waist height over the chin height (WHC) (a measure of the length of legs over total tallness) and the deviation of WHR from the ideal ratio. It also appears that the effect of the body's physical parameters on the perception of female physical attractiveness conforms to Stevens' power law of psychophysics. PMID:15101692

  7. Visual perception of female physical attractiveness.

    PubMed Central

    Fan, J.; Liu, F.; Wu, J.; Dai, W.

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of visual assessment of figure drawings and front/profile images, past researchers believed that the waist-hip ratio (WHR) and the body mass index (BMI) were two putative cues to female physical attractiveness. However, this view was not tested on three-dimensional (3D) female images. In the present study, 3D images of 31 Caucasian females having varying body weights (BMI ranged from 16 to 35) were shown to 29 male and 25 female viewers, who were asked to rate the physical attractiveness. The results showed that the body volume divided by the square of the height, defined as volume height index (VHI), is the most important and direct visual determinant of female physical attractiveness. In determining the female attractiveness, human observers may first use VHI as a visual cue, which is also a key indicator of health and fertility owing to its strong linear relation to BMI. To fine-tune the judgement, observers may then use body proportions, the most important of which are the ratio of waist height over the chin height (WHC) (a measure of the length of legs over total tallness) and the deviation of WHR from the ideal ratio. It also appears that the effect of the body's physical parameters on the perception of female physical attractiveness conforms to Stevens' power law of psychophysics. PMID:15101692

  8. Evolution of Female Preference for Younger Males

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Christopher W.; Promislow, Daniel E. L.

    2007-01-01

    Previous theoretical work has suggested that females should prefer to mate with older males, as older males should have higher fitness than the average fitness of the cohort into which they were born. However, studies in humans and model organisms have shown that as males age, they accumulate deleterious mutations in their germ-line at an ever-increasing rate, thereby reducing the quality of genes passed on to the next generation. Thus, older males may produce relatively poor-quality offspring. To better understand how male age influences female mate preference and offspring quality, we used a genetic algorithm model to study the effect of age-related increases in male genetic load on female mate preference. When we incorporate age-related increases in mutation load in males into our model, we find that females evolve a preference for younger males. Females in this model could determine a male's age, but not his inherited genotype nor his mutation load. Nevertheless, females evolved age-preferences that led them to mate with males that had low mutation loads, but showed no preference for males with respect to their somatic quality. These results suggest that germ-line quality, rather than somatic quality, should be the focus of female preference in good genes models. PMID:17895980

  9. Sexuality of male-to-female transsexuals.

    PubMed

    Veale, Jaimie F; Clarke, Dave E; Lomax, Terri C

    2008-08-01

    Blanchard's (J Nerv Ment Dis 177:616-623, 1989) theory of autogynephilia suggests that male-to-female transsexuals can be categorized into different types based on their sexuality. Little previous research has compared the sexuality of male-to-female transsexuals to biological females. The present study examined 15 aspects of sexuality among a non-clinical sample of 234 transsexuals and 127 biological females, using either an online or a paper questionnaire. The results showed that, overall, transsexuals tended to place more importance on partner's physical attractiveness and reported higher scores on Blanchard's Core Autogynephilia Scale than biological females. In addition, transsexuals classified as autogynephilic scored significantly higher on Attraction to Feminine Males, Core Autogynephilia, Autogynephilic Interpersonal Fantasy, Fetishism, Preference for Younger Partners, Interest in Uncommitted Sex, Importance of Partner Physical Attractiveness, and Attraction to Transgender Fiction than other transsexuals and biological females. In accordance with Blanchard's theory, autogynephilia measures were positively correlated to Sexual Attraction to Females among transsexuals. In contrast to Blanchard's theory, however, those transsexuals classified as autogynephilic scored higher on average on Sexual Attraction to Males than those classified as non-autogynephilic, and no transsexuals classified as autogynephilic reported asexuality. PMID:18299976

  10. Predicting mercury concentrations in mallard eggs from mercury in the diet or blood of adult females and from duckling down feathers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Klimstra, J.D.; Stebbins, K.R.

    2010-01-01

    Measurements of Hg concentrations in avian eggs can be used to predict possible harm to reproduction, but it is not always possible to sample eggs. When eggs cannot be sampled, some substitute tissue, such as female blood, the diet of the breeding female, or down feathers of hatchlings, must be used. When female mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were fed diets containing methylmercury chloride, the concentration of Hg in a sample of their blood was closely correlated with the concentration of Hg in the egg they laid the day they were bled (r2=0.88; p<0.001). Even when the blood sample was taken more than two weeks after an egg was laid, there was a strong correlation between Hg concentrations in female blood and eggs (r2=0.67; p<0.0002). When we plotted the dietary concentrations of Hg we fed to the egg-laying females against the concentrations of Hg in their eggs, the r2 value was 0.96 (p<0.0001). When the concentrations of Hg in the down feathers of newly hatched ducklings were plotted against Hg in the whole ducklings, the r 2 value was 0.99 ( p<0.0003). Although measuring Hg in eggs may be the most direct way of predicting possible embryotoxicity, our findings demonstrate that measuring Hg in the diet of breeding birds, in the blood of egg-laying females, or in down feathers of hatchlings all can be used to estimate what concentration of Hg may have been in the egg.

  11. First Class of Female Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    From left to right are Shannon W. Lucid, Margaret Rhea Seddon, Kathryn D. Sullivan, Judith A. Resnik, Anna L. Fisher, and Sally K. Ride. NASA selected all six women as their first female astronaut candidates in January 1978, allowing them to enroll in a training program that they completed in August 1979. Shannon W. Lucid was born on January 14, 1943 in Shanghai, China but considers Bethany, Oklahoma to be her hometown. She spent many years at the University of Oklahoma, receiving a Bachelor in chemistry in 1963, a Master in biochemistry in 1970, and a Doctorate in biochemistry in 1973. Dr. Lucid flew on the STS-51G Discovery, STS-34 Atlantis, STS-43 Atlantis, and STS-58 Columbia shuttle missions, setting the record for female astronauts by logging 838 hours and 54 minutes in space. She also currently holds the United States single mission space flight endurance record for her 188 days on the Russian Space Station Mir. From February 2002 to September 2003, she served as chief scientist at NASA Headquarters before returning to JSC to help with the Return to Flight program after the STS-107 accident. Born November 8, 1947, in Murfreesboro, Tennessee, Margaret Rhea Seddon received a Doctorate of Medicine in 1973 from the University of Tennessee. She flew on space missions STS-51 Discovery, STS-40 Columbia, and STS-58 Columbia for a total of over 722 hours in space. Dr. Seddon retired from NASA in November 1997, taking on a position as the Assistant Chief Medical Officer of the Vanderbilt Medical Group in Nashville, Tennessee. Kathryn Sullivan was born October 3, 1951 in Patterson, New Jersey but considers Woodland Hills, California to be her hometown. She received a Bachelor in Earth Sciences from the University of California, Santa Cruz in 1973 and a Doctorate in Geology from Dalhousie University in Halifax, Nova Scotia in 1978. She flew on space missions STS-41G, STS-31, and STS-45 and logged a total of 532 hours in space. Dr. Sullivan left NASA in August 1992 to assume the position of Chief Scientist of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). She later went on to serve as President and CEO of the Center of Science and Industry in Columbus, Ohio. Dr. Judith Resnik was born April 5, 1949 in Akron, Ohio. She received a Bachelor of Science degree in Electrical Engineering from Carnegie-Mellon University in 1970, and a Doctorate in Electrical Engineering from University of Maryland in 1977. Dr. Resnik left a job as a senior systems engineer in product development with Xerox Corporation at El Segundo, California to work for NASA in 1978. She died on January 28, 1986 on her second mission, during the launch of Challenger STS-51-L. Anna Fisher was born August 24, 1949 in New York City, New York hometown. She received a Doctorate in Medicine in 1976 and a Master of Science in Chemistry in 1987, both from the University of California, Los Angeles. Dr. Fisher flew on STS-51A, the Space Shuttle Discovery's November 8, 1984 mission, and logged 192 hours in space; her second schedule mission was cancelled after the Space Shuttle Challenger STS-51L accident. She remains with NASA, where she has filled many positions over decades of service. Dr. Sally Ride was the first American woman in space. Born on May 26, 1951 in Los Angeles, California, she went on to receive a Bachelor in Physics and English in 1973 from Stanford University and, later, a Master in Physics in 1975 and a Doctorate in Physics in 1978, also from Stanford. She began her astronaut career as a mission specialist on STS-7, which launched from Kennedy Space Center, Florida on June 18, 1983, and later went on to fly on STS-41G. She withdrew from training for her third scheduled mission in order to serve on the investigative committee for the Space Shuttle Challenger accident and never returned to training, although she went on to work for headquarters and later to serve on the Columbia Accident Investigation Board before returning to the private sector as a physics professor.

  12. Ratio of n-3/n-6 PUFAs and risk of breast cancer: a meta-analysis of 274135 adult females from 11 independent prospective studies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Increased ratio of n-3/n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in diet or serum may have a protective effect on the risk of breast cancer (BC); however, the conclusions from prospective studies are still controversial. The purpose of this study is to ascertain the relationship between intake ratio of n-3/n-6 PUFAs and the risk of BC, and estimate the potential summarized dose–response trend. Methods Relevant English-language studies were identified through Cochrane Library, PubMed and EMBASE database till April 2013. Eligible prospective studies reporting the multivariate adjusted risk ratios (RRs) for association of n-3/n-6 PUFAs ratio in diet or serum with BC risk. Data extraction was conducted independently by 2 investigators; disagreements were reconciled by consensus. Study quality was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Study-specific RRs were combined via a random-effects model. Results Six prospective nested case–control and 5 cohort studies, involving 8,331 BC events from 274,135 adult females across different countries, were included in present study. Subjects with higher dietary intake ratio of n-3/n-6 PUFAs have a significantly lower risk of BC among study populations (pooled RR = 0.90; 95% CI: 0.82, 0.99), and per 1/10 increment of ratio in diet was associated with a 6% reduction of BC risk (pooled RR = 0.94; 95% CI: 0.90, 0.99; P for linear trend = 0.012). USA subjects with higher ratio of n-3/n-6 in serum phospholipids (PL) have a significantly lower risk of BC (pooled RR = 0.62; 95% CI: 0.39, 0.97; I2 = 0.00%; P for metaregression = 0.103; P for a permutation test = 0.100), and per 1/10 increment of ratio in serum PL was associated with 27% reduction of BC risk (pooled RR = 0.73; 95% CI: 0.59, 0.91; P for linear trend = 0.004; P for metaregression = 0.082; P for a permutation test = 0.116). Conclusions Higher intake ratio of n-3/n-6 PUFAs is associated with lower risk of BC among females, which implies an important evidence for BC prevention and treatment is by increasing dietary intake ratio of n-3/n-6 PUFA. No firm conclusions from USA populations could be obtained, due to the limited numbers of USA studies. PMID:24548731

  13. Extension of RPI-adult male and female computational phantoms to obese patients and a Monte Carlo study of the effect on CT imaging dose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Aiping; Mille, Matthew M.; Liu, Tianyu; Caracappa, Peter F.; Xu, X. George

    2012-05-01

    Although it is known that obesity has a profound effect on x-ray computed tomography (CT) image quality and patient organ dose, quantitative data describing this relationship are not currently available. This study examines the effect of obesity on the calculated radiation dose to organs and tissues from CT using newly developed phantoms representing overweight and obese patients. These phantoms were derived from the previously developed RPI-adult male and female computational phantoms. The result was a set of ten phantoms (five males, five females) with body mass indexes ranging from 23.5 (normal body weight) to 46.4 kg m-2 (morbidly obese). The phantoms were modeled using triangular mesh geometry and include specified amounts of the subcutaneous adipose tissue and visceral adipose tissue. The mesh-based phantoms were then voxelized and defined in the Monte Carlo N-Particle Extended code to calculate organ doses from CT imaging. Chest-abdomen-pelvis scanning protocols for a GE LightSpeed 16 scanner operating at 120 and 140 kVp were considered. It was found that for the same scanner operating parameters, radiation doses to organs deep in the abdomen (e.g., colon) can be up to 59% smaller for obese individuals compared to those of normal body weight. This effect was found to be less significant for shallow organs. On the other hand, increasing the tube potential from 120 to 140 kVp for the same obese individual resulted in increased organ doses by as much as 56% for organs within the scan field (e.g., stomach) and 62% for those out of the scan field (e.g., thyroid), respectively. As higher tube currents are often used for larger patients to maintain image quality, it was of interest to quantify the associated effective dose. It was found from this study that when the mAs was doubled for the obese level-I, obese level-II and morbidly-obese phantoms, the effective dose relative to that of the normal weight phantom increased by 57%, 42% and 23%, respectively. This set of new obese phantoms can be used in the future to study the optimization of image quality and radiation dose for patients of different weight classifications. Our ultimate goal is to compile all the data derived from these phantoms into a comprehensive dosimetry database defined in the VirtualDose software.

  14. Black and White Adolescent Females Perceptions of Ideal Body Size.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parnell, Kathy; And Others

    1996-01-01

    White and black adolescent females (n=344) participated in a survey of ideal body size beliefs using a questionnaire and 9 female and male body size drawings. Black females preferred a significantly heavier ideal female body size than whites and perceived that their parents and friends would select as ideal a significantly heavier female body size…

  15. Anxiety in females induced by long-lasting psychoemotional influences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. F. Avgustinovich

    2005-01-01

    The experiments reported here addressed the behavior of female mice after long-lasting psychoemotional influences consisting of daily placing of females in the presence of intermale confrontations, the females being on the other side of a transparent perforated partition; females were subsequently placed in the territory (litter) in which the conflict had taken place. These conditions induced anxiety in the females,

  16. Natural attachment duration of adult female ticks Ixodes uriae (Acari: Ixodidae) on free-living adult black-legged kittiwakes Rissa tridactyla

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. K. FINNEY; S. WANLESS; D. A. ELSTON

    1999-01-01

    An investigation into the attachment duration of the tick Ixodes uriae on free-living adult black-legged kittiwakes Rissa tridactyla was carried out at a colony in southeast Scotland. Adult kittiwakes (n 5 14) were caught and searched for ticks. Newly attached ticks (n 5 31) were marked as was the bird before its release. These birds were recaptured at intervals of

  17. Infanticide in great reed warblers: secondary females destroy eggs of primary females

    PubMed

    Hansson; Bensch; Hasselquist

    1997-08-01

    In 1994-1995 artificial nests with attached model eggs were put into territories that were known to have been occupied by male great reed warblers, Acrocephalus arundinaceusin previous years. Because the eggs were made of soft plasticine, predators left peckmarks in them and this enabled us to identify predators by comparing peckmarks with reference marks made by various species. Previous field data had suggested that infanticidal behaviour existed in our study population, as nests of primary females suffered a three times higher rate of nest loss during the egg-laying period than nests of secondary and monogamous females. The presence of infanticide was supported by the experiment. Small peckmarks resembling those of a great reed warbler occurred almost exclusively in territories occupied by great reed warblers, in particular when a new female settled in the territory. The newly settled females built nests closer to depredated than non-depredated nests. That small peckmarks occurred when new females settled strongly suggests that it is secondary female great reed warblers that commit infanticide on eggs of primary females. Females of low harem rank are expected to gain from infanticidal behaviour because a low ranked female gets a higher proportion of male parental investment when the nest of the primary female fails. PMID:9268460

  18. A Physiologic Profile Comparing Levels and Styles of Female Dancers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chmelar, Robin D.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Comparison of 39 adult female dancers indicated that professional ballet dancers had significantly lower maximal oxygen uptake and lower peak blood lactate levels than other dancers (professional modern, university ballet or modern). Professional ballet dancers also had a significantly higher isokinetic hamstring-quadriceps ratio than modern…

  19. Internet Use Among Female and Male College Students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia M. Odell; Kathleen O. Korgen; Phyllis Schumacher; Michael Delucchi

    2000-01-01

    A review of the recent literature concerning Internet usage among Americans reveals that the once stark gender gap is closing rapidly, but disparities remain in the purposes for which males and females use the Internet. Almost all of this research, however, is based on cross sections of American adults. Much less Internet research has focused on the college student population

  20. Factors Assisting Female Clients' Disclosure of Incest during Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Josephson, Gilda S.; Fong-Beyette, Margaret L.

