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1

Social dominance in adult female mountain goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The social behaviour of adult female mountain goats, Oreamnos americanus, was studied for 2 years in an unhunted population in west-central Alberta, Canada. Compared with other female ungulates, mountain goat females interacted aggressively much more frequently and their dominance ranks were less stable in time and less age-related. Goats were organized in a non-linear but non-random dominance hierarchy, with many

François Fournier; Marco Festa-Bianchet

1995-01-01

2

Ecdysteroid receptors in Drosophila melanogaster adult females  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ecdysteroid receptors were identified and partially characterized from total cell extracts of whole animals and dissected tissues from Drosophila melanogaster adult females. Binding studies indicated the presence of two ecdysteroid binding components having high affinity and specificity consistent w...

3

Standardization of Malaysian Adult Female Nasal Cavity  

PubMed Central

This research focuses on creating a standardized nasal cavity model of adult Malaysian females. The methodology implemented in this research is a new approach compared to other methods used by previous researchers. This study involves 26 females who represent the test subjects for this preliminary study. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis was carried out to better understand the characteristics of the standardized model and to compare it to the available standardized Caucasian model. This comparison includes cross-sectional areas for both half-models as well as velocity contours along the nasal cavities. The Malaysian female standardized model is larger in cross-sectional area compared to the standardized Caucasian model thus leading to lower average velocity magnitudes. The standardized model was further evaluated with four more Malaysian female test subjects based on its cross-sectional areas and average velocity magnitudes along the nasal cavities. This evaluation shows that the generated model represents an averaged and standardized model of adult Malaysian females. PMID:23840279

Abdullah, Mohd. Zulkifly; Ahmad, Kamarul Arifin; Lutfi Shuaib, Ibrahim

2013-01-01

4

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Social relationships among adult female baboons  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Social relationships among adult female baboons (papio cynocephalus) I. Variation Abstract Sociality has positive effects on female fitness in many mammalian species. Among female baboons of predictions derived from kin selection theory about the strength of social bonds among adult female baboons

Wilkinson, Gerald S.

5

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Social relationships among adult female baboons  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Social relationships among adult female baboons (Papio cynocephalus) II. Variation or stability of social bonds. Here, we draw on data derived from a 16-year study of baboons living in seven by association with closely related females. Sociality also enhances the reproductive success of female baboons

Wilkinson, Gerald S.

6

Nutrition for optimal predatory performance of adult female Orius insidiosus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Reproduction in a female predator, Orius insidiosus, is a nutritionally stringent process. Adult females acquire the nutrition needed for egg development from their prey, and rates of egg development are dependent on nutrients acquired in that life stage. When released as a biological control agen...

7

Adult Female Walruses on Ice Floe with Young  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Adult female walruses on ice floe with young.  Notice the radio tag borne on her her upper mid back.  This tag will monitor resting and foraging behavior and convey the information back to USGS scientists....

8

Separation-Individuation in Female Adult Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined separation-individuation development issues for young adult women, from the perspective of object-relations theory. Its purpose was to explore a woman's perception of her relationship with mother as it is affected by age and request for psychotherapy as well as the relationship between mother-daughter bond and personality…

Mullins, Deborah

9

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Transcriptome of the adult female malaria  

E-print Network

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Transcriptome of the adult female malaria mosquito vector Anopheles-Cerón9 , Salvador Hernández-Martínez1 and Mario H Rodríguez López1 Abstract Background: Human Malaria species from different branches of the mosquito evolutionary tree transmit malaria, suggesting

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

10

Radio Tagged Adult Female Walrus on Ice Floe  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Adult female walrus on ice floe photographed shortly after receiving a behavior monitoring satellite-linked radio tag from USGS researchers.  Data acquired from such radio-tags are providing insights on the distribution and behavior of Pacific walruses during a time when their summer sea ice h...

11

Patterns of coalition formation by adult female baboons in Amboseli, Kenya  

E-print Network

Patterns of coalition formation by adult female baboons in Amboseli, Kenya JOAN B. SILK*, SUSAN C in shaping the pattern of coalitionary activity among adult female savannah baboons, Papio cynocephalus, are thought to be functionally linked to the existence of alliances between females. Female savannah baboons

Alberts, Susan C

12

Neonatal injections of methoxychlor decrease adult rat female reproductive behavior.  

PubMed

Methoxychlor (MXC), a commonly used pesticide, has been labeled as an endocrine disruptor. To evaluate the impact of neonatal exposure to MXC on female reproduction, female Sprague-Dawley rats were given subcutaneous injections on postnatal days 1, 3, and 5. The injections contained 1.0mg MXC, 2.0mg MXC, 10 ?g 17?-estradiol benzoate (positive control), or sesame oil (vehicle). The injections of MXC had no effect on anogenital distance or day of vaginal opening. Treatment with either 2.0mg MXC or estradiol significantly increased the total number of days with vaginal keratinization. Treatment with MXC had no effect on ability to exhibit a mating response as an adult female, although the high dose MXC (2.0) and the positive control (estradiol) animals demonstrated a decrease in degree of receptivity, a decrease in proceptive behavior and an increase in rejection behavior. These data suggest that higher doses of MXC given directly to pups during the neonatal period can act as an estrogen and alter aspects of the nervous system, impacting adult reproductive characteristics. PMID:21726579

Bertolasio, Jennifer; Fyfe, Susanne; Snyder, Ben W; Davis, Aline M

2011-12-01

13

Parents' Marital Status, Father-Daughter Intimacy and Young Adult Females' Dating Relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

The affective relationships of young adult females and their fathers were investigated for effects on dating relationships, dating anxiety, and interpersonal trust. Ninety-six college females, 66 with married parents and 25 with divorced parents, completed questionnaires about father-daughter intimacy, dating satisfaction, dating anxiety, and; trust. It was hypothesized that females with divorced vs. married parents, and females scoring lower on

Kristen J. Clark; Korrel Kanoy

1998-01-01

14

Social relationships among adult female baboons ( papio cynocephalus ) I. Variation in the strength of social bonds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sociality has positive effects on female fitness in many mammalian species. Among female baboons, those who are most socially integrated reproduce most successfully. Here we test a number of predictions derived from kin selection theory about the strength of social bonds among adult female baboons. Our analyses are based on systematic observations of grooming and association patterns among 118 females

Joan B. Silk; Jeanne Altmann; Susan C. Alberts

2006-01-01

15

Female zebra finches require early song exposure to prefer high-quality song as adults  

E-print Network

Female zebra finches require early song exposure to prefer high-quality song as adults CHRISTINE adult female zebra finch, Taeniopygia guttata, song preferences. Females were reared in conditions on song learning has focused on highly sexually dimorphic species such as the zebra finch, Taeniopygia

Devoogd, Timothy John

16

Chronic vomiting and diarrhea in a young adult female  

PubMed Central

Patient: Female, 25 Final Diagnosis: Rumination syndrome Symptoms: Diarrhea • nausea • vomiting Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Psychology Objective: Rare disease Background: Rumination syndrome is a behavioral disorder that consists of an effortless regurgitation of undigested food that is subsequently either re-swallowed or ejected within minutes of meal ingestion occurring with liquids and solids. It was first described in children that are mentally disadvantaged but has gained more attention to also occur among both adolescents and adults of normal mental capacity. The prevalence has never accurately been assessed due to its rarity and frequent misdiagnosis. Case Report: A 25-year-old Caucasian female presented to our care with a chronic history of nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. She has vomited during the postprandial period for the last four years. She also has much as ten bouts of diarrhea per day. There is no definitive evidence of chronic laxative use or self-induced vomiting. Physical examination had no significant findings except a cachectic female patient with a BMI of 16 and hypotension. Patient was eventually discharged home with nutrition recommendations for nocturnal psychology follow up for relaxation behavioral techniques. Conclusions: Due to its elusiveness rumination syndrome is both underdiagnosed and a misdiagnosed condition. One of the reasons for a delayed diagnosis in patients with rumination syndrome is that many physicians are unaware of it, or are even reluctant to make this diagnosis as it could easily be confused with an eating disorder or with other gastrointestinal motility disorders. Because this syndrome may be left undiagnosed for months to years, patients often undergo many expensive and invasive procedures. PMID:24222814

Cooper, Chad J.; Said, Sarmad; Nunez, Angelica; Alkhateeb, Haider; McCallum, Richard W.

2013-01-01

17

Evidence of Uncultivated Bacteria in the Adult Female Bladder  

PubMed Central

Clinical urine specimens are usually considered to be sterile when they do not yield uropathogens using standard clinical cultivation procedures. Our aim was to test if the adult female bladder might contain bacteria that are not identified by these routine procedures. An additional aim was to identify and recommend the appropriate urine collection method for the study of bacterial communities in the female bladder. Consenting participants who were free of known urinary tract infection provided urine samples by voided, transurethral, and/or suprapubic collection methods. The presence of bacteria in these samples was assessed by bacterial culture, light microscopy, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Bacteria that are not or cannot be routinely cultivated (hereinafter called uncultivated bacteria) were common in voided urine, urine collected by transurethral catheter (TUC), and urine collected by suprapubic aspirate (SPA), regardless of whether the subjects had urinary symptoms. Voided urine samples contained mixtures of urinary and genital tract bacteria. Communities identified in parallel urine samples collected by TUC and SPA were similar. Uncultivated bacteria are clearly present in the bladders of some women. It remains unclear if these bacteria are viable and/or if their presence is relevant to idiopathic urinary tract conditions. PMID:22278835

Wolfe, Alan J.; Toh, Evelyn; Shibata, Noriko; Rong, Ruichen; Kenton, Kimberly; FitzGerald, MaryPat; Mueller, Elizabeth R.; Schreckenberger, Paul; Dong, Qunfeng; Nelson, David E.

2012-01-01

18

Examining Representations of Young Adult Female Protagonists through Critical Race Feminism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyses the ways in which the professional literature—by scholars, educators and reviewers—represents young adult female protagonists and approaches sexism. Drawing on critical race feminist theory, the author finds that recommended young adult female protagonists are still overwhelmingly white, middle?class and heterosexual. Despite descriptors such as ‘strong’, ‘gutsy’, ‘feisty’ and ‘independent’, the young adult female protagonists that are recommended

2007-01-01

19

SEASONAL MOVEMENTS OF ADULT FEMALE POLAR BEARS IN THE BERING AND CHUKCHI SEAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten adult female polar bears (Ursus maritimus) were fitted with satellite telemetry collars during March 1986 in the Kotzebue Sound area of the Chukchi Sea. During March-April 1987, 2 of these bears were refitted with satellite telemetry collars and an additional 10 adult females were collared in the northern Bering and eastern Chukchi seas. Data for 1,560 point locations recorded

GERALD W. GARNER; STEVEN T. KNICK; DAVID C. DOUGLAS

20

The Child's Expectations of Differences in Adult Male and Female Interactions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two-year-olds and four-year-olds were placed with male and female adults in a play situation where the children were forced to control the choice of toys and mode of interaction. The four-year-olds elicited different types of play behaviors from male and female adults; the younger children did not. (Author/KH)

Fagot, Beverly I.

1984-01-01

21

A Comparison of the Psychosocial Maladjustment of Adult Males and Females Sexually Molested as Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long-term sequelae of child sexual abuse were investigated through comparison of matched numbers of nonclinical samples of adult males (n = 24) and females (n = 28) molested as children, and control group subjects on a variety of outcome measures. Results support the association between childhood sexual abuse and adult psychosocial dysfunction for both male and female victims, with

JOHN A. HUNTER

1991-01-01

22

Distribution of kisspeptin neurones in the adult female mouse brain.  

PubMed

Kisspeptin-GPR54 signalling is essential for normal reproductive functioning. However, the distribution of kisspeptin neuronal cell bodies and their projections is not well established. The present study aimed to provide a detailed account of kisspeptin neuroanatomy in the mouse brain. Using a polyclonal rabbit antibody AC566, directed towards the final ten C-terminal amino acids of murine kisspeptin, three populations of kisspeptin-expressing cell bodies were identified in the adult female mouse brain. One exists as a dense periventricular continuum of cells within the rostral part of the third ventricle, another is found within the arcuate nucleus, and another is identified as a low-density group of scattered cells within the dorsomedial nucleus and posterior hypothalamus. Kisspeptin-immunoreactive fibres were abundant within the ventral aspect of the lateral septum and within the hypothalamus running in periventricular and ventral retrochiasmatic pathways. Notable exclusions from the kisspeptin fibre innervation were the suprachiasmatic and ventromedial nuclei. Outside of the hypothalamus, a small number of kisspeptin fibres were identified in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, subfornical organ, medial amygdala, paraventricular thalamus, periaqueductal grey and locus coerulus. All kisspeptin cell body and fibre immunoreactivity was absent in brain tissue from Kiss1 knockout mice. These observations provide a map of kisspeptin neurones in the mouse brain and indicate that a limited number of mostly medial hypothalamic and lateral septal brain regions are innervated by the three hypothalamic kisspeptin cell populations; the functions of these projections remain to be established. PMID:19515163

Clarkson, J; d'Anglemont de Tassigny, X; Colledge, W H; Caraty, A; Herbison, A E

2009-08-01

23

Genomic imprinting absent in Drosophila melanogaster adult females.  

PubMed

Genomic imprinting occurs when expression of an allele differs based on the sex of the parent that transmitted the allele. In D. melanogaster, imprinting can occur, but its impact on allelic expression genome-wide is unclear. Here, we search for imprinted genes in D. melanogaster using RNA-seq to compare allele-specific expression between pools of 7- to 10-day-old adult female progeny from reciprocal crosses. We identified 119 genes with allelic expression consistent with imprinting, and these genes showed significant clustering within the genome. Surprisingly, additional analysis of several of these genes showed that either genomic heterogeneity or high levels of intrinsic noise caused imprinting-like allelic expression. Consequently, our data provide no convincing evidence of imprinting for D. melanogaster genes in their native genomic context. Elucidating sources of false-positive signals for imprinting in allele-specific RNA-seq data, as done here, is critical given the growing popularity of this method for identifying imprinted genes. PMID:22840398

Coolon, Joseph D; Stevenson, Kraig R; McManus, C Joel; Graveley, Brenton R; Wittkopp, Patricia J

2012-07-26

24

Mate Choice in Adult Female Bengalese Finches: Females Express Consistent Preferences for Individual Males and Prefer Female-Directed Song Performances  

PubMed Central

In the process of mate selection by female songbirds, male suitors advertise their quality through reproductive displays in which song plays an important role. Females evaluate the quality of each signal and the associated male, and the results of that evaluation guide expression of selective courtship displays. Some studies reveal broad agreement among females in their preferences for specific signal characteristics, indicating that those features are especially salient in female mate choice. Other studies reveal that females differ in their preference for specific characteristics, indicating that in those cases female evaluation of signal quality is influenced by factors other than simply the physical properties of the signal. Thus, both the physical properties of male signals and specific traits of female signal evaluation can impact female mate choice. Here, we characterized the mate preferences of female Bengalese finches. We found that calls and copulation solicitation displays are equally reliable indicators of female preference. In response to songs from an array of males, each female expressed an individual-specific song preference, and those preferences were consistent across tests spanning many months. Across a population of females, songs of some males were more commonly preferred than others, and females preferred female-directed songs more than undirected songs, suggesting that some song features are broadly attractive. Preferences were indistinguishable for females that did or did not have social experience with the singers, indicating that female preference is strongly directed by song features rather than experiences associated with the singer. Analysis of song properties revealed several candidate parameters that may influence female evaluation. In an initial investigation of those parameters, females could be very selective for one song feature yet not selective for another. Therefore, multiple song parameters are evaluated independently. Together these findings reveal the nature of signal evaluation and mate choice in this species. PMID:24558501

Dunning, Jeffery L.; Pant, Santosh; Bass, Aaron; Coburn, Zachary; Prather, Jonathan F.

2014-01-01

25

Chronic Granulomatous Disease in an Adult Female with Granulomatous Cheilitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe in this paper a female patient affected by chronic granulomatous disease with all the features of the classic X-linked form of the disease and presenting a mild form of the disease, the major clinical manifestation being a granulomatous cheilitis. The capability of the patient’s phagocytes to undergo a respiratory burst in response to different stimuli was markedly depressed

Stefano Dusi; Giovanni Poli; Giorgio Berton; Paola Catalano; Cleto Veller Fornas; Andrea Peserico

1990-01-01

26

Stature estimation from craniofacial anthropometry in Bangladeshi Garo adult females.  

PubMed

Estimation of stature is an important tool in forensic examination especially in unknown, highly decomposed, fragmentary and mutilated human remains. When the evidences are skeletal remains; forensic anthropology has put forward means to estimate the stature from the skeletal and even from fragmentary bones. Sometimes, craniofacial remains are brought in for forensic and postmortem examination. In such a situation, estimation of stature becomes equally important along with other parameters like age, sex, race, etc. Today, anthropometry plays an important role in industrial design, clothing design, ergonomics and architecture where statistical data about the distribution of body dimensions in the population are used to optimize products. It is well established that a single standard of craniofacial aesthetics is not appropriate for application to diverse racial and ethnic groups. Bangladesh is a country not only for the Bengalis; the country harbours many cultures and people of different races because of the colonial rules of the past regimes. Like other ethnic groups, the Garos (study subjects) have their own set of language, social structure, cultures and economic activities and religious values. In the above context, the present study was attempted to establish ethnic specific anthropometric data for the Bangladeshi Garo adult females. The study also attempted to find out the correlation of the craniofacial dimensions with stature and to determine multiplication factors. The study was an observational, cross-sectional and primarily descriptive in nature with some analytical components. The study was carried out with a total number of one hundred Garo adult females, aged between 25-45 years. Craniofacial dimension such as head circumference, head length, facial height from 'nasion' to 'gnathion', bizygomatic breadth and stature were measured using a measuring tape, spreading caliper, steel plate and steel tape and sliding caliper. The data were then statistically analyzed by computation to find out its normatic value. Study was also aimed to observe the possible correlation of them with the stature. Multiplication factors were estimated for estimating stature and comparison were made between 'estimated' values with the 'measured' values by using 't' test. The mean±SD of the head length, head circumference, facial height from 'nasion' to 'gnathion', bizygomatic breadth were 17.49±0.58cm, 51.56±1.49cm, 10.65±0.40cm, 13.47±0.52cm respectively and The mean±SD of the stature was 152.79±5.62cm. Head circumference showed significant positive correlation with stature (r=0.278 and p= 0.005) but head length (r= -0.029 and p=0.774), bizygomatic breadth (r= 0.143 & p=0.156) and facial height from 'nasion' to 'gnathion' (r=00.023 and p=0.818) did not reach statistically significant level with stature. No significant difference was found between the 'measured' and 'estimated' stature for head circumference, head length, bizygomatic breadth and facial height from 'nasion' to 'gnathion'. PMID:22828547

Akhter, Z; Banu, L A; Alam, M M; Rahman, M F

2012-07-01

27

Oestradiol modulation of cognition in adult female marmosets (Callithrix jacchus).  

PubMed

The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) provides many advantages over traditional rodent and macaque species as a model for human ageing and may be very useful for studying the effects of sex steroids on cognitive and brain ageing. We present the first study examining the effects of oestrogens on cognitive function in female marmosets. Adult monkeys (3-5 years of age) were trained to a specific learning criterion on a battery of cognitive tasks preoperatively (object discrimination, delayed response with increasing delays and detour reaching with opaque box) and were tested on different versions of these tasks (object reversals, delayed response with randomised delays and detour reaching with clear box) after ovariectomy and simultaneous implantation with 17?-oestradiol (E2 ) (n = 6) or blank (n = 6) Silastic capsules. Acquisition of a delayed matching-to-position task with a 1-s delay was also administered after completion of these tests. E2 -treated monkeys were significantly impaired on the second reversal and showed an increase in perseverative responding from reversals 1-3. Their performance also tended to be worse than that of control monkeys on the delayed response task. Performance acquisition on the delayed matching-to-position tended to be better in E2 -treated relative to control monkeys, although the group difference did not reach statistical significance. No effect of treatment was detected for detour reaching or affiliative behaviours. Overall, the findings indicate that E2 compromises performance on prefrontally-mediated tasks. The suggestion that E2 may improve acquisition on tasks dependent on the hippocampus will require further validation. These results are discussed in the context of dopaminergic and serotonergic signalling. We conclude that the marmoset is a useful new primate model for examining the effects of oestrogens on cognitive function. PMID:24617856

Lacreuse, A; Chang, J; Metevier, C M; LaClair, M; Meyer, J S; Ferris, C M

2014-05-01

28

Female Infertility  

MedlinePLUS

Infertility is a term doctors use if a woman hasn't been able to get pregnant after ... woman keeps having miscarriages, it is also called infertility. Female infertility can result from physical problems, hormone ...

29

Adult Female and Male Zebra Finches Show Distinct Patterns of Spine Deficits  

E-print Network

Adult Female and Male Zebra Finches Show Distinct Patterns of Spine Deficits in an Auditory Area learning are unknown. We raised male and female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) with differing amounts will never produce a complex song if this does not occur. For example, zebra finch (Taeniopy- gia guttata

Devoogd, Timothy John

30

A Comparison of the Abuse Experiences of Male and Female Adults Molested as Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To determine whether the molestation experiences of boys and girls differ, this study analyzed data from 365 adults (40 male and 325 female) molested as children, and compared findings for males and females on the identity of the perpetrator, age at onset and end of molestation, duration of molestation, type of sexual acts, and whether the…

Kendall-Tackett, Kathleen A.; Simon, Arthur F.

31

Maternal kin bias in affiliative behavior among wild adult female blue monkeys.  

PubMed

Kin-biased cooperative and affiliative behavior is widespread in social mammals and is expected to increase fitness. However, despite evolutionary benefits of cooperating with relatives, demographic circumstances may influence the strength of kin bias. We studied the relationship between maternal kinship and affiliative behavior among 78 wild adult female blue monkeys (Cercopithecus mitis) from 8 groups monitored for 1-5 years. We compared behavior and kinship matrices, controlling for rank differences. Using multivariate models, we examined effects of demographic variables on the extent to which females groomed disproportionately with close adult female kin. Female blue monkeys, like other cercopithecine primates, generally preferred closer maternal kin for grooming and spatial association, although there was also substantial variation. Kin bias was weakest for association (at 7 m) while feeding, intermediate for closer (1 m) association while resting, and most intense for grooming. Grooming kin bias was stronger when a female had more very close relatives (either her mother or daughters), when her group contained more adult females, when she groomed with a lower percentage of group-mates, and when she had fewer total kin. Dominance rank did not predict variation in kin bias. Females generally groomed with all kin, but in larger groups they increased the number of unrelated grooming partners and total grooming time. The increased kin bias intensity in larger groups resulted from the addition of unrelated partners with whom grooming occurred less often than with kin, rather than from time constraints that drove females to select kin more strongly. In natural-sized groups, it may be common that females groom with all their adult female kin, which are present in limited numbers. The addition of grooming partners in larger groups may benefit female blue monkeys who rely on collective action in territorial defense; group-wide cooperation may thus influence grooming decisions in this species. PMID:25219933

Cords, Marina; Nikitopoulos, Eleni

2015-01-01

32

Nasal cycle dominance and hallucinations in an adult schizophrenic female.  

PubMed

Nasal dominance, at the onset of hallucinations, was studied as a marker of both the lateralized ultradian rhythm of the autonomic nervous system and the tightly coupled ultradian rhythm of alternating cerebral hemispheric dominance in a single case study of a schizophrenic female. Over 1086 days, 145 hallucination episodes occurred with left nostril dominance significantly greater than the right nostril dominant phase of the nasal cycle. A right nostril breathing exercise, that primarily stimulates the left hemisphere, reduces symptoms more quickly for hallucinations. PMID:25660663

Shannahoff-Khalsa, David; Golshan, Shahrokh

2015-03-30

33

Balancing Act: A Phenomenological Study of Female Adult Learners Who Successfully Persisted in Graduate Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted utilizing Cross' (1981) barriers to adult learning as a framework to better understand how adults successfully complete their graduate studies. Participants in the study were solicited via Facebook and LinkedIn. Three female adult learners who persisted in their graduate studies while balancing demands outside academics…

Shepherd, Jeff; Nelson, Barbara Mullins

2012-01-01

34

Motivation of adult female patients seeking orthodontic treatment: an application of Q-methodology  

PubMed Central

Background Motivation is the impetus for patients to seek orthodontic treatment, affecting adherence, treatment outcomes, and satisfaction. The aim of this study was to assess the motivation of adult female patients seeking orthodontic treatment, and classify the patients according to their motivations. Methods This study used Q-methodology as the main tool. Q-samples were collected and categorized (35 items). Forty-two adult female patients were interviewed before treatment as the P-sample, and their responses were categorized into the Q-methodology grid. Participants were asked to rank-order a set of 35 statements (Q-sample) from “agree most” to “disagree most” (Q-sorting). The finished Q-grids were analyzed using PQ method 2.35. Results Four main factors were identified based on how adult female patients ranked statements: factor 1, patients who focus on their self-perception of their appearance; factor 2, patients who are concerned about the esthetics and function of their teeth; factor 3, patients who are easily influenced by others; factor 4, patients who want to improve their confidence and avoid negative thoughts caused by their teeth. The remaining patients who had other views did not match any of the above four groups. Conclusion The motivations of adult female patients seeking orthodontic treatment are complex. This study found that most adult female patients fell into one of four typical factor groups. Our findings may improve the adherence of adult female patients by developing a more ideal treatment program. PMID:25709410

Tang, Xia; Cai, Jiaxin; Lin, Beibei; Yao, Linjie; Lin, Feiou

2015-01-01

35

Estrogen receptor 1 modulates circadian rhythms in adult female mice.  

PubMed

Estradiol influences the level and distribution of daily activity, the duration of the free-running period, and the behavioral phase response to light pulses. However, the mechanisms by which estradiol regulates daily and circadian rhythms are not fully understood. We tested the hypothesis that estrogens modulate daily activity patterns via both classical and "non-classical" actions at the estrogen receptor subtype 1 (ESR1). We used female transgenic mice with mutations in their estrogen response pathways; ESR1 knock-out (ERKO) mice and "non-classical" estrogen receptor knock-in (NERKI) mice. NERKI mice have an ESR1 receptor with a mutation in the estrogen-response-element binding domain, allowing only actions via "non-classical" genomic and second messenger pathways. Ovariectomized female NERKI, ERKO, and wildtype (WT) mice were given a subcutaneous capsule with low- or high-dose estradiol and compared with counterparts with no hormone replacement. We measured wheel-running activity in a light:dark cycle and constant darkness, and the behavioral phase response to light pulses given at different points during the subjective day and night. Estradiol increased average daily wheel-running, consolidated activity to the dark phase, and shortened the endogenous period in WT, but not NERKI and ERKO mice. The timing of activity onset during entrainment was advanced in all estradiol-treated animals regardless of genotype suggesting an ESR1-independent mechanism. We propose that estradiol modifies period, activity level, and distribution of activity via classical actions of ESR1 whereas an ESR1 independent mechanism regulates the phase of rhythms. PMID:24527952

Blattner, Margaret S; Mahoney, Megan M

2014-06-01

36

Female competition in chimpanzees  

PubMed Central

Female chimpanzees exhibit exceptionally slow rates of reproduction and raise their offspring without direct paternal care. Therefore, their reproductive success depends critically on long-term access to high-quality food resources over a long lifespan. Chimpanzee communities contain multiple adult males, multiple adult females and their offspring. Because males are philopatric and jointly defend the community range while most females transfer to new communities before breeding, adult females are typically surrounded by unrelated competitors. Communities are fission–fusion societies in which individuals spend time alone or in fluid subgroups, whose size depends mostly on the abundance and distribution of food. To varying extents in different populations, females avoid direct competition by foraging alone or in small groups in distinct, but overlapping core areas within the community range to which they show high fidelity. Although rates of aggression are low, females compete for space and access to food. High rank correlates with high reproductive success, and high-ranking females win direct contests for food and gain preferential access to resource-rich sites. Females are aggressive to immigrant females and even kill the newborn infants of community members. The intensity of such aggression correlates with population density. These patterns are compared to those in other species, including humans. PMID:24167307

Pusey, Anne E.; Schroepfer-Walker, Kara

2013-01-01

37

Nutritional manipulation of adult female Orius pumilio (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) enhances initial predatory performance.  

PubMed

Commercial shipments of Orius spp. (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) commonly include water and protein, the latter typically supplied by eggs from a moth such as Ephestia kuehniella (Zeller). To determine whether modified dietary conditions might improve predation, newly eclosed adult female Orius pumilio (Champion) were fed on E. kuehniella eggs plus encapsulated water, encapsulated 5% sucrose solution only, or encapsulated water only for periods of 24, 48, or 72 h. Feeding activity was assessed by measuring the area of a crop in digital images of dissected digestive tracts. Adult females fed continuously on eggs had larger crops than did females fed on encapsulated sucrose solution. When females were prefed encapsulated water or sucrose and then fed 3 h on eggs, their crops became highly engorged and were larger than those in females fed continuously on eggs for the same periods. In behavioral choice tests, adult females prefed on encapsulated water or 5% sucrose solution spent a larger portion of time in contact with eggs, presumably feeding, whereas females prefed on eggs showed no preference between eggs or encapsulated water. After overnight shipping, females prefed on water or sucrose and held for 48 h total consumed 3.6- and 4.3-fold, respectively, more western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), in 3 h than those prefed on eggs. Survival rates when prefed on sugar or water were comparable with prefeeding on eggs. Thus, inundative releases of Orius can be enhanced by starvation, because females initially feed much more voraciously after shipment with no apparent reduction in fitness. PMID:19449628

Shapiro, Jeffrey P; Reitz, Stuart R; Shirk, Paul D

2009-04-01

38

A possible physiological role of taurine in the adult female rat liver  

E-print Network

A possible physiological role of taurine in the adult female rat liver Y. PIERRE, Fernande. In agreement with previous results (Awapara, 1956), we noted that the tau- rine level in the liver of the adult as a concentration (ymoles/g of liver). Furthermore, we observ- ed a significant decrease of the taurine level

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

39

Second-Language Acquisition, Culture Shock, and Language Stress of Adult Female Latina Students in New York  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the educational, cultural, and linguistic adjustments and experiences encountered by Hispanic adult females in learning English as a second language (ESL) and the relation of these experiences to the variables of language, culture, and education of adult Hispanic females. Adult ESL learners face problems of controlling linguistic rules and of

Lucia Buttaro

2004-01-01

40

Age-related differences in social grooming among adult female Japanese monkeys ( Macaca fuscata )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated the influence of dominance rank in combination with kinship on age-related differences in social\\u000a grooming among adult females in a free-ranging group of Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata). Eighty-three adult females were divided into six sub-groups according to age-class (younger: 5–9 years old; middle: 10–14 years\\u000a old; older: 15–22 years old) and dominance rank (high and low rank). The ratio

Masayuki Nakamichi

2003-01-01

41

In vivo effect of Neuropeptide F on ecdysteroidogenesis in adult female desert locusts (Schistocerca gregaria).  

PubMed

Neuropeptides are important regulatory factors that mediate key life processes, both in vertebrates and invertebrates. Many insect neuropeptides display pleiotropic activities, which means that they can influence multiple aspects of insect physiology. In the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, Neuropeptide F (NPF) mediates diverse physiological processes, such as learning, stress responses, feeding and male courtship behavior. In locusts, only a truncated form of the predicted "full-length" NPF, the nonapeptide "trNPF", has been isolated. This nonapeptide previously proved to be biologically active, since it was shown to influence food intake and weight increase, as well as oocyte growth in adult female desert locusts (Schistocerca gregaria [Forskål]). In the present study, we have further analyzed the effect of trNPF on female reproductive physiology in S. gregaria. We confirmed that daily trNPF injections in adult females elicit an increase of oocyte size. In addition, an RNAi-mediated knockdown of the Schgr-NPF precursor transcript in adult female locusts resulted in the opposite effect, i.e. significantly smaller oocytes. Moreover, we discovered that daily injections of trNPF in adult female S. gregaria, caused higher ecdysteroid titers in the ovaries and accelerated the appearance of ecdysteroid peaks in the hemolymph of these animals. The RNAi-based knockdown of the Schgr-NPF precursor transcript clearly resulted in reduction of both hemolymph and ovarian ecdysteroid concentrations, confirming the stimulatory effects of trNPF injections on adult female ecdysteroid levels. The observed results are discussed in relation to previous reports on NPF activities in locusts and other insects. PMID:23524065

Van Wielendaele, Pieter; Wynant, Niels; Dillen, Senne; Badisco, Liesbeth; Marchal, Elisabeth; Vanden Broeck, Jozef

2013-06-01

42

Female condoms.  

PubMed

Early versions of a female condom were available in the 1920s and 1960s, but they were little used and soon forgotten. It took the arrival of AIDS, and the urgent need for a wider range of female-controlled barrier techniques, to rekindle scientific interest in this method. In the 1980s, three groups in Europe and the USA began development of new female condom designs, comprising 'Femidom (Reality)', the 'Bikini Condom', and 'Women's Choice'. Apart from differences in their physical design, Femidom differs from the others in that it is made of a polyurethane membrane, which has several advantages over latex. Of the three, Femidom is the most advanced in terms of development and clinical testing, and it is the only one to have reached the marketing stage. Laboratory studies and clinical trials suggest that its contraceptive efficacy is similar to that documented for the male condom, though a direct comparison is not possible because no comparative clinical trials have, as yet, been undertaken. Reported 'typical-use' pregnancy rates range from 12.4 to 22.2% at 6 months of use in the USA and Latin America, respectively, while a study in the UK observed a rate of 15% at 12 months. As with all barrier methods, most failures appear to be associated with poor compliance or incorrect use. 'Perfect-use' pregnancy rates were substantially lower, indicating that Femidom can be very effective, if used consistently and correctly. Evidence for Femidom's effectiveness to protect against transmission of sexual disease-causing organisms, including HIV, is still very limited and based largely on laboratory studies. Whilst, in theory, the condom should confer reliable protection, its efficacy in clinical use will depend upon correct and consistent use and upon the product's ability to maintain an effective physical barrier throughout penetrative intercourse. In this respect, the results of recent and ongoing clinical studies are expected with much interest. How valuable Femidom will prove to be, in terms of sexual health and contraception, will also depend largely on its long-term user-acceptability. As is generally the case with new methods, initial public interest in Femidom is expected to be high, as was documented in numerous surveys, and there undoubtedly exists a sub-group of women who view the product as their most appropriate contraceptive/sexually transmitted disease prevention option. However, more information on the product's acceptability, based on continuation rates, as is usually applied to other contraceptive techniques, is urgently needed to permit a more reliable assessment of Femidom's position among current methods. The arrival of a female condom represents a welcome addition to the range of female-controlled barrier contraceptives and, because of its numerous potential advantages over the male condom, may play an important role in the prevention of unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. PMID:9678099

Bounds, W

1997-06-01

43

Comparative Efficacy and Tolerability of Dapsone 5% Gel in Adult Versus Adolescent Females with Acne Vulgaris  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine whether the response to dapsone 5% gel was similar in adolescent girls and adult women with facial acne vulgaris. Design and setting: Subgroup analysis of female subjects with acne vulgaris receiving active treatment enrolled in two randomized, double-blind Phase 3 clinical trials. Treatment: Twice-daily applications of dapsone 5% gel over 12 weeks. Participants: Adolescent (12-17 years of age) and adult (?18 years of age) females. Measurements: At baseline and at Weeks 2,4,6,8, and 12, subjects were evaluated using the global acne assessment score and by counts of inflammatory, noninflammatory, and total acne vulgaris lesions. Adverse events were monitored. Results: A total of 347 adolescent and 434 adult women were included in the subgroup analysis. At Week 12, dapsone 5% gel significantly reduced mean global acne assessment score in both subgroups (p<0.001); however, the proportion of subjects with clinical success (no or minimal acne based on global acne assessment score) at Week 12 was greater in adult women (53.5%) versus adolescent females (45.3%, p=0.022). Significantly greater percentage reductions in both noninflammatory (p<0.0001) and total lesion counts (p=0.0008) were observed in the adult group as compared to the adolescent group. Percentage reductions from baseline in inflammatory lesions were similar in both groups. No major safety issues and no previously unrecognized safety signals were noted. Conclusion: This subgroup analysis of female patients indicates that dapsone 5% gel twice daily is effective in reducing inflammatory and noninflammatory acne vulgaris lesions in both adolescent and adult women, and is safe in these subgroups. Overall, these data suggest that efficacy of dapsone 5% gel twice daily for facial acne vulgaris may be greater in the adult female population. PMID:25610522

Kircik, Leon; Gallagher, Conor J.

2015-01-01

44

Disability, compensatory behavior, and innovation in free-ranging adult female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata).  

PubMed

Little is known about consequences of disability in nonhuman primates, yet individuals with disabilities can reveal much about behavioral flexibility, innovation, and the capabilities of a species. The Macaca fuscata population surrounding the Awajishima Monkey Center has experienced high rates of congenital limb malformation for at least 40 years, creating a unique opportunity to examine consequences of physical impairment in situ, in a relatively large sample of free-ranging adult monkeys. Here we present behavioral data on 11 disabled adult females and 12 nondisabled controls from 279 hours of randomly ordered 30-minute focal animal follows collected during May-August in 2005, 2006, and 2007. We quantified numerous statistically significant disability-related behavioral differences among females. Disabled females spent less time begging for peanuts from tourists, and employed a behavioral variant of such peanut begging; they had a lower frequency of hand use in grooming and compensated with increased direct use of the mouth or a two-arm pinch technique; and they had a higher frequency of self-scratching, and more use of feet in self-scratching. Self-scratching against substrates was almost exclusively a disability associated behavior. Two females used habitual bipedalism. These differences not withstanding, disabled females behaved similarly to controls in many respects: overall reliance on provisioned and wild foods, time spent feeding, and feeding efficiency did not differ among females, and there was no time difference in behavior performed arboreally or terrestrially. Disabled adult females were able to compensate behaviorally to perform social and life-sustaining activities, modifying existing behaviors to suit their individual physical situations and, occasionally, inventing new ways of doing things. PMID:22549480

Turner, Sarah E; Fedigan, Linda M; Matthews, H Damon; Nakamichi, Masayuki

2012-09-01

45

Heightened cocaine-induced locomotor activity in adolescent compared to adult female rats  

PubMed Central

Initiation and experimentation with illicit drugs often occurs in adolescence. Evidence suggests that adolescent rats are more sensitive to some of the effects of drugs of abuse than adult rats. The present study investigated whether adolescent and adult female Sprague Dawley rats differ in cocaine-induced locomotor activity. Animals were placed in the test environment for 30 minutes, and then administered an intraperitoneal (IP) injection of either cocaine (20 mg/kg) or saline (0.9%). Both adult and adolescent animals showed significant increases in locomotor activity as a result of cocaine administration compared to saline controls. Interestingly, cocaine induced significantly more locomotor activity in the adolescent females compared to the adults, demonstrating that cocaine acts differently in developing animals. PMID:16166180

Catlow, Briony J.; Kirstein, Cheryl L.

2007-01-01

46

An insight into the salivary transcriptome and proteome of the adult female mosquito Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

To obtain an insight into the salivary transcriptome and proteome (sialome) of the adult female mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus, a cDNA library was randomly sequenced, and aminoterminal information for selected proteins and peptides was obtained. cDNA sequence clusters coding for secreted proteins were further analyzed. The transcriptome revealed messages coding for several proteins of known families previously reported in the salivary

José M. C. Ribeiro; Rosane Charlab; Van My Pham; Mark Garfield; Jesus G. Valenzuela

2004-01-01

47

Are Males and Females Sexually Abused As Children Socially Anxious Adults?  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well documented that childhood sexual abuse is associated with deleterious outcomes in the areas of anxiety, depression, and sexual functioning. However, very little research has been conducted to specifically investigate childhood sexual abuse's relationship to adult social anxiety in both males and females. Participants included 250 undergraduate students from a large metropolitan university. Results indicated that almost one-third

Ariz Rojas; Bill N. Kinder

2009-01-01

48

Adult Female and Male Siblings of Persons with Disabilities: Findings from a National Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the authors used a national, Web-based survey to examine female and male siblings of individuals with disabilities. More than 1,160 adult siblings completed a 163-question survey about themselves, their siblings, and their sibling relationships. Most respondents reported fairly close contact with their siblings and positive sibling…

Hodapp, Robert M.; Urbano, Richard C.; Burke, Meghan M.

2010-01-01

49

New Insights into the Comorbidity between ADHD and Major Depression in Adolescent and Young Adult Females  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and major depression (MD) in adolescent and young adult females is evaluated. Findings indicate that MD emerging in the context of ADHD is an impairing and severe comorbidity that needs to be considered further clinically and scientifically.

Biederman, Joseph; Ball, Sarah W.; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Mick, Eric; Spencer, Thomas J.; McCreary, Michelle; Cote, Michelle; Faraone, Stephen V.

2008-01-01

50

Balancing Work, Family, and Student Roles: A Phenomenological Study of the Adult Female Graduate Online Learner  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this phenomenological study was to gain an understanding of the lived experiences of female adult learners pursuing graduate degrees online. As online graduate programs have become increasingly popular and more readily available in the last decade, more women than men are enrolling in online graduate programs in addition to…

Rousseau, Charlene X.

2012-01-01

51

Correlates of Serious Suicidal Ideation and Attempts in Female Adult Sexual Assault Survivors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relations between (a) serious suicidal ideation and attempts and (b) demographics, trauma history, assault characteristics, post-assault outcomes, and psychosocial variables were examined among female adult sexual assault survivors. Younger, minority, and bisexual survivors reported greater ideation. More traumas, drug use, and assault disclosure…

Ullman, Sarah E.; Najdowski, Cynthia J.

2009-01-01

52

Juvenile hormone titer versus juvenile hormone synthesis in female nymphs and adults of the German  

E-print Network

Juvenile hormone titer versus juvenile hormone synthesis in female nymphs and adults of the German of Forensic Medicine, Ignaz Harrerstr, 79, 5020 Salzburg, Austria Abstract Patterns of juvenile hormone have. However, data have been mainly obtained in vitro, and refer to hormone synthesized by isolated corpora

Piulachs, M. Dolors

53

Nutritional manipulation of adult female Orius pumilio (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) enhances initial predatory performance  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Commercial shipments of Orius insidiosus Say (Hemiptera:Anthocoridae) commonly include water and protein, the latter typically supplied by eggs from a moth such as Ephestia kuehniella Zeller. To determine whether alternative dietary conditions for young adult females might improve predation, O. in...

54

When Your "Problem" Becomes Mine: Adult Female Siblings' Perspectives of Having a Brother with a Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is a retrospective look at adult female siblings' perspectives of their childhoods and present identities based on having a brother with a disability. This paper focuses on siblings' experiences within educational and public domains, and how such experiences have shaped their personalities and career choices. Qualitative findings were…

Pompeo, Michelle N.

2009-01-01

55

Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in Female Partners of Circumcised and Uncircumcised Adult Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male circumcision has been shown to reduce the risk of acquiring and transmitting a number of venereal infections. However, little is known about the association between male circumcision and the risk of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in the female partner. The authors pooled data on 305 adult couples enrolled as controls in one of five case-control studies of invasive cervical cancer

Xavier Castellsague; Rosanna W. Peeling; Silvia Franceschi; Silvia de Sanjose; Jennifer S. Smith; Ginesa Albero; Mireia Diaz; Rolando Herrero; Nubia Munoz

56

The effects of ovariectomy on binge eating proneness in adult female rats Kelly L. Klump a,  

E-print Network

The effects of ovariectomy on binge eating proneness in adult female rats Kelly L. Klump a: Binge eating Bulimia nervosa Ovariectomy Animal models Ovarian hormones Ovarian hormones are associated with binge eating in women, however findings are limited by the lack of experimental control inherent

Sisk, Cheryl

57

Psychiatric comorbidity differences in male and female adult psychiatric inpatients with substance use disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine gender differences in the co-occurrence of DSM-111-R axis I disorders and axis II personality disorders in young adult psychiatric inpatients with substance use disorders (SUDS), a consecutive series of 70 inpatients (33 men and 37 women) with SUD were reliably assessed with structured diagnostic interviews. Higher rates of dysthymia and eating disorders were observed in SLID females and

Carlos M Grilo; Steve Martino; Martha L Walker; Daniel F Becker; William S Edell; Thomas H McGlashan

1997-01-01

58

Patterns of coalition formation by adult female baboons in Amboseli, Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coalitionary support in agonistic interactions is generally thought to be costly to the actor and beneficial to the recipient. Explanations for such cooperative interactions usually invoke kin selection, reciprocal altruism or mutualism. We evaluated the role of these factors and individual benefits in shaping the pattern of coalitionary activity among adult female savannah baboons, Papio cynocephalus, in Amboseli, Kenya. There

JOAN B. S ILK; S USAN C. ALBERTS; JEANNE ALTMANN

2003-01-01

59

Positive Adult Support and Depression Symptoms in Adolescent Females: The Partially Mediating Role of Eating Disturbances  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined linkages between depression symptoms (DEP) and positive adult support (PAS) in female adolescents and the partially mediating influence of eating disturbances (ED). Structural equation modeling was used to establish measurement models for each of the latent constructs, determine the relationships among the latent constructs,…

Linville, Deanna; O'Neil, Maya; Huebner, Angela

2011-01-01

60

The effects of prenatal PCBs on adult female paced mating reproductive behaviors in rats  

PubMed Central

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a family of toxicants that persist in measurable quantities in human and wildlife tissues, despite their ban in production in 1977. Some PCB mixtures can act as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) by mimicking or antagonizing the actions of hormones in the brain and periphery. When exposure to hormonally active substances such as PCBs occurs during vulnerable developmental periods, particularly prenatally or in early postnatal life, they can disrupt sex-specific patterning of the brain, inducing permanent changes that can later be manifested as improper sexual behaviors. Here, we investigated the effects of prenatal exposure to the PCB mixture Aroclor (A) 1221 on adult female reproductive behaviors in a dose-response model in the Sprague-Dawley rat. Using a paced mating paradigm that permits the female to set the timing of mating and control contact with the male during copulation, we were able to uncover significant differences in female-typical sexual activities in A1221-exposed females. Specifically, A1221 causes significant effects on mating trial pacing, vocalizations, ambulation and the female’s likelihood to mate. The results further demonstrate that the intermediate treatment group has the greatest number of disrupted endpoints, suggestive of non-linear dose responses to A1221. These data demonstrate that the behavioral phenotype in adulthood is disrupted by low, ecologically relevant exposures to PCBs, and the results have implications for reproductive success and health in wildlife and women. PMID:17274994

Steinberg, Rebecca M.; Juenger, Thomas E.; Gore, Andrea C.

2009-01-01

61

Female Reproductive System  

MedlinePLUS

... egg or sperm. Continue Components of the Female Reproductive System Unlike the male, the human female has a ... estrogen and progesterone. Back Continue What the Female Reproductive System Does The female reproductive system enables a woman ...

62

Female Reproductive System  

MedlinePLUS

... female reproductive systems. Continue What Is the Female Reproductive System? Most species have two sexes: male and female. ... reason other than pregnancy. Infections of the Female Reproductive System Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) . Also called sexually transmitted ...

63

Juvenile rank can predict male-typical adult mating behavior in female sheep treated prenatally with testosterone.  

PubMed

Previous research with female sheep indicates that exposure to excess testosterone for 60 days (from Gestational Days 30-90 of the 147-day gestation) leads to virilized genitalia, severe neuroendocrine deficits, as well as masculinization and defeminization of sexual behavior (T60 females). In contrast, 30 days of testosterone exposure (Gestational Days 60-90) produce animals with female-typical genitalia, less severe neuroendocrine alterations, and variable gender patterns of sexual behavior (T30 females). Variation in adult sexual behavior of male ungulates is influenced by early social experience, but this has never been tested in females. Here we investigate the influence of rank in the dominance hierarchy on the expression of adult sexual behavior in females. Specifically, we hypothesized that juvenile rank would predict the amount of male- and female-typical mating behavior exhibited by adult female sheep. This hypothesis was tested in two treatment groups and their controls (group 1: T60 females; group 2: T30 females). Dominance hierarchies were determined by observing competition over resources. Both groups of prenatal testosterone-treated females were higher ranking than controls (T60: P = 0.05; T30: P < 0.01). During the breeding season, both T60 and T30 females exhibited more male-typical mating behavior than did controls; however, the T30 animals also exhibited female-typical behavior. For the T60 group, prenatal treatment, not juvenile rank, best predicted male-typical sex behavior (P = 0.007), while juvenile rank better predicted male mating behavior for the T30 group (P = 0.006). Rank did not predict female mating behavior in the hormone-treated or control ewes. We conclude that the effect of prenatal testosterone exposure on adult male-specific but not female-specific mating behavior is modulated by juvenile social experiences. PMID:19122184

Roberts, Eila K; Flak, Jonathan N; Ye, Wen; Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Lee, Theresa M

2009-04-01

64

PATHOGENESIS AND EPIDEMIOLOGY OF BRUCELLOSIS IN YELLOWSTONE BISON: SEROLOGIC AND CULTURE RESULTS FROM ADULT FEMALES AND THEIR PROGENY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our objective in this prospective study was to determine the natural cours eo fBrucella abortus infection in cohorts of seropositive and seronegative, female bison (Bison bison) and their offspring in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) for 5 yr. We collected specimens from 53 adult females and 25 calves at least once and from 45 adults and 22 calves more than once.

Jack C. Rhyan; Keith Aune; Thomas Roffe; Darla Ewalt; Steve Hennager; Tom Gidlewski; Steve Olsen; Ryan Clarke

65

The reproductive hormone cycle of adult female American alligators from a barrier island population.  

PubMed

Comparatively, little data are available detailing the geographic variation that exists in the reproductive endocrinology of adult alligators, especially those living in barrier islands. The Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge (MI) is a unique barrier island environment and home to the Kennedy Space Center (FL, USA). Seasonal patterns of sex steroids were assessed in adult female American alligators from MI monthly from 2008 to 2009, with additional samples collected at more random intervals in 2006, 2007, and 2010. Plasma 17?-estradiol and vitellogenin concentrations peaked in April, coincident with courtship and mating, and showed patterns similar to those observed in adult female alligators in other regions. Plasma concentrations of progesterone, however, showed patterns distinctly different than those reported for alligator populations in other regions and remained relatively constant throughout the year. Plasma DHEA peaked in July around the time of oviposition, decreased in August, and then remained constant for the remaining months, except for a moderate increase in October. Circulating concentrations of DHEA have not been previously assessed in a female crocodilian, and plasma concentrations coincident with reproductive activity suggest a reproductive and/or behavioral role. Interestingly, plasma testosterone concentrations peaked in May of 2008, as has been shown in female alligator populations in other regions, but showed no peak in 2009, demonstrating dramatic variability from year to year. Surveys showed 2009 to be particularly depauperate of alligator nests in MI, and it is possible that testosterone could serve as a strong indicator of breeding success. PMID:24608737

Hamlin, Heather J; Lowers, Russell H; Kohno, Satomi; Mitsui-Watanabe, Naoko; Amano, Haruna; Hara, Akihiko; Ohta, Yasuhiko; Miyagawa, Shinichi; Iguchi, Taisen; Guillette, Louis J

2014-06-01

66

Evaluating and treating the adult female patient with acne.  

