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In the adultfemale, acne is a chronic condition with a substantial negative psychological, social and emotional impact. Based on time of onset, two subtypes of adultfemale acne are recognized: 'persistent acne' is a continuation of the disease from adolescence, while 'late-onset acne' first presents in adulthood. The morphological characteristics of adultfemale acne are often distinct from adolescent acne. In adults, inflammatory lesions (particularly papules, pustules and nodules) are generally more prominent on the lower chin, jawline and neck, and comedones are more often closed comedones (micro cysts). Adult acne is mainly mild-to-moderate in severity and may be refractory to treatment. A holistic approach to acne therapy should be taken in adultfemales, which combines standard treatments with adjunctive therapy and cosmetic use. A number of factors specific to the adultfemale influence choice of treatment, including the predisposition of older skin to irritation, a possible slow response to treatment, a high likelihood of good adherence, whether of child-bearing age, and the psychosocial impact of the disease. Adherence to therapy should be encouraged through further patient education and a simplified regimen that is tailored to suit the individual patient's needs and lifestyle. This article reviews the specific characteristics of adultfemale acne, and provides recommendations for acne therapy in this patient group. PMID:23302006
Dréno, B; Layton, A; Zouboulis, C C; López-Estebaranz, J L; Zalewska-Janowska, A; Bagatin, E; Zampeli, V A; Yutskovskaya, Y; Harper, J C
We measured the relation between time spent watching television per week and obesity in 4,771 adultfemales. After controlling for age, education, cigarette smoking, length of work week, and weekly duration of exercise, females who reported three to four hours of TV viewing per day showed almost twice the prevalence of obesity (body fat greater than 30 percent), and those who reported more than four hours of TV watching per day showed more than double the prevalence of obesity, compared to the reference group (less than 1 hr/day). Part of the TV/obesity association was a function of differences in exercise duration among the four TV viewing categories. PMID:2053671
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the longitudinal trend on sport involvement of Japanese femaleadults after World War II and to consider the factors that have influenced it from a sociological perspective, based on an analysis of the relevant literatures. The rate of females' primary sport involvement is lower than that of males at any period. This
|This study examined separation-individuation development issues for young adult women, from the perspective of object-relations theory. Its purpose was to explore a woman's perception of her relationship with mother as it is affected by age and request for psychotherapy as well as the relationship between mother-daughter bond and personality…
Interrupted aortic arch is a rare and usually lethal malformation, representing approximately 1% of congenital heart disease. This presents as a missing segment of the aortic arch and is divided into three types: A-called extreme form of coarctation, and is characterized by disruption of aorta's continuity distal to the left subclavian artery (30-40%), B-disruption between the left subclavian and the left carotid arteries (55-60%), and C-the most uncommon type, interruption proximal to the left common carotid artery. The suspicion of coarctation of the aorta can be made from a combination of physical findings including systolic ejection murmur, the murmurs of collateral blood vessels, diminished or absent femoral pulse, and difference in blood pressure between arms and legs. Interrupted aortic arch is an extremely rare anomaly in adult patients. To our knowledge, the world medical literature contains only about 13 reports of interrupted aortic arch diagnosed in adults. PMID:21050264
Kleinrok, Andrzej; Zaremba-Flis, Ewa; Smyk, Tomasz
A questionnaire administered to a University sample of 245 female victims of sexual child abuse and 750 nonvictims attempted to determine whether abuse is related to poor adult social and psychological adjustment. The instrument consisted of three outcome measures of adjustment, variables directly related to abuse, perceived satisfaction with early family life, and demographic data. Only one of the outcome
Among the ectopic breasts, an ectopic breast tissue on vulva is an extremely rare case, especially in adult period. To our knowledge only 38 cases of ectopic breast tissue on vulva are documented in the world literature, out of which only 10 cases of unilateral ectopic breast tissue on vulva has been reported. Because of its rarity here we report a case of unilateral ectopic breast tissue on vulva in an adultfemale. PMID:23904730
We analyzed grooming episodes recorded among adultfemales in a large, provisioned, free-ranging group of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) at an individual level. Each female groomed on average 10 of the other 84 females, and 54% of them devoted =50% of their grooming to a single female grooming partner, which indicates that most females had grooming interactions with a relatively
Objective To communicate the presence of adultfemales, rabditoid larvae and eggs of Strongyloides stercoralis (S. stercoralis) in the respiratory secretions obtained by tracheal aspirate from a HIV-negative patient who was suffering from polymyositis, and treated with corticoids and amethopterin and assisted by pneumonia. Methods The respiratory secretions submitted to the Parasitology Laboratory of the Muñiz Hospital were made more concentrated by centrifugation (1?500 r/min for 15 seconds). Wet mount microscopy was performed with the pellet. Results It revealed adultfemales, rabditoid larvae and eggs of S. stercoralis. Further parasitological studies performed after the start of the treatment with ivermectin on fresh fecal samples, gastric lavages and tracheal aspirates showed scanty mobile filariform and rabditoid larvae of the same parasite. Conclusions The presence of adultfemale S. stercoralis which has never been observed before in the clinical samples submitted to our Laboratory for investigation can be considered as an indirect marker of the severe immunosupression of the patient.
This pilot study tested the efficacy of a brief intervention using motivational interviewing (MI) plus mindfulness meditation (MM) to reduce marijuana use among young adultfemales. Thirty-four female marijuana users between the ages of 18 and 29 were randomized to either the intervention group (n = 22), consisting of two sessions of MI-MM, or an assessment-only control group (n = 12). The participants' marijuana use was assessed at baseline and at 1, 2, and 3 months posttreatment. Fixed-effects regression modeling was used to analyze treatment effects. Participants randomized to the intervention group were found to use marijuana on 6.15 (z = -2.42, p = .015), 7.81 (z = -2.78, p = .005), and 6.83 (z = -2.23, p = .026) fewer days at Months 1, 2, and 3, respectively, than controls. Findings from this pilot study provide preliminary evidence for the feasibility and effectiveness of a brief MI-MM for young adultfemale marijuana users. PMID:21940136
de Dios, Marcel A; Herman, Debra S; Britton, Willoughby B; Hagerty, Claire E; Anderson, Bradley J; Stein, Michael D
Background: Acne, the most common problem that presents to dermatologists, can persist beyond teen years. Although its physical and psychosocial impact is studied in teen years, it is poorly understood in the Indian adult population. Aim: To study the physical and psychosocial impact of acne in adultfemales. Settings and Design: This exploratory study was done in the university setting. Materials and Methods: Eleven adult, unmarried females, between the age group of 18 and 25 years, having (mild-to-moderate), acne, for two consecutive years, were interviewed using a semi-structured clinical interview of the Skindex, a quality-of-life measure for patients with skin disease, developed by Chren et al., along with some open-ended questions. Both qualitative and quantitative analysis was done to analyze the data. Results: The results indicated a higher level of emotional and social impairment, in terms of the feelings of physical discomfort, anger, and the intermingling impact of these, among the participants. Conclusions: Acne is a common problem among adults and appears to have a considerable impact on the mental health, therefore, for the treatment to be successful, a sympathetic approach by doctors and significant others, with the basic psychosomatic treatment, are necessary.
Studies have suggested that airway responsiveness declines with maturation; however, studies comparing infants, children, and adults are confounded by differences in size as well as maturation. Therefore, to determine whether maturation has a significant affect on airway responsiveness, we compared normal female children (n = 9; mean age = 13.6 yr) and adults (n = 7; mean age = 42.4 yr) who were matched for body size. Bronchial challenge tests were performed with increasing methacholine concentrations to a maximum of 30 mg/ml. At baseline, there were no significant differences between the two groups in lung volumes (TGV, RV, TLC) or flow-volume curves (FEV1, average forced expiratory flow rate between 25% and 75% of the vital capacity [FEF25-75], FVC). All subjects but one adolescent completed the challenge (30 mg/ml). The children had a greater percentage decline from baseline in FEV1 than the adults (17 versus 7%, p < 0.03). The percentage decline in FEF25-75 was greater for the children than for the adults, but the difference was not statistically significant (35 versus 20%, p < 0.10). Compared with the children, the adults more often demonstrated a plateau in their dose-response curves for FEV1 (22 versus 86%) and for FEF25-75 (33 versus 100%). We conclude that normal female children have a greater airway responsiveness to inhaled methacholine than do adults, and that this difference is not related to baseline lung size, airway caliber, or delivered methacholine dose. PMID:8118636
The important question of whether the Australopithecus africanus hypodigm is taxonomically heterogeneous revolves largely around the interpretation of the morphological variation exhibited by the fossils from Sterkfontein. The sex assignment of these specimens is a critical component in the evaluation of their morphological variability. The Sts 5 cranium is pivotal in this regard because it is the most complete and undistorted specimen attributed to A. africanus. Although it has traditionally been regarded as an adultfemale, this view has been challenged. In particular, it has been argued recently that Sts 5 is a juvenile and that this, together with alveolar bone loss that has supposedly reduced the size of the canine socket, has led to its misinterpretation as a female. Virtual reconstruction of the M(3) roots (and/or alveoli) contradicts arguments that these teeth were erupting at the time of death. Regardless, canine emergence and root completion are well ahead of M(3) development in juvenile australopiths from Sterkfontein. Thus, even if the M(3) root of Sts 5 was incomplete, its canine root would have been fully formed. Measurements of palate depth indicate that the alveolar margins of Sts 5 have not suffered from much (if any) bone loss in the region of the C/P(3); any additional bone would result in a palate of truly exceptional depth. Therefore, the dimensions of the canine alveolus of Sts 5 can be regarded as proxies for those of the canine root. The canine root of Sts 5 is among the smallest recorded for any Sterkfontein australopith, which provides strong support for Robert Broom's initial attribution of sex to this specimen. There is no evidence to contradict the assertion that 'Mrs. Ples' is an adultfemale. PMID:22459766
Grine, Frederick E; Weber, Gerhard W; Plavcan, J Michael; Benazzi, Stefano
Background Epidemiological data indicate that obesity is a risk factor for asthma, but scientific literature is still debating the association between changes in body mass index (BMI) and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). Methods This study aimed at evaluating the influence of BMI on AHR, in outpatients with symptoms suggestive of asthma. 4,217 consecutive adult subjects (2,439 M; mean age: 38.2±14.9 yrs; median FEV1 % predicted: 100 [IQR:91.88-107.97] and FEV1/FVC % predicted: 85.77% [IQR:81.1-90.05]), performed a methacholine challenge test for suspected asthma. Subjects with PD20 < 200 or 200 < PD20 < 800 or PD20 > 800 were considered affected by severe, moderate or mild AHR, respectively. Results A total of 2,520 subjects (60% of all cases) had a PD20 < 3,200 ?g, with a median PD20 of 366 ?g [IQR:168–1010.5]; 759, 997 and 764 patients were affected by mild, moderate and severe AHR, respectively. BMI was not associated with increasing AHR in males. On the contrary, obese females were at risk for AHR only when those with moderate AHR were considered (OR: 1.772 [1.250-2.512], p = 0.001). A significant reduction of FEV1/FVC for unit of BMI increase was found in moderate AHR, both in males (? = ?0.255; p =0.023) and in females (? = ?0.451; p =0.017). Conclusions Our findings indicate that obesity influences AHR only in females with a moderate AHR level. This influence may be mediated by obesity-associated changes in baseline lung function.
Abstract Purpose . Indoor tanning (IT) increases risk for melanoma and is particularly common among young adult women. IT has also been linked with some psychiatric symptoms, and frequent tanning may indicate tanning dependence (addiction) associated with endorphin release during ultraviolet radiation exposure. The objective of the current study was to investigate associations between IT, tanning dependence, and psychiatric and substance use symptoms in young adult women. Design . Cross-sectional survey and psychiatric interview. Setting . Online, except for the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), which was completed over the telephone. Subjects . Participants were 306 female university students aged 18 to 25 years. Measures . MINI, Seasonal Scale Index, tanning dependence scales, reporting ever having used a tanning bed or booth with tanning lamps (single item), reporting smoking a cigarette in the last 30 days (single item). Analysis . Descriptive statistics, ?(2) analysis, multivariate logistic regression. Results . Forty-six percent of the sample reported a history of IT, and 25% were classified as tanning dependent. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that IT was significantly associated with symptoms of alcohol use disorders, generalized anxiety, and not having social anxiety. Tanning dependence was associated with symptoms of alcohol use disorders. Conclusion . Tanning is of concern not only for its association with skin cancer but for its association with psychiatric and substance use symptoms. Young women with certain psychological problems may seek relief from their symptoms by IT. These findings suggest that indoor tanners may benefit from health behavior and other psychosocial interventions. PMID:23621780
Preliminary evidence, within both adults and adolescents, suggests that the intensity with which cigarettes are smoked (i.e., smoking topography) is predictive of success during a cessation attempt. These reports have also shown topography to be superior compared to other variables, such as cigarettes per day, in the prediction of abstinence. The possibility that gender may influence this predictive relationship has not been evaluated but may be clinically useful in tailoring gender-specific interventions. Within the context of a clinical trial for smoking cessation among women, adult daily smokers completed a laboratory session that included a 1-hour ad libitum smoking period in which measures of topography were collected (N=135). Participants were then randomized to active medication (nicotine patch vs. varenicline) and abstinence was monitored for 4weeks. Among all smoking topography measures and all abstinence outcomes, a moderate association was found between longer puff duration and greater puff volume and continued smoking during the active 4-week treatment phase, but only within the nicotine patch group. Based on the weak topography-abstinence relationship among female smokers found in the current study, future studies should focus on explicit gender comparisons to examine if these associations are specific to or more robust in male smokers. PMID:24018226
McClure, Erin A; Saladin, Michael E; Baker, Nathaniel L; Carpenter, Matthew J; Gray, Kevin M
This article analyses the ways in which the professional literature—by scholars, educators and reviewers—represents young adultfemale protagonists and approaches sexism. Drawing on critical race feminist theory, the author finds that recommended young adultfemale protagonists are still overwhelmingly white, middle?class and heterosexual. Despite descriptors such as ‘strong’, ‘gutsy’, ‘feisty’ and ‘independent’, the young adultfemale protagonists that are recommended
Whole proteins of male and femaleadult Haemonchus contortus were analysed by immunoproteomic techniques. Approximately 662 and 680 spots were detected on proteome maps of male and female nematodes, respectively, stained with Coomassie brilliant blue G-250. There were 609 shared spots. Approximately 193 and 196 spots were recognised on Western blot maps of male and female nematodes, respectively, using antiserum
Background Human Malaria is transmitted by mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles. Transmission is a complex phenomenon involving biological and environmental factors of humans, parasites and mosquitoes. Among more than 500 anopheline species, only a few species from different branches of the mosquito evolutionary tree transmit malaria, suggesting that their vectorial capacity has evolved independently. Anopheles albimanus (subgenus Nyssorhynchus) is an important malaria vector in the Americas. The divergence time between Anopheles gambiae, the main malaria vector in Africa, and the Neotropical vectors has been estimated to be 100 My. To better understand the biological basis of malaria transmission and to develop novel and effective means of vector control, there is a need to explore the mosquito biology beyond the An. gambiae complex. Results We sequenced the transcriptome of the An. albimanus adultfemale. By combining Sanger, 454 and Illumina sequences from cDNA libraries derived from the midgut, cuticular fat body, dorsal vessel, salivary gland and whole body, we generated a single, high-quality assembly containing 16,669 transcripts, 92% of which mapped to the An. darlingi genome and covered 90% of the core eukaryotic genome. Bidirectional comparisons between the An. gambiae, An. darlingi and An. albimanus predicted proteomes allowed the identification of 3,772 putative orthologs. More than half of the transcripts had a match to proteins in other insect vectors and had an InterPro annotation. We identified several protein families that may be relevant to the study of Plasmodium-mosquito interaction. An open source transcript annotation browser called GDAV (Genome-Delinked Annotation Viewer) was developed to facilitate public access to the data generated by this and future transcriptome projects. Conclusions We have explored the adultfemale transcriptome of one important New World malaria vector, An. albimanus. We identified protein-coding transcripts involved in biological processes that may be relevant to the Plasmodium lifecycle and can serve as the starting point for searching targets for novel control strategies. Our data increase the available genomic information regarding An. albimanus several hundred-fold, and will facilitate molecular research in medical entomology, evolutionary biology, genomics and proteomics of anopheline mosquito vectors. The data reported in this manuscript is accessible to the community via the VectorBase website (http://www.vectorbase.org/Other/AdditionalOrganisms/).
Summary Genomic imprinting occurs when expression of an allele differs based on the sex of the parent that transmitted the allele. In D. melanogaster, imprinting can occur, but its impact on allelic expression genome-wide is unclear. Here, we search for imprinted genes in D. melanogaster using RNA-seq to compare allele-specific expression between pools of 7–10 day old adultfemale progeny from reciprocal crosses. 119 genes with allelic expression patterns consistent with imprinting were identified and showed significant clustering within the genome. Surprisingly, additional analysis of several of these genes showed that either genomic heterogeneity or high levels of intrinsic noise caused imprinting-like allelic expression. Consequently, our data provide no convincing evidence of imprinting for D. melanogaster genes in their native genomic context. Elucidating sources of false positive signals for imprinting in allele-specific RNA-seq data, as done here, is critical given the growing popularity of this method for identifying imprinted genes.
Coolon, Joseph D.; Stevenson, Kraig R.; McManus, C. Joel; Graveley, Brenton R.; Wittkopp, Patricia J.
Although men are far less likely than women to be victims of heterosexual assault, such cases have been reported with increasing frequency in recent years. We compared social judgments about male and female victims of heterosexual and homosexual rape and tested hypotheses concerning social cognitions that are assumed to underlie a male rape mythology. In a 2 × 2 ×
Three lift-postures, back straight and knees bent, back bent and knees straight and squatting were evaluated biomechanically based on data from 100 Koli female labourers, when lifting loads from the floor to hold them at knee height. The maximum weight was lifted with the back bent and the knees straight which is a posture commonly used by Indian labourers for
|Studies identifying the mechanisms underlying the causes and consequences of antisocial behavior among female delinquents as they transit to adulthood are scarce and have important limitations: Most are based on official statistics, they typically are restricted to normative samples, and rarely do they gather prospective data from samples of…
Cernkovich, Stephen A.; Lanctot, Nadine; Giordano, Peggy C.
Ten adultfemale polar bears (Ursus maritimus) were fitted with satellite telemetry collars during March 1986 in the Kotzebue Sound area of the Chukchi Sea. During March-April 1987, 2 of these bears were refitted with satellite telemetry collars and an additional 10 adultfemales were collared in the northern Bering and eastern Chukchi seas. Data for 1,560 point locations recorded
GERALD W. GARNER; STEVEN T. KNICK; DAVID C. DOUGLAS
The purpose of this study is to gain an understanding of and an evidentiary warrant for, how a community of practice focused on informal science learning, can engage and promote active participation that offers adultfemale members and the community opportunities for legitimacy and transformation. This study is a qualitative, ethnographic research study that documents how adultfemale volunteers, historically
We studied survival of adultfemale and duckling Common Eiders during brood rearing at two sites on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska, in 1997. Duckling survival to 30 days of age was 19% ?? 10% (95% CI). Seventy-three percent of radio-marked adultfemales had lost all their ducklings by 30 days after hatch. Duckling survival was not related to hatch date. We estimate an average of 0.84 ducklings fledged per adultfemale radio-marked at hatch. Most broods moved to salt water within 15 days of hatch. Adultfemale survival during the first 30 days of brood rearing was 96 ?? 6% (95% CI). Mortality of adultfemales during brood rearing is probably higher than during other times of the year.
Antigens obtained from adultfemale Setaria cervi were more protective than those of males against the development of microfilaremia in guinea pigs (transplanted with 10 S. cervi). In high dose levels (2 ml 500 microliters/ml) significant resistance was induced by antigens from male (52% of protection) and female (62% of protection) worms. The antigens from female worms were effective (40% protection) at low dose level (2 ml 50 microliters/ml) also. PMID:3444925
|Background: This survey study aims to examine the prevalence and factors associated with depressive symptoms among primary older female family carers of adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). Method: In total, 350 female family carers aged 55 and older took part and completed the interview in their homes. The survey package contained…
Futuristic fantasy fiction that is produced for female adolescent readers offers a vision of the relationship between the female body, feminine subjectivity and technology that is both unique and ideologically complex because of the way in which it simultaneously interrogates and adheres to liberal humanist conceptualisations of the subject. This article examines three contemporary works of young adult fiction —
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between computer use, identity formation, and self-esteem among Black and White emerging adultfemales. One hundred 56 female college students participated in this study by completing a survey that included the Internet\\/Computer Use Questionnaire, the Ego Identity Process Questionnaire, and the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale. Racial differences were found between
Ronald L. Mullis; Ann K. Mullis; Thomas A. Cornille
The leopard gecko, Eublepharis macularius, is a species in which testosterone (T) is the primary circulating sex hormone in adults of both sexes. There are, however, sex differences in T physiology. Whereas males have prolonged periods with high T levels, T levels cycle in accord with follicular development in females. Specifically, T concentration increases during vitellogenesis, drops after ovulation, and then remains at previtellogenic levels until eggs are laid and the next follicular cycle begins. To determine the function of T in females, we manipulated both the level and the duration of T elevation using Silastic implants in intact, adultfemale leopard geckos. Females had low ( approximately 1 ng/ml), medium ( approximately 100 ng/ml), or high ( approximately 200 ng/ml) T levels for either a short (8 days) or a long (35 days) duration. Behavior tests with males were conducted on days 1-5 in the short-duration group or on days 29-33 in the long-duration group. For both short- and long-duration groups, T treatment decreased attractivity in females with medium and high T levels compared to females with low T levels. In contrast, females with a medium T level were more receptive than females with a low T level in the short-duration group. Females in the long-duration group were unreceptive regardless of T level. Females treated for a long duration also displayed more aggression toward and evoked more aggression from males than short duration females. Short-duration T treatment had no masculinizing effect on female morphology, whereas medium and high T levels for a long duration induced development of hemipenes. Overall, these results suggest that T can both increase and decrease sexual behaviors in the female leopard gecko. PMID:10506536
A recent taxonomic study (Strickman 1988) has resulted in nomenclatorial changes in the names Culex stigmatosoma Dyar 1907, Cx. peus Speiser 1904, and Cx. thriambus Dyar 1921. Careful examination of the holotype of Cx. peus (a femaleadult originally coll...
A role for serotonin in male sexual preference was recently uncovered by our finding that male mutant mice lacking serotonin have lost sexual preference. Here we show that female mouse mutants lacking either central serotonergic neurons or serotonin prefer female over male genital odors when given a choice, and displayed increased female-female mounting when presented either with a choice of a male and a female target or only with a female target. Pharmacological manipulations and genetic rescue experiments showed that serotonin is required in adults. Behavioral changes caused by deficient serotonergic signaling were not due to changes in plasma concentrations of sex hormones. We demonstrate that a genetic manipulation reverses sexual preference without involving sex hormones. Our results indicate that serotonin controls sexual preference. PMID:23716677
|A study was conducted utilizing Cross' (1981) barriers to adult learning as a framework to better understand how adults successfully complete their graduate studies. Participants in the study were solicited via Facebook and LinkedIn. Three femaleadult learners who persisted in their graduate studies while balancing demands outside academics…
Studied the sexual behavior of gonadectomized adult rhesus macaques given no hormonal treatment, treated with estradiol benzoate (EB; 20 |mg\\/day), or treated with testosterone propionate (TP; 10 mg\\/day). Six experimentally produced female pseudohermaphrodites, 9 long-term castrated males, and 7 ovariectomized females were given 36 pair tests of 10-min duration with 6 ovariectomized, estrogen-primed female partners. 12 tests were given under
This study determined whether timing of prenatal androgen excess resulted in differential impairment of insulin-glucose homeostasis in adultfemale rhesus monkeys. Ten female rhesus monkeys exposed to testosterone propionate starting on gestational day 40 (early treated), 9 females exposed to testosterone propionate starting between ges- tational days 100 -115 (late treated), and 15 control females were studied. The modified minimal
JOEL R. EISNER; DANIEL A. DUMESIC; JOSEPH W. KEMNITZ; DAVID H. ABBOTT
Fluorodeoxyglucose is the most commonly used radiopharmaceutical in Positron Emission Tomography, with applications in neurology, cardiology, and oncology. Despite its routine use worldwide, the radiation absorbed dose estimates from FDG have been based primarily on data obtained from two dogs studied in 1977 and 11 adults (most likely males) studied in 1982. In addition, the dose estimates calculated for FDG have been centered on the adult male, with little or no mention of variations in the dose estimates due to sex, age, height, weight, nationality, diet, or pathological condition. Through an extensive investigation into the Medical Internal Radiation Dose schema for calculating absorbed doses, I have developed a simple patient-specific equation; this equation incorporates the parameters necessary for alterations to the mathematical values of the human model to produce an estimate more representative of the individual under consideration. I have used this method to determine the range of absorbed doses to FDG from the collection of a large quantity of biological data obtained in adult males, adultfemales, and very low birth weight infants. Therefore, a more accurate quantification of the dose to humans from FDG has been completed. My results show that per unit administered activity, the absorbed dose from FDG is higher for infants compared to adults, and the dose for adult women is higher than for adult men. Given an injected activity of approximately 3.7 MBq kg-1, the doses for adult men, adult women, and full-term newborns would be on the order of 5.5, 7.1, and 2.8 mSv, respectively. These absorbed doses are comparable to the doses received from other nuclear medicine procedures.
Autism spectrum conditions (ASC) affect more males than females in the general population. However, within ASC it is unclear if there are phenotypic sex differences. Testing for similarities and differences between the sexes is important not only for clinical assessment but also has implications for theories of typical sex differences and of autism. Using cognitive and behavioral measures, we investigated similarities and differences between the sexes in age- and IQ-matched adults with ASC (high-functioning autism or Asperger syndrome). Of the 83 (45 males and 38 females) participants, 62 (33 males and 29 females) met Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) cut-off criteria for autism in childhood and were included in all subsequent analyses. The severity of childhood core autism symptoms did not differ between the sexes. Males and females also did not differ in self-reported empathy, systemizing, anxiety, depression, and obsessive-compulsive traits/symptoms or mentalizing performance. However, adultfemales with ASC showed more lifetime sensory symptoms (p = 0.036), fewer current socio-communication difficulties (p = 0.001), and more self-reported autistic traits (p = 0.012) than males. In addition, females with ASC who also had developmental language delay had lower current performance IQ than those without developmental language delay (p<0.001), a pattern not seen in males. The absence of typical sex differences in empathizing-systemizing profiles within the autism spectrum confirms a prediction from the extreme male brain theory. Behavioral sex differences within ASC may also reflect different developmental mechanisms between males and females with ASC. We discuss the importance of the superficially better socio-communication ability in adultfemales with ASC in terms of why females with ASC may more often go under-recognized, and receive their diagnosis later, than males. PMID:21695147
Lai, Meng-Chuan; Lombardo, Michael V; Pasco, Greg; Ruigrok, Amber N V; Wheelwright, Sally J; Sadek, Susan A; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Baron-Cohen, Simon
Self-control can be defined as the choice of a larger, more delayed reinforcer over a smaller, less delayed reinforcer, and impulsiveness as the opposite. Previous research suggests that exposure to visual food cues may affect adult humans' self-control for food. The present experiment used 15 adult human females to explore the effects of exposure to visual food cues and dieting
We studied 2 grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) populations to test 3 hypotheses on the eÄects of adult male mortality on female repro- duction. The ''no eÄect'' hypothesis predicts that reproduction should be higher in the population with superior overall diet quality, regardless of mortality of adult males. The ''increased reproduction'' hypothesis predicts that reproduction should be higher in the hunted
We studied 2 grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) populations to test 3 hypotheses on the effects of adult male mortality on female reproduction. The “no effect” hypothesis predicts that reproduction should be higher in the population with superior overall diet quality, regardless of mortality of adult males. The “increased reproduction” hypothesis predicts that reproduction should be higher in the hunted population
Research on African elephant (Loxodonta africana) vocal communication has increased in recent years, yet there has been very little data collected on the vocal production of infant African elephants. Vocalizations were recorded from a group of five adultfemale African elephants and 3 dependent offspring (1 male and 2 female) at Disney's Animal Kingdom, Florida, U.S.A., using custom-designed audio-recording collars
CHRISTINA M. WESOLEK; JOSEPH SOLTIS; KATHERINE A. LEIGHTY; ANNE SAVAGE
This study assesses the association between adult attachment styles, religiosity, and courtship violence as experienced by\\u000a females. The sample was composed of 299, 18 to 24-year-old females attending junior level Human Development and Family Studies\\u000a courses at a midwestern state university. Statistical analyses evaluated interactional effects and mean-level differences\\u000a for both victimization and perpetration of courtship violence. Additionally, structural equation
Brian J. Higginbotham; Scott A. Ketring; Jeff Hibbert; David W. Wright; Anthony Guarino
Neurons incorporated into the adult main olfactory bulb (MOB) and accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) derive from the subventricular zone (SVZ). Despite some recent studies on the role of olfactory neurogenesis in sociosexual behaviors mediated by hormones, data on the implication of estrogens are still lacking. Taking advantage of female aromatase-knockout (ArKO) mice, which are unable to produce estradiol across their life span, we investigated the role of estradiol exposure during early postnatal and adult periods on adult neurogenesis in the MOB and AOB. We found that proliferation of progenitor cells in the adultfemale SVZ was not influenced by estradiol. However, whereas adult exposure to estradiol influences the turnover of MOB newborn neurons, the survival of those in the AOB depends on exposure to estradiol during the early postnatal period. Finally, based on their expression of Zif268, we showed that newborn neurons in the MOB responded to sociosexual odors, albeit to a lesser extent in ArKO females, suggesting a contribution of estradiol during the early postnatal period to this response. Together, these results suggest that the survival and functional integration of newborn neurons in the adultfemale MOB and AOB are differentially influenced by estrogens from the early postnatal period to adulthood.—Veyrac, A., Bakker, J. Postnatal and adult exposure to estradiol differentially influences adult neurogenesis in the main and accessory olfactory bulb of female mice.
There has been considerable development and implementation of new contraceptive methods over the last 15 years. However, sterilization has remained the most widely used method around the world. Ideally, the procedure should be safe, have a high efficacy, be readily accessible, and be personally and culturally acceptable. The cost for each procedure would be low and the method would be simple, quick, easily learned and be able to be performed in an outpatient setting without general anesthesia. A transuterine method of female sterilization has long been the ideal for the gynecologist. The Essure system fulfils many of the criteria, and is the first one to be approved by the US FDA. However, there is still a need for further research to find a device with the success rate of the Essure but without its irreversibility. PMID:18573050
A wide range of toxic effects has been associated with cadmium (Cd) exposure in mammals. However, the physiological factors that modulate these effects have received limited attention. We have previously demonstrated that neonatal exposure of rats to Cd during lactation results in sex-specific immunotoxic effects in both juvenile and adult rats. The objectives of this study were to determine the
Stephane Pillet; Michele D'Elia; Jacques Bernier; Jean-Marie Bouquegneau; Michel Fournier; Daniel G. Cyr
|Adult women's decisions to attend college and persist toward degree attainment are likely influenced by family members from both family of origin and current family. This study was designed to examine (a) rated support of family members within the family of origin and current family to attend and persist in college, (b) specific attitudes of both…
The present study investigated the influence of dominance rank in combination with kinship on age-related differences in social\\u000a grooming among adultfemales in a free-ranging group of Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata). Eighty-three adultfemales were divided into six sub-groups according to age-class (younger: 5–9 years old; middle: 10–14 years\\u000a old; older: 15–22 years old) and dominance rank (high and low rank). The ratio
An individual's reproductive potential appears to influence response to attractive faces of the opposite sex. Otherwise, relatively little is known about the characteristics of the adult observer that may influence his or her affective evaluation of male and female faces. An untested hypothesis (based on the proposed role of attractive faces in mate selection) is that most women would show greater interest in male faces whereas most men would show greater interest in female faces. Further, evidence from individuals with preferences for same-sex sexual partners suggests that response to attractive male and female faces may be influenced by gender-linked play preferences. To test these hypotheses, visual attention directed to sex-linked stimuli (faces, toys, play styles) was measured in 39 men and 44 women using eye tracking technology. Consistent with our predictions, men directed greater visual attention to all male-typical stimuli and visual attention to male and female faces was associated with visual attention to gender conforming or nonconforming stimuli in a manner consistent with previous research on sexual orientation. In contrast, women showed a visual preference for female-typical toys, but no visual preference for male faces or female-typical play styles. These findings indicate that sex differences in visual processing extend beyond stimuli associated with adult sexual behavior. We speculate that sex differences in visual processing are a component of the expression of gender phenotypes across the lifespan that may reflect sex differences in the motivational properties of gender-linked stimuli. PMID:19016319
Whole proteins of male and femaleadult Haemonchus contortus were analysed by immunoproteomic techniques. Approximately 662 and 680 spots were detected on proteome maps of male and female nematodes, respectively, stained with Coomassie brilliant blue G-250. There were 609 shared spots. Approximately 193 and 196 spots were recognised on Western blot maps of male and female nematodes, respectively, using antiserum from naturally infected goats as the source of primary antibodies. There were 129 gender-specific spots in male nematodes and 132 in females. Twenty-three shared immunogenic spots were identified by MALDI-TOF or MALDI-TOF-TOF mass spectrometry. These proteins included glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), homologues of Dim-1, actin, globin-like excretory/secretory protein F6, glutathione S-transferase (GST), ATPase and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. GDH and GST have been identified as immunogenic proteins of H. contortus previously, whereas the other proteins are newly recognised immunogenic proteins in this nematode. PMID:19560953
This research aimed to compare the prevalence rates of major depressive disorder (MDD) and to differentiate the presence and severity of depressive symptoms between women and men aged 18-24?years. In this population-based, cross-sectional study (n?=?1560), young adults were screened with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for MDD (n?=?137). Participants then completed a self-report questionnaire to gather sociodemographic data, and the presence of each symptom of depression was assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory. The proportion of women (12.2%) with MDD was higher than that of men (5.3%). The symptoms of depression found to be significantly more prevalent in women were sadness, crying, difficulty making decisions, and lack of energy, as well as self-criticism, irritability, changes in self-image, work difficulty, and loss of interest in sex. Sadness and self-criticism were significantly more severe in women than in men. The presentation of depressive symptoms in young adults with MDD differed between men and women. PMID:23651450
The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the educational, cultural, and linguistic adjustments and experiences encountered by Hispanic adultfemales in learning English as a second language (ESL) and the relation of these experiences to the variables of language, culture, and education of adult Hispanic females. Adult ESL learners face problems of controlling linguistic rules and of
Little is known about consequences of disability in nonhuman primates, yet individuals with disabilities can reveal much about behavioral flexibility, innovation, and the capabilities of a species. The Macaca fuscata population surrounding the Awajishima Monkey Center has experienced high rates of congenital limb malformation for at least 40 years, creating a unique opportunity to examine consequences of physical impairment in situ, in a relatively large sample of free-ranging adult monkeys. Here we present behavioral data on 11 disabled adultfemales and 12 nondisabled controls from 279 hours of randomly ordered 30-minute focal animal follows collected during May-August in 2005, 2006, and 2007. We quantified numerous statistically significant disability-related behavioral differences among females. Disabled females spent less time begging for peanuts from tourists, and employed a behavioral variant of such peanut begging; they had a lower frequency of hand use in grooming and compensated with increased direct use of the mouth or a two-arm pinch technique; and they had a higher frequency of self-scratching, and more use of feet in self-scratching. Self-scratching against substrates was almost exclusively a disability associated behavior. Two females used habitual bipedalism. These differences not withstanding, disabled females behaved similarly to controls in many respects: overall reliance on provisioned and wild foods, time spent feeding, and feeding efficiency did not differ among females, and there was no time difference in behavior performed arboreally or terrestrially. Disabled adultfemales were able to compensate behaviorally to perform social and life-sustaining activities, modifying existing behaviors to suit their individual physical situations and, occasionally, inventing new ways of doing things. PMID:22549480
Turner, Sarah E; Fedigan, Linda M; Matthews, H Damon; Nakamichi, Masayuki
Initiation and experimentation with illicit drugs often occurs in adolescence. Evidence suggests that adolescent rats are more sensitive to some of the effects of drugs of abuse than adult rats. The present study investigated whether adolescent and adultfemale Sprague Dawley rats differ in cocaine-induced locomotor activity. Animals were placed in the test environment for 30 minutes, and then administered an intraperitoneal (IP) injection of either cocaine (20 mg/kg) or saline (0.9%). Both adult and adolescent animals showed significant increases in locomotor activity as a result of cocaine administration compared to saline controls. Interestingly, cocaine induced significantly more locomotor activity in the adolescent females compared to the adults, demonstrating that cocaine acts differently in developing animals.
Male circumcision has been shown to reduce the risk of acquiring and transmitting a number of venereal infections. However, little is known about the association between male circumcision and the risk of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in the female partner. The authors pooled data on 305 adult couples enrolled as controls in one of five case-control studies of invasive cervical cancer
Xavier Castellsague; Rosanna W. Peeling; Silvia Franceschi; Silvia de Sanjose; Jennifer S. Smith; Ginesa Albero; Mireia Diaz; Rolando Herrero; Nubia Munoz
Gonadal hormones modulate neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus differentially in male and femaleadult rodents. Neurogenesis is comprised of at least two components: cell proliferation (the production of new cells) and cell survival (the number of new neurons that survive to maturity). Previous studies have found sex differences in the level of cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus only when
College women rated the perceived marital, emotional, and role consequences; personality characteristics; and the overall evaluation of adultfemale stimulus persons who varied according to maternal role, career role, and sex dominance of occupational\\/educational field. The data indicated that marital and emotional reward and costs were associated with both the maternal and career roles, but only the mother role was
Multilocular thymic cysts with follicular hyperplasia are uncommon masses that occur in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) positive individuals. These cysts mostly present in HIV positive children. Here we report a rare case of multilocular thymic cyst in an HIV positive adultfemale. In this case report, the radiologic findings of multilocular thymic cyst, management and prognosis are discussed.
Shi, Xiao; Nasseri, Farbod; Berger, David M.; Nachiappan, Arun C.
|This study examined linkages between depression symptoms (DEP) and positive adult support (PAS) in female adolescents and the partially mediating influence of eating disturbances (ED). Structural equation modeling was used to establish measurement models for each of the latent constructs, determine the relationships among the latent constructs,…
A sib analysis of adult life-history characters was performed on about twelve hundred females from a laboratory Drosophila melanogaster popula- tion that had been sampled from nature and cultured so as to preserve its genetic variability. The following results were found. There was no detectable trend with age in additive or dominance genetic variances for age-specific fecundity. Environmental variance for
To obtain an insight into the salivary transcriptome and proteome (sialome) of the adultfemale mosquito Culex quinquefascia- tus, a cDNA library was randomly sequenced, and aminoterminal information for selected proteins and peptides was obtained. cDNA sequence clusters coding for secreted proteins were further analyzed. The transcriptome revealed messages coding for sev- eral proteins of known families previously reported in
C. Ribeiro; Rosane Charlab; Mark Garfield; Jesus G. Valenzuela
Sandifer's syndrome is a rare, probably underdiagnosed, and usually pediatric movement disorder associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Often, it is misdiagnosed as epilepsy or paroxysmal dyskinesia. We report the case of an adultfemale with Sandifer's syndrome initially diagnosed as focal epilepsy and treated inefficiently with anticonvulsants for two years. PMID:22483645
Nowak, Mareike; Strzelczyk, Adam; Oertel, Wolfgang H; Hamer, Hajo M; Rosenow, Felix
When agonistic interventions are nepotistic, individuals are expected to side more often with kin but less often against kin in comparison with non-kin. As yet, however, few mammal studies have been in a position to test the validity of this assertion with respect to paternal relatedness. We therefore used molecular genetic kinship testing to assess whether adultfemale rhesus macaques
Anja Widdig; Wolf Jürgen Streich; Peter Nürnberg; Peter J. P. Croucher; Fred B. Bercovitch; Michael Krawczak
The leopard gecko, Eublepharis macularius, is a species in which testosterone (T) is the primary circulating sex hormone in adults of both sexes. There are, however, sex differences in T physiology. Whereas males have prolonged periods with high T levels, T levels cycle in accord with follicular development in females. Specifically, T concentration increases during vitellogenesis, drops after ovulation, and
|The association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and major depression (MD) in adolescent and young adultfemales is evaluated. Findings indicate that MD emerging in the context of ADHD is an impairing and severe comorbidity that needs to be considered further clinically and scientifically.|
Biederman, Joseph; Ball, Sarah W.; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Mick, Eric; Spencer, Thomas J.; McCreary, Michelle; Cote, Michelle; Faraone, Stephen V.