    1987-01-01

    Explored specific behaviors and characteristics of counselors that relate to adult, female clients' disclosure of incest during counseling. Suggests that factors related to initial disclosure and exploration of incest are client readiness, direct questioning by the counselor, specific counselor characteristics, and positive counselor reactions to…

  1. When Authority = She: A Male Student Meets a Female Instructor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallos, Joan V.

    1995-01-01

    The story of an encounter between a male student and a female instructor illustrates the subtle but powerful interaction between gender and individual development in adult education. Productive instructor responses include taking a nondefensive stance, using a repertoire of techniques, practicing self-management, focusing on learning, and…

  2. Tissue injury and repair in the female human reproductive tract

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lois A. Salamonsen

    2003-01-01

    The female reproductive tract is unique in its capacity to remodel constantly throughout adult life. Some of the remodelling events that occur naturally in the uterus, specifically menstruation, parturition, endometrial regeneration and uterine involution, have features in common with events of tissue injury and repair in other tissues, where they may occur after injury or in association with various pathologies.

  3. The Effects of Interpersonal Confrontation on Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, John J.; Remer, Rory

    1984-01-01

    Tested a three-component, structured approach to conflict resolution in female undergraduate students (N=48). Results indicated that the three-component model tested can provide a viable means for facilitating negotiation and possible resolution of interpersonal conflict. (LLL)

  4. Roles of PLC?1 in female reproduction 

    E-print Network

    Filis, Panayiotis

    2011-06-27

    In mammals, development of a new organism requires fertilisation of the female egg by sperm. The resulting zygote develops into the blastocyst stage as it travels towards the uterus. Within the uterus, the blastocyst ...

  5. Secondary Amenorrhea among Female Athletes. Current Understandings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasiene, Gwen Hagenbuch

    1983-01-01

    Research pertaining to female athletes' problems with secondary amenorrhea is reviewed. Studies point to stress, weight loss, anorexia nervosa, obesity, arduous athletic training, and age of onset of training as factors which may contribute to this disorder. (PP)

  6. A dose–response study following in utero and lactational exposure to di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP): Reproductive effects on adult female offspring rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simone W. Grande; Anderson J. M. Andrade; Chris E. Talsness; Konstanze Grote; Andrea Golombiewski; Anja Sterner-Kock; Ibrahim Chahoud

    2007-01-01

    Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is used in numerous consumer products, mainly imparting flexibility and durability to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) based plastics. It is a known reproductive and developmental toxicant in male rodents. However, data regarding effects of DEHP on female reproductive health are particularly sparse. We performed an extensive dose–response study following developmental exposure to DEHP and evaluated the effects on

  7. The reference transcriptome of the adult female biting midge (Culicoides sonorensis) and differential gene expression profiling during teneral, blood, and sucrose feeding conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unlike other important vectors such as mosquitoes and sandflies, genetic and genomic tools for Culicoides biting midges are lacking, despite the fact that they vector a large number of arboviruses and other pathogens impacting humans and domestic animals world-wide. In North America, female Culicoid...

  8. Sexual dysfunctions of chronic schizophrenic female patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. V. Miclutia; C. A. Popescu; R. S. Macrea

    2008-01-01

    Schizophrenic patients reveal sexual dysfunctions at the onset of the disorder but more profound in chronicity, after long-term anti-psychotic treatment. Various aspects of the sexuality of chronic female schizophrenic patients and sexual side-effects of conventional and atypical anti-psychotics were evaluated. Fifty female chronic schizophrenic patients treated with conventional and atypical anti-psychotics, compared to 50 matched controls, were assessed with: PANSS,

  9. Female Response to Sexually Explicit Films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sara E. Pearson; Robert H. Pollack

    1997-01-01

    Female undergraduates viewed either a female-oriented Femme Productions video or a traditional male-oriented video. Participants who viewed the Femme video reported significantly more subjective sexual arousal than those who viewed the male-oriented film. Arousal was also related to previous experience with sexually explicit materials, masturbatory experience, and sex guilt. Results are discussed in terms of sexual scripting and sexual involvement

  10. Female genomic response to mate information

    PubMed Central

    Desjardins, Julie K.; Klausner, Jill Q.; Fernald, Russell D.

    2010-01-01

    Females should be choosier than males about prospective mates because of the high costs of inappropriate mating decisions. Both theoretical and empirical studies have identified factors likely to influence female mate choices. However, male–male social interactions also can affect mating decisions, because information about a potential mate can trigger changes in female reproductive physiology. We asked how social information about a preferred male influenced neural activity in females, using immediate early gene (IEG) expression as a proxy for brain activity. A gravid female cichlid fish (Astatotilapia burtoni) chose between two socially equivalent males and then saw fights between these two males in which her preferred male either won or lost. We measured IEG expression levels in several brain nuclei including those in the vertebrate social behavior network (SBN), a collection of brain nuclei known to be important in social behavior. When the female saw her preferred male win a fight, SBN nuclei associated with reproduction were activated, but when she saw her preferred male lose a fight, the lateral septum, a nucleus associated with anxiety, was activated instead. Thus social information alone, independent of actual social interactions, activates specific brain regions that differ significantly depending on what the female sees. In female brains, reproductive centers are activated when she chooses a winner, and anxiety-like response centers are activated when she chooses a loser. These experiments assessing the role of mate-choice information on the brain using a paradigm of successive presentations of mate information suggest ways to understand the consequences of social information on animals using IEG expression. PMID:21106763

  11. Food competition in captive female sooty mangabeys ( Cercocebus torquatus atys )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Stahl; Werner Kaumanns

    2003-01-01

    We studied the social and foraging behavior of two captive groups of sooty mangabeys under two different spatial food situations.\\u000a These food conditions were clumped (food was placed in a box) and dispersed (food was dispersed over the entire enclosure).\\u000a In each group five adult females and two adult males were observed. As a criterion for food competition, individual differences

  12. Female competition and aggression: interdisciplinary perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Stockley, Paula; Campbell, Anne

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a Theme Issue combining interdisciplinary perspectives in the study of female competition and aggression. Despite a history of being largely overlooked, evidence is now accumulating for the widespread evolutionary significance of female competition. Here, we provide a synthesis of contributions to this Theme Issue on humans and other vertebrates, and highlight directions for future research. Females compete for resources needed to survive and reproduce, and for preferred mates. Although female aggression takes diverse forms, under most circumstances relatively low-risk competitive strategies are favoured, most probably due to constraints of offspring production and care. In social species, dominance relationships and threats of punishment can resolve social conflict without resort to direct aggression, and coalitions or alliances may reduce risk of retaliation. Consistent with these trends, indirect aggression is a low cost but effective form of competition among young women. Costs are also minimized by flexibility in expression of competitive traits, with aggressive behaviour and competitive signalling tailored to social and ecological conditions. Future research on female competition and the proximate mediators of female aggression will be greatly enhanced by opportunities for interdisciplinary exchange, as evidenced by contributions to this Theme Issue. PMID:24167303

  13. Photoperiod and reproduction in female deer mice

    SciTech Connect

    Whitsett, J.M.; Miller, L.L.

    1982-03-01

    Female deer mice were exposed to a short day photoperiod beginning during 1 of 3 stages of life. In the first experiment, exposure to SD during adulthood resulted in a minimal disruption of reproductive condition; many females bore 2 litters after the onset of this treatment. In the second experiment, females reared on SD from weaning matured normally, as measured by vaginal introitus; however, vaginal closure occurred in approximately one-half of these females by 9 weeks of age. In the third experiment, females were born of mothers housed on either an SD or a long day photoperiod, and were continued on the maternal photoperiod until 6 weeks of postnatal age. The SD photoperiod markedly inhibited reproductive maturation as measured by vaginal patency, ovarian weight, and uterine weight. A comparison of reproductive organ weights and vaginal condition provided evidence for the validity of the latter measure as an index of reproductive state. As assayed by the present testing procedure, the sensitivity of the reproductive system to photoperiod decreases as a function of age in female deer mice.

  14. Genital Evolution: Why Are Females Still Understudied?

    PubMed Central

    Ah-King, Malin; Barron, Andrew B.; Herberstein, Marie E.

    2014-01-01

    The diversity, variability, and apparent rapid evolution of animal genitalia are a vivid focus of research in evolutionary biology, and studies exploring genitalia have dramatically increased over the past decade. These studies, however, exhibit a strong male bias, which has worsened since 2000, despite the fact that this bias has been explicitly pointed out in the past. Early critics argued that previous investigators too often considered only males and their genitalia, while overlooking female genitalia or physiology. Our analysis of the literature shows that overall this male bias has worsened with time. The degree of bias is not consistent between subdisciplines: studies of the lock-and-key hypothesis have been the most male focused, while studies of cryptic female choice usually consider both sexes. The degree of bias also differed across taxonomic groups, but did not associate with the ease of study of male and female genital characteristics. We argue that the persisting male bias in this field cannot solely be explained by anatomical sex differences influencing accessibility. Rather the bias reflects enduring assumptions about the dominant role of males in sex, and invariant female genitalia. New research highlights how rapidly female genital traits can evolve, and how complex coevolutionary dynamics between males and females can shape genital structures. We argue that understanding genital evolution is hampered by an outdated single-sex bias. PMID:24802812

  15. Ultrastructure features of the midgut of the female adult Amblyomma cajennense ticks Fabricius, 1787 (Acari: Ixodidae) in several feeding stages and subjected to three infestations.

    PubMed

    Caperucci, Débora; Bechara, Gervásio Henrique; Camargo Mathias, Maria Izabel

    2010-10-01

    The digestive tract of Amblyomma cajennense, as well as other species of ticks, is divided into the anterior, medium and posterior intestines and is the organ responsible for digestion of blood ingested during the meal on the host. The anterior and posterior regions are derived from the ectoderm and the medium one from the endoderm. In the present ultrastructural study, we analyzed the midgut of females in a semi- and fully engorged stages, on the rabbit host, which was subjected to three infestations, where were analyzed the changes that the epithelial cells went through. The results showed that during the feeding period the outermost layer the intestine is composed of muscle fibres, as observed in those semi-engorged and engorged ones in the 1st infestation and semi-engorged in the 2nd infestation. The cytoplasm of digestive cells of feeding females, and those of the semi-engorged and fully engorged in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd infestations showed some intact regions (preserved organelles) with others were disorganized. Large lipid droplets and protein granules were observed in the cytoplasm of the cells of the intestine in all phases of feeding process. Cytoplasmic spherocrystals were only observed in the semi-engorged and engorged females in the 1st and 2nd infestations. Intense vacuolation was observed in the digestive cells of the midgut of semi-engorged and engorged A. cajennense females in the 2nd infestation and those engorged in the 3rd infestation. The data showed that the gut of the females of the A. cajennense tick is actually going through big changes during the feeding period, which become more pronounced when reinfesting. These changes are probably due to the host immune response that returns antibodies to the ectoparasite and thus acquires resistance to their secreted products. PMID:20580564

  16. Cheap Thrills and Humble Pie: The Adolescence of Female Suicide Attempters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, B. Joyce

    1987-01-01

    Examined social and psychological patterns of the adolescence of females who become adult suicide attempters. Obtained life histories of 50 adult female suicide attempters and personal documents written during adolescence. Identified two patterns: Cheap Thrills pattern of defiance, rebelliousness, acting-out, drug use, and indiscriminate…

  17. Female social networks influence male vocal development in brown-headed cowbirds, Molothrus ater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer L. Miller; Andrew P. King; Meredith J. West

    2008-01-01

    Previous work has found that adult female brown-headed cowbirds, who do not sing, shape male vocal structure when in restricted housing. The present work extends this finding to a flock setting to examine the role of social behaviour in shaping male vocal development. We housed juvenile males with either adult or juvenile females in large flocks. Over the course of

  18. Female preference for complex male displays in hybridizing swordtails 

    E-print Network

    Cress, Zachary Pierce

    2009-05-15

    - dimensional animations exhibiting these traits within ranges of natural variation. I then performed choice tests on females of the above populations using a computer system that automatically played these stimulus videos and simultaneously tracked a female’s...

  19. Experimental and finite element analysis of strains induced by axial tibial compression in young-adult and old female C57Bl/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Patel, Tarpit K; Brodt, Michael D; Silva, Matthew J

    2014-01-22

    Axial compression of the mouse tibia is used to study strain-adaptive bone (re)modeling. In some studies, comparisons between mice of different ages are of interest. We characterized the tibial deformation and force-strain relationships in female C57Bl/6 mice at 5-, 12- and 22-months age. A three-gauge experimental method was used to determine the strain distribution at the mid-diaphysis, while specimen-specific finite element analysis was used to examine strain distribution along the tibial length. The peak strains in the tibial mid-diaphyseal cross-section are compressive and occur at the postero-lateral apex. The magnitudes of these peak compressive strains are 1.5 to 2 times those on the opposite, antero-medial face (a site often used for strain gauge placement). For example, -10 N force applied to a 5-months old mouse engenders a peak compressive strain of -2800 µ? and a tensile strain on the antero-medial face of +1450 µ?. The orientation of the neutral axis at the mid-diaphysis did not differ with age (p=0.46), indicating a similar deformation mode in young and old tibiae. On the other hand, from 5- to 22-months there is a 25% reduction in cortical thickness and moment of inertia (p<0.05), resulting in significantly greater tibial strain magnitudes in older mice for equivalent applied force (p<0.05). We conclude that comparisons of tibial loading responses in young-adult and old C57Bl/6 tibiae are facilitated by similar deformation pattern across ages, but that modest adjustment of force levels is required to engender matching peak strains. PMID:24268312

  20. Spatial distributions of male and female strawberry poison frogs and their relation to female reproductive resources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heike Pröhl; Olaf Berke

    2001-01-01

    In many species with a resource-based mating system, males defend resources to increase their attractiveness to females. In the strawberry poison frog, Dendrobates pumilio, suitable tadpole-rearing sites appear to be a limited resource for females. Territorial males have been suggested to defend tadpole-rearing sites to increase their access to females. In this study we investigate the spatial association between tadpole-rearing

  1. Male moths bearing transplanted female antennae express characteristically female behaviour and central neural activity.