PubMed

Acne vulgaris is a common disease of the pilosebacous unit that affects an estimated 40-50 million Americans. Greater than 95% of teenage boys and between 83% and 85% of teenage girls suffer from acne. The condition frequently continues into adulthood. While boys more commonly suffer from acne in the teenage years, greater numbers of women suffer into adulthood. It is unclear if the number of post-adolescent women with acne is rising as compared to the past, or whether women are now seeking out treatment more than in the past.(4) Post-adolescent acne is a significant problem for women. One survey-based United States study found that approximately 50% of women continue to suffer from acne in their twenties, 35% in their thirties, 26% in their forties, and 15% in their fifties. The prevalence of acne was shown to be higher in women than in men in each of these age groups.(7) A similar study from Europe showed that beyond the age of 23, acne is more prevalent in women than men. In their forties and fifties, 5% and 8% of women suffered from acne, respectively. Several other studies have provided similar data, showing that larger numbers of adult women suffer from acne as compared to age matched men. Acne is the number one reason that patients visit a dermatologist. While the mean age at which patients are seen for acne is 24 years old, 10% of visits occur in patients in their mid-thirties and forties. Approximately two thirds of dermatology visits for acne are made by women, and one-third of total acne office visits are made by women over 25 years old. Acne patients suffer from a significant psychological burden, which has been compared to that of patients with systemic diseases like diabetes, asthma, arthritis, or epilepsy. Up to 50% of adolescents with acne experience disturbances to their psyche, including issues with body image, anxiety, depression, poor self-esteem, social impairment, and thoughts of suicide. Moreover, acne treatment is expensive. The average total cost of care related to an acne patient's visit to the dermatologist is estimated to be $689.(14) PMID:24301244

Zeichner, Joshua A

2013-12-01

67

Feeding rates and selectivity among nauplii, copepodites and adult females of Calanus finmarchicus and Calanus helgolandicus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study focuses on selective feeding by developmental stages of two oceanic copepods, Calanus finmarchicus and Calanus helgolandicus from nauplii to adults. A mixture of four algal species of different biochemical composition, Prorocentrum nanum (dinoflagellate), Thalassiosira minima (diatom), Rhodomonas baltica (cryptophyte) and Dunaliella tertiolecta (chlorophyte), added in an equal biovolume, was used in three different experimental set-ups. In set-up 1 the algal species were present as single cells of similar size (14 µm). In set-up 2 the diatom T. minima was present in chains of two or three cells and was therefore larger than the other algae, while the biovolume of all species remained the same. In set-up 3, the diatom T. minima was excluded from the mixture. Feeding selectivity of the copepods was assessed in relation to the quality of the algal species expressed in terms of carbon and nitrogen content, fatty acid composition, and chain length of the diatom. The results show that younger stages and adult females of C. finmarchicus and C. helgolandicus did not show a preference for an algal species when the algae were of similar size. In the feeding experiments where the diatoms were offered as chains, both copepod species showed a selective behaviour only on the basis of algal size. Individual ingestion rates increased from 0.4 to 0.7 µg C day-1 for nauplii of both species to 5 µg C day-1 for adult females of C. helgolandicus to 12 µg C day-1 for C. finmarchicus. Individual filtration rates ranged from 5 ml day-1 for C. finmarchicus nauplii to 70-98 ml day-1 for adult females, and from 3 ml day-1 for C. helgolandicus nauplii to 35-46 ml day-1 for adult females. Ingestion and filtration rates per unit body carbon decreased gradually in both copepod species with increasing body carbon. The daily ingested amount of food decreased for C. finmarchicus from 124-134% of the body carbon for nauplii to 19% of the body carbon for adult females, and for C. helgolandicus from 117-137% of the body carbon for nauplii to 13-26% of the body carbon of adult females.

Meyer, B.; Irigoien, X.; Graeve, M.; Head, R. N.; Harris, R. P.

2002-04-01

68

Testosterone stimulates growth and secretory activity of the female prostate in the adult gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus).  

PubMed

The prostate of the female gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) is similar to the human female prostate (Skene gland) and, despite its reduced size, it is functional and shows secretory activity. However, virtually nothing is known about its physiological regulation. This study was thus undertaken to evaluate the behavior of the gerbil female prostate in a hyperandrogenic condition. Adult females received subcutaneous injections of testosterone cypionate (1 mg/kg body weight every 48 h) up to 21 days. Circulating levels of testosterone and estradiol were monitored, and the prostate and ovaries subjected to structural and immunocytochemical analyses. The treatment resulted in sustained high levels of circulating testosterone, and caused a transient increase in estradiol. There was an increase in epithelial cell proliferation accompanied by significant reorganization of the epithelium and an apparent reduction in secretory activity, followed by a progressive increase in luminal volume density and accumulation of secretory products. Immunocytochemistry identified the expression of androgen receptor and a prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-related antigen in prostatic epithelial cells. A circulating PSA-related antigen was also found, and its concentration showed strong negative correlation with circulating estrogen. Epithelial dysplasia was detected in the prostate of treated females. Analysis of the ovaries showed the occurrence of a polycystic condition and stromal cell hyperplasia. The results indicate that testosterone has a stimulatory effect on the female prostate, inducing epithelial cell proliferation, differentiation, secretory activity, and dysplasia. The results also suggest that prostatic growth and activity, polycystic ovaries, and ovarian stromal cell hyperplasia are related to a hyperandrogenic condition in females. PMID:16707769

Santos, Fernanda C A; Leite, Rodrigo P; Custódio, Ana M G; Carvalho, Karina P; Monteiro-Leal, Luiz H; Santos, Adriana B; Góes, Rejane M; Carvalho, Hernandes F; Taboga, Sebastião R

2006-09-01

69

Lepidium meyenii (Maca) increases litter size in normal adult female mice  

PubMed Central

Background Lepidium meyenii, known as Maca, grows exclusively in the Peruvian Andes over 4000 m altitude. It has been used traditionally to increase fertility. Previous scientific studies have demonstrated that Maca increases spermatogenesis and epididymal sperm count. The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of Maca on several fertility parameters of female mice at reproductive age. Methods Adult female Balb/C mice were divided at random into three main groups: i) Reproductive indexes group, ii) Implantation sites group and iii) Assessment of uterine weight in ovariectomized mice. Animals received an aqueous extract of lyophilized Yellow Maca (1 g/Kg BW) or vehicle orally as treatment. In the fertility indexes study, animals received the treatment before, during and after gestation. The fertility index, gestation index, post-natal viability index, weaning viability index and sex ratio were calculated. Sexual maturation was evaluated in the female pups by the vaginal opening (VO) day. In the implantation study, females were checked for implantation sites at gestation day 7 and the embryos were counted. In ovariectomized mice, the uterine weight was recorded at the end of treatment. Results Implantation sites were similar in mice treated with Maca and in controls. All reproductive indexes were similar in both groups of treatment. The number of pups per dam at birth and at postnatal day 4 was significantly higher in the group treated with Maca. VO day occurred earlier as litter size was smaller. Maca did not affect VO day. In ovariectomized mice, the treatment with Maca increased significantly the uterine weights in comparison to their respective control group. Conclusion Administration of aqueous extract of Yellow Maca to adult female mice increases the litter size. Moreover, this treatment increases the uterine weight in ovariectomized animals. Our study confirms for the first time some of the traditional uses of Maca to enhance female fertility. PMID:15869705

Ruiz-Luna, Ana C; Salazar, Stephanie; Aspajo, Norma J; Rubio, Julio; Gasco, Manuel; Gonzales, Gustavo F

2005-01-01

70

Effects of Maternal Behavior Induction and Pup Exposure on Neurogenesis in Adult, Virgin Female Rats  

PubMed Central

The states of pregnancy and lactation bring about a range of physiological and behavioral changes in the adult mammal that prepare the mother to care for her young. Cell proliferation increases in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the female rodent brain during both pregnancy and lactation when compared to that in cycling, diestrous females. In the present study, the effects of maternal behavior induction and pup exposure on neurogenesis in nulliparous rats were examined in order to determine whether maternal behavior itself, independent of pregnancy and lactation, might affect neurogenesis. Adult, nulliparous, Sprague-Dawley, female rats were exposed daily to foster young in order to induce maternal behavior. Following the induction of maternal behavior each maternal subject plus females that were exposed to pups for a comparable number of test days, but did not display maternal behavior, and subjects that had received no pup exposure were injected with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU, 90 mg/kg, i.v.). Brain sections were double-labeled for BrdU and the neural marker, NeuN, to examine the proliferating cell population. Increases in the number of double-labeled cells were found in the maternal virgin brain when compared with the number of double-labeled cells present in non-maternal, pup-exposed nulliparous rats and in females not exposed to young. No changes were evident in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus as a function of maternal behavior. These data indicate that in nulliparous female rats maternal behavior itself is associated with the stimulation of neurogenesis in the SVZ. PMID:19712726

Furuta, Miyako; Bridges, Robert S.

2009-01-01

71

Divergent hypoxia tolerance in adult males and females of the plainfin midshipman (Porichthys notatus).  

PubMed

In the summer, the plainfin midshipman (Poricththys notatus) migrates to reproduce in the nearshore environment, where oxygen levels are influenced by the tidal cycles. Parental males establish nests under rocks in the intertidal zone, where they reside until the eggs they guard are fully developed. In contrast, females and sneaker males leave the nests shortly after spawning. We examined the physiological resistance and metabolic response of parental male and female adult midshipman to hypoxia to test whether they exhibited sex-specific differences reflecting their reproductive strategies. Further, we assessed whether metabolic enzymes and metabolites were differentially enriched in tissues of parental males and females to explain the differences observed in their hypoxia tolerance. While parental males and females exhibited similar depression of their oxygen consumption in response to graded hypoxia, parental males could withstand significantly longer exposures to severe hypoxic stress. At the biochemical level, parental males showed higher hepatic glycogen reserves and higher glycolytic enzyme capacities in gills and skeletal muscles than females. Although some of these enzymatic variations could be explained by differences in body size, we also observed a significant effect of sex on some of these factors. These results suggest that parental male midshipman may benefit from sexual dimorphism at the whole-organismal (larger body size) and biochemical (enzyme activities) levels, conferring on them a higher glycolytic potential to sustain the extensive hypoxia bouts they experience in nature. PMID:24642549

LeMoine, Christophe M R; Bucking, Carol; Craig, Paul M; Walsh, Patrick J

2014-01-01

72

Cultural suppression of female sexuality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four theories about cultural suppression of female sexuality are evaluated. Data are reviewed on cross-cultural differences in power and sex ratios, reactions to the sexual revolution, direct restraining influences on adolescent and adult female sexuality, double standard patterns of sexual morality, female genital surgery, legal and religious restrictions on sex, prostitution and pornography, and sexual deception. The view that men

Roy F. Baumeister; Jean M. Twenge

2002-01-01

73

Educating adult females for leadership roles in an informal science program for girls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study is to gain an understanding of and an evidentiary warrant for, how a community of practice focused on informal science learning, can engage and promote active participation that offers adult female members and the community opportunities for legitimacy and transformation. This study is a qualitative, ethnographic research study that documents how adult female volunteers, historically inexperienced and/or excluded from traditional practices of science, come to engage in science activities through an informal, community-based context that helps them to appreciate science connections in their lives that are ultimately empowering and agentic. I begin to understand the ways in which such informal contexts, often thought to be marginal to dominant educational beliefs and practices, can offer adults outside of the field of science, education, or both, an entree into science learning and teaching that facilitate female's participation in legitimate and empowering ways. Using descriptive analyses, I first identify the characteristics of peripheral and active program participants. Through phenomenological analyses, I then develop an understanding of participation in an informal science program by focusing on three adult female members' unique trajectories of participation leading to core member status. Each draws on different aspects of the program that they find most salient, illustrating how different elements can serve as motivators for participation, and support continuation along the trajectory of participation reflecting personal and political agency. Through a purposeful ethnographic case-study analysis, I then explore one core member's transformation, evidenced by her developing identities as someone who enjoys science, engages in science activities, and, enacts a role as community old timer and door opener to science learning. This study: (1) contributes to the limited knowledge base in fields of informal learning, science education, and feminist research; (2) provides data that lead to assertions about the impact of NSP participation; and (3) takes advantage of a unique context in which to study adults and the interaction of gender, science, and informal learning.

McCreedy, Dale

74

Traumatic bilateral atlantoaxial rotatory subluxation mimicking as torticollis in an adult female  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rotatory subluxation of the atlantoaxial joint in adults is a rare, but potentially life-threatening injury. Delayed or missed diagnosis can lead to catastrophic consequences. Early recognition and prompt treatment is paramount to avoid long-term morbidity and disability. We report on an instance of bilateral atlantoaxial rotatory subluxation (AARS) in a 25-year-old female who presented to the Casualty Department with a

V. K. Singh; P. K. Singh; S. K. Balakrishnan; J. Leitao

2009-01-01

75

Pesticide Methoxychlor Promotes the Epigenetic Transgenerational Inheritance of Adult-Onset Disease through the Female Germline  

PubMed Central

Environmental compounds including fungicides, plastics, pesticides, dioxin and hydrocarbons can promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult-onset disease in future generation progeny following ancestral exposure during the critical period of fetal gonadal sex determination. This study examined the actions of the pesticide methoxychlor to promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult-onset disease and associated differential DNA methylation regions (i.e. epimutations) in sperm. Gestating F0 generation female rats were transiently exposed to methoxychlor during fetal gonadal development (gestation days 8 to 14) and then adult-onset disease was evaluated in adult F1 and F3 (great-grand offspring) generation progeny for control (vehicle exposed) and methoxychlor lineage offspring. There were increases in the incidence of kidney disease, ovary disease, and obesity in the methoxychlor lineage animals. In females and males the incidence of disease increased in both the F1 and the F3 generations and the incidence of multiple disease increased in the F3 generation. There was increased disease incidence in F4 generation reverse outcross (female) offspring indicating disease transmission was primarily transmitted through the female germline. Analysis of the F3 generation sperm epigenome of the methoxychlor lineage males identified differentially DNA methylated regions (DMR) termed epimutations in a genome-wide gene promoters analysis. These epimutations were found to be methoxychlor exposure specific in comparison with other exposure specific sperm epimutation signatures. Observations indicate that the pesticide methoxychlor has the potential to promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease and the sperm epimutations appear to provide exposure specific epigenetic biomarkers for transgenerational disease and ancestral environmental exposures. PMID:25057798

Manikkam, Mohan; Haque, M. Muksitul; Guerrero-Bosagna, Carlos; Nilsson, Eric E.; Skinner, Michael K.

2014-01-01

76

Pesticide methoxychlor promotes the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult-onset disease through the female germline.  

PubMed

Environmental compounds including fungicides, plastics, pesticides, dioxin and hydrocarbons can promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult-onset disease in future generation progeny following ancestral exposure during the critical period of fetal gonadal sex determination. This study examined the actions of the pesticide methoxychlor to promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult-onset disease and associated differential DNA methylation regions (i.e. epimutations) in sperm. Gestating F0 generation female rats were transiently exposed to methoxychlor during fetal gonadal development (gestation days 8 to 14) and then adult-onset disease was evaluated in adult F1 and F3 (great-grand offspring) generation progeny for control (vehicle exposed) and methoxychlor lineage offspring. There were increases in the incidence of kidney disease, ovary disease, and obesity in the methoxychlor lineage animals. In females and males the incidence of disease increased in both the F1 and the F3 generations and the incidence of multiple disease increased in the F3 generation. There was increased disease incidence in F4 generation reverse outcross (female) offspring indicating disease transmission was primarily transmitted through the female germline. Analysis of the F3 generation sperm epigenome of the methoxychlor lineage males identified differentially DNA methylated regions (DMR) termed epimutations in a genome-wide gene promoters analysis. These epimutations were found to be methoxychlor exposure specific in comparison with other exposure specific sperm epimutation signatures. Observations indicate that the pesticide methoxychlor has the potential to promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease and the sperm epimutations appear to provide exposure specific epigenetic biomarkers for transgenerational disease and ancestral environmental exposures. PMID:25057798

Manikkam, Mohan; Haque, M Muksitul; Guerrero-Bosagna, Carlos; Nilsson, Eric E; Skinner, Michael K

2014-01-01

77

The relationship between religiosity and health behaviors in female caregivers of older adults with dementia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study explored the relationship between three dimensions of religiosity: (a) organizational religiosity (e.g. attendance at religious events), (b) non-organizational religiosity (e.g. prayer), and (c) subjective religiosity (e.g. importance of religion) and caregiver health behavior patterns in a sample of Latina and Caucasian female caregivers of older adult relatives with dementia. It was hypothesized that religiosity would have a

Yaron G. Rabinowitz; Brent T. Mausbach; Philip J. Atkinson; Dolores Gallagher-Thompson

2009-01-01

78

Developmental Origins of Pregnancy Loss in the Adult Female Common Marmoset Monkey (Callithrix jacchus)  

PubMed Central

Background The impact of the intrauterine environment on the developmental programming of adult female reproductive success is still poorly understood and potentially underestimated. Litter size variation in a nonhuman primate, the common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus), allows us to model the effects of varying intrauterine environments (e.g. nutrient restriction, exposure to male womb-mates) on the risk of losing fetuses in adulthood. Our previous work has characterized the fetuses of triplet pregnancies as experiencing intrauterine nutritional restriction. Methodology/Principal Findings We used over a decade of demographic data from the Southwest National Primate Research Center common marmoset colony. We evaluated differences between twin and triplet females in the number of pregnancies they produce and the proportion of those pregnancies that ended in fetal loss. We found that triplet females produced the same number of total offspring as twin females, but lost offspring during pregnancy at a significantly higher rate than did twins (38% vs. 13%, p?=?0.02). Regardless of their own birth weight or the sex ratio of the litter the experienced as fetuses, triplet females lost more fetuses than did twins. Females with a male littermate experienced a significant increase in the proportion of stillbirths. Conclusions/Significance These striking findings anchor pregnancy loss in the mother’s own fetal environment and development, underscoring a "Womb to Womb" view of the lifecourse and the intergenerational consequences of development. This has important translational implications for understanding the large proportion of human stillbirths that are unexplained. Our findings provide strong evidence that a full understanding of mammalian life history and reproductive biology requires a developmental foundation. PMID:24871614

Rutherford, Julienne N.; deMartelly, Victoria A.; Layne Colon, Donna G.; Ross, Corinna N.; Tardif, Suzette D.

2014-01-01

79

Young Women's Leadership Alliance: Youth-Adult Partnerships in an All-Female After-School Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes program strategies and adult practices that can build youth-adult partnerships. In particular, it focuses on strategies to empower girls in all-female after-school programs. The Young Women's Leadership Alliance has involved 164 girl leaders and five adult women leaders over three years. To build the partnerships, adults

Denner, Jill; Meyer, Beth; Bean, Steve

2005-01-01

80

Growing up Female.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Claims that too many authors of young adult fiction do not use females in the main character roles. Provides examples of novels which are written by women and focus on a girl's coming of age, without falling back on stereotypes. (MG)

Ecroyd, Catherine Ann

1989-01-01

81

Condition and mass impact oxygen stores and dive duration in adult female northern elephant seals.  

PubMed

The range of foraging behaviors available to deep-diving, air-breathing marine vertebrates is constrained by their physiological capacity to breath-hold dive. We measured body oxygen stores (blood volume and muscle myoglobin) and diving behavior in adult female northern elephant seals, Mirounga angustirostris, to investigate age-related effects on diving performance. Blood volume averaged 74.4+/-17.0 liters in female elephant seals or 20.2+/-2.0% of body mass. Plasma volume averaged 32.2+/-7.8 liters or 8.7+/-0.7% of body mass. Absolute plasma volume and blood volume increased independently with mass and age. Hematocrit decreased weakly with mass but did not vary with age. Muscle myoglobin concentration, while higher than previously reported (7.4+/-0.7 g%), did not vary with mass or age. Pregnancy status did not influence blood volume. Mean dive duration, a proxy for physiological demand, increased as a function of how long seals had been at sea, followed by mass and hematocrit. Strong effects of female body mass (range, 218-600 kg) on dive duration, which were independent of oxygen stores, suggest that larger females had lower diving metabolic rates. A tendency for dives to exceed calculated aerobic limits occurred more frequently later in the at-sea migration. Our data suggest that individual physiological state variables and condition interact to determine breath-hold ability and that both should be considered in life-history studies of foraging behavior. PMID:20118309

Hassrick, J L; Crocker, D E; Teutschel, N M; McDonald, B I; Robinson, P W; Simmons, S E; Costa, D P

2010-02-15

82

Social isolation impairs adult neurogenesis in the limbic system and alters behaviors in female prairie voles  

PubMed Central

Disruptions in the social environment, such as social isolation, are distressing and can induce various behavioral and neural changes in the distressed animal. We conducted a series of experiments to test the hypothesis that long-term social isolation affects brain plasticity and alters behavior in the highly social prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster). In Experiment 1, adult female prairie voles were injected with a cell division marker, 5-bromo-2?-deoxyuridine (BrdU), and then same-sex pair-housed (control) or single-housed (isolation) for 6 weeks. Social isolation reduced cell proliferation, survival, and neuronal differentiation and altered cell death in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and the amygdala. In addition, social isolation reduced cell proliferation in the medial preoptic area and cell survival in the ventromedial hypothalamus. These data suggest that long-term social isolation affects distinct stages of adult neurogenesis in specific limbic brain regions. In Experiment 2, isolated females displayed higher levels of anxiety-like behaviors in both the open field and elevated plus maze tests and higher levels of depression-like behavior in the forced swim test than controls. Further, isolated females showed a higher level of affiliative behavior than controls, but the two groups did not differ in social recognition memory. Together, our data suggest that social isolation not only impairs cell proliferation, survival, and neuronal differentiation in limbic brain areas, but also alters anxiety-like, depression-like, and affiliative behaviors in adult female prairie voles. These data warrant further investigation of a possible link between altered neurogenesis within the limbic system and behavioral changes. PMID:22465453

Lieberwirth, Claudia; Liu, Yan; Jia, Xixi; Wang, Zuoxin

2013-01-01

83

Normal Female Reproductive Anatomy  

MedlinePLUS

... My Pictures Browse Search Quick Search Image Details Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy View/Download: Small: 720x756 View Download Add to My Pictures Title: Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the female reproductive ...

84

Pathogenesis and epidemiology of Brucellosis in Yellowstone bison: serologic and culture results from adult females and their offspring  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this prospective study was to follow the natural course of Brucella abortus infection in cohorts of seropositive and seronegative female bison and their offspring in Yellowstone National Park over a 5 year period. Specimens were collected from 53 adult, female bison at least once a...

85

Adenocarcinoma Arising from Sacrococcygeal Mature Teratoma in an Adult Female: Report of a Case  

PubMed Central

We report a case of adenocarcinoma arising from a sacrococcygeal mature teratoma in an adult female. A 62-year-old female was diagnosed with a presacral tumor 10?years ago. Pelvic computed tomography (CT) demonstrated a presacral heterogeneous tumor, containing multiloculated cystic area and enhanced solid component with calcification. Percutaneous needle biopsy for the solid component of the tumor identified an adenocarcinoma and the patient was diagnosed as having a sacrococcygeal teratoma with malignant transformation. Abdomino-sacral rectal resection with sacral amputation at the upper edge of the S5 was performed. The pathological diagnosis was adenocarcinoma derived from a mature teratoma. The tumor cells had infiltrated the rectal wall. After 7?months, a follow-up CT demonstrated swelling of the right inguinal lymph nodes and a right inguinal lymphadenectomy was performed. Pathological examination showed metastatic lymph nodes. The patient is doing well 21?months after the second surgery, with no signs of recurrence. PMID:24904830

Matsumoto, Naoki; Uehara, Keisuke; Ando, Masataka; Arimoto, Junki; Kato, Takehiro; Nakamura, Hayato; Ebata, Tomoki; Yokoyama, Yukihiro; Nagino, Masato

2014-01-01

86

Adult female and male siblings of persons with disabilities: findings from a national survey.  

PubMed

In this study, the authors used a national, Web-based survey to examine female and male siblings of individuals with disabilities. More than 1,160 adult siblings completed a 163-question survey about themselves, their siblings, and their sibling relationships. Most respondents reported fairly close contact with their siblings and positive sibling relationships, good health, and benefits from being a sibling to a brother-sister with disabilities. Compared with men, women reported benefiting more from the sibling relationship. Relative to the U.S. population, female (though not male) siblings married later and divorced less often, and these women had their first child at later ages. Implications are discussed regarding future research and service needs. PMID:20503816

Hodapp, Robert M; Urbano, Richard C; Burke, Meghan M

2010-02-01

87

Probable Community Transfer of Parous Adult Female Chimpanzees in the Budongo Forest, Uganda  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female chimpanzees with dependent offspring generally avoid border areas of their community's home range because they risk\\u000a aggression and infanticide from extracommunity males. Typically, only nulliparous females risk crossing the boundary areas\\u000a to transfer between communities; while immigration of parous females occurs, it is extremely rare and dangerous for the females\\u000a and their offspring. In the Budongo Forest, Uganda, where

M. Emery Thompson; N. E. Newton-Fisher; V. Reynolds

2006-01-01

88

Estimating total population size for adult female sea turtles: Accounting for non-nesters  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Assessment of population size and changes therein is important to sea turtle management and population or life history research. Investigators might be interested in testing hypotheses about the effect of current population size or density (number of animals per unit resource) on future population processes. Decision makers might want to determine a level of allowable take of individual turtles of specified life stage. Nevertheless, monitoring most stages of sea turtle life histories is difficult, because obtaining access to individuals is difficult. Although in-water assessments are becoming more common, nesting females and their hatchlings remain the most accessible life stages. In some cases adult females of a given nesting population are sufficiently philopatric that the population itself can be well defined. If a well designed tagging study is conducted on this population, survival, breeding probability, and the size of the nesting population in a given year can be estimated. However, with published statistical methodology the size of the entire breeding population (including those females skipping nesting in that year) cannot be estimated without assuming that each adult female in this population has the same probability of nesting in a given year (even those that had just nested in the previous year). We present a method for estimating the total size of a breeding population (including nesters those skipping nesting) from a tagging study limited to the nesting population, allowing for the probability of nesting in a given year to depend on an individual's nesting status in the previous year (i.e., a Markov process). From this we further develop estimators for rate of growth from year to year in both nesting population and total breeding population, and the proportion of the breeding population that is breeding in a given year. We also discuss assumptions and apply these methods to a breeding population of hawksbill sea turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) from the Caribbean. We anticipate that this method could also be useful for in-water studies of well defined populations.

Kendall, W.L.; Richardson, J.I.

2008-01-01

89

Exposure to repeated maternal aggression induces depressive-like behavior and increases startle in adult female rats.  

PubMed

The stress response is a multifaceted physiological reaction that engages a wide range of systems. Animal studies examining stress and the stress response employ diverse methods as stressors. While many of these stressors are capable of inducing a stress response in animals, a need exists for an ethologically relevant stressor for female rats. The purpose of the current study was to use an ethologically relevant social stressor to induce behavioral alterations in adult female rats. Adult (postnatal day 90) female Wistar rats were repeatedly exposed to lactating Long Evans female rats to simulate chronic stress. After six days of sessions, intruder females exposed to defeat were tested in the sucrose consumption test, the forced swim test, acoustic startle test, elevated plus maze, and open field test. At the conclusion of behavioral testing, animals were restrained for 30 min and trunk blood was collected for assessment of serum hormones. Female rats exposed to maternal aggression exhibited decreased sucrose consumption, and impaired coping behavior in the forced swim test. Additionally, female rats exposed to repeated maternal aggression exhibited an increased acoustic startle response. No changes were observed in female rats in the elevated plus maze or open field test. Serum hormones were unaltered due to repeated exposure to maternal aggression. These data indicate the importance of the social experience in the development of stress-related behaviors: an acerbic social experience in female rats precipitates the manifestation of depressive-like behaviors and an enhanced startle response. PMID:22093902

Bourke, Chase H; Neigh, Gretchen N

2012-02-01

90

Exposure to repeated maternal aggression induces depressive-like behavior and increases startle in adult female rats  

PubMed Central

The stress response is a multifaceted physiological reaction that engages a wide range of systems. Animal studies examining stress and the stress response employ diverse methods as stressors. While many of these stressors are capable of inducing a stress response in animals, a need exists for an ethologically relevant stressor for female rats. The purpose of the current study was to use an ethologically relevant social stressor to induce behavioral alterations in adult female rats. Adult (postnatal day 90) female Wistar rats were repeatedly exposed to lactating Long Evans female rats to simulate chronic stress. After six days of sessions, intruder females exposed to defeat were tested in the sucrose consumption test, the forced swim test, acoustic startle test, elevated plus maze, and open field test. At the conclusion of behavioral testing, animals were restrained for 30 minutes and trunk blood was collected for assessment of serum hormones. Female rats exposed to maternal aggression exhibited decreased sucrose consumption, and impaired coping behavior in the forced swim test. Additionally, female rats exposed to repeated maternal aggression exhibited an increased acoustic startle response. No changes were observed in female rats in the elevated plus maze or open field test. Serum hormones were unaltered due to repeated exposure to maternal aggression. These data indicate the importance of the social experience in the development of stress-related behaviors: an acerbic social experience in female rats precipitates the manifestation of depressive-like behaviors and an enhanced startle response. PMID:22093902

Bourke, Chase H.; Neigh, Gretchen N.

2011-01-01

91

Effect of sericea lespedeza leaf meal pellets on adult female Haemonchus contortus in goats.  

PubMed

Sericea lespedeza (SL; Lespedeza cuneata) is a perennial warm-season forage rich in condensed tannins (CT) that has been reported to have anthelmintic activity against small ruminant gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN), particularly Haemonchus contortus, a highly pathogenic blood-feeder, but the mechanism of action of CT against H. contortus is not clearly understood. An experiment with young goats was designed to study the effect of SL leaf meal pellets on (1) a mature H. contortus infection, and (2) the surface appearance of adult H. contortus female worms. Thirty-six female and castrated male Boer crossbred goats artificially infected with H. contortus larvae were fed 75% SL leaf meal pellets or alfalfa pellets (18 goats/treatment group) in a 28-day confinement feeding trial. Fecal and blood samples were collected weekly for fecal egg count (FEC) and packed cell volume (PCV) determination, respectively, and all goats were slaughtered at the end of the trial for adult GIN recovery and counting. Five adult female H. contortus were recovered from the abomasum of two goats from each treatment group and from a prior study in which 75% and 95% SL leaf meal pellets or a commercial feed pellet were group-fed to grazing goats (270 days old, Spanish males, 10/treatment group) at 0.91 kg/head/d for 11 weeks. Adult GIN collected were fixed and examined for evidence of surface damage using scanning electron microscopy. Feeding 75% SL pellets to young goats in confinement reduced (P<0.05) FEC compared with control animals, while total worm numbers and PCV were not influenced by treatment. Three out of the 5 adult H. contortus recovered from SL treatment goats in the confinement feeding trial had cuticular surface damage, while no damage was observed on worms from the control group. All five worms observed from both SL treatments in the grazing study showed a shrunken, disheveled cuticular surface, whereas this was not observed on worms from control animals. Overall, this work suggests that a possible mechanism of action of SL against female H. contortus in the animal's abomasum is a direct action of CT on the cuticle of the worm. PMID:25465738

Kommuru, D S; Whitley, N C; Miller, J E; Mosjidis, J A; Burke, J M; Gujja, S; Mechineni, A; Terrill, T H

2015-01-15

92

Individual variation in feeding habitat use by adult female green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas): are they obligately neritic herbivores?  

PubMed

Satellite telemetry and stable isotope analysis were used to confirm that oceanic areas (where water depths are >200 m) are alternative feeding habitats for adult female green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas), which have been thought to be obligate herbivores in neritic areas (where depths are <200 m). Four females were tagged with satellite transmitters and tracked during post-nesting periods from Ogasawara Islands, Japan. Three females migrated to neritic habitats, while transmissions from another female ceased in an oceanic habitat. The overall mean nighttime dive depths during oceanic swimming periods in two females were <20 m, implying that the main function of their nighttime dives were resting with neutral buoyancy, whereas the means in two other females were >20 m, implying that they not only rested, but also foraged on macroplankton that exhibit diel vertical migration. Comparisons of stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios between 89 females and the prey items in a three-source mixing model estimated that 69% of the females nesting on Ogasawara Islands mainly used neritic habitats and 31% mainly used oceanic habitats. Out of four females tracked by satellite, two females were inferred from isotope ratios to be neritic herbivores and the two others oceanic planktivores. Although post-nesting movements for four females were not completely consistent with the inferences from isotope ratios, possibly due to short tracking periods (28-42 days), their diving behaviors were consistent with the inferences. There were no relationships between body size and the two isotope ratios, indicating a lack of size-related differences in feeding habitat use by adult female green turtles, which was in contrast with loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta). These results and previous findings suggest that ontogenetic habitat shifts by sea turtles are facultative, and consequently, their life histories are polymorphic. PMID:16683139

Hatase, Hideo; Sato, Katsufumi; Yamaguchi, Manami; Takahashi, Kotaro; Tsukamoto, Katsumi

2006-08-01

93

Use of Q methodology to assess the concerns of adult female individuals seeking orthodontic treatment  

PubMed Central

Background Orthodontic treatment may cause functional restrictions, discomfort, and pain, which may lead to dental anxiety and noncooperation among patients. This study aimed to assess the concerns of adult female patients with respect to such treatment. Patients and methods We conducted an explorative study using Q methodology among 40 adult female patients with different educational and social backgrounds in Wenzhou, People’s Republic of China. We asked participants to rank a set of 41 statements about seeking orthodontic treatment on an 11-point scale from “agree most” to “disagree most”. The collected data were analyzed using the PQ Method 2.35 program. We extracted significant viewpoints using centroid factor extraction and varimax rotation. Results We identified major factors based on how the patients ranked statements. Patients in group 1 worried about lack of information about orthodontic treatment, and may have suffered from dental phobia; patients in group 2 were all single women, and they were worried that the braces might lower their chances of finding a partner; patients in group 3 worried about appearance and speech with braces; and patients in group 4 worried about cost, pain, and dental hygiene. The remaining participants who had other viewpoints did not load to any of these four groups. Conclusion The concerns of adult female individuals seeking orthodontic treatment are complex. A significant feature of this study was using Q methodology to analyze the psychological characteristics of the patients. This study identified four typical characterizations that are associated with each group, and our findings may aid orthodontists in improving doctor–patient relationships. PMID:25609926

Yao, Linjie; Xu, Xingqiao; Ni, Zhenyu; Zheng, Minling; Lin, Feiou

2015-01-01

94

Gene expression profiling of adult female tissues in feeding Rhipicephalus microplus cattle ticks.  

PubMed

The southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, is an economically important pest, especially for resource-poor countries, both as a highly adaptive invasive species and prominent vector of disease. The increasing prevalence of resistance to chemical acaricides and variable efficacy of current tick vaccine candidates highlight the need for more effective control methods. In the absence of a fully annotated genome, the wealth of available expressed sequence tag sequence data for this species presents a unique opportunity to study the genes that are expressed in tissues involved in blood meal acquisition, digestion and reproduction during feeding. Utilising a custom oligonucleotide microarray designed from available singletons (BmiGI Version 2.1) and expressed sequence tag sequences of R. microplus, the expression profiles in feeding adult female midgut, salivary glands and ovarian tissues were compared. From 13,456 assembled transcripts, 588 genes expressed in all three tissues were identified from fed adult females 20 days post infestation. The greatest complement of genes relate to translation and protein turnover. Additionally, a number of unique transcripts were identified for each tissue that relate well to their respective physiological/biological function/role(s). These transcripts include secreted anti-hemostatics and defense proteins from the salivary glands for acquisition of a blood meal, proteases as well as enzymes and transporters for digestion and nutrient acquisition from ingested blood in the midgut, and finally proteins and associated factors involved in DNA replication and cell-cycle control for oogenesis in the ovaries. Comparative analyses of adult female tissues during feeding enabled the identification of a catalogue of transcripts that may be essential for successful feeding and reproduction in the cattle tick, R. microplus. Future studies will increase our understanding of basic tick biology, allowing the identification of shared proteins/pathways among different tissues that may offer novel targets for the development of new tick control strategies. PMID:23500075

Stutzer, Christian; van Zyl, Willem A; Olivier, Nicholas A; Richards, Sabine; Maritz-Olivier, Christine

2013-06-01

95

A Regression Equation for the Estimation of Maximum Oxygen Uptake in Nepalese Adult Females  

PubMed Central

Purpose Validity of the 20-meter multi stage shuttle run test (20-m MST) has not been studied in Nepalese population. The purpose of this study was to validate the applicability of the 20-m MST in Nepalese adult females. Methods Forty female college students (age range, 20.42 ~24.75 years) from different colleges of Nepal were recruited for the study. Direct estimation of VO2 max comprised treadmill exercise followed by expired gas analysis by scholander micro-gas analyzer whereas VO2 max was indirectly predicted by the 20-m MST. Results The difference between the mean (±SD) VO2 max values of direct measurement (VO2 max = 32.78 +/-2.88 ml/kg/min) and the 20-m MST (SPVO2 max = 32.53 + /-3.36 ml/kg/min) was statistically insignificant (P>0.1). Highly significant correlation (r=0.94, P<0.01) existed between the maximal speed of the 20-m MST and VO2 max. Limits of agreement analysis also suggest that the 20-m MST can be applied for the studied population. Conclusion The results of limits of agreement analysis suggest that the application of the present form of the 20-m MST may be justified in the studied population. However, for better prediction of VO2 max, a new equation has been computed based on the present data to be used for female college students of Nepal. PMID:22375191

Chatterjee, Pinaki; Banerjee, Alok K; Das, Paulomi; Debnath, Parimal

2010-01-01

96

Organ doses for reference adult male and female undergoing computed tomography estimated by Monte Carlo simulations  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To develop a computed tomography (CT) organ dose estimation method designed to readily provide organ doses in a reference adult male and female for different scan ranges to investigate the degree to which existing commercial programs can reasonably match organ doses defined in these more anatomically realistic adult hybrid phantomsMethods: The x-ray fan beam in the SOMATOM Sensation 16 multidetector CT scanner was simulated within the Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNPX2.6. The simulated CT scanner model was validated through comparison with experimentally measured lateral free-in-air dose profiles and computed tomography dose index (CTDI) values. The reference adult male and female hybrid phantoms were coupled with the established CT scanner model following arm removal to simulate clinical head and other body region scans. A set of organ dose matrices were calculated for a series of consecutive axial scans ranging from the top of the head to the bottom of the phantoms with a beam thickness of 10 mm and the tube potentials of 80, 100, and 120 kVp. The organ doses for head, chest, and abdomen/pelvis examinations were calculated based on the organ dose matrices and compared to those obtained from two commercial programs, CT-EXPO and CTDOSIMETRY. Organ dose calculations were repeated for an adult stylized phantom by using the same simulation method used for the adult hybrid phantom. Results: Comparisons of both lateral free-in-air dose profiles and CTDI values through experimental measurement with the Monte Carlo simulations showed good agreement to within 9%. Organ doses for head, chest, and abdomen/pelvis scans reported in the commercial programs exceeded those from the Monte Carlo calculations in both the hybrid and stylized phantoms in this study, sometimes by orders of magnitude. Conclusions: The organ dose estimation method and dose matrices established in this study readily provides organ doses for a reference adult male and female for different CT scan ranges and technical parameters. Organ doses from existing commercial programs do not reasonably match organ doses calculated for the hybrid phantoms due to differences in phantom anatomy, as well as differences in organ dose scaling parameters. The organ dose matrices developed in this study will be extended to cover different technical parameters, CT scanner models, and various age groups.

Lee, Choonsik; Kim, Kwang Pyo; Long, Daniel; Fisher, Ryan; Tien, Chris; Simon, Steven L.; Bouville, Andre; Bolch, Wesley E. [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institute of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20852 (United States); Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institute of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20852 (United States); Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States)

2011-03-15

97

The Effect of Lead on Bone Mineral Properties From Female Adult C57/BL6 Mice  

PubMed Central

Lead toxicity is a significant problem in the U.S. with elevated blood lead levels being highest among very young children and older adults > 50 years old. Bone is the major reservoir of body lead, accounting for 75% in children and 90% in adults. Very little is known about the effect of lead on bone mineral properties in adults. We investigated the effect of lead on the femora from adult, 6 month old female C57/BL6 mice who were administered lead in the drinking water (250 ppm, blood lead 33 ?g/dl) for 4 months. Bone mineral properties were examined using Fourier Transform Infrared Microscopy (FTIRM), quantitative microcomputed tomography (microCT) and whole bone mechanical testing. Lead significantly decreased the bone mineral density in the cortical and proximal cancellous bone and increased the marrow area in the cortical bone with microCT. Whole bone three-point bending showed a trend of decreased maximum and failure moments in the lead treated bones compared to controls. Lead significantly decreased the mineral/matrix ratio, collagen maturity and crystallinity in the trabecular bone as measured by FTIRM. In the cortical bone lead significantly decreased collagen maturity and bone crystal size by FTIRM. In contrast to cell culture studies, lead significantly increased serum osteocalcin levels. Lead also significantly increased the bone formation and resorption markers suggesting increased bone turnover. These data show lead increases bone turnover resulting in weaker cortical bone in adult female mice and suggest that lead may exacerbate bone loss and osteoporosis in the elderly. PMID:20643234

Monir, A. U.; Gundberg, C.M.; Yagerman, S. E.; van der Meulen, M. C. H.; Budell, W.; Boskey, A. L.; Dowd, T. L.

2010-01-01

98

Hybrid computational phantoms representing the reference adult male and adult female: construction and applications for retrospective dosimetry.  

PubMed

Currently, two classes of computational phantoms have been developed for dosimetry calculation: (1) stylized (or mathematical) and (2) voxel (or tomographic) phantoms describing human anatomy through mathematical surface equations and 3D voxel matrices, respectively. Mathematical surface equations in stylized phantoms are flexible, but the resulting anatomy is not as realistic. Voxel phantoms display far better anatomical realism, but they are limited in terms of their ability to alter organ shape, position, and depth, as well as body posture. A new class of computational phantoms called hybrid phantoms takes advantage of the best features of stylized and voxel phantoms-flexibility and anatomical realism, respectively. In the current study, hybrid computational phantoms representing the adult male and female reference anatomy and anthropometry are presented. These phantoms serve as the starting framework for creating patient or worker sculpted whole-body phantoms for retrospective dose reconstruction. Contours of major organs and tissues were converted or segmented from computed tomography images of a 36-y-old Korean volunteer and a 25-y-old U.S. female patient, respectively, with supplemental high-resolution CT images of the cranium. Polygon mesh models for the major organs and tissues were reconstructed and imported into Rhinoceros™ for non-uniform rational B-spline (NURBS) surface modeling. The resulting NURBS/polygon mesh models representing body contour and internal anatomy were matched to anthropometric data and reference organ mass data provided by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and International Commission on Radiation Protection, respectively. Finally, two hybrid adult male and female phantoms were completed where a total of eight anthropometric data categories were matched to standard values within 4% and organ volumes matched to ICRP data within 1% with the exception of total skin. The hybrid phantoms were voxelized from the NURBS phantoms at resolutions of 0.158 × 0.158 × 0.158 cm and 0.126 × 0.126 × 0.126 cm for the male and female, respectively. To highlight the flexibility of the hybrid phantoms, graphical displays are given of (1) underweight and overweight adult male phantoms, (2) a sitting position for the adult female phantom, and (3) extraction and higher-resolution voxelization of the small intestine for localized dosimetry of mucosal and stem cell layers. These phantoms are used to model radioactively contaminated individuals and to then assess time-dependent detector count rate thresholds corresponding to 50, 250, and 500 mSv effective dose, as might be needed during in-field radiological triage by first responders or first receivers. PMID:22315022

Hurtado, Jorge L; Lee, Choonsik; Lodwick, Daniel; Goede, Timothy; Williams, Jonathan L; Bolch, Wesley E

2012-03-01

99

Hybrid Computational Phantoms Representing the Reference Adult Male and Adult Female: Construction and Applications for Retrospective Dosimetry  

PubMed Central

Currently, two classes of the computational phantoms have been developed for dosimetry calculation: (1) stylized (or mathematical) and (2) voxel (or tomographic) phantoms describing human anatomy through mathematical surface equations and 3D voxel matrices, respectively. Mathematical surface equations in stylized phantoms are flexible but the resulting anatomy is not as realistic. Voxel phantoms display far better anatomical realism, but they are limited in terms of their ability to alter organ shape, position, and depth, as well as body posture. A new class of computational phantoms - called hybrid phantoms - takes advantage of the best features of stylized and voxel phantoms - flexibility and anatomical realism, respectively. In the current study, hybrid computational phantoms representing the adult male and female reference anatomy and anthropometry are presented. These phantoms serve as the starting framework for creating patient or worker sculpted whole-body phantoms for retrospective dose reconstruction. Contours of major organs and tissues were converted or segmented from computed tomography images of a 36-year Korean volunteer and a 25-year U.S. female patient, respectively, with supplemental high-resolution CT images for the cranium. Polygon mesh models for the major organs and tissues were reconstructed and imported into Rhinoceros™ for non-uniform rational B-spline (NURBS) surface modeling. The resulting NURBS/polygon mesh models representing body contour and internal anatomy were matched to anthropometric data and reference organ mass data provided by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP), respectively. Finally, two hybrid adult male and female phantoms were completed where a total of 8 anthropometric data categories were matched to standard values within 4% and organ volumes matched to ICRP data within 1% with the exception of total skin. The hybrid phantoms were voxelized from the NURBS phantoms at resolutions of 0.158 × 0.158 × 0.158 cm3 and 0.126 × 0.126 × 0.126 cm3 for the male and female, respectively. To highlight the flexibility of the hybrid phantoms, graphical displays are given of (1) underweight and overweight adult male phantoms, (2) a sitting position for the adult female phantom, and (3) extraction and higher-resolution voxelization of the small intestine for localized dosimetry of mucosal and stem cell layers. These phantoms are used to model radioactively contaminated individuals and to then assess time-dependent detector count rate thresholds corresponding to 50, 250, and 500 mSv effective dose, as might be needed during in-field radiological triage by first responders or first receivers. PMID:22315022

Hurtado, Jorge L.; Lee, Choonsik; Lodwick, Daniel; Goede, Timothy; Williams, Jonathan L.; Bolch, Wesley E.

2013-01-01

100

Vocal control region sizes of an adult female songbird change seasonally in the absence of detectable circulating testosterone concentrations.  

PubMed

Previous research established that in several species of seasonally breeding oscine birds, brain areas [vocal control regions (VCRs)] that control vocal behavior learning and expression exhibit seasonal plasticity, being larger during than outside the reproductive period. In adult males, this seasonal decrease correlates with circulating testosterone (T) concentrations. VCRs contain androgen receptors and T plays an important role in neural plasticity and in the control of singing behavior. In behaviorally dimorphic species, VCRs are larger in males than females and change seasonally also in females, but the dependency of these changes on circulating T levels in females has not been established. In free-living adult dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis), a species in which females do not normally sing, the sizes of three VCRs (high vocal center, robust nucleus of the archistriatum, and Area X) were larger in males than females and decreased between summer and fall in both sexes. In males, this decrease was associated with changes in circulating T concentrations. Females, however, had on average undetectable T levels throughout the breeding season. Seasonal changes in VCR volumes in adult females may depend on very low (below detection limit) circulating T concentrations, on nonandrogenic plasma steroids, on androgen (or androgen metabolites) produced in brain tissues, and/or on nonsteroidal factors such as photoperiod or social interactions with conspecific birds. PMID:10640327

Deviche, P; Gulledge, C C

2000-02-01

101

Orbital sporadic Burkitt lymphoma in an adult diabetic African American female and a review of adult orbital cases  

PubMed Central

A case of sporadic Burkitt lymphoma (sBL) presenting with jaw and lid involvement in a diabetic adult African American female and a review of adult orbital Burkitt lymphoma cases are presented. Lid edema, visual loss, ophthalmoparesis, proptosis, and sinusitis progressed over 4 weeks despite antibiotic and steroid treatment. Upper lid biopsy histopathological evaluation and immunophenotyping revealed a homogenous mass of atypical CD10 and CD20-negative B-cells and tingible body macrophages yielding a “starry sky” appearance. Cytogenetic analysis detected a minor variant c-MYC translocation, but no Epstein–Barr virus RNA. Detection of multiple lesions prompted a diagnosis of stage IV disease that totally regressed following radiation and chemotherapy. Review results of the six adult orbital sBL cases support a poor prognosis and a heightened suspicion of variant CD10, CD20 and BCL6 positive sBL in adults presenting with jaw pain and rapidly progressive orbital symptoms, particularly in female, African American, and diabetic patients. PMID:21573040

Carmody, John; Misra, Raghunath P; Langford, Marlyn P; Byrd, William A; Ditta, Lauren; Vekovius, Bryan; Texada, Donald E

2011-01-01

102

Influence of thiouracil-induced hypothyroidism on adrenal and gonadal functions in adult female rats.  

PubMed

The effect of hypothyroidism on adrenals and gonads in adult female rats was investigated throughout the estrous cycle. Hypothyroidism was induced by administration of 4-Methyl-2-Thiouracil (Thiouracil) in the drinking water. The weight of ovaries and adrenals, and the plasma levels of corticosterone decreased in hypothyroid rats as compared with euthyroid rats throughout the estrous cycle. Hypothyroidism resulted in decreased concentrations of plasma LH on the day of diestrus and proestrus, whereas the plasma concentrations of prolactin and progesterone increased as compared with euthyroid rats. The weight of uteri and plasma concentrations of estradiol decreased during the day of diestrus and proestrus in hypothyroid rats as compared with euthyroid rats. To further clarify the dysfunction of hypothalamo-hypophysial-adrenal axis in hypothyroid rats, animals were stressed by immobilization for 3 hr. In hypothyroid rats, a marked increase in plasma levels of ACTH in response to immobilization stress was observed compared to euthyroid control, whereas increases in plasma concentrations of corticosterone were much smaller in hypothyroid than euthyroid rats. These results clearly indicate that hypothyroidism causes both gonadal and adrenal disturbances in adult female rats. The increased concentrations of plasma progesterone may be due to hypersecretion of prolactin during the day of proestrus and estrus, which in turn result in disruption of the estrous cycle. PMID:9592715

Tohei, A; Imai, A; Watanabe, G; Taya, K

1998-04-01

103

Prenatal Testosterone Induces Sex-Specific Dysfunction in Endothelium-Dependent Relaxation Pathways in Adult Male and Female Rats1  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Prenatal testosterone (T) exposure impacts postnatal cardiovascular function, leading to increases in blood pressure with associated decreased endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation in adult females. Endothelial function in males is not known. Furthermore, which of the endothelial pathways contributes to endothelial dysfunction and if there exists sex differences are not known. The objective of this study was to characterize the relative contribution of nitric oxide (NO) and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) to the impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation in prenatal T-exposed adult males and females. Offspring of pregnant rats treated with T propionate or its vehicle were examined. Telemetric blood pressure levels and endothelium-dependent vascular reactivity were assessed with wire myography. Levels of nitric oxide synthase (NOS3) and Kcnn3 and Kcnn4 channel expression were examined in mesenteric arteries. Mean arterial pressure was significantly higher in T males and females than in controls. Endothelium-dependent acetylcholine relaxation was significantly lower in both T males and females. EDHF-mediated relaxation was specifically blunted in T males (Emax = 48.64% ± 3.73%) compared to that in control males (Emax = 81.71% ± 3.18%); however, NO-mediated relaxation was specifically impaired in T females (Emax = 36.01% ± 4.29%) compared with that in control females (Emax = 54.56% ± 6.37%). Relaxation to sodium nitroprusside and levcromakalim were unaffected with T-treatment. NOS3 protein was decreased in T females but not in T males. Kcnn3 expression was decreased in both T males and females compared to controls. These findings suggest that prenatal T leads to an increase in blood pressure in the adult offspring, associated with blunting of endothelial cell-associated relaxation and that the effects are sex-specific: EDHF-related in males and NO-related in females. PMID:23966325

Chinnathambi, Vijayakumar; Yallampalli, Chandrasekhar; Sathishkumar, Kunju

2013-01-01

104

Childhood Sexual Abuse as a Predictor of Adult Female Sexual Dysfunction: A Study of Couples Seeking Sex Therapy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of 359 married women who sought sex therapy with their spouses found a connection between adult female sexual dysfunction and childhood sexual abuse. Abuse involving sexual penetration was specifically associated with adult sexual dysfunction. Future research on additional variables that contribute to sexual dysfunction is urged. (CR)

Sarwer, David B.; Durlak, Joseph A.

1996-01-01

105

Duration of adult female Ixodes dammini attachment and transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi, with description of a needle aspiration isolation method.  

