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1

Birth of MHC-defined rhesus monkeys produced by assisted reproductive technology.  

PubMed

One of the best animal approaches for testing HIV vaccines is the challenge of vaccinated rhesus macaques with SHIV or SIV. Production of rhesus macaques in which all of the MHC class I and II alleles are known represents an opportunity to characterize the entire immune response to SIV and should be an invaluable resource for understanding pathogenesis and vaccine-induced immune responses. Unfortunately, there are few MHC-defined rhesus macaques available for vaccine research. Selective breeding supports the production of limited numbers of macaques that express particular MHC class I alleles. If both parents express the allele of interest, only three quarters of the offspring will express the same allele. However, assisted reproductive technologies, such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo transfer, can be used for production of MHC-defined macaques, expressing multiple MHC class I and II molecules for which SIV peptides, tetramers and ELISPOT assays exist. Here, we report the birth of MHC-defined rhesus monkeys produced by assisted reproductive technology. Continued improvements in assisted reproductive technologies in rhesus monkeys will enable us to develop a unique prototypic animal production program for the creation of MHC-defined and genetically-identical monkeys for vaccine research. PMID:11672927

Schramm, R D; Paprocki, A M; Watkins, D I

2001-11-12

2

Genetic variability in adult bone density among inbred strains of mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 70% of the variability in human bone density has been attributed to genetic factors as a result of studies with twins, osteoporotic families, and individuals with rare heritable bone disorders. We have applied the Stratec XCT 960M pQCT, specifically modified for small skeletal specimens, to analyses of bones from 11 inbred strains (AKR\\/J, BALB\\/ cByJ, C3H\\/HeJ, C57BL\\/6J, C57L\\/J,

W. G. Beamer; L. R. Donahue; C. J. Rosen; D. J. Baylink

1996-01-01

3

An MHC-defined primate model reveals significant rejection of bone marrow after mixed-chimerism induction despite full MHC matching  

PubMed Central

In murine models, mixed hematopoietic chimerism-induction leads to robust immune tolerance. However, translation to primates and to patients has been difficult. In this study, we used a novel MHC-defined rhesus macaque model to examine the impact of MHC matching on the stability of costimulation blockade/sirolimus-mediated chimerism, and to probe possible mechanisms of bone marrow rejection after non-myeloablative transplant. Using busulfan-based pre-transplant preparation and maintenance immunosuppression with sirolimus, as well as CD28- and CD154-blockade, all recipients demonstrated donor engraftment after transplant. However, the mixed-chimerism that resulted was compartmentalized, with recipients demonstrating significantly higher whole blood chimerism compared to T cell chimerism Thus, the vast majority of T cells present post-transplant were recipient- rather than donor-derived. Surprisingly, even in MHC-matched transplants, rejection of donor hematopoiesis predominated after immunosuppression withdrawal. Weaning of immunosuppression was associated with a surge of antigen-experienced T cells, and transplant rejection was associated with the acquisition of donor-directed T cell alloreactivity. These results suggest that a reservoir of alloreactive cells was present despite prior costimulation blockade and sirolimus, and that the post-immunosuppression lymphocytic rebound may have lead to a phenotypic shift in these recipient T cells towards an activated, antigen experienced phenotype, and ultimately, to transplant rejection.

Larsen, Christian P.; Page, Andrew; Linzie, Kelly Hamby; Russell, Maria; Deane, Taylor; Stempora, Linda; Strobert, Elizabeth; Penedo, Maria Cecilia T.; Ward, Thea; Wiseman, Roger; O'Connor, David; Miller, Weston; Sen, Sharon; Singh, Karnail; Kean, Leslie S.

2010-01-01

4

Effect of Chicken Anemia and Infectious Bursal Disease Vaccines and Marek's Disease Virus on the Development of Cellulitis and Myositis Lesions in Floor-Reared MHC-Defined Broiler Chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wang, C., Norton, R.A., Macklin, K.S. and Krehling, J.T. 2005. Effect of chicken anemia and infectious bursal disease vaccines and Marek's disease virus on the development of cellulitis and myositis lesions in floor-reared MHC-defined broiler chickens. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 27: 1–5.In this experiment, 414 chickens were reared in a house in which the previous flock had experienced Marek's disease.

Chengming Wang; Robert A. Norton; Kenneth S. Macklin; James T. Krehling

2005-01-01

5

Inbred maize line Ph0R8  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

An inbred maize line, designated PH0R8, the plants and seeds of inbred maize line PH0R8, methods for producing a maize plant, either inbred or hybrid, produced by crossing the inbred maize line PH0R8 with itself or with another maize plant, and hybrid maize seeds and plants produced by crossing the inbred line PH0R8 with another maize line or plant and to methods for producing a maize plant containing in its genetic material one or more transgenes and to the transgenic maize plants produced by that method. This invention also relates to inbred maize lines derived from inbred maize line PH0R8, to methods for producing other inbred maize lines derived from inbred maize line PH0R8 and to the inbred maize lines derived by the use of those methods.

2004-04-06

6

A pubertal immune challenge alters the antidepressant-like effects of chronic estradiol treatment in inbred and outbred adult female mice.  

PubMed

Puberty is a period characterized by brain reorganization that contributes to the development of neural and behavioral responses to gonadal steroids. A single injection of the bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), during the pubertal period decreases sexual receptivity in response to ovarian hormones in adulthood. Because chronic estradiol treatment alleviates depression-like symptoms in ovariectomized adult mice, we investigated the effect of pubertal LPS treatment on estradiol's antidepressant effects. We hypothesized that pubertal LPS treatment would decrease the antidepressant-like effect of estradiol in adult ovariectomized female mice, as it decreases other behavioral responses to ovarian hormones. As expected, chronic estradiol treatment decreased depression-like behavior, as measured by the duration of immobility, in saline-treated mice from two different strains, as well as in mice treated with LPS in adulthood. In contrast, in mice treated pubertally with LPS, estradiol strikingly increased the duration of immobility. No difference in body weight and in locomotion was found among the groups, suggesting that the differences in depression-like behavior were not due to differences in body weight or locomotor activity between LPS-treated and control mice. These results suggest that exposure to an immune challenge during the pubertal period alters the responsiveness of depression-like behavior to estradiol. PMID:23036617

Ismail, N; Kumlin, A M; Blaustein, J D

2012-10-01

7

Slow inbred lines of Drosophila melanogaster express as much inbreeding depression as fast inbred lines under semi-natural conditions.  

PubMed

Selection may reduce the deleterious consequences of inbreeding. This may be due to purging of recessive deleterious alleles or balancing selection favouring heterozygote offspring. Such selection is expected to be more efficient at slower compared to at faster rates of inbreeding. In this study we tested the impact of inbreeding and the rate of inbreeding on fitness related traits (egg productivity, egg-to-adult viability, developmental time and behaviour) under cold and benign semi-natural thermal conditions using Drosophila melanogaster as a model organism. We used non-inbred control and slow and fast inbred lines (both with an expected inbreeding level of 0.25). The results show that contrary to expectations the slow inbred lines do not maintain higher average fitness than the fast inbred lines. Furthermore, we found that stressful environmental conditions increased the level of inbreeding depression but the impact of inbreeding rate on the level of inbreeding depression was not affected by the environmental conditions. The results do not support the hypothesis that inbreeding depression is less severe with slow compared to fast rates of inbreeding and illustrate that although selection may be more efficient with slower rates of inbreeding this does not necessary lead to less inbreeding depression. PMID:21416261

Kristensen, Torsten Nygaard; Knudsen, Morten Ravn; Loeschcke, Volker

2011-03-18

8

Gene Mapping with Recombinant Inbreds in Maize  

PubMed Central

Recombinant inbred lines of maize have been developed for the rapid mapping of molecular probes to chromosomal location. Two recombinant inbred families have been constructed from F(2) populations of T232 X CM37 and CO159 X Tx303. A genetic map based largely on isozymes and restriction fragment length polymorphisms has been produced that covers virtually the entire maize genome. In order to map a new gene, an investigator has only to determine its allelic distribution among the recombinant inbred lines and then compare it by computer with the distributions of all previously mapped loci. The availability of the recombinant inbreds and the associated data base constitute an efficient means of mapping new molecular markers in maize.

Burr, B.; Burr, F. A.; Thompson, K. H.; Albertson, M. C.; Stuber, C. W.

1988-01-01

9

Molecular marker diversity among current and historical maize inbreds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced-cycle pedigree breeding has caused maize (Zea mays L.) inbreds to become more-elite but more-narrow genetically. Our objectives were to evaluate the genetic distance among\\u000a current and historical maize inbreds, and to estimate how much genetic diversity has been lost among current inbreds. We selected\\u000a eight maize inbreds (B14, B37, B73, B84, Mo17, C103, Oh43 and H99) that largely represented

H. Lu; R. Bernardo

2001-01-01

10

Nucleotide Variation in Wild and Inbred Mice  

PubMed Central

The house mouse is a well-established model organism, particularly for studying the genetics of complex traits. However, most studies of mice use classical inbred strains, whose genomes derive from multiple species. Relatively little is known about the distribution of genetic variation among these species or how variation among strains relates to variation in the wild. We sequenced intronic regions of five X-linked loci in large samples of wild Mus domesticus and M. musculus, and we found low levels of nucleotide diversity in both species. We compared these data to published data from short portions of six X-linked and 18 autosomal loci in wild mice. We estimate that M. domesticus and M. musculus diverged <500,000 years ago. Consistent with this recent divergence, some gene genealogies were reciprocally monophyletic between these species, while others were paraphyletic or polyphyletic. In general, the X chromosome was more differentiated than the autosomes. We resequenced classical inbred strains for all 29 loci and found that inbred strains contain only a small amount of the genetic variation seen in wild mice. Notably, the X chromosome contains proportionately less variation among inbred strains than do the autosomes. Moreover, variation among inbred strains derives from differences between species as well as from differences within species, and these proportions differ in different genomic regions. Wild mice thus provide a reservoir of additional genetic variation that may be useful for mapping studies. Together these results suggest that wild mice will be a valuable complement to laboratory strains for studying the genetics of complex traits.

Salcedo, Tovah; Geraldes, Armando; Nachman, Michael W.

2007-01-01

11

Genotypic Variation for Glycinebetaine among Public Inbreds of Maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

Screening ofa rangeofpublic maize(ZeamaysL.)inbred lines forglycinebetaine (betaine) content overtwogrowing seasons (1987 and1988), using fast atombombardment mass spectrom- etry, hasidentified 19public inbred lines whichallexhibit low betaine levels (<100nanomoles pergram fresh weight). These include common inbreds suchasA188,A619,B37,H95,N6,and Oh43.Several inbreds exhibit highbetaine levels (3000 to10000 nanomoles pergram fresh weight); inthesestrongly betaine- positive inbreds, betaine levels tendedtobe,on average,1.38- fold greater inthe1988growing seasonpresumably inpartdue tofield

Dennis G. Brunk; Patrick J. Rich; D. Rhodes

1989-01-01

12

Selection of Genetically Diverse Recombinant Inbreds with an Ordered Gene Evolutionary Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recombinant inbreds are created by crossing two genetically distinct inbred lines and then inbreeding the resulting progeny multiple times. They are used to estimate associations of genes by co-inheritance of alleles from the two parent inbred types in the recombinant inbreds derived from the cross in a process called genetic mapping. Typically the recombinant inbred lines used in a genetic

Daniel A. Ashlock; Ruth Swanson; Patrick S. Schnable

2005-01-01

13

Genotypic Variation for Glycinebetaine among Public Inbreds of Maize.  

PubMed

Screening of a range of public maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines for glycinebetaine (betaine) content over two growing seasons (1987 and 1988), using fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry, has identified 19 public inbred lines which all exhibit low betaine levels (<100 nanomoles per gram fresh weight). These include common inbreds such as A188, A619, B37, H95, N6, and Oh43. Several inbreds exhibit high betaine levels (3000 to 10000 nanomoles per gram fresh weight); in these strongly betaine-positive inbreds, betaine levels tended to be, on average, 1.38-fold greater in the 1988 growing season presumably in part due to field water deficits experienced during the drought of 1988. Where several different sources of the same inbred line were available (including cytoplasmic male sterile and restored lines of A632, B37, B73, Oh43, and WF9), betaine levels were found to be similar when the inbreds were tested in the same environment. Because W22-R/r-X1 was found to be strongly betaine-positive, it should be possible to map the putative recessive gene(s) determining betaine deficiency to specific chromosome(s) from monosomics resulting from crosses between W22-R/r-X1 and betaine-deficient lines. PMID:16667121

Brunk, D G; Rich, P J; Rhodes, D

1989-11-01

14

Genotypic Variation for Glycinebetaine among Public Inbreds of Maize 1  

PubMed Central

Screening of a range of public maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines for glycinebetaine (betaine) content over two growing seasons (1987 and 1988), using fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry, has identified 19 public inbred lines which all exhibit low betaine levels (<100 nanomoles per gram fresh weight). These include common inbreds such as A188, A619, B37, H95, N6, and Oh43. Several inbreds exhibit high betaine levels (3000 to 10000 nanomoles per gram fresh weight); in these strongly betaine-positive inbreds, betaine levels tended to be, on average, 1.38-fold greater in the 1988 growing season presumably in part due to field water deficits experienced during the drought of 1988. Where several different sources of the same inbred line were available (including cytoplasmic male sterile and restored lines of A632, B37, B73, Oh43, and WF9), betaine levels were found to be similar when the inbreds were tested in the same environment. Because W22-R/r-X1 was found to be strongly betaine-positive, it should be possible to map the putative recessive gene(s) determining betaine deficiency to specific chromosome(s) from monosomics resulting from crosses between W22-R/r-X1 and betaine-deficient lines.

Brunk, Dennis G.; Rich, Patrick J.; Rhodes, David

1989-01-01

15

Cytoarchitecture and Transcriptional Profiles of Neocortical Malformations in Inbred Mice  

PubMed Central

Malformations of neocortical development are associated with cognitive dysfunction and increased susceptibility to epileptogenesis. Rodent models are widely used to study neocortical malformations and have revealed important genetic and environmental mechanisms that contribute to neocortical development. Interestingly, several inbred mice strains commonly used in behavioral, anatomical, and/or physiological studies display neocortical malformations. In the present report we examine the cytoarchitecture and myeloarchitecture of the neocortex of 11 inbred mouse strains and identified malformations of cortical development, including molecular layer heterotopia, in all but one strain. We used in silico methods to confirm our observations and determined the transcriptional profiles of cells found within heterotopia. These data indicate cellular and transcriptional diversity present in cells in malformations. Furthermore, the presence of dysplasia in nearly every inbred strain examined suggests that malformations of neocortical development are a common feature in the neocortex of inbred mice.

Ramos, Raddy L.; Smith, Phoebe T.; DeCola, Christopher; Tam, Danny; Corzo, Oscar

2008-01-01

16

Reproduction of Meloidogyne javanica on Corn Hybrids and Inbreds.  

PubMed

The reproductive potential of a Meloidogyne javanica population on 64 commercial corn hybrids and 33 corn inbred lines was determined in greenhouse experiments. Reproduction was measured by determining RF values (final egg number per initial egg number) and number of eggs per gram of fresh root. All corn hybrids supported reproduction greater than RF = 1.0. RF values for the hybrids ranged from 1.1 for 'Pioneer 3147' to 15.5 for 'Coker 8575'. Three inbreds -- MpT03, NC246, and Mp307 -- maintained M. javanica below the initial population level, with RF values of 0.7, 0.7, and 0.8, respectively. Three other inbreds -- F6, Mp704, and T220 -- maintained M. javanica at RF = 1.0. RF values of the other 27 inbreds ranged from 1.2 for Mp313 to 9.5 for B37. PMID:19290297

Windham, G L; Williams, W P

1988-10-01

17

Reproduction of Meloidogyne javanica on Corn Hybrids and Inbreds  

PubMed Central

The reproductive potential of a Meloidogyne javanica population on 64 commercial corn hybrids and 33 corn inbred lines was determined in greenhouse experiments. Reproduction was measured by determining RF values (final egg number per initial egg number) and number of eggs per gram of fresh root. All corn hybrids supported reproduction greater than RF = 1.0. RF values for the hybrids ranged from 1.1 for 'Pioneer 3147' to 15.5 for 'Coker 8575'. Three inbreds -- MpT03, NC246, and Mp307 -- maintained M. javanica below the initial population level, with RF values of 0.7, 0.7, and 0.8, respectively. Three other inbreds -- F6, Mp704, and T220 -- maintained M. javanica at RF = 1.0. RF values of the other 27 inbreds ranged from 1.2 for Mp313 to 9.5 for B37.

Windham, G. L.; Williams, W. P.

1988-01-01

18

Inbred mouse strain survey of sucrose intake.  

PubMed

Mouse strain differences for intake of sucrose and saccharin have been reported across studies, and some of these differences have been related to variants of the Tas1r3 taste receptor gene. However, several methodological concerns remain, including use of relatively few strains and/or a limited number of palatable concentrations in previous analyses. The present study examined strain differences in sucrose intake among 11 inbred (A/J, AKR/J, BALB/cJ, CBA/J, C3H/HeJ, C57BL6/J, C57BL10/J, DBA/2J, SJL/J, SWR/J, 129P3/J) and one outbred (CD-1) mouse strains across nine different sucrose concentrations (0.0001-20%) using two-bottle 24-h preference tests which controlled for sucrose concentration presentation effects, sucrose and water bottle positions, and measurement of kilocalorie intake as sucrose or chow. A/J, C57BL/6J, CD-1 and SWR/J strains consumed the greatest (11.6-22 ml) amount of sucrose, whereas the A/J, C57BL/10J, SJL/J and SWR/J strains consumed the greatest (44-56%) percentages of kilocalories as sucrose. The AKR/J, CBA/J, C3H/HeJ and DBA/2J strains consumed the least (6.9-7.9 ml) amount of sucrose, and displayed lower (20-30%) percentages of kilocalories consumed as sucrose. Whereas A/J, C57BL/6J, C57BL/10J, CD-1, SWR/J and SJL/J strains all displayed the most pronounced compensatory decreases in chow intake as the percentage of kilocalories consumed as sucrose increased, the AKR/J, C3H/HeJ and DBA/2J strains failed to significantly alter chow intake even at high sucrose concentrations. There was a paucity of significant correlations in the percentage of sucrose intake between sucrose concentrations, but percentage of sucrose intake at lower concentrations did correlate with previous descriptions of saccharin intake and variants of the Tas1r3 taste receptor gene. These data demonstrate clear mouse strain differences across a range of measures in sucrose intake across a wide range of concentrations, but caution against extrapolating between extremely high and low concentrations. The identification of strains with diverging abilities to regulate kilocalorie intake when presented with high sucrose concentrations may lead to the successful QTL mapping of this trait. PMID:15996693

Lewis, Sarah R; Ahmed, Sabrina; Dym, Cheryl; Khaimova, Eleonora; Kest, Benjamin; Bodnar, Richard J

2005-08-01

19

REPRODUCTION OF PARATRICHODORUS MINOR ON CORN HYBRIDS AND INBREDS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In the southeastern United States, stubby-root nematode (Paratrichodorus minor) causes more damage to corn (Zea mays) than any other plant-parasitic nematode. Currently, there is no known source of resistance in corn to this nematode. Our objective was to evaluate corn hybrids and inbreds for resi...