To gain insight into the molecular repertoire of the adultfemale salivary glands of the tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus, we performed transcriptome and proteome analysis. cDNA clones were sequenced and assembled in clusters of related sequences and the corresponding genes assigned to one of three categories: housekeeping (H; 31%), secreted (S; 34%), or unknown (U; 35%) function. Among the putative
Bruno Arcà; Fabrizio Lombardo; Ivo M. B. Francischetti; Van My Pham; Montserrat Mestres-Simon; John F. Andersen; José M. C. Ribeiro
In this study, the authors used a national, Web-based survey to examine female and male siblings of individuals with disabilities. More than 1,160 adult siblings completed a 163-question survey about themselves, their siblings, and their sibling relationships. Most respondents reported fairly close contact with their siblings and positive sibling…
Hodapp, Robert M.; Urbano, Richard C.; Burke, Meghan M.
This study is a retrospective look at adultfemale siblings' perspectives of their childhoods and present identities based on having a brother with a disability. This paper focuses on siblings' experiences within educational and public domains, and how such experiences have shaped their personalities and career choices. Qualitative findings were…
The regulation of female reproductive behaviors may involve memories of male pheromone signatures, formed in part by neural circuitry involving the olfactory bulb and hippocampus. These neural structures are the principal sites of adult neurogenesis; however, previous studies point to their independent regulation by sensory and physiological stimuli. Here we report that the pheromones of dominant (but not subordinate) males
Gloria K Mak; Emeka K Enwere; Christopher Gregg; Tomi Pakarainen; Matti Poutanen; Ilpo Huhtaniemi; Samuel Weiss
It is well documented that childhood sexual abuse is associated with deleterious outcomes in the areas of anxiety, depression, and sexual functioning. However, very little research has been conducted to specifically investigate childhood sexual abuse's relationship to adult social anxiety in both males and females. Participants included 250…
|Relations between (a) serious suicidal ideation and attempts and (b) demographics, trauma history, assault characteristics, post-assault outcomes, and psychosocial variables were examined among femaleadult sexual assault survivors. Younger, minority, and bisexual survivors reported greater ideation. More traumas, drug use, and assault disclosure…
Coalitionary support in agonistic interactions is generally thought to be costly to the actor and beneficial to the recipient. Explanations for such cooperative interactions usually invoke kin selection, reciprocal altruism or mutualism. We evaluated the role of these factors and individual benefits in shaping the pattern of coalitionary activity among adultfemale savannah baboons, Papio cynocephalus, in Amboseli, Kenya. There
Resveratrol (RES) is a phytoestrogen that has the ability to bind to estrogen receptors (ERs) and evoke biological effects that parallel those exerted by endogenous and synthetic estrogens. We have shown in previous studies that adultfemale rats acutely exposed to RES exhibit estrous cycle irregularity, ovarian hypertrophy, and alterations in sociosexual behavior. The present experiment characterizes the prolonged effects
A recent taxonomic study (Strickman 1988) has resulted in nomenclatorial changes in the names Culex stigmatosoma Dyar 1907, Cx. peus Speiser 1904, and Cx. thriambus Dyar 1921. Careful examination of the holotype of Cx. peus (a femaleadult originally collected in Oak Creek Canyon, Coconino County, Arizona) demon- strated that the specimen is actually conspecific with Cx. thriambus, not Cx.
Female carers of adults with an intellectual disability are increasing in our communities as those with intellectual disability live into middle and old age. Twenty-seven carers between the ages of 45 and 85 years responded to questionnaires about demands, resources, and their health. Almost all were in the clinical range on the measure of psychological functioning. Demands contributed significantly to
To obtain an insight into the salivary transcriptome and proteome (sialome) of the adultfemale mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus, a cDNA library was randomly sequenced, and aminoterminal information for selected proteins and peptides was obtained. cDNA sequence clusters coding for secreted proteins were further analyzed. The transcriptome revealed messages coding for several proteins of known families previously reported in the salivary
José M. C. Ribeiro; Rosane Charlab; Van My Pham; Mark Garfield; Jesus G. Valenzuela
Responses of the summer form of the adultfemale two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acarina: Tetranychoidea) placed in near-ultraviolet and green light are photopositive. The independent variation of these responses requires the presence of separate receptor systems. PMID:5919446
Responses of the summer form of the adultfemale two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acarina: Tetranychoidea) placed in near-ultraviolet and green light are photopositive. The independent variation of these responses requires the presence of separate receptor systems.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate potential antecedents of violent felony arrest in a sample of female felons. Among male populations, early onset conduct disorder (CD) with progression to adult anti-social personality disorder (ASPD) is associated with increased criminality and aggression. Conduct disorder is associated with a worsened trajectory of alcohol dependence in men. These factors likely have a synergistic contribution to male adult violent offending. Existing work suggests that CD, ASPD, and severe alcohol dependence may represent an externalizing endophenotype, which is, at least in part, genetically conferred. These associations have not been well studied in female populations. The author examined a sample (N = 130) of female mid-sentence felons to determine associations between adult arrest for violent felony with child and young adult antecedents, including CD and alcohol dependence. Data were gathered through administration of the Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism II (SSAGA II). CD had high prevalence (40.8%), as did ASPD (31.4%) and alcohol dependence (43.8%). Women convicted of violent felonies were more likely to have CD with progression to ASPD, and alcohol dependence. Both alcohol dependence and CD were independently associated with violent offending. These data suggest that the most serious female offenders have psychopathology similar to that of males and that the trajectory of disease and etiology of violent behavior may not be as gender specific as previously presumed. PMID:20422647
Boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain after boron carrier injection (0.005 g Boric Acid+0.005 g Borax+10 ml distilled water, pH: 7.4) was studied in this research. Coronal sections of control and trial animal tissue samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons. Using alpha autoradiography, significant differences in boron concentration were seen in forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain sections of male and female animal groups with the highest value, four hours after boron compound injection. PMID:22484141
Acknowledging the decades of social awareness and diverse views on the portrayal of women in advertising, the authors evaluate the perceptions of a stratified sample of adult women in a large mid-Atlantic SMSA regarding their general perceptions of female role portrayals, company image, purchase intention, and female autonomy orientation responses. The results suggest that despite changes made in female role
Previous studies have observed that television (TV) viewing is predictive of obesity and weight gain. We examined whether the cross-sectional association between TV viewing and BMI varied by racial/ethnic subgroups among young women in Wave III (collected in 2001-2002) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. We used multivariate linear regression to examine the relationship between TV viewing and BMI among 6,049 females while controlling for sociodemographic and health attributes. We stratified the sample by race/ethnicity to better understand the association between TV viewing and BMI across different groups. Black and Hispanic females had higher BMIs (black: 28.5 kg/m(2), Hispanic: 27.3 kg/m(2), white: 26.0 kg/m(2)) than white females, while black females reported higher numbers of hours spent watching TV (black: 14.7 h/week, Hispanic: 10.6 h/week, white: 11.2 h/week) when compared to their white and Hispanic peers. TV viewing was positively associated with BMI (beta = 0.79, P = 0.003 for 8-14 vs. < or =7 h/week; beta = 1.18, P = 0.01 for >14 vs. < or =7 h/week) independent of race/ethnicity, age, maternal education, history of pregnancy, parental obesity, and household income. However, in models stratified by race/ethnicity, increased TV viewing was associated with increased BMI only among white females; TV viewing was not predictive of higher BMI in black or Hispanic young adultfemales. Among black and Hispanic females, counseling to decrease TV viewing may be important but insufficient for promoting weight loss. PMID:19876003
Richmond, Tracy K; Walls, Courtney E; Gooding, Holly C; Field, Alison E
Previous studies have observed that television viewing is predictive of obesity and weight gain. We examined whether the cross-sectional association between television viewing and body mass index (BMI) varied by racial/ethnic subgroups among young women in Wave III (collected in 2001–2002) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. We used multivariate linear regression to examine the relationship between TV viewing and BMI among 6,049 females while controlling for socio-demographic and health attributes. We stratified the sample by race/ethnicity to better understand the association between TV viewing and BMI across different groups. Black and Hispanic females had higher BMIs (Black: 28.5 kg/m2, Hispanic: 27.3 kg/m2, White: 26.0kg/m2) than White females while Black females reported higher numbers of hours spent watching TV (Black: 14.7 hrs/wk, Hispanic: 10.6 hrs/wk, White: 11.2 hrs/wk) when compared to their White and Hispanic peers. TV viewing was positively associated with BMI (?=0.79, p=0.003 for 8–14 v. ?7 hrs/wk; ?=1.18, p=0.01 for >14 v. ? 7 hrs/wk) independent of race/ethnicity, age, maternal education, history of pregnancy, parental obesity, and household income. However, in models stratified by race/ethnicity, increased TV viewing was associated with increased BMI only among White females. TV viewing was not predictive of higher BMI in Black or Hispanic young adultfemales. Among Black and Hispanic females, counseling to decrease TV viewing may be important but insufficient for promoting weight loss.
The states of pregnancy and lactation bring about a range of physiological and behavioral changes in the adult mammal that prepare the mother to care for her young. Cell proliferation increases in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the female rodent brain during both pregnancy and lactation when compared to that in cycling, diestrous females. In the present study, the effects of maternal behavior induction and pup exposure on neurogenesis in nulliparous rats were examined in order to determine whether maternal behavior itself, independent of pregnancy and lactation, might affect neurogenesis. Adult, nulliparous, Sprague-Dawley, female rats were exposed daily to foster young in order to induce maternal behavior. Following the induction of maternal behavior each maternal subject plus females that were exposed to pups for a comparable number of test days, but did not display maternal behavior, and subjects that had received no pup exposure were injected with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU, 90 mg/kg, i.v.). Brain sections were double-labeled for BrdU and the neural marker, NeuN, to examine the proliferating cell population. Increases in the number of double-labeled cells were found in the maternal virgin brain when compared with the number of double-labeled cells present in non-maternal, pup-exposed nulliparous rats and in females not exposed to young. No changes were evident in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus as a function of maternal behavior. These data indicate that in nulliparous female rats maternal behavior itself is associated with the stimulation of neurogenesis in the SVZ.
Four theories about cultural suppression of female sexuality are evaluated. Data are reviewed on cross-cultural differences in power and sex ratios, reactions to the sexual revolution, direct restraining influences on adolescent and adultfemale sexuality, double standard patterns of sexual morality, female genital surgery, legal and religious restrictions on sex, prostitution and pornography, and sexual deception. The view that men
Four theories about cultural suppression of female sexuality are evaluated. Data are reviewed on cross-cultural differences in power and sex ratios, reactions to the sexual revolution, direct restraining influences on adolescent and adultfemale sexuality, double standard patterns of sexual morality, female genital surgery, legal and religious restrictions on sex, prostitution and pornography, and sexual deception. The view that men
The purpose of this study is to gain an understanding of and an evidentiary warrant for, how a community of practice focused on informal science learning, can engage and promote active participation that offers adultfemale members and the community opportunities for legitimacy and transformation. This study is a qualitative, ethnographic research study that documents how adultfemale volunteers, historically inexperienced and/or excluded from traditional practices of science, come to engage in science activities through an informal, community-based context that helps them to appreciate science connections in their lives that are ultimately empowering and agentic. I begin to understand the ways in which such informal contexts, often thought to be marginal to dominant educational beliefs and practices, can offer adults outside of the field of science, education, or both, an entree into science learning and teaching that facilitate female's participation in legitimate and empowering ways. Using descriptive analyses, I first identify the characteristics of peripheral and active program participants. Through phenomenological analyses, I then develop an understanding of participation in an informal science program by focusing on three adultfemale members' unique trajectories of participation leading to core member status. Each draws on different aspects of the program that they find most salient, illustrating how different elements can serve as motivators for participation, and support continuation along the trajectory of participation reflecting personal and political agency. Through a purposeful ethnographic case-study analysis, I then explore one core member's transformation, evidenced by her developing identities as someone who enjoys science, engages in science activities, and, enacts a role as community old timer and door opener to science learning. This study: (1) contributes to the limited knowledge base in fields of informal learning, science education, and feminist research; (2) provides data that lead to assertions about the impact of NSP participation; and (3) takes advantage of a unique context in which to study adults and the interaction of gender, science, and informal learning.
After completing this chapter, you should have an understanding of the following:\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a • The fundamental differences in the anatomy, physiology, and body composition between adolescent and adultfemales in terms\\u000a of the musculoskeletal system.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a • The relative similarities and pertinent differences between adult males and females concerning the anatomy, body composition,\\u000a and biomechanics of the musculoskeletal system.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a –
Histochemistry studies of key dehydrogenases in the glycolytic pathway and related enzymes and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA)-cycle\\u000a enzymes were carried out on adultfemale Onchocerca fasciata. The distribution pattern and enzymatic activities of 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6-GPDH), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH),\\u000a mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate) [NAD+(P)]-linked isocitrate\\u000a dehydrogenase (ICDH), and NAD+(P)-linked malate dehydrogenase (MDH) in various tissues of
Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE)-metabolizing enzyme of acetylcholine, is presently the most important therapeutic target for development of cognitive enhancers. However, AChE activity in brain has not been properly evaluated on the basis of age and sex. In the present study, AChE activity was investigated in different brain areas in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats of adult (3 months) and old
An individual’s reproductive potential appears to influence response to attractive faces of the opposite sex. Otherwise, relatively\\u000a little is known about the characteristics of the adult observer that may influence his or her affective evaluation of male\\u000a and female faces. An untested hypothesis (based on the proposed role of attractive faces in mate selection) is that most women\\u000a would show
This study investigated the effects of nicotine, the chemical responsible for tobacco addiction, on bone and on serum mineral and calcitropic hormone levels in adult, female rats to help resolve a current controversy regarding the impact of nicotine on bone health. Seven-month-old rats received either saline (n = 12), low-dose nicotine (4.5 mg\\/kg\\/day, n = 2), or high-dose nicotine (6.0
U. T. Iwaniec; Y. K. Fung; M. P. Akhter; M. C. Haven; S. Nespor; G. R. Haynatzki; D. M. Cullen
Background: Prior studies of adult entertainment club employees have been qualitative and lacked information regarding a range of important health factors.Methods: Sixty-nine female club employees completed a computer-assisted survey on healthcare access and health behaviors. An age-matched comparison sample was obtained from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). We calculated descriptive characteristics and developed multivariable logistic regression models to
Esther K. Choo; Megan L. Ranney; Michael J. Mello; Melissa A. Clark; Tina Charest; Christine Followill Garro; Karina Bertsch; Saskia Larsen; Caron Zlotnick
Kin selection promotes the evolution of social behavior that increases the survival and reproductive success of close relatives. Among primates, maternal kinship frequently coincides with a higher frequency of grooming and agonistic aiding, but the extent to which paternal kinship influences adultfemale social relationships has not yet been investigated. Here, we examine the effect of both maternal and paternal kinship, as well as age proximity, on affiliative interactions among semifree-ranging adultfemale rhesus macaques, Macaca mulatta. Kinship was assessed by using both microsatellites and DNA-fingerprinting. Our study confirms that the closest affiliative relationships characterize maternal half-sisters. We provide evidence that adultfemales are significantly more affiliative with paternal half-sisters than with nonkin. Furthermore, paternal kin discrimination was more pronounced among peers than among nonpeers, indicating that age proximity has an additional regulatory effect on affiliative interactions. We propose that kin discrimination among cercopithecine primates emerges from ontogenetic processes that involve phenotype matching based on shared behavioral traits, such as inherited personality profiles, rather than physiological or physical characteristics.
Widdig, Anja; Nurnberg, Peter; Krawczak, Michael; Streich, Wolf Jurgen; Bercovitch, Fred B.
Female and male adult human phantoms, called FASH (FemaleAdult meSH) and MASH (Male Adult meSH), have been developed in the first part of this study using 3D animation software and anatomical atlases to replace the image-based FAX06 and the MAX06 voxel phantoms. 3D modelling methods allow for phantom development independent from medical images of patients, volunteers or cadavers. The
R Kramer; V F Cassola; H J Khoury; J W Vieira; V J de Melo Lima; K Robson Brown
Perinatal nicotine exposure caused a sex-dependent heightened vascular response to angiotensin II (Ang II) and increased blood pressure in adult male but not in female rat offspring. The present study tested the hypothesis that estrogen normalizes perinatal nicotine-induced hypertensive response to Ang II in female offspring. Nicotine was administered to pregnant rats via subcutaneous osmotic minipumps from day 4 of gestation to day 10 after birth. Ovariectomy and 17?-estradiol replacement were performed on 8-week-old female offspring. At 5 months of age, Ang II-induced blood pressure responses were not changed by nicotine treatment in the sham groups. In contrast, nicotine significantly enhanced Ang II-induced blood pressure responses as compared with saline control in the ovariectomy groups, which was associated with increased Ang II-induced vascular contractions. These heightened responses were abrogated by 17?-estradiol replacement. In addition, nicotine enhanced Ang II receptor type I, NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) oxidase type 2 protein expressions, and reactive oxygen species production of aortas as compared with saline control in the ovariectomy groups. Antioxidative agents, both apocynin and tempol, inhibited Ang II-induced vascular contraction and eliminated the differences of contractions between nicotine-treated and control ovariectomy rats. These findings support a key role of estrogen in the sex difference of perinatal nicotine-induced programming of vascular dysfunction, and suggest that estrogen may counteract heightened reactive oxygen species production, leading to protection of females from development programming of hypertensive phenotype in adulthood. PMID:23529162
|This article describes program strategies and adult practices that can build youth-adult partnerships. In particular, it focuses on strategies to empower girls in all-female after-school programs. The Young Women's Leadership Alliance has involved 164 girl leaders and five adult women leaders over three years. To build the partnerships, adults…
The Paraguayan caiman (Caiman yacare) is the main Caimaninae species occurring in the Brazilian Pantanal Wetland. Despite the relative availability of works focused on biology and conservation of the Paraguayan caiman, almost nothing is known about its vocal structure and behavior. We recorded aggressive calls of adult caiman females guarding nests and, afterwards, the distress calls of the new born juvenile caimans in seasonally flooded areas of the Nhecolândia (Southern Pantanal). The results of both observations and sonographic analyses diverged from studies with other crocodilian species. Aggressive vocalization of adultfemales of the Paraguayan caiman was longer and more complex than the same vocalization of larger Alligatoridae species. Vocalizations of the young caimans presented interspecific differences with other crocodilian offsprings. Moreover, we found statistically significant intraspecific variation in the distress call structure among different pods, even separated by few kilometers. Differences in distress call structure were tested by Canonical Discriminant Analysis (CDA). We obtained the squared Mahalanobis distances between the acoustic multivariate spaces of each pod provided by the CDA and compared with the geographic distance between the bays of origin of each pod through Mantel Test. The geographic distance by itself did not explain the differences found in the structure of the vocalization of young caimans from different pods. The adultfemales of Paraguayan caiman positively responded to playbacks of calls from juvenile caimans from pods of other regions, as well as to rough imitations of distress call. Since the adult caimans showed protective responses to quite heterogeneous vocalizations of distress by juveniles, we hypothesized that the variation in the distress call pattern may be associated to a low specificity in sound recognition by adult caimans. PMID:24027931
Sicuro, Fernando L; Iack-Ximenes, Gilson E; Wogel, Henrique; Bilate, Marcos
The objective of the current study was to analyze the methylation status of the chicken male hypermethylation (cMHM) region and mRNA expression levels of sex-dependent genes in adultfemale-to-male sex-reversed chickens. Sex reversal from genetic females into phenotypic males was induced by injection of 1.0 mg fadrozole, an aromatase inhibitor, into fertilized eggs at 3.0 days of incubation. Birds aged 30 weeks were classified into 4 groups according to the histological structure of their gonads and the natural logarithm of the ratio of testosterone to estradiol in serum, namely standard females, slightly sex-reversed females with left ovotestes, highly sex-reversed females with left testes, and standard males. The results showed that methylation of the cMHM amplicon was lowest in the ovaries of standard females and highest in testes of standard males. Methylation levels were significantly higher in the left testes of highly sex-reversed females than in the left ovotestes of slightly sex-reversed females (p < 0.05). Expression analysis of 9 sex-specific genes in the gonad indicated that DMRT1 and HINTZ had a similar expression pattern, with significantly higher levels in standard males as compared to standard females, slightly and highly sex-reversed females (p < 0.05). Expression of FOXL2, AMH, P450arom, SF1, and ER? was obviously higher in standard females than in standard males, slightly and highly sex-reversed females (p < 0.05). Expression of SOX9 in standard females was similar to that in slightly sex-reversed females and lower than in highly sex-reversed females and standard males (p < 0.05). PMID:21540574
Maternal separation (MatSep) is a model of behavioral stress during early life. We reported that MatSep exacerbates ANG II-induced hypertension in adult male rats. The aims of this study were to determine whether exposure to MatSep in female rats sensitizes blood pressure to ANG II infusion similar to male MatSep rats and to elucidate renal mechanisms involved in the response in MatSep rats. Wistar Kyoto (WKY) pups were exposed to MatSep 3 h/day from days 2 to 14, while control rats remained with their mothers. ANG II-induced mean arterial pressure (MAP; telemetry) was enhanced in female MatSep rats compared with control female rats but delayed compared with male MatSep rats. Creatinine clearance (Ccr) was reduced in male MatSep rats compared with control rats at baseline and after ANG II infusion. ANG II infusion significantly increased T cells in the renal cortex and greater histological damage in the interstitial arteries of male MatSep rats compared with control male rats. Plasma testosterone was greater and estradiol was lower in male MatSep rats compared with control rats with ANG II infusion. ANG II infusion failed to increase blood pressure in orchidectomized male MatSep and control rats. Female MatSep and control rats had similar Ccr, histological renal analysis, and sex hormones at baseline and after ANG II infusion. These data indicate that during ANG II-induced hypertension, MatSep sensitizes the renal phenotype in male but not female rats. PMID:23174859
Loria, Analia S; Yamamoto, Tatsuo; Pollock, David M; Pollock, Jennifer S
|Examines the alcohol and cigarette use patterns of adolescent and young adultfemale patients (N=246). Results indicate that smoking differences between Whites and Blacks was inversely related to education: less-educated Whites and more-educated Blacks had a greater smoking risk. Conclusions show females' differential needs regarding alcohol and…
The objective of this prospective study was to follow the natural course of Brucella abortus infection in cohorts of seropositive and seronegative female bison and their offspring in Yellowstone National Park over a 5 year period. Specimens were collected from 53 adult, female bison at least once a...
BACKGROUND: Each year, 54 million American adults are affected by serious mental illness. Most of these persons depend on female family members for support or assistance, and unless these women are resourceful, they may experience considerable burden, stigma by association, depressive thoughts, and poor quality of life. OBJECTIVE:In this study, we examined the associations between characteristics of female family members
Jaclene A. Zauszniewski; Abir K. Bekhet; M. Jane Suresky
Current sexual selection theory proposes several potential mechanisms driving the evolution of female mating preferences, few of which involve social interactions. Although vertebrate examples of socially influenced mating preferences do exist, the invertebrate examples are virtually nonexistent. Here I demonstrate that the mating preferences of female wolf spiders can be acquired through exposure as subadults to unrelated, sexually active adult males. I first conducted exposure trials during which subadult females of the wolf spider Schizocosa uetzi were allowed to interact with mature males of an experimentally manipulated phenotype (either black or brown forelegs). After maturation, these previously exposed females were paired with a male of either a familiar or unfamiliar manipulated phenotype for mate-choice trials. Subadult females that were exposed to directed courtship by mature males of a particular morphological phenotype were subsequently more likely to mate with a male of a familiar phenotype as adults. Furthermore, females that were exposed as subadults were more likely, as adults, to cannibalize a courting male with an unfamiliar phenotype. Unexposed females did not distinguish between phenotypes in either mate choice or cannibalism frequency. These results suggest a previously uncharacterized mechanism influencing the origin of female mating preferences and ultimately the evolution of male traits: subadult experience. This study also stresses the potential importance of learning and memory on adult mate choice in an arthropod.
The stress response is a multifaceted physiological reaction that engages a wide range of systems. Animal studies examining stress and the stress response employ diverse methods as stressors. While many of these stressors are capable of inducing a stress response in animals, a need exists for an ethologically relevant stressor for female rats. The purpose of the current study was to use an ethologically relevant social stressor to induce behavioral alterations in adultfemale rats. Adult (postnatal day 90) female Wistar rats were repeatedly exposed to lactating Long Evans female rats to simulate chronic stress. After six days of sessions, intruder females exposed to defeat were tested in the sucrose consumption test, the forced swim test, acoustic startle test, elevated plus maze, and open field test. At the conclusion of behavioral testing, animals were restrained for 30 min and trunk blood was collected for assessment of serum hormones. Female rats exposed to maternal aggression exhibited decreased sucrose consumption, and impaired coping behavior in the forced swim test. Additionally, female rats exposed to repeated maternal aggression exhibited an increased acoustic startle response. No changes were observed in female rats in the elevated plus maze or open field test. Serum hormones were unaltered due to repeated exposure to maternal aggression. These data indicate the importance of the social experience in the development of stress-related behaviors: an acerbic social experience in female rats precipitates the manifestation of depressive-like behaviors and an enhanced startle response. PMID:22093902
The stress response is a multifaceted physiological reaction that engages a wide range of systems. Animal studies examining stress and the stress response employ diverse methods as stressors. While many of these stressors are capable of inducing a stress response in animals, a need exists for an ethologically relevant stressor for female rats. The purpose of the current study was to use an ethologically relevant social stressor to induce behavioral alterations in adultfemale rats. Adult (postnatal day 90) female Wistar rats were repeatedly exposed to lactating Long Evans female rats to simulate chronic stress. After six days of sessions, intruder females exposed to defeat were tested in the sucrose consumption test, the forced swim test, acoustic startle test, elevated plus maze, and open field test. At the conclusion of behavioral testing, animals were restrained for 30 minutes and trunk blood was collected for assessment of serum hormones. Female rats exposed to maternal aggression exhibited decreased sucrose consumption, and impaired coping behavior in the forced swim test. Additionally, female rats exposed to repeated maternal aggression exhibited an increased acoustic startle response. No changes were observed in female rats in the elevated plus maze or open field test. Serum hormones were unaltered due to repeated exposure to maternal aggression. These data indicate the importance of the social experience in the development of stress-related behaviors: an acerbic social experience in female rats precipitates the manifestation of depressive-like behaviors and an enhanced startle response.
The lumbar shape in females is thought to be unique, compensating for lumbar hyperlordosis. Yet, the morphological adaptation of various vertebral parameters in the thoracic and lumbar spine to this unique posture in young and adultfemales has only been partially addressed in the literature. Our aim was to investigate the gender association to vertebral shape in the thoracic and lumbar spine as a possible adaptation to lumbar hyperlordosis in young and adultfemales. A three-dimensional digitizer was used to measure the vertebral body sagittal wedging, relative spinous process thickness, and relative interfacet width at the T1–L5 level. Two hundred and forty complete, non-pathological skeletons of adults and 32 skeletons of young individuals were assessed. Three major results were found to be independent of age and ethnicity: (a) VB sagittal wedging in females was significantly less kyphotic than males from T9 to L2 (T11 excluded) with a cumulative mean difference of 8.8°; (b) females had a significantly relatively thinner lumbar spinous processes and (c) females had a relatively wider superior interfacet distance (T9–T10 and L1–L4) than males. We conclude that the combination of less kyphotic VB wedging in the lower thoracic and upper lumbar vertebrae, relatively greater interspinous space and larger interfacet width in the lumbar spine in females are key architectural elements in the lumbar hyperlordosis in females and may compensate for the bipedal obstetric load during pregnancy.
Dar, Gali; Peleg, Smadar; Steinberg, Nili; Medlej, Bahaa; May, Hila; Abbas, Janan; Hershkovitz, Israel
The southern portion of the United States has the highest mortality due to cardiovascular disease of any region of the country. The prevalence of hypertension in the South is also higher. Dietary intake of sodium, an overweight condition, and genetic factors may contribute to the problem. The role of trace elements is also a factor in producing hypertension. The objective of the present study was to explore the relationship of selected trace elements with tensive status using hair as a biopsy material. The study examined the differences in hair elemental concentrations between adult black female hypertensives and normotensives from low socioeconomic backgrounds.
Adultfemales of Meloidogyne incognita were excised from tomato roots and incubated in 0.04 M phosphate buffered saline, pH 7.4 for 18-72 hours to allow accumulation of stylet exudate. Twenty-four percent of the females produced exudate during the initial 18-hour incubation period; 70% of those females producing exudate initially produced additional exudate during the subsequent 54-hour incubation period. Analysis of exudate by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed the presence of at least nine major protein bands. Differential staining with silver and Coomassie Brilliant Blue G-250 stains indicated that three of the bands were glycoproteins. Upon acid hydrolysis, 14 amino acids were detected in the stylet exudate. The basic amino acids lysine, histidine, and arginine comprised 21.8% of the total amino acids detected. No peroxidase activity was detected in the stylet exudates. Data presented extend and generally confirm prior work on the chemical composition of stylet exudate. PMID:19290172
Under laboratory conditions, the authors analyzed the survival rate of nymphs, the minimum and maximum duration of each stage, the length of life of the winged forms and oviposition of the females. Two groups of 100 eggs each were monitored. In batch A, the specimens were reared in a single glass receptacle. In batch B, the specimens were kept apart, one by one, and when they reached the winged stage, they formed twenty couples, which made it possible to watch over the oviposition of the females and the length of life of each specimen. The egg eclosion rate was 96%; the proportion still alive at the end of the nymph phase was 69.5% in batch A and 78.4% in batch B. The most frequent length of time observed between oviposition and eclosion of first-stage nymphs was 28 days. The nymph phase lasted four to eight months and the adult phase five months. The mean total oviposition in batch B was 181.6 eggs per female. PMID:17876468
Rodrigues, Vera Lúcia Cortiço Corrêa; Ferraz Filho, Antenor Nascimento; da Rocha e Silva, Eduardo Olavo
Purpose Validity of the 20-meter multi stage shuttle run test (20-m MST) has not been studied in Nepalese population. The purpose of this study was to validate the applicability of the 20-m MST in Nepalese adultfemales. Methods Forty female college students (age range, 20.42 ~24.75 years) from different colleges of Nepal were recruited for the study. Direct estimation of VO2 max comprised treadmill exercise followed by expired gas analysis by scholander micro-gas analyzer whereas VO2 max was indirectly predicted by the 20-m MST. Results The difference between the mean (±SD) VO2 max values of direct measurement (VO2 max = 32.78 +/-2.88 ml/kg/min) and the 20-m MST (SPVO2 max = 32.53 + /-3.36 ml/kg/min) was statistically insignificant (P>0.1). Highly significant correlation (r=0.94, P<0.01) existed between the maximal speed of the 20-m MST and VO2 max. Limits of agreement analysis also suggest that the 20-m MST can be applied for the studied population. Conclusion The results of limits of agreement analysis suggest that the application of the present form of the 20-m MST may be justified in the studied population. However, for better prediction of VO2 max, a new equation has been computed based on the present data to be used for female college students of Nepal.
The purpose of this study was to determine whether the relationships between short-term power and body dimensions in young females were similar whatever the age of the individuals. A cohort of 189 prepubescent (mean age 9.5 years), adolescent (mean age 14.4 years) and young adult (mean age 18.2 years) females performed three all-out sprints on a friction-loaded cycle ergometer against three braking forces corresponding to applied loads of 25, 50 and 75 g.kg-1 body mass (BM). For each sprint, peak power including flywheel inertia was calculated. Results showed that a braking load of 75 g.kg-1 BM was too high for prepubescent and adolescent girls. Therefore, when measuring short-term cycling performance in heterogeneous female populations, a braking load of 50 g.kg-1 BM (0.495 N.kg-1 BM) is recommended. During growth, cycling peak power (CPP; defined as the highest peak power obtained during the three sprints) increased, as did total BM, fat-free mass (FFM) and lean leg volume (LLV) (P < 0.001). Analysis of covariance revealed that the slopes of the linear relationships between CPP and biometric characteristics were similar in the three groups (P > 0.7 for the CPP/BM and CPP/FFM relationships, and P > 0.2 for the CPP/LLV relationship). However, the adjusted means were always significantly higher in young women (P < 0.001) compared with both of the other groups. Although differences in performance during anaerobic cycling in growing females are primarily dependent upon body dimensions, other as yet undetermined factors may be involved during late adolescence. PMID:11417438
Background Saliva of blood-sucking arthropods contains a cocktail of antihemostatic agents and immunomodulators that help blood feeding. Mosquitoes additionally feed on sugar meals and have specialized regions of their glands containing glycosidases and antimicrobials that might help control bacterial growth in the ingested meals. To expand our knowledge on the salivary cocktail of Ædes ægypti, a vector of dengue and yellow fevers, we analyzed a set of 4,232 expressed sequence tags from cDNA libraries of adultfemale mosquitoes. Results A nonredundant catalogue of 614 transcripts (573 of which are novel) is described, including 136 coding for proteins of a putative secretory nature. Additionally, a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of salivary gland (SG) homogenates followed by tryptic digestion of selected protein bands and MS/MS analysis revealed the expression of 24 proteins. Analysis of tissue-specific transcription of a subset of these genes revealed at least 31 genes whose expression is specific or enriched in female SG, whereas 24 additional genes were expressed in female SG and in males but not in other female tissues. Most of the 55 proteins coded by these SG transcripts have no known function and represent high-priority candidates for expression and functional analysis as antihemostatic or antimicrobial agents. An unexpected finding is the occurrence of four protein families specific to SG that were probably a product of horizontal transfer from prokaryotic organisms to mosquitoes. Conclusion Overall, this paper contributes to the novel identification of 573 new transcripts, or near 3% of the Æ. ægypti proteome assuming a 20,000-protein set, and to the best-described sialome of any blood-feeding insect.
Ribeiro, Jose MC; Arca, Bruno; Lombardo, Fabrizio; Calvo, Eric; Chandra, Prafulla K; Wikel, Stephen K
Purpose: To develop a computed tomography (CT) organ dose estimation method designed to readily provide organ doses in a reference adult male and female for different scan ranges to investigate the degree to which existing commercial programs can reasonably match organ doses defined in these more anatomically realistic adult hybrid phantoms Methods: The x-ray fan beam in the SOMATOM Sensation 16 multidetector CT scanner was simulated within the Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNPX2.6. The simulated CT scanner model was validated through comparison with experimentally measured lateral free-in-air dose profiles and computed tomography dose index (CTDI) values. The reference adult male and female hybrid phantoms were coupled with the established CT scanner model following arm removal to simulate clinical head and other body region scans. A set of organ dose matrices were calculated for a series of consecutive axial scans ranging from the top of the head to the bottom of the phantoms with a beam thickness of 10 mm and the tube potentials of 80, 100, and 120 kVp. The organ doses for head, chest, and abdomen?pelvis examinations were calculated based on the organ dose matrices and compared to those obtained from two commercial programs, CT-EXPO and CTDOSIMETRY. Organ dose calculations were repeated for an adult stylized phantom by using the same simulation method used for the adult hybrid phantom. Results: Comparisons of both lateral free-in-air dose profiles and CTDI values through experimental measurement with the Monte Carlo simulations showed good agreement to within 9%. Organ doses for head, chest, and abdomen?pelvis scans reported in the commercial programs exceeded those from the Monte Carlo calculations in both the hybrid and stylized phantoms in this study, sometimes by orders of magnitude. Conclusions: The organ dose estimation method and dose matrices established in this study readily provides organ doses for a reference adult male and female for different CT scan ranges and technical parameters. Organ doses from existing commercial programs do not reasonably match organ doses calculated for the hybrid phantoms due to differences in phantom anatomy, as well as differences in organ dose scaling parameters. The organ dose matrices developed in this study will be extended to cover different technical parameters, CT scanner models, and various age groups.
Lee, Choonsik; Kim, Kwang Pyo; Long, Daniel; Fisher, Ryan; Tien, Chris; Simon, Steven L.; Bouville, Andre; Bolch, Wesley E.
Lead toxicity is a significant problem in the U.S. with elevated blood lead levels being highest among very young children and older adults > 50 years old. Bone is the major reservoir of body lead, accounting for 75% in children and 90% in adults. Very little is known about the effect of lead on bone mineral properties in adults. We investigated the effect of lead on the femora from adult, 6 month old female C57/BL6 mice who were administered lead in the drinking water (250 ppm, blood lead 33 ?g/dl) for 4 months. Bone mineral properties were examined using Fourier Transform Infrared Microscopy (FTIRM), quantitative microcomputed tomography (microCT) and whole bone mechanical testing. Lead significantly decreased the bone mineral density in the cortical and proximal cancellous bone and increased the marrow area in the cortical bone with microCT. Whole bone three-point bending showed a trend of decreased maximum and failure moments in the lead treated bones compared to controls. Lead significantly decreased the mineral/matrix ratio, collagen maturity and crystallinity in the trabecular bone as measured by FTIRM. In the cortical bone lead significantly decreased collagen maturity and bone crystal size by FTIRM. In contrast to cell culture studies, lead significantly increased serum osteocalcin levels. Lead also significantly increased the bone formation and resorption markers suggesting increased bone turnover. These data show lead increases bone turnover resulting in weaker cortical bone in adultfemale mice and suggest that lead may exacerbate bone loss and osteoporosis in the elderly.
Monir, A. U.; Gundberg, C.M.; Yagerman, S. E.; van der Meulen, M. C. H.; Budell, W.; Boskey, A. L.; Dowd, T. L.
Background The purpose of the present study was to determine how acute adult and/or prior early-in life (EIL; P14-P16) exposure to bladder inflammation affects bladder content of calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) and substance P (SP). Estrous cycle influences were also studied in the adult-treatment conditions. Methods In Experiment 1, intravesical zymosan or isoflurane anesthesia alone was administered to adultfemale rats. Bladders and serum were collected 24 hours later during each phase of the estrous cycle. In Experiment 2, zymosan or anesthesia alone was administered EIL and as adults, with bladder tissue collection 24 h later. Results In general, Experiment 1 showed that bladder content of both CGRP and SP was increased by inflammation. This effect was significant when data were collapsed across all phases of the estrous cycle, but was only significant during proestrus when individual comparisons were made during each phase of estrous. Also, adult bladder inflammation significantly reduced estradiol levels. In Experiment 2, bladder content of CGRP and SP was significantly increased in rats receiving EIL and/or adult inflammation. Bladder weights were also significantly increased by inflammation. Conclusions These data indicate that bladder CGRP and SP are maximally increased during the proestrus phase of the estrous cycle in inflamed adultfemale rats. EIL exposure to bladder inflammation alone can also produce an increase in CGRP and SP lasting into adulthood. Therefore, EIL experience with bladder inflammation may predispose an organism to experience a painful bladder disorder as an adult by increasing primary afferent content of CGRP and/or SP.