PubMed

The relationship between the attachment duration of adult female Ixodes dammini and the transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi was studied. Sixteen rabbits were exposed to spirochete-infected female ticks for specified intervals. All five rabbits exposed to ticks that fed to repletion (greater than 120 h) became infected, as did two of three exposed for 48 h. In contrast, five rabbits exposed to a cumulative total of 53 infected female I. dammini for 36 h failed to become infected, as did three rabbits exposed for 24 h. A needle aspirate method facilitated the isolation of spirochetes from host skin. PMID:2010643

Piesman, J; Maupin, G O; Campos, E G; Happ, C M

1991-04-01

106

Blood pressure in rural and urban adult healthy females of Jat Sikh community in Punjab, North India: an epidemiologic profile.  

PubMed

Blood pressure readings were collected from 1042 adult females of rural and urban Jat Sikh community of Punjab, a north Indian State. Anthropometric measurements like height, weight and skinfold thickness were also collected. The difference between rural and urban females in systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure was found to be statistically significant. All anthropometric variables and age have a significant positive association with blood pressure. The effects of anthropometric variables on blood pressure were assessed simultaneously through stepwise multiple regression analysis. All 'F' ratios have been found highly significant (p < 0.001) among both rural and urban female population. PMID:15559175

Sidhu, S; Badaruddoza; Kaur, A

2004-06-01

107

The effectiveness of fortified flour on micro-nutrient status in rural female adults in China.  

PubMed

This research was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of fortified flour on micronutrient status in poor rural adult women. A total of 4,700 farmers as the intervention group were supplied with multi-nutrient fortified wheat flour for three years, while 2750 farmers as the control group were supplied with unfortified wheat flour. Wheat flour was fortified with vitamins A, B-1, B-2, niacin, folic acid, iron and zinc in mg/kg at 2, 3.5, 3.5, 35, 1, 20 and 25, respectively. Blood samples were taken at baseline and annually from about 300 volunteer adult females aged 20-60 years in each group. Hemoglobin (Hb), serum retinol, serum iron, free erythrocyte protoporphyrin, serum zinc were measured annually and a dietary survey conducted every 6 months. Average intakes of fortified micronutrients increased to adequate levels with average consumption of fortified flour at 117 g per person per day. Intervention groups showed a significant increase in terms of Hb levels from 24 m to 36 m and anemia rate decreased from 15.1% at baseline to 10.8% at 36 m. Serum iron levels of the intervention group significantly increased from 12 m to 36 m and erythrocyte protoporphyrin decreased from 24 m to 36 m respectively. Serum retinol and serum zinc of intervention group improved significantly from 12 m to 36 m compared with baseline and control group. The results showed that the fortified flour could improve micronutrient status of adult females in poor rural region. PMID:21393119

Huo, Junsheng; Sun, Jing; Huang, Jian; Li, Wenxian; Wang, Lijuan; Selenje, Lilian; Gleason, Gary R; Yu, Xiaodong

2011-01-01

108

Fetal programming of adult hypertension in female rat offspring exposed to androgens in utero  

PubMed Central

Aims The influence of prenatal factors on the development of arterial hypertension has gained considerable interest in recent years. We examined the effects of prenatal testosterone treatment on blood pressure in adult female rats. Further, to define the mechanisms whereby blood pressure may be raised, we examined vascular endothelial function and nitric oxide synthesis. Methods and Results Testosterone propionate (0.5mg/kg/day;SC) or vehicle was administered to pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats from gestational day 15–19. Maternal feed intake and plasma levels of steroid hormones were measured in the dams. In the female offspring, birth weight, growth rate, blood pressure, vascular reactivity, eNOS expression, and nitric oxide production were examined. In the pregnant rats, testosterone-treatment increased plasma testosterone levels by 2-fold without any significant changes in 17?-estradiol, progesterone and corticosterone levels. Testosterone-treatment did not affect maternal feed intake. The pups born to testosterone mothers were smaller in size but exhibited catch-up growth. The blood pressure in the testosterone offspring at 6 months of age was significantly higher compared to controls. Endothelium-intact mesenteric arteries from testosterone group exhibited increased contractile responses to phenylephrine, decreased vasodilation to acetylcholine and unaltered responses to sodium nitroprusside in comparison to control rats. Testosterone rats demonstrated decreased expression for eNOS, and reduced nitric oxide production. Conclusions Our data show that elevated plasma maternal testosterone levels: (1) causes low birth weight followed by catch-up growth and hypertension in female offspring; (2) alters endothelium-dependent vascular responses. The endothelial dysfunction is associated with decreased activity/expression of eNOS. PMID:21450421

Sathishkumar, K.; Elkins, Rebekah; Yallampalli, Uma; Balakrishnan, Meena; Yallampalli, Chandrasekhar

2011-01-01

109

Adult reports of child and adult attributions of blame for childhood sexual abuse: predicting adult adjustment and suicidal behaviors in females  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The aim of this study was to determine whether reports made by adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse about attributions of blame made during childhood and adulthood are predictive of overall adulthood symptomatology and presence of suicide attempts.Methodology: 126 female survivors of childhood sexual abuse completed anonymous survey packages which included a modified version of the Attributional Style Questionnaire,

Suzanne L Barker-Collo

2001-01-01

110

Female Sexual Dysfunction  

MedlinePLUS

What is female sexual dysfunction (FSD)? Many women have a low sex drive or trouble having an orgasm. Some women are not bothered ... this, but others are. A woman has female sexual dysfunction, also called FSD, when she is upset ...

111

Oral administration of leaf extracts of Momordica charantia affect reproductive hormones of adult female Wistar rats  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the effect of graded doses of aqueous leaf extracts of Momordica charantia on fertility hormones of female albino rats. Methods Twenty adult, healthy, female Wistar rats were divided into four groups: low dose (LD), moderate dose (MD) and high dose (HD) groups which received 12.5 g, 25.0 g, 50.0 g of the leaf extract respectively and control group that was given with water ad libatum. Result Estrogen levels reduced by 6.40 nmol/L, 10.80 nmol/L and 28.00 nmol/L in the LD, MD and HD groups respectively while plasma progesterone of rats in the LD, MD and HD groups reduced by 24.20 nmol/L, 40.8 nmol/L and 59.20 nmol/L respectively. Conclusion Our study has shown that the antifertility effect of Momordica charantia is achieved in a dose dependent manner. Hence, cautious use of such medication should be advocated especially when managing couples for infertility. PMID:25183143

Adewale, Osonuga Odusoga; Oduyemi, Osonuga Ifabunmi; Ayokunle, Osonuga

2014-01-01

112

[Tentative discrimination of adult female simulids (Diptera: Simuliidae) in Nuku-Hiva (Marquesas Archipelago, French Polynesia)].  

PubMed

Simulium sechani Craig & Fossati, 1995 was recently found for the first time in a part of Nuku-Hiva Island. This species coexists with Simulim buissoni Roubaud 1906, the dominant species, and always regarded as the main biting fly on the island. The problem is that optimisation of control operations needs a good knowledge of targets. The unknown female of S. sechani is the reason of this study. This study used samples collected before the description of S. sechani to try to correlate its geographical extent with easy to use biometrical parameters, and then give a first look at the possibilities of determination of adult females. Parameters used are: the numbers of maxillary and mandibular teeth, the dimension of the third antenna article and the number of apical hairs, the width and depth of the ventral plate space, and the number of hairs on the radial vein of the wing. Analysis of frequency distributions in relation with sampling sites and trapping hosts did not allow us to find convenient diagnosis characters, but contributed to new questions about isolation of insect populations in valleys and hosts usually used. PMID:11147037

Séchan, Y; Loncke, S

2000-12-01

113

Adolescent Female Identify Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to (a) add to the current literature on female identity development and (b) determine whether a gender specific pattern of identity formation is evident in females during their early and middle adolescent years. The Measures of Psychosocial Development (MPD) was administered by graduate students to 317 males and 332 females in sixth, eighth, tenth,

L. Jean Lytle; Linda Bakken; Charles Romig

1997-01-01

114

CHAPTER THREE Female Behavioral  

E-print Network

53 CHAPTER THREE Female Behavioral Strategies of Hybrid Baboons in the Awash National Park of hamadryas baboons has been attrib- uted primarily to the predisposition of hamadryas males to herd females-like morphological phe- notypes exhibited behaviors characteristic of hamadryas baboons, while females with more

115

Breeding sex ratios in adult leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) may compensate for female-biased hatchling sex ratios.  

PubMed

For vertebrates with temperature-dependent sex determination, primary (or hatchling) sex ratios are often skewed, an issue of particular relevance to concerns over effects of climate change on populations. However, the ratio of breeding males to females, or the operational sex ratio (OSR), is important to understand because it has consequences for population demographics and determines the capacity of a species to persist. The OSR also affects mating behaviors and mate choice, depending on the more abundant sex. For sea turtles, hatchling and juvenile sex ratios are generally female-biased, and with warming nesting beach temperatures, there is concern that populations may become feminized. Our purpose was to evaluate the breeding sex ratio for leatherback turtles at a nesting beach in St. Croix, USVI. In 2010, we sampled nesting females and later sampled their hatchlings as they emerged from nests. Total genomic DNA was extracted and all individuals were genotyped using 6 polymorphic microsatellite markers. We genotyped 662 hatchlings from 58 females, matching 55 females conclusively to their nests. Of the 55, 42 females mated with one male each, 9 mated with 2 males each and 4 mated with at least 3 males each, for a multiple paternity rate of 23.6%. Using GERUD1.0, we reconstructed parental genotypes, identifying 47 different males and 46 females for an estimated breeding sex ratio of 1.02 males for every female. Thus we demonstrate that there are as many actively breeding males as females in this population. Concerns about female-biased adult sex ratios may be premature, and mate choice or competition may play more of a role in sea turtle reproduction than previously thought. We recommend monitoring breeding sex ratios in the future to allow the integration of this demographic parameter in population models. PMID:24505403

Stewart, Kelly R; Dutton, Peter H

2014-01-01

116

Breeding Sex Ratios in Adult Leatherback Turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) May Compensate for Female-Biased Hatchling Sex Ratios  

PubMed Central

For vertebrates with temperature-dependent sex determination, primary (or hatchling) sex ratios are often skewed, an issue of particular relevance to concerns over effects of climate change on populations. However, the ratio of breeding males to females, or the operational sex ratio (OSR), is important to understand because it has consequences for population demographics and determines the capacity of a species to persist. The OSR also affects mating behaviors and mate choice, depending on the more abundant sex. For sea turtles, hatchling and juvenile sex ratios are generally female-biased, and with warming nesting beach temperatures, there is concern that populations may become feminized. Our purpose was to evaluate the breeding sex ratio for leatherback turtles at a nesting beach in St. Croix, USVI. In 2010, we sampled nesting females and later sampled their hatchlings as they emerged from nests. Total genomic DNA was extracted and all individuals were genotyped using 6 polymorphic microsatellite markers. We genotyped 662 hatchlings from 58 females, matching 55 females conclusively to their nests. Of the 55, 42 females mated with one male each, 9 mated with 2 males each and 4 mated with at least 3 males each, for a multiple paternity rate of 23.6%. Using GERUD1.0, we reconstructed parental genotypes, identifying 47 different males and 46 females for an estimated breeding sex ratio of 1.02 males for every female. Thus we demonstrate that there are as many actively breeding males as females in this population. Concerns about female-biased adult sex ratios may be premature, and mate choice or competition may play more of a role in sea turtle reproduction than previously thought. We recommend monitoring breeding sex ratios in the future to allow the integration of this demographic parameter in population models. PMID:24505403

Stewart, Kelly R.; Dutton, Peter H.

2014-01-01

117

Rapid Partial Repigmentation of Vitiligo in a Young Female Adult with a Gluten-Free Diet  

PubMed Central

Vitiligo is a common pigmentary skin condition with a profound impact. Despite a number of therapeutic modalities, few have been demonstrated to result in significant repigmentation within a brief period of time. Reported dietary interventions are sparse. Following exclusion of gluten in the diet, early and extensive repigmentation of facial lesions were noted in a young female adult of Asian ethnicity with acrofacial vitiligo. The majority of the benefits occurred within the first month and stabilized at 4 months. Previous topical and phototherapy had not been found to be effective. The patient was maintained on the previously prescribed dapsone therapy. Dietary elimination can potentially be a disease-modifying intervention for vitiligo and should be considered even in patients without concomitant celiac disease. PMID:25685131

Khandalavala, Birgit N.; Nirmalraj, Maya C.

2014-01-01

118

A natural model of behavioral depression in postpartum adult female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).  

PubMed

Postpartum depression (PPD) is a modified form of major depressive disorders (MDD) that can exert profound negative effects on both mothers and infants than MDD. Within the postpartum period, both mothers and infants are susceptible; but because PPD typically occurs for short durations and has moderate symptoms, there exists challenges in exploring and addressing the underlying cause of the depression. This fact highlights the need for relevant animal models. In the present study, postpartum adult female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) living in breeding groups were observed for typical depressive behavior. The huddle posture behavior was utilized as an indicator of behavioral depression postpartum (BDP) as it has been established as the core depressive-like behavior in primates. Monkeys were divided into two groups: A BDP group (n=6), which were found to spend more time huddling over the first two weeks postpartum than other individuals that formed a non-depression control group (n=4). The two groups were then further analyzed for locomotive activity, stressful events, hair cortisol levels and for maternal interactive behaviors. No differences were found between the BDP and control groups in locomotive activity, in the frequencies of stressful events experienced and in hair cortisol levels. These findings suggested that the postpartum depression witnessed in the monkeys was not related to external factors other than puerperium period. Interestingly, the BDP monkeys displayed an abnormal maternal relationship consisting of increased infant grooming. Taken together, these findings suggest that the adult female cynomolgus monkeys provide a natural model of behavioral postpartum depression that holds a number of advantages over commonly used rodent systems in PPD modeling. The cynomolgus monkeys have a highly-organized social hierarchy and reproductive characteristics without seasonal restriction-similar to humans-as well as much greater homology to humans than rodents. As such, this model may provide a greater translational efficiency and research platform for systematically investigating the etiology, treatment, prevention of PPD. PMID:24866487

Chu, Xun-Xun; Dominic Rizak, Joshua; Yang, Shang-Chuan; Wang, Jian-Hong; Ma, Yuan-Ye; Hu, Xin-Tian

2014-05-01

119

Adult female prairie voles and meadow voles do not suppress reproduction in their daughters.  

PubMed

Reproductive suppression of young females by conspecific females has been reported from laboratory studies on several species of rodents, including the prairie vole, Microtus ochrogaster, but not meadow voles, M. pennsylvanicus. We exposed female prairie voles and meadow voles to two treatments: a mother and one 23-26-day-old daughter paired with a strange male and a 23-26-day-old daughter paired with a different strange male. We found no differences in the proportion of daughters breeding or the time to sexual maturation for daughters raised in the two treatments for either species. Thus, we have no indication that mothers had any adverse effect on reproductive efforts of their daughters. These results differ from previous studies that concluded young female prairie voles were reproductively suppressed by female relatives. The difference between our and previous studies on reproductive suppression is that we examined breeding in young females rather than proximate measures of growth and reproductive development. We question the evolutionary significance of reproductive suppression among related female microtine rodents, especially in that it has not been documented from field populations. PMID:11483353

Wolff, J O.; Dunlap, A S.; Ritchhart, E

2001-09-01

120

Den site activity patterns of adult male and female swift foxes, Vulpes velox, in Northwestern Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Activity of Swift Foxes (Vulpes velox) at den sites was studied in northwestern Texas during pup rearing seasons in 2000 and 2001 to determine role of males in parental care. Twenty-four percent of radio-collared females with a potential to breed successfully raised pups to eight weeks of age. We intensively monitored presence and absence of male and female Swift Foxes at two den sites each year. Females were present >2.6 times more at den sites than males during the pup rearing season. Female and male Swift Foxes largely stayed at dens during diurnal hours and were active away from dens during nocturnal and crepuscular hours. Females and males spent 12.4% and 3.0% more time at dens before pups emerged, than after pups emerged, respectively. Following depredation of one male parent, the female spent 29% less time at the den site. Decrease in time spent at the den by the female following loss of her mate suggested that loss of one parent might severely impact recruitment of Swift Foxes. Our observations indicated that intense Coyote (Canis latrans) depredation may severely impact pup-rearing success as well as the parental care within Swift Fox family groups.

Lemons, P.R.; Ballard, W.B.; Sullivan, R.M.; Sovada, M.A.

2003-01-01

121

Neonatal Bladder Inflammation Produces Functional Changes and Alters Neuropeptide Content in Bladders of Adult Female Rats  

PubMed Central

Neonatal bladder inflammation has been demonstrated to produce hypersensitivity to bladder re-inflammation as an adult. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of neonatal urinary bladder inflammation on adult bladder function and structure. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were treated on postnatal days 14-16 with intravesical zymosan or anesthesia alone. At 12-16 weeks of age, micturition frequency and cystometrograms were measured. Similarly treated rats had their bladders removed for measurement of plasma extravasation following intravesical mustard oil, for neuropeptide analysis (CGRP or SubP), or for detailed histological examination. Rats treated with zymosan as neonates exhibited increased micturition frequency, reduced micturition volume thresholds, greater extravasation of Evan's Blue following intravesical mustard oil administration, and greater total bladder content of CGRP and SubP. In contrast, there were no quantitative histological changes in the thickness, fibrosis or mast cells of bladder tissue due to neonatal zymosan treatments. Functional changes in urologic systems observed in adulthood, coupled with the increased neuropeptide content and neurogenic plasma extravasation in adult bladders, suggest that the neonatal bladder inflammation treatment enhanced the number, function and/or neurochemical content of primary afferent neurons. These data support the hypothesis that insults to the urologic system in infancy may contribute to the development of adult bladder hypersensitivity. Perspective Inflammation of the bladder early in life in the rat has multiple sequelae including laboratory measures that suggest an alteration of the neurophysiological substrates related to the bladder. Some painful bladder syndromes in humans have similar characteristics and so may be due to similar mechanisms. PMID:19945355

DeBerry, Jennifer; Randich, Alan; Shaffer, Amber D.; Robbins, Meredith T.; Ness, Timothy J.

2009-01-01

122

Voxel-based models representing the male and female ICRP reference adult--the skeleton.  

PubMed

For the forthcoming update of organ dose conversion coefficients, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) will use voxel-based computational phantoms due to their improved anatomical realism compared with the class of mathematical or stylized phantoms used previously. According to the ICRP philosophy, these phantoms should be representative of the male and female reference adults with respect to their external dimensions, their organ topology and their organ masses. To meet these requirements, reference models of an adult male and adult female have been constructed at the GSF, based on existing voxel models segmented from tomographic images of two individuals whose body height and weight closely resemble the ICRP Publication 89 reference values. The skeleton is a highly complex structure of the body, composed of cortical bone, trabecular bone, red and yellow bone marrow and endosteum ('bone surfaces' in their older terminology). The skeleton of the reference phantoms consists of 19 individually segmented bones and bone groups. Sub-division of these bones into the above-mentioned constituents would be necessary in order to allow a direct calculation of dose to red bone marrow and endosteum. However, the dimensions of the trabeculae, the cavities containing bone marrow and the endosteum layer lining these cavities are clearly smaller than the resolution of a normal CT scan and, thus, these volumes could not be segmented in the tomographic images. As an attempt to represent the gross spatial distribution of these regions as realistically as possible at the given voxel resolution, 48 individual organ identification numbers were assigned to various parts of the skeleton: every segmented bone was subdivided into an outer shell of cortical bone and a spongious core; in the shafts of the long bones, a medullary cavity was additionally segmented. Using the data from ICRP Publication 89 on elemental tissue composition, from ICRU Report 46 on material mass densities, and from ICRP Publication 70 on the distribution of the red bone marrow among and marrow cellularity in individual bones, individual elemental compositions for these segmented bone regions were derived. Thus, most of the relevant source and target regions of the skeleton were provided. Dose calculations using these regions will be based on fluence-to-dose response functions that are multiplied with the particle fluence inside specific bone regions to give the dose quantities of interest to the target tissues. PMID:17545663

Zankl, M; Eckerman, K F; Bolch, W E

2007-01-01

123

Relative influence of human harvest, carnivores, and weather on adult female elk survival across  

E-print Network

to predation in snowy winters. Baseline mortality was unrelated to puma Puma concolor presence, forest cover with both pumas and wolves because managers reduced female harvest in areas with abundant or diverse

Hebblewhite, Mark

124

Vocal Control Region Sizes of an Adult Female Songbird Change Seasonally in the Absence of  

E-print Network

dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis), a species in which females do not normally sing, the sizes of three­211, 2000 Keywords: junco; androgen; HVc; sexual dimorphism; plasticity In oscine birds, song is a learned

Deviche, Pierre

125

Azelaic acid in the treatment of acne in adult females: case reports.  

PubMed

Acne, one of the most common skin problems in dermatological practice, is a condition that affects not only adolescents but also adults. While approximately 80% of cases occurring in adulthood are persistent from teenage years, around 20% are described as 'late-onset' disease, appearing for the first time in adulthood. The disease can be triggered by hormonal changes (including a change from one contraceptive to another), or it can be induced by certain nonhormonal medications, emotional stress, and various underlying diseases such as polycystic ovary syndrome. In many cases acne becomes a chronic skin condition with undulating activity, including improvement and relapse phases, and is often experienced as a major psychological burden. It is, therefore, even more important to provide an effective as well as a safe and tolerable treatment. The spectrum of topical acne treatments has expanded substantially in recent years and various topical medications are available, ranging from azelaic acid, antibiotics, retinoids and benzoyl peroxide to several fixed combinations of these active compounds. The following case collection illustrates how 15% azelaic acid gel, as a well-established monotherapy, can be successfully employed to treat mild-to-moderate forms of adult female acne. PMID:24280645

Vargas-Diez, E; Hofmann, M A; Bravo, B; Malgazhdarova, G; Katkhanova, O A; Yutskovskaya, Y

2014-01-01

126

The Effects of Ovariectomy on Binge Eating Proneness in Adult Female Rats  

PubMed Central

Ovarian hormones are associated with binge eating in women, however findings are limited by the lack of experimental control inherent in human studies. Animal research that manipulates ovarian hormone status and examines individual differences in extreme binge eating proneness are needed to model clinical phenotypes in humans and to confirm causal effects. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of adult ovariectomy on overall binge eating risk and extreme binge eating phenotypes using the binge eating resistant (BER)/ binge eating prone (BEP) rat model. We predicted that palatable food consumption would significantly increase after ovariectomy in all rats because ovarian hormones generally suppress food intake. If differences in responsiveness to ovarian hormones underlie BER/BEP phenotypes, then differences in binge eating between BER and BEP rats would be eliminated or diminished after ovariectomy. Changes in palatable food (PF) intake were compared in BER and BEP rats before and after ovariectomy in two samples of adult females. Findings were highly similar in the two samples. PF intake increased significantly following ovariectomy in all rats. However, BEP rats consistently consumed larger amounts of PF than BER rats, both before and after ovariectomy. The consistency of findings across two samples of rats provides strong support for activational effects of ovarian hormones on binge eating. However, the immunity of extreme binge eating phenotypes to ovarian hormone ablation suggests that other, earlier mechanisms (e.g., organizational hormone effects or hormone-independent effects) determine the expression of binge eating phenotypes. PMID:21376721

Klump, Kelly L.; Suisman, Jessica L.; Culbert, Kristen M.; Kashy, Deborah A.; Keel, Pamela K.; Sisk, Cheryl L.

2011-01-01

127

The Female Gametophyte  

PubMed Central

The angiosperm female gametophyte is critical for plant reproduction. It contains the egg cell and central cell that become fertilized and give rise to the embryo and endosperm of the seed, respectively. Female gametophyte development begins early in ovule development with the formation of a diploid megaspore mother cell that undergoes meiosis. One resulting haploid megaspore then develops into the female gametophyte. Genetic and epigenetic processes mediate specification of megaspore mother cell identity and limit megaspore mother cell formation to a single cell per ovule. Auxin gradients influence female gametophyte polarity and a battery of transcription factors mediate female gametophyte cell specification and differentiation. The mature female gametophyte secretes peptides that guide the pollen tube to the embryo sac and contains protein complexes that prevent seed development before fertilization. Post-fertilization, the female gametophyte influences seed development through maternal-effect genes and by regulating parental contributions. Female gametophytes can form by an asexual process called gametophytic apomixis, which involves formation of a diploid female gametophyte and fertilization-independent development of the egg into the embryo. These functions collectively underscore the important role of the female gametophyte in seed and food production. PMID:22303279

Drews, Gary N.; Koltunow, Anna M.G

2011-01-01

128

Sexual Function and Fertility in Adult Females and Males with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female patients with classic 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD) present with decreased fertility and low childbirth rates, women with a salt-wasting form of 21-OHD being most severely affected. In cases of undersubstitution with glucocorticoids, tonic androgen secretion disturbs ovulation. However, even adequately substituted females may present with apparent infertility. Despite adrenal androgen suppression, adrenal progesterone secretion can prevent thickening of the endometrium

Jarmo Jääskeläinen; Aila Tiitinen; Raimo Voutilainen

2001-01-01

129

Gender and Violence: Trends in Adult Male and Female Violence, 1980-2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

Constructionist theories suggest the national rise in female violence arrests may be policy generated because arrest statistics are produced by violent behavior and changing official responses (e.g., net-widening enforcement policies). Normative theories attribute the rise to female behavior changes (e.g., in response to increased freedoms or hardships). We examine whether any narrowing of the arrest gender gap is borne out

Jennifer Schwartz; Darrell Steffensmeier; Ben Feldmeyer

2009-01-01

130

Adult Female Rats Altered Diurnal Locomotor Activity Pattern Following Chronic Methylphenidate Treatment  

PubMed Central

Methylphenidate (MPD) is one of the most prescribed pharmacological agents and also used as cognitive enhancement and for recreational purposes. The objective of this study was to investigate the repetitive dose-response effects of MPD on rhythm locomotor activity pattern of female WKY rats and compare to prior study done on male. The hypothesis is that change in the circadian activity pattern indicates a long-lasting effect of the drug. Four animal groups (saline control, 0.6, 2.5, and 10.0 mg/kg MPD dose groups) were housed in a sound-controlled room at 12:12 light/dark cycle. All received saline injections on experimental day 1 (ED 1). On EDs 2-7, the control group received saline injection; the other groups received 0.6, 2.5, or 10.0 mg/kg MPD, respectively. On ED 8-10, injections were withheld. On ED 11, each group received the same dose as EDs 2-7. Hourly histograms and cosine statistical analyses calculating the acrophase (?), amplitude (A), and MESOR (M) were applied to assess the 24-hour circadian activity pattern. The 0.6 and 2.5 mg/kg MPD groups exhibited significant (p<0.05) change in their circadian activity pattern on ED 11. The 10.0 mg/kg MPD group exhibited tolerance on ED 11 and also a significant change in activity pattern on ED 8 compared to ED 1, consistent with withdrawal behavior (p<0.007). In conclusion, chronic MPD administration alters circadian locomotor activity of adult female WKY rats and confirms that chronic MPD use elicits long lasting effects PMID:23893293

Trinh, T.; Kohllepin, S; Yang, P.B.; Burau, K.D.; Dafny, N.

2014-01-01

131

Effects of Anethum graveolens L. (dill) on Oocyte and Fertility of Adult Female Rats  

PubMed Central

Background Our previous studies revealed Anethum graveolens L. caused some changes in female reproductive system that induced infertility. Therefore, in this study, oocyte changes as one of probable reasons of infertility were investigated. Methods In this study, 59 adult female rats were divided into 3 groups of control, low dose (0.5 g/kg) and high dose (5 g/kg) of dill seed aqueous extract (LDE and HDE) treated groups that were gavaged with 1 ml of each dose for 10 days (2 estrous cycles). Vaginal smears were prepared daily. Oocytes of superovulated animals were extracted and their morphometrical changes were measured (n = 5). Oocyte cell membrane glycoconjugates were stained with UEA, PNA, and DBA-FITC lectins (n = 5). Ultrastructural studies of oocytes were performed using TEM (n = 5). The number, weight, and crown-rump length of newborns were examined in three groups after mating with untreated males (n = 5). Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results Results demonstrated that the duration of the estrous cycle, the diestrus phase and progesterone concentration in the experimental groups increased significantly compared to the control group (p < 0.05). Granulosa cells of corpus luteum in HDE-treated group were larger and clearer. The intensity reactions of galactose/Nacetylgalactoseamine terminal sugar of oocyte decreased insignificantly in experimental groups compared to the control group p > 0.05. Duration of mating to pregnancy increased and the weight and crown-rump length of newborns decreased in experimental groups significantly (p < 0.05). Conclusion Dill seed aqueous extract can induce infertility without any effect on oocyte structure. PMID:25717430

Monsefi, Malihezaman; Ghasemi, Aazam; Alaee, Sanaz; Aliabadi, Elham

2015-01-01

132

Spatial distribution of juvenile and adult female Tanner crabs (Chionoecetes bairdi) in a glacial fjord ecosystem: Implications for recruitment processes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A systematic pot survey in Glacier Bay, Alaska, was conducted to characterize the spatial distribution of juvenile and adult female Tanner crabs, and their association with depth and temperature. The information was used to infer important recruitment processes for Tanner crabs in glaciated ecosystems. High-catch areas for juvenile and adult female Tanner crabs were identified using local autocorrelation statistics. Spatial segregation by size class corresponded to features in the glacial landscape: high-catch areas for juveniles were located at the distal ends of two narrow glacial fjords, and high-catch areas for adults were located in the open waters of the central Bay. Juvenile female Tanner crabs were found at nearly all sampled depths (15-439 m) and temperatures (4-8??C), but the biggest catches were at depths <150 m where adults were scarce. Because adults may prey on or compete with juveniles, the distribution of juveniles could be influenced by the distribution of adults. Areas where adults or predators are scarce, such as glacially influenced fjords, could serve as refuges for juvenile Tanner crabs. ?? 2007 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea. Published by Oxford Journals. All rights reserved.

Nielsen, J.K.; Taggart, S.J.; Shirley, T.C.; Mondragon, J.

2007-01-01

133

Pheromones from males of different familiarity exert divergent effects on adult neurogenesis in the female accessory olfactory bulb.  

PubMed

Pheromones from urine of unfamiliar conspecific male animals can reinitiate a female's estrus cycle to cause pregnancy block through the vomeronasal organ (VNO)-accessory olfactory bulb (AOB)-hypothalamic pathway. This phenomenon is called the Bruce effect. Pheromones from the mate of the female, however, do not trigger re-entrance of the estrus cycle because an olfactory memory toward its mate is formed. The activity of the VNO-AOB-hypothalamic pathway is negatively modulated by GABAergic granule cells in the AOB. Since these cells are constantly replenished by neural stem cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle throughout adulthood and adult neurogenesis is required for mate recognition and fertility, we tested the hypothesis that pheromones from familiar and unfamiliar males may have different effects on adult AOB neurogenesis in female mice. When female mice were exposed to bedding used by a male or lived with one, cell proliferation and neuroblast production in the SVZ were increased. Furthermore, survival of newly generated cells in the AOB was enhanced. This survival effect was transient and mediated by norepinephrine. Interestingly, male bedding-induced newborn cell survival in the AOB but not cell proliferation in the SVZ was attenuated when females were subjected to bedding from an unfamiliar male. Our results indicate that male pheromones from familiar and unfamiliar males exert different effects on neurogenesis in the adult female AOB. Given that adult neurogenesis is required for reproductive behaviors, these divergent pheromonal effects may provide a mechanism for the Bruce effect. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 73: 632-645, 2013. PMID:23696538

Wu, Jyun-Han; Han, Yueh-Ting; Yu, Jenn-Yah; Wang, Tsu-Wei

2013-08-01

134

Care and feeding of Orius insidiosus (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae): Assessing the impact of diet on predation following adult female eclosion  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Reproduction in female Orius insidiosus Say (Hemiptera, Anthocoridae) is a stringent process, and requires a source of nutrition high in quantity and quality of protein and lipid for optimal production of eggs. Adults can survive solely on a source of carbohydrates, but at the cost of suspending th...

135

Effects of permethrin and amitraz on gas exchange and water loss in unfed adult females of Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Effects of permethrin and amitraz on metabolism of the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum, were examined using a flow-through carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor analyzer. Untreated adult female ticks exhibited a distinct discontinuous gas exchange pattern (DGEP) with no measurable water loss. Si...

136

Gut transcriptome of replete adult female cattle ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, feeding upon a Babesia bovis-infected bovine host  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Babesiosis develops in susceptible cattle when infected by the apicomplexan Babesia bovis, which is transmitted to cattle through the bite of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. The R. microplus midgut transcriptome was studied for two cohorts: adult females feeding on cattle infect...

137

Female common lizards (Lacerta vivipara) do not adjust their sex-biased investment in relation to the adult sex ratio  

E-print Network

Female common lizards (Lacerta vivipara) do not adjust their sex-biased investment in relation to the adult sex ratio J.-F. LE GALLIARD,*, ,# P. S. FITZE,*,à,# J. COTE,* M. MASSOT* & J. CLOBERT differential investment into the sexes, such that higher fitness returns in one sex selects for stronger

Alvarez, Nadir

138

Effects of Age on Cerebrospinal Fluid Oxytocin Levels in Free-Ranging Adult Female and Infant Rhesus Macaques  

E-print Network

Effects of Age on Cerebrospinal Fluid Oxytocin Levels in Free-Ranging Adult Female and Infant University of Chicago There is growing interest in examining oxytocin and social functioning in human and non-human primates. Studies of human oxytocin biology are typically restricted to peripheral assessments because

Maestripieri, Dario

139

Pathogenesis and epidemiology of brucellosis in yellowstone bison: serologic and culture results from adult females and their progeny.  

PubMed

Our objective in this prospective study was to determine the natural course of Brucella abortus infection in cohorts of seropositive and seronegative, female bison (Bison bison) and their offspring in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) for 5 yr. We collected specimens from 53 adult females and 25 calves at least once and from 45 adults and 22 calves more than once. Annual seroconversion rates (negative to positive) were relatively high (23% for calves and juvenile bison, 6% in the total sample of adult female bison in our study, and 11% in the adult females that began the study as seronegatives). Antibody was not protective against infection, even for calves that passively received antibody from an infected mother's colostrum. Antibody levels stayed remarkably constant, with only a slow decline over time. We found only two seroconversions from a weak positive status to negative. Infected bison aborted and shed viable bacteria. Risk of shedding infective Brucella was highest for bison in the 2 yr following seroconversion from negative to positive. In one bison, we detected shedding for 3 yr following seroconversion. Regardless of serostatus of dams and neonates, most calves were seronegative by 5 mo of age. There was no relationship between the antibody status of the dam and the tendency of a calf to seroconvert to positive during the duration of the study. PMID:19617483

Rhyan, Jack C; Aune, Keith; Roffe, Thomas; Ewalt, Darla; Hennager, Steve; Gidlewski, Tom; Olsen, Steve; Clarke, Ryan

2009-07-01

140

Risk Factors and Protective Factors in Relation to Subjective Health among Adult Female Victims of Child Sexual Abuse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To investigate the relationships between risk and protective factors and health outcome in a sample of adult females who had been victims of child sexual abuse. Method: Both person- and variable-oriented analyses were applied to questionnaire data from a non-clinical group of women (n=152) reporting sexual abuse during childhood.…

Jonzon, Eva; Lindblad, Frank

2006-01-01

141

Female common lizards (Lacerta vivipara) do not adjust their sex-biased investment in relation to the adult sex ratio  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sex allocation theory predicts that facultative maternal investment in the rare sex should be favoured by natural selection when breeders experience predictable variation in adult sex ratios (ASRs). We found significant spatial and predictable interannual changes in local ASRs within a natural population of the common lizard where the mean ASR is female-biased, thus validating the key assumptions of adaptive

J.-F. LE; P. S. FITZE; J. COTE; M. MASSOT; J. CLOBERT

142

Oviposition-altering and ovicidal potentials of five essential oils against female adults of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oviposition deterrence and ovicidal potential of five different essential oils, peppermint oil (Mentha piperita), basil oil (Ocimum basilicum), rosemary oil (Rosemarinus officinalis), citronella oil (Cymbopogon nardus), and celery seed oil (Apium graveolens), were assessed against female adults of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti L. Multiple concentration tests were carried out where cups containing 1 mL of different concentrations (100%, 10%,

Radhika Warikoo; Naim Wahab; Sarita Kumar

143

Adult Consequences of Post-weaning High Fat Feeding on the Limbic–HPA Axis of Female Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The peripubertal period is critical for the final maturation of circuits controlling energy homeostasis and stress response.\\u000a However, the consequence of juvenile fat consumption on adult physiology is not clear. This study analyzed the adult consequences\\u000a of post-weaning fat feeding on limbic–hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis components and on metabolic regulators of\\u000a female rats. Wistar rats were fed either a high fat

George Boukouvalas; Kyriaki Gerozissis; Efthimia Kitraki

2010-01-01

144

Reproductive morphology and status of female Hawaiian monk seals (Monachus schauinslandi) fatally injured by adult male seals.  

PubMed

Female Hawaiian monk seals at Laysan Island in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands seasonally risk aggressive mating attempts by groups of adult male monk seals. These attacks, which also target immature female and male seals at a lower frequency, result in injuries that are often fatal and are termed mobbings. This study was undertaken to assess the reproductive status of nine female seals that died after mobbing attacks and to obtain basic morphological data of reproductive tracts from ten females. Reproductive morphology of the seals indicated that the lengths of the uterine body and both uterine horns were significantly shorter in nulliparous than in parous seals. Seven of the nine seals were periovulatory, on the basis of gross morphology of the ovaries at death. The ovaries of the other two seals possessed immature follicles. Histological studies of the vagina and uterus confirmed the reproductive status of the seals. When the reproductive status at the time of first injury was estimated, all seals were in the follicular phase of the oestrous cycle. At least four of these seals were estimated to be in oestrus at the time of their first injury, and seven of the seals sustained at least one injury during the estimated period of oestrus (2-6 days). These results support the hypothesis that most adult female Hawaiian monk seals that die following an attack by male monk seals are periovulatory, and that the majority of the attacks occur during oestrus. PMID:8182594

Atkinson, S; Becker, B L; Johanos, T C; Pietraszek, J R; Kuhn, B C

1994-01-01

145

Characteristics Associated With Initiation of the HPV Vaccine Among a National Sample of Male and Female Young Adults  

PubMed Central

Purpose To examine rates of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine initiation, and characteristics associated with initiation, among a national sample of male and female young adults. Methods Participants (n=3,448; 48% female) were recruited using a web-based respondent driven sampling strategy and completed a web-based survey between October and December 2010. Results Forty-five percent of females and four percent of males initiated the vaccine. Females who were younger, never married, in school, attended religious services less than once a month, sexually active, reported a greater number of lifetime sex partners, and who had been tested for HIV were more likely to report initiation. Males who were African American, attended religious services less than once a month, reported a greater number of sex partners in their lifetime and who had been tested for HIV were more likely to report initiation. Conclusions Factors associated with HPV vaccine initiation may differ for males and females. Further research, with larger samples of males, is needed to fully understand characteristics associated with male initiation. Regardless of gender, however, the majority of young adults who have not initiated sexual activity have not received the vaccine. Further research is needed to examine how to increase vaccination rates among this population, as they may benefit most from vaccination. PMID:24138764

Bernat, Debra H.; Gerend, Mary A.; Chevallier, Kenya; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Bauermeister, Jose A.

2013-01-01

146

Prenatal Testosterone Exposure Leads to Hypertension That Is Gonadal Hormone-Dependent in Adult Rat Male and Female Offspring1  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Prenatal testosterone exposure impacts postnatal reproductive and endocrine function, leading to alterations in sex steroid levels. Because gonadal steroids are key regulators of cardiovascular function, it is possible that alteration in sex steroid hormones may contribute to development of hypertension in prenatally testosterone-exposed adults. The objectives of this study were to evaluate whether prenatal testosterone exposure leads to development of hypertension in adult males and females and to assess the influence of gonadal hormones on arterial pressure in these animals. Offspring of pregnant rats treated with testosterone propionate or its vehicle (controls) were examined. Subsets of male and female offspring were gonadectomized at 7 wk of age, and some offspring from age 7 to 24 wk received hormone replacement, while others did not. Testosterone exposure during prenatal life significantly increased arterial pressure in both male and female adult offspring; however, the effect was greater in males. Prenatal androgen-exposed males and females had more circulating testosterone during adult life, with no change in estradiol levels. Gonadectomy prevented hyperandrogenism and also reversed hypertension in these rats. Testosterone replacement in orchiectomized males restored hypertension, while estradiol replacement in ovariectomized females was without effect. Steroidal changes were associated with defective expression of gonadal steroidogenic genes, with Star, Sf1, and Hsd17b1 upregulation in testes. In ovaries, Star and Cyp11a1 genes were upregulated, while Cyp19 was downregulated. This study showed that prenatal testosterone exposure led to development of gonad-dependent hypertension during adult life. Defective steroidogenesis may contribute in part to the observed steroidal changes. PMID:22302690

Chinnathambi, Vijayakumar; Balakrishnan, Meena; Yallampalli, Chandrasekhar; Sathishkumar, Kunju

2012-01-01

147

Prenatal testosterone exposure leads to hypertension that is gonadal hormone-dependent in adult rat male and female offspring.  

PubMed

Prenatal testosterone exposure impacts postnatal reproductive and endocrine function, leading to alterations in sex steroid levels. Because gonadal steroids are key regulators of cardiovascular function, it is possible that alteration in sex steroid hormones may contribute to development of hypertension in prenatally testosterone-exposed adults. The objectives of this study were to evaluate whether prenatal testosterone exposure leads to development of hypertension in adult males and females and to assess the influence of gonadal hormones on arterial pressure in these animals. Offspring of pregnant rats treated with testosterone propionate or its vehicle (controls) were examined. Subsets of male and female offspring were gonadectomized at 7 wk of age, and some offspring from age 7 to 24 wk received hormone replacement, while others did not. Testosterone exposure during prenatal life significantly increased arterial pressure in both male and female adult offspring; however, the effect was greater in males. Prenatal androgen-exposed males and females had more circulating testosterone during adult life, with no change in estradiol levels. Gonadectomy prevented hyperandrogenism and also reversed hypertension in these rats. Testosterone replacement in orchiectomized males restored hypertension, while estradiol replacement in ovariectomized females was without effect. Steroidal changes were associated with defective expression of gonadal steroidogenic genes, with Star, Sf1, and Hsd17b1 upregulation in testes. In ovaries, Star and Cyp11a1 genes were upregulated, while Cyp19 was downregulated. This study showed that prenatal testosterone exposure led to development of gonad-dependent hypertension during adult life. Defective steroidogenesis may contribute in part to the observed steroidal changes. PMID:22302690

Chinnathambi, Vijayakumar; Balakrishnan, Meena; Yallampalli, Chandrasekhar; Sathishkumar, Kunju

2012-05-01

148

Potential for female kin associations in wild western gorillas despite female dispersal  

PubMed Central

Female philopatry and male dispersal are the norm for most mammals, and females that remain in their natal region often derive foraging or social benefits from proximity to female kin. However, other factors, such as constraints on group size or a shortage of potential mates, may promote female dispersal even when female kin associations would be beneficial. In these cases, female kin associations might develop, not through female philopatry, but through female emigration to the same group. To date, little attention has been focused on the potential for kin-biased behaviour between females in female-dispersing species. Here we investigate the genetic relationships among adults in eight wild groups of unhabituated western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) at the Mondika Research Center using microsatellite genotyping of DNA collected from hair and faeces. We found that almost half (40%) of adult females had an adult female relative in the same group and average within-group relatedness among females was significantly higher than that expected under a model of random dispersal. This provides the first genetic evidence that females can maintain social associations with female relatives in spite of routine natal and secondary dispersal. In addition, we show that females appear to avoid related silverback males when making dispersal decisions, suggesting that a strategy of non-random female dispersal may also function to avoid inbreeding. PMID:17609183

Bradley, Brenda J; Doran-Sheehy, Diane M; Vigilant, Linda

2007-01-01

149

Perinatal Exposure of Mice to the Pesticide DDT Impairs Energy Expenditure and Metabolism in Adult Female Offspring  

PubMed Central

Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) has been used extensively to control malaria, typhus, body lice and bubonic plague worldwide, until countries began restricting its use in the 1970s. Its use in malaria control continues in some countries according to recommendation by the World Health Organization. Individuals exposed to elevated levels of DDT and its metabolite dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) have an increased prevalence of diabetes and insulin resistance. Here we hypothesize that perinatal exposure to DDT disrupts metabolic programming leading to impaired metabolism in adult offspring. To test this, we administered DDT to C57BL/6J mice from gestational day 11.5 to postnatal day 5 and studied their metabolic phenotype at several ages up to nine months. Perinatal DDT exposure reduced core body temperature, impaired cold tolerance, decreased energy expenditure, and produced a transient early-life increase in body fat in female offspring. When challenged with a high fat diet for 12 weeks in adulthood, female offspring perinatally exposed to DDT developed glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, and altered bile acid metabolism. Perinatal DDT exposure combined with high fat feeding in adulthood further impaired thermogenesis as evidenced by reductions in core temperature and in the expression of numerous RNA that promote thermogenesis and substrate utilization in the brown adipose tissue of adult female mice. These observations suggest that perinatal DDT exposure impairs thermogenesis and the metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids which may increase susceptibility to the metabolic syndrome in adult female offspring. PMID:25076055

La Merrill, Michele; Karey, Emma; Moshier, Erin; Lindtner, Claudia; La Frano, Michael R.; Newman, John W.; Buettner, Christoph

2014-01-01

150

Subglottal resonances of adult male and female native speakers of American English  

PubMed Central

This paper presents a large-scale study of subglottal resonances (SGRs) (the resonant frequencies of the tracheo-bronchial tree) and their relations to various acoustical and physiological characteristics of speakers. The paper presents data from a corpus of simultaneous microphone and accelerometer recordings of consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) words embedded in a carrier phrase spoken by 25 male and 25 female native speakers of American English ranging in age from 18 to 24?yr. The corpus contains 17?500 utterances of 14 American English monophthongs, diphthongs, and the rhotic approximant [?] in various CVC contexts. Only monophthongs are analyzed in this paper. Speaker height and age were also recorded. Findings include (1) normative data on the frequency distribution of SGRs for young adults, (2) the dependence of SGRs on height, (3) the lack of a correlation between SGRs and formants or the fundamental frequency, (4) a poor correlation of the first SGR with the second and third SGRs but a strong correlation between the second and third SGRs, and (5) a significant effect of vowel category on SGR frequencies, although this effect is smaller than the measurement standard deviations and therefore negligible for practical purposes. PMID:23039452

Lulich, Steven M.; Morton, John R.; Arsikere, Harish; Sommers, Mitchell S.; Leung, Gary K. F.; Alwan, Abeer

2012-01-01

151

Molecular basis of aromatase deficiency in an adult female with sexual infantilism and polycystic ovaries  

SciTech Connect

The authors identified two mutations in the CYP19 gene responsible for aromatase deficiency in an 18-year-old 46,XX female with ambiguous external genitalia at birth, primary amenorrhea and sexual infantilism, and polycystic ovaries. The coding exons, namely exons II-X, of the CYP19 gene were amplified by PCR from genomic DNA and sequenced directly. Direct sequencing of the amplified DNA from the patient revealed two single-base changes, at bp 1303 (C[yields]T) and bp 1310 (G[yields]A) in exon X, which were newly found missense mutations and resulted in codon changes of R435C and C437Y, respectively. Subcloning followed by sequencing confirmed that the patient is a compound heterozygote. The results of restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and direct sequencing of the amplified exon X DNA from the patient's mother indicate maternal inheritance of the R435C mutation. Transient expression experiments showed that the R435C mutant protein had [approx]1.1% of the activity of the wild type, whereas C437Y was totally inactive. Cysteine-437 is the conserved cysteine in the heme-binding region believed to serve as the fifth coordinating ligand of the heme iron. To the authors' knowledge, this patient is the first adult to have described the cardinal features of a syndrome of aromatase deficiency. Recognition that such defects exist will lead to a better understanding of the role of this enzyme in human development and disease.

Ito, Y.; Fisher, C.R.; Simpson, E.R. (Univ. of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)); Conte, F.A.; Grumbach, M.M. (Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States))

1993-11-15

152

Correlation of the hand length and stature in adult Musahar females of Nepal; an anthropometric study.  

PubMed

Stature of a person is one of the most important and useful anthropometric parameter for establishing identification of unknown living or a dead person. A descriptive cross sectional study was done on 165 Nepalese adult Musahar females of Aurahi Village of Mahottari district, Nepal to predict the stature from their hand length. Measurement of stature and the length of both right and left hands taken with a standard standing height measuring instrument and a slide caliper respectively showed significant (p<0.001) positive correlation between the stature and hand lengths. The multiplication factor which was obtained by dividing the height of the subject by the respective hand lengths was found appropriate parameter to calculate the stature of a questioned person. The importance of the hand length alone will be of a great value for anthropologists and forensic experts. As an alternative method, the coefficient of regression and intercept which were obtained from the measured height and hand length were also proved to be equally valuable to estimate the height of a questioned person. PMID:23441496

Basnet, K S; Dhungel, S; Panta, P P

2012-03-01

153

Biomarker investigations in adult female perch (Perca fluviatilis) from industrialised areas in northern Sweden in 2003.  

PubMed

Since the new millennium, a notion has developed in certain parts of society that environmental pollutants and their associated effects are under control. The primary objective of this investigation, performed in 2003, was to test whether this was actually the case in an industrialised region in the County of Västernorrland in northern Sweden with well-documented environmental pollution from past and present activities. This was performed by measuring a moderate battery of simple biomarkers in adult female perch at several stations. The point sources included sewage-treatment plants, pulp and paper mills, as well as other industries. The biomarkers included growth, somatic indices, gonad maturation status, gonad pigmentation, fin erosion, skin ulcers, and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity in the liver. The results showed that the environmental pollutants and their associated effects were not under control. In fact, the health of the perch was impaired at all of the polluted stations. Many responses were unspecific with respect to underlying cause, whereas some effects on EROD activity and gonad maturation status were attributed to historical creosote pollution and current kraft pulp mill effluents, respectively. The data presented may also be used as reference values for future investigations of health effects in perch. PMID:24297393

Hansson, Tomas; Hansen, Wenche; Tjärnlund, Ulla; Balk, Lennart; Bengtsson, Bengt-Erik

2014-02-01

154

Comparative microarray analyses of adult female midgut tissues from feeding Rhipicephalus species.  

PubMed

The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, has a debilitating effect on the livestock industry worldwide, owing to its being a vector of the causative agents of bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis. In South Africa, co-infestation with R. microplus and R. decoloratus, a common vector species on local livestock, occurs widely in the northern and eastern parts of the country. An alternative to chemical control methods is sought in the form of a tick vaccine to control these tick species. However, sequence information and transcriptional data for R. decoloratus is currently lacking. Therefore, this study aimed at identifying genes that are shared between midgut tissues of feeding adult female R. microplus and R. decoloratus ticks. In this regard, a custom oligonucleotide microarray comprising of 13,477 R. microplus sequences was used for transcriptional profiling and 2476 genes were found to be shared between these Rhipicephalus species. In addition, 136 transcripts were found to be more abundantly expressed in R. decoloratus and 1084 in R. microplus. Chi-square analysis revealed that genes involved in lipid transport and metabolism are significantly overrepresented in R. microplus and R. decoloratus. This study is the first transcriptional profiling of R. decoloratus and is an additional resource that can be evaluated further in future studies for possible tick control. PMID:25448423

van Zyl, Willem A; Stutzer, Christian; Olivier, Nicholas A; Maritz-Olivier, Christine

2015-02-01

155

The Female Athlete Triad  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Female Athlete Triad is a syndrome of the interrelated components of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. Sometimes inadvertently, but more often by willful dietary restriction, many female athletes do not ingest sufficient calories to adequately fuel their physical or sport activities, which can disrupt menstrual functioning,…

Sherman, Roberta Trattner; Thompson, Ron A.

2004-01-01

156

The female athlete triad.  