20

Variation in haematological parameters among inbred strains of rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Haematological determinations were carried out on 7 inbred strains of rats using a standardized procedure. Significant genetic variation was found for many of the parameters although none of the strains had values which could be termed pathological. Measurements also varied significantly from day to day. Factorial analysis of variance is shown to be a powerful method for the investigation

D. P. Lovell; R. K. Archer; Joan Riley; R. K. Morgan

1981-01-01

21

The Solution to Hyperglucagonemia after Pancreas Transplantation in Inbred Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: We studied the possible role of the diseased host pancreas and site of venous graft drainage in the development of hyperglucagonemia after pancreas transplantation, to identify the crucial steps of the technique capable of eliminating hyperglucagonemia and its possible diabetogenic effect. Methods: Therefore, we compared 4 groups of inbred rats: (1) heterotopic pancreas transplantation with either systemic (n =

H. J. Kissler; R. Hennig; H. Gepp; W. Hohenberger; P. O. Schwille

2001-01-01

22

Detection of Misspecified Relationships in Inbred and Outbred Pedigrees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genome screen data collected for linkage analysis can be used to detect pedigree errors. We have developed methods applicable to a broad range of relationships. We discuss applications of our methods to data on asthma, in which we detect a number of likely misspecified relative pairs. We propose a graphical method for error detection in complex inbred pedigrees, with application

Lei Sun; Mark Abney; Mary Sara McPeek

2001-01-01

23

Successful Agrobacterium -Mediated Genetic Transformation of Maize Elite Inbred lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

An efficient transformation system was developed for maize (Zea mays L.) elite inbred lines using Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer by identifying important factors that affected transformation efficiency. The hypervirulent Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 proved to be better than octopine LBA4404 and nopaline GV3101. Improved transformation efficiencies were obtained when immature embryos were inocubated with Agrobacterium suspension cells (A600 = 0.8) for 20 min in

Xueqing Huang; Zhiming Wei

2005-01-01

24

Tympanometry Assessment of 61 Inbred Strains of Mice  

PubMed Central

Otitis Media (OM) accounts for more than 20 million clinic visits in the United States every year. Resistance to antibiotics has hampered current management of the disease. Identification of genetic factors underlying susceptibility to OM is greatly needed in order to develop alternative treatment strategies. Genetically defined inbred mouse strains offer a powerful tool for dissecting genetic and environmental factors that may lead to OM in mice. Here we report a study of middle ear function of 61 genetically diverse inbred strains of mice using tympanometry. Of the 61 inbred strains tested, the 129P1/ReJ, 129P3/J, 129S1/SvImJ, 129X1/SvJ, A/HeJ, BALB/cJ, BUB/BnJ, C57L/J, EL/SuzSeyFrkJ, FVB/NJ, I/LnJ, LP/J, NZB/BlNJ, PL/J and YBR/Ei strains exhibited tympanograms that were statistically different from other healthy strains according to parameters including middle ear pressure, volume and compliance. These differences are most likely the result of genetic factors that, when understood, will facilitate prevention and treatment of otitis media in humans. In addition, a negative correlation between age and compliance of the tympanic membrane was discovered. This is the first report to successfully use tympanometry to measure mouse middle ear function, which has been a challenge for the hearing research field because of the mouse’s tiny ear size.

Zheng, Qing Yin; Tong, Yi-Cai Isaac; Alagramam, Kumar N.; Yu, Heping

2007-01-01

25

Ethanol Teratogenesis in Five Inbred Strains of Mice  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies have demonstrated individual differences in susceptibility to the detrimental effects of prenatal ethanol exposure. Many factors, including genetic differences, have been shown to play a role in susceptibility and resistance, but few studies have investigated the range of genetic variation in rodent models. Methods We examined ethanol teratogenesis in five inbred strains of mice: C57BL/6J (B6), Inbred Short-Sleep, C3H/Ibg, A/Ibg and 129S6/SvEvTac (129). Pregnant dams were intubated with either 5.8 g/kg ethanol (E) or an isocaloric amount of maltose-dextrin (MD) on day 9 of pregnancy. Dams were sacrificed on day 18 and fetuses were weighed, sexed and examined for gross morphological malformations. Every other fetus within a litter was then either placed in Bouin’s fixative for subsequent soft-tissue analyses or eviscerated and placed in ethanol for subsequent skeletal analyses. Results B6 mice exposed to ethanol in utero had fetal weight deficits and digit, kidney, brain ventricle and vertebral malformations. In contrast, 129 mice showed no teratogenesis. The remaining strains showed varying degrees of teratogenesis. Conclusions Differences among inbred strains demonstrates genetic variation in the teratogenic effects of ethanol. Identifying susceptible and resistant strains allows future studies to elucidate the genetic architecture underlying prenatal alcohol phenotypes.

Downing, Chris; Balderrama-Durbin, Christina; Broncucia, Hali; Gilliam, David; Johnson, Thomas E.

2010-01-01

26

Condition, innate immunity and disease mortality of inbred crows  

PubMed Central

Cooperatively breeding American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) suffer a severe disease-mediated survival cost from inbreeding, but the proximate mechanisms linking inbreeding to disease are unknown. Here, we examine indices of nestling body condition and innate immunocompetence in relationship to inbreeding and disease mortality. Using an estimate of microsatellite heterozygosity that predicts inbreeding in this population, we show that inbred crows were in relatively poor condition as nestlings, and that body condition index measured in the first 2–33 days after hatching, in addition to inbreeding index, predicted disease probability in the first 34 months of life. Inbred nestlings also mounted a weaker response along one axis of innate immunity: the proportion of bacteria killed in a microbiocidal assay increased as heterozygosity index increased. Relatively poor body condition and low innate immunocompetence are two mechanisms that might predispose inbred crows to ultimate disease mortality. A better understanding of condition-mediated inbreeding depression can guide efforts to minimize disease costs of inbreeding in small populations.

Townsend, Andrea K.; Clark, Anne B.; McGowan, Kevin J.; Miller, Andrew D.; Buckles, Elizabeth L.

2010-01-01

27

Natural variation and genetic covariance in adult hippocampal neurogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is highly variable and heritable among laboratory strains of mice. Adult neurogenesis is also remarkably plastic and can be modulated by environment and activity. Here, we provide a systematic quantitative analysis of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in two large genetic reference panels of recombinant inbred strains (BXD and AXB\\/BXA, n = 52 strains). We combined data on variation

Gerd Kempermann; Elissa J. Chesler; Lu Lu; Robert Williams; Fred H. Gage

2006-01-01

28

RFLP-based estimates of parental contribution to F2- and BC1-derived maize inbreds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selection and genetic drift during inbreeding may cause differences between the actual and expected proportions of the genome\\u000a derived by an inbred from each of its parents. We used 70 RFLP loci to determine the frequency and magnitude of deviations\\u000a from the expected parental contribution among F2- and BC1-derived maize (Zea mays L.) inbreds. Assuming inbreds i and j were

R. Bernardo; A. Murigneux; J. P. Maisonneuve; C. Johnsson; Z. Karaman

1997-01-01

29

The Genetic Basis for the Graft-against-Host Reaction between Inbred Lines of Fowls. Differences between the Reaseheath C and I Inbred Lines  

PubMed Central

The splenic enlargement in chick embryos injected with adult chicken blood is the consequence of a graft-against-host reaction directed against host antigens which differ from those of the donors. The mode of genetic determination of these antigens has been studied by injecting parental line blood into F2 and backcross chick embryos between the Reaseheath C and I lines of inbred fowls. The proportions of embryos showing no splenic enlargement have been compared with the theoretical expectations of 4-n in the F2 and 2-n in the backcross to the donating line, where n is the number of antigenic loci by which the lines differ. The results suggest that the lines differ in respect of one strong antigenic locus, and possibly other weaker loci. It is believed that certain results obtained with C-line and F1 donors may be explained by the occurrence of antigenic segregation within the C line. Evidence for a gene dosage effect was meagre. In certain donor-host combinations an enhanced splenomegaly was obtained in female embryos but the mechanism for this was not discovered.

Jaffe, W. P.; Payne, L. N.

1962-01-01

30

O3INDUCED ACUTE PULMONARY INJURY IN INBRED MOUSE STRAINS  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine if host factors influence the time course and extent of lung injury after acute inhalation of ozone (O3), we evaluated the physiologic and biologic response of nine genetically diverse inbred strains of mice (C57BL\\/6J, 129\\/SvIm, BTBR, BALB\\/cJ, DBA\\/ 2J, A\\/J, FVB\\/NJ, CAST\\/Ei, and C3H\\/HeJ) exposed to O3 (2.0 ppm 3 h). Whole lung lavage determined that 129\\/Svlm, BTBR,

Jordan D. Savov; Gregory S. Whitehead; Jianme Wang; Guochun Liao; Jonathan Usuka; Gary Peltz; W. Michael Foster; David A. Schwartz

2004-01-01

31

Birth of MHC-defined rhesus monkeys produced by assisted reproductive technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the best animal approaches for testing HIV vaccines is the challenge of vaccinated rhesus macaques with SHIV or SIV. Production of rhesus macaques in which all of the MHC class I and II alleles are known represents an opportunity to characterize the entire immune response to SIV and should be an invaluable resource for understanding pathogenesis and vaccine-induced

R. Dee Schramm; Ann Marie Paprocki; David I. Watkins

2001-01-01

32

Growth of pleomorphic Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense in irradiated inbred mice  

SciTech Connect

It was shown that irradiation (650 rad) of 7 inbred strains of mice did not block the ability of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense to transform from the long slender (LS) to the short stumpy (SS) form or alter the plateau in parasitemia. In addition, it was observed that significant differences in parasitemia levels, in the rate of transformation from the LS to the SS form, as well as in the survival times occurred between the irradiated C3HeB/FeJ and several of the other strains. These differences in the nonspecific ability to control parasitemia appeared to be characteristic for each inbred strain of mice. The resistant strains generally had lower parasitemia than the susceptible strains. However, it was also shown that there is not a one-to-one correlation between the innate ability of a mouse strain to control its initial parasitemia, and the strain's ability to clear the parasitemia or increase its survival time. It was therefore concluded that the hypothesis which states that the ability of an animal to increase nonspecifically the rate of transformation, and therefore to lower the parasitemia, allowing intact animals to respond immunologically and survive longer is either incorrect or incomplete. The results further show that the ability of mice to clear their initial parasitemia by an antibody response is not necessarily correlated with their survival time. Therefore, this study suggests that factors other than an antibody response and the nonspecific control of parasitemia are important in resistance.

Seed, J.R.; Sechelski, J.

1988-10-01

33

Mapping QTL Using Naturally Occurring Genetic Variance among Commercial Inbred Lines of Maize (Zea mays L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract ,There are many commercial inbred lines available in crops. Large amount of genetic variation is preserved among,these lines. The genealogical history of the inbred lines is usually well documented. However, quantitative trait loci (QTL) responsible for the genetic variances among,the lines are largely unexplored due to lack of statistical methods. In this study, we show that the pedigree information

Yuan-Ming Zhang; Yongcai Mao; Chongqing Xie; Howie Smith; Lang Luo; Shizhong Xu

2005-01-01

34

Physiological and biochemical bases of fall armyworm resistance in the seedlings of maize inbred lines  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Four CIMMYT maize inbred lines (i.e., CML333, CML335, CML 336, and CML338), and a susceptible (i.e., AB24E) and resistant (i.e., Mp780) control were examined for the mechanisms of fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda (JE Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) resistance. The six inbred lines were ev...

35

Diagnostics of low-pressure discharges containing InBr studied for lighting applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The utilization of InBr in low-pressure rare-gas plasmas for lighting applications may serve as an efficient alternative to hazardous mercury, which is used in common fluorescent lamps as a radiator. In order to perform systematic investigations of these discharges, diagnostic methods are required to gain insight into the relevant plasma parameters. This goal can be achieved by using white light absorption and optical emission spectroscopy supported by an extended corona model of the indium atom and a simulation of the relative intensity of the InBr emission. The set of diagnostic methods is exemplarily applied to measurements on an inductively coupled argon discharge at 100 W power with varying InBr content. The plasma parameters are derived and the processes determining their changes with varying InBr density are identified. Increasing the InBr density results in a decrease in Te but an increase in ne, which can be explained by considering the ionization and power balance. The relevant population processes for the rovibrational states of InBr are inelastic collisions with heavy particles with an increasing importance of electron impact excitation at a higher InBr density. The radiated power is maximal at a cold spot temperature between 210 and 220 °C as reabsorption occurs at a high InBr density.

Briefi, S.; Fantz, U.

2013-10-01

36

Genetic Structure and Diversity Among Maize Inbred Lines as Inferred From DNA Microsatellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two hundred and sixty maize inbred lines, representative of the genetic diversity among essentially all public lines of importance to temperate breeding and many important tropical and subtropical lines, were assayed for polymorphism at 94 microsatellite loci. The 2039 alleles identified served as raw data for estimating genetic structure and diversity. A model-based clustering analysis placed the inbred lines in

Kejun Liu; Major Goodman; Spencer Muse; J. Stephen Smith; Ed Buckler; John Doebley

2003-01-01

37

Copy number variant detection in inbred strains from short read sequence data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: We have developed an algorithm to detect copy number variants (CNVs) in homozygous organisms, such as inbred laboratory strains of mice, from short read sequence data. Our novel approach exploits the fact that inbred mice are homozygous at virtually every position in the genome to detect CNVs using a hidden Markov model (HMM). This HMM uses both the density

Jared T. Simpson; Rebecca E. McIntyre; David J. Adams; Richard Durbin

2010-01-01

38

Molecular Characterization of Maize Inbreds with Expired U.S. Plant Variety Protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maize inbred lines with expired Plant Variety Protection Act (PVPA) certifi cates are pub- licly available and potentially represent a new germplasm resource for many public and pri- vate breeding programs. However, accurate pedigree and genetic background information for ex-PVPA maize inbreds is necessary if they are to be effectively utilized in breeding efforts. We have used single nucleotide polymorphism

Paul T. Nelson; Nathan D. Coles; James B. Holland; David M. Bubeck; Stephen Smith; Major M. Goodman

2008-01-01

39

Restraint stress and exogenous corticosterone differentially alter sensitivity to the sedative-hypnotic effects of ethanol in inbred long-sleep and inbred short-sleep mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decreased sensitivity to ethanol is a genetically mediated trait implicated in susceptibility to developing alcoholism. Here, we explore genotype by environment differences in ethanol sensitivity. The relationship between acute- and repeated-restraint stress, corticosterone (CORT) levels, and sensitivity to sedative-hypnotic properties of ethanol was explored using inbred long-sleep (ILS) and inbred short-sleep (ISS) mice. In ILS mice, acute restraint decreased ethanol

Clarissa Carlin Parker; Heather Ponicsan; Robert Leon Spencer; Andrew Holmes; Thomas Eugene Johnson

2008-01-01

40

Standing variation and new mutations both contribute to a fast response to selection for flowering time in maize inbreds  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In order to investigate the rate and limits of the response to selection from highly inbred genetic material and evaluate the respective contribution of standing variation and new mutations, we conducted a divergent selection experiment from maize inbred lines in open-field conditions during 7 years. Two maize commercial seed lots considered as inbred lines, F252 and MBS847, constituted two

Eléonore Durand; Maud I Tenaillon; Céline Ridel; Denis Coubriche; Philippe Jamin; Sophie Jouanne; Adrienne Ressayre; Alain Charcosset; Christine Dillmann

2010-01-01

41

Sustained nicotine release comparisons in six inbred rat strains.  

PubMed

The utility of an implantable nicotine reservoir for rats (INRr) in both sexes of several rat strains is described. INRrs with similar nicotine release rates produced higher blood nicotine levels in small female rats compared to larger male Sprague-Dawley rats. Blood nicotine levels declined significantly over a 32-day exposure to the INRr in female Sprague-Dawley rats. In several inbred rat strains (Sprague-Dawley, Fischer, Buffalo, Marshall, Irish, Maudsley), 15-day INRr exposure produced characteristic body weight changes and blood nicotine level changes. Blood nicotine levels in both sexes of various strains are primarily dependent upon body weight characteristics. We conclude that the INRr can be an important tool for the study of the chronic effects of nicotine in rats. PMID:2780789

Erickson, C K; Byers, K I

1989-05-01

42

Distribution of Parental Genome Blocks in Recombinant Inbred Lines  

PubMed Central

We consider recombinant inbred lines obtained by crossing two given homozygous parents and then applying multiple generations of self-crossings or full-sib matings. The chromosomal content of any such line forms a mosaic of blocks, each alternatively inherited identically by descent from one of the parents. Quantifying the statistical properties of such mosaic genomes has remained an open challenge for many years. Here, we solve this problem by taking a continuous chromosome picture and assuming crossovers to be noninterfering. Using a continuous-time random walk framework and Markov chain theory, we determine the statistical properties of these identical-by-descent blocks. We find that successive block lengths are only very slightly correlated. Furthermore, the blocks on the ends of chromosomes are larger on average than the others, a feature understandable from the nonexponential distribution of block lengths.

Martin, Olivier C.; Hospital, Frederic

2011-01-01

43

Comprehensive genotyping of the USA national maize inbred seed bank  

PubMed Central

Background Genotyping by sequencing, a new low-cost, high-throughput sequencing technology was used to genotype 2,815 maize inbred accessions, preserved mostly at the National Plant Germplasm System in the USA. The collection includes inbred lines from breeding programs all over the world. Results The method produced 681,257 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers distributed across the entire genome, with the ability to detect rare alleles at high confidence levels. More than half of the SNPs in the collection are rare. Although most rare alleles have been incorporated into public temperate breeding programs, only a modest amount of the available diversity is present in the commercial germplasm. Analysis of genetic distances shows population stratification, including a small number of large clusters centered on key lines. Nevertheless, an average fixation index of 0.06 indicates moderate differentiation between the three major maize subpopulations. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) decays very rapidly, but the extent of LD is highly dependent on the particular group of germplasm and region of the genome. The utility of these data for performing genome-wide association studies was tested with two simply inherited traits and one complex trait. We identified trait associations at SNPs very close to known candidate genes for kernel color, sweet corn, and flowering time; however, results suggest that more SNPs are needed to better explore the genetic architecture of complex traits. Conclusions The genotypic information described here allows this publicly available panel to be exploited by researchers facing the challenges of sustainable agriculture through better knowledge of the nature of genetic diversity.

2013-01-01

44

Impaired social memories in 129P2 inbred mice are rescued by reduced Csk expression.  

PubMed

The C-terminal Src kinase (Csk) is an essential signaling factor guiding central nervous system (CNS) development. In the adult brain, Csk-mediated control of Src may also modulate glutamatergic synaptic transmission and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-dependent synaptic plasticity. The regulation of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-dependent plasticity by a myriad of kinase cascades has been investigated intensively during spatial and fear learning, while little is known about the regulatory kinases and role of NMDA-dependent plasticity during equally critical forms of social learning. We assessed social memory in Csk(+/+) and Csk(+/-) mice backcrossed onto 129P2, an inbred strain with wild-type impairments in social memory. Reduced Csk expression in Csk(+/-) mice was associated with increased NMDAR subunit 2B (NR2B) phosphorylation in the amygdala (AM) and olfactory bulb (OB), and with markedly improved social recognition memory and social transmission of food preference (STFP). In contrast, phosphorylation of NR2B was only slightly increased in the hippocampus of 129P2/Csk(+/-) mice, and the poor spatial object recognition memory of wild-type 129P2/Csk(+/+) mice was not rescued by reduced Csk expression. The Csk pathway appears to be a critical signaling cascade regulating social learning and memory, and presents a possible therapeutic target in diseases such as autism that are characterized by aberrant social behaviors. PMID:22348736

Sinai, L; Mathew, R; Roder, J C

2012-03-21

45

Phenotypic integration among trabecular and cortical bone traits establishes mechanical functionality of inbred mouse vertebrae.  