To investigate sociodemographic factors associated with adolescent females ages 14-16 years having children fathered by males age 20 years or older and identify differences in correlates across rural, urban, and border areas. The method section was a cross-sectional study using Texas birth record data. From 2000 through 2004, there were 29,186 births to adolescent females aged 14-16 years with valid paternal age. Prevalence of and adjusted odds of paternal age of 20 years or older were identified by paternal and maternal factors. The Results section Having both parents born outside of the U.S. was associated with a 5.29 (95% CI: 4.82, 5.80) times increase in the odds of paternal age of 20 years or older as compared to having both parents born in the U.S. Parental place of birth was associated with greater odds of paternal age of 20 years or older in urban areas compared to rural or border areas. Compared to those with average or high educational attainment relative to age, low educational attainment relative to age was associated with an increase in the odds of paternal age of 20 years or older. This association was present whether maternal or paternal educational attainment was low relative to age. Messages are needed to help adolescent females avoid pregnancy with adult males. In addressing this specific prevention challenge, it is important to consider maternal/paternal place of birth and its association with adolescent births with adult males. PMID:19795199
In order to clarify the effects of estrogen on cholinergic basal forebrain neurons, a cholinergic neuron in the diagonal band nucleus of the female fetal rat was implanted into the anterior eye chamber of the femaleadult rat. Some host rats were treated with 2mg estradiol valerate (E2v) injected every 3 days after ovariectomy while others were not 2 and 4 weeks after transplantation, the growth of cholinergic neurons in the graft was studied using acethylcholinesterase (AChE) histochemistry. At 2 weeks after transplantation, AChE positive neurons and fibers were densely distributed in the grafts of E2v treated rats. Also in grafts without E2v treatment, AChE positive neurons and fibers were found in all the grafts although their density was low. At 4 weeks, AChE staining was dense staining observed in both groups. These results indicate that neurotrophic effect of estrogen on the cholinergic basal forebrain neurons. PMID:8330655
Tanaka, K; Tamura, T; Kawashima, M; Ueda, S; Matsumoto, Y; Kawata, M; Ogino, Y; Yamamoto, T; Honjo, H; Okada, H
Decades of research in rodent models has shown that early postnatal overnutrition induces excess adiposity and other components of metabolic syndrome that persist into adulthood. The specific biologic mechanisms explaining the persistence of these effects, however, remain unknown. On postnatal day 1 (P1), mice were fostered in control (C) or small litters (SL). SL mice had increased body weight and adiposity at weaning (P21), which persisted to adulthood (P180). Detailed metabolic studies indicated that femaleadult SL mice have decreased physical activity and energy expenditure but not increased food intake. Genome-scale DNA methylation profiling identified extensive changes in hypothalamic DNA methylation during the suckling period, suggesting that it is a critical period for developmental epigenetics in the mouse hypothalamus. Indeed, SL mice exhibited subtle and sex-specific changes in hypothalamic DNA methylation that persisted from early life to adulthood, providing a potential mechanistic basis for the sustained physiological effects. Expression profiling in adult hypothalamus likewise provided evidence of widespread sex-specific alterations in gene expression. Together, our data indicate that early postnatal overnutrition leads to a reduction in spontaneous physical activity and energy expenditure in females and suggest that early postnatal life is a critical period during which nutrition can affect hypothalamic developmental epigenetics. PMID:23545705
Li, Ge; Kohorst, John J; Zhang, Wenjuan; Laritsky, Eleonora; Kunde-Ramamoorthy, Govindarajan; Baker, Maria S; Fiorotto, Marta L; Waterland, Robert A
The present study examined changes in heart rate (HR) prior to and during limited access ethanol drinking in adultfemale P rats. P rats were implanted with radiotelemetric transmitters to measure HR. Daily testing involved a 90-min pre-test period (water only available) and a subsequent 90-min test period [either water (W) or ethanol available]. After a week of habituation, one ethanol group had access to ethanol for 7 weeks (CE), and another ethanol group had access for 4 weeks, was deprived for 2 weeks and then had access for a final week (DEP). Analyses of HR revealed that CE and DEP rats had significantly higher HR than W rats during test periods that ethanol was present and that DEP rats displayed higher HR during the early test period of the ethanol deprivation interval, as well. These data indicate that ethanol drinking induces HR activation in adultfemale P rats, and that this activation can be conditioned to the test cage environment, paralleling reports on contextual conditioning and cue-reactivity in alcoholics exposed to alcohol-associated stimuli. Therefore, this behavioral test may prove advantageous in screening pharmacotherapies for reducing craving and relapse, which are associated with cue-reactivity in abstinent alcoholics.
Bell, Richard L.; Rodd, Zachary A.; Toalston, Jamie E.; McKinzie, David L.; Lumeng, Lawrence; Li, Ting-Kai; McBride, William J.; Murphy, James M.
The purpose of this study was to (a) add to the current literature on female identity development and (b) determine whether a gender specific pattern of identity formation is evident in females during their early and middle adolescent years. The Measures of Psychosocial Development (MPD) was administered by graduate students to 317 males and 332 females in sixth, eighth, tenth,
Associations between exponential childhood growth superimposed on low birth weight and adult onset cardiovascular disease with glucose intolerance/type 2 diabetes mellitus exist in epidemiological investigations. To determine the metabolic adaptations that guard against myocardial failure on subsequent exposure to hypoxia, we compared with controls (CON), the effect of intrauterine (IUGR), postnatal (PNGR), and intrauterine and postnatal (IPGR) calorie and growth restriction (n = 6/group) on myocardial macronutrient transporter (fatty acid and glucose) -mediated uptake in pregestational young femaleadult rat offspring. A higher myocardial FAT/CD36 protein expression in IUGR, PNGR, and IPGR, with higher FATP1 in IUGR, FATP6 in PNGR, FABP-c in PNGR and IPGR, and no change in GLUT4 of all groups was observed. These adaptive macronutrient transporter protein changes were associated with no change in myocardial [3H]bromopalmitate accumulation but a diminution in 2-deoxy-[14C]glucose uptake. Examination of the sarcolemmal subfraction revealed higher basal concentrations of FAT/CD36 in PNGR and FATP1 and GLUT4 in IUGR, PNGR, and IPGR vs. CON. Exogenous insulin uniformly further enhanced sarcolemmal association of these macronutrient transporter proteins above that of basal, with the exception of insulin resistance of FATP1 and GLUT4 in IUGR and FAT/CD36 in PNGR. The basal sarcolemmal macronutrient transporter adaptations proved protective against subsequent chronic hypoxic exposure (7 days) only in IUGR and PNGR, with notable deterioration in IPGR and CON of the echocardiographic ejection fraction. We conclude that the IUGR and PNGR pregestational adultfemale offspring displayed a resistance to insulin-induced translocation of FATP1, GLUT4, or FAT/CD36 to the myocardial sarcolemma due to preexistent higher basal concentrations. This basal adaptation of myocardial macronutrient transporters ensured adequate fatty acid uptake, thereby proving protective against chronic hypoxia-induced myocardial compromise.
Abbasi, Afshan; Thamotharan, Manikkavasagar; Shin, Bo-Chul; Jordan, Maria C.; Roos, Kenneth P.; Stahl, Andreas
Neurobiological studies of stress and cognitive aging seldom consider white matter despite indications that complex brain processes depend on networks and white matter interconnections. Frontal and temporal lobe white matter volumes increase throughout midlife adulthood in humans, and this aspect of aging is thought to enhance distributed brain functions. Here, we examine spatial learning and memory, neuroendocrine responses to psychological stress, and regional volumes of gray and white matter determined by magnetic resonance imaging in 31 female squirrel monkeys between the ages of 5 and 17 years. This period of lifespan development corresponds to the years 18-60 in humans. Older adults responded to stress with greater increases in plasma levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone and modest reductions in glucocorticoid feedback sensitivity relative to young adults. Learning and memory did not differ with age during the initial cognitive test sessions, but older adults more often failed to inhibit the initial learned response after subsequent spatial reversals. Impaired cognitive response inhibition correlated with the expansion of white matter volume statistically controlling for age, stress hormones, gray matter, and CSF volumes. These results indicate that instead of enhancing cognitive control during midlife adulthood, white matter volume expansion contributes to aspects of cognitive decline. Cellular and molecular research combined with brain imaging is needed to determine the basis of white matter growth in adults, elucidate its functions during lifespan development, and provide potential new targets for therapies aimed at maintaining in humans cognitive vitality with aging. PMID:15071114
Lyons, David M; Yang, Chou; Eliez, Stephan; Reiss, Allan L; Schatzberg, Alan F
Aims The influence of prenatal factors on the development of arterial hypertension has gained considerable interest in recent years. We examined the effects of prenatal testosterone treatment on blood pressure in adultfemale rats. Further, to define the mechanisms whereby blood pressure may be raised, we examined vascular endothelial function and nitric oxide synthesis. Methods and Results Testosterone propionate (0.5mg/kg/day;SC) or vehicle was administered to pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats from gestational day 15–19. Maternal feed intake and plasma levels of steroid hormones were measured in the dams. In the female offspring, birth weight, growth rate, blood pressure, vascular reactivity, eNOS expression, and nitric oxide production were examined. In the pregnant rats, testosterone-treatment increased plasma testosterone levels by 2-fold without any significant changes in 17?-estradiol, progesterone and corticosterone levels. Testosterone-treatment did not affect maternal feed intake. The pups born to testosterone mothers were smaller in size but exhibited catch-up growth. The blood pressure in the testosterone offspring at 6 months of age was significantly higher compared to controls. Endothelium-intact mesenteric arteries from testosterone group exhibited increased contractile responses to phenylephrine, decreased vasodilation to acetylcholine and unaltered responses to sodium nitroprusside in comparison to control rats. Testosterone rats demonstrated decreased expression for eNOS, and reduced nitric oxide production. Conclusions Our data show that elevated plasma maternal testosterone levels: (1) causes low birth weight followed by catch-up growth and hypertension in female offspring; (2) alters endothelium-dependent vascular responses. The endothelial dysfunction is associated with decreased activity/expression of eNOS.
Prenatal testosterone (T) exposure impacts postnatal cardiovascular function, leading to increases in blood pressure with associated decreased endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation in adultfemales. Endothelial function in males is not known. Furthermore, which of the endothelial pathways contributes to endothelial dysfunction and if there exists sex differences are not known. The objective of this study was to characterize the relative contribution of nitric oxide (NO) and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) to the impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation in prenatal T-exposed adult males and females. Offspring of pregnant rats treated with T propionate or its vehicle were examined. Telemetric blood pressure levels and endothelium-dependent vascular reactivity were assessed with wire myography. Levels of nitric oxide synthase (NOS3) and Kcnn3 and Kcnn4 channel expression were examined in mesenteric arteries. Mean arterial pressure was significantly higher in T males and females than in controls. Endothelium-dependent acetylcholine relaxation was significantly lower in both T males and females. EDHF-mediated relaxation was specifically blunted in T males (Emax = 48.64% ± 3.73%) compared to that in control males (Emax = 81.71% ± 3.18%); however, NO-mediated relaxation was specifically impaired in T females (Emax = 36.01% ± 4.29%) compared with that in control females (Emax = 54.56% ± 6.37%). Relaxation to sodium nitroprusside and levcromakalim were unaffected with T-treatment. NOS3 protein was decreased in T females but not in T males. Kcnn3 expression was decreased in both T males and females compared to controls. These findings suggest that prenatal T leads to an increase in blood pressure in the adult offspring, associated with blunting of endothelial cell-associated relaxation and that the effects are sex-specific: EDHF-related in males and NO-related in females. PMID:23966325
Exposure to high levels of glucocorticoids (GCs) during early development results in lasting disturbances in emotional behavior in rodents. Inhibitory GABAergic neurons, classified by their expression of calcium binding proteins (CBPs), also contribute to stress-related behaviors and may be GC sensitive during development. Therefore, in the present study we investigated the effects of prenatal treatment with the glucocorticoid receptor agonist dexamethasone (DEX) on expression of calbindin and calretinin in brain areas critical to emotional regulation (basolateral/lateral amygdala and hippocampal CA1 and CA3 regions). Late gestational treatment with DEX (gestational day 18–22) significantly decreased the density of calretinin immunoreactive cells in the lateral amygdala of adultfemale offspring with no differences in the basolateral amygdala, hippocampal CA1, or CA3 regions. Moreover, there were no effects of gestational DEX treatment on calretinin expression in males. Calbindin expression in adulthood was unaltered within either amygdala or hippocampal subregion of either sex following prenatal DEX treatment. Together these findings indicate that late gestational DEX treatment causes a targeted reduction of calretinin within the lateral amygdala of females and this may be one mechanism through which developmental glucocorticoid exposure contributes to lasting alterations in emotional behavior.
Zuloaga, Damian G.; Carbone, David L.; Handa, Robert J.
The present invention is directed to a method of using dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) to treat a human female with diminished ovarian reserve. The method includes measuring a baseline follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) level of the human female, and when the baseline FSH level is below about 40.0 mIU/ml, administering about 75 milligrams of DHEA per day to the female for at least four months to treat ovarian follicles in at least one ovary of the female to improve human folliculogenesis during the at least four months. The present invention further is directed to a method of restoring the ovarian environment of an older human female to that of a younger human female. The method includes administering about 75 milligrams of DHEA per day to the female for at least four months.
Gleicher; Norbert (Chicago, IL); Barad; David H. (Closter, NJ); Harben; Dwyn V. (Bryn Mawr, PA)
In this study, a spectrographic analysis was designed to improve the description of the shape, the modulations, the rate, length and frequencies of BALB/c mouse calls in different behavioural situations. Male and female calls emitted during investigation of cages with clean bedding, soiled with male or female bedding, and during same-sex encounters, were recorded and described. BALB/c male mice uttered different types of vocalisations both when investigating counterpart odour cues and when interacting with same-sex counterparts. BALB/c female mice vocalised solely during same-sex counterpart encounters and it appeared that calls were uttered mainly by the resident females. Male and female mice present a complex array of calls, which seem to be linked to particular behavioural situations. Further studies using this technology may help to improve our understanding of the role of vocal communication in natural rodent populations.
Gourbal, Benjamin E. F.; Barthelemy, Mathieu; Petit, Gilles; Gabrion, Claude
Interactions of overwintered females with conspecifics (> or = 5 days) on familiar territories were studied experimentally. In interactions of the resident females with unfamiliar overwintered females (28 experiments), there were no differences related to the reproductive status of both parties. Between the behavior of the residents and aliens, there were no significant differences, except the refusals of contacts--and aliens had more of it. Identification and affiliative behavior and the presence of ritualized aggression was noted. There was little direct aggression. Females were sharply aggressive toward the overwintered males (23 experiments) regardless of their reproductive status. Males tried to avoid contacts. Identification and affiliative behavior were rare. Toward yearlings (25 experiments), females that participated in reproduction were aggressive (direct aggression prevailed) and singles (9 experiments) were not. PMID:22988759
Ritual genital cutting for women, a common practice in Africa and elsewhere around the world, remains dangerous and controversial. In recent years, a 14-year-old girl living in Sierra Leone exsanguinated and died following a ritualistic genital cutting. Hoping to avoid that fate, women with backgrounds that accept ritual genital cutting may, when they reach majority age, ask plastic surgeons to perform genital alterations for cultural reasons. Although plastic surgeons routinely perform cosmetic procedures, unique ethical and legal concerns arise when an adultfemale patient asks a surgeon to spare her the tribal elder's knife and alter her genitalia according to tradition and custom. Misinformation and confusion about this issue exist. This article explores the ethical and legal issues relevant to this situation and explains how the thoughtful surgeon should proceed. PMID:16582781
Intranasal administration of norethisterone at a daily dose of 9 micrograms between Days 5 and 14 of the menstrual cycles blocked ovulation in 10 out of 17 adultfemale monkeys. Serum concentrations of hormones indicated that ovulation was blocked due to a suppression of the mid-cycle, oestradiol-induced LH surge. Ovarian follicular activity in the treated menstrual cycles was not affected by norethisterone but there was a marked delay in the onset of the mid-cycle oestradiol surge in most of the treated animals. The duration of the menstrual cycle length after the oestradiol peak was significantly reduced in all the treated monkeys, indicative of a shortened luteal phase. PMID:3944792
Puri, V; David, G F; Dubey, A K; Puri, C P; Anand Kumar, T C
This study examined the prevalence and correlates of suicidal threats and attempts among 662 racially and ethnically diverse adultfemale victims of intimate partner violence (IPV). One in five women had threatened or attempted suicide during her lifetime. Multiple logistic regression results indicated that women at greater risk of severe or potentially lethal assaults as measured by the Danger Assessment and those who reported having a chronic or disabling illness were more likely to have threatened or attempted suicide. A linear association was found between age and suicide threats/attempts, with younger women having increased odds. Finally, African American IPV victims were less likely to have threatened or attempted suicide as compared to Latina victims. Study implications are discussed.
Background Human sexual orientation is influenced by genetic and non-shared environmental factors as are two important psychological correlates – childhood gender typicality (CGT) and adult gender identity (AGI). However, researchers have been unable to resolve the genetic and non-genetic components that contribute to the covariation between these traits, particularly in women. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we performed a multivariate genetic analysis in a large sample of British female twins (N?=?4,426) who completed a questionnaire assessing sexual attraction, CGT and AGI. Univariate genetic models indicated modest genetic influences on sexual attraction (25%), AGI (11%) and CGT (31%). For the multivariate analyses, a common pathway model best fitted the data. Conclusions/Significance This indicated that a single latent variable influenced by a genetic component and common non-shared environmental component explained the association between the three traits but there was substantial measurement error. These findings highlight common developmental factors affecting differences in sexual orientation.
Abstract Background The current study tested the hypothesis that tension reduction expectancies mediate the relationship between anxiety symptoms and marijuana use. Methods Interview data for 332 young adultfemales from Southern New England were collected from 2004 to 2009. Results In structural equation modeling, anxiety symptoms had a significant direct effect (byx?=?0.227, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.086-0.369, p?0.05) on tension reduction expectancies and a significant indirect effect (byx?=?0.026, 95% CI 0.010-0.046, p?0.05) on marijuana use. Conclusions The effect of anxiety symptoms on marijuana use was fully mediated by tension reduction expectancies. Implications for tension reduction as a possible component of treatment interventions are discussed.
Hagerty, Claire E.; Herman, Debra S.; Hayaki, Jumi; Anderson, Bradley J.; Budney, Alan J.; Stein, Michael
Women are murdered all over the world. But in India a most brutal form of killing females takes place regularly, even before they have the opportunity to be born. Female feticide--the selective abortion of female fetuses--is killing upwards of one million females in India annually with far-ranging and tragic consequences. In some areas, the sex ratio of females to males has dropped to less than 8000:1000. Females not only face inequality in this culture, they are even denied the right to be born. Why do so many families selectively abort baby daughters? In a word: economics. Aborting female fetuses is both practical and socially acceptable in India. Female feticide is driven by many factors, but primarily by the prospect of having to pay a dowry to the future bridegroom of a daughter. While sons offer security to their families in old age and can perform the rites for the souls of deceased parents and ancestors, daughters are perceived as a social and economic burden. Prenatal sex detection technologies have been misused, allowing the selective abortions of female offspring to proliferate. Legally, however, female feticide is a penal offence. Although female infanticide has long been committed in India, feticide is a relatively new practice, emerging concurrently with the advent of technological advancements in prenatal sex determination on a large scale in the 1990s. While abortion is legal in India, it is a crime to abort a pregnancy solely because the fetus is female. Strict laws and penalties are in place for violators. These laws, however, have not stemmed the tide of this abhorrent practice. This article will discuss the socio-legal conundrum female feticide presents, as well as the consequences of having too few women in Indian society. PMID:20879612
Activity of Swift Foxes (Vulpes velox) at den sites was studied in northwestern Texas during pup rearing seasons in 2000 and 2001 to determine role of males in parental care. Twenty-four percent of radio-collared females with a potential to breed successfully raised pups to eight weeks of age. We intensively monitored presence and absence of male and female Swift Foxes at two den sites each year. Females were present >2.6 times more at den sites than males during the pup rearing season. Female and male Swift Foxes largely stayed at dens during diurnal hours and were active away from dens during nocturnal and crepuscular hours. Females and males spent 12.4% and 3.0% more time at dens before pups emerged, than after pups emerged, respectively. Following depredation of one male parent, the female spent 29% less time at the den site. Decrease in time spent at the den by the female following loss of her mate suggested that loss of one parent might severely impact recruitment of Swift Foxes. Our observations indicated that intense Coyote (Canis latrans) depredation may severely impact pup-rearing success as well as the parental care within Swift Fox family groups.
Lemons, P. R.; Ballard, W. B.; Sullivan, R. M.; Sovada, M. A.
A cross-sectional structured online survey was self-administered to a convenience sample of current femaleadult film performers via the Internet; bivariate analyses compared HIV and other STI risk behaviors, knowledge, and testing in femaleadult performers to California Women's Health Survey respondents. 134 femaleadult film performers (mean age 27.8 years) were compared to the 1,773 female respondents (mean age 31.3 years) to the 2007 CWHS. Female performers initiated sex on average 3 years younger and had 6.8 more personal sexual partners in the prior year than other California women. The majority of performers reported HIV and Chlamydia testing (94 and 82%, respectively) in the prior 12 months. They more likely to use condoms consistently in their personal life than other California women (21 vs 17%), though this difference disappeared after controlling for other variables. Adult performers are routinely tested for HIV and Chlamydia, yet they have multiple sexual partners and use condoms inconsistently. PMID:22101890
Grudzen, Corita R; Meeker, Daniella; Torres, Jacqueline; Du, Qingling; Andersen, Ronald M; Gelberg, Lillian
Neonatal bladder inflammation has been demonstrated to produce hypersensitivity to bladder re-inflammation as an adult. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of neonatal urinary bladder inflammation on adult bladder function and structure. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were treated on postnatal days 14-16 with intravesical zymosan or anesthesia alone. At 12-16 weeks of age, micturition frequency and cystometrograms were measured. Similarly treated rats had their bladders removed for measurement of plasma extravasation following intravesical mustard oil, for neuropeptide analysis (CGRP or SubP), or for detailed histological examination. Rats treated with zymosan as neonates exhibited increased micturition frequency, reduced micturition volume thresholds, greater extravasation of Evan's Blue following intravesical mustard oil administration, and greater total bladder content of CGRP and SubP. In contrast, there were no quantitative histological changes in the thickness, fibrosis or mast cells of bladder tissue due to neonatal zymosan treatments. Functional changes in urologic systems observed in adulthood, coupled with the increased neuropeptide content and neurogenic plasma extravasation in adult bladders, suggest that the neonatal bladder inflammation treatment enhanced the number, function and/or neurochemical content of primary afferent neurons. These data support the hypothesis that insults to the urologic system in infancy may contribute to the development of adult bladder hypersensitivity. Perspective Inflammation of the bladder early in life in the rat has multiple sequelae including laboratory measures that suggest an alteration of the neurophysiological substrates related to the bladder. Some painful bladder syndromes in humans have similar characteristics and so may be due to similar mechanisms.
Human females are generally reserved in their sexuality, in keeping with their heavy investment in reproduction. Males tend\\u000a to be less reserved. Relative to males, however, females demonstrate more variability in sexuality and are more likely to\\u000a inhibit or express high levels of sexuality. The heightened variability may in part originate with genetic mechanisms that\\u000a predispose females toward greater variability
During observations in the home cage in the light and dark on days 5, 15, 25, 35, and 45, male guinea pigs mounted and exhibited anogenital investigation of the mother, though appropriately directed mounting occurred infrequently and was not shown by all males. Mothers nipped and kicked advancing males. No mounting of a female sibling was observed. When behavioral interactions of approximately 35-day-old males with the mother or an unfamiliar adultfemale were compared during 1-hr tests in the home cage, males exhibited much higher levels of mounting and anogenital investigation, and received many more nips and kicks, when with the unfamiliar female. The results 1) demonstrate that limited maternally directed sexual behavior occurs in the home cage, 2) support earlier findings indicating that continuous housing with the mother suppresses maternally directed sexual behavior in periadolescent guinea pig males, and 3) suggest that sexual behavior toward female siblings also is suppressed. PMID:12471639
Hennessy, Michael B; Reed, Jennifer; Wilson, Shannon E; Pitstick, Lisa
For the forthcoming update of organ dose conversion coefficients, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) will use voxel-based computational phantoms due to their improved anatomical realism compared with the class of mathematical or stylized phantoms used previously. According to the ICRP philosophy, these phantoms should be representative of the male and female reference adults with respect to their external dimensions, their organ topology and their organ masses. To meet these requirements, reference models of an adult male and adultfemale have been constructed at the GSF, based on existing voxel models segmented from tomographic images of two individuals whose body height and weight closely resemble the ICRP Publication 89 reference values. The skeleton is a highly complex structure of the body, composed of cortical bone, trabecular bone, red and yellow bone marrow and endosteum ('bone surfaces' in their older terminology). The skeleton of the reference phantoms consists of 19 individually segmented bones and bone groups. Sub-division of these bones into the above-mentioned constituents would be necessary in order to allow a direct calculation of dose to red bone marrow and endosteum. However, the dimensions of the trabeculae, the cavities containing bone marrow and the endosteum layer lining these cavities are clearly smaller than the resolution of a normal CT scan and, thus, these volumes could not be segmented in the tomographic images. As an attempt to represent the gross spatial distribution of these regions as realistically as possible at the given voxel resolution, 48 individual organ identification numbers were assigned to various parts of the skeleton: every segmented bone was subdivided into an outer shell of cortical bone and a spongious core; in the shafts of the long bones, a medullary cavity was additionally segmented. Using the data from ICRP Publication 89 on elemental tissue composition, from ICRU Report 46 on material mass densities, and from ICRP Publication 70 on the distribution of the red bone marrow among and marrow cellularity in individual bones, individual elemental compositions for these segmented bone regions were derived. Thus, most of the relevant source and target regions of the skeleton were provided. Dose calculations using these regions will be based on fluence-to-dose response functions that are multiplied with the particle fluence inside specific bone regions to give the dose quantities of interest to the target tissues. PMID:17545663
The changes in the hemolymph proteome of mygalomorph Brachypelma albopilosa females were examined for the first time in relation to their developmental stage (subadult and adult period). Seven distinct subunits of hemocyanin (a, b, c, d, e, f, and g chains), as well as actin were clearly identified and their sequence partly characterized using a combination of one- and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. The different structures determined along with possible post-translational modifications may reflect a role of hemocyanin in molting, immunity, and reproduction. In addition, despite no precise identification, additional peptide sequences from eight protein bands (four bands >200 kDa and four bands in the 95-200 kDa mass range) were determined. As reported in other spider species, the putative corresponding structures are the coagulogen protein and/or lipoproteins (HDL-1, HDL-2, VHDL) for which quantitative differences between adult and subadult individuals could be related to the molting process and/or cuticle lipid and protein composition according to the developmental stage. PMID:20717997
Heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), while recognized as the major regulator of the heat shock transcriptional response, also exerts important functions during mammalian embryonic development and gametogenesis. In particular, HSF1 is required for oocyte maturation, the adult phase of meiosis preceding fertilization. To identify HSF1 target genes implicated in this process, comparative transcriptomic analyses were performed with wild-type and HSF-deficient oocytes. This revealed a network of meiotic genes involved in cohesin and synaptonemal complex (SC) structures, DNA recombination, and the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC). All of them were found to be regulated by HSF1 not only during adult but also in embryonic phases of female meiosis. Additional investigations showed that SC, recombination nodules, and DNA repair were affected in Hsf1?/? oocytes during prenatal meiotic prophase I. However, targeting Hsf1 deletion to postnatal oocytes (using Zp3 Cre; Hsf1loxP/loxP) did not fully rescue the chromosomal anomalies identified during meiotic maturation, which possibly caused a persistent SAC activation. This would explain the metaphase I arrest previously described in HSF1-deficient oocytes since SAC inhibition circumvented this block. This work provides new insights into meiotic gene regulation and points out potential links between cellular stress and the meiotic anomalies frequently observed in humans.
Le Masson, Florent; Razak, Zak; Kaigo, Mo; Audouard, Christophe; Charry, Colette; Cooke, Howard; Westwood, J. Timothy; Christians, Elisabeth S.
Acute 17?-estradiol (E2) signaling in the brain is mediated by extranuclear estrogen receptors. Here we used biochemical methods to investigate the distribution, posttranslational modification, and E2 regulation of estrogen receptor-? (ER?) in synaptosomal fractions isolated by differential centrifugation from the adultfemale rat hippocampus. We find that ER? is concentrated presynaptically and is highly enriched with synaptic vesicles. Immunoisolation of vesicles using vesicle subtype-specific markers showed that ER? is associated with both glutamate and ?-aminobutyric acid-containing neurotransmitter vesicles as well as with some large dense core vesicles. Experiments using broad spectrum and residue-specific phosphatases indicated that a portion of ER? in synaptosomal fractions is phosphorylated at serine/threonine residues leading to a mobility shift in SDS-PAGE and creating a double band on Western blots. The phosphorylated form of ER? runs in the upper of the two bands and is particularly concentrated with synaptic vesicles. Finally, we used E2 with or without the acyl protein thioesterase 1 inhibitor, Palmostatin B, to show that 20 min of E2 treatment of hippocampal slices depletes ER? from the synaptosomal membrane by depalmitoylation. We found no evidence that E2 regulates phosphorylation of synaptosomal ER? on this time scale. These studies begin to fill the gap between detailed molecular characterization of extranuclear ER? in previous in vitro studies and acute E2 modulation of hippocampal synapses in the adult brain. PMID:23183182
Tabatadze, Nino; Smejkalova, Tereza; Woolley, Catherine S
Ovarian hormones are associated with binge eating in women, however findings are limited by the lack of experimental control inherent in human studies. Animal research that manipulates ovarian hormone status and examines individual differences in extreme binge eating proneness are needed to model clinical phenotypes in humans and to confirm causal effects. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of adult ovariectomy on overall binge eating risk and extreme binge eating phenotypes using the binge eating resistant (BER)/ binge eating prone (BEP) rat model. We predicted that palatable food consumption would significantly increase after ovariectomy in all rats because ovarian hormones generally suppress food intake. If differences in responsiveness to ovarian hormones underlie BER/BEP phenotypes, then differences in binge eating between BER and BEP rats would be eliminated or diminished after ovariectomy. Changes in palatable food (PF) intake were compared in BER and BEP rats before and after ovariectomy in two samples of adultfemales. Findings were highly similar in the two samples. PF intake increased significantly following ovariectomy in all rats. However, BEP rats consistently consumed larger amounts of PF than BER rats, both before and after ovariectomy. The consistency of findings across two samples of rats provides strong support for activational effects of ovarian hormones on binge eating. However, the immunity of extreme binge eating phenotypes to ovarian hormone ablation suggests that other, earlier mechanisms (e.g., organizational hormone effects or hormone-independent effects) determine the expression of binge eating phenotypes.
Klump, Kelly L.; Suisman, Jessica L.; Culbert, Kristen M.; Kashy, Deborah A.; Keel, Pamela K.; Sisk, Cheryl L.
Background Most filarial nematodes contain Wolbachia symbionts. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of doxycycline on gene expression in Wolbachia and adultfemale Brugia malayi. Methods Brugia malayi infected gerbils were treated with doxycycline for 6-weeks. This treatment largely cleared Wolbachia and arrested worm reproduction. RNA recovered from treated and control female worms was labeled by random priming and hybridized to the Version 2- filarial microarray to obtain expression profiles. Results and discussion Results showed significant changes in expression for 200 Wolbachia (29% of Wolbachia genes with expression signals in untreated worms) and 546 B. malayi array elements after treatment. These elements correspond to known genes and also to novel genes with unknown biological functions. Most differentially expressed Wolbachia genes were down-regulated after treatment (98.5%). In contrast, doxycycline had a mixed effect on B. malayi gene expression with many more genes being significantly up-regulated after treatment (85% of differentially expressed genes). Genes and processes involved in reproduction (gender-regulated genes, collagen, amino acid metabolism, ribosomal processes, and cytoskeleton) were down-regulated after doxycycline while up-regulated genes and pathways suggest adaptations for survival in response to stress (energy metabolism, electron transport, anti-oxidants, nutrient transport, bacterial signaling pathways, and immune evasion). Conclusions Doxycycline reduced Wolbachia and significantly decreased bacterial gene expression. Wolbachia ribosomes are believed to be the primary biological target for doxycycline in filarial worms. B. malayi genes essential for reproduction, growth and development were also down-regulated; these changes are consistent with doxycycline effects on embryo development and reproduction. On the other hand, many B. malayi genes involved in energy production, electron-transport, metabolism, anti-oxidants, and others with unknown functions had increased expression signals after doxycycline treatment. These results suggest that female worms are able to compensate in part for the loss of Wolbachia so that they can survive, albeit without reproductive capacity. This study of doxycycline induced changes in gene expression has provided new clues regarding the symbiotic relationship between Wolbachia and B. malayi.
To investigate sociodemographic factors associated with adolescent females ages 14–16 years having children fathered by males\\u000a age 20 years or older and identify differences in correlates across rural, urban, and border areas. The method section was\\u000a a cross-sectional study using Texas birth record data. From 2000 through 2004, there were 29,186 births to adolescent females\\u000a aged 14–16 years with valid paternal age. Prevalence
Brian C. Castrucci; Jamie Clark; Kayan Lewis; Rachel Samsel; Gita Mirchandani
INTRODUCTION Parathyroid adenoma associated with a thymoma is a rare clinical entity and few cases have been reported in the literature. This association can be explained by the common embryologic origin of the parathyroid glands and the thymus. These patients may present only with clinical signs and symptoms of primary hyperparathyroidism making it difficult to suspect the coexistence of thymoma. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 68-year-old female with medical history of primary hyperparathyroidism underwent surgical excision of a single parathyroid adenoma. Intra-operatively a small mass was detected in the proximity of the parathyroid adenoma and was also removed. Pathologic examination revealed parathyroid adenoma as suspected pre-operatively whereas the small mass excised was identified as a type A thymoma. The postoperative course of the patient was favourable, with normal serum calcium levels and in six months follow-up the patient is symptom-free and with no recurrence. DISCUSSION Objective of this study is to report the rare case of a femaleadult with a parathyroid adenoma and a coexisting thymoma in order to underline the importance of these two pathologies and the ideal treatment that should be followed according to the latest records. CONCLUSION Surgical removal of parathyroid adenoma is the treatment of choice for primary hyperparathyroidism, with complete recovery and no postoperative complications. Thymoma may be associated with primary hyperparathyoridism, with or without clinical signs and symptoms of myasthenia gravis and this is a rare clinical entity as very few cases have been described worldwide. To our knowledge this is the first case reported in Greece.
Maria, Verroiotou; Saad, Al Mogrampi; Ioannis, Fardellas
Physical activity is an important physiological variable impacting on a number of systems in the body. In rodents and several species of domestic animals, levels of physical activity have been reported to vary across the estrous cycle; however, it is unclear whether such changes in activity occur in women and other primates across the menstrual cycle. To determine whether significant changes in activity occur over the menstrual cycle, we continuously measured physical activity in seven adultfemale rhesus monkeys by accelerometry over the course of one menstrual cycle. Monkeys were checked daily for menses, and daily blood samples were collected for measurement of reproductive hormones. All monkeys displayed ovulatory menstrual cycles, ranging from 23 to 31 days in length. There was a significant increase in estradiol from the early follicular phase to the day of ovulation (F(1.005,5.023) = 40.060, P = 0.001). However, there was no significant change in physical activity across the menstrual cycle (F(2,12) = 0.225, P = 0.802), with activity levels being similar in the early follicular phase, on the day of the preovulatory rise in estradiol and during the midluteal phase. Moreover, the physical activity of these monkeys was not outside the range of physical activity that we measured in 15 ovariectomized monkeys. We conclude that, in primates, physical activity does not change across the menstrual cycle and is not influenced by physiological changes in circulating estradiol. This finding will allow investigators to record physical activity in female primates without the concern of controlling for the phase of the menstrual cycle. PMID:17264225
Hunnell, Nathan A; Rockcastle, Nathan J; McCormick, Kristen N; Sinko, Laurel K; Sullivan, Elinor L; Cameron, Judy L
This study examined the effects of combined traditional Chinese physical and mental exercises on the blood pressure of adultfemale hypertensive patients. Twenty female hypertensive patients aged between 50 and 60 years voluntarily participated in the study. The participants performed the combined exercises for 24 weeks, twice a week, and 60 min each time in low-to-moderate intensity. After the 24-week training, the participants showed significant decreases in systolic blood pressure (p = 0.000), diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.006), pulse pressure (p = 0.001), and right ankle brachial pressure index (p = 0.041). The combined Chinese traditional physical and mental exercises were found to have beneficial effects on adultfemale hypertensive patients. PMID:23286426
Zhang, Yihong; Li, Ning; Sun, Junzhi; Su, Quansheng
A systematic pot survey in Glacier Bay, Alaska, was conducted to characterize the spatial distribution of juvenile and adultfemale Tanner crabs, and their association with depth and temperature. The information was used to infer important recruitment processes for Tanner crabs in glaciated ecosystems. High-catch areas for juvenile and adultfemale Tanner crabs were identified using local autocorrelation statistics. Spatial segregation by size class corresponded to features in the glacial landscape: high-catch areas for juveniles were located at the distal ends of two narrow glacial fjords, and high-catch areas for adults were located in the open waters of the central Bay. Juvenile female Tanner crabs were found at nearly all sampled depths (15-439 m) and temperatures (4-8??C), but the biggest catches were at depths <150 m where adults were scarce. Because adults may prey on or compete with juveniles, the distribution of juveniles could be influenced by the distribution of adults. Areas where adults or predators are scarce, such as glacially influenced fjords, could serve as refuges for juvenile Tanner crabs. ?? 2007 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea. Published by Oxford Journals. All rights reserved.
Nielsen, J. K.; Taggart, S. J.; Shirley, T. C.; Mondragon, J.
A sex-linked gene, P, controls the onset of sexual maturity in the platyfish, Xiphophorus maculatus. The activity of this gene is correlated with the age and size at which the gonadotropic zone of the adenohypophysis differentiates and becomes physiologically active. Immature fish of all genotypes grow at the same rate; however, as adults, males with "early" genotypes are significantly smaller than males of "late" genotypes, since growth rate declines strongly under the influence of androgenic hormone. Five alleles, P1... P5, have been identified from natural populations that under controlled conditions cause gonad maturation between eight and 73 weeks. P1P1 males become mature at eight weeks and 21 mm, P2P2 and P3P3 males between eleven and 13.5 weeks and 25 to 29 mm, and P4P4 males at 25 weeks and 37 mm. Since P5 is X-linked, no males homozygous for P5 could be produced. The difference between P2 and P3 is largely based upon their interaction with P5. P3P5 males mature at 17.5 weeks and 33.5 mm and P2P5 males at 28 weeks and 38 mm. The rate of transformation of the unmodified anal fin into a gonopodium, which is under androgenic control, is directly related to the age at initiation of sexual maturity, ranging from 3.2 weeks in P1P1 males to seven weeks in P2P 5 males. These differences may reflect different levels of circulating gonadotropic and androgenic hormones.—In two genotypes of females, initiation of vitellogenesis was closely correlated with size and this critical size was independent of age (e.g., 21 mm for P1P1 ). In a third genotype (P1P5) the minimum size for vitellogenesis decreased with increasing age, so that females would mature as early as eleven weeks, provided they had attained at least 29 mm, but at 25 weeks even females as small as 23 mm possessed ripe gonads. For P5P5 females, which become mature between 34 and 73 weeks of age, there is no correlation between size and initiation of vitellogenesis. In all four genotypes of females examined, egg number is strongly correlated with size, but the regression of egg number on standard length is distinct for each genotype. Late maturation of P5P 5 females is not offset by an increased number of eggs; for this genotype there is a strong negative correlation between age and number of eggs. Heterozygous fish always mature later than those homozygous for the "earlier" allele. The site of action of the P locus could be the pituitary gland, the hypothalamus or higher centers of the brain where peripheral information is transduced into an appropriate signal required for the activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis. The P gene could also control the peripheral information. The platyfish may be a useful model to test theories concerning the evolution of life history strategies.