PubMed

The Female Athlete Triad is a syndrome of the interrelated components of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. Sometimes inadvertently, but more often by willful dietary restriction, many female athletes do not ingest sufficient calories to adequately fuel their physical or sport activities, which can disrupt menstrual functioning, thereby increasing their risk of bone loss. Although its prevalence is unknown, the Female Athlete Triad is believed to affect many athletes at all ages and all sport competition levels. Even though the Triad affects athletes in all sports, girls and women in sports that emphasize a thin or small body size or shape appear to be most at risk. This article focuses on the risks of the Female Athlete Triad for middle- and high-school-age female athletes as well as the unique issues related to the identification, management, and treatment of the various components of the Triad in this special adolescent subpopulation. PMID:15283616

Sherman, Roberta Trattner; Thompson, Ron A

2004-08-01

157

Postmortem Evaluation of Left Flank Laparoscopic Access in an Adult Female Giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis)  

PubMed Central

There are still few reports of laparoscopy in megavertebrates. The giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) is the tallest land mammal, and the largest ruminant species. An 18-year-old multiparous female hybrid giraffe, weighing 650?kg, was euthanized for chronic health problems, and left flank laparoscopy was performed less than 30 minutes after death. Safe primary access was achieved under visualisation using an optical bladed trocar (Visiport Plus, Tyco healthcare UK Ltd) without prior abdominal insufflation. A left paralumbar fossa approach allowed access to the spleen, rumen, left kidney, and intestines, but did not allow access to the reproductive tract which in nongravid females is intrapelvic in nature. PMID:20445792

Pizzi, R.; Cracknell, J.; Dalrymple, L.

2010-01-01

158

The female child as a surrogate object  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because most heterosexual pedophilic offenses are committed by males who in fact erotically prefer adult females, the hypothesis was tested that males with nondeviant erotic preferences are generally prone to react in a sexual way to female children. With nondeviant subjects, penile volume changes (PVCs) were measured to stimulus slides and movie pictures of males and females, varying in age.

Kurt Freund; C. K. McKnight; R. Langevin; S. Cibiri

1972-01-01

159

Comparing the executive attention of adult females with ADHD to that of females with sensory modulation disorder (SMD) under aversive and non-aversive auditory conditions.  

PubMed

Certain behavioral expressions of sensory modulation disorder (SMD) such as distractibility, hyperactivity, and impulsivity are often similar to those of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in pediatric and adult populations. There is also a high comorbidity rate between these two diagnoses and absence of research regarding the objective neuropsychological differentiation between them. In the present study we employed a factorial design which enabled us to: (a) systematically examine the effects of SMD and ADHD on executive attention in a sample of adult females using a Stroop-like task, and (b) measure the effect of aversive conditions (sounds) on executive attention. The experimental measures used were the Stroop-like Location-Direction Task (SLDT) to assess executive attention and the battery of aversiveness to sounds (BAS), a standardized measure of aversive sounds that was developed for this study and enabled individual customization of aversive auditory sounds. Results revealed, as expected, a specific core deficit in executive attention for the ADHD factor. In addition to that, the present study provides an important, pioneering finding of SMD impairment in a unique combination of a cognitively demanding task with aversive sounds, providing preliminary objective evidence differentiating SMD from ADHD. PMID:25460216

Mazor-Karsenty, Tal; Parush, Shula; Bonneh, Yoram; Shalev, Lilach

2015-02-01

160

aallll IIrreell aanndd ccaanncceerr ssttaattiissttiiccss sseeccoonndd rreeppoorrtt 11999988--22000000 Breast cancer (female) Breast cancer (female)  

E-print Network

--22000000 22 Breast cancer (female) Breast cancer (female) Breast cancer (female) Breast cancer (female) Breast cancer (female) Breast cancer (female) Breast cancer (female) Breast cancer (female) Breast cancer (female) Breast cancer (female) Breast cancer (female) Breast cancer (female) Breast cancer (female

Paxton, Anthony T.

161

BURSAE, REPRODUCTIVE STRUCTURES, AND SCAPULAR COLOR IN WINTERING FEMALE OLDSQUAWS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female Oldsquaws were collected on Lake Michigan between December and May 1951-55 and 1969-73. Measurements taken on bursae, ovaries, and oviducts were related to age class and scapular color. Bursae were significantly deeper in juveniles than in adults, and the adult females with gray scapulars had significantly deeper bursae than adult females with brown scapu- lars. Juvenile female ovaries were

STEVEN R. PETERSON; ROBERT S. ELLARSON

162

FASH and MASH: female and male adult human phantoms based on polygon mesh surfaces: I. Development of the anatomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among computational models, voxel phantoms based on computer tomographic (CT), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) or colour photographic images of patients, volunteers or cadavers have become popular in recent years. Although being true to nature representations of scanned individuals, voxel phantoms have limitations, especially when walled organs have to be segmented or when volumes of organs or body tissues, like adipose, have to be changed. Additionally, the scanning of patients or volunteers is usually made in supine position, which causes a shift of internal organs towards the ribcage, a compression of the lungs and a reduction of the sagittal diameter especially in the abdominal region compared to the regular anatomy of a person in the upright position, which in turn can influence organ and tissue absorbed or equivalent dose estimates. This study applies tools developed recently in the areas of computer graphics and animated films to the creation and modelling of 3D human organs, tissues, skeletons and bodies based on polygon mesh surfaces. Female and male adult human phantoms, called FASH (Female Adult meSH) and MASH (Male Adult meSH), have been designed using software, such as MakeHuman, Blender, Binvox and ImageJ, based on anatomical atlases, observing at the same time organ masses recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for the male and female reference adult in report no 89. 113 organs, bones and tissues have been modelled in the FASH and the MASH phantoms representing locations for adults in standing posture. Most organ and tissue masses of the voxelized versions agree with corresponding data from ICRP89 within a margin of 2.6%. Comparison with the mesh-based male RPI_AM and female RPI_AF phantoms shows differences with respect to the material used, to the software and concepts applied, and to the anatomies created.

Cassola, V. F.; de Melo Lima, V. J.; Kramer, R.; Khoury, H. J.

2010-01-01

163

Multiwave Associations Between Depressive Symptoms and Endothelial Function in Adolescent and Young Adult Females  

PubMed Central

Objective Depression has been linked to endothelial dysfunction, and some research suggests that past depressive episodes are associated with a lasting, negative impact on the endothelium. However, investigations in this area have been predominantly cross-sectional, raising questions about the direction of these associations. Using a multiwave design, we sought to extend previous research in this area by examining whether depressive symptoms have a lasting negative influence on endothelial function. Methods A total of 135 adolescent and young adult females with no known or suspected major health problems were followed for 2½ years. Endothelial function was assessed at three time points throughout the study. The Beck Depression Inventory was administered, and information about health practices was collected every 6 months. Results Self-reported depressive symptoms covaried with endothelial functioning on a within-person basis (? = ?0.23, p < .05). As a participant’s depression symptoms rose beyond her typical level, her endothelial function declined commensurately. This association persisted after controlling for health practices and adiposity. There was no evidence that depressive symptoms predicted endothelial function at later time points or interacted with time to predict the trajectories of endothelial function over the follow-up period. Conclusions Depressive symptoms were concurrently associated with endothelial function in this cohort of healthy adolescent girls and young women. On visits when participants endorsed depressive symptoms that were higher than their mean level of depression, they tended to have worse endothelial function. We did not observe a lasting negative effect of depression on endothelial function. PMID:21715299

Tomfohr, Lianne M.; Murphy, Michael L.M.; Miller, Gregory E.; Puterman, Eli

2011-01-01

164

Raloxifene Prevents Skeletal Fragility in Adult Female Zucker Diabetic Sprague-Dawley Rats  

PubMed Central

Fracture risk in type 2 diabetes is increased despite normal or high bone mineral density, implicating poor bone quality as a risk factor. Raloxifene improves bone material and mechanical properties independent of bone mineral density. This study aimed to determine if raloxifene prevents the negative effects of diabetes on skeletal fragility in diabetes-prone rats. Adult Zucker Diabetic Sprague-Dawley (ZDSD) female rats (20-week-old, n?=?24) were fed a diabetogenic high-fat diet and were randomized to receive daily subcutaneous injections of raloxifene or vehicle for 12 weeks. Blood glucose was measured weekly and glycated hemoglobin was measured at baseline and 12 weeks. At sacrifice, femora and lumbar vertebrae were harvested for imaging and mechanical testing. Raloxifene-treated rats had a lower incidence of type 2 diabetes compared with vehicle-treated rats. In addition, raloxifene-treated rats had blood glucose levels significantly lower than both diabetic vehicle-treated rats as well as vehicle-treated rats that did not become diabetic. Femoral toughness was greater in raloxifene-treated rats compared with both diabetic and non-diabetic vehicle-treated ZDSD rats, due to greater energy absorption in the post-yield region of the stress-strain curve. Similar differences between groups were observed for the structural (extrinsic) mechanical properties of energy-to-failure, post-yield energy-to-failure, and post-yield displacement. These results show that raloxifene is beneficial in preventing the onset of diabetes and improving bone material properties in the diabetes-prone ZDSD rat. This presents unique therapeutic potential for raloxifene in preserving bone quality in diabetes as well as in diabetes prevention, if these results can be supported by future experimental and clinical studies. PMID:25243714

Hill Gallant, Kathleen M.; Gallant, Maxime A.; Brown, Drew M.; Sato, Amy Y.; Williams, Justin N.; Burr, David B.

2014-01-01

165

Antidiabetic-drug combination treatment for glucose intolerance in adult female rats treated acutely with olanzapine.  

PubMed

Second generation antipsychotic drugs are routinely used as treatment for psychotic disorders. Many of these compounds, including olanzapine, cause metabolic side-effects such as impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance. Individual antidiabetic drugs can help control elevated glucose levels in patients treated with antipsychotics, but the effects of combining antidiabetics, which routinely occurs with Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients, have never been studied. Presently, we compared the effects of the three different antidiabetics metformin (500mg/kg, p.o.), rosiglitazone (30mg/kg, p.o.) and glyburide (10mg/kg, p.o.) on metabolic dysregulation in adult female rats treated acutely with olanzapine. In addition, dual combinations of each of these antidiabetics were compared head-to-head against each other and the individual drugs. The animals received two daily treatments with antidiabetics and were then treated acutely with olanzapine (10mg/kg, i.p.). Fasting glucose and insulin levels were measured, followed by a 2h glucose tolerance test. Olanzapine caused a large and highly significant glucose intolerance compared to vehicle treated rats. Rosiglitazone decreased glucose levels non-significantly, while both metformin and glyburide significantly decreased glucose levels compared to olanzapine-only treated animals. For antidiabetic dual-drug combinations, the rosiglitazone-metformin group showed an unexpected increase in glucose levels compared to all of the single antidiabetic drugs. However, both the metformin-glyburide and rosiglitazone-glyburide groups showed significantly greater reductions in glucose levels following olanzapine than with single drug treatment alone for metformin or rosiglitazone, bringing glucose levels down to values equivalent to vehicle-only treated animals. These findings indicate that further study of antidiabetic dual-drug combinations in patients treated with antipsychotic drugs is warranted. PMID:24140931

Boyda, Heidi N; Procyshyn, Ric M; Asiri, Yahya; Wu, Claire; Wang, Cathy K; Lo, Ryan; Pang, Catherine C Y; Honer, William G; Barr, Alasdair M

2014-01-01

166

Effects of dietary fibers with different fermentation characteristics on feeding motivation in adult female pigs.  

PubMed

Dietary fibers can be fermented in the colon, resulting in production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and secretion of satiety-related peptides. Fermentation characteristics (fermentation kinetics and SCFA-profile) differ between fibers and could impact their satiating potential. We investigated the effects of fibers with varying fermentation characteristics on feeding motivation in adult female pigs. Sixteen pair-housed pigs received four diets in four periods in a Latin square design. Starch from a control (C) diet was exchanged, based on gross energy, for inulin (INU), guar gum (GG), or retrograded tapioca starch (RS), each at a low (L) and a high (H) inclusion level. This resulted in a decreased metabolizable energy intake when feeding fiber diets as compared with the C diet. According to in vitro fermentation measurements, INU is rapidly fermentable and yields relatively high amounts of propionate, GG is moderately rapidly fermentable and yields relatively high amounts of acetate, and RS is slowly fermentable and yields relatively high amounts of butyrate. Feeding motivation was assessed using behavioral tests at 1h, 3h and 7h after the morning meal, and home pen behavioral observations throughout the day. The number of wheel turns paid for a food reward in an operant test was unaffected by diet. Pigs on H-diets ran 25% slower for a food reward in a runway test than pigs on L-diets, and showed less spontaneous physical activity and less stereotypic behavior in the hours before the afternoon meal, reflecting increased interprandial satiety. Reduced feeding motivation with increasing inclusion level was most pronounced for RS, as pigs decreased speed in the runway test and tended to have a lower voluntary food intake in an ad libitum food intake test when fed RS-H. In conclusion, increasing levels of fermentable fibers in the diet seemed to enhance satiety in adult pigs, despite a reduction in metabolizable energy supply. RS was the most satiating fiber, possibly due to its slow rate of fermentation and high production of butyrate. PMID:23313406

Souza da Silva, Carol; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth; Gerrits, Walter J J; Kemp, Bas; van den Borne, Joost J G C

2013-02-17

167

Purification of germline stem cells from adult mammalian ovaries: a step closer towards control of the female biological clock?  

Microsoft Academic Search

For decades it was believed that a non-renewable pool of oocyte-containing follicles is established in female mammals at birth. This cornerstone of reproductive biology was challenged 5 years ago by a study reporting on the presence of mitotically-active germ cells in juvenile and adult mouse ovaries. Additional findings presented in this study and others that followed further suggested that mammals

Jonathan L. Tilly; Evelyn E. Telfer

2009-01-01

168

Phthalate concentrations in personal care products and the cumulative exposure to female adults and infants in shanghai.  

PubMed

Phthalate esters (PE) are synthetic chemicals widely used in industry, and have been detected in personal care products (PCP). Recent findings of human reports demonstrated endocrine-disrupting action associated with phthalate exposures. The aims of this study were to (1) measure levels of 11 PE in 198 PCP collected from retail markets in Shanghai and (2) assess daily dermal exposure in adult females and infants. The health risk of cumulative exposure to eight PE on reproductive system function derived from dermal PCP use was further assessed by utilizing the hazard index (HI) approach. Diethyl phthalate (DEP) was the most frequently detected compound (29.8%), followed by diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) (6.6%). The geometric mean (GM) concentrations of daily exposure to DEP, bis(2-methoxyethyl) phthalate (DMEP), DiBP, dibutyl phthalate (DBP), diphenyl phthalate (DPP), and bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in female adults were 0.018, 0.012, 0.002, 0.001, 0.003, and 0.002 ?g/kg body weight (bw)/d, respectively. The GM daily exposure levels to PE in infants and adult females were similar except for DEHP, which was higher in infants. DEP exposure was highest in both subpopulations at either GM or maximal level. All HI of 8 PE were far less than 1, ranging from 0.0002 to 0.005, indicating no cumulative reproductive risks to these populations. DBP, DMEP, and DEHP were three major contributors to the cumulative HI. In summary, the level of phthalate in PCP from Shanghai retail markets posed no apparent cumulative risk to adult females and infants in China. PMID:25734628

Bao, Jiaqin; Wang, Min; Ning, Xiaojun; Zhou, Yaobin; He, Yuping; Yang, Jielin; Gao, Xi; Li, Shuguang; Ding, Zhuoping; Chen, Bo

2015-01-01

169

Female pattern baldness  

MedlinePLUS

Alopecia in women; Baldness - female; Hair loss in women; Androgenetic alopecia in women ... Each strand of hair sits in a tiny hole (cavity) in the skin called a follicle. In general, baldness occurs when the hair ...

170

Female Athlete Triad  

MedlinePLUS

MENU ... habits, your menstrual periods and the strength of your bones. If you have the female athlete triad, you've stopped eating normally and may have developed an eating disorder. Your menstrual periods may have stopped or become ...

171

Female Reproductive System  

MedlinePLUS

... may be fertilized by sperm, provide a favorable environment for the developing fetus , move the fetus to the outside at the end of the development period, and produce the female sex hormones. The ...

172

ORIGINAL PAPER Competitive females are successful females; phenotype,  

E-print Network

of selection on males. Here, we examine females of a mildly dimorphic songbird (Junco hyemalis) to determine . Female aggression . Testosterone . Gonadotropin-releasing hormone . Junco hyemalis . Sexual dimorphism

173

Farnesoid X receptor immunolocalization in reproductive tissues of adult female rabbits.  

PubMed

Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) has been involved in lipid metabolism, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and aromatase expression, as well as in the steroid synthesis and signaling. Considering that these events occur in reproductive tissues in females, the aim of the present study was to determine the immunolocalization of FXR in the ovary, oviduct, uterus, and vagina of rabbits. Rabbits were sacrificed and their reproductive tissues were excised and histologically processed. Immunohistochemistry for FXR was done and reproductive tissues were photographed. FXR immunoreactivity was found in all types of ovarian follicles, ovarian stroma, and corpus luteum of virgin and pregnant rabbits. Also, oviductal and vaginal epithelium of virgins, as well as the oviductal smooth muscle, showed anti-FXR immunoreactivity. The uterine epithelium and musculature of virgins had scarce anti-FXR immunoreactivity. Although the role of FXR in female reproductive tissues is still not known, it is possible to consider various functions related to the reproductive tissue. PMID:24975630

Anaya-Hernández, Arely; Méndez-Tepepa, Maribel; Hernández-Aragón, Laura G; Pacheco, Pablo; Martínez-Gómez, Margarita; Castelán, Francisco; Cuevas, Estela

2014-07-01

174

Induction of Female-to-Male Sex Change in Adult Zebrafish by Aromatase Inhibitor Treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated whether undifferentiated germ and/or somatic stem cells remain in the differentiated ovary of a species that does not undergo sex changes under natural conditions and retain their sexual plasticity. The effect of aromatase inhibitor (AI)-treatment on sexually mature female zebrafish was examined. A 5-month AI treatment caused retraction of the ovaries after which testes-like organs appeared, and cyst structures filled with spermatozoa-like cells were observed in sections of these tissues. Electron microscopic observations revealed that these cells appeared as large sperm heads without tails. Sperm formation was re-examined after changing the diet to an AI-free food. A large number of normal sperm were obtained after eight weeks, and no formation of ovarian tissue was observed. Artificial fertilization using sperm from the sex-changed females was successful. These results demonstrated that sex plasticity remains in the mature ovaries of this species.

Takatsu, Kanae; Miyaoku, Kaori; Roy, Shimi Rani; Murono, Yuki; Sago, Tomohiro; Itagaki, Hideyuki; Nakamura, Masaru; Tokumoto, Toshinobu

2013-12-01

175

Chemical immobilization of adult female Weddell seals with tiletamine and zolazepam: effects of age, condition and stage of lactation  

PubMed Central

Background Chemical immobilization of Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) has previously been, for the most part, problematic and this has been mainly attributed to the type of immobilizing agent used. In addition to individual sensitivity, physiological status may play an important role. We investigated the use of the intravenous administration of a 1:1 mixture of tiletamine and zolazepam (Telazol®) to immobilize adult females at different points during a physiologically demanding 5–6 week lactation period. We also compared performance between IV and IM injection of the same mixture. Results The tiletamine:zolazepam mixture administered intravenously was an effective method for immobilization with no fatalities or pronounced apnoeas in 106 procedures; however, there was a 25 % (one animal in four) mortality rate with intramuscular administration. Induction time was slightly longer for females at the end of lactation (54.9 ± 2.3 seconds) than at post-parturition (48.2 ± 2.9 seconds). In addition, the number of previous captures had a positive effect on induction time. There was no evidence for effects due to age, condition (total body lipid), stage of lactation or number of captures on recovery time. Conclusion We suggest that intravenous administration of tiletamine and zolazepam is an effective and safe immobilizing agent for female Weddell seals. Although individual traits could not explain variation in recovery time, we suggest careful monitoring of recovery times during longitudinal studies (> 2 captures). We show that physiological pressures do not substantially affect response to chemical immobilization with this mixture; however, consideration must be taken for differences that may exist for immobilization of adult males and juveniles. Nevertheless, we recommend a mass-specific dose of 0.50 – 0.65 mg/kg for future procedures with adult female Weddell seals and a starting dose of 0.50 mg/kg for other age classes and other phocid seals. PMID:16469105

Wheatley, Kathryn E; Bradshaw, Corey JA; Harcourt, Robert G; Davis, Lloyd S; Hindell, Mark A

2006-01-01

176

Interventions and the Development of Dominance Relationships in Female Baboons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dominance relationships between adult and adolescent female yellow baboons, Papio cynocephalus, were studied in Amboseli Park, Kenya. Adolescents attempted to become dominant to some females (called ‘targeted females’) while remaining subordinate to others. Agonistic relationships with targeted females passed through a sequence of stages before the younger female achieved dominance. An examination of nondyadic agonistic interactions revealed that adolescents frequently

Jeffrey Walters

1980-01-01

177

Learning Curves: Body Image and Female Sexuality in Young Adult Literature. Scarecrow Studies in Young Adult Literature #35  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adolescence is a time of growth, change, and confusion for young women. During this transition from childhood to adulthood, sex and gender roles become more important. Meanwhile, depictions of females--from the hyper-sexualized girls of music videos to the chaste repression of Purity Balls--send mixed messages to young women about their bodies…

Younger, Beth

2009-01-01

178

Larval host plant origin modifies the adult oviposition preference of the female European grapevine moth Lobesia botrana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the ‘natal habitat preference induction’ (NHPI) hypothesis, phytophagous insect females should prefer to lay their eggs on the host species on which they developed as larvae. We tested whether this hypothesis applies to the breeding behaviour of polyphagous European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana, an important pest in European vineyards. We previously found that different grape cultivars affect several life history traits of the moth. Because the different cultivars of grapes are suspected to provide different plant quality, we tested the NHPI hypothesis by examining oviposition choice of L. botrana among three Vitis vinifera cultivars (Pinot, Chasselas and Chardonnay). In a choice situation, females of L. botrana that had never experienced grapes were able to discriminate between different grape cultivars and preferentially selected Pinot as an oviposition substrate. This ‘naive’ preference of oviposition could be modified by larval environment: Females raised on grapes as larvae preferred to lay eggs on the cultivar that they had experienced. Furthermore, experience of the host plant during adult emergence could be excluded because when pupae originating from our synthetic diet were exposed to grapes, the emerging adults did not show preference for the cultivar from which they emerged. The NHPI hypothesis that includes the two sub-hypothesis “Hopkins host selection principle” and “chemical legacy” may thus be relevant in this system.

Moreau, J.; Rahme, J.; Benrey, B.; Thiery, D.

2008-04-01

179

A Diversified Recruitment Approach Incorporating Social Media Leads to Research Participation Among Young Adult-Aged Female Cancer Survivors.  

PubMed

Purpose: Cancer survivors in their adolescent and young adult (AYA) years are an understudied population, possibly in part because of the high effort required to recruit them into research studies. The aim of this paper is to describe the specific recruitment strategies used in four studies recruiting AYA-aged female cancer survivors and to identify the highest yielding approaches. We also discuss challenges and recommendations. Methods: We recruited AYA-aged female cancer survivors for two studies conducted locally and two conducted nationally. Recruitment strategies included outreach and referral via: healthcare providers and clinics; social media and the internet; community and word of mouth; and a national fertility information hotline. We calculated the yield of each recruitment approach for the local and national studies by comparing the number that participated to the number of potential participants. Results: We recruited a total of 534 participants into four research studies. Seventy-one percent were diagnosed as young adults and 61% were within 3 years of their cancer diagnosis. The highest-yielding local recruitment strategy was healthcare provider and clinic referral. Nationally, social media and internet outreach yielded the highest rate of participation. Overall, internet-based recruitment resulted in the highest number and yield of participants. Conclusion: Our results suggest that outreach through social media and the internet are effective approaches to recruiting AYA-aged female cancer survivors. Forging collaborative relationships with survivor advocacy groups' members and healthcare providers also proved beneficial. PMID:24940529

Gorman, Jessica R; Roberts, Samantha C; Dominick, Sally A; Malcarne, Vanessa L; Dietz, Andrew C; Su, H Irene

2014-06-01

180

Recruitment and Retention of Older Adolescent and Young Adult Female Survivors of Childhood Cancer in Longitudinal Research  

PubMed Central

Purpose/Objectives To describe the challenges encountered in the recruitment and retention of a sample of older adolescent and young adult female survivors of childhood cancer for a longitudinal study testing a targeted psychosocial intervention aimed at enhancing hope. Data Sources Published literature on constructing longitudinal intervention studies and strategies in the recruitment and retention of childhood cancer survivors in research was used to develop the protocol of this study. Data Synthesis Using empirical literature to construct the study’s design resulted in achieving certain goals for the design, but not in the recruitment and retention of study participants. Using online technology to deliver the intervention and collect data was efficient and effective. Traditional approaches to recruitment and retention of those survivors, however, were not effective. Use of more novel approaches to enroll study participants demonstrated only modest success. Conclusions Additional research is needed on strategies to successfully recruit and retain older adolescents and young adult female survivors of childhood cancer in longitudinal intervention studies. Implications for Nursing The improvement in the psychological well-being of female survivors of childhood cancer remains an important outcome in ongoing care. The need to continue to identify creative and effective ways to recruit and retain those survivors is warranted. PMID:22940512

Cantrell, Mary Ann; Conte, Teresa; Hudson, Melissa; Shad, Aziza; Ruble, Kathy; Herth, Kaye; Canino, Alyssa; Kemmy, Sinead

2014-01-01

181

Female genital mutilation.  

PubMed

Female genital mutilation, also misleadingly known as female circumcision, is usually performed on girls ranging in from 1 week to puberty. Immediate physical complications include severe pain, shock, infection, bleeding, acute urinary infection, tetanus, and death. Longterm problems include chronic pain, difficulties with micturition and menstruation, pelvic infection leading to infertility, and prolonged and obstructed labor during childbirth. An estimated 80 million girls and women have undergone female genital mutilation. In Britain alone an estimated 10,000 girls are currently at risk. Religious, cultural, medical, and moral grounds rationalize the custom which is practiced primarily in sub-Saharan Africa, the Arab world, Malaysia, Indonesia, and among migrant populations in Western countries. According to WHO it is correlated with poverty, illiteracy, and the low status of women. Women who escape mutilation are not sought in marriage. WHO, the UN Population Fund, the UN Children's Fund, the International Planned Parenthood Federation, and the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child have issued declarations on the eradication of female genital mutilation. In Britain, local authorities have intervened to prevent parents from mutilating their daughters. In 1984, the Inter-African Committee Against Harmful Traditional Practices Affecting Women and Children was established to work toward eliminating female genital mutilation and other damaging customs. National committees in 26 African countries coordinate projects run by local people using theater, dance, music, and storytelling for communication. In Australia, Canada, Europe, and the US women have organized to prevent the practice among vulnerable migrants and refugees. PMID:8400925

Ladjali, M; Rattray, T W; Walder, R J

1993-08-21

182

Promoting the female condom.  

PubMed

AIDS is spreading most rapidly among women, who often cannot negotiate the use of a male condom with reluctant partners. Recent findings from 6 countries, however, indicate that women can draw upon peer support to help them negotiate female condom use with reluctant partners. These findings come from Family Health International's (FHI) AIDS Control and Prevention (AIDSCAP) Project's introduction of the female condom to women through peer support groups in Kenya and Brazil, and the Joint UN Program on HIV/AIDS' (UNAIDS) coordinated studies in Costa Rica, Indonesia, Mexico, and Senegal on sexual negotiation, women's empowerment, and the female condom, also using group education sessions. The US Agency for International Development recently committed $100,000 toward the purchase of 150,000 female condoms for operations research and familiarization in countries where officials have not been exposed to the method. More than 130 participants from 19 countries attended FHI's May 1-2, 1997, conference on the female condom convened in Arlington, Virginia. PMID:12292734

Cornman, H

1997-01-01

183

Female physicist doctoral experiences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The underrepresentation of women in physics doctorate programs and in tenured academic positions indicates a need to evaluate what may influence their career choice and persistence. This qualitative paper examines eleven females in physics doctoral programs and professional science positions in order to provide a more thorough understanding of why and how women make career choices based on aspects both inside and outside of school and their subsequent interaction. Results indicate that female physicists experience conflict in achieving balance within their graduate school experiences and personal lives and that this then influences their view of their future careers and possible career choices. Female physicists report both early and long-term support outside of school by family, and later departmental support, as being essential to their persistence within the field. A greater focus on informal and out-of-school science activities for females, especially those that involve family members, early in life may help influence their entrance into a physics career later in life. Departmental support, through advisers, mentors, peers, and women’s support groups, with a focus on work-life balance can help females to complete graduate school and persist into an academic career.

Dabney, Katherine P.; Tai, Robert H.

2013-06-01

184

Female coloration indicates female reproductive capacity in blue tits  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is poorly understood whether female morphological and behavioural traits can be used as 'signals'. In particular, experimental tests of the hypothesis that female ornaments reflect quality are scarce. Here, we experimentally examine whether female plumage coloration might signal maternal quality in the blue tit, Cyanistes caeruleus by forcing half of the females breeding in our population to produce a

C. DOUTRELANT; A. GRÉGOIRE; N. GRNAC; D. GOMEZ; M. M. LAMBRECHTS; P. PERRET

2007-01-01

185

Characteristic features of reproductive hormone profiles in late adolescent and adult females with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome.  

PubMed

Little is known about gonadotropins and sex steroid levels in postpubertal women with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS). In order to define reproductive hormone profiles in women with CAIS and intact gonads, 42 postpubertal females with proven CAIS (age range 14-50 years) with testes in situ were examined. Reproductive hormone values [testosterone (T), estradiol (E2), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)] were assessed by commercially available immunoassays. In women with CAIS, LH levels (median 18.5 IU/l, range 5.5-51.1 IU/l) were elevated above the usual adult reference ranges, whereas FSH values (3.5 IU/l, 0.4-16.3 IU/l) were not. Basal T (20 nmol/l, 6-52 nmol/l) and E2 values (113 pmol/l; 18-257 pmol/l) were found in the usual adult male reference ranges; SHBG levels (53 nmol/l, 15-180 nmol/l) were in the adult female reference range. Calculated free androgen indices (Tx10³/SHBG: 380, 114-863) and aromatization indices (E2/T: 0.052, 0.020-0.196) did not differ from the reference ranges for adult men given in the literature (Tx10³/SHBG: 315-936; E2/T: 0.03-0.07). Reproductive hormone profiles in women with CAIS do not follow the usual male/female pattern, suggesting a specific postpubertal hormone milieu. Albeit calculation of CAIS-specific reference ranges requires larger series and standardization of laboratory methods, these results may be a prerequisite for the identification of pathologic hormone patterns in women with CAIS and gonads in situ. The present data will also be useful to monitor hormone replacement therapy in individuals with removed gonads. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:25613104

Doehnert, Ulla; Bertelloni, Silvano; Werner, Ralf; Dati, Eleonora; Hiort, Olaf

2015-01-01

186

Mathematical models and specific absorbed fractions of photon energy in the nonpregnant adult female and at the end of each trimester of pregnancy  

SciTech Connect

Mathematical phantoms representing the adult female at three, six, and nine months of gestation are described. They are modifications of the 15-year-old male/adult female phantom (15-AF phantom) of Cristy and Eckerman (1987). The model of uterine contents includes the fetus, fetal skeleton, and placenta. The model is suitable for dose calculations for the fetus as a whole; individual organs within the fetus (other than the skeleton) are not modeled. A new model for the nonpregnant adult female is also described, comprising (1) the 15-AF phantom; (2) an adjustment to specific absorbed fractions for organ self-dose from photons to better match Reference Woman masses; and (3) computation of specific absorbed fractions with Reference Woman masses from ICRP Publication 23 for both penetrating and nonpenetrating radiations. Specific absorbed fractions for photons emitted from various source regions are tabulated for the new non;pregnant adult female model and the three pregnancy models.

Stabin, M.G.; Watson, E.E.; Cristy, M.; Ryman, J.C.; Eckerman, K.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Davis, J.L. [Tennessee Univ., Chattanooga, TN (United States)] [Tennessee Univ., Chattanooga, TN (United States); Marshall, D. [Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering] [Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Gehlen, M.K. [San Diego State Univ., CA (United States)] [San Diego State Univ., CA (United States)

1995-05-08

187

Successful Bone Marrow Transplantation of an Adolescent Young Adult Female With Pregnancy-associated Aplastic Anemia.  

PubMed

Cases of pregnancy-associated severe aplastic anemia (SAA) have been reported in the literature with historically high rates of mortality. We report the case of a 17-year-old female diagnosed with SAA at 26 weeks of gestation. She experienced intrauterine fetal demise and did not achieve hematologic remission after delivery. She received a histocompatible sibling donor bone marrow transplant 7 weeks after her diagnosis and remains in remission, at 1-year posttransplant. We review available literature and suggest that when a histocompatible sibling donor is available, bone marrow transplantation should be considered as a first-line therapy for patients with pregnancy-associated SAA. PMID:25774494

Abdel-Azim, Hisham; Jovi-Usude, Baro; Balian, Chelsea; Shah, Ami J; Tang, Shinyi; Sinha, Arpan; Kapoor, Neena; Mahadeo, Kris M

2015-05-01

188

Prenatal ethanol exposure programs an increased susceptibility of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in female adult offspring rats  

SciTech Connect

Prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) induces dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in fetus and adult offspring. However, whether PEE increases the susceptibility to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in offspring and its underlying mechanism remain unknown. This study aimed to demonstrate an increased susceptibility to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD and its intrauterine programming mechanisms in female rat offspring with PEE. Rat model of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was established by PEE, the female fetus and adult offspring that fed normal diet (ND) or HFD were sacrificed. The results showed that, in PEE + ND group, serum corticosterone (CORT) slightly decreased and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and glucose increased with partial catch-up growth; In PEE + HFD group, serum CORT decreased, while serum IGF-1, glucose and triglyceride (TG) increased, with notable catch-up growth, higher metabolic status and NAFLD formation. Enhanced liver expression of the IGF-1 pathway, gluconeogenesis, and lipid synthesis as well as reduced expression of lipid output were accompanied in PEE + HFD group. In PEE fetus, serum CORT increased while IGF-1 decreased, with low body weight, hyperglycemia, and hepatocyte ultrastructural changes. Hepatic IGF-1 expression as well as lipid output was down-regulated, while lipid synthesis significantly increased. Based on these findings, we propose a “two-programming” hypothesis for an increased susceptibility to HFD-induced NAFLD in female offspring of PEE. That is, the intrauterine programming of liver glucose and lipid metabolic function is “the first programming”, and postnatal adaptive catch-up growth triggered by intrauterine programming of GC-IGF1 axis acts as “the second programming”. - Highlights: • Prenatal ethanol exposure increase the susceptibility of NAFLD in female offspring. • Prenatal ethanol exposure reprograms fetal liver’s glucose and lipid metabolism . • Prenatal ethanol exposure cause the adaptive change of glucocorticoid-IGF1 axis.

Shen, Lang; Liu, Zhongfen; Gong, Jun; Zhang, Li [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wang, Linlong [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Magdalou, Jacques [UMR 7561 CNRS-Nancy Université, Faculté de Médicine, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Chen, Liaobin [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wang, Hui, E-mail: wanghui19@whu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)

2014-01-15

189

Hypothalamo-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis-Regulated Stress Response and Negative Feedback Sensitivity Is Altered by Prenatal Morphine Exposure in Adult Female Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been shown that adult female rats react to stressors more intensely than adult male rats. Our previous work demonstrated that the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) but not corticosterone (CORT) response to stress is altered by prenatal morphine exposure in adult male rats. Response of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis to stress is known to be sex specific and dependent on

Romana Šlamberová; Ágnes Rimanóczy; Michelle A. Riley; Ilona Vathy

2004-01-01

190

Effect of Perceived Stigmatisation on the Quality of Life among Ageing Female Family Carers: A Comparison of Carers of Adults with Intellectual Disability and Carers of Adults with Mental Illness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Little account has been taken of quality of life (QoL) among family carers of adults with an intellectual disability (ID) and family carers of adults with a mental illness (MI), particularly the female ageing carers' perceived stigma. We explore whether there are differences in the significant predictors of female ageing family carers'…

Chou, Y. C.; Pu, C. Y.; Lee, Y. C.; Lin, L. C.; Kroger, T.

2009-01-01

191

Female Reproductive System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This autoinstructional lesson can be used with health education and/or biology classes in a high school curriculum. It deals with the study of human development with emphasis on the female reproductive organs and cycles. The behavioral objectives are given, and the materials and equipment needed to gain these objectives are itemized. Fifteen…

Hodge, N. J.

192

Female facial attractiveness increases  

E-print Network

. Keywords: facial attractiveness; mate choice; beauty; oestrus; monogamy 1. INTRODUCTION Human females lack of Humanities, Charles University, Legerova 63, 120 00 Prague, Czech Republic 3 Department of Parasitology, and 4 Department of Anthropology and Human Genetics, Faculty of Science, Charles University, Vinicna 7

Flegr, Jaroslav

193

Models of female orgasm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-report instruments concerning personality and subjective responses to sexual orgasm were filled out by 281 female university undergraduates. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used to evaluate the dimensionality of women's subjective responsiveness to orgasm. The results did not support the concept of a unidimensional orgasm process; separate coital and masturbatory factors of orgasmic experience were obtained. Highly internally consistent

P. M. Bentler; William H. Peeler

1979-01-01

194

The Female Athlete Triad  

PubMed Central

Context: The female athlete triad (the triad) is an interrelationship of menstrual dysfunction, low energy availability (with or without an eating disorder), and decreased bone mineral density; it is relatively common among young women participating in sports. Diagnosis and treatment of this potentially serious condition is complicated and often requires an interdisciplinary team. Evidence Acquisition: Articles from 1981 to present found on PubMed were selected for review of major components of the female athlete triad as well as strategies for diagnosis and treatment of the conditions. Results: The main goal in treatment of young female athletes with the triad is a natural return of menses as well as enhancement of bone mineral density. While no specific drug intervention has been shown to consistently improve bone mineral density in this patient population, maximizing energy availability and optimizing vitamin D and calcium intake are recommended. Conclusions: Treatment requires a multidisciplinary approach involving health care professionals as well as coaches and family members. Prevention of this condition is important to minimize complications of the female athlete triad. PMID:23016101

Nazem, Taraneh Gharib; Ackerman, Kathryn E.

2012-01-01

195

Female reproductive surgery.  

PubMed

Although cesarean section is covered in a separate article, this article on miscellaneous female reproductive surgery will hopefully help to get and keep the cow pregnant. Procedure such as rectovaginal lacerations, vaginal tumors, prolapsed cervical rings, and vaginal prolapse repair are covered. In addition to procedures that will help with pregnancy, ovariectomy and hysterectomy are also covered. PMID:7796335

Hull, B L

1995-03-01

196

Female Pattern Hair Loss  

PubMed Central

Context: Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) also known as female androgenetic alopecia is a common condition afflicting millions of women that can be cosmetically disrupting. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential for obtaining optimal outcome. This review addresses the clinical presentation of female pattern hair loss, its differential diagnosis and treatment modalities. Evidence Acquisition: A) Diffuse thinning of the crown region with preservation of the frontal hairline (Ludwig’s type) B) The “Christmas tree pattern” where the thinning is wider in the frontal scalp giving the alopecic area a triangular shaped figure resembling a christmas tree. C) Thinning associated with bitemporal recession (Hamilton type). Generally, FPHL is not associated with elevated androgens. Less commonly females with FPHL may have other skin or general signs of hyperandrogenism such as hirsutism, acne, irregular menses, infertility, galactorrhea and insulin resistance. The most common endocrinological abnormality associated with FPHL is polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Results: The most important diseases to consider in the differential diagnosis of FPHL include Chronic Telogen Effluvium (CTE), Permanent Alopecia after Chemotherapy (PAC), Alopecia Areata Incognito (AAI) and Frontal Fibrosing Alopecia (FFA). This review describes criteria for distinguishing these conditions from FPHL. Conclusions: The only approved treatment for FPHL, which is 2% topical Minoxidil, should be applied at the dosage of 1ml twice day for a minimum period of 12 months. This review will discuss off-label alternative modalities of treatment including 5-alfa reductase inhibitors, antiandrogens, estrogens, prostaglandin analogs, lasers, light treatments and hair transplantation. PMID:24719635

Herskovitz, Ingrid; Tosti, Antonella

2013-01-01

197

Female Pallid Sturgeon  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Biologists prepare to perform ultrasound and an egg biopsy on female pallid sturgeon, radio code 30, to determine how close to spawning she is or whether spawning may already have occurred.  Biologists from Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks determined that code 30 eventually spawned in the Yello...

198

Relative influence of human harvest, carnivores, and weather on adult female elk survival across western North America  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Well-informed management of harvested species requires understanding how changing ecological conditions affect demography and population dynamics, information that is lacking for many species. We have limited understanding of the relative influence of carnivores, harvest, weather and forage availability on elk Cervus elaphus demography, despite the ecological and economic importance of this species. We assessed adult female survival, a key vital rate for population dynamics, from 2746 radio-collared elk in 45 populations across western North America that experience wide variation in carnivore assemblage, harvest, weather and habitat conditions. Proportional hazard analysis revealed that 'baseline' (i.e. not related to human factors) mortality was higher with very high winter precipitation, particularly in populations sympatric with wolves Canis lupus. Mortality may increase via nutritional stress and heightened vulnerability to predation in snowy winters. Baseline mortality was unrelated to puma Puma concolor presence, forest cover or summer forage productivity. Cause-specific mortality analyses showed that wolves and all carnivore species combined had additive effects on baseline elk mortality, but only reduced survival by <2%. When human factors were included, ‘total’ adult mortality was solely related to harvest; the influence of native carnivores was compensatory. Annual total mortality rates were lowest in populations sympatric with both pumas and wolves because managers reduced female harvest in areas with abundant or diverse carnivores. Mortality from native carnivores peaked in late winter and early spring, while harvest-induced mortality peaked in autumn. The strong peak in harvest-induced mortality during the autumn hunting season decreased as the number of native carnivore species increased. Synthesis and applications. Elevated baseline adult female elk mortality from wolves in years with high winter precipitation could affect elk abundance as winters across the western US become drier and wolves recolonize portions of the region. In the absence of human harvest, wolves had additive, although limited, effects on mortality. However, human harvest, and its apparent use by managers to offset predation, primarily controls overall variation in adult female mortality. Altering harvest quotas is thus a strong tool for offsetting impacts of carnivore recolonization and shifting weather patterns on elk across western North America.

Brodie, Jedediah; Johnson, Heather; Mitchell, Michael; Zager, Peter; Proffitt, Kelly; Hebblewhite, Mark; Kauffman, Matthew; Johnson, Bruce; Bissonette, John; Bishop, Chad; Gude, Justin; Herbert, Jeff; Hersey, Kent; Hurley, Mark; Lukacs, Paul M.; McCorquodale, Scott; McIntire, Eliot; Nowak, Josh; Sawyer, Hall; Smith, Douglas; White, P.J.

2013-01-01

199

Sex-specific survival rates of adult roseate terns: are males paying a higher reproductive cost than females?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A long-term mark-recapture/resighting program has been carried out on the Roseate Terns (Sterna dougallii) nesting at Falkner Island, Connecticut, USA from the late 1980s through the mid 2000s, and from 1995-1998 an intensive collaborative study of food-provisioning of chicks by their parents also was conducted on many of the banded individuals at this site. Adult female Roseate Terns have significantly higher 'local survival' rates than do males. While both sexes feed their young, males usually have higher prey delivery rates than do females and do most feeding of the (oldest if more than one) chick just before it fledges. Males usually depart at the same time as the (oldest) fledgling, while successful females parents may linger at the colony site for up to two weeks. The lower 'local survival' rate of males probably does not represent lower colony-site fidelity, but instead may reflect the price they pay for doing more 'child care,' especially if fledglings are still dependant on them for food during post breeding dispersal and (at least early) migration.

Spendelow, J.A.; Shealer, D.A.; Hatfield, J.S.; Nichols, J.D.; Nisbet, I.C.T.

2005-01-01

200

Characterization of endocrine-disrupting chemicals based on hormonal balance disruption in male and female adult rats.  

PubMed

Reproductive functions are controlled by a finely tuned balance between estrogens and androgens. To further characterize the gonadal pathways leading to hormonal balance disruption by atrazine, vinclozolin, methoxychlor, and bisphenol A in rat, we investigated their effects in male and female young adult animals. Specifically, we assessed reproductive tract alterations, sex hormone balance in serum and gonads, tissue dosimetry, and mRNA expression. Remarkably, we observed different aromatase regulation profiles between animals with similar estrogen-to-androgen ratios but with different chemical treatments. For example, increased estrogen-to-androgen ratios in atrazine-treated females could be partly linked to aromatase upregulation, while in methoxychlor- and bisphenol A-treated females, peripheral mechanisms such as conjugation/deconjugation processes might be more likely to elevate estrogen levels. In vinclozolin-treated animals, the decreased estrogen-to-androgen ratios reported might be due to an increase of peripheral (adrenal) steroidogenesis. Thus, measurement of many endpoints is necessary for good risk assessment. PMID:22285353

Quignot, Nadia; Arnaud, Marine; Robidel, Franck; Lecomte, Anthony; Tournier, Mikaël; Cren-Olivé, Cécile; Barouki, Robert; Lemazurier, Emmanuel

2012-06-01

201

Effects of perinatal bisphenol A exposure during early development on radial arm maze behavior in adult male and female rats  

PubMed Central

Previous work has shown that exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) can affect anxiety behavior. However, no studies have examined whether administration of this endocrine disruptor during the perinatal period has the potential to induce alterations in cognitive behavior in both adult males and females as assessed in an appetitive task. The goal of the current study was to determine whether exposure to different doses of BPA during early development alters performance on the 17-arm radial maze in adulthood in Long-Evans rats. Oral administration of corn oil (vehicle), 4 ?g/kg, 40 ?g/kg, or 400 ?g/kg BPA to the dams occurred daily throughout pregnancy, and the pups received direct oral administration of BPA between postnatal days 1-9. Blood was collected from offspring at weaning age to determine levels of several hormones (thyroxine, thyroid stimulating hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone). One male and one female from each litter were evaluated on the 17-arm radial maze, a working/reference memory task, in adulthood. Results indicated that after exposure to BPA at both 4 and 400 ?g/kg/day, rats of both sexes had decreased levels of FSH at weaning. There were no significant effects of BPA on performance on the radial arm maze in males or females. In conclusion, exposure to BPA during early development had modest effects on circulating hormones but did not affect a spatial learning and memory task. PMID:24440629

Sadowski, Renee N.; Park, Pul; Neese, Steven L.; Ferguson, Duncan C.; Schantz, Susan L.; Juraska, Janice M.

2014-01-01

202

Effects of perinatal bisphenol A exposure during early development on radial arm maze behavior in adult male and female rats.  

PubMed

Previous work has shown that exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) can affect anxiety behavior. However, no studies have examined whether administration of this endocrine disruptor during the perinatal period has the potential to induce alterations in cognitive behavior in both adult males and females as assessed in an appetitive task. The goal of the current study was to determine whether exposure to different doses of BPA during early development alters performance on the 17-arm radial maze in adulthood in Long-Evans rats. Oral administration of corn oil (vehicle), 4 ?g/kg, 40 ?g/kg, or 400 ?g/kg BPA to the dams occurred daily throughout pregnancy, and the pups received direct oral administration of BPA between postnatal days 1-9. Blood was collected from offspring at weaning age to determine levels of several hormones (thyroxine, thyroid stimulating hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone). One male and one female from each litter were evaluated on the 17-arm radial maze, a working/reference memory task, in adulthood. Results indicated that after exposure to BPA at both 4 and 400 ?g/kg/day, rats of both sexes had decreased levels of FSH at weaning. There were no significant effects of BPA on performance on the radial arm maze in males or females. In conclusion, exposure to BPA during early development had modest effects on circulating hormones but did not affect performance on a spatial learning and memory task. PMID:24440629

Sadowski, Renee N; Park, Pul; Neese, Steven L; Ferguson, Duncan C; Schantz, Susan L; Juraska, Janice M

2014-01-01

203

HDRK-Woman: whole-body voxel model based on high-resolution color slice images of Korean adult female cadaver  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a previous study, we constructed a male reference Korean phantom; HDRK-Man (High-Definition Reference Korean-Man), to represent Korean adult males for radiation protection purposes. In the present study, a female phantom; HDRK-Woman (High-Definition Reference Korean-Woman), was constructed to represent Korean adult females. High-resolution color photographic images obtained by serial sectioning of a 26 year-old Korean adult female cadaver were utilized. The body height and weight, the skeletal mass, and the dimensions of the individual organs and tissues were adjusted to the reference Korean data. The phantom was then compared with the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) female reference phantom in terms of calculated organ doses and organ-depth distributions. Additionally, the effective doses were calculated using both the HDRK-Man and HDRK-Woman phantoms, and the values were compared with those of the ICRP reference phantoms.

Yeom, Yeon Soo; Jeong, Jong Hwi; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Han, Min Cheol; Ham, Bo Kyoung; Cho, Kun Woo; Hwang, Sung Bae

2014-07-01

204

Female sexual dysfunction in young adult women - Impact of age and lifestyle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Female sexual function is a difficult entity to be assessed. Subjective factors and interview biases can change the perception of it. Using validated questionnaires can improve the scientific approach to this matter. There is a huge difference of severity and incidence among young, apparent healthy women, which are in a harmonious relationship. We evaluated 320 healthy women, with stable sexual active relationship, with no know depressive disease, endocrinological and metabolic pathology, no premature menopause, no malignancy. We compose a mathematic model to study the impact of age, and body weight on the sexual function, with FSFI total score as surrogate marker. We observed that even in healthy women, increase in age and/or weight/body mass significantly impair general sexual function.

Stoian, Dana; PAter, Liana; Pater, Flavius; Craciunescu, Mihaela

2014-12-01

205

Sandy sediment and the bioavailability of 17?-trenbolone to adult female fathead minnows.  

PubMed

Recent studies have detected bioavailable steroids in sediment, however, the mechanism by which these compounds become bioavailable is not completely understood. In this study, two experiments were conducted using a double aquarium system that allowed female fathead minnows to be exposed to sandy sediments without direct contact. In the first experiment, natural sediment from the Elkhorn River (Nebraska, USA) was spiked with 17?-trenbolone. Both the fish in direct contact with the sediment as well as the fish excluded from direct contact experienced significant reductions in the hepatic expression of two estrogen-responsive genes, vitellogenin and estrogen receptor ?, indicating molecular defeminization. The natural sediment contained particles ranging in size from sand to clay and it was possible that the fish in experiment 1 were being exposed to trenbolone associated with the very fine particles. The sandy sediment was sieved for experiment 2, and only the particles larger than 250 ?m were used. In addition, the experiment was conducted at two different Tb concentrations (1× and 10×). Furthermore nuptial tubercles, a biomarker of exposure to a masculinizing androgen, were also evaluated in the females used in experiment 2. For tubercle number and vtg expression, significant results were obtained from a two-way ANOVA due to Tb concentration, but not tank location or interaction term (location vs. concentration). For ER? expression, results were found in response to Tb concentration and tank location, but not the interaction term. Overall the results from these studies suggest that the primary route of exposure of sediment-associated trenbolone to fish is through ventilation of free compound, rather than ingestion or direct contact with the sediments. PMID:24441280

Jessick, Ashley M; Skolness, Sarah; Kolok, Alan S

2014-03-01

206

Pneumococcal meningitis in a young adult female with common variable immunodeficiency  

PubMed Central

Patient: Female, 22 Final Diagnosis: Pneumococcal meningitis Symptoms: Fever • headache • neck stiffness • nuchal rigidity • photophobia Medication: Ceftriaxone Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Neurology Objective: Rare disease Background: Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a primary immunodeficiency associated with hypogammaglobulinemia and other various clinical manifestations. It is a rare disease with a prevalence of CVID is approximately 1: 50,000–200,000. Clinical manifestations of CVID include recurrent bacterial infections, autoimmune, gastrointestinal, lymphoproliferative, granulomatous, and malignancy. Case Report: Twenty-two year-old Hispanic female presented with a throbbing headache, nuchal rigidity, photophobia and a high grade fever. Lumbar puncture with CSF assessment revealed a turbid fluid with WBC of 6937 per uL, polymorphnuclear cells of 81%, protein 248 mg/dL, glucose <3 mg/Dl. CSF antigens were positive for Streptococcus pneumonia and CSF culture grew pansensitive Strepococcus pneumonia. Immunoglobin (Ig) levels of IgA, IgE, IgG and IgM were all decreased. Absolute cell counts of CD3, CD4 and CD8 were all low. Bone marrow biopsy was normocellular. Excisional lymph node biopsy revealed lymph nodes with reactive follicular hyperplasia. Common variable immunodeficiency disease (CVID) was diagnosed based on exclusion. IVIG therapy was given and patient received a two-week course of ceftriaxone. Conclusions: The diagnosis of CVID is made based on the following criteria: 1) Marked decrease of IgG and at least one of the IgM or IgA isotypes. 2) The onset of immunodeficiency at greater than 2 years old. 3) Absence of isohemagglutinins and/or poor response to vaccines 4) Exclusion of other defined causes of hypogammaglobulinemia. A definite diagnosis is often late because it is wrongly assumed that primary immunodeficiencies are extremely rare, hence many patients are already seriously ill at the time of presentation. PMID:24265845

Cooper, Chad J.; Said, Sarmad; Quansah, Raphael; Khalillullah, Sayeed; Alozie, Ogechika

2013-01-01

207

Neurokinin B is critical for normal timing of sexual maturation but dispensable for adult reproductive function in female mice.  