PubMed

Conventional approaches to identifying quantitative trait loci (QTLs) regulating bone mass and fragility are limited because they examine cortical and trabecular traits independently. Prior work examining long bones from young adult mice and humans indicated that skeletal traits are functionally related and that compensatory interactions among morphological and compositional traits are critical for establishing mechanical function. However, it is not known whether trait covariation (i.e., phenotypic integration) also is important for establishing mechanical function in more complex, corticocancellous structures. Covariation among trabecular, cortical, and compositional bone traits was examined in the context of mechanical functionality for L(4) vertebral bodies across a panel of 16-wk-old female AXB/BXA recombinant inbred (RI) mouse strains. The unique pattern of randomization of the A/J and C57BL/6J (B6) genome among the RI panel provides a powerful tool that can be used to measure the tendency for different traits to covary and to study the biology of complex traits. We tested the hypothesis that genetic variants affecting vertebral size and mass are buffered by changes in the relative amounts of cortical and trabecular bone and overall mineralization. Despite inheriting random sets of A/J and B6 genomes, the RI strains inherited nonrandom sets of cortical and trabecular bone traits. Path analysis, which is a multivariate analysis that shows how multiple traits covary simultaneously when confounding variables like body size are taken into consideration, showed that RI strains that tended to have smaller vertebrae relative to body size achieved mechanical functionality by increasing mineralization and the relative amounts of cortical and trabecular bone. The interdependence among corticocancellous traits in the vertebral body indicated that variation in trabecular bone traits among inbred mouse strains, which is often thought to arise from genetic factors, is also determined in part by the adaptive response to variation in traits describing the cortical shell. The covariation among corticocancellous traits has important implications for genetic analyses and for interpreting the response of bone to genetic and environmental perturbations. PMID:19063678

Tommasini, Steven M; Hu, Bin; Nadeau, Joseph H; Jepsen, Karl J

2009-04-01

46

NaCl Taste Thresholds in 13 Inbred Mouse Strains  

PubMed Central

Molecular mechanisms of salty taste in mammals are not completely understood. We use genetic approaches to study these mechanisms. Previously, we developed a high-throughput procedure to measure NaCl taste thresholds, which involves conditioning mice to avoid LiCl and then examining avoidance of NaCl solutions presented in 48-h 2-bottle preference tests. Using this procedure, we measured NaCl taste thresholds of mice from 13 genealogically divergent inbred stains: 129P3/J, A/J, BALB/cByJ, C3H/HeJ, C57BL/6ByJ, C57BL/6J, CBA/J, CE/J, DBA/2J, FVB/NJ, NZB/BlNJ, PWK/PhJ, and SJL/J. We found substantial strain variation in NaCl taste thresholds: mice from the A/J and 129P3/J strains had high thresholds (were less sensitive), whereas mice from the BALB/cByJ, C57BL/6J, C57BL/6ByJ, CE/J, DBA/2J, NZB/BINJ, and SJL/J had low thresholds (were more sensitive). NaCl taste thresholds measured in this study did not significantly correlate with NaCl preferences or amiloride sensitivity of chorda tympani nerve responses to NaCl determined in the same strains in other studies. To examine whether strain differences in NaCl taste thresholds could have been affected by variation in learning ability or sensitivity to toxic effects of LiCl, we used the same method to measure citric acid taste thresholds in 4 inbred strains with large differences in NaCl taste thresholds but similar acid sensitivity in preference tests (129P3/J, A/J, C57BL/6J, and DBA/2J). Citric acid taste thresholds were similar in these 4 strains. This suggests that our technique measures taste quality–specific thresholds that are likely to represent differences in peripheral taste responsiveness. The strain differences in NaCl taste sensitivity found in this study provide a basis for genetic analysis of this phenotype.

Ishiwatari, Yutaka

2012-01-01

47

Variability of protection in inbred mice induced by a ribosomal vaccine prepared from Salmonella typhimurium.  

PubMed Central

Ribosomal vaccines prepared from Salmonella typhimurium were effective immunogens in A/J inbred mice and C3H/HeTex, inbred mice. However, ribosomal vaccines were not protective in C57BL/6J inbred mice. A/J mice were protected against lethal challenge by attenuated S. typhimurium live-cell, ribosomal, phenol, and heat-killed vaccines. C3H/HeTex mice were protected by live-cell, ribosomal, and phenol vaccines but not the heat-killed vaccine. Only the live-cell vaccine gave significant protection in the C57BL/6J inbred mice. A comparison of the kinetics of infection in sham-immunized mice and mice immunized with ribosomes showed that ribosome preparations elicited protection against Salmonella infection in mice inherently sensitive and resistant to Salmonella.

Misfeldt, M L; Johnson, W

1976-01-01

48

Characterization of Inbred Mouse Strains for Biochemical Parameters of Detoxification Mechanisms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Nonfasted female mice of the inbred mouse strains maintained at NCTR were assayed for hepatic glutathione concentration, serum gamma-glutamyl transferase activity and hepatic glutathione S-transferase activity (substrates: 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, 1,2...

G. Wolff

1985-01-01

49

Cadmium distribution in maize inbred lines: Effects of pH and level of Cd supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to investigate the physiological basis of the differential Cd distribution and the degree of variation of this Cd\\u000a distribution among maize inbred lines, six inbreds designated earlier as ‘shoot Cd excluders’ (B73, H99, and H96) and ‘non-shoot\\u000a Cd excluders’ (B37, H98, and N28) were grown in nutrient solution culture at different external Cd levels or at different\\u000a pH.

P. J. Florijn; M. L. Van Beusichem

1993-01-01

50

Inbred mouse strains vary in oral self-selection of nicotine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inbred mouse strains differ in sensitivity to a first dose of nicotine and in the development of tolerance to nicotine. The experiments reported here used six inbred mouse strains (A, BUB, C3H, C57BL\\/6, DBA\\/2, ST\\/b) that differ in sensitivity to an acute challenge dose of nicotine to determine whether differences in oral self-selection of nicotine exist. Animals were presented with

S. F. Robinson; M. J. Marks; A. C. Collins

1996-01-01

51

Differences in Caffeine 3Demethylation Activity among Inbred Mouse Strains: A Comparison of Hepatic Cyp1a2Gene Expression between Two Inbred Strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 3-demethylation of caffeine can be used as an index of cytochrome P450 CYP1A2 activityin vivo.We compared the plasma levels of caffeine and the 3-demethylated metabolite, 1,7-dimethylxanthine, in six common inbred strains (A\\/J, P\\/J, BALB\\/cJ, C3H\\/HeJ, AKR\\/J, and SWR\\/J) and one inbred strain (APN) derived in our laboratory from outbred Swiss–Webster mice on the basis of its relative susceptibility to

William L. Casley; J. Allan Menzies; Michel Girard; Lyse Larocque; Nicole Mousseau; Larry W. Whitehouse; Thomas W. Moon

1997-01-01

52

Recombinant inbred systems can advance research in behavioral ecology  

PubMed Central

Recombinant inbred (RI) systems such as the BXD mouse family represent a population with defined genetic architecture and variation that approximates those of natural populations. With the development of novel RI lines and sophisticated methods that conjointly analyze phenotype, gene sequence, and expression data, RI systems such as BXD are a timely and powerful tool to advance the field of behavioral ecology. The latter traditionally focused on functional questions such as the adaptive value of behavior but largely ignored underlying genetics and mechanisms. In this perspective, we argue that using RI systems to address questions in behavioral ecology and evolutionary biology has great potential to advance research in these fields. We outline key questions and how they can be tackled using RI systems and BXD in particular. The unique opportunity to analyze genetic and phenotypic data from studies conducted in different laboratories and at different times is a key benefit of RI systems and may lead the way to a better understanding of how adaptive phenotypes arise from genetic and environmental factors.

Gini, Beatrice; Hager, Reinmar

2012-01-01

53

Combining ability of tropical and temperate inbred lines of popcorn.  

PubMed

In Brazil, using combining ability of popcorn genotypes to achieve superior hybrids has been unsuccessful because the local genotypes are all members of the same heterotic group. To overcome this constraint, 10 lines (P(1) to P(10)) with different adaptations to tropical or temperate edaphoclimatic environments were used to obtain 45 F(1) hybrids in a complete diallel. These hybrids and three controls were evaluated in two environments in Rio de Janeiro State. Grain yield (GY), popping expansion (PE), plant height (PH), ear height (EH), and days to silking (FL) were evaluated in randomized complete blocks with three replications. Significant differences between genotypes (P inbred lines that improved GY were P(3) and P(4), unlike P(8), P(9) and P(10), which improved PE, and P(2), which improved both PE and GY. The additive effects were much more important for PE than for GY. The hybrid combinations gave positive estimates of heterosis for GY but not for PE. PMID:20812195

da Silva, V Q R; do Amaral Júnior, A T; Gonçalves, L S A; Freitas Júnior, S P; Candido, L S; Vittorazzi, C; Moterle, L M; Vieira, R A; Scapim, C A

2010-08-31

54

MicroRNA Expression in the Livers of Inbred Mice  

PubMed Central

MicroRNAs are short, non-coding RNA sequences that regulate genes at the post-transcriptional level and have been shown to be important in development, tissue differentiation, and disease. Limited attention has been given to the natural variation in miRNA expression across genetically diverse populations even though it is well established that genetic polymorphisms can have a profound effect on mRNA levels. Expression level of 577 miRNAs in the livers of 70 strains of inbred mice was assessed, and we found that miRNA expression is highly stable across different strains. Globally, the expression of miRNA target transcripts does not correlate with miRNA expression, primarily due to the low variance of miRNA but high variance of mRNA expression across strains. Our results show that there is little genetic effect on the baseline miRNA levels in murine liver. The stability of mouse liver miRNA expression in a genetically diverse population suggests that treatment-induced disruptions in liver miRNA expression, a phenomenon established for a large number of toxicants, may indicate an important mechanism for the disturbance of normal liver function, and may prove to be a useful genetic background-independent biomarker of toxicant effect.

Gatti, Daniel M.; Lu, Lu; Williams, Robert W.; Sun, Wei; Wright, Fred A.; Threadgill, David W.; Rusyn, Ivan

2011-01-01

55

Quantitative trait loci for response to ethanol in an intercontinental set of recombinant inbred lines of Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed

Alcohol, a drug widely abused, impacts the central nervous system functioning of diverse organisms. The behavioral responses to acute alcohol exposure are remarkably similar among humans and fruit flies. In its natural environment, rich in fermentation products, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster encounters relatively high levels of ethanol. The effects of ethanol and its metabolites on Drosophila have been studied for decades, as a model for adaptive evolution. Although extensive work has been done for elucidating patterns of genetic variation, substantially less is known about the genomic regions or genes that underlie the genetic variation of this important trait. To identify regions containing genes involved in the responses to ethanol, we used a mapping population of recombinant inbred (RIL) lines to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) that affect variation in resistance and recovery from ethanol sedation in adults and ethanol resistance in larvae. We mapped fourteen QTL affecting the response to ethanol on the three chromosomes. Seven of the QTL influence the resistance to ethanol in adults, two QTL are related to ethanol-coma recovery in adults and five affect the survival to ethanol in larvae. Most of the QTL were trait specific, suggesting that overlapping but generally unique genetic architectures underlie each trait. Each QTL explained up to 16.8% of the genetic variance among lines. Potential candidate loci contained within our QTL regions were identified and analyzed. PMID:22925826

Defays, Raquel; Bertoli, Carlos Ignacio

2012-08-25

56

Phenotypic Variation of Fluoride Responses between Inbred Strains of Mice  

PubMed Central

Excessive systemic exposure to fluoride (F) can lead to disturbances in bone homeostasis and dental enamel development. We have previously shown strain-specific responses to F in the development of dental fluorosis (DF) and in bone formation/mineralization. The current study was undertaken to further investigate F responsive variations in bone metabolism and to determine possible relationships with DF susceptibility. Seven-week-old male mice from FVB/NJ, C57BL/6J, C3H/HeJ, A/J, 129S1/SvImJ, AKR/J, DBA/2J, and BALB/cByJ inbred strains were exposed to NaF (0 or 50 ppm as F–) in drinking water for 60 days. Sera were collected for F, Ca, Mg, PO4, iPTH, sRANKL, and ALP levels. Bone marrow cells were subjected to ex vivo cell culture for osteoclast potential and CFU colony assays (CFU-fibroblast, CFU-osteoblast, CFU-erythrocyte/granulocyte/macrophage/megakaryocyte, CFU-granulocyte/macrophage, CFU-macrophage, and CFU-granulocyte). Femurs and vertebrae were subjected to micro-CT analyses, biomechanical testing, and F, Mg, and Ca content assays. DF was evaluated using quantitative fluorescence and clinical criteria. Strain-specific responses to F were observed for DF, serum studies, ex vivo cell culture studies, and bone quality. Among the strains, there were no patterns or significant correlations between DF severity and the actions of F on bone homeostasis (serum studies, ex vivo assays, or bone quality parameters). The genetic background continues to play a role in the actions of F on tooth enamel development and bone homeostasis. F exposure led to variable phenotypic responses between strains involving dental enamel development and bone metabolism.

Yan, Dong; Willett, Thomas L.; Gu, Xiao-Mei; Martinez-Mier, E. Angeles; Sardone, Laura; McShane, Lauren; Grynpas, Marc; Everett, Eric T.

2011-01-01

57

Susceptibility of AKXD recombinant inbred mouse strains to lymphomas.  

PubMed Central

We analyzed the susceptibility of 10 AKXD recombinant inbred (RI) mouse strains to lymphomas. These strains were derived from crosses of AKR/J, a highly lymphomatous strain, and DBA/2J, a weakly lymphomatous strain. Of the 10 strains analyzed, nine showed a high incidence of lymphoma development. As with the other 13 AKXD strains analyzed previously (M. L. Mucenski, B. A. Taylor, N. A. Jenkins, and N. G. Copeland, Mol. Cell. Biol. 6:4236-4243, 1986), the mean age at onset of lymphomas and lymphoma types varied among the strains. Whereas some strains were susceptible to T-cell lymphomas, as was the AKR/J parent, other strains were susceptible to B-cell lymphomas or to a combination of T- and B-cell lymphomas. Somatic mink cell focus-forming proviruses appeared causally associated with T-cell lymphomas, whereas somatic ecotropic proviruses appeared causally associated with B-cell lymphomas. Mice with T-cell lymphomas died significantly earlier than mice with other lymphoma types (stem, pre-B, or B cell and myeloid). The numbers of effective loci influencing the mean age at onset of lymphomas, the presence or absence of mink cell focus-forming viruses in tumors, and the frequency of T-cell lymphomas were estimated to be 3.9, 1.8, and 2.7, respectively. Tests of association with marker loci already typed in the AKXD RI strains suggested that two loci, Rmcf and Pmv-25 (or a locus linked to Pmv-25), influence all three trait variables. Finally, D21S16h, a marker locus on distal chromosome 16, showed 50% probability of linkage to a locus that influences the mean age at onset of lymphomas. Additional studies in combination with classical genetic crosses should be helpful in confirming these linkages and in identifying other loci influencing tumor susceptibility in AKXD RI strains.

Gilbert, D J; Neumann, P E; Taylor, B A; Jenkins, N A; Copeland, N G

1993-01-01

58

Drinking spout orifice size affects licking behavior in inbred mice.  

PubMed

Using a lickometer, we assessed the effect of drinking spout orifice size on the licking behavior of inbred mice [C57BL/6J, SWR/J, 129P3/J and DBA/2J]. Animals licked from drinking spout sipper tubes that had what were defined as either a large (2.7 mm) or a small (1.5 mm) orifice. Mice took approximately twice as many licks from a stationary single small orifice drinking spout than when licking from a spout with a large orifice during separate 30-min sessions. However, their total intake volume was approximately the same. We calculated that mice received a mean of 0.55 muL per lick from the drinking tubes with a small orifice and a mean of 1.15 muL per lick from the drinking tubes with a large orifice. Thus, the animals appear to have regulated their fluid intake by proportionally adjusting their licking as a function of the lick volume. On average, this regulation occurred through modulation of the size of licking bursts and not their frequency. However, strain differences in compensation strategy were observed. When licking was restricted to a series of 5-s trials in a 30-min brief access test session, the smaller orifice size increased the range of responsiveness that was expressed. Mice increased their average licks per trial by 20% and took 60% more trials when licking from a spout with a small orifice. Interestingly, when the orifice size was quasi-randomly varied within a brief access session, licking was greater from large orifice drinking spouts, suggesting that water delivered from the two orifice sizes differs in its reinforcement efficacy. These findings demonstrate that drinking spout orifice size can significantly influence experimental outcomes in licking tests involving mice and care should be taken in controlling this variable in testing the effects of taste or other factors on ingestive behavior. PMID:16083923

Dotson, Cedrick D; Spector, Alan C

2005-08-01

59

Social Deficits, Stereotypy, and Early Emergence of Repetitive Behavior in the C58/J Inbred Mouse Strain  

PubMed Central

Mouse lines with behavioral phenotypes relevant to symptoms in neurodevelopmental disorders may provide models to test hypotheses about disease etiology and to evaluate potential treatments. The present studies were designed to confirm and expand earlier work on the intriguing behavioral profile of the C58/J inbred strain, including low social approach and aberrant repetitive movements. Additional tests were selected to reflect aspects of autism, a severe neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by emergence of symptoms early in life, higher prevalence in males, social deficits and abnormal repetitive behavior. Mice from the C57BL/6J inbred strain, which has a similar genetic lineage and physical appearance to C58/J, served as a comparison group. Our results revealed that C58/J mice display elevated activity levels by postnatal day 6, which persist into adulthood. Despite normal olfactory ability, young adult male C58/J mice showed deficits in social approach in the three-chambered choice assay and failed to demonstrate social transmission of food preference. In contrast, female C58/J mice performed similarly to female C57BL/6J mice in both social tests. C58/J mice of both sexes demonstrated abnormal repetitive behaviors, displaying excessive jumping and back flipping in both social and non-social situations. These stereotypies were clearly evident in C58/J pups by postnatal days 20–21, and were also observed in C58/J dams during a test for maternal behavior. Overall, the strain profile for C58/J, including spontaneously developing motor stereotypies emerging early in the developmental trajectory, and social deficits primarily in males, models multiple components of the autism phenotype.

Ryan, Bryce C.; Young, Nancy B.; Crawley, Jacqueline N.; Bodfish, James W.; Moy, Sheryl S.

2010-01-01

60

Fine Mapping in 94 Inbred Mouse Strains Using a High-Density Haplotype Resource  

PubMed Central

The genetics of phenotypic variation in inbred mice has for nearly a century provided a primary weapon in the medical research arsenal. A catalog of the genetic variation among inbred mouse strains, however, is required to enable powerful positional cloning and association techniques. A recent whole-genome resequencing study of 15 inbred mouse strains captured a significant fraction of the genetic variation among a limited number of strains, yet the common use of hundreds of inbred strains in medical research motivates the need for a high-density variation map of a larger set of strains. Here we report a dense set of genotypes from 94 inbred mouse strains containing 10.77 million genotypes over 121,433 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), dispersed at 20-kb intervals on average across the genome, with an average concordance of 99.94% with previous SNP sets. Through pairwise comparisons of the strains, we identified an average of 4.70 distinct segments over 73 classical inbred strains in each region of the genome, suggesting limited genetic diversity between the strains. Combining these data with genotypes of 7570 gap-filling SNPs, we further imputed the untyped or missing genotypes of 94 strains over 8.27 million Perlegen SNPs. The imputation accuracy among classical inbred strains is estimated at 99.7% for the genotypes imputed with high confidence. We demonstrated the utility of these data in high-resolution linkage mapping through power simulations and statistical power analysis and provide guidelines for developing such studies. We also provide a resource of in silico association mapping between the complex traits deposited in the Mouse Phenome Database with our genotypes. We expect that these resources will facilitate effective designs of both human and mouse studies for dissecting the genetic basis of complex traits.

Kirby, Andrew; Kang, Hyun Min; Wade, Claire M.; Cotsapas, Chris; Kostem, Emrah; Han, Buhm; Furlotte, Nick; Kang, Eun Yong; Rivas, Manuel; Bogue, Molly A.; Frazer, Kelly A.; Johnson, Frank M.; Beilharz, Erica J.; Cox, David R.; Eskin, Eleazar; Daly, Mark J.

2010-01-01

61

Genotype modulates age-related alterations in sensitivity to the aversive effects of ethanol: an eight inbred strain analysis of conditioned taste aversion.  

PubMed

Adolescent individuals display altered behavioral sensitivity to ethanol, which may contribute to the increased ethanol consumption seen in this age-group. However, genetics also exert considerable influence on both ethanol intake and sensitivity. Currently there is little research assessing the combined influence of developmental and genetic alcohol sensitivities. Sensitivity to the aversive effects of ethanol using a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) procedure was measured during both adolescence (P30) and adulthood (P75) in eight inbred mouse strains (C57BL/6J, DBA/2J, 129S1/SvImJ, A/J, BALB/cByJ, BTBR T(+) tf/J, C3H/HeJ and FVB/NJ). Adolescent and adult mice were water deprived, and subsequently provided with access to 0.9% (v/v) NaCl solution for 1 h. Immediately following access mice were administered ethanol (0, 1.5, 2.25 and 3 g/kg, ip). This procedure was repeated in 72 h intervals for a total of five CTA trials. Sensitivity to the aversive effects of ethanol was highly dependent upon both strain and age. Within an inbred strain, adolescent animals were consistently less sensitive to the aversive effects of ethanol than their adult counterparts. However, the dose of ethanol required to produce an aversion response differed as a function of both age and strain. PMID:23171343

Moore, E M; Forrest, R D; Boehm, S L

2012-12-13

62

Intergenerational effects of inbreeding in Nicrophorus vespilloides: offspring suffer fitness costs when either they or their parents are inbred.  