Females are entering the juvenile justice system more frequently and at a younger age than ever before. With these expanding numbers, state and local juvenile justice systems are increasingly called upon to address the needs of juvenile female offenders and at-risk young women. While a feminist theoretical model of development is used as the foundation of treatment and prevention programs
Since 1988, the number of female inmates has increased by 182 percent, compared to a rate of growth of 158 percent for male inmates during the same period. However, the average number of female offenders housed in federal prison facilities has always been...
|The Female Athlete Triad is a syndrome of the interrelated components of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. Sometimes inadvertently, but more often by willful dietary restriction, many female athletes do not ingest sufficient calories to adequately fuel their physical or sport activities, which can disrupt menstrual functioning,…
The serotonin (5HT) reuptake transporter (SERT) plays a key role in 5HT homeostasis by recycling 5HT into the presynaptic neurons. Recently, polymorphisms in the length of the promoter region of the gene that encodes SERT have been linked to functional differences in reactivity to psychosocial stress, as the short (s) promoter length allele shows reduced transcriptionally activity in vitro and is associated with reduced 5HT activity and increased vulnerability to affective disorders. Given 5HT's important role in appetite regulation, polymorphisms in the SERT gene could also affect metabolic parameters. In addition, since reduced 5HT activity may also predispose females to reproductive deficits, polymorphisms in the SERT gene may help explain individual differences in ovulatory function. The present study, using a rhesus monkey model, tested the hypothesis that the presence of the s-variant allele would be associated with altered metabolic regulation and impaired ovulatory cycles compared with the l/l genotype. Females homozygous for the long allele in the SERT gene (l/l, n = 19) were compared to those with the s-variant allele (l/s or s/s, n = 20). All females had similar social histories. Body weights (P = 0.026) but not heights (P = 0.618) were significantly lower in s-variant compared to l/l females. In addition, both BMI (P = 0.032) and sagittal abdominal diameters (SAD) (P = 0.031), as indices of adiposity, were significantly lower in s-variant females. Consistent with these differences, fasting and non-fasting levels of leptin were significantly lower in s-variant females (P = 0.002). While there were no genotype differences in non-fasting levels of insulin, s-variant females had significantly lower concentrations of insulin during a fast than did l/l females (P = 0.052). Neither glucose, T 3, T 4, nor ghrelin varied significantly between groups during either the fasted or non-fasted condition (P > 0.05). Analysis of a subset of females indicated that significantly fewer s-variant females (62.5%) exhibited ovulatory cycles than l/l females (100%, P < 0.05). However, there were no differences in serum estradiol or progesterone in l/l females and those s-variant females that did ovulate (P > 0.05). In addition, females with the s-variant genotype also had reduced 5HT activity (P = 0.030), assessed from the acute increase in serum prolactin following the administration of the 5HT reuptake inhibitor, citalopram. Finally, s-variant females were significantly less responsive to glucocorticoid negative feedback (P = 0.030) yet more responsive to corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH, P = 0.016) in terms of plasma cortisol than were l/l females. These data indicate that adultfemale rhesus monkeys with the s-variant polymorphism in the SERT gene exhibit metabolic and reproductive alterations in conjunction with reduced serotonergic responsivity and increased LHPA activity and suggest the possibility that this genotype may predispose females exposed to psychosocial stressors to further metabolic and reproductive deficits. PMID:17873333
Hoffman, J B; Kaplan, J R; Kinkead, B; Berga, S L; Wilson, M E
The Female Athlete Triad is a syndrome of the interrelated components of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. Sometimes inadvertently, but more often by willful dietary restriction, many female athletes do not ingest sufficient calories to adequately fuel their physical or sport activities, which can disrupt menstrual functioning, thereby increasing their risk of bone loss. Although its prevalence is unknown, the Female Athlete Triad is believed to affect many athletes at all ages and all sport competition levels. Even though the Triad affects athletes in all sports, girls and women in sports that emphasize a thin or small body size or shape appear to be most at risk. This article focuses on the risks of the Female Athlete Triad for middle- and high-school-age female athletes as well as the unique issues related to the identification, management, and treatment of the various components of the Triad in this special adolescent subpopulation. PMID:15283616
Women's participation in sporting activities is now diverse with new opportunities arising yearly. As a result, care of the the female athlete's unique medical concerns has become an important challenge and issue to the primary care physician. The major focus when caring for the female athlete should be the diagnosis and treatment of the female athlete triad. The components of the triad--disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis--can have serious implications for the health of the female athlete. Appropriate prevention and screening methods for early diagnosis of the female athlete triad require future study and improvement. Healthy pregnant, postpartum, and breastfeeding women can continue to maintain physical activity. Musculoskeletal injuries from sports are, in general, not gender specific but are more often sport specific. One exception is the increased prevalence of anterior cruciate ligament injuries occurring in women soccer and basketball players. The exact cause of this is unknown but is continuing to be investigated. PMID:9330804
The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of oral contraceptive therapy on bone density and serum markers of bone metabolism in a prospective, longitudinal study of young adultfemale cynomolgus monkeys. Two hundred and seven intact cynomolgus monkeys were randomized to two groups, and fed an atherogenic diet containing either no drug (Control) or a triphasic
Babesiosis develops in susceptible cattle when infected by the apicomplexan Babesia bovis, which is transmitted to cattle through the bite of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. The R. microplus midgut transcriptome was studied for two cohorts: adultfemales feeding on cattle infect...
This study assessed feelings of shame in a group of 25 female survivors of adult sexual assault by using a series of self-rating scales. Women were recruited from a sexual health service and via media advertisement within East London. Findings demonstrated how shame was a noteworthy psychological response for this group of women (up to 75% of women reported feeling
BACKGROUND: Comorbidity between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and mood disorders is common. Alterations of the cerebellum and frontal regions have been reported in neuro-imaging studies of ADHD and major depression. METHODS: Thirty chronically depressed adultfemales of whom 16 had scores below, and 14 scores above, cut-offs on the 25-items Wender Utah Retrospective Scale (WURS-25) and the Wender-Reimherr Adult
Ann Gardner; Dario Salmaso; Andrea Varrone; Alejandro Sanchez-Crespo; Susanne Bejerot; Hans Jacobsson; Stig A. Larsson; Marco Pagani
The peripubertal period is critical for the final maturation of circuits controlling energy homeostasis and stress response.\\u000a However, the consequence of juvenile fat consumption on adult physiology is not clear. This study analyzed the adult consequences\\u000a of post-weaning fat feeding on limbic–hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis components and on metabolic regulators of\\u000a female rats. Wistar rats were fed either a high fat
George Boukouvalas; Kyriaki Gerozissis; Efthimia Kitraki
The current study explored the relationship between three dimensions of religiosity: (a) organizational religiosity (e.g. attendance at religious events), (b) non-organizational religiosity (e.g. prayer), and (c) subjective religiosity (e.g. importance of religion) and caregiver health behavior patterns in a sample of Latina and Caucasian female caregivers of older adult relatives with dementia. It was hypothesized that religiosity would have a significant association with reduced cumulative health risk as determined by an index of health behaviors. It was also hypothesized that, when examining the individual health behaviors subsumed in the overarching index, religiosity would be positively associated with adaptive health behaviors like exercise and negatively associated with health risk behaviors like smoking. Amongst Caucasians, increased subjective religiosity was related to increased cumulative health risk. Conversely, in Latinas, non-organizational religiosity was positively correlated with improved dietary practices (reduced dietary restriction). Increased levels of subjective religiosity were significantly associated with decreased maintenance of a routine exercise regimen across ethnic groups. Recommendations for clinicians and religious leaders, and avenues of future research are discussed.
We identified two mutations in the CYP19 gene responsible for aromatase deficiency in an 18-year-old 46,XX female with ambiguous external genitalia at birth, primary amenorrhea and sexual infantilism, and polycystic ovaries. The coding exons, namely exons II-X, of the CYP19 gene were amplified by PCR from genomic DNA and sequenced directly. Direct sequencing of the amplified DNA from the patient revealed two single-base changes, at bp 1303 (C-->T) and bp 1310 (G-->A) in exon X, which were newly found missense mutations and resulted in codon changes of R435C and C437Y, respectively. Subcloning followed by sequencing confirmed that the patient is a compound heterozygote. The results of restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and direct sequencing of the amplified exon X DNA from the patient's mother indicate maternal inheritance of the R435C mutation. Transient expression experiments showed that the R435C mutant protein had approximately 1.1% of the activity of the wild type, whereas C437Y was totally inactive. Cysteine-437 is the conserved cysteine in the heme-binding region believed to serve as the fifth coordinating ligand of the heme iron. To our knowledge, this patient is the first adult to have described the cardinal features of a syndrome of aromatase deficiency. Recognition that such defects exist will lead to a better understanding of the role of this enzyme in human development and disease. PMID:8265607
Ito, Y; Fisher, C R; Conte, F A; Grumbach, M M; Simpson, E R
This paper presents a large-scale study of subglottal resonances (SGRs) (the resonant frequencies of the tracheo-bronchial tree) and their relations to various acoustical and physiological characteristics of speakers. The paper presents data from a corpus of simultaneous microphone and accelerometer recordings of consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) words embedded in a carrier phrase spoken by 25 male and 25 female native speakers of American English ranging in age from 18 to 24?yr. The corpus contains 17?500 utterances of 14 American English monophthongs, diphthongs, and the rhotic approximant [?] in various CVC contexts. Only monophthongs are analyzed in this paper. Speaker height and age were also recorded. Findings include (1) normative data on the frequency distribution of SGRs for young adults, (2) the dependence of SGRs on height, (3) the lack of a correlation between SGRs and formants or the fundamental frequency, (4) a poor correlation of the first SGR with the second and third SGRs but a strong correlation between the second and third SGRs, and (5) a significant effect of vowel category on SGR frequencies, although this effect is smaller than the measurement standard deviations and therefore negligible for practical purposes.
Lulich, Steven M.; Morton, John R.; Arsikere, Harish; Sommers, Mitchell S.; Leung, Gary K. F.; Alwan, Abeer
Objective Depression has been linked to endothelial dysfunction, and some research suggests that past depressive episodes are associated with a lasting, negative impact on the endothelium. However, investigations in this area have been predominantly cross-sectional, raising questions about the direction of these associations. Using a multiwave design, we sought to extend previous research in this area by examining whether depressive symptoms have a lasting negative influence on endothelial function. Methods A total of 135 adolescent and young adultfemales with no known or suspected major health problems were followed for 2½ years. Endothelial function was assessed at three time points throughout the study. The Beck Depression Inventory was administered, and information about health practices was collected every 6 months. Results Self-reported depressive symptoms covaried with endothelial functioning on a within-person basis (? = ?0.23, p < .05). As a participant’s depression symptoms rose beyond her typical level, her endothelial function declined commensurately. This association persisted after controlling for health practices and adiposity. There was no evidence that depressive symptoms predicted endothelial function at later time points or interacted with time to predict the trajectories of endothelial function over the follow-up period. Conclusions Depressive symptoms were concurrently associated with endothelial function in this cohort of healthy adolescent girls and young women. On visits when participants endorsed depressive symptoms that were higher than their mean level of depression, they tended to have worse endothelial function. We did not observe a lasting negative effect of depression on endothelial function.
Tomfohr, Lianne M.; Murphy, Michael L.M.; Miller, Gregory E.; Puterman, Eli
Survival rates of nine adultfemale Northern Pintails (Anas acuta) that became flightless after being radio-marked in the Sacramento Valley, California in August 1987-1989 were estimated. Seven of the radio-marked pintails molted in the Sacramento Valley, a nontraditional molting region, and two flew 280 km north to the Klamath Basin to molt. Molting marshes were dominated by emergent vegetation in both locations. Two ducks, while flightless in the Sacramento Valley, were killed by predators. Molting pintails remained sedentary (did not fly) for an average of 36 d, and the daily survival rate during this period was 0.9934. The resulting sedentary-period survival rate was 0.79. Primary feather 9 on two captive ducks grew an average of 4.2 mm per day. Mean body mass of molting ducks that died was lower than that for molting ducks that survived (P < 0.10). The number of pintails molting on Sacramento Valley refuges is probably <200.
Miller, M. R.; Fleskes, J. P.; Orthmeyer, D. L.; Gilmer, D. S.
Abstract Context: The detrimental effects of arsenic on female reproductive functions may involve overt oxidative stress. Casein and pea [Pisum sativum Linn. (Fabaceae)] proteins have antioxidant properties. Objective: To investigate the role of casein- and pea-supplemented high-protein diet (HPD) in utero-ovarian protection from arsenic toxicity. Materials and methods: Adultfemale Wistar rats were orally gavaged with vehicle (Gr-I) or arsenic at 3?ppm/rat/d (Gr-II and Gr-III) for 30 consecutive days, when they were maintained on either regular diet containing 18% protein (Gr-I and Gr-II), or HPD containing 27% protein in the form of casein (20%) and pea (7%) (Gr-III). Reproductive functions were evaluated using a battery of biochemical and histological techniques. Results: As compared to Gr-I, the Gr-II rats suffered from loss of estrous cyclicity, reduction in weight (mg/100?g body weight) of ovary (Gr-I: 54.3?±?4.2 versus Gr-II: 35.8?±?1.6; p?0.001) and uterus (Gr-I: 161.7?±?24.6 versus Gr-II: 94.44?±?13.2; p?0.05), utero-ovarian degeneration, attenuated ovarian activities (unit/mg tissue/h) of ?(5), 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (Gr-I: 3.41?±?0.12 versus Gr-II: 2.31?±?0.09; p?0.01) and 17?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (Gr-I: 3.82?±?0.57 versus Gr-II: 1.24?±?0.19; p?0.001), and decreased serum estradiol level (pg/ml) (Gr-I: 61.5?±?2.06 versus 34.1?±?2.34; p?0.001). Ovarian DNA damage was preponderant with blatant generation of malondialdehyde (nM/mg tissue; Gr-I: 15.10?±?2.45 versus Gr-II: 29.51?±?3.44; p?0.01) and attenuated superoxide dismutase activity (unit/mg tissue) (Gr-I: 2.18?±?0.19 versus Gr-II: 1.33?±?0.18; p?0.05). The Gr-III rats were significantly protected from these ill effects of arsenic. Discussion and conclusion: HPD, by way of antioxidant properties, may find prospective role in the protection of reproductive damage caused by arsenic. PMID:23859609
The concept of the ideal female eyebrow has changed over time. Modern studies examining youthful brow aesthetics are reviewed. An analysis of ideal female brow characteristics as depicted in the Western print media between 1945 and 2011 was performed. This analysis provided objective evidence that the ideal youthful brow peak has migrated laterally over time to lie at the lateral canthus. There has been a nonstatistically significant trend toward lower and flatter brows. These findings are discussed in relation to current concepts of female brow aging, with repercussions regarding endoscopic brow lift and aesthetic forehead surgery. PMID:23186765
Aggressive and sexual behavior in the adult leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius), a species with temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), is influenced by the temperature experienced as an egg, as well as by prenatal and perinatal hormones. This study focused on the effects of hormonal manipulation of adultfemale leopard geckos from different incubation temperatures. Following ovariectomy, females from both all-female (26°C)
Twenty-four calves were cloned from six somatic cell types of female and male adult, newborn and fetal cows. The clones were derived from female cumulus (n = 3), oviduct (n = 2) and uterine (n = 2) cells, female and male skin cells (n = 10), and male ear (n = 5) and liver (n = 2) cells. On the basis of the number of cloned embryos transferred (n = 172) to surrogate cows, the overall rate of success was 14%, but based on the number of surrogate mothers that became pregnant (n = 50), the success rate was 48%. Cell nuclei from uterus, ear and liver cells, which have not been tested previously, developed into newborn calves after nuclear transfer into enucleated oocytes. To date, seven female and six male calves have survived: six of the females were from adult cells (cumulus (n = 3), oviduct (n = 2) and skin (n = 1) cells) and one was from newborn skin cells, whereas the male calves were derived from adult ear cells (n = 3), newborn liver and skin cells (n = 2), and fetal cells (n = 1). Clones derived from adult cells frequently aborted in the later stages of pregnancy and calves developing to term showed a higher number of abnormalities than did those derived from newborn or fetal cells. The telomeric DNA lengths in the ear cells of three male calves cloned from the ear cells of a bull aged 10 years were similar to those of the original bull. However, the telomeric DNA lengths from the white blood cells of the clones, although similar to those in an age-matched control, were shorter than those of the original bull, which indicates that telomeric shortening varies among tissues. PMID:11058438
... to Women - Return from War - PTSD and Communities - PTSD Research - Mobile Apps - Páginas en Español - Videos - Web Links PROFESSIONAL ABOUT US PTSD Awareness Month Sexual Assault against Females Sexual Assault ...
Many aspects of sexual health relate to either preventative medicine (contraception) or managing normal physiological states (pregnancy, menopause). This article looks at some of the emergency aspects of female sexual health including genital tract trauma and genital infections. PMID:12786642
The author explores to what extent the first gender-identical love between mother and daughter shapes female self representation and becomes influential for later homosexual relations among women. Literary examples and case vignettes illustrate the connection. PMID:2652196
BACKGROUND: Malaria is a tropical disease caused by protozoan parasite, Plasmodium, which is transmitted to humans by various species of female anopheline mosquitoes. Anopheles stephensi is one such major malaria vector in urban parts of the Indian subcontinent. Unlike Anopheles gambiae, an African malaria vector, transcriptome of A. stephensi midgut tissue is less explored. We have therefore carried out generation,
Deepak P Patil; Santosh Atanur; Dhiraj P Dhotre; D Anantharam; Vineet S Mahajan; Sandeep A Walujkar; Rakesh K Chandode; Girish J Kulkarni; Pankaj S Ghate; Abhishek Srivastav; Kannayakanahalli M Dayananda; Neha Gupta; Bhakti Bhagwat; Rajendra R Joshi; Devendra T Mourya; Milind S Patole; Yogesh S Shouche
The hypothalamic-growth hormone (GH)-liver axis represents a new concept in endocrine regulation of drug toxicity. Preponderant sex differences are found in liver gene expression, mostly dependent on the sexually dimorphic pattern of GH secretion which is set during the neonatal period by gonadal steroids. We tested if GH-dependent sexually dimorphic liver enzymes and proteins was perturbed by neonatal Bisphenol A (BPA) treatment in female rats. Female rats were sc injected with BPA (50 or 500 ?g/50 ?l) or castor oil vehicle from postnatal day 1 to 10. At five months serum prolactin, pituitary GH, and serum and liver insulin growth factor-I (IGF-I) were measured by RIA. Major urinary proteins (MUPs) were determined by electrophoresis. Liver Cyp2c11, Cyp2c12, Adh1, Hnf6, and Prlr mRNA levels were determined by real time PCR. Pituitary GH content and liver IGF-I concentration were increased by neonatal BPA treatment, indicating partial masculinization of the GH axis in treated females. GH-dependent female predominant liver enzyme genes (Cyp2c12 and Adh1) and a transcription factor (Hnf6) were downregulated or defeminized, while there were no changes in a male predominant gene (Cyp2c11) or protein (MUP). Our findings indicate that perinatal exposure to BPA may compromise the sexually dimorphic capacity of the liver to metabolize drugs and steroids. PMID:22842222
Ramirez, Maria Cecilia; Bourguignon, Nadia Soledad; Bonaventura, Maria Marta; Lux-Lantos, Victoria; Libertun, Carlos; Becu-Villalobos, Damasia
Female alates of the Formosan subterranean termite Coptotermes formosanus, possess a pair of glands under the 9th and 10th abdominal tergites. These tergal glands located just below the cuticle have two distinct regions. The outer part is made up of epidermal cells with large nuclei, abundant mitoch...
In the present paper the effect of postnatal undernutrition on feeding behaviour has been evaluated in mature female Wistar rats subjected to food restriction a) during the suckling period, i. e. up to day 15 (SR), b) during the weaning period from day 15 to 30 (WR), c) throughout 30 days post partum (SWR) and d) during adulthood, i. e.
The proposed changes in the further education sector, including the rationalisation of the VEC into Local Education and Training Boards (LETBs) and the closures of the Senior Traveller Training Centres (STTCs), have implications for guidance counselling provision to the Traveller community. This article discusses female Travellers' experiences of…
This study examined how specific domains of cultural orientation (language, social affiliation, and cultural pride) related to self-esteem for a sample of 174 Chinese American male and 179 Chinese American female college students. Participants completed measures of cultural orientation (General Ethnicity Questionnaire; J. L. Tsai, Y. W. Ying, & P. A. Lee, 2000) and self-esteem (M. Rosenberg, 1965). Cultural orientation
In vitro synthetic activities of juvenile hormones (JH) were examined using a radiochemical assay in diapause females and reproductive females of the blow fly, Protophormia terraenovae. Thin layer chromatography showed that products of the corpus allatum (CA) comigrated with a synthetic sample of JH III bisepoxide but neither with JH III nor methylfarnesoate. JH synthetic activities increased in females reared under LD 18:6 at 25 degrees C, as the ovaries developed. The synthetic activities remained low in previtellogenic females reared under LD 12:12 at 20 degrees C. Removal of the pars intercerebralis completely prevented ovaries from development under reproductive conditions, and removal of the pars lateralis caused partial or full development of ovaries under diapause-inducing conditions. In these operated animals, the JH synthetic activities were not significantly different from those of the intact and sham-operated animals. The results indicate that the CA in P. terraenovae produces mainly JH III bisepoxide and a decrease in the JH production rate is a cause of diapause induction. PI neurons and PL neurons in the brain do not directly mediate changes in the JH production rate, but regulate ovarian development cooperatively with some unknown allatostatic and allatotropic factors. PMID:14569142
Summary The probable behavioural effects of rat prolactin (rPRL) locally applied into the ventral hippocampus (HPC) were studied in cycling female rats. Three experiments were performed examining the behavioural responses of rats subjected to three different situations: (i) Exploratory activity in an enriched holeboard (ii) exploratory activity under conflicting situation and (iii) escape behaviours in a forced swimming test. Behavioural
Individuals living with an intersex condition have not received much attention in counseling psychology, although a high need for psychosocial care is obvious. Using a mixed-methods multiple case study with qualitative and quantitative data, the authors explore coping and gender experiences in seven 46, XY intersexual persons with deficiencies of androgen biosynthesis. These were assigned female at birth. At puberty,
The rapid and temporary suppression of reproductive behavior is often assumed to be an important feature of the adaptive acute stress response. However, how this suppression operates at the mechanistic level is poorly understood. The enzyme aromatase converts testosterone to estradiol in the brain to activate reproductive behavior in male Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). The discovery of rapid and reversible modification of aromatase activity (AA) provides a potential mechanism for fast, stress-induced changes in behavior. We investigated the effects of acute stress on AA in both sexes by measuring enzyme activity in all aromatase-expressing brain nuclei before, during, and after 30 min of acute restraint stress. We show here that acute stress rapidly alters AA in the male and female brain and that these changes are specific to the brain nuclei and sex of the individual. Specifically, acute stress rapidly (5 min) increased AA in the male medial preoptic nucleus, a region controlling male reproductive behavior; in females, a similar increase was also observed, but it appeared delayed (15 min) and had smaller amplitude. In the ventromedial and tuberal hypothalamus, regions associated with female reproductive behavior, stress induced a quick and sustained decrease in AA in females, but in males, only a slight increase (ventromedial) or no change (tuberal) in AA was observed. Effects of acute stress on brain estrogen production, therefore, represent one potential way through which stress affects reproduction.
Less radical forms of female circumcision are called infibulation and Pharaonic circumcision. It is estimated that 113 million women in the world are exposed to female circumcision of one form or another. In Sweden about 16,000 women originate from countries where female circumcision is practiced. 60% of them are from Somalia or Ethiopia, and 11,000 of these women are of reproductive age. About 5000 girls are under 18 years of age and are at risk of female circumcision if it has not already taken place. Sweden has ratified a UN convention on the right of children, and since 1982 there has been a law in force that prohibits female circumcision. A great number of African refugees have been settling in Jordbro, in the county of Haninge, south of Stockholm, since 1992. 35 central African families live there, one-third of them from Somalia. The mother and child health care agency has confronted several problems related to female circumcision: infibulated women do not get traditional gynecological examinations, families demand that women get infibulated after delivery, and some families have asked for circumcision of their newborn daughters. The agency organized African family group sessions, held for a month during evenings, in which all families were invited to discuss topics related to the improvement of women's and children's health and the fight against female circumcision. At each family group meeting 10-15 adults participated. Several sessions dealt with children's diseases, reproductive physiology, and the role of female circumcision in religion and tradition. Most women were illiterate and this was their first encounter with the Swedish health system whereby they were informed about the functioning of the human body. African traditions are deeply rooted. In Gambia female circumcision is practiced by 50-60% of people, although in milder forms. Since 1993, when the group discussions started, not a single case of circumcision was reported in pre-school-age girls. PMID:7500713
Pregnancy is a time of distinct neural, physiological and behavioral plasticity in the female. It is also a time when a growing number of women are vulnerable to stress and experience stress-related diseases, such as depression and anxiety. However, the impact of stress during gestation on the neurobiology of the mother has yet to be determined, particularly with regard to changes in the hippocampus; a brain area that plays an important role in stress-related diseases. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to understand how stress and reproductive state may alter dendritic morphology of CA1 and CA3 pyramidal neurons in the hippocampus. To do this, adult age-matched pregnant and virgin female Wistar rats were divided into two conditions: (1) control and (2) stress. Females in the stress condition were restrained for 1h/day for the last 2 weeks of gestation and at matched time-points in virgin females. Females were sacrificed the day after the last restraint session and brains were processed for Golgi impregnation. Dendritic length and number of branch points were quantified for apical and basal regions of CA1 and CA3 pyramidal neurons. Results show that regardless of reproductive state, stressed females had significantly shorter apical dendrites and fewer apical branch points in CA3 pyramidal cells. In addition, pregnant females, regardless of stress exposure, had less complex CA3 pyramidal neurons, as measured by Sholl analysis. No differences between conditions were seen in morphology of CA1 pyramidal neurons. This work shows that both repeated restraint stress and pregnancy affect dendritic morphology by decreasing complexity of CA3, but not CA1, neurons in the hippocampus. PMID:23036618
Pawluski, J L; Valença, A; Santos, A I M; Costa-Nunes, J P; Steinbusch, H W M; Strekalova, T
Male harassment of females to gain mating opportunities is a consequence of an evolutionary conflict of interest between the sexes over reproduction and is common among sexually reproducing species. Male Trinidadian guppies Poecilia reticulata spend a large proportion of their time harassing females for copulations and their presence in female social groups has been shown to disrupt female-female social networks and the propensity for females to develop social recognition based on familiarity. In this study, we investigate the behavioural mechanisms that may lead to this disruption of female sociality. Using two experiments, we test the hypothesis that male presence will directly affect social behaviours expressed by females towards other females in the population. In experiment one, we tested for an effect of male presence on female shoaling behaviour and found that, in the presence of a free-swimming male guppy, females spent shorter amounts of time with other females than when in the presence of a free-swimming female guppy. In experiment two, we tested for an effect of male presence on the incidence of aggressive behaviour among female guppies. When males were present in a shoal, females exhibited increased levels of overall aggression towards other females compared with female only shoals. Our work provides direct evidence that the presence of sexually harassing males alters female-female social behaviour, an effect that we expect will be recurrent across taxonomic groups. PMID:21976624
Male harassment of females to gain mating opportunities is a consequence of an evolutionary conflict of interest between the sexes over reproduction and is common among sexually reproducing species. Male Trinidadian guppies Poecilia reticulata spend a large proportion of their time harassing females for copulations and their presence in female social groups has been shown to disrupt female–female social networks and the propensity for females to develop social recognition based on familiarity. In this study, we investigate the behavioural mechanisms that may lead to this disruption of female sociality. Using two experiments, we test the hypothesis that male presence will directly affect social behaviours expressed by females towards other females in the population. In experiment one, we tested for an effect of male presence on female shoaling behaviour and found that, in the presence of a free-swimming male guppy, females spent shorter amounts of time with other females than when in the presence of a free-swimming female guppy. In experiment two, we tested for an effect of male presence on the incidence of aggressive behaviour among female guppies. When males were present in a shoal, females exhibited increased levels of overall aggression towards other females compared with female only shoals. Our work provides direct evidence that the presence of sexually harassing males alters female–female social behaviour, an effect that we expect will be recurrent across taxonomic groups.
The use of narcotics by adolescent females is a growing problem, yet very little is known about the long-term consequences for either the user or her future offspring. In the current study, we utilized an animal model to examine the transgenerational consequences of opiate exposure occurring during this sensitive period. Female rats were exposed to increasing doses of morphine or its saline vehicle twice daily during adolescent development (postnatal days 30–40), after which they remained drug free. At 60 days of age, all females were mated and their adult offspring were tested for anxiety-like behavior and sensitivity to morphine. Specifically, offspring of adolescent morphine (MOR-F1)- or saline (SAL-F1)-exposed mothers were tested for acute locomotor responses in an open field, followed by testing of acute or chronic morphine analgesia on the hot plate. Open field testing indicated alterations in anxiety-like behavior in MOR-F1 female offspring, with effects dependent upon the stage of the estrus cycle. Hot plate testing revealed sex differences in baseline pain threshold and morphine sensitivity in all offspring, regardless of maternal exposure. However, when compared to their SAL-F1 counterparts, MOR-F1 male offspring demonstrated significantly increased sensitivity to the analgesic effects of acute morphine, and developed analgesic tolerance more rapidly following chronic morphine treatment. The findings indicate that prior opiate exposure during early adolescence in females produces sex-specific alterations of both emotionality and morphine sensitivity in their progeny.
Byrnes, John J.; Babb, Jessica A.; Scanlan, Victoria F.; Byrnes, Elizabeth M.
Adultfemale rhesus monkeys exhibiting normal ovulatory menstrual cycles were treated with progesterone nasal sprays. Animals in group A (n = 9) were treated with the solvent only (controls). Animals in groups B (n = 6), C (n = 17) and D (n = 7), respectively, were treated with a daily dose of 0.4, 2 and 10 micrograms of progesterone and the spraying was done between days 5-14 of the cycle. Ovulation was monitored by laparoscopy on day 20. The serum endocrine profile throughout the treated menstrual cycle was studied with respect to oestradiol and progesterone. Bioactive luteinizing hormone (bLH) was studied in blood samples taken on the day of the mid-cycle oestradiol peak, 2 days before, and 2 days after. The menstrual cycle was divided into two phases with respect to the mid-cycle oestradiol peak: phase I was taken to include day 1 of the cycle to the day of the oestradiol peak, and the remaining part of the menstrual cycle was considered to be phase II. The serum-endocrine profile in the controls was similar to that observed in normal ovulatory menstrual cycles. However, in the progesterone-treated groups three types of menstrual cycles were discernable on the basis of the serum endocrine profile. In the type I menstrual cycle, observed only in group C (n = 10), the mid-cycle bLH peak was abolished and the progesterone levels remained low throughout the cycle. Laparoscopy revealed these to be anovulatory cycles.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:4090909
David, G F; Puri, V; Dubey, A K; Puri, C P; Anand Kumar, T C
We identified two mutations in the CYP19 gene responsible for aromatase deficiency in an 18-year-old 46,XX female with ambiguous external genitalia at birth, primary amenorrhea and sexual infantilism, and polycystic ovaries. The coding exons, namely exons II-X, of the CYP19 gene were amplified by PCR from genomic DNA and sequenced directly. Direct sequencing of the amplified DNA from the patient revealed two single-base changes, at bp 1303 (C-->T) and bp 1310 (G-->A) in exon X, which were newly found missense mutations and resulted in codon changes of R435C and C437Y, respectively. Subcloning followed by sequencing confirmed that the patient is a compound heterozygote. The results of restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and direct sequencing of the amplified exon X DNA from the patient's mother indicate maternal inheritance of the R435C mutation. Transient expression experiments showed that the R435C mutant protein had approximately 1.1% of the activity of the wild type, whereas C437Y was totally inactive. Cysteine-437 is the conserved cysteine in the heme-binding region believed to serve as the fifth coordinating ligand of the heme iron. To our knowledge, this patient is the first adult to have described the cardinal features of a syndrome of aromatase deficiency. Recognition that such defects exist will lead to a better understanding of the role of this enzyme in human development and disease. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4
Ito, Y; Fisher, C R; Conte, F A; Grumbach, M M; Simpson, E R
The external urethral sphincter (EUS) muscle plays a crucial role in lower urinary tract function: its activation helps maintain continence, whereas its relaxation contributes to micturition. To determine how the intrinsic properties of its motoneurons contribute to its physiological function, we have obtained intracellular current-clamp recordings from 49 EUS motoneurons in acutely isolated spinal cord slices from adultfemale rats. In all, 45% of EUS motoneurons fired spontaneously and steadily (average rate = 12-27 pulses/s). EUS motoneurons were highly excitable, having lower rheobase, higher input resistance, and smaller threshold depolarization than those of rat hindlimb motoneurons recorded in vitro. Correlations between these properties and afterhyperpolarization half-decay time are consistent with EUS motoneurons having characteristics of both fast and slow motor unit types. EUS motoneurons with a slow-like spectrum of properties exhibited spontaneous firing more often than those with fast-like characteristics. During triangular current ramp-induced repetitive firing, recruitment typically occurred at lower current levels than those at derecruitment, although the opposite pattern occurred in 10% of EUS motoneurons. This percentage was likely underestimated due to firing rate adaptation. These findings are consistent with the presence of a basal level of persistent inward current (PIC) in at least some EUS motoneurons. The low EUS motoneuron current and voltage thresholds make them readily recruitable, rendering them well suited to their physiological role in continence. The expression of firing behaviors consistent with PIC activation in this highly reduced preparation raises the possibility that in the intact animal, PICs contribute to urinary function not only through neuromodulator-dependent but also through neuromodulator-independent mechanisms. PMID:20573976
Carp, Jonathan S; Tennissen, Ann M; Liebschutz, Jennifer E; Chen, Xiang Yang; Wolpaw, Jonathan R
We used radio-telemetry to examine survival of adultfemale and juvenile Spectacled Eiders (Somateria fischeri) from 30 days after hatch until departure from the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (YKD) during 1997-1999. Juvenile survival was 71.4%; adultfemale survival was 88.5%. Mink (Mustella vison) were the most common predator identified for both adults and juveniles. Detectable levels of lead were found in bones of 74% of juvenile carcasses recovered and 21% had levels indicative of acute exposure. Average age at departure was 59 ?? 1 days old for juveniles and 56 ?? 1 days after hatch for adults. Most broods (60.5%) departed the YKD synchronously. Overall our data indicate that mortality during the latter half of brood-rearing is higher than previously thought. We conclude that brood rearing is a period of high mortality for brood-rearing females and that lead poisoning is responsible for reductions in juvenile survival to fledging. Received 15 February 2000, accepted 1 April 2000.
Flint, P. L.; Barry, Grand, J.; Morse, J. A.; Fondell, T. F.
Aggressive and sexual behavior in the adult leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius), a species with temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), is influenced by the temperature experienced as an egg, as well as by prenatal and perinatal hormones. This study focused on the effects of hormonal manipulation of adultfemale leopard geckos from different incubation temperatures. Following ovariectomy, females from both all-female (26 degrees C) and male-biased (32.5 degrees C) incubation temperatures exhibited a significant decrease in high-posture (HP) aggression toward male and female stimulus animals. Testosterone treatment attenuated this decrease in HP aggression toward female but not toward male stimulus animals. Ovariectomy also resulted in a loss in attractiveness in both groups of females. Following treatment with testosterone, over 50% of the females were attacked by male stimulus animals, suggesting a change in the pheromonal cues normally secreted by females. Unmanipulated females never exhibit tail vibrations, a male-typical courtship behavior. However, following ovariectomy with testosterone treatment, half of the females from both incubation temperatures exhibited this behavior, indicating an activational effect of testosterone. An effect of incubation temperature on aggression was evident with females from the male-biased incubation temperature exhibiting a greater likelihood of aggression compared to females from the all-female incubation temperature. This effect continued to be detected after hormone manipulation. Ovariectomized females from the all-female incubation temperature were less aggressive even with testosterone treatment toward males, whereas females from the male-biased incubation temperature showed no significant decline in aggression following testosterone treatment, suggesting that individuals from different incubation temperatures may have different sensitivities to hormones. PMID:8748508
Among computational models, voxel phantoms based on computer tomographic (CT), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) or colour photographic images of patients, volunteers or cadavers have become popular in recent years. Although being true to nature representations of scanned individuals, voxel phantoms have limitations, especially when walled organs have to be segmented or when volumes of organs or body tissues, like adipose, have to be changed. Additionally, the scanning of patients or volunteers is usually made in supine position, which causes a shift of internal organs towards the ribcage, a compression of the lungs and a reduction of the sagittal diameter especially in the abdominal region compared to the regular anatomy of a person in the upright position, which in turn can influence organ and tissue absorbed or equivalent dose estimates. This study applies tools developed recently in the areas of computer graphics and animated films to the creation and modelling of 3D human organs, tissues, skeletons and bodies based on polygon mesh surfaces. Female and male adult human phantoms, called FASH (FemaleAdult meSH) and MASH (Male Adult meSH), have been designed using software, such as MakeHuman, Blender, Binvox and ImageJ, based on anatomical atlases, observing at the same time organ masses recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for the male and female reference adult in report no 89. 113 organs, bones and tissues have been modelled in the FASH and the MASH phantoms representing locations for adults in standing posture. Most organ and tissue masses of the voxelized versions agree with corresponding data from ICRP89 within a margin of 2.6%. Comparison with the mesh-based male RPI_AM and female RPI_AF phantoms shows differences with respect to the material used, to the software and concepts applied, and to the anatomies created.
Cassola, V. F.; de Melo Lima, V. J.; Kramer, R.; Khoury, H. J.
Dietary fibers can be fermented in the colon, resulting in production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and secretion of satiety-related peptides. Fermentation characteristics (fermentation kinetics and SCFA-profile) differ between fibers and could impact their satiating potential. We investigated the effects of fibers with varying fermentation characteristics on feeding motivation in adultfemale pigs. Sixteen pair-housed pigs received four diets in four periods in a Latin square design. Starch from a control (C) diet was exchanged, based on gross energy, for inulin (INU), guar gum (GG), or retrograded tapioca starch (RS), each at a low (L) and a high (H) inclusion level. This resulted in a decreased metabolizable energy intake when feeding fiber diets as compared with the C diet. According to in vitro fermentation measurements, INU is rapidly fermentable and yields relatively high amounts of propionate, GG is moderately rapidly fermentable and yields relatively high amounts of acetate, and RS is slowly fermentable and yields relatively high amounts of butyrate. Feeding motivation was assessed using behavioral tests at 1h, 3h and 7h after the morning meal, and home pen behavioral observations throughout the day. The number of wheel turns paid for a food reward in an operant test was unaffected by diet. Pigs on H-diets ran 25% slower for a food reward in a runway test than pigs on L-diets, and showed less spontaneous physical activity and less stereotypic behavior in the hours before the afternoon meal, reflecting increased interprandial satiety. Reduced feeding motivation with increasing inclusion level was most pronounced for RS, as pigs decreased speed in the runway test and tended to have a lower voluntary food intake in an ad libitum food intake test when fed RS-H. In conclusion, increasing levels of fermentable fibers in the diet seemed to enhance satiety in adult pigs, despite a reduction in metabolizable energy supply. RS was the most satiating fiber, possibly due to its slow rate of fermentation and high production of butyrate. PMID:23313406
Souza da Silva, Carol; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth; Gerrits, Walter J J; Kemp, Bas; van den Borne, Joost J G C
|The current literatures on girls, queer youth, and multicultural education have ignored a significant group of young people and their experiences in school. This research is a retrospective exploratory study of masculine female adolescent schooling experiences, focusing on the school experiences of adults aged 18-54 who were socially defined as…
The efficacy, tolerability and side effects of a ‘single-dose’ therapy for acute female lower UTIs in general practice with fosfomycin trometamol (3 g) or norfloxacin (800 mg) were compared in a randomized double-blind study. 89 patients were included in the trial; however, 36 (40.4%) did not present significant bacteriuria and were assessed mainly for tolerability. Of the 53, 28 patients
F. P. Selvaggi; P. Ditonno; A. Traficante; M. Battaglia; V. Di Lorenzo
Air bag safety systems have significantly reduced the number of occupant injuries from road traffic accidents (RTA). However air bag deployment is also associated with unavoidable risks. We report the acoustic trauma incurred by a young female driver who was a heavy smoker as a consequence of air-bag deployment in a low speed RTA and the sparing of her child seated in the rear. PMID:12625890
Hypospadia is a frequent birth deformity consisting in fissure of the posterior (lower) wall of the urethra. Hypospadia is characterized by shortening of the urethra and ectopia of the external urethral opening. This deformity often occurs in women but is rarely diagnosed because physicians are not well-informed about female hypospadia. Classification of anatomic variants of female hypospadia proposed by the authors includes low vaginal ectopia of the external urethral opening; high vaginal ectopia of the external opening of the urethra; urovaginal (vesicovaginal) fusion of the neck of the urinary bladder with vagina accompanied with enuresis; urogenital sinus in females (ectopia of the external urethral opening in the urogenital sinus); any of the above variants of female hypospadia in combination with false or true hermaphroditism. All the variants of female hypospadia must be surgically corrected as transposition of the external opening of the urethra from the vagina on the perineum under the clitoris in chronic urethritis, cystitis and vulvovaginitis or as urethroplasty in enuresis. Hypospadia, urogenital sinus and hermaphroditism--three anomalies of human urogenital system--combine rather frequently. PMID:17722617
The underrepresentation of women in physics doctorate programs and in tenured academic positions indicates a need to evaluate what may influence their career choice and persistence. This qualitative paper examines eleven females in physics doctoral programs and professional science positions in order to provide a more thorough understanding of why and how women make career choices based on aspects both inside and outside of school and their subsequent interaction. Results indicate that female physicists experience conflict in achieving balance within their graduate school experiences and personal lives and that this then influences their view of their future careers and possible career choices. Female physicists report both early and long-term support outside of school by family, and later departmental support, as being essential to their persistence within the field. A greater focus on informal and out-of-school science activities for females, especially those that involve family members, early in life may help influence their entrance into a physics career later in life. Departmental support, through advisers, mentors, peers, and womenâs support groups, with a focus on work-life balance can help females to complete graduate school and persist into an academic career.
