Female sex offenders (N = 18) were compared with male sex offenders (N = 332) and with females who were not sex offender (N = 215) on various experiences in their personal histories. Female sex offenders who were victims of sexual abuse were compared to female sex offenders who were not. The present study is part of a comprehen sive,
L. C. Miccio-Fonseca
Primary leiomyosarcoma of the adrenal gland is a rare tumour and we describe such a case in a 35 year old female who had dull pain in the left flank for 6 months. There was no weight loss or fever only mild tenderness was in the left subcostal region. She was normotensive and there was no evidence of virilization. CT scan revealed left adrenal mass, after adrenalectomy it was 8.5×7.5×6.2cm³ in size. There was no evidence of local extension or metastasis. Histopathology confirmed adrenal leiomyosarcome. PMID:24858171
Alam, M M; Naser, M F; Islam, M F; Rahman, M A
This pilot study tested the efficacy of a brief intervention using motivational interviewing (MI) plus mindfulness meditation (MM) to reduce marijuana use among young adult females. Thirty-four female marijuana users between the ages of 18 and 29 were randomized to either the intervention group (n = 22), consisting of two sessions of MI-MM, or an assessment-only control group (n =
Marcel A. de Dios; Debra S. Herman; Willoughby B. Britton; Claire E. Hagerty; Bradley J. Anderson; Michael D. Stein
Gender differences have been observed in difficulty quitting smoking. A rodent model of nicotine withdrawal has been used by several laboratories, but only in males. Nicotine withdrawal in male and female adult rats was examined in a dimly-lit, comfortabl...
K. R. Hamilton
Acne vulgaris is a common reason why adult women present to dermatologists and can be a clinical challenge to treat. It may also be an important sign of an underlying endocrine disease such as Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS). Although standard acne therapies can be successfully used to treat acne in adult female patients, hormonal treatment is a safe and effective therapeutic option that may provide an opportunity to better target acne in this population, even when other systemic therapies have failed. In this article, a practical approach to the adult female patient with acne will be reviewed to enhance the dermatologist's ability to use hormonal acne therapies and to better identify and evaluate patients with acne in the setting of a possible endocrine disorder. PMID:22994662
Kamangar, Faranak; Shinkai, Kanade
The aim of this study was to establish the skin temperature (Tsk) thermal profile for the Brazilian population and to compare the differences between female and male Brazilian adults. A total of 117 female and 103 male were examined with a thermographic camera. The Tsk of 24 body regions of interest (ROI) were recorded and analyzed. Male Tsk results were compared to female and 10 ROI were evaluated with respect to the opposite side of the body (right vs. left) to identify the existence of significant contralateral Tsk differences (?Tsk). When compared right to left, the largest contralateral ?Tsk was 0.3°C. The female vs. male analysis yielded significant differences (p<0.05) in 13 of the 24 ROI. Thigh regions, both ventral and dorsal, had the highest ?Tsk by sex (?1.0°C). Tsk percentile below P5 or P10 and over P90 or P95 may be used to characterize hypothermia and hyperthermia states, respectively. Thermal patterns and Tsk tables were established for Brazilian adult men and women for each ROI. There is a low Tsk variation between sides of the body and gender differences were only significant for some ROIs. PMID:24802142
Marins, João Carlos Bouzas; Fernandes, Alex Andrade; Cano, Sergio Piñonosa; Moreira, Danilo Gomes; da Silva, Fabrício Souza; Costa, Carlos Magno Amaral; Fernandez-Cuevas, Ismael; Sillero-Quintana, Manuel
STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to investigate the possible association between parity, as indicated by the number of childbirths, and prevalence of urinary incontinence in an adult female population sample. DESIGN AND SETTING--A sample of 3114 women aged 30-59 years was selected at random from the population of Aarhus, Denmark, and mailed a self administered questionnaire on urinary incontinence and, among
A Foldspang; S Mommsen; G W Lam; L Elving
The aim of the present investigation was to study the possible role of obesity in the etiology of adult female urinary incontinence (UI). A random population sample of 3,114 women aged 30–59 years were mailed a questionnaire concerning UI and, among other things, body weight and height. The overall rate of response was 85%, and the present analysis comprises 2,589
S. Mommsen; A. Foldspang
Objective To communicate the presence of adult females, rabditoid larvae and eggs of Strongyloides stercoralis (S. stercoralis) in the respiratory secretions obtained by tracheal aspirate from a HIV-negative patient who was suffering from polymyositis, and treated with corticoids and amethopterin and assisted by pneumonia. Methods The respiratory secretions submitted to the Parasitology Laboratory of the Muñiz Hospital were made more concentrated by centrifugation (1?500 r/min for 15 seconds). Wet mount microscopy was performed with the pellet. Results It revealed adult females, rabditoid larvae and eggs of S. stercoralis. Further parasitological studies performed after the start of the treatment with ivermectin on fresh fecal samples, gastric lavages and tracheal aspirates showed scanty mobile filariform and rabditoid larvae of the same parasite. Conclusions The presence of adult female S. stercoralis which has never been observed before in the clinical samples submitted to our Laboratory for investigation can be considered as an indirect marker of the severe immunosupression of the patient.
Bava, Bava Amadeo Javier; Cecilia, Dominguez; Alcides, Troncoso
This pilot study tested the efficacy of a brief intervention using motivational interviewing (MI) plus mindfulness meditation (MM) to reduce marijuana use among young adult females. Thirty-four female marijuana users between the ages of 18 and 29 were randomized to either the intervention group (n = 22), consisting of two sessions of MI-MM, or an assessment-only control group (n = 12). The participants' marijuana use was assessed at baseline and at 1, 2, and 3 months posttreatment. Fixed-effects regression modeling was used to analyze treatment effects. Participants randomized to the intervention group were found to use marijuana on 6.15 (z = -2.42, p = .015), 7.81 (z = -2.78, p = .005), and 6.83 (z = -2.23, p = .026) fewer days at Months 1, 2, and 3, respectively, than controls. Findings from this pilot study provide preliminary evidence for the feasibility and effectiveness of a brief MI-MM for young adult female marijuana users. PMID:21940136
de Dios, Marcel A; Herman, Debra S; Britton, Willoughby B; Hagerty, Claire E; Anderson, Bradley J; Stein, Michael D
Background: Acne, the most common problem that presents to dermatologists, can persist beyond teen years. Although its physical and psychosocial impact is studied in teen years, it is poorly understood in the Indian adult population. Aim: To study the physical and psychosocial impact of acne in adult females. Settings and Design: This exploratory study was done in the university setting. Materials and Methods: Eleven adult, unmarried females, between the age group of 18 and 25 years, having (mild-to-moderate), acne, for two consecutive years, were interviewed using a semi-structured clinical interview of the Skindex, a quality-of-life measure for patients with skin disease, developed by Chren et al., along with some open-ended questions. Both qualitative and quantitative analysis was done to analyze the data. Results: The results indicated a higher level of emotional and social impairment, in terms of the feelings of physical discomfort, anger, and the intermingling impact of these, among the participants. Conclusions: Acne is a common problem among adults and appears to have a considerable impact on the mental health, therefore, for the treatment to be successful, a sympathetic approach by doctors and significant others, with the basic psychosomatic treatment, are necessary.
Pruthi, Gavneet K; Babu, Nandita
Provides the rationale and underlying assumptions for providing an awareness of literature by female authors and females in prominent positive roles in a variety of multicultural settings for both young male and female adolescents. Presents annotations of 10 contemporary adolescent novels with multicultural heroines. Offers points for discussion.…
Hayn, Judith; Sherrill, Deborah
Stereotypic behaviors are repetitive invariant behaviors that are common in many captive species and potentially indicate compromised welfare and suitability as research subjects. Adult laboratory mice commonly perform stereotypic bar-gnawing, route-tracing, and back-flipping, although great individual variation in frequency occurs. Early life factors (for example, level of maternal care received) have lasting effects on CNS functioning and abilities to cope with stress and therefore may also affect stereotypic behavior in offspring. Access to maternal resources and care are influenced by the number of pups in a litter; therefore, we examined both litter size and its potential correlate, weight at weaning, as early environmental predictors of adult stereotypic behavior in laboratory mice. Further, we assessed the effects on offspring stereotypic behavior of delaying the separation of mother and pups (weaning) beyond the standard 21 d of age. Analyzing stereotypic behavior in 3 different mouse colonies composed of 2 inbred strains (C57BL/6N and C57BL/6J) and an outbred stock (CD1[ICR]) revealed significant positive correlation between litter size and stereotypic behavior in female, but not male, mice. Weight and age at weaning did not significantly affect levels of stereotypy in either sex. Litter size therefore may be a useful indicator of individual predisposition to stereotypic behavior in female laboratory mice.
Bechard, Allison; Nicholson, Anthony; Mason, Georgia
Clinical urine specimens are usually considered to be sterile when they do not yield uropathogens using standard clinical cultivation procedures. Our aim was to test if the adult female bladder might contain bacteria that are not identified by these routine procedures. An additional aim was to identify and recommend the appropriate urine collection method for the study of bacterial communities in the female bladder. Consenting participants who were free of known urinary tract infection provided urine samples by voided, transurethral, and/or suprapubic collection methods. The presence of bacteria in these samples was assessed by bacterial culture, light microscopy, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Bacteria that are not or cannot be routinely cultivated (hereinafter called uncultivated bacteria) were common in voided urine, urine collected by transurethral catheter (TUC), and urine collected by suprapubic aspirate (SPA), regardless of whether the subjects had urinary symptoms. Voided urine samples contained mixtures of urinary and genital tract bacteria. Communities identified in parallel urine samples collected by TUC and SPA were similar. Uncultivated bacteria are clearly present in the bladders of some women. It remains unclear if these bacteria are viable and/or if their presence is relevant to idiopathic urinary tract conditions.
Wolfe, Alan J.; Toh, Evelyn; Shibata, Noriko; Rong, Ruichen; Kenton, Kimberly; FitzGerald, MaryPat; Mueller, Elizabeth R.; Schreckenberger, Paul; Dong, Qunfeng; Nelson, David E.
The prefrontal cortex continues to develop throughout adolescence in several species, and our laboratory has demonstrated that during adolescence there is a decrease in neurons in the rat medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). A PFC-dependent task, the delayed alternation task, was used in the present study to examine the function of the mPFC while it is still maturing in rats of both sexes. A deficit was found in adolescents when compared to adults during 15- and 60-s delays but not at other delays (5, 10, 30, and 90 s). Furthermore, adolescents committed more perseverative errors. No significant sex differences occurred at any delay for either age group; however, in the no delay training sessions, adolescent males reached criterion faster than females. These results indicate that performance on a mPFC-dependent task improves between adolescence and adulthood. PMID:21432847
Koss, Wendy A; Franklin, Andrew D; Juraska, Janice M
When housed in spacious, mixed age/sex colonies, male guinea pigs form small harems of females with which attachment-like social bonds are established. A previous study indicated that the bonded male, but not an unfamiliar male from the same colony, could reduce the plasma cortisol response of a female when exposed to a novel environment. We examined the effect of several classes of social partners on the cortisol response of females maintained under standard laboratory housing conditions. Eight "artificial harems" comprised of one adult male and two adult females were formed in standard group-housing cages 2 weeks prior to the study. Behavior observed in these home cages indicated that interactions between males and females of the triads were overwhelmingly positive in nature. When exposed to a novel environment for 2 h, the presence of either the male or female cage mate reduced the subject female's plasma cortisol response, whereas the presence of an unfamiliar adult male did not. Changes in plasma cortisol levels were not predicted by the frequency of various social behaviors observed in the novel environment. These findings: (1) demonstrate that the buffering effect of male partners on the cortisol response of adult females can be observed in guinea pigs maintained in conventional laboratory housing; (2) indicate that unfamiliar adult males are ineffective at reducing cortisol responses of females under these conditions; and, (3) appear to be the first to show buffering effects by adult female guinea pigs on the cortisol responses of other adult females. PMID:18221759
Hennessy, Michael B; Zate, Ryan; Maken, Deborah S
Interspecific mating normally decreases female fitness. In many species, females avoid heterospecific males innately or by\\u000a imprinting on their parents. Alternatively, adult females could learn to discriminate against heterospecific males after exposure\\u000a to such males. For example, Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) females learn to discriminate between conspecific males and Turkish hamster (M. brandti) males during adulthood by exposure to males
Javier delBarco-Trillo; Robert E. Johnston
Primates are notable for the widespread presence of long-term female-male associations which go beyond the mating context. However, little attention has been given to the factors that affect within-species variation in female-male relationships, especially among New World primates. Although detailed accounts of heterosexual relationships in Cebus species are scarce, a few studies have suggested the occurrence of strong associations between adult females and high-ranking males. This study explores affiliative relationships between females and the alpha male during the nonbreeding season in wild tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella nigritus). Affiliative relationships were explored through female-male patterns of spatial proximity and grooming. By adopting a social network approach, we analyzed: (1) whether the alpha male is the preferred male partner for females and, (2) whether variation (if any) in female-alpha male affiliation can be explained through both female individual characteristics and social network metrics. Our results showed that alpha males were the favorite male partner for adult females in the proximity networks, but this did not hold true in the grooming networks. In addition, female-alpha male interaction patterns showed considerable variation, with only some females being strongly associated with the alpha male. Our results suggest that such a variation can be explained by female dominance rank, level of centrality (the quantity and intensity of spatial connection with other females) and prestige (the quantity of grooming received by other females) in female-female social networks. Taken together, these findings highlight two aspects of female-alpha male relationships in tufted capuchin monkeys: the alpha male represents the most socially integrated male in the group, and females with high dominance ranks and high centrality in both proximity and grooming networks show stronger relationships with the alpha male. PMID:21698660
Tiddi, Barbara; Aureli, Filippo; Schino, Gabriele; Voelkl, Bernhard
North American populations of northern pintails (Anas acuta) declined between 1979 and the early 1990s. To determine if low survival during winter contributed to declines, we estimated winter (last week of Aug-Feb 1987-90) survival for 190 adult (after hatching yr [AHY]) female radio-tagged pintails in late summer in Sacramento Valley (SACV), California. Survival rates did not vary by winter (P = 0.808), among preseason, hunting season, or postseason intervals (P = 0.579), or by body mass at time of capture (P = 0.127). Premolt (wing) pintails (n = 10) tended to survive at a lower rate (0.622, SE = 0.178) than pintails that had already replaced flight feathers (0.887, SE = 0.030) (P = 0.091). The pooled survival (all years) estimate for the 180-day winter was 0.874 (SE = 0.031). Hunting mortality rate (0.041-0.087) and nonhunting mortality rate (0.013-0.076) did not differ among years (P = 0.332) or within years (all P > 0.149). Legal hunting (n = 7), predation (n = 4), cholera (n = 2), illegal shooting (n = 2), botulism (n = 1), and unknown cause (n = 1) accounted for all mortality. Nonwintering survival (annu. survival/winter survival = 0.748) was lower than winter survival; thus, if gains in annual survival are desired for this population, managers should first examine the breeding-migration period for opportunities to achieve increases.
Miller, M. R.; Fleskes, J. P.; Orthmeyer, D. L.; Newton, W. E.
In the process of mate selection by female songbirds, male suitors advertise their quality through reproductive displays in which song plays an important role. Females evaluate the quality of each signal and the associated male, and the results of that evaluation guide expression of selective courtship displays. Some studies reveal broad agreement among females in their preferences for specific signal characteristics, indicating that those features are especially salient in female mate choice. Other studies reveal that females differ in their preference for specific characteristics, indicating that in those cases female evaluation of signal quality is influenced by factors other than simply the physical properties of the signal. Thus, both the physical properties of male signals and specific traits of female signal evaluation can impact female mate choice. Here, we characterized the mate preferences of female Bengalese finches. We found that calls and copulation solicitation displays are equally reliable indicators of female preference. In response to songs from an array of males, each female expressed an individual-specific song preference, and those preferences were consistent across tests spanning many months. Across a population of females, songs of some males were more commonly preferred than others, and females preferred female-directed songs more than undirected songs, suggesting that some song features are broadly attractive. Preferences were indistinguishable for females that did or did not have social experience with the singers, indicating that female preference is strongly directed by song features rather than experiences associated with the singer. Analysis of song properties revealed several candidate parameters that may influence female evaluation. In an initial investigation of those parameters, females could be very selective for one song feature yet not selective for another. Therefore, multiple song parameters are evaluated independently. Together these findings reveal the nature of signal evaluation and mate choice in this species. PMID:24558501
Dunning, Jeffery L; Pant, Santosh; Bass, Aaron; Coburn, Zachary; Prather, Jonathan F
Although men are far less likely than women to be victims of heterosexual assault, such cases have been reported with increasing frequency in recent years. We compared social judgments about male and female victims of heterosexual and homosexual rape and tested hypotheses concerning social cognitions that are assumed to underlie a male rape mythology. In a 2 × 2 ×
Ronald E. Smith; Charles J. Pine; Mark E. Hawley
We studied survival of adult female and duckling Common Eiders during brood rearing at two sites on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska, in 1997. Duckling survival to 30 days of age was 19% ?? 10% (95% CI). Seventy-three percent of radio-marked adult females had lost all their ducklings by 30 days after hatch. Duckling survival was not related to hatch date. We estimate an average of 0.84 ducklings fledged per adult female radio-marked at hatch. Most broods moved to salt water within 15 days of hatch. Adult female survival during the first 30 days of brood rearing was 96 ?? 6% (95% CI). Mortality of adult females during brood rearing is probably higher than during other times of the year.
Flint, P. L.; Moran, C. L.; Schamber, J. L.
Estimation of stature is an important tool in forensic examination especially in unknown, highly decomposed, fragmentary and mutilated human remains. When the evidences are skeletal remains; forensic anthropology has put forward means to estimate the stature from the skeletal and even from fragmentary bones. Sometimes, craniofacial remains are brought in for forensic and postmortem examination. In such a situation, estimation of stature becomes equally important along with other parameters like age, sex, race, etc. Today, anthropometry plays an important role in industrial design, clothing design, ergonomics and architecture where statistical data about the distribution of body dimensions in the population are used to optimize products. It is well established that a single standard of craniofacial aesthetics is not appropriate for application to diverse racial and ethnic groups. Bangladesh is a country not only for the Bengalis; the country harbours many cultures and people of different races because of the colonial rules of the past regimes. Like other ethnic groups, the Garos (study subjects) have their own set of language, social structure, cultures and economic activities and religious values. In the above context, the present study was attempted to establish ethnic specific anthropometric data for the Bangladeshi Garo adult females. The study also attempted to find out the correlation of the craniofacial dimensions with stature and to determine multiplication factors. The study was an observational, cross-sectional and primarily descriptive in nature with some analytical components. The study was carried out with a total number of one hundred Garo adult females, aged between 25-45 years. Craniofacial dimension such as head circumference, head length, facial height from 'nasion' to 'gnathion', bizygomatic breadth and stature were measured using a measuring tape, spreading caliper, steel plate and steel tape and sliding caliper. The data were then statistically analyzed by computation to find out its normatic value. Study was also aimed to observe the possible correlation of them with the stature. Multiplication factors were estimated for estimating stature and comparison were made between 'estimated' values with the 'measured' values by using 't' test. The mean±SD of the head length, head circumference, facial height from 'nasion' to 'gnathion', bizygomatic breadth were 17.49±0.58cm, 51.56±1.49cm, 10.65±0.40cm, 13.47±0.52cm respectively and The mean±SD of the stature was 152.79±5.62cm. Head circumference showed significant positive correlation with stature (r=0.278 and p= 0.005) but head length (r= -0.029 and p=0.774), bizygomatic breadth (r= 0.143 & p=0.156) and facial height from 'nasion' to 'gnathion' (r=00.023 and p=0.818) did not reach statistically significant level with stature. No significant difference was found between the 'measured' and 'estimated' stature for head circumference, head length, bizygomatic breadth and facial height from 'nasion' to 'gnathion'. PMID:22828547
Akhter, Z; Banu, L A; Alam, M M; Rahman, M F
Successful ostrich farming requires knowledge of the nutritional needs of the birds. While much information is available on the nutritional value of various feed ingredients fed to ostriches, there is little known about their specific nutrient requirements. In this study, we measured the maintenance nitrogen requirements (MNR) of ostriches by nitrogen balance. We predict, based on the previous analysis of nitrogen requirements of various species of birds, that ostriches would have a MNR of 13.6-19.1 g N/day and a total endogenous nitrogen loss (TENL) of 2.8-5.1 g N/day. Three adult female ostriches were fed five pelleted diets containing 0.6-2.3% N [4-14.6% crude protein (CP)], 17.5 kJ/g gross energy (11.4 kJ/g ME) and 30% neutral detergent fibre. Each dietary trial consisted of a 10-day adaptation period, followed by a 5-day total excreta collection period. Body mass (109 ± 3 kg) and metabolizable energy intake (20.5 ± 0.7 MJ/day) were unaffected by dietary nitrogen levels. After correcting for excreta nitrogen losses during drying, MNR was calculated to be 481 mg N/kg(0.75) /day or 16.2 g N/day (100 g CP/day), and TENL as 310 mg N/kg(0.75) /day or 10.5 g N/day. Failure to correct for the 10.9 ± 4.1% average N losses during drying would underpredict the 'true' MNR by 35% and TENL by 46%. Our estimate for MNR of ostriches predicts a dietary requirement of 6.7% protein. Our estimate of TENL was nearly twice that predicted, possibly reflecting the high fibre content of their diet. PMID:21699584
Bennett, D C; Kaneko, A; Karasawa, Y
Although men are far less likely than women to be victims of heterosexual assault, such cases have been reported with increasing frequency in recent years. We compared social judgments about male and female victims of heterosexual and homosexual rape and tested hypotheses concerning social cognitions that are assumed to underlie a male rape mythology. In a 2 × 2 × 2 design, 77 male and 89 female subjects made a series of judgments about a sexual assault case in which sex of victim and sex of assailants were manipulated. Consistent with the hypotheses, the male victim of sexual assault by females was judged more likely to have initiated or encouraged the sex acts, and more enjoyment and less stress were attributed to him. This pattern of results was more pronounced among male subjects. The results are discussed in relation to stereotypic beliefs concerning male sex roles, sexual motivation, and sexual functioning that are likely to affect the social cognitions of both observers and male victims of heterosexual assault. PMID:22375638
Smith, R E; Pine, C J; Hawley, M E
This paper describes a behavior pattern in adult female cynomolgus monkeys that has several behavioral and physiological characteristics in common with human depression including reduced body fat, low levels of activity, high heart rate, hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis disturbances, and increased mortality. Under certain circumstances, this depressive behavior appears more common in socially stressed subordinate, than dominant, females. This is the
Carol A. Shively; Thomas C. Register; David P. Friedman; Timothy M. Morgan; Jalonda Thompson; Tasha Lanier
Examined differences among middle-aged, middle-class female adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) and female non-ACOAs with regard to interpersonal and intrapersonal functioning. ACOAs report higher levels of depression, marital conflict, and parental role distress; lower levels of self-esteem, perceived social support, family cohesion, marital…
Domenico, Donna; Windle, Michael
To determine whether the molestation experiences of boys and girls differ, this study analyzed data from 365 adults (40 male and 325 female) molested as children, and compared findings for males and females on the identity of the perpetrator, age at onset and end of molestation, duration of molestation, type of sexual acts, and whether the…
Kendall-Tackett, Kathleen A.; Simon, Arthur F.
Background: This survey study aims to examine the prevalence and factors associated with depressive symptoms among primary older female family carers of adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). Method: In total, 350 female family carers aged 55 and older took part and completed the interview in their homes. The survey package contained…
Chou, Y. C.; Pu, C-Y.; Fu, L-Y.; Kroger, T.
During an ongoing study on the overwintering biology of Culex (Culex) pipiens Linneaus 1758 and St. Louis encephalitis virus, a team from the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research collected an adult female of Culiseta (Culiseta) annulata (Schrank 1776). ...
C. L. Bailey M. E. Faran
A role for serotonin in male sexual preference was recently uncovered by our finding that male mutant mice lacking serotonin have lost sexual preference. Here we show that female mouse mutants lacking either central serotonergic neurons or serotonin prefer female over male genital odors when given a choice, and displayed increased female–female mounting when presented either with a choice of a male and a female target or only with a female target. Pharmacological manipulations and genetic rescue experiments showed that serotonin is required in adults. Behavioral changes caused by deficient serotonergic signaling were not due to changes in plasma concentrations of sex hormones. We demonstrate that a genetic manipulation reverses sexual preference without involving sex hormones. Our results indicate that serotonin controls sexual preference.
Zhang, Shasha; Liu, Yan; Rao, Yi
An adult female with typical features of Silver-Russell dwarfism gave birth to a viable infant. Despite the abnormalities in sexual development that may be associated with the Silver-Russell syndrome, fertility is not necessarily impaired, at least in females. The growth and development of children with the Silver-Russell syndrome have been studied (Silver, 1964; Tanner et al., 1975). There is, however, virtually no information available about adult patients with this syndrome. It is known that both male and female Silver-Russell dwarfs develop secondary sexual characteristics (Rimoin, 1969; McDowell and Sproles, 1973) but fertility of these patients has not been described previously. Images
Abramowicz, H K; Nitowsky, H M
Female chimpanzees exhibit exceptionally slow rates of reproduction and raise their offspring without direct paternal care. Therefore, their reproductive success depends critically on long-term access to high-quality food resources over a long lifespan. Chimpanzee communities contain multiple adult males, multiple adult females and their offspring. Because males are philopatric and jointly defend the community range while most females transfer to new communities before breeding, adult females are typically surrounded by unrelated competitors. Communities are fission-fusion societies in which individuals spend time alone or in fluid subgroups, whose size depends mostly on the abundance and distribution of food. To varying extents in different populations, females avoid direct competition by foraging alone or in small groups in distinct, but overlapping core areas within the community range to which they show high fidelity. Although rates of aggression are low, females compete for space and access to food. High rank correlates with high reproductive success, and high-ranking females win direct contests for food and gain preferential access to resource-rich sites. Females are aggressive to immigrant females and even kill the newborn infants of community members. The intensity of such aggression correlates with population density. These patterns are compared to those in other species, including humans. PMID:24167307
Pusey, Anne E; Schroepfer-Walker, Kara
Fluorodeoxyglucose is the most commonly used radiopharmaceutical in Positron Emission Tomography, with applications in neurology, cardiology, and oncology. Despite its routine use worldwide, the radiation absorbed dose estimates from FDG have been based primarily on data obtained from two dogs studied in 1977 and 11 adults (most likely males) studied in 1982. In addition, the dose estimates calculated for FDG have been centered on the adult male, with little or no mention of variations in the dose estimates due to sex, age, height, weight, nationality, diet, or pathological condition. Through an extensive investigation into the Medical Internal Radiation Dose schema for calculating absorbed doses, I have developed a simple patient-specific equation; this equation incorporates the parameters necessary for alterations to the mathematical values of the human model to produce an estimate more representative of the individual under consideration. I have used this method to determine the range of absorbed doses to FDG from the collection of a large quantity of biological data obtained in adult males, adult females, and very low birth weight infants. Therefore, a more accurate quantification of the dose to humans from FDG has been completed. My results show that per unit administered activity, the absorbed dose from FDG is higher for infants compared to adults, and the dose for adult women is higher than for adult men. Given an injected activity of approximately 3.7 MBq kg-1, the doses for adult men, adult women, and full-term newborns would be on the order of 5.5, 7.1, and 2.8 mSv, respectively. These absorbed doses are comparable to the doses received from other nuclear medicine procedures.
Autism spectrum conditions (ASC) affect more males than females in the general population. However, within ASC it is unclear if there are phenotypic sex differences. Testing for similarities and differences between the sexes is important not only for clinical assessment but also has implications for theories of typical sex differences and of autism. Using cognitive and behavioral measures, we investigated similarities and differences between the sexes in age- and IQ-matched adults with ASC (high-functioning autism or Asperger syndrome). Of the 83 (45 males and 38 females) participants, 62 (33 males and 29 females) met Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) cut-off criteria for autism in childhood and were included in all subsequent analyses. The severity of childhood core autism symptoms did not differ between the sexes. Males and females also did not differ in self-reported empathy, systemizing, anxiety, depression, and obsessive-compulsive traits/symptoms or mentalizing performance. However, adult females with ASC showed more lifetime sensory symptoms (p?=?0.036), fewer current socio-communication difficulties (p?=?0.001), and more self-reported autistic traits (p?=?0.012) than males. In addition, females with ASC who also had developmental language delay had lower current performance IQ than those without developmental language delay (p<0.001), a pattern not seen in males. The absence of typical sex differences in empathizing-systemizing profiles within the autism spectrum confirms a prediction from the extreme male brain theory. Behavioral sex differences within ASC may also reflect different developmental mechanisms between males and females with ASC. We discuss the importance of the superficially better socio-communication ability in adult females with ASC in terms of why females with ASC may more often go under-recognized, and receive their diagnosis later, than males.
Lai, Meng-Chuan; Lombardo, Michael V.; Pasco, Greg; Ruigrok, Amber N. V.; Wheelwright, Sally J.; Sadek, Susan A.; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Baron-Cohen, Simon
Commercial shipments of Orius spp. (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) commonly include water and protein, the latter typically supplied by eggs from a moth such as Ephestia kuehniella (Zeller). To determine whether modified dietary conditions might improve predation, newly eclosed adult female Orius pumilio (Champion) were fed on E. kuehniella eggs plus encapsulated water, encapsulated 5% sucrose solution only, or encapsulated water only for periods of 24, 48, or 72 h. Feeding activity was assessed by measuring the area of a crop in digital images of dissected digestive tracts. Adult females fed continuously on eggs had larger crops than did females fed on encapsulated sucrose solution. When females were prefed encapsulated water or sucrose and then fed 3 h on eggs, their crops became highly engorged and were larger than those in females fed continuously on eggs for the same periods. In behavioral choice tests, adult females prefed on encapsulated water or 5% sucrose solution spent a larger portion of time in contact with eggs, presumably feeding, whereas females prefed on eggs showed no preference between eggs or encapsulated water. After overnight shipping, females prefed on water or sucrose and held for 48 h total consumed 3.6- and 4.3-fold, respectively, more western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), in 3 h than those prefed on eggs. Survival rates when prefed on sugar or water were comparable with prefeeding on eggs. Thus, inundative releases of Orius can be enhanced by starvation, because females initially feed much more voraciously after shipment with no apparent reduction in fitness. PMID:19449628
Shapiro, Jeffrey P; Reitz, Stuart R; Shirk, Paul D
We studied 2 grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) populations to test 3 hypotheses on the effects of adult male mortality on female reproduction. The “no effect” hypothesis predicts that reproduction should be higher in the population with superior overall diet quality, regardless of mortality of adult males. The “increased reproduction” hypothesis predicts that reproduction should be higher in the hunted population
Robert B Wielgus; Fred L Bunnell
Nicotine withdrawal may differ between men and women but clinical reports are inconsistent. Two experiments were conducted to examine behavioral effects of nicotine withdrawal in male and female adult rats in dimly-lit and brightly-lit environments. Ninety-six Sprague-Dawley male and female rats received 7 days continuous subcutaneous infusion via ALZET osmotic minipumps filled with saline or 3.16 mg/kg/day nicotine hydrogen tartrate expressed as base. Behavioral observations were made before, during, and after drug administration. During observations, occurrences of empty-mouth-chewing, whole-body-shakes, abnormal grooming, abnormal posture/movement, diarrhea, ptosis, eyeblinks, and any other abnormal behaviors were counted. Cessation of nicotine administration upon pump removal caused a significant increase in withdrawal behaviors in males and females in both environments. In the dimly-lit environment, females showed more withdrawal behavior than males; there was no sex difference in the brightly-lit environment. Males that had received nicotine displayed more withdrawal behavior in the brightly-lit environment than in the dimly-lit environment, while females that had received nicotine displayed similar amounts of withdrawal behavior in both environments. Behavioral symptoms of withdrawal may be more affected by the environment in male rats than in female rats. These experiments are the first to compare nicotine withdrawal in adult male and female rats. PMID:19000707
Hamilton, Kristen R; Berger, Sarah Shafer; Perry, Michael E; Grunberg, Neil E
This study examined group differences among a middle-aged, middle-class, community sample (N = 616) of female adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) and female non-ACOAs with regard to features of intra- and interpersonal functioning. Consistent with previous research, ACOAs reported higher levels of depression and lower levels of self-esteem. ACOAs also reported lower levels of perceived social support, family cohesion, and
Donna Domenico; Michael Windle
There has been considerable development and implementation of new contraceptive methods over the last 15 years. However, sterilization has remained the most widely used method around the world. Ideally, the procedure should be safe, have a high efficacy, be readily accessible, and be personally and culturally acceptable. The cost for each procedure would be low and the method would be simple, quick, easily learned and be able to be performed in an outpatient setting without general anesthesia. A transuterine method of female sterilization has long been the ideal for the gynecologist. The Essure system fulfils many of the criteria, and is the first one to be approved by the US FDA. However, there is still a need for further research to find a device with the success rate of the Essure but without its irreversibility. PMID:18573050
Chapman, Lynne; Magos, Adam
OBJECTIVE Early pubertal onset in females is associated with increased risk for adult obesity and cardiovascular disease, but whether this relationship is independent of preceding childhood growth events is unclear. Furthermore, the association between male puberty and adult disease remains unknown. To clarify the link between puberty and adult health, we evaluated the relationship between pubertal timing and risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in both males and females from a large, prospective, and randomly ascertained birth cohort from Northern Finland. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Pubertal timing was estimated based on pubertal height growth in 5,058 subjects (2,417 males and 2,641 females), and the relationship between puberty and body weight, glucose and lipid homeostasis, and blood pressure at age 31 years was evaluated with linear regression modeling. RESULTS Earlier pubertal timing associated with higher adult BMI, fasting insulin, diastolic blood pressure, and decreased HDL cholesterol in both sexes (P < 0.002) and with higher total serum cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides in males. The association with BMI and diastolic blood pressure remained statistically significant in both sexes, as did the association with insulin levels and HDL cholesterol concentrations in males after adjusting for covariates reflecting both fetal and childhood growth including childhood BMI. CONCLUSIONS We demonstrate independent association between earlier pubertal timing and adult metabolic syndrome-related derangements both in males and females. The connection emphasizes that the mechanisms advancing puberty may also contribute to adult metabolic disorders.
Widen, Elisabeth; Silventoinen, Karri; Sovio, Ulla; Ripatti, Samuli; Cousminer, Diana L.; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Laitinen, Jaana; Pouta, Anneli; Kaprio, Jaakko; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Peltonen, Leena; Palotie, Aarno
Background\\/Objectives: The health care maintenance (HCM) visit is a primary vehicle for delivering preventive services in primary care, but how these visits are actually utilized is poorly understood. This paper describes the content and process of HCM visits for adult women in family medicine. Methods: Data were collected as part of a multi-method comparative case study of 57 clinicians from
Elisabeth L. Backer; Patrice Gregory; Carlos Roberto Jaén; Benjamin F. Crabtree
The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the educational, cultural, and linguistic adjustments and experiences encountered by Hispanic adult females in learning English as a second language (ESL) and the relation of these experiences to the variables of language, culture, and education of adult Hispanic females. Adult ESL learners face problems of controlling linguistic rules and of
Variations in maternal care influence important life history traits that determine reproductive fitness. The adult female offspring of mothers that show reduced levels of pup licking/grooming (LG; i.e., low-LG mothers) show increased defensive responses to stress, accelerated pubertal development, and greater sexual receptivity than the female offspring of high-LG mothers. Amongst several species an accelerated pattern of reproductive development is associated with increased dominance-related behaviors and higher social rank. We hypothesize that rats from low-LG dams may thus also secure higher social rank as a means to compete for limited resources with conspecifics. In this study, social interactions were observed in triads of adult female rats aged p90 that received low, mid, and high levels of pup LG over the first week of life. Low- and mid-LG females had the highest pinning scores and high-LG rats the lowest, showing that low- and mid-LG adult females engage in greater play dominance-related behavior. Likewise, low- and mid-LG rats spent significantly more time drinking following 24?hr of water deprivation in a water competition test thus allowing them to secure a limited resource more easily than high-LG rats. Interestingly, pinning by play dominant females was increased when subordinates were sexually receptive (proestrus/estrus), suggestive of a process of reproductive suppression. Some evidence suggests that low-LG and mid-LG rats also show greater fecundity than high-LG rats. Variations in maternal care may thus have a long-term influence on the development of play dominance and possibly social rank in the female rat, which might contribute to reproductive success within a competitive environment. PMID:22786820
Parent, Carine I; Del Corpo, Adina; Cameron, Nicole M; Meaney, Michael J
In a series of experiments, the interspecific predation and cannibalism on immatures by the adult females of Euseius finlandicus, Kampimodromus aberrans and Typhlodromus pyri were examined under laboratory conditions. The three species showed differing tendencies to prey on each other's motile immature stages. Euseius finlandicus females consumed more larvae and protonymphs than the females of T. pyri and K. aberrans.
In this study, the authors used a national, Web-based survey to examine female and male siblings of individuals with disabilities. More than 1,160 adult siblings completed a 163-question survey about themselves, their siblings, and their sibling relationships. Most respondents reported fairly close contact with their siblings and positive sibling…
Hodapp, Robert M.; Urbano, Richard C.; Burke, Meghan M.
The regulation of female reproductive behaviors may involve memories of male pheromone signatures, formed in part by neural circuitry involving the olfactory bulb and hippocampus. These neural structures are the principal sites of adult neurogenesis; however, previous studies point to their independent regulation by sensory and physiological stimuli. Here we report that the pheromones of dominant (but not subordinate) males
Gloria K Mak; Emeka K Enwere; Christopher Gregg; Tomi Pakarainen; Matti Poutanen; Ilpo Huhtaniemi; Samuel Weiss
A recent taxonomic study (Strickman 1988) has resulted in nomenclatorial changes in the names Culex stigmatosoma Dyar 1907, Cx. peus Speiser 1904, and Cx. thriambus Dyar 1921. Careful examination of the holotype of Cx. peus (a female adult originally collected in Oak Creek Canyon, Coconino County, Arizona) demon- strated that the specimen is actually conspecific with Cx. thriambus, not Cx.
Self-mutilating behavior (SMB), suicide, and eating disorders are examined in adult females (N=42) in relation to childhood sexual abuse. A statistically significant relationship was found between SMB and suicide attempts. Findings support the contention that SMB and sexual abuse are closely related to eating disorders. (Author/EMK)
Baral, Isin; Kora, Kaan; Yuksel, Sahika; Sezgin, Ufuk
A sib analysis of adult life-history characters was performed on about twelve hundred females from a laboratory Drosophila melanogaster popula- tion that had been sampled from nature and cultured so as to preserve its genetic variability. The following results were found. There was no detectable trend with age in additive or dominance genetic variances for age-specific fecundity. Environmental variance for
MICHAEL R. ROSE; BRIAN CHARLESWORTH
Relations between (a) serious suicidal ideation and attempts and (b) demographics, trauma history, assault characteristics, post-assault outcomes, and psychosocial variables were examined among female adult sexual assault survivors. Younger, minority, and bisexual survivors reported greater ideation. More traumas, drug use, and assault disclosure…
Ullman, Sarah E.; Najdowski, Cynthia J.
Detailed life tables and reproduction were studied in nymphs and adult females of Podisus maculiventris (Say) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) fed larvae of Galleria mellonella L. (Lep- idoptera: Pyralidae) at constant temperatures of 18, 22, 26, and 30C. Development rates were Þtted to the equation Y a b ln x. The theoretical development threshold was calculated as T0 exp (a\\/b), resulting in
Jesusa Crisostomo Legaspi; Benjamin C. Legaspi
This study examined linkages between depression symptoms (DEP) and positive adult support (PAS) in female adolescents and the partially mediating influence of eating disturbances (ED). Structural equation modeling was used to establish measurement models for each of the latent constructs, determine the relationships among the latent constructs,…
Linville, Deanna; O'Neil, Maya; Huebner, Angela
The association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and major depression (MD) in adolescent and young adult females is evaluated. Findings indicate that MD emerging in the context of ADHD is an impairing and severe comorbidity that needs to be considered further clinically and scientifically.
Biederman, Joseph; Ball, Sarah W.; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Mick, Eric; Spencer, Thomas J.; McCreary, Michelle; Cote, Michelle; Faraone, Stephen V.
Multisample confirmatory factor analysis (MCFA) and latent mean structures analysis (LMS) were used to test measurement invariance and latent mean differences on the Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Scale[TM] (KAIT) across males and females in the standardization sample. MCFA found that the parameters of the KAIT two-factor model were…
Immekus, Jason C.; Maller, Susan J.
Endocrine disruptor exposure during gonadal sex determination was previously found to induce male rat adult onset transgenerational disease (F1-F4 generation), and this was associated with an alteration in the epigenetic (i.e., DNA methylation) programming of the male germ line. The current study was designed to characterize the transgenerational disease phenotypes of the female adult offspring. Pregnant rats (F0 generation) were
Eric E Nilsson; Matthew D Anway; Jacob Stanfield; Michael K Skinner
We used a two-bottle choice test to measure voluntary ethanol consumption by adolescent rats that had lived with ethanol-consuming or water-consuming adult conspecifics. We found that housing weanlings with either a virgin or a lactating adult female rat that ingested ethanol increased the weanlings' subsequent voluntary intake of ethanol when they were fluid-deprived and provided with choices between 8% ethanol
P. Lynne Honey; Kevin R Varley; Bennett G Galef
Infant handling has been documented in numerous species. Among cercopithecines, interaction motivations are reported to range from aunting to kidnapping; these interactions are often distressful for both mother and infant. Here we examine handling by adult female yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus cynocephalus) at the Tana River National Primate Reserve, Kenya, using a relatively new, computer-intensive statistical approach of permutation/randomization tests to deal with repeated measures effects and a skewed sample. We hypothesized 1) a tendency for handlers to handle the infants of females ranked similarly or lower than themselves, and 2) more successful infant handling by higher-ranked females, particularly with very young infants. We collected focal data on 23 females (11 mother-infant pairs) over an 11-mo period, with a total of 303 attempted and/or successful "handles" utilized in the permutation analyses. The general patterns apparent in the data seemed to support our hypotheses. However, the permutation tests showed that while females are somewhat more likely to attempt to handle the infants of females ranked "same or lower" than themselves, lower-ranked females are able to prevent more than three-fourths of the attempted interactions, and there is no statistically significant trend for females to successfully handle these infants. Further refinement of the analyses showed no significant tendencies for females to handle those infants ranked "lower" or "immediately lower" than themselves, casting doubt on the significant finding for "same or lower" attempts. Further, there was no significant effect for higher-ranked females to successfully handle an infant during its first month. Thus, rank does not seem to offer any privileges in terms of handling an infant in this population. We believe the permutation tests are an effective way to analyze repeated measures data and offer a more sensitive analysis tool for determining true significance. PMID:11668529
Bentley-Condit, V K; Moore, T; Smith, E O
Two groups of male and female rats were given the same dose of alcohol using an artificial rearing procedure on postnatal days 4-10. One group received the alcohol in a condensed manner each day which caused cyclic blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) with high peaks. A second group received the alcohol in a uniform manner over each day which resulted in moderate, stable BACs. Two control groups consisted of male and female rats artificially reared but not exposed to alcohol and rats reared normally by dams. All rats were raised to 90 days of age and then tested for spatial navigation ability in the Morris water maze, which involved locating a hidden underwater platform using distal extramaze cues. Neither the alcohol treatments nor the artificial rearing had any effects on performance of adult male rats relative to suckle controls in this task. In contrast, the condensed alcohol exposure but not the uniform alcohol exposure resulted in detrimental performance in the Morris water maze by adult female rats. When the ability to locate and escape onto a visible platform was examined, there were no differences between the female groups given condensed alcohol exposure or artificially reared on milk solution alone. Thus, exposure to high BACs during the brain growth spurt has a lasting and selective detrimental effect on spatial navigation learning in adult female but not adult male rats. PMID:3358862
Kelly, S J; Goodlett, C R; Hulsether, S A; West, J R
Boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain after boron carrier injection (0.005 g Boric Acid+0.005 g Borax+10 ml distilled water, pH: 7.4) was studied in this research. Coronal sections of control and trial animal tissue samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons. Using alpha autoradiography, significant differences in boron concentration were seen in forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain sections of male and female animal groups with the highest value, four hours after boron compound injection. PMID:22484141
Goodarzi, Samereh; Pazirandeh, Ali; Jameie, Seyed Behnamedin; Khojasteh, Nasrin Baghban
One parallel between humans and most songbirds is the fact that young require social interactions with an adult to acquire specific vocalizations. Songbirds are considered good models for comparative studies, although reports to date concern almost exclusively male songbirds. In addition, adult influence on vocal communication is generally investigated only in restricted social contexts (usually dyads). Here, the authors analyzed song learning and spatial associations among young female starlings that were maintained for 1 year in dyads (1 adult, 1 young), triads (2 adults, 1 young) or a larger group (7 young, 2 adults). Segregation by age was seen in the triads and in the larger group. The influence of adults (proportion of songs copied from adults) decreased as the young adult ratio increased. Unusual temporal features were observed in young maintained in triads and young neglected copying adult songs in the presence of peers. These results are among the first to explore the circumstances under which females learn and from whom they learn. They also add new insight to a wide range of questions about social influences on learning. PMID:19450026
Bertin, Aline; Hausberger, Martine; Henry, Laurence; Richard-Yris, Marie-Annick
Comparatively, little data are available detailing the geographic variation that exists in the reproductive endocrinology of adult alligators, especially those living in barrier islands. The Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge (MI) is a unique barrier island environment and home to the Kennedy Space Center (FL, USA). Seasonal patterns of sex steroids were assessed in adult female American alligators from MI monthly from 2008 to 2009, with additional samples collected at more random intervals in 2006, 2007, and 2010. Plasma 17?-estradiol and vitellogenin concentrations peaked in April, coincident with courtship and mating, and showed patterns similar to those observed in adult female alligators in other regions. Plasma concentrations of progesterone, however, showed patterns distinctly different than those reported for alligator populations in other regions and remained relatively constant throughout the year. Plasma DHEA peaked in July around the time of oviposition, decreased in August, and then remained constant for the remaining months, except for a moderate increase in October. Circulating concentrations of DHEA have not been previously assessed in a female crocodilian, and plasma concentrations coincident with reproductive activity suggest a reproductive and/or behavioral role. Interestingly, plasma testosterone concentrations peaked in May of 2008, as has been shown in female alligator populations in other regions, but showed no peak in 2009, demonstrating dramatic variability from year to year. Surveys showed 2009 to be particularly depauperate of alligator nests in MI, and it is possible that testosterone could serve as a strong indicator of breeding success. PMID:24608737
Hamlin, Heather J; Lowers, Russell H; Kohno, Satomi; Mitsui-Watanabe, Naoko; Amano, Haruna; Hara, Akihiko; Ohta, Yasuhiko; Miyagawa, Shinichi; Iguchi, Taisen; Guillette, Louis J
SUMMARY Analysis of the Dutch national invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) surveillance data by sex reveals an increase in the incidence of serotype-1 disease in young female adults in The Netherlands after the introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in the national immunization schedule. This has led to an overall increase in IPD in women aged 20-45 years, which was not observed in men of the same age. No other differences in serotype shifts possibly induced by the introduction of PCV7 were observed between the sexes in this age group. Serotype 1 is a naturally fluctuating serotype in Europe and it has been associated with disease in young healthy adults before. It remains uncertain whether or not there is an association between the observed increase in serotype-1 disease in young female adults and the implementation of PCV7 in The Netherlands. PMID:24229845
VAN Mens, S P; VAN Deursen, A M M; Meijvis, S C A; Vlaminckx, B J M; Sanders, E A M; DE Melker, H E; Schouls, L M; VAN DER Ende, A; DE Greeff, S C; Rijkers, G T
The vocal control nucleus designated HVc (hyperstriatum ventrale, pars caudalis) of adult female canaries expands in response to systemic testosterone administration, which also induces the females to sing in a male-like manner. We became interested in the possibility of neurogenesis as a potential basis for this phenomenon. Intact adult female canaries were injected with [3H]thymidine over a 2-day period. Some birds were given testosterone implants at various times before thymidine. The birds were sacrificed 5 wk after hormone implantation, and their brains were processed for autoradiography. In parallel control experiments, some birds were given implants of cholesterol instead of testosterone. All birds showed considerable numbers of labeled neurons, glia, endothelia, and ventricular zone cells in and around HVc. Ultrastructural analysis confirmed the identity of these labeled neurons. Cholesterol- and testosterone-treated birds had similar neuronal labeling indices, which ranged from 1.8% to 4.0% in HVc. Thus, neurogenesis occurred in these adults independently of exogenous hormone treatment. Conversely, both glial and endothelial proliferation rates were markedly stimulated by exogenous testosterone treatment. We determined the origin of the thymidine-incorporating neurons by sacrificing two thymidine-treated females soon after their thymidine injections, precluding any significant migration of newly labeled cells. Analysis of these brains revealed no cells of neuronal morphology present in HVc but a very heavily labeled ventricular zone overlying HVc. We conclude that neuronal precursors exist in the HVc ventricular zone that incorporate tritiated thymidine during the S phase preceding their mitosis; after division these cells migrate into, and to some extent beyond, HVc. This ventricular zone neurogenesis seems to be a normally occurring phenomenon in intact adult female canaries. Images
Goldman, S A; Nottebohm, F
Previous studies have observed that television viewing is predictive of obesity and weight gain. We examined whether the cross-sectional association between television viewing and body mass index (BMI) varied by racial/ethnic subgroups among young women in Wave III (collected in 2001–2002) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. We used multivariate linear regression to examine the relationship between TV viewing and BMI among 6,049 females while controlling for socio-demographic and health attributes. We stratified the sample by race/ethnicity to better understand the association between TV viewing and BMI across different groups. Black and Hispanic females had higher BMIs (Black: 28.5 kg/m2, Hispanic: 27.3 kg/m2, White: 26.0kg/m2) than White females while Black females reported higher numbers of hours spent watching TV (Black: 14.7 hrs/wk, Hispanic: 10.6 hrs/wk, White: 11.2 hrs/wk) when compared to their White and Hispanic peers. TV viewing was positively associated with BMI (?=0.79, p=0.003 for 8–14 v. ?7 hrs/wk; ?=1.18, p=0.01 for >14 v. ? 7 hrs/wk) independent of race/ethnicity, age, maternal education, history of pregnancy, parental obesity, and household income. However, in models stratified by race/ethnicity, increased TV viewing was associated with increased BMI only among White females. TV viewing was not predictive of higher BMI in Black or Hispanic young adult females. Among Black and Hispanic females, counseling to decrease TV viewing may be important but insufficient for promoting weight loss.