    PubMed

    Kalberer, N M; Reisenman, C E; Hildebrand, J G

    2010-04-01

    The primary olfactory centres of the sphinx moth Manduca sexta, the antennal lobes, contain a small number of sexually dimorphic glomeruli: the male-specific macroglomerular complex and the large female glomeruli. These glomeruli play important roles in sex-specific behaviours, such as the location of conspecific females and the selection of appropriate host plants for oviposition. The development of sexually dimorphic glomeruli depends strictly on the ingrowth of sex-specific olfactory receptor cell afferents. In the present study we tested the role of female-specific olfactory receptor cells (ORCs) in mediating female-specific host plant approach behaviour and in determining the response of downstream antennal lobe neurons. We generated male gynandromorphs by excising one imaginal disc from a male larva and replacing it with the antennal imaginal disc from a female donor. Most male gynandromorphs had an apparently normal female antenna and a feminised antennal lobe. These gynandromorphs were tested for flight responses in a wind tunnel towards tomato plants, a preferred host plant for oviposition in M. sexta. Male gynandromorphs landed on host plants as often as normal females, demonstrating that the presence of the induced female-specific glomeruli was necessary and sufficient to produce female-like, odour-oriented behaviour, i.e. orientation towards host plants. We also characterised the physiological and morphological properties of antennal lobe neurons of male gynandromorphs. We found that projection neurons with arborisations in the induced female-specific glomeruli showed physiological responses akin to those of female-specific projection neurons in normal females. These results therefore indicate that ORCs confer specific odour tuning to their glomerular targets and, furthermore, instruct odour-specific behaviour. PMID:20348339

  2. Nuptial gift consumption influences female remating in a scorpionfly: male or female control of mating rate?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leif Engqvist

    2007-01-01

    In the scorpionfly Panorpa cognata, males provide females with saliva secretions as nuptial food gifts. Consequently, females derive material benefits and possibly\\u000a also genetic benefits from multiple matings. Females therefore generally should have a high motivation to remate. Males, on\\u000a the other hand, do not share this interest, which will generate a sexual conflict over remating interval, possibly leading\\u000a to

  3. Development of realistic high-resolution whole-body voxel models of Japanese adult males and females of average height and weight, and application of models to radio-frequency electromagnetic-field dosimetry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomoaki Nagaoka; Soichi Watanabe; Kiyoko Sakurai; Etsuo Kunieda; Satoshi Watanabe; Masao Taki; Yukio Yamanaka

    2004-01-01

    With advances in computer performance, the use of high-resolution voxel models of the entire human body has become more frequent in numerical dosimetries of electromagnetic waves. Using magnetic resonance imaging, we have developed realistic high-resolution whole-body voxel models for Japanese adult males and females of average height and weight. The developed models consist of cubic voxels of 2 mm on

  4. Measuring autistic traits in the general population: a systematic review of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) in a nonclinical population sample of 6,900 typical adult males and females

    E-print Network

    Ruzich, E.; Allison, Carrie; Smith, Paula; Watson, Peter; Auyeung, Bonnie; Ring, Howard; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2015-01-14

    REVIEW Open Access Measuring autistic traits in the general population: a systematic review of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) in a nonclinical population sample populations of adult males and females with and without ASC. Finally, we advise... future researchers to avoid risk of bias by carefully considering the recruitment strategy for both clinical and nonclinical groups and to demonstrate Ruzich et al. Molecular Autism 2015, 6:2 http://www.molecularautism.com/content/6/1/2Douglas House, 18B...

  5. PHARMACOLOGY OF SEROTONIN AND FEMALE SEXUAL BEHAVIOR

    PubMed Central

    Uphouse, Lynda

    2014-01-01

    In this review, first a historical perspective of serotonin’s (5-HT) involvement in female sexual behavior is presented. Then an overview of studies implicating 5-HT is presented. The effect of drugs that increase or decrease CNS levels of 5-HT is reviewed. Evidence is presented that drugs which increase 5-HT have negative effects on female sexual behavior while a decrease in 5-HT is associated with facilitation of sexual behavior. Studies with compounds that act on 5-HT1, 5-HT2 or 5-HT3 receptors are discussed. Most evidence indicates that 5-HT1A receptor agonists inhibit sexual behavior while 5-HT2 or 5-HT3 receptors may exert a positive influence. There is substantial evidence to support a role for 5-HT in the modulation of female consummatory sexual behavior, but studies on the role of 5-HT in other elements of female sexual behavior (e.g. desire, motivation, sexual appetite) are few. Future studies should be directed at determining if these additional components of female sexual behavior are also modulated by 5-HT. PMID:24239784

  6. Wild female baboons bias their social behaviour towards paternal half-sisters.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kerri; Alberts, Susan C; Altmann, Jeanne

    2003-01-01

    Adult female cercopithecines have long been known to bias their social behaviour towards close maternal kin. However, much less is understood about the behaviour of paternal kin, especially in wild populations. Here, we show that wild adult female baboons bias their affiliative behaviour towards their adult paternal half-sisters in the same manner and to the same extent that they bias their behaviour towards adult maternal half-sisters. Females appear to rely heavily on social familiarity as a means of biasing their behaviour towards paternal half-sisters, but may use phenotype matching as well. PMID:12641905

  7. Bourgeois Males of the Peacock Blenny, Salaria pavo, Discriminate Female Mimics from Females?

    E-print Network

    fully developed secondary sex characters (SSC) and small sneaker males that mimic the females tactics are sequential, as sneakers develop into bourgeois males. We investigated whether bourgeois males were able to discrim- inate between sneakers and females of different sizes. In a laboratory experiment

  8. Female education and child mortality in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Mellington, N; Cameron, L

    1999-12-01

    This paper uses a sample of 6620 women from the 1994 Indonesian Demographic and Health Survey to examine the relationship between female education and child mortality in Indonesia. Female education is measured in terms of both years of education and literacy. Both primary education and secondary schooling significantly decrease the probability of child death, while literacy plays an insignificant role. When the sample is divided into urban and rural locations, primary and secondary education are significant in both areas in reducing the likelihood of a mother experiencing child mortality. The benefits of public and private infrastructure appear to differ in rural and urban areas. The results confirm that investment in female human capital lowers the probability of child mortality. PMID:12349697

  9. The craniofacial complex in 47, XXX females.

    PubMed

    Krusinskiene, Viktorija; Krusinskie, Viktorija; Alvesalo, Lassi; Sidlauskas, Antanas

    2005-08-01

    A study of the craniofacial complex in four 47, XXX Finnish females, or females with an extra X chromosome, was carried out using cephalometric analysis comprising linear and angular measurements. The lengths of the anterior and posterior cranial bases, the calvarium, mandibular ramus and posterior and upper anterior face heights were found to be significantly shorter than in female controls, while the angles between the foraminal and clival planes, the mandibular plane and cranial base, the maxillary and occlusal planes, the maxillary and mandibular planes and the foraminal and mandibular planes, and also the gonial angle, were significantly enlarged. The present findings of reduced linear measurements, together with the results of studies on the craniofacial complex of 47, XXY and 47, XYY males, suggest dimensional variation between these groups from the promoting effect of an extra Y chromosome and the retarding effect of an extra X chromosome on craniofacial growth. PMID:16043476

  10. Pilot-error accidents: male vs female.

    PubMed

    Vail, G J; Ekman, L G

    1986-12-01

    In this study, general aviation accident records from the files of the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB), have been analysed by gender to observe the number and rate of pilot-error related accidents from 1972 to 1981 inclusive. If both females and males have no difference in performance, then data would have indicated similarities of accident rates and types of injuries. Males had a higher rate of accidents than females, and a higher portion of the male accidents resulted in fatalities or serious injuries than for females. Type of certificate, age, total flight time, flight time in type of aircraft, phase of operation, category of flying, degree of injury, specific cause factors, cause factor miscellaneous acts/conditions were analysed, taking the total number of United States Active Civilian General Aviation Pilots into consideration. The data did indicate a difference in all variables. PMID:15676598

  11. Female acne - a different subtype of teenager acne?

    PubMed

    Preneau, S; Dreno, B

    2012-03-01

    Above all, acne is considered an adolescent affection. However, in literature as in daily life, female acne is becoming more and more common. According to the articles that cover this subject, the prevalence is estimated from 40% to 50%. The objective of our work was to make an overview of new data about female acne at the clinical and epidemiological level to be precise if female acne has to be considered as a subtype of acne different from teenager acne. This review shows that the most frequently recognized age when speaking about female acne is 25 years old. Most commonly it is a light to moderate acne that mainly affects the face. Two clinical forms can be identified: an inflammatory form, the most frequent, made up of papulo-pustules and nodules on the lower part of the face and a retentional form made up of blackheads and micro cysts with hyperseborrhoea. Concerning its evolution, it is characterized by three subtypes of which two are predominant: the most frequent form called 'continue acne' from adolescence to adult age and the less frequent form called 'late onset acne' that starts after 25 years of age. On a physiopathological level two main hypotheses can be proposed. Specific global assessment and therapeutic algorithm would be necessary for female acne, which in addition, in future would have to be considered separately from teenagers for the evaluation of a new drug. PMID:21848892

  12. 'How many female scientists do you know?'.

    PubMed

    Jones, Robert A

    2005-06-01

    The stereotypical scientist wears a lab-coat, is often eccentric and is usually male. Images of female scientists in popular culture remain rare. Some of the first portrayals of women in science occurred in a handful of British films made during the 1950s and 1960s. These films reflected the difficulties experienced by women in science at the time, but they might also explain why representations of female scientists in film continue to downplay their role as scientists and emphasize their identity as women. PMID:15935861

  13. Understanding and management of female pattern alopecia.

    PubMed

    Leavitt, Matt

    2008-11-01

    Female pattern hair loss is devastating to many of the 21 million U.S. women who suffer from it. It is essential to differentiate female pattern hair loss from other types of hair loss to ensure appropriate treatment. Through use of follicular units, follicular families, and follicular pairing between existing hair follicles, natural-looking results can be achieved in women. Hair transplants create the benefit of increasing density and providing options for hair styling and can be combined with medications, devices, and styling aids such as minoxidil, low-level laser therapy, and topical powder makeup, respectively. PMID:19034818

  14. Management of nocturia in the female.

    PubMed

    Chang, Andrew; Lee, Eugene W; Lucioni, Alvaro

    2015-03-01

    Nocturia is a common but overlooked lower urinary tract symptom that substantially reduces patient health and quality of life. Though traditionally viewed as occurring predominantly in males, nocturia has been found to be equally as prevalent in females. The recent emphasis on the importance of nocturia has resulted in a surge of research studies, providing a foundation for current and future management decisions. In this review, we describe the current recommendations for the female patient in light of the most recently published studies, including a unique interest in predicting treatment response. PMID:25677234

  15. Effect of puberty on coronary arteries from female pigs.

    PubMed

    Chatrath, Ritu; Ronningen, Karen L; LaBreche, Peter; Severson, Sandra R; Jayachandran, Muthuvel; Bracamonte, Margarita P; Miller, Virginia M

    2003-10-01

    Vascular function changes following loss of ovarian hormones in women at menopause and in experimental animals following surgical ovariectomy. Little is known about changes in vascular function during hormonal transition from sexual immaturity (juvenile) to sexual maturity. Therefore, experiments were designed to determine effects of natural puberty on vascular function in female pigs. Tissue was studied from eight juvenile (2-3 mo) and eight adult (5-6 mo) female pigs. Plasma nitric oxide (NO) was measured, and mRNA for endothelium-derived NO synthase (eNOS) and eNOS protein were determined in aortic endothelial cells. Rings of coronary arteries were suspended for measurement of isometric force in organ chambers. Serum 17beta-estradiol levels were comparable in the two groups, whereas the arithmetic mean of progesterone levels was about two-thirds lower in adults compared with juvenile pigs. Plasma NO was significantly higher in juveniles compared with adults, but mRNA and protein for eNOS were comparable. In coronary arteries, an alpha2-adrenergic agonist caused greater endothelium-dependent relaxations in rings from juvenile compared with adult pigs. Relaxations to bradykinin were similar in arteries from both groups, but inhibition of NO reduced relaxations only in arteries from juvenile pigs. Relaxations from NO were greater in arteries from adult compared with juvenile female pigs. In conclusion, coronary arterial endothelial and smooth muscle responses are selectively modulated at puberty in female pigs. At maturity, plasma NO is reduced and sensitivity of the smooth muscle to exogenous NO is increased. Posttranscriptional regulation of eNOS protein may explain differences in NO bioavailability in juvenile pigs. PMID:12794029

  16. Comparative Development of Heterosexual and Homosexual Behaviors in Free-Ranging Female Japanese Macaques.

    PubMed

    Leca, Jean-Baptiste; Gunst, Noëlle; Vasey, Paul L

    2015-07-01

    We used cross-sectional focal data collected in adolescent and adult females to elucidate the comparative development of heterosexual and homosexual behaviors in female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) living at Arashiyama, Japan, in a group where adult females routinely exhibit sexual interactions with both males and females. Our data fully or partially supported most of our predictions (20 out of 30) related to the "learning hypothesis," which postulated that adolescence would serve to provide young females with a period in which to practice, and gradually acquire, three types of adult female-like heterosexual and homosexual behavioral patterns, namely sexual solicitations, sexual mounts, and spatio-temporal coordination during consortships. However, there were marked differences in the development of heterosexual and homosexual behaviors. The percentage of homosexual mounts was significantly higher in adolescent than in adult females. Of the fully or partially supported predictions, 13 of 15 pertained to heterosexual activity whereas only seven of 15 pertained to homosexual activity. A number of sexual behavioral patterns (e.g., demonstrative solicitations, range of solicitation patterns and mounting postures, and grasping behavior during consortships) emerged earlier and developed faster when directed to females than when directed to males. We explain such differences in terms of risk of male aggression, males' disinterest in adolescent females' sexual solicitations, presence of motivated same-sex sexual partners, social facilitation, and sexual reward. PMID:25420900

  17. IZA DP No. 1833 Male and Female Competitive Behavior

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    IZA DP No. 1833 Male and Female Competitive Behavior: Experimental Evidence Nabanita Datta Gupta Institute for the Study of Labor November 2005 #12;Male and Female Competitive Behavior: Experimental ABSTRACT Male and Female Competitive Behavior: Experimental Evidence* Male and female choices differ

  18. Female Chimpanzees Use Copulation Calls Flexibly to Prevent Social Competition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simon W. Townsend; Tobias Deschner; Klaus Zuberbühler