One hundred and twenty-seven consecutive adult and adolescent female patients with culture-proven urinary tract infections\\u000a were analyzed to determine the pattern, bacteriology and the predisposing causes. Age ranged from 13 to 70 years (median 32,\\u000a mean 35.7 years). Community acquired urinary tract infections occurred in 85%, while hospital acquired infections in 15% of\\u000a cases. Urinary tract stones were the most
The study consisted in testing the influence of vincristin and zoladex on mechanical resistance of the femur bone in adultfemale rats. Vincristin was administered intraperitoneally and zoladex--subcutaneously. The experiments imply that in the group of animals receiving vincristin the bone resistance decreased by 6.4% as compared to the control group, and in the group of animals receiving zoladex--by 14.3%. PMID:12898874
To reveal the mechanism underlying intrapopulation variation in the use of feeding habitats (oceanic vs. neritic) by adult\\u000a female loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta), we compared telomere length in the epidermis (a proxy for age) between oceanic- and neritic-foraging recruits (first-time\\u000a nesters). Based on egg-yolk stable isotope ratios, recruits at Yakushima Island, Japan, were clearly divided into small oceanic\\u000a planktivores and
Diminished synthesis of the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) in the brain has been linked to disturbed memory processes. The present study investigated the effects of diminished central nervous 5-HT synthesis as achieved by an acute dietary tryptophan depletion (ATD) on verbal declarative episodic memory in young women while controlling for the effects of female sex hormones. Eighteen healthy females (aged 20-31 years) participated in a within-subject repeated measures study, with two separate days of assessment spaced at least one individual menstrual cycle apart. On one day, participants were subjected to ATD, thus lowering central nervous 5-HT synthesis. The other day participants received a tryptophan-balanced amino acid load (BAL = control condition). The study was randomized, counterbalanced and double blind in terms of ATD/BAL administration. Measurements took place in the early follicular phase of the participants' menstrual cycle. Estrogen, FSH and LH levels were assessed at baseline. Verbal declarative episodic memory was assessed using a structured word-learning task. Short-term memory, as indexed by immediate recall, was reduced after ATD intake, whereas delayed recall and recognition after a 25-min delay did not show any differences after intake of ATD or BAL. In young women, verbal short-term memory function was more vulnerable to ATD than consolidation processes. In light of the possible interplay between female sex hormones and 5-HT, further studies comparing different menstrual cycle phases are needed. PMID:24072504
Helmbold, K; Bubenzer, S; Dahmen, B; Eisert, A; Gaber, T J; Habel, U; Konrad, K; Herpertz-Dahlmann, B; Zepf, F D
Benzo[?]pyrene (B[?]P) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant exhibiting adverse effects on cognitive function and behaviour. In this study, depressive or antidepressive effects of B[?]P were investigated. Here, we report that a subacute B[?]P oral exposure (0.02-0.2 mg/kg) increases mobility behaviour in femaleadult mice in the tail suspension test, but not in the forced swimming test, without altering locomotion, suggesting that the tail suspension test was a more sensitive indicator of B[?]P-induced neurobehavioural disturbance. This might be because of differences in neurochemical substrates and pathways, mediating the performance in these behavioural models of depression. The effect of B[?]P on femaleadult mice in the tail suspension test was similar to that obtained with subacute treatment of the antidepressant reference drug imipramine (10 mg/kg). Therefore, B[?]P at 0.02 mg/kg and 0.2 mg/kg induces an antidepressant-like effect in mice, suggesting a neurobehavioural disturbance after oral exposure to this environmental compound. Furthermore, oral exposure to B[?]P at 0.02 mg/kg significantly increased gene expression levels of the brain receptors 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) 1A (5HT(1A)) and alpha-1D adrenergic (ADRA(1D)). In summary, the presented findings suggest that subacute oral exposure to B[?]P results in behavioural changes in femaleadult mice, possibly caused by alterations in the serotoninergic and adrenergic systems. PMID:22212102
Genital mutilation of females constitutes a significant health hazard to the emotional and psychological status of women in many parts of the world. The anthropologic, cultural and social rationale for this custom is complex and case specific. The practice of female circumcision is nearly world-wide in its distribution and the extent of the genital alteration varies widely. Attitudes regarding a woman's role in society impact strongly on the acceptance and perpetration of this practice. Health care workers in the western world are encountering female circumcision as world travel becomes more frequently available for Third World citizens. Over 25 per cent of women subjected to the more severe forms of circumcision, i.e., "Pharaonic," suffer serious physical complications. The current status and remedial measures being undertaken in the Sudan and Somalia are reviewed. The question of, why is there any form of genital mutilation for either sex, is raised. PMID:4022475
Female hair loss is a devastating issue for women that has only relatively recently been publicly acknowledged as a significant problem. Hair transplant surgery is extremely successful in correcting the most cosmetically problematic areas of alopecia. This article discusses the surgical technique of hair transplantation in women in detail, including pearls to reduce postoperative sequelae and planning strategies to ensure a high degree of patient satisfaction. A brief overview of some of the medical treatments found to be helpful in slowing or reversing female pattern hair loss is included, addressing the available hormonal and topical treatments. PMID:24017982
We describe the social relationships of young adultfemale Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) in a free-ranging troop in Arashiyama, Kyoto, Japan, who remained nulliparous beyond the ordinary age of first birth because of contraceptive administration. We observed 12 young nulliparous adultfemales (6-9 years old) for 270 h and 10 min from 2 February to 5 October 2010. The majority maintained close relationships with their mothers through proximity and grooming, whereas a few had very infrequent social interactions with their mothers. Most had asymmetrical grooming relationships; the grooming they received from unrelated adultfemales was less than the grooming they gave. Young adultfemales who had less frequent interactions with their mothers by either proximity or grooming received more grooming from a larger number of unrelated adultfemales than did those who had more frequent social interactions with their mothers. These results indicate that most young adultfemales who remained nulliparous beyond the ordinary age of first birth tended to maintain close relationships with their mothers, and their grooming relationships with unrelated adultfemales were inversely related to the degree of closeness with their mothers. PMID:22926656
Background Chemical immobilization of Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) has previously been, for the most part, problematic and this has been mainly attributed to the type of immobilizing agent used. In addition to individual sensitivity, physiological status may play an important role. We investigated the use of the intravenous administration of a 1:1 mixture of tiletamine and zolazepam (Telazol®) to immobilize adultfemales at different points during a physiologically demanding 5–6 week lactation period. We also compared performance between IV and IM injection of the same mixture. Results The tiletamine:zolazepam mixture administered intravenously was an effective method for immobilization with no fatalities or pronounced apnoeas in 106 procedures; however, there was a 25 % (one animal in four) mortality rate with intramuscular administration. Induction time was slightly longer for females at the end of lactation (54.9 ± 2.3 seconds) than at post-parturition (48.2 ± 2.9 seconds). In addition, the number of previous captures had a positive effect on induction time. There was no evidence for effects due to age, condition (total body lipid), stage of lactation or number of captures on recovery time. Conclusion We suggest that intravenous administration of tiletamine and zolazepam is an effective and safe immobilizing agent for female Weddell seals. Although individual traits could not explain variation in recovery time, we suggest careful monitoring of recovery times during longitudinal studies (> 2 captures). We show that physiological pressures do not substantially affect response to chemical immobilization with this mixture; however, consideration must be taken for differences that may exist for immobilization of adult males and juveniles. Nevertheless, we recommend a mass-specific dose of 0.50 – 0.65 mg/kg for future procedures with adultfemale Weddell seals and a starting dose of 0.50 mg/kg for other age classes and other phocid seals.
Wheatley, Kathryn E; Bradshaw, Corey JA; Harcourt, Robert G; Davis, Lloyd S; Hindell, Mark A
|Adolescence is a time of growth, change, and confusion for young women. During this transition from childhood to adulthood, sex and gender roles become more important. Meanwhile, depictions of females--from the hyper-sexualized girls of music videos to the chaste repression of Purity Balls--send mixed messages to young women about their bodies…
Context: The female athlete triad (the triad) is an interrelationship of menstrual dysfunction, low energy availability (with or without an eating disorder), and decreased bone mineral density; it is relatively common among young women participating in sports. Diagnosis and treatment of this potentially serious condition is complicated and often requires an interdisciplinary team. Evidence Acquisition: Articles from 1981 to present found on PubMed were selected for review of major components of the female athlete triad as well as strategies for diagnosis and treatment of the conditions. Results: The main goal in treatment of young female athletes with the triad is a natural return of menses as well as enhancement of bone mineral density. While no specific drug intervention has been shown to consistently improve bone mineral density in this patient population, maximizing energy availability and optimizing vitamin D and calcium intake are recommended. Conclusions: Treatment requires a multidisciplinary approach involving health care professionals as well as coaches and family members. Prevention of this condition is important to minimize complications of the female athlete triad.
|The underrepresentation of women in physics doctorate programs and in tenured academic positions indicates a need to evaluate what may influence their career choice and persistence. This qualitative paper examines eleven females in physics doctoral programs and professional science positions in order to provide a more thorough understanding of…
|This study was undertaken in order to identify and describe the nature of socialization of females into sport. A fixed-alternative questionnaire was administered to 585 women who were currently active in sport. Results indicated that peers and family were the significant agents of socialization during childhood, peers and school were most…
Although boys engage in more delinquent and criminal acts than do girls, female delinquency is on the rise. In 1980, boys were four times as likely as girls to be arrested; today they are only twice as likely to be arrested. In this article, Elizabeth Cauffman explores how the juvenile justice system is and should be responding to the adolescent
Summary Although boys engage in more delinquent and criminal acts than do girls, female delinquency is on the rise. In 1980, boys were four times as likely as girls to be arrested; today they are only twice as likely to be arrested. In this article, Elizabeth Cauffman explores how the juvenile justice system is and should be responding to the
This article examines the responses of ninety-eight female respondents to a survey on job satisfaction of librarians of African descent employed in seventy-nine Association of Research Libraries (ARL) academic libraries in relation to other gender studies on job satisfaction of librarians. Dependent variables are race, age, years of experience and years at present institution. This article also provides information about
Self-report instruments concerning personality and subjective responses to sexual orgasm were filled out by 281 female university undergraduates. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used to evaluate the dimensionality of women's subjective responsiveness to orgasm. The results did not support the concept of a unidimensional orgasm process; separate coital and masturbatory factors of orgasmic experience were obtained. Highly internally consistent
Regular exercise brings health benefits, but for some young women it can also bring disordered eating, amenorrhea and osteoporosis. The ‘female athlete triad’ consists of three separate, but interrelated medical entities: (i) disordered eating; (ii) amenorrhea (or absence of menses), and; (iii) premature osteoporosis (altered bone mineral density). Although coaches, athletes, parents, and to some extent team physicians, have been
Over the past 30 years, the number of women participating in organized sports has grown dramatically. Several forms of menstrual irregularities have been described in the female athlete: primary and secondary amenorrhoea, oligomenorrhoea, short luteal phases and anovulation. The incidence of menstrual irregularities is much higher in activities where a thin body is required for better performance. The hormonal pattern
Burns occurring in conjunction with pregnancy can be a potentially life threatening scenario as it may lead to a rapid depletion of the already diminished maternal reserves. The management protocol in a pregnant burn female has to be tailored, taking into consideration the additional factor of fetal well being and the fetal susceptibility to various agents. For such alterations to be incorporated, it is imperative on part of the treating doctor to correctly ascertain the pregnant/non-pregnant status of an adult burn female. Though most cases of pregnancy can be straightforwardly diagnosed on basis of history/examination but it is not a totally reliant method. Ours is a prospective study which reveals the inadequacy of history/examination as the only method of diagnosing pregnancy in adult burnt female group. We also found routine urinary hCG usage as a viable method of picking up these "hidden" cases of pregnancy and thus avert the potential catastrophe of not altering the management in accordance with pregnancy and subsequent endangering of maternal and fetal life. An ancillary observation of our study was the need of the attending doctor to be well versed in his obstetrical knowledge and skills and if not so, then an effort be taken on part of the institution to undertake a reorientation program which will help the attending resident/doctor to brush up his obstetrical attainments. PMID:23000374
According to the ‘natal habitat preference induction’ (NHPI) hypothesis, phytophagous insect females should prefer to lay their eggs on the host species on which they developed as larvae. We tested whether this hypothesis applies to the breeding behaviour of polyphagous European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana, an important pest in European vineyards. We previously found that different grape cultivars affect several life history traits of the moth. Because the different cultivars of grapes are suspected to provide different plant quality, we tested the NHPI hypothesis by examining oviposition choice of L. botrana among three Vitis vinifera cultivars (Pinot, Chasselas and Chardonnay). In a choice situation, females of L. botrana that had never experienced grapes were able to discriminate between different grape cultivars and preferentially selected Pinot as an oviposition substrate. This ‘naive’ preference of oviposition could be modified by larval environment: Females raised on grapes as larvae preferred to lay eggs on the cultivar that they had experienced. Furthermore, experience of the host plant during adult emergence could be excluded because when pupae originating from our synthetic diet were exposed to grapes, the emerging adults did not show preference for the cultivar from which they emerged. The NHPI hypothesis that includes the two sub-hypothesis “Hopkins host selection principle” and “chemical legacy” may thus be relevant in this system.
Background Establishing personal identity is one of the main concerns in forensic investigations. Estimation of stature forms a basic domain of the investigation process in unknown and co-mingled human remains in forensic anthropology case work. The objective of the present study was to set up standards for estimation of stature from the foot and its segments in a sub-adultfemale population. Methods The sample for the study constituted 149 young females from the Northern part of India. The participants were aged between 13 and 18 years. Besides stature, seven anthropometric measurements that included length of the foot from each toe (T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5 respectively), foot breadth at ball (BBAL) and foot breadth at heel (BHEL) were measured on both feet in each participant using standard methods and techniques. Results The results indicated that statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) between left and right feet occur in both the foot breadth measurements (BBAL and BHEL). Foot length measurements (T1 to T5 lengths) did not show any statistically significant bilateral asymmetry. The correlation between stature and all the foot measurements was found to be positive and statistically significant (p-value < 0.001). Linear regression models and multiple regression models were derived for estimation of stature from the measurements of the foot. The present study indicates that anthropometric measurements of foot and its segments are valuable in the estimation of stature. Foot length measurements estimate stature with greater accuracy when compared to foot breadth measurements. Conclusions The present study concluded that foot measurements have a strong relationship with stature in the sub-adultfemale population of North India. Hence, the stature of an individual can be successfully estimated from the foot and its segments using different regression models derived in the study. The regression models derived in the study may be applied successfully for the estimation of stature in sub-adultfemales, whenever foot remains are brought for forensic examination. Stepwise multiple regression models tend to estimate stature more accurately than linear regression models in female sub-adults.
|Survey of 165 high school and college female athletes revealed the following: (1) high school subjects tend to emulate another female player; (2) of those who perceived a difference between male and female coaches as role models, high school students preferred a female coach, and college students preferred a male coach. (Author/BJV)|
Male and females listeners rated 21 young female voices on seven scales representing unique vocal features. Voices were described as "passive", or traditionally female, and "active," characterized as "lively,""colorful," and "sexy." Females found active characteristics more salient; males preferred the passive characteristics. Implications for…
|Male and females listeners rated 21 young female voices on seven scales representing unique vocal features. Voices were described as "passive", or traditionally female, and "active," characterized as "lively,""colorful," and "sexy." Females found active characteristics more salient; males preferred the passive characteristics. Implications for…
Rather than being a static, species specific trait, reproductive behavior in female amphibians is variable within an individual during the breeding season when females are capable of reproductive activity. Changes in receptivity coincide with changes in circulating estrogen. Estrogen is highest at the point when females are ready to choose a male and lay eggs. At this time female receptivity
Dominance relationships between adult and adolescent female yellow baboons, Papio cynocephalus, were studied in Amboseli Park, Kenya. Adolescents attempted to become dominant to some females (called ‘targeted females’) while remaining subordinate to others. Agonistic relationships with targeted females passed through a sequence of stages before the younger female achieved dominance. An examination of nondyadic agonistic interactions revealed that adolescents frequently
We examined the effects of sex steroid milieu on plasma leptin levels in adult male and female rats. Since the body weight is known to influence leptin concentrations, the hormone was measured in rats with a very similar body weight (about 250 g) throughout this study. Plasma leptin levels were significantly higher in female than in male rats. Orchidectomy (ODX)
The peripubertal period is critical for the final maturation of circuits controlling energy homeostasis and stress response. However, the consequence of juvenile fat consumption on adult physiology is not clear. This study analyzed the adult consequences of post-weaning fat feeding on limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis components and on metabolic regulators of female rats. Wistar rats were fed either a high fat (HF) diet or the normal chow from weaning to puberty or to 3 months of age. Additional groups crossed their diets at puberty onset. Plasma leptin, insulin, and corticosterone levels were determined by radioimmunoassay and their brain receptors by western blot analysis. Adult HF-fed animals though not overweight, had higher corticosterone and reduced glucocorticoid receptor levels in the hypothalamus and hippocampus, compared to the controls. The alterations in HPA axis emerged already at puberty onset. Leptin receptor levels in the hypothalamus were reduced only by continuous fat feeding from weaning to adulthood. The pre-pubertal period appeared more vulnerable to diet-induced alterations in adulthood than the post-pubertal one. Switching from fat diet to normal chow at puberty onset restored most of the diet-induced alterations in the HPA axis. The corticosteroid circuit rather than the leptin or insulin system appears as the principal target for the peripubertal fat diet-induced effects in adultfemale rats. PMID:19902349
The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has created a task group on dose calculations, which, among other objectives, should replace the currently used mathematical MIRD phantoms by voxel phantoms. Voxel phantoms are based on digital images recorded from scanning of real persons by computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Compared to the mathematical MIRD phantoms, voxel phantoms are true to the natural representations of a human body. Connected to a radiation transport code, voxel phantoms serve as virtual humans for which equivalent dose to organs and tissues from exposure to ionizing radiation can be calculated. The principal database for the construction of the FAX (FemaleAdult voXel) phantom consisted of 151 CT images recorded from scanning of trunk and head of a female patient, whose body weight and height were close to the corresponding data recommended by the ICRP in Publication 89. All 22 organs and tissues at risk, except for the red bone marrow and the osteogenic cells on the endosteal surface of bone ('bone surface'), have been segmented manually with a technique recently developed at the Departamento de Energia Nuclear of the UFPE in Recife, Brazil. After segmentation the volumes of the organs and tissues have been adjusted to agree with the organ and tissue masses recommended by ICRP for the Reference AdultFemale in Publication 89. Comparisons have been made with the organ and tissue masses of the mathematical EVA phantom, as well as with the corresponding data for other female voxel phantoms. The three-dimensional matrix of the segmented images has eventually been connected to the EGS4 Monte Carlo code. Effective dose conversion coefficients have been calculated for exposures to photons, and compared to data determined for the mathematical MIRD-type phantoms, as well as for other voxel phantoms. PMID:15656272
Kramer, R; Khoury, H J; Vieira, J W; Loureiro, E C M; Lima, V J M; Lima, F R A; Hoff, G
The present investigation examined body-size estimation and overvaluation of a thin shape in bulimic females, females having been obese as adults who later lost weight, females with no history of obesity who were dieting, and females with no history of obesity as adults and not currently dieting. Each subject was presented with a set of seven silhouettes, one having been
It is important that girls and young women participate in sports and develop skills that promote lifelong athletic participation, because of the psychological, sociologic, and physiologic benefits associated with exercise. When an athlete begins intensive, competitive exercise training at a young age, or when the preoccupation with thinness supersedes a desire to be healthy, potential morbidity results. Lack of information and the strong desire to win contribute to this problem. There is relatively little known about the long-term physical and psychological effects of early intensive athletic training and the female athlete triad on the young female athlete. In addition to the need for further research in these areas, there is a need for education of physicians, coaches, trainers, athletes, and parents. The preparticipation physical examination is an excellent opportunity for the physician to screen for the triad disorders and educate athletes and parents on healthy nutrition, normal menstrual function, and the benefits of exercise. PMID:7553928
Female sexual dysfunction is a common problem with detrimental effects on woman’s quality of life. It also has an economical\\u000a and societal impact. It is defined as disorders of sexual desire, arousal, orgasm, and sexual pain, which lead to personal\\u000a distress. The etiology of sexual dysfunction is frequently multifactorial as it relates to general physical and mental well-being,\\u000a quality of
Anatomic considerations are the female athlete's wider pelvis, shorter extremities and lower center of gravity. There is little qualitative difference in the muscle tissue of men and women; differences in strength stem from the amount of muscle mass. Amenorrhea/oligomenorrhea is common in runners, ballet dancers, cyclists, gymnasts, body builders, figure skaters and, to a lesser extent, swimmers. Pregnancy limits activity, but current evidence indicates that exercise during pregnancy is not harmful to either the mother or the fetus. PMID:6731241
Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is a complex set of conditions associated with multiple anatomical, physiological, biological,\\u000a medical, and psychological factors. It can be age-related and appears to be highly prevalent, affecting 20 to 50% of women\\u000a (1). Data from the National Health and Social Life Survey (NHSLS), a large representative sample of US women, reported that\\u000a one-third of women experienced
Ridwan Shabsigh; Anne R. Davis; Aristotelis G. Anastasiadis; Nawras Makhsida; Grace Yan
The occurrence of a brachial plexus united into a single cord is very rare. During routine dissection of an elderly female cadaver, the brachial plexus united into a single cord was observed bilaterally. On the left side, C4, C5, and C6 roots combined to form the upper trunk, the C7 root continued as the middle trunk, and C8 and T1 united to form the lower trunk. All three trunks almost immediately fused to form a single cord. On the right side, C5 and C6 roots joined to form the upper trunk, which divided into anterior and posterior divisions. C7, C8, and T1 roots combined to form the lower trunk. The anterior and posterior divisions united with the lower trunk to form a single cord. On both sides, the subclavian artery was superior to the single cord. Supraclavicular brachial plexus injuries in such individuals may have serious clinical manifestations.
Adolescence is a developmental period characterized by neuronal remodeling and the maturation of adult emotionality, reproductive behavior and social behavior. We examined whether chronic cannabinoid exposure in adolescent rats alters female sexual motivation, estrous cyclicity, sucrose preference, and CB(1)R expression in adulthood. Female rats were administered with the synthetic cannabinoid agonist, CP-55,940 (0.4 mg/kg, intraperitoneal), daily during adolescent development (PND 35-45). In a subset of subjects, socio-sexual motivation was investigated in adulthood (PND 75-86) using a runway apparatus. Estrous cyclicity was tracked in adulthood via vaginal cytology and a single-mount test. A two-bottle sucrose preference test was also conducted to determine whether predicted changes in socio-sexual motivation might be linked to alterations in hedonic processing. CB(1)R expression was examined in two separate subsets of subjects, one sacrificed following drug treatment (PND 46) and one before behavioral testing (PND 74). Drug treatment significantly decreased adult preference for a male conspecific (sexual motivation), as assessed by both Run Time and Proximity Time, but did not affect estrous cyclicity or sucrose preference. CP-55,940 treatment also induced immediate, but transient, decreases in CB(1)R expression in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus and amygdala. Drug treatment did not affect CB(1)R expression in the nucleus accumbens (core or shell) or globus pallidus at either time point. We suggest that the endocannabinoid system may play a role in the maturation of neuroendocrine axes and adultfemale reproductive behavior, and that chronic exposure to cannabinoids during adolescence disrupts these neurodevelopmental processes. PMID:21777606
Chadwick, Benjamin; Saylor, Alicia J; López, Hassan H
Adolescence is a developmental period characterized by neuronal remodeling and the maturation of adult emotionality, reproductive behavior and social behavior. We examined whether chronic cannabinoid exposure in adolescent rats alters female sexual motivation, estrous cyclicity, sucrose preference, and CB1R expression in adulthood. Female rats were administered with the synthetic cannabinoid agonist, CP-55,940 (0.4 mg/kg, intraperitoneal), daily during adolescent development (PND 35–45). In a subset of subjects, socio-sexual motivation was investigated in adulthood (PND 75–86) using a runway apparatus. Estrous cyclicity was tracked in adulthood via vaginal cytology and a single-mount test. A two-bottle sucrose preference test was also conducted to determine whether predicted changes in socio-sexual motivation might be linked to alterations in hedonic processing. CB1R expression was examined in two separate subsets of subjects, one sacrificed following drug treatment (PND 46) and one before behavioral testing (PND 74). Drug treatment significantly decreased adult preference for a male conspecific (sexual motivation), as assessed by both Run Time and Proximity Time, but did not affect estrous cyclicity or sucrose preference. CP-55,940 treatment also induced immediate, but transient, decreases in CB1R expression in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus and amygdala. Drug treatment did not affect CB1R expression in the nucleus accumbens (core or shell) or globus pallidus at either time point. We suggest that the endocannabinoid system may play a role in the maturation of neuroendocrine axes and adultfemale reproductive behavior, and that chronic exposure to cannabinoids during adolescence disrupts these neurodevelopmental processes.
Chadwick, Benjamin; Saylor, Alicia J.; Lopez, Hassan H.
The nucleus retroambiguus (NRA) is located in the caudal medulla oblongata and contains premotor neurons that project to motoneuronal cell groups in the brainstem and spinal cord. NRA projections to the lumbosacral cord are species specific and might be involved in mating behavior. In the female cat, this behavior is estrogen dependent, and estrogen induces axonal sprouting in the NRA-lumbosacral pathway. Because female receptive behavior in primates is not fully dependent on estrogen, the question arises as to whether the capacity of estrogen-induced sprouting is preserved in primates. The effect of estrogen was studied on the NRA-lumbosacral projection with the use of wheat germ agglutinin conjugated to horseradish peroxidase as a tracer in six adult ovariectomized rhesus monkeys with or without estrogen priming (three controls and three treated with 20 microg/day of estradiol benzoate subcutaneously for 14 days). Light microscopy showed that the density of arborizing labeled NRA axons in the lumbosacral cord was greater in estrogen-treated than in control animals. Ultrastructurally, labeled NRA terminal profiles were quantified in motoneuron pools that supply muscles of the abdominal wall, axial, and pelvic floor. After estrogen treatment, the average number of labeled terminal profiles per area of the abdominal wall, axial, and pelvic floor motoneuron pool increased 1.5-, 3.3-, and 2.8-fold, respectively. In the estrogen-treated cases, 8.9% of labeled terminal profiles showed characteristics of growth cones. In controls, such profiles were rarely observed. The results showed that estrogen induces axonal sprouting in a brainstem-spinal pathway in the adultfemale rhesus monkey. These findings supported the concept that the NRA-lumbosacral pathway may be involved in sexual behavior. Moreover, they demonstrated that a long descending brainstem-spinal tract in adult nonhuman primates retains the capacity for axonal sprouting. PMID:12410620
Vanderhorst, Veronique G J M; Terasawa, Ei; Ralston, Henry J
Objective: To investigate the effects of increasing Cu intakes, above the usual dietary intake, on biomarkers of bone metabolism in healthy young adultfemales (aged 21–28 y) over a 4 week period.Design: A double-blind, placebo-controlled randomised repeat crossover Cu supplementation trial.Setting: The study was conducted at the Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University (RVAU), Copenhagen, Denmark.Subjects: Sixteen healthy young adultfemales
KD Cashman; A Baker; F Ginty; A Flynn; JJ Strain; MP Bonham; JM O'Connor; S Bügel; B Sandström
Aim Little is known about the impact of gender on oral health, besides the influence of reproductive factors on female dentition.\\u000a The aim of this study was to analyse gender differences with regard to oral health and oral health behaviour in the Swiss\\u000a adult population, using data from the Swiss Health Survey of 2002.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Subjects and methods The Swiss Health Survey regularly
Paola Coda Bertea; Katharina Staehelin; Julia Dratva; Elisabeth Zemp Stutz
Reproductive functions are controlled by a finely tuned balance between estrogens and androgens. To further characterize the gonadal pathways leading to hormonal balance disruption by atrazine, vinclozolin, methoxychlor, and bisphenol A in rat, we investigated their effects in male and female young adult animals. Specifically, we assessed reproductive tract alterations, sex hormone balance in serum and gonads, tissue dosimetry, and mRNA expression. Remarkably, we observed different aromatase regulation profiles between animals with similar estrogen-to-androgen ratios but with different chemical treatments. For example, increased estrogen-to-androgen ratios in atrazine-treated females could be partly linked to aromatase upregulation, while in methoxychlor- and bisphenol A-treated females, peripheral mechanisms such as conjugation/deconjugation processes might be more likely to elevate estrogen levels. In vinclozolin-treated animals, the decreased estrogen-to-androgen ratios reported might be due to an increase of peripheral (adrenal) steroidogenesis. Thus, measurement of many endpoints is necessary for good risk assessment. PMID:22285353
Researchers have long considered the color of female sexual skin to play a role in attracting or inciting competition among\\u000a males, or both; however, females may also use color in intrasexual communication. To assess this possibility, we examined\\u000a whether variation in same-sex sexual skin color is salient to female rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). We exposed adultfemales to computerized images
Melissa S. Gerald; Corri Waitt; Anthony C. Little; Edmundo Kraiselburd
Background: Little account has been taken of quality of life (QoL) among family carers of adults with an intellectual disability (ID) and family carers of adults with a mental illness (MI), particularly the female ageing carers' perceived stigma. We explore whether there are differences in the significant predictors of female ageing family carers'…
Chou, Y. C.; Pu, C. Y.; Lee, Y. C.; Lin, L. C.; Kroger, T.
|There continues to be oppression among female athletes, even after the enactment of Title IX in 1972. Female athletes in secondary schools deal with low self-esteem, eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia, and depression. Female athletes struggle with societal pressures to maintain a model-like figure, while trying to train and perform for…
There continues to be oppression among female athletes, even after the enactment of Title IX in 1972. Female athletes in secondary schools deal with low self-esteem, eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia, and depression. Female athletes struggle with societal pressures to maintain a model-like figure, while trying to train and perform for…
At least since the Attica State Prison revolt, penologists have been exploring the racial climate of men's correctional facilities. In the tradition of criminology research, theoretical and empirical studies of female inmates have lagged behind the work concerning males; accordingly, the extent of racial turmoil in women's prisons remains unknown. Utilizing data gathered on Minnesota's correctional facility for adultfemale
The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of oral contraceptive therapy on bone density and serum markers of bone metabolism in a prospective, longitudinal study of young adultfemale cynomolgus monkeys. Two hundred and seven intact cynomolgus monkeys were randomized to two groups, and fed an atherogenic diet containing either no drug (Control) or a triphasic oral contraceptive regimen (Contraceptive). Measurements of bone density were carried out by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at 10-month intervals (0, 10, and 20 months) and serum bone biomarkers were determined at 5-month intervals over the 20-month time course. No significant differences in these variables were observed prior to treatment. Both groups of animals gained bone mineral during the study, indicating that peak bone mass had not been reached at baseline. Contraceptive-treated animals gained less spinal (lumbar vertebrae 2-4) bone mineral content and density and less whole-body bone mineral content than Controls over the course of the study. Significant depressive effects of contraceptive treatment on gains in BMC and BMD were observed during each 10-month interval of the study. Bone metabolism was inhibited in the Contraceptive group, as reflected by marked reductions (approximately 40%) in serum osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase levels along with moderate reductions in serum acid phosphatase and calcium. The results suggest that triphasic oral contraceptive treatment of young adultfemale monkeys that have not reached peak bone mass inhibits net bone accretion and/or growth by reducing bone metabolism. Thus, prolonged continuous oral contraceptive use in skeletally immature females may lead to a lower peak bone mass--an effect which could increase the risk of fractures in later life. PMID:9373569
At times, total dissolved gas concentrations in the Columbia and Snake rivers have been elevated due to involuntary spill from high spring runoff and voluntary spill used as a method to pass juvenile salmonids over dams. The goal of this project was to determine if acute exposure to total dissolved gas supersaturation (TDGS) affects the reproductive performance of female chinook salmon late in their maturation. During this study, adultfemale spring chinook salmon were exposed to mean TDGS levels of 114.1 % to 125.5%. We ended exposures at first mortality, or at the appearance of impending death. Based on this criterion, exposures lasted from 10 to 68 h and were inversely related to TDGS. There was no effect of TDGS on pre-spawning mortality or fecundity when comparing treatment fish to experimental controls or the general hatchery population four to six weeks after exposures. Egg quality, based on egg weight and egg diameter, did not differ between treatment and control fish. Fertilization rate and survival to eyed-stage was high (>94%) for all groups. With the exception of Renibacterium salmoninarum (the causative agent of bacterial kidney disease; BKD), no viral or bacterial fish pathogens were isolated from experimental fish. The prevalence (about 45%) and severity of R. salmoninarum did not differ among the groups or the general hatchery population. We conclude that these acute exposures to moderate levels of gas-supersaturated water-perhaps similar to that experienced by immigrating adult salmon as they approach and pass a hydropower dam on the Columbia River-did not affect reproductive success of female chinook salmon late in their maturation. These results are most applicable to summer and fall chinook salmon, which migrate in the summer/fall and spawn shortly after reaching their natal streams. Published in 2004 by John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.
Gale, W. L.; Maule, A. G.; Postera, A.; Peters, M. H.
ABSTRACT. The abilities of Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus females in trespassing 5 different commercial nets, 2 nets impregnated with deltamethrin or permethrin and 3 non-impregnated nets (Guarany, Perame, and Ricca), were compared. The evaluating parameters were their percent trespassing success, the median trespassing time (TT50), and the relation between mosquito wing sizes and their trespassing success. Some mosquito behavioral traits were also observed. The trespassing success, directly related to opening areas, was found to be lower with impregnated nets for both species. The differences between the mosquito species were significant among all the nets except Ricca. Aedes albopictus showed a very high success rate in trespassing the non-impregnated Perame net and a lower success rate in trespassing Guarany. Aedes albopictus also showed a very high success rate in trespassing pyrethroid-impregnated nets. The TT50 values for the Ricca and Guarany nets were not significantly different between the species, but a significantly lower TT50 value was found for the net with the largest opening (Ricca). The smaller wingspan of Ae. albopictus seems to explain the higher trespassing success of this species. PMID:20402360
Objective This study sought to empirically derive marijuana user subtypes based on DSM abuse and dependence criteria and examine demographic and substance abuse distinctions of derived classes. Method A community sample of 308 female marijuana users between the ages of 18-24 were recruited in the Southern New England region. Latent class analysis was used to derive subgroups based on DSM criteria. The use and demographic characteristics of classes were further analyzed using ANOVA and chi-square tests. Results Based on fit criteria, a three class solution was selected. Class I (37%), an “unaffected/mild” group was characterized by very low endorsement rates of abuse and dependence criteria. This class was also found to have significantly lower rates of other substance use problems. Class II (41.6%) “moderate problem users” showed moderate endorsement rates of abuse and dependence criteria. Class III (21.4%) - “severe problem users” showed the greatest levels of abuse and dependence with 90% meeting DSM criteria for abuse and 100% meeting diagnostic criteria for marijuana dependence. Class III also showed the greatest levels of other substance use problems. Conclusion Three distinct marijuana abuse and dependence subtypes were derived using LCA. Findings may have implications for the development of more targeted treatment and prevention interventions for young women struggling with varying degrees of marijuana abuse and dependence.
de Dios, Marcel A.; Anderson, Bradley J.; Herman, Debra S.; Hagerty, Claire E.; Caviness, Celeste M.; Budney, Alan J.; Stein, Michael
The present study examined the effects of the opiate antagonist naloxone on spatial acquisition and retention in a water-maze task by adult, nonbreeding, male and female meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus). Voles were required to learn the position of a hidden, submerged platform using distal visual cues. There were four trials per day for 6 days. Daily pretraining (15 min before first trial) systemic administrations of naloxone (1.0 mg/kg, IP) significantly facilitated spatial acquisition in female, but not in male, voles in a water-maze task on days 2, 3, and 4. There were two probe tasks given 1 day and 1 week after the last training trial. All groups acquired the spatial task by the end of the fifth day with no significant effects of naloxone on retention of the spatial task. There were also no significant sex differences in acquisition of the spatial task and task retention in control, nonbreeding adult voles. It is suggested that the lack of sex differences in basal spatial performance may be related to the low levels of testosterone in male nonbreeding voles. The obtained sex differences in the effects of naloxone on spatial acquisition are considered in relation to sex differences in stress, opiate responses, and gonadal steroid levels. PMID:8146217
Galea, L A; Saksida, L; Kavaliers, M; Ossenkopp, K P
The effects of extremely low-frequency (ELF) magnetic fields on sex hormones of adultfemale Spague-Dawley rats were investigated. Adultfemale rats were exposed to a 50 Hz sinusoidal magnetic field at approximately 25 microT (rms) for 18 weeks before they returned to their normal life with unexposed counterparts. Serum level of Luteinizing Hormone (LH), Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH), progesterone, and estrogen were measured before, after, and during the exposure. Body and uterine weights were not affected by the field. A significant reduction in absolute and relative ovarian weights in exposed rats was observed when compared with sham-exposed controls (P < 0.05). The reduction in the levels of gonadotropins (FSH and LH) was significant after six weeks of exposure (P < 0.005). FSH levels were affected only on week 6 of exposure while LH remained affected during at 12 and 18 weeks (P < 0.05). Interestingly, no significant effects were found at 6 and 12 weeks after removing the field. The level of progesterone and estrogen was significantly decreased after 12 weeks of exposure (P < 0.05), while no other effects on progesterone level was observed during exposure or after removing the exposure. The level of estrogen was also significantly reduced at 12 weeks after removing the field (P < 0.05). These results suggest possible adverse effect on mammalian fertility and reproduction. The effects of ELF-MF on sex hormones were shown to be partly reversible. PMID:18568933
Acute effects of bisphenol (BPA), an environmental chemical, on estradiol (17? or ?-E2)-dependent recognition memory and dendritic spines in the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus were investigated in adultfemale rats. Ovariectomized rats received BPA 30 min before or immediately after a sample trial (viewing objects), and retention trials were performed 4 h later. Retention trials tested discrimination between old and new objects (visual memory) or locations (place memory). When given immediately after the sample trial, BPA, 1-400 ?g/kg, did not alter recognition memory, but 1 and 40 ?g/kg BPA, respectively, blocked 17?-E2-dependent increases in place and visual memory. When ovariectomized rats were tested with 17?-E2, 1 ?g/kg BPA blocked place memory, but up to 40 ?g did not block visual memory. BPA, given to cycling rats at 40 ?g/kg, blocked visual, but not place, memory during proestrus when 2 h intertrial delays were given. Spine density was assessed at times of memory consolidation (30 min) and retention (4 h) after 17?-E2 or BPA + 17?-E2. In prefrontal cortex, BPA did not alter E2-dependent increases. In the hippocampus, BPA blocked E2 increases in basal spines at 4 h and was additive with E2 at 30 min. Thus, these novel data show that doses of BPA, below the current Environmental Protection Agency safe limit of 50 ?g/kg, rapidly alter neural functions dependent on E2 in adultfemale rats. PMID:22569790
Acute effects of bisphenol (BPA), an environmental chemical, on estradiol (17? or ?-E2)-dependent recognition memory and dendritic spines in the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus were investigated in adultfemale rats. Ovariectomized rats received BPA 30 min before or immediately after a sample trial (viewing objects), and retention trials were performed 4 h later. Retention trials tested discrimination between old and new objects (visual memory) or locations (place memory). When given immediately after the sample trial, BPA, 1–400 ?g/kg, did not alter recognition memory, but 1 and 40 ?g/kg BPA, respectively, blocked 17?-E2-dependent increases in place and visual memory. When ovariectomized rats were tested with 17?-E2, 1 ?g/kg BPA blocked place memory, but up to 40 ?g did not block visual memory. BPA, given to cycling rats at 40 ?g/kg, blocked visual, but not place, memory during proestrus when 2 h intertrial delays were given. Spine density was assessed at times of memory consolidation (30 min) and retention (4 h) after 17?-E2 or BPA + 17?-E2. In prefrontal cortex, BPA did not alter E2-dependent increases. In the hippocampus, BPA blocked E2 increases in basal spines at 4 h and was additive with E2 at 30 min. Thus, these novel data show that doses of BPA, below the current Environmental Protection Agency safe limit of 50 ?g/kg, rapidly alter neural functions dependent on E2 in adultfemale rats.