PubMed

Inbreeding depression is the reduction in fitness caused by mating between related individuals. Inbreeding is expected to cause a reduction in offspring fitness when the offspring themselves are inbred, but outbred individuals may also suffer a reduction in fitness when they depend on care from inbred parents. At present, little is known about the significance of such intergenerational effects of inbreeding. Here, we report two experiments on the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides, an insect with elaborate parental care, in which we investigated inbreeding depression in offspring when either the offspring themselves or their parents were inbred. We found substantial inbreeding depression when offspring were inbred, including reductions in hatching success of inbred eggs and survival of inbred offspring. We also found substantial inbreeding depression when parents were inbred, including reductions in hatching success of eggs produced by inbred parents and survival of outbred offspring that received care from inbred parents. Our results suggest that intergenerational effects of inbreeding can have substantial fitness costs to offspring, and that future studies need to incorporate such costs to obtain accurate estimates of inbreeding depression. PMID:23442044

Mattey, S N; Strutt, L; Smiseth, P T

2013-02-26

63

Influence of genotype and infantile trauma on adult learning in the mouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation was concerned with effects of infantile trauma and hereditary factors upon adult learning in 3 inbred mouse strains. ½ the infant Ss in each strain received traumatic auditory stimulation, and ½ were reared under standard conditions. Adult learning ability was examined by means of repeated trials in a 4-unit alley maze and in a water escape test. Significant

Harvey D. Winston

1963-01-01

64

Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci Using Naturally Occurring Genetic Variance Among Commercial Inbred Lines of Maize (Zea mays L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many commercial inbred lines are available in crops. A large amount of genetic variation is preserved among these lines. The genealogical history of the inbred lines is usually well documented. However, quantitative trait loci (QTL) responsible for the genetic variances among the lines are largely unexplored due to lack of statistical methods. In this study, we show that the pedigree

Yuan-Ming Zhang; Yongcai Mao; Chongqing Xie; Howie Smith; Lang Luo; Shizhong Xu

2005-01-01

65

A Quantitative Genetic Analysis of Slow-Wave Sleep and Rapid-Eye Movement Sleep in CXB Recombinant Inbred Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various inbred strains of mice show different daily amounts of slow-wave sleep (SWS) and rapid-eye movement sleep (REMS), suggesting the possibility of genetic influences on sleep propensity. Previous work by others studying the spontaneous sleep patterns of seven strains of CXB recombinant inbred (RI) mice suggested several candidate quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with variation in REMS. Extending this approach,

L. A. Toth; R. W. Williams

1999-01-01

66

Mapping QTL for agronomic traits on wheat chromosome 3A and a comparison of recombinant inbred chromosome line populations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Variation for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain yield and its component traits was documented in a ‘Cheyenne’ x Cheyenne (‘Wichita’ 3A) recombinant inbred chromosome line population. In the present study, a population of 223 Cheyenne (Wichita 3A) recombinant inbred chromosome lines was used to map ...

67

Evaluation of structural and physiological plant characteristics in relation to the distribution of cadmium in maize inbred lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

To establish the structural and physiological characteristics related to the genotypic variation in Cd distribution between maize inbred lines (‘shoot Cd excluders’ and ‘non-shoot Cd excluders’), shoot and root morphological parameters were studied on plants grown in nutrient solution. Furthermore, the xylem sap composition and the desorbability of Cd from roots of these inbreds have been compared. No relationship between

P. J. Florijn; J. A. Nelemans; M. L. VAN BEUSICHEM

1993-01-01

68

Chromosomal determinants of intermale aggressive behavior in inbred mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

A behavioral genetic system has been investigated in which the Y chromosome of DBA\\/1\\/Bg mice makes an incremental contribution to the adult aggression of B10D1Ft, hybrid mice. Crosses with C57BL\\/10\\/Bg, C57BL\\/6\\/Bg, and DBA\\/2\\/Bg have identified a minimum of one incremental and one decremental (suppressor) genetic factor (in addition to the Y chromosome) which are autosomal and which affect the expression

Michael K. Selmanoff; Stephen C. Maxson; Benson E. Ginsburg

1976-01-01

69

A multiple-test study of anxiety-related behaviours in six inbred rat strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have underlined the impact of genetic factors in anxiety profiles. In this context, we have initiated a series of experiments aiming to select, among six inbred strains of rats, a pair of strains that contrasts the most in fear-related behaviours measured in the open field, the elevated plus-maze, the black and white box and the social interaction test.

André Ramos; Olivier Berton; Pierre Mormède; Francis Chaouloff

1997-01-01

70

Energy Balance and Growth Rate of Outbred and Inbred Male Guinea Pigs,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Water intake, food consumption, growth rate, and rectal temperature were measured daily for 14 days and oxygen uptake was determined weekly for 3 weeks in healthy outbred (Hartley stock) and inbred (strains 2 and 13) male guinea pigs. Body weights ranged ...

C. T. Liu

1988-01-01

71

Proteomic profiling of two maize inbreds during early gibberella ear rot infection.  

PubMed

Fusarium graminearum is the causal agent of gibberella ear rot in maize ears, resulting in yield losses due to mouldy and mycotoxin-contaminated grain. This study represents a global proteomic approach to document the early infection by F. graminearum of two maize inbreds, B73 and CO441, which differ in disease susceptibility. Mock- and F. graminearum-treated developing kernels were sampled 48?h post-inoculation over three field seasons. Infected B73 kernels consistently contained higher concentrations of the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol than the kernels of the more tolerant inbred CO441. A total of 2067 maize proteins were identified in the iTRAQ analysis of extracted kernel proteins at a 99% confidence level. A subset of 878 proteins was identified in at least two biological replicates and exhibited statistically significantly altered expression between treatments and/or the two inbred lines of which 96 proteins exhibited changes in abundance >1.5-fold in at least one of the treatments. Many proteins associated with the defense response were more abundant after infection, including PR-10 (PR, pathogenesis-related), chitinases, xylanase inhibitors, proteinase inhibitors, and a class III peroxidase. Kernels of the tolerant inbred CO441 contained higher levels of these defense-related proteins than B73 kernels even after mock treatment, suggesting that these proteins may provide a basal defense against Fusarium infection in CO441. PMID:21751381

Mohammadi, Mohsen; Anoop, Valar; Gleddie, Steve; Harris, Linda J

2011-08-09

72

PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY OF DOPAMINE: THE CONTRIBUTION OF COMPARATIVE STUDIES IN INBRED STRAINS OF MICE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparative studies of behavioral responses to centrally acting drugs in inbred strains of mice which show differences in brain neurotransmitter activity represent a major strategy in the investigation of the neurochemical bases underlying behavioral expression. Moreover, these studies represent a preliminary stage in behavioral genetic research since they allow quantitative scales to be established and suggest correlations to be tested

STEFANO PUGLISI-ALLEGRA; SIMONA CABIB

1997-01-01

73

Use of recombinant inbred strains to identify quantitative trait loci in psychopharmacology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unlike simple Mendelian characteristics, individual differences in complex quantitative phenotypes studied in psychopharmacology are generally distributed continuously and are likely to be influenced by many genes. Recombinant inbred (RI) strains are valuable not only for their traditional use of detecting major gene segregation and linkage but also for identifying associations between quantitative traits and quantitative trait loci (QTL) that account

Grazyna Gora-Maslak; Gerald E. McClearn; John C. Crabbe; Tamara J. Phillips; John K. Belknap; Robert Plomin

1991-01-01

74

Recombinant-inbred strains: General methodological considerations relevant to the study of complex characters  

Microsoft Academic Search

If appropriately determined, recombinant-inbred (RI) strain means provide an excellent method for determining genetic correlations among complex characters. However, little systematic attention has been paid to important environmental influences on strain means such as random effects due to litter membership or systematic maternal influences, which are inevitably confounded with genetic effects. It is suggested that users of RI strains would

David A. Blizard

1992-01-01

75

RI manager, a microcomputer program for analysis of data from recombinant inbred strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

RI Manager is a microcomputer program for storage and analysis of genetic mapping data from recombinant inbred strains. The\\u000a program rapidly identifies statistically significant linkage between known loci and a newly described locus, and it facilitates\\u000a rapid evaluation of alternative map orders for linked loci.

Kenneth F. Manly; Rosemary W. Elliott

1991-01-01

76

MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF RICE RECOMBINANT INBRED LINE POPULATION DERIVED FROM A JAPONICA-INDICA CROSS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations of rice represent a permanent genetic source usable for the construction of molecular genetic linkage maps and map-based identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL). The objective of this study was to characterize a population of 269 F10-11 RILs from a ...

77

Molecular Characterization of the Recombinant Inbred Line Population of the Cross of Lemont with Jasmine 85  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations of rice are an essential genetic resource for the construction of molecular genetic linkage maps and map-based identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL). The RIL F5 population derived from a cross of the United Stated tropical japonica rice cultivar Le...

78

Thermal Starch Properties in Corn Belt and Exotic Corn Inbred Lines and Their Crosses 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 74(4):412-416 More knowledge is needed about variability of starch functional traits in adapted and exotic germplasm and possible genetic effects of these traits before conducting rigorous inheritance studies and breeding pro- grams for starch quality. We studied and compared the range of variabil- ity for starch functional traits in a set of Corn Belt inbred lines with a

Linda M. Pollak; Pamela J. White

1997-01-01

79

Congenital bone deformities and the inbred wolves ( Canis lupus) of Isle Royale  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wolf (Canis lupus) population on Isle Royale, a remote island in Lake Superior, North America, is extremely inbred. Nevertheless, the consequences of genetic deterioration have not been detected for this intensively studied population, until now. We found that 58% (n=36) of Isle Royale wolves exhibited some kind of congenital malformation in the lumbosacral region of the vertebral column and

Jannikke Räikkönen; John A. Vucetich; Rolf O. Peterson; Michael P. Nelson

2009-01-01

80

Evaluation of some cucumber inbred lines and their hybrids for Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major objective of our cucumber breeding progra m involves breeding for CMV disease resistance to reduce losses in quality and yield. S even half diallel cross hybrids resistant to CMV were developed at the Vegetables Breeding Dept., Ho rt. Res. Inst., Egypt during March, 2006. Sixteen genetically different pure inbred lines of Cucumis sativus were used to develop the

A. H. Khereba; Naglaa A. Abdallah; H. A. Hassan; Mahassen A. Mohamed; S. Abdelkader; A. M. Abdrabou; H. S. Zein

81

SNP frequency, haplotype structure and linkage disequilibrium in elite maize inbred lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Recent studies of ancestral maize populations indicate that linkage disequilibrium tends to dissipate rapidly, sometimes within 100 bp. We set out to examine the linkage disequilibrium and diversity in maize elite inbred lines, which have been subject to population bottlenecks and intense selection by breeders. Such population events are expected to increase the amount of linkage disequilibrium, but reduce

Ada Ching; Katherine S Caldwell; Mark Jung; Maurine Dolan; Scott Tingey; Michele Morgante; Antoni J Rafalski

2002-01-01

82

GENETIC STRUCTURE AND DIVERSITY AMONG MAIZE INBRED LINES AS INFERRED FROM DNA MICROSATELLITES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Although the tremendous diversity of the maize genome has been well documented, the limited scope of previous studies failed to fully characterize the genetic structure and diversity inherent in the germplasm. In this study, 260 maize inbred lines, representing the majority of genetic diversity ava...

83

Use of recombinant inbred strains to detect quantitative trait loci associated with behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recombinant inbred (RI) strains are valuable not only for detecting major gene segregation and linkage but also for identifying associations between behavior and quantitative trait loci (QTL) that account for relatively small amounts of variation in behaviors for which strain distribution patterns are not bimodal. When applied to published data on genetic markers and on behavior for BXD RI strains,

Robert Plomin; Gerald E. McClearn; Grazyna Gora-Maslak; Jenaè M. Neiderhiser

1991-01-01

84

The genetic structure of recombinant inbred mice: High-resolution consensus maps for complex trait analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Recombinant inbred (RI) strains of mice are an important resource used to map and analyze complex traits. They have proved particularly effective in multidisciplinary genetic studies. Widespread use of RI strains has been hampered by their modest numbers and by the difficulty of combining results derived from different RI sets. RESULTS: We have increased the density of typed microsatellite

Robert W Williams; Jing Gu; Shuhua Qi; Lu Lu

2001-01-01

85

Mouse behavioral tasks relevant to autism: Phenotypes of 10 inbred strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three defining clinical symptoms of autism are aberrant reciprocal social interactions, deficits in social communication, and repetitive behaviors, including motor stereotypies and insistence on sameness. We developed a set of behavioral tasks designed to model components of these core symptoms in mice. Male mice from 10 inbred strains were characterized in assays for sociability, preference for social novelty, and reversal

Sheryl S. Moy; Jessica J. Nadler; Nancy B. Young; Antonio Perez; L. Paige Holloway; Ryan P. Barbaro; Justin R. Barbaro; Lindsay M. Wilson; David W. Threadgill; Jean M. Lauder; Terry R. Magnuson; Jacqueline N. Crawley

2007-01-01

86

Genetic association of yield with its component traits in a recombinant inbred line population of cotton  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lint yield of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is determined by its component traits, boll number, boll weight, and lint percentage. Selecting high yielding lines is based on the ability to manipulate component traits. In this study, 188 recombinant inbred lines and two parental lines were grown in 1999 and 2000 at Mississippi State University. Lint yield and its three

Jixiang Wu; Johnie N. Jenkins; Jack C. McCarty Jr; Jun Zhu

2004-01-01

87

Effects of Genetic and Procedural Variation on Measurement of Alcohol Sensitivity in Mouse Inbred Strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mice from eight inbred strains were studied for their acute sensitivity to ethanol as indexed by the degree of hypothermia (HT), indexed as the reduction from pre-injection baseline of their body temperature. Two weeks later, mice were tested for their loss of righting reflex (LRR) after a higher dose of ethanol. The LRR was tested using the “classical” method of

John C. Crabbe; Pamela Metten; Igor Ponomarev; Carol A. Prescott; Douglas Wahlsten

2006-01-01

88

Cellular and Reaginic Immune Responses to Ragweed Antigen E in Inbred Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cellular and reaginic immune responses to ragweed were examined in six strains of inbred rats. Three differentiable patterns of primary reaginic responses were observed: (a) Lewis rats – good uniform responders – produced high titers of IgE antibody for a short (less than 2 weeks) time; (b) Brown Norway rats – good uniform responders -produced high titers of IgE

T. J. Yoo; C. Y. Kuo

1980-01-01

89

SEED QUALITY ASSURANCE IN MAIZE BREEDING PROGRAMS: TESTS TO EXPLAIN VARIATIONS IN CORN INBREDS AND POPULATIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Maize (Zea mays L.) breeders are interested in evaluating seed quality of their inbred lines, and seed companies rigorously test the seed quality of the hybrids they produce. Seed quality has a strong relationship to field emergence. There is little information, however, on the influence of the se...

90

IMPACT OF EARLY SEED QUALITY SELECTION ON MAIZE INBREDS AND HYBRIDS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Seed composition and genetic background influence seed quality. Plant breeders seldom select or evaluate their inbreds on the basis of seed quality characteristics that could prevent poor germination and field emergence. The standard germination test evaluates seed viability, but it often overesti...

91

FIELD EVALUATIONS FOR MULTIPLE INSECT RESISTANCE IN CORN INBRED LINES AND EXPERIMENTAL HYBRIDS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ten experimental corn hybrids and eleven inbred lines that confer corn earworm resistance were screened for their resistance to other major ear-feeding insects (i.e., the fall armyworm, maize weevil, brown and southern green stink bugs) in the Southeastern Coastal Plain region of the U.S. during 200...

92

Characterization of the Recombinant Inbred Line Population Derived from the Cross of Nipponbare/9311  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

As a part of the project entitled “Understanding the rice epigenome: From genes to genomes” funded by the National Science Foundation, a mapping population of 480 F6-8 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross of Nipponbare with 9311 (Nip/9311) was developed. Phenotyping important agronom...

93

QTL analysis and QTL-based prediction of flowering phenology in recombinant inbred lines of barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combining ecophysiological modelling and genetic mapping has increasingly received attention from researchers who wish to predict complex plant or crop traits under diverse environmental conditions. The potential for using this combined approach to predict flowering time of individual genotypes in a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) was examined. An ecophysiological phenology model predicts preflowering

Xinyou Yin; Paul C. Struik; Eeuwijk van F. A; Piet Stam; Jianjun Tang

2005-01-01

94

Differences between Inbred Strains of Mice in Morris Water Maze Performance,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Four inbred strains of mice, BALB/cByJ, C3H/2Ibg, C57BL/6Ibg, and DBA/2Ibg, were tested for their learning ability in the Morris water maze. Two forms of learning were examined: cue learning, in which the mice were required to swim toward a submerged plat...

M. Upchurch J. M. Wehner

1988-01-01

95

Influence of testosterone on hydronephrosis in the inbred mouse strain DDD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Hereditary hydronephrosis was detected in all of the male mice of DDD inbred strain maintained at the National Institute of Animal Health Japan, but in only a few of the females. From the standpoint that male hormones are related to the development of hydronephrosis in this strain, the incidence and severity of the disease were investigated in gonadecto- mized

N. GOTOt; Y. Nakajima; K. IMAMURAl; T. Yoshida

1985-01-01

96

Congenital defects in a highly inbred wild wolf population ( Canis lupus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In wild populations negative effects from inbreeding are usually difficult to assess. The contemporary Scandinavian wolf population (Canis lupus) was established in 1983. With only three founders this population, with approximately 100 individuals, exhibits lower genetic variability than the neighbouring eastern population. Congenital malformations of the backbone were found in this highly inbred population. This study assesses the frequency and

Jannikke Räikkönen; A. Bignert; P. Mortensen; B. Fernholm

2006-01-01

97

Analyses of muscle spindles in the soleus of six inbred mouse strains.  

PubMed

Adult muscle size and fibre-type composition are heritable traits that vary substantially between individuals. We used inbred mouse strains in which soleus muscle mass varied by an order of magnitude to explore whether properties of muscle spindles can also be influenced by genetic factors. Skip-serial cross-sections of soleus muscles dissected from 15 male mice of BEH, BEL, C57BL/6J, DUH, LG/J and SM/J strains were analysed for number of muscle spindles and characteristics of intrafusal and extrafusal fibres following ATPase staining. The BEL and DUH strains determined the range of: soleus mean size, a 10-fold difference from 2.1 to 22.3 mg, respectively; the mean number of extrafusal fibres, a 2.5-fold difference from 497 to 1249; and mean fibre-cross-sectional area, three-fold difference, e.g. for type 1 fibres, from 678 to 1948 ?m². The range of mean proportion of type 1 fibres was determined by C57BL/6J (31%) and DUH (64%) strains. The mean number of spindles per muscle ranged between nine (LG/J) and 13 (BEL) (strain effect P < 0.02). Genetic correlations between spindle count and muscle weight or properties of extrafusal fibres were weak and not statistically significant. However, there was a strong correlation between the proportion of spindles with more than one bag2 fibre and the proportion of extrafusal fibres that were of type 1, and strain-dependent variation in the numbers of such spindles was statistically significant. The numbers of intrafusal fibres per spindle ranged from 2 to 8, with the most common complement of four found in 75.6% of spindles. There were no significant differences between the strains in the mean numbers of intrafusal fibres; however, the variance of the number was significantly less for the C57BL/6J strain than for any of the others. We conclude that abundance of muscle spindles and their intrafusal-fibre composition are substantially determined by genetic factors, which are different from those affecting muscle size and properties of the extrafusal fibres. PMID:23834369

Lionikas, Arimantas; Smith, Colin J; Smith, Tracey L; Bünger, Lutz; Banks, Robert W; Bewick, Guy S

2013-07-08

98

Complementation contributes to transcriptome complexity in maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids relative to their inbred parents.  

