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1

Social dominance in adult female mountain goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The social behaviour of adult female mountain goats, Oreamnos americanus, was studied for 2 years in an unhunted population in west-central Alberta, Canada. Compared with other female ungulates, mountain goat females interacted aggressively much more frequently and their dominance ranks were less stable in time and less age-related. Goats were organized in a non-linear but non-random dominance hierarchy, with many

François Fournier; Marco Festa-Bianchet

1995-01-01

2

Ecdysteroid receptors in Drosophila melanogaster adult females  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ecdysteroid receptors were identified and partially characterized from total cell extracts of whole animals and dissected tissues from Drosophila melanogaster adult females. Binding studies indicated the presence of two ecdysteroid binding components having high affinity and specificity consistent w...

3

Spotted Wing Drosophila adult female. Inset shows  

E-print Network

crops are not at risk because they are not soft-fleshed fruit. Spotted Wing Drosophila flies are small America. Spotted Wing Drosophila is not a true fruit fly like blueberry maggot or cherry fruit flySpotted Wing Drosophila adult female. Inset shows saw-like ovipositor used to cut into fruit skin

Goodman, Robert M.

4

Standardization of Malaysian adult female nasal cavity.  

PubMed

This research focuses on creating a standardized nasal cavity model of adult Malaysian females. The methodology implemented in this research is a new approach compared to other methods used by previous researchers. This study involves 26 females who represent the test subjects for this preliminary study. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis was carried out to better understand the characteristics of the standardized model and to compare it to the available standardized Caucasian model. This comparison includes cross-sectional areas for both half-models as well as velocity contours along the nasal cavities. The Malaysian female standardized model is larger in cross-sectional area compared to the standardized Caucasian model thus leading to lower average velocity magnitudes. The standardized model was further evaluated with four more Malaysian female test subjects based on its cross-sectional areas and average velocity magnitudes along the nasal cavities. This evaluation shows that the generated model represents an averaged and standardized model of adult Malaysian females. PMID:23840279

Lee, Chih Fang; Abdullah, Mohd Zulkifly; Ahmad, Kamarul Arifin; Lutfi Shuaib, Ibrahim

2013-01-01

5

Standardization of Malaysian Adult Female Nasal Cavity  

PubMed Central

This research focuses on creating a standardized nasal cavity model of adult Malaysian females. The methodology implemented in this research is a new approach compared to other methods used by previous researchers. This study involves 26 females who represent the test subjects for this preliminary study. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis was carried out to better understand the characteristics of the standardized model and to compare it to the available standardized Caucasian model. This comparison includes cross-sectional areas for both half-models as well as velocity contours along the nasal cavities. The Malaysian female standardized model is larger in cross-sectional area compared to the standardized Caucasian model thus leading to lower average velocity magnitudes. The standardized model was further evaluated with four more Malaysian female test subjects based on its cross-sectional areas and average velocity magnitudes along the nasal cavities. This evaluation shows that the generated model represents an averaged and standardized model of adult Malaysian females. PMID:23840279

Abdullah, Mohd. Zulkifly; Ahmad, Kamarul Arifin; Lutfi Shuaib, Ibrahim

2013-01-01

6

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Social relationships among adult female baboons  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Social relationships among adult female baboons (papio cynocephalus) I. Variation Abstract Sociality has positive effects on female fitness in many mammalian species. Among female baboons of predictions derived from kin selection theory about the strength of social bonds among adult female baboons

Wilkinson, Gerald S.

7

[Micturition and uroflowmetric analysis of adult females].  

PubMed

Voiding parameters on the Uroflow Diagnostic Interpretation (UDI) were analysed in relation to the voided volume in 58 micturitions of 36 healthy adult females. The maximum flow rate (Qmax) and the mean flow rate during central 90% of the voided volume (QM90) increased linearly up to the voided volume of 400 ml. The voiding time (T100) took a value within a certain range independently of the voided volume from 100 to 400 ml and never exceeded 21 seconds in all micturitions. Voiding time for the central 90% of the voided volume (T90), time to Qmax (TQmax) and time from Qmax to 95% of the voided volume (Tdesc) were independent of the volume voided. The maximum rate of increase of flow rate (dQ/dT max) and the estimated bladder wall contraction velocity at 40 ml bladder contents (dL/dT 40) showed a tendency to increase depending on the volume voided. T100 showed a prolongation in 84.0% of 25 micturitions in 20 neurogenic bladder patients and in 66.7% of 27 in 21 chronic cystitis patients, always accompanied by a prolongation of T90. No other parameters were clearly different between healthy women and patients and/or between the two groups of patients. Voiding time is a useful parameter representing female micturition. PMID:2214471

Miyata, M; Mizunaga, M; Saga, Y; Taniguchi, N; Kaneko, S; Yachiku, S

1990-07-01

8

Impaired Visuospatial Processing in Young Adult Female Fragile X  

E-print Network

Impaired Visuospatial Processing in Young Adult Female Fragile X Premutation Carriers and Emerging Tassone, Susan Rivera, Tony J. Simon 13th International Fragile X Conference, Miami 2012 July 26, 2012 #12 ·Prevalence of premutation: ·1 in 113-259 females ·1 in 260-813 males #12;How do female fragile X premutation

Nguyen, Danh

9

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Social relationships among adult female baboons  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Social relationships among adult female baboons (Papio cynocephalus) II. Variation or stability of social bonds. Here, we draw on data derived from a 16-year study of baboons living in seven by association with closely related females. Sociality also enhances the reproductive success of female baboons

Wilkinson, Gerald S.

10

Primary adrenal leiomyosarcoma in an adult female.  

PubMed

Primary leiomyosarcoma of the adrenal gland is a rare tumour and we describe such a case in a 35 year old female who had dull pain in the left flank for 6 months. There was no weight loss or fever only mild tenderness was in the left subcostal region. She was normotensive and there was no evidence of virilization. CT scan revealed left adrenal mass, after adrenalectomy it was 8.5×7.5×6.2cm³ in size. There was no evidence of local extension or metastasis. Histopathology confirmed adrenal leiomyosarcome. PMID:24858171

Alam, M M; Naser, M F; Islam, M F; Rahman, M A

2014-04-01

11

Adult Female Walruses on Ice Floe with Young  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Adult female walruses on ice floe with young.  Notice the radio tag borne on her her upper mid back.  This tag will monitor resting and foraging behavior and convey the information back to USGS scientists....

12

5 BODY COMPOSITION IN NON REPRODUCTIVE ADULT MALES AND FEMALES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earlier studies showed that adult mice from a line selected for high litter size (S-line), in particular females, had higher residual food intake (RFI) than mice from a non-selected control line (C-line). It was suggested that this increase in RFI, in particular the mature selected females, may anticipate the metabolically stressful periods of pregnancy and lactation. The present study investigated

W. M. Rauw; P. W. Knap; M. W. A. Verstegen; P. Luiting

13

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Transcriptome of the adult female malaria  

E-print Network

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Transcriptome of the adult female malaria mosquito vector Anopheles-Cerón9 , Salvador Hernández-Martínez1 and Mario H Rodríguez López1 Abstract Background: Human Malaria species from different branches of the mosquito evolutionary tree transmit malaria, suggesting

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

14

Radio Tagged Adult Female Walrus on Ice Floe  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Adult female walrus on ice floe photographed shortly after receiving a behavior monitoring satellite-linked radio tag from USGS researchers.  Data acquired from such radio-tags are providing insights on the distribution and behavior of Pacific walruses during a time when their summer sea ice h...

15

African American Female Adult Learners: Motivations, Challenges, and Coping Strategies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Used data from a series of focus groups to examine the experiences of adult African American females in higher education. The article highlights participants' motivations, challenges, and sources of strength as they worked toward their academic goals. Women entered education for reasons over and beyond their own personal landscape. Their lives…

Coker, Angela D.

2003-01-01

16

Patterns of coalition formation by adult female baboons in Amboseli, Kenya  

E-print Network

Patterns of coalition formation by adult female baboons in Amboseli, Kenya JOAN B. SILK*, SUSAN C in shaping the pattern of coalitionary activity among adult female savannah baboons, Papio cynocephalus, are thought to be functionally linked to the existence of alliances between females. Female savannah baboons

Alberts, Susan C

17

Characteristics of male partners of adult female incest survivors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interpersonal style of male partners of adult female incest survivors was investigated. Two groups of men (partners of\\u000a incest survivors, n=30; and a control group, n=30) completed the Narcissistic Personality Inventory and the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire. A multivariate analysis\\u000a of variance failed to support clinically-based hypotheses (a) that partners of incest survivors would exhibit a greater sense\\u000a of entitlement

Bonnie Lambourn-Kavcic; H. D. “Jim” Day

1995-01-01

18

Adult female of Strongyloides stercoralis in respiratory secretions  

PubMed Central

Objective To communicate the presence of adult females, rabditoid larvae and eggs of Strongyloides stercoralis (S. stercoralis) in the respiratory secretions obtained by tracheal aspirate from a HIV-negative patient who was suffering from polymyositis, and treated with corticoids and amethopterin and assisted by pneumonia. Methods The respiratory secretions submitted to the Parasitology Laboratory of the Muñiz Hospital were made more concentrated by centrifugation (1?500 r/min for 15 seconds). Wet mount microscopy was performed with the pellet. Results It revealed adult females, rabditoid larvae and eggs of S. stercoralis. Further parasitological studies performed after the start of the treatment with ivermectin on fresh fecal samples, gastric lavages and tracheal aspirates showed scanty mobile filariform and rabditoid larvae of the same parasite. Conclusions The presence of adult female S. stercoralis which has never been observed before in the clinical samples submitted to our Laboratory for investigation can be considered as an indirect marker of the severe immunosupression of the patient. PMID:23620857

Bava, Bava Amadeo Javier; Cecilia, Domínguez; Alcides, Troncoso

2013-01-01

19

Workplace Inhalant Abuse in Adult Female: Brief Report  

PubMed Central

Inhalant abuse is the purposeful inhalation of intoxicating gases and vapors for the purpose of achieving an altered mental state. With its propensity for being yet an under-recognized form of substance use, being gateway to hard substances, cross-cultural penetration crossing socioeconomic boundaries, and causing significant morbidity and mortality in early ages, the prevention of inhalant misuse is a highly pertinent issue. This clinical report identifies a newer perspective in the emergence of inhalant abuse initiation. We report a case of an adult female with late onset of inhalant dependence developing at workplace and recommend for greater awareness, prevention, and management of this expanding substance abuse problem. PMID:22937412

Verma, Rohit; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Deshpande, Smita N.

2011-01-01

20

Female zebra finches require early song exposure to prefer high-quality song as adults  

E-print Network

Female zebra finches require early song exposure to prefer high-quality song as adults CHRISTINE adult female zebra finch, Taeniopygia guttata, song preferences. Females were reared in conditions on song learning has focused on highly sexually dimorphic species such as the zebra finch, Taeniopygia

Devoogd, Timothy John

21

BMI can influence adult males’ and females’ airway hyperresponsiveness differently  

PubMed Central

Background Epidemiological data indicate that obesity is a risk factor for asthma, but scientific literature is still debating the association between changes in body mass index (BMI) and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). Methods This study aimed at evaluating the influence of BMI on AHR, in outpatients with symptoms suggestive of asthma. 4,217 consecutive adult subjects (2,439 M; mean age: 38.2±14.9 yrs; median FEV1 % predicted: 100 [IQR:91.88-107.97] and FEV1/FVC % predicted: 85.77% [IQR:81.1-90.05]), performed a methacholine challenge test for suspected asthma. Subjects with PD20 < 200 or 200 < PD20 < 800 or PD20 > 800 were considered affected by severe, moderate or mild AHR, respectively. Results A total of 2,520 subjects (60% of all cases) had a PD20 < 3,200 ?g, with a median PD20 of 366 ?g [IQR:168–1010.5]; 759, 997 and 764 patients were affected by mild, moderate and severe AHR, respectively. BMI was not associated with increasing AHR in males. On the contrary, obese females were at risk for AHR only when those with moderate AHR were considered (OR: 1.772 [1.250-2.512], p = 0.001). A significant reduction of FEV1/FVC for unit of BMI increase was found in moderate AHR, both in males (? = ?0.255; p =0.023) and in females (? = ?0.451; p =0.017). Conclusions Our findings indicate that obesity influences AHR only in females with a moderate AHR level. This influence may be mediated by obesity-associated changes in baseline lung function. PMID:23157852

2012-01-01

22

Hormones associated with friendship between adult male and lactating female olive baboons, Papio hamadryas anubis.  

E-print Network

??Adult male and lactating female olive baboons (Papio hamadryas anubis) form non-sexual attachments described by researchers as "friendships." Explanations for the evolutionary function of baboon… (more)

Shur, Marc David

2008-01-01

23

Social relationships between adult females and the alpha male in wild tufted capuchin monkeys.  

PubMed

Primates are notable for the widespread presence of long-term female-male associations which go beyond the mating context. However, little attention has been given to the factors that affect within-species variation in female-male relationships, especially among New World primates. Although detailed accounts of heterosexual relationships in Cebus species are scarce, a few studies have suggested the occurrence of strong associations between adult females and high-ranking males. This study explores affiliative relationships between females and the alpha male during the nonbreeding season in wild tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella nigritus). Affiliative relationships were explored through female-male patterns of spatial proximity and grooming. By adopting a social network approach, we analyzed: (1) whether the alpha male is the preferred male partner for females and, (2) whether variation (if any) in female-alpha male affiliation can be explained through both female individual characteristics and social network metrics. Our results showed that alpha males were the favorite male partner for adult females in the proximity networks, but this did not hold true in the grooming networks. In addition, female-alpha male interaction patterns showed considerable variation, with only some females being strongly associated with the alpha male. Our results suggest that such a variation can be explained by female dominance rank, level of centrality (the quantity and intensity of spatial connection with other females) and prestige (the quantity of grooming received by other females) in female-female social networks. Taken together, these findings highlight two aspects of female-alpha male relationships in tufted capuchin monkeys: the alpha male represents the most socially integrated male in the group, and females with high dominance ranks and high centrality in both proximity and grooming networks show stronger relationships with the alpha male. PMID:21698660

Tiddi, Barbara; Aureli, Filippo; Schino, Gabriele; Voelkl, Bernhard

2011-08-01

24

Distribution of kisspeptin neurones in the adult female mouse brain.  

PubMed

Kisspeptin-GPR54 signalling is essential for normal reproductive functioning. However, the distribution of kisspeptin neuronal cell bodies and their projections is not well established. The present study aimed to provide a detailed account of kisspeptin neuroanatomy in the mouse brain. Using a polyclonal rabbit antibody AC566, directed towards the final ten C-terminal amino acids of murine kisspeptin, three populations of kisspeptin-expressing cell bodies were identified in the adult female mouse brain. One exists as a dense periventricular continuum of cells within the rostral part of the third ventricle, another is found within the arcuate nucleus, and another is identified as a low-density group of scattered cells within the dorsomedial nucleus and posterior hypothalamus. Kisspeptin-immunoreactive fibres were abundant within the ventral aspect of the lateral septum and within the hypothalamus running in periventricular and ventral retrochiasmatic pathways. Notable exclusions from the kisspeptin fibre innervation were the suprachiasmatic and ventromedial nuclei. Outside of the hypothalamus, a small number of kisspeptin fibres were identified in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, subfornical organ, medial amygdala, paraventricular thalamus, periaqueductal grey and locus coerulus. All kisspeptin cell body and fibre immunoreactivity was absent in brain tissue from Kiss1 knockout mice. These observations provide a map of kisspeptin neurones in the mouse brain and indicate that a limited number of mostly medial hypothalamic and lateral septal brain regions are innervated by the three hypothalamic kisspeptin cell populations; the functions of these projections remain to be established. PMID:19515163

Clarkson, J; d'Anglemont de Tassigny, X; Colledge, W H; Caraty, A; Herbison, A E

2009-08-01

25

SEASONAL MOVEMENTS OF ADULT FEMALE POLAR BEARS IN THE BERING AND CHUKCHI SEAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten adult female polar bears (Ursus maritimus) were fitted with satellite telemetry collars during March 1986 in the Kotzebue Sound area of the Chukchi Sea. During March-April 1987, 2 of these bears were refitted with satellite telemetry collars and an additional 10 adult females were collared in the northern Bering and eastern Chukchi seas. Data for 1,560 point locations recorded

GERALD W. GARNER; STEVEN T. KNICK; DAVID C. DOUGLAS

26

Self-selection and perception threshold in adult females of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera, Tephritidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were conducted on adult females of Ceratitis capitata to determine (1) whether feeding a protein source in adulthood increases egg production (2) whether the females are self-selective with respect to feeding, and (3) whether deprivation of a protein source alters the perception threshold for this nutrient. The results obtained showed: that when a protein source is ingested throughout adult

Jomara Alves Cangussu; Fernando Sérgio Zucoloto

1995-01-01

27

Mate Choice in Adult Female Bengalese Finches: Females Express Consistent Preferences for Individual Males and Prefer Female-Directed Song Performances  

PubMed Central

In the process of mate selection by female songbirds, male suitors advertise their quality through reproductive displays in which song plays an important role. Females evaluate the quality of each signal and the associated male, and the results of that evaluation guide expression of selective courtship displays. Some studies reveal broad agreement among females in their preferences for specific signal characteristics, indicating that those features are especially salient in female mate choice. Other studies reveal that females differ in their preference for specific characteristics, indicating that in those cases female evaluation of signal quality is influenced by factors other than simply the physical properties of the signal. Thus, both the physical properties of male signals and specific traits of female signal evaluation can impact female mate choice. Here, we characterized the mate preferences of female Bengalese finches. We found that calls and copulation solicitation displays are equally reliable indicators of female preference. In response to songs from an array of males, each female expressed an individual-specific song preference, and those preferences were consistent across tests spanning many months. Across a population of females, songs of some males were more commonly preferred than others, and females preferred female-directed songs more than undirected songs, suggesting that some song features are broadly attractive. Preferences were indistinguishable for females that did or did not have social experience with the singers, indicating that female preference is strongly directed by song features rather than experiences associated with the singer. Analysis of song properties revealed several candidate parameters that may influence female evaluation. In an initial investigation of those parameters, females could be very selective for one song feature yet not selective for another. Therefore, multiple song parameters are evaluated independently. Together these findings reveal the nature of signal evaluation and mate choice in this species. PMID:24558501

Dunning, Jeffery L.; Pant, Santosh; Bass, Aaron; Coburn, Zachary; Prather, Jonathan F.

2014-01-01

28

Educational Level of Female Teenagers and Young Adults Declines.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sichuan Provincial Women's Federation surveyed 513 married and 517 unmarried young women concerning their educational level in order to explore the life of rural women. An additional survey of both young males and females suggests that the decline of young women's educational level is greater than that of young males. (KO)

Wang, Shuhui

1989-01-01

29

Predicting Adolescent and Adult Antisocial Behavior among Adjudicated Delinquent Females  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies identifying the mechanisms underlying the causes and consequences of antisocial behavior among female delinquents as they transit to adulthood are scarce and have important limitations: Most are based on official statistics, they typically are restricted to normative samples, and rarely do they gather prospective data from samples of…

Cernkovich, Stephen A.; Lanctot, Nadine; Giordano, Peggy C.

2008-01-01

30

Young adult females' perceptions of high-risk social media behaviors: a focus-group approach.  

PubMed

This study describes young adult female college students' perceptions of risky social media behaviors. A sample of 14 young adult females, aged 18-22 years and residing in an urban university, participated in 1 of 3 focus groups held in campus housing. Data analysis yielded 4 themes surrounding young adults' engagement in risky behaviors associated with social media. Themes described the predominant culture, associated risk, and prevention. Important insights into young adult female college students' thoughts on risky social media behaviors can be used by advanced practice nurses to inform preventive education for young college women. PMID:25051319

Virden, Amber L; Trujillo, Angelia; Predeger, Elizabeth

2014-01-01

31

Female Infertility  

MedlinePLUS

Infertility is a term doctors use if a woman hasn't been able to get pregnant after ... woman keeps having miscarriages, it is also called infertility. Female infertility can result from physical problems, hormone ...

32

The gubernaculum in adult female, adult male and TFM male mice.  

PubMed

There is still controversy over whether androgens are involved in gubernacular migration during descent of the testis, prompting a review of anatomical events controlled by androgens. The gubernacular position in adult female, male, and testicular feminized male (TFM) mice (with complete androgen resistance) was observed macroscopically to determine its caudal limit and whether the adult TFM male still contained guvernacular bulk. The length of the processus vaginalis was measured, and the presence of a differentiated cremaster muscle was determined histologically. In 10 adult female mice there was neither a processus vaginalis nor a cremaster muscle, and the gubernaculum (round ligament of the ovary) attached to the external inguinal ring. In 10 adult TFM mice the gubernaculum ended at or just beyond the external ring, and was present in an amount corresponding to its size at the end of the outgrowth phase of development, with secondary infiltration by fat. The processus vaginalis was poorly developed, the cremaster muscle was undifferentiated, and there was no eversion of the cremaster sac. In 10 normal adult male mice the gubernaculum and testis had migrated to the scrotum, and the gubernaculum had regressed fully. Because gubernacular development in the androgen-resistant mouse cases after termination of transabdominal testicular migration, the anatomy of the adult confirms that, in the mouse, normal androgenic function is essential for eversion of the cremaster sac and gubernacular migration beyond the groin to the genital folds. PMID:8132381

Griffiths, A L; Momose, Y; Hutson, J M

1993-12-01

33

Adult Female and Male Zebra Finches Show Distinct Patterns of Spine Deficits  

E-print Network

Adult Female and Male Zebra Finches Show Distinct Patterns of Spine Deficits in an Auditory Area learning are unknown. We raised male and female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) with differing amounts will never produce a complex song if this does not occur. For example, zebra finch (Taeniopy- gia guttata

Devoogd, Timothy John

34

A Comparison of the Abuse Experiences of Male and Female Adults Molested as Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To determine whether the molestation experiences of boys and girls differ, this study analyzed data from 365 adults (40 male and 325 female) molested as children, and compared findings for males and females on the identity of the perpetrator, age at onset and end of molestation, duration of molestation, type of sexual acts, and whether the…

Kendall-Tackett, Kathleen A.; Simon, Arthur F.

35

Maternal kin bias in affiliative behavior among wild adult female blue monkeys.  

PubMed

Kin-biased cooperative and affiliative behavior is widespread in social mammals and is expected to increase fitness. However, despite evolutionary benefits of cooperating with relatives, demographic circumstances may influence the strength of kin bias. We studied the relationship between maternal kinship and affiliative behavior among 78 wild adult female blue monkeys (Cercopithecus mitis) from 8 groups monitored for 1-5 years. We compared behavior and kinship matrices, controlling for rank differences. Using multivariate models, we examined effects of demographic variables on the extent to which females groomed disproportionately with close adult female kin. Female blue monkeys, like other cercopithecine primates, generally preferred closer maternal kin for grooming and spatial association, although there was also substantial variation. Kin bias was weakest for association (at 7?m) while feeding, intermediate for closer (1?m) association while resting, and most intense for grooming. Grooming kin bias was stronger when a female had more very close relatives (either her mother or daughters), when her group contained more adult females, when she groomed with a lower percentage of group-mates, and when she had fewer total kin. Dominance rank did not predict variation in kin bias. Females generally groomed with all kin, but in larger groups they increased the number of unrelated grooming partners and total grooming time. The increased kin bias intensity in larger groups resulted from the addition of unrelated partners with whom grooming occurred less often than with kin, rather than from time constraints that drove females to select kin more strongly. In natural-sized groups, it may be common that females groom with all their adult female kin, which are present in limited numbers. The addition of grooming partners in larger groups may benefit female blue monkeys who rely on collective action in territorial defense; group-wide cooperation may thus influence grooming decisions in this species. Am. J. Primatol. 77:109-123, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25219933

Cords, Marina; Nikitopoulos, Eleni

2015-01-01

36

Serotonin signaling in the brain of adult female mice is required for sexual preference  

PubMed Central

A role for serotonin in male sexual preference was recently uncovered by our finding that male mutant mice lacking serotonin have lost sexual preference. Here we show that female mouse mutants lacking either central serotonergic neurons or serotonin prefer female over male genital odors when given a choice, and displayed increased female–female mounting when presented either with a choice of a male and a female target or only with a female target. Pharmacological manipulations and genetic rescue experiments showed that serotonin is required in adults. Behavioral changes caused by deficient serotonergic signaling were not due to changes in plasma concentrations of sex hormones. We demonstrate that a genetic manipulation reverses sexual preference without involving sex hormones. Our results indicate that serotonin controls sexual preference. PMID:23716677

Zhang, Shasha; Liu, Yan; Rao, Yi

2013-01-01

37

Balancing Act: A Phenomenological Study of Female Adult Learners Who Successfully Persisted in Graduate Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted utilizing Cross' (1981) barriers to adult learning as a framework to better understand how adults successfully complete their graduate studies. Participants in the study were solicited via Facebook and LinkedIn. Three female adult learners who persisted in their graduate studies while balancing demands outside academics…

Shepherd, Jeff; Nelson, Barbara Mullins

2012-01-01

38

Genetic and environemental factors in conduct problems and adult antisocial behavior among adult female twins.  

PubMed

Most twin and adoption studies of conduct problems have demonstrated modest genetic effects but substantial contributions of shared family environment. Conversely, most investigations have shown marked genetic influences but modest contributions of shared family environment in adult antisocial behavior. However, most previous work has focused on male subjects. We obtained retrospective reports of DSM-III-R-defined conduct disorder (CD) and adult antisocial behaviors from a population-based sample of female-female twin pairs. Genetic and environmental contributions to conduct problems and adult antisocial behaviors were examined using polychoric correlation coefficients and univariate structural equation modeling. Statistically significant but modest heritability was observed for conduct problems. A small, statistically nonsignificant contribution of shared family environment to CD behavior was also noted. Adult antisocial symptoms showed modest contributions of both additive genetic and shared family environmental factors. In both childhood and adulthood, the largest influence on antisocial behavior was individual-specific environment. Our findings support the importance of both genetic and environmental factors in antisocial behavior among women as well as the possibility that the relative importance of each set of influences differs by sex in both childhood and adulthood. PMID:11339315

Goldstein, R B; Prescott, C A; Kendler, K S

2001-04-01

39

Estrogen receptor 1 modulates circadian rhythms in adult female mice.  

PubMed

Estradiol influences the level and distribution of daily activity, the duration of the free-running period, and the behavioral phase response to light pulses. However, the mechanisms by which estradiol regulates daily and circadian rhythms are not fully understood. We tested the hypothesis that estrogens modulate daily activity patterns via both classical and "non-classical" actions at the estrogen receptor subtype 1 (ESR1). We used female transgenic mice with mutations in their estrogen response pathways; ESR1 knock-out (ERKO) mice and "non-classical" estrogen receptor knock-in (NERKI) mice. NERKI mice have an ESR1 receptor with a mutation in the estrogen-response-element binding domain, allowing only actions via "non-classical" genomic and second messenger pathways. Ovariectomized female NERKI, ERKO, and wildtype (WT) mice were given a subcutaneous capsule with low- or high-dose estradiol and compared with counterparts with no hormone replacement. We measured wheel-running activity in a light:dark cycle and constant darkness, and the behavioral phase response to light pulses given at different points during the subjective day and night. Estradiol increased average daily wheel-running, consolidated activity to the dark phase, and shortened the endogenous period in WT, but not NERKI and ERKO mice. The timing of activity onset during entrainment was advanced in all estradiol-treated animals regardless of genotype suggesting an ESR1-independent mechanism. We propose that estradiol modifies period, activity level, and distribution of activity via classical actions of ESR1 whereas an ESR1 independent mechanism regulates the phase of rhythms. PMID:24527952

Blattner, Margaret S; Mahoney, Megan M

2014-06-01

40

The quality of life in adult female patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia: A comprehensive study of the impact of genital malformations and chronic disease on female patients life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia have been frequently studied in order to determine the impact of prenatal androgen exposure on various aspects of psychological, psychosocial and psychosexual development. There is no published study to evaluate the impact of the genital malformation, genital operations and chronic medication on the quality of life in adult females with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. We

Ursula Kuhnle; Monika Bullinger; H. P. Schwarz

1995-01-01

41

Female competition in chimpanzees  

PubMed Central

Female chimpanzees exhibit exceptionally slow rates of reproduction and raise their offspring without direct paternal care. Therefore, their reproductive success depends critically on long-term access to high-quality food resources over a long lifespan. Chimpanzee communities contain multiple adult males, multiple adult females and their offspring. Because males are philopatric and jointly defend the community range while most females transfer to new communities before breeding, adult females are typically surrounded by unrelated competitors. Communities are fission–fusion societies in which individuals spend time alone or in fluid subgroups, whose size depends mostly on the abundance and distribution of food. To varying extents in different populations, females avoid direct competition by foraging alone or in small groups in distinct, but overlapping core areas within the community range to which they show high fidelity. Although rates of aggression are low, females compete for space and access to food. High rank correlates with high reproductive success, and high-ranking females win direct contests for food and gain preferential access to resource-rich sites. Females are aggressive to immigrant females and even kill the newborn infants of community members. The intensity of such aggression correlates with population density. These patterns are compared to those in other species, including humans. PMID:24167307

Pusey, Anne E.; Schroepfer-Walker, Kara

2013-01-01

42

Intermittent Brugada Syndrome Presenting with Syncope in an Adult Female  

PubMed Central

Background. Brugada syndrome accounts for 4–12% of all sudden deaths worldwide and at least 20% of sudden deaths in patients with structurally normal hearts. Case Report. A 48-year-old female presented to the emergency department after two witnessed syncopal episodes. While awaiting discharge had a third collapse followed by cardiac arrest with shockable rhythm. Initial electrocardiogram showed wide QRS complex with left axis deviation, ST-segment elevation of <1?mm in V1 and V2, and flattening of T waves in V1. The angiogram did not demonstrate obstructive coronary disease. The electrocardiogram obtained two days after these events showed a right bundle branch block with ST-segment elevation of >2?mm followed by a negative T wave with no isoelectric separation, suggestive of spontaneous intermittent Brugada type 1 pattern. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated neither structural heart disease nor abnormal myocardium. After placement of an implantable cardioverter defibrillator the patient was discharged. Why should an emergency physician be aware of this? Brugada syndrome is an infrequently encountered clinical entity which may have a fatal outcome. This syndrome primarily presents with syncope. It should be considered as a component of differential diagnosis in patients with family history of syncope and sudden cardiac death. PMID:25371832

Chavez, Patricia; Bhandary, Akshai; Herzog, Eyal

2014-01-01

43

A Behavioral Comparison of Male and Female Adults with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Conditions  

PubMed Central

Autism spectrum conditions (ASC) affect more males than females in the general population. However, within ASC it is unclear if there are phenotypic sex differences. Testing for similarities and differences between the sexes is important not only for clinical assessment but also has implications for theories of typical sex differences and of autism. Using cognitive and behavioral measures, we investigated similarities and differences between the sexes in age- and IQ-matched adults with ASC (high-functioning autism or Asperger syndrome). Of the 83 (45 males and 38 females) participants, 62 (33 males and 29 females) met Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) cut-off criteria for autism in childhood and were included in all subsequent analyses. The severity of childhood core autism symptoms did not differ between the sexes. Males and females also did not differ in self-reported empathy, systemizing, anxiety, depression, and obsessive-compulsive traits/symptoms or mentalizing performance. However, adult females with ASC showed more lifetime sensory symptoms (p?=?0.036), fewer current socio-communication difficulties (p?=?0.001), and more self-reported autistic traits (p?=?0.012) than males. In addition, females with ASC who also had developmental language delay had lower current performance IQ than those without developmental language delay (p<0.001), a pattern not seen in males. The absence of typical sex differences in empathizing-systemizing profiles within the autism spectrum confirms a prediction from the extreme male brain theory. Behavioral sex differences within ASC may also reflect different developmental mechanisms between males and females with ASC. We discuss the importance of the superficially better socio-communication ability in adult females with ASC in terms of why females with ASC may more often go under-recognized, and receive their diagnosis later, than males. PMID:21695147

Lai, Meng-Chuan; Lombardo, Michael V.; Pasco, Greg; Ruigrok, Amber N. V.; Wheelwright, Sally J.; Sadek, Susan A.; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Baron-Cohen, Simon

2011-01-01

44

A possible physiological role of taurine in the adult female rat liver  

E-print Network

A possible physiological role of taurine in the adult female rat liver Y. PIERRE, Fernande. In agreement with previous results (Awapara, 1956), we noted that the tau- rine level in the liver of the adult as a concentration (ymoles/g of liver). Furthermore, we observ- ed a significant decrease of the taurine level

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

45

Postnatal masculinization alters the HPA axis phenotype in the adult female rat.  

PubMed

The ability of postnatal testosterone propionate (TP) to masculinize both behaviour and gonadal cyclicity in the female rat is well documented. We have investigated whether postnatal androgen also has an organizational effect on another sexually dimorphic neuroendocrine system--the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Female rats were exposed to a single injection of testosterone propionate (TP) or oil within 24 h of birth. As adults, rats were either ovariectomized and given 17beta-oestradiol replacement (OVXE2) or sham ovariectomized with cholesterol implants (SHOVX). An automated sampling system collected blood from unanaesthetized adult female rats every 10 min over a 24-h period, during a mild psychological stress (noise) and following an immunological lipopolysaccharide stress (LPS). Neonatal TP-treated SHOVX rats had a significant reduction in the number, height, frequency and amplitude of corticosterone pulses over the basal 24-h period, compared to both the neonatal oil-treated and TP-treated OVXE2 animals. The corticosterone response to both noise and LPS was also significantly decreased for the TP-treated SHOVX females. Three hours post-LPS administration, TP females had significantly lower values of paraventricular nucleus (PVN) corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH), arginine vasopressin (AVP) and anterior pituitary proopiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNAs and greater PVN glucocorticoid receptor (GR) mRNA expression compared to the oil-treated controls. E2 replacement in adult TP rats normalized all the mRNA levels, except for PVN GR mRNA which did fall towards the levels of the oil-control animals. A single injection of TP within 24 h of birth disrupts the development of the characteristic female pattern of corticosterone secretion and the normal female HPA response to stress, resulting in a pattern similar to that seen in males. These effects can be reversed by E2 treatment in the adult TP female rat. PMID:15611026

Seale, J V; Wood, S A; Atkinson, H C; Harbuz, M S; Lightman, S L

2005-02-15

46

Modest maternal protein restriction fails to program adult hypertension in female rats.  

PubMed

Modest maternal dietary protein restriction in the rat leads to hypertension in adult male offspring. The purpose of this study was to determine whether female rats are resistant to developing the increased blood pressure seen in male rats after maternal protein restriction. Pregnant rats were fed a normal protein (19%, NP) or low-protein (8.5%, LP) diet throughout gestation. Renal renin protein and ANG II levels were reduced by 50-65% in male LP compared with NP pups, but were not suppressed in female LP compared with female NP. Mean arterial pressure in conscious, chronically instrumented adult female offspring (22 wk) was not different in LP (LP: 120 +/- 3 mmHg vs. NP: 121 +/- 2 mmHg), and glomerular filtration rate was also not different in LP vs. NP. The number of glomeruli per kidney was similar in adult LP and NP female offspring (LP: 26,050 +/- 2,071 vs. NP: 26,248 +/- 1,292, NP), and individual glomerular volume was also not different (LP: 0.92 +/- 0.11 10(6) microm(3), LP vs. NP: 1.07 +/- 0.11 10(6) microm(3)); the total volume of all glomeruli per kidney was also not significantly different. Thus female rats are relatively resistant to the programming for adult hypertension by perinatal protein restriction that we have described in males. This resistance may be due to the fact that modest maternal protein restriction does not reduce the number of glomeruli with which females are endowed as it does in males. The intrarenal renin-angiotensin system during development may play a key role in this protective effect of female gender. PMID:15961538

Woods, Lori L; Ingelfinger, Julie R; Rasch, Ruth

2005-10-01

47

Perinatal salt restriction: a new pathway to programming adiposity indices in adult female Wistar rats.  

PubMed

Low birth weight has been associated with increased obesity in adulthood. It has been shown that dietary salt restriction during intrauterine life induces low birth weight and insulin resistance in adult Wistar rats. The present study had a two-fold objective: to evaluate the effects that low salt intake during pregnancy and lactation has on the amount and distribution of adipose tissue; and to determine whether the phenotypic changes in fat mass in this model are associated with alterations in the activity of the renin-angiotensin system. Maternal salt restriction was found to reduce birth weight in male and female offspring. In adulthood, the female offspring of dams fed the low-salt diet presented higher adiposity indices than those seen in the offspring of dams fed a normal-salt diet. This was attributed to the fact that adipose tissue mass (retroperitoneal but not gonadal, mesenteric or inguinal) was greater in those rats than in the offspring of dams fed a normal diet. The adult offspring of dams fed the low-salt diet, compared to those dams fed a normal-salt diet, presented the following: plasma leptin levels higher in males and lower in females; plasma renin activity higher in males but not in females; and no differences in body weight, mean arterial blood pressure or serum angiotensin-converting enzyme activity. Therefore, low salt intake during pregnancy might lead to the programming of obesity in adult female offspring. PMID:18289603

Lopes, Karen L; Furukawa, Luzia N S; de Oliveira, Ivone B; Dolnikoff, Miriam S; Heimann, Joel C

2008-03-26

48

Comparative Efficacy and Tolerability of Dapsone 5% Gel in Adult Versus Adolescent Females with Acne Vulgaris  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine whether the response to dapsone 5% gel was similar in adolescent girls and adult women with facial acne vulgaris. Design and setting: Subgroup analysis of female subjects with acne vulgaris receiving active treatment enrolled in two randomized, double-blind Phase 3 clinical trials. Treatment: Twice-daily applications of dapsone 5% gel over 12 weeks. Participants: Adolescent (12-17 years of age) and adult (?18 years of age) females. Measurements: At baseline and at Weeks 2,4,6,8, and 12, subjects were evaluated using the global acne assessment score and by counts of inflammatory, noninflammatory, and total acne vulgaris lesions. Adverse events were monitored. Results: A total of 347 adolescent and 434 adult women were included in the subgroup analysis. At Week 12, dapsone 5% gel significantly reduced mean global acne assessment score in both subgroups (p<0.001); however, the proportion of subjects with clinical success (no or minimal acne based on global acne assessment score) at Week 12 was greater in adult women (53.5%) versus adolescent females (45.3%, p=0.022). Significantly greater percentage reductions in both noninflammatory (p<0.0001) and total lesion counts (p=0.0008) were observed in the adult group as compared to the adolescent group. Percentage reductions from baseline in inflammatory lesions were similar in both groups. No major safety issues and no previously unrecognized safety signals were noted. Conclusion: This subgroup analysis of female patients indicates that dapsone 5% gel twice daily is effective in reducing inflammatory and noninflammatory acne vulgaris lesions in both adolescent and adult women, and is safe in these subgroups. Overall, these data suggest that efficacy of dapsone 5% gel twice daily for facial acne vulgaris may be greater in the adult female population. PMID:25610522

Kircik, Leon; Gallagher, Conor J.

2015-01-01

49

Disability, compensatory behavior, and innovation in free-ranging adult female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata).  

PubMed

Little is known about consequences of disability in nonhuman primates, yet individuals with disabilities can reveal much about behavioral flexibility, innovation, and the capabilities of a species. The Macaca fuscata population surrounding the Awajishima Monkey Center has experienced high rates of congenital limb malformation for at least 40 years, creating a unique opportunity to examine consequences of physical impairment in situ, in a relatively large sample of free-ranging adult monkeys. Here we present behavioral data on 11 disabled adult females and 12 nondisabled controls from 279 hours of randomly ordered 30-minute focal animal follows collected during May-August in 2005, 2006, and 2007. We quantified numerous statistically significant disability-related behavioral differences among females. Disabled females spent less time begging for peanuts from tourists, and employed a behavioral variant of such peanut begging; they had a lower frequency of hand use in grooming and compensated with increased direct use of the mouth or a two-arm pinch technique; and they had a higher frequency of self-scratching, and more use of feet in self-scratching. Self-scratching against substrates was almost exclusively a disability associated behavior. Two females used habitual bipedalism. These differences not withstanding, disabled females behaved similarly to controls in many respects: overall reliance on provisioned and wild foods, time spent feeding, and feeding efficiency did not differ among females, and there was no time difference in behavior performed arboreally or terrestrially. Disabled adult females were able to compensate behaviorally to perform social and life-sustaining activities, modifying existing behaviors to suit their individual physical situations and, occasionally, inventing new ways of doing things. PMID:22549480

Turner, Sarah E; Fedigan, Linda M; Matthews, H Damon; Nakamichi, Masayuki

2012-09-01

50

Female sterilization.  

PubMed

There has been considerable development and implementation of new contraceptive methods over the last 15 years. However, sterilization has remained the most widely used method around the world. Ideally, the procedure should be safe, have a high efficacy, be readily accessible, and be personally and culturally acceptable. The cost for each procedure would be low and the method would be simple, quick, easily learned and be able to be performed in an outpatient setting without general anesthesia. A transuterine method of female sterilization has long been the ideal for the gynecologist. The Essure system fulfils many of the criteria, and is the first one to be approved by the US FDA. However, there is still a need for further research to find a device with the success rate of the Essure but without its irreversibility. PMID:18573050

Chapman, Lynne; Magos, Adam

2008-07-01

51

Balancing Work, Family, and Student Roles: A Phenomenological Study of the Adult Female Graduate Online Learner  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this phenomenological study was to gain an understanding of the lived experiences of female adult learners pursuing graduate degrees online. As online graduate programs have become increasingly popular and more readily available in the last decade, more women than men are enrolling in online graduate programs in addition to…

Rousseau, Charlene X.

2012-01-01

52

Identification keys to larval and adult female mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Keys are presented for the identification of larval and adult female life stages of the 12 endemic and four exotic mosquito species known for New Zealand (the keys are to species not genera). The keys include the recent arrival, Ochlerotatus (Ochlerotatus) camptorhynchus (Thomson), and a monotypic genus endemic to New Zealand. A number of Aedine subgenera have been recently raised

Amy E. Snell

2005-01-01

53

Infants Discriminate between Adult Directed and Infant Directed Talk in Both Males and Females.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A total of 60 infants of 7 weeks of age were tested in a habituation-dishabituation looking procedure to determine if they could discriminate between infant-directed talk (IDT) and adult-directed talk (ADT) uttered by the same speaker. One group of 12 infants was habituated to a female speaker's ADT and dishabituated to the same speaker's IDT,…

Pegg, Judith E.; And Others

54

Young adult female fragile X premutation carriers show age-and genetically-modulated cognitive impairments  

E-print Network

Young adult female fragile X premutation carriers show age- and genetically-modulated cognitive Article history: Accepted 3 January 2011 Available online 3 February 2011 Keywords: Fragile X premutation of the fragile X premutation in the general population and its emerging neurocogni- tive implications highlight

Nguyen, Danh

55

Fig. 1. Female (left) and male (right) adult pepper maggots. Introduction  

E-print Network

the bell pepper. Pepper maggot occurrence in pep- per is patchy and sporadic. However, infestation can in Sweet (Bell) Pepper Vonny M. Barlow, Graduate Research Associate, Virginia Tech Tom Kuhar, AssistantFig. 1. Female (left) and male (right) adult pepper maggots. Introduction The pepper maggot

Liskiewicz, Maciej

56

Neonatal Isolation Stress Potentiates Cocaine Seeking Behavior in Adult Male and Female Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known with regard to how sex and stress might interact as vulnerability factors in cocaine abuse. In this study, we compared the effects of neonatal isolation stress on cocaine self-administration under extended access conditions and on subsequent responding in a cue-induced reinstatement paradigm in adult male and female rats. Pups from each litter were subjected to either neonatal

Wendy J Lynch; Lauren D Mangini; Jane R Taylor

2005-01-01

57

New Insights into the Comorbidity between ADHD and Major Depression in Adolescent and Young Adult Females  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and major depression (MD) in adolescent and young adult females is evaluated. Findings indicate that MD emerging in the context of ADHD is an impairing and severe comorbidity that needs to be considered further clinically and scientifically.

Biederman, Joseph; Ball, Sarah W.; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Mick, Eric; Spencer, Thomas J.; McCreary, Michelle; Cote, Michelle; Faraone, Stephen V.

2008-01-01

58

Prevalence and Correlates of Suicidal Behavior among Adult Female Victims of Intimate Partner Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The prevalence and correlates of suicidal threats and attempts among 662 racially and ethnically diverse adult female victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) were studied. One in five women had threatened or attempted suicide during her lifetime. They observed that multiple logistic regression results indicated that women at greater risk of…

Cavanaugh, Courtenay E.; Messing, Jill Theresa; Del-Colle, Melissa; O'Sullivan, Chris; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.

2011-01-01

59

When Your "Problem" Becomes Mine: Adult Female Siblings' Perspectives of Having a Brother with a Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is a retrospective look at adult female siblings' perspectives of their childhoods and present identities based on having a brother with a disability. This paper focuses on siblings' experiences within educational and public domains, and how such experiences have shaped their personalities and career choices. Qualitative findings were…

Pompeo, Michelle N.

2009-01-01

60

Identification of female adult Lasioderma serricorne (F.) by simple external observation of the abdomen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lasioderma serricorne (F.) adults were examined under a stereomicroscope after being placed in 70% alcohol or benzene for about 5min. The urosternites were thus rendered transparent and the V-shaped apodeme (important sexual characteristic of the female) was made visible through simple external observation, without dissection of their abdomen.

S. Ch. Papadopoulou; C. Th. Buchelos

2002-01-01

61

Effect of methamphetamine on cognitive functions of adult female rats prenatally exposed to the same drug.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of prenatal methamphetamine (MA) exposure and application of the same drug in adulthood on cognitive functions of adult female rats. Animals were prenatally exposed to MA (5 mg/kg) or saline (control group). The cognitive function was tested as ability of spatial learning in the Morris Water Maze (MWM). Each day of the experiment animals received an injection of MA (1 mg/kg) or saline. Our results demonstrated that prenatal MA exposure did not affect the latency to reach the hidden platform or the distance traveled during the Place Navigation Test; however, the speed of swimming was increased in prenatally MA-exposed rats compared to controls regardless of the treatment in adulthood. MA treatment in adulthood increased the latency and distance when compared to controls regardless of the prenatal exposure. Neither prenatal exposure, nor treatment in adulthood affected memory retrieval. As far as the estrous cycle is concerned, our results showed that prenatally MA-exposed females in proestrus/estrus swam faster than females in diestrus. This effect of estrous cycle was not apparent in control females. In conclusion, our results indicate that postnatal, but not prenatal exposure to MA affects learning of adult female rats. PMID:24329708

Macúchová, E; Nohejlová-Deykun, K; Slamberová, R

2013-12-12

62

Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma of the breast in an adult female.  

PubMed

Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma (KHE) is a locally aggressive vascular tumor that usually occurs in infants. It is commonly associated with Kasabach-Merritt syndrome and lymphangiomatosis. It generally originates on the skin, later affecting deeper tissue by infiltrative growth. Although visceral involvement is very uncommon, several cases with bone, retroperitoneal, or mediastinal involvement have been described. However, to our knowledge, a KHE in breast tissue has never previously been reported. Furthermore, the development of this type of tumor in adolescents and adults is very rare. We treated a 32-year-old woman with a right breast mass that was diagnosed based on pathologic examination as a KHE. We performed operations several times because of recurrence of KHE and finally performed mastectomy despite the patient's young age. PMID:21570000

Kim, Min Geun; Choi, Yoo Shin; Park, Sung Jun; Chong, Se Min

2011-04-01

63

The reproductive hormone cycle of adult female American alligators from a barrier island population.  

PubMed

Comparatively, little data are available detailing the geographic variation that exists in the reproductive endocrinology of adult alligators, especially those living in barrier islands. The Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge (MI) is a unique barrier island environment and home to the Kennedy Space Center (FL, USA). Seasonal patterns of sex steroids were assessed in adult female American alligators from MI monthly from 2008 to 2009, with additional samples collected at more random intervals in 2006, 2007, and 2010. Plasma 17?-estradiol and vitellogenin concentrations peaked in April, coincident with courtship and mating, and showed patterns similar to those observed in adult female alligators in other regions. Plasma concentrations of progesterone, however, showed patterns distinctly different than those reported for alligator populations in other regions and remained relatively constant throughout the year. Plasma DHEA peaked in July around the time of oviposition, decreased in August, and then remained constant for the remaining months, except for a moderate increase in October. Circulating concentrations of DHEA have not been previously assessed in a female crocodilian, and plasma concentrations coincident with reproductive activity suggest a reproductive and/or behavioral role. Interestingly, plasma testosterone concentrations peaked in May of 2008, as has been shown in female alligator populations in other regions, but showed no peak in 2009, demonstrating dramatic variability from year to year. Surveys showed 2009 to be particularly depauperate of alligator nests in MI, and it is possible that testosterone could serve as a strong indicator of breeding success. PMID:24608737

Hamlin, Heather J; Lowers, Russell H; Kohno, Satomi; Mitsui-Watanabe, Naoko; Amano, Haruna; Hara, Akihiko; Ohta, Yasuhiko; Miyagawa, Shinichi; Iguchi, Taisen; Guillette, Louis J

2014-06-01

64

Feeding rates and selectivity among nauplii, copepodites and adult females of Calanus finmarchicus and Calanus helgolandicus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study focuses on selective feeding by developmental stages of two oceanic copepods, Calanus finmarchicus and Calanus helgolandicus from nauplii to adults. A mixture of four algal species of different biochemical composition, Prorocentrum nanum (dinoflagellate), Thalassiosira minima (diatom), Rhodomonas baltica (cryptophyte) and Dunaliella tertiolecta (chlorophyte), added in an equal biovolume, was used in three different experimental set-ups. In set-up 1 the algal species were present as single cells of similar size (14 µm). In set-up 2 the diatom T. minima was present in chains of two or three cells and was therefore larger than the other algae, while the biovolume of all species remained the same. In set-up 3, the diatom T. minima was excluded from the mixture. Feeding selectivity of the copepods was assessed in relation to the quality of the algal species expressed in terms of carbon and nitrogen content, fatty acid composition, and chain length of the diatom. The results show that younger stages and adult females of C. finmarchicus and C. helgolandicus did not show a preference for an algal species when the algae were of similar size. In the feeding experiments where the diatoms were offered as chains, both copepod species showed a selective behaviour only on the basis of algal size. Individual ingestion rates increased from 0.4 to 0.7 µg C day-1 for nauplii of both species to 5 µg C day-1 for adult females of C. helgolandicus to 12 µg C day-1 for C. finmarchicus. Individual filtration rates ranged from 5 ml day-1 for C. finmarchicus nauplii to 70-98 ml day-1 for adult females, and from 3 ml day-1 for C. helgolandicus nauplii to 35-46 ml day-1 for adult females. Ingestion and filtration rates per unit body carbon decreased gradually in both copepod species with increasing body carbon. The daily ingested amount of food decreased for C. finmarchicus from 124-134% of the body carbon for nauplii to 19% of the body carbon for adult females, and for C. helgolandicus from 117-137% of the body carbon for nauplii to 13-26% of the body carbon of adult females.