    2008-01-01

    The adaptive function of copulation calls in female primates has been debated for years. One influential idea is that copulation calls are a sexually selected trait, which enables females to advertise their receptive state to males. Male-male competition ensues and females benefit by getting better mating partners and higher quality offspring. We analysed the copulation calling behaviour of wild female

  19. Females in Law Enforcement: Femininity, Competence, Attraction, and Work Acceptance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Ernie, Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Used photographs and biographical descriptions of female deputy strangers to examine effects of femininity and competence on male deputy attraction to and work acceptance of female deputies. Findings included an attraction preference for feminine-competent female deputies, and greater tolerance of feminine-incompetent female deputies for staff…

  20. 47,XXX females, sex chromosomes, and tooth crown structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lassi Alvesalo; Erkki Tammisalo; Eeva Therman

    1987-01-01

    Enamel thickness of the maxillary permanent central incisors and canines in seven Finnish 47,XXX females, their first-degree male and female relatives, and control males and females from the general population were determined from radiographs. The results showed that enamel in the teeth of 47,XXX females was clearly thicker than that of normal controls. On the other hand, the thickness of

  1. Dominance rank relationships among wild female African elephants, Loxodonta africana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth A. Archie; Thomas A. Morrison; Charles A. H. Foley; Cynthia J. Moss; Susan C. Alberts

    2006-01-01

    Socioecological models of the evolution of female-bonded societies predict a relation between resource dis- tribution and the nature of female affiliative and dominance relationships. Species that mainly rely on abundant, widely distributed resources, like African savanna elephants, are predicted to have unresolved dominance hierarchies and poorly differentiated female social relationships. Contrary to this prediction, female elephants have well-differentiated social relationships;

  2. Risk of Eating Disorders among Female College Athletes and Nonathletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, Ginger; Singh, Kusum; Getz, Hildy

    2001-01-01

    Compares the prevalence of eating disorder behaviors between female collegiate athletes and female college nonathletes. Although female nonathletes had somewhat higher average scores on the Eating Attitudes Test 26, the proportion at risk for disordered eating was not different in the two groups. There was no significant difference among female

  3. Retrospektive Befragung bei Schweizer Athletinnen zur Female Athlete Triad

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicole Mathys; Christine Meyer Egli; Sibylle Matter; Roland Biedert; Martin Birkhäuser

    2005-01-01

    The Female Athlete Triad (FAT) is a complex of symptoms that consists of the 3 components disturbed eating, amenorrhoea, and osteoporosis. These symptoms become more important in females performing high-level sport as well as in females performing re- creational sport. The aim of this study was to record the situation of young Swiss female high-performance athletes more precisely. 709 questionnaires

  4. SONG STRUCTURE MAY DIFFER BETWEEN MALE AND FEMALE LEAST FLYCATCHERS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MICHAEL M. KASUMOVIC; LAURENE M. RATCLIFFE; PETER T. BOAG

    2003-01-01

    Female song rarely has been examined in suboscines. This paper describes the context and structure of female Least Flycatcher (Empidonax minimus) songs. During two years, we observed 4 of 19 females singing, and although singing occurred infrequently, it occurred predominantly at the nest during incubation and brooding. Analysis of five songs from one female showed that the mean of this

  5. Male and Female Suicide Bombers: Different Sexes, Different Reasons?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen Jacques; Paul J. Taylor

    2008-01-01

    This article analyzes the motivations and recruitment of female suicide terrorists. Biographical accounts of 30 female and 30 male suicide terrorists were coded for method of recruitment, motivation for attack, and outcome of attack. A log-linear analysis found that female suicide terrorists were motivated more by Personal events, whereas males were motivated more by Religious\\/nationalistic factors. Females were equally likely

  6. FEMALE MATE CHOICE IN NONHUMAN MAMMALS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benjamin D. Charlton

    2008-01-01

    Until now definite studies of mate choice have typically focused on non-mammal animal species where short life spans and gestation periods make reproductive success quicker to determine, and in which the females show preferences for clearly defined morphological or behavioural male traits. Mammals, which are invariably larger, have longer life spans and inter-birth intervals and are behaviourally more complex, are

  7. Leveling the Playing Field for Female Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Jay P.

    1991-01-01

    Title IX, an obscure 1972 amendment passed by Congress to prohibit sex discrimination in classrooms and locker rooms, has brought about stunning changes in the restrictions and prejudices confronting young female athletes. Unfortunately, sex discrimination has gone underground, and most women's teams have male coaches. Sidebars provide tips for…

  8. Male and Female Competitive Behavior - Experimental Evidence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marie-Claire Villeval; Nabanita Datta Gupta

    2005-01-01

    Male and female choices differ in many economic situations, e.g., on the labor market. This paper considers whether such differences are driven by different attitudes towards competition. In our experiment subjects choose between a tournament and a piece-rate pay scheme before performing a real task. Men choose the tournament significantly more often than women. Women are mainly influenced by their

  9. College Women's Female Friendships: A Longitudinal View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aleman, Ana M. Martinez

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a longitudinal qualitative study of the cognitive value of female friendships formed in college and seeks to appraise the meaning of the phenomenon for the participants. To grasp the temporal effects of the longitudinal data in this study, the author examines and assesses the relevant developmental literature, particularly…

  10. Psychological Androgyny and Male-Female Attraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orlofsky, Jacob L.

    Changes in men's and women's societal roles and in their personality characteristics might be expected to lead to corresponding changes in the personal relations between sexes. Male (N=140) and female (N=95) college students, classified as sex-typed, cross-sex-typed, androgynous, or undifferentiated on the basis of their Bem Sex Role Inventory…

  11. European Female Expatriate Careers: Critical Success Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linehan, Margaret; Scullion, Hugh

    2001-01-01

    Interviews with 50 female expatriate managers revealed that many were disadvantaged in their careers by lack of access to organizational supports such as mentors, interpersonal networks, assistance for spouses' careers, the glass ceiling, and other barriers. Women will remain a minority in management until organizations address these barriers in…

  12. The Premature Attrition of Navy Female Enlistees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcove, Gerry L.; And Others

    Two concerns led to the development of the screening test which is described: (1) the present 28% rate of attrition of Navy female first enlistees is too high; and (2) attrition is expected to increase when a high school diploma is no longer required for women to enter the Navy. Thus, a screening instrument was needed which could be used…

  13. Pharmacologic Targets on the Female Urethra

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Erdem Canda; Mehtap G. Cinar; Burak Turna; M. Oguz Sahin

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: This article reviews the mechanisms affecting contraction and relaxation of the urethra in order to establish a basis for current and future treatments for urinary incontinence in women. Material and Methods: A review of the English literature using MEDLINE was performed between 1970 and 2008 on female urethra pharmacology, urinary incontinence, and mechanisms involved in contraction and relaxation of

  14. Problems of Female School Teachers in Kerala

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nath, Baiju K.

    2008-01-01

    The problems of employed women will vary with the nature of job, sector in which she is working, and family setup. Fairly large proportion of teaching community is comprised of female teachers, which is one of the major service sectors chosen by women in the state. The study aimed to study the Personal, Familial and Professional problems faced by…

  15. The Female Experience of Sibling Incest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canavan, Margaret M.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Calls occurrence of sibling incest underrecognized. Presents four cases of females who experienced sibling incest to illustrate problem areas, including issues of enforced secrecy, interpersonal power differentials, influences on sexual development, individual after effects, disturbances in family dynamics, and gender-based differences in…

  16. The Recovering Female Alcoholic: A Family Affair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rolls, Judith A.

    To ensure a positive prognosis, the recovering female alcoholic requires family therapy as an adjunct to her regular treatment program. Research indicates that the characteristics affecting a person's ability to secure and use treatment include (1) predisposing factors; (2) attitudes toward alcohol and health care; (3) personal enabling factors;…

  17. Prostaglandins and reproduction in female farm animals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. W. Weems; Y. S. Weems; R. D. Randel

    2006-01-01

    Prostaglandins impact on ovarian, uterine, placental, and pituitary function to regulate reproduction in female livestock. They play important roles in ovulation, luteal function, maternal recognition of pregnancy, implantation, maintenance of gestation, microbial-induced abortion, parturition, postpartum uterine and ovarian infections, and resumption of postpartum ovarian cyclicity. Prostaglandins have both positive and negative effects on reproduction; they are used to synchronize oestrus,

  18. Nutrition Education for Elite Female Runners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Nancy; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A survey of the dietary habits of 115 elite female runners revealed that some did not eat wisely, pointing out nutrition education needs for these subjects in the areas of sweets, vitamin and mineral supplementation, intake of red meat, body weight and body image, eating disorders, calorie intake, and amenorrhea and stress fractures. (Author/CB)

  19. Paternal Determinants of Female Adolescent's Marijuana Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, Judith S.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Examines the interrelationship of paternal personality attributes, paternal-daughter relationship variables, and adolescent personality factors with adolescent daughters' use of marijuana. Questionnaires were completed by 403 White female college students and their fathers. Findings were similar to those from a study by Brook et al. of fathers and…

  20. Perceptions of Leadership Held by Young Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karnes, Frances A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Participants (n=50) in a Mississippi leadership program for female high school juniors and seniors reported that family members provided the greatest influence, student government provided the greatest opportunities, shyness was the biggest obstacle, and Jesus Christ was the greatest leader. They did not believe that popularity was a prerequisite…

  1. Recurrent suicide attempt and female hormones

    PubMed Central

    Mousavi, Seyed Ghafur; Bateni, Shima; Maracy, Mohammad Reza; Mardanian, Farahnaz; Mousavi, Seyedeh Hakimeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Because of more frequency of suicidal attempts in females, we need to study about its relationship with the female hormones. The aim of this study was to evaluate the serum estrogen and progesterone concentration and their relationship with suicidal attempt ranking in the attempted females. Materials and Methods: The studied cases chose from patients who had referred to clinical toxicology emergency of Noor Hospital (Isfahan, Iran), during 2012, because of suicidal attempt. The estrogen and progesterone serum level of the 111 females were measured during 24 hours after suicidal attempt. The rank of their suicide, the demographic properties, and the menstrual cycle phase of them were also registered, as the patient's statement. The results were analyzed by ANCOVA and Kruscal-Wallis under SPSS16. Results: Mean serum concentration of the estrogen was 76.8 pg/mL, and the mean serum concentration of progesterone was 2.99 ng/mL. Of them, 62.2% were in the luteal phase, and 37.8% were in the follicular phase, as they said. The serum progesterone concentration of the patients with more than two times suicidal attempts was significantly higher than the others. Conclusion: The suicidal attempt ranks significantly related to the serum progesterone concentration and the luteal phase. PMID:25337531

  2. Female orgasmic experience: A subjective study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary Jo Sholty; Paul H. Ephross; S. Michael Plaut; Susan H. Fischman; Jane F. Charnas; Carol A. Cody

    1984-01-01

    Human female orgasm was studied by collecting and analyzing the subjective orgasmic histories of 30 women, ages 18 to 59 years. Virtually all of the 93% who reported they had experienced orgasm also reported some level of conscious control over whether or not they reached orgasm. Women differed widely as to preferred types of physical stimulation and\\/or mental activities to

  3. Psychiatric drugs and inhibited female orgasm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. T. Segraves

    1988-01-01

    The available evidence concerning sexual side effects of psychiatric drugs suggests that inhibited female orgasm may be associated with the use of heterocyclic antidepressants, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, benzodiazepines, and neuroleptics. Possible mechanisms of action including anticholinergic, alpha adrenergic blockade, and serotonergic effects are discussed.

  4. Does the CAT Technique Enhance Female Orgasm?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helen Singer Kaplan

    1992-01-01

    The following is a report of The Human Sexuality Program of the New York Hospital-Cornell Medical Center to personally replicate Edward W. Eichel's claims that his Coital Alignment Technique (CAT) enhances and increases female coital orgasms and mutual orgasms. We failed to replicate these claims. However, it was the consensus of the group that within the context of sex therapy,

  5. Marathon Group Therapy with Female Narcotic Addicts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilmann, Peter R.

    This study evaluated the impact of structured and unstructured marathon therapy on institutionalized female narcotic addicts. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of five groups: two structured therapy groups, two unstructured therapy groups, and a no-treatment control group. The Personal Orientation Inventory, the Adjective Check List, and a…

  6. Female-Headed Families: Trends and Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wattenberg, Esther; Reinhardt, Hazel

    1979-01-01

    Current demographic data reveal that the form of the American family is undergoing dramatic change. One change is the unprecedented rise in the number of female-headed families. Reviews current demographic trends, examines the factors behind these changes and their implications, and proposes areas for further research. (Author)

  7. Weight Preoccupation in Female Mexican American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guinn, Bobby; Jorgensen, Layne; Semper, Tom; Vincent, Vern

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the contribution of body size, self-esteem, age, mainstream acculturation, and athletic status to concern or preoccupation about weight among female Mexican American adolescents. Students had low acculturation, high body fatness, and moderate self-esteem. There was little difference between athletes and non-athletes. Greater body size…

  8. Female Criminal Violence and Differential MMPI Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutker, Patricia B.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Compared MMPI scale elevations and profile patterns produced by female murderers. Results suggest significant, reliable relationships between extreme criminal violence and aspects of MMPI performance. Women murderers were more defensive, less in touch with impulses, more socially conforming, and more removed from stereotyped definitions of…

  9. Comparative female reproductive tract development and morphology

    PubMed Central

    Hoar, Richard M.

    1978-01-01

    A brief description of the basic pattern of mammalian organogenesis of the female reproductive tract is presented based on events as they occur in human beings. The emphasis is not on the details of this development, but rather its organization and timing. Tables of comparative development provide a comparison of similar events between man, rat, mouse, and chick. PMID:17539134

  10. Female Special Education Directors: Doubly Marginalized.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefe, Charlotte Hendrick; Parmley, Pamela

    2003-01-01

    A qualitative study of five Texas female special education directors found that although participants achieved an administrative position, they were marginalized due to their leadership style, gender discrimination, and socialization. Participants also indicated a negative connection between being in special education administration and top-level…

  11. September 25, 2012! Female Reproductive Endocrinology!

    E-print Network

    Dever, Jennifer A.