Female sexual dysfunctions (FSDs) range from short-term aggravations to major emotional disturbances adversely affecting family and workplace. This review highlights diagnosis and management of the four most widely diagnosed FSDs. It initially focuses on hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) as a driving force at the heart of all other FSDs; nothing happens without sexual desire. Successful resolution of HSDD frequently facilitates resolution of other disorders. Central to understanding HSDD is the impact of aging female sexual endocrinology and its effect on both prevalence and expression patterns of FSD. Advances in this field have enabled introduction of some the most effective treatments yet described for HSDD. Sexual arousal disorder, though commonly affected by the same factors as HSDD, is heavily associated with psychotropic drugs and mood elevators. Orgasmic disorder is frequently the downstream result of other sexual dysfunctions, particularly HSDD, or the result of a major psychosexual trauma. Successful management of the underlying disorder often resolves orgasmic disorder. Sexual pain disorder is frequently the result of a gynecologic disorder, such as endometriosis, that can be substantially managed through successful treatment of that disorder. This article ends with the article's most important note: how to initiate the conversation. PMID:24074537
Participation of adolescents and young women in strenuous sports activity may lead to various metabolic and psychological derangements of clinical relevance to the endocrinologist. The most common manifestations encountered in practice are primary and secondary amenorrhea, reduced bone mineral density and eating disorders. The occurrence of all three together has been named "the athletic triad". The underlying hormonal drivers that lead to some of these manifestations are the reduced leptin level as well as the persistent low grade stress response commonly observed in such females. "Exercise-related female reproductive dysfunction" (ERFRD), can possibly include short-term (infertility) and long-term (osteoporosis) consequences. Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea, a manifestation of ERFRD in adolescence, is an integrated response to the combination of excessive physical and emotional stress, exercise, and/or reduced food intake characterized by decreased endogenous GNRH secretion. The primary aim of treating these athletes should be the prevention of the development of any component of the triad as well as the whole complex by educating athletes, trainers, parents and health care professionals about proper nutrition and safe training. The long term prognosis is good. However, significant long term morbidity may affect these young women later in life. PMID:20118893
Effective treatment of the female athlete begins with an understanding of the anatomic and physiologic differences between males and females and the epidemiology of injury patterns in athletic women. However, the female athlete has a variety of special concerns that the sports medicine physician should be familiar with. PMID:7609959
In common with several other autoimmune diseases, there is a marked female preponderance in both autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) and primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). Whether this is due to gender differences relating specifically to the liver or more generally to the female constitution is unknown. The clinical expression of these disorders provides few clues to explain their predilection for females. Sexual
This paper reports on two studies into the images of motherhood held by young females. In Study 1, we attempted to uncover general conceptual dimensions by which young Dutch females perceive motherhood. For this, a group of 64, predominantly White, participants of various ages and educational backgrounds were interviewed about real-life mothers and female images derived from television. Qualitative analysis
Community colleges are generally more inclusive to female faculty as compared to four-year institutions. Women represent 49 percent of fulltime and 50 percent of part-time community college faculty, a stark contrast to the low numbers of female faculty in four-year institutions. Female faculty at community colleges also receive similar rates of…
|Community colleges are generally more inclusive to female faculty as compared to four-year institutions. Women represent 49 percent of fulltime and 50 percent of part-time community college faculty, a stark contrast to the low numbers of female faculty in four-year institutions. Female faculty at community colleges also receive similar rates of…
Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease with a complex epidemiology and ecology. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is its most severe clinical form as it results in death if not treated. In Latin America VL is caused by the protist parasite Leishmania infantum (syn. chagasi) and transmitted by Lutzomyia longipalpis. This phlebotomine sand fly is only found in the New World, from Mexico to Argentina. However, due to deforestation, migration and urbanisation, among others, VL in Latin America is undergoing an evident geographic expansion as well as dramatic changes in its transmission patterns. In this context, the first VL outbreak was recently reported in Argentina, which has already caused 7 deaths and 83 reported cases. Insect vector transcriptomic analyses enable the identification of molecules involved in the insect's biology and vector-parasite interaction. Previous studies on laboratory reared Lu. longipalpis have provided a descriptive repertoire of gene expression in the whole insect, midgut, salivary gland and male reproductive organs. Nevertheless, the study of wild specimens would contribute a unique insight into the development of novel bioinsecticides. Given the recent VL outbreak in Argentina and the compelling need to develop appropriate control strategies, this study focused on wild male and female Lu. longipalpis from an Argentine endemic (Posadas, Misiones) and a Brazilian non-endemic (Lapinha Cave, Minas Gerais) VL location. In this study, total RNA was extracted from the sand flies, submitted to sequence independent amplification and high-throughput pyrosequencing. This is the first time an unbiased and comprehensive transcriptomic approach has been used to analyse an infectious disease vector in its natural environment. Transcripts identified in the sand flies showed characteristic profiles which correlated with the environment of origin and with taxa previously identified in these same specimens. Among these, various genes represented putative targets for vector control via RNA interference (RNAi).
McCarthy, Christina B.; Santini, Maria Soledad; Pimenta, Paulo F. P.; Diambra, Luis A.
Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease with a complex epidemiology and ecology. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is its most severe clinical form as it results in death if not treated. In Latin America VL is caused by the protist parasite Leishmania infantum (syn. chagasi) and transmitted by Lutzomyia longipalpis. This phlebotomine sand fly is only found in the New World, from Mexico to Argentina. However, due to deforestation, migration and urbanisation, among others, VL in Latin America is undergoing an evident geographic expansion as well as dramatic changes in its transmission patterns. In this context, the first VL outbreak was recently reported in Argentina, which has already caused 7 deaths and 83 reported cases. Insect vector transcriptomic analyses enable the identification of molecules involved in the insect's biology and vector-parasite interaction. Previous studies on laboratory reared Lu. longipalpis have provided a descriptive repertoire of gene expression in the whole insect, midgut, salivary gland and male reproductive organs. Nevertheless, the study of wild specimens would contribute a unique insight into the development of novel bioinsecticides. Given the recent VL outbreak in Argentina and the compelling need to develop appropriate control strategies, this study focused on wild male and female Lu. longipalpis from an Argentine endemic (Posadas, Misiones) and a Brazilian non-endemic (Lapinha Cave, Minas Gerais) VL location. In this study, total RNA was extracted from the sand flies, submitted to sequence independent amplification and high-throughput pyrosequencing. This is the first time an unbiased and comprehensive transcriptomic approach has been used to analyse an infectious disease vector in its natural environment. Transcripts identified in the sand flies showed characteristic profiles which correlated with the environment of origin and with taxa previously identified in these same specimens. Among these, various genes represented putative targets for vector control via RNA interference (RNAi). PMID:23554910
McCarthy, Christina B; Santini, María Soledad; Pimenta, Paulo F P; Diambra, Luis A
Ozone exposure causes acute decrements in pulmonary function, increases airway responsiveness, and changes the breathing pattern. We examined these responses in 19 ozone-responsive (DeltaFEV(1) > 5%) young females exposed to both air and 0.35 ppm ozone. The randomized 75-min exposures included two 30-min exercise periods at V(E) approximately 40 L/min. Responses were measured before, during, and after exposure and at 18 and 42 h postexposure. FVC, FEV(1), and FIV(0.5) decreased (p <.01) immediately postexposure by 13.2%, 19.9%, and 20.8%, respectively, and the airway responsiveness was significantly increased. Raw increased (p <.05), while TGV remained essentially unchanged. At 18 h postexposure, the airways were still hyperresponsive and FEV(1) and FIV(0.5) were still 5% below the preexposure levels. There were no residual effects in any of the variables at 42 h postexposure. During exercise in ozone the tidal volume was decreased (-14%) and respiratory frequency increased (+15%). The changes in airway responsiveness were not related to changes in spirometric measurements. We found no significant differences between postair and postozone mouth occlusion pressure (Pm(0.1)) and the hypercapnic response to CO(2) rebreathing. We conclude that ozone induced typical acute changes in airway responsiveness and that ventilatory (exercise), spirometric (inspiratory and expiratory), and plethysmographic pulmonary function may show some residual effects for up to 18 h after exposure. The ozone-induced alteration in breathing pattern during exercise does not appear to be related to a change in ventilatory drive. PMID:10715622
Relatively little is known about the generation of adult form. One complex adult trait that is particularly amenable to genetic and experimental analysis is the zebrafish pigment pattern, which undergoes extensive remodeling during post-embryonic development to form adult stripes. These stripes result from the arrangement of three classes of neural crest-derived pigment cells, or chromatophores: melanophores, xanthophores, and iridophores. Here,
Michael R. Lang; Larissa B. Patterson; Tiffany N. Gordon; Stephen L. Johnson; David M. Parichy
There are several different female sterilization occlusion techniques. Tubes can be tied, blocked with mechanical devices such as clips or rings, or scarred closed with electric current. In partial salpingectomy, the most common occlusion technique, the fallopian tubes are cut and tied with a suture material. This approach is safe, effective, easy to learn, and does not require any special equipment. Titanium or plastic clips block the fallopian tubes by clamping down and cutting off the blood supply to a portion of the tubes, causing sufficient scarring or fibrosis to prevent fertilization. Silicone rings also are used to block the tubes mechanically. A small loop of tube is pulled through the stretched ring and the resultant scarring blocks passage of the sperm or egg. Finally, electrocoagulation uses electric current to coagulate a small portion of each fallopian tube. This technique is rarely used, however, because of the risk of organ injury. PMID:12321060
The occidental culture has always underlined a particular interpretation of the sexual difference; according to this, the woman belongs to materiality and, at the same time, to the magic world. This conception of the woman like a powerful creature and the consequent fear of the uterus, the organ holder of the femininality, was very spread in the educated and popular traditions and goes on until today within the folklore. The madre is called the uterus, that popular idea considers a self-moving being (the ancient medicine based the concept of hysteria on this, too), a formless animal with many limbs; so, in this way, moving and sending out branches, it can cause illness in the female organism, that is the result of this free movement in the vital spaces. PMID:11640131
Background The use of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) has become widespread due to its specificity, sensitivity and apparent ease of use. However, experimental error can be introduced at many stages during sample processing and analysis, and for this reason qPCR data are often normalised to an internal reference gene. The present study used three freely available algorithms (GeNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper) to assess the stability of hepatically expressed candidate reference genes (Hprt1, Tbp, Ef1? and ?-tubulin) in two experiments. In the first, female Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) broodstock of different ages were reared at either 14 or 22°C for an entire reproductive season, therefore a reference gene that does not respond to thermal challenge or reproductive condition was sought. In the second, estrogen treated juvenile salmon were maintained at the same temperatures for 14 days and a reference gene that does not respond to temperature or estrogen was required. Additionally, we performed independent statistic analysis to validate the outputs obtained from the program based analysis. Results Based on the independent statistical analysis performed the stability of the genes tested was Tbp > Ef1? > Hprt1 > ?-tubulin for the temperature/reproductive development experiment and Ef1? > Hprt1 > Tbp for the estrogen administration experiment (?-tubulin was not analysed). Results from the algorithms tested were quite ambiguous for both experiments; however all programs consistently identified the least stable candidate gene. BestKeeper provided rankings that were consistent with the independent analysis for both experiments. When an inappropriate candidate reference gene was used to normalise the expression of a hepatically expressed target gene, the ability to detect treatment-dependent changes in target gene expression was lost for multiple groups in both experiments. Conclusions We have highlighted the need to independently validate the results of reference gene selection programs. In addition, we have provided a reference point for those wishing to study the effects of thermal challenge and/or hormonal treatment on gene stability in Atlantic salmon and other teleost species.
The 5?-reductase (5?R) enzyme converts testosterone to 5?-dihydrotestosterone. This local metabolism within the brain is important for the full expression of male sexual behavior in many species, including green anole lizards. Two isozymes of 5?R exist and little is known about their specific distributions. We conducted in situ hybridization for both isozymes in intact male and female green anole brains during the breeding (BS) and non-breeding (NBS) seasons. 5?R1 mRNA was only detected in the brainstem, while 5?R2 was expressed in specific areas throughout the brain. As our primary interest was evaluating the potential role of 5?R in forebrain regulation of reproductive behavior, we quantified 5?R2 expression in the preoptic area, amygdala (AMY), and ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH). More 5?R2 cells were detected during the NBS than BS in the AMY, and the density of these cells was greater in females than males. In the VMH, the right side contained more 5?R2 cells than the left, an effect driven by a lateralized increase in the NBS. These data expand understanding of the distribution and potential roles of both isozymes in the adult brain, and differences in expression patterns between mammals and birds suggest that they may have been co-opted for different functions later in evolution. PMID:21116109
This cross-sectional study of adultfemale athletes assessed whether the apparent loading-related differences in bone structure are primarily associated with the loading type or the muscle performance-related joint moments. Several structural variables at shaft sites of the tibia, radius and humerus, and distal sites of the tibia and radius were measured with peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) among 113 female
Riku Nikander; Harri Sievänen; Kirsti Uusi-Rasi; Ari Heinonen; Pekka Kannus
We sought to determine the association of four categories (chunks) of variables: (1) demographic characteristics, (2) family and friends smoking and other drug use, (3) psychosocial factors and attitude, and (4) lifestyle factors to current smoking as compared to never smoking among Canadian young adults. A cohort of 1270 young adults, followed for 10 years, completed a self-administered questionnaire. In multivariable
Linda L. Pederson; John J. Koval; Stella S. H. Chan; Xiaohe Zhang
Summary Rhabdoid tumors of the central nervous system are uncommon, aggressive childhood malignancies. The 13 described adult cases comprise both primary CNS tumors and malignant transformation of previously existing gliomas, meningiomas, and astrocytomas. Central nervous system rhabdoid lesions of adults have been diagnosed as primary malignant rhabdoid tumors, atypical teratoid\\/rhabdoid tumors, and more recently, rhabdoid glioblastomas. We report a case
Michelle L. Erickson; Randall Johnson; Serguei I. Bannykh; Alain de Lotbiniere; Jung H. Kim
In contrast to several species of cetaceans and primates, behavioural responses to dead conspecifics have rarely been reported in wild canids. Here we provide details of the responses of an adultfemale and littermates to a dying and subsequently dead pup, including what appeared to be four instances of transport of the deceased pup by the mother over a two-day period, one of which was directly observed and filmed. We tentatively propose that, in the absence of any evidence of consumption of the pup, its transport by the mother could be interpreted as care-giving behaviour emanating from an enduring mother-infant bond, in a similar vein to what has been suggested for several other species exhibiting such behaviour. PMID:23500482
Previously, we reported that chronic activation of the estrogen receptor GPR30 by its selective agonist G-1 decreases blood pressure in ovariectomized hypertensive mRen2.Lewis (mRen2) rats but not intact male littermates. Furthermore, G-1 relaxes female mesenteric resistance arteries via both endothelium-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Because of the lack of a blood pressure-lowering effect by G-1 in males and the potential influence of aging on estrogen receptor expression, we hypothesized that GPR30-dependent vasodilation and receptor expression are altered in males and aged females. Thus, we assessed the response to 17?-estradiol or G-1 in mesenteric arteries obtained from 15-wk-old normotensive Lewis and hypertensive mRen2 females and males as well as 52-wk-old Lewis females. Vasodilation to 17?-estradiol (E?) and G-1 was significantly attenuated in 15-wk-old Lewis and mRen2 males compared with age-matched females. Pretreatment of male vessels with the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME had no significant effect on the estradiol or G-1 response. In aged females, E? and G-1 vasorelaxation was also significantly blunted; however, L-NAME essentially abolished the response. Associated with the reduced vascular responses, GPR30 expression in mesenteric arteries was approximately 50% lower in males and aged females compared with young females. We conclude that alterations in GPR30 expression and signaling may contribute to vascular dysfunction in aging females and a greater blood pressure in hypertensive males. PMID:23673155
Lindsey, Sarah H; da Silva, Ariel S; Silva, Mauro S; Chappell, Mark C
Genital plastic surgery for women has come under scrutiny and has been the topic of discussion in the news media, online, and in medical editorials. In the absence of measurable standards of care, lack of evidence-based outcome norms, and little standardization either in nomenclature or training requirements, concern has been raised by both ethicists and specialty organizations.Some women request alteration of their vulvas and vaginas for reasons of cosmesis, increasing self-esteem, and improving sexual function. Patients must be assured their surgeon is properly trained and should understand that few validated long-term safety or outcome data are presently available in this relatively new field. Women also should be made aware that, although they may wish to cosmetically or physically alter their external genitalia, this does not mean that they are developmentally or structurally "abnormal." It is important that training guidelines for practitioners be established and that long-term outcome, psychosexual, and safety data be published. The genital plastic surgeon must have sufficient training in sexual medicine to withhold these procedures from women with sexual dysfunction, mental impairment, or body dysmorphic disorder. In an atmosphere in which trademarked marketing terms are becoming part of the lexicon, a more descriptive terminology is suggested, incorporating the terms "labiaplasty," "reduction of clitoral hood," "perineoplasty," "hymenoplasty," and "vaginoplasty." The term "female cosmetic genital surgery" is presented as a descriptive umbrella encompassing these genital plastic procedures. PMID:19104372
A case study of a 44-year-old woman who committed a mass murder is presented. Following a chronic course of psychotic deterioration, and a likely diagnosis of paranoid schizophrenia that remained untreated, she returned to her workplace after 3 years from her termination and killed seven people and herself. Her history is reconstructed through investigation of primary and secondary source materials. Although there are very few female mass murderers in recorded criminal history, this case is quite similar to the known research on mass murderers in general. Such individuals often have a psychotic disorder evident in violent and paranoid delusions, show a deteriorating life course before the mass murder, intentionally plan and prepare for their assault, and methodically kill as many individuals as possible before taking their own lives. They typically do not directly threaten the target beforehand, but do leak their intent to third parties--however, in this case, leakage and other obvious warning behaviors did not occur. Such acts are impossible to predict but depend on threat management and target security for risk mitigation. PMID:21291471
Katsavdakis, Kostas A; Meloy, J Reid; White, Stephen G
Existing literature provides support for a possible syndemic among adult film actresses. Multiple studies emphasize that a combination of economic, social, and cultural issues work together in tandem to synergistically amplify HIV\\/STI risk in this vulnerable population. It is critical to acknowledge how the detrimental effects of the high prevalence of substance abuse, psychological distress, intimate partner violence, and childhood
The relationships of lung function to physical characteristics in young adults have not been adequately described for different gender-race groups in the United States. s part of a study of the effects of ozone exposure upon Black and White men and women, we measured lung volumes...
. This study focuses on selective feeding by developmental stages of two oceanic copepods, Calanus finmarchicus and Calanus helgolandicus from nauplii to adults. A mixture of four algal species of different biochemical composition, Prorocentrum nanum (dinoflagellate), Thalassiosira minima (diatom), Rhodomonas baltica (cryptophyte) and Dunaliella tertiolecta (chlorophyte), added in an equal biovolume, was used in three different experimental set-ups. In set-up
B. Meyer; X. Irigoien; M. Graeve; R. Head; R. Harris
This 18-month follow-up study builds on the findings of a randomized experimental evaluation that found qualified support for the short-term effectiveness of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) in reducing trauma symptoms among adultfemale survivors of childhood sexual abuse (CSA). The current study provides preliminary evidence that the therapeutic benefits of EMDR for adultfemale survivors of CSA can be maintained over an 18-month period. Furthermore, there is some support for the suggestion that EMDR did so more efficiently and provided a greater sense of trauma resolution than did routine individual therapy. PMID:15353377
Embryoanatomical peculiarities are responsible for low occurrence of inguinal hernias in females. Amongst them, ovarian hernias are rarer. They are commonly noticed in children. An attending surgeon commonly faces diagnostic and operative dilemmas in managing these overtly “simple-looking” clinical scenarios. Although ovarian cysts are one of the common contents of the sac, we report a case of adult incarcerated ovarian hernia who presented with a ruptured hemorrhagic ovarian cyst. This differential should be kept in mind while treating an adultfemale with painful inguinal swelling. As far our knowledge goes, such case with ruptured ovarian cyst presenting as an incarcerated hernia in an emergency scenario has not been reported as yet.
Variation in environmental or genetic quality leads to phenotypic variation in condition, but how much variation in fitness is created by this variation in condition? Using Drosophila melanogaster, we manipulated condition via alternative larval diets and then tested several key factors predicted to influence how much variation in fitness results from differences in condition. Specifically, we were interested in whether male and female fitness are affected equally by condition and whether the strength of selection on condition depends on the abundance of key resources limiting the reproductive output of each sex. We measured selection on condition in alternative assay contexts that varied in the abundance of adult food (a key resource for females) or in the abundance of females (a key resource for males). Overall, selection tended to be stronger on males than females. However, selection on males was weakened when the abundance of their key resource (females) was elevated. Increasing the abundance of the key resource for females (live yeast) elevated their reproductive output as expected but did not change the strength of selection in this sex. Instead, this manipulation increased selection on males, suggesting that this environmental factor indirectly affects selection on males via their interaction with females. PMID:24094338
D’AMATO, F. R.Neurobiological and behavioral aspects of recognition in female mice.PHYSIOL BEHAV 62(6) 1311–1317, 1997.—Female mice were tested for their capability to recognize female littermates in adulthood. Sibling females did not show any of the behavioral indices of recognition reported in the literature for sibling males during a 2-h social interaction. Conversely, adultfemales that experienced 7 days of separation
Literature has documented a positive relationship between prostitution and sexually transmitted diseases. There have been efforts to educate prostitutes regarding sexually transmitted diseases, including AIDS. To determine whether female prostitutes are more knowledgeable about AIDS than female non-prostitute arrestees, a comparison was made of their scores on a standard AIDS knowledge test. Results indicated that self-reported frequency of prostitution was
Tested 36 male, spayed female, and pseudohermaphroditic female dogs in pairs for competition over a large bone. Pseudohermaphrodites had been exposed to testosterone propionate before and immediately after birth. In equal opportunity (EO) tests, both members of a pair had equal chance to seize the bone. Each EO test was followed by an established possession (EP) test. During an EP
BackgroundHuman sexual orientation is influenced by genetic and non-shared environmental factors as are two important psychological correlates – childhood gender typicality (CGT) and adult gender identity (AGI). However, researchers have been unable to resolve the genetic and non-genetic components that contribute to the covariation between these traits, particularly in women.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsHere we performed a multivariate genetic analysis in a large
Andrea Burri; Lynn Cherkas; Timothy Spector; Qazi Rahman
The enzyme 5-reductase (5-R) (EC 1·3·99·5) exists as two isoforms, 5-R type 1 (5-R1) and 5-R type 2 (5-R2). 5-R1 has been associated with catabolic functions whereas 5-R2 has been associated with sexually dimorphic functions of the male. We recently demonstrated that both 5-R isozymes are present in the central nervous system (CNS) of the adult male rat and are
We conducted a study to determine total body water (TBW), fat free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM) in adult Bangladeshi subjects using bioelectrical impedance analysis. A total of 52 subjects were studied, of whom 33 were men and 19 women. The mean TBW in men was 36.9 litre compared to 30.5 litre in women (p<0.001). Similarly, the mean FFM
I. Kabir; M. Khatun; S. Islam; D. Mahalanabis; M. A. Khaled
Female and male adult human phantoms, called FASH (FemaleAdult meSH) and MASH (Male Adult meSH), have been developed in the first part of this study using 3D animation software and anatomical atlases to replace the image-based FAX06 and the MAX06 voxel phantoms. 3D modelling methods allow for phantom development independent from medical images of patients, volunteers or cadavers. The second part of this study investigates the dosimetric implications for organ and tissue equivalent doses due to the anatomical differences between the new and the old phantoms. These differences are mainly caused by the supine position of human bodies during scanning in order to acquire digital images for voxel phantom development. Compared to an upright standing person, in image-based voxel phantoms organs are often coronally shifted towards the head and sometimes the sagittal diameter of the trunk is reduced by a gravitational change of the fat distribution. In addition, volumes of adipose and muscle tissue shielding internal organs are sometimes too small, because adaptation of organ volumes to ICRP-based organ masses often occurs at the expense of general soft tissues, such as adipose, muscle or unspecified soft tissue. These effects have dosimetric consequences, especially for partial body exposure, such as in x-ray diagnosis, but also for whole body external exposure and for internal exposure. Using the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code, internal and external exposure to photons and electrons has been simulated with both pairs of phantoms. The results show differences between organ and tissue equivalent doses for the upright standing FASH/MASH and the image-based supine FAX06/MAX06 phantoms of up to 80% for external exposure and up to 100% for internal exposure. Similar differences were found for external exposure between FASH/MASH and REGINA/REX, the reference voxel phantoms of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Comparison of effective doses for external photon exposure showed good agreement between FASH/MASH and REGINA/REX, but large differences between FASH/MASH and the mesh-based RPI_AM and the RPI_AF phantoms, developed at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI).
Kramer, R.; Cassola, V. F.; Khoury, H. J.; Vieira, J. W.; de Melo Lima, V. J.; Robson Brown, K.
Female and male adult human phantoms, called FASH (FemaleAdult meSH) and MASH (Male Adult meSH), have been developed in the first part of this study using 3D animation software and anatomical atlases to replace the image-based FAX06 and the MAX06 voxel phantoms. 3D modelling methods allow for phantom development independent from medical images of patients, volunteers or cadavers. The second part of this study investigates the dosimetric implications for organ and tissue equivalent doses due to the anatomical differences between the new and the old phantoms. These differences are mainly caused by the supine position of human bodies during scanning in order to acquire digital images for voxel phantom development. Compared to an upright standing person, in image-based voxel phantoms organs are often coronally shifted towards the head and sometimes the sagittal diameter of the trunk is reduced by a gravitational change of the fat distribution. In addition, volumes of adipose and muscle tissue shielding internal organs are sometimes too small, because adaptation of organ volumes to ICRP-based organ masses often occurs at the expense of general soft tissues, such as adipose, muscle or unspecified soft tissue. These effects have dosimetric consequences, especially for partial body exposure, such as in x-ray diagnosis, but also for whole body external exposure and for internal exposure. Using the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code, internal and external exposure to photons and electrons has been simulated with both pairs of phantoms. The results show differences between organ and tissue equivalent doses for the upright standing FASH/MASH and the image-based supine FAX06/MAX06 phantoms of up to 80% for external exposure and up to 100% for internal exposure. Similar differences were found for external exposure between FASH/MASH and REGINA/REX, the reference voxel phantoms of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Comparison of effective doses for external photon exposure showed good agreement between FASH/MASH and REGINA/REX, but large differences between FASH/MASH and the mesh-based RPI_AM and the RPI_AF phantoms, developed at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI). PMID:20009181
Kramer, R; Cassola, V F; Khoury, H J; Vieira, J W; Lima, V J de Melo; Brown, K Robson
Laparotomy continues to be the only method available in India for dealing with female infertility. 45 consecutive cases of laparotomy for infertility were collected from among the new and follow-up patients who attended the Gynecological and Antenatal Clinic of Telco Maternity Hospital, Jamshedpur, India over the January 1977 to April 1979 period. Neither human pituitary gonadotropin nor ergobromocryptine were used in this unit. Only clomiphene citrate was used for treatment of infrequent ovulation. None of the patients had prior laparoscopy. All patients taken for laparotomy had transcervical dye test and transuterine injection of saline to check the tubal patency. All patients had healthy husbands. The proportion of primary and secondary infertility in this series was 62.22% and 37.77%, respectively. The single major indication for laparotomy was bilaterally blocked tubes on hysterosalpingogram which was present in 20 cases. Among other indications infrequent ovulation (with or without bilaterally enlarged ovaries) was present in 10 (22.2%) cases. All the 10 patients had clomiphene citrate in the usual regimen for 3 consecutive cycles in increasing doses up to 150 mg a day but without success. In terms of laparotomy findings, in no case was there any evidence of tuberculosis or pelvic endometriosis (apart from the case who had chocolate cyst). In all the 3 cases where the only abnormality was peritubal adhesions preoperative hysterosalpingograms were normal and in all of them laparotomy was performed as a final method of investigation. Of the 12 cases who showed bilateral cornual block in preoperative hysterosalpingogram, tubal patency tests at laparotomy showed unilateral blockage in 4 and no blockage at all in another 4. Of the 13 cases where no lesion was found, the indication of laparotomy was bilateral cornual block (4 cases) and in 9 cases it was performed simply as a method of investigation. In 10 of the 45 cases, the ovaries appeared to be like those found in Stein Leventhal syndrome. PMID:7430670
Pelvic floor rehabilitation (PFR) is an important and recommended strategy for the treatment of many urogynecological disorders including urinary incontinence (UI). The recognised pioneer of PFR is the American gynecologist Arnold Kegel who, over 50 years ago, proposed pelvic floor muscle exercises (PFME) to prevent and/or treat female UI. Kegel's techniques were successfully used by others too, but as the years passed these techniques sank into unjustified oblivion. In the 1980s in Europe the medical world's interest in PFME techniques gained ground, contemporaneously with functional electrical stimulation (FES) and biofeedback (BFB). As a general rule, the least invasive and least dangerous procedure for the patient should be the first choice, and behavioural and rehabilitative techniques should be considered as the first line of therapy for UI. The behavioural approaches in women with UI and without cognitive deficits are tailored to the patient's underlying problem, such as bladder training or retraining (BR) for urge UI. BR has many variations but generally consists of education, scheduled voiding, and positive reinforcements. The rehabilitative approaches comprise BFB, FES, PFME, and vaginal cones (VC). BFB allows the subject to modify the unconscious physiological events, while FES is aimed at strengthening perineal awareness, increasing the tone and trophism of the pelvic floor, and inhibiting detrusor overactivity. PFME play an extremely important role in the conservative treatment of UI and overactive bladder, and many studies have demonstrated their effectiveness. Many authors have used the different methods for PFR in a heterogeneous manner: the best results were obtained when protocols requiring the contemporary use of 2 or more techniques were followed. PMID:15377984
The fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Metchnikoff) (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) is a natural component of soil flora world-wide and is a causal agent of the green muscardine diseases of insects. The use of this pathogen as a potential biocontrol agent against adultfemales of the blowfly, Lucilia sericata (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) was considered. The blowfly L sericata is an economically important agent of cutaneous myiasis of sheep, particularly in northern Europe. Exposure of flies to suspensions of fungal spores by immersion, topical application or tarsal contact with treated surfaces all resulted in high levels of fatal infection. Spores suspended in silicone oil resulted in higher levels of infection (50-70%) than those formulated in a 0.3 glitre(-1) solution of the detergent Tween 80 (10-20%). Spore concentration had a significant effect on levels of infection of flies, with the highest levels of mortality (64%) resulting from a suspension of 1 x 10(7) conidia ml(-1). The duration of tarsal contact had a significant effect on levels of infection. Mean infection levels of 30% were observed following exposure of free-flying adults to a single spore-treated, 5 x 15 cm2 cloth surface suspended from the roof of a cage (30 cm cube). The implications of the results for the potential use of M anisopliae in the biocontrol of blowflies are discussed. PMID:15260293
Perinatal choline supplementation in rats is neuroprotective against insults such as fetal alcohol exposure, seizures, and advanced age. In the present study we explored whether dietary choline supplementation may also confer protection from psychological challenges, like stress, and act as a natural buffer against stress-linked psychological disorders, like depression. We previously found that choline supplementation increased adult hippocampal neurogenesis, a function compromised by stress, lowered in depression, and boosted by antidepressants; and increased levels of growth factors linked to depression, like brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Together, these were compelling reasons to study the role of choline in depressed mood. To do this, we treated rats with a choline supplemented diet (5 mg/kg choline chloride in AIN76A) prenatally on embryonic days 10-22, on postnatal days (PD) 25-50, or as adults from PD75 onward. Outside of these treatment periods rats were fed a standard diet (1.1 mg/kg choline chloride in AIN76A); control rats consumed only this diet throughout the study. Starting on PD100 rats' anxiety-like responses to an open field, learning in a water maze, and reactivity to forced swimming were assessed. Rats given choline supplementation during pre- or post-natal development, but not adult-treated rats, were less anxious in the open field and less immobile in the forced swim test than control rats. These effects were not mediated by a learning deficit as all groups performed comparably and well in the water maze. Thus, we offer compelling support for the hypothesis that supplemental dietary choline, at least when given during development, may inoculate an individual against stress and major psychological disorders, like depression. PMID:22305146
Perinatal choline supplementation in rats is neuroprotective against insults such as fetal alcohol exposure, seizures, and advanced age. In the present study we explored whether dietary choline supplementation may also confer protection from psychological challenges, like stress, and act as a natural buffer against stress-linked psychological disorders, like depression. We previously found that choline supplementation increased adult hippocampal neurogenesis, a function compromised by stress, lowered in depression, and boosted by antidepressants; and increased levels of growth factors linked to depression, like brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Together, these were compelling reasons to study the role of choline in depressed mood. To do this, we treated rats with a choline supplemented diet (5 mg/kg choline chloride in AIN76A) prenatally on embryonic days 10–22, on postnatal days (PD) 25–50, or as adults from PD75 onward. Outside of these treatment periods rats were fed a standard diet (1.1 mg/kg choline chloride in AIN76A); control rats consumed only this diet throughout the study. Starting on PD100 rats’ anxiety-like responses to an open field, learning in a water maze, and reactivity to forced swimming were assessed. Rats given choline supplementation during pre- or post-natal development, but not adult-treated rats, were less anxious in the open field and less immobile in the forced swim test than control rats. These effects were not mediated by a learning deficit as all groups performed comparably and well in the water maze. Thus, we offer compelling support for the hypothesis that supplemental dietary choline, at least when given during development, may inoculate an individual against stress and major psychological disorders, like depression.
Rather than being a static, species specific trait, reproductive behavior in female amphibians is variable within an individual during the breeding season when females are capable of reproductive activity. Changes in receptivity coincide with changes in circulating estrogen. Estrogen is highest at the point when females are ready to choose a male and lay eggs. At this time female receptivity (her probability of responding to a male vocal signal) is highest and her selectivity among conspecific calls (measured by her probability of responding to a degraded or otherwise usually unattractive male signal) is lowest. These changes occur even though females retain the ability to discriminate different acoustic characteristics of various conspecific calls. After releasing her eggs, female amphibians quickly become less receptive and more choosy in terms of their responses to male sexual advertisement signals. Male vocal signals stimulate both behavior and estrogen changes in amphibian females making mating more probable. The changes in female reproductive behavior are the same as those generally accepted as indicative of a change in female sexual arousal leading to copulation. They are situationally triggered, gated by interactions with males, and decline with the consummation of sexual reproduction with a chosen male. The changes can be triggered by either internal physiological state or by the presence of stimuli presented by males, and the same stimuli change both behavior and physiological (endocrine) state in such a way as to make acceptance of a male more likely. Thus amphibian females demonstrate many of the same general characteristics of changing female sexual state that in mammals indicate sexual arousal.
Oxytocin receptors (OXTR) in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) promote alloparental behavior and partner preference formation in female prairie voles. Within the NAcc there is significant individual variation in OXTR binding and virgin juvenile and adultfemales with a high density of OXTR in the NAcc display an elevated propensity to engage in alloparental behavior toward novel pups. Over-expression of OXTR in the NAcc of adultfemale prairie voles using viral vector gene transfer facilitates partner preference formation, but has no effect on alloparental behavior, even though OXTR antagonists infused into the NAcc blocks both behaviors. We therefore hypothesized that long-term increases in OXTR signaling during development may underlie the relationship between adult OXTR density in the NAcc and alloparental behavior. To test this hypothesis, we used viral vector gene transfer to increase OXTR density in the NAcc of prepubertal, 21 day old female prairie voles and tested for both alloparental behavior and partner preference formation as adults. Consistent with a developmental impact of OXTR signaling, adults over-expressing OXTR from weaning display both increased alloparental behavior and partner preference formation. Thus, the relatively acute impact of elevated OXTR signaling in the NAcc on partner preference formation previously reported appears to be dissociable from the effects of longer term, developmentally relevant OXTR signaling necessary for modulating alloparental behavior. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that oxytocin can have both long-term “organizational” effects as well as acute “activational” effects on affiliative behaviors.
Perinatal taurine depletion followed by high sugar intake (postweaning) alters the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and glucose regulation in adultfemale rats. This study tests the hypothesis that in adultfemale rats, RAS and estrogen contribute to insulin resistance resulting from perinatal taurine imbalance. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed normal rat chow with 3% ?-alanine (taurine depletion, TD), 3% taurine (taurine supplementation, TS), or water alone (control, C) from conception to weaning. Their female offspring were fed normal rat chow with 5% glucose in water (TDG, TSG, CG) or water alone (TDW, TSW, CW) throughout the experiment. At 7-8 weeks of age, animals were studied with or without captopril inhibition of the RAS and with or without estrogen receptor inhibition by tamoxifen. Compared to CW and CG groups, perinatal taurine depletion but not supplementation slightly increased plasma insulin levels. High sugar intake slightly increased plasma insulin only in TSG. Captopril treatment significantly increased plasma insulin in all groups except CG (the greatest increase was in TDG). Changes in insulin resistance and insulin secretion paralleled the changes in plasma insulin levels. In contrast, tamoxifen treatment increased insulin resistance and decreased insulin secretion only in TDG and this group displayed hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance. These data indicate that perinatal taurine imbalance alters the interplay of RAS and estrogen on glucose-insulin regulation in adultfemale rats. PMID:23392872
To determine whether prenatal T propionate exposure beginning gestational d 40-44 (early-treated) or 100-115 (late-treated) affects oocyte competence, five early-treated and five late-treated prenatally androgenized and five normal monkeys underwent recombinant human FSH injections with oocyte-retrieval after hCG administration. Serum FSH, LH, estradiol (E(2)), progesterone (P(4)), androstenedione (A(4)), T, and dihydrotestosterone were measured basally, during gonadotropin stimulation and at oocyte-retrieval; fasting serum glucose and insulin also were determined basally and at oocyte-retrieval. Follicle fluid sex steroids were analyzed. Oocyte number, nuclear maturity, and fertilization were comparable among female groups, but the percentage of zygotes developing into blastocysts was reduced in early-treated prenatally androgenized females. The intrafollicular P(4)/E(2) ratio was significantly elevated in early-treated prenatally androgenized females, whereas intrafollicular P(4)/A(4) and T/A(4) ratios were significantly increased in all prenatally androgenized females. Early-treated prenatally androgenized females demonstrated persistent LH hypersecretion. They also were unable to suppress circulating insulin levels during gonadotropin stimulation. Circulating sex steroid levels and serum P(4)/E(2), P(4)/A(4), and E(2)/androgen ratios were similar in all females. Early prenatal androgenization in monkeys receiving gonadotropins impairs oocyte developmental competence and seems to induce premature follicle differentiation in the presence of LH hypersecretion and relative insulin excess. PMID:11889174
Dumesic, Daniel A; Schramm, R Dee; Peterson, Eric; Paprocki, Ann Marie; Zhou, Rao; Abbott, David H
The current study examined the incremental validity of self-reported premenstrual distress in predicting panic responsivity (self-reported panic symptoms and skin conductance response frequency; SCR) following inhalation of 10% CO2-enriched air. A community sample of young adult women (n = 46) completed questionnaires assessing substance use patterns, premenstrual symptoms and distress, and anxiety sensitivity and underwent a laboratory biological challenge procedure (4-min 10% CO2-enriched air inhalation). As hypothesized, higher premenstrual distress scores significantly predicted greater self-reported panic symptoms following the CO2 challenge above and beyond other theoretically relevant variables (anxiety sensitivity, cigarette use, and alcohol consumption). In predicting SCR, premenstrual distress exhibited only a trend towards statistical significance. These findings provide preliminary evidence that premenstrual symptoms may serve as a potential risk factor to experience more intense panic symptoms in response to perturbations in bodily sensations.
Nillni, Yael I.; Rohan, Kelly J.; Bernstein, Amit; Zvolensky, Michael J.