PubMed

Humans carrying mutations in neurokinin B (NKB) or the NKB receptor fail to undergo puberty due to decreased secretion of GnRH. Despite this pubertal delay, many of these patients go on to achieve activation of their hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in adulthood, a phenomenon termed reversal, indicating that NKB signaling may play a more critical role for the timing of pubertal development than adult reproductive function. NKB receptor-deficient mice are hypogonadotropic but have no defects in the timing of sexual maturation. The current study has performed the first phenotypic evaluation of mice bearing mutations in Tac2, the gene encoding the NKB ligand, to determine whether they have impaired sexual development similar to their human counterparts. Male Tac2(-/-) mice showed no difference in the timing of sexual maturation or fertility compared with wild-type littermates and were fertile. In contrast, Tac2(-/-) females had profound delays in sexual maturation, with time to vaginal opening and first estrus occurring significantly later than controls, and initial abnormalities in estrous cycles. However, cycling recovered in adulthood and Tac2(-/-) females were fertile, although they produced fewer pups per litter. Thus, female Tac2(-/-) mice parallel humans harboring NKB pathway mutations, with delayed sexual maturation and activation of the reproductive cascade later in life. Moreover, direct comparison of NKB ligand and receptor-deficient females confirmed that only NKB ligand-deficient animals have delayed sexual maturation, suggesting that in the absence of the NKB receptor, NKB may regulate the timing of sexual maturation through other tachykinin receptors. PMID:25574869

True, Cadence; Nasrin Alam, Sayeda; Cox, Kimberly; Chan, Yee-Ming; Seminara, Stephanie B

2015-04-01

208

Histochemical study of the hepatopancreas in adult females of the pink-shrimp Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis Latreille, 1817.  

PubMed

This study provides histochemical data of the hepatopancreatic cells of adult female pink-shrimp (Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis) at two different developmental stages (those with developed gonads and those with exhausted gonads). The F. brasiliensis females were collected in seawater off the Guarapari coast, Espirito Santo, Brazil. Five cell types were identified in this digestive gland: B (vesicular), E (embryonic), F (fibrillar), M (basal) and R (resorptive). The digestive gland was stained with the following techniques: PAS/Alcian blue (for polysaccharides), bromophenol blue (for protein), von Kossa (for bound calcium) and Baker (for lipids). Acid glycoconjugates were found inside vacuoles in the R cells, while neutral polysaccharides were present in the B cells and near to the microvilli. In females with exhausted gonads polysaccharides were also seen in the intertubular spaces and inside the lumina of the tubules. The F and M cells were the most marked by the presence of large amounts of proteins observed in R cells and also inside the vacuoles of B cells. The bound calcium was mainly found in the F and M cells. The F cells showed strong positive staining for lipid while the R cell only stained weakly. The E cells did not react to any of the applied staining techniques. The similarities in the histochemical composition of these hepatopancreatic cells in females with developed gonads, compared to exhausted ones, is justified by the fact that transfer of these elements to the oocytes occurs, in significant quantity, only during the initial stages of gonadal development in F. brasiliensis. Also, they may be more related to the molt stage, as in the case of calcium salts. PMID:23992941

Nunes, Erika Takagi; Braga, Adriane Araújo; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel

2014-01-01

209

Chronic alcohol consumption disrupts myocardial protein balance and function in aged, but not adult, female F344 rats.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to assess whether the deleterious effect of chronic alcohol consumption differs in adult and aged female rats. To address this aim, adult (4 mo) and aged (18 mo) F344 rats were fed a nutritionally complete liquid diet containing alcohol (36% total calories) or an isocaloric isonitrogenous control diet for 20 wk. Cardiac structure and function, assessed by echocardiography, as well as myocardial protein synthesis and proteolysis did not differ in either alcohol- versus control-fed adult rats or in adult versus aged control-fed rats. In contrast, cardiac function was impaired in alcohol-fed aged rats compared with age-matched control rats. Additionally, alcohol feeding decreased cardiac protein synthesis that was associated with decreased phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 and S6K1. This reduction in mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase activity was associated with reduced eIF3f and binding of both Raptor and eIF4G to eIF3. Proteasome activity was increased in alcohol-fed aged rats with a coordinate elevation in the E3 ligases atrogin-1 and muscle RING-finger protein-1 (MuRF1). These changes were associated with increased regulated in development and DNA damage response 1 (REDD1) and phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) but no increase in AKT or forkhead transcription factor (FOXO)3 phosphorylation. Finally, markers of autophagy (e.g., LC3B, Atg7, Atg12) and TNF-? were increased to a greater extent in alcohol-fed aged rats. These data demonstrate that aged female rats exhibit an enhanced sensitivity to alcohol compared with adult animals. Our data are consistent with a model whereby alcohol increases proteolysis via FOXO-independent increase in atrogin-1, which degrades eIF3f and therefore impairs formation of a functional preinitiation complex and protein synthesis. PMID:24226028

Lang, Charles H; Korzick, Donna H

2014-01-01

210

Role of excitatory amino acid pathways in control of gonadotrophin secretion in adult female rats sterilized by neonatal administration of oestradiol or testosterone.  

PubMed

Administration of sex steroids to neonatal female rats resulted in anovulation and absence of positive and negative feedback between oestradiol and LH secretion. In the present experiments, the role of excitatory amino acids in the control of gonadotrophin secretion in anovulatory adult rats sterilized by neonatal administration of oestradiol benzoate or testosterone propionate (100 mg or 1.25 mg on the day of birth, respectively) was studied. Cyclic females in metoestrus were used as controls. Serum LH and FSH concentrations were measured at different times after i.p. administration of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA), kainic acid (agonists of NMDA and kainate receptors, respectively), MK-801 or 6,7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (DNQX) (antagonists of NMDA and kainate receptors, respectively). Experiments were also performed in control and sterilized females 1 week after ovariectomy. It was found that: (1) the effectiveness of NMDA and kainic acid in stimulating LH secretion was significantly higher in sterilized than in cyclic females; (2) ovariectomy increased LH secretion only in control females; (3) the stimulatory effect of NMDA and kainic acid on LH secretion after ovariectomy was observed only in sterilized females; (4) MK-801 and DNQX selectively decreased LH secretion in sterilized females; and (5) FSH secretion remained unaffected after NMDA or kainic acid administration in both control and sterilized females. In conclusion, the results obtained in sterilized females showed both a tonic release of endogenous excitatory amino acids and a greater responsiveness to NMDA and kainic acid than in controls. PMID:9713376

Pinilla, L; Tena-Sempere, M; Aguilar, E

1998-05-01

211

Acute exposure to gas-supersaturated water does not affect reproductive success of female adult chinook salmon late in maturation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

At times, total dissolved gas concentrations in the Columbia and Snake rivers have been elevated due to involuntary spill from high spring runoff and voluntary spill used as a method to pass juvenile salmonids over dams. The goal of this project was to determine if acute exposure to total dissolved gas supersaturation (TDGS) affects the reproductive performance of female chinook salmon late in their maturation. During this study, adult female spring chinook salmon were exposed to mean TDGS levels of 114.1 % to 125.5%. We ended exposures at first mortality, or at the appearance of impending death. Based on this criterion, exposures lasted from 10 to 68 h and were inversely related to TDGS. There was no effect of TDGS on pre-spawning mortality or fecundity when comparing treatment fish to experimental controls or the general hatchery population four to six weeks after exposures. Egg quality, based on egg weight and egg diameter, did not differ between treatment and control fish. Fertilization rate and survival to eyed-stage was high (>94%) for all groups. With the exception of Renibacterium salmoninarum (the causative agent of bacterial kidney disease; BKD), no viral or bacterial fish pathogens were isolated from experimental fish. The prevalence (about 45%) and severity of R. salmoninarum did not differ among the groups or the general hatchery population. We conclude that these acute exposures to moderate levels of gas-supersaturated water-perhaps similar to that experienced by immigrating adult salmon as they approach and pass a hydropower dam on the Columbia River-did not affect reproductive success of female chinook salmon late in their maturation. These results are most applicable to summer and fall chinook salmon, which migrate in the summer/fall and spawn shortly after reaching their natal streams. Published in 2004 by John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

Gale, W.L.; Maule, A.G.; Postera, A.; Peters, M.H.

2004-01-01

212

Prenatal ethanol exposure programs an increased susceptibility of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in female adult offspring rats.  

PubMed

Prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) induces dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in fetus and adult offspring. However, whether PEE increases the susceptibility to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in offspring and its underlying mechanism remain unknown. This study aimed to demonstrate an increased susceptibility to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD and its intrauterine programming mechanisms in female rat offspring with PEE. Rat model of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was established by PEE, the female fetus and adult offspring that fed normal diet (ND) or HFD were sacrificed. The results showed that, in PEE+ND group, serum corticosterone (CORT) slightly decreased and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and glucose increased with partial catch-up growth; In PEE+HFD group, serum CORT decreased, while serum IGF-1, glucose and triglyceride (TG) increased, with notable catch-up growth, higher metabolic status and NAFLD formation. Enhanced liver expression of the IGF-1 pathway, gluconeogenesis, and lipid synthesis as well as reduced expression of lipid output were accompanied in PEE+HFD group. In PEE fetus, serum CORT increased while IGF-1 decreased, with low body weight, hyperglycemia, and hepatocyte ultrastructural changes. Hepatic IGF-1 expression as well as lipid output was down-regulated, while lipid synthesis significantly increased. Based on these findings, we propose a "two-programming" hypothesis for an increased susceptibility to HFD-induced NAFLD in female offspring of PEE. That is, the intrauterine programming of liver glucose and lipid metabolic function is "the first programming", and postnatal adaptive catch-up growth triggered by intrauterine programming of GC-IGF1 axis acts as "the second programming". PMID:24275070

Shen, Lang; Liu, Zhongfen; Gong, Jun; Zhang, Li; Wang, Linlong; Magdalou, Jacques; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui

2014-01-15

213

Developmental exposure to the polybrominated diphenyl ether PBDE 209: Neurobehavioural and neuroprotein analysis in adult male and female mice.  

PubMed

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), used as flame retardants in polymer products, are reported to cause developmental neurotoxic effects in mammals. The present study have investigated neurotoxic effects arising from neonatal exposure to PBDE 209, including alterations in sex differences, spontaneous behaviour, learning and memory, neuroproteins and altered susceptibility of the cholinergic system in adults. Three-day-old NMRI mice, of both sexes, were exposed to PBDE 209 (2,2',3,3',4,4',5,5',6,6'-decaBDE at 0, 1.4, 6.0 and 14.0?mol/kg b.w.). At adult age (2-7 months) a similar developmental neurotoxic effects in both male and female mice were seen, including lack of or reduced habituation to a novel home environment, learning and memory defects, modified response to the cholinergic agent's paraoxon (males) and nicotine (females) indicating increased susceptibility of the cholinergic system. The behavioural defects were dose-response related and persistent. In mice of both sexes and showing behavioural defects, neuroprotein tau was increased. PMID:25194327

Buratovic, Sonja; Viberg, Henrik; Fredriksson, Anders; Eriksson, Per

2014-09-01

214

Temporomandibular joint articulations on working side during chewing in adult females with cross-bite and mandibular asymmetry.  

PubMed

Influence of mandibular asymmetry and cross-bite on temporomandibular joint (TMJ) articulation remained unknown. This study aimed to investigate whether/how the working-side condylar movement irregularity and articular spaces during chewing differ between patients with mandibular asymmetry/cross-bite and control subjects. The cross-bite group and the control group consisted of 10 adult female patients and 10 adult female subjects, respectively. They performed unilateral gum-chewing. The mandibular movements were recorded using a video-based opto-electronic system. The 3D articular surface of the TMJ for each individual was reconstructed using CT/MRI data. For local condylar points, the normalised jerk cost (NJC) towards normal direction to the condylar surface, the angle between tangential velocity vector and condylar long axis and intra-articular space were measured. Three rotatory angles at centre of the condyle were also measured. During closing and intercuspation, (i) movements of posterior portion of the deviated side condyle showed significantly less smoothness as compared with those for the non-deviated side and control subjects, (ii) the rotations of the condyle on the deviated side induced greater intra-articular space at posterior and lateral portions. These findings suggest that chewing on the side of mandibular deviation/cross-bite may cause irregular movement and enlarged intra-articular space at posterior portion of the deviated side condyle. PMID:25545582

Yashiro, K; Iwata, A; Takada, K; Murakami, S; Uchiyama, Y; Furukawa, S

2015-03-01

215

The young female athlete.  

PubMed

It is important that girls and young women participate in sports and develop skills that promote lifelong athletic participation, because of the psychological, sociologic, and physiologic benefits associated with exercise. When an athlete begins intensive, competitive exercise training at a young age, or when the preoccupation with thinness supersedes a desire to be healthy, potential morbidity results. Lack of information and the strong desire to win contribute to this problem. There is relatively little known about the long-term physical and psychological effects of early intensive athletic training and the female athlete triad on the young female athlete. In addition to the need for further research in these areas, there is a need for education of physicians, coaches, trainers, athletes, and parents. The preparticipation physical examination is an excellent opportunity for the physician to screen for the triad disorders and educate athletes and parents on healthy nutrition, normal menstrual function, and the benefits of exercise. PMID:7553928

Van de Loo, D A; Johnson, M D

1995-07-01

216

Traumatic female urethral avulsion.  

PubMed

Traumatic female urethral avulsion in the absence of a pelvic fracture is an exceedingly rare entity, with no consensus on its' management. Here, we present a 35-year-old pregnant woman with severe anterior vaginal wall laceration and complete urethral avulsion secondary to straddle injury. Management consisted of primary urethral and vaginal repair. Saudi Med J 2015; Vol. 36 (3): 366-367doi: 10.15537/smj.2015.3.10399   PMID:25737183

Al-Asbahi, Walid A

2015-03-01

217

Trade-offs between offspring fitness and future reproduction of adult female black brent.  

PubMed

1.?Successful reproduction requires numerous decisions, and some of which may require trade-offs between current and future reproduction. We studied effects of choice of foraging patches on gosling growth and future breeding by mothers in black brent (Branta bernicla nigricans) geese. 2.?Specific foraging areas consistently produced high-quality goslings over 21?years. We found a consistent ranking of gosling mass, corrected for age, across brood rearing areas (BRAs) and years [Akaike model weights, ?w(i) ?=?1·00 for models including additive effects of BRA and year]. Growth of goslings largely determines their future fitness, so areas where goslings grew most rapidly also produced goslings with the highest mean fitness. 3.?We used a multistate robust design capture-mark-recapture approach to estimate the probability of transitioning from a breeding state to a non-breeding (unobservable) state as a function of quality of BRA. 4.?In the best supported model, transition from a breeding state to a non-breeding state was positively related to gosling growth rates across BRAs. Thus, future reproduction was lower for females using BRAs that produced higher-quality goslings. Our results are consistent with trade-offs by individual brent between fitness of their current offspring and their own reproductive value. PMID:22303812

Nicolai, Christopher A; Sedinger, James S

2012-07-01

218

Central mechanisms of adiposity in adult female mice with androgen excess  

PubMed Central

Objective Androgen excess in women is associated with visceral adiposity. However, little is known on the mechanism through which androgen promotes visceral fat accumulation. Design and Methods To address this issue, we exposed female mice to chronic androgen excess using 5?-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and studied the regulation of energy homeostasis. Results DHT induced a leptin failure to decrease body weight associated with visceral adiposity but without alterations in leptin anorectic action. This paralleled leptin’s failure to upregulate brown adipose tissue expression of uncoupling protein-1, associated with decreased energy expenditure. DHT decreased hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (pomc) mRNA expression and increased POMC intensity in neuronal bodies of the arcuate nucleus while simultaneously decreasing the intensity of POMC projections to the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH). This was associated with a failure of the melanocortin 4 receptor agonist melanotan-II to suppress body weight. Conclusion Taken together, these data indicate that androgen excess promotes visceral adiposity with reduced POMC neuronal innervation in the DMH, reduced energy expenditure but without hyperphagia. PMID:24639082

Nohara, Kazunari; Laque, Amanda; Allard, Camille; Münzberg, Heike; Mauvais-Jarvis, Franck

2014-01-01

219

Behavioral characterization of adult male and female rhesus monkeys exposed to cocaine throughout gestation  

PubMed Central

Rationale In utero cocaine exposure has been associated with alterations in the dopamine (DA) system in monkeys. However, the behavioral outcomes of prenatal cocaine exposure in adulthood are poorly understood. Objectives To assess several behavioral measures in 14-year-old rhesus monkeys exposed to cocaine in utero and controls (n=10 per group). Materials and methods For these studies, two unconditioned behavioral tasks, novel object reactivity and locomotor activity, and two conditioned behavioral tasks, response extinction and delay discounting, were examined. In addition, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were analyzed for concentrations of the monoamine metabolites homovanillic acid (HVA) and 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA). Results No differences in CSF concentrations of 5-HIAA and HVA, latencies to touch a novel object or locomotor activity measures were observed between groups or sexes. However, prenatally cocaine-exposed monkeys required a significantly greater number of sessions to reach criteria for extinction of food-reinforced behavior than control monkeys. On the delay-discounting task, male prenatally cocaine-exposed monkeys switched preference from the larger reinforcer to the smaller one at shorter delay values than male control monkeys; no differences were observed in females. Conclusions These findings suggest that prenatal cocaine exposure results in long-term neurobehavioral deficits that are influenced by sex of the individual. PMID:20959969

Hamilton, Lindsey R.; Czoty, Paul W.; Nader, Michael A.

2011-01-01

220

Effects of chronic oestradiol, progesterone and medroxyprogesterone acetate on hippocampal neurogenesis and adrenal mass in adult female rats.  

PubMed

Both natural oestrogens and progesterone influence synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis within the female hippocampus. However, less is known of the impact of synthetic hormones on hippocampal structure and function. There is some evidence that the administration of the synthetic progestin, medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) is not as beneficial as natural progesterone and can attenuate oestrogen-induced neuroprotection. Although the effects of oestradiol have been well studied, little is known about the effects of natural and synthetic progestins alone and in combination with oestradiol on adult neurogenesis in females. In the present study, we investigated the effects of chronic oestradiol, progesterone, MPA and the co-administration of each progestin with oestradiol on neurogenesis within the dentate gyrus of adult ovariectomised female rats. Twenty-four hours after a bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU; 200 mg/kg) injection, female rats were repeatedly administered either progesterone (1 or 4 mg), MPA (1 or 4 mg), oestradiol benzoate (EB), progesterone or MPA in combination with EB (10 ?g), or vehicle for 21 days. Rats were perfused on day 22 and brain tissue was analysed for the number of BrdU-labelled and Ki67 (an endogenous marker of cell proliferation)-expressing cells. EB alone and MPA + EB significantly decreased neurogenesis and the number of surviving BrdU-labelled cells in the dorsal region of the dentate gyrus, independent of any effects on cell proliferation. Furthermore, MPA (1 and 4 mg) and MPA + EB treated animals had significantly lower adrenal/body mass ratios and reduced serum corticosterone (CORT) levels. By contrast, progesterone + EB treated animals had significantly higher adrenal/body mass ratios and 1 mg of progesterone, progesterone + EB, and EB significantly increased CORT levels. The results of the present study demonstrate that different progestins alone and in combination with oestradiol can differentially affect neurogenesis (via cell survival) and regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. These findings have implications for women using hormone replacement therapies with MPA for both neuroprotection and stress-related disorders. PMID:24750490

Chan, M; Chow, C; Hamson, D K; Lieblich, S E; Galea, L A M

2014-06-01

221

Female Eastern Tiger Swallowtail Butterfly  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

An Eastern tiger swallowtail butterfly (female, black form) drinks nectar from a plumeless thistle flower in an abandoned agricultural field. Females have blue scales on the upper side of the lower hindwing....

222

Female-pattern baldness (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Female-pattern baldness is a pattern of hair loss (alopecia) caused by hormones, aging and genetics. Unlike male-pattern baldness, female-pattern baldness is an over-all thinning which maintains the normal ...

223

Loading modalities and bone structures at nonweight-bearing upper extremity and weight-bearing lower extremity: A pQCT study of adult female athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This cross-sectional study of adult female athletes assessed whether the apparent loading-related differences in bone structure are primarily associated with the loading type or the muscle performance-related joint moments. Several structural variables at shaft sites of the tibia, radius and humerus, and distal sites of the tibia and radius were measured with peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) among 113 female

Riku Nikander; Harri Sievänen; Kirsti Uusi-Rasi; Ari Heinonen; Pekka Kannus

2006-01-01

224

Maximum permissive dosage of lactose and lactitol for transitory diarrhea, and utilizable capacity for lactose in Japanese female adults.  

PubMed

This study aims to estimate the tolerable lactose intake which can be utilized in the digestion by lactase and in the fermentation by intestinal microbes in Japanese female adults. The first, the maximum permissive dosage of lactose not to induce transitory diarrhea was estimated based on the oral ingestion of lactose at several dose levels in all the subjects, and compared with that of lactitol which is not hydrolyzed by digestive enzymes. A second lactose tolerance test involving 10 g and 30 g of lactose was carried out in 10 subjects showing resistance to diarrhea, and serum glucose and insulin levels and the amount of hydrogen excreted in the breath were measured for comparison with those of glucose and lactitol. Subjects were 43 Japanese female adults (average: age 20.5+/-2.1 y, weight 51.3+/-5.1 kg) who had not been diagnosed as having either hypolactasia or being lactose intolerant. Serum glucose and insulin levels were scarcely elevated following the ingestion of both 10 g and 30 g of lactose, while the amount of hydrogen excreted in the breath was greatly increased following the ingestion of 30 g of lactose, but these levels were less following the ingestion of 10 g of lactose. In contrast, the ingestion of 15 g of glucose significantly increased blood glucose and insulin levels, while no hydrogen was detected in the breath. The maximum permissive dosage of lactose not to induce transitory diarrhea was 0.72 g/kg of body weight and that of lactitol was 0.36 g/kg of body weight in Japanese adults. The digestive capacity of lactase is less than 10 g of lactose by single ingestion, while intestinal microflora are able to ferment approximately 20-30 g of lactose. In addition, the ingestion of more than 10 g of lactose might be contributed as prebiotics. PMID:16022189

Oku, Tsuneyuki; Nakamura, Sadako; Ichinose, Makoto

2005-04-01

225

First comparative transcriptomic analysis of wild adult male and female Lutzomyia longipalpis, vector of visceral leishmaniasis.  

PubMed

Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease with a complex epidemiology and ecology. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is its most severe clinical form as it results in death if not treated. In Latin America VL is caused by the protist parasite Leishmania infantum (syn. chagasi) and transmitted by Lutzomyia longipalpis. This phlebotomine sand fly is only found in the New World, from Mexico to Argentina. However, due to deforestation, migration and urbanisation, among others, VL in Latin America is undergoing an evident geographic expansion as well as dramatic changes in its transmission patterns. In this context, the first VL outbreak was recently reported in Argentina, which has already caused 7 deaths and 83 reported cases. Insect vector transcriptomic analyses enable the identification of molecules involved in the insect's biology and vector-parasite interaction. Previous studies on laboratory reared Lu. longipalpis have provided a descriptive repertoire of gene expression in the whole insect, midgut, salivary gland and male reproductive organs. Nevertheless, the study of wild specimens would contribute a unique insight into the development of novel bioinsecticides. Given the recent VL outbreak in Argentina and the compelling need to develop appropriate control strategies, this study focused on wild male and female Lu. longipalpis from an Argentine endemic (Posadas, Misiones) and a Brazilian non-endemic (Lapinha Cave, Minas Gerais) VL location. In this study, total RNA was extracted from the sand flies, submitted to sequence independent amplification and high-throughput pyrosequencing. This is the first time an unbiased and comprehensive transcriptomic approach has been used to analyse an infectious disease vector in its natural environment. Transcripts identified in the sand flies showed characteristic profiles which correlated with the environment of origin and with taxa previously identified in these same specimens. Among these, various genes represented putative targets for vector control via RNA interference (RNAi). PMID:23554910

McCarthy, Christina B; Santini, María Soledad; Pimenta, Paulo F P; Diambra, Luis A

2013-01-01

226

Butachlor causes disruption of HPG and HPT axes in adult female rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus).  

PubMed

Butachlor is a chloroacetamide herbicide widely used in Asia, and may enter the aquatic environment through agricultural application. In this study, plasma VTG and hormone levels (E2, 11-KT, T3 and T4) were determined after the female rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) was exposed to butachlor at environmental relevant concentrations (0, 0.1, 1, and 10?g/L) for 40days. The mRNA levels of the HPG axis-related genes (gnrh, er?, vtg, star, lhr, 3?-hsd, cyp11a, cyp17, cyp19a and cyp19b), and the HPT axis-related genes (tr?, dio1, dio2, and dio3) were quantified after 20 and 40days exposure to butachlor. For the HPG axis, the plasma 11-KT was increased at exposure concentration of 10?g/L, and VTG was significantly decreased at 1?g/L. Functional genes like gnrh and cyp19b in the brains, star, lhr, cyp11a, 3?-hsd, and cyp19a in the ovaries, and er? and vtg in livers were up-regulated. For the HPT axis, the results showed that plasma T4 levels were significantly increased, the gene expression of dio1 was up-regulated, dio2 showed no significant variation, and dio3 was down-regulated in the livers. These results indicated that butachlor may promote the accumulation of T4 in fish through inactive deiodinase type 3. The transcription of HPG axis-related genes could serve as an auto-regulation of hormone levels after exposure to butachlor. Furthermore, the activation of gnrh may play an important role as a feed-back mechanism in the regulation of hormone levels and crosstalk of endocrine axes. PMID:25108122

Zhu, Lifei; Li, Wei; Zha, Jinmiao; Wang, Miao; Yuan, Lilai; Wang, Zijian

2014-09-25

227

Adolescent pre-treatment with oxytocin protects against adult methamphetamine-seeking behavior in female rats.  

PubMed

The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT), given acutely, reduces self-administration of the psychostimulant drug methamphetamine (METH). Additionally, chronic OT administration to adolescent rats reduces levels of alcohol consumption in adulthood, suggesting developmental neuroplasticity in the OT system relevant to addiction-related behaviors. Here, we examined whether OT exposure during adolescence might subsequently inhibit METH self-administration in adulthood. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were administered vehicle or OT (1?mg/kg, i.p.) once daily from postnatal days (PND) 28 to 37 (adolescence). At PND 62 (adulthood), rats were trained to self-administer METH (intravenous, i.v.) in daily 2-hour sessions for 10 days under a fixed ratio 1 (FR1) reinforcement schedule, followed by determination of dose-response functions (0.01-0.3?mg/kg/infusion, i.v.) under both FR1 and progressive ratio (PR) schedules of reinforcement. Responding was then extinguished, and relapse to METH-seeking behavior assessed following priming doses of non-contingent METH (0.1-1?mg/kg, i.p.). Finally, plasma was collected to determine pre-treatment effects on OT and corticosterone levels. Results showed that OT pre-treatment did not significantly inhibit the acquisition of METH self-administration or FR1 responding. However, rats pre-treated with OT responded significantly less for METH under a PR reinforcement schedule, and showed reduced METH-primed reinstatement with the 1?mg/kg prime. Plasma OT levels were also significantly higher in OT pre-treated rats. These results confirm earlier observations that adolescent OT exposure can subtly, yet significantly, inhibit addiction-relevant behaviors in adulthood. PMID:25402719

Hicks, Callum; Cornish, Jennifer L; Baracz, Sarah J; Suraev, Anastasia; McGregor, Iain S

2014-11-17

228

First Comparative Transcriptomic Analysis of Wild Adult Male and Female Lutzomyia longipalpis, Vector of Visceral Leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease with a complex epidemiology and ecology. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is its most severe clinical form as it results in death if not treated. In Latin America VL is caused by the protist parasite Leishmania infantum (syn. chagasi) and transmitted by Lutzomyia longipalpis. This phlebotomine sand fly is only found in the New World, from Mexico to Argentina. However, due to deforestation, migration and urbanisation, among others, VL in Latin America is undergoing an evident geographic expansion as well as dramatic changes in its transmission patterns. In this context, the first VL outbreak was recently reported in Argentina, which has already caused 7 deaths and 83 reported cases. Insect vector transcriptomic analyses enable the identification of molecules involved in the insect's biology and vector-parasite interaction. Previous studies on laboratory reared Lu. longipalpis have provided a descriptive repertoire of gene expression in the whole insect, midgut, salivary gland and male reproductive organs. Nevertheless, the study of wild specimens would contribute a unique insight into the development of novel bioinsecticides. Given the recent VL outbreak in Argentina and the compelling need to develop appropriate control strategies, this study focused on wild male and female Lu. longipalpis from an Argentine endemic (Posadas, Misiones) and a Brazilian non-endemic (Lapinha Cave, Minas Gerais) VL location. In this study, total RNA was extracted from the sand flies, submitted to sequence independent amplification and high-throughput pyrosequencing. This is the first time an unbiased and comprehensive transcriptomic approach has been used to analyse an infectious disease vector in its natural environment. Transcripts identified in the sand flies showed characteristic profiles which correlated with the environment of origin and with taxa previously identified in these same specimens. Among these, various genes represented putative targets for vector control via RNA interference (RNAi). PMID:23554910

McCarthy, Christina B.; Santini, María Soledad; Pimenta, Paulo F. P.; Diambra, Luis A.

2013-01-01

229

Females drive primate social evolution  

E-print Network

with the number of females (Andelman 1986; Ridley 1986; Dunbar 1988; Altmann 1990; Mitani et al. 1996; Nunn 1999 12.11.03 Within and across species of primates, the number of males in primate groups is correlated with the number of females. This correlation may arise owing to ecological forces operating on females

Lindenfors, Patrik

230

Young Females' Images of Motherhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on two studies into the images of motherhood held by young females. In Study 1, we attempted to uncover general conceptual dimensions by which young Dutch females perceive motherhood. For this, a group of 64, predominantly White, participants of various ages and educational backgrounds were interviewed about real-life mothers and female images derived from television. Qualitative analysis

Carine T. G. M. Ex; Jan M. A. M. Janssens

2000-01-01

231

Issues in the female athlete.  

PubMed

Effective treatment of the female athlete begins with an understanding of the anatomic and physiologic differences between males and females and the epidemiology of injury patterns in athletic women. However, the female athlete has a variety of special concerns that the sports medicine physician should be familiar with. PMID:7609959

Beim, G; Stone, D A

1995-07-01

232

Early consumption of blueberry diet protects against sex steroid deficiency-induced bone loss in adult female rats  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We studied the effects of blueberry consumption in early development on bone loss in ovariectomized (OVX) female rats later in life. Weanling female rats were fed AIN-93G semi-purified diets supplemented with 10% whole blueberry powder from PND 21 to PND34 (short-term group), or PND21 to PND81 (chro...

233

Basonuclin-2 Requirements for Zebrafish Adult Pigment Pattern Development and Female Fertility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relatively little is known about the generation of adult form. One complex adult trait that is particularly amenable to genetic and experimental analysis is the zebrafish pigment pattern, which undergoes extensive remodeling during post-embryonic development to form adult stripes. These stripes result from the arrangement of three classes of neural crest-derived pigment cells, or chromatophores: melanophores, xanthophores, and iridophores. Here,

Michael R. Lang; Larissa B. Patterson; Tiffany N. Gordon; Stephen L. Johnson; David M. Parichy

2009-01-01

234

Observations of a free-ranging adult female dingo (Canis dingo) and littermates' responses to the death of a pup.  

PubMed

In contrast to several species of cetaceans and primates, behavioural responses to dead conspecifics have rarely been reported in wild canids. Here we provide details of the responses of an adult female and littermates to a dying and subsequently dead pup, including what appeared to be four instances of transport of the deceased pup by the mother over a two-day period, one of which was directly observed and filmed. We tentatively propose that, in the absence of any evidence of consumption of the pup, its transport by the mother could be interpreted as care-giving behaviour emanating from an enduring mother-infant bond, in a similar vein to what has been suggested for several other species exhibiting such behaviour. PMID:23500482

Appleby, Rob; Smith, Bradley; Jones, Darryl

2013-06-01

235

Cytological and biochemical biomarkers in adult female perch (Perca fluviatilis) in a chronically polluted gradient in the Stockholm recipient (Sweden).  

PubMed

By measuring a battery of cytological and biochemical biomarkers in adult female perch (Perca fluviatilis), the city of Stockholm (Sweden) was investigated as a point source of anthropogenic aquatic pollution. The investigation included both an upstream gradient, 46 km westwards through Lake Mälaren, and a downstream gradient, 84 km eastwards through the Stockholm archipelago. Indeed, there was a graded response for most of the biomarkers and for the muscle concentrations of ?PBDE, four organotin compounds and PFOS in the perch. The results indicated severe pollution in central Stockholm, with poor health of the perch, characterised by increased frequency of micronucleated erythrocytes, altered liver apoptosis, increased liver catalase activity, decreased brain aromatase activity, and decreased liver lysosomal membrane stability. Some biomarker responses were lowest in the middle archipelago and increased again eastwards, indicating a second, partly overlapping, gradient of toxic effects from the Baltic Sea. PMID:24655945

Hansson, Tomas; Baršien?, Janina; Tjärnlund, Ulla; Åkerman, Gun; Linderoth, Maria; Zebühr, Yngve; Sternbeck, John; Järnberg, Ulf; Balk, Lennart

2014-04-15

236

Female athlete triad.  

PubMed

Although eating disorders have received much attention over the last few years in athletics, its prevalence was not always well appreciated. Over the years, professional organizations began to pay close attention to the effects of eating disorders, and with this heightened awareness, professionals as well as the general public began to recognize eating disorders as a major problem in our society. In the early 1990s, the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) convened the Task Force on Women's Issues in Seattle, Washington . During this conference, members of the ACSM discussed issues related to females and athletics with specific attention to eating disorders, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. They collectively called these pathologies the Female Athlete Triad (Triad) and hence coined the phrase in 1993. Since the publication, much time and effort has been devoted towards research and understanding of the Triad. In trying to understand this complicated problem, one must grasp the concept that the three pathologies are interrelated and difficult to explain without the influence of any of the other components. PMID:16004922

Brunet, Michael

2005-07-01

237

Prenatal Testosterone Exposure Induces Hypertension in Adult Females via Androgen Receptor-Dependent Protein Kinase C?-Mediated Mechanism.  

PubMed

Prenatal exposure to excess testosterone induces hyperandrogenism in adult females and predisposes them to hypertension. We tested whether androgens induce hypertension through transcriptional regulation and signaling of protein kinase C (PKC) in the mesenteric arteries. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with vehicle or testosterone propionate (0.5 mg/kg per day from gestation days 15 to 19, SC) and their 6-month-old adult female offspring were examined. Plasma testosterone levels (0.84±0.04 versus 0.42±0.09 ng/mL) and blood pressures (111.6±1.3 versus 104.5±2.4 mm Hg) were significantly higher in prenatal testosterone-exposed rats compared with controls. This was accompanied with enhanced expression of PKC? mRNA (1.5-fold) and protein (1.7-fold) in the mesenteric arteries of prenatal testosterone-exposed rats. In addition, mesenteric artery contractile responses to PKC activator, phorbol-12,13-dibutyrate, was significantly greater in prenatal testosterone-exposed rats. Treatment with androgen receptor antagonist flutamide (10 mg/kg, SC, BID for 10 days) significantly attenuated hypertension, PKC? expression, and the exaggerated vasoconstriction in prenatal testosterone-exposed rats. In vitro exposure of testosterone to cultured mesenteric artery smooth muscle cells dose dependently upregulated PKC? expression. Analysis of PKC? gene revealed a putative androgen responsive element in the promoter upstream to the transcription start site and an enhancer element in intron-1. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that androgen receptors bind to these elements in response to testosterone stimulation. Furthermore, luciferase reporter assays showed that the enhancer element is highly responsive to androgens and treatment with flutamide reverses reporter activity. Our studies identified a novel androgen-mediated mechanism for the control of PKC? expression via transcriptional regulation that controls vasoconstriction and blood pressure. PMID:25489059

Blesson, Chellakkan S; Chinnathambi, Vijayakumar; Hankins, Gary D; Yallampalli, Chandra; Sathishkumar, Kunju

2015-03-01

238

Conservation and expression of PIWI-interacting RNA pathway genes in male and female adult gonad of amniotes.  

PubMed

The PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA) pathway is essential for germline development and transposable element repression. Key elements of this pathway are members of the piRNA-binding PIWI/Argonaute protein family and associated factors (e.g., VASA, MAELSTROM, and TUDOR domain proteins). PIWI-interacting RNAs have been identified in mouse testis and oocytes, but information about the expression of the different piRNA pathway genes, in particular in the mammalian ovary, remains incomplete. We investigated the evolution and expression of piRNA pathway genes in gonads of amniote species (chicken, platypus, and mouse). Database searches confirm a high level of conservation and revealed lineage-specific gain and loss of Piwi genes in vertebrates. Expression analysis in mammals shows that orthologs of Piwi-like (Piwil) genes, Mael (Maelstrom), Mvh (mouse vasa homolog), and Tdrd1 (Tudor domain-containing protein 1) are expressed in platypus adult testis. In contrast to mouse, Piwil4 is expressed in platypus and human adult testis. We found evidence for Mael and Piwil2 expression in mouse Sertoli cells. Importantly, we show mRNA expression of Piwil2, Piwil4, and Mael in oocytes and supporting cells of human, mouse, and platypus ovary. We found no Piwil1 expression in mouse and chicken ovary. The conservation of gene expression in somatic parts of the gonad and germ cells of species that diverged over 800 million yr ago indicates an important role in adult male and female gonad. PMID:24108303

Lim, Shu Ly; Tsend-Ayush, Enkhjargal; Kortschak, R Daniel; Jacob, Reuben; Ricciardelli, Carmela; Oehler, Martin K; Grützner, Frank

2013-12-01

239

Developmental GnRH Signaling Is Not Required for Sexual Differentiation of Kisspeptin Neurons but Is Needed for Maximal Kiss1 Gene Expression in Adult Females  

PubMed Central

Kisspeptin, encoded by Kiss1, stimulates reproduction. In rodents, one Kiss1 population resides in the hypothalamic anterior ventral periventricular nucleus and neighboring rostral periventricular nucleus (AVPV/PeN). AVPV/PeN Kiss1 neurons are sexually dimorphic (greater in females), yet the mechanisms regulating their development and sexual differentiation remain poorly understood. Neonatal estradiol (E2) normally defeminizes AVPV/PeN kisspeptin neurons, but emerging evidence suggests that developmental E2 may also influence feminization of kisspeptin, although exactly when in development this process occurs is unknown. In addition, the obligatory role of GnRH signaling in governing sexual differentiation of Kiss1 or other sexually dimorphic traits remains untested. Here, we assessed whether AVPV/PeN Kiss1 expression is permanently impaired in adult hpg (no GnRH or E2) or C57BL6 mice under different E2 removal or replacement paradigms. We determined that 1) despite lacking GnRH signaling in development, marked sexual differentiation of Kiss1 still occurs in hpg mice; 2) adult hpg females, who lack lifetime GnRH and E2 exposure, have reduced AVPV/PeN Kiss1 expression compared to wild-type females, even after chronic adulthood E2 treatment; 3) E2 exposure to hpg females during the pubertal period does not rescue their submaximal adult Kiss1 levels; and 4) in C57BL6 females, removal of ovarian E2 before the pubertal or juvenile periods does not impair feminization and maximal adult AVPV/PeN Kiss1 expression nor the ability to generate LH surges, indicating that puberty is not a critical period for Kiss1 development. Thus, sexual differentiation still occurs without GnRH, but GnRH or downstream E2 signaling is needed sometime before juvenile development for complete feminization and maximal Kiss1 expression in adult females. PMID:23825121

Kim, Joshua; Tolson, Kristen P.; Dhamija, Sangeeta

2013-01-01

240

Increasing oxytocin receptor expression in the nucleus accumbens of pre-pubertal female prairie voles enhances alloparental responsiveness and partner preference formation as adults  

PubMed Central

Oxytocin receptors (OXTR) in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) promote alloparental behavior and partner preference formation in female prairie voles. Within the NAcc there is significant individual variation in OXTR binding and virgin juvenile and adult females with a high density of OXTR in the NAcc display an elevated propensity to engage in alloparental behavior toward novel pups. Over-expression of OXTR in the NAcc of adult female prairie voles using viral vector gene transfer facilitates partner preference formation, but has no effect on alloparental behavior, even though OXTR antagonists infused into the NAcc blocks both behaviors. We therefore hypothesized that long-term increases in OXTR signaling during development may underlie the relationship between adult OXTR density in the NAcc and alloparental behavior. To test this hypothesis, we used viral vector gene transfer to increase OXTR density in the NAcc of prepubertal, 21 day old female prairie voles and tested for both alloparental behavior and partner preference formation as adults. Consistent with a developmental impact of OXTR signaling, adults over-expressing OXTR from weaning display both increased alloparental behavior and partner preference formation. Thus, the relatively acute impact of elevated OXTR signaling in the NAcc on partner preference formation previously reported appears to be dissociable from the effects of longer term, developmentally relevant OXTR signaling necessary for modulating alloparental behavior. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that oxytocin can have both long-term “organizational” effects as well as acute “activational” effects on affiliative behaviors. PMID:21851821

Keebaugh, Alaine C.; Young, Larry J.

2011-01-01

241

Early adolescent stress alters behavior and the HPA axis response in male and female adult rats: the relevance of the nature and duration of the stressor.  

PubMed

Adolescence is a period of transition from childhood to adulthood that involves the maturation of social and cognitive behavior. The activation of the stress system during this phase can lead to long-lasting adverse effects. We aimed to verify whether the nature and duration of stressors applied in adolescent female and male rats would alter their exploratory behavior and stress responses as adults. Wistar rats on day P26 were divided into groups that were subjected to 1 (acute) or 7 (chronic) insulin or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injections or restraint stress for 1 h. At P60, the rats were subjected to the elevated plus-maze, and at P61, they were subjected to 30 min of restraint stress after which plasma samples and brains were collected. LPS acute injection promoted anxiolytic effects in male adults. Acute LPS treatment and acute or chronic restraint induced anxiolytic behavior in female adults. The administration of adolescent chronic stimuli to males decreased the adult plasma corticosterone (CORT) and progesterone levels after restraint. Adolescent acute restraint or LPS injection decreased the CORT response in female adults. The adult neuronal activation of the corticotrophin-releasing hormone and vasopressin on the paraventricular nucleus did not vary according to the type of adolescent stress or sex. Our results indicate that both adult behavior and the glucocorticoid stress response are affected differently in males versus females by adolescent stress. The duration of stressors had a greater effect on the CORT and progesterone response in males, whereas the nature of the stressor had a greater effect on exploratory behavior in females. PMID:24878314

Ariza Traslaviña, Guillermo A; de Oliveira, Fabiana Lucio; Franci, Celso Rodrigues

2014-06-22

242

The Sun, Moon, Wind, and Biological Imperative–Shaping Contrasting Wintertime Migration and Foraging Strategies of Adult Male and Female Northern Fur Seals (Callorhinus ursinus)  

PubMed Central

Adult male and female northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) are sexually segregated in different regions of the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea during their winter migration. Explanations for this involve interplay between physiology, predator-prey dynamics, and ecosystem characteristics, however possible mechanisms lack empirical support. To investigate factors influencing the winter ecology of both sexes, we deployed five satellite-linked conductivity, temperature, and depth data loggers on adult males, and six satellite-linked depth data loggers and four satellite transmitters on adult females from St. Paul Island (Bering Sea, Alaska, USA) in October 2009. Males and females migrated to different regions of the North Pacific Ocean: males wintered in the Bering Sea and northern North Pacific Ocean, while females migrated to the Gulf of Alaska and California Current. Horizontal and vertical movement behaviors of both sexes were influenced by wind speed, season, light (sun and moon), and the ecosystem they occupied, although the expression of the behaviors differed between sexes. Male dive depths were aligned with the depth of the mixed layer during daylight periods and we suspect this was the case for females upon their arrival to the California Current. We suggest that females, because of their smaller size and physiological limitations, must avoid severe winters typical of the northern North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea and migrate long distances to areas of more benign environmental conditions and where prey is shallower and more accessible. In contrast, males can better tolerate often extreme winter ocean conditions and exploit prey at depth because of their greater size and physiological capabilities. We believe these contrasting winter behaviors 1) are a consequence of evolutionary selection for large size in males, important to the acquisition and defense of territories against rivals during the breeding season, and 2) ease environmental/physiological constraints imposed on smaller females. PMID:24722344

Sterling, Jeremy T; Springer, Alan M.; Iverson, Sara J.; Johnson, Shawn P.; Pelland, Noel A.; Johnson, Devin S.; Lea, Mary-Anne; Bond, Nicholas A.

2014-01-01

243

Neonatal isolation decreases cued fear conditioning and frontal cortical histone 3 lysine 9 methylation in adult female rats.  

PubMed

Early life stress is thought to enhance adult susceptibility to stress and stress-related mood disorders. In this study, fear-potentiated startle was used to model the acquisition of a traumatic event-related memory in female rats experiencing early life stress. Daily 1-hr maternal and sibling separation throughout day 2-9 postpartum (D2-9 PP) caused a decrease in the fear-potentiated startle, but not acoustic startle baseline, in adult female rats. The separation procedure did not affect corticosterone secretion but produced an increase in serum estradiol concentration. Moreover, the separation procedure did not affect histone 3 lysine 9 (H3K9) acetylation but decreased H3K9 mono- and tri-methylation in frontal cortices. Treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (AZA) (5mg/kg at alternative days from D2PP to D9PP or 10mg/kg at D5PP and D9PP), a DNA methylation inhibitor, did not affect the separation-decreased fear-potentiated startle. Treatment with valproic acid (VPA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, at 3 dosing regimens (300mg/kg at D2-9PP; 100mg/kg at D2-4PP, 200mg/kg at D5-7PP, 300mg/kg at D8-9PP; 100mg/kg at D2-5PP, 200mg/kg at D6-9PP) prior to daily separation reversed such a decrease in fear-potentiated startle. The lowest effective VPA dosing regimen used (100mg/kg at D2-5PP, 200mg/kg at D6-9PP) reversed the separation-decreased H3K9 mono- and tri-methylation in frontal cortices. Eight-day VPA (300mg/kg/day) and AZA (5mg/kg/day) administrations starting at D28PP were ineffective in altering the separation-decreased fear-potentiated startle. We, hereby, suggest that decreased frontal cortical H3K9 mono- and tri-methylation may be involved in early life separation-decreased fear memory of adult rats. PMID:23051673

Kao, Gour-Shenq; Cheng, Ling-Yi; Chen, Li-Hsien; Tzeng, Wen-Yu; Cherng, Chienfang G; Su, Chien-Chou; Wang, Ching-Yi; Yu, Lung

2012-12-15

244

FASH and MASH: female and male adult human phantoms based on polygon mesh surfaces: II. Dosimetric calculations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Female and male adult human phantoms, called FASH (Female Adult meSH) and MASH (Male Adult meSH), have been developed in the first part of this study using 3D animation software and anatomical atlases to replace the image-based FAX06 and the MAX06 voxel phantoms. 3D modelling methods allow for phantom development independent from medical images of patients, volunteers or cadavers. The second part of this study investigates the dosimetric implications for organ and tissue equivalent doses due to the anatomical differences between the new and the old phantoms. These differences are mainly caused by the supine position of human bodies during scanning in order to acquire digital images for voxel phantom development. Compared to an upright standing person, in image-based voxel phantoms organs are often coronally shifted towards the head and sometimes the sagittal diameter of the trunk is reduced by a gravitational change of the fat distribution. In addition, volumes of adipose and muscle tissue shielding internal organs are sometimes too small, because adaptation of organ volumes to ICRP-based organ masses often occurs at the expense of general soft tissues, such as adipose, muscle or unspecified soft tissue. These effects have dosimetric consequences, especially for partial body exposure, such as in x-ray diagnosis, but also for whole body external exposure and for internal exposure. Using the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code, internal and external exposure to photons and electrons has been simulated with both pairs of phantoms. The results show differences between organ and tissue equivalent doses for the upright standing FASH/MASH and the image-based supine FAX06/MAX06 phantoms of up to 80% for external exposure and up to 100% for internal exposure. Similar differences were found for external exposure between FASH/MASH and REGINA/REX, the reference voxel phantoms of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Comparison of effective doses for external photon exposure showed good agreement between FASH/MASH and REGINA/REX, but large differences between FASH/MASH and the mesh-based RPI_AM and the RPI_AF phantoms, developed at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI).

Kramer, R.; Cassola, V. F.; Khoury, H. J.; Vieira, J. W.; de Melo Lima, V. J.; Robson Brown, K.

2010-01-01

245

ICRP Publication 116—the first ICRP/ICRU application of the male and female adult reference computational phantoms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ICRP Publication 116 on ‘Conversion coefficients for radiological protection quantities for external radiation exposures’, provides fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients for organ-absorbed doses and effective dose for various types of external exposures (ICRP 2010 ICRP Publication 116). The publication supersedes the ICRP Publication 74 (ICRP 1996 ICRP Publication 74, ICRU 1998 ICRU Report 57), including new particle types and expanding the energy ranges considered. The coefficients were calculated using the ICRP/ICRU computational phantoms (ICRP 2009 ICRP Publication 110) representing the reference adult male and reference adult female (ICRP 2002 ICRP Publication 89), together with a variety of Monte Carlo codes simulating the radiation transport in the body. Idealized whole-body irradiation from unidirectional and rotational parallel beams as well as isotropic irradiation was considered for a large variety of incident radiations and energy ranges. Comparison of the effective doses with operational quantities revealed that the latter quantities continue to provide a good approximation of effective dose for photons, neutrons and electrons for the ‘conventional’ energy ranges considered previously (ICRP 1996, ICRU 1998), but not at the higher energies of ICRP Publication 116.

Petoussi-Henss, Nina; Bolch, Wesley E.; Eckerman, Keith F.; Endo, Akira; Hertel, Nolan; Hunt, John; Menzel, Hans G.; Pelliccioni, Maurizio; Schlattl, Helmut; Zankl, Maria

2014-09-01

246

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Adult Female Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse: A Comparison Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a group of 45 adult women in outpatient treatment for childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and a group of 31 women who reported no CSA. The comparison group consisted of women in outpatient treatment for problems in their committed relationships with male living partners. This research also investigated the traumatic impact

Ned Rodriguez; Susan W. Ryan; Hendrika Vande Kemp; David W. Foy

1997-01-01

247

The association between childhood sexual abuse and adult female sexual difficulties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has been associated with a number of long-term negative consequences, including depression, anxiety and psychosomatic symptomology. Sexual trauma has also been linked to problematic sexual functioning and sexual behaviour in adulthood. This paper critically evaluates the current literature on CSA and adult sexuality and identifies the main sexual difficulties experienced by women with a history of

Savannah Zwickl; Gareth Merriman

2011-01-01

248

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LUNG FUNCTION AND PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS IN YOUNG ADULT BLACK AND WHITE MALES AND FEMALES  

EPA Science Inventory

The relationships of lung function to physical characteristics in young adults have not been adequately described for different gender-race groups in the United States. s part of a study of the effects of ozone exposure upon Black and White men and women, we measured lung volumes...