Richmond, Tracy K.; Walls, Courtney; Gooding, Holly C.; Field, Alison E.
Adult female Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Acari, Phytoseiidae) of one of our laboratory populations showed a lower degree of attraction to herbivore-induced plant volatiles than other laboratory populations. We hypothesized earlier that this consistent change in foraging behavior is a symptom of a disease, as it is a contagious phenomenon. Here we describe more symptoms by comparing mated females of this population (non-responding (NR) population) with mated females of other populations that are strongly attracted to herbivore-induced plant volatiles (responding populations). The most apparent characteristic of the NR population was the presence of numerous dorso-ventrally flattened females (76% of all females). These females had a normal size after mating but shrank during adulthood. Independent of their age, shrunken females did not reproduce and died a few days after shrinking. In addition to these profound differences in short term performance, females from the NR-population showed behavioral changes, including a lower degree of attraction to herbivore-induced plant volatiles, a higher tendency to leave a prey-patch and a lower predation rate. Moreover, about half of the live females of the NR-population carried birefringent dumbbell-shaped crystals in the legs whereas live females of a responding population carried crystals only in the lumen of the Malpighian tubules and the rectum. The symptom 'crystals in the legs' was correlated with low reproduction. Energy dispersive X-ray diffraction of these crystals revealed that they contain calcium and phosphorus along with carbon and oxygen. Crystals with comparable elemental compositions and the same characteristic concentric layering are well known in insects, where they are thought to play a major role in detoxification of calcium and heavy metals, and in storage of phosphorus. The fraction of predators carrying a white spot in the distal part of the opisthosoma, due to accumulation of excretory material in the rectum, was the same in both populations. Present results are discussed in the context of mite pathology and biological control. PMID:16612670
Schütte, Conny; Kleijn, Prisca W; Dicke, Marcel
Stature or body height is one of the most important and useful anthropometric parameter that determine the physical identity of an individual. The study was done to estimate stature from the forearm length on one hundred and fifty Bengali adult Muslim females. This descriptive cross sectional study was done in the department of Anatomy, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka, Bangladesh. One hundred and fifty Bengali adult Muslim female was collected from BSMMU & some urban region of Dhaka. Measurement of stature and forearm length of right and left side was taken with a standard anthropometer and a slide caliper respectively. The present study showed significant (p<0.001) positive correlation between the stature and forearm length. PMID:20639830
Laila, S Z; Begum, J A; Ferdousi, R; Parveen, S; Nurunnobi, A M; Yesmin, F
A manual for a disorder oriented psychodynamic treatment of bulimia nevosa and atypical bulimia nervosa of female adolescents and young adults is presented. This manual is applied in a therapy project, which started in 2007. The work on conflicts and structural dysfunctions is meant to lead to the removal or alleviation of the symptoms and an improvement of eating behavior and body image. The bulimic symptoms are contextualized and focussed according to the conflicts and ego-structural deficits of the patients. Typical patterns of interpersonal relationships, transference, conflict, defence and structural problems as well as therapeutic steps are described. The typical psychosocial situation of female adolescence and young adult age is taken into account. Special emphasis is laid on the limitedness of the therapy to 60 sessions and the active structuring of the final phase of he therapy by the therapist. PMID:24693801
Reich, Günter; Horn, Hildegard; Winkelmann, Klaus; Kronmüller, Klaus-Thomas; Stefini, Anette
Although boys engage in more delinquent and criminal acts than do girls, female delinquency is on the rise. In 1980, boys were four times as likely as girls to be arrested; today they are only twice as likely to be arrested. In this article, Elizabeth Cauffman explores how the juvenile justice system is and should be responding to the adolescent female offender. Cauffman begins by reviewing historical trends in arrest rates, processing, and juvenile justice system experiences of female offenders. She also describes the adult outcomes commonly observed for female offenders and points out that the long-term consequences of offending for females are often more pronounced than those for males, with effects that extend to the next generation. She also considers common patterns of offending in girls, as well as factors that may increase or decrease the likelihood of offending. She then reviews what is known about effective treatment strategies for female offenders. Female delinquents have a high frequency of mental health problems, suggesting that effective prevention efforts should target the mental health needs of at-risk females before they lead to chronic behavior problems. Once girls with mental health problems come into the juvenile justice system, says Cauffman, diverting them to community-based treatment programs would not only improve their individual outcomes, but allow the juvenile justice system to focus on cases that present the greatest risk to public safety. Evidence is emerging that gender-specific treatment methods can be effective for female offenders, especially when treatment targets multiple aspects of offenders' lives, including family and peer environments. But it is also becoming clear that female offenders are not a homogeneous group and that treatment ultimately should be tailored to suit individual needs defined more specifically than by gender alone. Despite myriad differences between male and female offending, many of the primary causes of offending, says Cauffman, are nevertheless similar. The most effective policies for reducing juvenile crime, she argues, will be those that foster development in a safe and nurturing environment throughout childhood. Cauffman concludes that female offenders are likely to require continued support long after their direct involvement with the juvenile justice system. PMID:21338000
Scalp ringworm is very uncommon in adults. The occurrence and the atypical clinical course of this unusual dermatophytosis in a female renal transplant recipient are described. Furthermore, the prevalence and the clinical features of superficial fungal infection in renal transplant recipients are reviewed. As immunosuppression enhances the risk of antifungal therapy failure, more prolonged treatment and careful follow-up are necessary to obtain complete recovery from any dermatophytosis in renal transplant recipients. PMID:9730705
Virgili, A; Zampino, M R
Rotatory subluxation of the atlantoaxial joint in adults is a rare, but potentially life-threatening injury. Delayed or missed diagnosis can lead to catastrophic consequences. Early recognition and prompt treatment is paramount to avoid long-term morbidity and disability. We report on an instance of bilateral atlantoaxial rotatory subluxation (AARS) in a 25-year-old female who presented to the Casualty Department with a
V. K. Singh; P. K. Singh; S. K. Balakrishnan; J. Leitao
We demonstrated that neonatal isolation (1-h pup isolation; postnatal days 2–9) impairs context-induced fear conditioning in adult male rats and tends to enhance this effect and foot shock sensitivity in females. In this study, we examine the effects of brief (i.e., handling; 15 min) and prolonged (3 h) maternal separations (postnatal days 1–21) on fear conditioning and foot shock sensitivity
Therese A. Kosten; Hongjoo J. Lee; Jeansok J. Kim
Environmental compounds including fungicides, plastics, pesticides, dioxin and hydrocarbons can promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult-onset disease in future generation progeny following ancestral exposure during the critical period of fetal gonadal sex determination. This study examined the actions of the pesticide methoxychlor to promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult-onset disease and associated differential DNA methylation regions (i.e. epimutations) in sperm. Gestating F0 generation female rats were transiently exposed to methoxychlor during fetal gonadal development (gestation days 8 to 14) and then adult-onset disease was evaluated in adult F1 and F3 (great-grand offspring) generation progeny for control (vehicle exposed) and methoxychlor lineage offspring. There were increases in the incidence of kidney disease, ovary disease, and obesity in the methoxychlor lineage animals. In females and males the incidence of disease increased in both the F1 and the F3 generations and the incidence of multiple disease increased in the F3 generation. There was increased disease incidence in F4 generation reverse outcross (female) offspring indicating disease transmission was primarily transmitted through the female germline. Analysis of the F3 generation sperm epigenome of the methoxychlor lineage males identified differentially DNA methylated regions (DMR) termed epimutations in a genome-wide gene promoters analysis. These epimutations were found to be methoxychlor exposure specific in comparison with other exposure specific sperm epimutation signatures. Observations indicate that the pesticide methoxychlor has the potential to promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease and the sperm epimutations appear to provide exposure specific epigenetic biomarkers for transgenerational disease and ancestral environmental exposures.
Manikkam, Mohan; Haque, M. Muksitul; Guerrero-Bosagna, Carlos; Nilsson, Eric E.; Skinner, Michael K.
Atrazine (ATZ), the most common herbicide, is a frequently observed contaminant in freshwater ecosystems. In the present study,\\u000a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption\\/ionization tandem time-of-flight-mass spectrometry,\\u000a combined with histopathological analysis, were used to detect the hepatic damage in adult female zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to ATZ. More than 600 hepatic protein spots were detected in each gel with
Yuanxiang Jin; Xiangxiang Zhang; Dezhao Lu; Zhengwei Fu
Background The impact of the intrauterine environment on the developmental programming of adult female reproductive success is still poorly understood and potentially underestimated. Litter size variation in a nonhuman primate, the common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus), allows us to model the effects of varying intrauterine environments (e.g. nutrient restriction, exposure to male womb-mates) on the risk of losing fetuses in adulthood. Our previous work has characterized the fetuses of triplet pregnancies as experiencing intrauterine nutritional restriction. Methodology/Principal Findings We used over a decade of demographic data from the Southwest National Primate Research Center common marmoset colony. We evaluated differences between twin and triplet females in the number of pregnancies they produce and the proportion of those pregnancies that ended in fetal loss. We found that triplet females produced the same number of total offspring as twin females, but lost offspring during pregnancy at a significantly higher rate than did twins (38% vs. 13%, p?=?0.02). Regardless of their own birth weight or the sex ratio of the litter the experienced as fetuses, triplet females lost more fetuses than did twins. Females with a male littermate experienced a significant increase in the proportion of stillbirths. Conclusions/Significance These striking findings anchor pregnancy loss in the mother’s own fetal environment and development, underscoring a "Womb to Womb" view of the lifecourse and the intergenerational consequences of development. This has important translational implications for understanding the large proportion of human stillbirths that are unexplained. Our findings provide strong evidence that a full understanding of mammalian life history and reproductive biology requires a developmental foundation.
Rutherford, Julienne N.; deMartelly, Victoria A.; Layne Colon, Donna G.; Ross, Corinna N.; Tardif, Suzette D.
We demonstrated that neonatal isolation (1-h pup isolation; postnatal days 2-9) impairs context-induced fear conditioning in adult male rats and tends to enhance this effect and foot shock sensitivity in females. In this study, we examine the effects of brief (i.e., handling; 15 min) and prolonged (3 h) maternal separations (postnatal days 1-21) on fear conditioning and foot shock sensitivity in adult male and female rats. Identical training and test conditions from our prior study were employed so comparisons of the three early life stressors could be made. Context- and cue-elicited freezing and ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs; 22 kHz) were measured after 10 tone-shock training trials in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2, foot shock responses (flinch, jump, sonic vocalizations) to escalating shock levels were assessed. Brief maternal separation impaired context- and cue-conditioned fear in rats of both sexes as assessed by USVs. Prolonged maternal separation only impaired context fear in female rats. There were no effects on foot shock sensitivity. Results of this and other studies suggest that early life stress impairs fear conditioning in adult rats whereas stress experienced in adulthood has the opposite effect. These opposing effects may reflect developmental differences on stress-induced alterations on hippocampal regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. PMID:16626646
Kosten, Therese A; Lee, Hongjoo J; Kim, Jeansok J
Cannabis use and depression are two of the most prevalent conditions worldwide. Adolescent cannabis use is linked to depression in many studies, but the effects of adolescent cannabis involvement on young adult depression remain unclear and may differ for males versus females. In this cohort study of youth from a mid-Atlantic metropolitan area of the United States, repeated assessments from 1985 (at age 6 years) through 2002 (at age 21 years) were made for 1,494 individuals (55% female). Measured covariate differences between individuals with and without cannabis problems were controlled via propensity score techniques. The estimated risk of young adult depression for adolescents with cannabis problems was not significantly different from that for comparison adolescents for either females (odds ratio = 0.7, 95% confidence interval: 0.2, 2.3) or males (odds ratio = 1.7, 95% confidence interval: 0.8, 3.6). The evidence does not support a causal association linking adolescent-onset cannabis problems with young adult depression.
Stuart, Elizabeth A.; Anthony, James C.
Whether or not mammalian females generate new oocytes during adulthood from germ-line stem cells to sustain the ovarian follicle pool has recently generated controversy. We used a sensitive lineage-labeling system to determine whether stem cells are needed in female adult mice to compensate for follicular losses and to directly identify active germ-line stem cells. Primordial follicles generated during fetal life are highly stable, with a half-life during adulthood of 10 mo, and thus are sufficient to sustain adult oogenesis without a source of renewal. Moreover, in normal mice or following germ-cell depletion with Busulfan, only stable, single oocytes are lineage-labeled, rather than cell clusters indicative of new oocyte formation. Even one germ-line stem cell division per 2 wk would have been detected by our method, based on the kinetics of fetal follicle formation. Thus, adult female mice neither require nor contain active germ-line stem cells or produce new oocytes in vivo.
Lei, Lei; Spradling, Allan C.
Male and female rats were neonatally treated with a single dose of benzpyrene. The adult animals were mated inter se, forming control-control, benzpyrene (female)-control, benzpyrene (male)-control, and benzpyrene-benzpyrene treated couples. In the F 1 and F2 generations (without any further treatment) the females's sexual behavior was tested to Meyerson index and lordosis quotient after ovariectomy and hormone treatment, using experienced
G. Csaba; Cs Karabélyos
The Paraguayan caiman (Caiman yacare) is the main Caimaninae species occurring in the Brazilian Pantanal Wetland. Despite the relative availability of works focused on biology and conservation of the Paraguayan caiman, almost nothing is known about its vocal structure and behavior. We recorded aggressive calls of adult caiman females guarding nests and, afterwards, the distress calls of the new born juvenile caimans in seasonally flooded areas of the Nhecolândia (Southern Pantanal). The results of both observations and sonographic analyses diverged from studies with other crocodilian species. Aggressive vocalization of adult females of the Paraguayan caiman was longer and more complex than the same vocalization of larger Alligatoridae species. Vocalizations of the young caimans presented interspecific differences with other crocodilian offsprings. Moreover, we found statistically significant intraspecific variation in the distress call structure among different pods, even separated by few kilometers. Differences in distress call structure were tested by Canonical Discriminant Analysis (CDA). We obtained the squared Mahalanobis distances between the acoustic multivariate spaces of each pod provided by the CDA and compared with the geographic distance between the bays of origin of each pod through Mantel Test. The geographic distance by itself did not explain the differences found in the structure of the vocalization of young caimans from different pods. The adult females of Paraguayan caiman positively responded to playbacks of calls from juvenile caimans from pods of other regions, as well as to rough imitations of distress call. Since the adult caimans showed protective responses to quite heterogeneous vocalizations of distress by juveniles, we hypothesized that the variation in the distress call pattern may be associated to a low specificity in sound recognition by adult caimans. PMID:24027931
Sicuro, Fernando L; Iack-Ximenes, Gilson E; Wogel, Henrique; Bilate, Marcos
Androgen exposure during intrauterine life in nonhuman primates and in sheep results in a phenocopy of the reproductive and metabolic features of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Such exposure also results in reproductive features of PCOS in rodents. We investigated whether transient prenatal androgen treatment produced metabolic abnormalities in adult female rats and the mechanisms of these changes. Pregnant dams received free testosterone or vehicle injections during late gestation, and their female offspring were fed regular or high-fat diet (HFD). At 60 days of age, prenatally androgenized (PA) rats exhibited significantly increased body weight; parametrial and subcutaneous fat; serum insulin, cholesterol and triglyceride levels; and hepatic triglyceride content (all P < 0.0125). There were no significant differences in insulin sensitivity by intraperitoneal insulin tolerance test or insulin signaling in liver or skeletal muscle. HFD had similar effects to PA on body weight and composition as well as on circulating triglyceride levels. HFD further increased hepatic triglyceride content to a similar extent in both PA and control rats. In PA rats, HFD did not further increase circulating insulin, triglyceride, or cholesterol levels. In control rats, HFD increased insulin levels, but to a lesser extent than PA alone (?2.5- vs. ?12-fold, respectively). We conclude that transient prenatal androgen exposure produces features of the metabolic syndrome in adult female rats. Dyslipidemia and hepatic steatosis appear to be mediated by PA-induced increases in adiposity, whereas hyperinsulinemia appears to be a direct result of PA.
Demissie, Marek; Lazic, Milos; Foecking, Eileen M.; Aird, Fraser; Dunaif, Andrea; Levine, Jon E.
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is critical to angiogenesis and vascular permeability. It is also important in the endocrine system, in which VEGF mediates the vascular effects of estrogens in target tissues such as the uterus, a response attributed to an estrogen response element on the VEGF gene. Here we asked whether 17?-estradiol increases VEGF levels in the brain. We focused on the hippocampus, in which 17?-estradiol and VEGF both have important actions, and used immunocytochemistry to evaluate VEGF protein. VEGF immunoreactivity was compared in adult female rats sampled during the estrous cycle when serum levels of 17?-estradiol peak (proestrous morning) as well as when they are low (metestrous morning). In addition, adult rats were ovariectomized and compared after treatment with 17?-estradiol or vehicle. The results demonstrated that VEGF immunoreactivity was increased when serum levels of 17?-estradiol were elevated. Confocal microscopy showed that VEGF immunofluorescence was predominantly nonneuronal, often associated with astrocytes. Glial VEGF labeling was primarily punctate rather than diffuse and labile because glial VEGF immunoreactivity was greatly reduced if tissue sections were left in an aqueous medium overnight. We conclude that VEGF protein in normal female hippocampus is primarily nonneuronal rather than neuronal and suggest that glial VEGF immunoreactivity has been underestimated by past studies with other methods because there is a labile extracellular pool. We suggest that estrogens may exert actions on female hippocampal structure and function by increasing hippocampal VEGF.
Barouk, Sharon; Hintz, Tana; Li, Ping; Duffy, Aine M.; MacLusky, Neil J.
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is critical to angiogenesis and vascular permeability. It is also important in the endocrine system, in which VEGF mediates the vascular effects of estrogens in target tissues such as the uterus, a response attributed to an estrogen response element on the VEGF gene. Here we asked whether 17?-estradiol increases VEGF levels in the brain. We focused on the hippocampus, in which 17?-estradiol and VEGF both have important actions, and used immunocytochemistry to evaluate VEGF protein. VEGF immunoreactivity was compared in adult female rats sampled during the estrous cycle when serum levels of 17?-estradiol peak (proestrous morning) as well as when they are low (metestrous morning). In addition, adult rats were ovariectomized and compared after treatment with 17?-estradiol or vehicle. The results demonstrated that VEGF immunoreactivity was increased when serum levels of 17?-estradiol were elevated. Confocal microscopy showed that VEGF immunofluorescence was predominantly nonneuronal, often associated with astrocytes. Glial VEGF labeling was primarily punctate rather than diffuse and labile because glial VEGF immunoreactivity was greatly reduced if tissue sections were left in an aqueous medium overnight. We conclude that VEGF protein in normal female hippocampus is primarily nonneuronal rather than neuronal and suggest that glial VEGF immunoreactivity has been underestimated by past studies with other methods because there is a labile extracellular pool. We suggest that estrogens may exert actions on female hippocampal structure and function by increasing hippocampal VEGF. PMID:21343256
Barouk, Sharon; Hintz, Tana; Li, Ping; Duffy, Aine M; MacLusky, Neil J; Scharfman, Helen E
We report a case of adenocarcinoma arising from a sacrococcygeal mature teratoma in an adult female. A 62-year-old female was diagnosed with a presacral tumor 10?years ago. Pelvic computed tomography (CT) demonstrated a presacral heterogeneous tumor, containing multiloculated cystic area and enhanced solid component with calcification. Percutaneous needle biopsy for the solid component of the tumor identified an adenocarcinoma and the patient was diagnosed as having a sacrococcygeal teratoma with malignant transformation. Abdomino-sacral rectal resection with sacral amputation at the upper edge of the S5 was performed. The pathological diagnosis was adenocarcinoma derived from a mature teratoma. The tumor cells had infiltrated the rectal wall. After 7?months, a follow-up CT demonstrated swelling of the right inguinal lymph nodes and a right inguinal lymphadenectomy was performed. Pathological examination showed metastatic lymph nodes. The patient is doing well 21?months after the second surgery, with no signs of recurrence.
Matsumoto, Naoki; Uehara, Keisuke; Ando, Masataka; Arimoto, Junki; Kato, Takehiro; Nakamura, Hayato; Ebata, Tomoki; Yokoyama, Yukihiro; Nagino, Masato
Objective: Limited data are available on racial differences in clinical characteristics and burden in adult female acne. The objective was to describe racial differences in clinical characteristics, psychosocial impact, perceptions, behaviors, and treatment satisfaction in facial adult female acne. Design: Cross-sectional, web-based survey. Setting: Diverse sample of United States women. Participants: Women between the ages of 25 and 45 years with facial acne (?25 visible lesions). Measurements: Outcomes included sociodemographic characteristics, psychosocial impacts, perceptions, behaviors, and treatment satisfaction. Racial differences were evaluated using descriptive statistics and t-test/chi-square analyses. Results: 208 females participated (mean age 35±6 years); 51.4 percent were White/Caucasian and 48.6 percent were non-White/Caucasian women [Black/African American (n=51); Hispanic/Latina (n=23); Asian (n=16); Other (n=ll)]. Age of acne onset (mean 14.8±5 vs. 17.0±8 years, p<0.05) and acne concern occurred earlier (16.6±7 vs. 19.3±9 years, p<0.05) in White/Caucasian than non-White/Caucasian subjects. Facial acne primarily presented on chin (28.0%) and cheeks (30.8%) for White/Caucasian women versus cheeks (58.4%) for non-White/Caucasian women. Non-White/Caucasian women experienced more postinflammatory hyperpigmentation than White/Caucasian women (p<0.0001). Facial acne negatively affected quality of life (QoL) in both groups, and most participants (>70%) reported some depression/anxiety symptoms. More White/Caucasian than non-White/Caucasian women were troubled by facial acne (88.8% vs. 76.2%, p<0.05). Lesion clearance was most important to White/Caucasian women (57.9 vs. non-White/Caucasian 31.7%, p<0.001); non-White/Caucasian females focused on postinflammatory hyperpigmentation clearance (41.6% vs. Caucasian 8.4%, p<0.0001). Conclusion: Results highlight racial differences in participant-reported clinical characteristics, attitudes, behaviors, and treatment satisfaction. These findings may inform clinicians about racial differences in facial adult female acne and guide treatment recommendations toward improving care.
Alexis, Andrew F.; Daniels, Selena R.; Kawata, Ariane K.; Burk, Caroline T.; Wilcox, Teresa K.; Taylor, Susan C.
Salivary glands of blood-sucking arthropods contain a variety of compounds that prevent platelet and clotting functions and modify inflammatory and immunological reactions in the vertebrate host. In mosquitoes, only the adult female takes blood meals, while both sexes take sugar meals. With the recent description of the Anopheles gambiae genome, and with a set of approximately 3000 expressed sequence tags from a salivary gland cDNA library from adult female mosquitoes, we attempted a comprehensive description of the salivary transcriptome of this most important vector of malaria transmission. In addition to many transcripts associated with housekeeping functions, we found an active transposable element, a set of Wolbachia-like proteins, several transcription factors, including Forkhead, Hairy and doublesex, extracellular matrix components and 71 genes coding for putative secreted proteins. Fourteen of these 71 proteins had matching Edman degradation sequences obtained from SDS-PAGE experiments. Overall, 33 transcripts are reported for the first time as coding for salivary proteins. The tissue and sex specificity of these protein-coding transcripts were analyzed by RT-PCR and microarray experiments for insight into their possible function. Notably, two gene products appeared to be differentially spliced in the adult female salivary glands, whereas 13 contigs matched predicted intronic regions and may include additional alternatively spliced transcripts. Most An. gambiae salivary proteins represent novel protein families of unknown function, potentially coding for pharmacologically or microbiologically active substances. Supplemental data to this work can be found at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/projects/omes/index.html#Ag2. PMID:16215223
Arcà, Bruno; Lombardo, Fabrizio; Valenzuela, Jesus G; Francischetti, Ivo M B; Marinotti, Osvaldo; Coluzzi, Mario; Ribeiro, José M C
Waders (Charadrii) provide biologists with an astonishing variety of mating systems to study . Male and female birds establish breeding units in which behaviour varies from monogamy, polygyny, polyandry, double clutching, lekking and serial monogamy to sex role reversal, and many mixed mating systems exist . This diversity is currently explained by the costs and benefits of males and females
Dik Heg; Rob Van Treuren
Ascaris nematodes, which cause ascariasis in humans and pigs, are among the most important nematodes from both health and economic perspectives. microRNA (miRNA) is now recognized as key regulator of gene expression at posttranscription level. The public availability of the genome and transcripts of Ascaris suum provides powerful resources for the research of miRNA profiles of the parasite. Therefore, we investigated and compared the miRNA profiles of male and female adult A. suum using Solexa deep sequencing combined with bioinformatic analysis and stem-loop reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Deep sequencing of small RNAs yielded 11.71 and 11.72 million raw reads from male and female adults of A. suum, respectively. Analysis showed that the noncoding RNA of the two genders, including tRNA, rRNA, snRNA, and snoRNA, were similar. By mapping to the A. suum genome, we obtained 494 and 505 miRNA candidates from the female and male parasite, respectively, and 87 and 82 of miRNA candidates were consistent with A. suum miRNAs deposited in the miRBase database. Among the miRNA candidates, 154 were shared by the two genders, and 340 and 351 were female and male specific with their target numbers ranged from one to thousands, respectively. Functional prediction revealed a set of elongation factors, heat shock proteins, and growth factors from the targets of gender-specific miRNAs, which were essential for the development of the parasite. Moreover, major sperm protein and nematode sperm cell motility protein were found in targets of the male-specific miRNAs. Ovarian message protein was found in targets of the female-specific miRNAs. Enrichment analysis revealed significant differences among Gene Ontology terms of miRNA targets of the two genders, such as electron carrier and biological adhesion process. The regulating functions of gender-specific miRNAs was therefore not only related to the fundamental functions of cells but also were essential to the germ development of the parasite. The present study provides a framework for further research of Ascaris miRNAs, and consequently leads to the development of potential nucleotide vaccines against Ascaris of human and animal health significance. PMID:23306386
Xu, Min-Jun; Fu, Jing-Hua; Nisbet, Alasdair J; Huang, Si-Yang; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Lin, Rui-Qing; Song, Hui-Qun; Zhu, Xing-Quan
Background Saliva of blood-sucking arthropods contains a cocktail of antihemostatic agents and immunomodulators that help blood feeding. Mosquitoes additionally feed on sugar meals and have specialized regions of their glands containing glycosidases and antimicrobials that might help control bacterial growth in the ingested meals. To expand our knowledge on the salivary cocktail of Ædes ægypti, a vector of dengue and yellow fevers, we analyzed a set of 4,232 expressed sequence tags from cDNA libraries of adult female mosquitoes. Results A nonredundant catalogue of 614 transcripts (573 of which are novel) is described, including 136 coding for proteins of a putative secretory nature. Additionally, a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of salivary gland (SG) homogenates followed by tryptic digestion of selected protein bands and MS/MS analysis revealed the expression of 24 proteins. Analysis of tissue-specific transcription of a subset of these genes revealed at least 31 genes whose expression is specific or enriched in female SG, whereas 24 additional genes were expressed in female SG and in males but not in other female tissues. Most of the 55 proteins coded by these SG transcripts have no known function and represent high-priority candidates for expression and functional analysis as antihemostatic or antimicrobial agents. An unexpected finding is the occurrence of four protein families specific to SG that were probably a product of horizontal transfer from prokaryotic organisms to mosquitoes. Conclusion Overall, this paper contributes to the novel identification of 573 new transcripts, or near 3% of the Æ. ægypti proteome assuming a 20,000-protein set, and to the best-described sialome of any blood-feeding insect.
Ribeiro, Jose MC; Arca, Bruno; Lombardo, Fabrizio; Calvo, Eric; Chandra, Prafulla K; Wikel, Stephen K
Purpose: To develop a computed tomography (CT) organ dose estimation method designed to readily provide organ doses in a reference adult male and female for different scan ranges to investigate the degree to which existing commercial programs can reasonably match organ doses defined in these more anatomically realistic adult hybrid phantomsMethods: The x-ray fan beam in the SOMATOM Sensation 16 multidetector CT scanner was simulated within the Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNPX2.6. The simulated CT scanner model was validated through comparison with experimentally measured lateral free-in-air dose profiles and computed tomography dose index (CTDI) values. The reference adult male and female hybrid phantoms were coupled with the established CT scanner model following arm removal to simulate clinical head and other body region scans. A set of organ dose matrices were calculated for a series of consecutive axial scans ranging from the top of the head to the bottom of the phantoms with a beam thickness of 10 mm and the tube potentials of 80, 100, and 120 kVp. The organ doses for head, chest, and abdomen/pelvis examinations were calculated based on the organ dose matrices and compared to those obtained from two commercial programs, CT-EXPO and CTDOSIMETRY. Organ dose calculations were repeated for an adult stylized phantom by using the same simulation method used for the adult hybrid phantom. Results: Comparisons of both lateral free-in-air dose profiles and CTDI values through experimental measurement with the Monte Carlo simulations showed good agreement to within 9%. Organ doses for head, chest, and abdomen/pelvis scans reported in the commercial programs exceeded those from the Monte Carlo calculations in both the hybrid and stylized phantoms in this study, sometimes by orders of magnitude. Conclusions: The organ dose estimation method and dose matrices established in this study readily provides organ doses for a reference adult male and female for different CT scan ranges and technical parameters. Organ doses from existing commercial programs do not reasonably match organ doses calculated for the hybrid phantoms due to differences in phantom anatomy, as well as differences in organ dose scaling parameters. The organ dose matrices developed in this study will be extended to cover different technical parameters, CT scanner models, and various age groups.
Lee, Choonsik; Kim, Kwang Pyo; Long, Daniel; Fisher, Ryan; Tien, Chris; Simon, Steven L.; Bouville, Andre; Bolch, Wesley E. [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institute of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20852 (United States); Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institute of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20852 (United States); Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States)
Old World monkeys provide naturally-occurring and experimentally-induced phenotypes closely resembling the highly prevalent polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in women. In particular, experimentally-induced fetal androgen excess in female rhesus monkeys produces a comprehensive adult PCOS-like phenotype that includes both reproductive and metabolic dysfunction found in PCOS women. Such a reliable experimental approach enables the use of the prenatally androgenized (PA) female rhesus monkey model to (1) examine fetal, infant and adolescent antecedents of adult pathophysiology, gaining valuable insight into early phenotypic expression of PCOS, and (2) to understand adult pathophysiology from a mechanistic perspective. Elevated circulating luteinizing hormone (LH) levels are the earliest indication of reproductive dysfunction in late gestation nonhuman primate fetuses and infants exposed to androgen excess during early (late first to second trimester) gestation. Such early gestation-exposed PA infants also are hyperandrogenic, with both LH hypersecretion and hyperandrogenism persisting in early gestation-exposed PA adults. Similarly, subtle metabolic abnormalities appearing in young nonhuman primate infants and adolescents precede the abdominal adiposity, hyperliplidemia, and increased incidence of type 2 diabetes that characterize early gestated-exposed PA adults. These new insights into the developmental origins of PCOS, and progression of the pathophysiology from infancy to adulthood, provide opportunities for clinical intervention to ameliorate the PCOS phenotype thus providing a preventive health care approach to PCOS-related abnormalities. For example, PCOS-like traits in PA monkeys, as in PCOS women, can improve with better insulin-glucose homeostasis, suggesting that lifestyle interventions preventing increased adiposity in adolescent daughters of PCOS mothers also may reduce their risk of acquiring many PCOS-related metabolic abnormalities in adulthood.
Abbott, David H; Tarantal, Alice F; Dumesic, Daniel A
Currently, two classes of computational phantoms have been developed for dosimetry calculation: (1) stylized (or mathematical) and (2) voxel (or tomographic) phantoms describing human anatomy through mathematical surface equations and 3D voxel matrices, respectively. Mathematical surface equations in stylized phantoms are flexible, but the resulting anatomy is not as realistic. Voxel phantoms display far better anatomical realism, but they are limited in terms of their ability to alter organ shape, position, and depth, as well as body posture. A new class of computational phantoms called hybrid phantoms takes advantage of the best features of stylized and voxel phantoms-flexibility and anatomical realism, respectively. In the current study, hybrid computational phantoms representing the adult male and female reference anatomy and anthropometry are presented. These phantoms serve as the starting framework for creating patient or worker sculpted whole-body phantoms for retrospective dose reconstruction. Contours of major organs and tissues were converted or segmented from computed tomography images of a 36-y-old Korean volunteer and a 25-y-old U.S. female patient, respectively, with supplemental high-resolution CT images of the cranium. Polygon mesh models for the major organs and tissues were reconstructed and imported into Rhinoceros™ for non-uniform rational B-spline (NURBS) surface modeling. The resulting NURBS/polygon mesh models representing body contour and internal anatomy were matched to anthropometric data and reference organ mass data provided by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and International Commission on Radiation Protection, respectively. Finally, two hybrid adult male and female phantoms were completed where a total of eight anthropometric data categories were matched to standard values within 4% and organ volumes matched to ICRP data within 1% with the exception of total skin. The hybrid phantoms were voxelized from the NURBS phantoms at resolutions of 0.158 × 0.158 × 0.158 cm and 0.126 × 0.126 × 0.126 cm for the male and female, respectively. To highlight the flexibility of the hybrid phantoms, graphical displays are given of (1) underweight and overweight adult male phantoms, (2) a sitting position for the adult female phantom, and (3) extraction and higher-resolution voxelization of the small intestine for localized dosimetry of mucosal and stem cell layers. These phantoms are used to model radioactively contaminated individuals and to then assess time-dependent detector count rate thresholds corresponding to 50, 250, and 500 mSv effective dose, as might be needed during in-field radiological triage by first responders or first receivers. PMID:22315022
Hurtado, Jorge L; Lee, Choonsik; Lodwick, Daniel; Goede, Timothy; Williams, Jonathan L; Bolch, Wesley E
To investigate sociodemographic factors associated with adolescent females ages 14-16 years having children fathered by males age 20 years or older and identify differences in correlates across rural, urban, and border areas. The method section was a cross-sectional study using Texas birth record data. From 2000 through 2004, there were 29,186 births to adolescent females aged 14-16 years with valid paternal age. Prevalence of and adjusted odds of paternal age of 20 years or older were identified by paternal and maternal factors. The Results section Having both parents born outside of the U.S. was associated with a 5.29 (95% CI: 4.82, 5.80) times increase in the odds of paternal age of 20 years or older as compared to having both parents born in the U.S. Parental place of birth was associated with greater odds of paternal age of 20 years or older in urban areas compared to rural or border areas. Compared to those with average or high educational attainment relative to age, low educational attainment relative to age was associated with an increase in the odds of paternal age of 20 years or older. This association was present whether maternal or paternal educational attainment was low relative to age. Messages are needed to help adolescent females avoid pregnancy with adult males. In addressing this specific prevention challenge, it is important to consider maternal/paternal place of birth and its association with adolescent births with adult males. PMID:19795199
Castrucci, Brian C; Clark, Jamie; Lewis, Kayan; Samsel, Rachel; Mirchandani, Gita
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor medications are one of the most common treatments for mood disorders. In humans, these medications are taken orally, usually once per day. Unfortunately, administration of antidepressant medications in rodent models is often through injection, oral gavage, or minipump implant, all relatively stressful procedures. The aim of the present study was to investigate how administration of the commonly used SSRI, fluoxetine, via a wafer cookie, compares to fluoxetine administration using an osmotic minipump, with regards to serum drug levels and hippocampal plasticity. For this experiment, adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided over the two administration methods: (1) cookie and (2) osmotic minipump and three fluoxetine treatment doses: 0, 5, or 10?mg/kg/day. Results show that a fluoxetine dose of 5?mg/kg/day, but not 10?mg/kg/day, results in comparable serum levels of fluoxetine and its active metabolite norfluoxetine between the two administration methods. Furthermore, minipump administration of fluoxetine resulted in higher levels of cell proliferation in the granule cell layer (GCL) at a 5?mg dose compared to a 10?mg dose. Synaptophysin expression in the GCL, but not CA3, was significantly lower after fluoxetine treatment, regardless of administration method. These data suggest that the administration method and dose of fluoxetine can differentially affect hippocampal plasticity in the adult female rat.
Pawluski, Jodi L.; van Donkelaar, Eva; Abrams, Zipporah; Steinbusch, Harry W. M.; Charlier, Thierry D.
Early life stress increases the risk of posttraumatic stress disorders (PTSD). Patients with PTSD show impaired extinction of traumatic memory, and in women, this occurs more often when PTSD is preceded by child trauma. However, it is still unclear how early life stress accounts for extinction impairment. Here, we studied the effects of maternal separation (MS, postnatal day 2 to 14) on contextual fear extinction in adult female rats. Additionally, to examine changes in synaptic function affected by MS, we measured long-term potentiation (LTP) in prefrontal cortex and hippocampus in vitro, both of which have been implicated in fear extinction. We found that adult female rats had been subjected to MS exhibited significant spontaneous recovery of fear to the extinguished context. Furthermore, MS exposure resulted in LTP impairment in both infralimbic prefrontal cortex layer 2/3-layer 5 and hippocampal SC-CA1 pathways. Interestingly, no obvious effects of MS on contextual fear conditioning, fear recall as well as extinction training and recall were observed. Innate fear in the elevated plus maze or open field test remained nearly unaffected. These findings provided the first evidence that MS may exaggerate spontaneous recovery after contextual fear extinction, for which LTP impairment in the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus may be responsible, thereby possibly leading to impaired extinction associated with PTSD. PMID:24746487
Xiong, Gui-Jing; Yang, Yuan; Wang, Li-Ping; Xu, Lin; Mao, Rong-Rong
Elevated rates of cigarette smoking have been reported among individuals with Bulimia Nervosa. However, little is known about eating disorder symptoms within non-clinical samples of smokers. The purpose of the present study was to compare the eating disorder symptoms of young adult female smokers (n = 184) and non-smokers (n = 56), to determine whether smokers were more likely to endorse bulimic symptoms and report greater body shape concern than non-smokers. Analyses indicated that smokers scored significantly higher than non-smokers on the Body Shape Questionnaire, p = .03, and the Bulimia Test-Revised, p = .006. In addition, a higher proportion of smokers than non-smokers scored ? 85 on the Bulimia Test-Revised, p = .05, suggesting the possibility that Bulimia Nervosa diagnoses were more prevalent among smokers. No differences were found between smokers and non-smokers on other measures of eating behavior. Overall, findings suggest that smoking is specifically associated with symptoms of Bulimia Nervosa and body shape concern among young adult females.
Kendzor, Darla E.; Adams, Claire E.; Stewart, Diana W.; Baillie, Lauren E.; Copeland, and Amy L.
For optimisation in diagnostic medical imaging it is important to consider the relation between diagnostic image quality and patient dose. In the past, schematic representations of the human body were commonly used for dosimetric simulations together with Monte Carlo codes. During the last two decades, voxel models were introduced as an improvement to these body models. Studies performed by various research groups have shown that the more realistic organ topology of voxel models constructed from medical image data of real persons has an impact on calculated doses for external as well as internal exposures. As a consequence of these findings, the ICRP decided to use voxel models for the forthcoming update of organ dose conversion coefficients. These voxel models should be representative of an average population, i.e. they should resemble the ICRP reference anatomical data with respect to their external dimensions and their organ masses. To meet the ICRP requirements, our group at the Helmholtz Zentrum München (formerly known as GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health) constructed voxel models of a male and female adult, based on the voxel models of two individuals whose body height and weight resembled those of the male and female ICRP reference adult. The organ masses of both models were adjusted to the ICRP reference anatomical data, without spoiling their realistic anatomy. The paper describes the method used for this process and the resulting voxel models.
Zankl, M.; Schlattl, H.; Becker, J.; Petoussi-Henss, N.; Hoeschen, C.
Background: Soy milk replacement in the diet might have beneficial effects on waist circumference and cardiovascular risk factors for overweight and obese subjects. Therefore, we are going to determine the effects of soy milk replacements on the waist circumference and cardiovascular risk factors among overweight and obese female adults. Methods: In this crossover randomized clinical trail, 24 over weight and obese female adults were on a diet with soy milk or the diet with cow's milk for four weeks. In the diet with soy milk only one glass of soy milk (240 cc) was replaced instead of one glass of cow's milk (240 cc). Measurements were done according to the standard protocol. Results: Waist circumference reduced significantly following soy milk period (mean percent change in soy milk period for waist circumference: -3.79 ± 0.51 vs. -1.78 ± 0.55 %; P = 0.02 in the cow's milk period). Blood pressure, weight, liver enzymes and glycemic control indices did not changed significantly after soy milk period compared to the cow's milk period. Conclusion: Among over weight and obese patients, soy milk can play an important role in reducing waist circumference. However, soy milk replacement had no significant effects on weight, glycemic control indices, liver enzymes, fibrinogen and blood pressure in a short term trial.