    Reproductive System B. Fallopian Tubes (oviducts)! 1. Contacts ovary, goes to uterus! 2. Ciliated cells help move oocyte to uterus! 3. Fertilization occurs here! I. Anatomy of Female Reproductive System (continued) #12;2! C. Uterus! !1. Thick-walled, muscular! !2. Site of fetal dev't! !3. Myometrium! !4

  12. The Family Functioning of Female Pathological Gamblers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling, Nicki; Smith, David; Thomas, Trang

    2009-01-01

    The available evidence suggests that pathological gambling significantly disrupts family relationships and has a substantial impact on family members. However, these conclusions are based almost exclusively on male pathological gamblers and their female spouses or partners. The current study, which was a secondary study derived from a treatment…

  13. Female Role Models: Implications for Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Roberta R.

    1995-01-01

    The lives of six prominent female leaders (Sandra Day O'Connor, Maya Angelou, Wilma Mankiller, Hillary Rodham Clinton, Elizabeth Dole, and Mary Kay Ash) are summarized. Similarities are noted and questions and activities provided to encourage discussion by teachers and students. (DB)

  14. The Female Athlete: Conditioning, Competition, and Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klafs, Carl E.; Lyon, M. Joan

    The female athlete--her structural, physiological, and psychological characteristics and capacities-- is the main focus of this book. It is designed to provide persons in positions of leadership in girls' and women's athletics greater insights and understanding regarding the nature of women athletes and to help structure wholesome sports programs…

  15. Smoked cocaine self-administration in females

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. Dudish; Dorothy K. Hatsukami; P. R. Pentel

    1996-01-01

    Although approximately 32% of all smoked cocaine (“crack”) users are women, most studies investigating cocaine use have recruited only male subjects. Therefore, this study examined the smoked cocaine self-administration patterns of female crack abusers. A work requirement, where up to five tokens were earned by subjects, was followed by the administration of a sample delivery of one of three dose

  16. A conference's impact on undergraduate female students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joan M. Francioni

    2002-01-01

    In September of 2000, the 3rd Grace Hopper Celebration of Women in Computing was held in Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Along with a colleague from a nearby university, we accompanied seven of our female undergraduate students to this conference. This paper reports on how the conference experience immediately affected these students --- what impressed them, what scared them, what it clarified

  17. Intimate Relationships of Female International Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popadiuk, Natalee E.

    2008-01-01

    Five female international students studying at a western Canadian university were interviewed about their experiences of being in a difficult intimate heterosexual relationship. An in-depth interpretive analysis revealed that, according to the participants, these relational struggles influenced their adjustment to the host culture. Implications…

  18. Soccer injuries among elite female players

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bjorn Engström; Christer Johansson; Hans Tornkvist

    1991-01-01

    Injuries occurring in two female elite soccer teams were recorded during 1 year. Of 41 players, 33 (80%) sus tained 78 injuries. The incidence of injury during games was 24\\/1000 hours, while the incidence during training was 7\\/1000 hours. The majority (88%) of injuries were localized to the lower extremities, with equal occur rence in the left and right legs.

  19. Comparison of age-related changes in wrinkling and sagging of the skin in Caucasian females and in Japanese females

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KAZUE TSUKAHARA; TSUTOMU FUJIMURA; YASUKO YOSHIDA; TAKASHI KITAHARA; MITSUYUKI HOTTA; SHIGERU MORIWAKI; PAMELA S. WITT; F. ANTHONY SIMION; Y. Takema

    2004-01-01

    The wrinkle score increased with age in all eight areas of the face examined in Caucasian females as well as in Japanese females. In the group aged 20-29 years, the wrinkle score in each area was significantly higher in Caucasian females than in Japanese females. The wrinkle scores in the forehead, glabella, upper eyelid, and corner of the eye were

  20. Duality of female employment in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Kazi, S; Raza, B

    1991-01-01

    The trends in the level and pattern of women's employment in Pakistan in terms of supply and demand factors which influence women's participation in the labor market are discussed. Women's labor participation is underestimated in official sources such as the Labor Force Survey (LFS) and the Population Census. Figures which were obtained from micro level surveys and the Agricultural Census, show the duality of employment at the top and bottom socioeconomically. LFS data show the female share of the professional work force to have risen from 15.5% to 18.3% between 1984-95 and 1987-88, which translates to 33% of teachers and 25% of physicians being women. Urban female participation rates have increased only slightly from 3 to 5% between 1971 and 72 and 1987-88, based on LFS data, while informal sector surveys have shown an increase of workers who are women who have never worked before in the formal sector. In manufacturing, the female work force remains low at 5% in factories in the Punjab and Sindh, but only 20% were in regular employment compared with 50% of men. Agricultural work on the family farm has increased from 35% in 1972 and 42% in 1980. Increases are also shown in more recent LF surveys. Constraints on both male and female employment are the recent (1978-79 and 1986-87) shift to capital investment in agriculture with tubewells and tractors and in manufacturing. Women's movement into agriculture may be precipitated by men's out migration to urban areas or the Gulf region into other nonfarm occupations. In manufacturing there is exploitation of workers through low overhead costs of temporary or part time help. Supply constraints for women involve cultural restrictions, household responsibilities, and low levels of education and skills. Women enter the work force out of financial need. Data on female-headed households are scarce, but a Karachi survey finds that most female-headed households belong to the poorest strata and women work when family size increases. Enrollment figures show part of the gender gap in education and skills with 33% of women enrolling in school at the primary level and 25% at the secondary level. 50-60% drop out at the primary level. Area of study is also gender dominated with few women in engineering, commerce, and law. The problems of female employment are restricted demand in the labor market and supply side constraints. Preventing regular employment and keeping women in casual positions in the informal sector is the outcome of a deliberate policy of exploitation of a cheap source of labor. PMID:12285308

  1. A Cross-Sectional Study of the Relationship between Cortical Bone and High-Impact Activity in Young Adult Males and Females

    PubMed Central

    Deere, K.; Sayers, A.; Rittweger, J.

    2012-01-01

    Context: The factors that govern skeletal responses to physical activity remain poorly understood. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate whether gender or fat mass influences relationships between cortical bone and physical activity, after partitioning accelerometer outputs into low (0.5–2.1 g), medium (2.1–4.2 g), or high (>4.2 g) impacts, where g represents gravitational force. Design/Setting: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis in participants from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Participants: We studied 675 adolescents (272 boys; mean age, 17.7 yr). Outcome Measures: We measured cortical bone parameters from peripheral quantitative computed tomography scans of the mid-tibia, adjusted for height, fat mass, and lean mass. Results: High-impact activity was positively associated with periosteal circumference (PC) in males but not females [coefficients (95% confidence intervals), 0.054 (0.007, 0.100) and 0.07 (?0.028, 0.041), respectively; showing sd change per doubling in activity]. There was also weak evidence that medium impacts were positively related to PC in males but not females (P = 0.03 for gender interaction). On stratifying by fat mass, the positive relationship between high-impact activity and PC was greatest in those with the highest fat mass [high impact vs. PC in males, 0.01 (?0.064, 0.085), 0.045 (?0.040, 0.131), 0.098 (0.012, 0.185), for lower, middle, and upper fat tertiles, respectively; high impact vs. PC in females, ?0.041 (?0.101, 0.020), ?0.028 (?0.077, 0.022), 0.082 (0.015, 0.148), P = 0.01 for fat mass interaction]. Similar findings were observed for strength parameters, cross-sectional moment of inertia, and strength-strain index. Conclusions: In late adolescence, associations between high-impact activity and PC are attenuated by female gender and low body fat, suggesting that the skeletal response to high-impact activity is particularly reduced in young women with low fat mass. PMID:22802090

  2. Male Age Affects Female Mate Preference and Reproductive Performance in the Cabbage Beetle, Colaphellus bowringi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xing-Ping Liu; Jing Xu; Hai-Min He; Xian-Ju Kuang; Fang-Sen Xue

    2011-01-01

    The influence of male age on female mate preference and reproductive performance in the cabbage beetle, Colaphellus bowringi was examined, using male and female adults of varying ages (young, middle-aged and old) after a single mating. In a simultaneous\\u000a choice test, females of all age class preferentially mated with middle-aged males. Mating duration was positively related\\u000a to male age. Longevity

  3. Nocturnal Predation of Females on Nests: An Important Source of Mortality for Golden-cheeked Warblers?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer L. Reidy; Mike M. Stake; Frank R. Thompson

    2009-01-01

    We monitored 124 female Golden- cheeked Warblers (Dendroica chrysoparia )a t 133 nests with video cameras from 1997-2002 and 2005- 2006 at two study areas in central Texas, USA. Six adult females were depredated by snakes in 781 cam- era-monitored intervals when females were on the nest at night and exposed to possible nocturnal predation. Daily nest survival was 0.971

  4. Male dwarf chameleons assess risk of courting large, aggressive females

    PubMed Central

    Stuart-Fox, Devi M; Whiting, Martin J

    2005-01-01

    Conflict between the sexes has traditionally been studied in terms of costs of mating to females and female resistance. However, courting can also be costly to males, especially when females are larger and aggressively resist copulation attempts. We examined male display intensity towards females in the Cape dwarf chameleon, Bradypodion pumilum, in which females are larger than males and very aggressive. We assessed whether aggressive female rejection imposes potential costs on males and whether males vary their display behaviour with intensity of female rejection, female size or relative size differences. Males persisted in courtship after initial female rejection in 84% of trials, and were bitten in 28% of trials. Attempted mounts were positively associated with males being bitten. Males reduced courtship with increased intensity of female rejection. Male courtship behaviour also varied with female size: males were more likely to court and approach smaller females, consistent with the hypothesis that larger females can inflict more damage. These results suggest that, in addition to assessing female willingness to mate, male dwarf chameleons may use courtship displays to assess potential costs of persistence, including costs associated with aggressive female rejection, weighed against potential reproductive pay-offs associated with forced copulation. PMID:17148174

  5. The violent female perpetrator and her victim.

    PubMed

    Weizmann-Henelius, Ghitta; Viemerö, Vappu; Eronen, Markku

    2003-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between violent female offenders and their victims as well as the putative differences in the motives and specific psychological factors among three groups of female offenders: women who have victimised someone closely related to them, those who have victimised an acquaintance and lastly women who have victimised a stranger. More than half (N=61) of all violent female offenders hospitalised or incarcerated in Finland during the year of study were interviewed and assessed by Structured Clinical Interview II for DSM-IV (SCID-II) and Hare's Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R). In 34% of the cases the victims were persons close to the offender, in 41% the victims were acquaintances and in 25% strangers. The victims in homicide offences were more often both male and closer to the perpetrator than in assault offences. Although motives were related to interpersonal problems, self-defence and long-term physical or psychological abuse were reported by only a few women, even for the small proportion of women whose victims were intimate partners. The most frequent reason for offences stemmed from confrontational situations in connection with alcohol use. Women who victimised acquaintances and strangers were also more likely to have a history of criminality and substance abuse than women who victimised those in close personal relationships. The latter were also more likely to have an antisocial personality disorder (PD) and psychopathic characteristics. There were, however, no significant differences found between those who had experienced physical or psychological abuse in childhood or adulthood and those who had no adverse experiences. These findings suggest that the violent behaviour by females leads more often to the death of the victim, when the victim is closely related to the perpetrator. The commonly-held view that violent female offending occurs primarily as a consequence of precipitation by the victim was not supported. PMID:12787652

  6. The Career Experiences of Male-to-Female Transsexuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Chris; Dashjian, Lauren T.; Acosta, Taryn J.; Mueller, Conrad T.; Kizer, Bobby E.; Trangsrud, Heather B.

    2012-01-01

    To understand the career experiences of adult transsexual women, we conducted a qualitative study on a sample of 9 predominately White male-to-female (MTF) transsexuals who were mostly middle-aged (M = 33.8, SD = 15.4) and had been on hormone therapy for an average of 20.7 months (SD = 22.5). Results of the interview data highlighted participants'…

  7. Subcutaneous tissue depth differences between males and females

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. T. Song; M. R. Nelson; J. N. Hershey; B. A. Chowdhury

    2004-01-01

    RationaleEpinephrine injection, preferably by the intramuscular (IM) route, is the standard of care initial treatment for anaphylaxis. EpiPen® (Dey, Napa, CA) is the only commercially marketed epinephrine auto-injector in the US. This study was designed to test whether EpiPen® auto-injector for adults, with a needle length of 1.43cm, is of sufficient length for IM administration in both males and females.

  8. Homing to nest baskets by wild female mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doty, H.A.; Lee, F.B.

    1974-01-01

    A high rate of homing to nest baskets by adult female mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) was observed in prairie potholes of North Dakota. One hundred and thirteen female mallards were caught on nest baskets, banded, and marked with nasal saddles. Forty-six percent homed at least once to nest baskets in the marshes where they were previously captured. Two-thirds of the returnees were observed in the same baskets where they had been caught. The observed rate of homing by previously successful nesters (52 percent) was significantly (P < 0.01) higher than by unsuccessful nesters (16 percent). Nesting success was 83 percent in the year of marking and 90 percent in subsequent years. Seven (5 percent) of an estimated 140 marked female 1-day-old ducklings that hatched in nest baskets were recaptured as nesting adults in baskets. Five of these hens returned to their natal marshes, and two others were found within 2 km of their natal marshes. Band recovery data indicated that 91 percent of the hunting mortality occurred within 10 km of the banding locations. Information on estimated rate of annual survival and the observed rate of homing suggests that nearly all surviving marked adults returned to within 10 km of the marshes where they were banded.

  9. Female-dependent impaired fear memory of adult rats induced by maternal separation, and screening of possible related genes in the hippocampal CA1.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiu-Min; Tu, Wen-Qiang; Shi, Yan-Wei; Xue, Li; Zhao, Hu

    2014-07-01

    Early life stress is one of the major susceptible factors for stress-related pathologies like posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Recent studies in rats suggest that rather than being overall unfavorable, early life stress may prepare the organism to perform optimally to stressful environments later in life. In this study, severely adverse early life stress was conducted by six consecutive hours of maternal separation (MS), from PND1 to PND21, and contextual fear conditioning model was used on PND90 to mimic the second stress in adulthood and the re-experiencing symptom of PTSD. It was observed that in this investigation pups experienced MS showed decreased sensibility to contextual fear conditioning in adulthood, and there sex plays an important role. For example, female rats suffered MS had much lower freezing than males and controls. Meanwhile, Morris water maze test indicated that MS did not impair rat's performance of spatial learning and memory. Furthermore, suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) was used to screen the related genes of fear memory, by examining the changes of mRNA expression in CA1 area between female MS and control rats after contextual fear conditioning. Finally, nine up-regulated and one down-regulated genes, including ?2-MG, MAF, Nd1-L, TorsinA and MACF1 gene were found in this study. It is assumed that the TorsinA, MACF1 and Nd1-L gene may contribute to the decreased sensitivity of PTSD induced by MS. PMID:24667363

  10. Female fitness declines with increasing female density but not male harassment in the western mosquitofish,

    E-print Network

    Sargent, Robert Craig

    mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis CHAD C. SMITH & R. CRAIG SARGENT T. H. Morgan School of Biological Sciences on male behaviour, female fitness and male body condition in the western mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis

  11. Anxious Attachment Style and Salivary Cortisol Dysregulation in Healthy Female Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oskis, Andrea; Loveday, Catherine; Hucklebridge, Frank; Thorn, Lisa; Clow, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Background: Attachment style has been linked with basal cortisol secretion in healthy adult women. We investigated whether dysregulation in basal cortisol secretion may be evident in younger healthy females. Methods: Sixty healthy females aged 9-18 years (mean 14.16, SD [plus or minus] 2.63 years) participated in the Attachment Style Interview…

  12. Detained Adolescent Females' Multiple Mental Health and Adjustment Problem Outcomes in Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Molen, E.; Vermeiren, R. R. J. M.; Krabbendam, A. A.; Beekman, A. T. F.; Doreleijers, T. A. H.; Jansen, L. M. C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although prior studies have shown that detained females are marked by significant adverse circumstances, little is known about their adult outcomes. Method: Prospective follow-up study of 184 (80.4% of original sample of 229) detained adolescent females who were reassessed 4.5 SD = 0.6) years later in young adulthood (mean age = 20.0,…