Meyer, B.; Irigoien, X.; Graeve, M.; Head, R. N.; Harris, R. P.

2002-04-01

65

Lepidium meyenii (Maca) increases litter size in normal adult female mice  

PubMed Central

Background Lepidium meyenii, known as Maca, grows exclusively in the Peruvian Andes over 4000 m altitude. It has been used traditionally to increase fertility. Previous scientific studies have demonstrated that Maca increases spermatogenesis and epididymal sperm count. The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of Maca on several fertility parameters of female mice at reproductive age. Methods Adult female Balb/C mice were divided at random into three main groups: i) Reproductive indexes group, ii) Implantation sites group and iii) Assessment of uterine weight in ovariectomized mice. Animals received an aqueous extract of lyophilized Yellow Maca (1 g/Kg BW) or vehicle orally as treatment. In the fertility indexes study, animals received the treatment before, during and after gestation. The fertility index, gestation index, post-natal viability index, weaning viability index and sex ratio were calculated. Sexual maturation was evaluated in the female pups by the vaginal opening (VO) day. In the implantation study, females were checked for implantation sites at gestation day 7 and the embryos were counted. In ovariectomized mice, the uterine weight was recorded at the end of treatment. Results Implantation sites were similar in mice treated with Maca and in controls. All reproductive indexes were similar in both groups of treatment. The number of pups per dam at birth and at postnatal day 4 was significantly higher in the group treated with Maca. VO day occurred earlier as litter size was smaller. Maca did not affect VO day. In ovariectomized mice, the treatment with Maca increased significantly the uterine weights in comparison to their respective control group. Conclusion Administration of aqueous extract of Yellow Maca to adult female mice increases the litter size. Moreover, this treatment increases the uterine weight in ovariectomized animals. Our study confirms for the first time some of the traditional uses of Maca to enhance female fertility. PMID:15869705

Ruiz-Luna, Ana C; Salazar, Stephanie; Aspajo, Norma J; Rubio, Julio; Gasco, Manuel; Gonzales, Gustavo F

2005-01-01

66

[Psychodynamik focal therapy of bulimia nervosa for female adolescents and young adults].  

PubMed

A manual for a disorder oriented psychodynamic treatment of bulimia nevosa and atypical bulimia nervosa of female adolescents and young adults is presented. This manual is applied in a therapy project, which started in 2007. The work on conflicts and structural dysfunctions is meant to lead to the removal or alleviation of the symptoms and an improvement of eating behavior and body image. The bulimic symptoms are contextualized and focussed according to the conflicts and ego-structural deficits of the patients. Typical patterns of interpersonal relationships, transference, conflict, defence and structural problems as well as therapeutic steps are described. The typical psychosocial situation of female adolescence and young adult age is taken into account. Special emphasis is laid on the limitedness of the therapy to 60 sessions and the active structuring of the final phase of he therapy by the therapist. PMID:24693801

Reich, Günter; Horn, Hildegard; Winkelmann, Klaus; Kronmüller, Klaus-Thomas; Stefini, Anette

2014-01-01

67

Anthropometric measurements of the forearm and their correlation with the stature of Bengali adult Muslim females.  

PubMed

Stature or body height is one of the most important and useful anthropometric parameter that determine the physical identity of an individual. The study was done to estimate stature from the forearm length on one hundred and fifty Bengali adult Muslim females. This descriptive cross sectional study was done in the department of Anatomy, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka, Bangladesh. One hundred and fifty Bengali adult Muslim female was collected from BSMMU & some urban region of Dhaka. Measurement of stature and forearm length of right and left side was taken with a standard anthropometer and a slide caliper respectively. The present study showed significant (p<0.001) positive correlation between the stature and forearm length. PMID:20639830

Laila, S Z; Begum, J A; Ferdousi, R; Parveen, S; Nurunnobi, A M; Yesmin, F

2010-07-01

68

Pesticide methoxychlor promotes the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult-onset disease through the female germline.  

PubMed

Environmental compounds including fungicides, plastics, pesticides, dioxin and hydrocarbons can promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult-onset disease in future generation progeny following ancestral exposure during the critical period of fetal gonadal sex determination. This study examined the actions of the pesticide methoxychlor to promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult-onset disease and associated differential DNA methylation regions (i.e. epimutations) in sperm. Gestating F0 generation female rats were transiently exposed to methoxychlor during fetal gonadal development (gestation days 8 to 14) and then adult-onset disease was evaluated in adult F1 and F3 (great-grand offspring) generation progeny for control (vehicle exposed) and methoxychlor lineage offspring. There were increases in the incidence of kidney disease, ovary disease, and obesity in the methoxychlor lineage animals. In females and males the incidence of disease increased in both the F1 and the F3 generations and the incidence of multiple disease increased in the F3 generation. There was increased disease incidence in F4 generation reverse outcross (female) offspring indicating disease transmission was primarily transmitted through the female germline. Analysis of the F3 generation sperm epigenome of the methoxychlor lineage males identified differentially DNA methylated regions (DMR) termed epimutations in a genome-wide gene promoters analysis. These epimutations were found to be methoxychlor exposure specific in comparison with other exposure specific sperm epimutation signatures. Observations indicate that the pesticide methoxychlor has the potential to promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease and the sperm epimutations appear to provide exposure specific epigenetic biomarkers for transgenerational disease and ancestral environmental exposures. PMID:25057798

Manikkam, Mohan; Haque, M Muksitul; Guerrero-Bosagna, Carlos; Nilsson, Eric E; Skinner, Michael K

2014-01-01

69

Developmental Origins of Pregnancy Loss in the Adult Female Common Marmoset Monkey (Callithrix jacchus)  

PubMed Central

Background The impact of the intrauterine environment on the developmental programming of adult female reproductive success is still poorly understood and potentially underestimated. Litter size variation in a nonhuman primate, the common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus), allows us to model the effects of varying intrauterine environments (e.g. nutrient restriction, exposure to male womb-mates) on the risk of losing fetuses in adulthood. Our previous work has characterized the fetuses of triplet pregnancies as experiencing intrauterine nutritional restriction. Methodology/Principal Findings We used over a decade of demographic data from the Southwest National Primate Research Center common marmoset colony. We evaluated differences between twin and triplet females in the number of pregnancies they produce and the proportion of those pregnancies that ended in fetal loss. We found that triplet females produced the same number of total offspring as twin females, but lost offspring during pregnancy at a significantly higher rate than did twins (38% vs. 13%, p?=?0.02). Regardless of their own birth weight or the sex ratio of the litter the experienced as fetuses, triplet females lost more fetuses than did twins. Females with a male littermate experienced a significant increase in the proportion of stillbirths. Conclusions/Significance These striking findings anchor pregnancy loss in the mother’s own fetal environment and development, underscoring a "Womb to Womb" view of the lifecourse and the intergenerational consequences of development. This has important translational implications for understanding the large proportion of human stillbirths that are unexplained. Our findings provide strong evidence that a full understanding of mammalian life history and reproductive biology requires a developmental foundation. PMID:24871614

Rutherford, Julienne N.; deMartelly, Victoria A.; Layne Colon, Donna G.; Ross, Corinna N.; Tardif, Suzette D.

2014-01-01

70

Social isolation impairs adult neurogenesis in the limbic system and alters behaviors in female prairie voles  

PubMed Central

Disruptions in the social environment, such as social isolation, are distressing and can induce various behavioral and neural changes in the distressed animal. We conducted a series of experiments to test the hypothesis that long-term social isolation affects brain plasticity and alters behavior in the highly social prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster). In Experiment 1, adult female prairie voles were injected with a cell division marker, 5-bromo-2?-deoxyuridine (BrdU), and then same-sex pair-housed (control) or single-housed (isolation) for 6 weeks. Social isolation reduced cell proliferation, survival, and neuronal differentiation and altered cell death in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and the amygdala. In addition, social isolation reduced cell proliferation in the medial preoptic area and cell survival in the ventromedial hypothalamus. These data suggest that long-term social isolation affects distinct stages of adult neurogenesis in specific limbic brain regions. In Experiment 2, isolated females displayed higher levels of anxiety-like behaviors in both the open field and elevated plus maze tests and higher levels of depression-like behavior in the forced swim test than controls. Further, isolated females showed a higher level of affiliative behavior than controls, but the two groups did not differ in social recognition memory. Together, our data suggest that social isolation not only impairs cell proliferation, survival, and neuronal differentiation in limbic brain areas, but also alters anxiety-like, depression-like, and affiliative behaviors in adult female prairie voles. These data warrant further investigation of a possible link between altered neurogenesis within the limbic system and behavioral changes. PMID:22465453

Lieberwirth, Claudia; Liu, Yan; Jia, Xixi; Wang, Zuoxin

2013-01-01

71

Social isolation impairs adult neurogenesis in the limbic system and alters behaviors in female prairie voles.  

PubMed

Disruptions in the social environment, such as social isolation, are distressing and can induce various behavioral and neural changes in the distressed animal. We conducted a series of experiments to test the hypothesis that long-term social isolation affects brain plasticity and alters behavior in the highly social prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster). In Experiment 1, adult female prairie voles were injected with a cell division marker, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU), and then same-sex pair-housed (control) or single-housed (isolation) for 6 weeks. Social isolation reduced cell proliferation, survival, and neuronal differentiation and altered cell death in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and the amygdala. In addition, social isolation reduced cell proliferation in the medial preoptic area and cell survival in the ventromedial hypothalamus. These data suggest that long-term social isolation affects distinct stages of adult neurogenesis in specific limbic brain regions. In Experiment 2, isolated females displayed higher levels of anxiety-like behaviors in both the open field and elevated plus maze tests and higher levels of depression-like behavior in the forced swim test than controls. Further, isolated females showed a higher level of affiliative behavior than controls, but the two groups did not differ in social recognition memory. Together, our data suggest that social isolation not only impairs cell proliferation, survival, and neuronal differentiation in limbic brain areas, but also alters anxiety-like, depression-like, and affiliative behaviors in adult female prairie voles. These data warrant further investigation of a possible link between altered neurogenesis within the limbic system and behavioral changes. PMID:22465453

Lieberwirth, Claudia; Liu, Yan; Jia, Xixi; Wang, Zuoxin

2012-09-01

72

Normal Female Reproductive Anatomy  

MedlinePLUS

... Search Quick Search Image Details Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy View/Download: Small: 720x756 View Download Add to My Pictures Title: Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the female reproductive system; drawing ...

73

Vocal patterns of adult females and juveniles Caiman yacare (Crocodilia: Alligatoridae) in Brazilian Pantanal wetland.  

PubMed

The Paraguayan caiman (Caiman yacare) is the main Caimaninae species occurring in the Brazilian Pantanal Wetland. Despite the relative availability of works focused on biology and conservation of the Paraguayan caiman, almost nothing is known about its vocal structure and behavior. We recorded aggressive calls of adult caiman females guarding nests and, afterwards, the distress calls of the new born juvenile caimans in seasonally flooded areas of the Nhecolândia (Southern Pantanal). The results of both observations and sonographic analyses diverged from studies with other crocodilian species. Aggressive vocalization of adult females of the Paraguayan caiman was longer and more complex than the same vocalization of larger Alligatoridae species. Vocalizations of the young caimans presented interspecific differences with other crocodilian offsprings. Moreover, we found statistically significant intraspecific variation in the distress call structure among different pods, even separated by few kilometers. Differences in distress call structure were tested by Canonical Discriminant Analysis (CDA). We obtained the squared Mahalanobis distances between the acoustic multivariate spaces of each pod provided by the CDA and compared with the geographic distance between the bays of origin of each pod through Mantel Test. The geographic distance by itself did not explain the differences found in the structure of the vocalization of young caimans from different pods. The adult females of Paraguayan caiman positively responded to playbacks of calls from juvenile caimans from pods of other regions, as well as to rough imitations of distress call. Since the adult caimans showed protective responses to quite heterogeneous vocalizations of distress by juveniles, we hypothesized that the variation in the distress call pattern may be associated to a low specificity in sound recognition by adult caimans. PMID:24027931

Sicuro, Fernando L; Iack-Ximenes, Gilson E; Wogel, Henrique; Bilate, Marcos

2013-09-01

74

Sexual Abuse Perpetrated by Adult and Juvenile Females: An Ultimate Attempt to Resolve a Conflict Associated with Maternal Identity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective:: The purpose of this article is to report the descriptive and phenomenological aspects of adult females (AF) and juvenile females (JF) who sexually abuse children and adolescents. A major focus is to study the relational problems during childhood and adulthood of this specific population and how they echo the relational aspects of their…

Tardif, M.; Auclair, N.; Jacob, M.; Carpentier, J.

2005-01-01

75

Adenocarcinoma Arising from Sacrococcygeal Mature Teratoma in an Adult Female: Report of a Case  

PubMed Central

We report a case of adenocarcinoma arising from a sacrococcygeal mature teratoma in an adult female. A 62-year-old female was diagnosed with a presacral tumor 10?years ago. Pelvic computed tomography (CT) demonstrated a presacral heterogeneous tumor, containing multiloculated cystic area and enhanced solid component with calcification. Percutaneous needle biopsy for the solid component of the tumor identified an adenocarcinoma and the patient was diagnosed as having a sacrococcygeal teratoma with malignant transformation. Abdomino-sacral rectal resection with sacral amputation at the upper edge of the S5 was performed. The pathological diagnosis was adenocarcinoma derived from a mature teratoma. The tumor cells had infiltrated the rectal wall. After 7?months, a follow-up CT demonstrated swelling of the right inguinal lymph nodes and a right inguinal lymphadenectomy was performed. Pathological examination showed metastatic lymph nodes. The patient is doing well 21?months after the second surgery, with no signs of recurrence. PMID:24904830

Matsumoto, Naoki; Uehara, Keisuke; Ando, Masataka; Arimoto, Junki; Kato, Takehiro; Nakamura, Hayato; Ebata, Tomoki; Yokoyama, Yukihiro; Nagino, Masato

2014-01-01

76

Estimating total population size for adult female sea turtles: Accounting for non-nesters  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Assessment of population size and changes therein is important to sea turtle management and population or life history research. Investigators might be interested in testing hypotheses about the effect of current population size or density (number of animals per unit resource) on future population processes. Decision makers might want to determine a level of allowable take of individual turtles of specified life stage. Nevertheless, monitoring most stages of sea turtle life histories is difficult, because obtaining access to individuals is difficult. Although in-water assessments are becoming more common, nesting females and their hatchlings remain the most accessible life stages. In some cases adult females of a given nesting population are sufficiently philopatric that the population itself can be well defined. If a well designed tagging study is conducted on this population, survival, breeding probability, and the size of the nesting population in a given year can be estimated. However, with published statistical methodology the size of the entire breeding population (including those females skipping nesting in that year) cannot be estimated without assuming that each adult female in this population has the same probability of nesting in a given year (even those that had just nested in the previous year). We present a method for estimating the total size of a breeding population (including nesters those skipping nesting) from a tagging study limited to the nesting population, allowing for the probability of nesting in a given year to depend on an individual's nesting status in the previous year (i.e., a Markov process). From this we further develop estimators for rate of growth from year to year in both nesting population and total breeding population, and the proportion of the breeding population that is breeding in a given year. We also discuss assumptions and apply these methods to a breeding population of hawksbill sea turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) from the Caribbean. We anticipate that this method could also be useful for in-water studies of well defined populations.

Kendall, W.L.; Richardson, J.I.

2008-01-01

77

Jail baits: how and why nymphs mimic adult females of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The male German cockroach performs a characteristic courtship behaviour upon contacting a sexually receptive female: he turns away from the female and raises his wings, thereby exposing tergal glands whose reservoirs contain phagostimulatory substances. The female then mounts the male and feeds upon these nuptial secretions; this behaviour places her in the appropriate precopulatory position. The contact sex pheromone on

Dorit Eliyahu; Satoshi Nojima; Kenji Mori; Coby Schal

2009-01-01

78

Effect of sericea lespedeza leaf meal pellets on adult female Haemonchus contortus in goats.  

PubMed

Sericea lespedeza (SL; Lespedeza cuneata) is a perennial warm-season forage rich in condensed tannins (CT) that has been reported to have anthelmintic activity against small ruminant gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN), particularly Haemonchus contortus, a highly pathogenic blood-feeder, but the mechanism of action of CT against H. contortus is not clearly understood. An experiment with young goats was designed to study the effect of SL leaf meal pellets on (1) a mature H. contortus infection, and (2) the surface appearance of adult H. contortus female worms. Thirty-six female and castrated male Boer crossbred goats artificially infected with H. contortus larvae were fed 75% SL leaf meal pellets or alfalfa pellets (18 goats/treatment group) in a 28-day confinement feeding trial. Fecal and blood samples were collected weekly for fecal egg count (FEC) and packed cell volume (PCV) determination, respectively, and all goats were slaughtered at the end of the trial for adult GIN recovery and counting. Five adult female H. contortus were recovered from the abomasum of two goats from each treatment group and from a prior study in which 75% and 95% SL leaf meal pellets or a commercial feed pellet were group-fed to grazing goats (270 days old, Spanish males, 10/treatment group) at 0.91kg/head/d for 11 weeks. Adult GIN collected were fixed and examined for evidence of surface damage using scanning electron microscopy. Feeding 75% SL pellets to young goats in confinement reduced (P<0.05) FEC compared with control animals, while total worm numbers and PCV were not influenced by treatment. Three out of the 5 adult H. contortus recovered from SL treatment goats in the confinement feeding trial had cuticular surface damage, while no damage was observed on worms from the control group. All five worms observed from both SL treatments in the grazing study showed a shrunken, disheveled cuticular surface, whereas this was not observed on worms from control animals. Overall, this work suggests that a possible mechanism of action of SL against female H. contortus in the animal's abomasum is a direct action of CT on the cuticle of the worm. PMID:25465738

Kommuru, D S; Whitley, N C; Miller, J E; Mosjidis, J A; Burke, J M; Gujja, S; Mechineni, A; Terrill, T H

2015-01-15

79

Estradiol treatment decreases cell proliferation in the neurogenic zones of adult female zebrafish (Danio rerio) brain.  

PubMed

While estrogens are known to play a crucial role in the neurogenesis of the mammalian and avian brain, their role in teleost adult proliferation pattern is not yet fully understood. The present study aimed to determine the estrogen effects in adult brain proliferation zones, using zebrafish, as a model organism. Indeed, teleost fish brain provides a unique adult neurogenesis model, based on its extensive proliferation, contrasting the restricted adult telencephalic neurogenesis observed in birds and mammals. To determine the effect of estrogens, 17-? estradiol was administrated for 7 days in adult female zebrafish, followed by bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-immunohistochemistry and double immunofluorescence. Stereological analyses of the BrdU-positive cells within the neurogenic zones, showed region-specific decreases of actively proliferating cells in the estrogen-treated animals, compared to matched controls. Interestingly, the most prominent estradiol effects were found in the number of cycling cells of the ventral nucleus of ventral telencephalic area (Vv) and cerebellar areas. Significant decreases were also determined in the dorso-lateral telencephalic, preoptic and dorsal hypothalamic areas. In contrast, medial dorsal telencephalic, caudal (Hc) and ventral (Hv) hypothalamic areas were unaffected by estrogen treatment. The majority of the BrdU-labeled cells were found to co-express PCNA proliferating marker in Hc, Hv and Vv. Additionally, a population of proliferating cells co-expressed the early neuronal marker TOAD in all areas studied. These results provide significant evidence on the 17-? estradiol impact on adult neurogenesis, down-regulating the fast-cycling and post-mitotic cells within the female zebrafish brain neurogenetic zones. PMID:25034512

Makantasi, P; Dermon, C R

2014-09-26

80

Use of Q methodology to assess the concerns of adult female individuals seeking orthodontic treatment  

PubMed Central

Background Orthodontic treatment may cause functional restrictions, discomfort, and pain, which may lead to dental anxiety and noncooperation among patients. This study aimed to assess the concerns of adult female patients with respect to such treatment. Patients and methods We conducted an explorative study using Q methodology among 40 adult female patients with different educational and social backgrounds in Wenzhou, People’s Republic of China. We asked participants to rank a set of 41 statements about seeking orthodontic treatment on an 11-point scale from “agree most” to “disagree most”. The collected data were analyzed using the PQ Method 2.35 program. We extracted significant viewpoints using centroid factor extraction and varimax rotation. Results We identified major factors based on how the patients ranked statements. Patients in group 1 worried about lack of information about orthodontic treatment, and may have suffered from dental phobia; patients in group 2 were all single women, and they were worried that the braces might lower their chances of finding a partner; patients in group 3 worried about appearance and speech with braces; and patients in group 4 worried about cost, pain, and dental hygiene. The remaining participants who had other viewpoints did not load to any of these four groups. Conclusion The concerns of adult female individuals seeking orthodontic treatment are complex. A significant feature of this study was using Q methodology to analyze the psychological characteristics of the patients. This study identified four typical characterizations that are associated with each group, and our findings may aid orthodontists in improving doctor–patient relationships. PMID:25609926

Yao, Linjie; Xu, Xingqiao; Ni, Zhenyu; Zheng, Minling; Lin, Feiou

2015-01-01

81

Organ doses for reference adult male and female undergoing computed tomography estimated by Monte Carlo simulations  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To develop a computed tomography (CT) organ dose estimation method designed to readily provide organ doses in a reference adult male and female for different scan ranges to investigate the degree to which existing commercial programs can reasonably match organ doses defined in these more anatomically realistic adult hybrid phantoms Methods: The x-ray fan beam in the SOMATOM Sensation 16 multidetector CT scanner was simulated within the Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNPX2.6. The simulated CT scanner model was validated through comparison with experimentally measured lateral free-in-air dose profiles and computed tomography dose index (CTDI) values. The reference adult male and female hybrid phantoms were coupled with the established CT scanner model following arm removal to simulate clinical head and other body region scans. A set of organ dose matrices were calculated for a series of consecutive axial scans ranging from the top of the head to the bottom of the phantoms with a beam thickness of 10 mm and the tube potentials of 80, 100, and 120 kVp. The organ doses for head, chest, and abdomen?pelvis examinations were calculated based on the organ dose matrices and compared to those obtained from two commercial programs, CT-EXPO and CTDOSIMETRY. Organ dose calculations were repeated for an adult stylized phantom by using the same simulation method used for the adult hybrid phantom. Results: Comparisons of both lateral free-in-air dose profiles and CTDI values through experimental measurement with the Monte Carlo simulations showed good agreement to within 9%. Organ doses for head, chest, and abdomen?pelvis scans reported in the commercial programs exceeded those from the Monte Carlo calculations in both the hybrid and stylized phantoms in this study, sometimes by orders of magnitude. Conclusions: The organ dose estimation method and dose matrices established in this study readily provides organ doses for a reference adult male and female for different CT scan ranges and technical parameters. Organ doses from existing commercial programs do not reasonably match organ doses calculated for the hybrid phantoms due to differences in phantom anatomy, as well as differences in organ dose scaling parameters. The organ dose matrices developed in this study will be extended to cover different technical parameters, CT scanner models, and various age groups. PMID:21520832

Lee, Choonsik; Kim, Kwang Pyo; Long, Daniel; Fisher, Ryan; Tien, Chris; Simon, Steven L.; Bouville, Andre; Bolch, Wesley E.

2011-01-01

82

Fetal, infant, adolescent and adult phenotypes of polycystic ovary syndrome in prenatally androgenized female rhesus monkeys  

PubMed Central

Old World monkeys provide naturally-occurring and experimentally-induced phenotypes closely resembling the highly prevalent polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in women. In particular, experimentally-induced fetal androgen excess in female rhesus monkeys produces a comprehensive adult PCOS-like phenotype that includes both reproductive and metabolic dysfunction found in PCOS women. Such a reliable experimental approach enables the use of the prenatally androgenized (PA) female rhesus monkey model to (1) examine fetal, infant and adolescent antecedents of adult pathophysiology, gaining valuable insight into early phenotypic expression of PCOS, and (2) to understand adult pathophysiology from a mechanistic perspective. Elevated circulating luteinizing hormone (LH) levels are the earliest indication of reproductive dysfunction in late gestation nonhuman primate fetuses and infants exposed to androgen excess during early (late first to second trimester) gestation. Such early gestation-exposed PA infants also are hyperandrogenic, with both LH hypersecretion and hyperandrogenism persisting in early gestation-exposed PA adults. Similarly, subtle metabolic abnormalities appearing in young nonhuman primate infants and adolescents precede the abdominal adiposity, hyperliplidemia, and increased incidence of type 2 diabetes that characterize early gestated-exposed PA adults. These new insights into the developmental origins of PCOS, and progression of the pathophysiology from infancy to adulthood, provide opportunities for clinical intervention to ameliorate the PCOS phenotype thus providing a preventive health care approach to PCOS-related abnormalities. For example, PCOS-like traits in PA monkeys, as in PCOS women, can improve with better insulin-glucose homeostasis, suggesting that lifestyle interventions preventing increased adiposity in adolescent daughters of PCOS mothers also may reduce their risk of acquiring many PCOS-related metabolic abnormalities in adulthood. PMID:19367587

Abbott, David H; Tarantal, Alice F; Dumesic, Daniel A

2010-01-01

83

Vocal control region sizes of an adult female songbird change seasonally in the absence of detectable circulating testosterone concentrations.  

PubMed

Previous research established that in several species of seasonally breeding oscine birds, brain areas [vocal control regions (VCRs)] that control vocal behavior learning and expression exhibit seasonal plasticity, being larger during than outside the reproductive period. In adult males, this seasonal decrease correlates with circulating testosterone (T) concentrations. VCRs contain androgen receptors and T plays an important role in neural plasticity and in the control of singing behavior. In behaviorally dimorphic species, VCRs are larger in males than females and change seasonally also in females, but the dependency of these changes on circulating T levels in females has not been established. In free-living adult dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis), a species in which females do not normally sing, the sizes of three VCRs (high vocal center, robust nucleus of the archistriatum, and Area X) were larger in males than females and decreased between summer and fall in both sexes. In males, this decrease was associated with changes in circulating T concentrations. Females, however, had on average undetectable T levels throughout the breeding season. Seasonal changes in VCR volumes in adult females may depend on very low (below detection limit) circulating T concentrations, on nonandrogenic plasma steroids, on androgen (or androgen metabolites) produced in brain tissues, and/or on nonsteroidal factors such as photoperiod or social interactions with conspecific birds. PMID:10640327

Deviche, P; Gulledge, C C

2000-02-01

84

Maternal separation exaggerates spontaneous recovery of extinguished contextual fear in adult female rats.  

PubMed

Early life stress increases the risk of posttraumatic stress disorders (PTSD). Patients with PTSD show impaired extinction of traumatic memory, and in women, this occurs more often when PTSD is preceded by child trauma. However, it is still unclear how early life stress accounts for extinction impairment. Here, we studied the effects of maternal separation (MS, postnatal day 2 to 14) on contextual fear extinction in adult female rats. Additionally, to examine changes in synaptic function affected by MS, we measured long-term potentiation (LTP) in prefrontal cortex and hippocampus in vitro, both of which have been implicated in fear extinction. We found that adult female rats had been subjected to MS exhibited significant spontaneous recovery of fear to the extinguished context. Furthermore, MS exposure resulted in LTP impairment in both infralimbic prefrontal cortex layer 2/3-layer 5 and hippocampal SC-CA1 pathways. Interestingly, no obvious effects of MS on contextual fear conditioning, fear recall as well as extinction training and recall were observed. Innate fear in the elevated plus maze or open field test remained nearly unaffected. These findings provided the first evidence that MS may exaggerate spontaneous recovery after contextual fear extinction, for which LTP impairment in the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus may be responsible, thereby possibly leading to impaired extinction associated with PTSD. PMID:24746487

Xiong, Gui-Jing; Yang, Yuan; Wang, Li-Ping; Xu, Lin; Mao, Rong-Rong

2014-08-01

85

Effect of Soymilk Consumption on Waist Circumference and Cardiovascular Risks among Overweight and Obese Female Adults  

PubMed Central

Background: Soy milk replacement in the diet might have beneficial effects on waist circumference and cardiovascular risk factors for overweight and obese subjects. Therefore, we are going to determine the effects of soy milk replacements on the waist circumference and cardiovascular risk factors among overweight and obese female adults. Methods: In this crossover randomized clinical trail, 24 over weight and obese female adults were on a diet with soy milk or the diet with cow's milk for four weeks. In the diet with soy milk only one glass of soy milk (240 cc) was replaced instead of one glass of cow's milk (240 cc). Measurements were done according to the standard protocol. Results: Waist circumference reduced significantly following soy milk period (mean percent change in soy milk period for waist circumference: -3.79 ± 0.51 vs. -1.78 ± 0.55 %; P = 0.02 in the cow's milk period). Blood pressure, weight, liver enzymes and glycemic control indices did not changed significantly after soy milk period compared to the cow's milk period. Conclusion: Among over weight and obese patients, soy milk can play an important role in reducing waist circumference. However, soy milk replacement had no significant effects on weight, glycemic control indices, liver enzymes, fibrinogen and blood pressure in a short term trial. PMID:23189232

Keshavarz, Seyed Ali; Nourieh, Zeinab; Attar, Mohammad Javad Hosseinzadeh; Azadbakht, Leila

2012-01-01

86

[The histochemical study of the effects of estrogen on the forebrain cholinergic neurons of fetal female rats transplanted into the anterior eye chamber of adult female rats].  

PubMed

In order to clarify the effects of estrogen on cholinergic basal forebrain neurons, a cholinergic neuron in the diagonal band nucleus of the female fetal rat was implanted into the anterior eye chamber of the female adult rat. Some host rats were treated with 2mg estradiol valerate (E2v) injected every 3 days after ovariectomy while others were not 2 and 4 weeks after transplantation, the growth of cholinergic neurons in the graft was studied using acethylcholinesterase (AChE) histochemistry. At 2 weeks after transplantation, AChE positive neurons and fibers were densely distributed in the grafts of E2v treated rats. Also in grafts without E2v treatment, AChE positive neurons and fibers were found in all the grafts although their density was low. At 4 weeks, AChE staining was dense staining observed in both groups. These results indicate that neurotrophic effect of estrogen on the cholinergic basal forebrain neurons. PMID:8330655

Tanaka, K; Tamura, T; Kawashima, M; Ueda, S; Matsumoto, Y; Kawata, M; Ogino, Y; Yamamoto, T; Honjo, H; Okada, H

1993-05-20

87

Oestradiol and diet modulate energy homeostasis and hypothalamic neurogenesis in the adult female mouse.  

PubMed

Leptin and oestradiol have overlapping functions in energy homeostasis and fertility, and receptors for these hormones are localised in the same hypothalamic regions. Although, historically, it was assumed that mammalian adult neurogenesis was confined to the olfactory bulbs and the hippocampus, recent research has found new neurones in the male rodent hypothalamus. Furthermore, some of these new neurones are leptin-sensitive and affected by diet. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that diet and hormonal status modulate hypothalamic neurogenesis in the adult female mouse. Adult mice were ovariectomised and implanted with capsules containing oestradiol (E2 ) or oil. Within each group, mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or maintained on standard chow (STND). All animals were administered i.c.v. 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) for 9 days and sacrificed 34 days later after an injection of leptin to induce phosphorylation of signal transducer of activation and transcription 3 (pSTAT3). Brain tissue was immunohistochemically labelled for BrdU (newly born cells), Hu (neuronal marker) and pSTAT3 (leptin sensitive). Although mice on a HFD became obese, oestradiol protected against obesity. There was a strong interaction between diet and hormone on new cells (BrdU+) in the arcuate, ventromedial hypothalamus and dorsomedial hypothalamus. HFD increased the number of new cells, whereas E2 inhibited this effect. Conversely, E2 increased the number of new cells in mice on a STND diet in all hypothalamic regions studied. Although the total number of new leptin-sensitive neurones (BrdU-Hu-pSTAT3) found in the hypothalamus was low, HFD increased these new cells in the arcuate, whereas E2 attenuated this induction. These results suggest that adult neurogenesis in the hypothalamic neurogenic niche is modulated by diet and hormonal status and is related to energy homeostasis in female mice. PMID:25182179

Bless, E P; Reddy, T; Acharya, K D; Beltz, B S; Tetel, M J

2014-11-01

88

The effect of arm action on the vertical jump performance in children and adult females.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of age on the use of arm swing in the vertical jump. Countermovement jumps with arms (CMJA) and without arms (CMJ) performed by 36 girls and 20 adult females were examined using force platform analysis. The data were analyzed to determine differences between groups and between types of jump. The analysis of the data indicated that the arm action increased the jump height in both groups, although the increase was greater in children than adults (22.6% and 18.7% respectively; P < .05). This difference in jump height was due to a combination of a greater increase of the height at take-off in children compared with adults (40.6% and 21.6% respectively; P < .05) with no differences in the increase of the flight height. This increase in height of take-off was accompanied by an increase in the distance of propulsion in CMJA compared with CMJ (0.25 m and 0.23 m respectively; P < .05). The results suggested that children take advantage of the action of the arms in vertical jump differently than adults. The children improved their jump height by increasing height at take-off whereas the adults improved by increasing the flight height. PMID:23270966

Floría, Pablo; Harrison, Andrew J

2013-12-01

89

Body composition in non reproduction adult males and females in long-term selection experiment for litter in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earlier studies have shown that adult mice from a line selected for high litter size (S-line), in particular females, had higher residual food intake (RFI) than mice from a non-selected control line (C-line). It was suggested that this increase in RFI, in particular the mature selected females, may anticipate the metabolically stressful periods of pregnancy and lactation. The present study

W. M. Rauw; P. W. Knap; M. W. A. Verstegen; P. Luiting

2001-01-01

90

Cognitive correlates of white matter growth and stress hormones in female squirrel monkey adults.  

PubMed

Neurobiological studies of stress and cognitive aging seldom consider white matter despite indications that complex brain processes depend on networks and white matter interconnections. Frontal and temporal lobe white matter volumes increase throughout midlife adulthood in humans, and this aspect of aging is thought to enhance distributed brain functions. Here, we examine spatial learning and memory, neuroendocrine responses to psychological stress, and regional volumes of gray and white matter determined by magnetic resonance imaging in 31 female squirrel monkeys between the ages of 5 and 17 years. This period of lifespan development corresponds to the years 18-60 in humans. Older adults responded to stress with greater increases in plasma levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone and modest reductions in glucocorticoid feedback sensitivity relative to young adults. Learning and memory did not differ with age during the initial cognitive test sessions, but older adults more often failed to inhibit the initial learned response after subsequent spatial reversals. Impaired cognitive response inhibition correlated with the expansion of white matter volume statistically controlling for age, stress hormones, gray matter, and CSF volumes. These results indicate that instead of enhancing cognitive control during midlife adulthood, white matter volume expansion contributes to aspects of cognitive decline. Cellular and molecular research combined with brain imaging is needed to determine the basis of white matter growth in adults, elucidate its functions during lifespan development, and provide potential new targets for therapies aimed at maintaining in humans cognitive vitality with aging. PMID:15071114

Lyons, David M; Yang, Chou; Eliez, Stephan; Reiss, Allan L; Schatzberg, Alan F

2004-04-01

91

Effect of ethanolic extract of Capsicum frutescens L. on adult female of Rhipicephalus microplus (Ixodidae).  

PubMed

This study evaluated the effects of ethanol extract of Capsicum frutescens L. (Solanaceae), colloquially known as malagueta pepper, on egg production and hatching rate of larvae of Rhipicephalus microplus. Plant samples were collected in Montes Claros, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Selected mature fruits were washed, dehydrated in a forced air oven at 40 ± 5 °C to constant weight. The material was incubated in absolute ethanol during 10 days, and the extract was filtered, dried, and stored in amber vials under refrigeration at 4 °C. Engorged adult female ticks were immersed in 10 ml solutions of ethanol extracts at 25, 50, 75, 100, or 150 mg ml(-1) dry matter, solubilized in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) at 1% v/v. These concentrations were compared to distilled water or 1% v/v DMSO in distilled water as negative controls and a commercial product as positive control. The extract resulted in significantly lower oviposition at all tested concentrations when compared to the negative controls. On days 2 and 3 posttreatment, mortality rates of female ticks ?55% were observed for concentrations ?75 mg ml(-1). These concentrations resulted in a significantly lower hatchability mean, and the LC90 on hatching inhibition of R. microplus, estimated by probit analysis, was 91.8 mg ?ml(-1). High acaricidal in vitro effect was verified, and toxicological tests and analyses in vivo are important to determine appropriate dosages and frequency of the application necessary to promote this extract as safe and effective alternative for control of R. microplus. PMID:24496493

Vasconcelos, Viviane O; Martins, Maria Alice D; de Oliveira, Neide J F; Duarte, Eduardo R

2014-04-01

92

Oral administration of leaf extracts of Momordica charantia affect reproductive hormones of adult female Wistar rats  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the effect of graded doses of aqueous leaf extracts of Momordica charantia on fertility hormones of female albino rats. Methods Twenty adult, healthy, female Wistar rats were divided into four groups: low dose (LD), moderate dose (MD) and high dose (HD) groups which received 12.5 g, 25.0 g, 50.0 g of the leaf extract respectively and control group that was given with water ad libatum. Result Estrogen levels reduced by 6.40 nmol/L, 10.80 nmol/L and 28.00 nmol/L in the LD, MD and HD groups respectively while plasma progesterone of rats in the LD, MD and HD groups reduced by 24.20 nmol/L, 40.8 nmol/L and 59.20 nmol/L respectively. Conclusion Our study has shown that the antifertility effect of Momordica charantia is achieved in a dose dependent manner. Hence, cautious use of such medication should be advocated especially when managing couples for infertility. PMID:25183143

Adewale, Osonuga Odusoga; Oduyemi, Osonuga Ifabunmi; Ayokunle, Osonuga

2014-01-01

93

Social experience modulates ocular dominance plasticity differentially in adult male and female mice.  

PubMed

Environmental factors have long been known to regulate brain plasticity. We investigated the potential influence of social experience on ocular dominance plasticity. Fully adult female or male mice were monocularly deprived for four days and kept a) either alone or in pairs of the same sex and b) either in a small cage or a large, featureless arena. While mice kept alone did not show ocular dominance plasticity, no matter whether in a cage or in an arena, paired female mice in both environmental conditions displayed a shift of ocular dominance towards the open eye. Paired male mice, in contrast, showed no plasticity in the cage, but a very strong ocular dominance shift in the arena. This effect was not due to increased locomotion, since the covered distance was similar in single and paired male mice in the arena, and furnishing cages with a running wheel did not enable ocular dominance plasticity in cage-housed mice. Confirming recent results in rats, the plasticity-enhancing effect of the social environment was shown to be mediated by serotonin. Our results demonstrate that social experience has a strong effect on cortical plasticity that is sex-dependent. This has potential consequences both for animal research and for human education and rehabilitation. PMID:25173416

Balog, Jenny; Matthies, Ulrike; Naumann, Lisa; Voget, Mareike; Winter, Christine; Lehmann, Konrad

2014-12-01

94

CHAPTER THREE Female Behavioral  

E-print Network

53 CHAPTER THREE Female Behavioral Strategies of Hybrid Baboons in the Awash National Park of hamadryas baboons has been attrib- uted primarily to the predisposition of hamadryas males to herd females-like morphological phe- notypes exhibited behaviors characteristic of hamadryas baboons, while females with more

95

Female Prisoners in Malaysia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a study on 422 female prisoners in peninsular Malaysia. More than half of the female prisoners are foreigners, mainly from Indonesia and Thailand. This study surveys the background of the respondents and identifies factors that may have influenced them to commit the offences. Female prisoners in Malaysia, particularly those who are…

Teh, Yik Koon

2006-01-01

96

Female Prisoners in Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a study on 422 female prisoners in peninsular Malaysia. More than half of the female prisoners are foreigners, mainly from Indonesia and Thailand. This study surveys the background of the respondents and identifies factors that may have influenced them to commit the offences. Female prisoners in Malaysia, particularly those who are foreigners, still fit the stereotypical image of

Yik Koon Teh

2006-01-01

97

Prevalence and Correlates of Suicidal Behavior among Adult Female Victims of Intimate Partner Violence  

PubMed Central

This study examined the prevalence and correlates of suicidal threats and attempts among 662 racially and ethnically diverse adult female victims of intimate partner violence (IPV). One in five women had threatened or attempted suicide during her lifetime. Multiple logistic regression results indicated that women at greater risk of severe or potentially lethal assaults as measured by the Danger Assessment and those who reported having a chronic or disabling illness were more likely to have threatened or attempted suicide. A linear association was found between age and suicide threats/attempts, with younger women having increased odds. Finally, African American IPV victims were less likely to have threatened or attempted suicide as compared to Latina victims. Study implications are discussed. PMID:21535096

Cavanaugh, Courtenay E.; Messing, Jill Theresa; Del-Colle, Melissa; O’Sullivan, Chris; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.

2011-01-01

98

Breeding sex ratios in adult leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) may compensate for female-biased hatchling sex ratios.  

PubMed

For vertebrates with temperature-dependent sex determination, primary (or hatchling) sex ratios are often skewed, an issue of particular relevance to concerns over effects of climate change on populations. However, the ratio of breeding males to females, or the operational sex ratio (OSR), is important to understand because it has consequences for population demographics and determines the capacity of a species to persist. The OSR also affects mating behaviors and mate choice, depending on the more abundant sex. For sea turtles, hatchling and juvenile sex ratios are generally female-biased, and with warming nesting beach temperatures, there is concern that populations may become feminized. Our purpose was to evaluate the breeding sex ratio for leatherback turtles at a nesting beach in St. Croix, USVI. In 2010, we sampled nesting females and later sampled their hatchlings as they emerged from nests. Total genomic DNA was extracted and all individuals were genotyped using 6 polymorphic microsatellite markers. We genotyped 662 hatchlings from 58 females, matching 55 females conclusively to their nests. Of the 55, 42 females mated with one male each, 9 mated with 2 males each and 4 mated with at least 3 males each, for a multiple paternity rate of 23.6%. Using GERUD1.0, we reconstructed parental genotypes, identifying 47 different males and 46 females for an estimated breeding sex ratio of 1.02 males for every female. Thus we demonstrate that there are as many actively breeding males as females in this population. Concerns about female-biased adult sex ratios may be premature, and mate choice or competition may play more of a role in sea turtle reproduction than previously thought. We recommend monitoring breeding sex ratios in the future to allow the integration of this demographic parameter in population models. PMID:24505403

Stewart, Kelly R; Dutton, Peter H

2014-01-01

99

Breeding Sex Ratios in Adult Leatherback Turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) May Compensate for Female-Biased Hatchling Sex Ratios  

PubMed Central

For vertebrates with temperature-dependent sex determination, primary (or hatchling) sex ratios are often skewed, an issue of particular relevance to concerns over effects of climate change on populations. However, the ratio of breeding males to females, or the operational sex ratio (OSR), is important to understand because it has consequences for population demographics and determines the capacity of a species to persist. The OSR also affects mating behaviors and mate choice, depending on the more abundant sex. For sea turtles, hatchling and juvenile sex ratios are generally female-biased, and with warming nesting beach temperatures, there is concern that populations may become feminized. Our purpose was to evaluate the breeding sex ratio for leatherback turtles at a nesting beach in St. Croix, USVI. In 2010, we sampled nesting females and later sampled their hatchlings as they emerged from nests. Total genomic DNA was extracted and all individuals were genotyped using 6 polymorphic microsatellite markers. We genotyped 662 hatchlings from 58 females, matching 55 females conclusively to their nests. Of the 55, 42 females mated with one male each, 9 mated with 2 males each and 4 mated with at least 3 males each, for a multiple paternity rate of 23.6%. Using GERUD1.0, we reconstructed parental genotypes, identifying 47 different males and 46 females for an estimated breeding sex ratio of 1.02 males for every female. Thus we demonstrate that there are as many actively breeding males as females in this population. Concerns about female-biased adult sex ratios may be premature, and mate choice or competition may play more of a role in sea turtle reproduction than previously thought. We recommend monitoring breeding sex ratios in the future to allow the integration of this demographic parameter in population models. PMID:24505403

Stewart, Kelly R.; Dutton, Peter H.

2014-01-01

100

A natural model of behavioral depression in postpartum adult female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).  

PubMed

Postpartum depression (PPD) is a modified form of major depressive disorders (MDD) that can exert profound negative effects on both mothers and infants than MDD. Within the postpartum period, both mothers and infants are susceptible; but because PPD typically occurs for short durations and has moderate symptoms, there exists challenges in exploring and addressing the underlying cause of the depression. This fact highlights the need for relevant animal models. In the present study, postpartum adult female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) living in breeding groups were observed for typical depressive behavior. The huddle posture behavior was utilized as an indicator of behavioral depression postpartum (BDP) as it has been established as the core depressive-like behavior in primates. Monkeys were divided into two groups: A BDP group (n=6), which were found to spend more time huddling over the first two weeks postpartum than other individuals that formed a non-depression control group (n=4). The two groups were then further analyzed for locomotive activity, stressful events, hair cortisol levels and for maternal interactive behaviors. No differences were found between the BDP and control groups in locomotive activity, in the frequencies of stressful events experienced and in hair cortisol levels. These findings suggested that the postpartum depression witnessed in the monkeys was not related to external factors other than puerperium period. Interestingly, the BDP monkeys displayed an abnormal maternal relationship consisting of increased infant grooming. Taken together, these findings suggest that the adult female cynomolgus monkeys provide a natural model of behavioral postpartum depression that holds a number of advantages over commonly used rodent systems in PPD modeling. The cynomolgus monkeys have a highly-organized social hierarchy and reproductive characteristics without seasonal restriction-similar to humans-as well as much greater homology to humans than rodents. As such, this model may provide a greater translational efficiency and research platform for systematically investigating the etiology, treatment, prevention of PPD. PMID:24866487

Chu, Xun-Xun; Dominic Rizak, Joshua; Yang, Shang-Chuan; Wang, Jian-Hong; Ma, Yuan-Ye; Hu, Xin-Tian

2014-05-01

101

Adult female prairie voles and meadow voles do not suppress reproduction in their daughters.  

PubMed

Reproductive suppression of young females by conspecific females has been reported from laboratory studies on several species of rodents, including the prairie vole, Microtus ochrogaster, but not meadow voles, M. pennsylvanicus. We exposed female prairie voles and meadow voles to two treatments: a mother and one 23-26-day-old daughter paired with a strange male and a 23-26-day-old daughter paired with a different strange male. We found no differences in the proportion of daughters breeding or the time to sexual maturation for daughters raised in the two treatments for either species. Thus, we have no indication that mothers had any adverse effect on reproductive efforts of their daughters. These results differ from previous studies that concluded young female prairie voles were reproductively suppressed by female relatives. The difference between our and previous studies on reproductive suppression is that we examined breeding in young females rather than proximate measures of growth and reproductive development. We question the evolutionary significance of reproductive suppression among related female microtine rodents, especially in that it has not been documented from field populations. PMID:11483353

Wolff, J O.; Dunlap, A S.; Ritchhart, E

2001-09-01

102

The Female Gametophyte  

PubMed Central

The angiosperm female gametophyte is critical for plant reproduction. It contains the egg cell and central cell that become fertilized and give rise to the embryo and endosperm of the seed, respectively. Female gametophyte development begins early in ovule development with the formation of a diploid megaspore mother cell that undergoes meiosis. One resulting haploid megaspore then develops into the female gametophyte. Genetic and epigenetic processes mediate specification of megaspore mother cell identity and limit megaspore mother cell formation to a single cell per ovule. Auxin gradients influence female gametophyte polarity and a battery of transcription factors mediate female gametophyte cell specification and differentiation. The mature female gametophyte secretes peptides that guide the pollen tube to the embryo sac and contains protein complexes that prevent seed development before fertilization. Post-fertilization, the female gametophyte influences seed development through maternal-effect genes and by regulating parental contributions. Female gametophytes can form by an asexual process called gametophytic apomixis, which involves formation of a diploid female gametophyte and fertilization-independent development of the egg into the embryo. These functions collectively underscore the important role of the female gametophyte in seed and food production. PMID:22303279

Drews, Gary N.; Koltunow, Anna M.G

2011-01-01

103

Azelaic acid in the treatment of acne in adult females: case reports.  

PubMed

Acne, one of the most common skin problems in dermatological practice, is a condition that affects not only adolescents but also adults. While approximately 80% of cases occurring in adulthood are persistent from teenage years, around 20% are described as 'late-onset' disease, appearing for the first time in adulthood. The disease can be triggered by hormonal changes (including a change from one contraceptive to another), or it can be induced by certain nonhormonal medications, emotional stress, and various underlying diseases such as polycystic ovary syndrome. In many cases acne becomes a chronic skin condition with undulating activity, including improvement and relapse phases, and is often experienced as a major psychological burden. It is, therefore, even more important to provide an effective as well as a safe and tolerable treatment. The spectrum of topical acne treatments has expanded substantially in recent years and various topical medications are available, ranging from azelaic acid, antibiotics, retinoids and benzoyl peroxide to several fixed combinations of these active compounds. The following case collection illustrates how 15% azelaic acid gel, as a well-established monotherapy, can be successfully employed to treat mild-to-moderate forms of adult female acne. PMID:24280645

Vargas-Diez, E; Hofmann, M A; Bravo, B; Malgazhdarova, G; Katkhanova, O A; Yutskovskaya, Y

2014-01-01

104

Distribution and posttranslational modification of synaptic ER? in the adult female rat hippocampus.  