249

Characteristics of adult male and female firearm suicide decedents: findings from the National Violent Death Reporting System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To examine the risk factors and precipitating circumstances associated with firearm suicide.Methods:Data from the restricted National Violent Death Reporting System (2003–6) for 25 491 male and female suicide decedents aged 18 and older were analysed by multiple logistic regression to estimate the relative odds of firearm use with 95% CIs.Results:Firearms were often used in male (58.1%) and female (31.2%) suicides.

M S Kaplan; B H McFarland; N Huguet

2009-01-01

250

Impaired developmental competence of oocytes in adult prenatally androgenized female rhesus monkeys undergoing gonadotropin stimulation for in vitro fertilization.  

PubMed

To determine whether prenatal T propionate exposure beginning gestational d 40-44 (early-treated) or 100-115 (late-treated) affects oocyte competence, five early-treated and five late-treated prenatally androgenized and five normal monkeys underwent recombinant human FSH injections with oocyte-retrieval after hCG administration. Serum FSH, LH, estradiol (E(2)), progesterone (P(4)), androstenedione (A(4)), T, and dihydrotestosterone were measured basally, during gonadotropin stimulation and at oocyte-retrieval; fasting serum glucose and insulin also were determined basally and at oocyte-retrieval. Follicle fluid sex steroids were analyzed. Oocyte number, nuclear maturity, and fertilization were comparable among female groups, but the percentage of zygotes developing into blastocysts was reduced in early-treated prenatally androgenized females. The intrafollicular P(4)/E(2) ratio was significantly elevated in early-treated prenatally androgenized females, whereas intrafollicular P(4)/A(4) and T/A(4) ratios were significantly increased in all prenatally androgenized females. Early-treated prenatally androgenized females demonstrated persistent LH hypersecretion. They also were unable to suppress circulating insulin levels during gonadotropin stimulation. Circulating sex steroid levels and serum P(4)/E(2), P(4)/A(4), and E(2)/androgen ratios were similar in all females. Early prenatal androgenization in monkeys receiving gonadotropins impairs oocyte developmental competence and seems to induce premature follicle differentiation in the presence of LH hypersecretion and relative insulin excess. PMID:11889174

Dumesic, Daniel A; Schramm, R Dee; Peterson, Eric; Paprocki, Ann Marie; Zhou, Rao; Abbott, David H

2002-03-01

251

Attitudes Toward and Sexual Partnerships With Drug Dealers Among Young Adult African American Females in Socially Disorganized Communities  

PubMed Central

Drug markets in disadvantaged African American neighborhoods have altered social and sexual norms as well as sexual networks, which impact an individual’s risk of contracting a sexually transmitted infection. Presently, we describe the prevalence of sexual partnerships with males involved with illegal drugs among a sample of non-drug-dependent females. In 2010, 120 Black females aged 18 to 30 years completed a semistructured HIV-risk interview. Descriptive statistics revealed approximately 80% of females perceived neighborhood drug activity as a major problem, 58% had sex with a male drug dealer, 48% reported sex with a male incarcerated for selling drugs, and 56% believed drug dealers have the most sexual partners. Our results suggest sexual partnerships with males involved in the distribution of drugs are prevalent. These partnerships may play a substantial role in the spread of sexually transmitted infections among low-risk females, as drug dealers likely serve as a bridge between higher HIV-risk drug and prison populations and lower HIV-risk females. However, the significance of partnerships with males involved in drug dealing has received little attention in HIV and drug abuse literature. Presently, there is a need for more research focused on understanding the extent to which the drug epidemic affects the HIV risk of non-drug-dependent Black female residents of neighborhoods inundated with drugs. Special consideration should be given to the role of the neighborhood drug dealer in the spread of sexually transmitted infections.

Floyd, Leah J.; Brown, Qiana

2015-01-01

252

Are there reasons why adult asthma is more common in females?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many epidemiological studies suggest that women are at increased risk of developing adult-onset asthma and also suffer from\\u000a more severe disease than men. These gender differences appear to be the product of biological sex differences as well as sociocultural\\u000a and environmental differences. The biological sex differences include genetic, pulmonary, and immunological factors. There\\u000a is compelling evidence that sex hormones are

Barbro N. Melgert; Anuradha Ray; Machteld N. Hylkema; Wim Timens; Dirkje S. Postma

2007-01-01

253

Genetic and Environmental Influences on Female Sexual Orientation, Childhood Gender Typicality and Adult Gender Identity  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundHuman sexual orientation is influenced by genetic and non-shared environmental factors as are two important psychological correlates – childhood gender typicality (CGT) and adult gender identity (AGI). However, researchers have been unable to resolve the genetic and non-genetic components that contribute to the covariation between these traits, particularly in women.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsHere we performed a multivariate genetic analysis in a large

Andrea Burri; Lynn Cherkas; Timothy Spector; Qazi Rahman

2011-01-01

254

Sex differences in stress-induced social withdrawal: Independence from adult gonadal hormones and inhibition of female phenotype by corncob bedding  

E-print Network

Sex differences in stress-induced social withdrawal: Independence from adult gonadal hormones to psychoso- cial stress. Here we examined the effects of gonadal hormones on behavioral responses to social responses to defeat stress in males and females. Gonadal hormones have important effects on the function

Trainor, Brian

255

Women Reading for Education, Affinity & Development (WREAD): An Evaluation of a Semistructured Reading Discussion Group for African American Female Adult-Literacy Students with Histories of Trauma  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Women Reading for Education, Affinity & Development (WREAD), a reading discussion group geared toward African American female adult-literacy students with self-defined histories of trauma, was an outgrowth of research identifying links between trauma, women's struggles with literacy, and the need to be conscious of emotional health…

Jones, Jayatta D.

2012-01-01

256

Assessing the Long-Term Effects of EMDR: Results from an 18-Month Follow-Up Study with Adult Female Survivors of CSA  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 18-month follow-up study builds on the findings of a randomized experimental evaluation that found qualified support for the short-term effectiveness of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) in reducing trauma symptoms among adult female survivors of childhood sexual abuse (CSA). The current study provides preliminary evidence…

Edmond, Tonya; Rubin, Allen

2004-01-01

257

Volatiles induced by larvae of asian corn borer (Ostrinia furnacalis) in maize plants affect behavior of conspecific larvae and female adults  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Larvae of the Asian corn borer (ACB), Ostrinia furnacalis, (Guenée), feeding on maize (Zea mays L.) induced volatiles from the plants that affected orientation behaviors of ACB larvae and oviposition of ACB adult females. Nineteen volatile chemicals were identified from maize plants attacked by thir...

258

MODIFICATIONS OF MEAN OVARIOLE NUMBER, FRESH WEIGHT OF ADULT FEMALES AND DEVELOPMENTAL TIME IN DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER INDUCED BY DROSOPHILA C VIRUS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drosophila C virus, a picornavirus that has some influence on ovarian mor- phogenesis, was discovered in a French strain of Drosophila melanogaster. When the strain was infected by Drosophila C virus (DCV), the mean number of ovarian tubes and weights of the adult females increased, but the develop- mental time from egg to imago decreased. The maternal effects observed when

MICHELE THOMAS-ORILLARD

259

Body mass index and body fat percentage are associated with decreased physical fitness in adolescent and adult female volleyball players  

PubMed Central

Background: The objectives of this study were to examine (a) the prevalence of overweight/obesity, and (b) the relationship between body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (BF) and physical fitness in adolescent and adult female volleyball players. Materials and Methods: Adolescent (n = 102, aged 15.2 ± 2.0 year) and adult (n = 57, 25.9 ± 5.0 year) players were examined for anthropometric characteristics and body composition, and performed the physical working capacity in heart rate 170 min-1 test, a force-velocity test, the Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT), sit-and-reach test (SAR), handgrip strength test (HST) and countermovement vertical jump (CVJ). Results: Based on international BMI cut-off points, 27.5% (n = 28) of adolescent and 12.3% (n = 7) of adult participants were classified as overweight, with the prevalence of overweight being higher in girls than in women (?2 = 4.90, P = 0.027). BMI was correlated with BF in both age groups (r = 0.72, P < 0.001 in girls; r = 0.75, P < 0.001 in women). Normal participants had superior certain physical and physiological characteristics than those who were overweight. For instance, normal girls and women had higher mean power during WAnT than their overweight counterparts (P = 0.003 and P = 0.009 respectively). Except for flexibility, BMI and BF were inversely related with physical fitness (e.g., BMI vs. HST r = -0.39, P < 0.001 in girls; BF vs. CVJ r = -0.45, P < 0.001 in women). Conclusion: The findings confirmed the negative effect of overweight and fatness on selected parameters of physical fitness. The prevalence of overweight in adolescent volleyball players was higher than in general population, which was a novel finding, suggesting that proper exercise interventions should be developed to target the excess of body mass in youth volleyball clubs. PMID:23900100

Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theo

2013-01-01

260

Supplemental dietary choline during development exerts antidepressant-like effects in adult female rats.  

PubMed

Perinatal choline supplementation in rats is neuroprotective against insults such as fetal alcohol exposure, seizures, and advanced age. In the present study we explored whether dietary choline supplementation may also confer protection from psychological challenges, like stress, and act as a natural buffer against stress-linked psychological disorders, like depression. We previously found that choline supplementation increased adult hippocampal neurogenesis, a function compromised by stress, lowered in depression, and boosted by antidepressants; and increased levels of growth factors linked to depression, like brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Together, these were compelling reasons to study the role of choline in depressed mood. To do this, we treated rats with a choline supplemented diet (5 mg/kg choline chloride in AIN76A) prenatally on embryonic days 10-22, on postnatal days (PD) 25-50, or as adults from PD75 onward. Outside of these treatment periods rats were fed a standard diet (1.1 mg/kg choline chloride in AIN76A); control rats consumed only this diet throughout the study. Starting on PD100 rats' anxiety-like responses to an open field, learning in a water maze, and reactivity to forced swimming were assessed. Rats given choline supplementation during pre- or post-natal development, but not adult-treated rats, were less anxious in the open field and less immobile in the forced swim test than control rats. These effects were not mediated by a learning deficit as all groups performed comparably and well in the water maze. Thus, we offer compelling support for the hypothesis that supplemental dietary choline, at least when given during development, may inoculate an individual against stress and major psychological disorders, like depression. PMID:22305146

Glenn, Melissa J; Adams, Raven S; McClurg, Lauren

2012-03-14

261

Female orgasmic disorder.  

PubMed

Female orgasmic disorder (FOD) is defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision, as a persistent or recurrent delay in, or absence of, orgasm following a 'normal' sexual excitement phase. FOD is a common problem affecting sexual function in a substantial proportion of women. Studies suggest that it is prevalent in 11-41% of women worldwide and can have a tremendous impact on the individual's quality of life, relational satisfaction and general well-being. The etiology of FOD tends to be multifactorial as it relates to genetics, medical conditions, medications, alcohol and drug use, other sexual dysfunctions, mental illness, life stressors, communication deficits and relationship issues. It is critical that sexual functioning in patients is assessed frequently through interview and/or validated questionnaires to aid in treatment strategy and/or referral. Currently, there are no approved medications to treat FOD. However, there are medications and psychological treatments that have shown promise in either treating FOD or thwarting the side effects of medications that can cause FOD. This chapter discusses the epidemiology and etiology of FOD and provides a comprehensive critical review of the literature on assessment and treatment of FOD. PMID:22005203

Rellini, Alessandra H; Clifton, Jessica

2011-01-01

262

Adult female Drosophila pseudoobscura survive and carry fertile sperm through long periods in the cold: populations are unlikely to suffer substantial bottlenecks in overwintering.  

PubMed

To assess whether, while overwintering, natural populations of Drosophila pseudoobscura are likely to experience substantial bottlenecks in their numbers and genotypes, laboratory tests of the cold sensitivities of each stage of the life history and reproduction were undertaken. Three genetically distinctive lineages established from flies caught at high elevation were used for testing in temperatures likely to persist in protected pockets of fermenting deciduous leaf fall in overwintering sites. Sensitivities to cold of each stage in development were measured as frequencies of survival to adulthood following a period in 5 degrees C in a particular stage. The cold sensitivity of adults was measured as the survival in and following cold stays in adulthood. It was found that cold sensitivity decreases as development progresses, but that only adults (females more than males) are able to withstand long periods in the cold. The cold sensitivity of reproductive capacity of males was scored as their success in mating following a two-month cold stay, and of females as the numbers laying fertile eggs following periods of months in the cold. Both males and females maintain reproductive capacity. Of particular significance, however, is that even after six months in the cold females are able to restart production of eggs and these eggs may be fertilized by the sperm of matings prior to their cold stay. Thus, a substantial proportion of overwintering genomes must be those of adult females and those of the sperm carried by females from matings in the previous summer. This simple finding strongly suggests that populations are not likely to suffer substantial bottlenecks while overwintering. Further, it indicates how arrays of genetic variation may be maintained through winters and largely avoid winter selective pressures. Frequent migration between populations is therefore not required to maintain the variation commonly found in populations throughout the species range. PMID:11392402

Collett, J I; Jarman, M G

2001-04-01

263

Sex hormones affect neurotransmitters and shape the adult female brain during hormonal transition periods  

PubMed Central

Sex hormones have been implicated in neurite outgrowth, synaptogenesis, dendritic branching, myelination and other important mechanisms of neural plasticity. Here we review the evidence from animal experiments and human studies reporting interactions between sex hormones and the dominant neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, dopamine, GABA and glutamate. We provide an overview of accumulating data during physiological and pathological conditions and discuss currently conceptualized theories on how sex hormones potentially trigger neuroplasticity changes through these four neurochemical systems. Many brain regions have been demonstrated to express high densities for estrogen- and progesterone receptors, such as the amygdala, the hypothalamus, and the hippocampus. As the hippocampus is of particular relevance in the context of mediating structural plasticity in the adult brain, we put particular emphasis on what evidence could be gathered thus far that links differences in behavior, neurochemical patterns and hippocampal structure to a changing hormonal environment. Finally, we discuss how physiologically occurring hormonal transition periods in humans can be used to model how changes in sex hormones influence functional connectivity, neurotransmission and brain structure in vivo. PMID:25750611

Barth, Claudia; Villringer, Arno; Sacher, Julia

2015-01-01

264

Female Adolescent Development. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book emphasizes female adolescents' healthy development within a psychoanalytic frame of reference for what is normative, that also indicates the boundaries of and transitions to what is deviant. The book's 12 articles relate to 3 general topics. The two articles in part 1 of the book, which addresses biological issues, are "Female Pubertal…

Sugar, Max, Ed.

265

Psychopathology in Female Juvenile Offenders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The aim was to document the spectrum of present and lifetime psychological disorders in female juvenile offenders, and to examine the relations between mental health status and socio-demographic, family and trauma variables. Method: One hundred juvenile offenders were matched with a comparison group of 100 females on age and…

Dixon, Angela; Howie, Pauline; Starling, Jean

2004-01-01

266

Female Perpetrators of Intimate Abuse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review is made of female intimate abuse. It is concluded that females are as abusive as males in intimate relationships according to survey and epidemiological studies. This is especially so for younger "cohort" community samples followed longitudinally. Predictors of intimate violence with women appear to be similar to those of men; including…

Dutton, Donald G.; Nicholls, Tonia L.; Spidel, Alicia

2005-01-01

267

OCCUPATIONAL ASPIRATION SCALE FOR FEMALES.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

OCCUPATIONAL TITLES USABLE IN ASSESSING OCCUPATIONAL GOALS OFSENIOR HIGH SCHOOL FEMALES WERE SELECTED AS THE FIRST STEP IN ESTABLISHING AN OCCUPATIONAL ASPIRATION SCALE FOR FEMALES. A LIST OF 117 OCCUPATIONAL TITLES, COMPILED FROM THREE PREVIOUS STUDIES AND "THE DICTIONARY OF OCCUPATIONAL TITLES," WAS RATED ON A SIX-LEVEL SCALE AS TO ITS GENERAL…

JEFFS, GEORGE A.

268

All-Female Computer Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Young women pursue educational and occupational careers in computer-related fields less frequently than do young men. One approach to increasing female enrollment and interest in computer science is to give female students at the high school level the opt

Colin Anderson

2000-03-01

269

Psychopathology in female juvenile offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The aim was to document the spectrum of present and lifetime psychological disorders in female juvenile offenders, and to examine the relations between mental health status and socio- demographic, family and trauma variables. Method: One hundred juvenile offenders were matched with a comparison group of 100 females on age and socioeconomic status (SES). Psychological profiles and trauma histories of

Angela Dixon; Pauline Howie; Jean Starling

2004-01-01

270

Dispelling Myths about Female Potential.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed are several myths and stereotypes about female physiology. Also included are new technical advances concerning the female reproduction physiology, new techniques in hormone measurement, hypotholomic-pituitary-ovarian axis, hormones and the monthly cycles, dysmenorrhea, menopause, infertility, and future areas for investigation about the…

Sloane, Ethel

1980-01-01

271

Desire and the female analyst.  

PubMed

The literature on erotic transference and countertransference between female analyst and male patient is reviewed and discussed. It is known that female analysts are less likely than their male colleagues to act out sexually with their patients. It has been claimed that a) male patients do not experience sustained erotic transferences, and b) female analysts do not experience erotic countertransferences with female or male patients. These views are challenged and it is argued that, if there is less sexual acting out by female analysts, it is not because of an absence of eros in the therapeutic relationship. The literature review covers material drawn from psychoanalysis, feminist psychotherapy, Jungian analysis, as well as some sociological and cultural sources. It is organized under the following headings: the gender of the analyst, sexual acting out, erotic transference, maternal and paternal transference, gender and power, countertransference, incest taboo--mothers and sons and sexual themes in the transference. PMID:8666556

Schaverien, J

1996-04-01

272

Low-dose bisphenol A disrupts gonad development and steroidogenic genes expression in adult female rare minnow Gobiocypris rarus.  

PubMed

Bisphenol A (BPA), an estrogenic monomer, has attracted many researchers to study its adverse effects in animal reproduction, especially in fish. To explore the effects of low dose BPA on adult female rare minnow Gobiocypris rarus, we exposed the fish to BPA at nominal concentrations of 5, 15, and 50 ?g L(-1) for 14 and 35 d. The 35-d BPA exposure at 50 ?g L(-1) had obviously suppressive effects on oocyte development, and BPA at all the three concentrations in both exposure durations of 14 and 35 d had stimulative effects on hepatic vitellogenin (vtg) transcription. BPA at lower concentrations (5 and 15 ?g L(-1)) exhibited stimulative effects on the expressions of ovarian steroidogenic genes while at higher concentration (50 ?g L(-1)) displayed inhibitive effects. Analysis of ovarian steroidogenic genes 5'-flanking regions and mRNA expressions of their potential regulatory factors revealed that the BPA-mediated actions on steroidogenesis in G. rarus ovary probably involve estrogen receptor (Esr) and androgen receptor (Ar) signaling, nuclear receptor subfamily 5, group A, number 1 (Nr5a1) pathway, and epigenetic regulation. PMID:25048937

Zhang, Yingying; Gao, Jiancao; Xu, Peng; Yuan, Cong; Qin, Fang; Liu, Shaozhen; Zheng, Yao; Yang, Yanping; Wang, Zaizhao

2014-10-01

273

Depression-Like Behavioral Phenotypes by Social and Social Plus Visual Isolation in the Adult Female Macaca fascicularis  

PubMed Central

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a debilitating psychiatric mood disorder that affects millions of individuals globally. Our understanding of the biological basis of MDD is poor, and current treatments are ineffective in a significant proportion of cases. This current situation may relate to the dominant rodent animal models of depression, which possess translational limitations due to limited homologies with humans. Therefore, a more homologous primate model of depression is needed to advance investigation into the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying depression and to conduct pre-clinical therapeutic trials. Here, we report two convenient methods – social isolation and social plus visual isolation – which can be applied to construct a non-human primate model of depression in the adult female cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis). Both social and social plus visual isolation were shown to be effective in inducing depression-like behavior by significantly reducing socially dominant aggressive conflict behavior, communicative behavior, sexual behavior, and parental behavior. The addition of visual isolation produced more profound behavioral changes than social isolation alone by further reducing parental behavior and sexual behavior. Thus, the degree of behavioral pathology may be manipulated by the degree of isolation. These methods can be applied to construct a non-human primate model of depression in order to assess physiological, behavioral, and social phenomena in a controlled laboratory setting. PMID:24023857

Zhou, Qinmin; Wang, Tao; Shively, Carol; Wu, Qingyuan; Gong, Wei; Fang, Liang; Zhan, Qunlin; Melgiri, N. D.; Xie, Peng

2013-01-01

274

Sexual maturation of female Saguinus oedipus oedipus  

SciTech Connect

This study is an examination of the process of female sexual maturation in the cotton-top tamarin, Saguinus oedipus oedipus, a South-American primate of the family, Callitrichidae. Two types of questions are addressed. The first question is whether the type of social grouping in which a young female lives affects the rate of her sexual maturation. Specifically, is there a difference between the maturation rate of a female housed with a strange adult male and a female housed with her natal group (i.e., her parents and various siblings). Second, the effect of sexual maturation on various social interactions is examined. Specifically are male-female interactions in mated pairs and mother-daughter interactions in natal groups changed by the sexual maturation of the young females. The mother's presence was not related to the daughter's maturation age. However, whether the natal group, as a whole, inhibited maturation, or unrelated males accelerated maturation, or both, remains unknown. Most of the behavioral interactions involving maturing females were unchanged by maturation. There was some indication that certain behaviors were affected by maturation, but only if a strange unrelated male was present.

Tardif, S.D.

1982-01-01

275

Stress hormone masculinizes female morphology and behaviour.  

PubMed

Sex steroids play major roles in vertebrate sexual differentiation. Unexpectedly, we now find that exposure to elevated levels of the naturally occurring stress hormone cortisol can also masculinize sexually dimorphic morphological characters and behaviour in adult female mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) in a dose-dependent manner. Females masculinized by cortisol developed elongated anal fins with distal tip features similar to those of mature males. Most masculinized females also attempted to copulate when placed with normal females. Although the mechanism of masculinization is currently unknown, we propose a role for an enzyme that both inactivates cortisol and catalyzes the final step in synthesis of a major teleost androgen. This mechanism may also help explain some previously reported effects of stress on sexual development across vertebrate taxa. Our findings underscore the need to understand the full range of chemicals, both naturally occurring hormones and human-produced endocrine disruptors, that can influence sexual differentiation and reproductive function. PMID:20659923

Knapp, Rosemary; Marsh-Matthews, Edie; Vo, Luanne; Rosencrans, Sarah

2011-02-23

276

Uncovering sources of variation in female sociality: Implications for the development of social preferences in female cowbirds ( Molothrus ater )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The purpose of this study was to investigate variation in female cowbird (Molothrus ater) sociality. We studied four captive flocks of brown-headed cowbirds, two composed of adult females and juvenile males and two composed of juvenile females and juvenile males. From September through December, we documented sociality using affiliation measures. From the outset, we found large age differences: juvenile

S. Grace Freed-Brown; Andrew P. King; Jennifer L. Miller; Meredith J. West

2006-01-01

277

Labor participation rate, female (% of female population ages 15+)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Data set and map pertaining to labor force participation rates for women in all countries. The World Bank specifies female labor force participation as a World Development Indicator (WDI) -- the statistical benchmark that helps measure the progress of development.

World Bank

278

Posture-specific phantoms representing female and male adults in Monte Carlo-based simulations for radiological protection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Does the posture of a patient have an effect on the organ and tissue absorbed doses caused by x-ray examinations? This study aims to find the answer to this question, based on Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of commonly performed x-ray examinations using adult phantoms modelled to represent humans in standing as well as in the supine posture. The recently published FASH (female adult mesh) and MASH (male adult mesh) phantoms have the standing posture. In a first step, both phantoms were updated with respect to their anatomy: glandular tissue was separated from adipose tissue in the breasts, visceral fat was separated from subcutaneous fat, cartilage was segmented in ears, nose and around the thyroid, and the mass of the right lung is now 15% greater than the left lung. The updated versions are called FASH2_sta and MASH2_sta (sta = standing). Taking into account the gravitational effects on organ position and fat distribution, supine versions of the FASH2 and the MASH2 phantoms have been developed in this study and called FASH2_sup and MASH2_sup. MC simulations of external whole-body exposure to monoenergetic photons and partial-body exposure to x-rays have been made with the standing and supine FASH2 and MASH2 phantoms. For external whole-body exposure for AP and PA projection with photon energies above 30 keV, the effective dose did not change by more than 5% when the posture changed from standing to supine or vice versa. Apart from that, the supine posture is quite rare in occupational radiation protection from whole-body exposure. However, in the x-ray diagnosis supine posture is frequently used for patients submitted to examinations. Changes of organ absorbed doses up to 60% were found for simulations of chest and abdomen radiographs if the posture changed from standing to supine or vice versa. A further increase of differences between posture-specific organ and tissue absorbed doses with increasing whole-body mass is to be expected.

Cassola, V. F.; Kramer, R.; Brayner, C.; Khoury, H. J.

2010-08-01

279

Overuse Injuries in Female Athletes  

PubMed Central

The last three decades have witnessed a tremendous increase in female sports participation at all levels. However, increased sports participation of female athletes has also increased the incidence of sport-related injuries, which can be either acute trauma or overuse injuries. Overuse injuries may be defined as an imbalance caused by overly intensive training and inadequate recovery, which subsequently leads to a breakdown in tissue reparative mechanisms. This article will review the most frequent overuse injuries in female athletes in the context of anatomical, physiological, and psychological differences between genders. PMID:18074410

Ivkovi?, Alan; Frani?, Miljenko; Bojani?, Ivan; Pe?ina, Marko

2007-01-01

280

The culture of female circumcision.  

PubMed

The issue of female circumcision takes on special significance as more women migrate to the United States from countries where the practice has religious and traditional underpinnings. Female circumcision is a problem unfamiliar to most Western health care practitioners. This article describes an ethnographic study of the types of female circumcision, the reasons for and against the practice, the health implications of this practice, and cultural attitudes of circumcised women both in Western Africa and as migrant refugees living in the United States. Ethical dilemmas in dealing with this practice and implications for nurses and health care providers are discussed. PMID:8939287

Morris, R

1996-12-01

281

Effects of juvenile and adult diet on ageing and reproductive effort of male and female black field crickets, Teleogryllus commodus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. How and when resources are allocated to reproduction is expected to differ between the sexes, potentially generating differences in how males and females age. For this reason, acquisition of resources should be an important determinant of both age-dependent reproductive effort and of deteriorative ageing (i.e. senescence). 2. We used black field crickets, Teleogryllus commodus , to test whether

Felix Zajitschek; John Hunt; Michael D. Jennions; Matthew D. Hall; Robert C. Brooks

2009-01-01

282

Associations between Food Insecurity, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) Benefits, and Body Mass Index among Adult Females  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obesity disproportionately affects low-income and minority individuals and has been linked with food insecurity, particularly among women. More research is needed to examine potential mechanisms linking obesity and food insecurity. Therefore, this study's purpose was to examine cross-sectional associations between food insecurity, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) benefits per household member, perceived stress, and body mass index (BMI) among female

Stephanie B. Jilcott; Elizabeth D. Wall-Bassett; Sloane C. Burke; Justin B. Moore

2011-01-01

283

The relationship between exposure to alcohol-related content on Facebook and predictors of alcohol consumption among female emerging adults.  

PubMed

Consuming an unhealthy level of alcohol is a significant problem for some young women. Potential determinants of excess consumption include perceptions of usual consumption among peers-perceptions of what is "normal." The present study examined whether perceptions of social normative endorsement of drinking, operationalized by measures of perceived alcohol consumption of close friends (proximal norms), the consumption of the "average student" (distal norms), and the extent of alcohol-related content posted by peers on Facebook were related to alcohol-related attitudes and self-reported consumption. Female university students (n=129; Mage=21.48 years, SD=3.00) completed an online questionnaire assessing Facebook use, perceived alcohol-related norms, and self-reported alcohol attitudes and consumption. Perceptions of the consumption of the average female student were a negative predictor of attitudes. Positive alcohol attitudes, extent of own alcohol-related photographic posts on Facebook, average female student alcohol consumption, and report of male close friend consumption predicted self-report of own alcohol consumption. Interestingly, female close friend norms failed to predict consumption, whereas male close friend norms predicted consumption but not attitudes, suggesting the possibility of separate cognitive pathways for alcohol-related attitudes and behavior. This study builds on existing research by casting new light on predictors of alcohol-related attitudes, as well as describing the potential role of social networking sites such as Facebook in the formation of social norms and the modulation of drinking behavior. PMID:25489875

Miller, Joseph; Prichard, Ivanka; Hutchinson, Amanda; Wilson, Carlene

2014-12-01

284

Estradiol target neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus and lateral ventromedial nucleus of young adult, reproductively senescent, and monosodium glutamate-lesioned female golden hamsters  

SciTech Connect

Histoautoradiographic methods were used to assess estrogen target neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) and ventromedial nucleus, lateral portion (LVM), comparing young adult and aged female golden hamsters. A subgroup of young adult females had ARC lesions induced by monosodium glutamate at neonatal day 8. All were ovariectomized to remove endogenous estrogens. Controls were given nonradioactive estradiol. After /sup 3/H-estradiol (/sup 3/H-E2) was injected intravenously, hypothalami were removed, frozen, and processed for histoautoradiography. In the ARC and LVM the ratio of /sup 3/H-E2 labelled neurons to total neurons counted was significantly lower in the older animals. Young females with ARC lesions had very few /sup 3/H-E2 labelled neurons remaining in the ARC but had a normal complement in the LVM. Although /sup 3/H-E2 labelled ARC neurons were notably decreased in old females, those ARC neurons that were labelled in the old had virtually the same frequency distribution of the labelling index as in the young, suggesting no change in the average estrogen uptake per target cell.

Blaha, G.C.; Lamperti, A.A.

1983-09-01

285

Physiology of female sexual function and dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female sexual dysfunction is age-related, progressive, and highly prevalent, affecting 30–50% of American women. While there are emotional and relational elements to female sexual function and response, female sexual dysfunction can occur secondary to medical problems and have an organic basis. This paper addresses anatomy and physiology of normal female sexual function as well as the pathophysiology of female sexual

J R Berman

2005-01-01

286

Long-term behavior at foraging sites of adult female loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) from three Florida rookeries.  

PubMed

We used satellite telemetry to study behavior at foraging sites of 40 adult female loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) from three Florida (USA) rookeries. Foraging sites were located in four countries (USA, Mexico, the Bahamas, and Cuba). We were able to determine home range for 32 of the loggerheads. One turtle moved through several temporary residence areas, but the rest had a primary residence area in which they spent all or most of their time (usually >11 months per year). Twenty-four had a primary residence area that was <500 km(2) (mean = 191). Seven had a primary residence area that was ?500 km(2) (range = 573-1,907). Primary residence areas were mostly restricted to depths <100 m. Loggerheads appeared to favor areas with larger-grained sediment (gravel and rock) over areas with smaller-grained sediment (mud). Short-term departures from primary residence areas were either looping excursions, typically involving 1-2 weeks of continuous travel, or movement to a secondary residence area where turtles spent 25-45 days before returning to their primary residence area. Ten turtles had a secondary residence area, and six used it as an overwintering site. For those six turtles, the primary residence area was in shallow water (<17 m) in the northern half of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM), and overwintering sites were farther offshore or farther south. We documented long winter dive times (>4 h) for the first time in the GOM. Characterizing behaviors at foraging sites helps inform and assess loggerhead recovery efforts. PMID:24882883

Foley, Allen M; Schroeder, Barbara A; Hardy, Robert; MacPherson, Sandra L; Nicholas, Mark

2014-01-01

287

Quantitative evaluation of the utero-ovarian venous pattern in the adult human female cadaver with plastination.  

PubMed

We described the anatomy of the utero-ovarian venous system in the adult postmenopausal female cadaver using casts and the von Hagen's plastination technique. To qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate the uterine vein, the utero-ovarian arcade, the ovarian vein and the ramus communicans between left and right parametrium, we injected epoxy resin into the internal iliac vein and artery and the ovarian vein and artery in six cadavers. In two cases the internal genital organs were excised before injection and in the other four after the injection and polymerization of the resin. All specimens were macroscopically examined and venous diameters were digitally measured, the average values of the measured diameters being 3.38 mm for the uterine vein, 3.71 mm for the utero-ovarian arcade, 3.49 mm for the ovarian vein, and 3.71 mm for the ramus communicans. The veins were completely filled out and could be best examined in the four cases where in situ injection was performed. We could observe that the utero-ovarian arcade is an important vein with a caliber similar to that of the ovarian and uterine veins, that there is an impressive network of venous anastomoses between the left and right parametrium and that the fallopian tubes are drained by three separate veins: internal, median, and external tubal veins. Pelvic venous congestion was present in two specimens; in one of them it was located in the region of the left uterine vein and in the other one in the region of the left ovarian vein. Given the similar average diameters of the uterine vein, ovarian vein, and utero-ovarian arcade, we assume that there is no preferential uterine or ovarian venous drainage and that the veins of the internal genital organs are behaving like a venous pool. Nevertheless, congestion can affect limited sites, which can and should be treated locally. PMID:14973766

Pavkov, Mircea L; Koebke, Jürgen; Notermans, Hans-P; Brökelmann, Jost

2004-02-01

288

Female suicide bombers and burdensomeness.  

PubMed

Brief case descriptions from journalists are presented to illustrate the role of traumatic experiences, the sense of being a burden to their families, and shame and humiliation in female suicide bombers. PMID:20402439

Lester, David

2010-02-01

289

Female genital mutilation in Djibouti.  

PubMed

The practice of female genital mutilation (we will use the latest definition adopted by WHO/UNFP: female genital mutilation/cutting or FGM/C) is still widespread in 28 African countries. The World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates that more than two million females undergo some form of genital mutilation every year. Its negative health impact and its ethical and human rights aspects have been discussed and attempts to eliminate it have been the objectives of several meetings promoted by national and international organisations thanks to an increased awareness related to FGM/C in those countries practicing it and also, maybe due to the number of Africans migrating to industrialized countries. We review the present situation in Djibouti, a small country in the Horn of Africa, where 98 % of the female population has suffered different forms of FGM/C. PMID:23515242

Martinelli, M; Ollé-Goig, J E

2012-12-01

290

Angiogenesis in the female reproductive system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In adult tissues, capillary growth (an- giogenesis) occurs normally during tissue repair, such as in healing of wounds and fractures. Rampant capillary growth is associated with various pathological conditions, including tumor growth, retinopathies, hemangiomas, fibroses and rheumatoid arthritis. The female reproduc- tive organs (i.e., ovary, uterus, and placenta) exhibit dynamic, periodic growth and regression accompanied by equally dramatic changes in

P. REYNOLDS; S. DEREK; DALE A. REDMER

291

Effects of azadirachtin on the biology of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) adult female, the main vector of American visceral leishmaniasis.  

PubMed

The effects of azadirachtin A added to the sucrose diet of the adult females on the mortality, oviposition, and hatching of the sand fly vector of American visceral leishmaniasis Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) were investigated. Concentrations of 0.1, 1.0, and 10.0 microg/mg of azadirachtin significantly increased insect mortality in comparison with control insects. The same dose also significantly reduced oviposition but not hatching. After a long development period, significantly fewer adult insects were obtained from eggs hatching by azadirachtin-treated females in a dose-response manner. These results indicate that azadirachtin is a potent sterilizer that could be used against the development of Lu. longipalpis populations and as a tool for studying physiological and biochemical processes in phlebotomine species. PMID:25118426

De Andrade-Coelho, Cláudia Alves; De Souza, Nataly Araujo; Silva, Vanderlei Campos; Souza, Adelson A; Gonzalez, Marcelo Salabert; Rangel, Elizabeth Ferreira

2014-07-01

292

Social Representations of Female Orgasm  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines women's social representations of female orgasm. Fifty semi-structured interviews were conducted with British women. The data were thematically analysed and compared with the content of female orgasm-related writing in two women's magazines over a 30-year period. The results indicate that orgasm is deemed the goal of sex with emphasis on its physiological dimension. However, the women and

Maya Lavie-Ajayi; Hélène Joffe

2009-01-01

293

Flehmen and birth synchrony among female sable antelope, Hippotragus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of female flehmen behaviour in maintaining reproductive synchrony was investigated in 11 adult female sable antelope and their associated offspring maintained on a 13·2-ha pasture at the National Zoological Park's Conservation and Research Center near Front Royal, Virginia. All occurrences of aggression and flehmen by adult females were recorded during 274h of observation over a 10-month period (1987),

KATERINA V. THOMPSON

1995-01-01

294

Prolonged maintenance of water balance by adult females of the American spider beetle, Mezium affine Boieldieu, in the absence of food and water resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moisture requirements were evaluated for female adults of spider beetles Mezium affine Boieldieu and Gibbium aequinoctiale Boieldieu to determine how they are differentially adapted for life in a dry environment. Features showing extreme desiccation resistance of M. affine were an impermeable cuticle wherein activation energies (43kJ\\/mol) were suppressed, daily water losses as little as 0.3%\\/day with an associated group effect,

Joshua B. Benoit; Jay A. Yoder; Eric J. Rellinger; Jacob T. Ark; George D. Keeney

2005-01-01

295

Increased allocation of adult-acquired carbohydrate to egg production results in its decreased allocation to sex pheromone production in mated females of the moth Heliothis virescens.  

PubMed

Females of most species of moths produce a volatile sex pheromone that attracts conspecific males over distance. In females of the polyandrous moth Heliothis virescens, feeding on carbohydrate (e.g. nectar) supplies precursor, via hemolymph trehalose, for both sex pheromone and egg production. With limited carbohydrate acquisition these two reproductive physiologies might compete for hemolymph trehalose, resulting in an allocation deficit to either sex pheromone or egg production. Using virgin and mated females, which have low and high egg maturation rates, respectively, we fed females a limited diet of (13)C-labeled glucose daily and, using mass isotopomer distribution analysis, determined allocations of adult-acquired carbohydrate (AAC) to newly synthesized pheromone and ovarian and egg fats, our proxies for allocation to egg production. With increased number of feeds, AAC enrichment of hemolymph trehalose increased, as expected. This led to mated females increasing their proportional allocation of AAC to ovarian and egg fats, but decreasing their proportional allocation of AAC to pheromone production. By contrast, virgins increased their proportional allocation of AAC to pheromone production with increased feeds, consistent with increasing AAC enrichment of hemolymph trehalose. These results show that with limited AAC intake, enhanced egg maturation in mated females results in reduced AAC allocation to pheromone production; this does not occur in virgins because of their lower egg maturation rate. This physiological competition for AAC corresponded with decreased pheromone production in mated moths to levels unlikely to attract mates. Therefore, the availability and/or allocation of AAC may be a proximate mechanism underlying the incidence of polyandry in this and other species of moths. PMID:24198254

Foster, Stephen P; Anderson, Karin G; Harmon, J P

2014-02-15

296

Differential motor and sensory functional recovery in male but not female adult rats is associated with remyelination rather than axon regeneration after sciatic nerve crush.  

PubMed

Peripheral nerve functional recovery after injuries relies on both axon regeneration and remyelination. Both axon regeneration and remyelination require intimate interactions between regenerating neurons and their accompanying Schwann cells. Previous studies have shown that motor and sensory neurons are intrinsically different in their regeneration potentials. Moreover, denervated Schwann cells accompanying myelinated motor and sensory axons have distinct gene expression profiles for regeneration-associated growth factors. However, it is unknown whether differential motor and sensory functional recovery exists. If so, the particular one among axon regeneration and remyelination responsible for this difference remains unclear. Here, we aimed to establish an adult rat sciatic nerve crush model with the nonserrated microneedle holders and measured rat motor and sensory functions during regeneration. Furthermore, axon regeneration and remyelination was evaluated by morphometric analysis of electron microscopic images on the basis of nerve fiber classification. Our results showed that A? fiber-mediated motor function was successfully recovered in both male and female rats. A? fiber-mediated sensory function was partially restored in male rats, but completely recovered in female littermates. For both male and female rats, the numbers of regenerated motor and sensory axons were quite comparable. However, remyelination was diverse among myelinated motor and sensory nerve fibers. In detail, A? and A? fibers incompletely remyelinated in male, but not female rats, whereas A? fibers fully remyelinated in both sexes. Our result indicated that differential motor and sensory functional recovery in male but not female adult rats is associated with remyelination rather than axon regeneration after sciatic nerve crush. PMID:25830493

Tong, Ling-Ling; Ding, You-Quan; Jing, Hong-Bo; Li, Xuan-Yang; Qi, Jian-Guo

2015-05-01

297

Immune function is related to adult carotenoid and bile pigment levels, but not to dietary carotenoid access during development, in female mallard ducks.  

PubMed

Immune function can be modulated by multiple physiological factors, including nutrition and reproductive state. Because these factors can vary throughout an individual's lifetime as a result of environmental conditions (affecting nutrition) or life-history stage (e.g. entering the adult reproduction stage), we must carefully examine the degree to which developmental versus adult conditions shape performance of the immune system. We investigated how variation in dietary access to carotenoid pigments - a class of molecules with immunostimulatory properties that females deposit into egg yolks - during three different developmental time points affected adult immunological and reproductive traits in female mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos). In males and females of other avian species, carotenoid access during development affects carotenoid assimilation ability, adult sexual ornamentation and immune function, while carotenoid access during adulthood can increase immune response and reproductive investment (e.g. egg-laying capacity, biliverdin deposition in eggshells). We failed to detect effects of developmental carotenoid supplementation on adult immune function [phytohemagglutinin-induced cutaneous immune response, antibody production in response to the novel antigen keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), or oxidative burst, assessed by changes in circulating nitric oxide levels], carotenoid-pigmented beak coloration, ovarian development, circulating carotenoid levels or concentration of bile pigments in the gall bladder. However, we did uncover positive relationships between circulating carotenoid levels during adulthood and KLH-specific antibody production, and a negative relationship between biliverdin concentration in bile and KLH-specific antibody production. These results are consistent with the view that adult physiological parameters better predict current immune function than do developmental conditions, and highlight a possible, previously unstudied relationship between biliverdin and immune system performance. PMID:23531827

Butler, Michael W; McGraw, Kevin J

2013-07-15

298

Behavioral responses of adult female tobacco hornworms, Manduca sexta, to hostplant volatiles change with age and mating status  

PubMed Central

We present evidence for two behaviors influenced by intact, vegetative plant odor — upwind flight and abdomen curling — in female Manduca sexta and demonstrate the influence of the age and mating status of the moths on these behaviors. We compared the behavioral responses of laboratory-reared M. sexta. of discrete ages and physiological states (2,3, and 4 day old for virgin; 2 and 3 day old for mated) as individual moths flew upwind in a flight tunnel to a source of hostplant volatiles. We monitored odor-modulated flight and abdomen curling in the presence of volatiles released by potted hostplants. Mated 3 day old females exhibited the highest incidence of odor-modulated flight and abdomen curling. Similarly, as virgin moths aged, a greater percentage of the individuals displayed odor-modulated flight patterns and abdomen curling. In contrast, younger virgin moths exhibited high levels of abdomen curling only after contact with the plant. PMID:15455039

Mechaber, W.L.; Capaldo, C.T.; Hildebrand, J.G.

2002-01-01

299

References to People in the Communications of Female and Male Youths with Mental Retardation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Language transcripts were obtained from eight male and eight female participants with mental retardation, interacting separately with one male and one female adult partner. Like typical females, female participants using speech discussed people more often than males. Females using nonspeech modes, in contrast, showed a severe reduction in…

Wilkinson, Krista M.; Murphy, Nora A.

1998-01-01

300

Early Postnatal Effects of Noopept and Piracetam on Declarative and Procedural Memory of Adult Male and Female Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the effect of a new nootropic dipeptide Noopept and reference nootropic preparation piracetam injected subcutaneously on days 8–20 of life on learning of alternative feeding response in a 6-arm-maze in male and female rats. Early postnatal administration of Noopept disturbed the dynamics of learning by parameters of declarative and procedural memory. Piracetam impaired learning by parameters of procedural,

S. S. Trofimov; T. A. Voronina; L. S. Guzevatykh

2005-01-01

301

Administration of saccharin to neonatal mice influences body composition of adult males and reduces body weight of females.  

PubMed

Nutritional or pharmacological perturbations during perinatal growth can cause persistent effects on the function of white adipose tissue, altering susceptibility to obesity later in life. Previous studies have established that saccharin, a nonnutritive sweetener, inhibits lipolysis in mature adipocytes and stimulates adipogenesis. Thus, the current study tested whether neonatal exposure to saccharin via maternal lactation increased susceptibility of mice to diet-induced obesity. Saccharin decreased body weight of female mice beginning postnatal week 3. Decreased liver weights on week 14 corroborated this diminished body weight. Initially, saccharin also reduced male mouse body weight. By week 5, weights transiently rebounded above controls, and by week 14, male body weights did not differ. Body composition analysis revealed that saccharin increased lean and decreased fat mass of male mice, the latter due to decreased adipocyte size and epididymal, perirenal, and sc adipose weights. A mild improvement in glucose tolerance without a change in insulin sensitivity or secretion aligned with this leaner phenotype. Interestingly, microcomputed tomography analysis indicated that saccharin also increased cortical and trabecular bone mass of male mice and modified cortical bone alone in female mice. A modest increase in circulating testosterone may contribute to the leaner phenotype in male mice. Accordingly, the current study established a developmental period in which saccharin at high concentrations reduces adiposity and increases lean and bone mass in male mice while decreasing generalized growth in female mice. PMID:24456165

Parlee, Sebastian D; Simon, Becky R; Scheller, Erica L; Alejandro, Emilyn U; Learman, Brian S; Krishnan, Venkatesh; Bernal-Mizrachi, Ernesto; MacDougald, Ormond A

2014-04-01

302

Gestational and lactational exposure to TCDD or coplanar PCBs alters adult expression of saccharin preference behavior in female rats.  

PubMed

Previous studies have shown that maternal doses of 1 microg/kg or less of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in late gestation can demasculinize and feminize reproductive behavior in male rats. However, it was not known whether coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) had similar effects, or whether non-reproductive sexually dimorphic behaviors such as saccharin preference behavior were also altered. We determined the effects of TCDD or coplanar PCBs on saccharin consumption and saccharin preference in male and female rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed with 3,3',4, 4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB 77; 2 or 8 mg/kg/day), 3,3',4,4', 5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126; 0.25 or 1.0 microg/kg/day), TCDD (0. 025 or 0.10 microg/kg/day), or corn oil vehicle on days 10-16 of gestation. Maternal exposure to TCDD or coplanar PCBs did not change saccharin consumption or saccharin preference in male rats. However, TCDD and coplanar PCB-exposed females showed decreased saccharin consumption and saccharin preference. The results indicate that saccharin consumption is masculinized in female rats exposed to TCDD or coplanar PCBs during perinatal development. This effect could be related to the anti-estrogenic actions of these chemicals. PMID:11106860

Amin, S; Moore, R W; Peterson, R E; Schantz, S L

2000-01-01

303

Socially induced delayed reproduction in female Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus): Is there anything special about dominant females?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 4 experiments, the authors explored effects of interaction with both sexually active adult female and unfamiliar adult male Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) on young female gerbils' ages at first parturition. Presence of a natural mother retarded development of her daughters. However, presence of a natural mother had no greater effect on her daughters' development than did presence of any

Mertice M. Clark

2002-01-01

304

Winter survival of adult female harlequin ducks in relation to history of contamination by the Exxon Valdez oil spill  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Harlequin duck (Histrionicus histrionicus) life-history characteristics make their populations particularly vulnerable to perturbations during nonbreeding periods. The 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill was a major perturbation to nonbreeding habitats of harlequin ducks in Prince William Sound, Alaska, which resulted in population injury. To assess the status of population recovery from the oil spill and to evaluate factors potentially constraining full recovery, we used radiotelemetry to examine survival of adult female harlequin ducks during winters of 1995-96, 1996-97, and 1997-98. We implanted 294 harlequin ducks (154 and 140 in oiled and unoiled areas, respectively) with transmitters and tracked their signals from aircraft during October through March. We examined variation in survival rates relative to area and season (early, mid, and late winter) through comparisons of models using Akaike's information criterion (AIC(c)) values. The 3 models best supported by the data indicated that survival of birds in oiled areas was lower than in unoiled areas. Inclusion of standardized body mass during wing molt in the 3 best models did not improve their fit, indicating that body mass during wing molt did not affect subsequent winter survival. In the model that best fit our data, survival was high in early winter for both areas, lower during mid and late winter seasons, and lowest in oiled areas during mid winter. Cumulative winter survival estimated from this model was 78.0% (SE = 3.3%) in oiled areas and 83.7% (SE = 2.9%) in unoiled areas. We determined that area differences in survival were more likely related to oiling history than intrinsic geographic differences. Based on a demographic model, area differences in survival offer a likely mechanism for observed declines in populations on oiled areas. Concurrent studies indicated that harlequin ducks continued to be exposed to residual Exxon Valdez oil as much as 9 years after the spill. We suggest that oil exposure, mortality, and population dynamics were linked and conclude that continued effects of the oil spill likely restricted recovery of harlequin duck populations through at least 1998.

Esler, Daniel; Schmutz, J.A.; Jarvis, R.L.; Mulcahy, D.M.

2000-01-01

305

A homozygous female hemophilia A  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Hemophilia A (HA), being an X-linked recessive disorder, females are rarely affected, although they can be carriers. AIMS: To study the mutation in F8 gene in an extended family with a homozygous female HA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All the seven affected members (six males and one female) were initially screened by Conformation Sensitive Gel Electrophoresis (CSGE) and direct DNA sequencing. RESULTS: A homozygous missense mutation c.1315G>A (p.Gly420Ser) was identified in exon 9 of F8 gene in homozygous state in the affected female born of 1° consanguinous marriage and in all the affected male members of the family. Her factor VIII levels was found to be 5.5%, vWF:Ag 120%. CONCLUSION: In India, as consanguineous marriages are very common in certain communities (up to 30%), the likelihood of encountering female hemophilia is higher, although this is the first case of HA out of 1600 hemophilia families registered in our Comprehensive Haemophilia Care Center. Genetic diagnosis in such cases is not necessary as all the male children will be affected and daughters obligatory carriers. PMID:22754241

Nair, Preethi S.; Shetty, S.; Ghosh, Kanjaksha

2012-01-01

306

Sex differences in stress-induced social withdrawal: independence from adult gonadal hormones and inhibition of female phenotype by corncob bedding  

PubMed Central

There is compelling evidence for important sex differences in behavioral and hormonal responses to psychosocial stress. Here we examined the effects of gonadal hormones on behavioral responses to social defeat stress in monogamous California mice (Peromyscus californicus). Three episodes of social defeat induced social withdrawal in intact females but not males. Gonadectomy blocked corticosterone responses to defeat in females and sensitized male corticosterone responses. However, gonadectomy had no effects on social interaction behavior, suggesting that social withdrawal is not dependent on gonadal hormones in the adult California mouse. In contrast, defeat reduced exploratory behavior in the open field test for intact but not castrated males. We also examined the effects of social defeat on social interaction behavior when California mice were raised on corncob bedding, which has estrogenic properties. In this dataset of over 300 mice, we observed that social defeat did not induce social withdrawal when females were raised on corncob bedding. This finding suggests that the use of corncob in rodent studies could mask important sex differences in the effects of stress on brain and behavior. Although gonadal hormones do not affect social withdrawal behavior in adults, our data suggest that hormones may act earlier in development to induce a more resilient social phenotype. PMID:23384773

Trainor, Brian C.; Takahashi, Elizabeth Y.; Campi, Katharine L.; Florez, Stefani A.; Greenberg, Gian D.; Laman-Maharg, Abigail; Laredo, Sarah A.; Orr, Veronica N.; Silva, Andrea L.; Steinman, Michael Q.

2013-01-01

307

Knee injuries in female athletes.  