Keshavarz, Seyed Ali; Nourieh, Zeinab; Attar, Mohammad Javad Hosseinzadeh; Azadbakht, Leila
This is a study on 422 female prisoners in peninsular Malaysia. More than half of the female prisoners are foreigners, mainly from Indonesia and Thailand. This study surveys the background of the respondents and identifies factors that may have influenced them to commit the offences. Female prisoners in Malaysia, particularly those who are…
Teh, Yik Koon
The purpose of this study was to (a) add to the current literature on female identity development and (b) determine whether a gender specific pattern of identity formation is evident in females during their early and middle adolescent years. The Measures of Psychosocial Development (MPD) was administered by graduate students to 317 males and 332 females in sixth, eighth, tenth,
L. Jean Lytle; Linda Bakken; Charles Romig
We studied for the first time the mammary gland morphogenesis and its hormonal modulation by immunolocalizing estradiol, progesterone and prolactin receptors (ER, PR and PRLR) in adult females of Lagostomus maximus, a caviomorph rodent which shows a pseudo-ovulatory process at mid-gestation. Mammary ductal system of non-pregnant females lacks expression of both ER? and ER?. Yet throughout pregnancy, ER? and ER? levels increase as well as the expression of PR. These increments are concomitant with ductal branching and alveolar differentiation. Even though mammary gland morphology is quite similar to that described for other rodents, alveolar proliferation and differentiation are accelerated towards the second half of pregnancy, once pseudo-ovulation had occurred. Moreover, this exponential growth correlates with an increment of both progesterone and estradiol serum-induced pseudo-ovulation. As expected, PR and PRLR are strongly expressed in the alveolar epithelium during pregnancy and lactation. Strikingly, PRLR is also present in ductal epithelia of cycling glands suggesting that prolactin function may not be restricted to its trophic effect on mammary glands of pregnant and lactating females, but it also regulates other physiological processes in mammary glands of non-pregnant animals. In conclusion, this report suggests that pseudo-ovulation at mid-gestation may be associated to L. maximus mammary gland growth and differentiation. The rise in P and E2-induced pseudo-ovulation as well as the increased expression of their receptors, all events that correlate with the development of a more elaborated and differentiated ductal network, pinpoint a possible relation between this peculiar physiological event and mammary gland morphogenesis. PMID:23529757
Halperin, Julia; Dorfman, Veronica B; Fraunhoffer, Nicolas; Vitullo, Alfredo D
Social animals with greater access to social support, i.e. higher levels of social capital, may be able to cope better with the challenges they face in their day-to-day lives, and this may be reflected in lower physiological stress levels. Here, we examine the relationship between social capital and fecal glucocorticoid (GC) levels in pregnant free-ranging adult female rhesus macaques. In addition to social capital measures based on direct connections between social partners, which have been examined previously, we use social network analysis to generate measures of social capital based on indirect connections (i.e. connections between pairs of individuals which result from their mutual direct connection to a third party). We consider social capital based on three different types of affiliative association: grooming, the exchange of affiliative vocalizations and proximity. After controlling for variables known to affect GC output in primates (e.g. month of pregnancy), GC levels of females were significantly predicted by a social network measure of indirect connectedness in the proximity network, proximity reach, in interaction with dominance rank. High ranking females had significantly lower GC levels in months in which they had low levels of proximity reach (i.e. in months in which their proximity networks were smaller and therefore more focused). The results of our study add to a growing body of evidence which suggests that social capital may be an important means by which gregarious animals cope with day-to-day challenges. Our study also joins a small body of recent research which has demonstrated that indirect connections may be important factors in the lives of social animals. PMID:20933532
Brent, L J N; Semple, S; Dubuc, C; Heistermann, M; Maclarnon, A
Aims The influence of prenatal factors on the development of arterial hypertension has gained considerable interest in recent years. We examined the effects of prenatal testosterone treatment on blood pressure in adult female rats. Further, to define the mechanisms whereby blood pressure may be raised, we examined vascular endothelial function and nitric oxide synthesis. Methods and Results Testosterone propionate (0.5mg/kg/day;SC) or vehicle was administered to pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats from gestational day 15–19. Maternal feed intake and plasma levels of steroid hormones were measured in the dams. In the female offspring, birth weight, growth rate, blood pressure, vascular reactivity, eNOS expression, and nitric oxide production were examined. In the pregnant rats, testosterone-treatment increased plasma testosterone levels by 2-fold without any significant changes in 17?-estradiol, progesterone and corticosterone levels. Testosterone-treatment did not affect maternal feed intake. The pups born to testosterone mothers were smaller in size but exhibited catch-up growth. The blood pressure in the testosterone offspring at 6 months of age was significantly higher compared to controls. Endothelium-intact mesenteric arteries from testosterone group exhibited increased contractile responses to phenylephrine, decreased vasodilation to acetylcholine and unaltered responses to sodium nitroprusside in comparison to control rats. Testosterone rats demonstrated decreased expression for eNOS, and reduced nitric oxide production. Conclusions Our data show that elevated plasma maternal testosterone levels: (1) causes low birth weight followed by catch-up growth and hypertension in female offspring; (2) alters endothelium-dependent vascular responses. The endothelial dysfunction is associated with decreased activity/expression of eNOS.
Sathishkumar, K.; Elkins, Rebekah; Yallampalli, Uma; Balakrishnan, Meena; Yallampalli, Chandrasekhar
Coadministration of azoles and vincristine has been shown to increase vincristine neurotoxic effects due to the inhibition of cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoform 3A4, for which vincristine is a substrate. Despite the absence of any casual relationship between seizure and coadministration of azoles, few case reports of vincristine-induced seizure have been documented after coadministration of fluconazole or posaconazole in children. In this paper we are reporting the first young female adult who experienced generalized seizure after coadministration of posaconazole and vincristine. The 19-year-old female was diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. She started induction phase of Berlin Frankfurt Muenster protocol along with posaconazole 200?mg three times daily as prophylactic antifungal therapy. Five days after the third vincristine dose, she developed generalized seizure accompanied by high blood pressure and SIADH. Her neurological exam/CT scan did not show any abnormality. In conclusion, this study reports a novel finding in the sense that all previous case reports pertaining to posaconazole-vincristine-induced seizure in literature involved children. Physicians should be made aware of this rare possible outcome to closely monitor their patients and take appropriate measures to prevent such possible adverse effect.
Hamdy, Dalia A.; El-Geed, Hager; El-Salem, Samah; Zaidan, Manal
Objective To determine the effect of graded doses of aqueous leaf extracts of Momordica charantia on fertility hormones of female albino rats. Methods Twenty adult, healthy, female Wistar rats were divided into four groups: low dose (LD), moderate dose (MD) and high dose (HD) groups which received 12.5 g, 25.0 g, 50.0 g of the leaf extract respectively and control group that was given with water ad libatum. Result Estrogen levels reduced by 6.40 nmol/L, 10.80 nmol/L and 28.00 nmol/L in the LD, MD and HD groups respectively while plasma progesterone of rats in the LD, MD and HD groups reduced by 24.20 nmol/L, 40.8 nmol/L and 59.20 nmol/L respectively. Conclusion Our study has shown that the antifertility effect of Momordica charantia is achieved in a dose dependent manner. Hence, cautious use of such medication should be advocated especially when managing couples for infertility.
Adewale, Osonuga Odusoga; Oduyemi, Osonuga Ifabunmi; Ayokunle, Osonuga
The present invention is directed to a method of using dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) to treat a human female with diminished ovarian reserve. The method includes measuring a baseline follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) level of the human female, and when the baseline FSH level is below about 40.0 mIU/ml, administering about 75 milligrams of DHEA per day to the female for at least four months to treat ovarian follicles in at least one ovary of the female to improve human folliculogenesis during the at least four months. The present invention further is directed to a method of restoring the ovarian environment of an older human female to that of a younger human female. The method includes administering about 75 milligrams of DHEA per day to the female for at least four months.
Ritual genital cutting for women, a common practice in Africa and elsewhere around the world, remains dangerous and controversial. In recent years, a 14-year-old girl living in Sierra Leone exsanguinated and died following a ritualistic genital cutting. Hoping to avoid that fate, women with backgrounds that accept ritual genital cutting may, when they reach majority age, ask plastic surgeons to perform genital alterations for cultural reasons. Although plastic surgeons routinely perform cosmetic procedures, unique ethical and legal concerns arise when an adult female patient asks a surgeon to spare her the tribal elder's knife and alter her genitalia according to tradition and custom. Misinformation and confusion about this issue exist. This article explores the ethical and legal issues relevant to this situation and explains how the thoughtful surgeon should proceed. PMID:16582781
Cantor, Julie D
Eosinophilic granuloma of bone is a disease with an incidence of one new case per 350,000 to 2 million per year, which is an uncommon disease of maxillofacial region, and presents in more than 90% in children under the age of ten with predominance for males. As a result, eosinophilic granuloma of the jaw is always unconsidered in the differential diagnosis of similar lesions by many clinicians. It is difficult to make a correct diagnosis on it without proof of a pathological diagnosis, which correlates with the diverse clinical and radiographic presentations of eosinophilic granuloma in the jaws. In the present paper we report a rare case of unifocal eosinophilic granuloma of mandible occurring in an adult female.
Agarwal, Anshita; Agrawal, Gaurav P.; Alam, Sarwar; Husain, Benazeer
This paper compares two groups of adult female offenders involved in shoplifting and fraudulent behaviour. Twenty women were studied whose first offenses occurred in their mid-life period. The major findings conclude that an unresolved mourning or loss in the context of high stress and depression is one of the commonalities in the two groups. Another commonality is that a defined classical role for these women is conflictual and the relationship established with their spouses is a repetition of their relationship with their father. The authors suggest that these types of acting out in general are a depressive equivalent, and a larger sample could duplicate the findings and collect more precise data about the nature of the relationship in the family of origin to help these women feel better in their social role. PMID:7606705
Fugère, R; D'Elia, A; Philippe, R
This study examined the prevalence and correlates of suicidal threats and attempts among 662 racially and ethnically diverse adult female victims of intimate partner violence (IPV). One in five women had threatened or attempted suicide during her lifetime. Multiple logistic regression results indicated that women at greater risk of severe or potentially lethal assaults as measured by the Danger Assessment and those who reported having a chronic or disabling illness were more likely to have threatened or attempted suicide. A linear association was found between age and suicide threats/attempts, with younger women having increased odds. Finally, African American IPV victims were less likely to have threatened or attempted suicide as compared to Latina victims. Study implications are discussed.
Cavanaugh, Courtenay E.; Messing, Jill Theresa; Del-Colle, Melissa; O'Sullivan, Chris; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.
Postpartum depression (PPD) is a modified form of major depressive disorders (MDD) that can exert profound negative effects on both mothers and infants than MDD. Within the postpartum period, both mothers and infants are susceptible; but because PPD typically occurs for short durations and has moderate symptoms, there exists challenges in exploring and addressing the underlying cause of the depression. This fact highlights the need for relevant animal models. In the present study, postpartum adult female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) living in breeding groups were observed for typical depressive behavior. The huddle posture behavior was utilized as an indicator of behavioral depression postpartum (BDP) as it has been established as the core depressive-like behavior in primates. Monkeys were divided into two groups: A BDP group (n=6), which were found to spend more time huddling over the first two weeks postpartum than other individuals that formed a non-depression control group (n=4). The two groups were then further analyzed for locomotive activity, stressful events, hair cortisol levels and for maternal interactive behaviors. No differences were found between the BDP and control groups in locomotive activity, in the frequencies of stressful events experienced and in hair cortisol levels. These findings suggested that the postpartum depression witnessed in the monkeys was not related to external factors other than puerperium period. Interestingly, the BDP monkeys displayed an abnormal maternal relationship consisting of increased infant grooming. Taken together, these findings suggest that the adult female cynomolgus monkeys provide a natural model of behavioral postpartum depression that holds a number of advantages over commonly used rodent systems in PPD modeling. The cynomolgus monkeys have a highly-organized social hierarchy and reproductive characteristics without seasonal restriction-similar to humans-as well as much greater homology to humans than rodents. As such, this model may provide a greater translational efficiency and research platform for systematically investigating the etiology, treatment, prevention of PPD. PMID:24866487
Chu, Xun-Xun; Dominic Rizak, Joshua; Yang, Shang-Chuan; Wang, Jian-Hong; Ma, Yuan-Ye; Hu, Xin-Tian
Age-specific behavioral and neural characteristics may predispose adolescents to initiate and escalate use of alcohol and drugs. Adolescents may avidly seek novel experiences, including drugs of abuse, because of enhanced incentive motivation for drugs and natural rewards, perhaps especially when that incentive motivation is sensitized by prior drug exposure. Using a Pavlovian conditioned approach (PCA) procedure, sign-tracking (ST) and goal-tracking (GT) behavior was examined in amphetamine-sensitized and control adolescent and adult female Sprague-Dawley rats, with expression of elevated ST behavior used to index enhanced incentive motivation for reward-associated cues. Rats were first exposed to a sensitizing regimen of amphetamine injections (3.0 mg/kg/ml d-amphetamine per day) or given saline (0.9% w/v) once daily for 4 days. Expression of ST and GT was then examined over 8 days of PCA training consisting of 25 pairings of an 8-sec presentation of an illuminated lever immediately followed by response-independent delivery of a banana-flavored food pellet. Results showed that adults clearly displayed more ST behavior than adolescents, reflected via both more contacts with, and shorter latencies to approach, the lever. Prior amphetamine sensitization increased ST (but not GT) behaviors regardless of age. Thus, when indexed via ST, incentive motivation was found to be greater in adults than adolescents, with a prior history of amphetamine exposure generally sensitizing incentive motivation for cues predicting a food reward regardless of age.
Doremus-Fitzwater, Tamara L.; Spear, Linda P.
For vertebrates with temperature-dependent sex determination, primary (or hatchling) sex ratios are often skewed, an issue of particular relevance to concerns over effects of climate change on populations. However, the ratio of breeding males to females, or the operational sex ratio (OSR), is important to understand because it has consequences for population demographics and determines the capacity of a species to persist. The OSR also affects mating behaviors and mate choice, depending on the more abundant sex. For sea turtles, hatchling and juvenile sex ratios are generally female-biased, and with warming nesting beach temperatures, there is concern that populations may become feminized. Our purpose was to evaluate the breeding sex ratio for leatherback turtles at a nesting beach in St. Croix, USVI. In 2010, we sampled nesting females and later sampled their hatchlings as they emerged from nests. Total genomic DNA was extracted and all individuals were genotyped using 6 polymorphic microsatellite markers. We genotyped 662 hatchlings from 58 females, matching 55 females conclusively to their nests. Of the 55, 42 females mated with one male each, 9 mated with 2 males each and 4 mated with at least 3 males each, for a multiple paternity rate of 23.6%. Using GERUD1.0, we reconstructed parental genotypes, identifying 47 different males and 46 females for an estimated breeding sex ratio of 1.02 males for every female. Thus we demonstrate that there are as many actively breeding males as females in this population. Concerns about female-biased adult sex ratios may be premature, and mate choice or competition may play more of a role in sea turtle reproduction than previously thought. We recommend monitoring breeding sex ratios in the future to allow the integration of this demographic parameter in population models.
Stewart, Kelly R.; Dutton, Peter H.
Activity of Swift Foxes (Vulpes velox) at den sites was studied in northwestern Texas during pup rearing seasons in 2000 and 2001 to determine role of males in parental care. Twenty-four percent of radio-collared females with a potential to breed successfully raised pups to eight weeks of age. We intensively monitored presence and absence of male and female Swift Foxes at two den sites each year. Females were present >2.6 times more at den sites than males during the pup rearing season. Female and male Swift Foxes largely stayed at dens during diurnal hours and were active away from dens during nocturnal and crepuscular hours. Females and males spent 12.4% and 3.0% more time at dens before pups emerged, than after pups emerged, respectively. Following depredation of one male parent, the female spent 29% less time at the den site. Decrease in time spent at the den by the female following loss of her mate suggested that loss of one parent might severely impact recruitment of Swift Foxes. Our observations indicated that intense Coyote (Canis latrans) depredation may severely impact pup-rearing success as well as the parental care within Swift Fox family groups.
Lemons, P. R.; Ballard, W. B.; Sullivan, R. M.; Sovada, M. A.
Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), an environmental endocrine disruptor, is widely present in the environment and some products with phthalate plasticizer. It has become a serious problem in recent years. The effect of DEHP on female reproductive system is still not well-studied. This study was to investigate the effects of DEHP on hypothalamus-pituitary-ovarian axis in adult female rats. Compared with control rats, the DEHP-treated rats showed: (1) lower body weight; (2) lower organ coefficient of ovary; (3) higher GnRH level in the hypothalamus; (4) higher mRNA and protein levels of GnRHR in the pituitary; and (5) lower serum sex hormone levels. Our data reveal that DEHP exposure may lead to the disruption of estrogen biosynthesis pathways in female rats and imbalance of hypothalamus-pituitary-ovarian axis. DEHP may impose negative influence on the development and function of the reproductive system in female rats. PMID:24675100
Liu, Te; Li, Na; Zhu, Jian; Yu, Guangyan; Guo, Kun; Zhou, Liting; Zheng, Dongchun; Qu, Xiaofeng; Huang, Jian; Chen, Xin; Wang, Shuyue; Ye, Lin
Acne, one of the most common skin problems in dermatological practice, is a condition that affects not only adolescents but also adults. While approximately 80% of cases occurring in adulthood are persistent from teenage years, around 20% are described as 'late-onset' disease, appearing for the first time in adulthood. The disease can be triggered by hormonal changes (including a change from one contraceptive to another), or it can be induced by certain nonhormonal medications, emotional stress, and various underlying diseases such as polycystic ovary syndrome. In many cases acne becomes a chronic skin condition with undulating activity, including improvement and relapse phases, and is often experienced as a major psychological burden. It is, therefore, even more important to provide an effective as well as a safe and tolerable treatment. The spectrum of topical acne treatments has expanded substantially in recent years and various topical medications are available, ranging from azelaic acid, antibiotics, retinoids and benzoyl peroxide to several fixed combinations of these active compounds. The following case collection illustrates how 15% azelaic acid gel, as a well-established monotherapy, can be successfully employed to treat mild-to-moderate forms of adult female acne. PMID:24280645
Vargas-Diez, E; Hofmann, M A; Bravo, B; Malgazhdarova, G; Katkhanova, O A; Yutskovskaya, Y
The changes in the hemolymph proteome of mygalomorph Brachypelma albopilosa females were examined for the first time in relation to their developmental stage (subadult and adult period). Seven distinct subunits of hemocyanin (a, b, c, d, e, f, and g chains), as well as actin were clearly identified and their sequence partly characterized using a combination of one- and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. The different structures determined along with possible post-translational modifications may reflect a role of hemocyanin in molting, immunity, and reproduction. In addition, despite no precise identification, additional peptide sequences from eight protein bands (four bands >200 kDa and four bands in the 95-200 kDa mass range) were determined. As reported in other spider species, the putative corresponding structures are the coagulogen protein and/or lipoproteins (HDL-1, HDL-2, VHDL) for which quantitative differences between adult and subadult individuals could be related to the molting process and/or cuticle lipid and protein composition according to the developmental stage. PMID:20717997
Trabalon, Marie; Carapito, Christine; Voinot, Florian; Martrette, Jean-Marc; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Gilbert, Caroline; Bertile, Fabrice
Background Most filarial nematodes contain Wolbachia symbionts. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of doxycycline on gene expression in Wolbachia and adult female Brugia malayi. Methods Brugia malayi infected gerbils were treated with doxycycline for 6-weeks. This treatment largely cleared Wolbachia and arrested worm reproduction. RNA recovered from treated and control female worms was labeled by random priming and hybridized to the Version 2- filarial microarray to obtain expression profiles. Results and discussion Results showed significant changes in expression for 200 Wolbachia (29% of Wolbachia genes with expression signals in untreated worms) and 546 B. malayi array elements after treatment. These elements correspond to known genes and also to novel genes with unknown biological functions. Most differentially expressed Wolbachia genes were down-regulated after treatment (98.5%). In contrast, doxycycline had a mixed effect on B. malayi gene expression with many more genes being significantly up-regulated after treatment (85% of differentially expressed genes). Genes and processes involved in reproduction (gender-regulated genes, collagen, amino acid metabolism, ribosomal processes, and cytoskeleton) were down-regulated after doxycycline while up-regulated genes and pathways suggest adaptations for survival in response to stress (energy metabolism, electron transport, anti-oxidants, nutrient transport, bacterial signaling pathways, and immune evasion). Conclusions Doxycycline reduced Wolbachia and significantly decreased bacterial gene expression. Wolbachia ribosomes are believed to be the primary biological target for doxycycline in filarial worms. B. malayi genes essential for reproduction, growth and development were also down-regulated; these changes are consistent with doxycycline effects on embryo development and reproduction. On the other hand, many B. malayi genes involved in energy production, electron-transport, metabolism, anti-oxidants, and others with unknown functions had increased expression signals after doxycycline treatment. These results suggest that female worms are able to compensate in part for the loss of Wolbachia so that they can survive, albeit without reproductive capacity. This study of doxycycline induced changes in gene expression has provided new clues regarding the symbiotic relationship between Wolbachia and B. malayi.
Decline in the ovarian hormones with menopause may influence somatosensory, cognitive, and affective processing. The present study investigated whether hormonal depletion alters the nociceptive, depressive-like and learning behaviors in experimental rats after ovariectomy (OVX), a common method to deplete animals of their gonadal hormones. OVX rats developed thermal hyperalgesia in proximal and distal tail that was established 2 weeks after OVX and lasted the 7 weeks of the experiment. A robust mechanical allodynia was also occurred at 5 weeks after OVX. In the 5th week after OVX, dilute formalin (5%)-induced nociceptive responses (such as elevating and licking or biting) during the second phase were significantly increased as compared to intact and sham-OVX females. However, chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve-induced mechanical allodynia did not differ as hormonal status (e.g. OVX and ovarian intact). Using formalin-induced conditioned place avoidance (F-CPA), which is believed to reflect the pain-related negative emotion, we further found that OVX significantly attenuated F-CPA scores but did not alter electric foot-shock-induced CPA (S-CPA). In the open field and forced swimming test, there was an increase in depressive-like behaviors in OVX rats. There was no detectable impairment of spatial performance by Morris water maze task in OVX rats up to 5 weeks after surgery. Estrogen replacement retrieved OVX-induced nociceptive hypersensitivity and depressive-like behaviors. This is the first study to investigate the impacts of ovarian removal on nociceptive perception, negative emotion, depressive-like behaviors and spatial learning in adult female rats in a uniform and standard way. PMID:24710472
Li, Li-Hong; Wang, Zhe-Chen; Yu, Jin; Zhang, Yu-Qiu
Decline in the ovarian hormones with menopause may influence somatosensory, cognitive, and affective processing. The present study investigated whether hormonal depletion alters the nociceptive, depressive-like and learning behaviors in experimental rats after ovariectomy (OVX), a common method to deplete animals of their gonadal hormones. OVX rats developed thermal hyperalgesia in proximal and distal tail that was established 2 weeks after OVX and lasted the 7 weeks of the experiment. A robust mechanical allodynia was also occurred at 5 weeks after OVX. In the 5th week after OVX, dilute formalin (5%)-induced nociceptive responses (such as elevating and licking or biting) during the second phase were significantly increased as compared to intact and sham-OVX females. However, chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve-induced mechanical allodynia did not differ as hormonal status (e.g. OVX and ovarian intact). Using formalin-induced conditioned place avoidance (F-CPA), which is believed to reflect the pain-related negative emotion, we further found that OVX significantly attenuated F-CPA scores but did not alter electric foot-shock-induced CPA (S-CPA). In the open field and forced swimming test, there was an increase in depressive-like behaviors in OVX rats. There was no detectable impairment of spatial performance by Morris water maze task in OVX rats up to 5 weeks after surgery. Estrogen replacement retrieved OVX-induced nociceptive hypersensitivity and depressive-like behaviors. This is the first study to investigate the impacts of ovarian removal on nociceptive perception, negative emotion, depressive-like behaviors and spatial learning in adult female rats in a uniform and standard way.
Li, Li-Hong; Wang, Zhe-Chen; Yu, Jin; Zhang, Yu-Qiu
Pheromones from urine of unfamiliar conspecific male animals can reinitiate a female's estrus cycle to cause pregnancy block through the vomeronasal organ (VNO)-accessory olfactory bulb (AOB)-hypothalamic pathway. This phenomenon is called the Bruce effect. Pheromones from the mate of the female, however, do not trigger re-entrance of the estrus cycle because an olfactory memory toward its mate is formed. The activity of the VNO-AOB-hypothalamic pathway is negatively modulated by GABAergic granule cells in the AOB. Since these cells are constantly replenished by neural stem cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle throughout adulthood and adult neurogenesis is required for mate recognition and fertility, we tested the hypothesis that pheromones from familiar and unfamiliar males may have different effects on adult AOB neurogenesis in female mice. When female mice were exposed to bedding used by a male or lived with one, cell proliferation and neuroblast production in the SVZ were increased. Furthermore, survival of newly generated cells in the AOB was enhanced. This survival effect was transient and mediated by norepinephrine. Interestingly, male bedding-induced newborn cell survival in the AOB but not cell proliferation in the SVZ was attenuated when females were subjected to bedding from an unfamiliar male. Our results indicate that male pheromones from familiar and unfamiliar males exert different effects on neurogenesis in the adult female AOB. Given that adult neurogenesis is required for reproductive behaviors, these divergent pheromonal effects may provide a mechanism for the Bruce effect. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 73: 632-645, 2013. PMID:23696538
Wu, Jyun-Han; Han, Yueh-Ting; Yu, Jenn-Yah; Wang, Tsu-Wei
Fluorodeoxyglucose is the most commonly used radiopharmaceutical in Positron Emission Tomography, with applications in neurology, cardiology, and oncology. Despite its routine use worldwide, the radiation absorbed dose estimates from FDG have been based primarily on data obtained from two dogs studied in 1977 and 11 adults (most likely males) studied in 1982. In addition, the dose estimates calculated for FDG
The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of oral contraceptive therapy on bone density and serum markers of bone metabolism in a prospective, longitudinal study of young adult female cynomolgus monkeys. Two hundred and seven intact cynomolgus monkeys were randomized to two groups, and fed an atherogenic diet containing either no drug (Control) or a triphasic
T. C. Register; M. J. Jayo; C. P. Jerome
Satellite cells are myogenic cells found between the basal lamina and the sarcolemma of the muscle fibre. Satellite cells are the source of new myofibres; as such, satellite cell transplantation holds promise as a treatment for muscular dystrophies. We have investigated age and sex differences between mouse satellite cells in vitro and assessed the importance of these factors as mediators of donor cell engraftment in an in vivo model of satellite cell transplantation. We found that satellite cell numbers are increased in growing compared to adult and in male compared to female adult mice. We saw no difference in the expression of the myogenic regulatory factors between male and female mice, but distinct profiles were observed according to developmental stage. We show that, in contrast to adult mice, the majority of satellite cells from two week old mice are proliferating to facilitate myofibre growth; however a small proportion of these cells are quiescent and not contributing to this growth programme. Despite observed changes in satellite cell populations, there is no difference in engraftment efficiency either between satellite cells derived from adult or pre-weaned donor mice, male or female donor cells, or between male and female host muscle environments. We suggest there exist two distinct satellite cell populations: one for muscle growth and maintenance and one for muscle regeneration. PMID:22662253
Neal, Alice; Boldrin, Luisa; Morgan, Jennifer Elizabeth
This study investigated the involvement of estrogen receptors ? and ? in estradiol-induced enhancement of hippocampal neurogenesis in the adult female rat. Subtype selective estrogen receptor agonists, propyl-pyrazole triol (estrogen receptor ? agonist) and diarylpropionitrile (estrogen receptor ? agonist) were examined for each receptor’s contribution, individual and cooperative, for estradiol-enhanced hippocampal cell proliferation. Estradiol increases hippocampal cell proliferation within 4
C. A. Mazzucco; S. E. Lieblich; B. I. Bingham; M. A. Williamson; V. Viau; L. A. M. Galea
The oviposition deterrence and ovicidal potential of five different essential oils, peppermint oil (Mentha piperita), basil oil (Ocimum basilicum), rosemary oil (Rosemarinus officinalis), citronella oil (Cymbopogon nardus), and celery seed oil (Apium graveolens), were assessed against female adults of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti L. Multiple concentration tests were carried out where cups containing 1 mL of different concentrations (100%, 10%,
Radhika Warikoo; Naim Wahab; Sarita Kumar
Objective: To investigate the relationships between risk and protective factors and health outcome in a sample of adult females who had been victims of child sexual abuse. Method: Both person- and variable-oriented analyses were applied to questionnaire data from a non-clinical group of women (n=152) reporting sexual abuse during childhood.…
Jonzon, Eva; Lindblad, Frank
The Female Athlete Triad is a syndrome of the interrelated components of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. Sometimes inadvertently, but more often by willful dietary restriction, many female athletes do not ingest sufficient calories to adequately fuel their physical or sport activities, which can disrupt menstrual functioning,…
Sherman, Roberta Trattner; Thompson, Ron A.
This article makes a brief overview of the most frequent female sexual disorders seen in our clinical practice. It highlights the increasing number of women presenting with hypoactive sexual desire and the efforts practitioners put on helping these female patients. The article also shows the pharmacological strategies that are investigated to solve these dysfuntions. PMID:24260752
Although boys engage in more delinquent and criminal acts than do girls, female delinquency is on the rise. In 1980, boys were four times as likely as girls to be arrested; today they are only twice as likely to be arrested. In this article, the author explores how the juvenile justice system is and should be responding to the adolescent female…
These studies attempted to elucidate the relationship between estradiol and luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion in chronically underfed (R) adult female rats. Examination of the response to ovariectomy revealed a significant delay in the onset of the postcastration increase in LH secretion in R females compared to control (C) animals. Chronic estrogen treatment in the form of Silastic capsules containing varying doses of E2. The response of C females was dose-dependent, ranging from complete suppression at 10 micrograms E2/animal to an absence of inhibition at 2.4 micrograms E2/animal. The acute response of LH secretion to E2 administration in the ovariectomized female indicated an increased suppression of plasma LH at 6 and 24 h after a single s.c. injection of estradiol benzoate (EB) in R compared to C animals. There was no difference between R and C rats in the ratio of free to protein-bound estradiol in the serum. The results of these studies suggest that the negative feedback efficacy of estrogen on LH secretion is significantly enhanced by reduced food intake in adult female rats and may be responsible for the loss of reproductive cyclicity in these animals. PMID:3207799
Sprangers, S A; Piacsek, B E
Survival rates of nine adult female Northern Pintails (Anas acuta) that became flightless after being radio-marked in the Sacramento Valley, California in August 1987-1989 were estimated. Seven of the radio-marked pintails molted in the Sacramento Valley, a nontraditional molting region, and two flew 280 km north to the Klamath Basin to molt. Molting marshes were dominated by emergent vegetation in both locations. Two ducks, while flightless in the Sacramento Valley, were killed by predators. Molting pintails remained sedentary (did not fly) for an average of 36 d, and the daily survival rate during this period was 0.9934. The resulting sedentary-period survival rate was 0.79. Primary feather 9 on two captive ducks grew an average of 4.2 mm per day. Mean body mass of molting ducks that died was lower than that for molting ducks that survived (P < 0.10). The number of pintails molting on Sacramento Valley refuges is probably <200.
Miller, M. R.; Fleskes, J. P.; Orthmeyer, D. L.; Gilmer, D. S.
Since the new millennium, a notion has developed in certain parts of society that environmental pollutants and their associated effects are under control. The primary objective of this investigation, performed in 2003, was to test whether this was actually the case in an industrialised region in the County of Västernorrland in northern Sweden with well-documented environmental pollution from past and present activities. This was performed by measuring a moderate battery of simple biomarkers in adult female perch at several stations. The point sources included sewage-treatment plants, pulp and paper mills, as well as other industries. The biomarkers included growth, somatic indices, gonad maturation status, gonad pigmentation, fin erosion, skin ulcers, and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity in the liver. The results showed that the environmental pollutants and their associated effects were not under control. In fact, the health of the perch was impaired at all of the polluted stations. Many responses were unspecific with respect to underlying cause, whereas some effects on EROD activity and gonad maturation status were attributed to historical creosote pollution and current kraft pulp mill effluents, respectively. The data presented may also be used as reference values for future investigations of health effects in perch. PMID:24297393
Hansson, Tomas; Hansen, Wenche; Tjärnlund, Ulla; Balk, Lennart; Bengtsson, Bengt-Erik
The primary malaria vector in sub-Saharan Africa, Anopheles gambiae Giles (Diptera: Culicidae), is an anthropophagic and endophilic mosquito targeted for control with insecticides applied to interior resting surfaces and impregnated onto bed net materials. Effective malaria vector management involves monitoring the insecticide susceptibility of mosquito populations. Contemporary bioassays are based on mosquito contact with insecticide residues. We developed an innovative insecticide bioassay system that involves mosquito ingestion of a sugar-insecticide solution. The sucrose-permethrin solution in our bioassay system contained Trypan blue dye, creating a visual marker of insecticide ingestion in the mosquito's abdomen. Blue fecal spots deposited in the bioassay container provided further evidence of mosquito feeding. We used our bioassay to characterize the permethrin susceptibility of adult females of two strains of A. gambiae, one of which was susceptible and the other exhibited reduced susceptibility to permethrin. We compared the dose-response of both strains to permethrin in a forced-contact filter paper bioassay. Both assay approaches produced similar dose-dependent mortality, indicating that the feeding bioassay had appropriately characterized permethrin susceptibility for both mosquito strains. PMID:23926778
Stell, F M; Roe, R M; Arellano, C; Apperson, C S
The authors identified two mutations in the CYP19 gene responsible for aromatase deficiency in an 18-year-old 46,XX female with ambiguous external genitalia at birth, primary amenorrhea and sexual infantilism, and polycystic ovaries. The coding exons, namely exons II-X, of the CYP19 gene were amplified by PCR from genomic DNA and sequenced directly. Direct sequencing of the amplified DNA from the patient revealed two single-base changes, at bp 1303 (C[yields]T) and bp 1310 (G[yields]A) in exon X, which were newly found missense mutations and resulted in codon changes of R435C and C437Y, respectively. Subcloning followed by sequencing confirmed that the patient is a compound heterozygote. The results of restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and direct sequencing of the amplified exon X DNA from the patient's mother indicate maternal inheritance of the R435C mutation. Transient expression experiments showed that the R435C mutant protein had [approx]1.1% of the activity of the wild type, whereas C437Y was totally inactive. Cysteine-437 is the conserved cysteine in the heme-binding region believed to serve as the fifth coordinating ligand of the heme iron. To the authors' knowledge, this patient is the first adult to have described the cardinal features of a syndrome of aromatase deficiency. Recognition that such defects exist will lead to a better understanding of the role of this enzyme in human development and disease.
Ito, Y.; Fisher, C.R.; Simpson, E.R. (Univ. of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)); Conte, F.A.; Grumbach, M.M. (Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States))
Because most heterosexual pedophilic offenses are committed by males who in fact erotically prefer adult females, the hypothesis was tested that males with nondeviant erotic preferences are generally prone to react in a sexual way to female children. With nondeviant subjects, penile volume changes (PVCs) were measured to stimulus slides and movie pictures of males and females, varying in age.
Kurt Freund; C. K. McKnight; R. Langevin; S. Cibiri
Objective: Aromatase, the key enzyme involved in estrogen synthesis, is expressed in a variety of cells and tissues including human peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs). The present study was designed to evaluate PBL aromatase gene expression in male and female subjects of different age groups. In addition, differences in gene expression during the follicular and luteal phase of the menstrual cycle
A Vottero; V Rochira; M Capelletti; I Viani; L Zirilli; T M Neri; C Carani; S Bernasconi; L Ghizzoni
The proposed changes in the further education sector, including the rationalisation of the VEC into Local Education and Training Boards (LETBs) and the closures of the Senior Traveller Training Centres (STTCs), have implications for guidance counselling provision to the Traveller community. This article discusses female Travellers' experiences of…
Doyle, Anne; Hearne, Lucy
Individuals living with an intersex condition have not received much attention in counseling psychology, although a high need for psychosocial care is obvious. Using a mixed-methods multiple case study with qualitative and quantitative data, the authors explore coping and gender experiences in seven 46, XY intersexual persons with deficiencies of androgen biosynthesis. These were assigned female at birth. At puberty,
Katinka Schweizer; Franziska Brunner; Karsten Schützmann; Verena Schönbucher; Hertha Richter-Appelt
This study examined how specific domains of cultural orientation (language, social affiliation, and cultural pride) related to self-esteem for a sample of 174 Chinese American male and 179 Chinese American female college students. Participants completed measures of cultural orientation (General Ethnicity Questionnaire; J. L. Tsai, Y. W. Ying, & P. A. Lee, 2000) and self-esteem (M. Rosenberg, 1965). Cultural orientation
Jeanne L. Tsai; Yu-Wen Ying; Peter Allen Lee
Although the proportion of women who patronize sexually oriented book-video-novelty stores appears to be growing, little is known about the phenomenon generally or about male–female differences. In the only studies of “female patrons of porn,” both Hefley (2007) and Berkowitz (2006) report that half of the customers that they observed entering two stores were women. Compared to men, women were
Richard McCleary; Richard Tewksbury
The external urethral sphincter (EUS) muscle plays a crucial role in lower urinary tract function: its activation helps maintain continence, whereas its relaxation contributes to micturition. To determine how the intrinsic properties of its motoneurons contribute to its physiological function, we have obtained intracellular current-clamp recordings from 49 EUS motoneurons in acutely isolated spinal cord slices from adult female rats. In all, 45% of EUS motoneurons fired spontaneously and steadily (average rate = 12–27 pulses/s). EUS motoneurons were highly excitable, having lower rheobase, higher input resistance, and smaller threshold depolarization than those of rat hindlimb motoneurons recorded in vitro. Correlations between these properties and afterhyperpolarization half-decay time are consistent with EUS motoneurons having characteristics of both fast and slow motor unit types. EUS motoneurons with a slow-like spectrum of properties exhibited spontaneous firing more often than those with fast-like characteristics. During triangular current ramp-induced repetitive firing, recruitment typically occurred at lower current levels than those at derecruitment, although the opposite pattern occurred in 10% of EUS motoneurons. This percentage was likely underestimated due to firing rate adaptation. These findings are consistent with the presence of a basal level of persistent inward current (PIC) in at least some EUS motoneurons. The low EUS motoneuron current and voltage thresholds make them readily recruitable, rendering them well suited to their physiological role in continence. The expression of firing behaviors consistent with PIC activation in this highly reduced preparation raises the possibility that in the intact animal, PICs contribute to urinary function not only through neuromodulator-dependent but also through neuromodulator-independent mechanisms.
Tennissen, Ann M.; Liebschutz, Jennifer E.; Chen, Xiang Yang; Wolpaw, Jonathan R.
Second generation antipsychotic drugs are routinely used as treatment for psychotic disorders. Many of these compounds, including olanzapine, cause metabolic side-effects such as impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance. Individual antidiabetic drugs can help control elevated glucose levels in patients treated with antipsychotics, but the effects of combining antidiabetics, which routinely occurs with Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients, have never been studied. Presently, we compared the effects of the three different antidiabetics metformin (500mg/kg, p.o.), rosiglitazone (30mg/kg, p.o.) and glyburide (10mg/kg, p.o.) on metabolic dysregulation in adult female rats treated acutely with olanzapine. In addition, dual combinations of each of these antidiabetics were compared head-to-head against each other and the individual drugs. The animals received two daily treatments with antidiabetics and were then treated acutely with olanzapine (10mg/kg, i.p.). Fasting glucose and insulin levels were measured, followed by a 2h glucose tolerance test. Olanzapine caused a large and highly significant glucose intolerance compared to vehicle treated rats. Rosiglitazone decreased glucose levels non-significantly, while both metformin and glyburide significantly decreased glucose levels compared to olanzapine-only treated animals. For antidiabetic dual-drug combinations, the rosiglitazone-metformin group showed an unexpected increase in glucose levels compared to all of the single antidiabetic drugs. However, both the metformin-glyburide and rosiglitazone-glyburide groups showed significantly greater reductions in glucose levels following olanzapine than with single drug treatment alone for metformin or rosiglitazone, bringing glucose levels down to values equivalent to vehicle-only treated animals. These findings indicate that further study of antidiabetic dual-drug combinations in patients treated with antipsychotic drugs is warranted. PMID:24140931
Boyda, Heidi N; Procyshyn, Ric M; Asiri, Yahya; Wu, Claire; Wang, Cathy K; Lo, Ryan; Pang, Catherine C Y; Honer, William G; Barr, Alasdair M
Among computational models, voxel phantoms based on computer tomographic (CT), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) or colour photographic images of patients, volunteers or cadavers have become popular in recent years. Although being true to nature representations of scanned individuals, voxel phantoms have limitations, especially when walled organs have to be segmented or when volumes of organs or body tissues, like adipose, have to be changed. Additionally, the scanning of patients or volunteers is usually made in supine position, which causes a shift of internal organs towards the ribcage, a compression of the lungs and a reduction of the sagittal diameter especially in the abdominal region compared to the regular anatomy of a person in the upright position, which in turn can influence organ and tissue absorbed or equivalent dose estimates. This study applies tools developed recently in the areas of computer graphics and animated films to the creation and modelling of 3D human organs, tissues, skeletons and bodies based on polygon mesh surfaces. Female and male adult human phantoms, called FASH (Female Adult meSH) and MASH (Male Adult meSH), have been designed using software, such as MakeHuman, Blender, Binvox and ImageJ, based on anatomical atlases, observing at the same time organ masses recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for the male and female reference adult in report no 89. 113 organs, bones and tissues have been modelled in the FASH and the MASH phantoms representing locations for adults in standing posture. Most organ and tissue masses of the voxelized versions agree with corresponding data from ICRP89 within a margin of 2.6%. Comparison with the mesh-based male RPI_AM and female RPI_AF phantoms shows differences with respect to the material used, to the software and concepts applied, and to the anatomies created.
Cassola, V. F.; de Melo Lima, V. J.; Kramer, R.; Khoury, H. J.
Dietary fibers can be fermented in the colon, resulting in production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and secretion of satiety-related peptides. Fermentation characteristics (fermentation kinetics and SCFA-profile) differ between fibers and could impact their satiating potential. We investigated the effects of fibers with varying fermentation characteristics on feeding motivation in adult female pigs. Sixteen pair-housed pigs received four diets in four periods in a Latin square design. Starch from a control (C) diet was exchanged, based on gross energy, for inulin (INU), guar gum (GG), or retrograded tapioca starch (RS), each at a low (L) and a high (H) inclusion level. This resulted in a decreased metabolizable energy intake when feeding fiber diets as compared with the C diet. According to in vitro fermentation measurements, INU is rapidly fermentable and yields relatively high amounts of propionate, GG is moderately rapidly fermentable and yields relatively high amounts of acetate, and RS is slowly fermentable and yields relatively high amounts of butyrate. Feeding motivation was assessed using behavioral tests at 1h, 3h and 7h after the morning meal, and home pen behavioral observations throughout the day. The number of wheel turns paid for a food reward in an operant test was unaffected by diet. Pigs on H-diets ran 25% slower for a food reward in a runway test than pigs on L-diets, and showed less spontaneous physical activity and less stereotypic behavior in the hours before the afternoon meal, reflecting increased interprandial satiety. Reduced feeding motivation with increasing inclusion level was most pronounced for RS, as pigs decreased speed in the runway test and tended to have a lower voluntary food intake in an ad libitum food intake test when fed RS-H. In conclusion, increasing levels of fermentable fibers in the diet seemed to enhance satiety in adult pigs, despite a reduction in metabolizable energy supply. RS was the most satiating fiber, possibly due to its slow rate of fermentation and high production of butyrate. PMID:23313406
Souza da Silva, Carol; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth; Gerrits, Walter J J; Kemp, Bas; van den Borne, Joost J G C
The cause of the female urethral syndrome has previously been obscure, as it has been associated by definition with a lack of objective findings but a plethora of subjective complaints of retropubic pressure, dyspareunia, urinary frequency, and dysuria. There is now strong evidence that the microscopic paraurethral glands connected to the distal third of the urethra in the prevaginal space are homologous to the prostate. They stain histologically for prostate-specific antigen and, like the prostate, are subject to both infection and cancer. The most important aspect of recognizing this microscopic "female prostate" as an anatomic feature is that its infections may completely explain many cases of the urethral syndrome. Further, the diagnosis is not elusive if trained clinicians palpate for localized and objective paraurethral tenderness through the anterior vagina wall to one or both sides of the urethra. Treatment parallel to that for male prostatitis is usually rewarded by the elimination of symptoms and the objective finding of the loss of tenderness of the paraurethral glands. As with prostatitis, the localized problem often recurs. It is time to alert primary care physicians to this disorder and to eliminate the widespread practice of treating affected women with either invasive urethral dilation or tranquilizers. Images Figure 1. Figure 3.