PubMed

Acute 17?-estradiol (E2) signaling in the brain is mediated by extranuclear estrogen receptors. Here we used biochemical methods to investigate the distribution, posttranslational modification, and E2 regulation of estrogen receptor-? (ER?) in synaptosomal fractions isolated by differential centrifugation from the adult female rat hippocampus. We find that ER? is concentrated presynaptically and is highly enriched with synaptic vesicles. Immunoisolation of vesicles using vesicle subtype-specific markers showed that ER? is associated with both glutamate and ?-aminobutyric acid-containing neurotransmitter vesicles as well as with some large dense core vesicles. Experiments using broad spectrum and residue-specific phosphatases indicated that a portion of ER? in synaptosomal fractions is phosphorylated at serine/threonine residues leading to a mobility shift in SDS-PAGE and creating a double band on Western blots. The phosphorylated form of ER? runs in the upper of the two bands and is particularly concentrated with synaptic vesicles. Finally, we used E2 with or without the acyl protein thioesterase 1 inhibitor, Palmostatin B, to show that 20 min of E2 treatment of hippocampal slices depletes ER? from the synaptosomal membrane by depalmitoylation. We found no evidence that E2 regulates phosphorylation of synaptosomal ER? on this time scale. These studies begin to fill the gap between detailed molecular characterization of extranuclear ER? in previous in vitro studies and acute E2 modulation of hippocampal synapses in the adult brain. PMID:23183182

Tabatadze, Nino; Smejkalova, Tereza; Woolley, Catherine S

2013-02-01

105

Distribution and Posttranslational Modification of Synaptic ER? in the Adult Female Rat Hippocampus  

PubMed Central

Acute 17?-estradiol (E2) signaling in the brain is mediated by extranuclear estrogen receptors. Here we used biochemical methods to investigate the distribution, posttranslational modification, and E2 regulation of estrogen receptor-? (ER?) in synaptosomal fractions isolated by differential centrifugation from the adult female rat hippocampus. We find that ER? is concentrated presynaptically and is highly enriched with synaptic vesicles. Immunoisolation of vesicles using vesicle subtype-specific markers showed that ER? is associated with both glutamate and ?-aminobutyric acid-containing neurotransmitter vesicles as well as with some large dense core vesicles. Experiments using broad spectrum and residue-specific phosphatases indicated that a portion of ER? in synaptosomal fractions is phosphorylated at serine/threonine residues leading to a mobility shift in SDS-PAGE and creating a double band on Western blots. The phosphorylated form of ER? runs in the upper of the two bands and is particularly concentrated with synaptic vesicles. Finally, we used E2 with or without the acyl protein thioesterase 1 inhibitor, Palmostatin B, to show that 20 min of E2 treatment of hippocampal slices depletes ER? from the synaptosomal membrane by depalmitoylation. We found no evidence that E2 regulates phosphorylation of synaptosomal ER? on this time scale. These studies begin to fill the gap between detailed molecular characterization of extranuclear ER? in previous in vitro studies and acute E2 modulation of hippocampal synapses in the adult brain. PMID:23183182

Tabatadze, Nino; Smejkalova, Tereza

2013-01-01

106

Relative influence of human harvest, carnivores, and weather on adult female elk survival across  

E-print Network

to predation in snowy winters. Baseline mortality was unrelated to puma Puma concolor presence, forest cover with both pumas and wolves because managers reduced female harvest in areas with abundant or diverse

Hebblewhite, Mark

107

Vocal Control Region Sizes of an Adult Female Songbird Change Seasonally in the Absence of  

E-print Network

dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis), a species in which females do not normally sing, the sizes of three­211, 2000 Keywords: junco; androgen; HVc; sexual dimorphism; plasticity In oscine birds, song is a learned

Deviche, Pierre

108

Ovariectomy Results in Variable Changes in Nociception, Mood and Depression in Adult Female Rats  

PubMed Central

Decline in the ovarian hormones with menopause may influence somatosensory, cognitive, and affective processing. The present study investigated whether hormonal depletion alters the nociceptive, depressive-like and learning behaviors in experimental rats after ovariectomy (OVX), a common method to deplete animals of their gonadal hormones. OVX rats developed thermal hyperalgesia in proximal and distal tail that was established 2 weeks after OVX and lasted the 7 weeks of the experiment. A robust mechanical allodynia was also occurred at 5 weeks after OVX. In the 5th week after OVX, dilute formalin (5%)-induced nociceptive responses (such as elevating and licking or biting) during the second phase were significantly increased as compared to intact and sham-OVX females. However, chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve-induced mechanical allodynia did not differ as hormonal status (e.g. OVX and ovarian intact). Using formalin-induced conditioned place avoidance (F-CPA), which is believed to reflect the pain-related negative emotion, we further found that OVX significantly attenuated F-CPA scores but did not alter electric foot-shock-induced CPA (S-CPA). In the open field and forced swimming test, there was an increase in depressive-like behaviors in OVX rats. There was no detectable impairment of spatial performance by Morris water maze task in OVX rats up to 5 weeks after surgery. Estrogen replacement retrieved OVX-induced nociceptive hypersensitivity and depressive-like behaviors. This is the first study to investigate the impacts of ovarian removal on nociceptive perception, negative emotion, depressive-like behaviors and spatial learning in adult female rats in a uniform and standard way. PMID:24710472

Li, Li-Hong; Wang, Zhe-Chen; Yu, Jin; Zhang, Yu-Qiu

2014-01-01

109

Spectrographic analysis of the ultrasonic vocalisations of adult male and female BALB\\/c mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a spectrographic analysis was designed to improve the description of the shape, the modulations, the rate, length and frequencies of BALB\\/c mouse calls in different behavioural situations. Male and female calls emitted during investigation of cages with clean bedding, soiled with male or female bedding, and during same-sex encounters, were recorded and described. BALB\\/c male mice uttered

Benjamin E. F. Gourbal; Mathieu Barthelemy; Gilles Petit; Claude Gabrion

2004-01-01

110

Spatial distribution of juvenile and adult female Tanner crabs (Chionoecetes bairdi) in a glacial fjord ecosystem: Implications for recruitment processes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A systematic pot survey in Glacier Bay, Alaska, was conducted to characterize the spatial distribution of juvenile and adult female Tanner crabs, and their association with depth and temperature. The information was used to infer important recruitment processes for Tanner crabs in glaciated ecosystems. High-catch areas for juvenile and adult female Tanner crabs were identified using local autocorrelation statistics. Spatial segregation by size class corresponded to features in the glacial landscape: high-catch areas for juveniles were located at the distal ends of two narrow glacial fjords, and high-catch areas for adults were located in the open waters of the central Bay. Juvenile female Tanner crabs were found at nearly all sampled depths (15-439 m) and temperatures (4-8??C), but the biggest catches were at depths <150 m where adults were scarce. Because adults may prey on or compete with juveniles, the distribution of juveniles could be influenced by the distribution of adults. Areas where adults or predators are scarce, such as glacially influenced fjords, could serve as refuges for juvenile Tanner crabs. ?? 2007 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea. Published by Oxford Journals. All rights reserved.

Nielsen, J.K.; Taggart, S.J.; Shirley, T.C.; Mondragon, J.

2007-01-01

111

Pheromones from males of different familiarity exert divergent effects on adult neurogenesis in the female accessory olfactory bulb.  

PubMed

Pheromones from urine of unfamiliar conspecific male animals can reinitiate a female's estrus cycle to cause pregnancy block through the vomeronasal organ (VNO)-accessory olfactory bulb (AOB)-hypothalamic pathway. This phenomenon is called the Bruce effect. Pheromones from the mate of the female, however, do not trigger re-entrance of the estrus cycle because an olfactory memory toward its mate is formed. The activity of the VNO-AOB-hypothalamic pathway is negatively modulated by GABAergic granule cells in the AOB. Since these cells are constantly replenished by neural stem cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle throughout adulthood and adult neurogenesis is required for mate recognition and fertility, we tested the hypothesis that pheromones from familiar and unfamiliar males may have different effects on adult AOB neurogenesis in female mice. When female mice were exposed to bedding used by a male or lived with one, cell proliferation and neuroblast production in the SVZ were increased. Furthermore, survival of newly generated cells in the AOB was enhanced. This survival effect was transient and mediated by norepinephrine. Interestingly, male bedding-induced newborn cell survival in the AOB but not cell proliferation in the SVZ was attenuated when females were subjected to bedding from an unfamiliar male. Our results indicate that male pheromones from familiar and unfamiliar males exert different effects on neurogenesis in the adult female AOB. Given that adult neurogenesis is required for reproductive behaviors, these divergent pheromonal effects may provide a mechanism for the Bruce effect. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 73: 632-645, 2013. PMID:23696538

Wu, Jyun-Han; Han, Yueh-Ting; Yu, Jenn-Yah; Wang, Tsu-Wei

2013-08-01

112

Care and feeding of Orius insidiosus (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae): Assessing the impact of diet on predation following adult female eclosion  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Reproduction in female Orius insidiosus Say (Hemiptera, Anthocoridae) is a stringent process, and requires a source of nutrition high in quantity and quality of protein and lipid for optimal production of eggs. Adults can survive solely on a source of carbohydrates, but at the cost of suspending th...

113

Female common lizards (Lacerta vivipara) do not adjust their sex-biased investment in relation to the adult sex ratio  

E-print Network

Female common lizards (Lacerta vivipara) do not adjust their sex-biased investment in relation to the adult sex ratio J.-F. LE GALLIARD,*, ,# P. S. FITZE,*,à,# J. COTE,* M. MASSOT* & J. CLOBERT differential investment into the sexes, such that higher fitness returns in one sex selects for stronger

Alvarez, Nadir

114

Photo Gallery Photo 1. Adult female watching her nest cavity as we checked its contents with a micro  

E-print Network

Photo Gallery Photo 1. Adult female watching her nest cavity as we checked its contents DESERT All photographs by Aaron D. Flesch 446 Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America #12;Photo Gallery Photo 2. Nest site located in a giant saguaro cactus (Carnegiea gigantea) near the western edge

Montana, University of

115

Gut transcriptome of replete adult female cattle ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, feeding upon a Babesia bovis-infected bovine host  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Babesiosis develops in susceptible cattle when infected by the apicomplexan Babesia bovis, which is transmitted to cattle through the bite of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. The R. microplus midgut transcriptome was studied for two cohorts: adult females feeding on cattle infect...

116

The Satellite Cell in Male and Female, Developing and Adult Mouse Muscle: Distinct Stem Cells for Growth and Regeneration  

PubMed Central

Satellite cells are myogenic cells found between the basal lamina and the sarcolemma of the muscle fibre. Satellite cells are the source of new myofibres; as such, satellite cell transplantation holds promise as a treatment for muscular dystrophies. We have investigated age and sex differences between mouse satellite cells in vitro and assessed the importance of these factors as mediators of donor cell engraftment in an in vivo model of satellite cell transplantation. We found that satellite cell numbers are increased in growing compared to adult and in male compared to female adult mice. We saw no difference in the expression of the myogenic regulatory factors between male and female mice, but distinct profiles were observed according to developmental stage. We show that, in contrast to adult mice, the majority of satellite cells from two week old mice are proliferating to facilitate myofibre growth; however a small proportion of these cells are quiescent and not contributing to this growth programme. Despite observed changes in satellite cell populations, there is no difference in engraftment efficiency either between satellite cells derived from adult or pre-weaned donor mice, male or female donor cells, or between male and female host muscle environments. We suggest there exist two distinct satellite cell populations: one for muscle growth and maintenance and one for muscle regeneration. PMID:22662253

Neal, Alice; Boldrin, Luisa; Morgan, Jennifer Elizabeth

2012-01-01

117

ELECTROCUTION OF AN ADULT WHITE-TAILED DEER --On 16 May 2002, an adult female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) died after  

E-print Network

47 ELECTROCUTION OF AN ADULT WHITE-TAILED DEER -- On 16 May 2002, an adult female white-tailed deer entanglements occur, they do not account for significant losses in white-tailed deer populations (Matschke et al fencing has been shown to be effective in deterring movement of white-tailed deer (George et al. 1983), we

118

Characteristics Associated With Initiation of the HPV Vaccine Among a National Sample of Male and Female Young Adults  

PubMed Central

Purpose To examine rates of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine initiation, and characteristics associated with initiation, among a national sample of male and female young adults. Methods Participants (n=3,448; 48% female) were recruited using a web-based respondent driven sampling strategy and completed a web-based survey between October and December 2010. Results Forty-five percent of females and four percent of males initiated the vaccine. Females who were younger, never married, in school, attended religious services less than once a month, sexually active, reported a greater number of lifetime sex partners, and who had been tested for HIV were more likely to report initiation. Males who were African American, attended religious services less than once a month, reported a greater number of sex partners in their lifetime and who had been tested for HIV were more likely to report initiation. Conclusions Factors associated with HPV vaccine initiation may differ for males and females. Further research, with larger samples of males, is needed to fully understand characteristics associated with male initiation. Regardless of gender, however, the majority of young adults who have not initiated sexual activity have not received the vaccine. Further research is needed to examine how to increase vaccination rates among this population, as they may benefit most from vaccination. PMID:24138764

Bernat, Debra H.; Gerend, Mary A.; Chevallier, Kenya; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Bauermeister, Jose A.

2013-01-01

119

Subglottal resonances of adult male and female native speakers of American English  

PubMed Central

This paper presents a large-scale study of subglottal resonances (SGRs) (the resonant frequencies of the tracheo-bronchial tree) and their relations to various acoustical and physiological characteristics of speakers. The paper presents data from a corpus of simultaneous microphone and accelerometer recordings of consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) words embedded in a carrier phrase spoken by 25 male and 25 female native speakers of American English ranging in age from 18 to 24?yr. The corpus contains 17?500 utterances of 14 American English monophthongs, diphthongs, and the rhotic approximant [?] in various CVC contexts. Only monophthongs are analyzed in this paper. Speaker height and age were also recorded. Findings include (1) normative data on the frequency distribution of SGRs for young adults, (2) the dependence of SGRs on height, (3) the lack of a correlation between SGRs and formants or the fundamental frequency, (4) a poor correlation of the first SGR with the second and third SGRs but a strong correlation between the second and third SGRs, and (5) a significant effect of vowel category on SGR frequencies, although this effect is smaller than the measurement standard deviations and therefore negligible for practical purposes. PMID:23039452

Lulich, Steven M.; Morton, John R.; Arsikere, Harish; Sommers, Mitchell S.; Leung, Gary K. F.; Alwan, Abeer

2012-01-01

120

Estradiol regulates large dense core vesicles in the hippocampus of adult female rats.  

PubMed

Previous work has shown that the steroid hormone estradiol facilitates the release of anticonvulsant neuropeptides from inhibitory neurons in the hippocampus to suppress seizures. Because neuropeptides are packaged in large dense core vesicles, estradiol may facilitate neuropeptide release through regulation of dense core vesicles. In the current study, we used serial section electron microscopy in the hippocampal CA1 region of adult female rats to test three hypotheses about estradiol regulation of dense core vesicles: (1) Estradiol increases the number of dense core vesicles in axonal boutons, (2) Estradiol increases the size of dense core vesicles in axonal boutons, (3) Estradiol shifts the location of dense core vesicles toward the periphery of axonal boutons, potentially lowering the threshold for neuropeptide release during seizures. We found that estradiol increases the number and size of dense core vesicles in inhibitory axonal boutons, consistent with increased neuropeptide content, but does not shift the location of dense core vesicles closer to the bouton periphery. These effects were specific to large dense core vesicles (>80 nm) in inhibitory boutons. Estradiol had no effects on small dense core vesicles or dense core vesicles in excitatory boutons. Our results indicate that estradiol suppresses seizures at least in part by increasing the potentially releasable pool of neuropeptides in the hippocampus, and that estradiol facilitation of neuropeptide release involves a mechanism other than mobilization of dense core vesicles toward sites of release. PMID:23893355

May, Renee M; Tabatadze, Nino; Czech, Mary M; Woolley, Catherine S

2014-11-01

121

Food search demand effort effects on behavior and cortisol in adult female squirrel monkeys.  

PubMed

Laboratory-born, group-housed, ovariectomized adult female squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) were exposed to feeding conditions in which the availability and accessibility of food were altered. Both high- and variable-demand feeding conditions were utilized. The variable-demand condition required alternating periods of high effort (120% of normal daily intake presented) and low effort (600% of normal daily intake presented) to obtain food for 10-12 weeks. An additional group was exposed solely to the high-demand condition for 10 weeks. Blood samples were obtained weekly, and behavioral observations were conducted daily. In the variable-demand condition, plasma cortisol was elevated above baseline during the periods of high effort. For the constant high-demand group, cortisol was elevated for the duration of the experimental treatment. Contact with other animals, as well as a species-specific inactive posture, decreased as a result of exposure to high demand. Maintenance of body weight indicated that nutritional deprivation did not occur. The imposition of increased food-seeking efforts provides an ecologically relevant and noninvasive method of producing chronic stress in the squirrel monkey. PMID:8295946

Champoux, M; Zanker, D; Levine, S

1993-12-01

122

Perinatal exposure of mice to the pesticide DDT impairs energy expenditure and metabolism in adult female offspring.  

PubMed

Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) has been used extensively to control malaria, typhus, body lice and bubonic plague worldwide, until countries began restricting its use in the 1970s. Its use in malaria control continues in some countries according to recommendation by the World Health Organization. Individuals exposed to elevated levels of DDT and its metabolite dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) have an increased prevalence of diabetes and insulin resistance. Here we hypothesize that perinatal exposure to DDT disrupts metabolic programming leading to impaired metabolism in adult offspring. To test this, we administered DDT to C57BL/6J mice from gestational day 11.5 to postnatal day 5 and studied their metabolic phenotype at several ages up to nine months. Perinatal DDT exposure reduced core body temperature, impaired cold tolerance, decreased energy expenditure, and produced a transient early-life increase in body fat in female offspring. When challenged with a high fat diet for 12 weeks in adulthood, female offspring perinatally exposed to DDT developed glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, and altered bile acid metabolism. Perinatal DDT exposure combined with high fat feeding in adulthood further impaired thermogenesis as evidenced by reductions in core temperature and in the expression of numerous RNA that promote thermogenesis and substrate utilization in the brown adipose tissue of adult female mice. These observations suggest that perinatal DDT exposure impairs thermogenesis and the metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids which may increase susceptibility to the metabolic syndrome in adult female offspring. PMID:25076055

La Merrill, Michele; Karey, Emma; Moshier, Erin; Lindtner, Claudia; La Frano, Michael R; Newman, John W; Buettner, Christoph

2014-01-01

123

Perinatal Exposure of Mice to the Pesticide DDT Impairs Energy Expenditure and Metabolism in Adult Female Offspring  

PubMed Central

Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) has been used extensively to control malaria, typhus, body lice and bubonic plague worldwide, until countries began restricting its use in the 1970s. Its use in malaria control continues in some countries according to recommendation by the World Health Organization. Individuals exposed to elevated levels of DDT and its metabolite dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) have an increased prevalence of diabetes and insulin resistance. Here we hypothesize that perinatal exposure to DDT disrupts metabolic programming leading to impaired metabolism in adult offspring. To test this, we administered DDT to C57BL/6J mice from gestational day 11.5 to postnatal day 5 and studied their metabolic phenotype at several ages up to nine months. Perinatal DDT exposure reduced core body temperature, impaired cold tolerance, decreased energy expenditure, and produced a transient early-life increase in body fat in female offspring. When challenged with a high fat diet for 12 weeks in adulthood, female offspring perinatally exposed to DDT developed glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, and altered bile acid metabolism. Perinatal DDT exposure combined with high fat feeding in adulthood further impaired thermogenesis as evidenced by reductions in core temperature and in the expression of numerous RNA that promote thermogenesis and substrate utilization in the brown adipose tissue of adult female mice. These observations suggest that perinatal DDT exposure impairs thermogenesis and the metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids which may increase susceptibility to the metabolic syndrome in adult female offspring. PMID:25076055

La Merrill, Michele; Karey, Emma; Moshier, Erin; Lindtner, Claudia; La Frano, Michael R.; Newman, John W.; Buettner, Christoph

2014-01-01

124

The Female Athlete Triad  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Female Athlete Triad is a syndrome of the interrelated components of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. Sometimes inadvertently, but more often by willful dietary restriction, many female athletes do not ingest sufficient calories to adequately fuel their physical or sport activities, which can disrupt menstrual functioning,…

Sherman, Roberta Trattner; Thompson, Ron A.

2004-01-01

125

Female Sexuality: An Enigma.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes constructions of sexuality that have occurred within social context in which language, culture, and behavior interact to reinforce male power. Against backdrop of these patriarchal examples of female sexual expression and experience, discusses difficulties of female clients. Addresses critical counseling concerns in terms of contextual…

Daniluk, Judith

1991-01-01

126

Female Pattern Hair Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... Hormonal changes are a common cause of female hair loss. Many women do not realize that hair loss can occur ... available for female pattern hair loss. The other hair loss medication, Propecia, just doesn't work in women at all. Spironolactone pills help many women, especially ...

127

Comparing the executive attention of adult females with ADHD to that of females with sensory modulation disorder (SMD) under aversive and non-aversive auditory conditions.  

PubMed

Certain behavioral expressions of sensory modulation disorder (SMD) such as distractibility, hyperactivity, and impulsivity are often similar to those of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in pediatric and adult populations. There is also a high comorbidity rate between these two diagnoses and absence of research regarding the objective neuropsychological differentiation between them. In the present study we employed a factorial design which enabled us to: (a) systematically examine the effects of SMD and ADHD on executive attention in a sample of adult females using a Stroop-like task, and (b) measure the effect of aversive conditions (sounds) on executive attention. The experimental measures used were the Stroop-like Location - Direction Task (SLDT) to assess executive attention and the battery of aversiveness to sounds (BAS), a standardized measure of aversive sounds that was developed for this study and enabled individual customization of aversive auditory sounds. Results revealed, as expected, a specific core deficit in executive attention for the ADHD factor. In addition to that, the present study provides an important, pioneering finding of SMD impairment in a unique combination of a cognitively demanding task with aversive sounds, providing preliminary objective evidence differentiating SMD from ADHD. PMID:25460216

Mazor-Karsenty, Tal; Parush, Shula; Bonneh, Yoram; Shalev, Lilach

2014-11-20

128

aallll IIrreell aanndd ccaanncceerr ssttaattiissttiiccss sseeccoonndd rreeppoorrtt 11999988--22000000 Breast cancer (female) Breast cancer (female)  

E-print Network

--22000000 22 Breast cancer (female) Breast cancer (female) Breast cancer (female) Breast cancer (female) Breast cancer (female) Breast cancer (female) Breast cancer (female) Breast cancer (female) Breast cancer (female) Breast cancer (female) Breast cancer (female) Breast cancer (female) Breast cancer (female

Paxton, Anthony T.

129

An Exploration of Female Travellers' Experiences of Guidance Counselling in Adult Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The proposed changes in the further education sector, including the rationalisation of the VEC into Local Education and Training Boards (LETBs) and the closures of the Senior Traveller Training Centres (STTCs), have implications for guidance counselling provision to the Traveller community. This article discusses female Travellers' experiences of…

Doyle, Anne; Hearne, Lucy

2012-01-01

130

The Relationship of Sexual Abuse and HIV Risk Behaviors among Heterosexual Adult Female STD Patients.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relationship of childhood sexual abuse to high-risk sexual behavior and between sexual abuse and expectations for condom use. Among 83 female clinic patients with sexually transmitted diseases, those sexually abused in childhood had more sexual partners, more positive hedonic outcome expectations for condom use, and fewer…

Thompson, Nancy J.; And Others

1997-01-01

131

Behavioural Processes 55 (2001) 157162 Adult female prairie voles and meadow voles do not  

E-print Network

on several species of rodents, including the prairie vole, Microtus ochrogaster, but not meadow voles, M, Mus domesticus, (Drickamer, 1977; Massey and Vandenbergh, 1980), prairie voles, Microtus ochrogaster reserved. Keywords: Female; Microtus; Reproduction; Suppression; Vole www.elsevier.com/locate/behavproc 1

Dunlap, Aimee Sue

132

Late summer survival of adult female and juvenile spectacled eiders on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We used radio-telemetry to examine survival of adult female and juvenile Spectacled Eiders (Somateria fischeri) from 30 days after hatch until departure from the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (YKD) during 1997-1999. Juvenile survival was 71.4%; adult female survival was 88.5%. Mink (Mustella vison) were the most common predator identified for both adults and juveniles. Detectable levels of lead were found in bones of 74% of juvenile carcasses recovered and 21% had levels indicative of acute exposure. Average age at departure was 59 ?? 1 days old for juveniles and 56 ?? 1 days after hatch for adults. Most broods (60.5%) departed the YKD synchronously. Overall our data indicate that mortality during the latter half of brood-rearing is higher than previously thought. We conclude that brood rearing is a period of high mortality for brood-rearing females and that lead poisoning is responsible for reductions in juvenile survival to fledging. Received 15 February 2000, accepted 1 April 2000.

Flint, P.L.; Barry, Grand J.; Morse, J.A.; Fondell, T.F.

2000-01-01

133

FASH and MASH: female and male adult human phantoms based on polygon mesh surfaces: I. Development of the anatomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among computational models, voxel phantoms based on computer tomographic (CT), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) or colour photographic images of patients, volunteers or cadavers have become popular in recent years. Although being true to nature representations of scanned individuals, voxel phantoms have limitations, especially when walled organs have to be segmented or when volumes of organs or body tissues, like adipose, have to be changed. Additionally, the scanning of patients or volunteers is usually made in supine position, which causes a shift of internal organs towards the ribcage, a compression of the lungs and a reduction of the sagittal diameter especially in the abdominal region compared to the regular anatomy of a person in the upright position, which in turn can influence organ and tissue absorbed or equivalent dose estimates. This study applies tools developed recently in the areas of computer graphics and animated films to the creation and modelling of 3D human organs, tissues, skeletons and bodies based on polygon mesh surfaces. Female and male adult human phantoms, called FASH (Female Adult meSH) and MASH (Male Adult meSH), have been designed using software, such as MakeHuman, Blender, Binvox and ImageJ, based on anatomical atlases, observing at the same time organ masses recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for the male and female reference adult in report no 89. 113 organs, bones and tissues have been modelled in the FASH and the MASH phantoms representing locations for adults in standing posture. Most organ and tissue masses of the voxelized versions agree with corresponding data from ICRP89 within a margin of 2.6%. Comparison with the mesh-based male RPI_AM and female RPI_AF phantoms shows differences with respect to the material used, to the software and concepts applied, and to the anatomies created.

Cassola, V. F.; de Melo Lima, V. J.; Kramer, R.; Khoury, H. J.

2010-01-01

134

BURSAE, REPRODUCTIVE STRUCTURES, AND SCAPULAR COLOR IN WINTERING FEMALE OLDSQUAWS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female Oldsquaws were collected on Lake Michigan between December and May 1951-55 and 1969-73. Measurements taken on bursae, ovaries, and oviducts were related to age class and scapular color. Bursae were significantly deeper in juveniles than in adults, and the adult females with gray scapulars had significantly deeper bursae than adult females with brown scapu- lars. Juvenile female ovaries were

STEVEN R. PETERSON; ROBERT S. ELLARSON

135

Electron specific absorbed fractions for the adult male and female ICRP/ICRU reference computational phantoms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The calculation of radiation dose from internally incorporated radionuclides is based on so-called absorbed fractions (AFs) and specific absorbed fractions (SAFs). SAFs for monoenergetic electrons were calculated for 63 source regions and 67 target regions using the new male and female adult reference computational phantoms adopted by the ICRP and ICRU and the Monte Carlo radiation transport programme package EGSnrc. The SAF values for electrons are opposed to the simplifying assumptions of ICRP Publication 30. The previously applied assumption of electrons being fully absorbed in the source organ itself is not always true at electron energies above approximately 300-500 keV. High-energy electrons have the ability to leave the source organ and, consequently, the electron SAFs for neighbouring organs can reach the same magnitude as those for photons for electron energies above 1 MeV. The reciprocity principle known for photons can be extended to electron SAFs as well, thus making cross-fire electron SAFs mass-independent. To quantify the impact of the improved electron dosimetry in comparison to the dosimetry using the simple assumptions of ICRP Publication 30, absorbed doses per administered activity of three radiopharmaceuticals were evaluated with and without explicit electron transport. The organ absorbed doses per administered activity for the two evaluation methods agree within 2%-3% for most organs for radionuclides with decay spectra having electron energies below a few hundred keV and within approximately 20% if higher electron energies are involved. An important exception is the urinary bladder wall, where the dose is overestimated by 60-150% using the simplified ICRP 30 approach for the radiopharmaceuticals of this study.

Zankl, Maria; Schlattl, Helmut; Petoussi-Henss, Nina; Hoeschen, Christoph

2012-07-01

136

Electron specific absorbed fractions for the adult male and female ICRP/ICRU reference computational phantoms.  

PubMed

The calculation of radiation dose from internally incorporated radionuclides is based on so-called absorbed fractions (AFs) and specific absorbed fractions (SAFs). SAFs for monoenergetic electrons were calculated for 63 source regions and 67 target regions using the new male and female adult reference computational phantoms adopted by the ICRP and ICRU and the Monte Carlo radiation transport programme package EGSnrc. The SAF values for electrons are opposed to the simplifying assumptions of ICRP Publication 30. The previously applied assumption of electrons being fully absorbed in the source organ itself is not always true at electron energies above approximately 300-500 keV. High-energy electrons have the ability to leave the source organ and, consequently, the electron SAFs for neighbouring organs can reach the same magnitude as those for photons for electron energies above 1 MeV. The reciprocity principle known for photons can be extended to electron SAFs as well, thus making cross-fire electron SAFs mass-independent. To quantify the impact of the improved electron dosimetry in comparison to the dosimetry using the simple assumptions of ICRP Publication 30, absorbed doses per administered activity of three radiopharmaceuticals were evaluated with and without explicit electron transport. The organ absorbed doses per administered activity for the two evaluation methods agree within 2%-3% for most organs for radionuclides with decay spectra having electron energies below a few hundred keV and within approximately 20% if higher electron energies are involved. An important exception is the urinary bladder wall, where the dose is overestimated by 60-150% using the simplified ICRP 30 approach for the radiopharmaceuticals of this study. PMID:22722546

Zankl, Maria; Schlattl, Helmut; Petoussi-Henss, Nina; Hoeschen, Christoph

2012-07-21

137

Raloxifene Prevents Skeletal Fragility in Adult Female Zucker Diabetic Sprague-Dawley Rats  

PubMed Central

Fracture risk in type 2 diabetes is increased despite normal or high bone mineral density, implicating poor bone quality as a risk factor. Raloxifene improves bone material and mechanical properties independent of bone mineral density. This study aimed to determine if raloxifene prevents the negative effects of diabetes on skeletal fragility in diabetes-prone rats. Adult Zucker Diabetic Sprague-Dawley (ZDSD) female rats (20-week-old, n?=?24) were fed a diabetogenic high-fat diet and were randomized to receive daily subcutaneous injections of raloxifene or vehicle for 12 weeks. Blood glucose was measured weekly and glycated hemoglobin was measured at baseline and 12 weeks. At sacrifice, femora and lumbar vertebrae were harvested for imaging and mechanical testing. Raloxifene-treated rats had a lower incidence of type 2 diabetes compared with vehicle-treated rats. In addition, raloxifene-treated rats had blood glucose levels significantly lower than both diabetic vehicle-treated rats as well as vehicle-treated rats that did not become diabetic. Femoral toughness was greater in raloxifene-treated rats compared with both diabetic and non-diabetic vehicle-treated ZDSD rats, due to greater energy absorption in the post-yield region of the stress-strain curve. Similar differences between groups were observed for the structural (extrinsic) mechanical properties of energy-to-failure, post-yield energy-to-failure, and post-yield displacement. These results show that raloxifene is beneficial in preventing the onset of diabetes and improving bone material properties in the diabetes-prone ZDSD rat. This presents unique therapeutic potential for raloxifene in preserving bone quality in diabetes as well as in diabetes prevention, if these results can be supported by future experimental and clinical studies. PMID:25243714

Hill Gallant, Kathleen M.; Gallant, Maxime A.; Brown, Drew M.; Sato, Amy Y.; Williams, Justin N.; Burr, David B.

2014-01-01

138

Differences in sperm storage and remating propensity between adult females of two morphotypes of the Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) cryptic species complex.  

PubMed

The South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus, is a complex of cryptic species composed of at least seven morphotypes. Some of them, such as the Peruvian and Brazilian 1 morphotypes (which include Argentinean populations), exhibit strong pre-copulatory isolation, yet it is possible to obtain heterotypic crosses when forcing copulation of adults under laboratory conditions. The cross involving Peruvian males and Argentinean females produces F1 offspring with reduced viability in terms of egg hatch. This low hatchability could be caused by a reduced amount of sperm transferred to and stored by females mated with heterotypic males, which in turn could affect their post-copulatory behaviour. To test these hypotheses, we investigated sperm transfer and female mating and remating behaviour for homotypic and heterotypic crosses between adults of two morphotypes (Brazilian 1 [Argentina] and Peruvian [Peru]) of the A. fraterculus cryptic species complex. As reported before, Argentinean males and females mated earlier in the day than the other three mating combinations. Peruvian females engaged in shorter copulation times than Argentinean females. Peruvian females tended to store smaller quantities of sperm than Argentinean females, and almost a half of the crosses involving Argentinean males and Peruvian females were unsuccessful (no sperm transfer). However, there was no evidence that the cross between Peruvian males and Argentinean females resulted in storage of a critically small amount of sperm (posing risk of sperm shortage). Argentinean females were more willing to remate than Peruvian females, irrespective of male morphotype, but latency to remating was not affected by male or female morphotype. This study shows that mating behaviour differs between some of the A. fraterculus complex morphotypes, with female but not male morphotype determining female likelihood to remate. PMID:24702958

Abraham, S; Rull, J; Mendoza, M; Liendo, M C; Devescovi, F; Roriz, A K; Kovaleski, A; Segura, D F; Vera, M T

2014-06-01

139

Female Reproductive System  

MedlinePLUS

... may be fertilized by sperm, provide a favorable environment for the developing fetus , move the fetus to the outside at the end of the development period, and produce the female sex hormones. The ...

140

Female pattern baldness  

MedlinePLUS

Alopecia in women; Baldness - female; Hair loss in women; Androgenetic alopecia in women ... in 4 or 5 of women. In most women, it may slow or stop hair loss. You must continue to use this medicine for ...

141

Reproductive development of male goat kids reared with or without permanent contact with adult females until 10 months of age.  

PubMed

Adult male ruminants that were reared in contact with females display greater sexual behavior than those reared in single male groups. The aim of the experiment was to compare the reproductive development of prepubertal male kids reared with or without direct permanent contact with adult females until they were 10 months old. Seventeen Saanen male kids were maintained in two groups until 44 weeks of age: kids reared in permanent direct contact with four adult goats (group FEM, N = 8) and kids that remained isolated from females (group ISO, N = 9). All goats in the FEM group became pregnant approximately when bucks attained 28 weeks of age. Scrotal circumference and testosterone concentration were measured, and semen was obtained by electroejaculation to avoid female contact in the ISO group. Scrotal circumference was greater in FEM kids at 12 and 14 weeks of age (P < 0.0001) and testosterone when they were 20 and 22 weeks old (P < 0.0001). Testosterone concentration was greater in ISO kids from 28 to 44 weeks of age. All semen characteristics increased with age (P < 0.0001). Individual motility was greater in FEM kids than that in ISO kids at 15 and 17 weeks (P < 0.005); mass motility was greater in ISO than that in FEM kids at 32 weeks (P < 0.05); total number of spermatozoa/ejaculate was greater in ISO kids at 30, 32, and 40 weeks and in FEM kids at 43 weeks (P < 0.005); total number of motile spermatozoa was greater in ISO kids at 32 and 40 weeks, whereas at 43 weeks, it was greater in FEM kids (P < 0.005). It was concluded that permanent contact with adult goats had transient and short-time positive effects in male kids' reproductive traits during prepubertal development. However, positive effects stopped after goats used as stimulus became pregnant. PMID:25277528

Lacuesta, L; Orihuela, A; Ungerfeld, R

2015-01-01

142

Blood vitamin D(3) metabolite concentrations of adult female bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) remain stable after ceasing UVb exposure.  

PubMed

Vitamin D deficiency can lead to several health problems collectively called metabolic bone disease (MBD). One commonly kept reptile species prone to develop MBD if managed incorrectly is the bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps). This study aimed to determine the extent to which adult female bearded dragons fed a diet low in vitamin D can use stored vitamin D and its metabolites to maintain plasma 25(OH)D(3) and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) concentrations after discontinuing UVb exposure. Blood samples of healthy adult female bearded dragons, exposed to UVb radiation for over 6 months were collected (day 0) after which UVb exposure was discontinued for 83 days and blood was collected. Blood plasma was analysed for concentrations of total Ca, total P, ionized Ca, uric acid, 25(OH)D(3) and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3). There was no significant change in plasma 25(OH)D(3) and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) concentrations during the study. While total Ca and P in whole blood was found to significantly decrease over time (P < 0.0088 and 0.0016, respectively), values were within the reference range. Plasma ionized Ca tended (P = 0.0525) to decrease during the study. Adult female bearded dragons, previously exposed to UVb, are able to maintain blood vitamin D metabolite concentrations when UVb exposure is discontinued for a period of up to 83 days. PMID:23648288

Oonincx, D G A B; van de Wal, M D; Bosch, G; Stumpel, J B G; Heijboer, A C; van Leeuwen, J P T M; Hendriks, W H; Kik, M

2013-07-01

143

Selected Dietary Nutrients and the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Adult Males and Females in Saudi Arabia: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

During the last decade, the rapid economic development in Saudi Arabia resulted in an unbalanced dietary intake pattern within the general population. Consequently, metabolic syndrome was also documented to be highly prevalent in the Middle-East region. We aimed to examine the relationship between selected dietary nutrient intakes and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the general adult population of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. In this cross-sectional study, 185 adult Saudis aged 19 to 60 years (87 males and 98 females (mean age 35.6 ± 13.2 and 37.6 ± 11.7 years, respectively)) were included. The criteria for metabolic syndrome were based on the International Diabetes Foundation (IDF) criteria, and the dietary food intake was assessed by two 24-h dietary recall methods. The odd ratios (ORs) of metabolic syndrome risk across quartiles of selected dietary nutrients were significantly lower for carbohydrates and proteins, as well as for vitamins A, C, E and K, calcium, zinc and magnesium (p < 0.05 for all) in the female group with metabolic syndrome than those without. The pattern of daily dietary intake of selected nutrients among the general population of Saudi Arabia raises concern, and this dietary imbalance could increase the risk of metabolic syndrome, particularly in adult Saudi females. PMID:24284611

Al-Daghri, Nasser M.; Khan, Nasiruddin; Alkharfy, Khalid M.; Al-Attas, Omar S.; Alokail, Majed S.; Alfawaz, Hanan A.; Alothman, Abdulaziz; Vanhoutte, Paul M.

2013-01-01

144

ORIGINAL PAPER Competitive females are successful females; phenotype,  

E-print Network

of selection on males. Here, we examine females of a mildly dimorphic songbird (Junco hyemalis) to determine . Female aggression . Testosterone . Gonadotropin-releasing hormone . Junco hyemalis . Sexual dimorphism

145

Induction of Female-to-Male Sex Change in Adult Zebrafish by Aromatase Inhibitor Treatment  

PubMed Central

This study investigated whether undifferentiated germ and/or somatic stem cells remain in the differentiated ovary of a species that does not undergo sex changes under natural conditions and retain their sexual plasticity. The effect of aromatase inhibitor (AI)-treatment on sexually mature female zebrafish was examined. A 5-month AI treatment caused retraction of the ovaries after which testes-like organs appeared, and cyst structures filled with spermatozoa-like cells were observed in sections of these tissues. Electron microscopic observations revealed that these cells appeared as large sperm heads without tails. Sperm formation was re-examined after changing the diet to an AI-free food. A large number of normal sperm were obtained after eight weeks, and no formation of ovarian tissue was observed. Artificial fertilization using sperm from the sex-changed females was successful. These results demonstrated that sex plasticity remains in the mature ovaries of this species. PMID:24292399

Takatsu, Kanae; Miyaoku, Kaori; Roy, Shimi Rani; Murono, Yuki; Sago, Tomohiro; Itagaki, Hideyuki; Nakamura, Masaru; Tokumoto, Toshinobu

2013-01-01

146

Induction of Female-to-Male Sex Change in Adult Zebrafish by Aromatase Inhibitor Treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated whether undifferentiated germ and/or somatic stem cells remain in the differentiated ovary of a species that does not undergo sex changes under natural conditions and retain their sexual plasticity. The effect of aromatase inhibitor (AI)-treatment on sexually mature female zebrafish was examined. A 5-month AI treatment caused retraction of the ovaries after which testes-like organs appeared, and cyst structures filled with spermatozoa-like cells were observed in sections of these tissues. Electron microscopic observations revealed that these cells appeared as large sperm heads without tails. Sperm formation was re-examined after changing the diet to an AI-free food. A large number of normal sperm were obtained after eight weeks, and no formation of ovarian tissue was observed. Artificial fertilization using sperm from the sex-changed females was successful. These results demonstrated that sex plasticity remains in the mature ovaries of this species.

Takatsu, Kanae; Miyaoku, Kaori; Roy, Shimi Rani; Murono, Yuki; Sago, Tomohiro; Itagaki, Hideyuki; Nakamura, Masaru; Tokumoto, Toshinobu

2013-12-01

147

Influence of acute tryptophan depletion on verbal declarative episodic memory in young adult females.  

PubMed

Diminished synthesis of the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) in the brain has been linked to disturbed memory processes. The present study investigated the effects of diminished central nervous 5-HT synthesis as achieved by an acute dietary tryptophan depletion (ATD) on verbal declarative episodic memory in young women while controlling for the effects of female sex hormones. Eighteen healthy females (aged 20-31 years) participated in a within-subject repeated measures study, with two separate days of assessment spaced at least one individual menstrual cycle apart. On one day, participants were subjected to ATD, thus lowering central nervous 5-HT synthesis. The other day participants received a tryptophan-balanced amino acid load (BAL = control condition). The study was randomized, counterbalanced and double blind in terms of ATD/BAL administration. Measurements took place in the early follicular phase of the participants' menstrual cycle. Estrogen, FSH and LH levels were assessed at baseline. Verbal declarative episodic memory was assessed using a structured word-learning task. Short-term memory, as indexed by immediate recall, was reduced after ATD intake, whereas delayed recall and recognition after a 25-min delay did not show any differences after intake of ATD or BAL. In young women, verbal short-term memory function was more vulnerable to ATD than consolidation processes. In light of the possible interplay between female sex hormones and 5-HT, further studies comparing different menstrual cycle phases are needed. PMID:24072504

Helmbold, K; Bubenzer, S; Dahmen, B; Eisert, A; Gaber, T J; Habel, U; Konrad, K; Herpertz-Dahlmann, B; Zepf, F D

2013-11-01

148

Female urethral syndrome. A female prostatitis?  

PubMed Central

The cause of the female urethral syndrome has previously been obscure, as it has been associated by definition with a lack of objective findings but a plethora of subjective complaints of retropubic pressure, dyspareunia, urinary frequency, and dysuria. There is now strong evidence that the microscopic paraurethral glands connected to the distal third of the urethra in the prevaginal space are homologous to the prostate. They stain histologically for prostate-specific antigen and, like the prostate, are subject to both infection and cancer. The most important aspect of recognizing this microscopic "female prostate" as an anatomic feature is that its infections may completely explain many cases of the urethral syndrome. Further, the diagnosis is not elusive if trained clinicians palpate for localized and objective paraurethral tenderness through the anterior vagina wall to one or both sides of the urethra. Treatment parallel to that for male prostatitis is usually rewarded by the elimination of symptoms and the objective finding of the loss of tenderness of the paraurethral glands. As with prostatitis, the localized problem often recurs. It is time to alert primary care physicians to this disorder and to eliminate the widespread practice of treating affected women with either invasive urethral dilation or tranquilizers. Images Figure 1. Figure 3. PMID:8686301

Gittes, R F; Nakamura, R M

1996-01-01

149

Interventions and the Development of Dominance Relationships in Female Baboons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dominance relationships between adult and adolescent female yellow baboons, Papio cynocephalus, were studied in Amboseli Park, Kenya. Adolescents attempted to become dominant to some females (called ‘targeted females’) while remaining subordinate to others. Agonistic relationships with targeted females passed through a sequence of stages before the younger female achieved dominance. An examination of nondyadic agonistic interactions revealed that adolescents frequently

Jeffrey Walters

1980-01-01

150

Promoting the female condom.  

PubMed

AIDS is spreading most rapidly among women, who often cannot negotiate the use of a male condom with reluctant partners. Recent findings from 6 countries, however, indicate that women can draw upon peer support to help them negotiate female condom use with reluctant partners. These findings come from Family Health International's (FHI) AIDS Control and Prevention (AIDSCAP) Project's introduction of the female condom to women through peer support groups in Kenya and Brazil, and the Joint UN Program on HIV/AIDS' (UNAIDS) coordinated studies in Costa Rica, Indonesia, Mexico, and Senegal on sexual negotiation, women's empowerment, and the female condom, also using group education sessions. The US Agency for International Development recently committed $100,000 toward the purchase of 150,000 female condoms for operations research and familiarization in countries where officials have not been exposed to the method. More than 130 participants from 19 countries attended FHI's May 1-2, 1997, conference on the female condom convened in Arlington, Virginia. PMID:12292734

Cornman, H

1997-01-01

151

Female genital mutilation.  

PubMed

Female genital mutilation, also misleadingly known as female circumcision, is usually performed on girls ranging in from 1 week to puberty. Immediate physical complications include severe pain, shock, infection, bleeding, acute urinary infection, tetanus, and death. Longterm problems include chronic pain, difficulties with micturition and menstruation, pelvic infection leading to infertility, and prolonged and obstructed labor during childbirth. An estimated 80 million girls and women have undergone female genital mutilation. In Britain alone an estimated 10,000 girls are currently at risk. Religious, cultural, medical, and moral grounds rationalize the custom which is practiced primarily in sub-Saharan Africa, the Arab world, Malaysia, Indonesia, and among migrant populations in Western countries. According to WHO it is correlated with poverty, illiteracy, and the low status of women. Women who escape mutilation are not sought in marriage. WHO, the UN Population Fund, the UN Children's Fund, the International Planned Parenthood Federation, and the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child have issued declarations on the eradication of female genital mutilation. In Britain, local authorities have intervened to prevent parents from mutilating their daughters. In 1984, the Inter-African Committee Against Harmful Traditional Practices Affecting Women and Children was established to work toward eliminating female genital mutilation and other damaging customs. National committees in 26 African countries coordinate projects run by local people using theater, dance, music, and storytelling for communication. In Australia, Canada, Europe, and the US women have organized to prevent the practice among vulnerable migrants and refugees. PMID:8400925

Ladjali, M; Rattray, T W; Walder, R J

1993-08-21

152

Larval host plant origin modifies the adult oviposition preference of the female European grapevine moth Lobesia botrana.  

PubMed

According to the 'natal habitat preference induction' (NHPI) hypothesis, phytophagous insect females should prefer to lay their eggs on the host species on which they developed as larvae. We tested whether this hypothesis applies to the breeding behaviour of polyphagous European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana, an important pest in European vineyards. We previously found that different grape cultivars affect several life history traits of the moth. Because the different cultivars of grapes are suspected to provide different plant quality, we tested the NHPI hypothesis by examining oviposition choice of L. botrana among three Vitis vinifera cultivars (Pinot, Chasselas and Chardonnay). In a choice situation, females of L. botrana that had never experienced grapes were able to discriminate between different grape cultivars and preferentially selected Pinot as an oviposition substrate. This 'naive' preference of oviposition could be modified by larval environment: Females raised on grapes as larvae preferred to lay eggs on the cultivar that they had experienced. Furthermore, experience of the host plant during adult emergence could be excluded because when pupae originating from our synthetic diet were exposed to grapes, the emerging adults did not show preference for the cultivar from which they emerged. The NHPI hypothesis that includes the two sub-hypothesis "Hopkins host selection principle" and "chemical legacy" may thus be relevant in this system. PMID:18066706

Moreau, J; Rahme, J; Benrey, B; Thiery, D

2008-04-01

153

Larval host plant origin modifies the adult oviposition preference of the female European grapevine moth Lobesia botrana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the ‘natal habitat preference induction’ (NHPI) hypothesis, phytophagous insect females should prefer to lay their eggs on the host species on which they developed as larvae. We tested whether this hypothesis applies to the breeding behaviour of polyphagous European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana, an important pest in European vineyards. We previously found that different grape cultivars affect several life history traits of the moth. Because the different cultivars of grapes are suspected to provide different plant quality, we tested the NHPI hypothesis by examining oviposition choice of L. botrana among three Vitis vinifera cultivars (Pinot, Chasselas and Chardonnay). In a choice situation, females of L. botrana that had never experienced grapes were able to discriminate between different grape cultivars and preferentially selected Pinot as an oviposition substrate. This ‘naive’ preference of oviposition could be modified by larval environment: Females raised on grapes as larvae preferred to lay eggs on the cultivar that they had experienced. Furthermore, experience of the host plant during adult emergence could be excluded because when pupae originating from our synthetic diet were exposed to grapes, the emerging adults did not show preference for the cultivar from which they emerged. The NHPI hypothesis that includes the two sub-hypothesis “Hopkins host selection principle” and “chemical legacy” may thus be relevant in this system.

Moreau, J.; Rahme, J.; Benrey, B.; Thiery, D.

2008-04-01

154

Female coloration indicates female reproductive capacity in blue tits  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is poorly understood whether female morphological and behavioural traits can be used as 'signals'. In particular, experimental tests of the hypothesis that female ornaments reflect quality are scarce. Here, we experimentally examine whether female plumage coloration might signal maternal quality in the blue tit, Cyanistes caeruleus by forcing half of the females breeding in our population to produce a

C. DOUTRELANT; A. GRÉGOIRE; N. GRNAC; D. GOMEZ; M. M. LAMBRECHTS; P. PERRET

2007-01-01

155

Subglottal resonances of adult male and female native speakers of American English.  