PubMed

Female athletes are at increased risk for certain sports-related injuries, particularly those involving the knee. Factors that contribute to this increased risk are the differences in sports undertaken and in gender anatomy and structure. Gender differences include baseline level of conditioning, lower extremity alignment, physiological laxity, pelvis width, tibial rotation and foot alignment. Sports like gymnastics and cheerleading create a noncontact environment, but can result in significant knee injuries. In quick stopping and cutting sports, females have an increased incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury by noncontact mechanisms. Patellofemoral (PF) disorders are also very common in female athletes. Awareness of these facts helps the sports medicine professional make an accurate diagnosis and institute earlier treatment-focused rehabilitation with or without surgery. Further prospective and retrospective research is needed in areas of epidemiology, mechanisms, severity and types of knee injuries. The goal is to lessen the severity of certain knee injuries and to prevent others. PMID:7604201

Hutchinson, M R; Ireland, M L

1995-04-01

308

Male vs. female mediated teratogenesis  

SciTech Connect

Different types of reproductive dysfunction with exposure of males and females during different stages of the reproductive process were correlated. It is a well-established principle that teratogenic exposure of the pregnant female, and thus of the embryo, during the organogenesis period of development can lead to birth defects in the offspring. The outcome of this exposure paradigm, as well as the outcomes associated with exposure during other stages of the reproductive process that have received less experimental attention are discussed. Insult to the germ cells of the male during spermatogenesis and to the female during oogenesis can also lead to reproductive dysfunction. The type of adverse outcome, however, is quite different from that occurring with embryonic exposure during the organogenesis period. An overview of this area will be given with the intent of focusing on those types of reproductive dysfunction that are most relevant to environmental exposure of men and women.

Manson, J.M.

1982-04-01

309

Defining the normal acetabular vault in adult males and females using a novel three-dimensional model  

PubMed Central

The management and quantification of bone loss is a major challenge in primary and revision total hip replacement. Defining the normal three-dimensional (3D) anatomy of the acetabular vault could aid in assessing pathologic changes and in designing prosthetic joint components. We performed a quantitative assessment of normal 3D acetabular vault structure to define the shape and location of weight-bearing acetabular bone referred to as the vault. Images from 70 normal hip computed tomography images were used to define the 3D acetabular vault anatomy and develop a 3D model. Variation in vault shape was quantified by measuring the distance between every surface point on a subject’s hemipelvis and the reference vault. Variation among different hip alignments was assessed using 19 scans from subjects with varus, valgus and dysplastic hip morphologies. The acetabular vault model had 96.6% (95% CI: 91.7–101.5), 97.8% (95% CI: 94.5–101.1) and 96.4% (95% CI: 98.7–94.1) of the surface points within 3 mm of normal male, normal female and abnormal hip specimens, respectively. Comparison of acetabular vault model fit between gender and hip types revealed that it was only significantly different between normal males and normal females (P = 0.0194) and between normal males and dysplastic females (P = 0.0377). A conserved 3D acetabular vault shape and location exists that can accommodate various hip morphologies. Defining a normal vault may increase the precision with which hip pathology can be identified and may also serve as a preoperative assessment tool for planning total hip arthroplasty. PMID:22671309

Barsoum, Wael K; Smith, Travis; Buller, Leonard; Klika, Alison; Mavroudis, Constantine; Bryan, Jason

2012-01-01

310

An enriched rearing environment calms adult male rat sexual activity: implication for distinct serotonergic and hormonal responses to females.  

PubMed

Early life events induce alterations in neural function in adulthood. Although rearing in an enriched environment (EE) has a great impact on behavioral development, the effects of enriched rearing on sociosexual behavior remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of rearing in an EE on male copulatory behavior and its underlying neurobiological mechanisms in Wistar-Imamichi rats. Three-week-old, recently weaned rats were continuously subjected to a standard environment (SE) or an EE comprised of a large cage with several objects, such as toys, tunnels, ladders, and a running wheel. After 6 weeks, rats reared in an EE (EE rats) showed decreased sexual activity compared with rats reared in a SE (SE rats). This included a lower number of ejaculations and longer latencies in three consecutive copulatory tests. In addition, EE rats showed decreased emotional responsiveness and less locomotor behavior in an open field. In a runway test, on the other hand, sexual motivation toward receptive females in EE males was comparable to that of SE males. Furthermore, following exposure to a female, increases in serotonin levels in the nucleus accumbens and the striatum were significantly suppressed in EE males, whereas dopaminergic responses were similar between the groups. Female-exposure-induced increases in the levels of plasma corticosterone and testosterone were also suppressed in EE rats compared to SE rats. These data suggest that rearing in an EE decreases male copulatory behavior, and serotonin and hormonal regulating systems may regulate the differences in sociosexual interactions that result from distinct rearing environments. PMID:24505330

Urakawa, Susumu; Mitsushima, Dai; Shimozuru, Michito; Sakuma, Yasuo; Kondo, Yasuhiko

2014-01-01

311

An Enriched Rearing Environment Calms Adult Male Rat Sexual Activity: Implication for Distinct Serotonergic and Hormonal Responses to Females  

PubMed Central

Early life events induce alterations in neural function in adulthood. Although rearing in an enriched environment (EE) has a great impact on behavioral development, the effects of enriched rearing on sociosexual behavior remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of rearing in an EE on male copulatory behavior and its underlying neurobiological mechanisms in Wistar-Imamichi rats. Three-week-old, recently weaned rats were continuously subjected to a standard environment (SE) or an EE comprised of a large cage with several objects, such as toys, tunnels, ladders, and a running wheel. After 6 weeks, rats reared in an EE (EE rats) showed decreased sexual activity compared with rats reared in a SE (SE rats). This included a lower number of ejaculations and longer latencies in three consecutive copulatory tests. In addition, EE rats showed decreased emotional responsiveness and less locomotor behavior in an open field. In a runway test, on the other hand, sexual motivation toward receptive females in EE males was comparable to that of SE males. Furthermore, following exposure to a female, increases in serotonin levels in the nucleus accumbens and the striatum were significantly suppressed in EE males, whereas dopaminergic responses were similar between the groups. Female-exposure-induced increases in the levels of plasma corticosterone and testosterone were also suppressed in EE rats compared to SE rats. These data suggest that rearing in an EE decreases male copulatory behavior, and serotonin and hormonal regulating systems may regulate the differences in sociosexual interactions that result from distinct rearing environments. PMID:24505330

Urakawa, Susumu; Mitsushima, Dai; Shimozuru, Michito; Sakuma, Yasuo; Kondo, Yasuhiko

2014-01-01

312

The UF/NCI family of hybrid computational phantoms representing the current US population of male and female children, adolescents, and adults—application to CT dosimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Substantial increases in pediatric and adult obesity in the US have prompted a major revision to the current UF/NCI (University of Florida/National Cancer Institute) family of hybrid computational phantoms to more accurately reflect current trends in larger body morphometry. A decision was made to construct the new library in a gridded fashion by height/weight without further reference to age-dependent weight/height percentiles as these become quickly outdated. At each height/weight combination, circumferential parameters were defined and used for phantom construction. All morphometric data for the new library were taken from the CDC NHANES survey data over the time period 1999-2006, the most recent reported survey period. A subset of the phantom library was then used in a CT organ dose sensitivity study to examine the degree to which body morphometry influences the magnitude of organ doses for patients that are underweight to morbidly obese in body size. Using primary and secondary morphometric parameters, grids containing 100 adult male height/weight bins, 93 adult female height/weight bins, 85 pediatric male height/weight bins and 73 pediatric female height/weight bins were constructed. These grids served as the blueprints for construction of a comprehensive library of patient-dependent phantoms containing 351 computational phantoms. At a given phantom standing height, normalized CT organ doses were shown to linearly decrease with increasing phantom BMI for pediatric males, while curvilinear decreases in organ dose were shown with increasing phantom BMI for adult females. These results suggest that one very useful application of the phantom library would be the construction of a pre-computed dose library for CT imaging as needed for patient dose-tracking.

Geyer, Amy M.; O'Reilly, Shannon; Lee, Choonsik; Long, Daniel J.; Bolch, Wesley E.

2014-09-01

313

Neonatal citalopram exposure decreases serotonergic fiber density in the olfactory bulb of male but not female adult rats  

PubMed Central

Manipulation of serotonin (5HT) during early development has been shown to induce long-lasting morphological changes within the raphe nuclear complex and serotonergic circuitry throughout the brain. Recent studies have demonstrated altered raphe-derived 5HT transporter (SERT) immunoreactive axonal expression in several cortical target sites after brief perinatal exposure to selective 5HT reuptake inhibitors such as citalopram (CTM). Since the serotonergic raphe nuclear complex projects to the olfactory bulb (OB) and perinatal 5HT disruption has been shown to disrupt olfactory behaviors, the goal of this study was to further investigate such developmental effects in the OB of CTM exposed animals. Male and female rat pups were exposed to CTM from postnatal day 8–21. After animals reach adulthood (>90 days), OB tissue sections were processed immunohistochemically for SERT antiserum. Our data revealed that the density of the SERT immunoreactive fibers decreased ~40% in the OB of CTM exposed male rats, but not female rats. Our findings support a broad and long-lasting change throughout most of the 5HT system, including the OB, after early manipulation of 5HT. Because dysfunction of the early 5HT system has been implicated in the etiology of neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), these new findings may offer insight into the abnormal olfactory perception often noted in patients with ASD. PMID:23675318

Zhang, Junlin; Dennis, Katie A.; Darling, Ryan D.; Alzghoul, Loai; Paul, Ian A.; Simpson, Kimberly L.; Lin, Rick C. S.

2013-01-01

314

Adolescent Leadership: The Female Voice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research investigated the female adolescent view of leadership by giving voice to student leaders through focus group discussions. The questions: What is leadership? Where/how was leadership taught?, and How was leadership practised? were explored within the context of girls' schools located in Australia, with one school located in South…

Archard, Nicole

2013-01-01

315

Chapter 22: Female Reproductive Toxicology  

EPA Science Inventory

The female reproductive system provides multiple targets for environmental toxicants with the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. Moreover, the functional impact of a chemical can differ, depending on the species involved and the parameters of exposure. While cross-species compa...

316

Archetypes of Outstanding Female Superintendents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report documents a study of women superintendents. Specifically, the study identified professional and personal characteristics and styles of leadership to develop archetypes of six outstanding female superintendents in Texas. The intent of the research was also to reveal similarities between and among these superintendents that could provide…

Funk, Carole; Pankake, Anita; Schroth, Gwen

317

Television and the Female Consumer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This special issue brings together an editorial, six articles, and three book reviews that focus on the relationship between television and the female audience. The articles are: (1) "Installing the Television Set: Popular Discourses on Television and Domestic Space, 1948-1955" (Lynn Spigel); (2) "The Spectacularization of Everyday Life: Recycling…

Mann, Denise, Ed.; Spigel, Lynn, Ed.

1988-01-01

318

Hypnotherapy and Female Sexual Inadequacy  

PubMed Central

Dr. Glick describes the use of hypnosis in the treatment of primary and secondary frigidity, dyspareunia and psychosomatic symptoms in female sexual inadequacy. He uses case histories to show the various techniques used and the results that can be expected. PMID:20468741

Glick, Daniel

1972-01-01

319

Life Table Analysis for Immatures and Female Adults of the Predatory Beetle, Delphastus catalinae, Feeding on Whiteflies Under Three Constant Temperatures  

PubMed Central

Immature development and reproductive life history of Delphastus catalinae (Horn) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) feeding on Bemisia tabaci biotype B (Gennadius) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) (= B. argentifolii Bellows and Perring) immatures was studied at three constant temperatures: 22, 26 and 30 °C. Lower developmental threshold temperatures (T0) were estimated at 9 and 9.9 °C, for males and females, respectively. Female adults weighed slightly more than males (0.587 and 0.505 mg, respectively). As temperature increased from 22 to 30 °C, developmental time from eggs to eclosion of the adult declined from 24 to 15 days. Thermal units required for immature development was ?300 degree-days. Percentage egg hatch declined at increasing temperatures, but no significant effect of time was found. The intrinsic rate of increase, r, increased from 0.048 to 0.082 and doubling time decreased from 14.44 to 8.45 days as temperature increased from 22 to 26 °C. Mean daily fecundity was modeled as a function of time and temperature to create a 3-dimensional surface. Overall, Delphastus catalinae was found to perform better at 22 and 26 °C while 30 °C was detrimental to immature development and adult reproduction. PMID:20345295

Crisostomo Legaspi, Jesusa; Legaspi, Benjamin C.; Simmons, Alvin M.; Soumare, Mohamed

2008-01-01

320

Fortuitous encounters between seagliders and adult female northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) off the Washington (USA) coast: upper ocean variability and links to top predator behavior.  

PubMed

Behavioral responses by top marine predators to oceanographic features such as eddies, river plumes, storms, and coastal topography suggest that biophysical interactions in these zones affect predators' prey, foraging behaviors, and potentially fitness. However, examining these pathways is challenged by the obstacles inherent in obtaining simultaneous observations of surface and subsurface environmental fields and predator behavior. In this study, migratory movements and, in some cases, diving behavior of 40 adult female northern fur seals (NFS; Callorhinus ursinus) were quantified across their range and compared to remotely-sensed environmental data in the Gulf of Alaska and California Current ecosystems, with a particular focus off the coast of Washington State (USA)--a known foraging ground for adult female NFS and where autonomous glider sampling allowed opportunistic comparison of seal behavior to subsurface biophysical measurements. The results show that in these ecosystems, adult female habitat utilization was concentrated near prominent coastal topographic, riverine, or inlet features and within 200 km of the continental shelf break. Seal dive depths, in most ecosystems, were moderated by surface light level (solar or lunar), mirroring known behaviors of diel vertically-migrating prey. However, seal dives differed in the California Current ecosystem due to a shift to more daytime diving concentrated at or below the surface mixed layer base. Seal movement models indicate behavioral responses to season, ecosystem, and surface wind speeds; individuals also responded to mesoscale eddies, jets, and the Columbia River plume. Foraging within small scale surface features is consistent with utilization of the inner coastal transition zone and habitats near coastal capes, which are known eddy and filament generation sites. These results contribute to our knowledge of NFS migratory patterns by demonstrating surface and subsurface behavioral responses to a spatially and temporally dynamic ocean environment, thus reflecting its influence on associated NFS prey species. PMID:25153524

Pelland, Noel A; Sterling, Jeremy T; Lea, Mary-Anne; Bond, Nicholas A; Ream, Rolf R; Lee, Craig M; Eriksen, Charles C

2014-01-01

321

Fortuitous Encounters between Seagliders and Adult Female Northern Fur Seals (Callorhinus ursinus) off the Washington (USA) Coast: Upper Ocean Variability and Links to Top Predator Behavior  

PubMed Central

Behavioral responses by top marine predators to oceanographic features such as eddies, river plumes, storms, and coastal topography suggest that biophysical interactions in these zones affect predators' prey, foraging behaviors, and potentially fitness. However, examining these pathways is challenged by the obstacles inherent in obtaining simultaneous observations of surface and subsurface environmental fields and predator behavior. In this study, migratory movements and, in some cases, diving behavior of 40 adult female northern fur seals (NFS; Callorhinus ursinus) were quantified across their range and compared to remotely-sensed environmental data in the Gulf of Alaska and California Current ecosystems, with a particular focus off the coast of Washington State (USA) – a known foraging ground for adult female NFS and where autonomous glider sampling allowed opportunistic comparison of seal behavior to subsurface biophysical measurements. The results show that in these ecosystems, adult female habitat utilization was concentrated near prominent coastal topographic, riverine, or inlet features and within 200 km of the continental shelf break. Seal dive depths, in most ecosystems, were moderated by surface light level (solar or lunar), mirroring known behaviors of diel vertically-migrating prey. However, seal dives differed in the California Current ecosystem due to a shift to more daytime diving concentrated at or below the surface mixed layer base. Seal movement models indicate behavioral responses to season, ecosystem, and surface wind speeds; individuals also responded to mesoscale eddies, jets, and the Columbia River plume. Foraging within small scale surface features is consistent with utilization of the inner coastal transition zone and habitats near coastal capes, which are known eddy and filament generation sites. These results contribute to our knowledge of NFS migratory patterns by demonstrating surface and subsurface behavioral responses to a spatially and temporally dynamic ocean environment, thus reflecting its influence on associated NFS prey species. PMID:25153524

Pelland, Noel A.; Sterling, Jeremy T.; Lea, Mary-Anne; Bond, Nicholas A.; Ream, Rolf R.; Lee, Craig M.; Eriksen, Charles C.

2014-01-01

322

Lifetime reproductive success of female mountain gorillas.  

PubMed

Studies of lifetime reproductive success (LRS) are important for understanding population dynamics and life history strategies, yet relatively little information is available for long-lived species. This study provides a preliminary assessment of LRS among female mountain gorillas in the Virunga volcanoes region. Adult females produced an average of 3.6 ± 2.1 surviving offspring during their lifetime, which indicates a growing population that contrasts with most other great apes. The standardized variance in LRS (variance/mean(2) = 0.34) was lower than many other mammals and birds. When we excluded the most apparent source of environmental variability (poaching), the average LRS increased to 4.3 ± 1.8 and the standardized variance dropped in half. Adult lifespan was a greater source of variance in LRS than fertility or offspring survival. Females with higher LRS had significantly longer adult lifespans and higher dominance ranks. Results for LRS were similar to another standard fitness measurement, the individually estimated finite rate of increase (?(ind) ), but ?(ind) showed diminishing benefits for greater longevity. PMID:21989942

Robbins, Andrew M; Stoinski, Tara; Fawcett, Katie; Robbins, Martha M

2011-12-01

323

Female brown-headed cowbirds', Molothrus ater, organization and behaviour reflects male social dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In four large aviaries, we studied social assortment and reproductive behaviour of female brown-headed cowbirds housed with males differing in age class and in corresponding levels of intrasexual interaction. Juvenile and adult females resided with either (1) adult males, (2) juvenile males, (3) adult and juvenile males, or (4) no males. We observed social behaviour of males and females from

Meredith J. West; David J. White; Andrew P. King

2002-01-01

324

Mixed Cutaneous Infection Caused by Mycobacterium szulgai and Mycobacterium intermedium in a Healthy Adult Female: A Rare Case Report  

PubMed Central

Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTMs) are ubiquitous and are being increasingly reported as human opportunistic infection. Cutaneous infection caused by mixed NTM is extremely rare. We encountered the case of a 46-year-old female, who presented with multiple discharging sinuses over the lower anterior abdominal wall (over a previous appendectomy scar) for the past 2 years. Microscopy and culture of the pus discharge were done to isolate and identify the etiological agent. Finally, GenoType Mycobacterium CM/AS assay proved it to be a mixed infection caused by Mycobacterium szulgai and M. intermedium. The patient was advised a combination of rifampicin 600?mg once daily, ethambutol 600?mg once daily, and clarithromycin 500?mg twice daily to be taken along with periodic follow-up based upon clinical response as well as microbiological response. We emphasize that infections by NTM must be considered in the etiology of nonhealing wounds or sinuses, especially at postsurgical sites. PMID:25789180

Singh, Amresh Kumar; Marak, Rungmei S. K.; Maurya, Anand Kumar; Das, Manaswini; Nag, Vijaya Lakshmi; Dhole, Tapan N.

2015-01-01

325

Mixed Cutaneous Infection Caused by Mycobacterium szulgai and Mycobacterium intermedium in a Healthy Adult Female: A Rare Case Report.  

PubMed

Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTMs) are ubiquitous and are being increasingly reported as human opportunistic infection. Cutaneous infection caused by mixed NTM is extremely rare. We encountered the case of a 46-year-old female, who presented with multiple discharging sinuses over the lower anterior abdominal wall (over a previous appendectomy scar) for the past 2 years. Microscopy and culture of the pus discharge were done to isolate and identify the etiological agent. Finally, GenoType Mycobacterium CM/AS assay proved it to be a mixed infection caused by Mycobacterium szulgai and M. intermedium. The patient was advised a combination of rifampicin 600?mg once daily, ethambutol 600?mg once daily, and clarithromycin 500?mg twice daily to be taken along with periodic follow-up based upon clinical response as well as microbiological response. We emphasize that infections by NTM must be considered in the etiology of nonhealing wounds or sinuses, especially at postsurgical sites. PMID:25789180

Singh, Amresh Kumar; Marak, Rungmei S K; Maurya, Anand Kumar; Das, Manaswini; Nag, Vijaya Lakshmi; Dhole, Tapan N

2015-01-01

326

THE DEVELOPMENT OF FEMALE SEXUAL BEHAVIOR REQUIRES PREPUBERTAL ESTRADIOL  

PubMed Central

The classic view of brain and behavioral sexual differentiation holds that the neural mechanisms controlling sexual behavior in female rodents develop in the absence of ovarian sex hormone actions. However, in a previous study, female aromatase knockout (ArKO) mice, which cannot convert testosterone to estradiol, showed deficient male-oriented partner preference and lordosis behaviors in response to adult ovarian hormones, raising the possibility that estradiol may contribute to the development of these female sexual behaviors. In the present experiments, administering estradiol prepubertally (between postnatal days P15–P25) significantly enhanced the ability of ArKO female mice to display lordosis behavior in response to ovarian hormones administered later in adulthood whereas treatment with estradiol over an earlier postnatal period (P5–P15) had no such effect. Treatment of ArKO females with estradiol between P15–P25 also rescued their later preference to approach distal cues from an intact male over an estrous female. ArKO females also displayed significantly less female-directed (male-typical) mounting behavior than wild type control females when treated with testosterone in adulthood. Prepubertal estradiol treatment failed to reverse this deficit in ArKO females whereas earlier postnatal estradiol augmented later mounting in both genotypes. Our results provide new evidence for an organizing role of prepubertal estradiol in the development of neural mechanisms that control female-typical sexual behavior. PMID:21490197

Brock, Olivier; Baum, Michael J.; Bakker, Julie

2011-01-01

327

Characterization of Aromatase Expression in the Adult Male and Female Mouse Brain. I. Coexistence with Oestrogen Receptors ? and ?, and Androgen Receptors  

PubMed Central

Aromatase catalyses the last step of oestrogen synthesis. There is growing evidence that local oestrogens influence many brain regions to modulate brain development and behaviour. We examined, by immunohistochemistry, the expression of aromatase in the adult male and female mouse brain, using mice in which enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) is transcribed following the physiological activation of the Cyp19A1 gene. EGFP-immunoreactive processes were distributed in many brain regions, including the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, olfactory tubercle, medial amygdaloid nucleus and medial preoptic area, with the densest distributions of EGFP-positive cell bodies in the bed nucleus and medial amygdala. Differences between male and female mice were apparent, with the density of EGFP-positive cell bodies and fibres being lower in some brain regions of female mice, including the bed nucleus and medial amygdala. EGFP-positive cell bodies in the bed nucleus, lateral septum, medial amygdala and hypothalamus co-expressed oestrogen receptor (ER) ? and ?, or the androgen receptor (AR), although single-labelled EGFP-positive cells were also identified. Additionally, single-labelled ER??, ER?- or AR-positive cell bodies often appeared to be surrounded by EGFP-immunoreactive nerve fibres/terminals. The widespread distribution of EGFP-positive cell bodies and fibres suggests that aromatase signalling is common in the mouse brain, and that locally synthesised brain oestrogens could mediate biological effects by activating pre- and post-synaptic oestrogen ? and ? receptors, and androgen receptors. The higher number of EGFP-positive cells in male mice may indicate that the autocrine and paracrine effects of oestrogens are more prominent in males than females. PMID:24646567

Stani?, Davor; Dubois, Sydney; Chua, Hui Kheng; Tonge, Bruce; Rinehart, Nicole; Horne, Malcolm K.; Boon, Wah Chin

2014-01-01

328

Adolescent Male-to-Female Transgender Voice and Communication Therapy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current research to describe and evaluate effectiveness of voice and communication therapy for male-to-female transgender people is limited to adults. This paper provides rationale, procedures, and outcomes from voice and communication therapy for a male-to-female transgender adolescent 15 years of age. Treatment addressed vocal hygiene, breath…

Hancock, Adrienne; Helenius, Lauren

2012-01-01

329

Dominance, fatness and fitness in female American bison, Bison bison  

Microsoft Academic Search

In females of several mammalian species, it is becoming evident that benefits related to high dominance rank can result in increased fitness, albeit to a lesser degree than in males. We examined indicators of fitness in relation to dominance rank in a group of adult female American bison in semifree-ranging conditions. A significantly linear dominance hierarchy was found. Dominance rank

Hilde Vervaecke; Catherine Roden; Han de Vries

2005-01-01

330

Black Females in High School: A Statistical Educational Profile  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In life as in literature, both the mainstream public and the Black community writ large, overlook the Black female experiences, both adolescent and adult. In order to contribute to the knowledge base regarding this population, we present through our study a statistical portrait of Black females in high school. To do so, we present an analysis of…

Muhammad, Crystal Gafford; Dixson, Adrienne D.

2008-01-01

331

USE OF A PLUMAGE CRITERION FOR AGING FEMALE MERLINS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A key for distinguishing between adult and yearling female Merlins (Falco columbarius) based on the color of rump plumage was proposed by Temple (1972). Ex- amination of this characteristic in 34 known-age females from a wild population of F. c. richardsonii, caught during three breeding seasons and one winter, indicated discrepancies between the observed rump coloration and that expected based

IAN G. WARKENTIN; PAUL C. JAMES; LYNN W. OLIPHANT

332

Patellofemoral pain syndrome in Iranian female athletes.  

PubMed

Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) is the most common overuse syndrome in athletes. It is one of the causes of anterior knee pain in athletic population who come to the sports medicine clinic. Patellofemoral pain is more common among female athletes especially adolescents and young adults. Symptoms include: persistent pain behind the patella or peripatella. Pain increases on ascending and descending stairs and squatting and prolonged sitting. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of PFPS in Iranian female athletes. 418 female athletes aged 15-35 years were examined in five sports: Soccer (190), volleyball (103), running (42), fencing (45) and rock climbing (38). The athletes who had non- traumatic onset anterior knee pain of at least 3 months that increased in descending and ascending stairs and squatting, had no other causes of anterior knee pain such as ligament instability, bursitis, meniscal injury, tendonitis and arthritis and no history of knee surgery during the one past year were diagnosed as PFPS. 26/190 (13.68 %) soccer players, 21/103(20.38 %) volleyball players, 7/42 (16.66 %) runners, 6/45(13.33 %) fencers and 10/38 (26.31%) rock climbers had patellofemoral pain. Among the 418 female athletes who were evaluated 70 had PFPS. Rock climbers were the most common athletes with PFPS followed by volleyball players and runners. PMID:21681705

Nejati, Parisa; Forogh, Bijan; Moeineddin, Reza; Baradaran, Hamid Reza; Nejati, Mina

2011-01-01

333

Welfare reform and female headship.  

PubMed

While much of the focus of recent welfare reforms has been on moving recipients from welfare to work, many reforms were also directed at decisions regarding living arrangements, pregnancy, marriage, and cohabitation. This article assesses the impact of welfare reform waivers and Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) programs on women's decisions to become unmarried heads of families, controlling for confounding influences from local economic and social conditions. We pooled data from the 1990, 1992, 1993, and 1996 panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation, which span the period when many states began to adopt welfare waivers and to implement TANF, and estimated logit models of the incidence of female headship and state-stratified, Cox proportional hazard models of the rates of entry into and exit from headship. We found little consistent evidence that waivers affected female headship of families. PMID:15209037

Fitzgerald, John M; Ribar, David C

2004-05-01

334

Female Sex Offenders' Relationship Experiences  

PubMed Central

Interventions for child sexual abusers should take into account their perspectives on the context of their offenses, but no descriptions of everyday life from the offender's point of view have been published. This study therefore explored female offenders' views of their strengths and challenges. Documented risk assessments of 20 female offenders were analyzed using inductive content analysis (Cavanagh, 1997; Priest, Roberts & Woods, 2002; Woods, Priest & Roberts, 2002). The Good Lives Model provided the initial coding framework and Atlas/ti software (Muhr, 1997) was used for simultaneous data collection and analysis. The content analysis yielded 999 coding decisions organized in three themes. The global theme was relationship experiences. Offenders described the quality of their relationship experiences, including their personal perspectives, intimate relationships and social lives. These descriptions have implications for treatment planning and future research with women who have molested children. PMID:18624098

Lawson, Louanne

2010-01-01

335

Female sex hormones and migraine.  

PubMed

During the reproductive years migraine is three times more common in women than in men. Although it is often assumed that this female preponderance is associated with the additional trigger of fluctuating sex hormones of the menstrual cycle, few studies have been undertaken to confirm or refute this. There is increasing evidence confirming an association between estrogen 'withdrawal' and attacks of migraine without aura, as well as evidence for an association between high estrogen states and attacks of migraine with aura. PMID:16141956

MacGregor, E A

2005-07-01

336

Defining beauty: Rubens's female nudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than any other Western painter, Rubens is identified with the women\\u000ahe depicted. Apart from being undressed, his female type is above all characterized\\u000aby specific physical qualities, which tend to be summarized as ‘fleshy’\\u000aand ‘corpulent’. Four centuries after date, the ‘Rubensian’ is no longer limited\\u000ato the artistic field only but has become a proverbial, though not

K. J. de Clippel

2008-01-01

337

Rembrandt and the Female Nude  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rembrandt's extraordinary paintings of female nudes - Andromeda, Susanna, Diana and Her Nymphs, Danaë, Bathsheba - as well as his etchings of nude women, have fascinated many generations of art lovers and art historians, but they have also elicited vehement criticism. They were considered against-the-grain, anti-classical, even ugly and unpleasant. However, Rembrandt chose conventional subjects, keeping close to time-honored pictorial

Eric Jan Sluijter

2006-01-01

338

Female genital mutilations - a testimony.  

PubMed

In Djibouti, the prevalence of female genital mutilations (FGMs) amounts to 98% and the practice is still in use. When I left, in 1999, I knew I would involve myself in the fight against FGMs and I describe here the outcome of an obstacle course of more than ten years duration. This paper is written on behalf of innumerable women, who could give you a similar account. PMID:23205512

Youssouf, Samia

2013-02-01

339

Initiative Behavior of Male and Female Therapists in First Interviews With Females.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Therapists were compared for intrasession initiative behavior with a standard female client as well as with nonstandard female clients. No differences were found between male and female therapists on this behavior dimension. (Author)

Rivero, Estela M.; Bordin, Edward S.

1980-01-01

340

[Energy balance among female athletes].  

PubMed

Athletes need to consume sufficient energy to meet their training demands, maintain their health, and if young, to ensure their growth and development. Athletes are often preoccupied by their body weight and shape, and in some sports might be subjected to pressure to lose weight by coaches, peers or themselves. Eating disorders and poor eating habits are prevalent among female athletes, especially in sport disciplines where low body weight is required to improve performance or for "aesthetic" appearance or in weight category sports. Low energy intake has deleterious effects on many systems, including the cardiovascular system, several hormonal pathways, musculoskeletal system, fluids and electrolytes, thermoregulation, growth and development. Various fitness components and overall performance are also negatively affected. All these, together with poor nutritional status that causes vitamin and mineral deficiencies, poor concentration and depression, put the athlete at an increased injury risk. Energy availability is now recognized as the primary factor initiating these health problems. Energy availability is defined as dietary energy intake minus exercise energy expenditure. If below 30 kcal/kg fat free mass per day, reproductive system functions, as well as other metabolic systems, might be suppressed. The case presented is of a young female Judoka, who complained of fatigue and weakness. Medical and nutritional assessment revealed that she suffered from low energy availability, which slowed her growth and development, and negatively affected her health and athletic performance. This case study emphasizes the importance of adequate energy availability in young female athletes in order to ensure their health. PMID:22741207

Arieli, Rakefet; Constantini, Naama

2012-02-01

341

Female Reproductive System and Bone  

PubMed Central

The female reproductive system plays a major role in regulating the acquisition and loss of bone by the skeleton from menarche through senescence. Onset of gonadal sex steroid secretion at puberty is the major factor responsible for skeletal longitudinal and radial growth, as well as significant gain in bone density, until peak bone density is achieved in third decade of life. Gonadal sex steroids then help maintain peak bone density until menopause, including during the transient changes in skeletal mineral content associated with pregnancy and lactation. At menopause, decreased gonadal sex steroid production normally leads to rapid bone loss. The most rapid bone loss associated with decreased estrogen levels occurs in the first 8–10 years after menopause, with slower age-related bone loss occurring during later life. Age-related bone loss in women after the early menopausal phase of bone loss is caused by ongoing gonadal sex steroid deficiency, vitamin D deficiency, and secondary hyperparathyroidism. Other factors also contribute to age-related bone loss, including intrinsic defects in osteoblast function, impairment of the GH/IGF axis, reduced peak bone mass, age-associated sarcopenia, and various sporadic secondary causes. Further understanding of the relative contributions of the female reproductive system and each of the other factors to development and maintenance of the female skeleton, bone loss, and fracture risk will lead to improved approaches for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. PMID:20637179

Clarke, Bart L.; Khosla, Sundeep

2010-01-01

342

Female drug use: some observations.  

PubMed

This paper, based on a review of recent social science drug research, summarizes the main findings on female drug use and speculates on its future direction. The findings include the following: women are usually initiated into illicit drug use by men; rates of illicit drug use are lower among females than males (which may reflect the greater personal freedom traditionally granted to males), although the difference narrows among younger persons and among those who subscribe to more liberal values and life styles; women are more likely than men to use psychotherapeutic drugs (which may reflect strains resulting from their unequal status vis-à-vis men); and female opiate addicts, although they tend to hold conventional values, are often involved in such deviant activity as prostitution. To the extent that women gain social equality with men and subscribe to greater personal lifestyle freedom, they may be expected to show a higher rate of illicit drug use, particularly of a recreational kind. On the other hand, the rate of psychotherapeutic drug use may decrease, although if the tensions of the workplace eventually substitute for the tensions of status inequality, the resultant changes in rates and patterns of substance use are problematic. PMID:767261

Suffet, F; Brotman, R

1976-01-01

343

The Reference Transcriptome of the Adult Female Biting Midge (Culicoides sonorensis) and Differential Gene Expression Profiling during Teneral, Blood, and Sucrose Feeding Conditions  

PubMed Central

Unlike other important vectors such as mosquitoes and sandflies, genetic and genomic tools for Culicoides biting midges are lacking, despite the fact that they vector a large number of arboviruses and other pathogens impacting humans and domestic animals world-wide. In North America, female Culicoides sonorensis midges are important vectors of bluetongue virus (BTV) and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV), orbiviruses that cause significant disease in livestock and wildlife. Libraries of tissue-specific transcripts expressed in response to feeding and oral orbivirus challenge in C. sonorensis have previously been reported, but extensive genome-wide expression profiling in the midge has not. Here, we successfully used deep sequencing technologies to construct the first adult female C. sonorensis reference transcriptome, and utilized genome-wide expression profiling to elucidate the genetic response to blood and sucrose feeding over time. The adult female midge unigene consists of 19,041 genes, of which less than 7% are differentially expressed during the course of a sucrose meal, while up to 52% of the genes respond significantly in blood-fed midges, indicating hematophagy induces complex physiological processes. Many genes that were differentially expressed during blood feeding were associated with digestion (e.g. proteases, lipases), hematophagy (e.g., salivary proteins), and vitellogenesis, revealing many major metabolic and biological factors underlying these critical processes. Additionally, key genes in the vitellogenesis pathway were identified, which provides the first glimpse into the molecular basis of anautogeny for C. sonorensis. This is the first extensive transcriptome for this genus, which will serve as a framework for future expression studies, RNAi, and provide a rich dataset contributing to the ultimate goal of informing a reference genome assembly and annotation. Moreover, this study will serve as a foundation for subsequent studies of genome-wide expression analyses during early orbivirus infection and dissecting the molecular mechanisms behind vector competence in midges. PMID:24866149

Nayduch, Dana; Lee, Matthew B.; Saski, Christopher A.

2014-01-01

344

Female transfer between one-male groups of proboscis monkey (Nasalis larvatus).  

PubMed

Successful or unsuccessful female transfers were observed seven times during a 32-month field study of proboscis monkeys (Nasalis larvatus) inhabiting a riverine forest along a tributary of the Kinabatangan River, Sabah, Malaysia. In all cases, the females voluntarily left their own groups and immediately joined with another one. When adult females tried to shift to other groups, adult males called them back to their own groups, but appeared to be indifferent to subadult females. When the adult females returned, the males never attacked the females physically, but instead often emitted herding sounds to them. One subadult female was repelled by a resident adult female. When one adult female transferred into a new one-male group, she left her behind son in an all-male group. The number of females often fluctuated in most study groups, with this fluctuation being more prominent among subadult females than adult females. It is likely that female transfer in proboscis monkeys is not a rare occurrence and that it is especially common among sub-adult females. PMID:16871366

Murai, Tadahiro; Mohamed, Maryati; Bernard, Henry; Mahedi, Patrick Andau; Saburi, Rashid; Higashi, Seigo

2007-04-01

345

Interpopulation variation in female remating is attributable to female and male effects in Callosobruchus chinensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution of female multiple mating is best understood by consideration of male and female reproductive perspectives.\\u000a Females should usually be selected to remate at their optimum frequencies whereas males should be selected to manipulate female\\u000a remating to their advantage. Female remating behavior may therefore be changed by variation of male and female traits. In\\u000a this study, our objective was

Tomohiro Harano; Takahisa Miyatake

2007-01-01

346

Parasitoid infestation changes female mating preferences  

PubMed Central

Females often adjust their mating preference to environmental and social conditions. This plasticity of preference can be adaptive for females and can have important consequences for the evolution of male traits. While predation and parasitism are widespread, their effects on female preferences have rarely been investigated. Females of the cricket Gryllus lineaticeps are parasitized by the parasitoid fly Ormia ochracea. Infestation with fly larvae substantially reduces female life span and thus reproductive opportunities of the cricket. Both female G. lineaticeps and flies orient to male song and both prefer male songs with faster chirp rates to songs with slower chirp rates. We tested the effect of parasitic infestation on female responsiveness to male song and female chirp rate preferences. The proportion of individuals responding to male songs did not differ between infested and control females. Control females preferred intermediate chirp rates to slow chirp rates and did not discriminate between fast and intermediate chirp rates. In contrast, infested females showed no preferences in the choice trials, indicating reduced chirp rate selectivity. This plasticity in female preferences may be adaptive; parasitized females may have a higher probability of reproducing before they are killed by the parasitoids if they are less selective (i.e. there will be a larger pool of males considered acceptable). The change in preferences suggests relaxed selection on male chirp rate during times of parasitism. PMID:24347669

Beckers, Oliver M.; Wagner, William E.

2013-01-01

347

Attitudes of female athletes toward their male and female coaches  

E-print Network

rated very high. Hoth coaches were similar in their ability to teach and in how well the coach really "knew" them. It was the attitude of the athletes that the female coach created a more positive public image for women's sports, but the athletes had...- sent in both the minds of the coaches and athletes. It is probable, however, that success in coaching is highly dependent upon the knowledge the coach brings with him to his sport and team, and the manner in which he conducts both (6). Hendry (8...

Newcomb, Connie Karcher

1976-01-01

348

Female Athletes: Targets for Drug Abuse.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increased participation in sports and greater pressures to win have made female athletes very vulnerable to drug abuse. How the physiology and socialization of females contributes to this problem is discussed. (Author/MT)

Duda, Marty

1986-01-01

349

What's Wrong with Female English Teachers?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identifies a sexist bias against female teachers in several essays about racial bias in language instruction and suggests that students actually prefer female English teachrs, according to an informal student survey. (DD)

Mack, Molly A.

1978-01-01

350

Age determination of female redhead ducks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Eighty-seven fall-collected wings from female redhead ducks (Aythya americana) were assigned to the adult or juvenile group based on 'tertial' and 'tertial covert' shape and wear. To obtain spring age-related characters from these fall-collected groupings, we considered parameters of flight feathers retained until after the first breeding season. Parameters measured included: markings on and width of greater secondary coverts, and length, weight, and diameter of primary feathers. The best age categorization was obtained with discriminant analysis based on a combination of the most accurately measured parameters. This analysis, applied to 81 wings with complete measurements, resulted in only 1 being incorrectly aged and 3 placed in a questionable category. Discriminant functions used with covert markings and the three 5th primary parameters were applied to 30 known-age juvenile, hand-reared redhead females, 28 were correctly aged, none was incorrectly aged, and only 2 were placed in the questionable category.

Dane, C.W.; Johnson, D.H.

1975-01-01

351

Why Do Female Callosobruchus maculatus Kick Their Mates?  

PubMed Central

Sexual conflict is now recognised as an important driver of sexual trait evolution. However, due to their variable outcomes and effects on other fitness components, the detection of sexual conflicts on individual traits can be complicated. This difficulty is exemplified in the beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, where longer matings increase the size of nutritious ejaculates but simultaneously reduce female future receptivity. While previous studies show that females gain direct benefits from extended mating duration, females show conspicuous copulatory kicking behaviour, apparently to dislodge mating males prematurely. We explore the potential for sexual conflict by comparing several fitness components and remating propensity in pairs of full sibling females where each female mated with a male from an unrelated pair of full sibling males. For one female, matings were terminated at the onset of kicking, whereas the other’s matings remained uninterrupted. While fecundity (number of eggs) was similar between treatments, uninterrupted matings enhanced adult offspring numbers and fractionally also longevity. However, females whose matings were interrupted at the onset of kicking exhibited an increased propensity to remate. Since polyandry can benefit female fitness in this species, we argue that kicking, rather than being maladaptive, may indicate that females prefer remating over increased ejaculate size. It may thus be difficult to assess the presence of sexual conflict over contested traits such as mating duration when females face a trade off between direct benefits gained from one mating and indirect benefits from additional matings. PMID:24752530

van Lieshout, Emile; McNamara, Kathryn B.; Simmons, Leigh W.

2014-01-01

352

Female genital mutilation. Council on Scientific Affairs, American Medical Association.  

PubMed

Female genital mutilation is the medically unnecessary modification of female genitalia. Female genital mutilation typically occurs at about 7 years of age, but mutilated women suffer severe medical complications throughout their adult lives. Female genital mutilation most frequently occurs in Africa, the Middle East, and Muslim parts of Indonesia and Malaysia, and it is generally part of a ceremonial induction into adult society. Recent political and economic problems in these regions, however, have increased the numbers of students and refugees to the United States. Consequently, US physicians are treating an increasing number of mutilated patients. The Council on Scientific Affairs recommends that US physicians join the World Health Organization, the World Medical Association, and other major health care organizations in opposing all forms of medically unnecessary surgical modification of the female genitalia. PMID:7474278

1995-12-01

353

Stories from the road of recovery – How adult, female survivors of childhood trauma experience ways to positive change  

PubMed Central

Abstract The aim of this study was to explore how female survivors of childhood trauma who have sought treatment experience ways to positive change. Little knowledge exists regarding the first-person perspective of the recovery process following childhood trauma, and getting access to this perspective might contribute to better understanding of these processes, hence offering opportunities for health promotion. All clients (31, including 3 who dropped out) from six stabilization groups for women exposed to human-inflicted traumas were invited to participate in the study. Experiences of the recovery process were not restricted to the period of receiving treatment, and all clients who volunteered were included in the study. Qualitative, in-depth interviews with 13 consenting clients were carried out shortly after completion of the group treatment. All interviews were transcribed verbatim, and a hermeneutical-phenomenological approach to analysis was applied. The analysis resulted in five interrelated, but distinct main themes: finding new ways to understand one's emotions and actions, moving from numbness toward vital contact, becoming an advocate of one's own needs, experiencing increased sense of agency, and staying with difficult feelings and choices. The themes support, yet supplement trauma theory, by underlining the relationship between emotional contact and meaning-making, while downplaying the necessity of symptom elimination in the experience of recovery. The findings also underline that the active role trauma survivors play in their processes of recovery. PMID:24443662

Stige, Signe Hjelen; Binder, Per-Einar; Rosenvinge, Jan H.; Træen, Bente

2013-01-01

354

Urine Is Not Sterile: Use of Enhanced Urine Culture Techniques To Detect Resident Bacterial Flora in the Adult Female Bladder  

PubMed Central

Our previous study showed that bacterial genomes can be identified using 16S rRNA sequencing in urine specimens of both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients who are culture negative according to standard urine culture protocols. In the present study, we used a modified culture protocol that included plating larger volumes of urine, incubation under varied atmospheric conditions, and prolonged incubation times to demonstrate that many of the organisms identified in urine by 16S rRNA gene sequencing are, in fact, cultivable using an expanded quantitative urine culture (EQUC) protocol. Sixty-five urine specimens (from 41 patients with overactive bladder and 24 controls) were examined using both the standard and EQUC culture techniques. Fifty-two of the 65 urine samples (80%) grew bacterial species using EQUC, while the majority of these (48/52 [92%]) were reported as no growth at 103 CFU/ml by the clinical microbiology laboratory using the standard urine culture protocol. Thirty-five different genera and 85 different species were identified by EQUC. The most prevalent genera isolated were Lactobacillus (15%), followed by Corynebacterium (14.2%), Streptococcus (11.9%), Actinomyces (6.9%), and Staphylococcus (6.9%). Other genera commonly isolated include Aerococcus, Gardnerella, Bifidobacterium, and Actinobaculum. Our current study demonstrates that urine contains communities of living bacteria that comprise a resident female urine microbiota. PMID:24371246

Hilt, Evann E.; McKinley, Kathleen; Pearce, Meghan M.; Rosenfeld, Amy B.; Zilliox, Michael J.; Mueller, Elizabeth R.; Brubaker, Linda; Gai, Xiaowu; Wolfe, Alan J.

2014-01-01

355

Special concerns of the female athlete.  

PubMed

The majority of injuries sustained by female athletes are due to participation in sports rather than their sex. Anatomic, hormonal,and functional differences should be understood when treating the female athlete. Screening should be done for eating disorders and the female athlete triad. Female athletes have increased rates of injury to the anterior cruciate ligament and patellofemoral disorders compared with their male counterparts. PMID:15183572

Ireland, Mary Lloyd; Ott, Susan M

2004-04-01

356

Sexuality of Male-to-Female Transsexuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blanchard’s (J Nerv Ment Dis 177:616–623, 1989) theory of autogynephilia suggests that male-to-female transsexuals can be\\u000a categorized into different types based on their sexuality. Little previous research has compared the sexuality of male-to-female\\u000a transsexuals to biological females. The present study examined 15 aspects of sexuality among a non-clinical sample of 234\\u000a transsexuals and 127 biological females, using either an online

Jaimie F. Veale; Dave E. Clarke; Terri C. Lomax

2008-01-01

357

RPI-AM and RPI-AF, a pair of mesh-based, size-adjustable adult male and female computational phantoms using ICRP89 parameters and their calculations for organ doses from monoenergetic photon beams  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the development of a pair of adult male and adult female computational phantoms that are compatible with anatomical parameters for the 50th percentile population as specified by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The phantoms were designed entirely using polygonal mesh surfaces---a Boundary REPresentation (BREP) geometry that affords the ability to efficiently deform the shape and

Juying Zhang; Yong Hum Na; Peter F. Caracappa; X. George Xu

2009-01-01

358

RPI-AM and RPI-AF, a pair of mesh-based, size-adjustable adult male and female computational phantoms using ICRP89 parameters and their calculations for organ doses from monoenergetic photon beams  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the development of a pair of adult male and adult female computational phantoms that are compatible with anatomical parameters for the 50th percentile population as specified by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The phantoms were designed entirely using polygonal mesh surfaces—a Boundary REPresentation (BREP) geometry that affords the ability to efficiently deform the shape and

Juying Zhang; Yong Hum Na; Peter F Caracappa; X George Xu

2009-01-01

359

Females lead population collapse of the endangered Hawaii creeper.  

PubMed

Population collapses result from drastic environmental changes, but the sexes may differ in vulnerability. Collapse of the endangered Hawaii creeper (Oreomystis mana) at Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge resulted from food limitation associated with increased numbers of an introduced bird (Japanese white-eye, Zosterops japonicus), which competes with the creeper for food. Both creeper sexes had stunted bill growth and the greatest change in molt of native species in the community. With a surge in numbers of white-eyes, a recent cohort of adult females had very low survival after breeding, while adult males from the same cohort, and older females and males, continued to have high survival. Lower female survival resulted in a significantly more male-biased adult sex ratio. Recent low female survival was based on a great cost of reproduction, indicated by molt-breeding overlap that was previously avoided, and lower fat during the lengthy fledgling period. The difference in female survival between cohorts was associated with stunted bills from being reared in and then breeding in an increasingly poor food environment. Trend analysis of survey data indicate that the bird is declining throughout the refuge, with males being 72-80% of adults left six years after the white-eye increased. Competition over time was consistent with that previously documented over space on the Island of Hawaii. Adaptive management to recover the bird in this protected area needs to focus on improving both adult female survival and the adult sex ratio. PMID:23861831

Freed, Leonard A; Cann, Rebecca L

2013-01-01

360

Females Lead Population Collapse of the Endangered Hawaii Creeper  

PubMed Central

Population collapses result from drastic environmental changes, but the sexes may differ in vulnerability. Collapse of the endangered Hawaii creeper (Oreomystis mana) at Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge resulted from food limitation associated with increased numbers of an introduced bird (Japanese white-eye, Zosterops japonicus), which competes with the creeper for food. Both creeper sexes had stunted bill growth and the greatest change in molt of native species in the community. With a surge in numbers of white-eyes, a recent cohort of adult females had very low survival after breeding, while adult males from the same cohort, and older females and males, continued to have high survival. Lower female survival resulted in a significantly more male-biased adult sex ratio. Recent low female survival was based on a great cost of reproduction, indicated by molt-breeding overlap that was previously avoided, and lower fat during the lengthy fledgling period. The difference in female survival between cohorts was associated with stunted bills from being reared in and then breeding in an increasingly poor food environment. Trend analysis of survey data indicate that the bird is declining throughout the refuge, with males being 72–80% of adults left six years after the white-eye increased. Competition over time was consistent with that previously documented over space on the Island of Hawaii. Adaptive management to recover the bird in this protected area needs to focus on improving both adult female survival and the adult sex ratio. PMID:23861831

Freed, Leonard A.; Cann, Rebecca L.

2013-01-01

361

Perceived Parental Acceptance and Female Juvenile Delinquency.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studied adolescent females at a state training school and at a high school, measuring perceived parental acceptance. Demonstrated that incarcerated females viewed their mothers and fathers more negatively than did nonincarcerated females. Indicated more ambivalent results in the mother-daughter than the father-daughter relationship. Discusses…

Kroupa, Steven E.

1988-01-01

362

Mentoring Connections between Coaches and Female Athletes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the role that mentoring could have in helping female athletes become leaders in their sports through coaching, focusing on: women in coaching; the importance of mentoring potential female coaches; successful mentoring relationships for female coaches; and strategies for mentors. This type of collaboration may help reverse the ongoing…

Lough, Nancy L.

2001-01-01

363

Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals and Female Reproduction  

E-print Network

-Simone Parent, Belgium: Female sexual maturation and reproduction after developmental exposure to endocrineEndocrine Disrupting Chemicals and Female Reproduction CRU invites to the international workshop Effects of EDCs on female reproduction in humans, wildlife and domestic animals What are the trends

364

The Benefits of Mentoring for Female Lawyers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were twofold: to determine the effect mentoring has on a set of career and emotional outcomes for female lawyers and to determine whether female lawyers benefit more from having had a male or female mentor. All of these assessments were conducted while controlling for a set of demographic, human capital, work context, and personality disposition

Jean E. Wallace

2001-01-01

365

Seeking and Selecting Hispanic Female Superintendents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Among the 1,000 females who lead school districts in the United States, some 25 to 30 are Hispanic. Ways in which Hispanic females are sought and selected for the superintendency of a district are explored in this paper. The report is based on an analysis of 12 Hispanic female superintendents and how they were hired. Two of the women in the sample…

Ortiz, Flora Ida

366

Female-coerced monogamy in burying beetles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reproductive interests of the sexes often do not coincide, and this fundamental conflict is believed to underlie a variety of sex-specific behavioral adaptations. Sexual conflict in burying beetles arises when a male and female secure a carcass that can support more offspring than a single female can produce. In such a situation, any male attracting a second female sires

Anne-Katrin Eggert; Scott K. Sakaluk

1995-01-01

367

Value Profiles of Male and Female Entrepreneurs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comparison of the values of 86 male and 74 female entrepreneurs found males' highest terminal values being pleasure and true friendship while females' highest terminal values were health and self-respect. High instrumental values for males were ambition and broadmindedness; while for females high instrumental values were honesty and…

Fernald, Lloyd W., Jr.; Solomon, George T.