  13. Breeding Season Survival of Female Lesser Scaup in the Northern Boreal Forest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RODNEY W. BROOK; ROBERT G. CLARK

    2005-01-01

    One hypothesis advanced to explain the decline in lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) populations during the past 20 years is that adult female survival has decreased. However, no survival probability estimates exist for the boreal forest, the region where most scaup breed. We captured and radio-marked female lesser scaup (n = 42) near Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, Canada, just before the breeding

  14. Intraspecific Communication Through Chemical Signals in Female Mice: Reinforcing Properties of Involatile Male Sexual Pheromones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joana Martinez-Ricos; Carmen Agustin-Pavon; Enrique Lanuza; F. Martinez-Garcia

    2006-01-01

    In rodents, social and reproductive behaviors critically depend on chemical signals, including sexual pheromones that have been suggested (but not demonstrated) to be rewarding. In this work, we analyze this issue by studying the chemoinvestigatory behavior of adult female mice (without experience with male-derived chemicals) toward 1) the synthetic odorant citralva, 2) bedding soiled by different conspecifics (females, males, and

  15. Posttraumatic Growth among Female Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse in Relation to the Perpetrator Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lev-Wiesel, Rachel; Amir, Marianne; Besser, Avi

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the extent of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology and posttraumatic growth in young adult female survivors of childhood sexual abuse in relation to the identity of the perpetrator. Two hundred and forty-six non-clinical female university students were administered self-report…

  16. Posttraumatic Growth among Female Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse in Relation to the Perpetrator Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lev-Wiesel, Rachel; Amir, Marianne; Besser, Avi

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the extent of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology and posttraumatic growth in young adult female survivors of childhood sexual abuse in relation to the identity of the perpetrator. Two hundred and forty-six non-clinical female university students were administered self-report…

  17. Cuticular Lipids of Female Solitary Bees, Osmia lignaria Say and Megachile rotundata (F.) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cuticular lipids of the cavity-nesting adult female solitary bees, Osmia lignaria Say and Megachile rotundata (F.) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and combined GC-mass spectrometry. The cuticular lipids of these female bees mainly consisted of hydrocarbons....

  18. Testicular masculinization of vocal behavior in juvenile female Xenopus laevis reveals sensitive periods for song duration, rate, and frequency spectra

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James T. Watson; Darcy B. Kelley

    1992-01-01

    In Xenopus laevis, adult males but not females produce courtship songs comprised of rapid trills. Two experiments were conducted to determine whether male-typical singing could be induced in females. At 6 different juvenile stages, male and female frogs were gonadectomized and implanted with testes, grown to sexual maturity, and tested for vocal behavior. All frogs with functional testicular implants sang;

  19. Nestling provisioning by male and female Yellow-breasted Chats: no relationships between morphology and parental care

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven W. Cooper; Gary Ritchison

    2005-01-01

    In birds, males and females may benefit by choosing mates based on morphological characteristics correlated with their ability to provide parental care. Our objective was to examine possible relationships between morphological characteristics and the provisioning behavior of male and female Yellow-breasted Chats (Icteria virens). No differences were found in the provisioning behavior of male and female Yellow-breasted Chats. Adult chats

  20. Female preference for the songs of older males and the maintenance of dialects in brown-headed cowbirds ( Molothrus ater )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adrian L. O'Loghlen; Stephen I. Rothstein

    2003-01-01

    Female preferences for local song types have been implicated in the maintenance of local song dialects in songbirds. Such preferences can be assessed by copulation solicitation displays (CSDs) of females in response to playback of male songs. We used CSDs to determine if female brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) in the Sierra Nevada of California discriminate between yearling and adult male

  1. Nutrient acquisition by female Harlequin Ducks prior to spring migration and reproduction: evidence for body mass optimization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeanine C. Bond; Daniel Esler

    2006-01-01

    We analysed variation in body mass of adult female Harlequin Ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus (L., 1758)) on coastal wintering sites in southern British Columbia, Canada, to investigate nutrient acquisition prior to migration and re- production. On average, female mass increased by 7% from late winter to premigration; however, the chronology of mass gain varied depending on prey type. Females feeding on

  2. Tamoxifen, a Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator, Reduces Ischemic Damage Caused by Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion in the Ovariectomized Female Rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shyamal H. Mehta; Krishnan M. Dhandapani; Liesl M. De Sevilla; R. Clinton Webb; Virendra B. Mahesh; Darrell W. Brann

    2003-01-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that physiological concentrations of 17?-estradiol can protect the female rat brain against middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)-induced ischemic damage. The present study examined whether therapeutic doses of the clinically relevant selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), tamoxifen, can similarly protect the female rat brain against ischemic stroke damage. Adult female rats were bilaterally ovariectomized and implanted subcutaneously

  3. Multi-scale analysis of the associations among egg, larval and pupal surveys and the presence and abundance of adult female Aedes aegypti (Stegomyia aegypti) in the city of Merida, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Manrique-Saide, P; Coleman, P; McCall, P J; Lenhart, A; Vázquez-Prokopec, G; Davies, C R

    2014-09-01

    Despite decades of research, there is still no agreement on which indices of Aedes aegypti (Stegomyia aegypti) (Diptera: Culicidae) presence and abundance better quantify entomological risk for dengue. This study reports the results of a multi-scale, cross-sectional entomological survey carried out in 1160 households in the city of Merida, Mexico to establish: (a) the correlation between levels of Ae. aegypti presence and abundance detected with aspirators and ovitraps; (b) which immature and egg indices correlate with the presence and abundance of Ae. aegypti females, and (c) the correlations amongst traditional Aedes indices and their modifications for pupae at the household level and within medium-sized geographic areas used for vector surveillance. Our analyses show that ovitrap positivity was significantly associated with indoor adult Ae. aegypti presence [odds ratio (OR) = 1.50; P = 0.03], that the presence of pupae is associated with adult presence at the household level (OR = 2.27; P = 0.001), that classic Aedes indices are informative only when they account for pupae, and that window screens provide a significant level of protection against peridomestic Ae. aegypti (OR = 0.59; P = 0.02). Results reinforce the potential of using both positive collections in outdoor ovitraps and the presence of pupae as sensitive indicators of indoor adult female presence. PMID:24797405

  4. Energy deficiency, menstrual disturbances and low bone mass: What do Australian exercising females know about the female athlete triad?

    PubMed

    Kyriazis, Stephanie M; Kukuljan, Sonja; Turner, Anne I; van der Pligt, Paige; Ducher, Gaele

    2012-02-15

    PURPOSE: Prevention of the female athlete triad is essential to protect female athletes' health. The aim of this study was to investigate the knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of regularly exercising adult females towards eating patterns, menstrual cycles and bone health. METHODS: A total of 191 female exercisers, aged 18-40 y, engaging in ?2 hr/wk of strenuous activity, completed a survey. After excluding 11 surveys (due to incomplete answers), the 180 participants were categorised into lean-build sports (n=82; running/athletics, triathlon, swimming, cycling, dancing, rowing), non lean-build sports (n=94; basketball, netball, soccer, hockey, volleyball, tennis, trampoline, squash, Australian football) or gym/fitness activities (n=4). RESULTS: Mean (±SD) training volume was 9.0±5.5 hr/wk, with participants competing from local up to international level. Only 10% of respondents could name the 3 components of the female athlete triad. Regardless of the reported history of stress fracture, 45% of the respondents did not think that amenorrhoea (absence of menses for ? three months) could affect bone health, and 22% of those involved in lean-build sports would do nothing if experiencing amenorrhoea (vs. 3.2% in non lean-build sports, p=0.005). Lean-build sports, history of amenorrhoea and history of stress fracture were all significantly associated with not taking action in the presence of amenorrhoea (all p<0.005). CONCLUSIONS: Few active Australian women are aware of the detrimental effects of menstrual dysfunction on bone health. Education programs are needed to prevent the female athlete triad and ensure appropriate actions are taken by athletes when experiencing amenorrhoea. PMID:22349258

  5. Female Presence and Estrous State Influence Mouse Ultrasonic Courtship Vocalizations

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Jessica L.; Hurley, Laura M.

    2012-01-01

    The laboratory mouse is an emerging model for context-dependent vocal signaling and reception. Mouse ultrasonic vocalizations are robustly produced in social contexts. In adults, male vocalization during courtship has become a model of interest for signal-receiver interactions. These vocalizations can be grouped into syllable types that are consistently produced by different subspecies and strains of mice. Vocalizations are unique to individuals, vary across development, and depend on social housing conditions. The behavioral significance of different syllable types, including the contexts in which different vocalizations are made and the responses listeners have to different types of vocalizations, is not well understood. We examined the effect of female presence and estrous state on male vocalizations by exploring the use of syllable types and the parameters of syllables during courtship. We also explored correlations between vocalizations and other behaviors. These experimental manipulations produced four main findings: 1) vocalizations varied among males, 2) the production of USVs and an increase in the use of a specific syllable type were temporally related to mounting behavior, 3) the frequency (kHz), bandwidth, and duration of syllables produced by males were influenced by the estrous phase of female partners, and 4) syllable types changed when females were removed. These findings show that mouse ultrasonic courtship vocalizations are sensitive to changes in female phase and presence, further demonstrating the context-sensitivity of these calls. PMID:22815817

  6. Behavioural processes in social context: female abductions, male herding and female grooming in hamadryas baboons.

    PubMed

    Polo, Pablo; Colmenares, Fernando

    2012-06-01

    The formation of bonds between strangers is an event that occurs routinely in many social animals, including humans, and, as social bonds in general, they affect the individuals' welfare and biological fitness. The present study was motivated by an interest in the behavioural processes that drive bond formation in a social context of hostility, in which the incumbent partners vary greatly in physical power and reproductive interests, a situation in which individuals of many group-living species find themselves often throughout their lives. We focused on the quantitative analysis of female abductions via male aggressive herding in a nonhuman primate, the hamadryas baboon, in which intersexual bonds are known to be strong. We tested three hypotheses informed by sexual conflict/sexual coercion theory (male herding-as-conditioning and female grooming-as-appeasement) and by socioecological theory (unit size and female competition). The results supported the predictions: males resorted to coercive tactics (aggressive herding) with abducted females, and abducted females elevated the amount of grooming directed at their new unit males; in fact, they escaped from the otherwise negative effect of unit size on female-to-male grooming. These findings reveal that conflicts of interest are natural ingredients underpinning social bonds and that resorting to coercive aggression may be an option especially when partners differ greatly in their physical power. PMID:22391051

  7. Role of oxidative stress in female reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Ashok; Gupta, Sajal; Sharma, Rakesh K

    2005-01-01

    In a healthy body, ROS (reactive oxygen species) and antioxidants remain in balance. When the balance is disrupted towards an overabundance of ROS, oxidative stress (OS) occurs. OS influences the entire reproductive lifespan of a woman and even thereafter (i.e. menopause). OS results from an imbalance between prooxidants (free radical species) and the body's scavenging ability (antioxidants). ROS are a double-edged sword – they serve as key signal molecules in physiological processes but also have a role in pathological processes involving the female reproductive tract. ROS affect multiple physiological processes from oocyte maturation to fertilization, embryo development and pregnancy. It has been suggested that OS modulates the age-related decline in fertility. It plays a role during pregnancy and normal parturition and in initiation of preterm labor. Most ovarian cancers appear in the surface epithelium, and repetitive ovulation has been thought to be a causative factor. Ovulation-induced oxidative base damage and damage to DNA of the ovarian epithelium can be prevented by antioxidants. There is growing literature on the effects of OS in female reproduction with involvement in the pathophsiology of preeclampsia, hydatidiform mole, free radical-induced birth defects and other situations such as abortions. Numerous studies have shown that OS plays a role in the pathoysiology of infertility and assisted fertility. There is some evidence of its role in endometriosis, tubal and peritoneal factor infertility and unexplained infertility. This article reviews the role OS plays in normal cycling ovaries, follicular development and cyclical endometrial changes. It also discusses OS-related female infertility and how it influences the outcomes of assisted reproductive techniques. The review comprehensively explores the literature for evidence of the role of oxidative stress in conditions such as abortions, preeclampsia, hydatidiform mole, fetal embryopathies, preterm labour and preeclampsia and gestational diabetes. The review also addresses the growing literature on the role of nitric oxide species in female reproduction. The involvement of nitric oxide species in regulation of endometrial and ovarian function, etiopathogenesis of endometriosis, and maintenance of uterine quiescence, initiation of labour and ripening of cervix at parturition is discussed. Complex interplay between cytokines and oxidative stress in the etiology of female reproductive disorders is discussed. Oxidant status of the cell modulates angiogenesis, which is critical for follicular growth, corpus luteum formation endometrial differentiation and embryonic growth is also highlighted in the review. Strategies to overcome oxidative stress and enhance fertility, both natural and assisted are delineated. Early interventions being investigated for prevention of preeclampsia are enumerated. Trials investigating combination intervention strategy of vitamin E and vitamin C supplementation in preventing preeclampsia are highlighted. Antioxidants are powerful and there are few trials investigating antioxidant supplementation in female reproduction. However, before clinicians recommend antioxidants, randomized controlled trials with sufficient power are necessary to prove the efficacy of antioxidant supplementation in disorders of female reproduction. Serial measurement of oxidative stress biomarkers in longitudinal studies may help delineate the etiology of some of the diosorders in female reproduction such as preeclampsia. PMID:16018814

  8. Female Project Managers' Workplace Problems: a Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duong, Thuong Thi; Skitmore, Martin

    This article examines the extent to which challenges in the workplace may cause female project managers to be in a significantly small minority. A survey of members of the Australian Institute of Project Management in Queensland is described. This compares the experiences and observations of both men and women on various issues related to technical and gender aspects in project management workplaces. The results show that although female project managers experience many problems, male project managers also experience most of the same problems. Likewise, there are also few differences between more and less experience, the level of management, and types of industries. The differences that do occur involve discrimination against women in general, differences in project management styles, and support from other project managers.