PubMed

Typically, F(1)-hybrids are more vigorous than their homozygous, genetically distinct parents, a phenomenon known as heterosis. In the present study, the transcriptomes of the reciprocal maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids B73×Mo17 and Mo17×B73 and their parental inbred lines B73 and Mo17 were surveyed in primary roots, early in the developmental manifestation of heterotic root traits. The application of statistical methods and a suitable experimental design established that 34,233 (i.e., 86%) of all high-confidence maize genes were expressed in at least one genotype. Nearly 70% of all expressed genes were differentially expressed between the two parents and 42%-55% of expressed genes were differentially expressed between one of the parents and one of the hybrids. In both hybrids, ?10% of expressed genes exhibited nonadditive gene expression. Consistent with the dominance model (i.e., complementation) for heterosis, 1124 genes that were expressed in the hybrids were expressed in only one of the two parents. For 65 genes, it could be shown that this was a consequence of complementation of genomic presence/absence variation. For dozens of other genes, alleles from the inactive inbred were activated in the hybrid, presumably via interactions with regulatory factors from the active inbred. As a consequence of these types of complementation, both hybrids expressed more genes than did either parental inbred. Finally, in hybrids, ?14% of expressed genes exhibited allele-specific expression (ASE) levels that differed significantly from the parental-inbred expression ratios, providing further evidence for interactions of regulatory factors from one parental genome with target genes from the other parental genome. PMID:23086286

Paschold, Anja; Jia, Yi; Marcon, Caroline; Lund, Steve; Larson, Nick B; Yeh, Cheng-Ting; Ossowski, Stephan; Lanz, Christa; Nettleton, Dan; Schnable, Patrick S; Hochholdinger, Frank

2012-10-19

99

Complementation contributes to transcriptome complexity in maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids relative to their inbred parents  

PubMed Central

Typically, F1-hybrids are more vigorous than their homozygous, genetically distinct parents, a phenomenon known as heterosis. In the present study, the transcriptomes of the reciprocal maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids B73×Mo17 and Mo17×B73 and their parental inbred lines B73 and Mo17 were surveyed in primary roots, early in the developmental manifestation of heterotic root traits. The application of statistical methods and a suitable experimental design established that 34,233 (i.e., 86%) of all high-confidence maize genes were expressed in at least one genotype. Nearly 70% of all expressed genes were differentially expressed between the two parents and 42%–55% of expressed genes were differentially expressed between one of the parents and one of the hybrids. In both hybrids, ?10% of expressed genes exhibited nonadditive gene expression. Consistent with the dominance model (i.e., complementation) for heterosis, 1124 genes that were expressed in the hybrids were expressed in only one of the two parents. For 65 genes, it could be shown that this was a consequence of complementation of genomic presence/absence variation. For dozens of other genes, alleles from the inactive inbred were activated in the hybrid, presumably via interactions with regulatory factors from the active inbred. As a consequence of these types of complementation, both hybrids expressed more genes than did either parental inbred. Finally, in hybrids, ?14% of expressed genes exhibited allele-specific expression (ASE) levels that differed significantly from the parental-inbred expression ratios, providing further evidence for interactions of regulatory factors from one parental genome with target genes from the other parental genome.

Paschold, Anja; Jia, Yi; Marcon, Caroline; Lund, Steve; Larson, Nick B.; Yeh, Cheng-Ting; Ossowski, Stephan; Lanz, Christa; Nettleton, Dan; Schnable, Patrick S.; Hochholdinger, Frank

2012-01-01

100

Atherosclerosis susceptibility differences among progenitors of recombinant inbred strains of mice.  

PubMed

Female mice of 16 inbred mouse strains were fed an atherogenic diet for 14 weeks and were then evaluated for atherosclerotic lesions in the aorta. Strains C57BL/6, C57BR/cd, C57L, and SM were very susceptible to atherosclerosis, with lesion area/aortic cross-sections in the range of 4500 to 8000 microns 2. Strains C58 and SWR were intermediate in susceptibility, with lesion area/sections in the range of 1670 to 1690 microns 2. Strains 129, AKR, DBA/2, and BALB/c had only small lesions in the range of 20 to 350 microns 2/section; strains C3H, NZB, CBA, HRS, SJL, and A had no lesions after 14 weeks. Lesion formation in five strains was compared at several time points. Strain C57BL/6 mice developed lesions by 7 weeks, and these continued to grow until all mice had large atheromatous plaques in the aorta and coronary arteries. Strains AKR and DBA/2 also had fatty streak lesions as early as 7 or 8 weeks, but these lesions had not progressed in size by 14 weeks. Strains BALB/c and C3H, which were both resistant to lesion formation at 14 weeks, diverged from each other as time progressed. By 1 year, BALB/c mice had large lesions, but C3H mice had none. Most of the inbred strains chosen for evaluation are the progenitors of recombinant inbred sets of strains, a genetic tool that greatly facilitates the analysis of strain differences. This survey indicates seven additional recombinant inbred sets of strains whose progenitors differ in atherosclerosis susceptibility: BXD, AKXL, SWXJ, NX8, 129XB, NXSM, and B6NXAKRN. An analysis of these recombinant inbred strains may reveal additional mouse genes affecting atherosclerosis susceptibility. PMID:2317166

Paigen, B; Ishida, B Y; Verstuyft, J; Winters, R B; Albee, D

101

Prenatal exposure to alcohol does not affect radial maze learning and hippocampal mossy fiber sizes in three inbred strains of mouse  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on radial-maze learning and hippocampal neuroanatomy, particularly the sizes of the intra- and infrapyramidal mossy fiber (IIPMF) terminal fields, in three inbred strains of mice (C57BL/6J, BALB/cJ, and DBA/2J). Results Although we anticipated a modification of both learning and IIPMF sizes, no such effects were detected. Prenatal alcohol exposure did, however, interfere with reproduction in C57BL/6J animals and decrease body and brain weight (in interaction with the genotype) at adult age. Conclusion Prenatal alcohol exposure influenced neither radial maze performance nor the sizes of the IIPMF terminal fields. We believe that future research should be pointed either at different targets when using mouse models for Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (e.g. more complicated behavioral paradigms, different hippocampal substructures, or other brain structures) or involve different animal models.

Sluyter, Frans; Jamot, Laure; Bertholet, Jean-Yves; Crusio, Wim E

2005-01-01

102

Prenatal exposure to alcohol does not affect radial maze learning and hippocampal mossy fiber sizes in three inbred strains of mouse.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on radial-maze learning and hippocampal neuroanatomy, particularly the sizes of the intra- and infrapyramidal mossy fiber (IIPMF) terminal fields, in three inbred strains of mice (C57BL/6J, BALB/cJ, and DBA/2J). RESULTS: Although we anticipated a modification of both learning and IIPMF sizes, no such effects were detected. Prenatal alcohol exposure did, however, interfere with reproduction in C57BL/6J animals and decrease body and brain weight (in interaction with the genotype) at adult age. CONCLUSION: Prenatal alcohol exposure influenced neither radial maze performance nor the sizes of the IIPMF terminal fields. We believe that future research should be pointed either at different targets when using mouse models for Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (e.g. more complicated behavioral paradigms, different hippocampal substructures, or other brain structures) or involve different animal models. PMID:15916699

Sluyter, Frans; Jamot, Laure; Bertholet, Jean-Yves; Crusio, Wim E

2005-04-22

103

Cross reactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes from MHC-defined birds against homologous and heterologous avian influenza subtypes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Numerous reports have implicated a role of the major-histocompatibility complex (MHC) in genetic resistance of chickens to bacterial infection and viral diseases. However, little is known about the role of MHC in generating protective immunity following avian influenza (AI) infection. Because vacc...

104

Genetic Regulation of Aryl HydrocarbonHydroxylasein Primary Cultures of Fetal Cells Established from Inbred Strains of Mice1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary cultures of fetal cells were established from six inbred strains of mice to determine whether genes regulating induction of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) in livers in vivo also function in fetal cells maintained in vitro. Fetal cells were cultured from three inbred mousestrains that are classi fied genetically as aromatic hydrocarbon responsive (A\\/J, C3H\\/HeJ, and C57BL\\/6J), and three that

Victoria M. Hitchins; Beth M. Lame; John J. Hutton

105

Alcohol preference in AXB\\/BXA recombinant inbred mice: gender differences and gender-specific quantitative trait loci  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The purpose of the present study was to characterize the C57BL\\/6J, A\\/J, and AXB\\/BXA Recombinant Inbred (RI) strains of mice\\u000a for voluntary alcohol consumption. Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) analysis was used to provide provisional location of QTLs\\u000a for alcohol consumption. The inbred strains were screened for levels of alcohol intake (calculated as alcohol preference and\\u000a absolute alcohol consumption) by

Kathryn Gill; Nicolas Desaulniers; Paule Desjardins; Kristine Lake

1998-01-01

106

Genetic variance contributes to ingestive processes: A survey of eleven inbred mouse strains for fat (Intralipid) intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic variation across inbred and outbred mouse strains have been observed for intake of sweet solutions, salts, bitter tastants and a high-fat diet. Our laboratory recently reported marked strain differences in the amounts and\\/or percentages of kilocalories of sucrose consumed among 11 inbred and one outbred mouse strains exposed to a wide range of nine sucrose concentrations (0.0001–5%) in two-bottle

Sarah R. Lewis; Cheryl Dym; Christina Chai; Amreeta Singh; Benjamin Kest; Richard J. Bodnar

2007-01-01

107

Molecular mapping of grain physico-chemical and cooking quality traits using recombinant inbred lines in rice ( Oryza sativa L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from the cross between Pusa1266 (a new plant type) with Jaya (a popular\\u000a indica rice variety) was used for mapping QTL associated with grain physico-chemical and cooking quality traits in rice. A total\\u000a of 310 recombinant inbred lines were evaluated for nine grain physico-chemical and cooking quality traits at two locations\\u000a in India,

S. Guleria; V. Sharma; B. Marathi; S. Anand; N. K. Singh; T. Mohapatra; S. Gopala Krishnan; K. V. Prabhu; A. K. Singh

108

Frequent DNA Polymorphisms Exist in Inbred CBA\\/J and C3H\\/HeN Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although occasional DNA polymorphisms have been observed in inbred mice, CBA\\/J and C3H\\/HeN mice have two microsatellite alleles at over 1\\/3 of microsatellite loci tested. Since DNA polymorphisms were not detected in DBA\\/2J, C57BL\\/6J, and BALB\\/cJ, the frequency of microsatellite polymorphisms appears to be strain specific. Thus, genetic studies in inbred mice require testing for preexisting polymorphisms. The polymorphisms detected

Bo Yuan; Alice Shum-Siu; Eric M. Lentsch; Ling Hong Hu; Fred J. Hendler

1996-01-01

109

Genetic analysis of photoperiod sensitivity in a tropical by temperate maize recombinant inbred population using molecular markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photoperiod sensitivity is an important consideration in maize cultivation. Flowering time is affected by photoperiod and\\u000a sensitivity to it limits the potential for successful exchange of germplasm across different latitudes. For resolving the\\u000a genetic basis of photoperiod sensitivity in maize, a set of 207 recombinant inbred lines derived from a temperate and tropical\\u000a inbred line cross was evaluated for 2 years

C. L. Wang; F. F. Cheng; Z. H. Sun; J. H. Tang; L. C. Wu; L. X. Ku; Y. H. Chen

2008-01-01

110

Genotype-specific environmental impact on the variance of blood values in inbred and F 1 hybrid mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mice are important models for biomedical research because of the possibility of standardizing genetic background and environmental\\u000a conditions, which both affect phenotypic variability. Inbred mouse strains as well as F1 hybrid mice are routinely used as genetically defined animal models; however, only a few studies investigated the variance\\u000a of phenotypic parameters in inbred versus F1 hybrid mice and the potential

Martina Klempt; Birgit Rathkolb; Edith Fuchs; Martin Hrabé de Angelis; Eckhard Wolf; Bernhard Aigner

2006-01-01

111

A Common Genetic Basis in Sweet Corn Inbred Cr1 for Cross Sensitivity to Multiple Cytochrome P450-Metabolized Herbicides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nicosulfuron, mesotrione, dicamba plus diflufenzopyr, and carfentrazone are postemergence herbicides from different chemical families with different modes of action. An association between the sensitivity of sweet corn to these herbicides was observed when 143 F 3:4 families (F4 plants) derived from of a cross between Cr1 (sensitive inbred) and Cr2 (tolerant inbred) were evaluated in greenhouse trials. The ratio of

Jonathan N. Nordby; Martin M. Williams; Jerald K. Pataky; Dean E. Riechers; Joseph D. Lutz

2008-01-01

112

Emotionality, Exploratory Behavior, and Locomotion in Aging Inbred Strains of Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two inbred strains of mice, C57BL\\/6J and DBA\\/2J, ranging in age from 2 to 38 months, were tested in an open field using the free exploration method. Scores were obtained for locomotor activity, exploratory behavior and emotionality. Strain differences were observed for all three variables. Beginning at late maturity (12 months), locomotor activity decreased with increasing age. Exploratory behavior was

Penelope Kelly Elias; Merrill F. Elias; Basil E. Eleftheriou

1975-01-01

113

Identification of two different mutations in the PDS gene in an inbred family with Pendred syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently the gene responsible for Pendred syndrome (PDS) was isolated and several mutations in the PDS gene have been identified in Pendred patients. Here we report the occurrence of two different PDS mutations in an extended inbred Turkish family. The majority of patients in this family are homozygous for a splice site mutation (1143-2A?G) affecting the 3? splice site consensus

P J Coucke; P Van Hauwe; L A Everett; O Demirhan; Y Kabakkaya; N L Dietrich; R J H Smith; E Coyle; W Reardon; R Trembath; P J Willems; E D Green; G Van Camp

1999-01-01

114

Rearing Environmental Enrichment in Two Inbred Strains of Mice: 1. Effects on Emotional Reactivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of an enriched rearing environment on two types of anxiety-like behavior (designated “trait” and “state” anxiety) and on spontaneous activity were investigated in two inbred strains of mice, BALB\\/c (C) and C57BL\\/6(B6). Subjects were socially reared from birth to 56 days of age under enriched or standard rearing conditions. The enriched environment consisted of an assembly of plastic

P. Chapillon; C. Manneché; C. Belzung; J. Caston

1999-01-01

115

FVB\\/N: An Inbred Mouse Strain Preferable for Transgenic Analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

FVB\\/N mice offer a system suitable for most transgenic experiments and subsequent genetic analyses. The inbred FVB\\/N strain is characterized by vigorous reproductive performance and consistently large litters. Moreover, fertilized FVB\\/N eggs contain large and prominent pronuclei, which facilitate microinjection of DNA. The phenotype of large pronuclei in the zygote is a dominant trait associated with the FVB\\/N oocyte but

Makoto Taketo; Allen C. Schroeder; Larry E. Mobraaten; Kerry B. Gunning; Gerri Hanten; Richard R. Fox; Thomas H. Roderick; Colin L. Stewart; Frank Lilly; Carl T. Hansen; Paul A. Overbeek

1991-01-01

116

Assessing the prospects of genome-wide association studies performed in inbred mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The remarkable success in mapping genes linked to a number of disease traits using genome-wide association studies (GWAS)\\u000a in human cohorts has renewed interest in applying this same technique in model organisms such as inbred laboratory mice. Unlike\\u000a humans, however, the limited genetic diversity in the ancestry of laboratory mice combined with selection pressure over the\\u000a past decades have yielded

Wan-Lin Su; Solveig K. Sieberts; Robert R. Kleinhanz; Karine Lux; Joshua Millstein; Cliona Molony; Eric E. Schadt

2010-01-01

117

Locomotor activity of two inbred strains of mice in a seminatural and a breeding cage environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuous measurements of locomotor activity of male mice of inbred strains BALB\\/c and C57BL\\/6 were made over 3-day periods, either in seminatural conditions or in breeding cages. Under both living conditions, contrary to what was found by previous investigations, BALB\\/c mice showed a higher level of activity than C57BL\\/6 mice. In seminatural conditions, BALB\\/c mice concentrated more of their locomotor

J. M. Lassalle; G. Le Pape

1978-01-01

118

Genetic analysis of salt tolerance in a recombinant inbred population of wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A population of 114 recombinant inbred lines (RILs), derived from the cross Opata85 × W7984, was used to genetically analyze\\u000a the response of wheat to salt stress. This analysis resulted in the identification of 47 QTL mapping to all wheat chromosomes\\u000a except 1B, 1D, 4B, 5D and 7D. Of these QTL, 10 were effective during the germination stage, and 37 at the

Liqing Ma; Erfeng Zhou; Naxing Huo; Ronghua Zhou; Guoying Wang; Jizeng Jia

2007-01-01

119

Genetic Variation for Starch Thermal and Functional Properties Among Nonmutant Maize Inbreds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 72(3):281-286 Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) has been used in previous < 0.01) inbred by year interaction was present for all DSC parameters studies to detect differences in thermal properties among starches of non- with the exception of AH. Differences were observed in starch viscosities mutant maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes. This study was conducted to and gel strengths

M. R. CAMPBELL; L. M. POLLAK; P. J. WHITE

120

Large-Scale In Silico Mapping of Complex Quantitative Traits in Inbred Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the genetic basis of common disease and disease-related quantitative traits will aid in the development of diagnostics and therapeutics. The processs of gene discovery can be sped up by rapid and effective integration of well-defined mouse genome and phenome data resources. We describe here an in silico gene-discovery strategy through genome-wide association (GWA) scans in inbred mice with a

Pengyuan Liu; Haris Vikis; Yan Lu; Daolong Wang; Ming You; Katrina Gwinn

2007-01-01

121

Gangliosides in various brain areas of three inbred strains of mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ganglioside patterns of cerebellum, cortex, pons-medulla, hypothalamus, hippocampus and caudate nucleus of three inbred strains of mice (C57BL\\/6J, DBA\\/2J and BALB\\/cJ) have been analysed. All brain areas contained both the simple and complex species of gangliosides. GD1a was the major ganglioside in cortex, hippocampus and caudate nucleus whereas GT1b was the major species in cerebellum, hypothalamus and pons-medulla. In

H. Dreyfus; S. Harth; A. Giuliani-Debernardi; M. Roos; G. Mack; P. Mandel

1982-01-01

122

Circadian Timekeeping in BALB\\/c and C57BL\\/6 Inbred Mouse Strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Circadian rhythms of locomotion (wheel-running activity) in 12 inbred mouse strains were recorded for interstrain dif- ferences in 7DD, the endogenous (free-running) period of the circadian pacemaker measured in constant environmental darkness. The results indicate that 1 or more genetic loci influence the value of Tag, and a large (50 min) difference in mean rDD between 2 of the strains,

William J. Schwartz; Pamela Zimmerman

1990-01-01

123

Behavioral phenotypes of inbred mouse strains: implications and recommendations for molecular studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Choosing the best genetic strains of mice for developing a new knockout or transgenic mouse requires extensive knowledge\\u000a of the endogenous traits of inbred strains. Background genes from the parental strains may interact with the mutated gene,\\u000a in a manner which could severely compromise the interpretation of the mutant phenotype. The present overview summarizes the\\u000a literature on a wide variety

J. N. Crawley; John K. Belknap; Allan Collins; John C. Crabbe; Wayne Frankel; Norman Henderson; Robert J. Hitzemann; Stephen C. Maxson; Lucinda L. Miner; Alcino J. Silva; Jeanne M. Wehner; Anthony Wynshaw-Boris; R. Paylor

1997-01-01

124

Incomplete protection mechanism against vesico-ureteral reflux and hydronephrosis in the inbred mouse strain DDD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary We have previously reported the occurrence and inheritance mode of hydronephrosis in the inbred mouse strain DOD. The present investigation examined the possibility that hydronephrosis may be caused by a vesico-ureteral reflux (VUR). Bladder pressure was measured under anaesthesia in 3 strains of mice (DOD, ddY and C57BL\\/6). VUR was demonstrated by lower bladder pressure only in the ODD

H. Mannen; S. Tsuji; N. Goto

1991-01-01

125

Pedigree analysis and haplotype sharing within diverse groups of Zea mays L. inbreds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were the examination of genetic similarities in a diverse group of maize inbreds and an investigation\\u000a of the incidence of shared haplotypes within closely related groups. Size polymorphisms from 218 mapped simple-sequence repeats\\u000a (SSR) for 57 entries were detected with the ABI377 Prism system and scored with Genotyper software. The standard error for\\u000a the estimated

J. Romero-Severson; J. S. C. Smith; J. Ziegle; J. Hauser; L. Joe; G. Hookstra

2001-01-01

126

Physiological and genetic analyses of inbred mouse strains with a type I iodothyronine 5' deiodinase deficiency.  