Gittes, R F; Nakamura, R M
The South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus, is a complex of cryptic species composed of at least seven morphotypes. Some of them, such as the Peruvian and Brazilian 1 morphotypes (which include Argentinean populations), exhibit strong pre-copulatory isolation, yet it is possible to obtain heterotypic crosses when forcing copulation of adults under laboratory conditions. The cross involving Peruvian males and Argentinean females produces F1 offspring with reduced viability in terms of egg hatch. This low hatchability could be caused by a reduced amount of sperm transferred to and stored by females mated with heterotypic males, which in turn could affect their post-copulatory behaviour. To test these hypotheses, we investigated sperm transfer and female mating and remating behaviour for homotypic and heterotypic crosses between adults of two morphotypes (Brazilian 1 [Argentina] and Peruvian [Peru]) of the A. fraterculus cryptic species complex. As reported before, Argentinean males and females mated earlier in the day than the other three mating combinations. Peruvian females engaged in shorter copulation times than Argentinean females. Peruvian females tended to store smaller quantities of sperm than Argentinean females, and almost a half of the crosses involving Argentinean males and Peruvian females were unsuccessful (no sperm transfer). However, there was no evidence that the cross between Peruvian males and Argentinean females resulted in storage of a critically small amount of sperm (posing risk of sperm shortage). Argentinean females were more willing to remate than Peruvian females, irrespective of male morphotype, but latency to remating was not affected by male or female morphotype. This study shows that mating behaviour differs between some of the A. fraterculus complex morphotypes, with female but not male morphotype determining female likelihood to remate. PMID:24702958
Abraham, S; Rull, J; Mendoza, M; Liendo, M C; Devescovi, F; Roriz, A K; Kovaleski, A; Segura, D F; Vera, M T
We described the anatomy of the utero-ovarian venous system in the adult postmenopausal female cadaver using casts and the\\u000a von Hagen’s plastination technique. To qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate the uterine vein, the utero-ovarian arcade,\\u000a the ovarian vein and the ramus communicans between left and right parametrium, we injected epoxy resin into the internal iliac\\u000a vein and artery and the ovarian
Mircea L. Pavkov; Jürgen Koebke; Hans-P. Notermans; Jost Brökelmann
Background The mosquito Aedes aegypti, vector of dengue fever, is a target for control by entomopathogenic fungi. Recent studies by our group have shown the susceptibility\\u000a of adult A. aegypti to fungal infection by Metarhizium anisopliae. This fungus is currently being tested under field conditions. However, it is unknown whether blood-fed A. aegypti females are equally susceptible to infection by entomopathogenic
Adriano R Paula; Aline T Carolino; Carlos P Silva; Richard I Samuels
There are several case reports documenting opportunistic fungal infection in the female genital tract, withr Aspergillus spp being a rarely reported causative organism. We hereby report a case of Aspergillus infection in a 48 year-old, postmenopausal female with carcinoma of the cervix. She presented with features of pelvic inflammatory disease, and an initial routine cervico-vaginal smear revealed severe inflammation along with fungal bodies. The features were consistent with the presence of Aspergillus spp, while the background epithelial cells were negative for intraepithelial malignancy. She was offered therapy for pelvic inflammatory disease. A repeat Papanicolaou smear after two weeks was negative for intraepithelial organisms, but showed the evidence of a high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, with biopsy confirming squamous cell carcinoma.
Deb, Prabal; Srivastava, Anurag
This study investigated whether undifferentiated germ and/or somatic stem cells remain in the differentiated ovary of a species that does not undergo sex changes under natural conditions and retain their sexual plasticity. The effect of aromatase inhibitor (AI)-treatment on sexually mature female zebrafish was examined. A 5-month AI treatment caused retraction of the ovaries after which testes-like organs appeared, and cyst structures filled with spermatozoa-like cells were observed in sections of these tissues. Electron microscopic observations revealed that these cells appeared as large sperm heads without tails. Sperm formation was re-examined after changing the diet to an AI-free food. A large number of normal sperm were obtained after eight weeks, and no formation of ovarian tissue was observed. Artificial fertilization using sperm from the sex-changed females was successful. These results demonstrated that sex plasticity remains in the mature ovaries of this species.
Takatsu, Kanae; Miyaoku, Kaori; Roy, Shimi Rani; Murono, Yuki; Sago, Tomohiro; Itagaki, Hideyuki; Nakamura, Masaru; Tokumoto, Toshinobu
The effect of prenatal cimetidine exposure (PreCM) on the duration of pentobarbital-induced narcosis (DPN) was assessed in immature (14- and 28-day old) and adult (50-60-day old) male and female rats. PreCM exposure was accomplished by treating mothers with cimetidine (CM) (20 mg/kg, ip) daily for the last two days of gestation and then (0.01% in drinking water) throughout lactation. Pregnant mothers of untreated offspring (Con) received saline. PreCM decreased DPN to 505 +/- 33 min (from 611 +/- 23 min in Con) and 393 +/- 190 min (from 686 +/- 44 min in Con) in 14-day old male and female rats, respectively. Similarly, PreCM decreased DPN to 88 +/- 15 min (from 134 +/- 3 min in Con) and 102 +/- 19 min (from 171 +/- 44 min in Con) in 28-day old male and female rats, respectively. At 21 days, PreCM did not alter DPN in either sex. At 50-60 days, however, it decreased DPN to 144 +/- 41 min (from 238 +/- 7 min in Con) in females but had no effect in males; PreCM also increased the plasma clearance of administered /sup 14/C-pentobarbital more in females than in males. The effects of PreCM, particularly the long-term effects, were most prominent in female rats and were the opposite of those of postnatal treatment with CM. The results together with those of studies with hepatic microsomes suggest that PreCM may have resulted in the induction of hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes during the perinatal period.
Donnelly, D.A.; Iba, M.M.
The underrepresentation of women in physics doctorate programs and in tenured academic positions indicates a need to evaluate what may influence their career choice and persistence. This qualitative paper examines eleven females in physics doctoral programs and professional science positions in order to provide a more thorough understanding of why and how women make career choices based on aspects both inside and outside of school and their subsequent interaction. Results indicate that female physicists experience conflict in achieving balance within their graduate school experiences and personal lives and that this then influences their view of their future careers and possible career choices. Female physicists report both early and long-term support outside of school by family, and later departmental support, as being essential to their persistence within the field. A greater focus on informal and out-of-school science activities for females, especially those that involve family members, early in life may help influence their entrance into a physics career later in life. Departmental support, through advisers, mentors, peers, and women’s support groups, with a focus on work-life balance can help females to complete graduate school and persist into an academic career.
Dabney, Katherine P.; Tai, Robert H.
The underrepresentation of women in physics doctorate programs and in tenured academic positions indicates a need to evaluate what may influence their career choice and persistence. This qualitative paper examines eleven females in physics doctoral programs and professional science positions in order to provide a more thorough understanding of why and how women make career choices based on aspects both inside and outside of school and their subsequent interaction. Results indicate that female physicists experience conflict in achieving balance within their graduate school experiences and personal lives and that this then influences their view of their future careers and possible career choices. Female physicists report both early and long-term support outside of school by family, and later departmental support, as being essential to their persistence within the field. A greater focus on informal and out-of-school science activities for females, especially those that involve family members, early in life may help influence their entrance into a physics career later in life. Departmental support, through advisers, mentors, peers, and womenâs support groups, with a focus on work-life balance can help females to complete graduate school and persist into an academic career.
Dabney, Katherine P.; Tai, Robert H.
Female genital mutilation, also misleadingly known as female circumcision, is usually performed on girls ranging in from 1 week to puberty. Immediate physical complications include severe pain, shock, infection, bleeding, acute urinary infection, tetanus, and death. Longterm problems include chronic pain, difficulties with micturition and menstruation, pelvic infection leading to infertility, and prolonged and obstructed labor during childbirth. An estimated 80 million girls and women have undergone female genital mutilation. In Britain alone an estimated 10,000 girls are currently at risk. Religious, cultural, medical, and moral grounds rationalize the custom which is practiced primarily in sub-Saharan Africa, the Arab world, Malaysia, Indonesia, and among migrant populations in Western countries. According to WHO it is correlated with poverty, illiteracy, and the low status of women. Women who escape mutilation are not sought in marriage. WHO, the UN Population Fund, the UN Children's Fund, the International Planned Parenthood Federation, and the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child have issued declarations on the eradication of female genital mutilation. In Britain, local authorities have intervened to prevent parents from mutilating their daughters. In 1984, the Inter-African Committee Against Harmful Traditional Practices Affecting Women and Children was established to work toward eliminating female genital mutilation and other damaging customs. National committees in 26 African countries coordinate projects run by local people using theater, dance, music, and storytelling for communication. In Australia, Canada, Europe, and the US women have organized to prevent the practice among vulnerable migrants and refugees. PMID:8400925
Ladjali, M; Rattray, T W; Walder, R J
Classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is characterized by the defects in cortisol and aldosterone secretion, and accompanied with adrenal hyperandrogenism. It is likely that the impaired adrenocortical function and intermittent treatment-related hypercortisolism may predispose patients to the development of metabolic syndrome in adulthood. Our aim was to assess the impact of hyperandrogenism on metabolic profiles in CAH women without glucocorticosteroid treatment. We evaluated the clinical characteristics and metabolic profiles in 30 untreated Chinese female adults with simple virilizing congenital adrenal hyperplasia (SV-CAH). Mutation analysis was performed by sequencing the entire 21-hydroxylase gene (CYP21A2). As compared with the controls, CAH patients had higher BMI (BMI, 21.5±2.1 vs. 20.0±1.8 kg/m2, P<0.05), higher 2 h post-load plasma glucose levels (6. 35±1.74 vs. 5. 35±1.17 mmol/l, P<0.05), higher serum triglycerides (TG) (1.12±0.64 vs. 0.63±0.15 mmol/l, P<0.01), and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) (1.30±0.39 vs. 1.67±0.29 mmol/l, P<0.01). Moreover, CAH patients had higher fasting insulin and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (1.81±0.99 vs. 1.24±0.50, P<0.05), while ?Ins30/?Glu30 showed no statistically significant difference in two groups. In addition, a marked reduction of serum adiponectin levels were observed in CAH patients (7.0±3.3 vs. 13.2±4.8 ?g/ml, P<0.001), however, serum CRP levels were not different between patients and the controls. Further regression analysis showed that higher serum testosterone concentrations were associated with metabolic disorder indexes and reduction of serum adiponectin. Our study demonstrates that untreated CAH patients are prone to have metabolic disorders in association with elevated serum testosterone levels and reduced insulin insensitivity. PMID:20978868
Zhang, Hui-Jie; Yang, Jun; Zhang, Man-Na; Liu, Chang-Qin; Xu, Min; Li, Xue-Jun; Yang, Shu-Yu; Li, Xiao-Ying
The notion of animal culture has been well established mainly through research aiming at uncovering differences between populations. In chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus), cultural diversity has even been found in neighboring communities, where differences were observed despite frequent immigration of individuals. Female chimpanzees transfer at the onset of sexual maturity at an age, when the behavioral repertoire is fully formed. With immigrating females, behavioral variety enters the group. Little is known about the diversity and the longevity of cultural traits within a community. This study is building on previous findings of differences in hammer selection when nut cracking between neighboring communities despite similar ecological conditions. We now further investigated the diversity and maintenance of cultural traits within one chimpanzee community and were able to show high levels of uniformity in group-specific behavior. Fidelity to the behavior pattern did not vary between dispersing females and philopatric males. Furthermore, group-specific tool selection remained similar over a period of 25 years. Additionally, we present a study case on how one newly immigrant female progressively behaved more similar to her new group, suggesting that the high level of similarity in behavior is actively adopted by group members possibly even when originally expressing the behavior in another form. Taken together, our data support a cultural transmission process in adult chimpanzees, which leads to persisting cultural behavior of one community over time. Am. J. Primatol. 76:649-657, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24482055
Luncz, Lydia V; Boesch, Christophe
New neurons are added to the high vocal center (HVC) of adult male and female canaries. Exogenous testosterone induces a marked increase in HVC size in adult female canaries, though the mechanisms responsible for this increase remain unknown. To understand the mechanisms, we analyzed the effects of testosterone on neuronal recruitment in the female HVC. Intact adult female canaries received Silastic implants that were empty or filled with testosterone. Birds in the short-survival group received the Silastic implant, followed by a single injection of [3H]thymidine 2 days later, and were killed on the following day. Birds in the long-survival group were injected once a day for 5 days with [3H]thymidine and received the Silastic implant 20 and 40 days later. These birds were killed 60 days after the first injection of [3H]thymidine. The number of 3H-labeled ventricular zone cells above, rostral, or caudal to HVC was not affected by the hormone treatment in the short-survival birds, suggesting that testosterone did not affect neuronal production. However, the number of 3H-labeled HVC neurons that projected to robust nucleus of the archistriatum (RA) in the long-survival birds was three times greater in the hormone-treated than in the control group, though the total number of RA-projecting cells did not change significantly. Testosterone also induced an increase in the size of the HVC cells that project to RA. Thus, these experiments suggest that testosterone affects the recruitment and/or survival of newly generated RA-projecting HVC neurons but does not affect their production. Images
Rasika, S; Nottebohm, F; Alvarez-Buylla, A
The purpose of this pictorial review is to discuss causes of female infertility, in particular, those etiologies in which imaging plays a key role in detection. Included are disorders of cervical, ovarian, fallopian tube, and uterine origin. We also discuss the role of various imaging modalities including hysterosalpingography, pelvic ultrasonography, hysterosonography, and pelvic MR imaging in elucidating the cause of female infertility. Radiologists need to know the conditions to be aware of when these patients are sent for diagnostic imaging, as well as how to direct further management, if necessary, should an abnormality be detected. PMID:24072384
Sadow, Cheryl A; Sahni, V Anik
\\u000a Anderson-Fabry disease is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder resulting from deficiency of alpha galactosidase A and accumulation\\u000a of globotriaosyl ceramide (Gb3) in cells throughout the body. Despite X-linked inheritance, females with Fabry disease may\\u000a manifest significant multi-system pathology with effects on organ function, physical symptoms, quality of life and survival.\\u000a Lyonisation within the peripheral blood results in some females exhibiting
D. A. Hughes
Galea and McEwen [Galea and McEwan (1999) Neuroscience 89, 955-964] found that cell proliferation was suppressed in female meadow voles trapped during the breeding season relative to females trapped during the non-breeding season. We investigated the effect of reproductive status and estradiol level on cell proliferation and cell survival in adult laboratory-reared female meadow voles to control for the variables of age, experience and pregnancy that could confound the results derived from a wild sample. Voles were housed in either a long- or short-photoperiod to simulate season and a male or female cage partner was introduced to influence reproductive status. Because females are reflex ovulators, exposure to a male rapidly induces behavioural estrous and high levels of estradiol. Forty-eight hours after introducing a cage partner, we injected either bromodeoxyuridine or [3H]thymidine to mark cell synthesis and then examined labelled cells 2h (cell proliferation) or five weeks (cell survival) later, respectively. To determine whether estradiol mimicked the effect of reproductive status, groups of reproductively inactive females were given a single injection of estradiol benzoate (10 microg) either four or 48h prior to bromodeoxyuridine labelling. The density of proliferating cells in the granule cell layer and the hilus was elevated in reproductively inactive females compared to reproductively active females and was correlated negatively with serum estradiol level. Exposure to estradiol benzoate initially increased cell proliferation (within 4h) but subsequently suppressed cell proliferation (within 48h). In addition, the density of surviving cells was greater in reproductively inactive females relative to reproductively active females but reproductively active females had a greater rate of cell survival than did reproductively inactive females. Reproductive status did not influence the number of pyknotic cells in the dentate gyrus (at either 2h or five weeks).We conclude that reproductive status regulates cell proliferation in adult female meadow voles, possibly via an estradiol-regulated mechanism. The results from the present study showed that reproductively active female meadow voles have suppressed rates of cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus relative compared with reproductively inactive female meadow voles. Administering estradiol initially (within 4h) elevates the cell proliferation within the dentate gyrus of adult females but subsequently (within 48h) suppresses cell proliferation. However, more new cells survived in females with high endogenous levels of estradiol (reproductively active females). In conclusion, reproductive status regulates the level of cell proliferation and survival through a complex estradiol regulated mechanism(s). PMID:11166123
Ormerod, B K; Galea, L A
The objective of this study was to investigate clinical and radiographic features and gender differences in Korean patients with adult-onset ankylosing spondylitis. Multicenter cross-sectional studies were conducted in the rheumatology clinics of 13 Korean tertiary referral hospitals. All patients had a confirmed diagnosis of ankylosing spondylitis according to the modified New York criteria. Clinical, laboratory, and radiographic features were evaluated and disease activities were assessed using the Bath ankylosing spondylitis disease activity index. Five hundred and five patients were recruited. The male to female ratio was 6.1:1. Average age at symptom onset was 25.4±8.9 yr and average disease duration was 9.6±6.8 yr. Males manifested symptoms at a significantly earlier age. HLA-B27 was more frequently positive in males. Hips were more commonly affected in males, and knees in females. When spinal mobility was measured using tragus-to-wall distance and the modified Schober's test, females had significantly better results. Radiographic spinal changes, including bamboo spine and syndesmophytes, were more common in males after adjustment of confounding factors. In conclusion, we observed significant gender differences in radiographic spinal involvement as well as other clinical manifestations among Korea patients with adult-onset ankylosing spondylitis. These findings may influence the timing of the diagnosis and the choice of treatment.
Jung, Young-Ok; Kim, Inje; Kim, Suho; Suh, Chang-Hee; Park, Han Jung; Park, Won; Kwon, Seoung Ryul; Jeong, Jae Cheon; Lee, Yun Jong; Ryu, Hee Jung; Park, Young Bae; Lee, Jisoo; Lee, You-Hyun; Seo, Young Il; Chung, Won Tae; Hong, Seung-Jae; Hong, Yeon-Sik; Baek, Han Joo; Choi, Hyo Jin; Kang, Hyo-Jong; Lee, Chan-Hee; Kim, Sang-Hyon
According to the 'natal habitat preference induction' (NHPI) hypothesis, phytophagous insect females should prefer to lay their eggs on the host species on which they developed as larvae. We tested whether this hypothesis applies to the breeding behaviour of polyphagous European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana, an important pest in European vineyards. We previously found that different grape cultivars affect several life history traits of the moth. Because the different cultivars of grapes are suspected to provide different plant quality, we tested the NHPI hypothesis by examining oviposition choice of L. botrana among three Vitis vinifera cultivars (Pinot, Chasselas and Chardonnay). In a choice situation, females of L. botrana that had never experienced grapes were able to discriminate between different grape cultivars and preferentially selected Pinot as an oviposition substrate. This 'naive' preference of oviposition could be modified by larval environment: Females raised on grapes as larvae preferred to lay eggs on the cultivar that they had experienced. Furthermore, experience of the host plant during adult emergence could be excluded because when pupae originating from our synthetic diet were exposed to grapes, the emerging adults did not show preference for the cultivar from which they emerged. The NHPI hypothesis that includes the two sub-hypothesis "Hopkins host selection principle" and "chemical legacy" may thus be relevant in this system. PMID:18066706
Moreau, J; Rahme, J; Benrey, B; Thiery, D
Background Establishing personal identity is one of the main concerns in forensic investigations. Estimation of stature forms a basic domain of the investigation process in unknown and co-mingled human remains in forensic anthropology case work. The objective of the present study was to set up standards for estimation of stature from the foot and its segments in a sub-adult female population. Methods The sample for the study constituted 149 young females from the Northern part of India. The participants were aged between 13 and 18 years. Besides stature, seven anthropometric measurements that included length of the foot from each toe (T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5 respectively), foot breadth at ball (BBAL) and foot breadth at heel (BHEL) were measured on both feet in each participant using standard methods and techniques. Results The results indicated that statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) between left and right feet occur in both the foot breadth measurements (BBAL and BHEL). Foot length measurements (T1 to T5 lengths) did not show any statistically significant bilateral asymmetry. The correlation between stature and all the foot measurements was found to be positive and statistically significant (p-value < 0.001). Linear regression models and multiple regression models were derived for estimation of stature from the measurements of the foot. The present study indicates that anthropometric measurements of foot and its segments are valuable in the estimation of stature. Foot length measurements estimate stature with greater accuracy when compared to foot breadth measurements. Conclusions The present study concluded that foot measurements have a strong relationship with stature in the sub-adult female population of North India. Hence, the stature of an individual can be successfully estimated from the foot and its segments using different regression models derived in the study. The regression models derived in the study may be applied successfully for the estimation of stature in sub-adult females, whenever foot remains are brought for forensic examination. Stepwise multiple regression models tend to estimate stature more accurately than linear regression models in female sub-adults.
Periadolescent guinea pigs were exposed to a novel environment for 10, 30, 60, or 90 min while either alone or with either their biological mother or an unfamiliar adult female. Both classes of females reduced plasma cortisol, ACTH and vocalization responses to the novel environment, and did so to an equivalent degree. However, behavioral interactions with the mother and unfamiliar female differed considerably. The offspring exhibited more defensive behavior and were the targets of more agonistic acts when with the unfamiliar female, though one agonistic behavior, kicking, was observed more often in tests with the mother. Males displayed more social/courtship behavior and tumescence with the unfamiliar female. Further, males exhibited higher plasma testosterone levels when with the unfamiliar female than when either with the mother or alone. These data in conjunction with earlier findings suggest that the ability of unfamiliar adult females to moderate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity fully emerges during the periadolescent period, is not dependent on nurturant behavior by the adult female, and may facilitate the redirection of social behavior from the mother to unrelated adults. Further, mothers appear to inhibit maternally directed sexual behavior and plasma testosterone elevations in their periadolescent sons, effects which likely serve to inhibit inbreeding. PMID:10840173
Hennessy, M B; Maken, D S; Graves, F C
Summary Puberty is a period characterized by brain reorganization that contributes to the development of neural and behavioral responses to gonadal steroids. Previously, we have shown that a single injection of the bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 1.5mg/kg IP), during the pubertal period (around 6 weeks old) in mice decreases sexual receptivity in response to estradiol and progesterone in adulthood. These findings suggest that pubertal immune challenge has an enduring effect of decreasing the behavioral responsiveness to gonadal steroid hormones. Since estradiol improves cognitive function in certain tasks in mice, we investigated the effect of pubertal immune challenge on the ability of estradiol to enhance cognitive function. We hypothesized that estradiol would be less effective at enhancing performance on particular cognitive tasks in female mice treated with LPS during puberty. Six-week old (pubertal) and ten-week old (adult) female CD1 mice were injected with either saline or LPS. Five weeks later, they were ovariectomized and implanted subcutaneously with either an estradiol- or oil-filled Silastic© capsule followed one week later with testing for cognitive function. The duration of juvenile investigation during social discrimination and recognition tests was used as a measure of social memory, and the duration of object investigation during object recognition and placement tests was used as a measure of object memory. Chronic estradiol treatment enhanced social and object memory in saline-treated females and in females treated with LPS in adulthood. In contrast, in females treated with LPS at 6 weeks old, estradiol failed to improve social and object memories. These results support the hypothesis that exposure to an immune challenge during puberty reduces at least some of the cognitive effects of estradiol. Moreover, these results support the idea that pubertal immune challenge compromises a wide variety of behavioral influences of ovarian hormones.
Ismail, Nafissa; Blaustein, Jeffrey D.
The underrepresentation of women in physics doctorate programs and in tenured academic positions indicates a need to evaluate what may influence their career choice and persistence. This qualitative paper examines eleven females in physics doctoral programs and professional science positions in order to provide a more thorough understanding of why…
Dabney, Katherine P.; Tai, Robert H.
Self-report instruments concerning personality and subjective responses to sexual orgasm were filled out by 281 female university undergraduates. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used to evaluate the dimensionality of women's subjective responsiveness to orgasm. The results did not support the concept of a unidimensional orgasm process; separate coital and masturbatory factors of orgasmic experience were obtained. Highly internally consistent
P. M. Bentler; William H. Peeler
... medicines such as birth control pills, laxatives or diet pills. Treatment How is the female athlete triad treated? ... don't come back after you change your diet and exercise routine, your doctor may prescribe medicines such as birth control pills (like estrogen and progesterone) to stop your body ...
Offers advice from the upper echelon of females in the training profession: (1) learn the business; (2) get line experience; (3) stop thinking like a trainer; (4) educate executives; (5) partner with the powerful; (6) exceed expectations; (7) develop coping strategies; (8) be realistic; (9) align values; and (10) organize. (JOW)
Context: Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) also known as female androgenetic alopecia is a common condition afflicting millions of women that can be cosmetically disrupting. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential for obtaining optimal outcome. This review addresses the clinical presentation of female pattern hair loss, its differential diagnosis and treatment modalities. Evidence Acquisition: A) Diffuse thinning of the crown region with preservation of the frontal hairline (Ludwig’s type) B) The “Christmas tree pattern” where the thinning is wider in the frontal scalp giving the alopecic area a triangular shaped figure resembling a christmas tree. C) Thinning associated with bitemporal recession (Hamilton type). Generally, FPHL is not associated with elevated androgens. Less commonly females with FPHL may have other skin or general signs of hyperandrogenism such as hirsutism, acne, irregular menses, infertility, galactorrhea and insulin resistance. The most common endocrinological abnormality associated with FPHL is polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Results: The most important diseases to consider in the differential diagnosis of FPHL include Chronic Telogen Effluvium (CTE), Permanent Alopecia after Chemotherapy (PAC), Alopecia Areata Incognito (AAI) and Frontal Fibrosing Alopecia (FFA). This review describes criteria for distinguishing these conditions from FPHL. Conclusions: The only approved treatment for FPHL, which is 2% topical Minoxidil, should be applied at the dosage of 1ml twice day for a minimum period of 12 months. This review will discuss off-label alternative modalities of treatment including 5-alfa reductase inhibitors, antiandrogens, estrogens, prostaglandin analogs, lasers, light treatments and hair transplantation.
Herskovitz, Ingrid; Tosti, Antonella
Context: The female athlete triad (the triad) is an interrelationship of menstrual dysfunction, low energy availability (with or without an eating disorder), and decreased bone mineral density; it is relatively common among young women participating in sports. Diagnosis and treatment of this potentially serious condition is complicated and often requires an interdisciplinary team. Evidence Acquisition: Articles from 1981 to present found on PubMed were selected for review of major components of the female athlete triad as well as strategies for diagnosis and treatment of the conditions. Results: The main goal in treatment of young female athletes with the triad is a natural return of menses as well as enhancement of bone mineral density. While no specific drug intervention has been shown to consistently improve bone mineral density in this patient population, maximizing energy availability and optimizing vitamin D and calcium intake are recommended. Conclusions: Treatment requires a multidisciplinary approach involving health care professionals as well as coaches and family members. Prevention of this condition is important to minimize complications of the female athlete triad.
Nazem, Taraneh Gharib; Ackerman, Kathryn E.
There are many public initiatives that fund services which support women entrepreneurship. In order to help them improve, this paper takes a closer look at the characteristics of female entrepreneurs, their motivations, and the difficulties they face in their ventures. Through a literature review and the results of a Delphi study with 25 technicians from an EU-funded support programme, this
Focuses on women doctors at a critical life stage, 25-35 years, during career establishment and early 30s transition. Examines drivers behind career choices of female doctors and identifies stressors experienced by women who opt for hospital medicine and general practice. Suggests that sources of pressure and predictors of mental wellbeing for hospital doctors are related to the structural aspects of
Barbara White; Daryl O’Connor; Lisa Garrett
Background The mosquito Aedes aegypti, vector of dengue fever, is a target for control by entomopathogenic fungi. Recent studies by our group have shown the susceptibility of adult A. aegypti to fungal infection by Metarhizium anisopliae. This fungus is currently being tested under field conditions. However, it is unknown whether blood-fed A. aegypti females are equally susceptible to infection by entomopathogenic fungi as sucrose fed females. Insect populations will be composed of females in a range of nutritional states. The fungus should be equally efficient at reducing survival of insects that rest on fungus impregnated surfaces following a blood meal as those coming into contact with fungi before host feeding. This could be an important factor when considering the behavior of A. aegypti females that can blood feed on multiple hosts over a short time period. Methods Female A. aegypti of the Rockefeller strain and a wild strain were infected with two isolates of the entomopathogenic fungus M. anisopliae (LPP 133 and ESALQ 818) using an indirect contact bioassay at different times following blood feeding. Survival rates were monitored on a daily basis and one-way analysis of variance combined with Duncan's post-hoc test or Log-rank survival curve analysis were used for statistical comparisons of susceptibility to infection. Results Blood feeding rapidly reduced susceptibility to infection, determined by the difference in survival rates and survival curves, when females were exposed to either of the two M. anisopliae isolates. Following a time lag which probably coincided with digestion of the blood meal (96-120 h post-feeding), host susceptibility to infection returned to pre-blood fed (sucrose fed) levels. Conclusions Reduced susceptibility of A. aegypti to fungi following a blood meal is of concern. Furthermore, engorged females seeking out intra-domicile resting places post-blood feeding, would be predicted to rest for prolonged periods on fungus impregnated black cloths, thus optimizing infection rates. It should be remembered that lowered susceptibility was only a temporary phenomenon and this may not necessarily occur when mosquitoes are infected with other fungal isolates. These results may have implications for field testing of entomopathogenic fungi by our group and further studies should be carried out to better understand the insect-fungus interaction.
PURPOSE: This study compared conventional water-perfused and vector volume anal manometry in female patients with neurogenic fecal incontinence and chronic anal fissure and in healthy female volunteers. We used endoanal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to measure internal and external sphincter lengths and thicknesses and contrasted these with the manometric findings in the different anorectal conditions. METHODS: One hundred thirty-three female
Andrew P. Zbar; Witold A. Kmiot; Mohammed Aslam; Andreanna Williams; Amy Hider; Riccardo A. Audisio; Antonio Chiappa; Nandita deSouza
It has been shown that adult female rats react to stressors more intensely than adult male rats. Our previous work demonstrated that the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) but not corticosterone (CORT) response to stress is altered by prenatal morphine exposure in adult male rats. Response of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis to stress is known to be sex specific and dependent on
Romana Šlamberová; Ágnes Rimanóczy; Michelle A. Riley; Ilona Vathy
OBJECTIVES: To identify risk and protective factors for family homelessness, a case-control study of homeless and low-income, never-homeless families, all female-headed, was conducted. METHODS: Homeless mothers (n = 220) were enrolled from family shelters in Worcester, Mass. Low-income housed mothers receiving welfare (n = 216) formed the comparison group. The women completed an interview covering socioeconomic, social support, victimization, mental health, substance use, and health domains. RESULTS: Childhood predictors of family homelessness included foster care placement and respondent's mother's use of drugs. Independent risk factors in adulthood included minority status, recent move to Worcester, recent eviction, interpersonal conflict, frequent alcohol or heroin use, and recent hospitalization for a mental health problem. Protective factors included being a primary tenant, receiving cash assistance or a housing subsidy, graduating from high school, and having a larger social network. CONCLUSIONS: Factors that compromise an individual's economic and social resources are associated with greater risk of losing one's home.
Bassuk, E L; Buckner, J C; Weinreb, L F; Browne, A; Bassuk, S S; Dawson, R; Perloff, J N
The manufacture of garments is the main industry in Bangladesh and employs 1.6 million female workers. Due to the indoor lifestyle and low dietary intake of calcium, we hypothesised that they are at risk of low vitamin D and bone mineral status. Two hundred female garment workers (aged 18-36 years) were randomly selected. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (S-25OHD), serum intact parathyroid hormone (S-iPTH), serum calcium (S-Ca), serum phosphate (S-P) concentration and serum alkaline phosphatase activity (S-ALP) were measured from fasting samples. Bone indexes of hip and spine were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The mean S-25OHD (36.7 nmol/l) was low compared to that recommended for vitamin D sufficiency. About 16% of the subjects were found to be vitamin D-deficient (S-25OHD 21 ng/l) was associated with progressive reduction in bone mineral density at the femoral neck and lumbar spine. According to the WHO criteria, the mean T-score of the femoral neck and lumbar spine of the subjects were within osteopenic range. We observed that subjects with a bone mineral density T-score < -2.5 had a trend of lower values of BMI, waist-hip circumference, mid-upper-arm circumference, S-25OHD and higher S-iPTH and S-ALP. The high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D and low bone mineral density among these subjects are indicative of higher risk for osteomalacia or osteoporosis and fracture. PMID:18430266
Islam, Md Zahirul; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Kemi, Virpi; Nevanlinna, Antti; Akhtaruzzaman, Mohammad; Laaksonen, Marika; Jehan, Atia H; Jahan, Khurshid; Khan, Habib Ullah; Lamberg-Allardt, Christel
Patient: Female, 22 Final Diagnosis: Pneumococcal meningitis Symptoms: Fever • headache • neck stiffness • nuchal rigidity • photophobia Medication: Ceftriaxone Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Neurology Objective: Rare disease Background: Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a primary immunodeficiency associated with hypogammaglobulinemia and other various clinical manifestations. It is a rare disease with a prevalence of CVID is approximately 1: 50,000–200,000. Clinical manifestations of CVID include recurrent bacterial infections, autoimmune, gastrointestinal, lymphoproliferative, granulomatous, and malignancy. Case Report: Twenty-two year-old Hispanic female presented with a throbbing headache, nuchal rigidity, photophobia and a high grade fever. Lumbar puncture with CSF assessment revealed a turbid fluid with WBC of 6937 per uL, polymorphnuclear cells of 81%, protein 248 mg/dL, glucose <3 mg/Dl. CSF antigens were positive for Streptococcus pneumonia and CSF culture grew pansensitive Strepococcus pneumonia. Immunoglobin (Ig) levels of IgA, IgE, IgG and IgM were all decreased. Absolute cell counts of CD3, CD4 and CD8 were all low. Bone marrow biopsy was normocellular. Excisional lymph node biopsy revealed lymph nodes with reactive follicular hyperplasia. Common variable immunodeficiency disease (CVID) was diagnosed based on exclusion. IVIG therapy was given and patient received a two-week course of ceftriaxone. Conclusions: The diagnosis of CVID is made based on the following criteria: 1) Marked decrease of IgG and at least one of the IgM or IgA isotypes. 2) The onset of immunodeficiency at greater than 2 years old. 3) Absence of isohemagglutinins and/or poor response to vaccines 4) Exclusion of other defined causes of hypogammaglobulinemia. A definite diagnosis is often late because it is wrongly assumed that primary immunodeficiencies are extremely rare, hence many patients are already seriously ill at the time of presentation.
Cooper, Chad J.; Said, Sarmad; Quansah, Raphael; Khalillullah, Sayeed; Alozie, Ogechika
Recent studies have detected bioavailable steroids in sediment, however, the mechanism by which these compounds become bioavailable is not completely understood. In this study, two experiments were conducted using a double aquarium system that allowed female fathead minnows to be exposed to sandy sediments without direct contact. In the first experiment, natural sediment from the Elkhorn River (Nebraska, USA) was spiked with 17?-trenbolone. Both the fish in direct contact with the sediment as well as the fish excluded from direct contact experienced significant reductions in the hepatic expression of two estrogen-responsive genes, vitellogenin and estrogen receptor ?, indicating molecular defeminization. The natural sediment contained particles ranging in size from sand to clay and it was possible that the fish in experiment 1 were being exposed to trenbolone associated with the very fine particles. The sandy sediment was sieved for experiment 2, and only the particles larger than 250 ?m were used. In addition, the experiment was conducted at two different Tb concentrations (1× and 10×). Furthermore nuptial tubercles, a biomarker of exposure to a masculinizing androgen, were also evaluated in the females used in experiment 2. For tubercle number and vtg expression, significant results were obtained from a two-way ANOVA due to Tb concentration, but not tank location or interaction term (location vs. concentration). For ER? expression, results were found in response to Tb concentration and tank location, but not the interaction term. Overall the results from these studies suggest that the primary route of exposure of sediment-associated trenbolone to fish is through ventilation of free compound, rather than ingestion or direct contact with the sediments. PMID:24441280
Jessick, Ashley M; Skolness, Sarah; Kolok, Alan S
A recent survey by the Inter-African Committee for Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children found that 75-85 million women in Africa have undergone some form of female genital mutilation (FGM). FGM has long been practiced in Kenya. The ethnic groups which practice it, including the Kikuyu, Kamba, Kisii, Kalenjin, Maasai, and people of Somali origin, have a death rate of 170/1000 of their female populations. Approximately half of these deaths are the result of FGM, a practice which also contributes to the poor health of mutilated women. The adverse health consequences of FGM have led Kenya's President Daniel arap Moi to ban the practice in his country. In announcing the ban, President Moi advised Kenyans to discontinue cultural practices and customs which have no place in modern society and which will otherwise retard development. A number of prominent Kenyans have come forth in support of Moi's move. PMID:12293761
Hypotheses concerning phenotypic males with a female karyotype (46,XX males) are discussed. This peculiar chromosomal anomaly may be explained either by a mutation of autosomal sex determining genes or by a translocation of Y chromosomal genes to an X chromosome or an autosome. Recent studies concerning the H-Y antigen indicate that mosaicism with cell lines containing a Y chromosome may not be made responsible for phenotypic males with a 46,XX karyotype. PMID:7194870
Kövary, P M; Niermann, H
This study provides histochemical data of the hepatopancreatic cells of adult female pink-shrimp (Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis) at two different developmental stages (those with developed gonads and those with exhausted gonads). The F. brasiliensis females were collected in seawater off the Guarapari coast, Espirito Santo, Brazil. Five cell types were identified in this digestive gland: B (vesicular), E (embryonic), F (fibrillar), M (basal) and R (resorptive). The digestive gland was stained with the following techniques: PAS/Alcian blue (for polysaccharides), bromophenol blue (for protein), von Kossa (for bound calcium) and Baker (for lipids). Acid glycoconjugates were found inside vacuoles in the R cells, while neutral polysaccharides were present in the B cells and near to the microvilli. In females with exhausted gonads polysaccharides were also seen in the intertubular spaces and inside the lumina of the tubules. The F and M cells were the most marked by the presence of large amounts of proteins observed in R cells and also inside the vacuoles of B cells. The bound calcium was mainly found in the F and M cells. The F cells showed strong positive staining for lipid while the R cell only stained weakly. The E cells did not react to any of the applied staining techniques. The similarities in the histochemical composition of these hepatopancreatic cells in females with developed gonads, compared to exhausted ones, is justified by the fact that transfer of these elements to the oocytes occurs, in significant quantity, only during the initial stages of gonadal development in F. brasiliensis. Also, they may be more related to the molt stage, as in the case of calcium salts. PMID:23992941
Nunes, Erika Takagi; Braga, Adriane Araújo; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel
Purpose: The study investigated the extent to which differences existed between public attitudes of males versus females. Method: One hundred adults, 50 males and 50 females, were chosen at random from each of 50 study samples comprising a total of 3371 respondents in a database archive who had completed the "Public Opinion Survey of Human…
St. Louis, Kenneth O.
At times, total dissolved gas concentrations in the Columbia and Snake rivers have been elevated due to involuntary spill from high spring runoff and voluntary spill used as a method to pass juvenile salmonids over dams. The goal of this project was to determine if acute exposure to total dissolved gas supersaturation (TDGS) affects the reproductive performance of female chinook salmon late in their maturation. During this study, adult female spring chinook salmon were exposed to mean TDGS levels of 114.1 % to 125.5%. We ended exposures at first mortality, or at the appearance of impending death. Based on this criterion, exposures lasted from 10 to 68 h and were inversely related to TDGS. There was no effect of TDGS on pre-spawning mortality or fecundity when comparing treatment fish to experimental controls or the general hatchery population four to six weeks after exposures. Egg quality, based on egg weight and egg diameter, did not differ between treatment and control fish. Fertilization rate and survival to eyed-stage was high (>94%) for all groups. With the exception of Renibacterium salmoninarum (the causative agent of bacterial kidney disease; BKD), no viral or bacterial fish pathogens were isolated from experimental fish. The prevalence (about 45%) and severity of R. salmoninarum did not differ among the groups or the general hatchery population. We conclude that these acute exposures to moderate levels of gas-supersaturated water-perhaps similar to that experienced by immigrating adult salmon as they approach and pass a hydropower dam on the Columbia River-did not affect reproductive success of female chinook salmon late in their maturation. These results are most applicable to summer and fall chinook salmon, which migrate in the summer/fall and spawn shortly after reaching their natal streams. Published in 2004 by John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.
Gale, W. L.; Maule, A. G.; Postera, A.; Peters, M. H.
The detrimental effects of in utero exposure to the non-steroidal estrogen diethylstilbestrol (DES) are particularly marked in women. Fetal hearts express estrogen receptors, making them potentially responsive to DES. To examine whether gestational exposure to DES would impact the heart, we exposed pregnant C57bl/6n dams to DES (0.1, 1.0, and 10.0 ?g·(kg body mass)(-1)·day(-1)) on gestation days 11.5-14.5, and examined the measured cardiac structure/function and calcium homeostasis protein expression in adult females. At baseline, echocardiography revealed eccentric hypertrophy in mice treated with 10.0 ?g·(kg body mass)(-1)·day(-1) DES, and immunoblots showed increased SERCA2a in all DES-treated mice. Mice were swim-trained to assess cardiac remodeling. Swim-trained vehicle-treated mice developed eccentric hypertrophy without changing SERCA2 or calsequestrin 2 expression. In contrast, no DES-treated mice hypertrophied, and all increased in SERCA2a and calsequestrin 2 expression after training. To determine whether DES-induced changes in DNA methylation is part of the mechanism for its long-term effects, we measured DNA methyltransferase expression and DNA methylation. Global DNA methylation and DNA methyltransferase 3a expression were unchanged. However, DES-treated mice had increased DNA methylation in the calsequestrin 2 promoter. Thus, gestational exposure to DES altered female ventricular DNA, cardiac structure/function, and calcium homeostasis protein expression. We conclude that gestational exposure to estrogenizing compounds may impact cardiac structure/function in adult females. PMID:23984849
Haddad, Rami; Kasneci, Amanda; Sebag, Igal A; Chalifour, Lorraine E
Aims: To investigate the chronic effects of air pollution caused mainly by automobiles in healthy adult females. Methods: Respiratory symptoms were investigated in 5682 adult females who had lived in the Tokyo metropolitan area for three years or more in 1987; 733 of them were subjected to pulmonary function tests over eight years from 1987 to 1994. The subjects were divided into three groups by the level of air pollution they were exposed to during the study period. The concentrations of nitrogen dioxide and suspended particulate matter were the highest in group 1, and the lowest in group 3. Results: The prevalence rates of respiratory symptoms in group 1 were higher than those in groups 2 and 3, except for wheezing. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed significant differences in persistent phlegm and breathlessness. The subjects selected for the analysis of pulmonary function were 94, 210, and 102 females in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The annual mean change of FEV1 in group 1 was the largest (-0.020 l/y), followed by that in group 2 (-0.015 l/y), and that in group 3 (-0.009 l/y). Testing for trends showed a significant larger decrease of FEV1 with the increase in the level of air pollution. Conclusions: The subjects living in areas with high levels of air pollution showed higher prevalence rates of respiratory symptoms and a larger decrease of FEV1 compared with those living in areas with low levels of air pollution. Since the traffic density is larger in areas with high air pollution, the differences among the groups may reflect the effect of air pollution attributable to particulate matter found in automobile exhaust.
Sekine, K; Shima, M; Nitta, Y; Adachi, M
Prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) induces dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in fetus and adult offspring. However, whether PEE increases the susceptibility to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in offspring and its underlying mechanism remain unknown. This study aimed to demonstrate an increased susceptibility to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD and its intrauterine programming mechanisms in female rat offspring with PEE. Rat model of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was established by PEE, the female fetus and adult offspring that fed normal diet (ND) or HFD were sacrificed. The results showed that, in PEE+ND group, serum corticosterone (CORT) slightly decreased and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and glucose increased with partial catch-up growth; In PEE+HFD group, serum CORT decreased, while serum IGF-1, glucose and triglyceride (TG) increased, with notable catch-up growth, higher metabolic status and NAFLD formation. Enhanced liver expression of the IGF-1 pathway, gluconeogenesis, and lipid synthesis as well as reduced expression of lipid output were accompanied in PEE+HFD group. In PEE fetus, serum CORT increased while IGF-1 decreased, with low body weight, hyperglycemia, and hepatocyte ultrastructural changes. Hepatic IGF-1 expression as well as lipid output was down-regulated, while lipid synthesis significantly increased. Based on these findings, we propose a "two-programming" hypothesis for an increased susceptibility to HFD-induced NAFLD in female offspring of PEE. That is, the intrauterine programming of liver glucose and lipid metabolic function is "the first programming", and postnatal adaptive catch-up growth triggered by intrauterine programming of GC-IGF1 axis acts as "the second programming". PMID:24275070
Shen, Lang; Liu, Zhongfen; Gong, Jun; Zhang, Li; Wang, Linlong; Magdalou, Jacques; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui
We studied female-female aggression in relation to female mate choice in black grouse, Tetrao tetrix, in central Finland, in 1994-1998. Aggression occurred on average every other minute when there was more than one female on a territory, and aggressive behaviour was most prominent when several females attended the lek. Interactions tended to be proportionally most frequent on the territories of the highest-ranking males, although not significantly so. Females that were chased by other females did not mate with lower-ranking males than their aggressors did. Furthermore, chased females were only rarely (6% of cases) forced to move off the territory by agonistic interactions and copulations were disrupted by other females even less often (3% of cases). The choice of a mating territory did not depend on the outcome of aggression even though the aggressors were more likely to mate on the territory where aggression occurred than elsewhere. There was a marginally significant tendency for aggressors to mate earlier in the season. Females placed themselves further away from other females on the territory when soliciting a copulation than just before aggression. Our results suggest that aggression between females does not effectively constrain female choice in black grouse. Its function may be to aid females to secure undisturbed mating opportunities for themselves rather than to prevent others from mating with a particular male. Copyright 2000 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:10860525
Karvonen; Rintamäki; Alatalo
Body-fat is essential for human body, provided that its amount is at healthy levels. If in-excess body-fat is deleterious, its lack is otherwise also harmful. Estimated percent body-fat performed with commercially available devices measuring bioimpedance have many advantages, such as easy measurement and low cost. However, these measurements are based on standard models and equations that are not disclosed by manufacturers, and this leads to questioning the validity of these estimates for Brazilian females. The aim of this study was to compare electrical tetrapolar and octapolar impedance results obtained with commercially available equipment: Maltron BF-906 and OMRON 510-W. Data analysis involved descriptive and inferential statistics. Devices used in this study to estimate body fat quantity have not shown any significant differences in results; this is a major issue when selecting equipment based on three factors: study focus, available financial resources, and target population. Results obtained from the two devices have not shown any significant differences, which lead to the conclusion that either device may be reliably used.