1987-01-01

368

Wellness of Minority Female Counselor Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Minority female counselor educators are faced with numerous challenges. This qualitative study revealed that for female minority counselor educators, these challenges continue to negatively affect their professional and personal experiences. It is through operational wellness practices and optimal balance and functioning that minority female

Shillingford, M. Ann; Trice-Black, Shannon; Butler, S. Kent

2013-01-01

369

Characteristics of Female College Student Drug Use.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined female college students' (N=466) drug use, marihuana use in particular. Results indicated that the gap in marihuana usage patterns between females and males has substantially narrowed. Female marihuana users used other drugs quite extensively and had friends who use marihuana. Peer influence was a major factor in drug use. (JAC)

Traub, Stuart H.

1983-01-01

370

Enhanced mesenteric arterial responsiveness to angiotensin II is androgen receptor-dependent in prenatally protein-restricted adult female rat offspring.  

PubMed

Gestational protein restriction results in intrauterine growth restriction and hypertension in adult female growth-restricted rats. Enhanced vascular responsiveness to angiotensin II is observed, and blockade of the renin-angiotensin system abolishes hypertension in adult growth-restricted rats, suggesting that the renin-angiotensin system contributes to intrauterine growth restriction-induced hypertension. Moreover, growth-restricted adult rats have higher plasma testosterone levels, and antiandrogen treatment abolishes hypertension, indicating an important role for testosterone. We hypothesized that androgens may play a pivotal role in the enhanced responsiveness to Ang II and hypertension. Female offspring of pregnant rats fed 20% protein (control) or 6% protein diet (protein restricted), at 6 mo of age, were studied. Plasma testosterone and mean arterial pressure in protein-restricted offspring were significantly higher compared to controls. Flutamide treatment (10 mg/kg/day subcutaneously for 10 days) reduced mean arterial pressure in protein-restricted offspring but was without significant effect in controls. Vascular Agtr1/Agtr2 ratio was significantly higher in protein-restricted offspring, an effect that was reversed by flutamide. Flutamide treatment did not have any effect on Agtr1/Agtr2 ratio in controls. Enhanced contractile response to angiotensin II in mesenteric arteries was observed in protein-restricted offspring compared with control. Flutamide treatment reversed the enhanced contractile response to angiotensin II in protein-restricted offspring without significant effect in controls. Vascular reactivity to phenylephrine was similar between the control and protein-restricted offspring with and without flutamide treatment, suggesting that enhanced contractile response and flutamide's reversal effect is specific to angiotensin II. These results suggest that prenatally protein-restricted rats exhibit an enhanced responsiveness to angiotensin II that is testosterone-dependent. PMID:25550341

Sathishkumar, Kunju; Balakrishnan, Meena P; Yallampalli, Chandrasekhar

2015-02-01

371

Associations between food insecurity, supplemental nutrition assistance program (SNAP) benefits, and body mass index among adult females.  

PubMed

Obesity disproportionately affects low-income and minority individuals and has been linked with food insecurity, particularly among women. More research is needed to examine potential mechanisms linking obesity and food insecurity. Therefore, this study's purpose was to examine cross-sectional associations between food insecurity, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) benefits per household member, perceived stress, and body mass index (BMI) among female SNAP participants in eastern North Carolina (n=202). Women were recruited from the Pitt County Department of Social Services between October 2009 and April 2010. Household food insecurity was measured using the validated US Department of Agriculture 18-item food security survey module. Perceived stress was measured using the 14-item Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale. SNAP benefits and number of children in the household were self-reported and used to calculate benefits per household member. BMI was calculated from measured height and weight (as kg/m(2)). Multivariate linear regression was used to examine associations between BMI, SNAP benefits, stress, and food insecurity while adjusting for age and physical activity. In adjusted linear regression analyses, perceived stress was positively related to food insecurity (P<0.0001), even when SNAP benefits were included in the model. BMI was positively associated with food insecurity (P=0.04). Mean BMI was significantly greater among women receiving <$150 in SNAP benefits per household member vs those receiving ?$150 in benefits per household member (35.8 vs 33.1; P=0.04). Results suggest that provision of adequate SNAP benefits per household member might partially ameliorate the negative effects of food insecurity on BMI. PMID:22027058

Jilcott, Stephanie B; Wall-Bassett, Elizabeth D; Burke, Sloane C; Moore, Justin B

2011-11-01

372

Oviposition deterrent and ovicidal activities of seven herbal essential oils against female adults of housefly, Musca domestica L.  

PubMed

The oviposition deterrent and ovicidal of seven herbal essential oils derived from Citrus sinensis, Cymbopogon citratus, Eucalyptus glubulus, Illicium verum, Lavandula angustifolia, Mentha piperita, and Zingiber cussumunar were assessed against the gravid female of housefly, Musca domestica L., under laboratory conditions and compared with commercial insecticide (10% w/v cypermethrin). They were assayed at three concentrations (1.0, 5.0, and 10.0%) where plastic cups containing 1 ml of desired oil concentration and cotton pad soaked with 10 ml of milk solution (10% w/v) were used as oviposition substrate. The 0.1 ml of deferent concentrations was dropped on ten housefly eggs, which were used for ovicidal activity. The number of eggs laid and the hatched larvae in each cup was recorded to evaluate the oviposition deterrent and ovicidal activities of the herbal essential oils. High concentration (10%) of herbal essential oils showed high percent effective repellency (ER). The 10% I. verum oil caused complete oviposition deterrence (100% ER, oviposition activity index (OAI)?=?-1.0), followed by Z. cussumunar, M. piperita, L. angustifolia, C. citratus, C. sinensis, and E. glubulus oils with 97.20, 88.55, 88.14, 87.93, 76.68, and 57.00% ER, respectively. As the concentration of herbal essential oils increased from 1.0, 5.0, and up to 10.0% concentration, the hatching rate decreased. Ten percent I. verum oil gave the maximum inhibiting rate at 97.3% (LC50 value of 6.85%); in addition, the other herbal essential oils showed the minimum inhibiting rate of 3.3-22.7%. On the other hand, cypermethrin 10% w/v showed complete oviposition deterrence (100% ER, OAI?=?-1.0) and ovicidal activity (100% inhibiting rate). Our data showed that I. verum oil have high potential of oviposition deterrence and ovicide housefly control. PMID:24894080

Sinthusiri, Jirisuda; Soonwera, Mayura

2014-08-01

373

The Development of Local Song Preferences in Female Cowbirds (Molothrus ater): Flock Living Stimulates Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

We carried out two experiments across 2 yr on song perception in female cowbirds (Molothrus ater). In the first experiment, juvenile and adult female brown-headed cowbirds, living in same-sex flocks in out- door aviaries, were periodically tutored with recordings of local male cowbirds' songs. In the spring, four adult male cowbirds were placed with half of the females for a

Meredith J. West; Andrew P. King; David J. White; Julie Gros-Louis; Grace Freed-Brown

2006-01-01

374

Female fitness declines with increasing female density but not male harassment in the western mosquitofish,  

E-print Network

Female fitness declines with increasing female density but not male harassment in the western of one sex express traits that reduce the fitness of individuals of the other sex. In many poeciliid fish, males harass females for copulations, which is thought to reduce female fitness by lowering foraging

Sargent, Robert Craig

375

Epigenetic Control of Female Puberty  

PubMed Central

The timing of puberty is controlled by many genes. The elements coordinating this process have not, however, been identified. Here we show that an epigenetic mechanism of transcriptional repression times the initiation of female puberty in rats. We identify silencers of the Polycomb group (PcG) as major contributors to this mechanism, and show that PcG proteins repress Kiss1, a puberty-activating gene. Hypothalamic expression of two key PcG genes, Eed and Cbx7, decreases and methylation of their promoters increases preceding puberty. Inhibiting DNA methylation blocks both events and results in pubertal failure. The pubertal increase in Kiss1 is accompanied by EED loss from the Kiss1 promoter and enrichment of histone H3 modifications associated with gene activation. Preventing the eviction of EED from the Kiss1 promoter disrupts pulsatile GnRH release, delays puberty, and compromises fecundity. Our results identify epigenetic silencing as a novel mechanism underlying the neuroendocrine control of female puberty. PMID:23354331

Lomniczi, Alejandro; Loche, Alberto; Castellano, Juan Manuel; Ronnekleiv, Oline K.; Bosch, Martha; Kaidar, Gabi; Knoll, J. Gabriel; Wright, Hollis; Pfeifer, Gerd. P.; Ojeda, Sergio R.

2013-01-01

376

Female pattern alopecia: current perspectives.  

PubMed

Hair loss is a commonly encountered problem in clinical practice, with men presenting with a distinctive pattern involving hairline recession and vertex balding (Norwood-Hamilton classification) and women exhibiting diffuse hair thinning over the crown (increased part width) and sparing of the frontal hairline (Ludwig classification). Female pattern hair loss has a strikingly overwhelming psychological effect; thus, successful treatments are necessary. Difficulty lies in successful treatment interventions, as only two medications - minoxidil and finasteride - are approved for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia, and these medications offer mediocre results, lack of a permanent cure, and potential complications. Hair transplantation is the only current successful permanent option, and it requires surgical procedures. Several other medical options, such as antiandrogens (eg, spironolactone, oral contraceptives, cyproterone, flutamide, dutasteride), prostaglandin analogs (eg, bimatoprost, latanoprost), and ketoconazole are reported to be beneficial. Laser and light therapies have also become popular despite the lack of a profound benefit. Management of expectations is crucial, and the aim of therapy, given the current therapeutic options, is to slow or stop disease progression with contentment despite patient expectations of permanent hair regrowth. This article reviews current perspectives on therapeutic options for female pattern hair loss. PMID:24039457

Levy, Lauren L; Emer, Jason J

2013-01-01

377

Female pattern alopecia: current perspectives  

PubMed Central

Hair loss is a commonly encountered problem in clinical practice, with men presenting with a distinctive pattern involving hairline recession and vertex balding (Norwood-Hamilton classification) and women exhibiting diffuse hair thinning over the crown (increased part width) and sparing of the frontal hairline (Ludwig classification). Female pattern hair loss has a strikingly overwhelming psychological effect; thus, successful treatments are necessary. Difficulty lies in successful treatment interventions, as only two medications – minoxidil and finasteride – are approved for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia, and these medications offer mediocre results, lack of a permanent cure, and potential complications. Hair transplantation is the only current successful permanent option, and it requires surgical procedures. Several other medical options, such as antiandrogens (eg, spironolactone, oral contraceptives, cyproterone, flutamide, dutasteride), prostaglandin analogs (eg, bimatoprost, latanoprost), and ketoconazole are reported to be beneficial. Laser and light therapies have also become popular despite the lack of a profound benefit. Management of expectations is crucial, and the aim of therapy, given the current therapeutic options, is to slow or stop disease progression with contentment despite patient expectations of permanent hair regrowth. This article reviews current perspectives on therapeutic options for female pattern hair loss. PMID:24039457

Levy, Lauren L; Emer, Jason J

2013-01-01

378

Courtship and copulation in the adult male green anole: Effects of season, hormone and female contact on reproductive behavior and morphology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interactions among reproductive season, testosterone (T) and female presence were investigated on the structure and function of forebrain and neuromuscular systems controlling courtship and copulation in the green anole lizard. Under breeding (BS) or non-breeding (NBS) environmental conditions, male green anoles were implanted with either T or blank capsules and exposed to one of three female stimulus conditions: physical, visual

Jennifer K. Neal; Juli Wade

2007-01-01

379

Condom Use at First Intercourse with a New Partner in Female Adolescents and Young Adults: The Role of Cognitive Planning and Motives for Having Sex  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the extent to which cognitive planning and motives for sex can explain condom use at first intercourse with young females' most recent partner. A total of 133 female adolescents completed a questionnaire on cognitive planning (i.e., mentally preparing oneself for discussing condom use and for managing condoms), motives for having sex (i.e., having sex to express love,

Winifred A. Gebhardt; Lisette Kuyper; Elise Dusseldorp

2006-01-01

380

Chemical characterization and acaricide potential of essential oil from aerial parts of Tagetes patula L. (Asteraceae) against engorged adult females of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806).  

PubMed

Rhipicephalus sanguineus, commonly known as the brown dog tick, is one of the most widely distributed species of tick. In dogs, it can cause anemia and provide the transmission of pathogenic microorganisms such as Babesia canis, Ehrlichia canis, Hepatozoon canis, Anaplasma platys, and Mycoplasma haemocanis. To man, it can transmit the intracellular parasites Rickettsia rickettsii and Rickettsia conorii, the causative agents of the Rocky Mountain spotted fever in the Americas and Mediterranean and spotted fever in Europe and North Africa. Its control is performed by applying synthetic formulations composed of pyrethroids; however, continued use of these products results in environmental damage and acquisition of resistance. Alternatively, studies with botanical insecticides have been increasingly recurrent. Therefore, this study aimed to test the efficacy of essential oil of Tagetes patula, a ruderal species widely described in the literature for its insecticidal properties, in engorged females of R. sanguineus by the adults immersion test (AIT) and impregnated paper disk test (IPDT). The essential oil used, through gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, revealed the presence of 55 compounds, being the 4-vinyl guaiacol and gamma terpinene the majority ones. The AIT compared to the IPDT was more efficient in inhibiting oviposition of tick; however, the eggs laid by the females submitted to saturated atmosphere with essential oil, from IPDT, not hatched, interrupted their development cycle. Besides being a pioneer work, the results presented here contributes to new researches, aiming the incorporation of essential oil in an acaricide for use in the environment. PMID:23508761

Politi, Flávio Augusto Sanches; de Souza-Moreira, Tatiana Maria; Rodrigues, Edvânio Ramos; de Queiroz, Geisiany Maria; Figueira, Glyn Mara; Januário, Ana Helena; Berenger, Jean-Michel; Socolovschi, Cristina; Parola, Philippe; Pietro, Rosemeire Cristina Linhari Rodrigues

2013-06-01

381

Reproductive suppression in female cooperatively breeding cichlids.  

PubMed

Suppression by dominants of female subordinate reproduction has been found in many vertebrate social groups, but has rarely been shown experimentally. Here experimental evidence is provided for reproductive suppression in the group-living Lake Tanganyika cichlid Neolamprologus pulcher. Within groups of three unrelated females, suppression was due to medium- and small-sized females laying less frequently compared with large females, and compared with medium females in control pairs. Clutch size and average egg mass of all females depended on body size, but not on rank. In a second step, a large female was removed from the group and a very small female was added to keep the group size constant. The medium females immediately seized the dominant breeding position in the group and started to reproduce as frequently as control pairs, whereas clutch size and egg mass did not change. These results show that female subordinate cichlids are reproductively capable, but apparently suppressed with respect to egg laying. Nevertheless, some reproduction is tolerated, possibly to ensure continued alloparental care by subordinate females. PMID:18755658

Heg, Dik

2008-12-23

382

Receptive females mitigate costs of sexual conflict.  

PubMed

Males typically gain fitness from multiple mating, whereas females often lose fitness from numerous mating, potentially leading to sexual conflict over mating. This conflict is expected to favour the evolution of female resistance to mating. However, females may incur male harassment if they refuse to copulate; thus, greater female resistance may increase costs imposed by males. Here, I show that the evolution of resistance to mating raises fitness disadvantages of interacting with males when mating is harmful in female adzuki bean beetles, Callosobruchus chinensis. Females that were artificially selected for higher and lower remating propensity evolved to accept and resist remating, respectively. Compared with females that evolved to accept remating, females that evolved to resist it suffered higher fitness costs from continuous exposure to males. The costs of a single mating measured by the effect on longevity did not differ among selection line females. This study indicates that receptive rather than resistant females mitigate the fitness loss resulting from sexual conflict, suggesting that even though mating is harmful, females can evolve to accept additional mating. PMID:25430865

Harano, T

2015-02-01

383

Cognitive and motor aging in female chimpanzees  

PubMed Central

We present the first longitudinal data on cognitive and motor aging in the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes). Thirty-eight adult female chimpanzees (10–54 years old) were studied. The apes were tested longitudinally for 3 years in a modified Primate Cognition Test Battery (Herrmann et al., 2007, Science 317,1360–1366), which comprised 12 tests of physical and social cognition. The chimpanzees were also administered a fine motor task requiring them to remove a steel nut from rods of various complexity. There was little evidence for an age-related decline in tasks of Physical Cognition: for most tasks, performance was either stable or improved with repeated testing across age groups. An exception was Spatial Memory, for which 4 individuals over 50 years old experienced a significant performance decline across the 3 years of testing. Poorer performance with age was found in two tasks of Social Cognition, an attention getting task and a gaze-following task. A slight motor impairment was also observed, with old chimpanzees improving less than younger animals with repeated testing on the simplest rod. Hormonal status effects were restricted to spatial memory, with non-cycling females outperforming cycling females independently of age. Unexpectedly, older chimpanzees were better than younger individuals in understanding causality relationships based on sound. PMID:24112794

Lacreuse, Agnès; Russell, Jamie L.; Hopkins, William D.; Herndon, James G.

2013-01-01

384

Effects of ceftriaxone on the acquisition and maintenance of ethanol drinking in peri-adolescent and adult female alcohol-preferring (P) rats.  

PubMed

Increased glutamatergic neurotransmission appears to mediate the reinforcing properties of drugs of abuse, including ethanol (EtOH). We recently reported that the administration of ceftriaxone (CEF), a ?-lactam antibiotic known to upregulate glutamate transporter 1 (GLT1) levels/activity, decreased the maintenance of EtOH intake in adult male alcohol-preferring (P) rats. In the present study, we tested whether CEF administration would reduce the acquisition and maintenance of EtOH drinking in adolescent and adult female P rats. The rats were treated with saline or 200mg/kg ceftriaxone for 7 days (starting at 35 or 75 days old, respectively) followed by the EtOH acquisition test. Five weeks later the effects of CEF were examined regarding the maintenance of EtOH intake. For the maintenance test, half of the animals that received CEF during acquisition received CEF for 7 days and the other half received saline for 7 days. Saline-treated acquisition animals were treated similarly. The results indicated that pretreatment with ceftriaxone reduced the maintenance of EtOH intake in both animals that started as adolescents and those that started as adults. However, the beneficial effect of CEF was more pronounced in rats pretreated with CEF as adults compared with rats pretreated as adolescents. Reductions in EtOH intake by ceftriaxone were paralleled by an upregulation of GLT1 protein levels in both the nucleus accumbens (?25% in rats starting at both ages) and prefrontal cortex (?50% in rats starting as peri-adolescents and ?65% in those starting as adults). These findings provide further support for GLT1-associated mechanisms in high alcohol-consuming behavior, and hold promise for the development of effective treatments targeting alcohol abuse and dependence. PMID:23537837

Sari, Y; Franklin, K M; Alazizi, A; Rao, P S S; Bell, R L

2013-06-25

385

Effects of ceftriaxone on the acquisition and maintenance of ethanol drinking in peri-adolescent and adult female alcohol-preferring (P) rats  

PubMed Central

Increased glutamatergic neurotransmission appears to mediate the reinforcing properties of drugs of abuse, including ethanol (EtOH). We recently reported that the administration of ceftriaxone (CEF), a ?-lactam antibiotic known to upregulate glutamate transporter 1 (GLT1) levels/activity, decreased the maintenance of EtOH intake in adult male alcohol-preferring (P) rats. In the present study, we tested whether CEF administration would reduce the acquisition and maintenance of EtOH drinking in adolescent and adult female P rats. The rats were treated with saline or 200 mg/kg ceftriaxone for 7 days (starting at 35 or 75 days old, respectively) followed by the EtOH acquisition test. Five weeks later the effects of CEF were examined regarding the maintenance of EtOH intake. For the maintenance test, half of the animals that received CEF during acquisition received CEF for 7 days and the other half received saline for 7 days. Saline-treated acquisition animals were treated similarly. The results indicated that pretreatment with ceftriaxone reduced the maintenance of EtOH intake in both animals that started as adolescents and those that started as adults. However, the beneficial effect of CEF was more pronounced in rats pretreated with CEF as adults compared with rats pretreated as adolescents. Reductions in EtOH intake by ceftriaxone were paralleled by an upregulation of GLT1 protein levels in both the nucleus accumbens (µ25% in rats starting at both ages) and prefrontal cortex (µ50% in rats starting as peri-adolescents and µ65% in those starting as adults). These findings provide further support for GLT1-associated mechanisms in high alcohol consuming behavior, and hold promise for the development of effective treatments targeting alcohol abuse and dependence. PMID:23537837

Sari, Youssef; Franklin, Kelle M.; Alazizi, Adnan; Rao, P.S.S.; Bell, Richard L.

2013-01-01

386

Morphology of the external genitalia of the adult male and female mice as an endpoint of sex differentiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult external genitalia (ExG) are the endpoints of normal sex differentiation. Detailed morphometric analysis and comparison of adult mouse ExG has revealed 10 homologous features distinguishing the penis and clitoris that define masculine vs. feminine sex differentiation. These features have enabled the construction of a simple metric to evaluate various intersex conditions in mutant or hormonally manipulated mice. This review

Dana A. Weiss; Esequiel Rodriguez; Tristan Cunha; Dale Barcellos; Lok Yun Chan; Gail Risbridger; Laurence Baskin; Gerald Cunha

387

The Lived Experience of the Adult African American Female Who Has Lived in Multiple Foster Care Placements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the study was to examine and describe the lived experiences of the adult African American woman who had lived in multiple foster care placements. Eleven adult African American women ages 22-25 participated in semi-structured, face-to-face interviews to tell their stories and provide data of the memories of the experience. The…

Johnson, Avonda C.

2012-01-01

388

Self-Control and Impulsiveness in Nondieting Adult Human Females: Effects of Visual Food Cues and Food Deprivation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Self-control can be defined as the choice of a larger, more delayed reinforcer over a smaller, less delayed reinforcer, and impulsiveness as the opposite. Previous research suggests that exposure to visual food cues affects adult humans' self-control. Previous research also suggests that food deprivation decreases adult humans' self-control. The…

Forzano, Lori-Ann B.; Chelonis, John J.; Casey, Caitlin; Forward, Marion; Stachowiak, Jacqueline A.; Wood, Jennifer

2010-01-01

389

Female genital mutilation in Greece.  

PubMed

The number of migrants and refugees with a female genital mutilation (FGM) living in Greece is rising. This study explores the characteristics and psychosexual issues of women with FGM who were examined in the 2nd Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Athens Medical School, Greece during the year 2009. The women were asked to fill out an anonymous questionnaire asking for demographic data, obstetric history, current complaints, and psychosexual problems. The results are presented and discussed, as FGM is a new reality for Greece. Healthcare providers have to familiarize themselves with issues related to FGM and improve their skills in transcultural care, so as to manage and support women with FGM adequately. PMID:23157041

Vrachnis, N; Salakos, N; Iavazzo, C; Iliodromiti, Z; Bakalianou, K; Kouiroukidou, P; Creatsas, G

2012-01-01

390

Female chacma baboons form strong, equitable, and enduring social bonds  

PubMed Central

Analyses of the pattern of associations, social interactions, coalitions, and aggression among chacma baboons (Papio hamadryas ursinus) in the Okavango Delta of Botswana over a 16-year period indicate that adult females form close, equitable, supportive, and enduring social relationships. They show strong and stable preferences for close kin, particularly their own mothers and daughters. Females also form strong attachments to unrelated females who are close to their own age and who are likely to be paternal half-sisters. Although absolute rates of aggression among kin are as high as rates of aggression among nonkin, females are more tolerant of close relatives than they are of others with whom they have comparable amounts of contact. These findings complement previous work which indicates that the strength of social bonds enhances the fitness of females in this population and support findings about the structure and function of social bonds in other primate groups. PMID:20976293

Beehner, Jacinta C.; Bergman, Thore J.; Crockford, Catherine; Engh, Anne L.; Moscovice, Liza R.; Wittig, Roman M.; Seyfarth, Robert M.; Cheney, Dorothy L.

2010-01-01

391

Delayed maturation in plumage colour: Evidence for the female-mimicry hypothesis in the kestrel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In many sexually dichromatic species, young males have female-like plumage during their first potential breeding year. The female-mimicry hypothesis (FMH) supposes that by possessing female-like plumage young males deceive older conspicuous males into believing that they are females, thus reducing competition from adult males. The status-signalling hypothesis (SSH) supposes that adult males can distinguish sex, but postulates that young

Harri Hakkarainen; Erkki Korpimiiki; Esa Huhta; Piiivi Palokangas

1993-01-01

392

Neuroendocrine Consequences of Androgen Excess in Female Rodents  

PubMed Central

Androgens exert significant organizational and activational effects on the nervous system and behavior. Despite the fact that female mammals generally produce low levels of androgens, relative to the male of the same species, increasing evidence suggests that androgens can exert profound effects on the normal physiology and behavior of females during fetal, neonatal, and adult stages of life. This review examines the effects of exposure to androgens at three stages of development – as an adult, during early postnatal life and as a fetus, on reproductive hormone secretions in female rats. We examine the effects of androgen exposure both as a model of neuroendocrine sexual differentiation and with respect to the role androgens play in the normal female. We then discuss the hypothesis that androgens may cause epigenetic modification of estrogen target genes in the brain. Finally we consider the clinical consequences of excess androgen exposure in women. PMID:18374922

Foecking, Eileen M.; McDevitt, Melissa A.; Acosta-Martínez, Maricedes; Horton, Teresa H.; Levine, Jon E.

2008-01-01

393

Hyperactivity persists in male and female adults with ADHD and remains a highly discriminative feature of the disorder: a case-control study  

PubMed Central

Background Symptoms of hyperactivity are believed to fade with age leaving ADHD adults mostly inattentive and impulsive. Our aim was to test this assertion using objective measures of hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattention. Method Participants were 40 subjects with ADHD (23M/17F; 35±10 yrs) and 60 healthy adults (28M/32F; 29±9 yrs) blindly assessed using Wender-Reimherr interview ratings, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders and DSM-IV criteria. Infrared motion capture systems tracked head and leg movements during performance of a No-4’s cognitive control task. Subjects also completed the Conners’ CPT-II. Results ADHD and controls differed significantly in activity and attention. Effect sizes for activity measures (d’ = 0.7–1.6) were, on average, two-fold larger than differences in attention or impulsivity, correlated more strongly with executive function ratings and were more discriminatory (ROC area = 0.83 for activity composite, 0.65 for No-4’s distraction composite, 0.63 for Conners’ CPT-II confidence index, 0.96 for the combined activity and attention diagnostic index). This finding was true for subjects with the predominantly inattentive subtype as well as subjects with combined or predominantly hyperactive/impulsive subtype. Males and females with ADHD were equally active. The superior accuracy of activity measures was confirmed using Random Forest and predictive modeling techniques. Conclusions Objectively measured hyperactivity persists in adults with ADHD and is a more discriminative feature of the disorder than computerized measures of inattention or impulsivity. This finding supports the hypothesis that a deficient ability to sit still remains a defining feature of the disorder in adults when it is measured objectively. PMID:23134619

2012-01-01

394

Cognition in Males and Females with Autism: Similarities and Differences  

PubMed Central

The male bias in autism spectrum conditions (ASC) has led to females with ASC being under-researched. This lack of attention to females could hide variability due to sex that may explain some of the heterogeneity within ASC. In this study we investigate four key cognitive domains (mentalizing and emotion perception, executive function, perceptual attention to detail, and motor function) in ASC, to test for similarities and differences between males and females with and without ASC (n?=?128 adults; n?=?32 per group). In the mentalizing and facial emotion perception domain, males and females with ASC showed similar deficits compared to neurotypical controls. However, in attention to detail and dexterity involving executive function, although males with ASC showed poorer performance relative to neurotypical males, females with ASC performed comparably to neurotypical females. We conclude that performance in the social-cognitive domain is equally impaired in male and female adults with ASC. However, in specific non-social cognitive domains, performance within ASC depends on sex. This suggests that in specific domains, cognitive profiles in ASC are modulated by sex. PMID:23094036

Lai, Meng-Chuan; Lombardo, Michael V.; Ruigrok, Amber N. V.; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Wheelwright, Sally J.; Auyeung, Bonnie; Allison, Carrie; Baron-Cohen, Simon

2012-01-01

395

Polyandrous females discriminate against previous mates  

PubMed Central

In most animal species, particularly those in which females engage in polyandry, mate choice is a sequential process in which a female must choose to mate or not to mate with each male encountered. Although a number of theoretical and empirical investigations have examined the effects of sequential mate choice on the operation of sexual selection, how females respond to solicitation by previous mates has received little attention. Here, we report the results of a study carried out on the polyandrous pseudoscorpion, Cordylochernes scorpioides, that assessed the sexual receptivity of once-mated females presented after a lapse of 1.5 hr or 48 hr with either their first mate or a different male. Females exhibited a high level of receptivity to new males, irrespective of intermating interval. By contrast, time between matings exerted a strong effect on female receptivity to previous mates. After a lapse of 48 hr, females did not differ significantly in their receptivity toward previous mates and different males, whereas at 1.5 hr after first mating, females were almost invariably unreceptive to males from whom they had previously accepted sperm. This result could not be attributed to male size or mating experience or to male sexual receptivity. Indeed, males were as willing to transfer sperm to a previous mate as they were to a new female. This difference between males and females in their propensity to remate with the same individual may reflect a conflict between the sexes, with males seeking to minimize postcopulatory sexual selection and females actively keeping open the opportunity for sperm competition and female choice of sperm by discriminating against previous mates. PMID:9811869

Zeh, Jeanne A.; Newcomer, Scott D.; Zeh, David W.

1998-01-01

396

The female athlete. Before and beyond puberty.  

PubMed

As the twentieth century progressed, the female athlete became an accepted participant of sports at all levels. This article reviews various aspects of female sports participation. After an historical perspective, selected comments are provided on psychologic and physiologic aspects. Concepts of adolescent gynecology are reviewed, including breast and menstrual problems and pregnancy. Other areas reviewed include iron deficiency anemia, stress urinary incontinence, and sports injuries in female athletes. PMID:12119865

Greydanus, Donald E; Patel, Dilip R

2002-06-01

397

Female teneral mating in a monandrous species  

PubMed Central

Schultesia nitor is a gregarious species living in Cacicus and Psarocolius ssp. pouch-like nests. Due to gregariousness, opportunities for multiple copulations in both sexes are not supposed to be restricted. Females produce only one brood during their life and die within a few days following the birth of their nymphs, but this unique brood could be the result of either single or multiple mating events (i.e., monandry vs. polyandry). In this study, we first determined the age of sexual receptivity of both males and females. Larval development in this species is shorter in males than in females and thus, this species is protandric. Males were not able to copulate the day after emergence. Contrary to males, teneral females (i.e., females achieving their imaginal molt but not yet fully sclerotised and colored) were attractive and were able to mate with males. In the second experiment, we tested the existence of multiple matings in both sexes. Our results showed that females were monandrous whereas males were polygynous. Since we had observed that females were monoandrous, we expected them to be choosy and we determined their ability to discriminate between virgin and nonvirgin males. When given the choice, females preferred virgin males and overall, they were more successful at mating than experienced ones. Our results suggest that monandry may be primarily driven by the female’s short life-span fecundity. The occurrence of teneral mating in this species calls into question the existence of a male strategy for monopolizing females, and as well as the implication of female choice. Although further work is required, this species provides an interesting model for understanding sexual conflicts. PMID:22957151

Monceau, Karine; van Baaren, Joan

2012-01-01

398

Competition Coalitions and Conflict Interventions among Captive Female Gorillas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Like mountain gorillas (Gorilla gorilla beringei), western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) at Howletts Wild Animal Park in Kent, England, intervene in conflicts on behalf of kin. However, in each of the 3 study\\u000a groups, the female gorillas also appeared to form political alliances: all members of the group almost exclusively supported\\u000a familiar adult females, i.e., the ones with the greatest

Jennifer Scott; Joan S. Lockard

2007-01-01

399

Morphology of the external genitalia of the adult male and female mice as an endpoint of sex differentiation  

PubMed Central

Adult external genitalia (ExG) are the endpoints of normal sex differentiation. Detailed morphometric analysis and comparison of adult mouse ExG has revealed 10 homologous features distinguishing the penis and clitoris that define masculine vs. feminine sex differentiation. These features have enabled the construction of a simple metric to evaluate various intersex conditions in mutant or hormonally manipulated mice. This review focuses on the morphology of the adult mouse penis and clitoris through detailed analysis of histologic sections, scanning electron microscopy, and three-dimensional reconstruction. We also present previous results from evaluation of “non-traditional” mammals, such as the spotted hyena and wallaby to demonstrate the complex process of sex differentiation that involves not only androgen-dependent processes, but also estrogen-dependent and hormone-independent mechanisms. PMID:21893161

Weiss, Dana A.; Rodriguez, Esequiel; Cunha, Tristan; Menshenina, Julia; Barcellos, Dale; Chan, Lok Yun; Risbridger, Gail; Baskin, Laurence; Cunha, Gerald

2013-01-01

400

The long term outcome of feminizing genital surgery for congenital adrenal hyperplasia: anatomical, functional and cosmetic outcomes, psychosexual development, and satisfaction in adult female patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThere are only a few reports analyzing the long term outcome of feminizing surgery in females with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). Such analysis is crucial to evaluate the treatment and to make necessary adjustments.

Nike M. M. L Stikkelbroeck; Catharina C. M Beerendonk; Wim N. P Willemsen; Conny A Schreuders-Bais; Wouter F. J Feitz; Paul N. M. A Rieu; Ad R. M. M Hermus; Barto J Otten

2003-01-01

401

Acaricidal activity of ethanolic extract from aerial parts of Tagetes patula L. (Asteraceae) against larvae and engorged adult females of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806)  

PubMed Central

Background The tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus is the species with the largest worldwide distribution and is proven to be involved in the transmission of pathogens such as Babesia canis, Ehrlichia canis, Coxiella burnetii, Rickettsia ricketsii, Rickettsia conorii, among others. Studies have demonstrated acquisition of resistance to some of the active principles used in commercial formulations of acaricides. Tagetes patula (Asteraceae) is a plant with highlighted economic and commercial importance due to the production of secondary metabolites with insecticide and acaricide potential, mainly flavonoids, thiophenes and terpenes. Methods The in vitro acaricide action of the ethanolic 70% extract from aerial parts of T. patula, obtained by percolation, was evaluated against larvae and engorged adult females of Rhipicephalus sanguineus by immersion test for 5?minutes. The chemical characterization of this extract was done by liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS), using direct injection of sample. Results Despite T. patula not proving lethal to adults in any of the concentrations tested, at 50.0?mg/mL oviposition rate decreased by 21.5% and eliminated 99.78% of the larvae. Also it was determined that the best results were obtained with 5?minutes of immersion. From the chromatographic analysis twelve O-glycosylated flavonoids were identified. Conclusions This is the first report on the acaricidal activity of T. patula extract against Rh. sanguineus. If we consider the application of the product in the environment, we could completely eliminate the larval stage of development of the ixodid Rh. sanguineus. PMID:23244493

2012-01-01

402

Larger swordtail females prefer asymmetrical males.  

PubMed

Many organisms, including humans, find symmetry more attractive than asymmetry. Is this bias towards symmetry simply a by-product of their detection system? We examined female preference for symmetry of the pigment pattern vertical bars in the swordtail fishes Xiphophorus cortezi and Xiphophorus malinche. We found a relationship between preference for symmetry and female size, with larger and thus older females spending significantly more time with the asymmetrical video animation as compared to the symmetrical video animation. The preference for asymmetry we report demonstrates that even if females can detect symmetrical males better, this does not preclude subsequent selection on females to prefer symmetrical or asymmetrical males. In addition, because the preference was correlated with female size, past studies may have missed preference for either asymmetry and/or symmetry by not examining the relationship between female preference and size/age or by measuring a limited size/age distribution of females. In both of the species of swordtail fishes examined, a high proportion of males are asymmetrical by more than one bar. We suggest that female preference may be maintaining fluctuating asymmetries in these fishes. PMID:17148312

Morris, Molly R; Rios-Cardenas, Oscar; Scarlett Tudor, M

2006-03-22

403

Barriers to Safer SexBeliefs and Attitudes among Male and Female Adult Heterosexuals across Four Relationship Groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study of 400 heterosexual adults aged 24 to 49 years comprised married, single, separated\\/widowed\\/divorced, and cohabiting participants from three occupational groups, and concerned HIV risk within this sample. Results indicated high levels of unsafe sexual behaviours for more than onequarter of the sample, including each occupational group and relationship type. Barriers to condom use fell into five major categories:

Susan Moore; Andrea Parker Halford

1999-01-01

404

Prenatal stress differentially affects habituation of corticosterone responses to repeated stress in adult male and female rats  

E-print Network

Prenatal stress differentially affects habituation of corticosterone responses to repeated stress of the adult organism. In particular, prenatal exposure to stress represents one category of adverse early. In the present studies, we examined whether prenatal stress alters the habituation of hypothalamic

Lee, Theresa

405

The Depressive Phenotype Induced in Adult Female Rats by Adolescent Exposure to THC is Associated with Cognitive Impairment and Altered Neuroplasticity in the Prefrontal Cortex  

Microsoft Academic Search

We recently demonstrated that ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) chronic administration in female adolescent rats induces alterations in the emotional circuit\\u000a ending in depressive-like behavior in adulthood. Since cognitive dysfunction is a major component of depression, we assessed\\u000a in these animals at adulthood different forms of memory. Adolescent female rats were treated with THC or its vehicle from\\u000a 35 to 45 post-natal days

T. Rubino; N. Realini; D. Braida; T. Alberio; V. Capurro; D. Viganò; C. Guidali; M. Sala; M. Fasano; D. Parolaro

2009-01-01

406

The Effects of the Sexualization of Female Video Game Characters on Gender Stereotyping and Female Self-Concept  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study utilized an experimental design to investigate the short term effects of exposure to sexualized female video\\u000a game characters on gender stereotyping and female self-concept in emerging adults. Bussey and Bandura’s (1999) social cognitive theory of gender development and differentiation was used to explicate this relationship. Undergraduate\\u000a students (N?=?328) at a large U.S. Southwestern university participated in the

Elizabeth Behm-Morawitz; Dana Mastro

2009-01-01

407

Eating disorders throughout female adolescence.  

PubMed

Eating disorders (EDs) are conditions which are becoming more and more widespread among adolescents and they often lead them to seek the opinion of a professional health caregiver, including gynecologists and pediatricians. EDs, and particularly anorexia nervosa (AN), are usually classified as psychological or psychiatric disorders, but they may have major somatic implications and complications as osteoporosis, nutritional deficiencies, cerebral atrophy, cardiac and metabolic disorders. A key issue in the management is prevention or reduction of both the serious somatic consequences and the important mental health consequences (e.g. depression, psychosocial withdrawal, phobia and suicide), integrating different perspectives (psychological or psychiatric - individual and familial -, genetic, nutritional, pediatric, gynecological). Adolescence is a critical period for the onset of EDs though they may also involve younger children. In this case, the consequences on the development (height, weight, puberty) can also be significant. In this review, we will focus on eating disorders in adolescent girls with an emphasis on AN. We describe variations in ED characteristics and their management depending on age at occurrence. A possible ED should be considered by pediatricians consulted about delayed female growth and puberty as well as gynecologists in patients with primary or secondary amenorrhea or infertility. PMID:22846535

Dominé, F; Dadoumont, C; Bourguignon, J-P

2012-01-01

408

Female teneral mating in a monandrous species.  

PubMed

Schultesia nitor is a gregarious species living in Cacicus and Psarocolius ssp. pouch-like nests. Due to gregariousness, opportunities for multiple copulations in both sexes are not supposed to be restricted. Females produce only one brood during their life and die within a few days following the birth of their nymphs, but this unique brood could be the result of either single or multiple mating events (i.e., monandry vs. polyandry). In this study, we first determined the age of sexual receptivity of both males and females. Larval development in this species is shorter in males than in females and thus, this species is protandric. Males were not able to copulate the day after emergence. Contrary to males, teneral females (i.e., females achieving their imaginal molt but not yet fully sclerotised and colored) were attractive and were able to mate with males. In the second experiment, we tested the existence of multiple matings in both sexes. Our results showed that females were monandrous whereas males were polygynous. Since we had observed that females were monoandrous, we expected them to be choosy and we determined their ability to discriminate between virgin and nonvirgin males. When given the choice, females preferred virgin males and overall, they were more successful at mating than experienced ones. Our results suggest that monandry may be primarily driven by the female's short life-span fecundity. The occurrence of teneral mating in this species calls into question the existence of a male strategy for monopolizing females, and as well as the implication of female choice. Although further work is required, this species provides an interesting model for understanding sexual conflicts. PMID:22957151

Monceau, Karine; van Baaren, Joan

2012-07-01

409

Estrogen regulation of cell proliferation and distribution of estrogen receptor-alpha in the brains of adult female prairie and meadow voles.  

PubMed

Adult female prairie (Microtus ochrogaster) and meadow (M. pennsylvanicus) voles were compared to examine neural cell proliferation and the effects of estrogen manipulation on cell proliferation in the amygdala, ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus (DG). Unlike prior studies, our study focused on the amygdala and VMH, because they are involved in social behaviors and may underlie behavioral differences between the species. Meadow voles had a higher density of cells labeled with the cell proliferation marker 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) in the amygdala and DG than did prairie voles. Treatment with estradiol benzoate (EB) for 3 days increased the density of BrdU-labeled cells in the amygdala, particularly in the posterior cortical (pCorA) and medial (pMeA) nuclei, in meadow, but not prairie, voles. Furthermore, the majority of the BrdU-labeled cells in the pCorA and pMeA displayed either a neuronal or a glial progenitor phenotype, but no species or treatment differences were found in the percentage of neuronal or glial progenitor cells. To understand better estrogen's effects on adult neurogenesis, we also examined estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha) distribution. Meadow voles had more ERalpha-labeled cells in the pCorA and VMH, but not in the pMeA or DG, than did prairie voles. In addition, more than one-half of the BrdU-labeled cells in the amygdala of both species coexpressed ERalpha labeling. Together, these data indicate that estrogen alters cell proliferation in a species- and region-specific manner, and some of these effects may lie in the specific localization of estrogen receptors in the adult vole brain. PMID:15984004

Fowler, Christie D; Johnson, Frank; Wang, Zuoxin

2005-08-22

410

Theorizing the Female Body: Li Xiaojiang, Dai Jinhua and the Female Avant-Garde Writers  

E-print Network

hypervisibility of the female image. 10 Using the “rice bowlagain depicted images of a masculinized female body hard atfemale liberation went hand in hand with strengthening the nation. For the May Fourth writers, the image

Tuft, Bryna

2010-01-01

411

Pregnant growth restricted female rats have bone gains during late gestation which contributes to second generation adolescent and adult offspring having normal bone health.  

PubMed

Low birth weight, due to uteroplacental insufficiency, results in programmed bone deficits in the first generation (F1). These deficits may be passed onto subsequent generations. We characterized the effects of being born small on maternal bone health during pregnancy; and aimed to characterize the contribution of the maternal environment and germ line effects to bone health in F2 offspring from mothers born small. Bilateral uterine vessel ligation (or sham) surgery was performed on female F0 WKY rats on gestational day 18 (term 22days) to induce uteroplacental insufficiency and fetal growth restriction. Control and Restricted F1 female offspring were allocated to a non-pregnant or pregnant group. To generate F2 offspring, F1 females were allocated to either non-embryo or embryo transfer groups. Embryo transfer was performed on gestational day 1, where second generation (F2) embryos were gestated (donor-in-recipient) in either a Control (Control-in-Control, Restricted-in-Control) or Restricted (Control-in-Restricted, Restricted-in-Restricted) mother. Restricted F1 females were born 10-15% lighter than Controls. Restricted non-pregnant females had shorter femurs, reduced trabecular and cortical bone mineral contents, trabecular density and bone geometry measures determined by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) compared to non-pregnant Controls. Pregnancy restored the bone deficits that were present in F1 Restricted females. F2 non-embryo transfer male and female offspring were born of normal weight, while F2 embryo transfer males and females gestated in a Control mother (Control-in-Control, Restricted-in-Control) were heavier at birth compared to offspring gestated in a Restricted mother (Restricted-in-Restricted, Control-in-Restricted). Male F2 Restricted embryo groups (Restricted-in-Control and Restricted-in-Restricted) had accelerated postnatal growth. There was no transmission of bone deficits present at 35days or 6months in F2 offspring. Embryo transfer procedure had confounding effects preventing the separation of maternal environment and germ line contribution to outcomes. Deficits present in F1 non-pregnant Restricted females were absent during late gestation, indicating that pregnant F1 Restricted females experienced gains in bone. These beneficial maternal pregnancy adaptations may have prevented transmission of bone deficits to F2 offspring. PMID:25659207

Anevska, Kristina; Gallo, Linda A; Tran, Melanie; Jefferies, Andrew J; Wark, John D; Wlodek, Mary E; Romano, Tania

2015-05-01

412

Social isolation during puberty affects female sexual behavior in mice  

PubMed Central

Exposure to stress during puberty can lead to long-term behavioral alterations in adult rodents coincident with sex steroid hormone-dependent brain remodeling and reorganization. Social isolation is a stress for social animals like mice, but little is known about the effects of such stress during adolescence on later reproductive behaviors. The present study examined sexual behavior of ovariectomized, estradiol and progesterone primed female mice that were individually housed from 25 days of age until testing at approximately 95 days, or individually housed from day 25 until day 60 (during puberty), followed by housing in social groups. Mice in these isolated groups were compared to females that were group housed throughout the experiment. Receptive sexual behaviors of females and behaviors of stimulus males were recorded. Females housed in social groups displayed greater levels of receptive behaviors in comparison to both socially isolated groups. Namely, social females had higher lordosis quotients (LQs) and more often displayed stronger lordosis postures in comparison to isolated females. No differences between female groups were observed in stimulus male sexual behavior suggesting that female “attractiveness” was not affected by their social isolation. Females housed in social groups had fewer cells containing immunoreactive estrogen receptor (ER) ? in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) and in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) than both isolated groups. These results suggest that isolation during adolescence affects female sexual behavior and re-socialization for 1 month in adulthood is insufficient to rescue lordosis behavior from the effects of social isolation during the pubertal period. PMID:25324747

Kercmar, Jasmina; Tobet, Stuart A.; Majdic, Gregor

2014-01-01

413

Feeding Blueberry Diets in Early Life Prevent Senescence of Osteoblasts and Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Adult Female Rats  

PubMed Central

Background Appropriate nutrition during early development is essential for maximal bone mass accretion; however, linkage between early nutrition, childhood bone mass, peak bone mass in adulthood, and prevention of bone loss later in life has not been studied. Methodology and Principal Findings In this report, we show that feeding a high quality diet supplemented with blueberries (BB) to pre-pubertal rats throughout development or only between postnatal day 20 (PND20) and PND34 prevented ovariectomy (OVX)-induced bone loss in adult life. This protective effect of BB is due to suppression of osteoblastic cell senescence associated with acute loss of myosin expression after OVX. Early exposure of pre-osteoblasts to serum from BB-fed rats was found to consistently increase myosin expression. This led to maintenance osteoblastic cell development and differentiation and delay of cellular entrance into senescence through regulation of the Runx2 gene. High bone turnover after OVX results in insufficient collagenous matrix support for new osteoblasts and their precursors to express myosin and other cytoskeletal elements required for osteoblast activity and differentiation. Conclusions/Significance These results indicate: 1) a significant prevention of OVX-induced bone loss from adult rats can occur with only 14 days consumption of a BB-containing diet immediately prior to puberty; and 2) the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects involves increased myosin production which stimulates osteoblast differentiation and reduces mesenchymal stromal cell senescence. PMID:21912699

Zhang, Jian; Lazarenko, Oxana P.; Blackburn, Michael L.; Shankar, Kartik; Badger, Thomas M.; Ronis, Martin J. J.; Chen, Jin-Ran

2011-01-01

414

HISTORICAL AND DEVELOPMENTAL ROOTS OF FEMALE DEPENDENCY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The caring and nurturing characteristics often associated with female personality are frequently compounded with dependency and repressed anger. Drawing from the theory of Karen Horney, the author links these traits to a developmental response to historically rooted family relations in which females are devalued and expected to care for others.

Marcia Westkott

1986-01-01

415

Neuromuscular Performance Characteristics in Elite Female Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research was to identify possible predisposing neuromuscular factors for knee injuries, particularly anterior cruciate ligament tears in female athletes by investigating anterior knee laxity, lower extremity muscle strength, endurance, muscle reaction time, and muscle recruitment order in response to anterior tibial translation. We recruited four subject groups: elite female (N = 40) and male (N =

Laura J. Huston; Edward M. Wojtys

1996-01-01

416

Homophobic Discourse Surrounding the Female Athlete.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers constructs and operation of homophobic discourse surrounding female athletes, employing Foucauldian notions of discipline and discourse and feminist critiques of the gendered body to depict female athletes as nonconformist to the discipline of femininity. The paper argues that homophobic discourse exists in response to this nonconformity…

Veri, Maria J.

1999-01-01

417

Gender Verification of Female Olympic Athletes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gender verification of female athletes has long been criticized by geneticists, endocrinologists, and others in the medical community. Recently, the International Olympic Committee's Athletic Commission called for discontinuation of mandatory laboratory-based gender verification of female athletes. This article discusses normal sexual…

Dickinson, Barry D.; Genel, Myron; Robinowitz, Carolyn B.; Turner, Patricia L.; Woods, Gary L.

2002-01-01

418

Female Urinary Disorders and Pelvic Organ Prolapse  

E-print Network

of the bladder ("dropping of bladder") Treated with pelvic floor exercises, medication and/or surgery #12;NormalFemale Urinary Disorders and Pelvic Organ Prolapse Female Urinary Disorders and Pelvic Organ Prolapse Richard S. Bercik, M.D. Director, Division of Urogynecology & Reconstruction Pelvic Surgery

Lee, Daeyeol

419

Evolution of weaponry in female bovids  

PubMed Central

Weaponry is ubiquitous in male ungulates and is driven by intrasexual selection, but the mystery surrounding its sporadic presence in females remains unsolved. Female horns are often smaller and shaped differently to male horns, suggesting a different function; indeed, hypotheses explaining the presence of female horns include competition for food, male mollification and defence against predators. Here we use comparative phylogenetic analyses to show that females are significantly more likely to bear horns in bovids that are conspicuous due to large body size and living in open habitats than inconspicuous species living in closed habitats or that are small. An inability to rely on crypsis or take refuge in deep vegetation has apparently driven the evolution of horns for defence against predators in female bovids, a finding supported by many field observations. Typically, exceptions are small species where females are territorial (e.g. duikers) and use horns in intrasexual contests. Furthermore, we suggest that conspicuousness and territoriality hypotheses may explain other instances of female cranial weaponry (i.e. antlers and ossicones) in other horned ruminants. Our phylogenetic reconstruction indicates that the primary function of horns in females is linked to antipredator defence in most clades, but occasionally to intrasexual competition in others. PMID:19759035

Stankowich, Theodore; Caro, Tim

2009-01-01

420

Human female orgasm and mate fluctuating asymmetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human, Homo sapiens, female orgasm is not necessary for conception; hence it seems reasonable to hypothesize that orgasm is an adaptation for manipulating the outcome of sperm competition resulting from facultative polyandry. If heritable differences in male viability existed in the evolutionary past, selection could have favoured female adaptations (e.g. orgasm) that biased sperm competition in favour of males possessing

Randy Thornhill; Steven W. Gangestad; Randall Comer

1995-01-01

421

Burnout among Female Teachers in Malaysia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is an attempt to survey the burnout level of female teachers in Malaysia and determine the likely factors that are associated with this phenomenon. The subjects of the study were 437 female teachers from primary, secondary, and tertiary levels. A demographic questionnaire was used to collect the data r