PubMed Central

Inbred mouse strains differ in their capacity to deiodinate iododioxin and iodothyronines, with strains segregating into high or low activity groups. Metabolism of iododioxin occurs via the type I iodothyronine 5'deiodinase (5'DI), one of two enzymes that metabolize thyroxine (T4) to 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3). Recombinant inbred strains derived from crosses between high and low activity strains exhibit segregation characteristic of a single allele difference. Hepatic and renal 5'DI mRNA in a high (C57BL/6J) and low (C3H/HeJ) strain paralleled enzyme activity and concentration, in agreement with a recent report. 5'DI-deficient mice had twofold higher serum free T4 but normal free T3 and thyrotropin. Brown adipose tissue 5'DII was invariant between the two strains. Southern analyses using a 5'DI probe identified a restriction fragment length variant that segregated with 5'DI activity in 33 of 35 recombinant inbred strains derived from four different pairs of high and low activity parental strains. Recombination frequencies using previously mapped loci allowed assignment of the 5'DI gene to mouse chromosome 4 and identified its approximate chromosomal position. We propose the symbol Dio1 to denote the mouse 5'DI gene. Conserved linkage between this segment of mouse chromosome 4 and human HSA1p predicts this location for human Dio1. Images

Berry, M J; Grieco, D; Taylor, B A; Maia, A L; Kieffer, J D; Beamer, W; Glover, E; Poland, A; Larsen, P R

1993-01-01

127

Multiple Cross and Inbred Strain Haplotype Mapping of Complex-Trait Candidate Genes  

PubMed Central

Identifying complex-trait candidate genes after initial low-resolution mapping has proven to be a difficult and labor-intensive undertaking, usually requiring years to develop and analyze congenic strains. As a result, to date, few complex-trait genes have been discovered. Recently it was suggested that SNP haplotype analysis in inbred strains might be useful for mapping of complex traits. In this study, we have combined medium-resolution haplotype mapping with multiple experimental cross-mapping experiments to reduce the number of potential candidate genes in a complex-trait candidate interval. Coincident mapping of a modifier gene in multiple experimental crosses using different inbred strains is consistent with the common inheritance of a modifier allele. A haplotype map was developed in four inbred strains of mice used in our complex-trait mapping crosses across the proximal 10 cM of proximal Chromosome 19 to identify haplotype blocks that segregate appropriately. Only ?23 out of >400 genes met this criteria. This strategy coupled with tissue and expression arrays, as well as our recently described common pathway analysis to reduce the number of high-priority candidates, may provide a rapid, efficient method to identify and prioritize complex-trait candidate genes without requiring construction of congenic mouse strains.

Park, Yeong-Gwon; Clifford, Robert; Buetow, Kenneth H.; Hunter, Kent W.

2003-01-01

128

Inheritance of behavioral and neuroanatomical phenotypical variance: hybrid mice are not always more stable than inbreds.  

PubMed

Many investigators have attempted to confirm the prediction that increased levels of heterozygosity entail greater developmental stability, manifesting itself through decreased phenotypical variation. The evidence presented so far is equivocal. The predicted relationship has been found in some morphological studies, but not in others. I propose that the variability of a character should be seen as different from the character itself. For most morphological characters, natural selection promotes strong canalization of development but, to facilitate responses to environmental changes, the organism needs to retain malleability of physiological and behavioral traits. These different types of selection should lead to distinct genetic architectures for these phenotypes. I report on the results of a diallel cross between four inbred mouse strains. Qualitatively different genetic architectures were in fact revealed for variation in behaviors in the open-field. In a second study, variances of inbred and hybrid populations for hippocampal morphometry were studied. Again, hybrids were not always less variable than inbreds and sometimes even more variable. It follows that there exists no one-to-one relation between heterozygosity and developmental stability. PMID:16435161

Crusio, Wim E

2006-09-01

129

Bayesian analysis of genetic architecture of quantitative trait using data of crosses of multiple inbred lines.  

PubMed

Using the data of crosses of multiple of inbred lines for mapping QTL can increase QTL detecting power compared with only cross of two inbred lines. Although many fixed-effect model methods have been proposed to analyze such data, they are largely based on one-QTL model or main effect model, and the interaction effects between QTL are always neglected. However, effectively separating the interaction effects from the residual error can increase the statistical power. In this article, we both extended the novel Bayesian model selection method and Bayesian shrinkage estimation approaches to multiple inbred line crosses. With two extensions, interacting QTL are effectively detected with high solution; in addition, the posterior variances for both main effects and interaction effects are also subjected to full Bayesian estimate, which is more optimal than two step approach involved in maximum-likelihood. A series of simulation experiments have been conducted to demonstrate the performance of the methods. The computer program written in FORTRAN language is freely available on request. PMID:18278559

Fang, Ming; Jiang, Dan; Chen, Xu; Pu, Lijun; Liu, Shengcai

2008-02-16

130

Identification of exercise capacity QTL using association mapping in inbred mice  

PubMed Central

There are large interindividual differences in exercise capacity. It is well established that there is a genetic basis for these differences. However, the genetic factors underlying this variation are undefined. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify novel putative quantitative trait loci (QTL) for exercise capacity by measuring exercise capacity in inbred mice and performing genome-wide association mapping. Exercise capacity, defined as run time and work, was assessed in male mice (n = 6) from 34 strains of classical and wild-derived inbred mice performing a graded treadmill test. Genome-wide association mapping was performed with an efficient mixed-model association (EMMA) algorithm to identify QTL. Exercise capacity was significantly different across strains. Run time varied by 2.7-fold between the highest running strain (C58/J) and the lowest running strain (A/J). These same strains showed a 16.5-fold difference in work. Significant associations were identified for exercise time on chromosomes 1, 2, 7, 11, and 13. The QTL interval on chromosome 2 (?168 Mb) contains one gene, Nfatc2, and overlaps with a suggestive QTL for training responsiveness in humans. These results provide phenotype data on the widest range of inbred strains tested thus far and indicate that genetic background significantly influences exercise capacity. Furthermore, the novel QTLs identified in the current study provide new targets for investigating the underlying mechanisms for variation in exercise capacity.

Courtney, Sean M.

2012-01-01

131

Lung structure phenotype variation in inbred mouse strains revealed through in vivo micro-CT imaging  

PubMed Central

Within pulmonary research, the development of mouse models has provided insight into disease development, progression, and treatment. Structural phenotypes of the lung in healthy inbred mouse strains are necessary for comparison to disease models. To date, progress in the assessment of lung function in these small animals using whole lung function tests has been made. However, assessment of in vivo lung structure of inbred mouse strains has yet to be well defined. Therefore, the link between the structure and function phenotypes is still unclear. With advancements in small animal imaging it is now possible to investigate lung structures such as the central and peripheral airways, whole lung, and lobar volumes of mice in vivo, through the use of micro-CT imaging. In this study, we performed in vivo micro-CT imaging of the C57BL/6, A/J, and BALB/c mouse strains using the intermittent iso-pressure breath hold (IIBH) technique. The resulting high-resolution images were used to extract lung structure phenotypes. The three-dimensional lobar structures and airways were defined and a meaningful mouse airway nomenclature was developed. In addition, using these techniques we have uncovered significant differences in the airway structures between inbred mouse strains in vivo.

Thiesse, Jacqueline; Namati, Eman; Sieren, Jessica C.; Smith, Amanda R.; Reinhardt, Joseph M.; Hoffman, Eric A.

2010-01-01

132

Strong genetic influences on measures of behavioral-regulation among inbred rat strains.  

PubMed

A fundamental challenge for any complex nervous system is to regulate behavior in response to environmental challenges. Three measures of behavioral-regulation were tested in a panel of eight inbred rat strains. These measures were: (1) sensation seeking as assessed by locomotor response to novelty and the sensory reinforcing effects of light onset, (2) attention and impulsivity, as measured by a choice reaction time task and (3) impulsivity as measured by a delay discounting task. Deficient behavioral-regulation has been linked to a number of psychopathologies, including ADHD, Schizophrenia, Autism, drug abuse and eating disorders. Eight inbred rat strains (August Copenhagen Irish, Brown Norway, Buffalo, Fischer 344, Wistar Kyoto, Spontaneous Hypertensive Rat, Lewis, Dahl Salt Sensitive) were tested. With n?=?9 for each strain, we observed robust strain differences for all tasks; heritability was estimated between 0.43 and 0.66. Performance of the eight inbred rat strains on the choice reaction time task was compared to the performance of outbred Sprague Dawley (n?=?28) and Heterogeneous strain rats (n?=?48). The results indicate a strong genetic influence on complex tasks related to behavioral-regulation and indicate that some of the measures tap common genetically driven processes. Furthermore, our results establish the potential for future studies aimed at identifying specific alleles that influence variability for these traits. Identification of such alleles could contribute to our understanding of the molecular genetic basis of behavioral-regulation, which is of fundamental importance and likely contributes to multiple psychiatric disorders. PMID:23710681

Richards, J B; Lloyd, D R; Kuehlewind, B; Militello, L; Paredez, M; Solberg Woods, L; Palmer, A A

2013-06-19

133

Two traditional maize inbred lines of contrasting technological abilities are discriminated by the seed flour proteome.  

PubMed

The seed proteome of two traditional maize inbred lines (pb269 and pb369) contrasting in grain hardness and in preferable use for bread-making was evaluated. The pb269 seeds, of flint type (i.e., hard endosperm), are preferably used by manufacturers, while pb369 (dent, soft endosperm) is rejected. The hypothesis that the content and relative amounts of specific proteins in the maize flour are relevant for such discrimination of the inbred lines was tested. The flour proteins were sequentially extracted following the Osborne fractionation (selective solubilization), and the four Osborne fractions were submitted to two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE). The total amount of protein extracted from the seeds was not significantly different, but pb369 flour exhibited significantly higher proportions of salt-extracted proteins (globulins) and ethanol-extracted proteins (alcohol-soluble prolamins). The proteome analysis allowed discrimination between the two inbred lines, with pb269 demonstrating higher heterogeneity than pb369. From the 967 spots (358 common to both lines, 208 specific to pb269, and 401 specific to pb369), 588 were submitted to mass spectrometry (MS). Through the combined use of trypsin and chymotrypsin it was possible to identify proteins in 436 spots. The functional categorization in combination with multivariate analysis highlighted the most discriminant biological processes (carbohydrate metabolic process, response to stress, chitin catabolic process, oxidation-reduction process) and molecular function (nutrient reservoir activity). The inbred lines exhibited quantitative and qualitative differences in these categories. Differences were also revealed in the amounts, proportions, and distribution of several groups of storage proteins, which can have an impact on the organization of the protein body and endosperm hardness. For some proteins (granule-bound starch synthase-1, cyclophilin, zeamatin), a change in the protein solubility rather than in the total amount extracted was observed, which reveals distinct in vivo associations and/or changes in binding strength between the inbred lines. Our approach produced information that relates protein content, relative protein content, and specific protein types to endosperm hardness and to the preferable use for "broa" bread-making. PMID:23701026

Pinheiro, Carla; Sergeant, Kjell; Machado, Cátia M; Renaut, Jenny; Ricardo, Cândido P

2013-06-13

134

Differentiation of Embryonic Stem Cell Lines Generated from Adult Somatic Cells by Nuclear Transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Embryonic stem (ES) cells are fully pluripotent in that they can differentiate into all cell types, including gametes. We have derived 35 ES cell lines via nuclear transfer (ntES cell lines) from adult mouse somatic cells of inbred, hybrid, and mutant strains. ntES cells contributed to an extensive variety of cell types, including dopaminergic and serotonergic neurons in vitro and

Teruhiko Wakayama; Viviane Tabar; Ivan Rodriguez; Anthony C. F. Perry; Lorenz Studer; Peter Mombaerts

2001-01-01

135

Expression of social behaviors of C57BL/6J versus BTBR inbred mouse strains in the visible burrow system  

PubMed Central

The core symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) include deficits in social interaction, impaired communication, and repetitive behaviors with restricted interests. Mouse models with behavioral phenotypes relevant to these core symptoms offer an experimental approach to advance the investigation of genes associated with ASD. Previous findings demonstrate that BTBR T+ tf/J (BTBR) is an inbred mouse strain that shows robust behavioral phenotypes with analogies to all three of the diagnostic symptoms of ASD. In the present study, we investigated the expression of social behaviors in a semi-natural visible burrow system (VBS), during colony formation and maintenance in groups comprising three adult male mice of the same strain, either C57BL/6J (B6) or BTBR. For comparative purposes, an extensively investigated three-chambered test was subsequently used to assess social approach in both strains. The effects of strain on these two situations were consistent and highly significant. In the VBS, BTBR mice showed reductions in all interactive behaviors: approach (front and back), flight, chase/follow, allo-grooming and huddling, along with increases in self-grooming and alone, as compared to B6. These results were corroborated in the three-chambered test: in contrast to B6, male BTBR mice failed to spend more time in the side of the test box containing the unfamiliar CD-1 mouse. Overall, the present data indicates that the strain profile for BTBR mice, including consistent social deficits and high levels of repetitive self-grooming, models multiple components of the ASD phenotype.

Pobbe, Roger L. H.; Pearson, Brandon L.; Defensor, Erwin B.; Bolivar, Valerie J.; Blanchard, D. Caroline; Blanchard, Robert J.

2010-01-01

136

Diallel analysis of leaf disease resistance in inbred Brazilian popcorn cultivars.  

PubMed

We estimated general and specific combining abilities and examined resistance to northern leaf blight (Exserohilum turcicum) and to gray leaf spot (Cercospora zeae-maydis) in a set of nine inbred popcorn lines. These inbreds were crossed in a complete diallel scheme without reciprocals, which produced 36 F(1) hybrids. Two experiments with a square lattice design and three replications were conducted during the 2008/2009 crop season, in Maringá, PR, Brazil. The severity of northern leaf blight and gray leaf spot was assessed under natural infestation conditions. Data were examined by individual and joint analysis of variance. Individual and joint Griffing's diallel analyses were carried out for adjusted means. General combining ability and specific combining ability were significant (P < 0.10) by the F-test for northern leaf blight and gray leaf spot infestation levels. This denotes that additive and non-additive gene effects both contributed to resistance to these diseases, but that the additive gene effects were more important. Among the inbred lines, P(8) and P(9) gave the highest resistance to northern leaf blight, and P(3) and P(4.3) gave the highest resistance to gray leaf spot. The hybrids P(7.4) x P(8) and P(4.3) x P(9) could be exploited by reciprocal recurrent selection to provide genotypes with both northern leaf blight and gray leaf spot resistance. Significant interaction between general combining ability and crop season (P < 0.10) denotes the importance of environment, even though the disease levels in the hybrids were quite consistent. PMID:20013656

Vieira, R A; Scapim, C A; Moterle, L M; Tessmann, D J; Conrado, T V; Amaral Júnior, A T

2009-12-01

137

Inbred Strain-Specific Effects of Exercise in Wild Type and Biglycan Deficient Mice  

PubMed Central

Biglycan (bgn)-deficient mice (KO) have defective osteoblasts which lead to changes in the amount and quality of bone. Altered tissue strength in C57BL6/129 (B6;129) KO mice, a property which is independent of tissue quantity, suggests that deficiencies in tissue quality are responsible. However, the response to bgn-deficiency is inbred strain-specific. Mechanical loading influences bone matrix quality in addition to any increase in bone mass or change in bone formation activity. Since many diseases influence the mechanical integrity of bone through altered tissue quality, loading may be a way to prevent and treat extracellular matrix deficiencies. C3H/He (C3H) mice consistently have a less vigorous response to mechanical loading vs. other inbred strains. It was therefore hypothesized that the bones from both wild type (WT) and KO B6;129 mice would be more responsive to exercise than the bones from C3H mice. To test these hypotheses at 11 weeks of age, following 21 consecutive days of exercise, we investigated cross-sectional geometry, mechanical properties, and tissue composition in the tibiae of male mice bred on B6;129 and C3H backgrounds. This study demonstrated inbred strain-specific compositional and mechanical changes following exercise in WT and KO mice, and showed evidence of genotype-specific changes in bone in response to loading in a gene disruption model. This study further shows that exercise can influence bone tissue composition and/or mechanical integrity without changes in bone geometry. Together, these data suggest that exercise may represent a possible means to alter tissue quality and mechanical deficiencies caused by many diseases of bone.

Wallace, Joseph M.; Golcuk, Kurtulus; Morris, Michael D.; Kohn, David H.

2010-01-01

138

Identification of genetic determinants of IGF-1 levels and longevity among mouse inbred strains  

PubMed Central

Summary The IGF-1 signaling pathway plays an important role in regulating longevity. To identify the genetic loci and genes that regulate plasma IGF-1 levels, we intercrossed MRL/MpJ and SM/J, inbred mouse strains that differ in IGF-1 levels. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis of IGF-1 levels of these F2 mice detected four QTL on chromosomes (Chrs) 9 (48 Mb), 10 (86 Mb), 15 (18 Mb) and 17 (85 Mb). Haplotype association mapping of IGF-1 levels in 28 domesticated inbred strains identified three suggestive loci in females on Chrs 2 (13 Mb), 10 (88 Mb) and 17 (28 Mb) and in males on Chrs 1 (159 Mb), 3 (52 and 58 Mb) and 16 (74 Mb). Except for the QTL on Chr 9 and 16, all loci co-localized with IGF-1 QTL previously identified in other mouse crosses. The most significant locus was the QTL on Chr 10, which contains the Igf1 gene and which had a LOD score of 31.8. Haplotype analysis among 28 domesticated inbred strains revealed a major QTL on Chr 10 overlapping with the QTL identified in the F2 mice. This locus showed three major haplotypes; strains with haplotype 1 had significantly lower plasma IGF-1 and extended longevity (P < 0.05) than strains with haplotype 2 or 3. Bioinformatic analysis, combined with sequencing and expression studies, showed that Igf1 is the most likely QTL gene, but that other genes may also play a role in this strong QTL.

Leduc, Magalie S.; Hageman, Rachael S.; Meng, Qingying; Verdugo, Ricardo A.; Tsaih, Shirng-Wern; Churchill, Gary A.; Paigen, Beverly; Yuan, Rong

2011-01-01

139

Probing the genetic basis for thyrotropin receptor antibodies and hyperthyroidism in immunized CXB recombinant inbred mice.  