PubMed

This paper presents a large-scale study of subglottal resonances (SGRs) (the resonant frequencies of the tracheo-bronchial tree) and their relations to various acoustical and physiological characteristics of speakers. The paper presents data from a corpus of simultaneous microphone and accelerometer recordings of consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) words embedded in a carrier phrase spoken by 25 male and 25 female native speakers of American English ranging in age from 18 to 24 yr. The corpus contains 17,500 utterances of 14 American English monophthongs, diphthongs, and the rhotic approximant [[inverted r

Lulich, Steven M; Morton, John R; Arsikere, Harish; Sommers, Mitchell S; Leung, Gary K F; Alwan, Abeer

2012-10-01

156

All about FAX: a Female Adult voXel phantom for Monte Carlo calculation in radiation protection dosimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has created a task group on dose calculations, which, among other objectives, should replace the currently used mathematical MIRD phantoms by voxel phantoms. Voxel phantoms are based on digital images recorded from scanning of real persons by computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Compared to the mathematical MIRD phantoms, voxel phantoms are true to the natural representations of a human body. Connected to a radiation transport code, voxel phantoms serve as virtual humans for which equivalent dose to organs and tissues from exposure to ionizing radiation can be calculated. The principal database for the construction of the FAX (Female Adult voXel) phantom consisted of 151 CT images recorded from scanning of trunk and head of a female patient, whose body weight and height were close to the corresponding data recommended by the ICRP in Publication 89. All 22 organs and tissues at risk, except for the red bone marrow and the osteogenic cells on the endosteal surface of bone ('bone surface'), have been segmented manually with a technique recently developed at the Departamento de Energia Nuclear of the UFPE in Recife, Brazil. After segmentation the volumes of the organs and tissues have been adjusted to agree with the organ and tissue masses recommended by ICRP for the Reference Adult Female in Publication 89. Comparisons have been made with the organ and tissue masses of the mathematical EVA phantom, as well as with the corresponding data for other female voxel phantoms. The three-dimensional matrix of the segmented images has eventually been connected to the EGS4 Monte Carlo code. Effective dose conversion coefficients have been calculated for exposures to photons, and compared to data determined for the mathematical MIRD-type phantoms, as well as for other voxel phantoms.

Kramer, R.; Khoury, H. J.; Vieira, J. W.; Loureiro, E. C. M.; Lima, V. J. M.; Lima, F. R. A.; Hoff, G.

2004-12-01

157

Prenatal ethanol exposure programs an increased susceptibility of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in female adult offspring rats  

SciTech Connect

Prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) induces dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in fetus and adult offspring. However, whether PEE increases the susceptibility to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in offspring and its underlying mechanism remain unknown. This study aimed to demonstrate an increased susceptibility to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD and its intrauterine programming mechanisms in female rat offspring with PEE. Rat model of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was established by PEE, the female fetus and adult offspring that fed normal diet (ND) or HFD were sacrificed. The results showed that, in PEE + ND group, serum corticosterone (CORT) slightly decreased and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and glucose increased with partial catch-up growth; In PEE + HFD group, serum CORT decreased, while serum IGF-1, glucose and triglyceride (TG) increased, with notable catch-up growth, higher metabolic status and NAFLD formation. Enhanced liver expression of the IGF-1 pathway, gluconeogenesis, and lipid synthesis as well as reduced expression of lipid output were accompanied in PEE + HFD group. In PEE fetus, serum CORT increased while IGF-1 decreased, with low body weight, hyperglycemia, and hepatocyte ultrastructural changes. Hepatic IGF-1 expression as well as lipid output was down-regulated, while lipid synthesis significantly increased. Based on these findings, we propose a “two-programming” hypothesis for an increased susceptibility to HFD-induced NAFLD in female offspring of PEE. That is, the intrauterine programming of liver glucose and lipid metabolic function is “the first programming”, and postnatal adaptive catch-up growth triggered by intrauterine programming of GC-IGF1 axis acts as “the second programming”. - Highlights: • Prenatal ethanol exposure increase the susceptibility of NAFLD in female offspring. • Prenatal ethanol exposure reprograms fetal liver’s glucose and lipid metabolism . • Prenatal ethanol exposure cause the adaptive change of glucocorticoid-IGF1 axis.

Shen, Lang; Liu, Zhongfen; Gong, Jun; Zhang, Li [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wang, Linlong [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Magdalou, Jacques [UMR 7561 CNRS-Nancy Université, Faculté de Médicine, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Chen, Liaobin [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wang, Hui, E-mail: wanghui19@whu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)

2014-01-15

158

Female hair restoration.  

PubMed

Female hair loss is a devastating issue for women that has only relatively recently been publicly acknowledged as a significant problem. Hair transplant surgery is extremely successful in correcting the most cosmetically problematic areas of alopecia. This article discusses the surgical technique of hair transplantation in women in detail, including pearls to reduce postoperative sequelae and planning strategies to ensure a high degree of patient satisfaction. A brief overview of some of the medical treatments found to be helpful in slowing or reversing female pattern hair loss is included, addressing the available hormonal and topical treatments. PMID:24017982

Unger, Robin H

2013-08-01

159

Mathematical models and specific absorbed fractions of photon energy in the nonpregnant adult female and at the end of each trimester of pregnancy  

SciTech Connect

Mathematical phantoms representing the adult female at three, six, and nine months of gestation are described. They are modifications of the 15-year-old male/adult female phantom (15-AF phantom) of Cristy and Eckerman (1987). The model of uterine contents includes the fetus, fetal skeleton, and placenta. The model is suitable for dose calculations for the fetus as a whole; individual organs within the fetus (other than the skeleton) are not modeled. A new model for the nonpregnant adult female is also described, comprising (1) the 15-AF phantom; (2) an adjustment to specific absorbed fractions for organ self-dose from photons to better match Reference Woman masses; and (3) computation of specific absorbed fractions with Reference Woman masses from ICRP Publication 23 for both penetrating and nonpenetrating radiations. Specific absorbed fractions for photons emitted from various source regions are tabulated for the new non;pregnant adult female model and the three pregnancy models.

Stabin, M.G.; Watson, E.E.; Cristy, M.; Ryman, J.C.; Eckerman, K.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Davis, J.L. [Tennessee Univ., Chattanooga, TN (United States)] [Tennessee Univ., Chattanooga, TN (United States); Marshall, D. [Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering] [Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Gehlen, M.K. [San Diego State Univ., CA (United States)] [San Diego State Univ., CA (United States)

1995-05-08

160

Sexual function and fertility in adult females and males with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.  

PubMed

Female patients with classic 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD) present with decreased fertility and low childbirth rates, women with a salt-wasting form of 21-OHD being most severely affected. In cases of undersubstitution with glucocorticoids, tonic androgen secretion disturbs ovulation. However, even adequately substituted females may present with apparent infertility. Despite adrenal androgen suppression, adrenal progesterone secretion can prevent thickening of the endometrium in the follicular phase. Furthermore, functional ovarian hyperandrogenism is a common finding even in women with well-controlled classic 21-OHD. Psychosexual factors may also contribute significantly to decreased childbirth rates found in these patients. Genital ambiguity may lead to a disturbed body image and the patients have been found to feel less feminine than healthy control women. The repeated psychological insult caused by frequent genital examinations and operations is also important, though its exact impact has been difficult to determine. Finally, prenatal androgen excess can cause masculinization of the central nervous system leading to boyish behavior in childhood and decreased heterosexual activity in adulthood. Some recent reports show a high rate of infertility also in men with 21-OHD. They are at risk of benign testicular tumors, adrenal rests, which can lead to permanent infertility. Also, raised adrenal androgen production leading to increased estrogen concentrations can suppress gonadotropin secretion and may lead to a hypogonadotropic state. PMID:11847466

Jääskeläinen, J; Tiitinen, A; Voutilainen, R

2001-01-01

161

Primary essential cutis verticis gyrata in an adult female patient: a case report.  

PubMed

Cutis verticis gyrata (CVG) is a very rare morphological condition of the scalp characterized by ridges and furrows resembling the surface of the brain. Primary or idiopathic CVG occurs in the absence of underlying soft-tissue abnormalities and is often associated with neuropsychiatric disorders. Secondary CVG occurs as a result of a local inflammatory or neoplastic process of the scalp or a systemic illness that produce pathologic changes in the scalp structure. The choice of treatment of CVG is surgical repair which depends on the size and location of the lesion, the underlying disorder, and the wishes of the patient, including primary repair, serial excision, skin grafting, local flaps and tissue expansion. In this case report, we describe the first female patient in the published work with primary essential CVG that appeared at 30 years of age. Because the patient had no cosmetic or functional complaint, no surgical intervention was attempted. Primary essential CVG, a very uncommon disorder, may be encountered in females after the third decade. The classification of CVG is essential to properly diagnose and treat patients who present with these unusual scalp lesions. PMID:16848824

Tan, Onder; Ergen, Duygu

2006-07-01

162

Female Pallid Sturgeon  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Biologists prepare to perform ultrasound and an egg biopsy on female pallid sturgeon, radio code 30, to determine how close to spawning she is or whether spawning may already have occurred.  Biologists from Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks determined that code 30 eventually spawned in the Yello...

163

Female Sport Involvement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was undertaken in order to identify and describe the nature of socialization of females into sport. A fixed-alternative questionnaire was administered to 585 women who were currently active in sport. Results indicated that peers and family were the significant agents of socialization during childhood, peers and school were most…

Greendorfer, Susan L.

164

Understanding the Female Offender  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although boys engage in more delinquent and criminal acts than do girls, female delinquency is on the rise. In 1980, boys were four times as likely as girls to be arrested; today they are only twice as likely to be arrested. In this article, Elizabeth Cauffman explores how the juvenile justice system is and should be responding to the adolescent

Elizabeth Cauffman

2008-01-01

165

Understanding the Female Offender  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Although boys engage in more delinquent and criminal acts than do girls, female delinquency is on the rise. In 1980, boys were four times as likely as girls to be arrested; today they are only twice as likely to be arrested. In this article, Elizabeth Cauffman explores how the juvenile justice system is and should be responding to the

Elizabeth Cauffman

2008-01-01

166

Female Physicist Doctoral Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The underrepresentation of women in physics doctorate programs and in tenured academic positions indicates a need to evaluate what may influence their career choice and persistence. This qualitative paper examines eleven females in physics doctoral programs and professional science positions in order to provide a more thorough understanding of why…

Dabney, Katherine P.; Tai, Robert H.

2013-01-01

167

Effects of Dietary Exposure to 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in Adult Female Mink ( Mustela vison )  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Adult female mink were fed diets supplemented with 0, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, or 100 ppb 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin\\u000a (TCDD) for up to 125 days. There was a dose-dependent decrease in feed consumption and body weights indicative of the “wasting\\u000a syndrome” previously reported for mink and other species exposed to chlorinated hydrocarbon compounds. Mortality reached 12.5,\\u000a 62.5, and 100% by

J. R. Hochstein; S. J. Bursian; R. J. Aulerich

1998-01-01

168

Relative influence of human harvest, carnivores, and weather on adult female elk survival across western North America  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Well-informed management of harvested species requires understanding how changing ecological conditions affect demography and population dynamics, information that is lacking for many species. We have limited understanding of the relative influence of carnivores, harvest, weather and forage availability on elk Cervus elaphus demography, despite the ecological and economic importance of this species. We assessed adult female survival, a key vital rate for population dynamics, from 2746 radio-collared elk in 45 populations across western North America that experience wide variation in carnivore assemblage, harvest, weather and habitat conditions. Proportional hazard analysis revealed that 'baseline' (i.e. not related to human factors) mortality was higher with very high winter precipitation, particularly in populations sympatric with wolves Canis lupus. Mortality may increase via nutritional stress and heightened vulnerability to predation in snowy winters. Baseline mortality was unrelated to puma Puma concolor presence, forest cover or summer forage productivity. Cause-specific mortality analyses showed that wolves and all carnivore species combined had additive effects on baseline elk mortality, but only reduced survival by <2%. When human factors were included, ‘total’ adult mortality was solely related to harvest; the influence of native carnivores was compensatory. Annual total mortality rates were lowest in populations sympatric with both pumas and wolves because managers reduced female harvest in areas with abundant or diverse carnivores. Mortality from native carnivores peaked in late winter and early spring, while harvest-induced mortality peaked in autumn. The strong peak in harvest-induced mortality during the autumn hunting season decreased as the number of native carnivore species increased. Synthesis and applications. Elevated baseline adult female elk mortality from wolves in years with high winter precipitation could affect elk abundance as winters across the western US become drier and wolves recolonize portions of the region. In the absence of human harvest, wolves had additive, although limited, effects on mortality. However, human harvest, and its apparent use by managers to offset predation, primarily controls overall variation in adult female mortality. Altering harvest quotas is thus a strong tool for offsetting impacts of carnivore recolonization and shifting weather patterns on elk across western North America.

Brodie, Jedediah; Johnson, Heather; Mitchell, Michael; Zager, Peter; Proffitt, Kelly; Hebblewhite, Mark; Kauffman, Matthew; Johnson, Bruce; Bissonette, John; Bishop, Chad; Gude, Justin; Herbert, Jeff; Hersey, Kent; Hurley, Mark; Lukacs, Paul M.; McCorquodale, Scott; McIntire, Eliot; Nowak, Josh; Sawyer, Hall; Smith, Douglas; White, P.J.

2013-01-01

169

D2 antagonist during development decreases anxiety and infanticidal behavior in adult female prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster).  

PubMed

On postnatal day 8, prairie vole pups were randomly assigned a treatment of 1mg/kg SKF38393 (D1 agonist), quinpirole (D2 agonist), SCH23390 (D1 antagonist), eticlopride (D2 antagonist), or saline vehicle. As adults, females treated with eticlopride exhibited reduced anxiety-like behavior in an elevated plus maze and a reduction in infanticidal behavior. These behavioral effects were not seen in males. These data demonstrate that a single exposure to a D2 antagonist during development can have persistent, sex-specific effects on behavior into adulthood. PMID:20152865

Hostetler, Caroline M; Harkey, Shanna L; Bales, Karen L

2010-06-26

170

Sex-specific survival rates of adult roseate terns: are males paying a higher reproductive cost than females?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A long-term mark-recapture/resighting program has been carried out on the Roseate Terns (Sterna dougallii) nesting at Falkner Island, Connecticut, USA from the late 1980s through the mid 2000s, and from 1995-1998 an intensive collaborative study of food-provisioning of chicks by their parents also was conducted on many of the banded individuals at this site. Adult female Roseate Terns have significantly higher 'local survival' rates than do males. While both sexes feed their young, males usually have higher prey delivery rates than do females and do most feeding of the (oldest if more than one) chick just before it fledges. Males usually depart at the same time as the (oldest) fledgling, while successful females parents may linger at the colony site for up to two weeks. The lower 'local survival' rate of males probably does not represent lower colony-site fidelity, but instead may reflect the price they pay for doing more 'child care,' especially if fledglings are still dependant on them for food during post breeding dispersal and (at least early) migration.

Spendelow, J.A.; Shealer, D.A.; Hatfield, J.S.; Nichols, J.D.; Nisbet, I.C.T.

2005-01-01

171

Protein restriction during pregnancy induces hypertension and impairs endothelium-dependent vascular function in adult female offspring.  

PubMed

Intrauterine undernutrition plays a role in the development of adult hypertension. Most studies are done in male offspring to delineate the mechanisms whereby blood pressure may be raised; however, the vascular mechanisms involved in female offspring are unclear. Female offspring of pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats fed either a control (C; 18%) or a low-protein (LP; 6%) diet during pregnancy were used. Birth weight and later growth were markedly lower in LP than in C offspring. LP offspring exhibited impaired estrous cyclicity with increased mean arterial pressure. Hypotensive response to acetylcholine (ACh) and the hypertensive response to phenylephrine (PE) were greater in LP than in C rats. N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) induced greater hypertensive responses in C than in LP rats. Endothelium-intact mesenteric arteries from LP offspring exhibited increased contractile responses to PE and reduced vasodilation in response to ACh. In endothelium-denuded arteries, relaxation responses to sodium nitroprusside were similar in both groups. Basal and ACh-induced increase in vascular nitrite/nitrate production was lower in LP than in C offspring. L-NAME or 1H-1,2,4-oxadiazolo-4,3-quinoxalin-1-one inhibited ACh relaxations and enhanced PE contractions in C offspring, but had minimal effect in LP rats. The decreased NO-mediated vascular response might explain the increased vascular contraction and arterial pressure in female offspring with low birth weight. PMID:18957856

Sathishkumar, Kunju; Elkins, Rebekah; Yallampalli, Uma; Yallampalli, Chandra

2009-01-01

172

Female sexual dysfunction in young adult women - Impact of age and lifestyle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Female sexual function is a difficult entity to be assessed. Subjective factors and interview biases can change the perception of it. Using validated questionnaires can improve the scientific approach to this matter. There is a huge difference of severity and incidence among young, apparent healthy women, which are in a harmonious relationship. We evaluated 320 healthy women, with stable sexual active relationship, with no know depressive disease, endocrinological and metabolic pathology, no premature menopause, no malignancy. We compose a mathematic model to study the impact of age, and body weight on the sexual function, with FSFI total score as surrogate marker. We observed that even in healthy women, increase in age and/or weight/body mass significantly impair general sexual function.

Stoian, Dana; PAter, Liana; Pater, Flavius; Craciunescu, Mihaela

2014-12-01

173

Histochemical study of the hepatopancreas in adult females of the pink-shrimp Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis Latreille, 1817.  

PubMed

This study provides histochemical data of the hepatopancreatic cells of adult female pink-shrimp (Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis) at two different developmental stages (those with developed gonads and those with exhausted gonads). The F. brasiliensis females were collected in seawater off the Guarapari coast, Espirito Santo, Brazil. Five cell types were identified in this digestive gland: B (vesicular), E (embryonic), F (fibrillar), M (basal) and R (resorptive). The digestive gland was stained with the following techniques: PAS/Alcian blue (for polysaccharides), bromophenol blue (for protein), von Kossa (for bound calcium) and Baker (for lipids). Acid glycoconjugates were found inside vacuoles in the R cells, while neutral polysaccharides were present in the B cells and near to the microvilli. In females with exhausted gonads polysaccharides were also seen in the intertubular spaces and inside the lumina of the tubules. The F and M cells were the most marked by the presence of large amounts of proteins observed in R cells and also inside the vacuoles of B cells. The bound calcium was mainly found in the F and M cells. The F cells showed strong positive staining for lipid while the R cell only stained weakly. The E cells did not react to any of the applied staining techniques. The similarities in the histochemical composition of these hepatopancreatic cells in females with developed gonads, compared to exhausted ones, is justified by the fact that transfer of these elements to the oocytes occurs, in significant quantity, only during the initial stages of gonadal development in F. brasiliensis. Also, they may be more related to the molt stage, as in the case of calcium salts. PMID:23992941

Nunes, Erika Takagi; Braga, Adriane Araújo; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel

2014-01-01

174

Chronic alcohol consumption disrupts myocardial protein balance and function in aged, but not adult, female F344 rats  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to assess whether the deleterious effect of chronic alcohol consumption differs in adult and aged female rats. To address this aim, adult (4 mo) and aged (18 mo) F344 rats were fed a nutritionally complete liquid diet containing alcohol (36% total calories) or an isocaloric isonitrogenous control diet for 20 wk. Cardiac structure and function, assessed by echocardiography, as well as myocardial protein synthesis and proteolysis did not differ in either alcohol- versus control-fed adult rats or in adult versus aged control-fed rats. In contrast, cardiac function was impaired in alcohol-fed aged rats compared with age-matched control rats. Additionally, alcohol feeding decreased cardiac protein synthesis that was associated with decreased phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 and S6K1. This reduction in mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase activity was associated with reduced eIF3f and binding of both Raptor and eIF4G to eIF3. Proteasome activity was increased in alcohol-fed aged rats with a coordinate elevation in the E3 ligases atrogin-1 and muscle RING-finger protein-1 (MuRF1). These changes were associated with increased regulated in development and DNA damage response 1 (REDD1) and phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) but no increase in AKT or forkhead transcription factor (FOXO)3 phosphorylation. Finally, markers of autophagy (e.g., LC3B, Atg7, Atg12) and TNF-? were increased to a greater extent in alcohol-fed aged rats. These data demonstrate that aged female rats exhibit an enhanced sensitivity to alcohol compared with adult animals. Our data are consistent with a model whereby alcohol increases proteolysis via FOXO-independent increase in atrogin-1, which degrades eIF3f and therefore impairs formation of a functional preinitiation complex and protein synthesis. PMID:24226028

Korzick, Donna H.

2013-01-01

175

Acute exposure to gas-supersaturated water does not affect reproductive success of female adult chinook salmon late in maturation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

At times, total dissolved gas concentrations in the Columbia and Snake rivers have been elevated due to involuntary spill from high spring runoff and voluntary spill used as a method to pass juvenile salmonids over dams. The goal of this project was to determine if acute exposure to total dissolved gas supersaturation (TDGS) affects the reproductive performance of female chinook salmon late in their maturation. During this study, adult female spring chinook salmon were exposed to mean TDGS levels of 114.1 % to 125.5%. We ended exposures at first mortality, or at the appearance of impending death. Based on this criterion, exposures lasted from 10 to 68 h and were inversely related to TDGS. There was no effect of TDGS on pre-spawning mortality or fecundity when comparing treatment fish to experimental controls or the general hatchery population four to six weeks after exposures. Egg quality, based on egg weight and egg diameter, did not differ between treatment and control fish. Fertilization rate and survival to eyed-stage was high (>94%) for all groups. With the exception of Renibacterium salmoninarum (the causative agent of bacterial kidney disease; BKD), no viral or bacterial fish pathogens were isolated from experimental fish. The prevalence (about 45%) and severity of R. salmoninarum did not differ among the groups or the general hatchery population. We conclude that these acute exposures to moderate levels of gas-supersaturated water-perhaps similar to that experienced by immigrating adult salmon as they approach and pass a hydropower dam on the Columbia River-did not affect reproductive success of female chinook salmon late in their maturation. These results are most applicable to summer and fall chinook salmon, which migrate in the summer/fall and spawn shortly after reaching their natal streams. Published in 2004 by John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

Gale, W.L.; Maule, A.G.; Postera, A.; Peters, M.H.

2004-01-01

176

Prenatal ethanol exposure programs an increased susceptibility of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in female adult offspring rats.  

PubMed

Prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) induces dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in fetus and adult offspring. However, whether PEE increases the susceptibility to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in offspring and its underlying mechanism remain unknown. This study aimed to demonstrate an increased susceptibility to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD and its intrauterine programming mechanisms in female rat offspring with PEE. Rat model of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was established by PEE, the female fetus and adult offspring that fed normal diet (ND) or HFD were sacrificed. The results showed that, in PEE+ND group, serum corticosterone (CORT) slightly decreased and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and glucose increased with partial catch-up growth; In PEE+HFD group, serum CORT decreased, while serum IGF-1, glucose and triglyceride (TG) increased, with notable catch-up growth, higher metabolic status and NAFLD formation. Enhanced liver expression of the IGF-1 pathway, gluconeogenesis, and lipid synthesis as well as reduced expression of lipid output were accompanied in PEE+HFD group. In PEE fetus, serum CORT increased while IGF-1 decreased, with low body weight, hyperglycemia, and hepatocyte ultrastructural changes. Hepatic IGF-1 expression as well as lipid output was down-regulated, while lipid synthesis significantly increased. Based on these findings, we propose a "two-programming" hypothesis for an increased susceptibility to HFD-induced NAFLD in female offspring of PEE. That is, the intrauterine programming of liver glucose and lipid metabolic function is "the first programming", and postnatal adaptive catch-up growth triggered by intrauterine programming of GC-IGF1 axis acts as "the second programming". PMID:24275070

Shen, Lang; Liu, Zhongfen; Gong, Jun; Zhang, Li; Wang, Linlong; Magdalou, Jacques; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui

2014-01-15

177

Male versus Female Attitudes toward Stuttering  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The study investigated the extent to which differences existed between public attitudes of males versus females. Method: One hundred adults, 50 males and 50 females, were chosen at random from each of 50 study samples comprising a total of 3371 respondents in a database archive who had completed the "Public Opinion Survey of Human…

St. Louis, Kenneth O.

2012-01-01

178

The Female Offender: A Selected Bibliography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three themes run through this collection of citations which represent a small fraction of literature on the adult female offender. One is the ideology, implications, and impact of criminological theory to the study of female crime and criminality. A second theme treats the legal and procedural mechanics of justice administration. The final theme…

Horton, Davis M., Comp.; Kravitz, Marjorie, Comp.

179

Nonspecific Urethritis in Females  

PubMed Central

The possibility of nonspecific urethritis must be considered in females with persistent irritative symptoms of the lower urinary tract despite “negative” urine cultures. The diagnosis can be made only by the proper collections of urine specimens from both the urethra and the bladder. These specimens will reveal the presence of white blood cells in the urethral washings, while the midstream (bladder) specimen will be free of cells. PMID:5429140

Marshall, Sumner; Lyon, Richards P.; Schieble, Jack

1970-01-01

180

Nonspecific urethritis in females.  

PubMed

The possibility of nonspecific urethritis must be considered in females with persistent irritative symptoms of the lower urinary tract despite "negative" urine cultures. The diagnosis can be made only by the proper collections of urine specimens from both the urethra and the bladder. These specimens will reveal the presence of white blood cells in the urethral washings, while the midstream (bladder) specimen will be free of cells. PMID:5429140

Marshall, S; Lyon, R P; Schieble, J

1970-06-01

181

Female victims of torture.  

PubMed

Torture is common today and is practised in over 100 countries according to Amnesty International. A substantial number of refugees coming to Europe have been tortured including females. Documentation of physical injuries due to torture is done by forensic pathologists often in collaboration with psychiatrists. In Sweden, the majority of torture documentations is done by an organization (KTC) which have specialized in documenting torture, and in short-term therapy of refugees and other crime victims suffering from post-traumatic stress. From the KTC archives of 500 documented alleged torture victims, the records of 63 females were studied separately. Age, nationality, asylum motive, social situation, torture methods, number of injuries, and sequels to torture were among the variables studied. Female torture victims differed from their male counterparts studied previously in the following: (i) The most common reason for seeking asylum was persecution because of the political activity of their husbands or some other close relative. (ii) Rape often both anal and vaginal, several times, and by different persons, was reported by 76% of the women. Physical abuse by use of blunt force was alleged by 95% but (iii) other types of force and specific torture methods was reported infrequently. (iv) A high frequency of PTSD -- 87% was diagnosed. PMID:17631459

Edston, Erik; Olsson, Caroline

2007-08-01

182

Trade-offs between offspring fitness and future reproduction of adult female black brent.  

PubMed

1.?Successful reproduction requires numerous decisions, and some of which may require trade-offs between current and future reproduction. We studied effects of choice of foraging patches on gosling growth and future breeding by mothers in black brent (Branta bernicla nigricans) geese. 2.?Specific foraging areas consistently produced high-quality goslings over 21?years. We found a consistent ranking of gosling mass, corrected for age, across brood rearing areas (BRAs) and years [Akaike model weights, ?w(i) ?=?1·00 for models including additive effects of BRA and year]. Growth of goslings largely determines their future fitness, so areas where goslings grew most rapidly also produced goslings with the highest mean fitness. 3.?We used a multistate robust design capture-mark-recapture approach to estimate the probability of transitioning from a breeding state to a non-breeding (unobservable) state as a function of quality of BRA. 4.?In the best supported model, transition from a breeding state to a non-breeding state was positively related to gosling growth rates across BRAs. Thus, future reproduction was lower for females using BRAs that produced higher-quality goslings. Our results are consistent with trade-offs by individual brent between fitness of their current offspring and their own reproductive value. PMID:22303812

Nicolai, Christopher A; Sedinger, James S

2012-07-01

183

Comparison of body fat in Brazilian adult females by bioelectrical impedance analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Body-fat is essential for human body, provided that its amount is at healthy levels. If in-excess body-fat is deleterious, its lack is otherwise also harmful. Estimated percent body-fat performed with commercially available devices measuring bioimpedance have many advantages, such as easy measurement and low cost. However, these measurements are based on standard models and equations that are not disclosed by manufacturers, and this leads to questioning the validity of these estimates for Brazilian females. The aim of this study was to compare electrical tetrapolar and octapolar impedance results obtained with commercially available equipment: Maltron BF-906 and OMRON 510-W. Data analysis involved descriptive and inferential statistics. Devices used in this study to estimate body fat quantity have not shown any significant differences in results; this is a major issue when selecting equipment based on three factors: study focus, available financial resources, and target population. Results obtained from the two devices have not shown any significant differences, which lead to the conclusion that either device may be reliably used.

Altamir, Vaz; Frère, Slaets Annie France; Ramírez Leonardo, López

2012-12-01

184

Female Eastern Tiger Swallowtail Butterfly  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

An Eastern tiger swallowtail butterfly (female, black form) drinks nectar from a plumeless thistle flower in an abandoned agricultural field. Females have blue scales on the upper side of the lower hindwing....

185

Female Career Preference and Androgyny.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated the traditional or nontraditional orientation of the career preferences of androgynous and traditional females (N=62). Administered the Bem Sex Role Inventory and a career preference scale. Results indicated that androgynous females explore wider ranges of occupational choices. (RC)

Clarey, Joanne H.; Sanford, Alpheus

1982-01-01

186

Determinants of female dispersal in Thomas langurs.  

PubMed

Female dispersal occurs in a number of primate species. It may be related to: avoidance of inbreeding, reduction in food competition, reduction of predation risk, or avoidance of infanticide in combination with mate choice. Female dispersal was studied for a 5-year period in a wild population of Thomas langurs (Presbytis thomasi) that lived in one-male multi-female groups. Juvenile and adult individuals of both sexes were seen to disperse. Females appeared to transfer unhindered between groups, mostly from a larger group to a recently formed smaller one. They transferred without their infants and when not pregnant, and seemed to transfer preferentially during periods when extra-group males were harassing their group. During these inter-group encounters extra-group males seemed to try to commit infanticide. Thus, the timing of female transfer was probably closely linked to infanticide avoidance. Moreover, females seemed to transfer when the resident male of their group was no longer a good protector. The observations in the present study suggest that females transferred to reduce the risk of infanticide. Female dispersal may have another ultimate advantage as well, namely inbreeding avoidance. Due to the dispersal of both females and males the social organization of Thomas langurs was rather fluid. New groups were formed when females joined a male; male takeovers were not observed. Bisexual groups had only a limited life span, because all adult females of a bisexual group could emigrate. This pattern of unhindered female dispersal affects male reproductive strategies, and in particular it might lead to infanticidal behavior during inter-group encounters. PMID:9209584

Sterck, E H

1997-01-01

187

First Comparative Transcriptomic Analysis of Wild Adult Male and Female Lutzomyia longipalpis, Vector of Visceral Leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease with a complex epidemiology and ecology. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is its most severe clinical form as it results in death if not treated. In Latin America VL is caused by the protist parasite Leishmania infantum (syn. chagasi) and transmitted by Lutzomyia longipalpis. This phlebotomine sand fly is only found in the New World, from Mexico to Argentina. However, due to deforestation, migration and urbanisation, among others, VL in Latin America is undergoing an evident geographic expansion as well as dramatic changes in its transmission patterns. In this context, the first VL outbreak was recently reported in Argentina, which has already caused 7 deaths and 83 reported cases. Insect vector transcriptomic analyses enable the identification of molecules involved in the insect's biology and vector-parasite interaction. Previous studies on laboratory reared Lu. longipalpis have provided a descriptive repertoire of gene expression in the whole insect, midgut, salivary gland and male reproductive organs. Nevertheless, the study of wild specimens would contribute a unique insight into the development of novel bioinsecticides. Given the recent VL outbreak in Argentina and the compelling need to develop appropriate control strategies, this study focused on wild male and female Lu. longipalpis from an Argentine endemic (Posadas, Misiones) and a Brazilian non-endemic (Lapinha Cave, Minas Gerais) VL location. In this study, total RNA was extracted from the sand flies, submitted to sequence independent amplification and high-throughput pyrosequencing. This is the first time an unbiased and comprehensive transcriptomic approach has been used to analyse an infectious disease vector in its natural environment. Transcripts identified in the sand flies showed characteristic profiles which correlated with the environment of origin and with taxa previously identified in these same specimens. Among these, various genes represented putative targets for vector control via RNA interference (RNAi). PMID:23554910

McCarthy, Christina B.; Santini, María Soledad; Pimenta, Paulo F. P.; Diambra, Luis A.

2013-01-01

188

Adolescent pre-treatment with oxytocin protects against adult methamphetamine-seeking behavior in female rats.  

PubMed

The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT), given acutely, reduces self-administration of the psychostimulant drug methamphetamine (METH). Additionally, chronic OT administration to adolescent rats reduces levels of alcohol consumption in adulthood, suggesting developmental neuroplasticity in the OT system relevant to addiction-related behaviors. Here, we examined whether OT exposure during adolescence might subsequently inhibit METH self-administration in adulthood. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were administered vehicle or OT (1?mg/kg, i.p.) once daily from postnatal days (PND) 28 to 37 (adolescence). At PND 62 (adulthood), rats were trained to self-administer METH (intravenous, i.v.) in daily 2-hour sessions for 10 days under a fixed ratio 1 (FR1) reinforcement schedule, followed by determination of dose-response functions (0.01-0.3?mg/kg/infusion, i.v.) under both FR1 and progressive ratio (PR) schedules of reinforcement. Responding was then extinguished, and relapse to METH-seeking behavior assessed following priming doses of non-contingent METH (0.1-1?mg/kg, i.p.). Finally, plasma was collected to determine pre-treatment effects on OT and corticosterone levels. Results showed that OT pre-treatment did not significantly inhibit the acquisition of METH self-administration or FR1 responding. However, rats pre-treated with OT responded significantly less for METH under a PR reinforcement schedule, and showed reduced METH-primed reinstatement with the 1?mg/kg prime. Plasma OT levels were also significantly higher in OT pre-treated rats. These results confirm earlier observations that adolescent OT exposure can subtly, yet significantly, inhibit addiction-relevant behaviors in adulthood. PMID:25402719

Hicks, Callum; Cornish, Jennifer L; Baracz, Sarah J; Suraev, Anastasia; McGregor, Iain S

2014-11-17

189

Effects of hyperandrogenemia and increased adiposity on reproductive and metabolic parameters in young adult female monkeys.  

PubMed

Many patients with hyperandrogenemia are overweight or obese, which exacerbates morbidities associated with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). To examine the ability of testosterone (T) to generate PCOS-like symptoms, monkeys received T or cholesterol (control) implants (n = 6/group) beginning prepubertally. As previously reported, T-treated animals had increased neuroendocrine drive to the reproductive axis [increased luteinizing hormone (LH) pulse frequency] at 5 yr, without remarkable changes in ovarian or metabolic features. To examine the combined effects of T and obesity, at 5.5 yr (human equivalent age: 17 yr), monkeys were placed on a high-calorie, high-fat diet typical of Western cultures [Western style diet (WSD)], which increased body fat from <2% (pre-WSD) to 15-19% (14 mo WSD). By 6 mo on WSD, LH pulse frequency in the controls increased to that of T-treated animals, whereas LH pulse amplitude decreased in both groups and remained low. The numbers of antral follicles present during the early follicular phase increased in both groups on the WSD, but maximal follicular size decreased by 50%. During the late follicular phase, T-treated females had greater numbers of small antral follicles than controls. T-treated monkeys also had lower progesterone during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Although fasting insulin did not vary between groups, T-treated animals had decreased insulin sensitivity after 1 yr on WSD. Thus, while WSD consumption alone led to some features characteristic of PCOS, T + WSD caused a more severe phenotype with regard to insulin insensitivity, increased numbers of antral follicles at midcycle, and decreased circulating luteal phase progesterone levels. PMID:24735887

McGee, W K; Bishop, C V; Pohl, C R; Chang, R J; Marshall, J C; Pau, F K; Stouffer, R L; Cameron, J L

2014-06-01

190

Hiring and Recruiting Female Faculty  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Community colleges are generally more inclusive to female faculty as compared to four-year institutions. Women represent 49 percent of fulltime and 50 percent of part-time community college faculty, a stark contrast to the low numbers of female faculty in four-year institutions. Female faculty at community colleges also receive similar rates of…

Lester, Jaime; Bers, Trudy

2010-01-01

191

Reproduction in female reindeer.  

PubMed

Reindeer are either wild or kept under very extensive farming systems. They are seasonal breeders, with mating coinciding with the decreasing photoperiod in the autumn, and with calving in the spring. Little is known regarding the factors that influence reproduction in reindeer or of their reproductive physiology. Studies carried out to date have mainly focused on issues related to the population dynamics of wild populations and semi-domestic herds, and to a limited extent on the reproductive physiology of the female. Nor is much known about reproductive disorders and their medical treatment, or of the possibilities to manipulate or control reproduction by the use of hormones. Modern reproductive techniques such as artificial insemination and in vitro fertilisation, maturation and transfer of embryos have so far received scant attention.In the future, it is possible that reindeer under certain conditions might be kept in more intensive production systems. Limited access to high-quality winter pastures and increased demands for productivity have resulted in artificial feeding becoming a common practice in various reindeer herding areas in Scandinavia. In efforts to enhance the productivity of reindeer herds, attention has been focused on factors affecting reproduction in the female and survival of the offspring. Further knowledge on these issues seems necessary when developing strategies for optimalization of meat production in domestic herds and the harvesting of wild populations. This paper puts a broad focus on various aspects of reproduction, including factors influencing the fecundity of reproductively active females. In order to understand these effects it is important also to have a basic understanding of the reproductive physiology of these animals. PMID:10844224

Ropstad, E

2000-07-01

192

Managing female sexual dysfunction.  

PubMed

Female sexual dysfunctions (FSDs) range from short-term aggravations to major emotional disturbances adversely affecting family and workplace. This review highlights diagnosis and management of the four most widely diagnosed FSDs. It initially focuses on hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) as a driving force at the heart of all other FSDs; nothing happens without sexual desire. Successful resolution of HSDD frequently facilitates resolution of other disorders. Central to understanding HSDD is the impact of aging female sexual endocrinology and its effect on both prevalence and expression patterns of FSD. Advances in this field have enabled introduction of some the most effective treatments yet described for HSDD. Sexual arousal disorder, though commonly affected by the same factors as HSDD, is heavily associated with psychotropic drugs and mood elevators. Orgasmic disorder is frequently the downstream result of other sexual dysfunctions, particularly HSDD, or the result of a major psychosexual trauma. Successful management of the underlying disorder often resolves orgasmic disorder. Sexual pain disorder is frequently the result of a gynecologic disorder, such as endometriosis, that can be substantially managed through successful treatment of that disorder. This article ends with the article's most important note: how to initiate the conversation. PMID:24074537

Buster, John E

2013-10-01

193

The female athlete.  

PubMed

Over the past 30 years, the number of women participating in organized sports has grown dramatically. Several forms of menstrual irregularities have been described in the female athlete: primary and secondary amenorrhoea, oligomenorrhoea, short luteal phases and anovulation. The incidence of menstrual irregularities is much higher in activities where a thin body is required for better performance. The hormonal pattern seen in these athletes is a hypothalamic amenorrhoea profile. There appears to be a decrease in gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) pulses from the hypothalamus, which in turn decreases the pulsatile secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and shuts down stimulation of ovary. Recently, another type of amenorrhoea has been described in swimmers which is characterized by mild hyperandrogenism. Athletes with low weight are at risk of developing the female athletic triad, which includes amenorrhoea, osteoporosis and disordered eating. Athletes with this triad are susceptible to stress fractures. Other issues include the pregnant athlete. Intensive exercise during pregnancy can cause bradycardia. Safe limits of aerobic exercise in pregnancy depend on previous exercise habits. Infertility, which may develop with exercise, is probably reversible with reduction of exercise or weight gain. High impact sports activities may produce urinary incontinence. Oestrogen replacement therapy is often prescribed in amenorrhoeic athletes, but bone loss may not be completely reversible. PMID:10932809

Warren, M P; Shantha, S

2000-03-01

194

Observations of a free-ranging adult female dingo (Canis dingo) and littermates' responses to the death of a pup.  

PubMed

In contrast to several species of cetaceans and primates, behavioural responses to dead conspecifics have rarely been reported in wild canids. Here we provide details of the responses of an adult female and littermates to a dying and subsequently dead pup, including what appeared to be four instances of transport of the deceased pup by the mother over a two-day period, one of which was directly observed and filmed. We tentatively propose that, in the absence of any evidence of consumption of the pup, its transport by the mother could be interpreted as care-giving behaviour emanating from an enduring mother-infant bond, in a similar vein to what has been suggested for several other species exhibiting such behaviour. PMID:23500482

Appleby, Rob; Smith, Bradley; Jones, Darryl

2013-06-01

195

Differences at brain SPECT between depressed females with and without adult ADHD and healthy controls: etiological considerations  

PubMed Central

Background Comorbidity between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and mood disorders is common. Alterations of the cerebellum and frontal regions have been reported in neuro-imaging studies of ADHD and major depression. Methods Thirty chronically depressed adult females of whom 16 had scores below, and 14 scores above, cut-offs on the 25-items Wender Utah Retrospective Scale (WURS-25) and the Wender-Reimherr Adult Attention Deficit Disorder Scale (WRAADDS) were divided into subgroups designated "Depression" and "Depression + ADHD", respectively. Twenty-one of the patients had some audiological symptom, tinnitus and/or hearing impairment. The patients were investigated with other rating scales and 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT. Controls for 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT were 16 healthy females. SPECT was analyzed by both statistical parametric mapping (SPM2) and the computerized brain atlas (CBA). Discriminant analysis was performed on the volumes of interest generated by the CBA, and on the scores from rating scales with the highest group differences. Results The mean score of a depression rating scale (MADRS-S) was significantly lower in the "Depression" subgroup compared to in the "Depression + ADHD" subgroup. There was significantly decreased tracer uptake within the bilateral cerebellum at both SPM and CBA in the "Depression + ADHD" subgroup compared to in the controls. No decrease of cerebellar tracer uptake was observed in "Depression". Significantly increased tracer uptake was found at SPM within some bilateral frontal regions (Brodmann areas 8, 9, 10, 32) in the "Depression + ADHD" subgroup compared to in "Depression". An accuracy of 100% was obtained for the discrimination between the patient groups when thalamic uptake was used in the analysis along with scores from Socialization and Impulsivity scales. Conclusion The findings confirm the previous observation of a cerebellar involvement in ADHD. Higher bilateral frontal 99mTc-HMPAO uptake in "Depression + ADHD" compared to in "Depression" indicate a difference between these subgroups. 99mTc-HMPAO uptake mechanisms are discussed. PMID:19723308

Gardner, Ann; Salmaso, Dario; Varrone, Andrea; Sanchez-Crespo, Alejandro; Bejerot, Susanne; Jacobsson, Hans; Larsson, Stig A; Pagani, Marco

2009-01-01

196

Prenatal Testosterone Exposure Induces Hypertension in Adult Females via Androgen Receptor-Dependent Protein Kinase C?-Mediated Mechanism.  

PubMed

Prenatal exposure to excess testosterone induces hyperandrogenism in adult females and predisposes them to hypertension. We tested whether androgens induce hypertension through transcriptional regulation and signaling of protein kinase C (PKC) in the mesenteric arteries. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with vehicle or testosterone propionate (0.5 mg/kg per day from gestation days 15 to 19, SC) and their 6-month-old adult female offspring were examined. Plasma testosterone levels (0.84±0.04 versus 0.42±0.09 ng/mL) and blood pressures (111.6±1.3 versus 104.5±2.4 mm?Hg) were significantly higher in prenatal testosterone-exposed rats compared with controls. This was accompanied with enhanced expression of PKC? mRNA (1.5-fold) and protein (1.7-fold) in the mesenteric arteries of prenatal testosterone-exposed rats. In addition, mesenteric artery contractile responses to PKC activator, phorbol-12,13-dibutyrate, was significantly greater in prenatal testosterone-exposed rats. Treatment with androgen receptor antagonist flutamide (10 mg/kg, SC, BID for 10 days) significantly attenuated hypertension, PKC? expression, and the exaggerated vasoconstriction in prenatal testosterone-exposed rats. In vitro exposure of testosterone to cultured mesenteric artery smooth muscle cells dose dependently upregulated PKC? expression. Analysis of PKC? gene revealed a putative androgen responsive element in the promoter upstream to the transcription start site and an enhancer element in intron-1. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that androgen receptors bind to these elements in response to testosterone stimulation. Furthermore, luciferase reporter assays showed that the enhancer element is highly responsive to androgens and treatment with flutamide reverses reporter activity. Our studies identified a novel androgen-mediated mechanism for the control of PKC? expression via transcriptional regulation that controls vasoconstriction and blood pressure. PMID:25489059

Blesson, Chellakkan S; Chinnathambi, Vijayakumar; Hankins, Gary D; Yallampalli, Chandra; Sathishkumar, Kunju

2014-12-01

197

Conservation and expression of PIWI-interacting RNA pathway genes in male and female adult gonad of amniotes.  

PubMed

The PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA) pathway is essential for germline development and transposable element repression. Key elements of this pathway are members of the piRNA-binding PIWI/Argonaute protein family and associated factors (e.g., VASA, MAELSTROM, and TUDOR domain proteins). PIWI-interacting RNAs have been identified in mouse testis and oocytes, but information about the expression of the different piRNA pathway genes, in particular in the mammalian ovary, remains incomplete. We investigated the evolution and expression of piRNA pathway genes in gonads of amniote species (chicken, platypus, and mouse). Database searches confirm a high level of conservation and revealed lineage-specific gain and loss of Piwi genes in vertebrates. Expression analysis in mammals shows that orthologs of Piwi-like (Piwil) genes, Mael (Maelstrom), Mvh (mouse vasa homolog), and Tdrd1 (Tudor domain-containing protein 1) are expressed in platypus adult testis. In contrast to mouse, Piwil4 is expressed in platypus and human adult testis. We found evidence for Mael and Piwil2 expression in mouse Sertoli cells. Importantly, we show mRNA expression of Piwil2, Piwil4, and Mael in oocytes and supporting cells of human, mouse, and platypus ovary. We found no Piwil1 expression in mouse and chicken ovary. The conservation of gene expression in somatic parts of the gonad and germ cells of species that diverged over 800 million yr ago indicates an important role in adult male and female gonad. PMID:24108303

Lim, Shu Ly; Tsend-Ayush, Enkhjargal; Kortschak, R Daniel; Jacob, Reuben; Ricciardelli, Carmela; Oehler, Martin K; Grützner, Frank

2013-12-01

198

Testosterone and estradiol differentially affect cell proliferation in the subventricular zone of young adult gonadectomized male and female rats.  

PubMed

Steroid hormones are important players to regulate adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, but their involvement in the regulation of the same phenomenon in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles is not completely understood. Here, in male rats, we tested the existence of activational effects of testosterone (T) on cell proliferation in the adult SVZ. To this aim, three groups of male rats: castrated, castrated and treated with T, and controls were treated with 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) and killed after 24h. The density of BrdU-labeled cells was significantly lower in castrated animals in comparison to the other two groups, thus supporting a direct correlation between SVZ proliferation and levels of circulating T. To clarify whether this effect is purely androgen-dependent, or mediated by the T metabolites, estradiol (E2) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT), we evaluated SVZ proliferation in castrated males treated with E2, DHT and E2+DHT, in comparison to T- and vehicle-treated animals, and sham-operated controls. The stereological analysis demonstrated that E2 and T, but not DHT, increase proliferation in the SVZ of adult male rats. Quantitative evaluation of cells expressing the endogenous marker of cell proliferation phosphorylated form of Histone H3 (PHH3), or the marker of highly dividing SVZ progenitors Mash1, indicated the effect of T/E2 is mostly restricted to SVZ proliferating progenitors. The same experimental protocol was repeated on ovariectomized female rats treated with E2 or T. In this case, no statistically significant difference was found among groups. Overall, our results clearly show that the gonadal hormones T and E2 represent important mediators of cell proliferation in the adult SVZ. Moreover, we show that such an effect is restricted to males, supporting adult neurogenesis in rats is a process differentially modulated in the two sexes. PMID:25481234

Farinetti, A; Tomasi, S; Foglio, B; Ferraris, A; Ponti, G; Gotti, S; Peretto, P; Panzica, G C

2015-02-12

199

Male-female differences in diabetic retinopathy?  

PubMed

Abstract The purpose of this paper is to review male-female differences in the incidence and prevalence of diabetes and diabetic retinopathy. These differences will be established primarily through results from our present research and a review of related literature. Previously, we have demonstrated that neuroretinal dysfunction can be used to predict the location of future retinopathy up to three years before it is manifest. Our current research suggests that, for type 2 diabetes, the normal differences in neuroretinal function between nondiabetic males and females under 50 years of age are altered in patients with type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, local neuroretinal function in type 2 diabetes is more abnormal in adult males compared with adult females. The literature also suggests that there are male-female differences in the occurrence of diabetes. In adolescence, the incidence of type 1 diabetes is greater in males, whereas in type 2 diabetes, the incidence is greater in females. This excess of females in type 2 diabetes shifts to a more equal incidence between the two sexes in adults. In addition, advanced retinopathy in type 1 diabetes appears to be more common in males, and the presence and severity of diabetic retinopathy at the time of diagnosis in type 2 diabetes appears to be more associated with male sex. Although the reasons for male-female differences identified in this review are unknown, sex appears to be a significant factor in certain aspects of diabetes incidence and diabetic retinopathy. PMID:25545999

Ozawa, Glen Y; Bearse, Marcus A; Adams, Anthony J

2015-02-01

200

Dispersion of adult male Peromyscus leucopus in relation to female reproductive status Department of Zoology, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ont., Canada N6A 5B7  

E-print Network

Dispersion of adult male Peromyscus leucopus in relation to female reproductive status Department,X., and MILLAR,J. S. 1989. Dispersion of adult male Peromyscus leucopus in relation to female reproductive status. Can. J. Zool. 67: 1047- 1052. We studied dispersion of adult male Peromyscus leucopus in relation

Xia, Xuhua

201

Physiology of female micturition.  