Altamir, Vaz; Frère, Slaets Annie France; Ramírez Leonardo, López
High trait anger is linked to adverse cardiovascular outcomes. A potential antidote to the cardiotoxic influence of anger is trait forgiveness (TF), as it has shown associations with improved blood pressure (BP) and cardiovagal tone regulation in cardiac patients. However, it has yet to be determined if anger and forgiveness independently predict cardiovascular parameters. Trait anger (State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2) and TF (Tendency to Forgive Scale) were evaluated in 308 (M = 21.11years ± SD = 2.52) healthy female volunteers allocated to 3 related, yet distinct, studies. Hierarchical multiple regressions tested the incremental contribution of TF after accounting for anger. Study 1 assessed autonomic modulation through beat-to-beat BP and spectral analysis to examine sympathovagal balance and baroreflex functioning. Study 2 used tonometry and pulse wave analysis for aortic hemodynamics. Study 3 assessed 24-hour ambulatory BP and ambulatory arterial stiffness index. Hierarchical models demonstrated that anger was significantly associated with increased sympathovagal tone, increased hemodynamic indices, high ambulatory BPs, and attenuated BP variability and baroreflex. In contrast, TF was associated with more favorable hemodynamic effects (i.e., decreased ventricular work and myocardial oxygen consumption). In conclusion, these results demonstrate divergent cardiovascular effects of anger and forgiveness, such that anger is associated with a more cardiotoxic autonomic and hemodynamic profile, whereas TF is associated with a more cardioprotective profile. These findings suggest that interventions aimed at decreasing anger while increasing forgiveness may be clinically relevant. PMID:24819901
May, Ross W; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Marcos A; Hawkins, Kirsten A; Batchelor, Wayne B; Fincham, Frank D
1.?Successful reproduction requires numerous decisions, and some of which may require trade-offs between current and future reproduction. We studied effects of choice of foraging patches on gosling growth and future breeding by mothers in black brent (Branta bernicla nigricans) geese. 2.?Specific foraging areas consistently produced high-quality goslings over 21?years. We found a consistent ranking of gosling mass, corrected for age, across brood rearing areas (BRAs) and years [Akaike model weights, ?w(i) ?=?1·00 for models including additive effects of BRA and year]. Growth of goslings largely determines their future fitness, so areas where goslings grew most rapidly also produced goslings with the highest mean fitness. 3.?We used a multistate robust design capture-mark-recapture approach to estimate the probability of transitioning from a breeding state to a non-breeding (unobservable) state as a function of quality of BRA. 4.?In the best supported model, transition from a breeding state to a non-breeding state was positively related to gosling growth rates across BRAs. Thus, future reproduction was lower for females using BRAs that produced higher-quality goslings. Our results are consistent with trade-offs by individual brent between fitness of their current offspring and their own reproductive value. PMID:22303812
Nicolai, Christopher A; Sedinger, James S
Investigated the traditional or nontraditional orientation of the career preferences of androgynous and traditional females (N=62). Administered the Bem Sex Role Inventory and a career preference scale. Results indicated that androgynous females explore wider ranges of occupational choices. (RC)
Clarey, Joanne H.; Sanford, Alpheus
Female circumcision is an emotive subject condemned by all and thought to be practised by less developed countries than the United Kingdom (UK) and United States of America (USA). However, this is now a growing business among western cosmetic surgeons as these two nations become entangled in the search for 'the perfect body'. The difference lies only in the who, why, where and by whom the operations are performed in these two distinct worlds. The most frightening observation is the rate at which this business is growing in the National Health Service (NHS) and public sector. PMID:23304864
Both natural oestrogens and progesterone influence synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis within the female hippocampus. However, less is known of the impact of synthetic hormones on hippocampal structure and function. There is some evidence that the administration of the synthetic progestin, medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) is not as beneficial as natural progesterone and can attenuate oestrogen-induced neuroprotection. Although the effects of oestradiol have been well studied, little is known about the effects of natural and synthetic progestins alone and in combination with oestradiol on adult neurogenesis in females. In the present study, we investigated the effects of chronic oestradiol, progesterone, MPA and the co-administration of each progestin with oestradiol on neurogenesis within the dentate gyrus of adult ovariectomised female rats. Twenty-four hours after a bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU; 200 mg/kg) injection, female rats were repeatedly administered either progesterone (1 or 4 mg), MPA (1 or 4 mg), oestradiol benzoate (EB), progesterone or MPA in combination with EB (10 ?g), or vehicle for 21 days. Rats were perfused on day 22 and brain tissue was analysed for the number of BrdU-labelled and Ki67 (an endogenous marker of cell proliferation)-expressing cells. EB alone and MPA + EB significantly decreased neurogenesis and the number of surviving BrdU-labelled cells in the dorsal region of the dentate gyrus, independent of any effects on cell proliferation. Furthermore, MPA (1 and 4 mg) and MPA + EB treated animals had significantly lower adrenal/body mass ratios and reduced serum corticosterone (CORT) levels. By contrast, progesterone + EB treated animals had significantly higher adrenal/body mass ratios and 1 mg of progesterone, progesterone + EB, and EB significantly increased CORT levels. The results of the present study demonstrate that different progestins alone and in combination with oestradiol can differentially affect neurogenesis (via cell survival) and regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. These findings have implications for women using hormone replacement therapies with MPA for both neuroprotection and stress-related disorders. PMID:24750490
Chan, M; Chow, C; Hamson, D K; Lieblich, S E; Galea, L A M
Community colleges are generally more inclusive to female faculty as compared to four-year institutions. Women represent 49 percent of fulltime and 50 percent of part-time community college faculty, a stark contrast to the low numbers of female faculty in four-year institutions. Female faculty at community colleges also receive similar rates of…
Lester, Jaime; Bers, Trudy
Swimming is a popular activity for Australian women with proven cardiovascular benefits yet lacks the features thought necessary to stimulate positive adaptive changes in bone. Given that peak bone mass is attained close to the end of the second decade, we asked whether swimming was negatively associated with bone mineral density in premenopausal women beyond this age. Bone mass and retrospective physical activity data were gathered from 43 female swimmers and 44 controls (mean ages 40.4 and 43.8 years, respectively). Swimmers were recruited from the Australian Union of Senior Swimmers International while controls were healthy community dwellers with similar lean mass, fat mass, height, weight and body mass index. None of the participants had a history of medical complaints nor use of medications known to affect bone. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to determine areal bone mineral density at total body, lumbar spine, proximal femur, distal radius and tibia while self-administered questionnaires were used to approximate historical and recent physical activity and calcium intake. Swimmers had averaged over 2 hours of swimming per week for the past 5 years and 1.45 h/week over lifetime with no systematic swimming exposure for controls. Lifetime exposure to weight bearing and impact exercise were similar. There were no intergroup differences for bone mass at any site though controls had higher incidence of low bone mass/osteoporosis. No differences in bone mass were detected between swimmers in the upper and lower quartiles for swim participation for any period. Long-term swim participation did not compromise areal bone mineral density. PMID:22230920
Greenway, Kate Gwendoline; Walkley, Jeff Whenan; Rich, Peter Adrian
Many patients with hyperandrogenemia are overweight or obese, which exacerbates morbidities associated with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). To examine the ability of testosterone (T) to generate PCOS-like symptoms, monkeys received T or cholesterol (control) implants (n = 6/group) beginning prepubertally. As previously reported, T-treated animals had increased neuroendocrine drive to the reproductive axis [increased luteinizing hormone (LH) pulse frequency] at 5 yr, without remarkable changes in ovarian or metabolic features. To examine the combined effects of T and obesity, at 5.5 yr (human equivalent age: 17 yr), monkeys were placed on a high-calorie, high-fat diet typical of Western cultures [Western style diet (WSD)], which increased body fat from <2% (pre-WSD) to 15-19% (14 mo WSD). By 6 mo on WSD, LH pulse frequency in the controls increased to that of T-treated animals, whereas LH pulse amplitude decreased in both groups and remained low. The numbers of antral follicles present during the early follicular phase increased in both groups on the WSD, but maximal follicular size decreased by 50%. During the late follicular phase, T-treated females had greater numbers of small antral follicles than controls. T-treated monkeys also had lower progesterone during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Although fasting insulin did not vary between groups, T-treated animals had decreased insulin sensitivity after 1 yr on WSD. Thus, while WSD consumption alone led to some features characteristic of PCOS, T + WSD caused a more severe phenotype with regard to insulin insensitivity, increased numbers of antral follicles at midcycle, and decreased circulating luteal phase progesterone levels. PMID:24735887
McGee, W K; Bishop, C V; Pohl, C R; Chang, R J; Marshall, J C; Pau, F K; Stouffer, R L; Cameron, J L
Relatively little is known about the generation of adult form. One complex adult trait that is particularly amenable to genetic and experimental analysis is the zebrafish pigment pattern, which undergoes extensive remodeling during post-embryonic development to form adult stripes. These stripes result from the arrangement of three classes of neural crest-derived pigment cells, or chromatophores: melanophores, xanthophores, and iridophores. Here,
Michael R. Lang; Larissa B. Patterson; Tiffany N. Gordon; Stephen L. Johnson; David M. Parichy
Lead toxicity is a significant problem in the U.S. with elevated blood lead levels being highest among very young children and older adults >50years old. Bone is the major reservoir of body lead, accounting for 75% in children and 90% in adults. Very little is known about the effect of lead on bone mineral properties in adults. We investigated the
A. U. Monir; C. M. Gundberg; S. E. Yagerman; W. C. Budell; A. L. Boskey; T. L. Dowd
Smoking is frequently co-morbid with depression. Although it is recognized that depression increases the risk for smoking, it is unclear if early smoking exposure may increase the risk for depression. To test this possibility we assessed the effects of adolescent nicotine exposure on the Forced Swim Test (FST), which is used as a measure of passive coping, and depressive-like behavior in rodents, and on the open field test (OFT), which is used as a measure of locomotion and exploratory behavior. Male and female mice received daily saline or nicotine (0.3 or 0.6 mg/kg) injections from postnatal day (PD) 30 to PD 44. FST and OFT were performed either 1 or 30 days after the last injection (PD 45 and PD 74, respectively). In females, treatment with 0.3 mg/kg nicotine lead to increased FST immobility (64%) and decreased OFT locomotor activity (12%) one day following the last nicotine injection (PD 45); while no effects were observed in adulthood (PD 74). In contrast, on PD45, nicotine treatment did not change the male FST immobility but lead to lower OFT locomotor activity (0.6 mg/kg, 10%). In adulthood (PD 74), both nicotine doses lead to higher FST immobility (87%) in males while 0.6 mg/kg nicotine to lower OFT locomotor activity (13%). The results (i) identify females as more vulnerable to the immediate withdrawal that follows nicotine discontinuation in adolescence and (ii) suggest that adolescent nicotine exposure may enhance the risk for passive response towards unavoidable stress in adult males.
Thanos, Panayotis; Delis, Foteini; Rosko, Lauren; Volkow, Nora D
This study looks at women from the slums in Mohammadpur, Dhaka, Bangladesh, where 54 percent of women's BMI was less than 18.5. Fifty percent of the Dhaka slum population lived below the poverty line. Logistic regression showed that women with income above 1,500 taka per capita were 1.78 times more likely to have a higher BMI (odds ratio 1.7863; CI = 0.671-3.639). Women with their own savings were 1.89 times more likely to have higher BMI (odds ratio 1.879; CI = 0.01163-1.6431). Women were 4.5 times more likely to have a higher BMI when food expenditure per capita above 559 taka per month (odds ratio 4.55; CI = 1.0302-8.0799). Women were 1.82 times more likely to have higher BMI when there was a break even situation in financial status (odds ratio 1.8212; CI = -015709-3.6285). Female headed households were 3.3 times more likely to have a higher BMI compared to women living in male headed households (odds ratio 3.2966; CI = 0.33711-6.25620). Women who work 15-23 days per month were 2.3 times more likely to have a higher BMI (odds ratio 2.33; CI = 0.1133-4.5600). Women who are the budget manager are 1.12 times more likely to have a higher BMI (odds ratio 1.125; CI = 0.29296-2.0966). Where as a husband who beats his wife is 1.83 more likely to have a poorer BMI (odds ratio 1.8312; CI = -3.72596-0.17508). Women who have no marriage documents and women who take days off due to illness less than 11 days per month were more likely to have a poorer BMI (odds ratio 0.5567; CI = -0.049339-2.8379; odds ratio 0.7569; CI = 0.183167-2.0002). Women's nutritional status and well being can influence their ability to provide for themselves and their families and the demonstration of a relationship between measures of women's autonomy and control in the household and women's nutritional status is an important indication of the importance of these sociological constructs. Women's participation in work outside the home may be a factor increasing their autonomy. The identification of relationships between women's autonomy and control and their physical well being should provide further leverage for policy change that will enable women to escape some traditional roles and to contribute as more equal partners with men in the future of Bangladeshi society. PMID:16382815
Pryer, Jane A; Rogers, Stephen; Rahman, Ataur
Objectives We examined patterns of sexual behavior and risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in young adulthood for Black, Hispanic, and White females. Methods We used a nationally representative sample of 7015 female young adults from Wave III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Sexual risk items assessed behaviors occurring in the previous 6 years and past year to determine classes of sexual risk and links to STIs in young adulthood. Results Latent class analysis revealed 3 sexual risk classes for Black and Hispanic youths and 4 sexual risk classes for White youths. The moderate and high risk classes had the highest probabilities of risky sexual partners, inconsistent condom use, and early age of sexual initiation, which significantly increased odds for STIs compared with recent abstainers. Conclusions We found different classes of sexual behavior by race/ethnicity, with Black and Hispanic young women most at risk for STIs in young adulthood. Preventive efforts should target younger adolescents and focus on sexual partner behavior.
Pflieger, Jacqueline C.; Cook, Emily C.; Niccolai, Linda M.; Connell, Christian M.
The occidental culture has always underlined a particular interpretation of the sexual difference; according to this, the woman belongs to materiality and, at the same time, to the magic world. This conception of the woman like a powerful creature and the consequent fear of the uterus, the organ holder of the femininality, was very spread in the educated and popular traditions and goes on until today within the folklore. The madre is called the uterus, that popular idea considers a self-moving being (the ancient medicine based the concept of hysteria on this, too), a formless animal with many limbs; so, in this way, moving and sending out branches, it can cause illness in the female organism, that is the result of this free movement in the vital spaces. PMID:11640131
By measuring a battery of cytological and biochemical biomarkers in adult female perch (Perca fluviatilis), the city of Stockholm (Sweden) was investigated as a point source of anthropogenic aquatic pollution. The investigation included both an upstream gradient, 46 km westwards through Lake Mälaren, and a downstream gradient, 84 km eastwards through the Stockholm archipelago. Indeed, there was a graded response for most of the biomarkers and for the muscle concentrations of ?PBDE, four organotin compounds and PFOS in the perch. The results indicated severe pollution in central Stockholm, with poor health of the perch, characterised by increased frequency of micronucleated erythrocytes, altered liver apoptosis, increased liver catalase activity, decreased brain aromatase activity, and decreased liver lysosomal membrane stability. Some biomarker responses were lowest in the middle archipelago and increased again eastwards, indicating a second, partly overlapping, gradient of toxic effects from the Baltic Sea. PMID:24655945
Hansson, Tomas; Baršien?, Janina; Tjärnlund, Ulla; Åkerman, Gun; Linderoth, Maria; Zebühr, Yngve; Sternbeck, John; Järnberg, Ulf; Balk, Lennart
This study examined the impact of child sexual abuse and disclosure characteristics on adult psychological and psychosomatic symptoms. Data on abuse characteristics, disclosure-related events, and subjective health were collected through semistructured interviews and questionnaires from 123 adult women reporting having been sexually abused in…
Jonzon, Eva; Lindblad, Frank
Background Comorbidity between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and mood disorders is common. Alterations of the cerebellum and frontal regions have been reported in neuro-imaging studies of ADHD and major depression. Methods Thirty chronically depressed adult females of whom 16 had scores below, and 14 scores above, cut-offs on the 25-items Wender Utah Retrospective Scale (WURS-25) and the Wender-Reimherr Adult Attention Deficit Disorder Scale (WRAADDS) were divided into subgroups designated "Depression" and "Depression + ADHD", respectively. Twenty-one of the patients had some audiological symptom, tinnitus and/or hearing impairment. The patients were investigated with other rating scales and 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT. Controls for 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT were 16 healthy females. SPECT was analyzed by both statistical parametric mapping (SPM2) and the computerized brain atlas (CBA). Discriminant analysis was performed on the volumes of interest generated by the CBA, and on the scores from rating scales with the highest group differences. Results The mean score of a depression rating scale (MADRS-S) was significantly lower in the "Depression" subgroup compared to in the "Depression + ADHD" subgroup. There was significantly decreased tracer uptake within the bilateral cerebellum at both SPM and CBA in the "Depression + ADHD" subgroup compared to in the controls. No decrease of cerebellar tracer uptake was observed in "Depression". Significantly increased tracer uptake was found at SPM within some bilateral frontal regions (Brodmann areas 8, 9, 10, 32) in the "Depression + ADHD" subgroup compared to in "Depression". An accuracy of 100% was obtained for the discrimination between the patient groups when thalamic uptake was used in the analysis along with scores from Socialization and Impulsivity scales. Conclusion The findings confirm the previous observation of a cerebellar involvement in ADHD. Higher bilateral frontal 99mTc-HMPAO uptake in "Depression + ADHD" compared to in "Depression" indicate a difference between these subgroups. 99mTc-HMPAO uptake mechanisms are discussed.
Gardner, Ann; Salmaso, Dario; Varrone, Andrea; Sanchez-Crespo, Alejandro; Bejerot, Susanne; Jacobsson, Hans; Larsson, Stig A; Pagani, Marco
Conditions experienced during early life can have profound effects on individual development and condition in adulthood. Differences in nutritional provisioning in birds during the first month of life can lead to differences in growth, reproductive success and survival. Yet, under natural conditions shorter periods of nutritional stress will be more prevalent. Individuals may respond differently, depending on the period of development during which nutritional stress was experienced. Such differences may surface specifically when poor environmental conditions challenge individuals again as adults. Here, we investigated long term consequences of differences in nutritional conditions experienced during different periods of early development by female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) on measures of management and acquisition of body reserves. As nestlings or fledglings, subjects were raised under different nutritional conditions, a low or high quality diet. After subjects reached sexual maturity, we measured their sensitivity to periods of food restriction, their exploration and foraging behaviour as well as adult resting metabolic rate (RMR). During a short period of food restriction, subjects from the poor nutritional conditions had a higher body mass loss than those raised under qualitatively superior nutritional conditions. Moreover, subjects that were raised under poor nutritional conditions were faster to engage in exploratory and foraging behaviour. But RMR did not differ among treatments. These results reveal that early nutritional conditions affect adult exploratory behaviour, a representative personality trait, foraging and adult's physiological condition. As early nutritional conditions are reflected in adult phenotypic plasticity specifically when stressful situations reappear, the results suggest that costs for poor developmental conditions are paid when environmental conditions deteriorate.
Krause, E. Tobias; Honarmand, Mariam; Wetzel, Jennifer; Naguib, Marc
Relatively little is known about the generation of adult form. One complex adult trait that is particularly amenable to genetic and experimental analysis is the zebrafish pigment pattern, which undergoes extensive remodeling during post-embryonic development to form adult stripes. These stripes result from the arrangement of three classes of neural crest-derived pigment cells, or chromatophores: melanophores, xanthophores, and iridophores. Here, we analyze the zebrafish bonaparte mutant, which has a normal early pigment pattern but exhibits a severe disruption to the adult stripe pattern. We show that the bonaparte mutant phenotype arises from mutations in basonuclin-2 (bnc2), encoding a highly conserved, nuclear-localized zinc finger protein of unknown function. We show that bnc2 acts non-autonomously to the melanophore lineage and is expressed by hypodermal cells adjacent to chromatophores during adult pigment pattern formation. In bonaparte (bnc2) mutants, all three types of chromatophores differentiate but then are lost by extrusion through the skin. We further show that while bnc2 promotes the development of two genetically distinct populations of melanophores in the body stripes, chromatophores of the fins and scales remain unaffected in bonaparte mutants, though a requirement of fin chromatophores for bnc2 is revealed in the absence of kit and colony stimulating factor-1 receptor activity. Finally, we find that bonaparte (bnc2) mutants exhibit dysmorphic ovaries correlating with infertility and bnc2 is expressed in somatic ovarian cells, whereas the related gene, bnc1, is expressed within oocytes; and we find that both bnc2 and bnc1 are expressed abundantly within the central nervous system. These findings identify bnc2 as an important mediator of adult pigment pattern formation and identify bonaparte mutants as an animal model for dissecting bnc2 functions.
Johnson, Stephen L.; Parichy, David M.
Clinical efforts to reduce risk for Substance Use Disorders (SUDs) among young adults rely on the empirical identification of risk factors for addictive behaviors in this population. Exposure to traumatic events and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) have been linked with SUDs in various populations. Emerging data, particularly from adolescent samples, suggest that traumatic event exposure increases risk for SUDs for
Carla Kmett Danielson; Ananda B. Amstadter; Ruth E. Dangelmaier; Heidi S. Resnick; Benjamin E. Saunders; Dean G. Kilpatrick
We present the case of a 20-year-old woman with uncorrected bladder exstrophy and omphalocele treated with ileocystoplasty and continent urinary stoma. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of a young adult patient presenting with both congenital anomalies. The treatment result suggests that bladder preservation is a safe and feasible therapeutic option in bladder exstrophy.
Javier Quiroz-Guerrero; Marco Badillo; Norberto Muñoz; Jorge Anaya; Gazpar Rico; Rafael Maldonado-Valadez
The relationships of lung function to physical characteristics in young adults have not been adequately described for different gender-race groups in the United States. s part of a study of the effects of ozone exposure upon Black and White men and women, we measured lung volumes...
The increase in maternal employment has affected society and children. Indications are that the increased numbers of working mothers had impacted the size of families and the birth intervals within them. In addition, as children experience life with a working mother, personal constructs of adult roles and attitudes towards maternal employment can…
Gorton, Laura; Nicodemus, Teresa; Pomante, Michael; Binasiewicz, Megan; Dheer, Rahul; Dugan, Amy; Madaras, Janice; Chambliss, Catherine
This phenomenological, qualitative study examined resiliency determinants and resiliency formation among 10 women who had been sexually abused as children. An examination of the determinants and processes that facilitated resiliency in participants' adult lives revealed 5 determinant clusters (interpersonally skilled, competent, high self-regard,…
Bogar, Christine B.; Hulse-Killacky, Diana
Existing literature provides support for a possible syndemic among adult film actresses. Multiple studies emphasize that a combination of economic, social, and cultural issues work together in tandem to synergistically amplify HIV\\/STI risk in this vulnerable population. It is critical to acknowledge how the detrimental effects of the high prevalence of substance abuse, psychological distress, intimate partner violence, and childhood
Candace Danielle Sibley
Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is secreted during the dark hours at night by the pineal gland. After entering the circulation, melatonin acts as an endocrine factor and a chemical messenger of light and darkness. It regulates a variety of important central and peripheral actions related to circadian rhythms and reproduction. It also affects the brain, immune, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, renal, bone and endocrine functions and acts as an oncostatic and anti-aging molecule. Many of melatonin's actions are mediated through interactions with specific membrane-bound receptors expressed not only in the central nervous system, but also in peripheral tissues. Melatonin also acts through non-receptor-mediated mechanisms, for example serving as a scavenger for reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species. At both physiological and pharmacological concentrations, melatonin attenuates and counteracts oxidative stress and regulates cellular metabolism. Growing scientific evidence of reproductive physiology supports the role of melatonin in human reproduction. This review was conducted to investigate the effects of melatonin on female reproduction and to summarize our findings in this field. PMID:24118696
Tamura, Hiroshi; Takasaki, Akihisa; Taketani, Toshiaki; Tanabe, Manabu; Lee, Lifa; Tamura, Isao; Maekawa, Ryo; Aasada, Hiromi; Yamagata, Yoshiaki; Sugino, Norihiro
A case study of a 44-year-old woman who committed a mass murder is presented. Following a chronic course of psychotic deterioration, and a likely diagnosis of paranoid schizophrenia that remained untreated, she returned to her workplace after 3 years from her termination and killed seven people and herself. Her history is reconstructed through investigation of primary and secondary source materials. Although there are very few female mass murderers in recorded criminal history, this case is quite similar to the known research on mass murderers in general. Such individuals often have a psychotic disorder evident in violent and paranoid delusions, show a deteriorating life course before the mass murder, intentionally plan and prepare for their assault, and methodically kill as many individuals as possible before taking their own lives. They typically do not directly threaten the target beforehand, but do leak their intent to third parties--however, in this case, leakage and other obvious warning behaviors did not occur. Such acts are impossible to predict but depend on threat management and target security for risk mitigation. PMID:21291471
Katsavdakis, Kostas A; Meloy, J Reid; White, Stephen G
Increased dietary intake of choline early in life improves performance of adult rats on memory tasks and prevents their age-related memory decline. Because neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus also declines with age, we investigated whether prenatal choline availability affects hippocampal neurogenesis in adult Sprague–Dawley rats and modifies their neurogenic response to environmental stimulation. On embryonic days (ED) 12?17, pregnant rats ate a choline-supplemented (SUP-5 g/kg), choline sufficient (SFF-1.1 g/kg), or choline-free (DEF) semisynthetic diet. Adult offspring either remained in standard housing or were given 21 daily visits to explore a maze. On the last ten exploration days, all rats received daily injections of 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU, 100 mg/kg). The number of BrdU+ cells was significantly greater in the dentate gyrus in SUP rats compared to SFF or DEF rats. While maze experience increased the number of BrdU+ cells in SFF rats to the level seen in the SUP rats, this enriching experience did not alter cell proliferation in DEF rats. Similar patterns of cell proliferation were obtained with immunohistochemical staining for neuronal marker doublecortin, confirming that diet and exploration affected hippocampal neurogenesis. Moreover, hippocampal levels of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were increased in SUP rats as compared to SFF and DEF animals. We conclude that prenatal choline intake has enduring effects on adult hippocampal neurogenesis, possibly via up-regulation of BDNF levels, and suggest that these alterations of neurogenesis may contribute to the mechanism of life-long changes in cognitive function governed by the availability of choline during gestation.
Glenn, Melissa J.; Gibson, Erin M.; Kirby, Elizabeth D.; Mellott, Tiffany J.; Blusztajn, Jan K.; Williams, Christina L.
Female and male adult human phantoms, called FASH (Female Adult meSH) and MASH (Male Adult meSH), have been developed in the first part of this study using 3D animation software and anatomical atlases to replace the image-based FAX06 and the MAX06 voxel phantoms. 3D modelling methods allow for phantom development independent from medical images of patients, volunteers or cadavers. The second part of this study investigates the dosimetric implications for organ and tissue equivalent doses due to the anatomical differences between the new and the old phantoms. These differences are mainly caused by the supine position of human bodies during scanning in order to acquire digital images for voxel phantom development. Compared to an upright standing person, in image-based voxel phantoms organs are often coronally shifted towards the head and sometimes the sagittal diameter of the trunk is reduced by a gravitational change of the fat distribution. In addition, volumes of adipose and muscle tissue shielding internal organs are sometimes too small, because adaptation of organ volumes to ICRP-based organ masses often occurs at the expense of general soft tissues, such as adipose, muscle or unspecified soft tissue. These effects have dosimetric consequences, especially for partial body exposure, such as in x-ray diagnosis, but also for whole body external exposure and for internal exposure. Using the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code, internal and external exposure to photons and electrons has been simulated with both pairs of phantoms. The results show differences between organ and tissue equivalent doses for the upright standing FASH/MASH and the image-based supine FAX06/MAX06 phantoms of up to 80% for external exposure and up to 100% for internal exposure. Similar differences were found for external exposure between FASH/MASH and REGINA/REX, the reference voxel phantoms of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Comparison of effective doses for external photon exposure showed good agreement between FASH/MASH and REGINA/REX, but large differences between FASH/MASH and the mesh-based RPI_AM and the RPI_AF phantoms, developed at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI). PMID:20009181
Kramer, R; Cassola, V F; Khoury, H J; Vieira, J W; Lima, V J de Melo; Brown, K Robson
Female and male adult human phantoms, called FASH (Female Adult meSH) and MASH (Male Adult meSH), have been developed in the first part of this study using 3D animation software and anatomical atlases to replace the image-based FAX06 and the MAX06 voxel phantoms. 3D modelling methods allow for phantom development independent from medical images of patients, volunteers or cadavers. The second part of this study investigates the dosimetric implications for organ and tissue equivalent doses due to the anatomical differences between the new and the old phantoms. These differences are mainly caused by the supine position of human bodies during scanning in order to acquire digital images for voxel phantom development. Compared to an upright standing person, in image-based voxel phantoms organs are often coronally shifted towards the head and sometimes the sagittal diameter of the trunk is reduced by a gravitational change of the fat distribution. In addition, volumes of adipose and muscle tissue shielding internal organs are sometimes too small, because adaptation of organ volumes to ICRP-based organ masses often occurs at the expense of general soft tissues, such as adipose, muscle or unspecified soft tissue. These effects have dosimetric consequences, especially for partial body exposure, such as in x-ray diagnosis, but also for whole body external exposure and for internal exposure. Using the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code, internal and external exposure to photons and electrons has been simulated with both pairs of phantoms. The results show differences between organ and tissue equivalent doses for the upright standing FASH/MASH and the image-based supine FAX06/MAX06 phantoms of up to 80% for external exposure and up to 100% for internal exposure. Similar differences were found for external exposure between FASH/MASH and REGINA/REX, the reference voxel phantoms of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Comparison of effective doses for external photon exposure showed good agreement between FASH/MASH and REGINA/REX, but large differences between FASH/MASH and the mesh-based RPI_AM and the RPI_AF phantoms, developed at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI).
Kramer, R.; Cassola, V. F.; Khoury, H. J.; Vieira, J. W.; de Melo Lima, V. J.; Robson Brown, K.
Serum creatine kinase levels were determined in 75 girls (age range, one month to 15 years) and 200 normal adult women (age range, 18 to 50 years). The values ranged from 12.5 to 80 IU\\/1 in girls and 19 to 155 IU\\/1 in adult females. The SCK level appeared to increase with age from 1 to 15 years, after which
R K Satapathy; R Skinner
Adolescence is a period of transition from childhood to adulthood that involves the maturation of social and cognitive behavior. The activation of the stress system during this phase can lead to long-lasting adverse effects. We aimed to verify whether the nature and duration of stressors applied in adolescent female and male rats would alter their exploratory behavior and stress responses as adults. Wistar rats on day P26 were divided into groups that were subjected to 1 (acute) or 7 (chronic) insulin or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injections or restraint stress for 1h. At P60, the rats were subjected to the elevated plus-maze, and at P61, they were subjected to 30min of restraint stress after which plasma samples and brains were collected. LPS acute injection promoted anxiolytic effects in male adults. Acute LPS treatment and acute or chronic restraint induced anxiolytic behavior in female adults. The administration of adolescent chronic stimuli to males decreased the adult plasma corticosterone (CORT) and progesterone levels after restraint. Adolescent acute restraint or LPS injection decreased the CORT response in female adults. The adult neuronal activation of the corticotrophin-releasing hormone and vasopressin on the paraventricular nucleus did not vary according to the type of adolescent stress or sex. Our results indicate that both adult behavior and the glucocorticoid stress response are affected differently in males versus females by adolescent stress. The duration of stressors had a greater effect on the CORT and progesterone response in males, whereas the nature of the stressor had a greater effect on exploratory behavior in females. PMID:24878314
Ariza Traslaviña, Guillermo A; de Oliveira, Fabiana Lucio; Franci, Celso Rodrigues
Objectives: This study aims to demonstrate the effectiveness of leaded glasses in reducing the lens of eye dose and of lead thyroid collars in reducing the dose to the thyroid gland of an adult female from dental cone beam CT (CBCT). The effect of collimation on the radiation dose in head organs is also examined. Methods: Dose measurements were conducted by placing optically stimulated luminescent dosemeters in an anthropomorphic female phantom. Eye lens dose was measured by placing a dosemeter on the anterior surface of the phantom eye location. All exposures were performed on one commercially available dental CBCT machine, using selected collimation and exposure techniques. Each scan technique was performed without any lead shielding and then repeated with lead shielding in place. To calculate the percent reduction from lead shielding, the dose measured with lead shielding was divided by the dose measured without lead shielding. The percent reduction from collimation was calculated by comparing the dose measured with collimation to the dose measured without collimation. Results: The dose to the internal eye for one of the scans without leaded glasses or thyroid shield was 0.450?cGy and with glasses and thyroid shield was 0.116?cGy (a 74% reduction). The reduction to the lens of the eye was from 0.396?cGy to 0.153?cGy (a 61% reduction). Without glasses or thyroid shield, the thyroid dose was 0.158?cGy; and when both glasses and shield were used, the thyroid dose was reduced to 0.091?cGy (a 42% reduction). Conclusions: Collimation alone reduced the dose to the brain by up to 91%, with a similar reduction in other organs. Based on these data, leaded glasses, thyroid collars and collimation minimize the dose to organs outside the field of view.
Goren, AD; Prins, RD; Dauer, LT; Quinn, B; Al-Najjar, A; Faber, RD; Patchell, G; Branets, I; Colosi, DC
Adult male and female northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) are sexually segregated in different regions of the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea during their winter migration. Explanations for this involve interplay between physiology, predator-prey dynamics, and ecosystem characteristics, however possible mechanisms lack empirical support. To investigate factors influencing the winter ecology of both sexes, we deployed five satellite-linked conductivity, temperature, and depth data loggers on adult males, and six satellite-linked depth data loggers and four satellite transmitters on adult females from St. Paul Island (Bering Sea, Alaska, USA) in October 2009. Males and females migrated to different regions of the North Pacific Ocean: males wintered in the Bering Sea and northern North Pacific Ocean, while females migrated to the Gulf of Alaska and California Current. Horizontal and vertical movement behaviors of both sexes were influenced by wind speed, season, light (sun and moon), and the ecosystem they occupied, although the expression of the behaviors differed between sexes. Male dive depths were aligned with the depth of the mixed layer during daylight periods and we suspect this was the case for females upon their arrival to the California Current. We suggest that females, because of their smaller size and physiological limitations, must avoid severe winters typical of the northern North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea and migrate long distances to areas of more benign environmental conditions and where prey is shallower and more accessible. In contrast, males can better tolerate often extreme winter ocean conditions and exploit prey at depth because of their greater size and physiological capabilities. We believe these contrasting winter behaviors 1) are a consequence of evolutionary selection for large size in males, important to the acquisition and defense of territories against rivals during the breeding season, and 2) ease environmental/physiological constraints imposed on smaller females. PMID:24722344
Sterling, Jeremy T; Springer, Alan M; Iverson, Sara J; Johnson, Shawn P; Pelland, Noel A; Johnson, Devin S; Lea, Mary-Anne; Bond, Nicholas A
A traditional heavy intoxication-oriented drinking style, "heroic drinking," is a central drinking practice in Denmark and Finland, especially among men. However, it seems that another drinking style leading to intoxication, "playful drinking," has become more prevalent in Denmark as well as in Finland. Playful drinking is characterized by self-presentations in diverse forms of game situations in which you need to play with different aspects of social and bodily styles. We approach the positions of heroic drinking and playful drinking among young adults (between 17 and 23 years) in Denmark and Finland by analyzing how they discuss these two drinking styles in focus groups (N = 16). PMID:21619443
Demant, Jakob; Törrönen, Jukka
Sexual sterilization is the major form of fertility control in women who are more than 30 years old. Clinicians usually use laparoscopy to perform female sterilization. They may occlude the fallopian tubes with a clip or ring or coagulate the tubes using bipolar diathermy. It is usually performed on an outpatient basis. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs can generally control the postoperative pain. A serious immediate but rare complication is death, which is often associated with the anesthesia. Complications related to the experience of the surgeon include damage to bowel or blood vessels and tearing of mesosalpinx. Obesity or pelvic adhesions often necessitates either laparotomy or abandonment of sterilization. Some long term complications are hysterectomy and menstrual disorders. Presterilization counseling needs to examine the possibility of regret and to discuss failure rates and complications. Reasons for regret are young at time of sterilization, psychosexual disorder, change of partner, change in financial circumstances, sterilization performed at time of crisis, and death of a child. The failure rate for the Filshie clip is 0.1%. Reasons for failure include pregnant at the time of the procedure, clips placed across the round or ovarian ligament, incomplete occlusion, and fistula formation and recanalization. Failure rates are higher when the sterilization is done during pregnancy because the tubes are thicker and more vascular. Vasectomy involves severing and ligating the vas deferens in both scrotums. Immediate complications are hematoma and infection. Vasectomy patients need to bring 2 semen samples for sperm counts 3-4 months after the procedure. Azoospermia signals a successful vasectomy. If sperm are still present 5-6 months after the procedure, the surgeon should conduct exploratory surgery under general anesthesia. Long term side effects include testicular discomfort and perhaps prostate cancer. The evidence is unclear about the link between vasectomy and prostate cancer, however. PMID:8072940
Background: The objectives of this study were to examine (a) the prevalence of overweight/obesity, and (b) the relationship between body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (BF) and physical fitness in adolescent and adult female volleyball players. Materials and Methods: Adolescent (n = 102, aged 15.2 ± 2.0 year) and adult (n = 57, 25.9 ± 5.0 year) players were examined for anthropometric characteristics and body composition, and performed the physical working capacity in heart rate 170 min-1 test, a force-velocity test, the Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT), sit-and-reach test (SAR), handgrip strength test (HST) and countermovement vertical jump (CVJ). Results: Based on international BMI cut-off points, 27.5% (n = 28) of adolescent and 12.3% (n = 7) of adult participants were classified as overweight, with the prevalence of overweight being higher in girls than in women (?2 = 4.90, P = 0.027). BMI was correlated with BF in both age groups (r = 0.72, P < 0.001 in girls; r = 0.75, P < 0.001 in women). Normal participants had superior certain physical and physiological characteristics than those who were overweight. For instance, normal girls and women had higher mean power during WAnT than their overweight counterparts (P = 0.003 and P = 0.009 respectively). Except for flexibility, BMI and BF were inversely related with physical fitness (e.g., BMI vs. HST r = -0.39, P < 0.001 in girls; BF vs. CVJ r = -0.45, P < 0.001 in women). Conclusion: The findings confirmed the negative effect of overweight and fatness on selected parameters of physical fitness. The prevalence of overweight in adolescent volleyball players was higher than in general population, which was a novel finding, suggesting that proper exercise interventions should be developed to target the excess of body mass in youth volleyball clubs.
Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theo
The increased prevalence of overweight adults has serious health consequences. Epidemiological studies suggest an association between low activity and being over-weight; however, few studies have objectively measured activity during a period of weight gain, so it is unknown whether low activity is a cause or consequence of being overweight. To determine whether individual differences in adult weight gain are linked to an individual's activity level, we measured activity, via accelerometry, over a prolonged period (9 mo) in 18 adult female rhesus monkeys. Weight, food intake, metabolic rate, and activity were first monitored over a 3-mo period. During this period, there was mild but significant weight gain (5.5 ± 0.88%; t =?6.3, df = 17, P < 0.0001), whereas caloric intake and activity remained stable. Metabolic rate increased, as expected, with weight gain. Activity level correlated with weight gain (r = ?0.52, P = 0.04), and the most active monkeys gained less weight than the least active monkeys (t = ?2.74, df = 8, P = 0.03). Moreover, there was an eightfold difference in activity between the most and least active monkeys, and initial activity of each monkey was highly correlated with their activity after 9 mo (r = 0.85, P < 0.0001). In contrast, food intake did not correlate with weight gain, and there was no difference in weight gain between monkeys with the highest vs. lowest caloric intake, total metabolic rate, or basal metabolic rate. We conclude that physical activity is a particularly important factor contributing to weight change in adulthood and that there are large, but stable, differences in physical activity among individuals.
Sullivan, Elinor L.; Koegler, Frank H.; Cameron, Judy L.
Peripheral axons are structurally plastic even in the adult, and altered axon density is implicated in many disorders and pain syndromes. However, mechanisms responsible for peripheral axon remodeling are poorly understood. Physiological plasticity is characteristic of the female reproductive tract: vaginal sensory innervation density is low under high estrogen conditions such as term pregnancy, while density is high in low-estrogen conditions such as menopause. We exploited this system in rats to identify factors responsible for adult peripheral neuroplasticity. Calcitonin gene-related peptide-immunoreactive sensory innervation is distributed primarily within the vaginal submucosa. Submucosal smooth muscle cells express Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4 (BMP4). With low estrogen, BMP4 expression was elevated indicating negative regulation by this hormone. Vaginal smooth muscle cells induced robust neurite outgrowth by co-cultured dorsal root ganglion neurons, which was prevented by neutralizing BMP4 with noggin or anti-BMP4. Estrogen also prevented axon outgrowth, and this was reversed by exogenous BMP4. Nuclear accumulation of phosphorylated Smad1, a primary transcription factor for BMP4 signaling, was high in vagina-projecting sensory neurons following ovariectomy, and reduced by estrogen. BMP4 regulation of innervation was confirmed in vivo using lentiviral transduction to overexpress BMP4 in an estrogen-independent manner. Submucosal regions with high virally induced BMP4 expression had high innervation density despite elevated estrogen. These findings show that BMP4, an important factor in early nervous system development and regeneration after injury, is a critical mediator of adult physiological plasticity as well. Altered BMP4 expression may therefore contribute to sensory hyperinnervation, a hallmark of several pain disorders including vulvodynia.
Bhattacherjee, Aritra; Rumi, M.A. Karim; Staecker, Hinrich; Smith, Peter G.
Many epidemiological studies suggest that women are at increased risk of developing adult-onset asthma and also suffer from more severe disease than men. These gender differences appear to be the product of biological sex differences as well as sociocultural and environmental differences. The biological sex differences include genetic, pulmonary, and immunological factors. There is compelling evidence that sex hormones are major determinants of at least these biological sex differences. This paper explores the current literature regarding effects of sex hormones on immune function, resident lung cells, and regulation of local processes in the lung to shed light on underlying mechanisms of gender differences in asthma. More research is needed to understand these mechanisms in order to improve treatment of women with asthma. PMID:17437685
Melgert, Barbro N; Ray, Anuradha; Hylkema, Machteld N; Timens, Wim; Postma, Dirkje S
This 18-month follow-up study builds on the findings of a randomized experimental evaluation that found qualified support for the short-term effectiveness of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) in reducing trauma symptoms among adult female survivors of childhood sexual abuse (CSA). The current study provides preliminary evidence…
Edmond, Tonya; Rubin, Allen
The administration of the herbicide 2,4-Dichlorophenyl-p-nitrophenyl ether (nitrofen; NIT) to adult female mice by i.p. injection at doses of 500 and 1000 mg/kg/day for 3 days, reduced serum thyroxine (T4) levels. T4 levels were reduced in the high-dosage group by 60% of the cont...
Due to cultural and religious reasons, Pakistani women can be reluctant to seek medical attention for disorders affecting their genitals or breasts. As a result, in the case of cervical and breast cancers, oncological treatment is often not received until the diseases are in the late stages. Once a cancer is classified and the tumor marked, the role of the medical physicist begins. Medical physicists' responsibilities include treatment planning, supervising treatment through radiation, dosimetry, contouring, training, equipment selection, education, research, and supervising radiotherapy facilities. In brachytherapy, isotopes are placed at the tumor site in the form of wires or seeds. There are very few female medical physicists in Pakistan. This leads to further hesitation on the part of many women to seek treatment. To help female patients obtain needed medical care, female physics students should be encouraged to pursue the emerging field of medical physics. This would provide a new professional opportunity for female physics students and give comfort to female patients.
Naqvi, Syed Mansoor [Department of Radiology, Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi (Pakistan); Hasnain, Aziz Fatima [Center for Physics Education, Karachi (Pakistan)
The condition characterized by elevated gonadotrophins (gonadotropins elevated into the menopausal range), low sex steroids, and menstrual disorders was previously termed Premature Ovarian Failure (POF). However, over the last two years an effort has been made by many authors to have the term Primary Ovarian Insufficiency (POI) exclusively applied. Irrespective of the term, the condition concerns adolescent and young adult women under 40 years who experience cessation of menstruation for more than 3 cycles (whereas these women in the past had a rhythmic menstrual cycle) or amenorrhea for 4–6 months against the background of a previously disturbed menstrual cycle. Determining the cause of POI is difficult, and it is even harder to deal with problems arising from the paucity of estrogen as well as to draw up the plan for long-term monitoring of these patients. This paper presents long-term therapeutic management strategies concerning emotional health, hormone replacement therapy, maintenance of bone health, family planning, other associated disorders as well as possible research options for the future.