PubMed

Immunization with adenovirus encoding the TSH receptor (TSHR) or its A-subunit induces Graves' hyperthyroidism in BALB/c and BALB/c x C57BL/6 offspring but not C57BL/6 mice. High-resolution genetic maps are available for 13 recombinant inbred CXB strains generated from BALB/c x C57BL/6 progeny by repeated brother x sister matings to establish fully inbred lines. CXB strains were studied before and after A-subunit adenovirus immunization for TSHR antibodies (TBI, inhibition of TSH binding), serum T4, and thyroid histology. All strains developed TBI activity (at variable levels), six strains became hyperthyroid, and one was overtly thyrotoxic. No low TBI responders became hyperthyroid, but high TBI did not predict hyperthyroidism. Preimmunization T4 levels varied in different CXB strains and was unrelated to subsequent T4 elevation. Linkage analysis indicated that different chromosomes were involved in generating TSHR antibodies and serum T4 before and after immunization. TBI activity was linked in part with major histocompatibility (MHC) genes on chromosome 17 (Chr 17) but induced Graves' disease involved non-MHC genes (Chr 19 and 10). The Chr 10 locus is close to the Trhde gene that encodes TSH-releasing hormone degrading enzyme. Expression of Trhde is controlled by thyroid hormones and linkage with a thyroid function-related gene is intriguing. Our data, the first genome scan in murine Graves' disease, provides insight into the role of MHC and non-MHC genes in human and murine Graves' disease. Finally, our study demonstrates the potential of recombinant inbred mice for discriminating between immune-response genes and thyroid function susceptibility genes in Graves' disease. PMID:16543368

Aliesky, Holly A; Pichurin, Pavel N; Chen, Chun-Rong; Williams, Robert W; Rapoport, Basil; McLachlan, Sandra M

2006-03-16

140

Genetic and Structural Analysis of the Basolateral Amygdala Complex in BXD Recombinant Inbred Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amygdala integrates and coordinates emotional and autonomic responses. The genetics that underlie variation in amygdala\\u000a structure may be coupled to variation in levels of aggression, fear, anxiety, and affiliated behaviors. We systematically\\u000a quantified the volume and cell populations of the basolateral amygdala complex (BLAc) across 35 BXD recombinant inbred (RI)\\u000a lines, the parental strains—C57BL\\/6J (B6) and DBA\\/2J (D2)—and F1

Khyobeni Mozhui; Kristin M. Hamre; Andrew Holmes; Lu Lu; Robert W. Williams

2007-01-01

141

Hybrid mouse diversity panel: a panel of inbred mouse strains suitable for analysis of complex genetic traits.  

PubMed

We have developed an association-based approach using classical inbred strains of mice in which we correct for population structure, which is very extensive in mice, using an efficient mixed-model algorithm. Our approach includes inbred parental strains as well as recombinant inbred strains in order to capture loci with effect sizes typical of complex traits in mice (in the range of 5% of total trait variance). Over the last few years, we have typed the hybrid mouse diversity panel (HMDP) strains for a variety of clinical traits as well as intermediate phenotypes and have shown that the HMDP has sufficient power to map genes for highly complex traits with resolution that is in most cases less than a megabase. In this essay, we review our experience with the HMDP, describe various ongoing projects, and discuss how the HMDP may fit into the larger picture of common diseases and different approaches. PMID:22892838

Ghazalpour, Anatole; Rau, Christoph D; Farber, Charles R; Bennett, Brian J; Orozco, Luz D; van Nas, Atila; Pan, Calvin; Allayee, Hooman; Beaven, Simon W; Civelek, Mete; Davis, Richard C; Drake, Thomas A; Friedman, Rick A; Furlotte, Nick; Hui, Simon T; Jentsch, J David; Kostem, Emrah; Kang, Hyun Min; Kang, Eun Yong; Joo, Jong Wha; Korshunov, Vyacheslav A; Laughlin, Rick E; Martin, Lisa J; Ohmen, Jeffrey D; Parks, Brian W; Pellegrini, Matteo; Reue, Karen; Smith, Desmond J; Tetradis, Sotirios; Wang, Jessica; Wang, Yibin; Weiss, James N; Kirchgessner, Todd; Gargalovic, Peter S; Eskin, Eleazar; Lusis, Aldons J; LeBoeuf, Renée C

2012-08-15

142

Hybrid mouse diversity panel: a panel of inbred mouse strains suitable for analysis of complex genetic traits  

PubMed Central

We have developed an association-based approach using classical inbred strains of mice in which we correct for population structure, which is very extensive in mice, using an efficient mixed-model algorithm. Our approach includes inbred parental strains as well as recombinant inbred strains in order to capture loci with effect sizes typical of complex traits in mice (in the range of 5 % of total trait variance). Over the last few years, we have typed the hybrid mouse diversity panel (HMDP) strains for a variety of clinical traits as well as intermediate phenotypes and have shown that the HMDP has sufficient power to map genes for highly complex traits with resolution that is in most cases less than a megabase. In this essay, we review our experience with the HMDP, describe various ongoing projects, and discuss how the HMDP may fit into the larger picture of common diseases and different approaches.

Ghazalpour, Anatole; Rau, Christoph D.; Farber, Charles R.; Bennett, Brian J.; Orozco, Luz D.; van Nas, Atila; Pan, Calvin; Allayee, Hooman; Beaven, Simon W.; Civelek, Mete; Davis, Richard C.; Drake, Thomas A.; Friedman, Rick A.; Furlotte, Nick; Hui, Simon T.; Jentsch, J. David; Kostem, Emrah; Kang, Hyun Min; Kang, Eun Yong; Joo, Jong Wha; Korshunov, Vyacheslav A.; Laughlin, Rick E.; Martin, Lisa J.; Ohmen, Jeffrey D.; Parks, Brian W.; Pellegrini, Matteo; Reue, Karen; Smith, Desmond J.; Tetradis, Sotirios; Wang, Jessica; Wang, Yibin; Weiss, James N.; Kirchgessner, Todd; Gargalovic, Peter S.; Eskin, Eleazar; Lusis, Aldons J.

2012-01-01

143

Characterization of Photosynthetic Performance during Senescence in Stay-Green and Quick-Leaf-Senescence Zea mays L. Inbred Lines  

PubMed Central

The net photosynthetic rate, chlorophyll content, chlorophyll fluorescence and 820 nm transmission were investigated to explore the behavior of the photosynthetic apparatus, including light absorption, energy transformation and the photoactivities of photosystem II (PSII) and photosystem I (PSI) during senescence in the stay-green inbred line of maize (Zea mays) Q319 and the quick-leaf-senescence inbred line of maize HZ4. The relationship between the photosynthetic performance and the decrease in chlorophyll content in the two inbred lines was also studied. Both the field and laboratory data indicated that the chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate, and the photoactivities of PSII and PSI decreased later and slower in Q319 than in HZ4, indicating that Q319 is a functional stay-green inbred line. In order to avoid the influence of different development stages and environmental factors on senescence, age-matched detached leaf segments from the two inbred lines were treated with ethephon under controlled conditions to induce senescence. The net photosynthetic rate, light absorption, energy transformation, the activities of PSII acceptor side and donor side and the PSI activities decreased much slower in Q319 than in HZ4 during the ethephon-induced senescence. These results suggest that the retention of light absorption, energy transformation and activity of electron transfer contribute to the extended duration of active photosynthesis in Q319. Although the chlorophyll content decreased faster in HZ4, with decrease of chlorophyll content induced by ethephon, photosynthetic performance of Q319 deteriorated much more severely than that of HZ4, indicating that, compared with Q319, HZ4 has an advantage at maintaining higher photosynthetic activity with decrease of chlorophyll although HZ4 is a quick-leaf-senescence inbred line. We conclude that attention should be paid to two favorable characteristics in breeding long duration of active photosynthesis hybrids: 1) maintaining more chlorophyll content during senescence and 2) maintaining higher photosynthetic activity during the loss of chlorophyll.

Gao, Huiyuan; Zhang, Litao; Yang, Cheng; Liu, Peng; Meng, Qingwei

2012-01-01

144

Characterization of photosynthetic performance during senescence in stay-green and quick-leaf-senescence Zea mays L. inbred lines.  

PubMed

The net photosynthetic rate, chlorophyll content, chlorophyll fluorescence and 820 nm transmission were investigated to explore the behavior of the photosynthetic apparatus, including light absorption, energy transformation and the photoactivities of photosystem II (PSII) and photosystem I (PSI) during senescence in the stay-green inbred line of maize (Zea mays) Q319 and the quick-leaf-senescence inbred line of maize HZ4. The relationship between the photosynthetic performance and the decrease in chlorophyll content in the two inbred lines was also studied. Both the field and laboratory data indicated that the chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate, and the photoactivities of PSII and PSI decreased later and slower in Q319 than in HZ4, indicating that Q319 is a functional stay-green inbred line. In order to avoid the influence of different development stages and environmental factors on senescence, age-matched detached leaf segments from the two inbred lines were treated with ethephon under controlled conditions to induce senescence. The net photosynthetic rate, light absorption, energy transformation, the activities of PSII acceptor side and donor side and the PSI activities decreased much slower in Q319 than in HZ4 during the ethephon-induced senescence. These results suggest that the retention of light absorption, energy transformation and activity of electron transfer contribute to the extended duration of active photosynthesis in Q319. Although the chlorophyll content decreased faster in HZ4, with decrease of chlorophyll content induced by ethephon, photosynthetic performance of Q319 deteriorated much more severely than that of HZ4, indicating that, compared with Q319, HZ4 has an advantage at maintaining higher photosynthetic activity with decrease of chlorophyll although HZ4 is a quick-leaf-senescence inbred line. We conclude that attention should be paid to two favorable characteristics in breeding long duration of active photosynthesis hybrids: 1) maintaining more chlorophyll content during senescence and 2) maintaining higher photosynthetic activity during the loss of chlorophyll. PMID:22900069

Zhang, Zishan; Li, Geng; Gao, Huiyuan; Zhang, Litao; Yang, Cheng; Liu, Peng; Meng, Qingwei

2012-08-10

145

Genetics of body weight in the LXS recombinant inbred mouse strains  

SciTech Connect

This is the first phenotypic analysis of 75 new recombinant inbred (RI) strains derived from ILS and ISS progenitors. We analyzed body weight in two independent cohorts of female mice at various ages and in males at 60 days. Body weight is a complex trait which has been mapped in numerous crosses in rodents. The LXS RI strains displayed a large range of weights, transgressing those of the inbred progenitors, supporting the utility of this large panel for mapping traits not selected in the progenitors. Numerous QTLs for body weight mapped in singleand multilocus scans. We assessed replication between these and previously reported QTLs based on overlapping confidence intervals of published QTLs for body weight at 60 days and used meta-analyses to determine combined p values for three QTL regions located on Chromosomes 4, 5, and 11. Strain distribution patterns of microsatellite marker genotypes, weight, and other phenotypes are available on Web- QTL (http://www.webqtl.org/search.html) and allow genetic mapping of any heritable quantitative phenotype measured in these strains. We report one such analysis, correlating brain and body weights. Large reference panels of RI strains, such as the LXS, are invaluable for identifying genetic correlations, GXE (Gene X Environment) interactions, and replicating previously identified QTLs.

Bennett, Beth [University of Colorado, Boulder; Carosone-Line, Phyllis [University of Colorado, Boulder; Lu, Lu [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Chesler, Elissa J [ORNL; Johnson, Thomas [University of Colorado, Boulder

2005-01-01

146

Brachypodium sylvaticum, a Model for Perennial Grasses: Transformation and Inbred Line Development.  

PubMed

Perennial species offer significant advantages as crops including reduced soil erosion, lower energy inputs after the first year, deeper root systems that access more soil moisture, and decreased fertilizer inputs due to the remobilization of nutrients at the end of the growing season. These advantages are particularly relevant for emerging biomass crops and it is projected that perennial grasses will be among the most important dedicated biomass crops. The advantages offered by perennial crops could also prove favorable for incorporation into annual grain crops like wheat, rice, sorghum and barley, especially under the dryer and more variable climate conditions projected for many grain-producing regions. Thus, it would be useful to have a perennial model system to test biotechnological approaches to crop improvement and for fundamental research. The perennial grass Brachypodiumsylvaticum is a candidate for such a model because it is diploid, has a small genome, is self-fertile, has a modest stature, and short generation time. Its close relationship to the annual model Brachypodiumdistachyon will facilitate comparative studies and allow researchers to leverage the resources developed for B. distachyon. Here we report on the development of two keystone resources that are essential for a model plant: high-efficiency transformation and inbred lines. Using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation we achieved an average transformation efficiency of 67%. We also surveyed the genetic diversity of 19 accessions from the National Plant Germplasm System using SSR markers and created 15 inbred lines. PMID:24073248

Steinwand, Michael A; Young, Hugh A; Bragg, Jennifer N; Tobias, Christian M; Vogel, John P

2013-09-20

147

Genomic variation in the vomeronasal receptor gene repertoires of inbred mice  

PubMed Central

Background Vomeronasal receptors (VRs), expressed in sensory neurons of the vomeronasal organ, are thought to bind pheromones and mediate innate behaviours. The mouse reference genome has over 360 functional VRs arranged in highly homologous clusters, but the vast majority are of unknown function. Differences in these receptors within and between closely related species of mice are likely to underpin a range of behavioural responses. To investigate these differences, we interrogated the VR gene repertoire from 17 inbred strains of mice using massively parallel sequencing. Results Approximately half of the 6222 VR genes that we investigated could be successfully resolved, and those that were unambiguously mapped resulted in an extremely accurate dataset. Collectively VRs have over twice the coding sequence variation of the genome average; but we identify striking non-random distribution of these variants within and between genes, clusters, clades and functional classes of VRs. We show that functional VR gene repertoires differ considerably between different Mus subspecies and species, suggesting these receptors may play a role in mediating behavioural adaptations. Finally, we provide evidence that widely-used, highly inbred laboratory-derived strains have a greatly reduced, but not entirely redundant capacity for differential pheromone-mediated behaviours. Conclusions Together our results suggest that the unusually variable VR repertoires of mice have a significant role in encoding differences in olfactory-mediated responses and behaviours. Our dataset has expanded over nine fold the known number of mouse VR alleles, and will enable mechanistic analyses into the genetics of innate behavioural differences in mice.

2012-01-01

148

In silico QTL mapping of basal liver iron levels in inbred mouse strains  

PubMed Central

Both iron deficiency and iron excess are detrimental in many organisms, and previous studies in both mice and humans suggest that genetic variation may influence iron status in mammals. However, these genetic factors are not well defined. To address this issue, we measured basal liver iron levels in 18 inbred strains of mice of both sexes on a defined iron diet and found ?4-fold variation in liver iron in males (lowest 153 ?g/g, highest 661 ?g/g) and ?3-fold variation in females (lowest 222 ?g/g, highest 658 ?g/g). We carried out a genome-wide association mapping to identify haplotypes underlying differences in liver iron and three other related traits (copper and zinc liver levels, and plasma diferric transferrin levels) in a subset of 14 inbred strains for which genotype information was available. We identified two putative quantitative trait loci (QTL) that contain genes with a known role in iron metabolism: Eif2ak1 and Igf2r. We also identified four putative QTL that reside in previously identified iron-related QTL and 22 novel putative QTL. The most promising putative QTL include a 0.22 Mb region on Chromosome 7 and a 0.32 Mb region on Chromosome 11 that both contain only one candidate gene, Adam12 and Gria1, respectively. Identified putative QTL are good candidates for further refinement and subsequent functional studies.

McLachlan, Stela; Lee, Seung-Min; Steele, Teresa M.; Hawthorne, Paula L.; Zapala, Matthew A.; Eskin, Eleazar; Schork, Nicholas J.; Anderson, Gregory J.

2011-01-01

149

In silico QTL mapping of basal liver iron levels in inbred mouse strains.  

PubMed

Both iron deficiency and iron excess are detrimental in many organisms, and previous studies in both mice and humans suggest that genetic variation may influence iron status in mammals. However, these genetic factors are not well defined. To address this issue, we measured basal liver iron levels in 18 inbred strains of mice of both sexes on a defined iron diet and found ?4-fold variation in liver iron in males (lowest 153 ?g/g, highest 661 ?g/g) and ?3-fold variation in females (lowest 222 ?g/g, highest 658 ?g/g). We carried out a genome-wide association mapping to identify haplotypes underlying differences in liver iron and three other related traits (copper and zinc liver levels, and plasma diferric transferrin levels) in a subset of 14 inbred strains for which genotype information was available. We identified two putative quantitative trait loci (QTL) that contain genes with a known role in iron metabolism: Eif2ak1 and Igf2r. We also identified four putative QTL that reside in previously identified iron-related QTL and 22 novel putative QTL. The most promising putative QTL include a 0.22 Mb region on Chromosome 7 and a 0.32 Mb region on Chromosome 11 that both contain only one candidate gene, Adam12 and Gria1, respectively. Identified putative QTL are good candidates for further refinement and subsequent functional studies. PMID:21062905

McLachlan, Stela; Lee, Seung-Min; Steele, Teresa M; Hawthorne, Paula L; Zapala, Matthew A; Eskin, Eleazar; Schork, Nicholas J; Anderson, Gregory J; Vulpe, Chris D

2010-11-09

150

Extensive variation between inbred mouse strains due to endogenous L1 retrotransposition  

PubMed Central

Numerous inbred mouse strains comprise models for human diseases and diversity, but the molecular differences between them are mostly unknown. Several mammalian genomes have been assembled, providing a framework for identifying structural variations. To identify variants between inbred mouse strains at a single nucleotide resolution, we aligned 26 million individual sequence traces from four laboratory mouse strains to the C57BL/6J reference genome. We discovered and analyzed over 10,000 intermediate-length genomic variants (from 100 nucleotides to 10 kilobases), distinguishing these strains from the C57BL/6J reference. Approximately 85% of such variants are due to recent mobilization of endogenous retrotransposons, predominantly L1 elements, greatly exceeding that reported in humans. Many genes’ structures and expression are altered directly by polymorphic L1 retrotransposons, including Drosha (also called Rnasen), Parp8, Scn1a, Arhgap15, and others, including novel genes. L1 polymorphisms are distributed nonrandomly across the genome, as they are excluded significantly from the X chromosome and from genes associated with the cell cycle, but are enriched in receptor genes. Thus, recent endogenous L1 retrotransposition has diversified genomic structures and transcripts extensively, distinguishing mouse lineages and driving a major portion of natural genetic variation.

Akagi, Keiko; Li, Jingfeng; Stephens, Robert M.; Volfovsky, Natalia; Symer, David E.

2008-01-01

151

A General Bayesian Approach to Analyzing Diallel Crosses of Inbred Strains  

PubMed Central

The classic diallel takes a set of parents and produces offspring from all possible mating pairs. Phenotype values among the offspring can then be related back to their respective parentage. When the parents are diploid, sexed, and inbred, the diallel can characterize aggregate effects of genetic background on a phenotype, revealing effects of strain dosage, heterosis, parent of origin, epistasis, and sex-specific versions thereof. However, its analysis is traditionally intricate, unforgiving of unplanned missing information, and highly sensitive to imbalance, making the diallel unapproachable to many geneticists. Nonetheless, imbalanced and incomplete diallels arise frequently, albeit unintentionally, as by-products of larger-scale experiments that collect F1 data, for example, pilot studies or multiparent breeding efforts such as the Collaborative Cross or the Arabidopsis MAGIC lines. We present a general Bayesian model for analyzing diallel data on dioecious diploid inbred strains that cleanly decomposes the observed patterns of variation into biologically intuitive components, simultaneously models and accommodates outliers, and provides shrinkage estimates of effects that automatically incorporate uncertainty due to imbalance, missing data, and small sample size. We further present a model selection procedure for weighing evidence for or against the inclusion of those components in a predictive model. We evaluate our method through simulation and apply it to incomplete diallel data on the founders and F1's of the Collaborative Cross, robustly characterizing the genetic architecture of 48 phenotypes.

Lenarcic, Alan B.; Svenson, Karen L.; Churchill, Gary A.; Valdar, William

2012-01-01

152

Profiling polyphenols of two diploid strawberry (Fragaria vesca) inbred lines using UHPLC-HRMS(n.).  

PubMed

Phenolic compounds in the fruits of two diploid strawberries (Fragaria vesca f. semperflorens) inbred lines-Ruegen F7-4 (a red-fruited genotype) and YW5AF7 (a yellow-fruited genotype) were characterised using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS(n)). The changes of anthocyanin composition during fruit development and between Ruegen F7-4 and YW5AF7 were studied. About 67 phenolic compounds, including taxifolin 3-O-arabinoside, glycosides of quercetin, kaempferol, cyanidin, pelargonidin, peonidin, ellagic acid derivatives, and other flavonols were identified in these two inbred lines. Compared to the regular octoploid strawberry, unique phenolic compounds were found in F. vesca fruits, such as taxifolin 3-O-arabinoside (both) and peonidin 3-O-malonylglucoside (Ruegen F7-4). The results provide the basis for comparative analysis of polyphenolic compounds in yellow and red diploid strawberries, as well as with the cultivated octoploid strawberries. PMID:24176345

Sun, Jianghao; Liu, Xianjin; Yang, Tianbao; Slovin, Janet; Chen, Pei

2013-09-12

153

Genetic Analysis of Vertebral Regionalization and Number in Medaka (Oryzias latipes) Inbred Lines  

PubMed Central

Vertebral number is the most variable trait among vertebrates. In addition to the vertebral number, the ratio of abdominal to caudal vertebrae is a variable trait. The vertebral number and the ratio of abdominal to caudal vertebrae contribute to vertebrate diversity. It is very interesting to know how to determine the vertebral number and the ratio of abdominal to caudal vertebrae. In this study, we identify differences in the vertebral number and the ratio of abdominal vertebrae to vertebral number between two inbred lines of medaka, namely, Hd-rRII1 and Kaga. To identify the genetic factor of those differences, we performed quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis for vertebral number and the ratio of abdominal vertebrae to vertebral number using 200 F2 fish. Our results show a suggestive QTL of the ratio of abdominal vertebrae to vertebral number on chromosome 15, and five QTL of vertebral number on chromosomes 1, 10, 11, 17, and 23. The QTL on chromosome 15 contains hoxDb cluster genes. The QTL of vertebral number include some genes related to the segmentation clock and axial elongation. In addition, we show that the difference in vertebral number between two inbred lines is derived from differences in the anteroposterior length of somites. Our results emphasize that the developmental process should be considered in genetic analyses for vertebral number.