PubMed

Micturition is a dynamic physiologic process consisting of alternating storage and expulsion phases and is accomplished by complex interactions among innervation, smooth muscle, connective tissue, urothelium and supportive structures. Although our current understanding of the anatomy and physiology of the lower urinary tract is far from complete, intensive research over the last decade has dramatically improved our appreciation of the neural, biomechanical, biochemical, and morphologic properties of the bladder and urethra, as well as the hormonal influences and unique pelvic and perineal anatomy of women. Continued research related to the physiology of female micturition promises to offer new insights into the complex bladder-urethral interactions and to provide a basis for developing better management strategies for a variety of voiding dysfunctions in women. PMID:12476515

Sullivan, Maryrose P; Yalla, Subbarao V

2002-08-01

202

Evidence for intra-sexual selection in wild female baboons  

PubMed Central

Because female reproductive success in social mammals is determined largely by parental rather than mating effort, intra-sexual competition among females has typically been assumed to occur primarily over food. Recently, however, renewed attention has been paid to the importance of other sources of variation in female fitness, with a concomitant focus on a broader definition of intra-sexual selection that encompasses both competition for resources and competition for mates and social partners. We present behavioural and demographic data gathered over 15 years on a group of wild chacma baboons (Papio hamadryas ursinus) which show that females incur several costs when living in groups with many females and comparatively few males: increased intra-sexual aggression, less stable bonds with female partners, and increased mortality. Female-female aggression was higher in years when the adult sex ratio was more highly skewed toward females, with low-ranking female exhibiting particularly high rates of aggression toward other females. Females’ social bonds with other females also became less stable in years when the group contained many females. Finally, female mortality rates were highest in years when the group contained comparatively more females and fewer males. The negative correlation between the number of males and female mortality suggests that the increase in mortality was due to increased predation rather than food competition. Results indicate that intra-sexual competition for social partners, mates, paternal investment, and perhaps also male protection occurs even in species where females exhibit low reproductive skew.

Cheney, Dorothy L.; Silk, Joan B.; Seyfarth, Robert M.

2014-01-01

203

Reversing song behavior phenotype: Testosterone driven induction of singing and measures of song quality in adult male and female canaries (Serinus canaria).  

PubMed

In songbirds, such as canaries (Serinus canaria), the song control circuit has been shown to undergo a remarkable change in morphology in response to exogenous testosterone (T). It is also well established that HVC, a telencephalic nucleus involved in song production, is significantly larger in males than in females. T regulates seasonal changes in HVC volume in males, and exposure to exogenous T in adult females increases HVC volume and singing activity such that their song becomes more male-like in frequency and structure. However, whether there are sex differences in the ability of T to modulate changes in the song system and song behavior has not been investigated in canaries. In this study, we compared the effects of increasing doses of T on singing and song control nuclei volumes in adult male and female American Singer canaries exposed to identical environmental conditions. Males were castrated and all birds were placed on short days (8L:16D) for 8weeks. Males and females were implanted either with a 2, 6 or 12mm long Silastic™ implant filled with crystalline T or an empty 12mm implant as control. Birds were then housed individually in sound-attenuated chambers. Brains were collected from six birds from each group after 1week or 3weeks of treatment. Testosterone was not equally effective in increasing singing activity in both males and females. Changes in song quality and occurrence rate took place after a shorter latency in males than in females; however, females did undergo marked changes in a number of measures of song behavior if given sufficient time. Males responded with an increase in HVC volume at all three doses. In females, T-induced changes in HVC volume only had limited amplitude and these volumes never reached male-typical levels, suggesting that there are sex differences in the neural substrate that responds to T. PMID:25260250

Madison, Farrah N; Rouse, Melvin L; Balthazart, Jacques; Ball, Gregory F

2014-09-26

204

Basonuclin-2 Requirements for Zebrafish Adult Pigment Pattern Development and Female Fertility  

PubMed Central

Relatively little is known about the generation of adult form. One complex adult trait that is particularly amenable to genetic and experimental analysis is the zebrafish pigment pattern, which undergoes extensive remodeling during post-embryonic development to form adult stripes. These stripes result from the arrangement of three classes of neural crest-derived pigment cells, or chromatophores: melanophores, xanthophores, and iridophores. Here, we analyze the zebrafish bonaparte mutant, which has a normal early pigment pattern but exhibits a severe disruption to the adult stripe pattern. We show that the bonaparte mutant phenotype arises from mutations in basonuclin-2 (bnc2), encoding a highly conserved, nuclear-localized zinc finger protein of unknown function. We show that bnc2 acts non-autonomously to the melanophore lineage and is expressed by hypodermal cells adjacent to chromatophores during adult pigment pattern formation. In bonaparte (bnc2) mutants, all three types of chromatophores differentiate but then are lost by extrusion through the skin. We further show that while bnc2 promotes the development of two genetically distinct populations of melanophores in the body stripes, chromatophores of the fins and scales remain unaffected in bonaparte mutants, though a requirement of fin chromatophores for bnc2 is revealed in the absence of kit and colony stimulating factor-1 receptor activity. Finally, we find that bonaparte (bnc2) mutants exhibit dysmorphic ovaries correlating with infertility and bnc2 is expressed in somatic ovarian cells, whereas the related gene, bnc1, is expressed within oocytes; and we find that both bnc2 and bnc1 are expressed abundantly within the central nervous system. These findings identify bnc2 as an important mediator of adult pigment pattern formation and identify bonaparte mutants as an animal model for dissecting bnc2 functions. PMID:19956727

Johnson, Stephen L.; Parichy, David M.

2009-01-01

205

The Sun, Moon, Wind, and Biological Imperative–Shaping Contrasting Wintertime Migration and Foraging Strategies of Adult Male and Female Northern Fur Seals (Callorhinus ursinus)  

PubMed Central

Adult male and female northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) are sexually segregated in different regions of the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea during their winter migration. Explanations for this involve interplay between physiology, predator-prey dynamics, and ecosystem characteristics, however possible mechanisms lack empirical support. To investigate factors influencing the winter ecology of both sexes, we deployed five satellite-linked conductivity, temperature, and depth data loggers on adult males, and six satellite-linked depth data loggers and four satellite transmitters on adult females from St. Paul Island (Bering Sea, Alaska, USA) in October 2009. Males and females migrated to different regions of the North Pacific Ocean: males wintered in the Bering Sea and northern North Pacific Ocean, while females migrated to the Gulf of Alaska and California Current. Horizontal and vertical movement behaviors of both sexes were influenced by wind speed, season, light (sun and moon), and the ecosystem they occupied, although the expression of the behaviors differed between sexes. Male dive depths were aligned with the depth of the mixed layer during daylight periods and we suspect this was the case for females upon their arrival to the California Current. We suggest that females, because of their smaller size and physiological limitations, must avoid severe winters typical of the northern North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea and migrate long distances to areas of more benign environmental conditions and where prey is shallower and more accessible. In contrast, males can better tolerate often extreme winter ocean conditions and exploit prey at depth because of their greater size and physiological capabilities. We believe these contrasting winter behaviors 1) are a consequence of evolutionary selection for large size in males, important to the acquisition and defense of territories against rivals during the breeding season, and 2) ease environmental/physiological constraints imposed on smaller females. PMID:24722344

Sterling, Jeremy T; Springer, Alan M.; Iverson, Sara J.; Johnson, Shawn P.; Pelland, Noel A.; Johnson, Devin S.; Lea, Mary-Anne; Bond, Nicholas A.

2014-01-01

206

The sun, moon, wind, and biological imperative-shaping contrasting wintertime migration and foraging strategies of adult male and female northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus).  

PubMed

Adult male and female northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) are sexually segregated in different regions of the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea during their winter migration. Explanations for this involve interplay between physiology, predator-prey dynamics, and ecosystem characteristics, however possible mechanisms lack empirical support. To investigate factors influencing the winter ecology of both sexes, we deployed five satellite-linked conductivity, temperature, and depth data loggers on adult males, and six satellite-linked depth data loggers and four satellite transmitters on adult females from St. Paul Island (Bering Sea, Alaska, USA) in October 2009. Males and females migrated to different regions of the North Pacific Ocean: males wintered in the Bering Sea and northern North Pacific Ocean, while females migrated to the Gulf of Alaska and California Current. Horizontal and vertical movement behaviors of both sexes were influenced by wind speed, season, light (sun and moon), and the ecosystem they occupied, although the expression of the behaviors differed between sexes. Male dive depths were aligned with the depth of the mixed layer during daylight periods and we suspect this was the case for females upon their arrival to the California Current. We suggest that females, because of their smaller size and physiological limitations, must avoid severe winters typical of the northern North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea and migrate long distances to areas of more benign environmental conditions and where prey is shallower and more accessible. In contrast, males can better tolerate often extreme winter ocean conditions and exploit prey at depth because of their greater size and physiological capabilities. We believe these contrasting winter behaviors 1) are a consequence of evolutionary selection for large size in males, important to the acquisition and defense of territories against rivals during the breeding season, and 2) ease environmental/physiological constraints imposed on smaller females. PMID:24722344

Sterling, Jeremy T; Springer, Alan M; Iverson, Sara J; Johnson, Shawn P; Pelland, Noel A; Johnson, Devin S; Lea, Mary-Anne; Bond, Nicholas A

2014-01-01

207

FASH and MASH: female and male adult human phantoms based on polygon mesh surfaces: II. Dosimetric calculations.  

PubMed

Female and male adult human phantoms, called FASH (Female Adult meSH) and MASH (Male Adult meSH), have been developed in the first part of this study using 3D animation software and anatomical atlases to replace the image-based FAX06 and the MAX06 voxel phantoms. 3D modelling methods allow for phantom development independent from medical images of patients, volunteers or cadavers. The second part of this study investigates the dosimetric implications for organ and tissue equivalent doses due to the anatomical differences between the new and the old phantoms. These differences are mainly caused by the supine position of human bodies during scanning in order to acquire digital images for voxel phantom development. Compared to an upright standing person, in image-based voxel phantoms organs are often coronally shifted towards the head and sometimes the sagittal diameter of the trunk is reduced by a gravitational change of the fat distribution. In addition, volumes of adipose and muscle tissue shielding internal organs are sometimes too small, because adaptation of organ volumes to ICRP-based organ masses often occurs at the expense of general soft tissues, such as adipose, muscle or unspecified soft tissue. These effects have dosimetric consequences, especially for partial body exposure, such as in x-ray diagnosis, but also for whole body external exposure and for internal exposure. Using the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code, internal and external exposure to photons and electrons has been simulated with both pairs of phantoms. The results show differences between organ and tissue equivalent doses for the upright standing FASH/MASH and the image-based supine FAX06/MAX06 phantoms of up to 80% for external exposure and up to 100% for internal exposure. Similar differences were found for external exposure between FASH/MASH and REGINA/REX, the reference voxel phantoms of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Comparison of effective doses for external photon exposure showed good agreement between FASH/MASH and REGINA/REX, but large differences between FASH/MASH and the mesh-based RPI_AM and the RPI_AF phantoms, developed at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI). PMID:20009181

Kramer, R; Cassola, V F; Khoury, H J; Vieira, J W; Lima, V J de Melo; Brown, K Robson

2010-01-01

208

FASH and MASH: female and male adult human phantoms based on polygon mesh surfaces: II. Dosimetric calculations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Female and male adult human phantoms, called FASH (Female Adult meSH) and MASH (Male Adult meSH), have been developed in the first part of this study using 3D animation software and anatomical atlases to replace the image-based FAX06 and the MAX06 voxel phantoms. 3D modelling methods allow for phantom development independent from medical images of patients, volunteers or cadavers. The second part of this study investigates the dosimetric implications for organ and tissue equivalent doses due to the anatomical differences between the new and the old phantoms. These differences are mainly caused by the supine position of human bodies during scanning in order to acquire digital images for voxel phantom development. Compared to an upright standing person, in image-based voxel phantoms organs are often coronally shifted towards the head and sometimes the sagittal diameter of the trunk is reduced by a gravitational change of the fat distribution. In addition, volumes of adipose and muscle tissue shielding internal organs are sometimes too small, because adaptation of organ volumes to ICRP-based organ masses often occurs at the expense of general soft tissues, such as adipose, muscle or unspecified soft tissue. These effects have dosimetric consequences, especially for partial body exposure, such as in x-ray diagnosis, but also for whole body external exposure and for internal exposure. Using the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code, internal and external exposure to photons and electrons has been simulated with both pairs of phantoms. The results show differences between organ and tissue equivalent doses for the upright standing FASH/MASH and the image-based supine FAX06/MAX06 phantoms of up to 80% for external exposure and up to 100% for internal exposure. Similar differences were found for external exposure between FASH/MASH and REGINA/REX, the reference voxel phantoms of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Comparison of effective doses for external photon exposure showed good agreement between FASH/MASH and REGINA/REX, but large differences between FASH/MASH and the mesh-based RPI_AM and the RPI_AF phantoms, developed at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI).

Kramer, R.; Cassola, V. F.; Khoury, H. J.; Vieira, J. W.; de Melo Lima, V. J.; Robson Brown, K.

2010-01-01

209

ICRP Publication 116--the first ICRP/ICRU application of the male and female adult reference computational phantoms.  

PubMed

ICRP Publication 116 on 'Conversion coefficients for radiological protection quantities for external radiation exposures', provides fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients for organ-absorbed doses and effective dose for various types of external exposures (ICRP 2010 ICRP Publication 116). The publication supersedes the ICRP Publication 74 (ICRP 1996 ICRP Publication 74, ICRU 1998 ICRU Report 57), including new particle types and expanding the energy ranges considered. The coefficients were calculated using the ICRP/ICRU computational phantoms (ICRP 2009 ICRP Publication 110) representing the reference adult male and reference adult female (ICRP 2002 ICRP Publication 89), together with a variety of Monte Carlo codes simulating the radiation transport in the body. Idealized whole-body irradiation from unidirectional and rotational parallel beams as well as isotropic irradiation was considered for a large variety of incident radiations and energy ranges. Comparison of the effective doses with operational quantities revealed that the latter quantities continue to provide a good approximation of effective dose for photons, neutrons and electrons for the 'conventional' energy ranges considered previously (ICRP 1996, ICRU 1998), but not at the higher energies of ICRP Publication 116. PMID:25144220

Petoussi-Henss, Nina; Bolch, Wesley E; Eckerman, Keith F; Endo, Akira; Hertel, Nolan; Hunt, John; Menzel, Hans G; Pelliccioni, Maurizio; Schlattl, Helmut; Zankl, Maria

2014-09-21

210

ICRP Publication 116—the first ICRP/ICRU application of the male and female adult reference computational phantoms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ICRP Publication 116 on ‘Conversion coefficients for radiological protection quantities for external radiation exposures’, provides fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients for organ-absorbed doses and effective dose for various types of external exposures (ICRP 2010 ICRP Publication 116). The publication supersedes the ICRP Publication 74 (ICRP 1996 ICRP Publication 74, ICRU 1998 ICRU Report 57), including new particle types and expanding the energy ranges considered. The coefficients were calculated using the ICRP/ICRU computational phantoms (ICRP 2009 ICRP Publication 110) representing the reference adult male and reference adult female (ICRP 2002 ICRP Publication 89), together with a variety of Monte Carlo codes simulating the radiation transport in the body. Idealized whole-body irradiation from unidirectional and rotational parallel beams as well as isotropic irradiation was considered for a large variety of incident radiations and energy ranges. Comparison of the effective doses with operational quantities revealed that the latter quantities continue to provide a good approximation of effective dose for photons, neutrons and electrons for the ‘conventional’ energy ranges considered previously (ICRP 1996, ICRU 1998), but not at the higher energies of ICRP Publication 116.

Petoussi-Henss, Nina; Bolch, Wesley E.; Eckerman, Keith F.; Endo, Akira; Hertel, Nolan; Hunt, John; Menzel, Hans G.; Pelliccioni, Maurizio; Schlattl, Helmut; Zankl, Maria

2014-09-01

211

Attitudes toward Maternal Employment in Male and Female Young Adults: 1990 versus 2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The increase in maternal employment has affected society and children. Indications are that the increased numbers of working mothers had impacted the size of families and the birth intervals within them. In addition, as children experience life with a working mother, personal constructs of adult roles and attitudes towards maternal employment can…

Gorton, Laura; Nicodemus, Teresa; Pomante, Michael; Binasiewicz, Megan; Dheer, Rahul; Dugan, Amy; Madaras, Janice; Chambliss, Catherine

212

Prenatal choline availability modulates hippocampal neurogenesis and neurogenic responses to enriching experiences in adult female rats.  

PubMed

Increased dietary intake of choline early in life improves performance of adult rats on memory tasks and prevents their age-related memory decline. Because neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus also declines with age, we investigated whether prenatal choline availability affects hippocampal neurogenesis in adult Sprague-Dawley rats and modifies their neurogenic response to environmental stimulation. On embryonic days (ED) 12-17, pregnant rats ate a choline-supplemented (SUP-5 g/kg), choline sufficient (SFF-1.1 g/kg), or choline-free (DEF) semisynthetic diet. Adult offspring either remained in standard housing or were given 21 daily visits to explore a maze. On the last ten exploration days, all rats received daily injections of 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU, 100 mg/kg). The number of BrdU+ cells was significantly greater in the dentate gyrus in SUP rats compared to SFF or DEF rats. While maze experience increased the number of BrdU+ cells in SFF rats to the level seen in the SUP rats, this enriching experience did not alter cell proliferation in DEF rats. Similar patterns of cell proliferation were obtained with immunohistochemical staining for neuronal marker doublecortin, confirming that diet and exploration affected hippocampal neurogenesis. Moreover, hippocampal levels of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were increased in SUP rats as compared to SFF and DEF animals. We conclude that prenatal choline intake has enduring effects on adult hippocampal neurogenesis, possibly via up-regulation of BDNF levels, and suggest that these alterations of neurogenesis may contribute to the mechanism of life-long changes in cognitive function governed by the availability of choline during gestation. PMID:17445242

Glenn, Melissa J; Gibson, Erin M; Kirby, Elizabeth D; Mellott, Tiffany J; Blusztajn, Jan K; Williams, Christina L

2007-04-01

213

Prenatal stress causes alterations in the morphology of microglia and the inflammatory response of the hippocampus of adult female mice  

PubMed Central

Background Stress during fetal life increases the risk of affective and immune disorders later in life. The altered peripheral immune response caused by prenatal stress may impact on brain function by the modification of local inflammation. In this study we have explored whether prenatal stress results in alterations in the immune response in the hippocampus of female mice during adult life. Methods Pregnant C57BL/6 mice were subjected three times/day during 45 minutes to restraint stress from gestational Day 12 to delivery. Control non-stressed pregnant mice remained undisturbed. At four months of age, non-stressed and prenatally stressed females were ovariectomized. Fifteen days after surgery, mice received an i.p. injection of vehicle or of 5?mg/kg of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Mice were sacrificed 20 hours later by decapitation and the brains were removed. Levels of interleukin-1? (IL1?), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?), interferon ?-inducible protein 10 (IP10), and toll-like receptor 4 mRNA were assessed in the hippocampus by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Iba1 immunoreactivity was assessed by immunocytochemistry. Statistical significance was determined by one-way or two-way analysis of variance. Results Prenatal stress, per se, increased IL1? mRNA levels in the hippocampus, increased the total number of Iba1-immunoreactive microglial cells and increased the proportion of microglial cells with large somas and retracted cellular processes. In addition, prenatally stressed and non-stressed animals showed different responses to peripheral inflammation induced by systemic administration of LPS. LPS induced a significant increase in mRNA levels of IL-6, TNF-? and IP10 in the hippocampus of prenatally stressed mice but not of non-stressed animals. In addition, after LPS treatment, prenatally stressed animals showed a higher proportion of Iba1-immunoreactive cells in the hippocampus with morphological characteristics of activated microglia compared to non-stressed animals. In contrast, LPS induced similar increases in expression of IL1? and toll-like receptor 4 in both prenatally stressed and non-stressed animals. Conclusion These findings indicate that prenatal stress induces long-lasting modifications in the inflammatory status of the hippocampus of female mice under basal conditions and alters the immune response of the hippocampus to peripheral inflammation. PMID:22520439

2012-01-01

214

Perceived exertion and maximal quadriceps femoris muscle strength during dynamic knee extension exercise in young adult males and females  

Microsoft Academic Search

  \\u000a The objectives of the present study were to: (1) examine perceived exertion across different target voluntary-contraction\\u000a intensities; (2) compare perceived exertion ratings with actual target intensities, and (3) compare perceived exertion ratings\\u000a between males and females. Subjects for this study included 30 healthy, college-aged male (n=15) and female (n=15) volunteers. All subjects were free of orthopedic, cardiopulmonary, systemic and

Danny M. Pincivero; Alan J. Coelho; Robert M. Campy

2003-01-01

215

Characteristics of adult male and female firearm suicide decedents: findings from the National Violent Death Reporting System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To examine the risk factors and precipitating circumstances associated with firearm suicide.Methods:Data from the restricted National Violent Death Reporting System (2003–6) for 25 491 male and female suicide decedents aged 18 and older were analysed by multiple logistic regression to estimate the relative odds of firearm use with 95% CIs.Results:Firearms were often used in male (58.1%) and female (31.2%) suicides.

M S Kaplan; B H McFarland; N Huguet

2009-01-01

216

Women Reading for Education, Affinity & Development (WREAD): An Evaluation of a Semistructured Reading Discussion Group for African American Female Adult-Literacy Students with Histories of Trauma  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Women Reading for Education, Affinity & Development (WREAD), a reading discussion group geared toward African American female adult-literacy students with self-defined histories of trauma, was an outgrowth of research identifying links between trauma, women's struggles with literacy, and the need to be conscious of emotional health…

Jones, Jayatta D.

2012-01-01

217

Assessing the Long-Term Effects of EMDR: Results from an 18-Month Follow-Up Study with Adult Female Survivors of CSA  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 18-month follow-up study builds on the findings of a randomized experimental evaluation that found qualified support for the short-term effectiveness of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) in reducing trauma symptoms among adult female survivors of childhood sexual abuse (CSA). The current study provides preliminary evidence…

Edmond, Tonya; Rubin, Allen

2004-01-01

218

Allometric variation among juvenile, adult male and female eastern bearded dragons Pogona barbata (Cuvier, 1829), with comments on the behavioural implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The functional significance of allometric change in reptiles has received limited attention and the reason for such changes has been regarded as ‘obscure’. In this paper we report data on the Australian Pogona barbata, the eastern bearded dragon, from across their range and review changes in allometric growth among juveniles, and adult males and females and consider the functional relevance

Danny Wotherspoon; Shelley Burgin

2011-01-01

219

Melatonin and female reproduction.  

PubMed

Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is secreted during the dark hours at night by the pineal gland. After entering the circulation, melatonin acts as an endocrine factor and a chemical messenger of light and darkness. It regulates a variety of important central and peripheral actions related to circadian rhythms and reproduction. It also affects the brain, immune, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, renal, bone and endocrine functions and acts as an oncostatic and anti-aging molecule. Many of melatonin's actions are mediated through interactions with specific membrane-bound receptors expressed not only in the central nervous system, but also in peripheral tissues. Melatonin also acts through non-receptor-mediated mechanisms, for example serving as a scavenger for reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species. At both physiological and pharmacological concentrations, melatonin attenuates and counteracts oxidative stress and regulates cellular metabolism. Growing scientific evidence of reproductive physiology supports the role of melatonin in human reproduction. This review was conducted to investigate the effects of melatonin on female reproduction and to summarize our findings in this field. PMID:24118696

Tamura, Hiroshi; Takasaki, Akihisa; Taketani, Toshiaki; Tanabe, Manabu; Lee, Lifa; Tamura, Isao; Maekawa, Ryo; Aasada, Hiromi; Yamagata, Yoshiaki; Sugino, Norihiro

2014-01-01

220

Augmented Acquisition of Cocaine Self-Administration and Altered Brain Glucose Metabolism in Adult Female but not Male Rats Exposed to a Cannabinoid Agonist during Adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marijuana consumption during adolescence has been proposed to be a stepping-stone for adult cocaine addiction. However, experimental evidence for this hypothesis is missing. In this work we chronically injected male and female Wistar rats with either the cannabinoid agonist CP 55,940 (CP; 0.4 mg\\/kg) or its corresponding vehicle. Adult acquisition (seven 30 min daily sessions) and maintenance (fourteen 2 h

Alejandro Higuera-Matas; María Luisa Soto-Montenegro; Nuria del Olmo; Miguel Miguéns; Isabel Torres; Juan José Vaquero; Javier Sánchez; Carmen García-Lecumberri; Manuel Desco; Emilio Ambrosio

2008-01-01

221

Female Sexual Arousal in Amphibians  

PubMed Central

Rather than being a static, species specific trait, reproductive behavior in female amphibians is variable within an individual during the breeding season when females are capable of reproductive activity. Changes in receptivity coincide with changes in circulating estrogen. Estrogen is highest at the point when females are ready to choose a male and lay eggs. At this time female receptivity (her probability of responding to a male vocal signal) is highest and her selectivity among conspecific calls (measured by her probability of responding to a degraded or otherwise usually unattractive male signal) is lowest. These changes occur even though females retain the ability to discriminate different acoustic characteristics of various conspecific calls. After releasing her eggs, female amphibians quickly become less receptive and more choosy in terms of their responses to male sexual advertisement signals. Male vocal signals stimulate both behavior and estrogen changes in amphibian females making mating more probable. The changes in female reproductive behavior are the same as those generally accepted as indicative of a change in female sexual arousal leading to copulation. They are situationally triggered, gated by interactions with males, and decline with the consummation of sexual reproduction with a chosen male. The changes can be triggered by either internal physiological state or by the presence of stimuli presented by males, and the same stimuli change both behavior and physiological (endocrine) state in such a way as to make acceptance of a male more likely. Thus amphibian females demonstrate many of the same general characteristics of changing female sexual state that in mammals indicate sexual arousal. PMID:20816968

Wilczynski, Walter; Lynch, Kathleen S.

2010-01-01

222

Long-Term Followup of Adolescent and Young Adult Females with Hypergonadotropic Hypogonadism  

PubMed Central

The condition characterized by elevated gonadotrophins (gonadotropins elevated into the menopausal range), low sex steroids, and menstrual disorders was previously termed Premature Ovarian Failure (POF). However, over the last two years an effort has been made by many authors to have the term Primary Ovarian Insufficiency (POI) exclusively applied. Irrespective of the term, the condition concerns adolescent and young adult women under 40 years who experience cessation of menstruation for more than 3 cycles (whereas these women in the past had a rhythmic menstrual cycle) or amenorrhea for 4–6 months against the background of a previously disturbed menstrual cycle. Determining the cause of POI is difficult, and it is even harder to deal with problems arising from the paucity of estrogen as well as to draw up the plan for long-term monitoring of these patients. This paper presents long-term therapeutic management strategies concerning emotional health, hormone replacement therapy, maintenance of bone health, family planning, other associated disorders as well as possible research options for the future. PMID:22190931

Pantelis, Tsimaris; Nikolaos, Vrachnis; Zoe, Iliodromiti; Efthymios, Deligeoroglou

2012-01-01

223

Dispelling Myths about Female Potential.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed are several myths and stereotypes about female physiology. Also included are new technical advances concerning the female reproduction physiology, new techniques in hormone measurement, hypotholomic-pituitary-ovarian axis, hormones and the monthly cycles, dysmenorrhea, menopause, infertility, and future areas for investigation about the…

Sloane, Ethel

1980-01-01

224

Females drive primate social evolution  

E-print Network

Females drive primate social evolution Patrik Lindenfors1* , Laila Fro¨berg2 and Charles L. Nunn3 1 12.11.03 Within and across species of primates, the number of males in primate groups is correlated in male and female group member- ship remains unexplored in primates and other mammalian groups. We used

Lindenfors, Patrik

225

Reproductive aging in female birds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Birds are underutilized as animal models for studying the basis of longevity, cellular adaptations for resisting oxidative damage, and delayed reproductive senescence. Reproductive aging patterns in female birds range from slightly slower than those in rodents of similar size to extremely slow or even negligible. The best-studied laboratory bird model of female reproductive aging is the relatively short-lived, rapidly aging

Donna J. Holmes; Sharon L. Thomson; Julie Wu; Mary Ann Ottinger

2003-01-01

226

Female Physicians and Substance Abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

As with women in general, the vicissitudes of the female physician who suffers from a substance use disorder have been understudied, and such persons remain underrepresented in treatment. The purpose of the present study is to describe the similarities and differences between female and male physicians presenting for assessment; 108 physicians in total were included in the study, 10 of

Mark P. McGovern; Daniel H. Angres; Nina D. Uziel-Miller; Scott Leon

1998-01-01

227

Parental Psychopathology and Female Delinquency.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although research has provided evidence to document a relation between parental psychopathology and female delinquency, the dimensions of that relationship are unclear. Adjudicated delinquent females (N=48) completed a general social history interview and three psychological instruments. Probation records were used to analyze subjects' delinquent…

Gibbs, Jewelle Taylor

228

Female Perpetrators of Intimate Abuse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review is made of female intimate abuse. It is concluded that females are as abusive as males in intimate relationships according to survey and epidemiological studies. This is especially so for younger "cohort" community samples followed longitudinally. Predictors of intimate violence with women appear to be similar to those of men; including…

Dutton, Donald G.; Nicholls, Tonia L.; Spidel, Alicia

2005-01-01

229

Perspective for Female Medical Physicists  

SciTech Connect

Due to cultural and religious reasons, Pakistani women can be reluctant to seek medical attention for disorders affecting their genitals or breasts. As a result, in the case of cervical and breast cancers, oncological treatment is often not received until the diseases are in the late stages. Once a cancer is classified and the tumor marked, the role of the medical physicist begins. Medical physicists' responsibilities include treatment planning, supervising treatment through radiation, dosimetry, contouring, training, equipment selection, education, research, and supervising radiotherapy facilities. In brachytherapy, isotopes are placed at the tumor site in the form of wires or seeds. There are very few female medical physicists in Pakistan. This leads to further hesitation on the part of many women to seek treatment. To help female patients obtain needed medical care, female physics students should be encouraged to pursue the emerging field of medical physics. This would provide a new professional opportunity for female physics students and give comfort to female patients.

Naqvi, Syed Mansoor [Department of Radiology, Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi (Pakistan); Hasnain, Aziz Fatima [Center for Physics Education, Karachi (Pakistan)

2009-04-19

230

Are changes in body dimensions of adult females from Italy (Sardinia and Latium) related to secular trend?  

PubMed

This paper presents secular changes in height, weight, sitting height, relative sitting height, BMI and estimated lower limb length in two samples of Italian adult females from Sardinia (Cagliari) and Latium (Rieti). The samples consist of 579 healthy women from the province of Cagliari and 138 from the town of Rieti, aged 20.0-39.9 years, measured in the period 2003-2006. The women were divided into four 5-year age groups. The anthropometric variables were considered according to different socioeconomic status (SES) in the Cagliari sample, while the Rieti sample was considered as a whole, as the SES was homogeneous. ANOVA results suggest that the secular trend was very slow or had come to a halt in the Rieti sample but continues in the Cagliari sample, as shown by the statistically significant differences for estimated lower limb length (p

Sanna, Emanuele; Danubio, Maria Enrica

2009-01-01

231

The influence of infant-caregiver experiences on amygdala Bdnf, OXTr, and NPY expression in developing and adult male and female rats.  

PubMed

Previous work with various animal models has demonstrated that alterations in the caregiving environment produce long-term changes in anxiety-related and social behaviors, as well as amygdala gene expression. We previously introduced a rodent model in which the timing and duration of exposure to maltreatment or nurturing care outside the home cage can be controlled to assess neurobiological outcomes. Here we sought to determine whether our brief experimental conditions produce changes in gene expression within the developing and adult amygdala. Using a candidate gene approach, we examined fold mRNA changes for the Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf), Oxytocin receptor (OXTr), and Neuropeptide Y (NPY) genes, which are all highly expressed in the amygdala and play important roles in anxiety-related and social behaviors. In adults, significant group differences were detected for only Bdnf, with higher levels of Bdnf mRNA for females that had been exposed to maltreatment and males exposed to nurturing care outside the home cage relative to littermate controls. For pups, significant group differences were detected for only OXTr, with lower levels of OXTr mRNA in females exposed to maltreatment. Finally, for adolescents, maltreated-females showed significant changes in Bdnf (decreased), OXTr (decreased), and NPY (increased) mRNA relative to controls. These data illustrate the ability of brief, but repeated exposure to different caregiving environments during the first postnatal week to have long-term effects on gene expression within the developing and adult amygdala, especially for females. PMID:25011012

Hill, Kathryn T; Warren, Megan; Roth, Tania L

2014-10-01

232

Sexual maturation of female Saguinus oedipus oedipus  

SciTech Connect

This study is an examination of the process of female sexual maturation in the cotton-top tamarin, Saguinus oedipus oedipus, a South-American primate of the family, Callitrichidae. Two types of questions are addressed. The first question is whether the type of social grouping in which a young female lives affects the rate of her sexual maturation. Specifically, is there a difference between the maturation rate of a female housed with a strange adult male and a female housed with her natal group (i.e., her parents and various siblings). Second, the effect of sexual maturation on various social interactions is examined. Specifically are male-female interactions in mated pairs and mother-daughter interactions in natal groups changed by the sexual maturation of the young females. The mother's presence was not related to the daughter's maturation age. However, whether the natal group, as a whole, inhibited maturation, or unrelated males accelerated maturation, or both, remains unknown. Most of the behavioral interactions involving maturing females were unchanged by maturation. There was some indication that certain behaviors were affected by maturation, but only if a strange unrelated male was present.

Tardif, S.D.

1982-01-01

233

Labor participation rate, female (% of female population ages 15+)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Data set and map pertaining to labor force participation rates for women in all countries. The World Bank specifies female labor force participation as a World Development Indicator (WDI) -- the statistical benchmark that helps measure the progress of development.

Bank, World

234

Uncovering sources of variation in female sociality: Implications for the development of social preferences in female cowbirds ( Molothrus ater )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The purpose of this study was to investigate variation in female cowbird (Molothrus ater) sociality. We studied four captive flocks of brown-headed cowbirds, two composed of adult females and juvenile males and two composed of juvenile females and juvenile males. From September through December, we documented sociality using affiliation measures. From the outset, we found large age differences: juvenile

S. Grace Freed-Brown; Andrew P. King; Jennifer L. Miller; Meredith J. West

2006-01-01

235

Offender and Victim Characteristics of Registered Female Sexual Offenders in Texas: A Proposed Typology of Female Sexual Offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Victim and offender characteristic of all registered adult female sexual offenders in Texas (N = 471) were examined. The most common offenses the females were arrested for were indecency with a child—sexual contact, sexual assault on a child, and aggravated sexual assault on a child. The majority (88%) of the females were Caucasian and the ages ranged from 18 to

Donna M. Vandiver; Glen Kercher

2004-01-01

236

Posture-specific phantoms representing female and male adults in Monte Carlo-based simulations for radiological protection.  

PubMed

Does the posture of a patient have an effect on the organ and tissue absorbed doses caused by x-ray examinations? This study aims to find the answer to this question, based on Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of commonly performed x-ray examinations using adult phantoms modelled to represent humans in standing as well as in the supine posture. The recently published FASH (female adult mesh) and MASH (male adult mesh) phantoms have the standing posture. In a first step, both phantoms were updated with respect to their anatomy: glandular tissue was separated from adipose tissue in the breasts, visceral fat was separated from subcutaneous fat, cartilage was segmented in ears, nose and around the thyroid, and the mass of the right lung is now 15% greater than the left lung. The updated versions are called FASH2_sta and MASH2_sta (sta = standing). Taking into account the gravitational effects on organ position and fat distribution, supine versions of the FASH2 and the MASH2 phantoms have been developed in this study and called FASH2_sup and MASH2_sup. MC simulations of external whole-body exposure to monoenergetic photons and partial-body exposure to x-rays have been made with the standing and supine FASH2 and MASH2 phantoms. For external whole-body exposure for AP and PA projection with photon energies above 30 keV, the effective dose did not change by more than 5% when the posture changed from standing to supine or vice versa. Apart from that, the supine posture is quite rare in occupational radiation protection from whole-body exposure. However, in the x-ray diagnosis supine posture is frequently used for patients submitted to examinations. Changes of organ absorbed doses up to 60% were found for simulations of chest and abdomen radiographs if the posture changed from standing to supine or vice versa. A further increase of differences between posture-specific organ and tissue absorbed doses with increasing whole-body mass is to be expected. PMID:20647610

Cassola, V F; Kramer, R; Brayner, C; Khoury, H J

2010-08-01

237

Fluvoxamine Reduces Responsiveness of HPA Axis in Adult Female BPD Patients with a History of Sustained Childhood Abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study is to test whether fluvoxamine affects the function of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis in female borderline (borderline personality disorder, BPD) patients with and without a history of sustained childhood abuse. Special attention is given to the presence of comorbid major depressive disorder (MDD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The HPA axis of 30

Thomas Rinne; E Ronald de Kloet; L. F. J. M. Wouters; Jaap G Goekoop; Roel H de Rijk; Wim van den Brink

2003-01-01

238

Estradiol target neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus and lateral ventromedial nucleus of young adult, reproductively senescent, and monosodium glutamate-lesioned female golden hamsters  

SciTech Connect

Histoautoradiographic methods were used to assess estrogen target neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) and ventromedial nucleus, lateral portion (LVM), comparing young adult and aged female golden hamsters. A subgroup of young adult females had ARC lesions induced by monosodium glutamate at neonatal day 8. All were ovariectomized to remove endogenous estrogens. Controls were given nonradioactive estradiol. After /sup 3/H-estradiol (/sup 3/H-E2) was injected intravenously, hypothalami were removed, frozen, and processed for histoautoradiography. In the ARC and LVM the ratio of /sup 3/H-E2 labelled neurons to total neurons counted was significantly lower in the older animals. Young females with ARC lesions had very few /sup 3/H-E2 labelled neurons remaining in the ARC but had a normal complement in the LVM. Although /sup 3/H-E2 labelled ARC neurons were notably decreased in old females, those ARC neurons that were labelled in the old had virtually the same frequency distribution of the labelling index as in the young, suggesting no change in the average estrogen uptake per target cell.

Blaha, G.C.; Lamperti, A.A.

1983-09-01

239

The functionality of female reciprocal calls in the Iberian midwife toad (Alytes cisternasii): female-female acoustic competition?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Female midwife toads (genus Alytes) emit highly variable reciprocal calls of unclear function prior to and during courtship. In some species, female-female competition, expressed as physical fighting, has been reported. Males of Majorcan midwife toads (Alytes muletensis) show phonotactic response to female calls, and females of Iberian midwife toads (Alytes cisternasii) respond differently according to the male call characteristics. In this study, I test the hypothesis of female-female acoustic competition as an additional function of female reciprocal calls. Playback tests indicate that female calls are not clearly involved in female acoustic competition in the Iberian midwife toad, therefore female calls could be directed at males rather than towards competitive females.

Bosch, Jaime

2002-11-01

240

Pharmacokinetics of bisphenol A in serum and adipose tissue following intravenous administration to adult female CD-1 mice.  

PubMed

Bisphenol A (BPA) is an important industrial chemical used as the monomer for polycarbonate plastic and in epoxy resins for use in food can liners. Worldwide biomonitoring studies consistently find high prevalence of BPA conjugates in urine consistent with pervasive exposure at levels typically below 1 ?g/kg bw/day. The current study used LC/MS/MS to measure serum pharmacokinetics of unconjugated (active) and conjugated (inactive) BPA in adult female CD-1 mice following intravenous (IV) injection, which produces higher serum levels by circumventing the processes of absorption from the GI tract and presystemic metabolism that occur after oral administration. Deuterated BPA (100 ?g/kg bw) was used to avoid interference by background contamination from trace amounts of native BPA. Additionally, the pharmacokinetics of unconjugated BPA were determined in adipose tissue, a proposed site of action and "depot" for BPA. After IV injection, unconjugated BPA rapidly distributed out of the circulation (t(1/2)=0.2 h) and terminal elimination also proceeded rapidly (t(1/2)=0.8 h). Consistent with the degree of aqueous solubility, lipid/water solubility ratio, and partitioning from blood into adipose tissue in vivo, the levels of unconjugated BPA in mouse adipose tissue rapidly reached a maximal level (0.25 h) that did not exceed the serum maximum at the initial sampling time (0.08 h). Terminal elimination of unconjugated BPA from adipose tissue (t(1/2)=7.0 h) was similar to that for conjugated BPA in serum (t(1/2)=6.6 h) and <0.01% of the administered dose remained in adipose tissue after 24 h. These plasma and tissue kinetics are consistent with rapid equilibria and underscore the non-persistent nature of BPA, particularly when compared with slowly metabolized lipophilic organic pollutants like halogenated dibenzodioxins. PMID:22465602

Doerge, Daniel R; Twaddle, Nathan C; Vanlandingham, Michelle; Fisher, Jeffrey W

2012-06-01

241

Species differences in androgen receptor expression in the medial preoptic and anterior hypothalamic areas of adult male and female rodents.  

PubMed

The medial preoptic and anterior hypothalamic areas (MPO/AH) are important androgen targets regulating homeostasis, neuroendocrinology and circadian rhythm as well as instinctive and sociosexual behaviors. Although species differences between rats and mice have been pointed out in terms of morphology and physiology, detailed distributions of androgen receptor (AR) have never been compared between the two rodents. In the present study, AR distribution was examined immunohistochemically in serial sections of the MPO/AH and compared for adult rats and mice. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry clearly demonstrated that AR expression in the brain was stronger in mice than in rats and was stronger in males than in females. In addition, we found (1) an "obliquely elongated calbindin-ir cell island" in mice medial preoptic nucleus (MPN) expressed AR intensely, as well as the sexually dimorphic nucleus in the MPN (SDN-MPN) in rats, strongly supporting a "putative SDN-MPN" previously proposed in mice; (2) AR expression in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) was much more prominent in mice than in rats and differed in localization between the two species; (3) a mouse-specific AR-ir cell cluster was newly identified as the "tear drop nucleus (TDN)", with male-dominant sexual dimorphism; and (4) two rat-specific AR-ir cell clusters were also newly identified as the "rostral and caudal nebular islands", with male-dominant sexual dimorphism. The present results may provide basic morphological evidence underlying species differences in androgen-modified psychological, physiological and endocrinergic responses. Above all, the findings of the mouse-specific TDN and differing AR expression in the SCN might explain not only species difference in gonadal modification of circadian rhythm, but also distinct structural bases in the context of transduction of SCN oscillation. The current study could also serve as a caution that data on androgen-sensitive functions obtained from one species should not always be directly applied to others among rodents. PMID:25446364

Jahan, M R; Kokubu, K; Islam, Md N; Matsuo, C; Yanai, A; Wroblewski, G; Fujinaga, R; Shinoda, K

2015-01-22

242

Long-term behavior at foraging sites of adult female loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) from three Florida rookeries.  

PubMed

We used satellite telemetry to study behavior at foraging sites of 40 adult female loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) from three Florida (USA) rookeries. Foraging sites were located in four countries (USA, Mexico, the Bahamas, and Cuba). We were able to determine home range for 32 of the loggerheads. One turtle moved through several temporary residence areas, but the rest had a primary residence area in which they spent all or most of their time (usually >11 months per year). Twenty-four had a primary residence area that was <500 km(2) (mean = 191). Seven had a primary residence area that was ?500 km(2) (range = 573-1,907). Primary residence areas were mostly restricted to depths <100 m. Loggerheads appeared to favor areas with larger-grained sediment (gravel and rock) over areas with smaller-grained sediment (mud). Short-term departures from primary residence areas were either looping excursions, typically involving 1-2 weeks of continuous travel, or movement to a secondary residence area where turtles spent 25-45 days before returning to their primary residence area. Ten turtles had a secondary residence area, and six used it as an overwintering site. For those six turtles, the primary residence area was in shallow water (<17 m) in the northern half of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM), and overwintering sites were farther offshore or farther south. We documented long winter dive times (>4 h) for the first time in the GOM. Characterizing behaviors at foraging sites helps inform and assess loggerhead recovery efforts. PMID:24882883

Foley, Allen M; Schroeder, Barbara A; Hardy, Robert; MacPherson, Sandra L; Nicholas, Mark

2014-01-01

243

Female suicide bombers and burdensomeness.  

PubMed

Brief case descriptions from journalists are presented to illustrate the role of traumatic experiences, the sense of being a burden to their families, and shame and humiliation in female suicide bombers. PMID:20402439

Lester, David

2010-02-01

244

ANATOMY OF THE FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE TRACT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In vertebrates, the reproductive system arises as bilateral anlagen, and consequently, paired genital organs are commonly found in the adult. In birds, the female reproductive system is unique. Although paired anlagen appear, only the left genital primordia develop to functional organs except in bir...

245

Prenatal high-salt diet in the Sprague-Dawley rat programs blood pressure and heart rate hyperresponsiveness to stress in adult female offspring.  

PubMed

Several animal models have been developed to study fetal programming of hypertension. One model involves feeding high-salt (HS) diet to rats before and during pregnancy, during lactation, and after weaning for 10 days. In the present investigation, we limited HS diet to the prenatal period in an attempt to find a narrower critical window for fetal programming. The HS diet did not result in low-birth weight offspring. In the adult offspring, radiotelemetry was used to assess blood pressure and heart rate in the conscious unstressed state. As adults, the HS offspring were not hypertensive compared with normal-salt (NS) control animals. However, the pressor and tachycardic responses to 1-h of restraint were significantly enhanced in HS female offspring, and recovery after restraint was delayed. This was accompanied by an increase in relative expression of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) mRNA in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus during basal and stressed conditions. There was no augmented stress response or relative increase in CRH mRNA in adult HS male offspring. When challenged with 1 wk of 8% NaCl diet as adults, neither HS male nor female offspring exhibited salt sensitivity compared with NS groups. These data show that a high-salt diet limited to the prenatal period is not sufficient to program hypertension in adult offspring. However, this narrower critical period is sufficient to imprint a lasting hyperresponsiveness to stress, at least in adult female offspring. These data indicate that excessive maternal salt intake during pregnancy can adversely affect the cardiovascular health of adult offspring. PMID:17491116

Porter, James P; King, Summer H; Honeycutt, April D

2007-07-01

246

21 CFR 884.5330 - Female condom.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Female condom. 884.5330 Section 884.5330 Food...Gynecological Therapeutic Devices § 884.5330 Female condom. (a) Identification. A female condom is a sheath-like device that...

2010-04-01

247

Immune function is related to adult carotenoid and bile pigment levels, but not to dietary carotenoid access during development, in female mallard ducks.  

PubMed

Immune function can be modulated by multiple physiological factors, including nutrition and reproductive state. Because these factors can vary throughout an individual's lifetime as a result of environmental conditions (affecting nutrition) or life-history stage (e.g. entering the adult reproduction stage), we must carefully examine the degree to which developmental versus adult conditions shape performance of the immune system. We investigated how variation in dietary access to carotenoid pigments - a class of molecules with immunostimulatory properties that females deposit into egg yolks - during three different developmental time points affected adult immunological and reproductive traits in female mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos). In males and females of other avian species, carotenoid access during development affects carotenoid assimilation ability, adult sexual ornamentation and immune function, while carotenoid access during adulthood can increase immune response and reproductive investment (e.g. egg-laying capacity, biliverdin deposition in eggshells). We failed to detect effects of developmental carotenoid supplementation on adult immune function [phytohemagglutinin-induced cutaneous immune response, antibody production in response to the novel antigen keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), or oxidative burst, assessed by changes in circulating nitric oxide levels], carotenoid-pigmented beak coloration, ovarian development, circulating carotenoid levels or concentration of bile pigments in the gall bladder. However, we did uncover positive relationships between circulating carotenoid levels during adulthood and KLH-specific antibody production, and a negative relationship between biliverdin concentration in bile and KLH-specific antibody production. These results are consistent with the view that adult physiological parameters better predict current immune function than do developmental conditions, and highlight a possible, previously unstudied relationship between biliverdin and immune system performance. PMID:23531827

Butler, Michael W; McGraw, Kevin J

2013-07-15

248

Female genital mutilation in Britain.  

PubMed

The practice of female genital mutilation predates the founding of both Christianity and Islam. Though largely confined among Muslims, the operation is also practiced in some Christian communities in Africa such that female genital mutilation takes place in various forms in more than twenty African countries, Oman, Yemen, the United Arab Emirates, and by some Muslims in Malaysia and Indonesia. In recent decades, ethnic groups which practice female genital mutilation have immigrated to Britain. The main groups are from Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia, and Yemen. In their own countries, an estimated 80% of women have had the operation. Female genital mutilation has been illegal in Britain since 1985, but it is practiced illegally or children are sent abroad to undergo the operation typically at age 7-9 years. It is a form of child abuse which poses special problems. The authors review the history of female genital mutilation and describe its medical complications. Assuming that the size of the population in Britain of ethnic groups which practice or favor female genital mutilation remains more or less unchanged, adaptation and acculturation will probably cause the practice to die out within a few generations. Meanwhile, there is much to be done. A conspiracy of silence exists in medical circles as well as widespread ignorance. Moreover, none of a number of well-known obstetric and pediatric textbooks mentions female genital mutilation, while the National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children has neither information nor instructional material. It is high time that the problem was more widely and openly discussed. PMID:7787654

Black, J A; Debelle, G D

1995-06-17

249

Reproductive ecology of female chimpanzees.  

PubMed

An important adaptive problem for mammals in general, and primates in particular, is how females can manage the high costs of reproduction in the face of fluctuating energetic supplies. For many species, the best solution is to breed seasonally such that high costs are temporally coincident with predictable periods of resource abundance. This is an unreliable strategy for some primates, such as chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), for which large body size forces an increase in dietary complexity and prolonged reproductive efforts. Here, I review data on reproductive function in chimpanzees, a species that demonstrates a risk-averse reproductive strategy wherein reproductive investment is allocated in accordance with maternal condition. Life history parameters for chimpanzees indicate that most females produce very few surviving offspring. However, comparisons between captive and wild populations and within wild populations illustrate that variation in resource access leads to highly variable reproductive success. Focused hormonal studies have demonstrated these effects at a proximate level, with energetic influences on female dispersal, receptivity, cycle quality, conception success, and lactational amenorrhea. Downstream of these effects, female reproductive function affects sexual attractiveness, and by virtue of males' own optimal reproductive strategies, can lead to coercive aggression and decreased foraging efficiency. Because of their extreme reproductive costs, female chimpanzees utilize a highly conservative reproductive strategy, one that minimizes the costs of ecological variation but makes them vulnerable to sexual conflict and costs of sociality. PMID:23015287

Thompson, Melissa Emery

2013-03-01

250

Winter survival of adult female harlequin ducks in relation to history of contamination by the Exxon Valdez oil spill  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Harlequin duck (Histrionicus histrionicus) life-history characteristics make their populations particularly vulnerable to perturbations during nonbreeding periods. The 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill was a major perturbation to nonbreeding habitats of harlequin ducks in Prince William Sound, Alaska, which resulted in population injury. To assess the status of population recovery from the oil spill and to evaluate factors potentially constraining full recovery, we used radiotelemetry to examine survival of adult female harlequin ducks during winters of 1995-96, 1996-97, and 1997-98. We implanted 294 harlequin ducks (154 and 140 in oiled and unoiled areas, respectively) with transmitters and tracked their signals from aircraft during October through March. We examined variation in survival rates relative to area and season (early, mid, and late winter) through comparisons of models using Akaike's information criterion (AIC(c)) values. The 3 models best supported by the data indicated that survival of birds in oiled areas was lower than in unoiled areas. Inclusion of standardized body mass during wing molt in the 3 best models did not improve their fit, indicating that body mass during wing molt did not affect subsequent winter survival. In the model that best fit our data, survival was high in early winter for both areas, lower during mid and late winter seasons, and lowest in oiled areas during mid winter. Cumulative winter survival estimated from this model was 78.0% (SE = 3.3%) in oiled areas and 83.7% (SE = 2.9%) in unoiled areas. We determined that area differences in survival were more likely related to oiling history than intrinsic geographic differences. Based on a demographic model, area differences in survival offer a likely mechanism for observed declines in populations on oiled areas. Concurrent studies indicated that harlequin ducks continued to be exposed to residual Exxon Valdez oil as much as 9 years after the spill. We suggest that oil exposure, mortality, and population dynamics were linked and conclude that continued effects of the oil spill likely restricted recovery of harlequin duck populations through at least 1998.