Pantelis, Tsimaris; Nikolaos, Vrachnis; Zoe, Iliodromiti; Efthymios, Deligeoroglou
Prenatal exposure to nicotine (PNE) has been associated with a myriad of physiological, cognitive, and behavioral effects in the developing offspring. In this study, CD-1 dams were given injections of nicotine or control vehicle throughout gestation and their offspring were raised to 6 months of age. Adult mice were administered a battery of behavioral tests (the Suok test, the elevated platform test, and the elevated plus maze test) to assess anxiety and sensorimotor integration. PNE resulted in a decreased likelihood of jumping during the elevated platform test and decreased directed exploration in the Suok test, both indicative of increased anxiety. Also, PNE mice showed increased numbers of missteps while traversing an elevated rod in the Suok test, demonstrating altered sensorimotor integration. No significant differences were found in falls, segments traveled, latency to leave the central zone, vegetative responses, risk assessment behaviors, or autogroom behaviors. The elevated plus maze test revealed no significant differences between groups. No significant differences in body and brain weights, or cortical thickness within motor, somatosensory, and visual cortices were observed between PNE and control mice. Although neuroanatomical effects of PNE may be rescued as development progresses, defects in sensorimotor integration and increased anxiety persist into adulthood. PMID:24157430
Santiago, Sarah E; Huffman, Kelly J
Phthalates are widely used as plasticizers in everyday products. Yet, studies on the effects of phthalates on female reproductive health are limited. In this study, pregnant C57/Bl6 mice were exposed via oral gavage to corn oil, 100, 500, or 1000mg/kg MEHP from gestational days 17–19. Reproductive lifespan was decreased by one month in the highest F1 exposure group (9.8±0.4 versus 11.1±0.6 months in control F1 females). F1 females exhibited delayed estrous onset at the two higher exposures and prolonged estrus was observed in all MEHP-exposed females. Serum FSH and estradiol were significantly elevated at the highest exposure and altered mRNA expression was found for the steroidogenic genes LHCGR, aromatase, and StAR. At one year of age, mammary gland hyperplasia was observed in high dose MEHP-exposed females. In summary, late gestational exposure to MEHP leads to multiple latent reproductive effects throughout murine life resulting in premature ovarian senescence and mammary hyperplasia.
Moyer, Benjamin; Hixon, Mary L.
Bisphenol A (BPA), an estrogenic monomer, has attracted many researchers to study its adverse effects in animal reproduction, especially in fish. To explore the effects of low dose BPA on adult female rare minnow Gobiocypris rarus, we exposed the fish to BPA at nominal concentrations of 5, 15, and 50?gL(-1) for 14 and 35d. The 35-d BPA exposure at 50?gL(-1) had obviously suppressive effects on oocyte development, and BPA at all the three concentrations in both exposure durations of 14 and 35d had stimulative effects on hepatic vitellogenin (vtg) transcription. BPA at lower concentrations (5 and 15?gL(-1)) exhibited stimulative effects on the expressions of ovarian steroidogenic genes while at higher concentration (50?gL(-1)) displayed inhibitive effects. Analysis of ovarian steroidogenic genes 5'-flanking regions and mRNA expressions of their potential regulatory factors revealed that the BPA-mediated actions on steroidogenesis in G. rarus ovary probably involve estrogen receptor (Esr) and androgen receptor (Ar) signaling, nuclear receptor subfamily 5, group A, number 1 (Nr5a1) pathway, and epigenetic regulation. PMID:25048937
Zhang, Yingying; Gao, Jiancao; Xu, Peng; Yuan, Cong; Qin, Fang; Liu, Shaozhen; Zheng, Yao; Yang, Yanping; Wang, Zaizhao
Anthropometry is the science that deals with the measurement of size, weight and proportion of the human body. Stature is natural heights of a person in an upright position. This can be estimated from arm span length. In the last 50 years of the 20th century various mass disasters such as different powerful storm, flood, plane crash, train accident was increased. Very recently in Chittagong and southern Bangladesh many people were killed through land slides and Seder. As so many disasters were occurring it is possible to identify a missing person if a part of his or her body is available. The arm span lengths can be used as a basis for estimating age-related loss in stature and as an alternative measure to stature. The study was done for the estimation of stature from the arm span on one hundred and fifty Bangladeshi adult Muslim females. Subject was collected from Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka and some urban region of Dhaka, Bangladesh. The present study showed significant (p<0.001) positive correlation between the stature and the arm span. PMID:20956900
Laila, S Z; Begum, J A; Ferdousi, R; Parveen, S; Husain, M S; Holy, S Z; Islam, M S
The ancient figure of Baubo plays a pivotal role in the Greek myth of Demeter and Persephone with an exhibitionistic act that brings Demeter out of her depression. The Baubo episode raises questions about the meaning of female exhibitionism, suggesting divergences from earlier psychoanalytic conceptualizations as either a perversion or a compensation for the lack of a penis. In line with contemporary thinking about primary femininity, such as that of Balsam or Elise, the authors propose a more inclusive understanding of female exhibitionism, which would encompass pleasure in the female body and its sexual and reproductive functions. They argue that female exhibitionism can reflect triangular or "oedipal" scenarios and the need to attract the male, identification with the mother, competition or camaraderie with other women, a sense of power in the female body and its capacities, as well as homoerotic impulses. The authors posit a dual early desire and identification with the mother that underlie and characterize female sexual development. The authors present clinical data from adolescent and adult cases of female exhibitionism which illustrate these Baubo-like aspects and discuss the technical issues that are involved in such cases. PMID:22471632
Holtzman, Deanna; Kulish, Nancy
The literature review herein reveals substantial information regarding the safety, efficacy, short-term complications, long-term complications, and noncontraceptive benefits of sterilization. This information should be helpful for providers and potential sterilization candidates. The review also reveals areas where the data are unclear. Points to keep in mind during counseling include the following: The vast majority of women are satisfied with the decision to undergo sterilization. The fact that regret occurs underscores the importance of counseling and adequate individual deliberation before the procedure. In addition to the difficulty and expense associated with sterilization reversal, the woman should thoroughly understand the permanence of the procedure. Although failure is a rare event, it can occur many years after the procedure. Although evidence suggests that hysterectomy rates are higher in sterilized women aged less than 30 to 35 years, it is unlikely that there is a plausible biologic effect of sterilization on hysterectomy risk. An association between tubal sterilization and menstrual cycle changes does not seem valid for changes noted up to 2 years after the procedure. Data are unclear and inconsistent among studies observing women more than 2 years after the procedure. Evidence consistently shows that sterilization is associated with a reduced incidence of ovarian cancer and pelvic inflammatory diseases. Most studies show no effect or improvement of sexual satisfaction after sterilization. Complications during and postprocedure are rare. Sterilization provides no protection against the acquisition of sexually transmitted disease. Patients and their physicians should recognize that sterilized women may need more targeted preventive efforts for health screening and to reduce high-risk behavior than women who use other contraceptive methods. The surgeon's experience and the woman's preferences should govern the ultimate decision regarding the approach and occlusion method. Level II-2 evidence indicates comparable safety between interval laparoscopy and minilaparotomy. Data consistently show that in experienced trained hands, tubal sterilization is safe and highly effective regardless of the approach or occlusive method. Attention to the subtleties of technique seems to be most important in ensuring procedure safety and efficacy. Reanalysis of the CREST data shows that the cumulative failure rate of bipolar coagulation is comparable with the failure rate of unipolar coagulation if a substantial length of tube is adequately coagulated. The data discussed herein can be used to guide management decisions that may increase accessibility and reduce cost of the procedure. Low-resource settings and office settings have maintained an excellent safety record for this procedure through performance of sterilization under local anesthesia. The use of local anesthesia enables a change in procedure location from an inpatient operating room to a free-standing surgical clinic or adequately equipped office. Local anesthesia, with or without preoperative medication, is an excellent option associated with a lower complication risk, reduced cost, and shorter, easier recovery. The surgeon should have specific training in the effective use of local anesthetics, preoperative medications, and management of rare complications in low-resource settings. Little additional research is needed regarding the safety and efficacy of standard sterilization approaches and occlusion methods. There is a need for continued development of nonsurgical methods of sterilization, microlaparoscopic approaches performed in the office setting, and the feasibility and acceptance of service provision by nonspecialist health care providers. The evidence indicates that female sterilization can be performed safely in a variety of resource settings ranging from rural sterilization camps in developing countries to high-tech, resource-rich operating rooms in developed c PMID:11091991
Pati, S; Cullins, V
Sex steroids play major roles in vertebrate sexual differentiation. Unexpectedly, we now find that exposure to elevated levels of the naturally occurring stress hormone cortisol can also masculinize sexually dimorphic morphological characters and behaviour in adult female mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) in a dose-dependent manner. Females masculinized by cortisol developed elongated anal fins with distal tip features similar to those of mature males. Most masculinized females also attempted to copulate when placed with normal females. Although the mechanism of masculinization is currently unknown, we propose a role for an enzyme that both inactivates cortisol and catalyzes the final step in synthesis of a major teleost androgen. This mechanism may also help explain some previously reported effects of stress on sexual development across vertebrate taxa. Our findings underscore the need to understand the full range of chemicals, both naturally occurring hormones and human-produced endocrine disruptors, that can influence sexual differentiation and reproductive function. PMID:20659923
Knapp, Rosemary; Marsh-Matthews, Edie; Vo, Luanne; Rosencrans, Sarah
Introduction Cigarette smoking has a negative effect on body reserve of antioxidants and cholesterol metabolism. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), a potent antioxidant synthesized as part of the cholesterol pathway, is a potential biomarker for systemic oxidative stress. We aimed to investigate gender variation in plasma lipid profile and CoQ10 concentrations in healthy non-smokers and in smokers. Material and methods The study included 55 cigarette smokers (25 females and 30 males) and 51 non-smokers (25 females and 26 males) with the age range from 21 to 45 years, and who had no history of alcohol abuse or chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus or obesity. Coenzyme Q10 plasma concentrations were measured by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet detection. Fasting plasma glucose and lipid levels were determined by standard colorimetric methods. Results Our results showed that CoQ10 concentrations were significantly decreased in smokers, especially in females, than their non-smoker counterparts. Female smokers also exhibited a significant decrease in plasma concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), HDL-C, LDL-C, and atherogenic ratios HDL-C/TC and CoQ10/LDL-C than male counterparts. Plasma triglyceride concentrations were increased in smokers irrespective of gender. Plasma CoQ10 was relatively more associated with TC and LDL-C in female smokers than male smokers. Conclusions The adverse effects of smoking on body reserve of antioxidants and cholesterol metabolism are greater in females than in males, partially as a result of decreased CoQ10 plasma concentrations, HDL-C and total-cholesterol and abnormal atherogenicity indices.
Al-Bazi, Maha M.; Elshal, Mohamed F.
The issue of female circumcision takes on special significance as more women migrate to the United States from countries where the practice has religious and traditional underpinnings. Female circumcision is a problem unfamiliar to most Western health care practitioners. This article describes an ethnographic study of the types of female circumcision, the reasons for and against the practice, the health implications of this practice, and cultural attitudes of circumcised women both in Western Africa and as migrant refugees living in the United States. Ethical dilemmas in dealing with this practice and implications for nurses and health care providers are discussed. PMID:8939287
Adult females in a female-bonded, cercopithecine species such as baboons are characterized by hierarchically ranked matrilines, i.e., female offspring assume rankings just beneath those of their mothers. In this system of closely ranked matrilines, a female should engage in significantly more affiliative interactions with those individuals who are closely ranked to herself than with those individuals who are more distantly ranked. We examine the hypothesis that females in this troop of feral yellow baboons (Papio hamadryas cynocephalus) who are closely ranked will also show close social affiliation. We collected focal data on 23 feral, adult female subjects (253 possible dyads) over approximately 1 year at the Tana River National Primate Reserve, Kenya. Following Bramblett's [Behav Brain Sci 4: 435, 1981] method of dominance tabulation and utilizing a modified version of Smuts' [Sex and friendship in baboons, Hawthorne: Aldine Publishing Co., 1985] preferred partner index, we describe and compare the dominance matrix and hierarchy, preferred proximity partner and grooming partner sociograms, and the social networks of these 23 focal females. Over 1,400 interactions were utilized in the dominance tabulations, 41 statistically significant proximity partner preferences were documented, and 100 grooming dyads were recorded. We examine both partners' ranks and the presence of an infant as possible factors influencing proximity and grooming partner preferences. We find that in this population there is no direct correspondence between females' ranks and their affiliation partners. Neither proximity nor grooming preferences are consistently predictable from partners' ranks. While proximity preferences were not significantly influenced by the presence of an infant, grooming partner preferences were. Females with infants had more grooming partners and were more often involved in unidirectional grooming relationships as the recipients than were females without infants. We conclude that females' dominance rankings are not good predictors of either proximity partner or grooming partner preferences and that the presence of an infant does have a significant impact on grooming partner preferences in this population. PMID:10206209
Bentley-Condit, V K; Smith, E O
The practice of female genital mutilation (we will use the latest definition adopted by WHO/UNFP: female genital mutilation/cutting or FGM/C) is still widespread in 28 African countries. The World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates that more than two million females undergo some form of genital mutilation every year. Its negative health impact and its ethical and human rights aspects have been discussed and attempts to eliminate it have been the objectives of several meetings promoted by national and international organisations thanks to an increased awareness related to FGM/C in those countries practicing it and also, maybe due to the number of Africans migrating to industrialized countries. We review the present situation in Djibouti, a small country in the Horn of Africa, where 98 % of the female population has suffered different forms of FGM/C. PMID:23515242
Martinelli, M; Ollé-Goig, J E
... Blaivas JM, Gormley EA, et al; Female Stress Urinary Incontinence Update Panel of the American Urological Association Education ... EB, Kobashi KC. Minimally invasive treatment of stress urinary incontinence and vaginal prolapse. Urol Clin North Am . 2007; ...
The biological effects of electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure from mobile phones have growing concern among scientists since there are some reports showing increased risk for human health, especially in the use of mobile phones for a long duration. In the presented study, the effects on the number of Purkinje cells in the cerebellum of 16-week (16weeks) old female rats were
Osman Fikret Sonmez; Ersan Odaci; Orhan Bas; Süleyman Kaplan
Female midwife toads (genus Alytes) emit highly variable reciprocal calls of unclear function prior to and during courtship. In some species, female-female competition, expressed as physical fighting, has been reported. Males of Majorcan midwife toads (Alytes muletensis) show phonotactic response to female calls, and females of Iberian midwife toads (Alytes cisternasii) respond differently according to the male call characteristics. In this study, I test the hypothesis of female-female acoustic competition as an additional function of female reciprocal calls. Playback tests indicate that female calls are not clearly involved in female acoustic competition in the Iberian midwife toad, therefore female calls could be directed at males rather than towards competitive females.
In a previous study we showed that juvenile hormone (JH) or its analog, fenoxycarb (FX), is involved in the up-regulation of pheromone biosynthesis-activating neuropeptide (PBAN) competence. JH causes induction of binding to a putative PBAN-receptor (PBAN-R) and the subsequent pheromone production by pheromone glands of pharate females. The present study demonstrates that pheromone production by the adult female is age-dependent.
A. Rafaeli; R. Bober
Vitamin D insufficiency impacts sensory processes including pain and proprioception, but little is known regarding vitamin D signaling in adult sensory neurons. We analyzed female rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) for vitamin receptor (VDR) and the vitamin D metabolizing enzymes CYP27B1 and CYP24. Western blots and immunofluorescence revealed the presence of these proteins in sensory neurons. Nuclear VDR immunoreactivity was present within nearly all neurons, while cytoplasmic VDR was found preferentially in unmyelinated calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-positive neurons, colocalizing with CYP27B1 and CYP24. These data suggest that 1,25(OH)2D3 may affect sensory neurons through nuclear or extranuclear signaling pathways. In addition, local vitamin D metabolite concentrations in unmyelinated sensory neurons may be controlled through expression of CYP27B1 and CYP24. Because vitamin D deficiency appears to exacerbate some peri-menopausal pain syndromes, we assessed the effect of ovariectomy on vitamin D-related proteins. Two weeks following ovariectomy, total VDR expression in DRG dropped significantly, owing to a slight decrease in the percentage of total neurons expressing nuclear VDR and a large drop in unmyelinated CGRP-positive neurons expressing cytoplasmic VDR. Total CYP27B1 expression dropped significantly, predominantly due to decreased expression within unmyelinated CGRP-positive neurons. CYP24 expression remained unchanged. Therefore, unmyelinated CGRP-positive neurons appear to have a distinct vitamin D phenotype with hormonally-regulated ligand and receptor levels. These findings imply that vitamin D signaling may play a specialized role in a neural cell population that is primarily nociceptive.
Tague, Sarah E.; Smith, Peter G.
The practice of female genital mutilation predates the founding of both Christianity and Islam. Though largely confined among Muslims, the operation is also practiced in some Christian communities in Africa such that female genital mutilation takes place in various forms in more than twenty African countries, Oman, Yemen, the United Arab Emirates, and by some Muslims in Malaysia and Indonesia. In recent decades, ethnic groups which practice female genital mutilation have immigrated to Britain. The main groups are from Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia, and Yemen. In their own countries, an estimated 80% of women have had the operation. Female genital mutilation has been illegal in Britain since 1985, but it is practiced illegally or children are sent abroad to undergo the operation typically at age 7-9 years. It is a form of child abuse which poses special problems. The authors review the history of female genital mutilation and describe its medical complications. Assuming that the size of the population in Britain of ethnic groups which practice or favor female genital mutilation remains more or less unchanged, adaptation and acculturation will probably cause the practice to die out within a few generations. Meanwhile, there is much to be done. A conspiracy of silence exists in medical circles as well as widespread ignorance. Moreover, none of a number of well-known obstetric and pediatric textbooks mentions female genital mutilation, while the National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children has neither information nor instructional material. It is high time that the problem was more widely and openly discussed. PMID:7787654
Black, J A; Debelle, G D
Long-term exposure of aquatic organisms to metals, even those considered micronutrients, may affect their metabolism and produce\\u000a sublethal effects. We evaluated the effects of long-term exposure of adult amphibian (Bufo arenarum) females to 4 ?g\\/L of Zn2+ (ZnSO4· H2O) in Ringer solution on the concentration of Zn and Fe, the activity of the key enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway
F. Naab; M. Volcomirsky; A. Burlón; M. E. Caraballo; M. Debray; J. M. Kesque; A. J. Kreiner; M. J. Ozafrán; J. A. Schuff; P. Stoliar; M. E. Vázquez; J. Davidson; M. Davidson; T. M. Fonovich de Schroeder
Drosophila C virus, a picornavirus that has some influence on ovarian morphogenesis, was discovered in a French strain of Drosophila melanogaster. When the strain was infected by Drosophila C virus (DCV), the mean number of ovarian tubes and weights of the adult females increased, but the developmental time from egg to imago decreased. The maternal effects observed when DCV was present disappeared when the strain was DCV free but were restored by experimental contamination. PMID:17246225
We report, for the first time, on a female Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) patient with homozygous dystrophin deletion. The 14-year-old patient, product of consanguineous parents, presented with a 7-year history of exercise intolerance and recurrent myoglobinuria. Although CK was elevated to 1,800 U/L, no muscle weakness, atrophy, or hypertrophy was seen on examination. Muscle pathology demonstrated a minimal dystrophic change and faint dystrophin staining pattern. Semi-quantitative PCR of dystrophin revealed a homozygous dystrophin deletion of exons 45-55, which is predicted to remove 593 amino acids without frame shifting. Western blot analysis of skeletal muscle for dystrophin showed a 306 kDa band; thus, we made a diagnosis of female BMD. We confirmed identical deletion in both father and mother, in hemizygous and heterozygous modes, respectively. Neither female Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) nor BMD due to homozygous dystrophin mutation has ever been identified although female DMD has been found in patients with Turner syndrome or unilateral parental disomy for X chromosome. Our results indicate that dystrophinopathy can also be caused in females by homozygosity, albeit rare. PMID:19396825
Fujii, Katsunori; Minami, Narihiro; Hayashi, Yukiko; Nishino, Ichizo; Nonaka, Ikuya; Tanabe, Yuzo; Takanashi, Jun-ichi; Kohno, Yoichi
SUMMARY The role of metabolism in ovarian aging is poorly described, despite the fact that ovaries fail earlier than most other organs. Growing interest in ovarian function is being driven by recent evidence that mammalian females routinely generate new oocytes during adult life through the activity of germline stem cells. In this perspective, we overview the female reproductive system as a powerful and clinically relevant model to understand links between aging and metabolism, and we discuss new concepts for how oocytes and their precursor cells might be altered metabolically to sustain or increase ovarian function and fertility in women.
Tilly, Jonathan L.; Sinclair, David A.
Females of most species of moths produce a volatile sex pheromone that attracts conspecific males over distance. In females of the polyandrous moth Heliothis virescens, feeding on carbohydrate (e.g. nectar) supplies precursor, via hemolymph trehalose, for both sex pheromone and egg production. With limited carbohydrate acquisition these two reproductive physiologies might compete for hemolymph trehalose, resulting in an allocation deficit to either sex pheromone or egg production. Using virgin and mated females, which have low and high egg maturation rates, respectively, we fed females a limited diet of (13)C-labeled glucose daily and, using mass isotopomer distribution analysis, determined allocations of adult-acquired carbohydrate (AAC) to newly synthesized pheromone and ovarian and egg fats, our proxies for allocation to egg production. With increased number of feeds, AAC enrichment of hemolymph trehalose increased, as expected. This led to mated females increasing their proportional allocation of AAC to ovarian and egg fats, but decreasing their proportional allocation of AAC to pheromone production. By contrast, virgins increased their proportional allocation of AAC to pheromone production with increased feeds, consistent with increasing AAC enrichment of hemolymph trehalose. These results show that with limited AAC intake, enhanced egg maturation in mated females results in reduced AAC allocation to pheromone production; this does not occur in virgins because of their lower egg maturation rate. This physiological competition for AAC corresponded with decreased pheromone production in mated moths to levels unlikely to attract mates. Therefore, the availability and/or allocation of AAC may be a proximate mechanism underlying the incidence of polyandry in this and other species of moths. PMID:24198254
Foster, Stephen P; Anderson, Karin G; Harmon, J P
Wistar strain adult male and female rats were given 25, 50 and 75% less food than an ad libitum-fed group of rats for 45 d and the effects of food restriction on hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes, microsomal electron transport components, NADPH-dependent lipid peroxidation and glutathione-S-transferase activities were studied. Compared to ad libitum-fed controls, the cytochrome P-450 levels were higher in food restricted male rats, while they were lower in food restricted females. The activities of NADPH cytochrome c reductase were lower in food restricted females than in ad libitum-fed controls. The activities of drug metabolizing enzymes, aminopyrine N-demethylase and acetanilide hydroxylase were higher in food restricted males, whereas in food restricted females these activities were lower than in respective groups fed ad libitum. Microsomal, NADPH-dependent lipid peroxidation was higher in 25 and 50% food restricted females while in 50 and 75% food restricted males it was lower than in ad libitum controls of the same sex. The cytosolic glutathione-S-transferase activities were lower in food restricted rats of both the sexes than in the same sexed controls. Another group of male and female rats were given 75% less food than the ad libitum-fed rats and refed for 3 d prior to killing. Here also, the effects of restriction were different between sexes. It is concluded that hepatic microsomal mixed-function oxidase system (MFOS) is altered due to feed restriction and food restriction followed by refeeding, in a sex-related manner. PMID:3958812
Hashmi, R S; Siddiqui, A M; Kachole, M S; Pawar, S S
ObjectiveThe purpose of this study was to determine the effect of different colour nail polishes and henna on the measurement of oxygen saturation and the differences among the measurements of three pulse oximetry devices.Material and methods33 healthy females with a mean age of 19±1.0 years and no complaints or known disease were included into the study. All the participants applied
Hatice Sütçü Çiçek; Seyfettin Gümü?; Ömer Deniz; ?afak Yildiz; Cengiz Han Açikel; Erdinç Çakir; Ergun Tozkoparan; Ergün Uçar; Hayati Bilgiç
Extended sexual receptivity in primates is thought to facilitate paternity confusion, thus decreasing the risk of infanticide. However, females might also provide some indication of ovulation to attract preferred males during fertile periods. We examined female mate preferences across defined receptive periods (N = 59) in a group of wild Phayre's leaf monkeys (Trachypithecus phayrei crepusculus) at Phu Khieo Wildlife Sanctuary (February-September 2006; 2,603 contact hours). The group contained seven cycling adult females and three reproductively active males (one adult and two adolescents). We predicted that females would prefer the adult male during periovulatory (POP) receptive periods, but the adolescent males during nonperiovulatory (NPOP) and postconceptive (PC) periods. We collected focal and ad libitum data on sexual and agonistic behaviors to determine female preferences and male awareness of female fertility. We also determined the degree of mating overlap to assess if males were capable of monopolizing females. Our results indicate that females were more frequently proceptive and receptive toward the adult male during POP. By contrast, females were more proceptive and receptive toward one of the adolescent males during PC periods, but rarely interacted with the other adolescent. Patterns of attractivity and agonism across receptive periods suggested that the adult male could detect fertility, while the preferred adolescent could not. Finally, we found a high degree of overlap in total receptive period days, but a low degree of overlap in POP receptive days, suggesting that the adult male might have monopolized females, especially since he seemed to be aware of female fertility. Although these results suggest that females provide some information on ovulation, they also suggest that females attempt to confuse paternity, perhaps capitalizing on male differences in the ability to detect fertility. PMID:22318888
Lu, Amy; Beehner, Jacinta C; Czekala, Nancy M; Borries, Carola
Nutritional or pharmacological perturbations during perinatal growth can cause persistent effects on the function of white adipose tissue, altering susceptibility to obesity later in life. Previous studies have established that saccharin, a nonnutritive sweetener, inhibits lipolysis in mature adipocytes and stimulates adipogenesis. Thus, the current study tested whether neonatal exposure to saccharin via maternal lactation increased susceptibility of mice to diet-induced obesity. Saccharin decreased body weight of female mice beginning postnatal week 3. Decreased liver weights on week 14 corroborated this diminished body weight. Initially, saccharin also reduced male mouse body weight. By week 5, weights transiently rebounded above controls, and by week 14, male body weights did not differ. Body composition analysis revealed that saccharin increased lean and decreased fat mass of male mice, the latter due to decreased adipocyte size and epididymal, perirenal, and sc adipose weights. A mild improvement in glucose tolerance without a change in insulin sensitivity or secretion aligned with this leaner phenotype. Interestingly, microcomputed tomography analysis indicated that saccharin also increased cortical and trabecular bone mass of male mice and modified cortical bone alone in female mice. A modest increase in circulating testosterone may contribute to the leaner phenotype in male mice. Accordingly, the current study established a developmental period in which saccharin at high concentrations reduces adiposity and increases lean and bone mass in male mice while decreasing generalized growth in female mice. PMID:24456165
Parlee, Sebastian D; Simon, Becky R; Scheller, Erica L; Alejandro, Emilyn U; Learman, Brian S; Krishnan, Venkatesh; Bernal-Mizrachi, Ernesto; MacDougald, Ormond A
In the United States, Black women are at much greater risk for obesity than Black men. We explored whether adolescent behaviors (family dinners, hours of television, playing sports with mother, playing sports with father, bouts of physical activity) were associated with gender disparity in six-year obesity incidence in young adulthood. We used data from the nationally representative National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to examine adolescent behaviors in non-immigrant Black (n=1503) and White (n=4452) youths in 1994–95 (aged 11–19 years) and 1995–96 (aged 12–20). We assessed gender disparity in obesity incidence (female incidence minus male incidence) during young adulthood (2001–02; aged 18–26). Standardized gender disparities were calculated using race- and gender-stratified, covariate-adjusted logistic regression models in which males and females were set to the same distributions of adolescent behaviors. In adolescence, Black females reported less leisure-time physical activity and lower likelihood of playing sports with either parent than Black males. Setting adolescent behaviors equal for Black males and females did not reduce the estimated gender disparity in obesity incidence (non-standardized: 9.8 percentage points [95% CI: 4.5, 15.1]; fully-standardized: 10.2 percentage points [5.2, 15.2]). There was little gender disparity in Whites before or after adjustments. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine to what extent behavioral differences during adolescence might account for gender disparity in obesity incidence in Black young adults. Male-female differences in these adolescent behaviors did not appear to underlie the gender gap in young adult obesity.
Robinson, Whitney R.; Stevens, June; Kaufman, Jay S.; Gordon-Larsen, Penny
In cooperative groups of suricates (Suricata suricatta), helpers of both sexes assist breeding adults in defending and feeding pups, and survival rises in larger groups. Despite this, dominant breeding females expel subordinate females from the group in the latter half of their (own) pregnancy apparently because adult females sometimes kill their pups. Some of the females that have been expelled are allowed to rejoin the group soon after the dominant female's pups are born and subsequently assist in rearing the pups. Female helpers initially resist expulsion and repeatedly attempt to return to their natal group, indicating that it is unlikely that dominant females need to grant them reproductive concessions to retain them in the group.
Clutton-Brock, T H; Brotherton, P N; Smith, R; McIlrath, G M; Kansky, R; Gaynor, D; O'Riain, M J; Skinner, J D
Immune function can be modulated by multiple physiological factors, including nutrition and reproductive state. Because these factors can vary throughout an individual's lifetime as a result of environmental conditions (affecting nutrition) or life-history stage (e.g. entering the adult reproduction stage), we must carefully examine the degree to which developmental versus adult conditions shape performance of the immune system. We investigated how variation in dietary access to carotenoid pigments - a class of molecules with immunostimulatory properties that females deposit into egg yolks - during three different developmental time points affected adult immunological and reproductive traits in female mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos). In males and females of other avian species, carotenoid access during development affects carotenoid assimilation ability, adult sexual ornamentation and immune function, while carotenoid access during adulthood can increase immune response and reproductive investment (e.g. egg-laying capacity, biliverdin deposition in eggshells). We failed to detect effects of developmental carotenoid supplementation on adult immune function [phytohemagglutinin-induced cutaneous immune response, antibody production in response to the novel antigen keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), or oxidative burst, assessed by changes in circulating nitric oxide levels], carotenoid-pigmented beak coloration, ovarian development, circulating carotenoid levels or concentration of bile pigments in the gall bladder. However, we did uncover positive relationships between circulating carotenoid levels during adulthood and KLH-specific antibody production, and a negative relationship between biliverdin concentration in bile and KLH-specific antibody production. These results are consistent with the view that adult physiological parameters better predict current immune function than do developmental conditions, and highlight a possible, previously unstudied relationship between biliverdin and immune system performance. PMID:23531827
Butler, Michael W; McGraw, Kevin J
The continuing practice of female circumcision (removal of varying degrees of external genitalia) was perhaps the most emotional issue discussed at the Ninth International Congress on Women's Health Issues, held in June in Alexandria, Egypt. The results of two studies presented at the Congress have resulted to an argument. Others view female circumcision as a traditional folk practice, similar to scarring of the skin or elongation of the lips among certain African tribes and should not be subjected to "cultural imperialism" from abroad. Instead, the procedure could best be eradicated through focused education--telling patients that it is not required by Islam and that it can be detrimental to health. However, this suggestion was hotly debated by members of the audience who insisted that female circumcision should be considered as a form of child abuse and thus properly addressed as a political issue. PMID:9849193
Douglas, J H
Marijuana is a preparation of the flower, as well as the leaves and seeds, of the plant Cannabis sativa. Marijuana has been used for medicinal and recreational purposes for thousands of years due to its psychoactive effects including euphoria, sedation, and analgesia. Although it has been suspected for decades that marijuana has adverse effects on female fertility, the underlying molecular mechanism was not clear. The discovery of cannabinoid receptors and endocannabinoids has advanced studies if cannabinoid signaling. Since then, numerous studies have been published on cannabinoid signaling in female reproductive events, including preimplantation embryo development, oviductal embryo transport, embryo implantation, placentation, and parturition. This review focuses on various aspects of endocannabinoid signaling in female fertility. PMID:22860202
Sun, Xiaofei; Dey, Sudhansu K
Harlequin duck (Histrionicus histrionicus) life-history characteristics make their populations particularly vulnerable to perturbations during nonbreeding periods. The 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill was a major perturbation to nonbreeding habitats of harlequin ducks in Prince William Sound, Alaska, which resulted in population injury. To assess the status of population recovery from the oil spill and to evaluate factors potentially constraining full recovery, we used radiotelemetry to examine survival of adult female harlequin ducks during winters of 1995-96, 1996-97, and 1997-98. We implanted 294 harlequin ducks (154 and 140 in oiled and unoiled areas, respectively) with transmitters and tracked their signals from aircraft during October through March. We examined variation in survival rates relative to area and season (early, mid, and late winter) through comparisons of models using Akaike's information criterion (AIC(c)) values. The 3 models best supported by the data indicated that survival of birds in oiled areas was lower than in unoiled areas. Inclusion of standardized body mass during wing molt in the 3 best models did not improve their fit, indicating that body mass during wing molt did not affect subsequent winter survival. In the model that best fit our data, survival was high in early winter for both areas, lower during mid and late winter seasons, and lowest in oiled areas during mid winter. Cumulative winter survival estimated from this model was 78.0% (SE = 3.3%) in oiled areas and 83.7% (SE = 2.9%) in unoiled areas. We determined that area differences in survival were more likely related to oiling history than intrinsic geographic differences. Based on a demographic model, area differences in survival offer a likely mechanism for observed declines in populations on oiled areas. Concurrent studies indicated that harlequin ducks continued to be exposed to residual Exxon Valdez oil as much as 9 years after the spill. We suggest that oil exposure, mortality, and population dynamics were linked and conclude that continued effects of the oil spill likely restricted recovery of harlequin duck populations through at least 1998.
Esler, D.; Schmutz, J. A.; Jarvis, R. L.; Mulcahy, D. M.
This paper describes a psychiatric survey of 169 female patients suffering from bladder dysfunction, mainly incontinence. The patients were surveyed using the General Health Questionnaire-60 and the Weissman Paykel Social Adjustment Schedule. A random subgroup of the patients underwent a standardized structured psychiatric interview, the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia — Life Time Version. In addition, the patients had
L. M. Morrison; M. Morrison; D. R. Small; E. S. Glen
In this review of published findings on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and risk factors among female sex workers, we summarize the results of seroprevalence studies in different countries and discuss the different patterns of transmission among such workers in various geographical regions. The highest rates of HIV infection occur in sub-Saharan Africa, where the widespread existence of sexually transmitted diseases may play an important role in sustaining transmission. In Europe and North America injecting drug use continues to be the major factor associated with HIV infection among female sex workers, while in Latin America and parts of Asia there is a more mixed pattern of heterosexual and parenteral transmission from injecting drug use. Reviewed also are studies of the risk factors associated with HIV infection among female sex workers, such as drug use, sexual behaviour, the presence of sexually transmitted diseases, and condom use; in addition, we comment on some studies of the clients of sex workers. Finally, we propose directions that future research in this area might take and discuss various interventions that need to be undertaken to reduce HIV transmission among female sex workers.
Estebanez, P.; Fitch, K.; Najera, R.
This research investigated the female adolescent view of leadership by giving voice to student leaders through focus group discussions. The questions: What is leadership? Where/how was leadership taught?, and How was leadership practised? were explored within the context of girls' schools located in Australia, with one school located in South…
65 female murderers were observed in the Forensic Psychiatry Ward. In 61 cases the victims were closely connected with the victim. The intellectual capacity of these women was similar to the average population. 41 women were abused before murder. Only in 7% of cases pathological abnormalities in CNS were not observed. In the examined group 5% were classified as insane. PMID:16320769
Patla, Mariusz; Tele?nicki, Stanis?aw
Characteristics by which to classify a woman as authentically transsexual are offered from earlier investigations and supplemented by findings from recent work with this type of patient. Developmental issues are discussed and six psychodynamic accompaniments listed. A case demonstrates how to identify the true female transsexual and how to understand her psychological processes. PMID:2929798
Volkan, V D; Masri, A
Female genital tuberculosis is an uncommon type of tuberculosis that can lead to infertility. The present review describes the disease, reports available epidemiological data, and focuses on examinations and procedures necessary for the early diagnosis and the management of this curable disease. PMID:21438789
Neonakis, Ioannis K; Spandidos, Demetrios A; Petinaki, Efthimia
Tuberculosis (TB) is an important cause of mortality and morbidity all over the world and is particularly relevant in developing countries like India where the disease is endemic. Female reproductive system is very vulnerable to this infection and clinical presentation of this disease in female reproductive tract is protean in nature and in a large majority of patients could be completely silent. This disease is an important cause of infertility, menstrual irregularity, pregnancy loss, and in association with pregnancy, morbidity to both the mother and child increases. Some of the effects of TB infection on female genital tract could be remote in nature due to infection elsewhere. Medicines used to treat TB infection can also have adverse effects on contraception and other areas of female reproductive health. HIV coinfection and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and increased population migration from developed to developing countries have now added a whole new dimension to this infection. Though new, finer diagnostic tools of detection of TB are increasingly available in the form of bacterial cultures and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based diagnostics, suspicion by clinicians remains the main tool for diagnosis of the condition. Hence, doctors need to be properly trained to become "Tuberculosis Minded". PMID:22120860
Ghosh, K; Ghosh, K; Chowdhury, J R
This report documents a study of women superintendents. Specifically, the study identified professional and personal characteristics and styles of leadership to develop archetypes of six outstanding female superintendents in Texas. The intent of the research was also to reveal similarities between and among these superintendents that could provide…
Funk, Carole; Pankake, Anita; Schroth, Gwen
Female mate choice has been demonstrated in a wide variety of species and is now accepted as an important factor in sexual selection. One of the remaining questions, however, is why females prefer specific males. Do females or their offspring benefit from their choice? Or do females choose mates to minimize costs of mating? Here we show that, in the
A. J. M OORE; P. A. G OWATY; P. J. MOORE
Why do females typically mate with more than one male? Female mating patterns have broad implications for sexual selection, speciation and conflicts of interest between the sexes, and yet they are poorly understood. Matings inevitably have costs, and for females, the benefits of taking more than one mate are rarely obvious. One possible explanation is that females gain benefits because
Tom Tregenza; Nina Wedell
Mutations in the X-linked gene encoding Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) have been associated with neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders including Rett Syndrome, X-linked mental retardation syndrome, severe neonatal encephalopathy, and Angelman syndrome. Although alterations in the performance of MeCP2-deficient mice in specific behavioral tasks have been documented, it remains unclear whether or not MeCP2 dysfunction affects patterns of periodic behavioral and electroencephalographic (EEG) activity. The aim of the current study was therefore to determine whether a deficiency in MeCP2 is sufficient to alter the normal daily rhythmic patterns of core body temperature, gross motor activity and cortical delta power. To address this, we monitored individual wild-type and MeCP2-deficient mice in their home cage environment via telemetric recording over 24 hour cycles. Our results show that the normal daily rhythmic behavioral patterning of cortical delta wave activity, core body temperature and mobility are disrupted in one-year old female MeCP2-deficient mice. Moreover, female MeCP2-deficient mice display diminished overall motor activity, lower average core body temperature, and significantly greater body temperature fluctuation than wild-type mice in their home-cage environment. Finally, we show that the epileptiform discharge activity in female MeCP2-deficient mice is more predominant during times of behavioral activity compared to inactivity. Collectively, these results indicate that MeCP2 deficiency is sufficient to disrupt the normal patterning of daily biological rhythmic activities.
Wu, Chiping; Bardakjian, Berj L.; Zhang, Liang; Eubanks, James H.
The management and quantification of bone loss is a major challenge in primary and revision total hip replacement. Defining the normal three-dimensional (3D) anatomy of the acetabular vault could aid in assessing pathologic changes and in designing prosthetic joint components. We performed a quantitative assessment of normal 3D acetabular vault structure to define the shape and location of weight-bearing acetabular bone referred to as the vault. Images from 70 normal hip computed tomography images were used to define the 3D acetabular vault anatomy and develop a 3D model. Variation in vault shape was quantified by measuring the distance between every surface point on a subject’s hemipelvis and the reference vault. Variation among different hip alignments was assessed using 19 scans from subjects with varus, valgus and dysplastic hip morphologies. The acetabular vault model had 96.6% (95% CI: 91.7–101.5), 97.8% (95% CI: 94.5–101.1) and 96.4% (95% CI: 98.7–94.1) of the surface points within 3 mm of normal male, normal female and abnormal hip specimens, respectively. Comparison of acetabular vault model fit between gender and hip types revealed that it was only significantly different between normal males and normal females (P = 0.0194) and between normal males and dysplastic females (P = 0.0377). A conserved 3D acetabular vault shape and location exists that can accommodate various hip morphologies. Defining a normal vault may increase the precision with which hip pathology can be identified and may also serve as a preoperative assessment tool for planning total hip arthroplasty.
Barsoum, Wael K; Smith, Travis; Buller, Leonard; Klika, Alison; Mavroudis, Constantine; Bryan, Jason
Early life events induce alterations in neural function in adulthood. Although rearing in an enriched environment (EE) has a great impact on behavioral development, the effects of enriched rearing on sociosexual behavior remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of rearing in an EE on male copulatory behavior and its underlying neurobiological mechanisms in Wistar-Imamichi rats. Three-week-old, recently weaned rats were continuously subjected to a standard environment (SE) or an EE comprised of a large cage with several objects, such as toys, tunnels, ladders, and a running wheel. After 6 weeks, rats reared in an EE (EE rats) showed decreased sexual activity compared with rats reared in a SE (SE rats). This included a lower number of ejaculations and longer latencies in three consecutive copulatory tests. In addition, EE rats showed decreased emotional responsiveness and less locomotor behavior in an open field. In a runway test, on the other hand, sexual motivation toward receptive females in EE males was comparable to that of SE males. Furthermore, following exposure to a female, increases in serotonin levels in the nucleus accumbens and the striatum were significantly suppressed in EE males, whereas dopaminergic responses were similar between the groups. Female-exposure-induced increases in the levels of plasma corticosterone and testosterone were also suppressed in EE rats compared to SE rats. These data suggest that rearing in an EE decreases male copulatory behavior, and serotonin and hormonal regulating systems may regulate the differences in sociosexual interactions that result from distinct rearing environments.
Urakawa, Susumu; Mitsushima, Dai; Shimozuru, Michito; Sakuma, Yasuo; Kondo, Yasuhiko
Early life events induce alterations in neural function in adulthood. Although rearing in an enriched environment (EE) has a great impact on behavioral development, the effects of enriched rearing on sociosexual behavior remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of rearing in an EE on male copulatory behavior and its underlying neurobiological mechanisms in Wistar-Imamichi rats. Three-week-old, recently weaned rats were continuously subjected to a standard environment (SE) or an EE comprised of a large cage with several objects, such as toys, tunnels, ladders, and a running wheel. After 6 weeks, rats reared in an EE (EE rats) showed decreased sexual activity compared with rats reared in a SE (SE rats). This included a lower number of ejaculations and longer latencies in three consecutive copulatory tests. In addition, EE rats showed decreased emotional responsiveness and less locomotor behavior in an open field. In a runway test, on the other hand, sexual motivation toward receptive females in EE males was comparable to that of SE males. Furthermore, following exposure to a female, increases in serotonin levels in the nucleus accumbens and the striatum were significantly suppressed in EE males, whereas dopaminergic responses were similar between the groups. Female-exposure-induced increases in the levels of plasma corticosterone and testosterone were also suppressed in EE rats compared to SE rats. These data suggest that rearing in an EE decreases male copulatory behavior, and serotonin and hormonal regulating systems may regulate the differences in sociosexual interactions that result from distinct rearing environments. PMID:24505330
Urakawa, Susumu; Mitsushima, Dai; Shimozuru, Michito; Sakuma, Yasuo; Kondo, Yasuhiko
This study established conditions to induce regular estrous cycles in female C57BL/6J mice and investigated the impact of the estrous cycle on contractions, Ca2+ transients, and underlying cardiac excitation-contraction (EC)-coupling mechanisms. Daily vaginal smears from group-housed virgin female mice were stained to distinguish estrous stage (proestrus, estrus, metestrus, diestrus). Ventricular myocytes were isolated from anesthetized mice. Contractions and Ca2+ transients were measured simultaneously (4 Hz, 37 °C). Interestingly, mice did not exhibit regular cycles unless they were exposed to male pheromones in bedding added to their cages. Field-stimulated myocytes from mice in estrus had larger contractions (?2-fold increase), larger Ca2+ transients (?1.11-fold increase), and longer action potentials (>2-fold increase) compared with other stages. Larger contractions and Ca2+ transients were not observed in estrus myocytes voltage-clamped with shorter action potentials. Voltage-clamp experiments also demonstrated that estrous stage had no effect on Ca2+ current, EC-coupling gain, diastolic Ca2+, sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ content, or fractional release. Although contractions were largest in estrus, myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity was lowest (EC50 values ?1.15-fold higher) in conjunction with increased phosphorylation of myosin binding protein C in estrus. Contractions were enhanced in ventricular myocytes from mice in estrus because action potential prolongation increased SR Ca2+ release. These findings demonstrate that cyclical changes in reproductive hormones associated with the estrous cycle can influence myocardial electrical and contractile function and modify Ca2+ homeostasis. However, such changes are unlikely to occur in female mice housed in groups under conventional conditions, since these mice do not exhibit regular estrous cycles. PMID:24464757
MacDonald, Jennifer K; Pyle, W Glen; Reitz, Cristine J; Howlett, Susan E
There is compelling evidence for important sex differences in behavioral and hormonal responses to psychosocial stress. Here we examined the effects of gonadal hormones on behavioral responses to social defeat stress in monogamous California mice (Peromyscus californicus). Three episodes of social defeat induced social withdrawal in intact females but not males. Gonadectomy blocked corticosterone responses to defeat in females and sensitized male corticosterone responses. However, gonadectomy had no effects on social interaction behavior, suggesting that social withdrawal is not dependent on gonadal hormones in the adult California mouse. In contrast, defeat reduced exploratory behavior in the open field test for intact but not castrated males. We also examined the effects of social defeat on social interaction behavior when California mice were raised on corncob bedding, which has estrogenic properties. In this dataset of over 300 mice, we observed that social defeat did not induce social withdrawal when females were raised on corncob bedding. This finding suggests that the use of corncob in rodent studies could mask important sex differences in the effects of stress on brain and behavior. Although gonadal hormones do not affect social withdrawal behavior in adults, our data suggest that hormones may act earlier in development to induce a more resilient social phenotype. PMID:23384773
Trainor, Brian C; Takahashi, Elizabeth Y; Campi, Katharine L; Florez, Stefani A; Greenberg, Gian D; Laman-Maharg, Abigail; Laredo, Sarah A; Orr, Veronica N; Silva, Andrea L; Steinman, Michael Q
Serotonin is an important neuromessenger used in a variety of signaling pathways throughout the animal kingdom. In insects, serotonin has been demonstrated to mediate feeding and feeding-related behaviors. In this study, serotonin antibody was localized in cells and processes throughout the central nervous system (CNS) and midgut of female horse fly Tabanus nigrovittatus Macquart. In the CNS, immunoreactivity was localized in cells and processes throughout the brain and ventral nerve cord. In the midgut, a fine network of immunoreactive processes was observed running along the outer surface of the midgut, with a decrease in innervation toward the posterior region of the midgut. PMID:16619607
Haselton, Aaron T; Yin, Chih-Ming; Stoffolano, John G
Purpose Each year nearly 21,000 adolescents and young adults (AYA) ages 15 to 29 years are diagnosed with cancer. Breast and gynecological cancers account for 25% of the cancers seen in AYA females. The purpose of this study was to compare the current physical and mental health status of female AYA cancer survivors with non-cancer female controls. Methods Using data from the population-based 2009 National Health Interview Survey, 100 cases of female AYA survivors of breast and gynecological cancers were identified (FCS group). FCS cases were matched with 300 female respondents without a history of cancer on age, education, marital status, and minority status (NCC group). The FCS and NCC groups were compared on a range of physical and mental health status indices using analysis of covariance and binary logistic regression. Results FCS group reported significantly poorer physical and mental health status than the matched controls. Relative to the NCC group, FCS survivors had significantly poorer scores on 7 of 8 mental health outcomes and were more likely to meet criteria for serious psychological distress (OR = 4.23, p ? 0.001). FCS group also reported greater lifetime and current prevalence of various medical conditions; more health-related disabilities; and greater functional limitations than the NCC group. Conclusion Diagnosis of breast and gynecological cancer during adolescence and young adulthood is associated with clinically important deficits in physical and mental health status. Given the young age of this cancer survivor cohort, increased attention should be devoted to minimizing these deficits.