  9. Males' and Females' Script Debugging Strategies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valentina Grigoreanu; James Brundage; Eric Bahna; Margaret M. Burnett; Paul Elrif; Jeffrey Snover

    2009-01-01

    Little research has addressed IT professionals’ script debugging strategies, or considered whether there may be gender differences\\u000a in these strategies. What strategies do male and female scripters use and what kinds of mechanisms do they employ to successfully\\u000a fix bugs? Also, are scripters’ debugging strategies similar to or different from those of spreadsheet debuggers? Without the\\u000a answers to these questions,

  10. Fertility and female employment in Lagos, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Feyisetan, B J

    1985-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between fertility and female employment in a Nigerian urban center, Lagos. The study is built upon the data derived from the Survey of Household Structure, Family Employment, and the Small Family Ideal carried out in 1974. The study centered around currently married women aged 15-49, living in 2 residential areas chosen to include wage-earning and non wage-earning workers. It is principally a test of the maternal role incompatibility hypothesis, whose major tenet is that the maternal role and function of worker are incompatible with each other. On the basis of the assumption, the fertility and female employment equations are estimated by the 2 stage least squares procedure and estimated results compared to those derived from the ordinary least squares procedure. The results demonstrate that mothering and working tend to conflict only if employment is undertaken in the formal sector of the labor market; a positive association is discernable between the proclivity to engage in non-domestic but irregular activities of the informal sector and the bearing and rearing of children. While the conflict between fertility and female employment in the formal sector suggests possible trade-offs between the number of children and employment, the positive association between fertility and female employment in the informal sector suggests the compatibility of the roles of a mother and of a worker in that sector. The results further demonstrate the inadequacy of using a mere rural-urban dichotomy in the examination of the maternal role incompatibility hypothesis as done in some earlier works. The urban labor market, especially in a less developed country like Nigeria, needs formal disaggregation into formal and informal sectors on the basis of the activities being undertaken. PMID:12267539

  11. Female coital orgasm and male attractiveness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Todd K. Shackelford; Viviana A. Weekes-Shackelford; Gregory J. LeBlanc; April L. Bleske; Harald A. Euler; Sabine Hoier

    2000-01-01

    Female coital orgasm may be an adaptation for preferentially retaining the sperm of males with “good genes.” One indicator\\u000a of good genes may be physical attractiveness. Accordingly, R. Thornhill, S. W. Gangestad, and R. Comer (1995) found that women\\u000a mated to more attractive men reported an orgasm during a greater proportion of copulations than did women mated to less attractive

  12. Weiner's attribution theory and female orgasmic consistency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victor E. Loos; Charles F. Bridges; Joseph W. Critelli

    1987-01-01

    In a study of female orgasmic functioning, hypotheses derived from Weiner's (1974) achievement?motivation model of attribution theory were contrasted with those from a model of self?serving attributional bias. A 40?item Sexual Behavior Questionnaire that elicited expectations and causal attributions for orgasmic and nonorgasmic coital outcomes was administered to 87 women. Predictions that (a) unexpected orgasmic outcomes will be attributed to

  13. [Increased morbidity risk in female athletes].

    PubMed

    Olesen, Anette Grønning; Clausen, Helle Vibeke; Skouby, Sven Olaf; Ottsen, Anna; Peen, Anette

    2010-11-01

    The female athlete triad refers to the interrelationships among energy availability, menstrual function and bone mineral density which may have clinical manifestations including eating disorders, functional hypothalamic amenorrhea and osteoporosis. The potentially irreversible consequences of these clinical conditions emphasize the critical need for prevention, early diagnosis and treatment. Nutritionally correct food ensuring optimal energy balance is a premise to improve these conditions. Alternative treatment is oestrogen replacement therapy which can prevent progressive bone loss. PMID:21055379

  14. Malignant syphilis in an immunocompetent female patient.

    PubMed

    Requena, Camila Bueno; Orasmo, Cínthia Rosane; Ocanha, Juliana Polizel; Barraviera, Silvia Regina Catharino Sartore; Marques, Mariangela Esther Alencar; Marques, Silvio Alencar

    2014-01-01

    Malignant syphilis is an uncommon manifestation of secondary syphilis, in which necrotic lesions may be associated with systemic signs and symptoms. Generally it occurs in an immunosuppressed patient, mainly HIV-infected, but might be observed on those who have normal immune response. Since there is an exponential increase in the number of syphilis cases, more diagnoses of malignant syphilis must be expected. We report a case in an immunocompetent female patient. PMID:25387504

  15. Sand Martin Riparia riparia ? male or female?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Cowley

    1999-01-01

    8,037 examinations were made of brood patches of Sand Martins from 1971 to 1992 in north Nottinghamshire and given one of 12 different descriptions. The 1,997 birds which were examined more than once (5,443 times in total) and identified as 1,061 females and 936 males from the types of patch\\/es they had carried were then used to test the accuracy

  16. Effects of sex pheromones and sexual maturation on locomotor activity in female sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walaszczyk, Erin J.; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Steibel, Juan Pedro; Li, Weiming

    2013-01-01

    Synchronization of male and female locomotor rhythmicity can play a vital role in ensuring reproductive success. Several physiological and environmental factors alter these locomotor rhythms. As sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, progress through their life cycle, their locomotor activity rhythm changes multiple times. The goal of this study was to elucidate the activity patterns of adult female sea lamprey during the sexual maturation process and discern the interactions of these patterns with exposure to male pheromones. During these stages, preovulated and ovulated adult females are exposed to sex pheromone compounds, which are released by spermiated males and attract ovulated females to the nest for spawning. The locomotor behavior of adult females was monitored in a natural stream with a passive integrated tag responder system as they matured, and they were exposed to a sex pheromone treatment (spermiated male washings) or a control (prespermiated male washings). Results showed that, dependent on the hour of day, male sex pheromone compounds reduce total activity (p < 0.05) and cause increases in activity during several daytime hours in preovulated and ovulated females. These results are one of the first examples of how sex pheromones modulate a locomotor rhythm in a vertebrate, and they suggest that the interaction between maturity stage and sex pheromone exposure contributes to the differential locomotor rhythms found in adult female sea lamprey. This phenomenon may contribute to the reproductive synchrony of mature adults, thus increasing reproductive success in this species.

  17. Social correlates of female infertility in Uzbekistan.

    PubMed

    Jumayev, Izatulla; Harun-Or-Rashid, Md; Rustamov, Oybek; Zakirova, Nodira; Kasuya, Hideki; Sakamoto, Junichi

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this matched case-control study was to investigate the social correlates of primary infertility among females aged 35 years or less. The study was conducted in the Clinics of Samarkand Medical Institute, Uzbekistan, among 120 infertile and 120 healthy women matched by age, residential area, and occupation from January to June 2009. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire. Median duration of infertility was 10.0 months (interquartile range = 6.0-13.0). The rate of remarriage was 3.5 times higher among infertile women compared with healthy subjects. Insufficient family income, poor quality of life, life stress, and discontentment with daily routines as well as 'bad' relationships with family members (husband, mother- and father-in-law) were significant correlates of female infertility. Infertile women were more likely to underestimate the importance of sexual intimacy, and a negative attitude to sex. Female infertility is associated with various social correlates leading to higher remarriage rates and to further complicating the problem of infertility. Thus, a correction of women's basic attitudes and their relationships to their surrounding social habitat should be an essential component of any program of infertility management. PMID:23092100

  18. Female Fertility Affects Men's Linguistic Choices

    PubMed Central

    Coyle, Jacqueline M.; Kaschak, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the influence of female fertility on the likelihood of male participants aligning their choice of syntactic construction with those of female confederates. Men interacted with women throughout their menstrual cycle. On critical trials during the interaction, the confederate described a picture to the participant using particular syntactic constructions. Immediately thereafter, the participant described to the confederate a picture that could be described using either the same construction that was used by the confederate or an alternative form of the construction. Our data show that the likelihood of men choosing the same syntactic structure as the women was inversely related to the women's level of fertility: higher levels of fertility were associated with lower levels of linguistic matching. A follow-up study revealed that female participants do not show this same change in linguistic behavior as a function of changes in their conversation partner's fertility. We interpret these findings in the context of recent data suggesting that non-conforming behavior may be a means of men displaying their fitness as a mate to women. PMID:22347361

  19. Prevention of eating disorders in female athletes

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Gabriela Morgado de Oliveira; Gomes, Ainá Innocencio da Silva; Ribeiro, Beatriz Gonçalves; Soares, Eliane de Abreu

    2014-01-01

    Eating disorders are serious mental diseases that frequently appear in female athletes. They are abnormal eating behaviors that can be diagnosed only by strict criteria. Disordered eating, although also characterized as abnormal eating behavior, does not include all the criteria for diagnosing eating disorders and is therefore a way to recognize the problem in its early stages. It is important to identify factors to avoid clinical progression in this high-risk population. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to discuss critical information for the prevention of eating disorders in female athletes. This review discusses the major correlates for the development of an eating disorder. We also discuss which athletes are possibly at highest risk for eating disorders, including those from lean sports and female adolescent athletes. There is an urgent need for the demystification of myths surrounding body weight and performance in sports. This review includes studies that tested different prevention programs’ effectiveness, and the majority showed positive results. Educational programs are the best method for primary prevention of eating disorders. For secondary prevention, early identification is essential and should be performed by preparticipation exams, the recognition of dietary markers, and the use of validated self-report questionnaires or clinical interviews. In addition, more randomized clinical trials are needed with athletes from multiple sports in order for the most reliable recommendations to be made and for some sporting regulations to be changed. PMID:24891817

  20. Malignant Tumors of the Female Reproductive System

    PubMed Central

    Labrèche, France

    2012-01-01

    This review summarizes the epidemiology of cancer of the female reproductive system and associated lifestyle factors. It also assesses the available evidence for occupational factors associated with these cancers. Cervical, endometrial, and ovarian cancers are relatively common, and cause significant cancer morbidity and mortality worldwide, whereas vulvar, vaginal, fallopian tube cancers, and choriocarcinomas are very rare. As several lifestyle factors are known to play a major role in the etiology of these cancers, very few published studies have investigated possible relationships with occupational factors. Some occupational exposures have been associated with increased risks of these cancers, but apart from the available evidence on the relationships between asbestos fibers and ovarian cancer, and tetrachloroethylene and cervical cancer, the data is rather scarce. Given the multifactorial nature of cancers of the female reproductive system, it is of the utmost importance to conduct occupational studies that will gather detailed data on potential individual confounding factors, in particular reproductive history and other factors that influence the body's hormonal environment, together with information on socio-economic status and lifestyle factors, including physical activity from multiple sources. Studies on the mechanisms of carcinogenesis in the female reproductive organs are also needed in order to elucidate the possible role of chemical exposures in the development of these cancers. PMID:23019529

  1. Adolescent female murderers: characteristics and treatment implications.

    PubMed

    Roe-Sepowitz, Dominique

    2007-07-01

    This study examines individual and family characteristics of a population of 29 adolescent females charged with homicide or attempted homicide in the juvenile justice system. The purpose of this study is to contribute to the limited knowledge about adolescent females charged with homicide. Data were collected including the MAYSI-2, a risk classification instrument, and social, educational and family histories. Findings include high rates of reported substance use, delinquent peers, early indicators of mental health problems, and limited control and supervision by parents. The most common weapon used was a car and the most common victim was a known person. A comparison was conducted on girls charged with homicide during the commission of another crime or committed during a conflict. The conflict group was found to victimize friends and family significantly more often than the crime group. The crime group showed higher use of alcohol and drugs, used a gun more and had co-offenders at a higher rate. A profile was developed to describe the typical adolescent female homicide offender found in this study. Treatment recommendations and future research were discussed. PMID:17696677

  2. Prevention of eating disorders in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Gabriela Morgado de Oliveira; Gomes, Ainá Innocencio da Silva; Ribeiro, Beatriz Gonçalves; Soares, Eliane de Abreu

    2014-01-01

    Eating disorders are serious mental diseases that frequently appear in female athletes. They are abnormal eating behaviors that can be diagnosed only by strict criteria. Disordered eating, although also characterized as abnormal eating behavior, does not include all the criteria for diagnosing eating disorders and is therefore a way to recognize the problem in its early stages. It is important to identify factors to avoid clinical progression in this high-risk population. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to discuss critical information for the prevention of eating disorders in female athletes. This review discusses the major correlates for the development of an eating disorder. We also discuss which athletes are possibly at highest risk for eating disorders, including those from lean sports and female adolescent athletes. There is an urgent need for the demystification of myths surrounding body weight and performance in sports. This review includes studies that tested different prevention programs' effectiveness, and the majority showed positive results. Educational programs are the best method for primary prevention of eating disorders. For secondary prevention, early identification is essential and should be performed by preparticipation exams, the recognition of dietary markers, and the use of validated self-report questionnaires or clinical interviews. In addition, more randomized clinical trials are needed with athletes from multiple sports in order for the most reliable recommendations to be made and for some sporting regulations to be changed. PMID:24891817

  3. A novel nonsense mutation in exon 1 of HSD17B3 gene in an Egyptian 46,XY adult female presenting with primary amenorrhea.

    PubMed

    Hassan, H A; Mazen, I; Gad, Y Z; Ali, O S M; Mekkawy, M; Essawi, M L

    2013-01-01

    17-?-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 3 deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive cause of 46,XY disorder of sex development. Worldwide, about 30 mutations in the hydroxysteroid (17-beta) dehydrogenase 3 (HSD17B3) gene have been reported, involving all exons except exon 1. Herein, we investigated an Egyptian female with 46,XY karyotype and low testosterone/?4-androstenedione ratio. Genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples, and then, direct DNA sequencing of HSD17B3 gene was performed. The patient had a homozygous mutation c.198G>A in exon 1 resulting in a stop codon (p.W50X). The study presents the first mutation to be reported in exon 1 of the HSD17B3 gene. PMID:23796702

  4. Effect of Brown Rice Consumption on Inflammatory Marker and Cardiovascular Risk Factors among Overweight and Obese Non-menopausal Female Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kazemzadeh, Mahdieh; Safavi, Sayyed Morteza; Nematollahi, Shahrzad; Nourieh, Zeinab

    2014-01-01

    Background: Brown rice (BR) is unpolished rice with various beneficial compounds such as vitamins, magnesium and other minerals, dietary fiber, essential fatty acids, ?-oryzanol and ?-aminobutyric acid. In the present study, we compared the effects of white rice (WR) and BR on inflammatory marker high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and cardiovascular risk factors among non-menopausal overweight or obese female. Methods: In a randomized cross-over clinical trial, 40 overweight or obese (body mass index (BMI) >25) women were randomly allocated to group 1 (n = 20): Treatment with BR diet and group 2 (n = 20): Treatment with WR diet for 6 weeks (first intervention period). Two participants in group 2 dropped out during this period. After a 2-week washout period, individuals were switched to the alternate diet for an additional 6 weeks (second intervention period) and three subjects in group 2 did not follow this period and eliminated, finally this study was completed with 35 subjects (group 1 = 20 and group 2 = 15). Each one was instructed to consume 150 g cooked WR or BR daily in each intervention period. Cardiovascular risk factors including BMI, waist and hip circumference, blood pressure, serum lipid profiles, fasting blood glucose (FBG) and hs-CRP as an inflammatory marker, were measured 4 times (in study week 0, 6, 8, 14). Results: BR diet in comparison with WR diet could significantly reduce weight, waist and hip circumference, BMI, Diastole blood pressure and hs-CRP. No significant differences between the two diets were found regarding lipid profiles and FBG. Conclusions: The present results suggest that BR replacement in the diet may be useful to decrease inflammatory marker level and several cardiovascular risk factors among non-menopausal overweight or obese female. PMID:24829736

  5. Modeling intra-sexual competition in a sex pheromone system: how much can female movement affect female mating success?