Esler, Daniel; Schmutz, J.A.; Jarvis, R.L.; Mulcahy, D.M.

2000-01-01

251

Female circumcision: Limiting the harm  

PubMed Central

Objective: To review the strength of evidence that links many health hazards to female genital cutting. Material and methods: Literature search in Medline/Pubmed and Google scholar. Results: Female genital cutting is still practiced secretly in both underdeveloped and developed countries due to prevailing strong traditional beliefs. There is insufficient evidence to support the claims that genital cutting is a harmful procedure if performed by experienced personnel in a suitable theatre with facilities for pain control and anesthesia. Cutting, however, is advised not to go beyond type I. Conclusion: Law makers around the globe are invited to review the legal situation in relation to female genital cutting. Proper counseling of parents about possible risks is a must in order to make informed decision about circumcising their daughters. The procedure should be offered to parents who insist on it; otherwise, they will do it illegally, exposing their daughters to possible complications. PMID:24627762

Kandil, Mohamed

2012-01-01

252

Male vs. female mediated teratogenesis  

SciTech Connect

Different types of reproductive dysfunction with exposure of males and females during different stages of the reproductive process were correlated. It is a well-established principle that teratogenic exposure of the pregnant female, and thus of the embryo, during the organogenesis period of development can lead to birth defects in the offspring. The outcome of this exposure paradigm, as well as the outcomes associated with exposure during other stages of the reproductive process that have received less experimental attention are discussed. Insult to the germ cells of the male during spermatogenesis and to the female during oogenesis can also lead to reproductive dysfunction. The type of adverse outcome, however, is quite different from that occurring with embryonic exposure during the organogenesis period. An overview of this area will be given with the intent of focusing on those types of reproductive dysfunction that are most relevant to environmental exposure of men and women.

Manson, J.M.

1982-04-01

253

Sex differences in stress-induced social withdrawal: independence from adult gonadal hormones and inhibition of female phenotype by corncob bedding  

PubMed Central

There is compelling evidence for important sex differences in behavioral and hormonal responses to psychosocial stress. Here we examined the effects of gonadal hormones on behavioral responses to social defeat stress in monogamous California mice (Peromyscus californicus). Three episodes of social defeat induced social withdrawal in intact females but not males. Gonadectomy blocked corticosterone responses to defeat in females and sensitized male corticosterone responses. However, gonadectomy had no effects on social interaction behavior, suggesting that social withdrawal is not dependent on gonadal hormones in the adult California mouse. In contrast, defeat reduced exploratory behavior in the open field test for intact but not castrated males. We also examined the effects of social defeat on social interaction behavior when California mice were raised on corncob bedding, which has estrogenic properties. In this dataset of over 300 mice, we observed that social defeat did not induce social withdrawal when females were raised on corncob bedding. This finding suggests that the use of corncob in rodent studies could mask important sex differences in the effects of stress on brain and behavior. Although gonadal hormones do not affect social withdrawal behavior in adults, our data suggest that hormones may act earlier in development to induce a more resilient social phenotype. PMID:23384773

Trainor, Brian C.; Takahashi, Elizabeth Y.; Campi, Katharine L.; Florez, Stefani A.; Greenberg, Gian D.; Laman-Maharg, Abigail; Laredo, Sarah A.; Orr, Veronica N.; Silva, Andrea L.; Steinman, Michael Q.

2013-01-01

254

Cardiac contraction, calcium transients, and myofilament calcium sensitivity fluctuate with the estrous cycle in young adult female mice.  

PubMed

This study established conditions to induce regular estrous cycles in female C57BL/6J mice and investigated the impact of the estrous cycle on contractions, Ca2+ transients, and underlying cardiac excitation-contraction (EC)-coupling mechanisms. Daily vaginal smears from group-housed virgin female mice were stained to distinguish estrous stage (proestrus, estrus, metestrus, diestrus). Ventricular myocytes were isolated from anesthetized mice. Contractions and Ca2+ transients were measured simultaneously (4 Hz, 37 °C). Interestingly, mice did not exhibit regular cycles unless they were exposed to male pheromones in bedding added to their cages. Field-stimulated myocytes from mice in estrus had larger contractions (?2-fold increase), larger Ca2+ transients (?1.11-fold increase), and longer action potentials (>2-fold increase) compared with other stages. Larger contractions and Ca2+ transients were not observed in estrus myocytes voltage-clamped with shorter action potentials. Voltage-clamp experiments also demonstrated that estrous stage had no effect on Ca2+ current, EC-coupling gain, diastolic Ca2+, sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ content, or fractional release. Although contractions were largest in estrus, myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity was lowest (EC50 values ?1.15-fold higher) in conjunction with increased phosphorylation of myosin binding protein C in estrus. Contractions were enhanced in ventricular myocytes from mice in estrus because action potential prolongation increased SR Ca2+ release. These findings demonstrate that cyclical changes in reproductive hormones associated with the estrous cycle can influence myocardial electrical and contractile function and modify Ca2+ homeostasis. However, such changes are unlikely to occur in female mice housed in groups under conventional conditions, since these mice do not exhibit regular estrous cycles. PMID:24464757

MacDonald, Jennifer K; Pyle, W Glen; Reitz, Cristine J; Howlett, Susan E

2014-04-01

255

The UF/NCI family of hybrid computational phantoms representing the current US population of male and female children, adolescents, and adults—application to CT dosimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Substantial increases in pediatric and adult obesity in the US have prompted a major revision to the current UF/NCI (University of Florida/National Cancer Institute) family of hybrid computational phantoms to more accurately reflect current trends in larger body morphometry. A decision was made to construct the new library in a gridded fashion by height/weight without further reference to age-dependent weight/height percentiles as these become quickly outdated. At each height/weight combination, circumferential parameters were defined and used for phantom construction. All morphometric data for the new library were taken from the CDC NHANES survey data over the time period 1999-2006, the most recent reported survey period. A subset of the phantom library was then used in a CT organ dose sensitivity study to examine the degree to which body morphometry influences the magnitude of organ doses for patients that are underweight to morbidly obese in body size. Using primary and secondary morphometric parameters, grids containing 100 adult male height/weight bins, 93 adult female height/weight bins, 85 pediatric male height/weight bins and 73 pediatric female height/weight bins were constructed. These grids served as the blueprints for construction of a comprehensive library of patient-dependent phantoms containing 351 computational phantoms. At a given phantom standing height, normalized CT organ doses were shown to linearly decrease with increasing phantom BMI for pediatric males, while curvilinear decreases in organ dose were shown with increasing phantom BMI for adult females. These results suggest that one very useful application of the phantom library would be the construction of a pre-computed dose library for CT imaging as needed for patient dose-tracking.

Geyer, Amy M.; O'Reilly, Shannon; Lee, Choonsik; Long, Daniel J.; Bolch, Wesley E.

2014-09-01

256

Archetypes of Outstanding Female Superintendents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report documents a study of women superintendents. Specifically, the study identified professional and personal characteristics and styles of leadership to develop archetypes of six outstanding female superintendents in Texas. The intent of the research was also to reveal similarities between and among these superintendents that could provide…

Funk, Carole; Pankake, Anita; Schroth, Gwen

257

Female stalkers and their victims.  

PubMed

Demographic, clinical, and forensic data were gathered in an archival study of 82 female stalkers from the United States, Canada, and Australia. Female stalkers were predominantly single, heterosexual, educated individuals in their mid 30s who had pursued their victims for more than a year. Major mental disorder and personality disorder were suggested, especially borderline personality disorder. They usually threatened violence, and if they did threaten, were more likely to be violent. Frequency of interpersonal violence was 25 percent, but there was limited use of weapons, and injuries were minor. Stalking victims were most likely to be slightly older male acquaintances; but if the victim was a prior sexual intimate of the female stalker, her risk of being violent toward him exceeded 50 percent. Unlike male stalkers who often pursue their victims to restore intimacy, these female stalkers often pursued their victims to establish intimacy. Common emotions and motivations included anger, obsessional thoughts, rage at abandonment, loneliness, dependency, jealousy, and perceived betrayal. Results are interpreted from a clinical and risk management perspective. PMID:12875500

Meloy, J Reid; Boyd, Cynthia

2003-01-01

258

Correlates of female juvenile delinquency  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the relationships between the age at which female juvenile offenders receive their first sentencing and individual risk factors, family risk factors, and race. The individual risk factors include dropping out of school, physical abuse, sexual abuse, prostitution, substance abuse, gang involvement, poverty, pregnancy, and the existence of co-defendants. The family risk factors include parents’ marital status, familial

2003-01-01

259

HIV and female sex workers.  

PubMed Central

In this review of published findings on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and risk factors among female sex workers, we summarize the results of seroprevalence studies in different countries and discuss the different patterns of transmission among such workers in various geographical regions. The highest rates of HIV infection occur in sub-Saharan Africa, where the widespread existence of sexually transmitted diseases may play an important role in sustaining transmission. In Europe and North America injecting drug use continues to be the major factor associated with HIV infection among female sex workers, while in Latin America and parts of Asia there is a more mixed pattern of heterosexual and parenteral transmission from injecting drug use. Reviewed also are studies of the risk factors associated with HIV infection among female sex workers, such as drug use, sexual behaviour, the presence of sexually transmitted diseases, and condom use; in addition, we comment on some studies of the clients of sex workers. Finally, we propose directions that future research in this area might take and discuss various interventions that need to be undertaken to reduce HIV transmission among female sex workers. PMID:8324860

Estébanez, P.; Fitch, K.; Nájera, R.

1993-01-01

260

Loneliness in the female adolescent  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of our study is to explore and describe loneliness in female adolescence as distinct from solitude and isolation. In keeping with other works by Ostrov and Offer [(1978) „Loneliness and the Adolescent,Adolescent Psychiatry, Vol. 6, p. 34], our concern is to define the preeminent aspects of the unfolding and evolving cycle of loneliness, and the features they may

M. Ammaniti; A. P. Ercolani; R. Tambelli

1988-01-01

261

Female Friendship Alliances in Shakespeare  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation examines the importance of female friendship alliances in Shakespeare's plays and how such alliances affect those engaged in them as well as the community around them. Their value to individuals and to the broader community is demonstrated both by the presence of supportive interrelationships and by their absence. Focusing on A Comedy of Errors, The Winter’s Tale, Merry

S. Milinda Jay

2008-01-01

262

Ozone Therapy in Female Infertility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this work was to study the effect of ozone in the treatment of female infertility of inflammatory aetiology. We administered ozone to 56 patients (50 out of which were infertile), who had previously unsuccessfully undergone various kinds of treatments for inflammatory diseases of the genitalia,. Ozone therapy in the concentrations used by us has good curative effect

Rajani Chandra-D; Ronald D'Mello

263

Adolescent Leadership: The Female Voice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research investigated the female adolescent view of leadership by giving voice to student leaders through focus group discussions. The questions: What is leadership? Where/how was leadership taught?, and How was leadership practised? were explored within the context of girls' schools located in Australia, with one school located in South…

Archard, Nicole

2013-01-01

264

Neonatal citalopram exposure decreases serotonergic fiber density in the olfactory bulb of male but not female adult rats  

PubMed Central

Manipulation of serotonin (5HT) during early development has been shown to induce long-lasting morphological changes within the raphe nuclear complex and serotonergic circuitry throughout the brain. Recent studies have demonstrated altered raphe-derived 5HT transporter (SERT) immunoreactive axonal expression in several cortical target sites after brief perinatal exposure to selective 5HT reuptake inhibitors such as citalopram (CTM). Since the serotonergic raphe nuclear complex projects to the olfactory bulb (OB) and perinatal 5HT disruption has been shown to disrupt olfactory behaviors, the goal of this study was to further investigate such developmental effects in the OB of CTM exposed animals. Male and female rat pups were exposed to CTM from postnatal day 8–21. After animals reach adulthood (>90 days), OB tissue sections were processed immunohistochemically for SERT antiserum. Our data revealed that the density of the SERT immunoreactive fibers decreased ~40% in the OB of CTM exposed male rats, but not female rats. Our findings support a broad and long-lasting change throughout most of the 5HT system, including the OB, after early manipulation of 5HT. Because dysfunction of the early 5HT system has been implicated in the etiology of neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), these new findings may offer insight into the abnormal olfactory perception often noted in patients with ASD. PMID:23675318

Zhang, Junlin; Dennis, Katie A.; Darling, Ryan D.; Alzghoul, Loai; Paul, Ian A.; Simpson, Kimberly L.; Lin, Rick C. S.

2013-01-01

265

Fortuitous encounters between seagliders and adult female northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) off the Washington (USA) coast: upper ocean variability and links to top predator behavior.  

PubMed

Behavioral responses by top marine predators to oceanographic features such as eddies, river plumes, storms, and coastal topography suggest that biophysical interactions in these zones affect predators' prey, foraging behaviors, and potentially fitness. However, examining these pathways is challenged by the obstacles inherent in obtaining simultaneous observations of surface and subsurface environmental fields and predator behavior. In this study, migratory movements and, in some cases, diving behavior of 40 adult female northern fur seals (NFS; Callorhinus ursinus) were quantified across their range and compared to remotely-sensed environmental data in the Gulf of Alaska and California Current ecosystems, with a particular focus off the coast of Washington State (USA)--a known foraging ground for adult female NFS and where autonomous glider sampling allowed opportunistic comparison of seal behavior to subsurface biophysical measurements. The results show that in these ecosystems, adult female habitat utilization was concentrated near prominent coastal topographic, riverine, or inlet features and within 200 km of the continental shelf break. Seal dive depths, in most ecosystems, were moderated by surface light level (solar or lunar), mirroring known behaviors of diel vertically-migrating prey. However, seal dives differed in the California Current ecosystem due to a shift to more daytime diving concentrated at or below the surface mixed layer base. Seal movement models indicate behavioral responses to season, ecosystem, and surface wind speeds; individuals also responded to mesoscale eddies, jets, and the Columbia River plume. Foraging within small scale surface features is consistent with utilization of the inner coastal transition zone and habitats near coastal capes, which are known eddy and filament generation sites. These results contribute to our knowledge of NFS migratory patterns by demonstrating surface and subsurface behavioral responses to a spatially and temporally dynamic ocean environment, thus reflecting its influence on associated NFS prey species. PMID:25153524

Pelland, Noel A; Sterling, Jeremy T; Lea, Mary-Anne; Bond, Nicholas A; Ream, Rolf R; Lee, Craig M; Eriksen, Charles C

2014-01-01

266

Fortuitous Encounters between Seagliders and Adult Female Northern Fur Seals (Callorhinus ursinus) off the Washington (USA) Coast: Upper Ocean Variability and Links to Top Predator Behavior  

PubMed Central

Behavioral responses by top marine predators to oceanographic features such as eddies, river plumes, storms, and coastal topography suggest that biophysical interactions in these zones affect predators' prey, foraging behaviors, and potentially fitness. However, examining these pathways is challenged by the obstacles inherent in obtaining simultaneous observations of surface and subsurface environmental fields and predator behavior. In this study, migratory movements and, in some cases, diving behavior of 40 adult female northern fur seals (NFS; Callorhinus ursinus) were quantified across their range and compared to remotely-sensed environmental data in the Gulf of Alaska and California Current ecosystems, with a particular focus off the coast of Washington State (USA) – a known foraging ground for adult female NFS and where autonomous glider sampling allowed opportunistic comparison of seal behavior to subsurface biophysical measurements. The results show that in these ecosystems, adult female habitat utilization was concentrated near prominent coastal topographic, riverine, or inlet features and within 200 km of the continental shelf break. Seal dive depths, in most ecosystems, were moderated by surface light level (solar or lunar), mirroring known behaviors of diel vertically-migrating prey. However, seal dives differed in the California Current ecosystem due to a shift to more daytime diving concentrated at or below the surface mixed layer base. Seal movement models indicate behavioral responses to season, ecosystem, and surface wind speeds; individuals also responded to mesoscale eddies, jets, and the Columbia River plume. Foraging within small scale surface features is consistent with utilization of the inner coastal transition zone and habitats near coastal capes, which are known eddy and filament generation sites. These results contribute to our knowledge of NFS migratory patterns by demonstrating surface and subsurface behavioral responses to a spatially and temporally dynamic ocean environment, thus reflecting its influence on associated NFS prey species. PMID:25153524

Pelland, Noel A.; Sterling, Jeremy T.; Lea, Mary-Anne; Bond, Nicholas A.; Ream, Rolf R.; Lee, Craig M.; Eriksen, Charles C.

2014-01-01

267

Lifetime reproductive success of female mountain gorillas.  

PubMed

Studies of lifetime reproductive success (LRS) are important for understanding population dynamics and life history strategies, yet relatively little information is available for long-lived species. This study provides a preliminary assessment of LRS among female mountain gorillas in the Virunga volcanoes region. Adult females produced an average of 3.6 ± 2.1 surviving offspring during their lifetime, which indicates a growing population that contrasts with most other great apes. The standardized variance in LRS (variance/mean(2) = 0.34) was lower than many other mammals and birds. When we excluded the most apparent source of environmental variability (poaching), the average LRS increased to 4.3 ± 1.8 and the standardized variance dropped in half. Adult lifespan was a greater source of variance in LRS than fertility or offspring survival. Females with higher LRS had significantly longer adult lifespans and higher dominance ranks. Results for LRS were similar to another standard fitness measurement, the individually estimated finite rate of increase (?(ind) ), but ?(ind) showed diminishing benefits for greater longevity. PMID:21989942

Robbins, Andrew M; Stoinski, Tara; Fawcett, Katie; Robbins, Martha M

2011-12-01

268

Allometric variation among juvenile, adult male and female eastern bearded dragons Pogona barbata (Cuvier, 1829), with comments on the behavioural implications.  

PubMed

The functional significance of allometric change in reptiles has received limited attention and the reason for such changes has been regarded as 'obscure'. In this paper we report data on the Australian Pogona barbata, the eastern bearded dragon, from across their range and review changes in allometric growth among juveniles, and adult males and females and consider the functional relevance of these changes. There were significant differences in the population for mass, tail length, tail width, rear leg length and jaw length. These differences were consistent with differences required in locomotor performance and thus habitat use, together with access to different preferred dietary components. PMID:21236651

Wotherspoon, Danny; Burgin, Shelley

2011-02-01

269

Neonatal Programming by Neuroimmune Challenge: Effects on Responses and Tolerance to Septic Doses of Lipopolysaccharide in Adult Male and Female Rats  

PubMed Central

A mild immune challenge experienced during the neonatal period leads to attenuated febrile responses to a similar challenge experienced later in life. However, the immune response to an endotoxin differs depending upon the severity of the challenge and it is not clear whether a neonatal immune challenge will also affect responses to a severe, potentially life-threatening stimulus, such as sepsis. In the present study, we examined the effects of a neonatal immune challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on adult sickness responses, as well as the development of endotoxin tolerance, to a septic dose (1 or 3 mg/kg) of the same LPS in male and female rats. We demonstrate significant differences, particularly in males, in the fever profiles of neonatally LPS-treated rats compared to neonatally saline-treated controls. Specifically, male rats treated neonatally with LPS have reduced hypothermic and enhanced hyperthermic responses to both septic doses of LPS in adulthood. A somewhat different profile is seen in females, with neonatally LPS-treated females having reduced hypothermia and enhanced hyperthermia compared to controls with 1 mg/kg but no differences with 3 mg/kg LPS. The results obtained demonstrate that alterations in innate immune responses previously reported for low doses of LPS can, for the most part, also be observed after severe immune challenge in later life. PMID:20136690

Spencer, S. J.; Field, E.; Pittman, Q. J.

2012-01-01

270

Female brown-headed cowbirds', Molothrus ater, organization and behaviour reflects male social dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In four large aviaries, we studied social assortment and reproductive behaviour of female brown-headed cowbirds housed with males differing in age class and in corresponding levels of intrasexual interaction. Juvenile and adult females resided with either (1) adult males, (2) juvenile males, (3) adult and juvenile males, or (4) no males. We observed social behaviour of males and females from

Meredith J. West; David J. White; Andrew P. King

2002-01-01

271

Adolescent Male-to-Female Transgender Voice and Communication Therapy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current research to describe and evaluate effectiveness of voice and communication therapy for male-to-female transgender people is limited to adults. This paper provides rationale, procedures, and outcomes from voice and communication therapy for a male-to-female transgender adolescent 15 years of age. Treatment addressed vocal hygiene, breath…

Hancock, Adrienne; Helenius, Lauren

2012-01-01

272

Neonatal manipulation of oxytocin influences female reproductive behavior and success  

Microsoft Academic Search

During early neonatal development, oxytocin (OT) may influence the expression of adult behavior and physiology. Here we test the prediction that early postnatal exposure to OT or an oxytocin antagonist (OTA) can affect the subsequent expression of sexual receptivity and reproductive success of females. To test this hypothesis, female prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) received one of four treatments within 24

Bruce S. Cushing; Karyn Levine; Nancy L. Cushing

2005-01-01

273

Female Sex Offenders' Relationship Experiences  

PubMed Central

Interventions for child sexual abusers should take into account their perspectives on the context of their offenses, but no descriptions of everyday life from the offender's point of view have been published. This study therefore explored female offenders' views of their strengths and challenges. Documented risk assessments of 20 female offenders were analyzed using inductive content analysis (Cavanagh, 1997; Priest, Roberts & Woods, 2002; Woods, Priest & Roberts, 2002). The Good Lives Model provided the initial coding framework and Atlas/ti software (Muhr, 1997) was used for simultaneous data collection and analysis. The content analysis yielded 999 coding decisions organized in three themes. The global theme was relationship experiences. Offenders described the quality of their relationship experiences, including their personal perspectives, intimate relationships and social lives. These descriptions have implications for treatment planning and future research with women who have molested children. PMID:18624098

Lawson, Louanne

2010-01-01

274

The Sexual Health Interview: Female  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Sexuality is the quintessential biopsychosocial phenomenon. It is an integration of emotional, somatic, intellectual, and\\u000a social aspects of an individual [1]. Sexual practices encompass a wide range of activities. Sexual intimacy may be central\\u000a to the maintenance of long-term relationships, particularly for females. Sexuality involves the relationship between the individual\\u000a and society, and it is influenced by social and religious

Sharon J. Parish; Sheryl A. Kingsberg

275

Homeless Female-Headed Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

Homeless female-headed families are affected by national and local policies which impact adversely on the parent-child relationship. The first section of this article examines the ways in which national and state family welfare laws affect the parenting capacities of the single mother. Our legal system?s response to do- mestic violence, the precipitating factor for roughly one-half of homeless women seeking

Marcia R. Steinbock

1994-01-01

276

Female-directed aggression predicts paternal behavior, but female prairie voles prefer affiliative males to paternal males.  

PubMed

In the socially monogamous prairie vole, Microtus ochrogaster, male affiliation and parental care are influenced by the neuropeptide arginine vasopressin and expression of its receptor V1aR. If parental care and adult affiliation can be considered a behavioral syndrome, females might use male affiliative behavior as a cue to choose a good father. We investigated three questions: (1) do females prefer affiliative males; (2) do males that are affiliative with females demonstrate paternal behavior with pups; and (3) is male V1aR expression related to male behavior or female preference? We evaluated paternal behavior of individual males, then offered sexually receptive females a choice between paternal and non-paternal males and measured the proportion of time each male spent engaging in affiliative behavior with the choosing female. Females showed a preference for more affiliative males, but affiliation was not predictive of paternal care. Thus females did not discriminate between paternal and non-paternal males. Perhaps surprisingly, paternal behavior was correlated with the relative amount of aggression males directed toward females. Finally, females did not discriminate between males with high or low V1aR expression and V1aR expression did not predict male affiliative behavior or parental care. These data suggest that male affiliative behavior, but not paternal care, is associated with female mate choice. PMID:17878716

Ophir, Alexander G; Crino, Ondi L; Wilkerson, Quiana C; Wolff, Jerry O; Phelps, Steven M

2008-01-01

277

Influenza-related hospitalization of adults associated with low census tract socioeconomic status and female sex in New Haven County, Connecticut, 2007-2011  

PubMed Central

Objectives To help guide universal influenza vaccination efforts in the United States, it is important to know which demographic groups are currently at highest risk of costly complications of influenza infection. Few studies have examined the relationship between hospitalization with influenza and either socioeconomic status (SES) or sex. We examined associations between census tract-level SES and sex and incidence of influenza-related hospitalizations among adults. Design Descriptive analysis of data collected by active population-based surveillance for persons >18 years old hospitalized with laboratory confirmed influenza during the 2007–2008 through 2010–2011 influenza seasons. Case residential addresses were geocoded and linked to data from the 2006–2010 American Community Survey to obtain census-tract level (neighborhood) SES measures. Census-tract level SES variables included measures of poverty, education, crowding, primary language, and median income. Four levels were created for each. Setting New Haven, County, Connecticut. Sample Entire New Haven County population >18 years old. Main Outcome Measures Age-adjusted incidence of influenza hospitalizations and relative risk by sex and by each of five SES measures. Results Crude and age-adjusted incidence progressively increased with decreasing neighborhood SES for each measure both overall and for each influenza season. Female incidence was higher than male for each age group, and female age-adjusted incidence was higher for each SES level and influenza season. Conclusions Female sex and lower neighborhood SES were independently and consistently associated with higher incidence of hospitalization of adults with influenza. If this is more broadly the case, these findings have implications for future influenza vaccination efforts. Analysis using census tract SES measures can provide additional perspective on health disparities. PMID:24382111

Tam, Karman; Yousey-Hindes, Kimberly; Hadler, James L

2014-01-01

278

Effects of gum Arabic ingestion on body mass index and body fat percentage in healthy adult females: two-arm randomized, placebo controlled, double-blind trial  

PubMed Central

Background Gum Arabic (acacia Senegal) is a complex polysaccharide indigestible to both humans and animals. It has been considered as a safe dietary fiber by the United States, Food and Drug Administration (FDA) since the 1970s. Although its effects were extensively studied in animals, there is paucity of data regarding its quantified use in humans. This study was conducted to determine effects of regular Gum Arabic (GA) ingestion on body mass index and body fat percentage among healthy adult females. Methods A two-arm randomized, placebo controlled, double-blind trial was conducted in the Department of Physiology at the Khartoum University. A total of 120 healthy females completed the study. They were divided to two groups: A test group of 60 volunteers receiving GA (30 gm /day) for 6 weeks and a placebo group of 60 volunteers receiving pectin (1 gm/day) for the same period of time. Weight and height were measured before and after intervention using standardized height and weight scales. Skin fold thickness was measured using Harpenden Skin fold caliper. Fat percentage was calculated using Jackson and Pollock 7 caliper method and Siri equation. Results Pre and post analysis among the study group showed significant reduction in BMI by 0.32 (95% CI: 0.17 to 0.47; P<0.0001) and body fat percentage by 2.18% (95% CI: 1.54 to 2.83; P<0.0001) following regular intake of 30 gm /day Gum Arabic for six weeks. Side effects caused by GA ingestion were experienced only in the first week. They included unfavorable viscous sensation in the mouth, early morning nausea, mild diarrhea and bloating abdomen. Conclusions GA ingestion causes significant reduction in BMI and body fat percentage among healthy adult females. The effect could be exploited in the treatment of obesity. PMID:23241359

2012-01-01

279

Stress responses of adolescent male and female rats exposed repeatedly to cat odor stimuli, and long-term enhancement of adult defensive behaviors.  

PubMed

In order to characterize the short- and long-term effects of repeated stressor exposure during adolescence, and to compare the effects of using two sources of cat odor as stressor stimuli, male and female adolescent rats (postnatal day (PND) ? 38-46) were exposed on five occasions to either a control stimulus, a cloth stimulus containing cat hair/dander, or a section of cat collar previously worn by a cat. Relative to control stimulus exposure, activity was suppressed and defensive behavior enhanced during exposure to either cat odor stimulus (most pervasively in rats exposed to the collar). Only cloth-exposed rats showed elevated levels of corticosterone (CORT), and only after repeated stressor exposure, but interestingly, rats exposed to the collar stimulus during adolescence continued to show increased behavioral indices of anxiety in adulthood. In this group, the time an individual spent in physical contact with a cagemate during the final adolescent exposure was negatively related to stress-induced CORT output in adulthood, which suggests that greater use of social support during adolescent stress may facilitate adult behavioral coping, without necessitating increased CORT release. These findings demonstrate that adolescent male and female rats respond defensively to cat odor stimuli across repeated exposures and that exposure to such stressors during adolescence can augment adult anxiety-like behavior in similar stressful conditions. These findings also suggest a potential role for social behavior during adolescent stressor exposure in mediating long-term outcomes. PMID:22753124

Wright, Lisa D; Muir, Katherine E; Perrot, Tara S

2013-07-01

280

Parasitoid infestation changes female mating preferences  

PubMed Central

Females often adjust their mating preference to environmental and social conditions. This plasticity of preference can be adaptive for females and can have important consequences for the evolution of male traits. While predation and parasitism are widespread, their effects on female preferences have rarely been investigated. Females of the cricket Gryllus lineaticeps are parasitized by the parasitoid fly Ormia ochracea. Infestation with fly larvae substantially reduces female life span and thus reproductive opportunities of the cricket. Both female G. lineaticeps and flies orient to male song and both prefer male songs with faster chirp rates to songs with slower chirp rates. We tested the effect of parasitic infestation on female responsiveness to male song and female chirp rate preferences. The proportion of individuals responding to male songs did not differ between infested and control females. Control females preferred intermediate chirp rates to slow chirp rates and did not discriminate between fast and intermediate chirp rates. In contrast, infested females showed no preferences in the choice trials, indicating reduced chirp rate selectivity. This plasticity in female preferences may be adaptive; parasitized females may have a higher probability of reproducing before they are killed by the parasitoids if they are less selective (i.e. there will be a larger pool of males considered acceptable). The change in preferences suggests relaxed selection on male chirp rate during times of parasitism. PMID:24347669

Beckers, Oliver M.; Wagner, William E.

2013-01-01

281

Attitudes of female athletes toward their male and female coaches  

E-print Network

to be an outgoing, dom1nating, and confidently secure man. Willing to break with tradition and make his own decisions, the coach was the type of man the swimmers could trust during a competitive s1tuation (9). Summary of the Review of the Literature A review... the female coach was easier to talk with when they had problems. The male coach tended to have more influence over the motivation of the athlete. For the characteristics of determination, dedication, enthusiasm, energy, conscientiousness, and trustfulness...

Newcomb, Connie Karcher

2012-06-07

282

Management and Conservation Note Breeding Propensity of Female Harlequin Ducks  

E-print Network

to quantify breeding propensity of adult female harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) in British, Histrionicus histrionicus, nonbreeders, radiotelemetry, vitellogenin, yolk precursors. Overall reproductive (Histrionicus histrionicus) specifically (Bengtson and Ulf- strand 1971, Robertson and Goudie 1999), have been

283

Age determination of female redhead ducks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Eighty-seven fall-collected wings from female redhead ducks (Aythya americana) were assigned to the adult or juvenile group based on 'tertial' and 'tertial covert' shape and wear. To obtain spring age-related characters from these fall-collected groupings, we considered parameters of flight feathers retained until after the first breeding season. Parameters measured included: markings on and width of greater secondary coverts, and length, weight, and diameter of primary feathers. The best age categorization was obtained with discriminant analysis based on a combination of the most accurately measured parameters. This analysis, applied to 81 wings with complete measurements, resulted in only 1 being incorrectly aged and 3 placed in a questionable category. Discriminant functions used with covert markings and the three 5th primary parameters were applied to 30 known-age juvenile, hand-reared redhead females, 28 were correctly aged, none was incorrectly aged, and only 2 were placed in the questionable category.

Dane, C.W.; Johnson, D.H.

1975-01-01

284

Olfaction in the female sheep botfly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nasal botfly Oestrus ovis (Diptera, Cyclorrhapha: Oestridae) is a myiasis-causing insect species, which affects the health of sheep, goats and humans. Gravid females are viviparous and larviposit into the animal’s nostrils. Host-searching and larvipositing flies are visually guided and influenced by climatic conditions, whereas olfaction seemed to play no role in this process. However, here, we show that the antennae of adult O. ovis female flies are relatively small but well developed and inhabited by several types of olfactory sensilla. Further, we show that the antennal lobes of this species receive input from antennal afferents and consist of a clearly defined glomerular organisation. We also give the first evidence of the fly’s ability to detect several synthetic odour compounds. Our findings provide a morpho-functional basis for future investigations on olfactory-mediated behaviour of this insect pest.

Poddighe, Simone; Dekker, Teun; Scala, Antonio; Angioy, Anna Maria

2010-09-01

285

Female Urinary Disorders and Pelvic Organ Prolapse  

E-print Network

Female Urinary Disorders and Pelvic Organ Prolapse Female Urinary Disorders and Pelvic Organ Prolapse Richard S. Bercik, M.D. Director, Division of Urogynecology & Reconstruction Pelvic Surgery of Urogynecology & Reconstruction Pelvic Surgery Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology & Reproductive Sciences #12

Lee, Daeyeol

286

Material Benefits from Multiple Mating in Female Mealworm Beetles (Tenebrio molitor L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In yellow mealworm beetles (Tenebrio molitor), females are sexually receptive throughout their adult lives. We examined how access to mates affected female fecundity by varying the number of matings per female and quantifying cumulative egg production. Also, we dissected females at successive intervals after a single mating to assess the relationship among time since mating, sperm supplies, egg load, and

J. M. Drnevich; R. S. Papke; C. L. Rauser; R. L. Rutowski

2001-01-01

287

Spontaneous resolution of symptoms associated with a facet synovial cyst in an adult female – a case report  

PubMed Central

Background: Facet cysts are implicated in neural compression in the lumbar spine. Surgery is the definitive treatment for symptomatic facet cysts since the failure rate for conservative treatment is quite high; however, the role of physical/manual medicine practitioners in the management of symptomatic facet cysts has not been well explored. This case report will add to the body of evidence of spontaneous resolution of symptoms associated with facet cysts in the chiropractic literature. Case: A 58 year old female presented with acute low back and right leg pain which she attributed to a series of exercise classes that involved frequent foot stomping. Physical examination did not elicit any objective evidence of radiculopathy but MRI and CT scans revealed a facet cyst impinging on the right L5 nerve root. Injections and surgery were recommended; however, the patient’s radicular symptoms completely resolved after three months without surgical intervention. Summary: There is currently a paucity of data in the literature regarding the chiropractor’s role in the management of symptomatic facet cysts. The case presented here has added to this literature and possible areas for future research have been explored. PMID:23483069

Ngo, Trung; Decina, Philip; Hsu, William

2013-01-01

288

Sexuality of Male-to-Female Transsexuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blanchard’s (J Nerv Ment Dis 177:616–623, 1989) theory of autogynephilia suggests that male-to-female transsexuals can be\\u000a categorized into different types based on their sexuality. Little previous research has compared the sexuality of male-to-female\\u000a transsexuals to biological females. The present study examined 15 aspects of sexuality among a non-clinical sample of 234\\u000a transsexuals and 127 biological females, using either an online

Jaimie F. Veale; Dave E. Clarke; Terri C. Lomax

2008-01-01

289

Determinants of reproductive success in dominant female meerkats.  

PubMed

1. In cooperative societies with high reproductive skew, selection on females is likely to operate principally through variation in the probability of acquiring dominant status and variation in reproductive success while dominant. Despite this, few studies of cooperative societies have investigated the factors that influence which females become dominant, and/or their reproductive output while in the dominant position. 2. Here we use long-term data from a wild meerkats population to describe variation in the breeding success of dominant female meerkats Suricata suricatta and investigate its causes. 3. Female meerkats compete intensely for breeding positions, and the probability of acquiring the breeding role depends upon a female's age in relation to competitors and her weight, both at the time of dominance acquisition and early in life. 4. Once dominant, individual differences in breeding success depend principally on the duration of dominance tenure. Females remain for longer in the dominant position if they are heavier than their competitors at the start of dominance, and if the number of adult female competitors at the start is low. 5. Female breeding success is also affected by variation in fecundity and pup survival, both of which increase with group size. After controlling for these effects, female body weight has a positive influence on breeding rate and litter size, while the number of adult female competitors reduces litter survival. 6. These findings suggest that selection for body weight and competitive ability will be high in female meerkats, which may moderate their investment in cooperative activities. We suggest that similar consequences of competition may occur among females in other cooperative societies where the benefits of attaining dominance status are high. PMID:18031526

Hodge, Sarah J; Manica, A; Flower, T P; Clutton-Brock, T H

2008-01-01

290

Females Lead Population Collapse of the Endangered Hawaii Creeper  

PubMed Central

Population collapses result from drastic environmental changes, but the sexes may differ in vulnerability. Collapse of the endangered Hawaii creeper (Oreomystis mana) at Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge resulted from food limitation associated with increased numbers of an introduced bird (Japanese white-eye, Zosterops japonicus), which competes with the creeper for food. Both creeper sexes had stunted bill growth and the greatest change in molt of native species in the community. With a surge in numbers of white-eyes, a recent cohort of adult females had very low survival after breeding, while adult males from the same cohort, and older females and males, continued to have high survival. Lower female survival resulted in a significantly more male-biased adult sex ratio. Recent low female survival was based on a great cost of reproduction, indicated by molt-breeding overlap that was previously avoided, and lower fat during the lengthy fledgling period. The difference in female survival between cohorts was associated with stunted bills from being reared in and then breeding in an increasingly poor food environment. Trend analysis of survey data indicate that the bird is declining throughout the refuge, with males being 72–80% of adults left six years after the white-eye increased. Competition over time was consistent with that previously documented over space on the Island of Hawaii. Adaptive management to recover the bird in this protected area needs to focus on improving both adult female survival and the adult sex ratio. PMID:23861831

Freed, Leonard A.; Cann, Rebecca L.

2013-01-01

291

Wellness of Minority Female Counselor Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Minority female counselor educators are faced with numerous challenges. This qualitative study revealed that for female minority counselor educators, these challenges continue to negatively affect their professional and personal experiences. It is through operational wellness practices and optimal balance and functioning that minority female

Shillingford, M. Ann; Trice-Black, Shannon; Butler, S. Kent

2013-01-01

292

Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals and Female Reproduction  

E-print Network

-Simone Parent, Belgium: Female sexual maturation and reproduction after developmental exposure to endocrineEndocrine Disrupting Chemicals and Female Reproduction CRU invites to the international workshop Effects of EDCs on female reproduction in humans, wildlife and domestic animals What are the trends

293

Female Representation by Type of Class  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Last month we saw that females make up about 47% of all high school physics students in the United States. This number has changed little since 1997. This month, we take a closer look at female representation by type of class. We last collected class-specific data in 1993; that year, 43% of all high school physics students were female. However,…

Physics Teacher, 2012

2012-01-01

294

Sexual Selection in Males and Females  

E-print Network

Sexual Selection in Males and Females Tim Clutton-Brock Research on sexual selection shows involved. However, the operation of sexual selection in females has still received relatively little partners are common, leading to strong sexual selection in females and, in extreme cases, to reversals

Sorenson, Michael

295

Irrigated agriculture and female work participation.  

PubMed

This study uses 1981 India Census data to examine the relationship between female agricultural work and use of irrigation in farming. Analysis pertains to 146 taluks in 15 districts in Karnataka state in India. Five districts that had high proportions of females in non-farm work are excluded. The work force participation rates (WPR) in 1981 in rural Karnataka were 57% for males and 22% for females. In 33% of taluks female agricultural workers represented 70% of the total female work force. In 70% of taluks women were mostly engaged in agricultural jobs. Among the three groups of workers, women were primarily agricultural laborers, followed by cultivators. Female agricultural labor was lower in owner-cultivator households that had mainly male cultivators and were economically better off. Districts are distinguished by the percentage of male cultivators. Generally, the percentage of male cultivators varied inversely with the percentage of noncultivating landless households. Farm size varied inversely with the percentage of male cultivators. Female cultivators resided mostly in owner-cultivator households. Female agricultural laborers lived in both cultivating and noncultivating households. Southern districts, Hassan, Mandya, Tumkur, and Mysore had a high percentage of male cultivators, a low percentage of landless households, small farm sizes, and low female WPR. Regression findings indicate farm size was positively related to total female WPR and explained over 33% of the variation. The percentage of scheduled castes and tribes was also positive and explained 7% of the variation. The percentage of male cultivators and population density had a negative effect and explained little of the variation. However, the percentage of male cultivators explained 17% of the variation in female cultivators and 63% of the variation in female agricultural laborers. Irrigation had a small positive effect on female laborers and no effect on female cultivators or total female WPR. PMID:12291608

Rao, N B

1995-01-01

296

Oviposition deterrent and ovicidal activities of seven herbal essential oils against female adults of housefly, Musca domestica L.  

PubMed

The oviposition deterrent and ovicidal of seven herbal essential oils derived from Citrus sinensis, Cymbopogon citratus, Eucalyptus glubulus, Illicium verum, Lavandula angustifolia, Mentha piperita, and Zingiber cussumunar were assessed against the gravid female of housefly, Musca domestica L., under laboratory conditions and compared with commercial insecticide (10% w/v cypermethrin). They were assayed at three concentrations (1.0, 5.0, and 10.0%) where plastic cups containing 1 ml of desired oil concentration and cotton pad soaked with 10 ml of milk solution (10% w/v) were used as oviposition substrate. The 0.1 ml of deferent concentrations was dropped on ten housefly eggs, which were used for ovicidal activity. The number of eggs laid and the hatched larvae in each cup was recorded to evaluate the oviposition deterrent and ovicidal activities of the herbal essential oils. High concentration (10%) of herbal essential oils showed high percent effective repellency (ER). The 10% I. verum oil caused complete oviposition deterrence (100% ER, oviposition activity index (OAI)?=?-1.0), followed by Z. cussumunar, M. piperita, L. angustifolia, C. citratus, C. sinensis, and E. glubulus oils with 97.20, 88.55, 88.14, 87.93, 76.68, and 57.00% ER, respectively. As the concentration of herbal essential oils increased from 1.0, 5.0, and up to 10.0% concentration, the hatching rate decreased. Ten percent I. verum oil gave the maximum inhibiting rate at 97.3% (LC50 value of 6.85%); in addition, the other herbal essential oils showed the minimum inhibiting rate of 3.3-22.7%. On the other hand, cypermethrin 10% w/v showed complete oviposition deterrence (100% ER, OAI?=?-1.0) and ovicidal activity (100% inhibiting rate). Our data showed that I. verum oil have high potential of oviposition deterrence and ovicide housefly control. PMID:24894080

Sinthusiri, Jirisuda; Soonwera, Mayura

2014-08-01

297

Genetic analyses suggest no immigration of adult females and their offspring into the Sonso community of chimpanzees in the Budongo Forest Reserve, Uganda.  

PubMed

Chimpanzees are frequently used to illustrate the relationship between sex differences in dispersal and sex differences in cooperation in primates and other group-living mammals. Male chimpanzees are highly philopatric, typically remaining in their natal communities for their entire lives to cooperate with related males in competition against less related males from other groups, whereas females typically disperse once at adolescence and cooperate with each other less frequently. However, there have been a few reports of dependent male offspring joining groups when their mothers transferred between communities as adults. Although such events are difficult to document, determining how often they actually occur is important for elucidating the links between philopatry, kinship, and cooperation in both chimpanzees and group-living animals more generally. Here we use genetic analyses to investigate a previous report of a large-scale transfer of many females and their offspring into the Sonso community of chimpanzees in the Budongo Forest Reserve, Uganda. Using autosomal microsatellite genotypes, we assigned a Sonso father to ten of the fourteen putative immigrants, and found that the four putative immigrants for whom we could not assign a Sonso father (perhaps due to incomplete sampling of all Sonso candidate fathers) nevertheless had Y-chromosome microsatellite haplotypes that were common in Sonso males but absent in males from four other chimpanzee communities at Budongo. These results suggest that these putative immigrant females and their offspring were probably actually long-term residents of Sonso whose identifications were delayed by their peripheral or unhabituated status. These results are consistent with other genetic and behavioral evidence showing that male between-community gene flow is exceedingly rare in east African chimpanzees. PMID:24436205

Langergraber, Kevin E; Rowney, Carolyn; Crockford, Catherine; Wittig, Roman; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Vigilant, Linda

2014-07-01

298

Chemical characterization and acaricide potential of essential oil from aerial parts of Tagetes patula L. (Asteraceae) against engorged adult females of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806).  

PubMed

Rhipicephalus sanguineus, commonly known as the brown dog tick, is one of the most widely distributed species of tick. In dogs, it can cause anemia and provide the transmission of pathogenic microorganisms such as Babesia canis, Ehrlichia canis, Hepatozoon canis, Anaplasma platys, and Mycoplasma haemocanis. To man, it can transmit the intracellular parasites Rickettsia rickettsii and Rickettsia conorii, the causative agents of the Rocky Mountain spotted fever in the Americas and Mediterranean and spotted fever in Europe and North Africa. Its control is performed by applying synthetic formulations composed of pyrethroids; however, continued use of these products results in environmental damage and acquisition of resistance. Alternatively, studies with botanical insecticides have been increasingly recurrent. Therefore, this study aimed to test the efficacy of essential oil of Tagetes patula, a ruderal species widely described in the literature for its insecticidal properties, in engorged females of R. sanguineus by the adults immersion test (AIT) and impregnated paper disk test (IPDT). The essential oil used, through gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, revealed the presence of 55 compounds, being the 4-vinyl guaiacol and gamma terpinene the majority ones. The AIT compared to the IPDT was more efficient in inhibiting oviposition of tick; however, the eggs laid by the females submitted to saturated atmosphere with essential oil, from IPDT, not hatched, interrupted their development cycle. Besides being a pioneer work, the results presented here contributes to new researches, aiming the incorporation of essential oil in an acaricide for use in the environment. PMID:23508761

Politi, Flávio Augusto Sanches; de Souza-Moreira, Tatiana Maria; Rodrigues, Edvânio Ramos; de Queiroz, Geisiany Maria; Figueira, Glyn Mara; Januário, Ana Helena; Berenger, Jean-Michel; Socolovschi, Cristina; Parola, Philippe; Pietro, Rosemeire Cristina Linhari Rodrigues

2013-06-01

299

Chronic unpredictable stress and long-term ovariectomy affect arginine-vasopressin expression in the paraventricular nucleus of adult female mice.  

PubMed

Arginine-Vasopressin (AVP) may regulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) and its effects on depressive responses. In a recent study, we demonstrated that Chronic Unpredictable Stress (CUS) depressive effects are enhanced by long-term ovariectomy (a model of post-menopause). In the present study, we investigated the effects of long-term ovariectomy and CUS on AVP expression in different subdivision of the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of female mice. Both long-term ovariectomy and CUS affect AVP immunoreactivity in some of the PVN subnuclei of adult female mice. In particular, significant changes on AVP immunoreactivity were observed in magnocellular subdivisions, the paraventricular lateral magnocellular (PaLM) and the paraventricular medial magnocellular (PaMM), the 2 subnuclei projecting to the neurohypophysis for the hormonal regulation of body homeostasis. AVP immunoreactivity was decreased in the PaLM by both the long-term deprivation of ovarian hormones and the CUS. In contrast, AVP immunoreactivity was increased in the PaMM by CUS, whereas it was decreased by ovariectomy. Therefore, present results suggest morphological and functional differences among the PVN's subnuclei and complex interactions among CUS, gonadal hormones and AVP immunoreactivity. PMID:25218558

Grassi, D; Lagunas, N; Calmarza-Font, I; Diz-Chaves, Y; Garcia-Segura, L M; Panzica, G C

2014-11-01

300

Demography can favour female-advantageous alleles.  

PubMed

When female fecundity is relatively independent of male abundance, while male reproduction is proportional to female abundance, females have a larger effect on population dynamics than males (i.e. female demographic dominance). This population dynamic phenomenon might not appear to influence evolution, because male and female genomes still contribute equally much to the next generation. However, here we examine two evolutionary scenarios to provide a proof of principle that spatial structure can make female demographic dominance matter. Our two simulation models combine dispersal evolution with local adaptation subjected to intralocus sexual conflict and environmentally driven sex ratio biases, respectively. Both models have equilibria where one environment (without being intrinsically poorer) has so few reproductive females that trait evolution becomes disproportionately determined by those environments where females survive better (intralocus sexual conflict model), or where daughters are overproduced (environmental sex determination model). Surprisingly, however, the two facts that selection favours alleles that benefit females, and population growth is improved when female fitness is high, together do not imply that all measures of population performance are improved. The sex-specificity of the source-sink dynamics predicts that populations can evolve to fail to persist in habitats where alleles do poorly when expressed in females. PMID:25056617

Harts, Anna M F; Schwanz, Lisa E; Kokko, Hanna

2014-09-01

301

Reproductive suppression in female cooperatively breeding cichlids.  