Phillips-Salimi, Celeste R.; Andrykowski, Michael A.
In a previous study we showed that juvenile hormone (JH) or its analog, fenoxycarb (FX), is involved in the up-regulation of pheromone biosynthesis-activating neuropeptide (PBAN) competence. JH causes induction of binding to a putative PBAN-receptor (PBAN-R) and the subsequent pheromone production by pheromone glands of pharate females. The present study demonstrates that pheromone production by the adult female is age-dependent. The pheromonotropic response increased to reach a maximum at 4 days, after which a decreased response was observed. Binding of the PBAN-R was also age-dependent. Treatment with FX inhibited both binding of PBAN to the PBAN-R and the pheromonotropic response as reflected by the production of the main pheromone component, Z-11-hexadecenal. Thus, in contrast to its up-regulatory role in pharate females, FX treatment of adult females causes down-regulation of both pheromone production and specific binding to the PBAN-R. In addition, behavioural observations showed that calling behaviour, mating success and subsequent egg-fertility are affected by treating females with FX. PMID:15890183
Rafaeli, A; Bober, R
Studies of lifetime reproductive success (LRS) are important for understanding population dynamics and life history strategies, yet relatively little information is available for long-lived species. This study provides a preliminary assessment of LRS among female mountain gorillas in the Virunga volcanoes region. Adult females produced an average of 3.6 ± 2.1 surviving offspring during their lifetime, which indicates a growing population that contrasts with most other great apes. The standardized variance in LRS (variance/mean(2) = 0.34) was lower than many other mammals and birds. When we excluded the most apparent source of environmental variability (poaching), the average LRS increased to 4.3 ± 1.8 and the standardized variance dropped in half. Adult lifespan was a greater source of variance in LRS than fertility or offspring survival. Females with higher LRS had significantly longer adult lifespans and higher dominance ranks. Results for LRS were similar to another standard fitness measurement, the individually estimated finite rate of increase (?(ind) ), but ?(ind) showed diminishing benefits for greater longevity. PMID:21989942
Robbins, Andrew M; Stoinski, Tara; Fawcett, Katie; Robbins, Martha M
VURD syndrome has been repeatedly described as unilateral reflux into a nonfunctioning renal moiety. This syndrome is considered a pop-off mechanism dissipating pressure in lower urinary tract obstruction: it may be found in association with other protective mechanisms occurring in utero, such as ascites and/or urinomas, and has been exclusively described in male patients. A premature female baby with signs and symptoms of outflow obstruction underwent diagnostic workup revealing congenital urethral hypoplasia with unilateral reflux into a dysplastic kidney. Obstetrical history was positive for early onset, serologically negative ascites without cardiomegaly, which required serial aspirations. Reconstructive surgery was carried out with good results: ascites and VURD syndrome were both deemed to be perinatal protective mechanism against excess pressure in the urinary tract. Although rare, lower urinary tract obstruction in the female can lead to the same protective mechanisms seen in male fetuses/newborns. VURD syndrome and ascites should be interpreted as such and require perinatal specialist counselling.
Zaccara, A.; Pascali, M. P.; Marciano, A.; Carnevale, E.; Salvatori, G.; Dotta, A.; Nahom, A.; De Gennaro, M.
Myiasis is derived from the Greek word-“Myia”, meaning “fly”. The term was first introduced by Hope in 1840 and refers to the infestation of human beings with dipterous larvae (maggots). Presence of maggots on exposed parts is already known, but on covered parts like external genitalia it is very rare. We hereby describe a case of young unmarried female who presented with multiple sinuses over external genitalia along with maggots coming out of it.
Kataria, Usha; Siwach, Sunita; Gupta, Sanjeev
Myiasis is derived from the Greek word-"Myia", meaning "fly". The term was first introduced by Hope in 1840 and refers to the infestation of human beings with dipterous larvae (maggots). Presence of maggots on exposed parts is already known, but on covered parts like external genitalia it is very rare. We hereby describe a case of young unmarried female who presented with multiple sinuses over external genitalia along with maggots coming out of it. PMID:24339466
Kataria, Usha; Siwach, Sunita; Gupta, Sanjeev
Purpose It is estimated that the incidence of cancer in women aged 40 years or less is 8%. Females under the age of 40 are in their\\u000a childbearing years. In the Western world, colorectal cancer (CRC) is the most common malignancy of the gastrointestinal tract.\\u000a It is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related death in
Constantine P. Spanos; Apostolos Mamopoulos; Apostolos Tsapas; Theodore Syrakos; Dimitris Kiskinis
The female reproductive system plays a major role in regulating the acquisition and loss of bone by the skeleton from menarche through senescence. Onset of gonadal sex steroid secretion at puberty is the major factor responsible for skeletal longitudinal and radial growth, as well as significant gain in bone density, until peak bone density is achieved in third decade of life. Gonadal sex steroids then help maintain peak bone density until menopause, including during the transient changes in skeletal mineral content associated with pregnancy and lactation. At menopause, decreased gonadal sex steroid production normally leads to rapid bone loss. The most rapid bone loss associated with decreased estrogen levels occurs in the first 8–10 years after menopause, with slower age-related bone loss occurring during later life. Age-related bone loss in women after the early menopausal phase of bone loss is caused by ongoing gonadal sex steroid deficiency, vitamin D deficiency, and secondary hyperparathyroidism. Other factors also contribute to age-related bone loss, including intrinsic defects in osteoblast function, impairment of the GH/IGF axis, reduced peak bone mass, age-associated sarcopenia, and various sporadic secondary causes. Further understanding of the relative contributions of the female reproductive system and each of the other factors to development and maintenance of the female skeleton, bone loss, and fracture risk will lead to improved approaches for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.
Clarke, Bart L.; Khosla, Sundeep
Immature development and reproductive life history of Delphastus catalinae (Horn) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) feeding on Bemisia tabaci biotype B (Gennadius) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) (= B. argentifolii Bellows and Perring) immatures was studied at three constant temperatures: 22, 26 and 30 °C. Lower developmental threshold temperatures (T0) were estimated at 9 and 9.9 °C, for males and females, respectively. Female adults weighed slightly more than males (0.587 and 0.505 mg, respectively). As temperature increased from 22 to 30 °C, developmental time from eggs to eclosion of the adult declined from 24 to 15 days. Thermal units required for immature development was ?300 degree-days. Percentage egg hatch declined at increasing temperatures, but no significant effect of time was found. The intrinsic rate of increase, r, increased from 0.048 to 0.082 and doubling time decreased from 14.44 to 8.45 days as temperature increased from 22 to 26 °C. Mean daily fecundity was modeled as a function of time and temperature to create a 3-dimensional surface. Overall, Delphastus catalinae was found to perform better at 22 and 26 °C while 30 °C was detrimental to immature development and adult reproduction.
Crisostomo Legaspi, Jesusa; Legaspi, Benjamin C.; Simmons, Alvin M.; Soumare, Mohamed
Background Pathogen transmission by mosquitos is known to be highly sensitive to mosquito bionomic parameters. Mosquito mark-release-recapture (MMRR) experiments are a standard method for estimating such parameters including dispersal, population size and density, survival, blood feeding frequency and blood meal host preferences. Methods We assembled a comprehensive database describing adult female MMRR experiments. Bibliographic searches were used to build a digital library of MMRR studies and selected data describing the reported outcomes were extracted. Results The resulting database contained 774 unique adult female MMRR experiments involving 58 vector mosquito species from the three main genera of importance to human health: Aedes, Anopheles and Culex. Crude examination of these data revealed patterns associated with geography as well as mosquito genus, consistent with bionomics varying by species-specific life history and ecological context. Recapture success varied considerably and was significantly different amongst genera, with 8, 4 and 1% of adult females recaptured for Aedes, Anopheles and Culex species, respectively. A large proportion of experiments (59%) investigated dispersal and survival and many allowed disaggregation of the release and recapture data. Geographic coverage was limited to just 143 localities around the world. Conclusions This MMRR database is a substantial contribution to the compilation of global data that can be used to better inform basic research and public health interventions, to identify and fill knowledge gaps and to enrich theory and evidence-based ecological and epidemiological studies of mosquito vectors, pathogen transmission and disease prevention. The database revealed limited geographic coverage and a relative scarcity of information for vector species of substantial public health relevance. It represents, however, a wealth of entomological information not previously compiled and of particular interest for mosquito-borne pathogen transmission models.
Serum creatine kinase levels were determined in 75 girls (age range, one month to 15 years) and 200 normal adult women (age range, 18 to 50 years). The values ranged from 12.5 to 80 IU/1 in girls and 19 to 155 IU/1 in adult females. The SCK level appeared to increase with age from 1 to 15 years, after which the level remained fairly constant. These data should be helpful in the detection of carriers of X-linked forms of muscular dystrophy.
Satapathy, R K; Skinner, R
Topical exposure to isopropyl alcohol has been reported in the literature to be toxic if sufficient isopropyl alcohol is absorbed (1-5). A clinical case is reported where a 48-y-old female presented with multiple unexplained cardiac and neurological deficits. The woman had developed the deficits over a 6-mo period in which she had been soaking towels with isopropyl alcohol and applying then to her skin overnight to ease arm pain she was experiencing. Cessation of the isopropyl alcohol exposure resolved her deficits within 3 d. A controlled repeat dermal exposure to isopropyl alcohol under clinical observation reproduced the deficits noted with corresponding serum and urine concentrations of isopropyl alcohol and acetone. Cessation of topical isopropyl alcohol exposure lead to subsequent resolution of all toxicities. PMID:10670080
Leeper, S C; Almatari, A L; Ingram, J D; Ferslew, K E
The reliable indicator hypothesis proposes that exaggerated sexual swellings in female primates serve as honest signals of female quality that function in female-female competition over mates. We examined a version of this hypothesis using interspecific data to test whether exaggerated sexual swellings are associated with female mating competition, as measured using the adult sex ratio, female canine size, and expected
Charles L. Nunn; Carel P. van Schaik; Dietmar Zinnerc
We report a rare cause of encephalitis that is not often described in the adult clinical setting. Our case was a 16-year-old female who presented with a clinical picture of viral encephalitis; however, magnetic resonance imaging showed a demyelinating lesion of the left frontal lobe. In this age group, differential diagnoses of acute demyelination encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis were entertained. Further investigations demonstrated positive Mycoplasma pneumoniae serology. As a result, a diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae-associated encephalitis was made based on a process of exclusion.
Tran, Hieu; Allworth, Anthony; Bennett, Cameron
Aromatase catalyses the last step of oestrogen synthesis. There is growing evidence that local oestrogens influence many brain regions to modulate brain development and behaviour. We examined, by immunohistochemistry, the expression of aromatase in the adult male and female mouse brain, using mice in which enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) is transcribed following the physiological activation of the Cyp19A1 gene. EGFP-immunoreactive processes were distributed in many brain regions, including the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, olfactory tubercle, medial amygdaloid nucleus and medial preoptic area, with the densest distributions of EGFP-positive cell bodies in the bed nucleus and medial amygdala. Differences between male and female mice were apparent, with the density of EGFP-positive cell bodies and fibres being lower in some brain regions of female mice, including the bed nucleus and medial amygdala. EGFP-positive cell bodies in the bed nucleus, lateral septum, medial amygdala and hypothalamus co-expressed oestrogen receptor (ER) ? and ?, or the androgen receptor (AR), although single-labelled EGFP-positive cells were also identified. Additionally, single-labelled ER??, ER?- or AR-positive cell bodies often appeared to be surrounded by EGFP-immunoreactive nerve fibres/terminals. The widespread distribution of EGFP-positive cell bodies and fibres suggests that aromatase signalling is common in the mouse brain, and that locally synthesised brain oestrogens could mediate biological effects by activating pre- and post-synaptic oestrogen ? and ? receptors, and androgen receptors. The higher number of EGFP-positive cells in male mice may indicate that the autocrine and paracrine effects of oestrogens are more prominent in males than females.
Stanic, Davor; Dubois, Sydney; Chua, Hui Kheng; Tonge, Bruce; Rinehart, Nicole; Horne, Malcolm K.; Boon, Wah Chin
In females of several mammalian species, it is becoming evident that benefits related to high dominance rank can result in increased fitness, albeit to a lesser degree than in males. We examined indicators of fitness in relation to dominance rank in a group of adult female American bison in semifree-ranging conditions. A significantly linear dominance hierarchy was found. Dominance rank
Hilde Vervaecke; Catherine Roden; Han de Vries
Current research to describe and evaluate effectiveness of voice and communication therapy for male-to-female transgender people is limited to adults. This paper provides rationale, procedures, and outcomes from voice and communication therapy for a male-to-female transgender adolescent 15 years of age. Treatment addressed vocal hygiene, breath…
Hancock, Adrienne; Helenius, Lauren
In life as in literature, both the mainstream public and the Black community writ large, overlook the Black female experiences, both adolescent and adult. In order to contribute to the knowledge base regarding this population, we present through our study a statistical portrait of Black females in high school. To do so, we present an analysis of…
Muhammad, Crystal Gafford; Dixson, Adrienne D.
Females often adjust their mating preference to environmental and social conditions. This plasticity of preference can be adaptive for females and can have important consequences for the evolution of male traits. While predation and parasitism are widespread, their effects on female preferences have rarely been investigated. Females of the cricket Gryllus lineaticeps are parasitized by the parasitoid fly Ormia ochracea. Infestation with fly larvae substantially reduces female life span and thus reproductive opportunities of the cricket. Both female G. lineaticeps and flies orient to male song and both prefer male songs with faster chirp rates to songs with slower chirp rates. We tested the effect of parasitic infestation on female responsiveness to male song and female chirp rate preferences. The proportion of individuals responding to male songs did not differ between infested and control females. Control females preferred intermediate chirp rates to slow chirp rates and did not discriminate between fast and intermediate chirp rates. In contrast, infested females showed no preferences in the choice trials, indicating reduced chirp rate selectivity. This plasticity in female preferences may be adaptive; parasitized females may have a higher probability of reproducing before they are killed by the parasitoids if they are less selective (i.e. there will be a larger pool of males considered acceptable). The change in preferences suggests relaxed selection on male chirp rate during times of parasitism.
Beckers, Oliver M.; Wagner, William E.
Unlike other important vectors such as mosquitoes and sandflies, genetic and genomic tools for Culicoides biting midges are lacking, despite the fact that they vector a large number of arboviruses and other pathogens impacting humans and domestic animals world-wide. In North America, female Culicoides sonorensis midges are important vectors of bluetongue virus (BTV) and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV), orbiviruses that cause significant disease in livestock and wildlife. Libraries of tissue-specific transcripts expressed in response to feeding and oral orbivirus challenge in C. sonorensis have previously been reported, but extensive genome-wide expression profiling in the midge has not. Here, we successfully used deep sequencing technologies to construct the first adult female C. sonorensis reference transcriptome, and utilized genome-wide expression profiling to elucidate the genetic response to blood and sucrose feeding over time. The adult female midge unigene consists of 19,041 genes, of which less than 7% are differentially expressed during the course of a sucrose meal, while up to 52% of the genes respond significantly in blood-fed midges, indicating hematophagy induces complex physiological processes. Many genes that were differentially expressed during blood feeding were associated with digestion (e.g. proteases, lipases), hematophagy (e.g., salivary proteins), and vitellogenesis, revealing many major metabolic and biological factors underlying these critical processes. Additionally, key genes in the vitellogenesis pathway were identified, which provides the first glimpse into the molecular basis of anautogeny for C. sonorensis. This is the first extensive transcriptome for this genus, which will serve as a framework for future expression studies, RNAi, and provide a rich dataset contributing to the ultimate goal of informing a reference genome assembly and annotation. Moreover, this study will serve as a foundation for subsequent studies of genome-wide expression analyses during early orbivirus infection and dissecting the molecular mechanisms behind vector competence in midges. PMID:24866149
Nayduch, Dana; Lee, Matthew B; Saski, Christopher A
Unlike other important vectors such as mosquitoes and sandflies, genetic and genomic tools for Culicoides biting midges are lacking, despite the fact that they vector a large number of arboviruses and other pathogens impacting humans and domestic animals world-wide. In North America, female Culicoides sonorensis midges are important vectors of bluetongue virus (BTV) and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV), orbiviruses that cause significant disease in livestock and wildlife. Libraries of tissue-specific transcripts expressed in response to feeding and oral orbivirus challenge in C. sonorensis have previously been reported, but extensive genome-wide expression profiling in the midge has not. Here, we successfully used deep sequencing technologies to construct the first adult female C. sonorensis reference transcriptome, and utilized genome-wide expression profiling to elucidate the genetic response to blood and sucrose feeding over time. The adult female midge unigene consists of 19,041 genes, of which less than 7% are differentially expressed during the course of a sucrose meal, while up to 52% of the genes respond significantly in blood-fed midges, indicating hematophagy induces complex physiological processes. Many genes that were differentially expressed during blood feeding were associated with digestion (e.g. proteases, lipases), hematophagy (e.g., salivary proteins), and vitellogenesis, revealing many major metabolic and biological factors underlying these critical processes. Additionally, key genes in the vitellogenesis pathway were identified, which provides the first glimpse into the molecular basis of anautogeny for C. sonorensis. This is the first extensive transcriptome for this genus, which will serve as a framework for future expression studies, RNAi, and provide a rich dataset contributing to the ultimate goal of informing a reference genome assembly and annotation. Moreover, this study will serve as a foundation for subsequent studies of genome-wide expression analyses during early orbivirus infection and dissecting the molecular mechanisms behind vector competence in midges.
Nayduch, Dana; Lee, Matthew B.; Saski, Christopher A.
The female athlete triad, otherwise known as the inter-relatedness of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis, is an area of increasing awareness in female athletes, which has not been explored in military women. We conducted a 3 part prospective ...
T. D. Lauder
Increased participation in sports and greater pressures to win have made female athletes very vulnerable to drug abuse. How the physiology and socialization of females contributes to this problem is discussed. (Author/MT)
The nasal botfly Oestrus ovis (Diptera, Cyclorrhapha: Oestridae) is a myiasis-causing insect species, which affects the health of sheep, goats and humans. Gravid females are viviparous and larviposit into the animal’s nostrils. Host-searching and larvipositing flies are visually guided and influenced by climatic conditions, whereas olfaction seemed to play no role in this process. However, here, we show that the antennae of adult O. ovis female flies are relatively small but well developed and inhabited by several types of olfactory sensilla. Further, we show that the antennal lobes of this species receive input from antennal afferents and consist of a clearly defined glomerular organisation. We also give the first evidence of the fly’s ability to detect several synthetic odour compounds. Our findings provide a morpho-functional basis for future investigations on olfactory-mediated behaviour of this insect pest.
Poddighe, Simone; Dekker, Teun; Scala, Antonio; Angioy, Anna Maria
Eighty-seven fall-collected wings from female redhead ducks (Aythya americana) were assigned to the adult or juvenile group based on 'tertial' and 'tertial covert' shape and wear. To obtain spring age-related characters from these fall-collected groupings, we considered parameters of flight feathers retained until after the first breeding season. Parameters measured included: markings on and width of greater secondary coverts, and length, weight, and diameter of primary feathers. The best age categorization was obtained with discriminant analysis based on a combination of the most accurately measured parameters. This analysis, applied to 81 wings with complete measurements, resulted in only 1 being incorrectly aged and 3 placed in a questionable category. Discriminant functions used with covert markings and the three 5th primary parameters were applied to 30 known-age juvenile, hand-reared redhead females, 28 were correctly aged, none was incorrectly aged, and only 2 were placed in the questionable category.
Dane, C. W.; Johnson, D. H.
This article reports the findings of a study concerning the socioeconomic characteristics of women undergoing sterilization in India. Only 23% of India's 119 million couples use some form of contraception, but of these, 87% rely on male or female sterilization. It is estimated that some 20 million married women of reproductive age have been sterilized. This study examined the cases of 800 women who underwent sterilization at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the Kamla Nehru Hospital, Shimla from February 1986 to April 1987. In addition to investigating the socioeconomic characteristics of the women, the study also focused on the knowledge and practice of other contraceptive methods, the motivating factors, and the reasons for undergoing sterilization. The study found that 68% of the women were from rural areas and 32% from urban areas. 71% of the women belonged to lower social classes -- only 40% of the women were literate. 98% of the women were Hindus, the remaining 2% belonging to other religious groups. 72.9% of the women were between the ages of 20 and 33 years, the mean age at sterilization being 27.5 years. While 77.3% of the women has 2 or 3 living children, only 2.6% had only 1 living child. 71.2% of the women had both male and female children, and 9.2% had only female children. Concerning the use of contraception, only 22% of the women had practiced contraception prior to the operation. 70% of the women reported being self-motivated, while 26% said that they had been motivated by a family planning worker or hospital staff member. 96.5% of the women reported multiparity and/or socioeconomic reasons for undergoing the procedure, while 3.5% of the sterilizations were performed for therapeutic reasons. PMID:2103927
Kumar, A; Randhawa, I
Recent research indicates environmental factors and personal behaviors are related to breast cancer risk, but adopting a healthy lifestyle as early as adolescence can serve a protective function. To investigate perceptions of breast cancer risk and the environment, 10 focus groups (N = 91) were conducted with adolescent females (n = 55) and mothers (n = 36) across four counties in the Midwest, USA. The Uncertainty Management Theory provides a framework for discussing statements, and results suggest that uncertainty is maintained through ambiguity about environmental risk factors and breast cancer. Recommendations for prevention messages are presented.
Volkman, Julie E.; Silk, Kami J.
Blanchard’s (J Nerv Ment Dis 177:616–623, 1989) theory of autogynephilia suggests that male-to-female transsexuals can be\\u000a categorized into different types based on their sexuality. Little previous research has compared the sexuality of male-to-female\\u000a transsexuals to biological females. The present study examined 15 aspects of sexuality among a non-clinical sample of 234\\u000a transsexuals and 127 biological females, using either an online
Jaimie F. Veale; Dave E. Clarke; Terri C. Lomax
Adult quillback were collected in 1969 which engaged in an upstream spawning migration in the North Platte River in Nebraska. Five hundred specimens were examined for sex and tuberculate conditions. Observations of sexually mature females revealed nuptial...
M. L. Madsen
Background: Facet cysts are implicated in neural compression in the lumbar spine. Surgery is the definitive treatment for symptomatic facet cysts since the failure rate for conservative treatment is quite high; however, the role of physical/manual medicine practitioners in the management of symptomatic facet cysts has not been well explored. This case report will add to the body of evidence of spontaneous resolution of symptoms associated with facet cysts in the chiropractic literature. Case: A 58 year old female presented with acute low back and right leg pain which she attributed to a series of exercise classes that involved frequent foot stomping. Physical examination did not elicit any objective evidence of radiculopathy but MRI and CT scans revealed a facet cyst impinging on the right L5 nerve root. Injections and surgery were recommended; however, the patient’s radicular symptoms completely resolved after three months without surgical intervention. Summary: There is currently a paucity of data in the literature regarding the chiropractor’s role in the management of symptomatic facet cysts. The case presented here has added to this literature and possible areas for future research have been explored.
Ngo, Trung; Decina, Philip; Hsu, William
Examines the role that mentoring could have in helping female athletes become leaders in their sports through coaching, focusing on: women in coaching; the importance of mentoring potential female coaches; successful mentoring relationships for female coaches; and strategies for mentors. This type of collaboration may help reverse the ongoing…
Lough, Nancy L.
Social monogamy is the most common pair bond in birds and one hypothesis for its prevalence is that already mated females ('residents') prevent other females from establishing a pair bond with their mates ('competition for male parental care' hypothesis). To investigate this hypothesis we experimentally induced aggressive behaviour in resident female lapwings by presenting a female dummy conspecific, and a male dummy as control, near their nests. Females attacked both dummies. However, the female dummy was attacked more often than the male during the 5-min trials. Attacks on the female dummy were mostly on the ground (88%, N=27 resident females) whereas the male dummy was attacked either by aerial dives (53%) or on the ground (47%, N=24 resident females). Frequency of attacks on the female dummy decreased over the incubation period, whereas there was no such trend with the male dummy. These results suggest that female lapwings attempt to prevent their mates from attracting a new mate and thus try to monopolize their parental care. Other competing hypotheses for the explanation of aggressive behaviour in female lapwings are also discussed but were not supported by our data.1997The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour PMID:9344433
This literature review aims to discern patterns among empirical research regarding the association between distance running and disordered eating among females. The findings show that female distance runners share certain characteristics with eating disordered non-athletes, such as low BMI, perfectionist tendencies, and menstrual dysfunction. These characteristics, indicative of disordered eating among non-athletic females, do not indicate a similar risk among
Males and females have different evolutionary interests resulting in sexual conflict over optimal life histories. A new study in Caenorhabditis elegans shows that males hijack female physiology after mating to cause body shrinking and, ultimately, death. But how do males benefit from female demise? PMID:24602884
Zwoinska, Martyna; Lind, Martin I; Maklakov, Alexei A
East Los Angeles cholas are the female counterparts of the cholos, the latter the street gang members that come from marginal situations and conditions. While there has been little research on female gang members overall, the role of females in the street life is significant. Sisters, girlfriends, and other relatives share the same backgrounds as male gang members but additionally
James Diego VIGIL
The most important characteristics for females judging the attractiveness of males, and for males judging females, were eyes, body build and facial complexion. Previously, females tended to place less importance on physical components of attraction for both themselves and men. Possible interpretations are: (1) women have become more egalitarian…
Taylor, Peggy; And Others
Examined female college students' (N=466) drug use, marihuana use in particular. Results indicated that the gap in marihuana usage patterns between females and males has substantially narrowed. Female marihuana users used other drugs quite extensively and had friends who use marihuana. Peer influence was a major factor in drug use. (JAC)
Traub, Stuart H.
MALES of most animal species will enhance their reproductive success if they mate often and with many different partners, whereas promiscuous mating is unlikely to increase a female's reproductive success. Why then is multiple copulation by females so common1-6? Many theoreticians have suggested that multiple copulations might enhance the viability of a female's offspring, either because of inadequate quantities of
Thomas Madsen; Richard Shine; Jon Loman; Thomas Håkansson
The objectives of this study were twofold: to determine the effect mentoring has on a set of career and emotional outcomes for female lawyers and to determine whether female lawyers benefit more from having had a male or female mentor. All of these assessments were conducted while controlling for a set of demographic, human capital, work context, and personality disposition
Jean E. Wallace
There has been speculation that male hormone levels (specifically testosterone) are elevated in women who want to become men (female transsexuals). This study reports the levels of plasma testosterone, urinary 17-ketosterone, and urinary 17-ketogenic steroid in three female transsexuals and compares these levels with those of normal females and normal males. The study also reports plasma and urine levels during
James R. Jones; Jean Samimy
Sexual conflict is now recognised as an important driver of sexual trait evolution. However, due to their variable outcomes and effects on other fitness components, the detection of sexual conflicts on individual traits can be complicated. This difficulty is exemplified in the beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, where longer matings increase the size of nutritious ejaculates but simultaneously reduce female future receptivity. While previous studies show that females gain direct benefits from extended mating duration, females show conspicuous copulatory kicking behaviour, apparently to dislodge mating males prematurely. We explore the potential for sexual conflict by comparing several fitness components and remating propensity in pairs of full sibling females where each female mated with a male from an unrelated pair of full sibling males. For one female, matings were terminated at the onset of kicking, whereas the other's matings remained uninterrupted. While fecundity (number of eggs) was similar between treatments, uninterrupted matings enhanced adult offspring numbers and fractionally also longevity. However, females whose matings were interrupted at the onset of kicking exhibited an increased propensity to remate. Since polyandry can benefit female fitness in this species, we argue that kicking, rather than being maladaptive, may indicate that females prefer remating over increased ejaculate size. It may thus be difficult to assess the presence of sexual conflict over contested traits such as mating duration when females face a trade off between direct benefits gained from one mating and indirect benefits from additional matings. PMID:24752530
van Lieshout, Emile; McNamara, Kathryn B; Simmons, Leigh W
Why should the multicultural society of Canada outlaw female genital mutilation (FGM) as proposed by federal Justice Minister Allan Rock or allow avoidance of the procedure to be a legitimate reason for gaining refugee status? Is this anti-FGM position simply an ethnocentric stance that would be called racism in other circumstances? Canadian objections to FGM can not arise from objections about mutilation of a child's sexual organs because male circumcision is legal in Canada, although it, too, is medically questionable. Perhaps Rock is being patriarchal in reserving his concern for females. In Somali culture, women determine the nature and extent of FGM, so Rock may simply be exhibiting his inability to understand other cultures. On the other hand, it is politically incorrect for Canadian government workers to criticize other cultures, and immigrants are assured that their values and beliefs will be accommodated in Canada. Thus, polygamy among Somali immigrants is ignored. The question is why should FGM be a major exception and invoke efforts at repression instead of a respect for diversity. PMID:12294340
The timing of puberty is controlled by many genes. The elements coordinating this process have not, however, been identified. Here we show that an epigenetic mechanism of transcriptional repression times the initiation of female puberty in rats. We identify silencers of the Polycomb group (PcG) as major contributors to this mechanism, and show that PcG proteins repress Kiss1, a puberty-activating gene. Hypothalamic expression of two key PcG genes, Eed and Cbx7, decreases and methylation of their promoters increases preceding puberty. Inhibiting DNA methylation blocks both events and results in pubertal failure. The pubertal increase in Kiss1 is accompanied by EED loss from the Kiss1 promoter and enrichment of histone H3 modifications associated with gene activation. Preventing the eviction of EED from the Kiss1 promoter disrupts pulsatile GnRH release, delays puberty, and compromises fecundity. Our results identify epigenetic silencing as a novel mechanism underlying the neuroendocrine control of female puberty.
Lomniczi, Alejandro; Loche, Alberto; Castellano, Juan Manuel; Ronnekleiv, Oline K.; Bosch, Martha; Kaidar, Gabi; Knoll, J. Gabriel; Wright, Hollis; Pfeifer, Gerd. P.; Ojeda, Sergio R.
Hormone replacement after menopause has in recent years been the subject of intense scientific debate and public interest and has sparked intense research efforts into the biological effects of estrogens and progestagens. However, there are reasons to believe that the doses used and plasma concentrations produced in a large number of studies casts doubt on important aspects of their validity. The concept of hormesis states that a substance can have diametrically different effects depending on the concentration. Even though estrogens and progestagens have proven prone to this kind of dose-response relation in a multitude of studies, the phenomenon remains clearly underappreciated as exemplified by the fact that it is common practice to only use one hormone dose in animal experiments. If care is not taken to adjust the concentrations of estrogens and progestagens to relevant biological conditions, the significance of the results may be questionable. Our aim is to review examples of female sexual steroids demonstrating bidirectional dose-response relations and to discuss this in the perspective of hormesis. Some examples are highlighted in detail, including the effects on cerebral ischemia, inflammation, cardiovascular diseases and anxiety. Hopefully, better understanding of the hormesis phenomenon may result in improved future designs of studies of female sexual steroids.
Strom, Jakob O.; Theodorsson, Annette; Theodorsson, Elvar
The oviposition deterrent and ovicidal of seven herbal essential oils derived from Citrus sinensis, Cymbopogon citratus, Eucalyptus glubulus, Illicium verum, Lavandula angustifolia, Mentha piperita, and Zingiber cussumunar were assessed against the gravid female of housefly, Musca domestica L., under laboratory conditions and compared with commercial insecticide (10 % w/v cypermethrin). They were assayed at three concentrations (1.0, 5.0, and 10.0 %) where plastic cups containing 1 ml of desired oil concentration and cotton pad soaked with 10 ml of milk solution (10 % w/v) were used as oviposition substrate. The 0.1 ml of deferent concentrations was dropped on ten housefly eggs, which were used for ovicidal activity. The number of eggs laid and the hatched larvae in each cup was recorded to evaluate the oviposition deterrent and ovicidal activities of the herbal essential oils. High concentration (10 %) of herbal essential oils showed high percent effective repellency (ER). The 10 % I. verum oil caused complete oviposition deterrence (100 % ER, oviposition activity index (OAI)?=?-1.0), followed by Z. cussumunar, M. piperita, L. angustifolia, C. citratus, C. sinensis, and E. glubulus oils with 97.20, 88.55, 88.14, 87.93, 76.68, and 57.00 % ER, respectively. As the concentration of herbal essential oils increased from 1.0, 5.0, and up to 10.0 % concentration, the hatching rate decreased. Ten percent I. verum oil gave the maximum inhibiting rate at 97.3 % (LC50 value of 6.85 %); in addition, the other herbal essential oils showed the minimum inhibiting rate of 3.3-22.7 %. On the other hand, cypermethrin 10 % w/v showed complete oviposition deterrence (100 % ER, OAI?=?-1.0) and ovicidal activity (100 % inhibiting rate). Our data showed that I. verum oil have high potential of oviposition deterrence and ovicide housefly control. PMID:24894080
Sinthusiri, Jirisuda; Soonwera, Mayura
The effects of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) emitted by mobile phones on humans hold special interest due to their use in close proximity to the brain. The current study investigated the number of pyramidal cells in the cornu ammonis (CA) of the 16-week-old female rat hippocampus following postnatal exposure to a 900 megahertz (MHz) EMF. In this study were three groups of 6 rats: control (Cont), sham exposed (Sham), and EMF exposed (EMF). EMF group rats were exposed to 900 MHz EMF (1 h/day for 28 days) in an exposure tube. Sham group was placed in the exposure tube but not exposed to EMF (1 h/day for 28 days). Cont group was not placed into the exposure tube nor were they exposed to EMF during the study period. In EMF group rats, the specific energy absorption rate (SAR) varied between 0.016 (whole body) and 2 W/kg (locally in the head). All of the rats were sacrificed at the end of the experiment and the number of pyramidal cells in the CA was estimated using the optical fractionator technique. Histopathological evaluations were made on sections of the CA region of the hippocampus. Results showed that postnatal EMF exposure caused a significant decrease of the pyramidal cell number in the CA of the EMF group (P<0.05). Additionally, cell loss can be seen in the CA region of EMF group even at qualitative observation. These results may encourage researchers to evaluate the chronic effects of 900 MHz EMF on teenagers' brains. PMID:19230827
Bas, Orhan; Odaci, Ersan; Kaplan, Suleyman; Acer, Niyazi; Ucok, Kagan; Colakoglu, Serdar
When female fecundity is relatively independent of male abundance, while male reproduction is proportional to female abundance, females have a larger effect on population dynamics than males (i.e. female demographic dominance). This population dynamic phenomenon might not appear to influence evolution, because male and female genomes still contribute equally much to the next generation. However, here we examine two evolutionary scenarios to provide a proof of principle that spatial structure can make female demographic dominance matter. Our two simulation models combine dispersal evolution with local adaptation subjected to intralocus sexual conflict and environmentally driven sex ratio biases, respectively. Both models have equilibria where one environment (without being intrinsically poorer) has so few reproductive females that trait evolution becomes disproportionately determined by those environments where females survive better (intralocus sexual conflict model), or where daughters are overproduced (environmental sex determination model). Surprisingly, however, the two facts that selection favours alleles that benefit females, and population growth is improved when female fitness is high, together do not imply that all measures of population performance are improved. The sex-specificity of the source-sink dynamics predicts that populations can evolve to fail to persist in habitats where alleles do poorly when expressed in females. PMID:25056617
Harts, Anna M F; Schwanz, Lisa E; Kokko, Hanna
Suppression by dominants of female subordinate reproduction has been found in many vertebrate social groups, but has rarely been shown experimentally. Here experimental evidence is provided for reproductive suppression in the group-living Lake Tanganyika cichlid Neolamprologus pulcher. Within groups of three unrelated females, suppression was due to medium- and small-sized females laying less frequently compared with large females, and compared with medium females in control pairs. Clutch size and average egg mass of all females depended on body size, but not on rank. In a second step, a large female was removed from the group and a very small female was added to keep the group size constant. The medium females immediately seized the dominant breeding position in the group and started to reproduce as frequently as control pairs, whereas clutch size and egg mass did not change. These results show that female subordinate cichlids are reproductively capable, but apparently suppressed with respect to egg laying. Nevertheless, some reproduction is tolerated, possibly to ensure continued alloparental care by subordinate females. PMID:18755658
This paper describes the development of a pair of adult male and adult female computational phantoms that are compatible with anatomical parameters for the 50th percentile population as specified by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The phantoms were designed entirely using polygonal mesh surfaces—a Boundary REPresentation (BREP) geometry that affords the ability to efficiently deform the shape and
Juying Zhang; Yong Hum Na; Peter F Caracappa; X George Xu
Urinary tract infections are a common problem in female patients. Twenty-five per cent of patients with an initial infection will develop recurrent infections, with reinfection of the urine some time after the urine has been sterilized being the most common situation. Most adult patients have no urinary tract abnormality, with the infecting organism coming from the rectum and colonizing the vagina before colonizing the bladder. In children with urinary tract infections, there is a higher incidence of urinary tract abnormalities. The author presents a plan of management for various clinical problems.
Thompson, S. Elmer
We present the first longitudinal data on cognitive and motor aging in the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes). Thirty-eight adult female chimpanzees (10-54 years old) were studied. The apes were tested longitudinally for 3 years in a modified Primate Cognition Test Battery, which comprised 12 tests of physical and social cognition. The chimpanzees were also administered a fine motor task requiring them to remove a steel nut from rods of various complexity. There was little evidence for an age-related decline in tasks of Physical Cognition: for most tasks, performance was either stable or improved with repeated testing across age groups. An exception was Spatial Memory, for which 4 individuals more than 50 years old experienced a significant performance decline across the 3 years of testing. Poorer performance with age was found in 2 tasks of Social Cognition, an attention-getting task and a gaze-following task. A slight motor impairment was also observed, with old chimpanzees improving less than younger animals with repeated testing on the simplest rod. Hormonal status effects were restricted to spatial memory, with non-cycling females outperforming cycling females independently of age. Unexpectedly, older chimpanzees were better than younger individuals in understanding causality relationships based on sound. PMID:24112794
Lacreuse, Agnès; Russell, Jamie L; Hopkins, William D; Herndon, James G
Chimpanzees are frequently used to illustrate the relationship between sex differences in dispersal and sex differences in cooperation in primates and other group-living mammals. Male chimpanzees are highly philopatric, typically remaining in their natal communities for their entire lives to cooperate with related males in competition against less related males from other groups, whereas females typically disperse once at adolescence and cooperate with each other less frequently. However, there have been a few reports of dependent male offspring joining groups when their mothers transferred between communities as adults. Although such events are difficult to document, determining how often they actually occur is important for elucidating the links between philopatry, kinship, and cooperation in both chimpanzees and group-living animals more generally. Here we use genetic analyses to investigate a previous report of a large-scale transfer of many females and their offspring into the Sonso community of chimpanzees in the Budongo Forest Reserve, Uganda. Using autosomal microsatellite genotypes, we assigned a Sonso father to ten of the fourteen putative immigrants, and found that the four putative immigrants for whom we could not assign a Sonso father (perhaps due to incomplete sampling of all Sonso candidate fathers) nevertheless had Y-chromosome microsatellite haplotypes that were common in Sonso males but absent in males from four other chimpanzee communities at Budongo. These results suggest that these putative immigrant females and their offspring were probably actually long-term residents of Sonso whose identifications were delayed by their peripheral or unhabituated status. These results are consistent with other genetic and behavioral evidence showing that male between-community gene flow is exceedingly rare in east African chimpanzees. Am. J. Primatol. 76:640-648, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24436205
Langergraber, Kevin E; Rowney, Carolyn; Crockford, Catherine; Wittig, Roman; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Vigilant, Linda
In this paper we present a new approach for apparel modeling based on voxel specifications that characterize control vertices and patch specifications. Our specification language is geared for robust apparel modeling by enforcing a strict control vertex coding via a combination of a static cross sectional slice and dynamic control polyhedron checking. Unlike most previous approach for apparel are not hard coded into the system. Instead we simply add suitable type definitions to the specification and define patterns to these types. We compile these specifications into a high performance volumetric apparel design system. Important components of our approach include efficient algorithms, for extraction of control vertices form slices of the volume and transformation of these vertices on sequences of such slices. Our system has been tested with the visible female system and we show a couple of examples generated using our approach.
Wu, Zhongke; Goh, Shuang R.; Kluenkaew, Orapan; Tang, Ming L.; Prakash, Edmond C.
Summary Background We assessed prevalences of seven sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Peru, stratified by risk behaviours, to help to define care and prevention priorities. Methods In a 2002 household-based survey of the general population, we enrolled randomly selected 18–29-year-old residents of 24 cities with populations greater than 50?000 people. We then surveyed female sex workers (FSWs) in these cities. We gathered data for sexual behaviour; vaginal specimens or urine for nucleic acid amplification tests for Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Trichomonas vaginalis; and blood for serological tests for syphilis, HIV, and (in subsamples) herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV2) and human T-lymphotropic virus. This study is a registered component of the PREVEN trial, number ISRCTN43722548. Findings 15?261 individuals from the general population and 4485 FSWs agreed to participate in our survey. Overall prevalence of infection with HSV2, weighted for city size, was 13·5% in men, 13·6% in women, and 60·6% in FSWs (all values in FSWs standardised to age composition of women in the general population). The prevalence of C trachomatis infection was 4·2% in men, 6·5% in women, and 16·4% in FSWs; of T vaginalis infection was 0·3% in men, 4·9% in women, and 7·9% in FSWs; and of syphilis was 0·5% in men, 0·4% in women, and 0·8% in FSWs. N gonorrhoeae infection had a prevalence of 0·1% in men and women, and of 1·6% in FSWs. Prevalence of HIV infection was 0·5% in men and FSWs, and 0·1% in women. Four (0·3%) of 1535 specimens were positive for human T-lymphotropic virus 1. In men, 65·0% of infections with HIV, 71·5% of N gonorrhoeae, and 41·4% of HSV2 and 60·9% of cases of syphilis were in the 13·3% who had sex with men or unprotected sex with FSWs in the past year. In women from the general population, 66·7% of infections with HIV and 16·7% of cases of syphilis were accounted for by the 4·4% who had been paid for sex by any of their past three partners. Interpretation Defining of high-risk groups could guide targeting of interventions for communicable diseases—including STIs—in the general Peruvian population. Funding Wellcome Trust-Burroughs Wellcome Fund Infectious Disease Initiative and US National Institutes of Health.
Carcamo, Cesar P; Campos, Pablo E; Garcia, Patricia J; Hughes, James P; Garnett, Geoff P; Holmes, King K
Interactions among reproductive season, testosterone (T) and female presence were investigated on the structure and function of forebrain and neuromuscular systems controlling courtship and copulation in the green anole lizard. Under breeding (BS) or non-breeding (NBS) environmental conditions, male green anoles were implanted with either T or blank capsules and exposed to one of three female stimulus conditions: physical, visual
Jennifer K. Neal; Juli Wade
The high frequency of the fragile X premutation in the general population and its emerging neurocognitive implications highlight the need to investigate the effects of the premutation on lifespan cognitive development. Until recently, cognitive function in fragile X premutation carriers (fXPCs) was presumed to be unaffected by the mutation. Although as a group fXPCs did not differ from healthy controls (HCs), we show that young adult female fXPCs show subtle age- and significant fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene mutation-modulated cognitive function as tested by a basic numerical enumeration task. These results indicate that older women with the premutation and fXPCs with greater CGG repeat lengths were at higher risk for difficulties in the deployment of volitional attention required to count 5–8 items, but spared performance when spatial shifts of attention were minimized to subitize a few (1–3). Results from the current study add to a growing body of evidence that suggests the premutation allele is associated with a subtle phenotype and implies that the cognitive demands necessary for counting are less effectively deployed in female fXPCs compared to HCs.