    PubMed

    Pearson, G A; Dillery, Scott; Meyer, J R

    2004-12-21

    Mating disruption theory predicts that high concentrations of female pheromone, and/or large numbers of release sites, should confuse males orienting to "calling" females, reduce the number of successful matings, and decrease the reproductive potential of the population. In this scenario, females are regarded as stationary point sources of pheromone. Past behavioral observations, however, have shown virgin female grape root borers, Vitacea polistiformis Harris, significantly alter their behavior in mating disruption treatments. Treated females call at different heights, move less before call initiation, and move more after call initiation than control females. Pheromone gland dragging and wing fanning also increase significantly during pheromone treatments. These behavioral differences are significant only if they alter the mating success of females. Because long-term field studies are impractical, we used known behavior of male and female GRB to build a Fortran language time step model, adding the effects of female movement to past models of male pheromone plume following. Females were distributed randomly, and then assigned a conditional movement strategy. If females were within the competitive portion of another female's plume, the downwind female moved. Except in the lowest population density tested, females moving upwind and crosswind when in a competing female's pheromone plume mated significantly more often than females remaining stationary. In all population simulations, mating success was significantly reduced when females moved downwind. These field and simulation studies provide strong evidence for female movement as a previously overlooked potential mechanism for resistance to mating disruption treatments, as well as a shaping behavior in the evolution of pheromone communication systems. PMID:15488531

  6. The effect of continuous infusion of human parathyroid hormone on bone architecture in female mice

    E-print Network

    Eisenberg, Rahel E. (Rahel Esther)

    2009-01-01

    This research sought to create an animal model of secondary hyperparathyroidism through continuous infusion of parathyroid hormone (PTH) in adult female mice, and to subsequently study the catabolic effects of PTH. Osmotic ...

  7. The Effects of Alcohol and Age on Astrocytes In Female Rats Following an Inflammatory Stimulus 

    E-print Network

    Simpson, Ashley

    2009-09-30

    adults and reproductive senescent females ethanol had no effect on the LPS-induced increase in nitric oxide (NO). Inflammation is a necessary process for the brain to fight infection or viruses and to remove cellular debris following injury. Prolonged...

  8. Organochlorine residues in females and nursing young of the big brown bat ( Eptesicus fuscus )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald R. Clark; Thair G. Lamont

    1976-01-01

    Summary Carcasses and brains of 18 big brown bats from Gaithersburg, Maryland, were analyzed for residues of organochlorine insecticides and PCB's. Eleven bats were adult females, and six of these had seven nursing young associated with them.

  9. Male mate choice selects for female coloration in a fish

    PubMed Central

    Amundsen, Trond; Forsgren, Elisabet

    2001-01-01

    Although sexual selection theory has proved successful in explaining a wide array of male ornaments, the function of ornaments occurring in females is largely unknown. Traditionally, female ornaments have been considered nonfunctional, being merely a genetically correlated response to selection for male ornamentation. However, this hypothesis is only relevant to species in which the ornament is basically the same in the two sexes. Alternatively, female ornaments may be influenced by selection acting directly on the females, either through female–female competition or male choice. We tested the latter hypothesis in mate-choice experiments with two-spotted gobies (Gobiusculus flavescens). In this small marine fish, females have bright yellow-orange bellies during the breeding season, a conspicuous trait that is not present in males. We conducted two aquarium experiments to test whether males preferred to mate with more colorful females. In the first experiment, males had a choice between two females that varied in natural coloration (and belly roundness). In the second experiment, we manipulated belly coloration and kept roundness constant. Males spent more time with colorful than with drab females in both experiments and also performed far more courtship displays toward colorful females. Our study provides experimental evidence that males prefer ornamented females in a fish that is not sex-role reversed, supporting the hypothesis that female ornamentation is sexually selected. PMID:11606720

  10. Efficacy of female Culex quinquefasciatus with entomopathogenic fungus Fusarium pallidoroseum.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Suman Sundar; Raghavendra, Kamaraju; Rai, Usha; Dash, Aditya Prasad

    2008-06-01

    This study was conducted to isolate and identify natural entomopathogenic fungi from female Culex quinquefasciatus and to test their adulticidal activity. Field-collected female C. quinquefasciatus died early and were placed on a Saboraud's dextrose agar plates for growth and isolation of natural entomopathogenic fungi. The plates were maintained in an incubator at 24+/-2 degrees C for 3 days. Four fungal species were isolated in two genera namely, Aspergillus and Fusarium. The identified fungal species were A. niger, A. flavus, A. nidulans var acristatus (ITCC-6327.04), and F. pallidoroseum (ITCC-6324.06). Adult bioassays were carried out using spore-impregnated paper in WHO-holding tubes. F. pallidoroseum was found to be more effective than the others. Exposure of C. quinquefasciatus to spores of A. flavus and A. niger for 4 h caused 5.53% and 5.51% mortality in the mosquitoes within a week, respectively. All the female C. quinquefasciatus were killed within 4 days of exposure to F. pallidoroseum at a concentration of 1.11 x 10(10) conidia per m2. Significant difference of longevity was observed between the F. pallidoroseum-treated C. quinquefasciatus and control mosquitoes. The LT50 of F. pallidoroseum was 2.08 days for 4 h exposure to C. quinquefasciatus. Results of the present study confirm that F. pallidoroseum is one of the alternative biological control agents of adult mosquitoes. PMID:18327611

  11. Immune function and parasite resistance in male and polymorphic female Coenagrion puella

    PubMed Central

    Joop, Gerrit; Mitschke, Andreas; Rolff, Jens; Siva-Jothy, Michael T

    2006-01-01

    Background Colour polymorphisms are widespread and one of the prime examples is the colour polymorphism in female coenagrionid damselflies: one female morph resembles the male colour (andromorph) while one, or more, female morphs are described as typically female (gynomorph). However, the selective pressures leading to the evolution and maintenance of this polymorphism are not clear. Here, based on the hypothesis that coloration and especially black patterning can be related to resistance against pathogens, we investigated the differences in immune function and parasite resistance between the different female morphs and males. Results Our studies of immune function revealed no differences in immune function between the female morphs but between the sexes in adult damselflies. In an experimental infection females infected shortly after emergence showed a higher resistance against a fungal pathogen than males, however female morphs did not differ in resistance. In a field sample of adult damselflies we did not find differences in infection rates with watermites and gregarines. Conclusion With respect to resistance and immune function 'andromorph' blue females of Coenagrion puella do not resemble the males. Therefore the colour polymorphism in coenagrionid damselflies is unlikely to be maintained by differences in immunity. PMID:16522202

  12. Schistosoma mansoni: a chemoattractive factor released by males and its receptor in females.

    PubMed

    Haseeb, M A; Eveland, L K

    1991-09-15

    Chemoattraction between developing (23- to 28-day-old) and adult (10- to 12-week-old) Schistosoma mansoni males and females has been described previously. We report here on in vitro attraction of mature worms to released products of worms of the opposite sex. In the absence of a stimulus worms migrated randomly and did not show any preference in their orientation. Males were not significantly attracted to released products of females. Females exhibited greatest attraction to released products of males, and some attraction to the lipid fraction of released products of males. The aqueous fraction of male-released products slightly repelled females. Prior exposure to released products of males rendered females unresponsive to subsequent exposure, suggesting receptor saturation. These findings have important potential implications for the control of schistosomiasis by intercepting attraction and mating between males and females. PMID:1915782

  13. Insulin-Producing Cells Regulate the Sexual Receptivity through the Painless TRP Channel in Drosophila Virgin Females

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Takaomi; Watanabe, Kazuki; Ohashi, Hirono; Sato, Shoma; Inami, Show; Shimada, Naoto; Kitamoto, Toshihiro

    2014-01-01

    In a variety of animal species, females hold a leading position in evaluating potential mating partners. The decision of virgin females to accept or reject a courting male is one of the most critical steps for mating success. In the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster, however, the molecular and neuronal mechanisms underlying female receptivity are still poorly understood, particularly for virgin females. The Drosophila painless (pain) gene encodes a transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channel. We previously demonstrated that mutations in pain significantly enhance the sexual receptivity of virgin females and that pain expression in painGAL4-positive neurons is necessary and sufficient for pain-mediated regulation of the virgin receptivity. Among the painGAL4-positive neurons in the adult female brain, here we have found that insulin-producing cells (IPCs), a neuronal subset in the pars intercerebralis, are essential in virgin females for the regulation of sexual receptivity through Pain TRP channels. IPC-specific knockdown of pain expression or IPC ablation strongly enhanced female sexual receptivity as was observed in pain mutant females. When pain expression or neuronal activity was conditionally suppressed in adult IPCs, female sexual receptivity was similarly enhanced. Furthermore, both pain mutations and the conditional knockdown of pain expression in IPCs depressed female rejection behaviors toward courting males. Taken together, our results indicate that the Pain TRP channel in IPCs plays an important role in controlling the sexual receptivity of Drosophila virgin females by positively regulating female rejection behaviors during courtship. PMID:24505416

  14. Egg Load Decreases Mobility and Increases Predation Risk in Female Black-Horned Tree Crickets (Oecanthus nigricornis)

    PubMed Central

    Ercit, Kyla; Martinez-Novoa, Andrew; Gwynne, Darryl T.

    2014-01-01

    Female-biased predation is an uncommon phenomenon in nature since males of many species take on riskier behaviours to gain more mates. Several species of sphecid wasps have been observed taking more female than male prey, and it is not fully understood why. The solitary sphecid Isodontia mexicana catches more adult female tree cricket (Oecanthus nigricornis) prey. Previous work has shown that, although female tree crickets are larger and thus likely to be more valuable as prey than males, body size alone cannot fully explain why wasps take more females. We tested the hypothesis that wasps catch adult female tree crickets more often because bearing eggs impedes a female’s ability to escape predation. We compared female survivors to prey of I. mexicana, and found that females carrying more eggs were significantly more likely to be caught by wasps, regardless of their body size and jumping leg mass. We also conducted laboratory experiments where females’ jumping responses to a simulated attack were measured and compared to her egg load and morphology. We found a significant negative relationship between egg load and jumping ability, and a positive relationship between body size and jumping ability. These findings support the hypothesis that ovarian eggs are a physical handicap that contributes to female-biased predation in this system. Predation on the most fecund females may have ecological-evolutionary consequences such as collapse of prey populations or selection for alternate life history strategies and behaviours. PMID:25330090

  15. A mechanistic hypothesis of the factors that enhance vulnerability to nicotine use in females

    PubMed Central

    O'Dell, Laura E.; Torres, Oscar V.

    2013-01-01

    Women are particularly more vulnerable to tobacco use than men. This review proposes a unifying hypothesis that females experience greater rewarding effects of nicotine and more intense stress produced by withdrawal than males. We also provide a neural framework whereby estrogen promotes greater rewarding effects of nicotine in females via enhanced dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). During withdrawal, we suggest that corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) stress systems are sensitized and promote a greater suppression of dopamine release in the NAcc of females versus males. Taken together, females display enhanced nicotine reward via estrogen and amplified effects of withdrawal via stress systems. Although this framework focuses on sex differences in adult rats, it is also applied to adolescent females who display enhanced rewarding effects of nicotine, but reduced effects of withdrawal from this drug. Since females experience strong rewarding effects of nicotine, a clinical implication of our hypothesis is that specific strategies to prevent smoking initiation among females are critical. Also, anxiolytic medications may be more effective in females that experience intense stress during withdrawal. Furthermore, medications that target withdrawal should not be applied in a unilateral manner across age and sex, given that nicotine withdrawal is lower during adolescence. This review highlights key factors that promote nicotine use in females, and future studies on sex-dependent interactions of stress and reward systems are needed to test our mechanistic hypotheses. Future studies in this area will have important translational value toward reducing health disparities produced by nicotine use in females. PMID:23684991

  16. Suppression of Cortisol Levels in Subordinate Female Marmosets: Reproductive

    E-print Network

    Saltzman, Wendy

    Suppression of Cortisol Levels in Subordinate Female Marmosets: Reproductive and Social marmosets (Cal- lithrix jacchus) have markedly lower plasma cortisol levels than dominant females. Therefore, we previously hypothe- sized that this cortisol difference is mediated by rank- related

  17. Female ornamentation and territorial conflicts in collared flycatchers ( Ficedula albicollis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegyi, Gergely; Garamszegi, László Zsolt; Eens, Marcel; Török, János

    2008-10-01

    Female ornaments in species with conventional sex roles often indicate individual quality, but the evolutionary forces maintaining them are less clear. Sexual competition for breeding opportunities may represent an important role for female signals, especially in polygynous species, but there is little experimental evidence for this. The wing patch size (WPS) of female collared flycatchers indicates age and body condition and predicts social mating patterns. We challenged nest-building females with decoy females of varying WPS and found that the aggressive response of residents increased with decoy WPS, suggesting a role for this female ornament in territorial competition. Our results explain why female WPS predicts territorial distances when mated to a polygynous male and indicate that the role of WPS in female competitive interactions is similar to that in males of the same population.

  18. International research work experience of young females in physics

    E-print Network

    Choi, Serene H -J; Roelofs, Susan H; Alvarez-Elizondo, Martha B; Nieminen, Timo A

    2011-01-01

    International research work for young people is common in physics. However, work experience and career plan of female workers in physics are little studied. We explore them by interviewing three international female workers in physics.

  19. Parental support and condom use among transgender female youth

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Erin C.; Iverson, Ellen; Garofalo, Robert; Belzer, Marvin

    2011-01-01

    Evidence suggests that transgender female youth (TFY), much like their adult transgender female peers, are at high risk for HIV. Yet little attention has been given to important developmental experiences of TFY that may impact HIV risk for this youth population. The overall purpose of this study was to explore HIV risk in TFY. A re-occurring theme from the qualitative data was the importance of parents. To better understand the impact of parents on HIV risk among TFY, in-depth individual interview data from 21 TFY in Los Angeles and Chicago were analyzed, suggesting a potential link between HIV-related risk behavior and parental support. Youth with parental support in this sample reported regular condom use, while those without such support reported inconsistent condom use. Implications for the unique research and interventions needs of TFY related to parental support and sexual risk behaviors are discussed. PMID:22079675

  20. The structure of social relationships among captive female giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis).

    PubMed

    Bashaw, Meredith J; Bloomsmith, Mollie A; Maple, Terry L; Bercovitch, Fred B

    2007-02-01

    Giraffe herds have been characterized as random associations of individuals, but recent evidence suggests giraffe have a more complex social structure. The authors formulated 3 hypotheses designed to evaluate whether a herd of captive giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) associated randomly or patterned their behavior and proximity in a manner indicative of social relationships. Affiliative interaction, proximity, and nearest neighbors for 6 captive female giraffe living in a large outdoor enclosure were analyzed, and all three measures were nonrandomly distributed, indicating female giraffe had social preferences. Furthermore, preferences were consistent across measures and time, suggesting that adult female giraffe maintain relationships. Mother-daughter pairs and pairs with large age differences between members interacted and associated most often. The social structure of this captive herd is influenced by social relationships between individual adult females, and the social behavior of individual females should be examined more closely in the wild. PMID:17324074