PubMed

Suppression by dominants of female subordinate reproduction has been found in many vertebrate social groups, but has rarely been shown experimentally. Here experimental evidence is provided for reproductive suppression in the group-living Lake Tanganyika cichlid Neolamprologus pulcher. Within groups of three unrelated females, suppression was due to medium- and small-sized females laying less frequently compared with large females, and compared with medium females in control pairs. Clutch size and average egg mass of all females depended on body size, but not on rank. In a second step, a large female was removed from the group and a very small female was added to keep the group size constant. The medium females immediately seized the dominant breeding position in the group and started to reproduce as frequently as control pairs, whereas clutch size and egg mass did not change. These results show that female subordinate cichlids are reproductively capable, but apparently suppressed with respect to egg laying. Nevertheless, some reproduction is tolerated, possibly to ensure continued alloparental care by subordinate females. PMID:18755658

Heg, Dik

2008-12-23

302

Receptive females mitigate costs of sexual conflict.  

PubMed

Males typically gain fitness from multiple mating, whereas females often lose fitness from numerous mating, potentially leading to sexual conflict over mating. This conflict is expected to favor the evolution of female resistance to mating. However, females may incur male harassment if they refuse to copulate; thus, greater female resistance may increase costs imposed by males. Here, I show that the evolution of resistance to mating raises fitness disadvantages of interacting with males when mating is harmful in female adzuki bean beetles, Callosobruchus chinensis. Females that were artificially selected for higher and lower remating propensity evolved to accept and resist remating, respectively. Compared with females that evolved to accept remating, females that evolved to resist it suffered higher fitness costs from continuous exposure to males. The costs of a single mating measured by the effect on longevity did not differ among selection line females. This study indicates that receptive rather than resistant females mitigate the fitness loss resulting from sexual conflict, suggesting that even though mating is harmful, females can evolve to accept additional mating. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID:25430865

Harano, Tomohiro

2014-11-27

303

Urinary Tract Infections in Female Patients  

PubMed Central

Urinary tract infections are a common problem in female patients. Twenty-five per cent of patients with an initial infection will develop recurrent infections, with reinfection of the urine some time after the urine has been sterilized being the most common situation. Most adult patients have no urinary tract abnormality, with the infecting organism coming from the rectum and colonizing the vagina before colonizing the bladder. In children with urinary tract infections, there is a higher incidence of urinary tract abnormalities. The author presents a plan of management for various clinical problems. PMID:21249064

Thompson, S. Elmer

1989-01-01

304

The Development of Local Song Preferences in Female Cowbirds (Molothrus ater): Flock Living Stimulates Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

We carried out two experiments across 2 yr on song perception in female cowbirds (Molothrus ater). In the first experiment, juvenile and adult female brown-headed cowbirds, living in same-sex flocks in out- door aviaries, were periodically tutored with recordings of local male cowbirds' songs. In the spring, four adult male cowbirds were placed with half of the females for a

Meredith J. West; Andrew P. King; David J. White; Julie Gros-Louis; Grace Freed-Brown

2006-01-01

305

Effect of induction dose, lactation stage and body condition on tiletamine-zolazepam anaesthesia in adult female grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) under field conditions.  

PubMed

Tiletamine-zolazepam (TZ) was used at a mean (sd) dose of 1.18 (0.15) mg/kg administered intramuscularly to anaesthetise adult female grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) under field conditions at three different stages during their lactation period. A significant correlation was observed between the induction dose and time to induction (r=-0.582, P=0.011). Stage of lactation had a significant effect on condition index (CI), calculated as axial girth divided by length (P<0.001), and time to induction (P=0.009). No effect of CI on induction or recovery time was demonstrated. Respiratory rate decreased during induction and increased significantly (P<0.001) during surgical biopsy of blubber. Recovery occurred after 32.5 (11.9) minutes. Minor complications (tremor, vocalisation and mild dyspnoea) were observed in a small number of cases, none of which required treatment. PMID:21508066

Langton, S D; Moss, S E; Pomeroy, P P; Borer, K E

2011-04-30

306

Female settlement in marsh wrens: is it affected by other females?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The influence of resident females on the settling patterns of subsequent females was examined for marsh wrens (Cistothorus palustris). Proportionally more females responded to a playback of a female intruder during the pre-laying stage than during the laying\\u000a and incubation stages. The strength of the response was also greatest during pre-laying and laying stages (Table 1). Female\\u000a wrens did not

Marty L. Leonard; Jaroslav Picman

1987-01-01

307

The Nuclear Progesterone Receptor Reduces Post-Sigh Apneas during Sleep and Increases the Ventilatory Response to Hypercapnia in Adult Female Mice  

PubMed Central

We tested the hypothesis that the nuclear progesterone receptor (nPR) is involved in respiratory control and mediates the respiratory stimulant effect of progesterone. Adult female mice carrying a mutation in the nPR gene (PRKO mice) and wild-type controls (WT) were implanted with an osmotic pump delivering vehicle or progesterone (4 mg/kg/day). The mice were instrumented with EEG and neck EMG electrodes connected to a telemetry transmitter. The animals were placed in a whole body plethysmograph 7 days after surgery to record ventilation, metabolic rate, EEG and neck EMGs for 4 consecutive hours. The animals were exposed to hypercapnia (5% CO2), hypoxia (12% O2) and hypoxic-hypercapnia (5% CO2+12% O2–5 min each) to assess chemoreflex responses. EEG and EMG signals were used to characterize vigilance states (e.g., wake, non-REM, and REM sleep). PRKO mice exhibited similar levels of minute ventilation during non-REM and REM sleep, and higher frequencies of sighs and post-sigh apneas during non-REM sleep compared to WT. Progesterone treatment increased minute ventilation and metabolic rate in WT and PRKO mice during non-REM sleep. In WT mice, but not in PRKO mice, the ventilation under hypercapnia and hypoxic hypercapnia was enhanced after progesterone treatment. We conclude that the nPR reduces apnea frequency during non-REM sleep and enhances chemoreflex responses to hypercapnia after progesterone treatment. These results also suggest that mechanisms other than nPR activation increase metabolic rate in response to progesterone treatment in adult female mice. PMID:24945655

Marcouiller, François; Lavoie, Raphaël; Joseph, Vincent

2014-01-01

308

The female-male disparity in obesity prevalence among black American young adults: contributions of sociodemographic characteristics of the childhood family1234  

PubMed Central

Background: In the United States, black women are at much greater risk of obesity than are black men. Little is known about the factors underlying this disparity. Objective: We explored whether childhood sociodemographic factors (parental education, single-mother household, number of siblings, number of minors in household, birth order, and female caregiver's age) were associated with the gender disparity in obesity prevalence in young black adults in the United States. Design: An analytic data set (n = 7747) was constructed from the nationally representative National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Childhood sociodemographic factors were assessed in 1994–1995 in nonimmigrant black and white youths aged 11–19 y. Obesity was assessed in 2001–2002. For each childhood sociodemographic factor, we evaluated whether the prevalence difference (female obesity minus male obesity) was modified by the factor. We described the contribution of each variable category to the overall prevalence difference. Results: In unadjusted and multivariable-adjusted models, parental education consistently modified gender disparity in blacks (P = 0.01). The gender gap was largest with low parental education (16.7% of men compared with 45.4% of women were obese) and smallest with high parental education (28.5% of men compared with 31.4% of women were obese). In whites, there was little overall gender difference in obesity prevalence. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this was the first study to document that the gender disparity in obesity prevalence in young black adults is concentrated in families with low parental education. In these low-socioeconomic-status families, obesity development is either under the control of distinct mechanisms in each gender, or men and women from these households adopt different obesity-related behaviors. PMID:19190069

Robinson, Whitney R; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Kaufman, Jay S; Suchindran, Chirayath M; Stevens, June

2009-01-01

309

Female sexual function and response.  

PubMed

Although female sexual dysfunction is a problem with low priority, it can have a profound impact on quality of life. In women, the cycle of sexual response begins in the brain, where a memory, an image, a scent, music, or a fantasy acts as a trigger to prompt sexual arousal. Thus, the brain is really the key and starting place for treatment of sexual dysfunction. Decreased libido, altered arousal, inability to achieve orgasm, and dyspareunia are the four broad types of sexual dysfunction in women. Decreased libido, thought to be related to androgenic hormones, results in delayed or altered arousal, decreased vaginal lubrication and dilation, delayed or absent orgasm, and pain or dyspareunia, which can lead to an aversion to sexual experiences. PMID:14992322

Arcos, Barbara

2004-01-01

310

Exertion injuries in female athletes.  

PubMed Central

Because sports injuries in men form most of the available statistics, the reportage of injuries in female athletes is sparse. We describe exertion injuries and disorders in 281 women athletes, all of which hampered athletic training or performances. Sixty per cent of the injuries occurred to girls ages between 12-19 years, and about forty-eight per cent were track and field athletes. The most common sites of injury were the ankle, foot, heel and leg. Osteochondritic disorders were the most typical injuries in the series, and the chronic medical tibial syndrome was the injury that needed surgical treatment most frequently. Overuse injuries seem to differ very little from each other in the events included in this survey. Images p229-a p229-b p229-c PMID:6797496

Orava, S.; Hulkko, A.; Jormakka, E.

1981-01-01

311

The Lived Experience of the Adult African American Female Who Has Lived in Multiple Foster Care Placements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the study was to examine and describe the lived experiences of the adult African American woman who had lived in multiple foster care placements. Eleven adult African American women ages 22-25 participated in semi-structured, face-to-face interviews to tell their stories and provide data of the memories of the experience. The…

Johnson, Avonda C.

2012-01-01

312

Closing the Gender Gap: Improved Performance of U.S.-Born Females on the National Assessment of Adult Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study analyzed the current state of the gender literacy gap and the change in the gender literacy gap between 1992 and 2003, using the 1992 National Adult Literacy Survey (NALS) and the 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy (NAAL). The results revealed that although there were significant gender literacy gaps in 1992, virtually all…

Cohen, Dale J.; White, Sheida; Cohen, Steffaney B.

2012-01-01

313

Female chacma baboons form strong, equitable, and enduring social bonds  

PubMed Central

Analyses of the pattern of associations, social interactions, coalitions, and aggression among chacma baboons (Papio hamadryas ursinus) in the Okavango Delta of Botswana over a 16-year period indicate that adult females form close, equitable, supportive, and enduring social relationships. They show strong and stable preferences for close kin, particularly their own mothers and daughters. Females also form strong attachments to unrelated females who are close to their own age and who are likely to be paternal half-sisters. Although absolute rates of aggression among kin are as high as rates of aggression among nonkin, females are more tolerant of close relatives than they are of others with whom they have comparable amounts of contact. These findings complement previous work which indicates that the strength of social bonds enhances the fitness of females in this population and support findings about the structure and function of social bonds in other primate groups. PMID:20976293

Beehner, Jacinta C.; Bergman, Thore J.; Crockford, Catherine; Engh, Anne L.; Moscovice, Liza R.; Wittig, Roman M.; Seyfarth, Robert M.; Cheney, Dorothy L.

2010-01-01

314

Neuroendocrine Consequences of Androgen Excess in Female Rodents  

PubMed Central

Androgens exert significant organizational and activational effects on the nervous system and behavior. Despite the fact that female mammals generally produce low levels of androgens, relative to the male of the same species, increasing evidence suggests that androgens can exert profound effects on the normal physiology and behavior of females during fetal, neonatal, and adult stages of life. This review examines the effects of exposure to androgens at three stages of development – as an adult, during early postnatal life and as a fetus, on reproductive hormone secretions in female rats. We examine the effects of androgen exposure both as a model of neuroendocrine sexual differentiation and with respect to the role androgens play in the normal female. We then discuss the hypothesis that androgens may cause epigenetic modification of estrogen target genes in the brain. Finally we consider the clinical consequences of excess androgen exposure in women. PMID:18374922

Foecking, Eileen M.; McDevitt, Melissa A.; Acosta-Martínez, Maricedes; Horton, Teresa H.; Levine, Jon E.

2008-01-01

315

Older female inpatients in Arkansas.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine age and Major Diagnostic Categories (MDCs) and compare the variables to mortality and length of stay among inpatient women age 50 and over. Archival statistical data were obtained for 2,238 inpatients in a private, nonprofit hospital in 1998. The ages ranged from 50 to 107 years old, with a mean age of 71.21 years. Quantitative analyses were conducted to examine the data from a private, nonprofit hospital and determine if there were significant relationships between age, major diagnostic category, length of stay, and mortality in older women. The MDC distribution indicated that the highest frequency of diseases and disorders were in the following three systems: circulatory system, musculoskeletal system and connective tissue, and the digestive system. The average length of stay was 8.01 days. The 30-day readmission percentage and the 365-day readmission percentage were 12.24% and 28.02%, respectively. The mortality rate was 6%. In addition, 63.97% went home after discharge, and 67.07% were Medicare recipients. The risk of musculoskeletal diseases and disorders increased with age (p = .0001). The conditional probability of death was nearly nine times higher for the diseases of the nervous system, myeloproliferative diseases and disorders, poorly differentiated neoplasms and respiratory diseases. As age increased, the probabilities of a long hospital stay decreased. The mortality analyses found that the lowest probabilities of survival were in categories of myeloproliferative diseases and disorders, poorly differentiated neoplasms, and infectious and parasitic diseases. According to current health statistics, our society is getting older. Not only are people living longer, they are accessing more health care (American Association for World Health, 1999). Overall, the average life expectancy at birth has been identified at 76.5 years. The female has a longer life expectancy than the male, averaging 5.8 years longer. The highest life expectancy has been identified in the white female, who can expect to live to 79. The black woman has the second-highest life expectancy, 74.7 years. Peters, Kochanek, and Murphy reported an all-time-low age-adjusted death rate for the United States and a continuing trend in the decline in mortality for all age groups. With a growing number of people living longer, there is a need to know about the most common health issues that affect quality of life. The top three national causes of death in older Americans were diseases of the heart, malignant neoplasms, and cerebrovascular diseases/stroke. Arkansas health statistics mirror the national statistics. In April 1999, the Arkansas Department of Health reported that 30.5% percent of all female deaths were caused by heart disease. Malignant neoplasms were responsible for 20.1%, followed by cerebrovascular diseases at 10.8%. Other than three Connecticut hospital studies that explored the relationship of diagnosis code, mortality, and readmission, research is meager in this area. There is a need for hospital-based research that addresses the diagnosis categories and the relationship to age and other variables. PMID:11233503

Johnson, M; Duncan, L; Rothenberger, A; Thomas, J

2001-03-01

316

Morphology of the external genitalia of the adult male and female mice as an endpoint of sex differentiation  

PubMed Central

Adult external genitalia (ExG) are the endpoints of normal sex differentiation. Detailed morphometric analysis and comparison of adult mouse ExG has revealed 10 homologous features distinguishing the penis and clitoris that define masculine vs. feminine sex differentiation. These features have enabled the construction of a simple metric to evaluate various intersex conditions in mutant or hormonally manipulated mice. This review focuses on the morphology of the adult mouse penis and clitoris through detailed analysis of histologic sections, scanning electron microscopy, and three-dimensional reconstruction. We also present previous results from evaluation of “non-traditional” mammals, such as the spotted hyena and wallaby to demonstrate the complex process of sex differentiation that involves not only androgen-dependent processes, but also estrogen-dependent and hormone-independent mechanisms. PMID:21893161

Weiss, Dana A.; Rodriguez, Esequiel; Cunha, Tristan; Menshenina, Julia; Barcellos, Dale; Chan, Lok Yun; Risbridger, Gail; Baskin, Laurence; Cunha, Gerald

2013-01-01

317

Fitness benefits of polyandry for experienced females.  

PubMed

Females often mate with several different males, which may promote sperm competition and increase offspring viability. However, the potential benefits of polyandry remain controversial, particularly in birds where recent reviews have suggested that females gain few genetic benefits from extra-pair mating. In tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor), we found that females with prior breeding experience had more sires per brood when paired to genetically similar social mates, and, among experienced females, broods with more sires had higher hatching success. Individual females breeding in two consecutive years also produced broods with more sires when they were more genetically similar to their mate. Thus, experienced females were able to avoid the costs of mating with a genetically similar social mate and realize fitness benefits from mating with a relatively large number of males. This is one of the first studies to show that female breeding experience influences polyandry and female fitness in a natural population of vertebrates. Our results suggest that the benefits of polyandry may only be clear when considering both the number of mates females acquire and their ability to modify the outcome of sexual conflict. PMID:20444084

Whittingham, L A; Dunn, P O

2010-06-01

318

ROLE OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LEAF EXTRACT IN THE REGULATION OF THYROID HORMONE STATUS IN ADULT MALE AND FEMALE RATS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of Moringa oleifera aqueous leaf extract in the regulation of thyroid hormone status, was studied in adult Swiss rats. Other than the thyroid hormone concentrations, hepatic lipid peroxidation (LPO) and the activities of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were evaluated. In the first experiment, effects of the leaf extract (175 mg kg?1body wt. day?1for 10

PANKAJ TAHILIANI; ANAND KAR

2000-01-01

319

Flibanserin for female sexual dysfunction.  

PubMed

Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is the most commonly described form of female sexual dysfunction. There is currently no pharmacological therapy approved to treat HSDD, and therefore, there is an unmet medical need for the development of efficacious treatment alternatives. Flibanserin is a novel, non-hormonal drug for the treatment of HSDD in pre- and postmenopausal women, although the application submitted to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration by Sprout Pharmaceuticals is only for premenopausal women. Flibanserin works by correcting an imbalance of the levels of the neurotransmitters that affect sexual desire. More specifically, flibanserin increases dopamine and norepinephrine, both responsible for sexual excitement, and decreases serotonin, responsible for sexual inhibition. Clinically, flibanserin has exhibited some encouraging results in terms of its ability to increase the frequency of satisfying sexual events, and the intensity of sexual desire. However, adverse events such as dizziness, nausea, fatigue and somnolence, typical of a centrally acting drug, are also frequently related to flibanserin treatment. PMID:25187905

Reviriego, C

2014-08-01

320

Eating disorders throughout female adolescence.  

PubMed

Eating disorders (EDs) are conditions which are becoming more and more widespread among adolescents and they often lead them to seek the opinion of a professional health caregiver, including gynecologists and pediatricians. EDs, and particularly anorexia nervosa (AN), are usually classified as psychological or psychiatric disorders, but they may have major somatic implications and complications as osteoporosis, nutritional deficiencies, cerebral atrophy, cardiac and metabolic disorders. A key issue in the management is prevention or reduction of both the serious somatic consequences and the important mental health consequences (e.g. depression, psychosocial withdrawal, phobia and suicide), integrating different perspectives (psychological or psychiatric - individual and familial -, genetic, nutritional, pediatric, gynecological). Adolescence is a critical period for the onset of EDs though they may also involve younger children. In this case, the consequences on the development (height, weight, puberty) can also be significant. In this review, we will focus on eating disorders in adolescent girls with an emphasis on AN. We describe variations in ED characteristics and their management depending on age at occurrence. A possible ED should be considered by pediatricians consulted about delayed female growth and puberty as well as gynecologists in patients with primary or secondary amenorrhea or infertility. PMID:22846535

Dominé, F; Dadoumont, C; Bourguignon, J-P

2012-01-01

321

Prenatal stress differentially affects habituation of corticosterone responses to repeated stress in adult male and female rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental factors operating early in life have long-lasting and important consequences for the mental and physical health of the adult organism. In particular, prenatal exposure to stress represents one category of adverse early environmental events that are associated with development of depression and schizophrenia in adulthood. In the present studies, we examined whether prenatal stress alters the habituation of hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal

Seema Bhatnagar; Theresa M. Lee; Courtenay Vining

2005-01-01

322

The Effects of the Sexualization of Female Video Game Characters on Gender Stereotyping and Female Self-Concept  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study utilized an experimental design to investigate the short term effects of exposure to sexualized female video\\u000a game characters on gender stereotyping and female self-concept in emerging adults. Bussey and Bandura’s (1999) social cognitive theory of gender development and differentiation was used to explicate this relationship. Undergraduate\\u000a students (N?=?328) at a large U.S. Southwestern university participated in the

Elizabeth Behm-Morawitz; Dana Mastro

2009-01-01

323

IDENTIFICATION OF METHYL FARNESOATE FROM IN VITRO CULTURE OF THE RETROCEREBRAL COMPLEX OF ADULT FEMALES OF THE MOTH, HELIOTHIS VIRESCENS (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE) AND ITS CONVERSION TO JUVENILE HORMONE III  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Gas chromatographic-mass spectral analysis of extracts obtained from in vitro culture of isolated retrocerebral complexes obtained from adult females of the moth Heliothis virescens resulted in identification of methyl farnesoate as well as, juvenile hormone III (JH III) but not JH III acid. Inhibit...

324

Estrogen regulation of cell proliferation and distribution of estrogen receptor-alpha in the brains of adult female prairie and meadow voles.  

PubMed

Adult female prairie (Microtus ochrogaster) and meadow (M. pennsylvanicus) voles were compared to examine neural cell proliferation and the effects of estrogen manipulation on cell proliferation in the amygdala, ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus (DG). Unlike prior studies, our study focused on the amygdala and VMH, because they are involved in social behaviors and may underlie behavioral differences between the species. Meadow voles had a higher density of cells labeled with the cell proliferation marker 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) in the amygdala and DG than did prairie voles. Treatment with estradiol benzoate (EB) for 3 days increased the density of BrdU-labeled cells in the amygdala, particularly in the posterior cortical (pCorA) and medial (pMeA) nuclei, in meadow, but not prairie, voles. Furthermore, the majority of the BrdU-labeled cells in the pCorA and pMeA displayed either a neuronal or a glial progenitor phenotype, but no species or treatment differences were found in the percentage of neuronal or glial progenitor cells. To understand better estrogen's effects on adult neurogenesis, we also examined estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha) distribution. Meadow voles had more ERalpha-labeled cells in the pCorA and VMH, but not in the pMeA or DG, than did prairie voles. In addition, more than one-half of the BrdU-labeled cells in the amygdala of both species coexpressed ERalpha labeling. Together, these data indicate that estrogen alters cell proliferation in a species- and region-specific manner, and some of these effects may lie in the specific localization of estrogen receptors in the adult vole brain. PMID:15984004

Fowler, Christie D; Johnson, Frank; Wang, Zuoxin

2005-08-22

325

Strong Female Characters in Recent Children's Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shares the authors' criteria for evaluating female characters as positive role models in children's literature. Explores the criteria by examining "The Ballad of Lucy Wipple" (Karen Cushman). Discusses other recently published picture books and novels which feature strong females in history, in contemporary times, and in fantasy. (SR)

Heine, Pat; Inkster, Christine; Kazemek, Frank; Williams, Sandra; Raschke, Sylvia; Stevens, Della

1999-01-01

326

Population transcriptomics of Drosophila melanogaster females  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Variation at the level of gene expression is abundant in natural populations and is thought to contribute to the adaptive divergence of populations and species. Gene expression also differs considerably between males and females. Here we report a microarray analysis of gene expression variation among females of 16 Drosophila melanogaster strains derived from natural populations, including eight strains from

Lena Müller; Stephan Hutter; Rayna Stamboliyska; Sarah S Saminadin-Peter; Wolfgang Stephan; John Parsch

2011-01-01

327

The family relations of female juvenile delinquents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the assumption that the family relations of female delinquents are more dysfunctional than those of male delinquents. In a 2 × 2 (gender by delinquency status) design, 32 intact families were matched on demographic variables, and the male and female delinquents were matched on arrest data. Mothers, fathers, and adolescents were administered a selfreport personality inventory and

Scott W. Henggeler; James Edwards; Charles M. Borduin

1987-01-01

328

Aggression and coexistence in female caribou  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Female caribou (Rangifer tarandus) are highly gregarious, yet there has been little study of the behavioral mechanisms that foster coexistence. Quantifying patterns of aggression between male and female, particularly in the only cervid taxa where both sexes grow antlers, should provide insight into these mechanisms. We asked if patterns of aggression by male and female caribou followed the pattern typically noted in other polygynous cervids, in which males display higher frequencies and intensity of aggression. From June to August in 2011 and 2012, we measured the frequency and intensity of aggression across a range of group sizes through focal animal sampling of 170 caribou (64 males and 106 females) on Adak Island in the Aleutian Archipelago, Alaska. Males in same-sex and mixed-sex groups and females in mixed-sex groups had higher frequencies of aggression than females in same-sex groups. Group size did not influence frequency of aggression. Males displayed more intense aggression than females. Frequent aggression in mixed-sex groups probably reflects lower tolerance of males for animals in close proximity. Female caribou were less aggressive and more gregarious than males, as in other polygynous cervid species.

Weckerly, Floyd W.; Ricca, Mark A.

2014-01-01

329

The Decision for Male versus Female Sterilization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The increasing popularity of sterilization underscores the need for knowledge about couples choosing male and female procedures. This research delineates four sets of variables that may be important for the decision and examines their relationship with the choice of male or female procedure among a sample of married couples. (Author)

Clark, Margaret Pruitt; And Others

1979-01-01

330

Life history theory and female readers ofpornography  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores the possibility that female interest in pornography might signal amore male-like reproductive strategy. According to life history theory, early attachmentexperiences have the effect of setting reproductive strategies as restrictive or unrestrictive. It wasfound that female readers of pornography were significantly more likely to be from divorcedhomes, to be divorced themselves, to assess their parental attachment less positively

Anthony Walsh

1999-01-01

331

Career Patterns of Rural Female Educational Administrators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined the impact of the rural context upon the careers of women educational administrators in Saskatchewan. Surveys and interviews with 24 female rural administrators indicated that the behavior and career patterns of rural female administrators were influenced by the organizational context of the school and its community. A new…

Wallin, Dawn; Sackney, Larry

2003-01-01

332

Female Dropouts in Botswana Junior Secondary Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A serious problem in Botswana is the large number of girls and young women who drop out of school. Just over half of the female population attends secondary schools, and the percentage of school-enrolled females has fallen in recent years. Few researchers have studied the dropout problem in Botswana. Twenty-four individuals selected for this study…

Makwinja-Morara, Veronica

2009-01-01

333

An inexpensive laparoscopy system for female sterilization.  

PubMed

Laparoscopy has become an established procedure for female sterilization. The cost of the equipment remains excessively high, thereby reducing its availability to all physicians and patients who desire and need it. We have described an inexpensive--but highly effective--female sterilization system utilizing equipment that should cost in the range of $400.00. PMID:128296

Wheeless, C R

1975-12-01

334

The recovering female alcoholic: A family affair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supported by a review of relevant literature and a case study, the author argues that family therapy intervention enhances the likelihood of a female alcoholic's positive prognosis. With a basis in systems theory, family therapy views the family as a system and, hence, perceives the alcoholism as a symptom of that family. A profile of the female alcoholic, how her

Judith A. Rolls

1995-01-01

335

Evolution of weaponry in female bovids  

PubMed Central

Weaponry is ubiquitous in male ungulates and is driven by intrasexual selection, but the mystery surrounding its sporadic presence in females remains unsolved. Female horns are often smaller and shaped differently to male horns, suggesting a different function; indeed, hypotheses explaining the presence of female horns include competition for food, male mollification and defence against predators. Here we use comparative phylogenetic analyses to show that females are significantly more likely to bear horns in bovids that are conspicuous due to large body size and living in open habitats than inconspicuous species living in closed habitats or that are small. An inability to rely on crypsis or take refuge in deep vegetation has apparently driven the evolution of horns for defence against predators in female bovids, a finding supported by many field observations. Typically, exceptions are small species where females are territorial (e.g. duikers) and use horns in intrasexual contests. Furthermore, we suggest that conspicuousness and territoriality hypotheses may explain other instances of female cranial weaponry (i.e. antlers and ossicones) in other horned ruminants. Our phylogenetic reconstruction indicates that the primary function of horns in females is linked to antipredator defence in most clades, but occasionally to intrasexual competition in others. PMID:19759035

Stankowich, Theodore; Caro, Tim

2009-01-01

336

What's Special about Female Suicide Terrorism?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzes the interaction between the motivations of individual attackers and terrorist group strategies. To do so, I combine a quantitative analysis of all known suicide terrorist attacks between 1981 and July 2008 with a strategic account of why terrorist organizations employ female suicide terrorism (fst) and case studies of individual female attackers. I advance five central claims. First,

Lindsey A. ORourke

2009-01-01

337

Math = male, me = female, therefore math ? me  

Microsoft Academic Search

College students, especially women, demonstrated negativity toward math and science relative to arts and language on implicit measures. Group membership (being female), group identity (self female), and gender stereotypes (math male) were related to attitudes and identification with mathematics. Stronger implicit math male stereotypes corresponded with more negative implicit and explicit math attitudes for women but more positive attitudes for

Brian A. Nosek; Mahzarin R. Banaji; Anthony G. Greenwald

2002-01-01

338

Money Talks: Female Sex Tourism in Jamaica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The issue of sex tourism is one that is most frequently explored as a gendered practice involving relationships between male tourists and female sex workers. By using the case of sex tourism in Jamaica, this article explores the fluidity of gender roles in an environment where foreign female tourists exchange money or material goods for sex with local males. I

Lauren C. Johnson

339

Drug Consumption Among Sexual Offenders Against Females  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article aims to evaluate the role of drug consumption among sexual offenders against females. Three groups of participants (N = 133) comprising sexual offenders against girls, pubertal females, and women were examined with reference to history of drug and\\/or alcohol use, impulsivity level, sexual addiction, and recidivism risk. Sexual offenders against women were found to have significantly more difficulties

Danilo Antonio Baltieri; Arthur Guerra de Andrade

2008-01-01

340

ADAPTIVE SIZE MODIFICATION BY DOMINANT FEMALE MEERKATS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In species of cooperative insects that live in large groups, selection for increased fecundity has led to the evolution of an increased body size among female reproductives, but whether this is also true of cooperative vertebrates is unknown. Among vertebrates, morphological modification of female breeders has only been documented in a single species; in naked mole rats (Heterocephalus glaber), acquisition

Andrew F. Russell; Anne A. Carlson; Grant M. McIlrath; Neil R. Jordan; Tim Clutton-Brock

2004-01-01

341

Characteristics Related to Female & Male Leaders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The following research investigated gender and the leadership role and determined if there are differences in leadership styles, behaviors, traits, and characteristics between female leaders and male leaders. Literature suggests there are specific gender leadership differences between males and females in leadership styles, behaviors, traits, and…

Richardson, Agnes M.

2004-01-01

342

Social isolation during puberty affects female sexual behavior in mice  

PubMed Central

Exposure to stress during puberty can lead to long-term behavioral alterations in adult rodents coincident with sex steroid hormone-dependent brain remodeling and reorganization. Social isolation is a stress for social animals like mice, but little is known about the effects of such stress during adolescence on later reproductive behaviors. The present study examined sexual behavior of ovariectomized, estradiol and progesterone primed female mice that were individually housed from 25 days of age until testing at approximately 95 days, or individually housed from day 25 until day 60 (during puberty), followed by housing in social groups. Mice in these isolated groups were compared to females that were group housed throughout the experiment. Receptive sexual behaviors of females and behaviors of stimulus males were recorded. Females housed in social groups displayed greater levels of receptive behaviors in comparison to both socially isolated groups. Namely, social females had higher lordosis quotients (LQs) and more often displayed stronger lordosis postures in comparison to isolated females. No differences between female groups were observed in stimulus male sexual behavior suggesting that female “attractiveness” was not affected by their social isolation. Females housed in social groups had fewer cells containing immunoreactive estrogen receptor (ER) ? in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) and in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) than both isolated groups. These results suggest that isolation during adolescence affects female sexual behavior and re-socialization for 1 month in adulthood is insufficient to rescue lordosis behavior from the effects of social isolation during the pubertal period. PMID:25324747

Kercmar, Jasmina; Tobet, Stuart A.; Majdic, Gregor

2014-01-01

343

Acoustic mate copying: female cowbirds attend to other females' vocalizations to modify their song preferences.  

PubMed

We conducted a tutoring experiment to determine whether female brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) would attend to vocalizations of other females and use those cues to influence their own preferences for male courtship songs. We collected recordings of male songs that were unfamiliar to the subject females and paired half of the songs with female chatter vocalizations-vocalizations that females give in response to songs sung by males that are courting the females effectively. Thus, chatter immediately following a song provided a cue indicating that the song was sung by a male who was of high-enough quality to court a female successfully. Using a cross-over design, we tutored two groups of females with song-chatter pairings prior to the breeding season. In the breeding season, we placed the tutored females into sound-attenuating chambers and played them the same songs without the chatter. Females produced significantly more copulation solicitation displays in response to the songs that they had heard paired with chatter than to songs that had not been paired with chatter. This experiment is the first demonstration that females can modify their song preferences by attending to the vocal behaviour of other females. PMID:19535371

Freed-Brown, Grace; White, David J

2009-09-22

344

Risk Factors for the Female Athlete Triad among Female Collegiate and Noncollegiate Athletes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The female athlete triad, defined by eating disorders, menstrual dysfunction, and osteoporosis, has been increasing among female athletes. The purpose of this study was to examine eating disorders, performance-related injuries, menstrual dysfunction, exercise time, calcium intake, and orientation to exercise among undergraduate female collegiate…

Thompson, Sharon H.; Gabriel, Melissa

2004-01-01

345

Female competition and male territorial behaviour influence female chimpanzees' ranging patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current models of chimpanzee social structure differ in the extent to which females range with the males and are loyal to a particular social group. We tested these models by analysing 18 years of observational data on the Gombe chimpanzees to investigate the relationship between female space use patterns and both female feeding competition and changes in the male-defended range

Jennifer M. Williams; Anne E. Pusey; John V. Carlis; Brian P. Farm; Jane Goodall

2002-01-01

346

Perspective for Female Medical Physicists (abstract)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to cultural and religious reasons, Pakistani women can be reluctant to seek medical attention for disorders affecting their genitals or breasts. As a result, in the case of cervical and breast cancers, oncological treatment is often not received until the diseases are in the late stages. Once a cancer is classified and the tumor marked, the role of the medical physicist begins. Medical physicists' responsibilities include treatment planning, supervising treatment through radiation, dosimetry, contouring, training, equipment selection, education, research, and supervising radiotherapy facilities. In brachytherapy, isotopes are placed at the tumor site in the form of wires or seeds. There are very few female medical physicists in Pakistan. This leads to further hesitation on the part of many women to seek treatment. To help female patients obtain needed medical care, female physics students should be encouraged to pursue the emerging field of medical physics. This would provide a new professional opportunity for female physics students and give comfort to female patients.

Naqvi, Syed Mansoor; Hasnain, Aziz Fatima

2009-04-01

347

Management and Conservation Note Variation in Breeding Season Survival of Female  

E-print Network

for 144 adult female harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) that we marked with radiotransmitters variation, harlequin duck, Histrionicus histrionicus, known-fate models, radiotelemetry, survival

348

The Pattern of Female Nuptiality in Oman  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine Omani patterns of female nuptiality, including the timing of marriage and determinants of age at a woman’s first marriage. Methods: The study utilised data from the 2000 Oman National Health Survey. Univariate, bivariate, and multivariate statistical methods, including logistic regression analysis, were used for data analysis. Results: One of the most important aspects of the marriage pattern in Oman is the high prevalence of consanguineous marriages, as more than half (52%) of the total marriages in Oman are consanguineous. First cousin unions are the most common type of consanguineous unions, constituting 39% of all marriages and 75% of all consanguineous marriages. About 11% of the marriages are polygynous. Early and universal marriage is still highly prevalent in Oman. Three-quarters (75%) of married women respondents aged 20–44 years were married by age 20, with their median age at their first wedding being 16 years. However, women’s average age upon marriage is gradually increasing. The change is especially apparent in more recent marriages or among younger cohorts of women, and for certain socio-cultural groups. Multivariate analysis identified female education, age cohort, residential status, region of residence, types of marriage, and employment as strong predictors of Omani women’s age at marriage. Conclusion: The growing number of young adults, accompanied by their tendency to delay marriage, may have serious demographic, social, economic, and political ramifications for Oman, highlighting the need to understand the new situation of youth, their unique characteristics, and their interests and demands. Culturally appropriate policies need to be implemented to address the issues and challenges of unmarried young adults. PMID:23573380

Islam, M. Mazharul; Dorvlo, Atsu S.; Al-Qasmi, Ahmed M.

2013-01-01

349

Adverse Childhood Experiences in the Lives of Female Sex Offenders.  

PubMed

This study explored the prevalence of early trauma in a sample of U.S. female sexual offenders (N = 47) using the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) scale. Compared with females in the general population, sex offenders had more than three times the odds of child sexual abuse, four times the odds of verbal abuse, and more than three times the odds of emotional neglect and having an incarcerated family member. Half of the female sex offenders had been sexually abused as a child. Only 20% endorsed zero adverse childhood experiences (compared with 35% of the general female population) and 41% endorsed four or more (compared with 15% of the general female population). Higher ACE scores were associated with having younger victims. Multiple maltreatments often co-occurred in households with other types of dysfunction, suggesting that many female sex offenders were raised within a disordered social environment by adults with problems of their own who were ill-equipped to protect their daughters from harm. By enhancing our understanding of the frequency and correlates of early adverse experiences, we can better devise trauma-informed interventions that respond to the clinical needs of female sex offender clients. PMID:25210107

Levenson, Jill S; Willis, Gwenda M; Prescott, David S

2014-09-10

350

Competitive females are successful females; phenotype, mechanism and selection in a common songbird.  

PubMed

In a variety of taxa, male reproductive success is positively related to expression of costly traits such as large body size, ornaments, armaments, and aggression. These traits are thought to improve male competitive ability, and thus access to limited reproductive resources. Females of many species also express competitive traits. However, we know very little about the consequences of individual variation in competitive traits and the mechanisms that regulate their expression in females. Consequently, it is currently unclear whether females express competitive traits owing to direct selection or as an indirect result of selection on males. Here we examine females of a mildly dimorphic songbird (Junco hyemalis) to determine whether females, show positive covariance in traits (morphology and behavior) that may be important in a competition. We also examine whether trait expression relates either to testosterone (T) in terms of mechanism or to reproductive success in terms of function. We found that larger females were more aggressive and that greater ability to produce T in response to a physiological challenge consisting of a standardized injection of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) predicted some measures of female body size and aggression. Finally, we found that aggressive females had greater reproductive success. We conclude that testosterone may influence female phenotype and that females may benefit from expressing a competitive phenotype. We also suggest that the mild dimorphism observed in many species may be due in part to direct selection on females rather than simply a correlated response to selection in males. PMID:22345899

Cain, Kristal E; Ketterson, Ellen D

2012-02-01

351

The female paraplegic: a statistical survey.  

PubMed

From November 1969 to December 1979, 1234 patients with spinal cord lesions were treated at the Henry Gabrielle Hospital. Of these 386 were from medical causes and 848 from trauma. The computer study of these cases brings out statistical differences between the sexes as the overall incidence in females is 30 per cent and even lower if one considers traumatic cases only 22.4 per cent out of the 848 cases. Furthermore, the average female paraplegic is two years older and it was noted that more females are married. In females the causes of spinal cord injuries are more frequently car accidents and suicidal falls from high places, whereas in males the causes are related to direct blows, that is sport injuries, motorcycle accidents and industrial falls. Clinical symptoms are similar in the two groups with the exception that there is less heterotopic ossifications and fewer bladder stones in females. The duration of hospitalisation is shorter in females. A well equipped household is more important for the handicapped females than for males. PMID:6877852

Girard, R; Boisson, D; Depassio, J; Boucand, M H; Eyssette, M

1983-06-01

352

Visual perception of female physical attractiveness.  

PubMed Central

On the basis of visual assessment of figure drawings and front/profile images, past researchers believed that the waist-hip ratio (WHR) and the body mass index (BMI) were two putative cues to female physical attractiveness. However, this view was not tested on three-dimensional (3D) female images. In the present study, 3D images of 31 Caucasian females having varying body weights (BMI ranged from 16 to 35) were shown to 29 male and 25 female viewers, who were asked to rate the physical attractiveness. The results showed that the body volume divided by the square of the height, defined as volume height index (VHI), is the most important and direct visual determinant of female physical attractiveness. In determining the female attractiveness, human observers may first use VHI as a visual cue, which is also a key indicator of health and fertility owing to its strong linear relation to BMI. To fine-tune the judgement, observers may then use body proportions, the most important of which are the ratio of waist height over the chin height (WHC) (a measure of the length of legs over total tallness) and the deviation of WHR from the ideal ratio. It also appears that the effect of the body's physical parameters on the perception of female physical attractiveness conforms to Stevens' power law of psychophysics. PMID:15101692

Fan, J.; Liu, F.; Wu, J.; Dai, W.

2004-01-01

353

Complex Chemosensory Control of Female Reproductive Behaviors  

PubMed Central

Olfaction exerts a profound influence on reproductive physiology and behavior in many animals, including rodents. Odors are recognized by sensory neurons residing in the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) and the vomeronasal organ (VNO) in mice and many other vertebrates. The relative contributions of the MOE and VNO in the display of female behaviors are not well understood. Mice null for Cnga2 or Trpc2 essentially lack odor-evoked activity in the MOE and VNO, respectively. Using females mutant for one or both of Cnga2 and Trpc2, we find that maternal care is differentially regulated by the MOE and VNO: retrieval of wandering pups requires the MOE and is regulated redundantly by the VNO whereas maternal aggression requires both sensory epithelia to be functional. Female sexual receptivity appears to be regulated by both the MOE and VNO. Trpc2 null females have previously been shown to display male-type mounting towards other males. Remarkably, we find that females double mutant for Cnga2 and Trpc2 continue to mount other males, indicating that the disinhibition of male-type sexual displays observed in Trpc2 null females does not require chemosensory input from a functional MOE. Taken together, our findings reveal a previously unappreciated complexity in the chemosensory control of reproductive behaviors in the female mouse. PMID:24587340

Fraser, Eleanor J.; Shah, Nirao M.

2014-01-01

354

Complex chemosensory control of female reproductive behaviors.  

PubMed

Olfaction exerts a profound influence on reproductive physiology and behavior in many animals, including rodents. Odors are recognized by sensory neurons residing in the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) and the vomeronasal organ (VNO) in mice and many other vertebrates. The relative contributions of the MOE and VNO in the display of female behaviors are not well understood. Mice null for Cnga2 or Trpc2 essentially lack odor-evoked activity in the MOE and VNO, respectively. Using females mutant for one or both of Cnga2 and Trpc2, we find that maternal care is differentially regulated by the MOE and VNO: retrieval of wandering pups requires the MOE and is regulated redundantly by the VNO whereas maternal aggression requires both sensory epithelia to be functional. Female sexual receptivity appears to be regulated by both the MOE and VNO. Trpc2 null females have previously been shown to display male-type mounting towards other males. Remarkably, we find that females double mutant for Cnga2 and Trpc2 continue to mount other males, indicating that the disinhibition of male-type sexual displays observed in Trpc2 null females does not require chemosensory input from a functional MOE. Taken together, our findings reveal a previously unappreciated complexity in the chemosensory control of reproductive behaviors in the female mouse. PMID:24587340

Fraser, Eleanor J; Shah, Nirao M

2014-01-01

355

Adaptive size modification by dominant female meerkats.  

PubMed

In species of cooperative insects that live in large groups, selection for increased fecundity has led to the evolution of an increased body size among female reproductives, but whether this is also true of cooperative vertebrates is unknown. Among vertebrates, morphological modification of female breeders has only been documented in a single species; in naked mole rats (Heterocephalus glaber), acquisition of alpha status is associated with a significant increase in body size through an elongation of the lumbar vertebrae. Here we provide evidence of morphological modification among breeding females of a cooperative carnivore, the meerkat (Suricata suricatta), and demonstrate that this modification is likely to be adaptive. The same female meerkats were significantly larger when they were dominant than when they were subordinate. This increased body size was not explained by differences in age, foraging efficiency, or investment in offspring care, but may have arisen, in part, through increased levels of hormone that govern bone growth. Increases in body size are likely to result in fitness benefits, for large females delivered larger litters and had heavier offspring, both of which are known to correlate positively with measures of breeding success in meerkats. Our results suggest that the acquisition of alpha status in female meerkats is associated with an adaptive increase in body size and hence that morphological modification of female vertebrates may be more widespread than has been previously supposed. PMID:15341161

Russell, Andrew F; Carlson, Anne A; McIlrath, Grant M; Jordan, Neil R; Clutton-Brock, Tim

2004-07-01

356

Evolution of Female Preference for Younger Males  

PubMed Central

Previous theoretical work has suggested that females should prefer to mate with older males, as older males should have higher fitness than the average fitness of the cohort into which they were born. However, studies in humans and model organisms have shown that as males age, they accumulate deleterious mutations in their germ-line at an ever-increasing rate, thereby reducing the quality of genes passed on to the next generation. Thus, older males may produce relatively poor-quality offspring. To better understand how male age influences female mate preference and offspring quality, we used a genetic algorithm model to study the effect of age-related increases in male genetic load on female mate preference. When we incorporate age-related increases in mutation load in males into our model, we find that females evolve a preference for younger males. Females in this model could determine a male's age, but not his inherited genotype nor his mutation load. Nevertheless, females evolved age-preferences that led them to mate with males that had low mutation loads, but showed no preference for males with respect to their somatic quality. These results suggest that germ-line quality, rather than somatic quality, should be the focus of female preference in good genes models. PMID:17895980

Beck, Christopher W.; Promislow, Daniel E. L.

2007-01-01

357

Extension of RPI-adult male and female computational phantoms to obese patients and a Monte Carlo study of the effect on CT imaging dose  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although it is known that obesity has a profound effect on x-ray computed tomography (CT) image quality and patient organ dose, quantitative data describing this relationship are not currently available. This study examines the effect of obesity on the calculated radiation dose to organs and tissues from CT using newly developed phantoms representing overweight and obese patients. These phantoms were derived from the previously developed RPI-adult male and female computational phantoms. The result was a set of ten phantoms (five males, five females) with body mass indexes ranging from 23.5 (normal body weight) to 46.4 kg m-2 (morbidly obese). The phantoms were modeled using triangular mesh geometry and include specified amounts of the subcutaneous adipose tissue and visceral adipose tissue. The mesh-based phantoms were then voxelized and defined in the Monte Carlo N-Particle Extended code to calculate organ doses from CT imaging. Chest-abdomen-pelvis scanning protocols for a GE LightSpeed 16 scanner operating at 120 and 140 kVp were considered. It was found that for the same scanner operating parameters, radiation doses to organs deep in the abdomen (e.g., colon) can be up to 59% smaller for obese individuals compared to those of normal body weight. This effect was found to be less significant for shallow organs. On the other hand, increasing the tube potential from 120 to 140 kVp for the same obese individual resulted in increased organ doses by as much as 56% for organs within the scan field (e.g., stomach) and 62% for those out of the scan field (e.g., thyroid), respectively. As higher tube currents are often used for larger patients to maintain image quality, it was of interest to quantify the associated effective dose. It was found from this study that when the mAs was doubled for the obese level-I, obese level-II and morbidly-obese phantoms, the effective dose relative to that of the normal weight phantom increased by 57%, 42% and 23%, respectively. This set of new obese phantoms can be used in the future to study the optimization of image quality and radiation dose for patients of different weight classifications. Our ultimate goal is to compile all the data derived from these phantoms into a comprehensive dosimetry database defined in the VirtualDose software.

Ding, Aiping; Mille, Matthew M.; Liu, Tianyu; Caracappa, Peter F.; Xu, X. George

2012-05-01

358

Behavioural and endocrine predictors of dominance and tolerance in female common marmosets, Callithrix jacchus  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of social subordination, female common marmosets undergo suppression of ovulation and inhibition of sexual behaviour. This study examined the possibility that subordination also results in decreased aggressiveness and increased submissiveness towards same-sex strangers. Thirty-two adult females were pre-assigned to eight mixed-sex social groups. The females' behavioural and adrenocortical responses to brief confrontations with each of three female

WENDY SALTZMAN; NANCY J. SCHULTZ-DARKEN; DAVID H. ABBOTT

1996-01-01

359

Female genital mutilation: perspectives, risks, and complications.  

PubMed

Female genital mutilation, traditionally known as female circumcision, is a surgically unnecessary modification of the female genitalia, practiced in nations in Africa, the Arab Peninsula, among some communities in Asia, and among immigrants and refugees from these areas who have settled in other areas. The practice is known across socio-economic classes and among many different ethnic and cultural groups, including Christians, Muslims, Jews, and followers of indigenous African religions. As people from these areas immigrate to North America, health care professionals need to understand the important aspects of this growing problem, including management of complications, cultural attitudes, and sensitivities. PMID:10373987

Morris, R I

1999-03-01

360

Gonadal Hormone Levels and Spatial Learning Performance in the Morris Water Maze in Male and Female Meadow Voles, Microtus pennsylvanicus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined the relationships between spatial learning and circulating levels of plasma estradiol and testosterone in adult male and female meadow vole, Microtus pennsylvanicus. Meadow voles are induced ovulators and most females that are housed with females or in isolation are in constant diestrus, whereas most females that are housed with males are in constant behavioral estrus. In

L. A. M. Galea; M. Kavaliers; K.-P. Ossenkopp; E. Hampson

1995-01-01

361

Selected Resources for Encouraging Females in Mathematics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers selected resources that educators can use to increase their knowledge of ways to help girls and young women succeed in mathematics, integrate information into classroom instruction, and bring self-help opportunities to their female students' awareness. (KHR)

Wiest, Lynda R.

2001-01-01

362

Aging changes in the female reproductive system  

MedlinePLUS

Aging changes in the female reproductive system result mainly changing hormone levels . One clear sign of aging occurs when ... periods, periods that last longer or shorter,and changes in the amount of menstrual flow. Eventually the ...

363

Traumatic injury among females: does gender matter?  

PubMed Central

Background Trauma remains one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Generally, the incidence of traumatic injuries is disproportionately high in males. However, trauma in females is underreported. Aim To study the epidemiology and outcome of different mechanisms and types of traumatic injuries in women. Methods We conducted a traditional narrative review using PubMed, MEDLINE and EMBASE, searching for English-language publications for gender-specific trauma between January 1993 and January 2013 using key words “trauma”, “gender”, “female” and “women”. Results Among 1150 retrieved articles, 71 articles were relevant over 20 years. Although it is an important public health problem, traumatic injuries among females remain under-reported. Conclusion There is a need for further research and evaluation of the exact burden of traumatic injuries among females together with the implementation of effective community based preventive programs. PMID:25089153

2014-01-01

364

Females that experience threat are better teachers.  