The current study examined the incremental validity of self-reported premenstrual distress in predicting panic responsivity (self-reported panic symptoms and skin conductance response frequency; SCR) following inhalation of 10% CO(2)-enriched air. A community sample of young adult women (n=46) completed questionnaires assessing substance use patterns, premenstrual symptoms and distress, and anxiety sensitivity and underwent a laboratory biological challenge procedure (4-min 10% CO(2)-enriched air inhalation). As hypothesized, higher premenstrual distress scores significantly predicted greater self-reported panic symptoms following the CO(2) challenge above and beyond other theoretically relevant variables (anxiety sensitivity, cigarette use, and alcohol consumption). In predicting SCR, premenstrual distress exhibited only a trend towards statistical significance. These findings provide preliminary evidence that premenstrual symptoms may serve as a potential risk factor to experience more intense panic symptoms in response to perturbations in bodily sensations. PMID:20226625
Nillni, Yael I; Rohan, Kelly J; Bernstein, Amit; Zvolensky, Michael J
Young women pursue educational and occupational careers in computer-related fields less frequently than do young men. One approach to increasing female enrollment and interest in computer science is to give female students at the high school level the opt
This paper is a recognition and exploration of alternative accounts of female political leadership in India, other than dynastic succession. It explores the varied paths to power which female political leaders in India have followed in the past two decades within the changing institutional environment of electoral politics. The paper argues that gender is an important factor of the path
|This book emphasizes female adolescents' healthy development within a psychoanalytic frame of reference for what is normative, that also indicates the boundaries of and transitions to what is deviant. The book's 12 articles relate to 3 general topics. The two articles in part 1 of the book, which addresses biological issues, are "Female Pubertal…
In order to examine the role-modeling patterns of female athletes, 94 high school and 71 college basketball players were surveyed regarding (a) which player they most emulated, (b) perceptions regarding male vs. female coaches as role models, and (c) preferred gender of coach. High school subjects showed a greater tendency to emulate another player, and the significant majority of player
Recent studies suggest that the prevalence of smoking among active duty military women is higher than that of active duty military men or civilians of either gender. No data have been published on cessation rates among female veterans. We wanted to report such rates in a group of female veterans at Pettis VAMC Preventive Medicine Clinic and to study predictive
Codes and ratings for female genital mutilations, virginity tests, premarital sex norms, and female initiation rites are presented for the 115 cultural clusters on the continent of Africa. Documenting the prevalence of these characteristics within clusters comprising sampling provinces is crucial for research on the pattern of variability both in Africa and in the world. In addition to the 11
|A review is made of female intimate abuse. It is concluded that females are as abusive as males in intimate relationships according to survey and epidemiological studies. This is especially so for younger "cohort" community samples followed longitudinally. Predictors of intimate violence with women appear to be similar to those of men; including…
Dutton, Donald G.; Nicholls, Tonia L.; Spidel, Alicia
OBJECTIVES: The main purpose of this study is to compare sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevalence in cohorts of women with and without access to female condoms.METHODS: Six matched pairs of communities were identified from Kenya tea, coffee and flower plantations. One community within each pair was randomly selected to receive the female condom intervention. Approximately 160 eligible women were enrolled
Paul J Feldblum; Job J Bwayo; Maureen Kuyoh; Michael Welsh; Kelley A Ryan; Mario Chen-Mok
A review is made of female intimate abuse. It is concluded that females are as abusive as males in intimate relationships according to survey and epidemiological studies. This is especially so for younger "cohort" community samples followed longitudinally. Predictors of intimate violence with women appear to be similar to those of men; including…
Dutton, Donald G.; Nicholls, Tonia L.; Spidel, Alicia
Background: The aim was to document the spectrum of present and lifetime psychological disorders in female juvenile offenders, and to examine the relations between mental health status and socio- demographic, family and trauma variables. Method: One hundred juvenile offenders were matched with a comparison group of 100 females on age and socioeconomic status (SES). Psychological profiles and trauma histories of
The effect of intranasal spray of norethisterone (NET) and progesterone (P) on serum testosterone (T) and total sperm count in adult male bonnet monkeys and the effect of NET spray on the menstrual cycle in female monkeys has been studied. Whereas NET spray resulted in a drastic decrease in serum T levels and sperm count, P spray caused a decrease in total sperm count only. Intranasal spray of NET in adult cycling female monkeys between days 5 and 14 resulted in shortening of the menstrual cycle; this could be ascribed to a decrease in serum follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, 17 beta-estradiol, and P levels. Nasal spray of only solvent in male or female monkeys, however, had no effect on any of the parameters tested. PMID:4007187
Moudgal, R N; Jagannadha Rao, A; Murthy, G S; Neelakanta, R; Banavar, S R; Kotagi, S G; Anand Kumar, T C
Due to cultural and religious reasons, Pakistani women can be reluctant to seek medical attention for disorders affecting their genitals or breasts. As a result, in the case of cervical and breast cancers, oncological treatment is often not received until the diseases are in the late stages. Once a cancer is classified and the tumor marked, the role of the medical physicist begins. Medical physicists' responsibilities include treatment planning, supervising treatment through radiation, dosimetry, contouring, training, equipment selection, education, research, and supervising radiotherapy facilities. In brachytherapy, isotopes are placed at the tumor site in the form of wires or seeds. There are very few female medical physicists in Pakistan. This leads to further hesitation on the part of many women to seek treatment. To help female patients obtain needed medical care, female physics students should be encouraged to pursue the emerging field of medical physics. This would provide a new professional opportunity for female physics students and give comfort to female patients.
Naqvi, Syed Mansoor [Department of Radiology, Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi (Pakistan); Hasnain, Aziz Fatima [Center for Physics Education, Karachi (Pakistan)
The condition characterized by elevated gonadotrophins (gonadotropins elevated into the menopausal range), low sex steroids, and menstrual disorders was previously termed Premature Ovarian Failure (POF). However, over the last two years an effort has been made by many authors to have the term Primary Ovarian Insufficiency (POI) exclusively applied. Irrespective of the term, the condition concerns adolescent and young adult women under 40 years who experience cessation of menstruation for more than 3 cycles (whereas these women in the past had a rhythmic menstrual cycle) or amenorrhea for 4-6 months against the background of a previously disturbed menstrual cycle. Determining the cause of POI is difficult, and it is even harder to deal with problems arising from the paucity of estrogen as well as to draw up the plan for long-term monitoring of these patients. This paper presents long-term therapeutic management strategies concerning emotional health, hormone replacement therapy, maintenance of bone health, family planning, other associated disorders as well as possible research options for the future. PMID:22190931
Ten adultfemale mink (Mustela vison) were studied in a 7 d balance experiment consisting of a 2 d pre-surgery feeding period, followed by surgery, 1 d of recovery 4 d of ad libitum feeding, and a 2 d fasting period. In this experiment (Expt A) the animals had osmotic pumps implanted for continuous release of radioactively-labelled p-aminohippuric acid (p-aminobenzoyl-2-[3H]glycine; [3H]PAH; n 10) and 14C-labelled inulin ([14C]IN; n 5). Repeated 24 h collections of urine, corrected to 100% [3H]PAH or [14C]IN recovery, were used for accurate determination of N balances, 24 h urinary excretion of urea, creatinine, and total N, and calculation of mean 24 h renal clearance rates for endogenous creatinine and inulin. N balances were slightly below zero, but not significantly different between feeding and fasting periods, indicating that correction to 100% [3H]PAH recovery resulted in slight overestimation of the final balances. During fasting, withdrawal of the dietary water and protein loads resulted in a dramatic decline in 24 h urinary volume, and urea and creatinine excretion. Large individual variations in 24 h urinary creatinine excretion (with relative variation coefficients up to 30%) confirmed that this is an unreliable index of the completeness of urine collection. In this respect, recovery rates of [3H]PAH proved far more consistent. Renal clearance values obtained in fed mink were in fair agreement with published data from cats, dogs and ferrets (Mustela putorius furo). Inulin clearance was about 30% higher than endogenous creatinine clearance, although its decline in response to fasting was not significant. In a separate study (Expt B) another ten female mink were equipped with osmotic pumps containing [3H]PAH for determination of 24 h excretion rates of purine derivatives. During feeding, allantoin accounted for more than 97% of the excretion of purine derivatives in urine, uric acid making up less than 2.5%, xanthine and hypoxanthine less than 1%. In fasted animals, urinary excretion of each of these purine derivatives declined to less than 50% of the feeding value. In conclusion, an experimental technique is presented for efficient and accurate measurements of daily urinary excretion of nitrogenous constituents, which allows for correct determination of N balances in adult mink and, presumably, in other mammalian species. PMID:9292762
Perinatal exposures to endocrine-disrupting chemicals such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) can cause latent effects on reproductive function. Here, we tested whether PCBs administered during late pregnancy would compromise reproductive physiology in both the fetally-exposed female offspring (F1 generation), as well as in their female offspring (F2 generation). Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with the PCB mixture Aroclor (A) 1221 (0, 0.1, 1 or 10 mg/kg) on embryonic days 16 and 18. Somatic and reproductive development of F1 and their F2 female offspring were monitored, including ages of eye opening, pubertal landmarks, and serum reproductive hormones. The results showed that low doses of A1221 given during this critical period of neuroendocrine development caused differential effects of A1221 on F1 and F2 female rats. In both generations, litter sex ratio was skewed towards females. In the F1 generation, additional effects were found including a significant alteration of serum luteinizing hormone (LH) in the 1 mg/kg A1221 group. The F2 generation showed more profound alterations, particularly with respect to fluctuations in hormones and reproductive tract tissues across the estrous cycle. On proestrus, the day of the preovulatory GnRH/gonadotropin surge, F2 females whose mothers had been perinatally exposed to A1221 exhibited substantially suppressed LH and progesterone concentrations, and correspondingly smaller uterine and ovarian weights on estrus, compared to F2 decendants of control rats. These latter changes suggest a dysregulation of reproductive physiology. Thus, low levels of exposure to PCBs during late fetal development cause significant consequences on the maturation and physiology of two generations of female offspring. These findings have implications for reproductive health and fertility of wildlife and humans.
Steinberg, Rebecca M.; Walker, Deena M.; Juenger, Thomas E.; Woller, Michael J.; Gore, Andrea C.
In this paper, the electric field distribution of the human body with the wearable device using the human body as a transmission channel was discussed. For the calculation, the realistic high resolution whole-body model of Japanese adult male and female with average height and weight is used. As a result, most part of the electric field is concentrated around the
Drosophila C virus, a picornavirus that has some influence on ovarian mor- phogenesis, was discovered in a French strain of Drosophila melanogaster. When the strain was infected by Drosophila C virus (DCV), the mean number of ovarian tubes and weights of the adultfemales increased, but the develop- mental time from egg to imago decreased. The maternal effects observed when
This manuscript focuses on four potential stumbling blocks in the multicultural feminist couple treatment of African-American, same-gender loving femaleadult child sexual abuse survivors: (1) gender roles; (2) “coming out to self”, family, and the community; (3) lesbian couple relationships; and (4) the expression of lesbian sexuality. These four potential barriers to therapeutic outcome within the context of multicultural feminist
Carlton W. Parks; Rhona Nicole Cutts; Kamilah M. Woodson; Laurie Flarity-white
The functional significance of allometric change in reptiles has received limited attention and the reason for such changes has been regarded as ‘obscure’. In this paper we report data on the Australian Pogona barbata, the eastern bearded dragon, from across their range and review changes in allometric growth among juveniles, and adult males and females and consider the functional relevance
|This 18-month follow-up study builds on the findings of a randomized experimental evaluation that found qualified support for the short-term effectiveness of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) in reducing trauma symptoms among adultfemale survivors of childhood sexual abuse (CSA). The current study provides preliminary evidence…
This 18-month follow-up study builds on the findings of a randomized experimental evaluation that found qualified support for the short-term effectiveness of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) in reducing trauma symptoms among adultfemale survivors of childhood sexual abuse (CSA). The current study provides preliminary evidence…
The administration of the herbicide 2,4-Dichlorophenyl-p-nitrophenyl ether (nitrofen; NIT) to adultfemale mice by i.p. injection at doses of 500 and 1000 mg/kg/day for 3 days, reduced serum thyroxine (T4) levels. T4 levels were reduced in the high-dosage group by 60% of the cont...
Marijuana consumption during adolescence has been proposed to be a stepping-stone for adult cocaine addiction. However, experimental evidence for this hypothesis is missing. In this work we chronically injected male and female Wistar rats with either the cannabinoid agonist CP 55,940 (CP; 0.4 mg\\/kg) or its corresponding vehicle. Adult acquisition (seven 30 min daily sessions) and maintenance (fourteen 2 h
Alejandro Higuera-Matas; María Luisa Soto-Montenegro; Nuria del Olmo; Miguel Miguéns; Isabel Torres; Juan José Vaquero; Javier Sánchez; Carmen García-Lecumberri; Manuel Desco; Emilio Ambrosio
Phthalates are widely used as plasticizers in everyday products. Yet, studies on the effects of phthalates on female reproductive health are limited. In this study, pregnant C57/Bl6 mice were exposed via oral gavage to corn oil, 100, 500, or 1000mg/kg MEHP from gestational days 17-19. Reproductive lifespan was decreased by one month in the highest F1 exposure group (9.8±0.4 versus 11.1±0.6 months in control F1 females). F1 females exhibited delayed estrous onset at the two higher exposures and prolonged estrus was observed in all MEHP-exposed females. Serum FSH and estradiol were significantly elevated at the highest exposure and altered mRNA expression was found for the steroidogenic genes LHCGR, aromatase, and StAR. At one year of age, mammary gland hyperplasia was observed in high dose MEHP-exposed females. In summary, late gestational exposure to MEHP leads to multiple latent reproductive effects throughout murine life resulting in premature ovarian senescence and mammary hyperplasia. PMID:22401849
Phthalates are widely used as plasticizers in everyday products. Yet, studies on the effects of phthalates on female reproductive health are limited. In this study, pregnant C57/Bl6 mice were exposed via oral gavage to corn oil, 100, 500, or 1000mg/kg MEHP from gestational days 17–19. Reproductive lifespan was decreased by one month in the highest F1 exposure group (9.8±0.4 versus 11.1±0.6 months in control F1 females). F1 females exhibited delayed estrous onset at the two higher exposures and prolonged estrus was observed in all MEHP-exposed females. Serum FSH and estradiol were significantly elevated at the highest exposure and altered mRNA expression was found for the steroidogenic genes LHCGR, aromatase, and StAR. At one year of age, mammary gland hyperplasia was observed in high dose MEHP-exposed females. In summary, late gestational exposure to MEHP leads to multiple latent reproductive effects throughout murine life resulting in premature ovarian senescence and mammary hyperplasia.
Data set and map pertaining to labor force participation rates for women in all countries. The World Bank specifies female labor force participation as a World Development Indicator (WDI) -- the statistical benchmark that helps measure the progress of development.
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a debilitating psychiatric mood disorder that affects millions of individuals globally. Our understanding of the biological basis of MDD is poor, and current treatments are ineffective in a significant proportion of cases. This current situation may relate to the dominant rodent animal models of depression, which possess translational limitations due to limited homologies with humans. Therefore, a more homologous primate model of depression is needed to advance investigation into the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying depression and to conduct pre-clinical therapeutic trials. Here, we report two convenient methods – social isolation and social plus visual isolation – which can be applied to construct a non-human primate model of depression in the adultfemale cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis). Both social and social plus visual isolation were shown to be effective in inducing depression-like behavior by significantly reducing socially dominant aggressive conflict behavior, communicative behavior, sexual behavior, and parental behavior. The addition of visual isolation produced more profound behavioral changes than social isolation alone by further reducing parental behavior and sexual behavior. Thus, the degree of behavioral pathology may be manipulated by the degree of isolation. These methods can be applied to construct a non-human primate model of depression in order to assess physiological, behavioral, and social phenomena in a controlled laboratory setting.
Outcome expectancy is a central construct in models of addiction. Several outcome expectancies associated with smoking cigarettes have been identified, and studies suggest that individual differences in smoking expectancies are related to important aspects of tobacco use, including levels of smoking, nicotine dependence and smoking cessation. In the present study, we used a novel analytic method, exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM), to quantify smoking expectancies from a subset of items adapted from the Smoking Consequences Questionnaire (SCQ; Brandon and Baker, 1991) and SCQ-Adult (Copeland et al., 1995). In our sample of 1262 monozygotic and dizygotic young adult, female twins who were regular smokers, we quantified six smoking expectancy factors similar to those reported in previous studies. These included Negative Affect Reduction, Boredom Reduction, Weight Control, Taste Manipulation, Craving/Addiction and Stimulation-state Enhancement. We used genetic model-fitting to examine the extent to which individual differences in the expectancies were influenced by latent genetic, shared environmental and non-shared environmental factors. We also examined the validity of the expectancy factors by examining their associations with nicotine dependence (ND) before and after adjusting for comorbid diagnoses of drug dependence and alcohol use disorder. Results of the validity analysis indicated that all of the expectancies were associated with ND after covariate adjustment. Although we lacked the statistical power to distinguish between genetic and shared environmental sources of variance, our results suggest that smoking outcome expectancies aggregate in families, but the majority of variance in these expectancies is due to environmental factors specific to the individual. PMID:21194853
Kristjansson, Sean D; Pergadia, Michele L; Agrawal, Arpana; Lessov-Schlaggar, Christina N; McCarthy, Denis M; Piasecki, Thomas M; Duncan, Alexis E; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Madden, Pamela A F; Sher, Kenneth J; Heath, Andrew C
The ancient figure of Baubo plays a pivotal role in the Greek myth of Demeter and Persephone with an exhibitionistic act that brings Demeter out of her depression. The Baubo episode raises questions about the meaning of female exhibitionism, suggesting divergences from earlier psychoanalytic conceptualizations as either a perversion or a compensation for the lack of a penis. In line with contemporary thinking about primary femininity, such as that of Balsam or Elise, the authors propose a more inclusive understanding of female exhibitionism, which would encompass pleasure in the female body and its sexual and reproductive functions. They argue that female exhibitionism can reflect triangular or "oedipal" scenarios and the need to attract the male, identification with the mother, competition or camaraderie with other women, a sense of power in the female body and its capacities, as well as homoerotic impulses. The authors posit a dual early desire and identification with the mother that underlie and characterize female sexual development. The authors present clinical data from adolescent and adult cases of female exhibitionism which illustrate these Baubo-like aspects and discuss the technical issues that are involved in such cases. PMID:22471632
Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) as an environmental endocrine disruptor is a known reproductive toxicant and carcinogen. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the female reproductive toxicity of DEHP. Sixty ICR female mice were randomized into four groups dosed with 0, 125, 500, or 2 000 mg/kg DEHP by gavage for 16 weeks, 6 days/week. DEHP treatment prolonged duration of the estrous cycle in mice at 500 and 2000 mg/kg DEHP, but no significant effects on estrus phase of the cycle in each group were detected. Exposure to DEHP inhibited secretion of serum progesterone. DEHP arrested granulosa cells at G(0)/G(1) phases and increased proportion of apoptosis cells at 500 and 2000 mg/kg DEHP. There was no significant difference in P450arom mRNA expression among groups. Results demonstrate that DEHP can produce toxicity in female reproductive system. PMID:22986106
The last three decades have witnessed a tremendous increase in female sports participation at all levels. However, increased sports participation of female athletes has also increased the incidence of sport-related injuries, which can be either acute trauma or overuse injuries. Overuse injuries may be defined as an imbalance caused by overly intensive training and inadequate recovery, which subsequently leads to a breakdown in tissue reparative mechanisms. This article will review the most frequent overuse injuries in female athletes in the context of anatomical, physiological, and psychological differences between genders.
Ivkovic, Alan; Franic, Miljenko; Bojanic, Ivan; Pecina, Marko
The issue of female circumcision takes on special significance as more women migrate to the United States from countries where the practice has religious and traditional underpinnings. Female circumcision is a problem unfamiliar to most Western health care practitioners. This article describes an ethnographic study of the types of female circumcision, the reasons for and against the practice, the health implications of this practice, and cultural attitudes of circumcised women both in Western Africa and as migrant refugees living in the United States. Ethical dilemmas in dealing with this practice and implications for nurses and health care providers are discussed. PMID:8939287
There has been a tremendous increase in the number of female runners of all ages and abilities in the past 35 years. Women who participate in running and sports are generally healthier and have higher self-esteem. However, unique medical and orthopedic issues exist for the female runner. This article reviews the history of women in sports, physiologic and biomechanic differences between genders, the pregnant runner, knee osteoarthritis, an update on the female athlete triad and the relationship between amenorrhea and endothelial dysfunction associated with athletics. PMID:20610034
Introduction Cigarette smoking has a negative effect on body reserve of antioxidants and cholesterol metabolism. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), a potent antioxidant synthesized as part of the cholesterol pathway, is a potential biomarker for systemic oxidative stress. We aimed to investigate gender variation in plasma lipid profile and CoQ10 concentrations in healthy non-smokers and in smokers. Material and methods The study included 55 cigarette smokers (25 females and 30 males) and 51 non-smokers (25 females and 26 males) with the age range from 21 to 45 years, and who had no history of alcohol abuse or chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus or obesity. Coenzyme Q10 plasma concentrations were measured by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet detection. Fasting plasma glucose and lipid levels were determined by standard colorimetric methods. Results Our results showed that CoQ10 concentrations were significantly decreased in smokers, especially in females, than their non-smoker counterparts. Female smokers also exhibited a significant decrease in plasma concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), HDL-C, LDL-C, and atherogenic ratios HDL-C/TC and CoQ10/LDL-C than male counterparts. Plasma triglyceride concentrations were increased in smokers irrespective of gender. Plasma CoQ10 was relatively more associated with TC and LDL-C in female smokers than male smokers. Conclusions The adverse effects of smoking on body reserve of antioxidants and cholesterol metabolism are greater in females than in males, partially as a result of decreased CoQ10 plasma concentrations, HDL-C and total-cholesterol and abnormal atherogenicity indices.
Sex steroids play major roles in vertebrate sexual differentiation. Unexpectedly, we now find that exposure to elevated levels of the naturally occurring stress hormone cortisol can also masculinize sexually dimorphic morphological characters and behaviour in adultfemale mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) in a dose-dependent manner. Females masculinized by cortisol developed elongated anal fins with distal tip features similar to those of mature males. Most masculinized females also attempted to copulate when placed with normal females. Although the mechanism of masculinization is currently unknown, we propose a role for an enzyme that both inactivates cortisol and catalyzes the final step in synthesis of a major teleost androgen. This mechanism may also help explain some previously reported effects of stress on sexual development across vertebrate taxa. Our findings underscore the need to understand the full range of chemicals, both naturally occurring hormones and human-produced endocrine disruptors, that can influence sexual differentiation and reproductive function.
Knapp, Rosemary; Marsh-Matthews, Edie; Vo, Luanne; Rosencrans, Sarah
Sex steroids play major roles in vertebrate sexual differentiation. Unexpectedly, we now find that exposure to elevated levels of the naturally occurring stress hormone cortisol can also masculinize sexually dimorphic morphological characters and behaviour in adultfemale mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) in a dose-dependent manner. Females masculinized by cortisol developed elongated anal fins with distal tip features similar to those of mature males. Most masculinized females also attempted to copulate when placed with normal females. Although the mechanism of masculinization is currently unknown, we propose a role for an enzyme that both inactivates cortisol and catalyzes the final step in synthesis of a major teleost androgen. This mechanism may also help explain some previously reported effects of stress on sexual development across vertebrate taxa. Our findings underscore the need to understand the full range of chemicals, both naturally occurring hormones and human-produced endocrine disruptors, that can influence sexual differentiation and reproductive function. PMID:20659923
Knapp, Rosemary; Marsh-Matthews, Edie; Vo, Luanne; Rosencrans, Sarah
|The paper describes a study of 168 college women to determine the extent to which preoccupation with weight and tendencies toward eating disorders are problems among female athletes. Results are presented. (Author/MT)|
Brief case descriptions from journalists are presented to illustrate the role of traumatic experiences, the sense of being a burden to their families, and shame and humiliation in female suicide bombers. PMID:20402439
Our previous studies repeatedly demonstrated that prenatal methamphetamine (MA) exposure alters seizure susceptibility in adult rats. Both the inhibitory GABA system and the excitatory NMDA system play a role in the effect of MA on epileptic seizures. On the basis of our previous behavioral results, the effect of cross-fostering on seizure susceptibility in adultfemale rats was examined in the present study. Bicuculline (GABA(A) receptor antagonist) and NMDA (NMDA receptor agonist) were used to induce seizures in adultfemale offspring exposed to MA in the prenatal and/or preweaning periods. Female dams were injected with MA (5mg/kg daily) or physiological saline (S) for approximately 9 weeks [about 3 weeks prior to impregnation, for the entire gestation period (22 days), and in the preweaning period (21 days)]. Absolute controls (C) did not receive any injections. On postnatal day 1, pups were cross-fostered so that each mother received pups from all three treatments. Thus, nine groups (based on the prenatal and postnatal drug exposures) of adultfemale rats were tested in each seizure test: C/C, C/S, C/MA, S/C, S/S, S/MA, MA/C, MA/S, MA/MA. The present study demonstrated that both the excitatory NMDA system and the inhibitory GABA system are involved in the proconvulsive effect of MA during prenatal and partially also postnatal development in female rats. However, because our results did not show any improvement in seizure susceptibility in prenatally MA-exposed animals that were fostered by control mothers (MA/C) relative to their siblings fostered by MA-treated mothers (MA/MA), our hypothesis of the cross-fostering effect seems to be incorrect in contrast to our behavioral studies. PMID:21067979
Slamberová, R; Hrubá, L; Mat?jovská, I; Bernášková, K; Rokyta, R
This study examines women's social representations of female orgasm. Fifty semi-structured interviews were conducted with British women. The data were thematically analysed and compared with the content of female orgasm-related writing in two women's magazines over a 30-year period. The results indicate that orgasm is deemed the goal of sex with emphasis on its physiological dimension. However, the women and
Introduction: Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is a significant age-related, progressive and highly prevalent problem that affects a substantial number of women that causes personal distress and has negative effects on quality of life and interpersonal relationships. Definitions: The female sexual response cycle consists of three phases: desire, arousal, and orgasm, and is initiated by non-adrenergic\\/non-cholinergic, e.g. vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and
Does the posture of a patient have an effect on the organ and tissue absorbed doses caused by x-ray examinations? This study aims to find the answer to this question, based on Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of commonly performed x-ray examinations using adult phantoms modelled to represent humans in standing as well as in the supine posture. The recently published FASH (femaleadult mesh) and MASH (male adult mesh) phantoms have the standing posture. In a first step, both phantoms were updated with respect to their anatomy: glandular tissue was separated from adipose tissue in the breasts, visceral fat was separated from subcutaneous fat, cartilage was segmented in ears, nose and around the thyroid, and the mass of the right lung is now 15% greater than the left lung. The updated versions are called FASH2_sta and MASH2_sta (sta = standing). Taking into account the gravitational effects on organ position and fat distribution, supine versions of the FASH2 and the MASH2 phantoms have been developed in this study and called FASH2_sup and MASH2_sup. MC simulations of external whole-body exposure to monoenergetic photons and partial-body exposure to x-rays have been made with the standing and supine FASH2 and MASH2 phantoms. For external whole-body exposure for AP and PA projection with photon energies above 30 keV, the effective dose did not change by more than 5% when the posture changed from standing to supine or vice versa. Apart from that, the supine posture is quite rare in occupational radiation protection from whole-body exposure. However, in the x-ray diagnosis supine posture is frequently used for patients submitted to examinations. Changes of organ absorbed doses up to 60% were found for simulations of chest and abdomen radiographs if the posture changed from standing to supine or vice versa. A further increase of differences between posture-specific organ and tissue absorbed doses with increasing whole-body mass is to be expected.
Cassola, V. F.; Kramer, R.; Brayner, C.; Khoury, H. J.
In general, the behavioral and neural effects of estradiol administration to males and females differ. While much attention has been paid to the potential structural, cellular and sub-cellular mechanisms that may underlie such differences, as of yet there has been no examination of whether the differences observed may be related to differential uptake or storage of estradiol within the brain
Females and males are different in brain and behaviors. These differences are mediated by steroids and their nuclear receptors which require coactivators to regulate the transcription of target genes. Studies have shown that these coactivators are critical for modulating steroid hormone action in the brain. Steroid receptor coactivator-1 has been implied in the regulation of reproduction, stress, motor learning, and
Summary 1. How and when resources are allocated to reproduction is expected to differ between the sexes, potentially generating differences in how males and females age. For this reason, acquisition of resources should be an important determinant of both age-dependent reproductive effort and of deteriorative ageing (i.e. senescence). 2. We used black field crickets, Teleogryllus commodus , to test whether
Felix Zajitschek; John Hunt; Michael D. Jennions; Matthew D. Hall; Robert C. Brooks
The pubertal surge in gonadal hormones that occurs during adolescence may impact the long-term effects of early alcohol exposure and sex differences in drinking behavior in adulthood. We investigated this hypothesis by performing sham or gonadectomy surgeries in Long Evans rats around postnatal day (P) 20. From P35–45, males and females were given saline or 3.0 g/kg ethanol using a binge-like model of exposure (8 injections total). As adults (P100), they were trained to self-administer ethanol via a sucrose-fading procedure and then given access to different unsweetened concentrations (5–20% w/v) for 5 days/concentration. We found that during adolescence, ethanol-induced intoxication was similar in males and females that underwent sham surgery. In gonadectomized males and females, however, the level of intoxication was greater following the last injection compared to the first. During adulthood, females drank more sucrose per body weight than males and binge-like exposure to ethanol reduced sucrose consumption in both sexes. These effects were not seen in gonadectomized rats. Ethanol consumption was higher in saline-exposed females compared to males, with gonadectomy reversing this sex difference by increasing consumption in males and decreasing it in females. Exposure to ethanol during adolescence augmented ethanol consumption in both sexes, but this effect was statistically significant only in gonadectomized females. Together, these results support a role for gonadal hormones during puberty in the short- and long-term effects of ethanol on behavior and in the development of sex differences in consummatory behavior during adulthood.
Sherrill, Luke K.; Koss, Wendy A.; Foreman, Emily S.; Gulley, Joshua M.
Self-rated degree of femininity and masculinity across development were evaluated for 40 adults affected by 46,XY disorders of sex development (DSDs) who presented at birth with a small phallus and perineoscrotal hypospadias, raised either male (n = 22) or female (n = 18). Most participants were confirmed or presumed to be affected by partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (n = 14), partial gonadal dysgenesis (n = 11), or were considered to have a poorly defined case of 46,XY DSD including ambiguous external genitalia (n = 15). Participants retrospectively evaluated their degree of masculinity and femininity during their childhood, adolescence, adulthood, and in the past 12 months of filling out a questionnaire pertaining to their psychosexual development. Participants raised male reported more masculinity than those raised female due to an increase in masculinization during adolescence and adulthood. Participants raised male also reported less femininity than those raised female throughout development. Participants raised female reported more femininity than those raised male due to an increase in feminization during adolescence and adulthood. Participants raised female also reported less masculinity than those raised male throughout development. These data support the proposition that some aspects of gender role (GR), such as masculinity and femininity, are capable of proceeding along female- or male-typic patterns depending on sex of rearing among individuals affected by specific types of 46,XY DSD. Furthermore, regardless of male or female rearing, GR increasingly corresponds with assigned sex as individuals proceed through sexual maturity and into adulthood. These results are consistent with the idea that socialization/learning contributes to GR development in humans in addition to data from others demonstrating endocrine influences. PMID:18780596
Pappas, Kara B; Wisniewski, Amy B; Migeon, Claude J
Female midwife toads (genus Alytes) emit highly variable reciprocal calls of unclear function prior to and during courtship. In some species, female-female competition, expressed as physical fighting, has been reported. Males of Majorcan midwife toads (Alytes muletensis) show phonotactic response to female calls, and females of Iberian midwife toads (Alytes cisternasii) respond differently according to the male call characteristics. In this study, I test the hypothesis of female-female acoustic competition as an additional function of female reciprocal calls. Playback tests indicate that female calls are not clearly involved in female acoustic competition in the Iberian midwife toad, therefore female calls could be directed at males rather than towards competitive females.
Summary The purpose of this study was to investigate variation in female cowbird (Molothrus ater) sociality. We studied four captive flocks of brown-headed cowbirds, two composed of adultfemales and juvenile males and two composed of juvenile females and juvenile males. From September through December, we documented sociality using affiliation measures. From the outset, we found large age differences: juvenile
S. Grace Freed-Brown; Andrew P. King; Jennifer L. Miller; Meredith J. West
Choline availability in the maternal diet has a lasting effect on brain and behavior of the offspring. To further delineate the impact of early nutritional status, we examined effects of prenatal-choline supplementation on timing, emotion, and memory performance of adult male and female rats. Rats that were given sufficient choline (CON: 1.1 g/kg) or supplemental choline (SUP: 5.0 g/kg) during embryonic days (ED) 12–17 were trained with a differential reinforcement of low-rate (DRL) schedule that was gradually transitioned through 5-, 10-, 18-, 36-, and 72-sec criterion times. We observed that SUP-females emitted more reinforced responses than CON-females, which were more efficient than both groups of males. In addition, SUP-males and SUP-females exhibited a reduction in burst responding (response latencies <2 sec) compared with both groups of CON rats. Furthermore, despite a reduced level of burst responding, the SUP-males made more nonreinforced responses prior to the DRL criterion as a result of maintaining the previous DRL criterion following transition to a new criterion. In summary, long-lasting effects of prenatal-choline supplementation were exhibited by reduced frustrative DRL responding in conjunction with the persistence of temporal memory in SUP-males and enhanced temporal exploration and response efficiency in SUP-females.
Cheng, Ruey-Kuang; MacDonald, Christopher J.; Williams, Christina L.; Meck, Warren H.
A survey of the literature on male sexual preferences according to the age of the female partner supported the hypothesis\\u000a that adult males should prefer older females of higher parity. Reproductive success was also surveyed by age and parity, and\\u000a younger females of lower parity were universally found to have lower success than older females of higher parity. This appears
Summary 1. Despite considerable recent interest in plasma and yolk testosterone (T) in female birds, relatively little is known about environmental regulation of female T, individual variation in female T or the relationship between plasma and yolk T. 2. In breeding females of a wild population of dark-eyed junco ( Junco hyemalis ), we assessed variation in the responsiveness of
JODIE M. JAWOR; JOEL W. MCGLOTHLIN; JOSEPH M. CASTO; TIMOTHY J. GREIVES; ERIC A. SNAJDR; GEORGE E. BENTLEY; ELLEN D. KETTERSON
Since the early 1980s, California's prison system has witnessed a boom. Of this growth, females represent the fastest growing population in both the adult and juvenile systems, often with youth feeding into the adult system. Although girls are the fastest-growing population in the juvenile justice system, there is a blatant lack of gender-specific programs to match this growth. Researchers have
This paper analyses passages of the Hippocratic Corpus, of Aristotle and Galen about oneirogmòs, spermatic emission during sleep, referring specifically to women. Into the Hippocratic texts there is only one gynaecological case among many cases about males: for them this nocturnal emission is symptom of dangerous illness and De genitura gives a causal explanation of such phaenomenon. Instead, in Aristotle and Galen erotic dream is evidence for or against emission of female seed and female contribution to generation. As the argument ofHistoria animalium book X shows clear theoretical differences from that of De generatione animalium, the topic of erotic dream also concerns issues of authenticity. PMID:20695404
WHO (World Health Organization) and a number of professional, national, regional, and other international organizations recently intensified efforts to discourage the practice of female circumcision still extant in several African countries and in isolated areas of the Arabian Peninsula, Malaysia, and Indonesia. Female circumcision is an operation frequently performed on females, between the ages of 5-10, in accordance with religious and cultural traditions. The operaton involves the complete or partial removal of either the clitoris prepuce, glans clitoridis, the clitoris, the labia minora, and labia majora. The operation can result in serious psychological and health problems for the young girls. Immediate complications include surgical shock, hemorrage, infection, tetanus, and damage to the urethera or anus. Late complications include infertility, keloid formation, dermoid Cyst dyspareunia, pelvic infection, and pregnancy complications. In 1976 WHO focused special attention on the problem and in 1979 the Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office of WHO included a discussion of the problem in the agenda of a Seminar on Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children. Seminar participants recommended that countries where female circumcision was still practiced should 1) abolish the practice by statute if necessary; 2) establish national commissions to deal with the problem; and 3) educate the public about the dangers of female circumcision. Somalia recently established a national commission on the problem, and the Cairo Society of Family Planning developed a set of recommendations for combating the practice. PMID:12262094
An important adaptive problem for mammals in general, and primates in particular, is how females can manage the high costs of reproduction in the face of fluctuating energetic supplies. For many species, the best solution is to breed seasonally such that high costs are temporally coincident with predictable periods of resource abundance. This is an unreliable strategy for some primates, such as chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), for which large body size forces an increase in dietary complexity and prolonged reproductive efforts. Here, I review data on reproductive function in chimpanzees, a species that demonstrates a risk-averse reproductive strategy wherein reproductive investment is allocated in accordance with maternal condition. Life history parameters for chimpanzees indicate that most females produce very few surviving offspring. However, comparisons between captive and wild populations and within wild populations illustrate that variation in resource access leads to highly variable reproductive success. Focused hormonal studies have demonstrated these effects at a proximate level, with energetic influences on female dispersal, receptivity, cycle quality, conception success, and lactational amenorrhea. Downstream of these effects, female reproductive function affects sexual attractiveness, and by virtue of males' own optimal reproductive strategies, can lead to coercive aggression and decreased foraging efficiency. Because of their extreme reproductive costs, female chimpanzees utilize a highly conservative reproductive strategy, one that minimizes the costs of ecological variation but makes them vulnerable to sexual conflict and costs of sociality. PMID:23015287
We present evidence for two behaviors influenced by intact, vegetative plant odor - upwind flight and abdomen curling - in female Manduca sexta and demonstrate the influence of the age and mating status of the moths on these behaviors. We compared the behavioral responses of laboratory-reared M. sexta. of discrete ages and physiological states (2,3, and 4 day old for virgin; 2 and 3 day old for mated) as individual moths flew upwind in a flight tunnel to a source of hostplant volatiles. We monitored odor-modulated flight and abdomen curling in the presence of volatiles released by potted hostplants. Mated 3 day old females exhibited the highest incidence of odor-modulated flight and abdomen curling. Similarly, as virgin moths aged, a greater percentage of the individuals displayed odor-modulated flight patterns and abdomen curling. In contrast, younger virgin moths exhibited high levels of abdomen curling only after contact with the plant. PMID:15455039
We present evidence for two behaviors influenced by intact, vegetative plant odor — upwind flight and abdomen curling — in female Manduca sexta and demonstrate the influence of the age and mating status of the moths on these behaviors. We compared the behavioral responses of laboratory-reared M. sexta. of discrete ages and physiological states (2,3, and 4 day old for virgin; 2 and 3 day old for mated) as individual moths flew upwind in a flight tunnel to a source of hostplant volatiles. We monitored odor-modulated flight and abdomen curling in the presence of volatiles released by potted hostplants. Mated 3 day old females exhibited the highest incidence of odor-modulated flight and abdomen curling. Similarly, as virgin moths aged, a greater percentage of the individuals displayed odor-modulated flight patterns and abdomen curling. In contrast, younger virgin moths exhibited high levels of abdomen curling only after contact with the plant.