Goodrich-Hunsaker, Naomi J.; Wong, Ling M.; McLennan, Yingratana; Tassone, Flora; Harvey, Danielle; Rivera, Susan M.; Simon, Tony J.
Rhipicephalus sanguineus, commonly known as the brown dog tick, is one of the most widely distributed species of tick. In dogs, it can cause anemia and provide the transmission of pathogenic microorganisms such as Babesia canis, Ehrlichia canis, Hepatozoon canis, Anaplasma platys, and Mycoplasma haemocanis. To man, it can transmit the intracellular parasites Rickettsia rickettsii and Rickettsia conorii, the causative agents of the Rocky Mountain spotted fever in the Americas and Mediterranean and spotted fever in Europe and North Africa. Its control is performed by applying synthetic formulations composed of pyrethroids; however, continued use of these products results in environmental damage and acquisition of resistance. Alternatively, studies with botanical insecticides have been increasingly recurrent. Therefore, this study aimed to test the efficacy of essential oil of Tagetes patula, a ruderal species widely described in the literature for its insecticidal properties, in engorged females of R. sanguineus by the adults immersion test (AIT) and impregnated paper disk test (IPDT). The essential oil used, through gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, revealed the presence of 55 compounds, being the 4-vinyl guaiacol and gamma terpinene the majority ones. The AIT compared to the IPDT was more efficient in inhibiting oviposition of tick; however, the eggs laid by the females submitted to saturated atmosphere with essential oil, from IPDT, not hatched, interrupted their development cycle. Besides being a pioneer work, the results presented here contributes to new researches, aiming the incorporation of essential oil in an acaricide for use in the environment. PMID:23508761
Politi, Flávio Augusto Sanches; de Souza-Moreira, Tatiana Maria; Rodrigues, Edvânio Ramos; de Queiroz, Geisiany Maria; Figueira, Glyn Mara; Januário, Ana Helena; Berenger, Jean-Michel; Socolovschi, Cristina; Parola, Philippe; Pietro, Rosemeire Cristina Linhari Rodrigues
Two unrelated, adult females with normal intelligence are described. They show a similar clinical picture with a long and narrow face, congenital cataract, microphthalmia, microcornea, a high nasal bridge, a short nose, a broad nasal tip, a long philtrum, bilateral hearing loss, persistent primary teeth, oligodontia, variable root length including dental radiculomegaly, heart defects and cutaneous syndactyly of the 2nd-3rd toes. Abnormalities present in only one of the two patients were a cleft palate and a transverse vaginal septum, respectively. There are numerous similarities between our two patients and the family described by Wilkie et al. ((1993): Clin Dysmorphol 2: 114-119) and all may be examples of the same entity. PMID:8723559
Aalfs, C M; Oosterwijk, J C; van Schooneveld, M J; Begeman, C J; Wabeke, K B; Hennekam, R C
Two experiments were carried out to test whether cells which are born in adulthood and migrate to the olfactory bulb of adult male golden hamsters are activated during sexual behaviors, to determine the time course over which such responsiveness appears, and to ask whether activation is specific to sexual cues. In the first experiment, adult male hamsters were injected with
Liyue Huang; Eric L. Bittman
We tested the hypothesis that the nuclear progesterone receptor (nPR) is involved in respiratory control and mediates the respiratory stimulant effect of progesterone. Adult female mice carrying a mutation in the nPR gene (PRKO mice) and wild-type controls (WT) were implanted with an osmotic pump delivering vehicle or progesterone (4 mg/kg/day). The mice were instrumented with EEG and neck EMG electrodes connected to a telemetry transmitter. The animals were placed in a whole body plethysmograph 7 days after surgery to record ventilation, metabolic rate, EEG and neck EMGs for 4 consecutive hours. The animals were exposed to hypercapnia (5% CO2), hypoxia (12% O2) and hypoxic-hypercapnia (5% CO2+12% O2–5 min each) to assess chemoreflex responses. EEG and EMG signals were used to characterize vigilance states (e.g., wake, non-REM, and REM sleep). PRKO mice exhibited similar levels of minute ventilation during non-REM and REM sleep, and higher frequencies of sighs and post-sigh apneas during non-REM sleep compared to WT. Progesterone treatment increased minute ventilation and metabolic rate in WT and PRKO mice during non-REM sleep. In WT mice, but not in PRKO mice, the ventilation under hypercapnia and hypoxic hypercapnia was enhanced after progesterone treatment. We conclude that the nPR reduces apnea frequency during non-REM sleep and enhances chemoreflex responses to hypercapnia after progesterone treatment. These results also suggest that mechanisms other than nPR activation increase metabolic rate in response to progesterone treatment in adult female mice.
Marcouiller, Francois; Lavoie, Raphael; Joseph, Vincent
Increased glutamatergic neurotransmission appears to mediate the reinforcing properties of drugs of abuse, including ethanol (EtOH). We recently reported that the administration of ceftriaxone (CEF), a ?-lactam antibiotic known to upregulate glutamate transporter 1 (GLT1) levels/activity, decreased the maintenance of EtOH intake in adult male alcohol-preferring (P) rats. In the present study, we tested whether CEF administration would reduce the acquisition and maintenance of EtOH drinking in adolescent and adult female P rats. The rats were treated with saline or 200mg/kg ceftriaxone for 7 days (starting at 35 or 75 days old, respectively) followed by the EtOH acquisition test. Five weeks later the effects of CEF were examined regarding the maintenance of EtOH intake. For the maintenance test, half of the animals that received CEF during acquisition received CEF for 7 days and the other half received saline for 7 days. Saline-treated acquisition animals were treated similarly. The results indicated that pretreatment with ceftriaxone reduced the maintenance of EtOH intake in both animals that started as adolescents and those that started as adults. However, the beneficial effect of CEF was more pronounced in rats pretreated with CEF as adults compared with rats pretreated as adolescents. Reductions in EtOH intake by ceftriaxone were paralleled by an upregulation of GLT1 protein levels in both the nucleus accumbens (?25% in rats starting at both ages) and prefrontal cortex (?50% in rats starting as peri-adolescents and ?65% in those starting as adults). These findings provide further support for GLT1-associated mechanisms in high alcohol-consuming behavior, and hold promise for the development of effective treatments targeting alcohol abuse and dependence. PMID:23537837
Sari, Y; Franklin, K M; Alazizi, A; Rao, P S S; Bell, R L
Until recently, the sexual offending literature focused on male perpetrators and neglected to examine the characteristics of female perpetrators. As a result, treatment provision for female sexual abusers has been either nonexistent or inappropriately adapted from programs designed for males. What we do know is that male and female sexual abusers share similarities; however, there remain distinct differences that warrant empirical and theoretical study. The current review systematically examines the literature on offense-supportive cognition in female sexual abusers. The aim of this systematic review is to aid clinical practitioners who work with female sexual abusers by providing an evaluation of current available research regarding implicit theories, rape myth acceptance, violence-supportive cognition, gender stereotypes, beliefs about sex, and empathy. We conclude that further research examining the offense-supportive cognition of female sexual abusers is needed in order to facilitate more effective empirically driven clinical practice. PMID:23093577
Gannon, Theresa A; Alleyne, Emma K A
Analyses of the pattern of associations, social interactions, coalitions, and aggression among chacma baboons (Papio hamadryas ursinus) in the Okavango Delta of Botswana over a 16-year period indicate that adult females form close, equitable, supportive, and enduring social relationships. They show strong and stable preferences for close kin, particularly their own mothers and daughters. Females also form strong attachments to unrelated females who are close to their own age and who are likely to be paternal half-sisters. Although absolute rates of aggression among kin are as high as rates of aggression among nonkin, females are more tolerant of close relatives than they are of others with whom they have comparable amounts of contact. These findings complement previous work which indicates that the strength of social bonds enhances the fitness of females in this population and support findings about the structure and function of social bonds in other primate groups. PMID:20976293
Silk, Joan B; Beehner, Jacinta C; Bergman, Thore J; Crockford, Catherine; Engh, Anne L; Moscovice, Liza R; Wittig, Roman M; Seyfarth, Robert M; Cheney, Dorothy L
Female reproductive potential is dictated by the size of the primordial follicle pool and the correct regulation of oocyte maturation and activation--events essential for production of viable offspring. Although a substantial body of work underpins our understanding of these processes, the molecular mechanisms of follicular and oocyte development are not fully understood. This review summarizes recent findings which have improved our conception of how folliculogenesis and oocyte competence are regulated, and discusses their implications for assisted reproductive techniques. We highlight evidence provided by genetically modified mouse models and in vitro studies which have refined our understanding of Pi3k/Akt and mTOR signalling in the oocyte and have discovered a role for Jak/Stat/Socs signalling in granulosa cells during primordial follicle activation. We also appraise a novel role for the metal ion zinc in the regulation of meiosis I and meiosis II progression through early meiosis inhibitor (Emi2) and Mos-Mapk signalling, and examine studies which expand our understanding of intracellular calcium signalling and extrinsic Plc? in stimulating oocyte activation. PMID:23247812
Sobinoff, A P; Sutherland, J M; Mclaughlin, E A
The experience for women in physics remains challenging in Belarus. The proportion of female physics master's degree recipients is approximately 30%, while the percentage of female physics PhD recipients is 50%. Still, only a few female physicists occupy top positions in research laboratories, institutes, or universities. The basic problem for career-oriented female physicists in Belarus is public opinion, which cultivates a passive and dependent life philosophy for women. The Belarusian Women in Physics group was formed in 2003 as part of the Belarusian Physical Society.
Fedotova, Julia; Tashlykova-Bushkevich, Iya
Sex differences in adrenocortical structure and function. XVI. Stereological and karyometric studies on the cortex of the suprarenal gland of intact adult male and female Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus).
The histological structure of intact adult male and female Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) suprarenal cortex has been described, and quantitative stereological and karyometric studies were performed. The weight of the gland relative to body weight was higher in female than in male gerbils, but the volume of the gland was similar in both sexes. The relative volume of the zona reticularis was higher in the female, while no sex difference was observed in the absolute volume of all suprarenal components (expressed in mm3). In all cortical zones, average cell volume was higher in the female; the nuclear volume of the zona glomerulosa and zona reticularis were also higher in the female. In the zona fasciculata, some large cells with large nuclei (greater than 210 micrometers 3) were observed. These are probably polyploid cells and have not been described in other species. The suprarenal cortex of the male gerbil contained more parenchymal cells than that of the female, the difference being dependent upon variation in the number of cells in the zona fasciculata and zona reticularis. Despite these structural differences, gland homogenates from male and female animals secreted similar amounts of cortisol and the plasma levels in the two sexes were the same. Images Fig. 1
Malendowicz, L K
Androgens exert significant organizational and activational effects on the nervous system and behavior. Despite the fact that female mammals generally produce low levels of androgens, relative to the male of the same species, increasing evidence suggests that androgens can exert profound effects on the normal physiology and behavior of females during fetal, neonatal, and adult stages of life. This review examines the effects of exposure to androgens at three stages of development – as an adult, during early postnatal life and as a fetus, on reproductive hormone secretions in female rats. We examine the effects of androgen exposure both as a model of neuroendocrine sexual differentiation and with respect to the role androgens play in the normal female. We then discuss the hypothesis that androgens may cause epigenetic modification of estrogen target genes in the brain. Finally we consider the clinical consequences of excess androgen exposure in women.
Foecking, Eileen M.; McDevitt, Melissa A.; Acosta-Martinez, Maricedes; Horton, Teresa H.; Levine, Jon E.
The role of Moringa oleifera aqueous leaf extract in the regulation of thyroid hormone status, was studied in adult Swiss rats. Other than the thyroid hormone concentrations, hepatic lipid peroxidation (LPO) and the activities of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were evaluated. In the first experiment, effects of the leaf extract (175 mg kg?1body wt. day?1for 10
PANKAJ TAHILIANI; ANAND KAR
Background The tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus is the species with the largest worldwide distribution and is proven to be involved in the transmission of pathogens such as Babesia canis, Ehrlichia canis, Coxiella burnetii, Rickettsia ricketsii, Rickettsia conorii, among others. Studies have demonstrated acquisition of resistance to some of the active principles used in commercial formulations of acaricides. Tagetes patula (Asteraceae) is a plant with highlighted economic and commercial importance due to the production of secondary metabolites with insecticide and acaricide potential, mainly flavonoids, thiophenes and terpenes. Methods The in vitro acaricide action of the ethanolic 70% extract from aerial parts of T. patula, obtained by percolation, was evaluated against larvae and engorged adult females of Rhipicephalus sanguineus by immersion test for 5?minutes. The chemical characterization of this extract was done by liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS), using direct injection of sample. Results Despite T. patula not proving lethal to adults in any of the concentrations tested, at 50.0?mg/mL oviposition rate decreased by 21.5% and eliminated 99.78% of the larvae. Also it was determined that the best results were obtained with 5?minutes of immersion. From the chromatographic analysis twelve O-glycosylated flavonoids were identified. Conclusions This is the first report on the acaricidal activity of T. patula extract against Rh. sanguineus. If we consider the application of the product in the environment, we could completely eliminate the larval stage of development of the ixodid Rh. sanguineus.
Prevalence data indicate that alcohol and marijuana are frequently used intoxicants among young adults in the United States. In a number of studies, both alcohol use and marijuana use have been associated with failure to use condoms, a high risk sexual behavior. The purpose of the current study was to assess the individual and additive effects of alcohol and marijuana use on this risky sexual behavior among 251, young adult, female, bar drinkers. Multi-level modeling was used to assess the likelihood of condom use during sexual events that occurred as a function of substance use (none, only alcohol, only marijuana, or both) prior to and partner type during the event, as well as individual differences in sexual assertiveness. Initial model testing (level 1 and 2) revealed that there were significant main effects for partner type (known), substance use (alcohol and marijuana) and sexual assertiveness (refusal, pregnancy/STI prevention) on risky sex. Final model testing indicated that sexual assertiveness interacted with substance use to influence risky sex. Women who were low in sexual assertiveness refusal were more likely to engage in risky sex on days when they had consumed both alcohol and marijuana prior to the sexual activity. These findings highlight the complex nature of the relationship between substance use and risky sex.
Parks, Kathleen A.; Collins, R. Lorraine; Derrick, Jaye L.
Sex- and age-typical responses to ethanol and novel stimuli tend to emerge postpubertally, suggesting a potential organizational or activational role for pubertal hormones in these behaviors. To test this possibility, male and female rats were gonadectomized (GX) or received sham gonadectomy (SH) either prepubertally on postnatal day (P) 23 (early) or in adulthood on P70 (late). Animals were tested as adults for response to novelty and, on the following day, challenged with either saline or ethanol (1g/kg) prior to social interaction testing with an unfamiliar partner in a familiar setting under low light conditions. Gonadectomy did not influence ethanol-induced social inhibition in either sex, but instead altered the microstructure of social behavior, with GX animals exhibiting proportionally less time in social investigation and proportionally more time in contact behavior than SH animals, regardless of age of gonadectomy. The early sham surgical manipulation process itself influenced social motivation, with early SH surgery eliminating ethanol-induced decreases in social preference in both sexes. Response to novelty was unaffected by gonadectomy, but was suppressed in early compared to late SH manipulated animals. These results suggest that adult-typical responses to ethanol and novelty-directed behaviors are little influenced by gonadal hormones during puberty or in adulthood. However, the experience of surgical manipulation itself during development exerts behavioral and pharmacological consequences that last into adulthood. PMID:22036699
Vetter-O'Hagen, Courtney S; Spear, Linda P
Excessive ingestion of salt is a well-recognized cause of hypernatraemia in children, is uncommonly recognized in debilitated elderly persons, but is rarely diagnosed in healthy, independent adults. We report a case of fatal salt poisoning in a 20-year-old lady who suffered of post-natal depression and ingested large quantities of salt as part of exorcism ritual. She presented with the highest ever documented serum sodium level of 255 mmol L(-1), associated with severe neurological impairment that was unresponsive to aggressive hypotonic fluid replacement. Post-mortem examination ruled out any other possible probable cause of death. The medical literature was reviewed, and 16 previous cases of severe hypernatraemia in adults secondary to excessive salt ingestion were retrieved. Common features of all reported cases included female gender (95% of cases) and evidence of underlying cognitive or psychiatric disorders (all reported cases). We conclude that women with documented cognitive or psychiatric disorders, in particular depression, are susceptible for psychogenic salt poisoning. Awareness should be raised to the potentially life-risking use of salty beverages as emetics or as part of 'exorcism' rituals. PMID:15554954
Ofran, Y; Lavi, D; Opher, D; Weiss, T A; Elinav, E
PCBs have numerous toxic effects on laboratory animals, namely hepatotoxicity, immunotoxicity, reproductive and hormonal effects, mutagenic and carcinogenic potency (Safe 1984). They have been recognized as potent inducers of many microsomal drug metabolizing enzymes in several species. Moreover, treatment of rats with PCBs gave rise to altered lipid metabolism with accumulation of lipids in the liver. In most of these studies male rats have been used. However, sex differences in the effects of xenobiotics on microsomal drug metabolizing enzymes have been shown particularly with PCBs and little was known about differences in the effects of PCBs on lipid metabolism. This study was designed to investigate the effects of a subchronic treatment with Phenochlor DP5 on some microsomal drug metabolizing enzyme activities and on liver and blood lipids of male and female rats. The long-term effects of DP5 administration during pre and postnatal period on adult microsomal enzyme activities and liver and blood lipids of both sexes have also been studied. A possible xenobiotic imprinting of the hepatic monooxygenase system during neonatal period has been shown recently, and it has been recognized that some functional defects which often manifest themselves in adult period may be induced prenatally or before weaning.
Environmental factors operating early in life have long-lasting and important consequences for the mental and physical health of the adult organism. In particular, prenatal exposure to stress represents one category of adverse early environmental events that are associated with development of depression and schizophrenia in adulthood. In the present studies, we examined whether prenatal stress alters the habituation of hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal
Seema Bhatnagar; Theresa M. Lee; Courtenay Vining
We recently demonstrated that ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) chronic administration in female adolescent rats induces alterations in the emotional circuit\\u000a ending in depressive-like behavior in adulthood. Since cognitive dysfunction is a major component of depression, we assessed\\u000a in these animals at adulthood different forms of memory. Adolescent female rats were treated with THC or its vehicle from\\u000a 35 to 45 post-natal days
T. Rubino; N. Realini; D. Braida; T. Alberio; V. Capurro; D. Viganò; C. Guidali; M. Sala; M. Fasano; D. Parolaro
Context: Intracellular fat within muscle and visceral tissue has been suggested to adversely influence bone development. Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate associations between im fat, as reflected by muscle density as measured by peripheral quantitative computed tomography, and cortical bone parameters in young adults. Design/Setting/Participants: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 1703 males and 2243 females aged 17.8 years from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Outcome Measures: We measured cortical bone parameters from midtibial peripheral quantitative computed tomography scans. Results: Muscle density (inversely related to im fat) was inversely associated with periosteal circumference (PC) (beta = ?0.07 [95% confidence interval (CI), ?0.1, ?0.04]), cortical bone mineral density (BMDC) (beta = ?0.21 [95% CI, ?0.26, ?0.17]), and cortical thickness (CT) (beta = ?0.37 [95% CI, ?0.42, ?0.33]) (males and females combined, adjusted for age, height, gender, and muscle cross-sectional area). In contrast, sc fat area was positively associated with PC (beta = 0.10 [95% CI, 0.07, 0.12]), but no association was seen with BMDC or CT. To examine the role of candidate intermediary metabolic pathways, analyses were repeated after adjustment for insulin, C-reactive protein, and ?-C-telopeptides of type I collagen. Whereas similar associations were observed after adjustment for insulin and C-reactive protein, the association between muscle density and BMDC was partially attenuated by adjustment for ?-C-telopeptides of type I collagen (beta = ?0.14 [95% CI, ?0.20, ?0.08]). Conclusion: Although im and sc fat were both positively associated with cortical bone mass, the nature of these relationships differed in that im fat was predominantly associated with CT and BMDC, whereas sc fat was mainly associated with PC. These relationships were largely independent of candidate metabolic pathways, such as altered bone resorption, insulin resistance, or inflammation.
Deere, K.; Sayers, A.; Viljakainen, H. T.; Lawlor, D. A.; Sattar, N.; Kemp, J. P.; Fraser, W. D.
Many endoparasitic wasps inject, along with the egg, polydnavirus into their insect hosts, the virus being a prerequisite for successful parasitoid development. The genome of polydnaviruses consists of multiple circular dsDNA molecules of variable size. We show for a 12 kbp segment of the braconid Chelonus inanitus (CiV12) that it is integrated into the wasp genome. This is the first direct demonstration of integration for a bracovirus. PCR data indicated that the integrated form of CiV12 was present in all male and female stages investigated while the excised circular virus DNA only appeared in females after a specific stage in pupal-adult development. The data also indicated that after excision of virus DNA the genomic DNA was rejoined. This has not yet been reported for any polydnavirus. Sequence analyses in the junction regions revealed the presence of an imperfect consensus sequence of 15 nucleotides in CiV12, in each terminus of the integrated virus DNA and in the rejoined genomic DNA. Within these repeats two sequence types (ATA, TAC) were observed in the various virus clones and in the clones encompassing the rejoined genomic DNA; they corresponded to the sequence type in the right and left junction, respectively. To explain this, we propose a model of virus DNA replication in which the genomic DNA is folded to juxtapose the direct repeat of the left with that of the right junction; recombination at specific sites would then yield the two types of virus and rejoined genomic DNA. PMID:8922483
Gruber, A; Stettler, P; Heiniger, P; Schümperli, D; Lanzrein, B
A serious problem in Botswana is the large number of girls and young women who drop out of school. Just over half of the female population attends secondary schools, and the percentage of school-enrolled females has fallen in recent years. Few researchers have studied the dropout problem in Botswana. Twenty-four individuals selected for this study…
Human, Homo sapiens, female orgasm is not necessary for conception; hence it seems reasonable to hypothesize that orgasm is an adaptation for manipulating the outcome of sperm competition resulting from facultative polyandry. If heritable differences in male viability existed in the evolutionary past, selection could have favoured female adaptations (e.g. orgasm) that biased sperm competition in favour of males possessing
Randy Thornhill; Steven W. Gangestad; Randall Comer
Female caribou (Rangifer tarandus) are highly gregarious, yet there has been little study of the behavioral mechanisms that foster coexistence. Quantifying patterns of aggression between male and female, particularly in the only cervid taxa where both sexes grow antlers, should provide insight into these mechanisms. We asked if patterns of aggression by male and female caribou followed the pattern typically noted in other polygynous cervids, in which males display higher frequencies and intensity of aggression. From June to August in 2011 and 2012, we measured the frequency and intensity of aggression across a range of group sizes through focal animal sampling of 170 caribou (64 males and 106 females) on Adak Island in the Aleutian Archipelago, Alaska. Males in same-sex and mixed-sex groups and females in mixed-sex groups had higher frequencies of aggression than females in same-sex groups. Group size did not influence frequency of aggression. Males displayed more intense aggression than females. Frequent aggression in mixed-sex groups probably reflects lower tolerance of males for animals in close proximity. Female caribou were less aggressive and more gregarious than males, as in other polygynous cervid species.
Weckerly, Floyd W.; Ricca, Mark A.
Previous studies have suggested that female facial attractiveness is associated with exaggerated sex-specific facial traits and averageness. Here we applied geometric morphometrics, a method for multivariate statistical analysis of shape, to measure geometric averageness and geometric sexual dimorphism of natural female face profiles. Geometric averageness and geometric sexual dimorphism correlate with attractiveness ratings. However, principal component analysis extracted a shape
Dario Riccardo Valenzano; Andrea Mennucci; Giandonato Tartarelli; Alessandro Cellerino
PURPOSE: A study was performed to evaluate the early morphologic and functional consequences of vaginal delivery on the anal sphincter in primiparous females. METHODS: Among a cohort of 197 primiparous females who agreed to participate in a clinical evaluation of fecal incontinence and in a transanal ultrasound examination 12 weeks after delivery, 52 also underwent anal manometry using a radial
Henri Damon; Luc Henry; Stéphane Bretones; Georges Mellier; Yves Minaire; François Mion
Whether animals ever exhibit a preference for same-sex sexual partners is a subject of debate. Japanese macaques represent excellent models for examining issues related to sexual preference in animals because females, in certain populations, routinely engage in both heterosexual and homosexual behavior over the course of their life spans. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that female homosexual behavior in Japanese
Paul L. Vasey
Objective: The objective of this study was to characterize the innervation of the human female levator ani muscles. Study Design: Detailed dissections of the peripheral innervation of the iliococcygeal, pubococcygeal, puborectal, and coccygeal muscles were performed in 12 fresh-frozen female cadavers (aged, 32-100 years) with the use of transabdominal, gluteal, and perineal approaches. Both the pudendal nerve and the sacral
Matthew D. Barber; Ronald E. Bremer; Karl B. Thor; Paul C. Dolber; Thomas J. Kuehl; Kimberly W. Coates
Shares the authors' criteria for evaluating female characters as positive role models in children's literature. Explores the criteria by examining "The Ballad of Lucy Wipple" (Karen Cushman). Discusses other recently published picture books and novels which feature strong females in history, in contemporary times, and in fantasy. (SR)
Heine, Pat; Inkster, Christine; Kazemek, Frank; Williams, Sandra; Raschke, Sylvia; Stevens, Della
This study is an attempt to survey the burnout level of female teachers in Malaysia and determine the likely factors that are associated with this phenomenon. The subjects of the study were 437 female teachers from primary, secondary, and tertiary levels. A demographic questionnaire was used to collect the data regarding the individual…
Mukundan, Jayakaran; Ahour, Touran
MURTAUGH, K. Injury patterns among female field hockey players. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 33, No. 2, 2001, pp. 201-207. Purpose: To examine injury patterns among female field hockey players and to broaden the current base of knowledge by identifying the injury rates of different playing positions. It was hypothesized that goalkeepers would have the highest rate of injury, followed
We analyse a process of female social entrepreneurship involving the establishment of a new enterprise within a cultural environment traditionally regarded as hostile towards this form of female endeavour. Our argument relates to the process of how social entrepreneurial endeavour can displace the strong bond of conventionality epitomised by a dominant discourse, driven by a bypassed shame reaction to the
College students, especially women, demonstrated negativity toward math and science relative to arts and language on implicit measures. Group membership (being female), group identity (self female), and gender stereotypes (math male) were related to attitudes and identification with mathematics. Stronger implicit math male stereotypes corresponded with more negative implicit and explicit math attitudes for women but more positive attitudes for
Brian A. Nosek; Mahzarin R. Banaji; Anthony G. Greenwald
Volleyball is one of the most popular sports in the world. It is the fourth most common source of sports injuries. The purpose of this study was to investigate characteristics of injury among Iranian elite female volleyball players. Seventy-four players from five teams which participated in 2006–2007 Iran female volleyball leagues were studied. The information related to injury were collected
Aazam Barani; Nader Rahnama; Effat Bambaeichi
The purpose of this research was to identify possible predisposing neuromuscular factors for knee injuries, particularly anterior cruciate ligament tears in female athletes by investigating anterior knee laxity, lower extremity muscle strength, endurance, muscle reaction time, and muscle recruitment order in response to anterior tibial translation. We recruited four subject groups: elite female (N = 40) and male (N =
Laura J. Huston; Edward M. Wojtys
A study examined the impact of the rural context upon the careers of women educational administrators in Saskatchewan. Surveys and interviews with 24 female rural administrators indicated that the behavior and career patterns of rural female administrators were influenced by the organizational context of the school and its community. A new…
Wallin, Dawn; Sackney, Larry
Fifty-nine client cases were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. For female clients, themes of "vulnerability" and "attention to how clients assert themselves" were more pronounced than for male clients. For male clients, themes of "being stuck" and "attention to how the client connects to others" were more pronounced than for female…
Vogel, David L.; Epting, Franz; Wester, Stephen R.
Introduction Female sex workers (FSWs) are at high risk of HIV infection. Our objective was to determine the proportion of HIV prevalence in the general female adult population that is attributable to the occupational exposure of female sex work, due to unprotected sexual intercourse. Methods Population attributable fractions of HIV prevalence due to female sex work were estimated for 2011. A systematic search was conducted to retrieve required input data from available sources. Data gaps of HIV prevalence in FSWs for 2011 were filled using multilevel modeling and multivariate linear regression. The fraction of HIV attributable to female sex work was estimated as the excess HIV burden in FSWs deducting the HIV burden in FSWs due to injecting drug use. Results An estimated fifteen percent of HIV in the general female adult population is attributable to (unsafe) female sex work. The region with the highest attributable fraction is Sub Saharan Africa, but the burden is also substantial for the Caribbean, Latin America and South and Southeast Asia. We estimate 106,000 deaths from HIV are a result of female sex work globally, 98,000 of which occur in Sub-Saharan Africa. If HIV prevalence in other population groups originating from sexual contact with FSWs had been considered, the overall attributable burden would probably be much larger. Discussion Female sex work is an important contributor to HIV transmission and the global HIV burden. Effective HIV prevention measures exist and have been successfully targeted at key populations in many settings. These must be scaled up. Conclusion FSWs suffer from high HIV burden and are a crucial core population for HIV transmission. Surveillance, prevention and treatment of HIV in FSWs should benefit both this often neglected vulnerable group and the general population.
Pruss-Ustun, Annette; Wolf, Jennyfer; Driscoll, Tim; Degenhardt, Louisa; Neira, Maria; Calleja, Jesus Maria Garcia
Male homosexual behaviour-although found in most extant clades across the Animal Kingdom-remains a conundrum, as same-sex mating should decrease male reproductive fitness. In most species, however, males that engage in same-sex sexual behaviour also mate with females, and in theory, same-sex mating could even increase male reproductive fitness if males improve their chances of future heterosexual mating. Females regularly use social information to choose a mate; e.g. male attractiveness increases after a male has interacted sexually with a female (mate choice copying). Here, we demonstrate that males of the tropical freshwater fish Poecilia mexicana increase their attractiveness to females not only by opposite-sex, but likewise, through same-sex interactions. Hence, direct benefits for males of exhibiting homosexual behaviour may help explain its occurrence and persistence in species in which females rely on mate choice copying as one component of mate quality assessment. PMID:23234866
Bierbach, David; Jung, Christian T; Hornung, Simon; Streit, Bruno; Plath, Martin
Male homosexual behaviour—although found in most extant clades across the Animal Kingdom—remains a conundrum, as same-sex mating should decrease male reproductive fitness. In most species, however, males that engage in same-sex sexual behaviour also mate with females, and in theory, same-sex mating could even increase male reproductive fitness if males improve their chances of future heterosexual mating. Females regularly use social information to choose a mate; e.g. male attractiveness increases after a male has interacted sexually with a female (mate choice copying). Here, we demonstrate that males of the tropical freshwater fish Poecilia mexicana increase their attractiveness to females not only by opposite-sex, but likewise, through same-sex interactions. Hence, direct benefits for males of exhibiting homosexual behaviour may help explain its occurrence and persistence in species in which females rely on mate choice copying as one component of mate quality assessment.
Bierbach, David; Jung, Christian T.; Hornung, Simon; Streit, Bruno; Plath, Martin
The suicidal behavior of African females is a rarely explored topic. The present study is a descriptive analysis of fatal and nonfatal female suicidal behavior in Ghana. Patterns of both fatal and nonfatal female suicidal behavior recorded by the Ghana Police Service during 2006-2008 are examined and described in depth. The data show that during the 3-yr. period, there were 11 fatal and 4 nonfatal suicidal acts by females, out of the total 243 fatal and 44 nonfatal suicidal acts found in the official data. The author describes the ages and occupations of the women and girls who engaged in fatal and nonfatal suicidal behavior, as well as the suicide method, location, circumstances, and police-assigned motives for the suicidal acts. The author concludes that additional research on female suicidal behavior in Africa and other non-Western societies is warranted to develop a more precise understanding of suicidality. PMID:22238863
Due to cultural and religious reasons, Pakistani women can be reluctant to seek medical attention for disorders affecting their genitals or breasts. As a result, in the case of cervical and breast cancers, oncological treatment is often not received until the diseases are in the late stages. Once a cancer is classified and the tumor marked, the role of the medical physicist begins. Medical physicists' responsibilities include treatment planning, supervising treatment through radiation, dosimetry, contouring, training, equipment selection, education, research, and supervising radiotherapy facilities. In brachytherapy, isotopes are placed at the tumor site in the form of wires or seeds. There are very few female medical physicists in Pakistan. This leads to further hesitation on the part of many women to seek treatment. To help female patients obtain needed medical care, female physics students should be encouraged to pursue the emerging field of medical physics. This would provide a new professional opportunity for female physics students and give comfort to female patients.
Naqvi, Syed Mansoor; Hasnain, Aziz Fatima
Behavioural ecologists view monogamy as a subtle mixture of conflict and cooperation between the sexes. In part, conflict and cooperation is cryptic, taking place within the female’s reproductive tract. In this paper the cryptic interaction for humans was analysed using data from both a nationwide survey and counts of sperm inseminated into, and ejected by, females. On average, 35% of
R. Robin Baker; Mark A. Bellis
The female athlete triad, defined by eating disorders, menstrual dysfunction, and osteoporosis, has been increasing among female athletes. The purpose of this study was to examine eating disorders, performance-related injuries, menstrual dysfunction, exercise time, calcium intake, and orientation to exercise among undergraduate female collegiate…
Thompson, Sharon H.; Gabriel, Melissa
Male and female college students wrote stories about Anne or John in success or failure situations. Analysis showed that fewer men than women anticipate negative results of female success. Positive consequences of academic achievement were more often seen by females. Evidence suggests a trend toward flexible sex roles for women. (Author/BEF)
Bustamante, Ana; Chang, Alice F.
The laboratory test described in the present paper assesses pesticide effects on the ‘most exposed’ life stage of the parasitic wasp Opius concolor, and it has been developed and interpreted according to the guidelines of the IOBC\\/WPRS Working Group ‘Pesticides and Beneficial Organisms ‘. The evaluation of results is based on longevity and parasitism of adult females exposed to afresh
J. A. Jacas; E. Viñuela
The left thoracic and brachial musculature of a young-adult female chimpanzee is described and illustrated with the accuracy of detail plus clarity made possible by the photo-etching process. Other data are depicted graphically by section drawings. Compar...
W. E. Edwards
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine Omani patterns of female nuptiality, including the timing of marriage and determinants of age at a woman’s first marriage. Methods: The study utilised data from the 2000 Oman National Health Survey. Univariate, bivariate, and multivariate statistical methods, including logistic regression analysis, were used for data analysis. Results: One of the most important aspects of the marriage pattern in Oman is the high prevalence of consanguineous marriages, as more than half (52%) of the total marriages in Oman are consanguineous. First cousin unions are the most common type of consanguineous unions, constituting 39% of all marriages and 75% of all consanguineous marriages. About 11% of the marriages are polygynous. Early and universal marriage is still highly prevalent in Oman. Three-quarters (75%) of married women respondents aged 20–44 years were married by age 20, with their median age at their first wedding being 16 years. However, women’s average age upon marriage is gradually increasing. The change is especially apparent in more recent marriages or among younger cohorts of women, and for certain socio-cultural groups. Multivariate analysis identified female education, age cohort, residential status, region of residence, types of marriage, and employment as strong predictors of Omani women’s age at marriage. Conclusion: The growing number of young adults, accompanied by their tendency to delay marriage, may have serious demographic, social, economic, and political ramifications for Oman, highlighting the need to understand the new situation of youth, their unique characteristics, and their interests and demands. Culturally appropriate policies need to be implemented to address the issues and challenges of unmarried young adults.
Islam, M. Mazharul; Dorvlo, Atsu S.; Al-Qasmi, Ahmed M.
This study examines foraging route choices and foraging site fidelity of 39 lactating adult northern fur seals ( Callorhinus ursinus) at six rookeries on the Pribilof Islands. Satellite transmitters were deployed on seals at St. Paul ( n=19) and St. George ( n=20) Islands during the 2004 breeding season. A total of 167 complete foraging trips were identified, with individuals making 2-8 consecutive trips each. Foraging trip directional bearing, total distance traveled, maximum distance traveled, trip duration, and relative search effort were used to make comparisons among islands, rookeries, and individuals. The amount of time individuals spent in each of five hydrographic domains (inner shelf, middle shelf, outer shelf, shelf break, and oceanic) were important factors in determining foraging strategies. These domains are related to the bathymetry of the continental shelf, have predictable temperature, salinity, and current structures, and were used to define foraging habitat differences within and among individuals and rookeries. Based on cluster analysis and model results, we distinguished three types of individual foraging route tactics. Identifying variability in foraging route choices at the rookery and individual level is important for understanding the ability of northern fur seals to adapt to changes in environmental conditions and prey distributions.
Call, Katherine A.; Ream, Rolf R.; Johnson, Devin; Sterling, Jeremy T.; Towell, Rodney G.
We prospectively followed an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of preadolescent girls with ADHD (n?=?140) and matched comparison girls (n?=?88) over a period of 10 years, from middle childhood through late adolescence/young adulthood. Our aim was to examine the ability of childhood measures of executive function (EF) to predict functional outcomes at follow-up. Measures of EF comprised the childhood predictors, with academic, socioemotional, occupational, and global functioning serving as young adult criterion measures. Results indicated that childhood EF - particularly measures of global EF and working memory - predicted academic and occupational functioning across our entire sample (independent of diagnostic group status), but diagnostic status (ADHD versus comparison) moderated the association between (a) working memory and reading achievement and (b) a global EF measure and suspensions/expulsions. That is, in the ADHD group, low working memory predicted poor reading scores and impaired global EF predicted higher suspensions/expulsions, but this was not the case in the comparison group. Overall, these results extend previous findings of associations between EF and adolescent outcomes in girls with and without ADHD into young adulthood. Findings continue to suggest the importance of assessing and developing interventions that target EF impairments early in life in order to prevent long-term difficulties across a range of important functional domains. PMID:22124540
Miller, Meghan; Nevado-Montenegro, Adriana J; Hinshaw, Stephen P
Objective. We assessed adolescent anthropometry, lipids, insulin, glucose, and blood pressures to identify factors associated with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and its tracking in young adults. Methods. Ten-year prospective study of 589 schoolgirls, 321 black, 268 white. Results. HsCRP did not differ (P > .08) by race or oral contraceptive use. HsCRP tracked from age 16 to 25 (r = 0.77), 16 to 26 (r = 0.50), 24 to 26 (r = 0.66), and 25 to 26 (r = 0.71), all P ? .02. By stepwise regression, at age 16, waist circumference accounted for 44.8% of hsCRP variance; BMI accounted for 33.1%, 34.4%, and 31.1% at ages 24, 25, and 26, P < .0001 for all. Changes in cholesterol and BMI were associated with change in hsCRP from age 24–26 (partial R2 = 12.3%??P < .0001, 6.6%??P = .0012). Changes in BMI and triglyceride (partial R2 = 8.5%??P = .0001, 3.3%, P = .0045) were associated with change in hsCRP from age 25 to 26. Conclusions. HsCRP tracks from age 16 to 26, with BMI, waist circumference, and cholesterol as major determinants.
Morrison, John A.; Glueck, Charles J.; Daniels, Stephen R.; Wang, Ping; Stroop, Davis M.; Horn, Paul S.
Although advanced parental age at one's birth has been associated with increased risk of breast and prostate cancers, few studies have examined its effect on adult-onset sporadic hematologic malignancies. The authors examined the association of parents' ages at women's births with risk of hematologic malignancies among 110,999 eligible women aged 22-84 years recruited into the prospective California Teachers Study. Between 1995 and 2007, 819 women without a family history of hematologic malignancies were diagnosed with incident lymphoma, leukemia (primarily acute myeloid leukemia), or multiple myeloma. Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models provided estimates of relative risks and 95% confidence intervals. Paternal age was positively associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma after adjustment for race and birth order (relative risk for age > or =40 vs. <25 years = 1.51, 95% confidence interval: 1.08, 2.13; P-trend = 0.01). Further adjustment for maternal age did not materially alter the association. By contrast, the elevated non-Hodgkin lymphoma risk associated with advanced maternal age (> or =40 years) became null when paternal age was included in the statistical model. No association was observed for acute myeloid leukemia or multiple myeloma. Advanced paternal age may play a role in non-Hodgkin lymphoma etiology. Potential etiologic mechanisms include de novo gene mutations, aberrant paternal gene imprinting, or telomere/telomerase biology. PMID:20507900
Lu, Yani; Ma, Huiyan; Sullivan-Halley, Jane; Henderson, Katherine D; Chang, Ellen T; Clarke, Christina A; Neuhausen, Susan L; West, Dee W; Bernstein, Leslie; Wang, Sophia S
This research tests the relative ability of body size factors and sex to explain variation in nose volume and to explain metabolic measures during rest and moderate exercise in 50 young adults. It uses standard anthropometric measures plus two new measures of nose morphology (nose/face angle and nose volume) and evaluates body composition with a device for air displacement plethysmography. Standard physiological measures were obtained in nose-only and mouth-only breathing conditions with subjects at rest and using moderate exercise. A factor representing linear and bulk measures of body size and a factor representing lean body mass explain subjects' variation in nose volume, resting volume of oxygen consumed (VO2), and resting ventilation volume (VV) better than subject's sex does. By contrast, during exercise, sex explains VO2 and VV better than do body size factors, probably because hormone-mediated muscularity in males produced greater work output. Nose breathing was found to be more energetically efficient in most but not all subjects, but additional research is needed to explore this finding further. Qualitative comparisons between modes of breathing and the application of this research protocol to studies of climate-related patterns of nasal variation are discussed. PMID:15849711
Hall, Roberta L
The costs of violence and aggression in our society have stimulated the scientific search for the predictors and causes of aggression. The majority of studies have focused on males, which are considered to be more aggressive than females in most species. However, rates of offensive behavior in girls and young women are considerable and are currently rising in Western society. The extrapolation of scientific results from males to young, non-maternal females is a priori limited, based on the profound sex differences in brain areas and functioning of neurotransmitters involved in aggression. Therefore, we established a paradigm to assess aggressive behavior in young virgin female rats, i.e. the female intruder test (FIT). We found that approximately 40% of un-manipulated adult (10-11 weeks old) female Wistar rats attack an intruder female during the FIT, independent of their estrous phase or that of their intruder. In addition, adolescent (7-8 weeks old) female rats selected for high anxiety behavior (HABs) displayed significantly more aggression than non-selected (NAB) or low-anxiety (LAB) rats. Intracerebroventricular infusion of oxytocin (OXT, 0.1 µg/5 µl) inhibited aggressive behavior in adult NAB and LAB, but not HAB females. Adolescent NAB rats that had been aggressive towards their intruder showed increased pERK immunoreactivity (IR) in the hypothalamic attack area and reduced pERK-IR in OXT neurons in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus compared to non-aggressive NAB rats. Taken together, aggressive behavior in young virgin female rats is partly dependent on trait anxiety, and appears to be under considerable OXT control. PMID:24614336
de Jong, Trynke R; Beiderbeck, Daniela I; Neumann, Inga D
Permanent female mimicry, in which adult males express a female phenotype, is known only from two bird species. A likely benefit of female mimicry is reduced intrasexual competition, allowing female-like males to access breeding resources while avoiding costly fights with typical territorial males. We tested this hypothesis in a population of marsh harriers Circus aeruginosus in which approximately 40 per cent of sexually mature males exhibit a permanent, i.e. lifelong, female plumage phenotype. Using simulated territorial intrusions, we measured aggressive responses of breeding males towards conspecific decoys of females, female-like males and typical males. We show that aggressive responses varied with both the type of decoys and the type of defending male. Typical males were aggressive towards typical male decoys more than they were towards female-like male decoys; female-like male decoys were attacked at a rate similar to that of female decoys. By contrast, female-like males tolerated male decoys (both typical and female-like) and directed their aggression towards female decoys. Thus, agonistic responses were intrasexual in typical males but intersexual in female-like males, indicating that the latter not only look like females but also behave like them when defending breeding resources. When intrasexual aggression is high, permanent female mimicry is arguably adaptive and could be seen as a permanent ‘non-aggression pact’ with other males.
Sternalski, Audrey; Mougeot, Francois; Bretagnolle, Vincent
In species of cooperative insects that live in large groups, selection for increased fecundity has led to the evolution of an increased body size among female reproductives, but whether this is also true of cooperative vertebrates is unknown. Among vertebrates, morphological modification of female breeders has only been documented in a single species; in naked mole rats (Heterocephalus glaber), acquisition of alpha status is associated with a significant increase in body size through an elongation of the lumbar vertebrae. Here we provide evidence of morphological modification among breeding females of a cooperative carnivore, the meerkat (Suricata suricatta), and demonstrate that this modification is likely to be adaptive. The same female meerkats were significantly larger when they were dominant than when they were subordinate. This increased body size was not explained by differences in age, foraging efficiency, or investment in offspring care, but may have arisen, in part, through increased levels of hormone that govern bone growth. Increases in body size are likely to result in fitness benefits, for large females delivered larger litters and had heavier offspring, both of which are known to correlate positively with measures of breeding success in meerkats. Our results suggest that the acquisition of alpha status in female meerkats is associated with an adaptive increase in body size and hence that morphological modification of female vertebrates may be more widespread than has been previously supposed. PMID:153