PubMed

Superb fairy-wren (Malurus cyaneus) females use an incubation call to teach their embryos a vocal password to solicit parental feeding care after hatching. We previously showed that high call rate by the female was correlated with high call similarity in fairy-wren chicks, but not in cuckoo chicks, and that parent birds more often fed chicks with high call similarity. Hosts should be selected to increase their defence behaviour when the risk of brood parasitism is highest, such as when cuckoos are present in the area. Therefore, we experimentally test whether hosts increase call rate to embryos in the presence of a singing Horsfield's bronze-cuckoo (Chalcites basalis). Female fairy-wrens increased incubation call rate when we experimentally broadcast cuckoo song near the nest. Embryos had higher call similarity when females had higher incubation call rate. We interpret the findings of increased call rate as increased teaching effort in response to a signal of threat. PMID:24806422

Kleindorfer, Sonia; Evans, Christine; Colombelli-Négrel, Diane

2014-05-01

365

Roles of PLC?1 in female reproduction   

E-print Network

In mammals, development of a new organism requires fertilisation of the female egg by sperm. The resulting zygote develops into the blastocyst stage as it travels towards the uterus. Within the uterus, the blastocyst ...

Filis, Panayiotis

2011-06-27

366

The reference transcriptome of the adult female biting midge (Culicoides sonorensis) and differential gene expression profiling during teneral, blood, and sucrose feeding conditions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Unlike other important vectors such as mosquitoes and sandflies, genetic and genomic tools for Culicoides biting midges are lacking, despite the fact that they vector a large number of arboviruses and other pathogens impacting humans and domestic animals world-wide. In North America, female Culicoid...

367

EFFICACY OF A SINGLE DORAMECTIN INJECTION AGAINST ADULT FEMALE BOOPHILUS MICROPLUS (ACARI: IXODIDAE) IN THE FINAL STAGES OF ENGORGEMENT BEFORE DETACHMENT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Efficacy of injectable doramectin at 200 µg/kg was evaluated against female Boophilus microplus (Canestrini) in the late stages of parasitic development. Within 24 h after treatment, serum doramectin levels in cattle remained above lethal limits (5-8 ppb), ranging from 9.7 to 36.6 ppb. However, su...

368

Ultrastructure and potential role of integumentary glandular cells in adult male and female Callosobruchus subinnotatus (Pic) and C. maculatus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera : Bruchidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transmission and scanning electron microscopy methods were used to study the ultrastructure of integumentary glandular cells that may be involved in the production of sex pheromones and other semiochemicals in Callosobruchus subinnotatus and C. maculatus (Coleoptera : Bruchidae). Additionally, we measured electroantennogram (EAG) responses of male and female antennae to solvent extracts and glassadsorbed volatiles from both sexes of C.

Sonny B. Ramaswamy; Shengqiang Shu; William A. Monroe; George N. Mbata

1995-01-01

369

MODELING THE SUSTAINABLE HARVEST OF FEMALE POLAR BEARS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explored ttir boundaries of sustainable harvest of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) by considering a range of values for population parameters in a discrete, age specific model structured to mimic polar bear life history. Survival rate of adult females is the predominant factor affecting population growth rate and sustainable harvest of polar bears although other factors may also be significant;

MITCHELL K. TAYLOR; DOUGLAS P. DEMASTER; D. C. ZOO; FRED L. BUNNELL; RAYMOND E. SCHWEINSBURG

370

Childhood play activities of male and female homosexuals and heterosexuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the differences in childhood play behavior reported by adult male homosexuals (N =198) and heterosexuals (N =198) and those reported by female homosexuals (N =198) and heterosexuals (N =198). Two checklists with a total of 58 sports, games, and play activities were assembled: one for ages 5–8 and the other for ages 9–13. These were administered to

Edward A. Grellert; Michael D. Newcomb; P. M. Bentler

1982-01-01

371

Is female predominance in irritable bowel syndrome related to fibromyalgia?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and fibromyalgia (FM) are common functional diseases in adult women. The aim of this study was to investigate whether female predominance in IBS is related to FM. Fifty patients with IBS and 50 healthy controls were enrolled. All participants answered questionnaires including personal and medical history. In addition, psychiatric interviews were conducted. Patients were divided into

Selami Akku?; Altug Senol; NaimeBayram Ayvacioglu; Ercan Tunc; Ibrahim Eren; Mehmet Isler

2004-01-01

372

Fibroleiomyomas of the tubular genitalia in female beluga whales.  

PubMed

Fibroleiomyomas of the tubular genitalia were diagnosed in 6 of 9 adult female beluga whales from the St. Lawrence estuary, Quebec, Canada. These tumors were located in the vagina (6 of 6), the cervix (2 of 6), and the uterus (1 of 6). Endogenous hormones or xeno-estrogens may be implicated in the occurrence of these tumors. PMID:10907870

Mikaelian, I; Labelle, P; Doré, M; Martineau, D

2000-07-01

373

Female Anatomy Lecture outline Human Reproduc.ve  

E-print Network

Girdle B. External Genitalia C. Uterus, Ovaries & Oviducts D. Breasts I. Adult Female Anatomy A. External Genitalia B. Uterus, Ovaries & Oviducts C. Breasts #12 are highly folded. Very few sensory receptors located in vagina. #12;9/9/12 7 B. Uterus, Ovaries

Dever, Jennifer A.

374

Psychosocial Considerations in Female Genitourinary Pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter explores female genitourinary (GU) pain from a psychological perspective, including the question of whether it\\u000a is a psychosomatic or somatoform disorder. Dyspareunia and vaginismus are explained in the context of the DSM-IV-TR classification\\u000a as psychiatric sexual dysfunctions. A newer paradigm is explored, viewing female GU pain, or the vulvodynias, as chronic pain\\u000a disorders as opposed to sexual dysfunctions.

Dana Everson Brendza

375

Female genomic response to mate information  

PubMed Central

Females should be choosier than males about prospective mates because of the high costs of inappropriate mating decisions. Both theoretical and empirical studies have identified factors likely to influence female mate choices. However, male–male social interactions also can affect mating decisions, because information about a potential mate can trigger changes in female reproductive physiology. We asked how social information about a preferred male influenced neural activity in females, using immediate early gene (IEG) expression as a proxy for brain activity. A gravid female cichlid fish (Astatotilapia burtoni) chose between two socially equivalent males and then saw fights between these two males in which her preferred male either won or lost. We measured IEG expression levels in several brain nuclei including those in the vertebrate social behavior network (SBN), a collection of brain nuclei known to be important in social behavior. When the female saw her preferred male win a fight, SBN nuclei associated with reproduction were activated, but when she saw her preferred male lose a fight, the lateral septum, a nucleus associated with anxiety, was activated instead. Thus social information alone, independent of actual social interactions, activates specific brain regions that differ significantly depending on what the female sees. In female brains, reproductive centers are activated when she chooses a winner, and anxiety-like response centers are activated when she chooses a loser. These experiments assessing the role of mate-choice information on the brain using a paradigm of successive presentations of mate information suggest ways to understand the consequences of social information on animals using IEG expression. PMID:21106763

Desjardins, Julie K.; Klausner, Jill Q.; Fernald, Russell D.

2010-01-01

376

Keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans in a female.  

PubMed

Keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans (KFSD), is a rare follicular syndrome associated with widespread keratosis pilaris and progressive scarring alopecia. This genodermatoses often starts at infancy or early childhood with an X-linked mode of inheritance. Males are predominantly affected and females frequently show no disease or only a mild form. We describe this not so common entity of KFSD in a nine year old female child. PMID:21508573

Sequeira, Fiona F; Jayaseelan, Elizabeth

2011-01-01

377

Female competition and aggression: interdisciplinary perspectives  

PubMed Central

This paper introduces a Theme Issue combining interdisciplinary perspectives in the study of female competition and aggression. Despite a history of being largely overlooked, evidence is now accumulating for the widespread evolutionary significance of female competition. Here, we provide a synthesis of contributions to this Theme Issue on humans and other vertebrates, and highlight directions for future research. Females compete for resources needed to survive and reproduce, and for preferred mates. Although female aggression takes diverse forms, under most circumstances relatively low-risk competitive strategies are favoured, most probably due to constraints of offspring production and care. In social species, dominance relationships and threats of punishment can resolve social conflict without resort to direct aggression, and coalitions or alliances may reduce risk of retaliation. Consistent with these trends, indirect aggression is a low cost but effective form of competition among young women. Costs are also minimized by flexibility in expression of competitive traits, with aggressive behaviour and competitive signalling tailored to social and ecological conditions. Future research on female competition and the proximate mediators of female aggression will be greatly enhanced by opportunities for interdisciplinary exchange, as evidenced by contributions to this Theme Issue. PMID:24167303

Stockley, Paula; Campbell, Anne

2013-01-01

378

Genital Evolution: Why Are Females Still Understudied?  

PubMed Central

The diversity, variability, and apparent rapid evolution of animal genitalia are a vivid focus of research in evolutionary biology, and studies exploring genitalia have dramatically increased over the past decade. These studies, however, exhibit a strong male bias, which has worsened since 2000, despite the fact that this bias has been explicitly pointed out in the past. Early critics argued that previous investigators too often considered only males and their genitalia, while overlooking female genitalia or physiology. Our analysis of the literature shows that overall this male bias has worsened with time. The degree of bias is not consistent between subdisciplines: studies of the lock-and-key hypothesis have been the most male focused, while studies of cryptic female choice usually consider both sexes. The degree of bias also differed across taxonomic groups, but did not associate with the ease of study of male and female genital characteristics. We argue that the persisting male bias in this field cannot solely be explained by anatomical sex differences influencing accessibility. Rather the bias reflects enduring assumptions about the dominant role of males in sex, and invariant female genitalia. New research highlights how rapidly female genital traits can evolve, and how complex coevolutionary dynamics between males and females can shape genital structures. We argue that understanding genital evolution is hampered by an outdated single-sex bias. PMID:24802812

Ah-King, Malin; Barron, Andrew B.; Herberstein, Marie E.

2014-01-01

379

Predictive Utility of the LSI for Incarcerated Female Offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Level of Supervision Inventory (LSI), an objective risk evaluation instrument based on social learning theory, was administered to 526 provincially incarcerated adult females. The average LSI score was 15.5, compared to average scores ranging from 20.9 to 25.1 for samples of provincially incarcerated adult males from the same jurisdiction. Data on three outcome measures were collected over a 39-month

GRANT COULSON; GIORGIO ILACQUA; VERNA NUTBROWN; DIANA GIULEKAS; FRANCIS CUDJOE

1996-01-01

380

A Case–Control Study of Female-to-Female Nonintimate Violence in an Urban Area  

PubMed Central

Objectives. The aims of this study were to describe the characteristics surrounding female-to-female nonpartner violence and to identify independent factors associated with risk of female-to-female intentional injuries. Methods. A case–control investigation was conducted among women who resided in an urban, low-income community and presented for emergency department care for injuries inflicted by female nonpartners. Results. Women were typically victimized by women they knew (88%), in outdoor locations (60%), and in the presence of others (91%). Those found to be at risk for injury typically were young and socially active, used marijuana, and had experienced other kinds of violence. Conclusions. The present results showed that women injured by female nonpartners had limited resources, experienced disorder in their lives, and were the victims of violence within multiple relationships. (Am J Public Health. 2003;93:1098–1103) PMID:12835192

Hirschinger, Nancy B.; Grisso, Jeane Ann; Wallace, Donald B.; McCollum, Kelly Farley; Schwarz, Donald F.; Sammel, Mary D.; Brensinger, Colleen; Anderson, Elijah

2003-01-01

381

Selection, Training, and Development for Female International Executives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interviews with 50 female expatriate managers addressed the lack of women in international management positions and focused on processes of selecting, training, and developing female executives for international assignments. Strategies for internationalizing female managers were developed. (Contains 28 references.) (JOW)

Linehan, Margaret; Scullion, Hugh

2001-01-01

382

Juvenile Female Aggression in Cooperatively Breeding Pied Babblers: Causes and Contexts  

E-print Network

, juvenile spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) compete with litter-mates for dominance, which determines adult in juvenile aggression may arise. For example, in spotted hyenas, adult social rank predicts female

Browning, Lucy

383

Spatial distributions of male and female strawberry poison frogs and their relation to female reproductive resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many species with a resource-based mating system, males defend resources to increase their attractiveness to females. In the strawberry poison frog, Dendrobates pumilio, suitable tadpole-rearing sites appear to be a limited resource for females. Territorial males have been suggested to defend tadpole-rearing sites to increase their access to females. In this study we investigate the spatial association between tadpole-rearing

Heike Pröhl; Olaf Berke

2001-01-01

384

Female social networks influence male vocal development in brown-headed cowbirds, Molothrus ater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous work has found that adult female brown-headed cowbirds, who do not sing, shape male vocal structure when in restricted housing. The present work extends this finding to a flock setting to examine the role of social behaviour in shaping male vocal development. We housed juvenile males with either adult or juvenile females in large flocks. Over the course of

Jennifer L. Miller; Andrew P. King; Meredith J. West

2008-01-01

385

Development of realistic high-resolution whole-body voxel models of Japanese adult males and females of average height and weight, and application of models to radio-frequency electromagnetic-field dosimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

With advances in computer performance, the use of high-resolution voxel models of the entire human body has become more frequent in numerical dosimetries of electromagnetic waves. Using magnetic resonance imaging, we have developed realistic high-resolution whole-body voxel models for Japanese adult males and females of average height and weight. The developed models consist of cubic voxels of 2 mm on

Tomoaki Nagaoka; Soichi Watanabe; Kiyoko Sakurai; Etsuo Kunieda; Satoshi Watanabe; Masao Taki; Yukio Yamanaka

2004-01-01

386

Habitat use and preferences of breeding female wood ducks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Female wood ducks (Aix sponsa) feed primarily on plant foods in the prelaying period and switch to a diet of mostly invertebrates during egg production. If nutrient acquisition is habitat-specific, then selection and use of habitats may differ between these reproductive stages. A better understanding of these processes is needed to assist future habitat conservation and management efforts. In January-May 1999 and 2000, we monitored movements and habitat use of radiomarked females (n = 47) during the prelaying and egg-production periods of first nests. Home-range size averaged 367 ha and did not vary with reproductive period, year, or female age. Habitat use did not differ between periods of prelaying and egg production; consequently, data were combined. Habitat use varied between years, female age, and periods of nest initiation (i.e., early vs. late). Use of beaver ponds (BP), temporary wetlands (TW), managed impoundments (MI), and lake habitats (LK) declined in 2000 compared to 1999, possibly due to reduced precipitation. Nest initiation date was independent of female age. Adult females used BP more than yearlings, and early-nesting females used BP and MI more than late-nesting females. Females selected habitats nonrandomly when habitat composition of the study area was compared to that of home ranges (second-order selection). Lake-influenced wetlands (LI) and MI were ranked highest in preference. Home-range size was inversely related to percentage of the home range comprised of MI and LI, supporting the idea that MI and LI were high-quality habitats. However, we found no relationship between nest initiation date (an important index to reproductive performance) and the combined area of MI and LI in home ranges. Habitai selection did not differ from random when habitat composition of home ranges was compared to that of radio locations (third-order selection). Although MI and LI were preferred, high-quality habitats, our results suggest that breeding female wood ducks can satisfy requirements for egg production using a variety of wetland habitats. We suggest that providing a diversity of habitat types will increase the probability of meeting needs of breeding females throughout the breeding season, especially in areas where wetland conditions frequently change.

Hartke, K.M.; Hepp, G.R.

2004-01-01

387

Effects of subcutaneous transmitters on reproduction, incubation behavior, and annual return rates of female wood ducks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Radiotransmitters attached externally to breeding waterfowl can have a variety of negative effects. Implanted transmitters can reduce potential deleterious effects; abdominal implants are used most commonly in waterfowl. Methods also have been developed to implant transmitters subcutaneously, but effects of subcutaneous implants on adult ducks have not been evaluated. In this study, we subcutaneously implanted radiotransmitters in pre-laying female wood ducks (Aix sponsa, n = 62) and compared nest initiation date, incubation behavior, body mass, and annual return rates of radiomarked females to a group of females that were not radiomarked. Ninety-six percent (50 of 52) of radiomarked females that were monitored for the entire breeding season initiated nests. Nesting date of radiomarked adult females did not differ from that of adult females without radios, but radiomarked yearling females nested earlier than yearlings not receiving transmitters. We found no differences in early- and late-incubation body mass, incubation constancy, recess frequency, and incubation period between radiomarked females and those without radios. Annual return rates of females that initiated nests did not differ between radiomarked females and those not receiving radios. Data suggest that implanting radiotransmitters subcutaneously in pre-laying female wood ducks did not negatively impact subsequent reproduction, incubation behavior, and survival.

Hepp, G.R.; Folk, T.H.; Hartke, K.M.

2002-01-01

388

Female stone disease: the changing trend.  

PubMed

This paper has attempted to assess the changes noted in the trends in the incidence and biochemical pattern of female urolithiasis patients during the period 1971-2008. A prospective descriptive clinical study was done on 8,590 stone patients belonging to both sexes treated at the urinary stone clinic. The incidence of stone disease among the two sexes was plotted. The various metabolic parameters including 24-h urine volume, urine calcium, phosphorus, uric acid, oxalate, magnesium, creatinine and citrate, serum creatinine, calcium, phosphorus, uric acid and magnesium and calculated parameter calcium:magnesium ratio were studied. The possible causes for the change in incidence of stone disease in the female sex were elucidated. Of the patients studied, 12.7% (1,091) were females. There was a definite increase in the incidence of female urolithiasis over the past 37 years (P < 0.001). There were significant variations in urine biochemical parameters. There was a definite increase in the excretion of urinary calcium over the years (P < 0.001). The excretion rate of oxalate in urine of females also increased steadily over the years (P < 0.001). The magnesium in urine of females reduced over the years (P < 0.001). Urinary citric acid has however shown an increase over the years (P < 0.001). Urinary excretion of phosphorus (P < 0.001) and urinary uric acid (P < 0.001) showed a decreasing trend. There was a considerable increase in the percentage of females with high calcium:magnesium ratio over the years (P < 0.001). There was a definite decrease in female patients with hypercalcemia over the years. Serum phosphorus and magnesium also increased significantly with the passage of time. Serum uric acid did not vary significantly through the years. The decrease in the excretion rate of magnesium which is inhibitory to stone genesis, together with the increased excretion of calcium and oxalate may have contributed to the increasing incidence of stone disease in females. This might be due to changes in living standards and dietary habits. PMID:19779708

Marickar, Y M Fazil; Vijay, Adarsh

2009-12-01

389

Stem Cells and Female Reproduction  

PubMed Central

Several recent findings in stem cell biology have resulted in new opportunities for the treatment of reproductive disease. Endometrial regeneration can be driven by bone marrow derived stem cells. This finding has potential implications for the treatment of uterine disorders. It also supports a new theory for the etiology of endometriosis. The ovaries have been shown to contain stem cells that form oocytes in adults and can be cultured in vitro to develop mature oocytes. Stem cells from the fetus have been demonstrated to lead to microchimerism in the mother and implicated in several maternal diseases. Additionally the placenta may be another source of hematopoietic stem cell. Finally endometrial derived stem cells have been demonstrated to differentiate into non-reproductive tissues. While we are just beginning to understand stem cells and many key questions remain, the potential advantages of stem cells in reproductive biology and medicine are apparent. PMID:19208782

Du, Hongling; Taylor, Hugh S.

2011-01-01

390

Management of sexually assaulted females.  

PubMed

The victim of sexual assault has 5 needs: 1) care of injuries, 2) prevention of venereal disease, 3) prevention/alleviation of psychologic damage, 4) medicolegal examination with documentation for law enforcement authorities, and 5) prevention of pregnancy. The staff of Philadelphia General Hospital, in a program designed to meet these needs, treated 480 (24.6 per 100,000 population) victims of sexual assault in 1968. 70% were ages 14-44, 24% below 14 years of age. In this program, serologic testing and cultures are followed by intramuscular injection of penicillin, 2,400,000 units. Both pediatric and adult victims are treated with reassurance, close follow-up and psychiatric referral as indicated. Detection of motile spermatozoa by examination of vaginal aspirate by a qualified experienced laboratory technician is of utmost importance. Postcoital contraceptive therapy revealed a high incidence of gastrointestinal side effects and 4 pregnancies were established in the treated cycle. PMID:5109235

Massey, J B; García, C R; Emich, J P

1971-07-01

391

Larval Competition Reduces Body Condition in the Female Seed Beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus  

PubMed Central

Early body condition may be important for adult behavior and fitness, and is impacted by a number of environmental conditions and biotic interactions. Reduced fecundity of adult females exposed to larval competition may be caused by reduced body condition or shifts in relative body composition, yet these mechanisms have not been well researched. Here, body mass, body size, scaled body mass index, and two body components (water content and lean dry mass) of adult Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) females exposed to larval competition or reared alone were examined. Experimental females emerged at significantly smaller body mass and body size than control females. Additionally, scaled body mass index and water content, but not lean dry mass, were significantly reduced in experimental females. To our knowledge, these are the first results that demonstrate a potential mechanism for previously documented direct effects of competition on fecundity in female bruchine beetles. PMID:22954282

Schade, Daynika J.; Vamosi, Steven M.

2012-01-01

392

Larval competition reduces body condition in the female seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus.  

PubMed

Early body condition may be important for adult behavior and fitness, and is impacted by a number of environmental conditions and biotic interactions. Reduced fecundity of adult females exposed to larval competition may be caused by reduced body condition or shifts in relative body composition, yet these mechanisms have not been well researched. Here, body mass, body size, scaled body mass index, and two body components (water content and lean dry mass) of adult Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) females exposed to larval competition or reared alone were examined. Experimental females emerged at significantly smaller body mass and body size than control females. Additionally, scaled body mass index and water content, but not lean dry mass, were significantly reduced in experimental females. To our knowledge, these are the first results that demonstrate a potential mechanism for previously documented direct effects of competition on fecundity in female bruchine beetles. PMID:22954282

Schade, Daynika J; Vamosi, Steven M

2012-01-01

393

Sex differences in stress-induced social withdrawal: Independence from adult gonadal hormones and inhibition of female phenotype by corncob bedding  

E-print Network

. Laredo a,e , Veronica N. Orr a , Andrea L. Silva a , Michael Q. Steinman a,f a Department of Psychology and inhibition of female phenotype by corncob bedding Brian C. Trainor a,b,d,e,f, , Elizabeth Y. Takahashi a , Katharine L. Campi a , Stefani A. Florez a,c , Gian D. Greenberg a,d , Abigail Laman-Maharg a,d , Sarah A

Trainor, Brian

394

Stable isotopes document winter trophic ecology and maternal investment of adult female southern elephant seals ( Mirounga leonina ) breeding at the Kerguelen Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individual specialisation is widespread and can affect a population’s ecological and evolutionary dynamics. Whether intra-specific\\u000a niche differences can influence reproductive investment was examined in a marine mammal, the southern elephant seal (Mirounga leonina), whose females were known to forage in two different areas during the austral winter. The study was conducted at Kerguelen\\u000a Islands (49°21?S, 70°18?E), southern Indian Ocean, in

Simon Ducatez; Sébastien Dalloyau; Pierre Richard; Christophe Guinet; Yves Cherel

2008-01-01

395

Smoking is Unrelated to Female Sexual Function.  

PubMed

Background. Previous research shows that smoking status is unrelated to female sexual difficulties. However, degree of nicotine dependence has not been measured, and the assessment of sexual functioning has not specified penile-vaginal intercourse (henceforth, intercourse), which is more clearly impaired by sexual difficulties than other sexual behaviors. Objectives. To test if smoking status is associated with poorer female sexual function during intercourse, and if nicotine dependence rather than smoking status is related to poorer female sexual function. Methods. During 2012, 129 Portuguese community women reported their smoking status, and completed the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence, the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), and an adaptation of the FSFI to assess sexual functioning specifically during intercourse, as well as the desire thereof. Results. Smokers reported higher desire for intercourse and were more likely to have actually engaged in it in the past 4 weeks. Among the coitally active women in the preceding 4 weeks, nicotine dependence correlated with lower desire for intercourse. Smoking status and nicotine dependence were unrelated to arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, pain. Conclusions. The findings are consistent with many studies that fail to demonstrate an increased risk of sexual difficulties among female smokers. However, nicotine dependence, rather than smoking status per se, might be associated with lower libido. The results suggest the possibility of an inverse U-shaped relationship between smoking and libido with a moderate use of tobacco being associated with higher sexual desire. PMID:25290661

Costa, Rui Miguel; Peres, Luís

2015-01-28

396

[Symposium 3 "female urology in the future"].  

PubMed

Symposium 3 entitled "Female Urology in the Future" is very timely as female urology, a urological subspecialty mainly managing stress urinary incontinence (SUI), pelvic organ prolapse (POP) and overactive bladder (OAB), is now beginning to blossom in Japan. In 1986, the first Japanese female incontinence clinic was opened at the Department of Urology, Nagoya University. In 1999, the tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) procedure using polypropylene mesh tape to support the mid-urethra was introduced into Japan, and it dramatically changed the SUI treatment with less era"). invasiveness and durability ("mesh Recently, a variation of the TVT procedure, transobuturator tape (TOT) procedure, and POP repair using polypropylene mesh such as tension-free vaginal mesh (TVM) procedure, are the focus of concern among Japanese urologists and gynecologists practicing female pelvic floor medicine. The International Continence Society derived a new symptomatic definition of overactive bladder (OAB) in 2002. The Neurogenic Bladder Society in Japan published the OAB guideline aiming at public education and shared care in 2005. Five symposists discuss the advantages and pitfalls of the new mesh procedures for SUI and POP, conservation of the uterus in POP repair, gender specificity of OAB, basic research to develop OAB drugs other than anticholinergics, collaboration between urologists and gynecologists, and pediatric female urology. PMID:17628943

Kato, Kumiko

2007-06-01

397

Pharmacology of serotonin and female sexual behavior.  

PubMed

In this review, first a historical perspective of serotonin's (5-HT) involvement in female sexual behavior is presented. Then an overview of studies implicating 5-HT is presented. The effect of drugs that increase or decrease CNS levels of 5-HT is reviewed. Evidence is presented that drugs which increase 5-HT have negative effects on female sexual behavior while a decrease in 5-HT is associated with facilitation of sexual behavior. Studies with compounds that act on 5-HT?, 5-HT? or 5-HT? receptors are discussed. Most evidence indicates that 5-HT?A receptor agonists inhibit sexual behavior while 5-HT? or 5-HT? receptors may exert a positive influence. There is substantial evidence to support a role for 5-HT in the modulation of female consummatory sexual behavior, but studies on the role of 5-HT in other elements of female sexual behavior (e.g. desire, motivation, sexual appetite) are few. Future studies should be directed at determining if these additional components of female sexual behavior are also modulated by 5-HT. PMID:24239784

Uphouse, Lynda

2014-06-01

398

Social and reproductive factors affecting cortisol levels in wild female golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia).  

PubMed

The steroid hormone cortisol has been associated with different levels of "stress" as well as different reproductive conditions in many primates. In callitrichids, cortisol has more often been reflective of female reproductive status than of chronic stress. In this study, we addressed the hypothesis that wild golden lion tamarin (Leontopithecus rosalia) females, whose social structure is characterized by low aggression and high social support, would not show rank ("stress")-related differences in glucocorticoids but would show reproductive changes. We collected 710 fecal samples from 22 adult females in Poço das Antas Reserve, Brazil, and nearby reintroduction areas, and assayed them for cortisol. Differences in cortisol levels were found between different reproductive conditions. Females in the first trimester of pregnancy had lower cortisol levels than nonpregnant females, although we did not differentiate between basal and ovulating levels in nonpregnant females. Cortisol rose in the third trimester of pregnancy. Primiparous females had a higher rise in the third trimester than multiparous females. No differences in cortisol levels were found among dominant females, ovulatory subordinate females, or anovulatory subordinate females. These results are similar to those obtained in other studies of callitrichid females. The lack of differences in cortisol excretion between dominants and subordinates is likely due to the low levels of overt aggression and the high level of social support available to subordinate females. PMID:16163718

Bales, Karen L; French, Jeffrey A; Hostetler, Caroline M; Dietz, James M

2005-09-01

399

Adolescent female sex workers: invisibility, violence and HIV.  

PubMed

A large number of female sex workers are children. Multiple studies demonstrate that up to 40% of women in prostitution started this work prior to age 18. In studies across India, Nepal, Thailand and Canada, young age at entry to sex work has been found to heighten vulnerability to physical and sexual violence victimisation in the context of prostitution, and relates to a two to fourfold increase in HIV infection. Although HIV risk reduction among adult female sex workers has been a major focus of HIV prevention efforts across the globe, no public health interventions, to date, have addressed the increased hazards and HIV risk faced by adolescent female sex workers. Beyond the structural barriers that limit access to this vulnerable group, historical tensions between HIV prevention and child protection agencies must be overcome in order to develop effective strategies to address this large scale yet little recognised human rights and HIV-related crisis. PMID:21357241

Silverman, Jay G

2011-05-01

400

Late winter survival of female mallards in Arkansas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Determining factors that limit winter survival of waterfowl is necessary to develop effective management plans. We radiomarked immature and adult female mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) after the 1988 and 1989 hunting seasons in eastcentral Arkansas to test whether natural mortality sources and habitat conditions during late winter limit seasonal survival. We used data from 92 females to calculate survival estimates. We observed no mortalities during 2,510 exposure days, despite differences in habitat conditions between years. We used the binomial distribution to calculate daily and 30-day survival estimates plus 95% confidence intervals of 0.9988 ltoreq 0.9997 ltoreq 1.00 and 0.9648 ltoreq 0.9925 ltoreq 1.00, respectively. Our data indirectly support the hypothesis that hunting mortality and habitat conditions during the hunting season are the major determinants of winter survival for female mallards in Arkansas.

Dugger, B.D.; Reinecke, K.J.; Fredrickson, L.H.

1994-01-01

401

Predictors of married female nurses' health.  

PubMed

Excessive workload from employment and household duties may negatively affect married female nurses' health. This study explored job stress, family stress, social support, and health status among married female nurses to identify predictors of nurses' health status. Using a cross-sectional design, 233 married female nurses were recruited from two regional teaching hospitals. The results showed that working hours per week, job stress, and overcommitment to their jobs were significant determinants of health status. Based on study findings, nursing supervisors should avoid scheduling nurses to work more than 48 hours per week. Job stress adjustment courses could enable nurses to relax after work, avoiding overcommitment. [Workplace Health Saf 2014;62(11):447-452.]. PMID:25102479

Fang, Li; Hung, Chich-Hsiu

2014-11-01

402

Male or female sterilization: a comparative study.  

PubMed

The study compares 709 males and 546 females recruited from a well-defined geographic area and sterilized during a 5-year period at the same hospital. Medical records were reviewed and questionnaires sent out. Widespread satisfaction with the sterilization was found. The sterilized women had experienced contraceptive side effects and failures more often than the men. Only 70% of the laparoscopic sterilizations could be carried out during a 1-day admission, 25% of the women complained about long-term sequelae, and there were 1% failures. The vasectomies were carried out on an outpatient basis, there were few postoperative symptoms, and 0.5% failures were recorded. Female sterilization was at least four times as expensive as vasectomy. It is concluded that vasectomy is generally to be preferred to female sterilization, and that the preoperative guidance should involve both man and wife. PMID:2920844

Kjersgaard, A G; Thranov, I; Rasmussen, O V; Hertz, J

1989-03-01

403

Remote copulation: male adaptation to female cannibalism  

PubMed Central

Sexual cannibalism by females and associated male behaviours may be driven by sexual conflict. One such male behaviour is the eunuch phenomenon in spiders, caused by total genital emasculation, which is a seemingly maladaptive behaviour. Here, we provide the first empirical testing of an adaptive hypothesis to explain this behaviour, the remote copulation, in a highly sexually cannibalistic orb-web spider Nephilengys malabarensis. We demonstrate that sperm transfer continues from the severed male organ into female genitals after the male has been detached from copula. Remote copulation increases the total amount of sperm transferred, and thus probably enhances paternity. We conclude that the mechanism may have evolved in response to sexual cannibalism and female-controlled short copulation duration. PMID:22298805

Li, Daiqin; Oh, Joelyn; Kralj-Fišer, Simona; Kuntner, Matjaž

2012-01-01

404

Assessment of nutritional knowledge in female athletes susceptible to the Female Athlete Triad syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The study aimed to i) assess nutritional knowledge in female athletes susceptible to the Female Athlete Triad (FAT) syndrome and to compare with controls; and ii) to compare nutritional knowledge of those who were classified as being 'at risk' for developing FAT syndrome and those who are 'not at risk'. METHODS: In this study, participants completed General Nutritional Knowledge

Philippa Raymond-Barker; Andrea Petroczi; Eleanor Quested

2007-01-01

405

Female hierarchy instability, male immigration and infanticide increase glucocorticoid levels in female chacma baboons  

E-print Network

in female chacma baboons ANNE L. ENGH*, JACINTA C. BEEHNER*, THORE J. BERGMAN*, PATRICIA L. WHITTEN, REBEKAH, Princeton, NJ, U.S.A. zDepartment of Anthropology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, U.S.A. xMoremi Baboon online 14 April 2006; MS. number: A10215) Female baboons (Papio hamadryas spp.) must contend with myriad

Seyfarth, Robert

406

Dropout in Female Handballers 1 Motivation and Dropout in Female Handballers  

E-print Network

Dropout in Female Handballers 1 Motivation and Dropout in Female Handballers: A 21-month of this study was to test a motivational model of sport dropout that integrates the 4 stage-causal sequence proposed by the Hierarchical Model of Vallerand (1997) and elements from achievement goal theory (Nicholls

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

407

Beliefs and practices resulting in female deaths and fewer females than males in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

A preference for sons and the low status of females are implicated in the preponderance of males over females as reported in each census of India from the first one taken in the 19th century. A number of cultural practices, some of which are quite ancient, are involved in this sexual imbalance, namely, maternal mortality due to unhygienic lying-in and

Ruth S. Freed; Stanley A. Freed

1989-01-01

408

Biocontrol: Fungal Parasites of Female Cyst Nematodes  

PubMed Central

Three species of fungi, Catenaria auxiliarls (Kühn) Tribe, Nematophthora gynophila Kerry and Crump, and a Lagenidiaceous fungus have been found attacking female cyst nematodes. All are zoosporic fungi which parasitize females on the root surface, cause the breakdown of the nematode cuticle, and prevent cyst formation. Their identification and some aspects of their biology are reviewed. N. gynophila is widespread in Britain and reduces populations of the cereal cyst nematode, Heterodera avenae Woll., to nondamaging levels. The potential of these nematophagous fungi as biocontrol agents is discussed. PMID:19300700

Kerry, Brian

1980-01-01

409

Ancient schwannoma of the female pelvis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The objective of this article is to define the imaging characteristics of ancient schwannoma, which is a rare variant of benign\\u000a schwannoma with degenerative changes, arising in the female pelvis simulating ovarian tumors.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Eleven surgically proven ancient schwannomas of the female pelvis were evaluated retrospectively on the basis of CT and MR\\u000a findings.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Typical intra-pelvic schwannoma was a neurologically asymptomatic

Mayumi Takeuchi; Kenji Matsuzaki; Hiromu Nishitani; Hisanori Uehara

2008-01-01

410

Female sexual dysfunction: definition, classification, and debates.  

PubMed

Sexual dysfunction refers to difficulties that occur during the sexual response cycle that prevent the individual from experiencing satisfaction from sexual activity. It is relatively difficult to estimate the prevalence of female sexual dysfunction (FSD), because the definition and diagnostic criteria are still controversial and under development. These difficulties reveal our insufficient understanding of the basis of FSD. This review was conducted in an effort to deal with this complicated clinical issue, by examining the most updated clinical criteria of FSD under the context of a redefined female sexual response model. PMID:23548211

Chen, Ching-Hui; Lin, Yen-Chin; Chiu, Li-Hsuan; Chu, Yuan-Hsiang; Ruan, Fang-Fu; Liu, Wei-Min; Wang, Peng-Hui

2013-03-01

411

Demographic parameters of Phyllocoptes adalius (Acari: Eriophyoidea) and influence of insemination on female fecundity and longevity.  

PubMed

The biology of Phyllocoptes adalius Keifer (Acari: Eriophyoidea) and influence of insemination on female fecundity and longevity were studied. The experiment was conducted at a constant temperature of 25 ± 0.5 °C, 70-80 % RH and 16-h photoperiod. A modified method of mite rearing on detached leaves in closed cells was successfully applied and demonstrated to be efficient for biological studies of eriophyoids. Survival and development duration of the immature stages, as well as fecundity of female and longevity of adults, were calculated. The longest time of development was observed for eggs, which was almost twice as long as that for larvae and nymphs. Egg-to-adult development did not significantly differ between males and females. Survival rate for the immature stages was highest for nymphs (98.2 %), exceeding 86.2 % for overall pre-adult stages. Life table parameters of P. adalius were estimated as follows: mean generation time (T), 15.8 days; doubling time (Dt), 3.3 days; net reproductive rate (R0), 27.8 female eggs/female; the intrinsic rate of natural increase (r m ), 0.21 female eggs/female/day; the finite rate of increase (?), 1.23 female eggs/female/day; and sex ratio (proportion females), 0.82. Our studies indicate that P. adalius has the potential for rapid population increase, becoming one of the most important rose mite species. PMID:24578046

Druciarek, Tobiasz; Lewandowski, Mariusz; Kozak, Marcin

2014-07-01

412

Risk of Eating Disorders among Female College Athletes and Nonathletes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares the prevalence of eating disorder behaviors between female collegiate athletes and female college nonathletes. Although female nonathletes had somewhat higher average scores on the Eating Attitudes Test 26, the proportion at risk for disordered eating was not different in the two groups. There was no significant difference among female

Kirk, Ginger; Singh, Kusum; Getz, Hildy

2001-01-01

413

47,XXX females, sex chromosomes, and tooth crown structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enamel thickness of the maxillary permanent central incisors and canines in seven Finnish 47,XXX females, their first-degree male and female relatives, and control males and females from the general population were determined from radiographs. The results showed that enamel in the teeth of 47,XXX females was clearly thicker than that of normal controls. On the other hand, the thickness of

Lassi Alvesalo; Erkki Tammisalo; Eeva Therman

1987-01-01

414

Determinants of reproductive success in female adders, Vipera berus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female lifetime reproductive success in a small population of individually-marked adders in southern Sweden was studied over a period of seven years. Reproductive characteristics varied little from year to year and were consistent through time in individual females. Most females mature at four years of age and reproduce every two years. The total number of offspring produced by a female

Thomas Madsen; Richard Shine

1992-01-01

415

Dominance rank relationships among wild female African elephants, Loxodonta africana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Socioecological models of the evolution of female-bonded societies predict a relation between resource dis- tribution and the nature of female affiliative and dominance relationships. Species that mainly rely on abundant, widely distributed resources, like African savanna elephants, are predicted to have unresolved dominance hierarchies and poorly differentiated female social relationships. Contrary to this prediction, female elephants have well-differentiated social relationships;

Elizabeth A. Archie; Thomas A. Morrison; Charles A. H. Foley; Cynthia J. Moss; Susan C. Alberts

2006-01-01

416

One-male harems and female social dynamics in Guinea baboons.  

PubMed

Little is known about the mating system and social organization of Guinea baboons. This study investigated whether Guinea baboons have a harem-based mating system similar to that of hamadryas and gelada baboons and whether one-male mating units also correspond to social units. Ten adult females in a captive multi-male multi-female group of Guinea baboons were focally observed 2 h per week for 12 weeks, and all observed copulations within the group were recorded. Some males copulated with a single female while others had harems of 2-4 females. All females copulated with a single male except 1 female that switched harems early in the study. The focal females had higher rates of social interaction with their harem members, especially their harem male, than with individuals outside the harem. Females appeared to be subordinate to the harem male but little or no physical aggression or herding behavior from the male was observed. Variation in female social interactions within the harem was not accounted for by their sexual interactions with the male or their genetic relatedness with the females. Females, however, appeared to maintain social relationships with their female relatives in other harems. Taken together, the results of this study show that both mating and affiliative interactions in Guinea baboons are concentrated within one-male units and that the social dynamics within and between these units share some similarities as well as differences with those of hamadryas and gelada baboons. PMID:17170557

Maestripieri, Dario; Mayhew, Jessica; Carlson, Cindy L; Hoffman, Christy L; Radtke, Jennifer M

2007-01-01

417

Recurrent suicide attempt and female hormones  

PubMed Central

Background: Because of more frequency of suicidal attempts in females, we need to study about its relationship with the female hormones. The aim of this study was to evaluate the serum estrogen and progesterone concentration and their relationship with suicidal attempt ranking in the attempted females. Materials and Methods: The studied cases chose from patients who had referred to clinical toxicology emergency of Noor Hospital (Isfahan, Iran), during 2012, because of suicidal attempt. The estrogen and progesterone serum level of the 111 females were measured during 24 hours after suicidal attempt. The rank of their suicide, the demographic properties, and the menstrual cycle phase of them were also registered, as the patient's statement. The results were analyzed by ANCOVA and Kruscal-Wallis under SPSS16. Results: Mean serum concentration of the estrogen was 76.8 pg/mL, and the mean serum concentration of progesterone was 2.99 ng/mL. Of them, 62.2% were in the luteal phase, and 37.8% were in the follicular phase, as they said. The serum progesterone concentration of the patients with more than two times suicidal attempts was significantly higher than the others. Conclusion: The suicidal attempt ranks significantly related to the serum progesterone concentration and the luteal phase. PMID:25337531

Mousavi, Seyed Ghafur; Bateni, Shima; Maracy, Mohammad Reza; Mardanian, Farahnaz; Mousavi, Seyedeh Hakimeh

2014-01-01

418

Intimate Relationships of Female International Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five female international students studying at a western Canadian university were interviewed about their experiences of being in a difficult intimate heterosexual relationship. An in-depth interpretive analysis revealed that, according to the participants, these relational struggles influenced their adjustment to the host culture. Implications…

Popadiuk, Natalee E.

2008-01-01

419

Female genital mutilation in eastern Ethiopia.  

PubMed

In Ethiopians at large, women and men are caught in a vicious circle of erroneous expectations and a mute consensus that maintains female genital mutilation (FGM). We have shown clear signs of erosion of this practice and the potential for further influence and change. PMID:10963253

Missailidis, K; Gebre-Medhin, M

2000-07-01

420

Dispersal in female white-tailed deer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seven of 35 yearling female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in a migratory herd in northeastern Minnesota dispersed 18-168 km from natal ranges during late May through June. Dispersal as a proximate event appears voluntary and independent of deer density.

Nelson, M.E.; Mech, L.D.

1992-01-01

421

Gender by Faculty Faculty Female Male Total  

E-print Network

Gender Gender by Faculty Faculty Female Male Total Humanities and Social Sciences 287 50.4% 283 49-represented in the School of Medicine and Dentistry (SMD) and in Professional Services. Gender by Employment Category related and Administrative roles. They are under-represented in Academic roles (33%). Queen Mary

Roelleke, Thomas

422

Hearing Female Voices in Life Science Classrooms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author makes a case for keeping sensitivity and intuitive approaches in the science classroom. The importance of emotional connections with other organisms, considered a critical part of enriched, effective scientific thinking, is emphasized. Female and male learning styles are described. (KR)

Dunlap, Julie

1990-01-01

423

FEMALE MATE CHOICE IN NONHUMAN MAMMALS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Until now definite studies of mate choice have typically focused on non-mammal animal species where short life spans and gestation periods make reproductive success quicker to determine, and in which the females show preferences for clearly defined morphological or behavioural male traits. Mammals, which are invariably larger, have longer life spans and inter-birth intervals and are behaviourally more complex, are

Benjamin D. Charlton

2008-01-01

424

Female choice for male motor skills  

PubMed Central

Sexual selection was proposed by Darwin to explain the evolution of male sexual traits such as ornaments and elaborate courtship displays. Empirical and theoretical studies have traditionally focused on ornaments; the reasons for the evolution of elaborate, acrobatic courtship displays remain unclear. We addressed the hypothesis that females choose males on the basis of subtle differences in display performance, indicating motor skills that facilitate survival. Male golden-collared manakins (Manacus vitellinus) perform elaborate, acrobatic courtship displays. We used high-speed cameras to record the displays of wild males and analysed them in relation to male reproductive success. Females preferred males that performed specific display moves at greater speed, with differences of tens of milliseconds strongly impacting female preference. In additional males, we recorded telemetrically the heart rate during courtship using miniature transmitters and found that courtship is associated with profoundly elevated heart rates, revealing a large metabolic investment. Our study provides evidence that females choose their mates on the basis of subtle differences in motor performance during courtship. We propose that elaborate, acrobatic courtship dances evolve because they reflect motor skills and cardiovascular function of males. PMID:21508030

Barske, Julia; Schlinger, Barney A.; Wikelski, Martin; Fusani, Leonida

2011-01-01

425

Sexual reinforcement in the female rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual reinforcement in the female rat was studied in a preparation that allowed continuous operant responding for access to a male rat leading to intromission. Experiment 1 used a high operant level nose-poke response to test the possible reinforcing effects of some components of access to a male. A simple tone stimulus used as a conditioned reinforcer and two odor

T. J AMES MATTHEWS; M IHAELA GRIGORE; LIANA TANG; M IMI DOAT; LEE-MING KOW; DONALD W. PFAFF

1997-01-01

426

The Recovering Female Alcoholic: A Family Affair.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To ensure a positive prognosis, the recovering female alcoholic requires family therapy as an adjunct to her regular treatment program. Research indicates that the characteristics affecting a person's ability to secure and use treatment include (1) predisposing factors; (2) attitudes toward alcohol and health care; (3) personal enabling factors;…

Rolls, Judith A.

427

Marathon Group Therapy with Female Narcotic Addicts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluated the impact of structured and unstructured marathon therapy on institutionalized female narcotic addicts. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of five groups: two structured therapy groups, two unstructured therapy groups, and a no-treatment control group. The Personal Orientation Inventory, the Adjective Check List, and a…

Kilmann, Peter R.

428

Female Role Models: Implications for Leadership.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The lives of six prominent female leaders (Sandra Day O'Connor, Maya Angelou, Wilma Mankiller, Hillary Rodham Clinton, Elizabeth Dole, and Mary Kay Ash) are summarized. Similarities are noted and questions and activities provided to encourage discussion by teachers and students. (DB)

Daniels, Roberta R.

1995-01-01

429

Media Portrayals of the Female Condom  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines newspaper and broadcast news depictions of the female condom from 1993 to 2009 in the three major television networks (ABC, CBS, and NBC), and in 8 of 10 top daily newspapers and 3 of 4 national newspapers published in the United States, according to circulation figures as of September 30, 2008. Given the high rates of sexually

Karishma Chatterjee; Charla Markham Shaw

2012-01-01

430

Diamine oxidase (DAO) and female sex hormones  

Microsoft Academic Search

DAO activity in tissues of female guinea pigs was determined after the administration of estradiol or progesterone. Estradiol pretreatment elicited significant fall in DAO activity in the liver and specific increase in the uterus. The effect of progesterone was much less pronounced.

W. A. Fogel

1986-01-01

431

Profile of rural female headed households.  

PubMed

The author presents a profile of rural households headed by women in India, using data from the 1987-1988 Employment and Unemployment Survey. Comparisons between female-headed and other types of rural households are made in terms of household size, land owned and cultivated, use of hired agricultural labor, and household consumption. PMID:12285791

Padmanabhan, M

1990-11-01

432

Tailoring the Preparticipation Exam to Female Athletes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the basics of the preparticipation exam, focusing on aspects specific to females, such as menstrual dysfunction, disordered eating, and orthopedic problems such as scoliosis and patellofemoral pain. Health history questionnaire and other parts of the exam are included in six tables. (SM)

Johnson, Mimi D.

1992-01-01

433

Dimensions of female sexuality: A factor analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was designed to generate hypotheses about dimensions underlying female sexuality. The subjects were 138 undergraduate women who completed three questionnaires about their sexual attitudes and behavior. A factor analysis yielded seven factors that were labeled as follows: (1) overall level of heterosexual activity; (2) level of noncoital heterosexual satisfaction; (3) gratification from masturbation; (4) responsivity to coital

deRosset Myers; Peter R. Kilmann; Richard L. Wanlass; Anna Stout

1983-01-01

434

TABITHA TENNEY: FEMALE QUIXOTISM (ENLIGHTENMENT, NEW HAMPSHIRE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female Quixotism (Boston 1801), by Tabitha Tenney, appeared on the cusp of an era containing the seeds of Romanticism. As a reaction against the cloying sentimental romances, primarily English imports, which had gained great popularity in the new Republic, Tenney's satirical novel moved, along with Hugh Henry Brackenridge's Modern Chivalry, in a fresh, new direction in American literature. Paradoxically, however,

SALLY C HOOPLE

1984-01-01

435

Endocrine disrupters and female reproductive health  

E-print Network

5 Endocrine disrupters and female reproductive health John A. McLachlan* PhD Weatherhead by polar bears, and seals in contaminated water have an excess of uterine fibroids. Endocrine;provide a mechanism of action for estrogenic chemicals and other endocrine disrupters at the molecular

McLachlan, John

436

A Study of the Female Life Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined the historical changes that have occurred in the female life course pattern in rural communities in Japan. The family and career patterns of two generations of women were studied from a generation-lineage and age cohort perspective. The older-generation sample consisted of women between the ages of 50 and 79, and the…

Sugaya, Yoshiko

1985-01-01

437

The Emergence of Female Suicide Terrorists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female suicide terrorists do not differ significantly from their male counterparts in terms of individual motivations. Although societal oppression may play a minor role in their self-recruitment to terror organizations women do not bomb themselves primarily to drive a feminist cause. Instead they act out of motivations inside conflict zones of trauma, revenge, nationalism, expression of community outrage and in

Anne Speckhard

2008-01-01

438

African American Female Superintendents: Resilient School Leaders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six African American female superintendents who had served as superintendents in at least 2 school districts were interviewed to understand ways in which they responded to barriers and adversity in their roles, with a particular emphasis on issues related to sexism and racism. Study participants shared that they work to engage the community and…

Johnson, Bernadeia H.

2012-01-01

439

September 25, 2012! Female Reproductive Endocrinology!  

E-print Network

Reproductive System B. Fallopian Tubes (oviducts)! 1. Contacts ovary, goes to uterus! 2. Ciliated cells help move oocyte to uterus! 3. Fertilization occurs here! I. Anatomy of Female Reproductive System (continued) #12;2! C. Uterus! !1. Thick-walled, muscular! !2. Site of fetal dev't! !3. Myometrium! !4

Dever, Jennifer A.

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