We studied the effects of variations in maternal environment on maternal behaviour and offspring memory in mice by exposing lactating C57BL\\/6J dams to predator cues and\\/or environmental enrichment. At 10 weeks of age, object recognition memory in the offspring was assessed. The presence of enrichment in the maternal environment had no effect on offspring memory. In contrast, female offspring of
Pubertal development and androgen production were evaluated 1–10 years after bone marrow transplantation (BMT) in 15 females aged 14–23 (mean 17) years. Before BMT, these patients had received combination chemotherapy for hematologic malignancy, and all had had a transplant program including total body irradiation (TBI). Of the nine patients who were pre-menarcheal at BMT, two had subsequently experienced spontaneous menarche
L Hovi; P Tapanainen; UM Saarinen-Pihkala; MA Siimes
This study aimed to evaluate whether there is an association between facial morphology on cephalometrics and surface electromyographic (sEMG) recordings of the head, neck, and trunk muscles.Forty-seven Caucasian adultfemales, 18–29years of age (average: 24), underwent lateral skull radiographs in “natural head position”, obtained by having the subject look at a small mirror at eye level, and sEMG recordings for
Simona Tecco; Vito Crincoli; Beatrice Di Bisceglie; Sergio Caputi; Felice Festa
Moisture requirements were evaluated for femaleadults of spider beetles Mezium affine Boieldieu and Gibbium aequinoctiale Boieldieu to determine how they are differentially adapted for life in a dry environment. Features showing extreme desiccation resistance of M. affine were an impermeable cuticle wherein activation energies (43kJ\\/mol) were suppressed, daily water losses as little as 0.3%\\/day with an associated group effect,
Joshua B. Benoit; Jay A. Yoder; Eric J. Rellinger; Jacob T. Ark; George D. Keeney
Naobranchia Hesse, 1863 is a genus of the family Lernaeopodidae. This report presents an illustrated description of the adultfemale\\u000a and male of a new species of this genus collected from the gill filaments of Muraenesox bagio (Hamilton) (pike conger) caught off the coast of Richards Bay, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Its morphological features were\\u000a examined using light and scanning electron
Marijuana is a preparation of the flower, as well as the leaves and seeds, of the plant Cannabis sativa. Marijuana has been used for medicinal and recreational purposes for thousands of years due to its psychoactive effects including euphoria, sedation, and analgesia. Although it has been suspected for decades that marijuana has adverse effects on female fertility, the underlying molecular mechanism was not clear. The discovery of cannabinoid receptors and endocannabinoids has advanced studies if cannabinoid signaling. Since then, numerous studies have been published on cannabinoid signaling in female reproductive events, including preimplantation embryo development, oviductal embryo transport, embryo implantation, placentation, and parturition. This review focuses on various aspects of endocannabinoid signaling in female fertility. PMID:22860202
Marijuana is a preparation of the flower, as well as the leaves and seeds, of the plant Cannabis sativa. Marijuana has been used for medicinal and recreational purposes for thousands of years due to its psychoactive effects including euphoria, sedation, and analgesia. Although it has been suspected for decades that marijuana has adverse effects on female fertility, the underlying molecular mechanism was not clear. The discovery of cannabinoid receptors and endocannabinoids has advanced studies if cannabinoid signaling. Since then, numerous studies have been published on cannabinoid signaling in female reproductive events, including preimplantation embryo development, oviductal embryo transport, embryo implantation, placentation, and parturition. This review focuses on various aspects of endocannabinoid signaling in female fertility.
Different types of reproductive dysfunction with exposure of males and females during different stages of the reproductive process were correlated. It is a well-established principle that teratogenic exposure of the pregnant female, and thus of the embryo, during the organogenesis period of development can lead to birth defects in the offspring. The outcome of this exposure paradigm, as well as the outcomes associated with exposure during other stages of the reproductive process that have received less experimental attention are discussed. Insult to the germ cells of the male during spermatogenesis and to the female during oogenesis can also lead to reproductive dysfunction. The type of adverse outcome, however, is quite different from that occurring with embryonic exposure during the organogenesis period. An overview of this area will be given with the intent of focusing on those types of reproductive dysfunction that are most relevant to environmental exposure of men and women.
Female urinary incontinence becomes a real public health issue in France, with high frequency and outcomes on 20 to 30% of concerned women. Prevalence of incontinence is widely under-estimated because few women consult a physician for this problem, and because of the lack of epidemiologic data about it. Despite female urinary incontinence will increase in the next future with "baby boom" population, and in spite of new treatments, medical help is not suitable. Physicians but also nurses and physical therapists must have better professional training to help and care better these women. PMID:22039736
Egrot, Christophe; Peyrat, Laurence; Ciofu, Calin; Haab, François
Immune function can be modulated by multiple physiological factors, including nutrition and reproductive state. Because these factors can vary throughout an individual's lifetime as a result of environmental conditions (affecting nutrition) or life-history stage (e.g. entering the adult reproduction stage), we must carefully examine the degree to which developmental versus adult conditions shape performance of the immune system. We investigated how variation in dietary access to carotenoid pigments - a class of molecules with immunostimulatory properties that females deposit into egg yolks - during three different developmental time points affected adult immunological and reproductive traits in female mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos). In males and females of other avian species, carotenoid access during development affects carotenoid assimilation ability, adult sexual ornamentation and immune function, while carotenoid access during adulthood can increase immune response and reproductive investment (e.g. egg-laying capacity, biliverdin deposition in eggshells). We failed to detect effects of developmental carotenoid supplementation on adult immune function [phytohemagglutinin-induced cutaneous immune response, antibody production in response to the novel antigen keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), or oxidative burst, assessed by changes in circulating nitric oxide levels], carotenoid-pigmented beak coloration, ovarian development, circulating carotenoid levels or concentration of bile pigments in the gall bladder. However, we did uncover positive relationships between circulating carotenoid levels during adulthood and KLH-specific antibody production, and a negative relationship between biliverdin concentration in bile and KLH-specific antibody production. These results are consistent with the view that adult physiological parameters better predict current immune function than do developmental conditions, and highlight a possible, previously unstudied relationship between biliverdin and immune system performance. PMID:23531827
Housing conditions affect animal physiology. We previously showed that the hypoxic ventilatory and thermoregulatory responses to hypoxia of adult male rats housed in triads during the juvenile period (postnatal day 21 to adulthood) were significantly reduced compared with animals housed in pairs. Because sex hormones influence development and responsiveness to environmental stressors, this study investigated the impact of housing on the respiratory and thermoregulatory physiology of female rats. Since neonatal stress attenuates the hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) of female rats at adulthood, experiments were performed both on "control" (undisturbed) animals and rats subjected to neonatal maternal separation (NMS; 3 h/day, postnatal days 3-12). At adulthood, ventilatory activity was measured by whole body plethysmography under normoxic and hypoxic conditions [fraction of inspired oxygen (Fi(O(2))) = 0.12; 20 min]. The ventilatory and body temperature responses to hypoxia of female rats raised in triads were reduced compared with rats housed in pairs. Housing female rats in triads did not affect basal or hypoxic plasma corticosterone levels but did increase levels of estradiol significantly. We conclude that modest changes in housing conditions (pairs vs. triads) from weaning to adulthood does influence basic homeostatic functions such as temperature and respiratory regulation. Triad housing can reverse the manifestations of respiratory instability at adulthood induced by stressful neonatal treatments. This should raise awareness of the benefits of increasing social interactions in clinical settings but also caution researchers of the potential impact of such subtle changes on experimental protocols and interpretation of results. PMID:22323657
Fournier, Sébastien; Kinkead, Richard; Joseph, Vincent
Characteristics by which to classify a woman as authentically transsexual are offered from earlier investigations and supplemented by findings from recent work with this type of patient. Developmental issues are discussed and six psychodynamic accompaniments listed. A case demonstrates how to identify the true female transsexual and how to understand her psychological processes. PMID:2929798
Objective To examine trends in beverage consumption and evaluate the impact of beverage choices on the nutrient intakes of females ages 12 to 19 years.Design Dietary intake data from the USDA's Nationwide Food Consumption Surveys, including the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII), were assessed for trends in beverage consumption. The CSFII 1994-1996 data was used to examine
Regular exercise and physical activity have many health benefits for both females and males. In particular, weight-bearing exercise has a protective effect on the skeleton, and can even be osteogenic (stimulating to bone formation). However, achievement of optimal bone mineral density and regulation of bone maintenance depend upon a combination of mechanical, hormonal and dietary factors. Adequate hormonal status (oestrogen
More than 80 million women in Africa and around the world have been damaged by the practice of female genital mutilation. As Somali refugees are accepted into New Zealand and others immigrate from African countries where the practice is still prevalent, health professionals need to be aware of what legal, ethical and cultural considerations are involved. PMID:8715774
Women in prison have high levels of impulsive damaging behaviours, including disordered eating. In addition, they display pathological levels of the emotional precursors that have been associated with eating disorders, particularly anger. The present study examines levels of disordered eating behaviours in female prisoners, and whether those behaviours are associated with anger. The sample consisted of 91 sentenced women at
In order to identify injury-proneness in female competitive gymnasts, 20 measures of flexibility, hypermobility, spinal posture and anthropometry were performed on 40 competitive gymnasts and injury scores were derived from the severity and extent of previous gymnastic injury and inherent hypermobility traits. Results were compared between contrasting groups of \\
As the president of the Chicago-based Female Health Company (FHC), Mary Ann Leeper has surmounted many business challenges, but none has prepared her for what she now faces. As a biochemist, activist, and entrepreneur, Leeper wants nothing more than to slow, if not halt, the spread of HIV\\/AIDS. Leeper has found an inventor who has designed one tool that might
As the president of the Chicago-based Female Health Company (FHC), Mary Ann Leeper has surmounted many business challenges, but none has prepared her for what she now faces. As a biochemist, activist, and entrepreneur, Leeper wants nothing more than to slow, if not halt, the spread of HIV\\/AIDS. Leeper has found an inventor who has designed one tool that might
One hundred eight females from a midwestern state university were administered a self-report questionnaire (Hudson & Ricketts, 1980) to measure homophobia. An additional questionnaire examined beliefs and exposure to homosexuality. Analyses indicated more positive attitudes in students working toward a psychology degree than in those students with only one course in psychology, t(106) = 4.177, p < .001. A negative
Handwashing has been recognized as a critical factor in infection control policies. Whereas handwashing compliance among health care workers and school-aged students has been previously documented, practices among college students remain relatively unknown. The objective of this study was to determine handwashing compliance of female college students after using the bathroom. A researcher situated in a toilet stall unobtrusively observed
|This special issue brings together an editorial, six articles, and three book reviews that focus on the relationship between television and the female audience. The articles are: (1) "Installing the Television Set: Popular Discourses on Television and Domestic Space, 1948-1955" (Lynn Spigel); (2) "The Spectacularization of Everyday Life:…
Demographic, clinical, and forensic data were gathered in an archival study of 82 female stalkers from the United States, Canada, and Australia. Female stalkers were predominantly single, heterosexual, educated individuals in their mid 30s who had pursued their victims for more than a year. Major mental disorder and personality disorder were suggested, especially borderline personality disorder. They usually threatened violence, and if they did threaten, were more likely to be violent. Frequency of interpersonal violence was 25 percent, but there was limited use of weapons, and injuries were minor. Stalking victims were most likely to be slightly older male acquaintances; but if the victim was a prior sexual intimate of the female stalker, her risk of being violent toward him exceeded 50 percent. Unlike male stalkers who often pursue their victims to restore intimacy, these female stalkers often pursued their victims to establish intimacy. Common emotions and motivations included anger, obsessional thoughts, rage at abandonment, loneliness, dependency, jealousy, and perceived betrayal. Results are interpreted from a clinical and risk management perspective. PMID:12875500
This study examined the numbers and types of female inmate health care requests, the health care providers used to service the requests, and if there was a relationship between the number of requests and time incarcerated. The most frequent requests were for medications, infections, and dental, gynecological, and gastrointestinal difficulties. Physicians provided health care services more frequently than nurses and
In this review of published findings on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and risk factors among female sex workers, we summarize the results of seroprevalence studies in different countries and discuss the different patterns of transmission among such workers in various geographical regions. The highest rates of HIV infection occur in sub-Saharan Africa, where the widespread existence of sexually transmitted diseases may play an important role in sustaining transmission. In Europe and North America injecting drug use continues to be the major factor associated with HIV infection among female sex workers, while in Latin America and parts of Asia there is a more mixed pattern of heterosexual and parenteral transmission from injecting drug use. Reviewed also are studies of the risk factors associated with HIV infection among female sex workers, such as drug use, sexual behaviour, the presence of sexually transmitted diseases, and condom use; in addition, we comment on some studies of the clients of sex workers. Finally, we propose directions that future research in this area might take and discuss various interventions that need to be undertaken to reduce HIV transmission among female sex workers.
As imprisonment rates increase in America, women are being adversely affected. Although women are still a minority in terms of the total number of persons incarcerated, their numbers are rising faster than those of men. This article looks at this disheartening trend and makes the case the restorative justice can be used as gender-specific programming for female delinquents.
Mutations in the X-linked gene encoding Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) have been associated with neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders including Rett Syndrome, X-linked mental retardation syndrome, severe neonatal encephalopathy, and Angelman syndrome. Although alterations in the performance of MeCP2-deficient mice in specific behavioral tasks have been documented, it remains unclear whether or not MeCP2 dysfunction affects patterns of periodic behavioral and electroencephalographic (EEG) activity. The aim of the current study was therefore to determine whether a deficiency in MeCP2 is sufficient to alter the normal daily rhythmic patterns of core body temperature, gross motor activity and cortical delta power. To address this, we monitored individual wild-type and MeCP2-deficient mice in their home cage environment via telemetric recording over 24 hour cycles. Our results show that the normal daily rhythmic behavioral patterning of cortical delta wave activity, core body temperature and mobility are disrupted in one-year old female MeCP2-deficient mice. Moreover, female MeCP2-deficient mice display diminished overall motor activity, lower average core body temperature, and significantly greater body temperature fluctuation than wild-type mice in their home-cage environment. Finally, we show that the epileptiform discharge activity in female MeCP2-deficient mice is more predominant during times of behavioral activity compared to inactivity. Collectively, these results indicate that MeCP2 deficiency is sufficient to disrupt the normal patterning of daily biological rhythmic activities.
Wu, Chiping; Bardakjian, Berj L.; Zhang, Liang; Eubanks, James H.
|The purpose of this study was to explore strategies for the development of aspiring female coaches based on the ideas of existing high-performance female coaches. Drawing on semi-structured interviews with national-level female coaches in the United Kingdom, four recurrent ideas for developing female coaches in a male-dominated profession…
We examined data from a large cohort of homosexual and heterosexual females and males concerning their siblings' sexual orientations. As in previous studies, both male and female homosexuality were familial. Homosexual females had an excess of homosexual brothers compared to heteroxual subjects, thus providing evidence that similar familial factors influence both male and female homosexuality. Furthermore, despite the large sample
There is a great need to study female criminality in African Societies. Therefore, this paper investigates the general characteristics of Nigerian female offenders incarcerated in a major woman's prison in Nigeria. In a preliminary study of female offenders in Nigeria, Oloruntimehin (1982) suggests that female criminality in Nigeria may be correlated with socioeconomic and family background variables. Consequently, the major
|Describes the process and practice of female circumcision, the impact it may have on circumcised female international college students, and some counseling strategies for the college counselor who works with this population. Explains variety of reasons for performing female circumcision, different types of female circumcisions, and psychological…
Dominance rank in female chimpanzees correlates positively with reproductive success. Although a high rank obviously has an advantage for females, clear (linear) hierarchies in female chimpanzees have not been detected. Following the predictions of the socio-ecological model, the type of food competition should affect the dominance relationships among females. We investigated food competition and relationships among 11 adultfemale chimpanzees
Marijuana abuse during adolescence may alter its abuse liability during adulthood by modifying the interoceptive (discriminative) stimuli produced, especially in females due to an interaction with ovarian hormones. To examine this possibility, either gonadally intact or ovariectomized (OVX) female rats received 40 intraperitoneal injections of saline or 5.6 mg/kg of ??-THC daily during adolescence, yielding 4 experimental groups (intact/saline, intact/??-THC, OVX/saline, and OVX/??-THC). These groups were then trained to discriminate ??-THC (0.32-3.2 mg/kg) from saline under a fixed-ratio (FR) 20 schedule of food presentation. After a training dose was established for the subjects in each group, varying doses of ??-THC were substituted for the training dose to obtain dose-effect (generalization) curves for drug-lever responding and response rate. The results showed that: 1) the OVX/saline group had a substantially higher mean response rate under control conditions than the other three groups, 2) both OVX groups had higher percentages of THC-lever responding than the intact groups at doses of ??-THC lower than the training dose, and 3) the OVX/??-THC group was significantly less sensitive to the rate-decreasing effects of ??-THC compared to other groups. Furthermore, at sacrifice, western blot analyses indicated that chronic ??-THC in OVX and intact females decreased cannabinoid type-1 receptor (CB1R) levels in the striatum, and decreased phosphorylation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein (p-CREB) in the hippocampus. In contrast to the hippocampus, chronic ??-THC selectively increased p-CREB in the OVX/saline group in the striatum. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) was not significantly affected by either hormone status or chronic ??-THC. In summary, these data in female rats suggest that cannabinoid abuse by adolescent human females could alter their subsequent responsiveness to cannabinoids as adults and have serious consequences for brain development. PMID:22705493
Winsauer, Peter J; Filipeanu, Catalin M; Bailey, Evangeline M; Hulst, Jerielle L; Sutton, Jessie L
Manipulation of serotonin (5HT) during early development has been shown to induce long-lasting morphological changes within the raphe nuclear complex and serotonergic circuitry throughout the brain. Recent studies have demonstrated altered raphe-derived 5HT transporter (SERT) immunoreactive axonal expression in several cortical target sites after brief perinatal exposure to selective 5HT reuptake inhibitors such as citalopram (CTM). Since the serotonergic raphe nuclear complex projects to the olfactory bulb (OB) and perinatal 5HT disruption has been shown to disrupt olfactory behaviors, the goal of this study was to further investigate such developmental effects in the OB of CTM exposed animals. Male and female rat pups were exposed to CTM from postnatal day 8–21. After animals reach adulthood (>90 days), OB tissue sections were processed immunohistochemically for SERT antiserum. Our data revealed that the density of the SERT immunoreactive fibers decreased ~40% in the OB of CTM exposed male rats, but not female rats. Our findings support a broad and long-lasting change throughout most of the 5HT system, including the OB, after early manipulation of 5HT. Because dysfunction of the early 5HT system has been implicated in the etiology of neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), these new findings may offer insight into the abnormal olfactory perception often noted in patients with ASD.
Zhang, Junlin; Dennis, Katie A.; Darling, Ryan D.; Alzghoul, Loai; Paul, Ian A.; Simpson, Kimberly L.; Lin, Rick C. S.
Effects of water flooding on the oviposition capacity of engorged adultfemales and hatchability of eggs of Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Haemaphysalis leachi leachi under laboratory conditions were investigated. The durations of time of water flooding were 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 hours. Engorged females of R. sanguineus and H. leachi leachi did not oviposit after being flooded for more than 48 and 6 hours, respectively. The preoviposition periods of both species were longer than those of their controls. The number of eggs laid were significantly lower (P < .05) and higher (P < .05) than their controls, respectively, for R. sanguineus and H. leachi leachi flooded for 1–4 hours. The hatchability of eggs of both species decreased as flooding time increased. The percentage of hatchability was negatively correlated with flooding time and was highly significant (r = ?0.97; P < .10). It is concluded that R. sanguineus tolerated simulated water flooding more than H. leachi leachi.
Background The aim was to investigate changes in the prevalence and characteristics of male and female visitors to practitioners of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in a large adult population from 1997 to 2008. Methods Two cross sectional adult total population health surveys from Central Norwegian (the Nord-Trøndelag Health Studies (HUNT)). In 1997 42,277 and in 2008 50,713 respondents were included. Variables included demographics (age, education, working status), lifestyle (daily smoker, did hard physical activities), health status (self-rated health status, recent complaints, chronic complaints, psychiatric complaints, a range of diseases) and health care use (visit general practitioner, chiropractor). A test of difference between the results of multivariable logistic regression models for each year, including all variables, was used to analyse changes from 1997 to 2008. Results In 1997 9.4% (95%CI 9.1-9.6) of the population had visited a CAM practitioner in the last 12 months and this increased to 12.6% (12.3-12.9) in 2008 (p < 0.001 for difference). Prevalence of CAM use in females was almost twice as high as that in males both years. For males, the significant changes from 1997 to 2008 (p < 0.05) were an increase in odds of visiting for those under 50 years, who had a recent complaint, were widower or did hard physical activities. There was a decrease for males who had a university degree, psychiatric complaint or hay fever. For females there was an increase in the odds for those under 50 years, who had a recent complaint or chronic complaint. It was a decrease for females with reported fair global health, psychiatric complaint, hay fever or if they had visited a chiropractor. Conclusion The increase in visits was mainly among younger people of both genders with more limited complaints. A larger proportion of the more healthy part of the population is increasing their visits to CAM practitioners.
Male songbirds typically require exposure to normal adult conspecific song during de- velopment in order to learn a normal song of their own. Females require exposure to conspecific song during development in order to select high-quality, learned song over the incomplete song produced by males reared in isolation. Altering males' opportunity for song learning during development affects the neuroanatomy of
Christine Lauay; Robert W. Komorowski; Anna E. Beaudin; Timothy J. DeVoogd
Interventions for child sexual abusers should take into account their perspectives on the context of their offenses, but no descriptions of everyday life from the offender's point of view have been published. This study therefore explored female offenders' views of their strengths and challenges. Documented risk assessments of 20 female offenders were analyzed using inductive content analysis (Cavanagh, 1997; Priest, Roberts & Woods, 2002; Woods, Priest & Roberts, 2002). The Good Lives Model provided the initial coding framework and Atlas/ti software (Muhr, 1997) was used for simultaneous data collection and analysis. The content analysis yielded 999 coding decisions organized in three themes. The global theme was relationship experiences. Offenders described the quality of their relationship experiences, including their personal perspectives, intimate relationships and social lives. These descriptions have implications for treatment planning and future research with women who have molested children.
Interventions for child sexual abusers should take into account their perspectives on the context of their offenses, but no descriptions of everyday life from the offender's point of view have been published. This study therefore explored female offenders' views of their strengths and challenges. Documented risk assessments of 20 female offenders were analyzed using inductive content analysis (Cavanagh, 1997; Priest, Roberts, & Woods, 2002; Woods, Priest, & Roberts, 2002). The Good Lives Model provided the initial coding framework and ATLAS.ti software (Muhr, 1997) was used for simultaneous data collection and analysis. The content analysis yielded 999 coding decisions organized in three themes. The global theme was relationship experiences. Offenders described the quality of their relationship experiences, including their personal perspectives, intimate relationships, and social lives. These descriptions have implications for treatment planning and future research with women who have molested children. PMID:18624098
Studies of lifetime reproductive success (LRS) are important for understanding population dynamics and life history strategies, yet relatively little information is available for long-lived species. This study provides a preliminary assessment of LRS among female mountain gorillas in the Virunga volcanoes region. Adultfemales produced an average of 3.6 ± 2.1 surviving offspring during their lifetime, which indicates a growing population that contrasts with most other great apes. The standardized variance in LRS (variance/mean(2) = 0.34) was lower than many other mammals and birds. When we excluded the most apparent source of environmental variability (poaching), the average LRS increased to 4.3 ± 1.8 and the standardized variance dropped in half. Adult lifespan was a greater source of variance in LRS than fertility or offspring survival. Females with higher LRS had significantly longer adult lifespans and higher dominance ranks. Results for LRS were similar to another standard fitness measurement, the individually estimated finite rate of increase (?(ind) ), but ?(ind) showed diminishing benefits for greater longevity. PMID:21989942
Robbins, Andrew M; Stoinski, Tara; Fawcett, Katie; Robbins, Martha M
More than any other Western painter, Rubens is identified with the women\\u000ahe depicted. Apart from being undressed, his female type is above all characterized\\u000aby specific physical qualities, which tend to be summarized as ‘fleshy’\\u000aand ‘corpulent’. Four centuries after date, the ‘Rubensian’ is no longer limited\\u000ato the artistic field only but has become a proverbial, though not
\\u000a Joanne is one of approximately 11.3 million Americans with a history of cancer  and, like an increasing number of survivors,\\u000a she is struggling with adjustments to her quality of life following cancer treatment. Of particular interest to this chapter\\u000a is that, among other things, Joanne is suffering from female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD), which has been traditionally\\u000a defined as
Rembrandt's extraordinary paintings of female nudes - Andromeda, Susanna, Diana and Her Nymphs, Danaë, Bathsheba - as well as his etchings of nude women, have fascinated many generations of art lovers and art historians, but they have also elicited vehement criticism. They were considered against-the-grain, anti-classical, even ugly and unpleasant. However, Rembrandt chose conventional subjects, keeping close to time-honored pictorial
The US-led invasion of Iraq unleashed a never-before-witnessed flood of suicide attacks totally over 900 to date (a world record) which have killed over 10,000 since 2003. In recent years, the groups using suicide terrorism in Iraq have faced hardened targets and difficult-to-cross checkpoints which they have responded to by a dramatic increase in sending female suicide bombers on foot,
\\u000a The selection of suitable mates from a pool of potential candidates is one of the most important choices a female rodent has\\u000a to make. It influences Darwinian fitness directly via the number of offspring produced but also by its viability, fertility,\\u000a and fecundity. Numerous mechanisms have evolved to ensure this fitness increase by maximizing reproductive success. They act\\u000a at various
This paper, based on a review of recent social science drug research, summarizes the main findings on female drug use and speculates on its future direction. The findings include the following: women are usually initiated into illicit drug use by men; rates of illicit drug use are lower among females than males (which may reflect the greater personal freedom traditionally granted to males), although the difference narrows among younger persons and among those who subscribe to more liberal values and life styles; women are more likely than men to use psychotherapeutic drugs (which may reflect strains resulting from their unequal status vis-à-vis men); and female opiate addicts, although they tend to hold conventional values, are often involved in such deviant activity as prostitution. To the extent that women gain social equality with men and subscribe to greater personal lifestyle freedom, they may be expected to show a higher rate of illicit drug use, particularly of a recreational kind. On the other hand, the rate of psychotherapeutic drug use may decrease, although if the tensions of the workplace eventually substitute for the tensions of status inequality, the resultant changes in rates and patterns of substance use are problematic. PMID:767261
We tested the hypothesis that primate female copulation calls are a form of postcopulatory female choice. We collected data on female sexual swellings, sexual and agonistic behavior, copulation calls and postcopulatory behavioral interactions in a multimale-multifemale captive group of Guinea baboons over a 3-mo period. Males copulated with only a few females, and females copulated with only 1 or 2
Dario Maestripieri; Marco Leoni; Sania S. Raza; Elizabeth J. Hirsch; Jessica C. Whitham
Limited information is available on lignan metabolism and tissue distribution between sexes and the effects of prolonged lignan exposure on tissue concentrations. In the present study, excretion and tissue distribution of lignans were compared after 1 d and 7 d administration of flaxseed lignan secoisolariciresinol diglycoside (SDG) in male and female rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were daily gavaged per os with 3H-SDG (3.7 kBq/g body weight (bwt)) and unlabelled SDG (5.3 microg/g bwt). Urine, faeces, serum and tissues (liver, kidneys, bladder, spleen, lungs, brain, thymus, heart, muscle, adipose, mammary gland, ovaries, vagina, uterus, testis, seminal vesicles, coagulating glands and ventral prostate) were collected at 0, 12 and 24 h after a single lignan dose or after the last dose of 7 d exposure. The sample total lignan content was measured as radioactivity by liquid scintillation counting. In both sexes, majority of radioactivity was excreted in faeces (40-83%) and urine (1.2-5.2%). 3H-SDG administration increased radioactivity in all tissues at all time points, and the levels were further increased after prolonged SDG exposure. Liver contained majority of the tissue lignans (48-56%) in both sexes after both exposure regimens. After prolonged SDG exposure, the serum lignan concentrations had reached a plateau which was approximately 4-fold of that of acute exposure, whereas in both sexes, concentrations in skin and kidneys still increased, indicating tissue accumulation. After prolonged exposure, females had higher lignan concentrations in heart and thymus at all time points, demonstrating sex-related differences in lignan tissue distribution and the possibility for sex-specific treatment responses. These findings facilitate identification of target tissues for local lignan actions in vivo. PMID:20388250
Immature development and reproductive life history of Delphastus catalinae (Horn) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) feeding on Bemisia tabaci biotype B (Gennadius) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) (= B. argentifolii Bellows and Perring) immatures was studied at three constant temperatures: 22, 26 and 30 °C. Lower developmental threshold temperatures (T0) were estimated at 9 and 9.9 °C, for males and females, respectively. Femaleadults weighed slightly more than males (0.587 and 0.505 mg, respectively). As temperature increased from 22 to 30 °C, developmental time from eggs to eclosion of the adult declined from 24 to 15 days. Thermal units required for immature development was ?300 degree-days. Percentage egg hatch declined at increasing temperatures, but no significant effect of time was found. The intrinsic rate of increase, r, increased from 0.048 to 0.082 and doubling time decreased from 14.44 to 8.45 days as temperature increased from 22 to 26 °C. Mean daily fecundity was modeled as a function of time and temperature to create a 3-dimensional surface. Overall, Delphastus catalinae was found to perform better at 22 and 26 °C while 30 °C was detrimental to immature development and adult reproduction.
Crisostomo Legaspi, Jesusa; Legaspi, Benjamin C.; Simmons, Alvin M.; Soumare, Mohamed
Insect hormones regulate growth and development and fecundity of insects. The current study investigated changes in juvenile hormone (JH) and molting hormone (MH) levels in fourth instars and adultfemales of Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) after imidacloprid application to rice, Oryza sativa L. The results showed that JH level in fourth instars that developed feeding on Fengyouxiangzhan rice plants sprayed with 15, 30, and 60 ppm imidacloprid was significantly higher than that of larvae that developed on control plants, increasing by 5.04, 6.39, and 4.89 times, respectively. The relationships between JH level and imidacloprid concentrations showed a significant negative correlation. In contrast, molting hormone (MH) level in larvae fed on control plants was significantly higher than that on treated plants. JH:MH values in fourth instars developed from larvae feeding on rice plants treated with 15, 30, 60, 80, and 100 ppm imidacloprid increased by 49.17, 39.43, 13.48, 15.80, and 0.2 times, respectively, compared with control. JH and JH:MH ratio in larvae fed on Wujing 15 plants treated with imidacloprid were significantly lower than those fed on Fengyouxiangzhan under the same treatments. JH level in adultfemales that developed from larvae feeding on rice plants sprayed with imidacloprid significantly decreased with increase in imidacloprid concentration, but it increased compared with control. JH level in adultfemales was associated with times of imidacloprid application. JH level in adultfemales developed from larvae feeding on rice plants after double spray with 30 ppm imidacloprid was significantly higher than control, increasing by 61.6 and 116.5%, respectively, compared with a single spray and the control. Moreover, hormone levels in the larvae were related to the application method of imidacloprid. JH level in fourth instars after root application and topical application of imidacloprid was significantly lower than in control. Thus, the dynamics of JH and MH in insects after insecticide applications are an extremely interesting problem, because hormones are related to insect growth and development. PMID:17849869
The functional significance of allometric change in reptiles has received limited attention and the reason for such changes has been regarded as 'obscure'. In this paper we report data on the Australian Pogona barbata, the eastern bearded dragon, from across their range and review changes in allometric growth among juveniles, and adult males and females and consider the functional relevance of these changes. There were significant differences in the population for mass, tail length, tail width, rear leg length and jaw length. These differences were consistent with differences required in locomotor performance and thus habitat use, together with access to different preferred dietary components. PMID:21236651
Rationale and objective Opiate abuse in adolescent girls has increased in the past decade; however, few animal studies have examined the potential\\u000a consequences of opiate use occurring at this time. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether exposing female\\u000a rats to morphine during the peripubertal period can alter the adult behavior of their offspring.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Beginning at 30 days
We examined the effects of sex steroid milieu on plasma leptin levels in adult male and female rats. Since the body weight is known to influence leptin concentrations, the hormone was measured in rats with a very similar body weight (about 250 g) throughout this study. Plasma leptin levels were significantly higher in female than in male rats. Orchidectomy (ODX) caused a significant rise in leptin, and replacement of a physiological dose of testosterone (T) completely abolished the effect of ODX. Since the effect of tamoxifen (estrogen antagonist) coadministered with T on leptin levels in ODX rats was the same as that of T alone, it was suggested that the suppressive effect of T on leptin may be mediated by the androgenic potency of T, but not by its aromatized product, estradiol. In female rats, plasma leptin concentrations did not change significantly during the estrous cycle. Furthermore, leptin levels were not affected either by ovariectomy alone or by the administration after ovariectomy of physiological doses of estradiol, progesterone, or both. This is the first study to demonstrate in rats with a very similar body weight the existence of a clear sexual difference in plasma leptin levels, and also a suppressive action of T on the adipocyte hormone concentrations. PMID:10334915
A mild immune challenge experienced during the neonatal period leads to attenuated febrile responses to a similar challenge experienced later in life. However, the immune response to an endotoxin differs depending upon the severity of the challenge and it is not clear whether a neonatal immune challenge will also affect responses to a severe, potentially life-threatening stimulus, such as sepsis. In the present study, we examined the effects of a neonatal immune challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on adult sickness responses, as well as the development of endotoxin tolerance, to a septic dose (1 or 3 mg/kg) of the same LPS in male and female rats. We demonstrate significant differences, particularly in males, in the fever profiles of neonatally LPS-treated rats compared to neonatally saline-treated controls. Specifically, male rats treated neonatally with LPS have reduced hypothermic and enhanced hyperthermic responses to both septic doses of LPS in adulthood. A somewhat different profile is seen in females, with neonatally LPS-treated females having reduced hypothermia and enhanced hyperthermia compared to controls with 1 mg/kg but no differences with 3 mg/kg LPS. The results obtained demonstrate that alterations in innate immune responses previously reported for low doses of LPS can, for the most part, also be observed after severe immune challenge in later life. PMID:20136690
Mounting is generally considered to be a male-typical behavior. Female Japanese macaques, in certain populations, are unusual, in that they routinely mount other females. In this study, we examined to what extent female Japanese macaques mount same-sex partners in a male-typical manner. We compared the mount postures males and females adopt and their rate of pelvic thrusting. In addition, we
Paul L. Vasey; Afra Foroud; Nadine Duckworth; Stefani D. Kovacovsky
The visibility of female –female kissing in the media and on college campuses has increased. Yet how female –female kissing influences perceptions of the women engaging in it has not been examined. College students’ (N = 164) understanding of female –female kissing and female –male kissing in an otherwise heterosexual context was examined. Men perceived female –female kissing as more atypical than did women. A
Author: Reidy, Jennifer L.; Stake, Mike M.; Thompson, Frank R. III. ... Daily nest survival was 0.971 (95% CI: 0.959-0.980) and daily adultfemale predation ... We estimated that 14.6% of breeding females were depredated on the nest during the ...
Current research to describe and evaluate effectiveness of voice and communication therapy for male-to-female transgender people is limited to adults. This paper provides rationale, procedures, and outcomes from voice and communication therapy for a male-to-female transgender adolescent 15 years of age. Treatment addressed vocal hygiene, breath…
|An analysis of advertising on children's television programs shows that more than half were male-dominant ads and fewer than one-seventh were female dominated. Female roles were almost entirely dependent and passive. (LS)|
We describe severe necrohemorrhagic cystitis in a female rhesus macaque and a female cynomolgus macaque due to colonization of the urinary bladder by Corynebacterium sp. Clinically, both macaques presented with perineal bleeding and depression and, despit...
A. M. MacLarty E. L. Stevens N. Kreiselmeier N. A. Twenhafel
The female athlete triad, otherwise known as the inter-relatedness of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis, is an area of increasing awareness in female athletes, which has not been explored in military women. We conducted a 3 part prospective ...
The nasal botfly Oestrus ovis (Diptera, Cyclorrhapha: Oestridae) is a myiasis-causing insect species, which affects the health of sheep, goats and humans. Gravid females are viviparous and larviposit into the animal’s nostrils. Host-searching and larvipositing flies are visually guided and influenced by climatic conditions, whereas olfaction seemed to play no role in this process. However, here, we show that the antennae of adult O. ovis female flies are relatively small but well developed and inhabited by several types of olfactory sensilla. Further, we show that the antennal lobes of this species receive input from antennal afferents and consist of a clearly defined glomerular organisation. We also give the first evidence of the fly’s ability to detect several synthetic odour compounds. Our findings provide a morpho-functional basis for future investigations on olfactory-mediated behaviour of this insect pest.
Poddighe, Simone; Dekker, Teun; Scala, Antonio; Angioy, Anna Maria
Laboratory studies of adult male fathead minnows have shown that when they are exposed to estrogens, they lose their ability to compete for access to females and sire young, suggesting that estrogenic effluents may reduce the genetic fitness of populations of wild fishes. However, it is unknown whether wild fish which are exposed to effluent actually compete with unexposed fishes, how long effects of estrogen exposure last, and whether females are affected by estrogens. This study addressed these issues using the fathead minnow (FHM) and effluent from the Metropolitan Wastewater Treatment Plant (MWTP) a well-studied source of environmental estrogens (EEs) in the Mississippi River. Maze tests found that adult FHMs are neither attracted nor repelled by MWTP effluent while previous studies have shown that minnows are attracted to the warmer waters which characterize effluents; it is realistic that previously unexposed fish enter MWTP effluent in the spring and then compete with exposed individuals. Competitive spawning experiments showed that male FHMs exposed to 44ng E2/l (a high but realistic level) for three weeks failed to compete with unexposed males while males exposed to 4ng E2/l outcompeted and sired more young than unexposed males (p<0.05). The effects of estrogen exposure disappeared within a week of moving fish into uncontaminated water. Female FHM reproductive output and behavior were unaffected by exposure to estrogen. Taken together, these experiments suggest that the behavior of wild fishes likely determines their exposure to EEs and that while the effects of this exposure are likely significant to populations of wild fish, they will be location specific because of factors which determine the duration and intensity of male exposure. We conclude that the role of fish behavior in endocrine disruption strongly warrants additional consideration. PMID:21276478
Administration of the bacterial cell wall component, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), stimulates the immune and endocrine systems inducing an acute phase of sickness and stress responses in adult and neonatal rats. Neonatal LPS exposure has been shown to alter a variety of behavioural and physiological processes in the adult animal. Early developmental stress, such as maternal separation, causes similar acute as well as long-term behavioural changes in adults, including altered sensitivity to drugs of abuse. Moreover, results of studies have shown evidence of a direct link between immune activation and sensitivity to dopamine-based drugs of abuse. The current study examined the effects of neonatal LPS treatment on subsequent locomotor sensitization to the dopamine (D(2)/D(3)) agonist, quinpirole, in adult rats as an index of drug sensitivity. Male and female Long-Evans rats were treated systemically with either LPS (50microg/kg) or saline (0.9%) on postnatal days 3 and 5. Locomotor sensitization was then examined in the adult rats (postnatal day 70). Animals were injected with quinpirole (0.5mg/kg, s.c.) or saline every other day for a total of 10 injections and locomotor activity was assessed for 60min immediately following injections 1, 2, 4, 6, and 10. Animals also received a 'challenge' injection of 0.5mg/kg quinpirole 28 days after injection 10, to assess persistence of behavioural sensitization. Locomotor activity progressively increased with repeated administration of quinpirole, indicating locomotor sensitization in all of the drug-treated groups. There was an overall sex difference, with females showing significantly greater sensitization than males. Moreover, neonatal LPS treatment potentiated both the level and the rate of development of locomotor sensitization to quinpirole administration in females, but not in males. Thus, the current study revealed that neonatal exposure to bacterial infection increases dopamine (D(2)/D(3)) agonist sensitivity in a sex-specific manner. These findings have important implications for the sexually dimorphic development of addictions to both natural and artificial rewards. PMID:17449223
Tenk, Christine M; Foley, Kelly A; Kavaliers, Martin; Ossenkopp, Klaus-Peter
The majority of injuries sustained by female athletes are due to participation in sports rather than their sex. Anatomic, hormonal,and functional differences should be understood when treating the female athlete. Screening should be done for eating disorders and the female athlete triad. Female athletes have increased rates of injury to the anterior cruciate ligament and patellofemoral disorders compared with their male counterparts. PMID:15183572
Female mating decisions that are based on condition-dependent traits, such as male nutritional state, may be associated with a female's own condition. In the swordtail fish, Xiphophorus birchmanni, females prefer the chemical cues of well-fed males to cues of food-deprived males. Here we show that this preference is significantly stronger in females when they were experimentally food deprived than when
Blanchard’s (J Nerv Ment Dis 177:616–623, 1989) theory of autogynephilia suggests that male-to-female transsexuals can be\\u000a categorized into different types based on their sexuality. Little previous research has compared the sexuality of male-to-female\\u000a transsexuals to biological females. The present study examined 15 aspects of sexuality among a non-clinical sample of 234\\u000a transsexuals and 127 biological females, using either an online