Kimura, Tetsuaki; Shinya, Minori; Naruse, Kiyosi

2012-01-01

154

Brachypodium sylvaticum, a Model for Perennial Grasses: Transformation and Inbred Line Development  

PubMed Central

Perennial species offer significant advantages as crops including reduced soil erosion, lower energy inputs after the first year, deeper root systems that access more soil moisture, and decreased fertilizer inputs due to the remobilization of nutrients at the end of the growing season. These advantages are particularly relevant for emerging biomass crops and it is projected that perennial grasses will be among the most important dedicated biomass crops. The advantages offered by perennial crops could also prove favorable for incorporation into annual grain crops like wheat, rice, sorghum and barley, especially under the dryer and more variable climate conditions projected for many grain-producing regions. Thus, it would be useful to have a perennial model system to test biotechnological approaches to crop improvement and for fundamental research. The perennial grass Brachypodiumsylvaticum is a candidate for such a model because it is diploid, has a small genome, is self-fertile, has a modest stature, and short generation time. Its close relationship to the annual model Brachypodiumdistachyon will facilitate comparative studies and allow researchers to leverage the resources developed for B. distachyon. Here we report on the development of two keystone resources that are essential for a model plant: high-efficiency transformation and inbred lines. Using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation we achieved an average transformation efficiency of 67%. We also surveyed the genetic diversity of 19 accessions from the National Plant Germplasm System using SSR markers and created 15 inbred lines.

Steinwand, Michael A.; Young, Hugh A.; Bragg, Jennifer N.; Tobias, Christian M.; Vogel, John P.

2013-01-01

155

A Major Gene Affecting Age-Related Hearing Loss Is Common to at Least Ten Inbred Strains of Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inbred strains of mice offer promising models for understanding the genetic basis of human presbycusis or age-related hearing loss (AHL). We previously mapped a major gene affecting AHL in C57BL\\/6J mice. Here, we show that the same Chromosome 10 gene (Ahl) is a major contributor to AHL in nine other inbred mouse strains—129P1\\/ReJ, A\\/J, BALB\\/cByJ, BUB\\/BnJ, C57BR\\/cdJ, DBA\\/2J, NOD\\/LtJ, SKH2\\/J,

Kenneth R. Johnson; Qing Yin Zheng; Lawrence C. Erway

2000-01-01

156

Genetic differences in alcohol drinking preference between inbred strains of mice.  

PubMed

Genetic factors are known to influence the preference for drinking alcohol-in humans as well as certain inbred strains of laboratory animals. Here we examined the possible role of the aromatic hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) in alcohol-preferring C57BL/6J (B6, high-affinity AHR) and alcohol-avoiding DBA/2J (D2, low-affinity AHR) inbred mouse strains, and in the two congenic lines B6.D2-Ahrd (> 99% B6 genome with the D2 low-affinity AHR) and D2.B6-Ahrb-1 (> 99% D2 genome with the B6 high-affinity AHR). This laboratory had previously shown an association between resistance to intraperitoneal ethanol-induced toxicity and the high-affinity AHR. Offering the choice between drinking water and 10% ethanol, we found that alcohol preference is three- to four-fold greater in B6 than D2 mice, as well as three- to four-fold greater in B6.D2-Ahrd than D2.B6-Ahrb-1 mice-indicating that alcohol preference is AHR-independent. The prototype AHR agonist 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD; dioxin) did not affect the rates of chronic alcohol consumption in B6 or D2 mice, suggesting that dioxin-inducible metabolism does not play a major role in alcohol drinking preference. In B6 mice, we found that oral treatment with the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) inhibitor disulfiram decreased alcohol preference by 50%, whereas oral treatment of the catalase inhibitor 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole increased alcohol drinking preference by 15-20%. Although liver and brain ALDH activities were both significantly higher in D2 than B6, these activities were not related to alcohol consumption. Hepatic and brain catalase activities, on the other hand, were two- to three-fold higher in D2 and D2.B6-Ahrb-1 mice, compared with that in B6 and B6.D2-Ahrd. Furthermore, brain acetaldehyde levels were inversely related to the quantity of alcohol voluntarily consumed. We conclude that the alcohol drinking preference between the B6 and D2 inbred mouse strains is independent of the Ah receptor-but is genetically determined, in part, by the level of brain catalase activity which, in turn, regulates brain acetaldehyde concentrations. PMID:9241662

He, X X; Nebert, D W; Vasiliou, V; Zhu, H; Shertzer, H G

1997-06-01

157

Longitudinal fundus and retinal studies with SD-OCT: a comparison of five mouse inbred strains.  

PubMed

Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) has recently been established as a method for in vivo imaging of fundus and retina in the mouse. It enables more effective studies of retinal diseases including investigations of etiopathologic mechanisms. In order to learn more about longitudinal fundus development and to enable recognition of disease-associated irregularities, we performed confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (cSLO) and SD-OCT measurements in the inbred strains C57BL/6J, C3HeB/FeJ, FVB/NCrl, BALB/cByJ, and 129S2/SvJ when they were between 2 and 6 months of age. In general, cSLO and SD-OCT data did not reveal sex-specific or unilateral differences. C3HeB/FeJ and FVB/NCrl mice showed diffuse choroidal dysplasia. Choroidal vein-like structures appeared as dark fundus stripes in C3HeB/FeJ. In FVB/NCrl, fundus fleck accumulation was found. In contrast, only minor time-dependent changes of fundus appearance were observed in C57BL/6J, BALB/cByJ, and 129S2/SvJ. This was also found for individual fundic main blood vessel patterns in all inbred strains. Vessel numbers varied between 6 and 13 in C57BL/6J. This was comparable in most cases. We further found that retinae were significantly thicker in C57BL/6J compared to the other strains. Total retinal thickness generally did not change between 2 and 6 months of age. As a conclusion, our results indicate lifelong pathologic processes in C3HeB/FeJ and FVB/NCrl that affect choroid and orbital tissues. Inbred strains with regular retinal development did not reveal major time-dependent variations of fundus appearance, blood vessel pattern, or retinal thickness. Consequently, progressive changes of these parameters are suitable indicators for pathologic outliers. PMID:23681115

Puk, Oliver; de Angelis, Martin Hrab?; Graw, Jochen

2013-05-17

158

Absence of replication competent human-tropic porcine endogenous retroviruses in the germline DNA of inbred miniature swine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential transmission of porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs) has raised concern in the development of porcine xenotransplantation products. Our previous studies have resulted in the identification of animals within a research herd of inbred miniature swine that lack the capacity to transmit PERV to human cells in vitro. In contrast, other animals were capable of PERV transmission. The PERVs that

Linda Scobie; Samantha Taylor; James C. Wood; Kristen M. Suling; Gary Quinn; Sharon Meikle; Clive Patience; Henk-Jan Schuurman; David E. Onions

2004-01-01

159

Learning Strategy Selection in the Water Maze and Hippocampal CREB Phosphorylation Differ in Two Inbred Strains of Mice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Learning strategy selection was assessed in two different inbred strains of mice, C57BL/6 and DBA/2, which are used for developing genetically modified mouse models. Male mice received a training protocol in a water maze using alternating blocks of visible and hidden platform trials, during which mice escaped to a single location. After training,…

Sung, Jin-Young; Goo, June-Seo; Lee, Dong-Eun; Jin, Da-Qing; Bizon, Jennifer L.; Gallagher, Michela; Han, Jung-Soo

2008-01-01

160

Multidisciplinary approaches for investigating the mechanisms of hippocampus-dependent memory: a focus on inbred mouse strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inbred mouse strains differ in genetic makeup and display diverse learning and memory phenotypes. Mouse models of memory impairment can be identified by examining hippocampus-dependent memory in multiple strains. These mouse models may be used to establish the genetic, molecular, and cellular correlates of deficits in learning or memory. In this article, we review research that has characterized hippocampal learning

L. A. Schimanski; P. V. Nguyen

2004-01-01

161

ROOT TRAITS AND NODULATION OF RECOMBINANT INBRED BEAN LINES FROM A ‘JAMAPA × CALIMA’ POPULATION INOCULATED WITH TWO STRAINS OF RHIZOBIUM  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bean cultivars of Andean and Middle American origin often have contrasting above-ground traits. Less is known, however, of possible differences in root traits of beans from different gene pools. Recombinant inbred lines (RIL) derived from a cross between the Andean cultivar ‘Calima’ and the Middle A...

162

A MOLECULAR LINKAGE MAP AND QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCUS ANALYSIS BASED ON A RECOMBINANT INBRED LINE POPULATION OF COTTON  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A mapping population comprising of 98 recombinant inbred lines (RIL) was developed from a cross between TM-1,the genetic standard of upland cotton, and NM 24016, an Acala breeding line with substantial germplasm introgression from Pima cotton. The objectives of the study were to construct a molecula...

163

Gene actions of QTLs affecting several agronomic traits resolved in a recombinant inbred rice population and two testcross populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand the types of gene action controlling seven quantitative traits in rice, QTL mapping was performed to dissect the main effect (M-QTLs) and digenic epistatic (E-QTLs) QTLs responsible for the trait performance of 254 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of \\

H. W. Mei; L. J. Luo; C. S. Ying; Y. P. Wang; X. Q. Yu; L. B. Guo; A. H. Paterson; Z. K. Li

2003-01-01

164

Molecular analysis of genetic differences among inbred mouse strains controlling tissue expression pattern of alcohol dehydrogenase 4  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ADH gene family in vertebrates is composed of at least seven distinct classes based upon sequence comparisons and enzyme properties. The Adh4 gene product may play an important role in differentiation and development because of its capacity to metabolize retinol to retinoic acid. Allelic gene differences exist among inbred mouse strains which control structure and tissue-specific regulation of Adh4.

Daniel E. A. Dolney; Gabor Szalai; Gregg Duester; Michael R. Felder

2001-01-01

165

A Nonsense Mutation (W9X) in CRYAA Causes Autosomal Recessive Cataract in an Inbred Jewish Persian Family  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE. To identify the genetic defect causing autosomal recessive cataract in two inbred families. METHODS. Linkage analysis was performed with polymorphic markers close to 14 loci previously shown to be involved in autosomal dominant congenital cataract. In one of the families a gene segregating with the disease was analyzed by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) and eventually sequenced. RESULTS. Three polymorphic

Eran Pras; Moshe Frydman; Etgar Levy-Nissenbaum; Tengiz Bakhan; Judith Raz; Ehud I. Assia; Boleslaw Goldman; Elon Pras

2000-01-01

166

Recombinant inbred line differential identifies race-specific resistance to phytophthora root rot in Capsicum annuum.  

PubMed

A differential series is the normal method for identification of races within a plant pathogen and a host interaction. A host differential is extremely useful for phytopathological as well as breeding purposes. A set of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) were developed and characterized for race differentiation of Phytophthora root rot caused by Phytophthora capsici. The highly resistant Capsicum annuum accession Criollo de Morelos-334 was hybridized to a susceptible cultivar, Early Jalapeno, to generate the RIL population. The host differential characterized 17 isolates of P. capsici into 13 races. The establishment of a stable host differential for the P. capsici and C. annuum interaction will assist researchers in understanding the complex inheritance of resistance to Phytophthora root rot and to develop resistant cultivars. PMID:18943204

Sy, O; Steiner, R; Bosland, P W

2008-08-01

167

Epigenome-wide inheritance of cytosine methylation variants in a recombinant inbred population.  

PubMed

Cytosine DNA methylation is one avenue for passing information through cell divisions. Here, we present epigenomic analyses of soybean recombinant inbred lines (RILs) and their parents. Identification of differentially methylated regions (DMRs) revealed that DMRs mostly cosegregated with the genotype from which they were derived, but examples of the uncoupling of genotype and epigenotype were identified. Linkage mapping of methylation states assessed from whole-genome bisulfite sequencing of 83 RILs uncovered widespread evidence for local methylQTL. This epigenomics approach provides a comprehensive study of the patterns and heritability of methylation variants in a complex genetic population over multiple generations, paving the way for understanding how methylation variants contribute to phenotypic variation. PMID:23739894

Schmitz, Robert J; He, Yupeng; Valdés-López, Oswaldo; Khan, Saad M; Joshi, Trupti; Urich, Mark A; Nery, Joseph R; Diers, Brian; Xu, Dong; Stacey, Gary; Ecker, Joseph R

2013-06-05

168

Differentiating Inbred Mouse Strains from Each Other and Those with Single Gene Mutations Using Hair Proteomics  

PubMed Central

Mutant laboratory mice with distinctive hair phenotypes are useful for identifying genes responsible for hair diseases. The work presented here demonstrates that shotgun proteomic profiling can distinguish hair shafts from different inbred mouse strains. For this purpose, analyzing the total hair shaft provided better discrimination than analyzing the isolated solubilized and particulate (cross-linked) fractions. Over 100 proteins exhibited significant differences among the 11 strains and 5 mutant stocks across the wide spectrum of strains surveyed. Effects on the profile of single gene mutations causing hair shaft defects were profound. Since the hair shaft provides a discrete sampling of the species proteome, with constituents serving important functions in epidermal appendages and throughout the body, this work provides a foundation for non-invasive diagnosis of genetic diseases of hair and perhaps other tissues.

Rice, Robert H.; Bradshaw, Katie M.; Durbin-Johnson, Blythe P.; Rocke, David M.; Eigenheer, Richard A.; Phinney, Brett S.; Sundberg, John P.

2012-01-01

169

Identification of two different mutations in the PDS gene in an inbred family with Pendred syndrome  

PubMed Central

Recently the gene responsible for Pendred syndrome (PDS) was isolated and several mutations in the PDS gene have been identified in Pendred patients. Here we report the occurrence of two different PDS mutations in an extended inbred Turkish family. The majority of patients in this family are homozygous for a splice site mutation (1143-2A?G) affecting the 3' splice site consensus sequence of intron 7. However, two affected sibs with non-consanguineous parents are compound heterozygotes for the splice site mutation and a missense mutation (1558T?G), substituting an evolutionarily conserved amino acid. The latter mutation has been found previously in two Pendred families originating from The Netherlands, indicating that the 1558T?G mutation may be a common mutation.???Keywords: PDS gene; Pendred syndrome

Coucke, P; Van Hauwe, P; Everett, L; Demirhan, O; Kabakkaya, Y; Dietrich, N; Smith, R; Coyle, E; Reardon, W; Trembath, R; Willems, P; Green, E; Van Camp, G

1999-01-01

170

Heterogeneity of respiratory dendritic cell subsets and lymphocyte populations in inbred mouse strains  

PubMed Central

Background Inbred mouse strains are used in different models of respiratory diseases but the variation of critical respiratory leukocyte subpopulations across different strains is unknown. Methods By using multiparameter flow cytometry we have quantitated respiratory leukocyte subsets including dendritic cells subpopulations, macrophages, classical T and B cells, natural killer cells, ??TCR+ T cells and lineage-negative leukocytes in the five most common inbred mouse strains BALB/c, C57BL/6, DBA/2, 129SV and C3H. To minimize confounding environmental factors, age-matched animals were received from the same provider and were housed under identical specific-pathogen-free conditions. Results Results revealed significant strain differences with respect to respiratory neutrophils (p=0.005; up to 1.4 fold differences versus C57BL/6 mice), eosinophils (p=0.029; up to 2.7 fold), certain dendritic cell subsets (p?0.0003; up to 3.4 fold), T (p<0.001; up to 1.6 fold) and B lymphocyte subsets (p=0.005; up to 0.4 fold), ?? T lymphocytes (p=0.003; up to 1.6 fold), natural killer cells (p<0.0001; up to 0.6 fold) and lineage-negative innate leukocytes (p?0.007; up to 3.6 fold). In contrast, total respiratory leukocytes, macrophages, total dendritic cells and bronchoalveolar lavage leukocytes did not differ significantly. Stimulation of respiratory leukocytes via Toll-like receptor 4 and 9 as well as CD3/CD28 revealed significant strain differences of TNF-? and IL-10 production. Conclusion Our study demonstrates significant strain heterogeneity of respiratory leukocyte subsets that may impact respiratory immunity in different disease models. Additionally, the results may help identification of optimal strains for purification of rare respiratory leukocyte subsets for ex vivo analyses.

2012-01-01

171

Delayed Inflammatory Response to Primary Pneumonic Plague Occurs in Both Outbred and Inbred Mice?  

PubMed Central

Yersinia pestis is the causative agent of plague, a disease that can manifest as either bubonic or pneumonic plague. An interesting feature of plague is that it is a rapidly progressive disease, suggesting that Y. pestis either evades and/or suppresses the innate immune response to infection. Therefore, the early host response during the course of primary pneumonic plague was investigated in two mouse strains, the outbred strain CD1 and the inbred strain C57BL/6. A comparative analysis of the course of disease in these two strains of mice indicated that they are susceptible to intranasal Y. pestis CO92 infection and have similar 50% lethal doses and kinetics of infection with respect to colonization of the lung, liver, and spleen. Significantly, in both strains of mice, robust neutrophil recruitment to the lungs was not observed until 48 h after infection, suggesting that there was a delay in inflammatory cell recruitment to the site of infection. In addition, proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6 [IL-6], tumor necrosis factor alpha, gamma interferon, IL-12p70, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1) and chemokines (KC, MIP-2) in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluids were not readily detected until 48 h after infection, which coincided with the increase in polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) recruitment to the lungs. In comparison, CD1 mice with gram-negative pneumonia caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae exhibited strong inflammatory responses early in infection, with PMNs comprising the majority of the cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid 24 h postinfection, indicating that PMN recruitment to the lungs could occur earlier in this infection than in Y. pestis infection. Together, our results indicate that there is a delay in the recruitment of neutrophils to the lungs in the mouse model of primary plague pneumonia that correlates with delayed expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in both outbred and inbred mice.

Bubeck, Sarah S.; Cantwell, Angelene M.; Dube, Peter H.

2007-01-01

172

Partial short-read sequencing of a highly inbred Iberian pig and genomics inference thereof  

PubMed Central

Despite dramatic reduction in sequencing costs with the advent of next generation sequencing technologies, obtaining a complete mammalian genome sequence at sufficient depth is still costly. An alternative is partial sequencing. Here, we have sequenced a reduced representation library of an Iberian sow from the Guadyerbas strain, a highly inbred strain that has been used in numerous QTL studies because of its extreme phenotypic characteristics. Using the Illumina Genome Analyzer II (San Diego, CA, USA), we resequenced ?1% of the genome with average 4 × depth, identifying 68?778 polymorphisms. Of these, 55?457 were putative fixed differences with respect to the assembly, based on the genome of a Duroc pig, and 13?321 were heterozygous positions within Guadyerbas. Despite being highly inbred, the estimate of heterozygosity within Guadyerbas was ?0.78?kb?1 in autosomes, after correcting for low depth. Nucleotide variability was consistently higher at the telomeric regions than on the rest of the chromosome, likely a result of increased recombination rates. Further, variability was 50% lower in the X-chromosome than in autosomes, which may be explained by a recent bottleneck or by selection. We divided the whole genome in 500?kb windows and we analyzed overrepresented gene ontology terms in regions of low and high variability. Multi organism process, pigmentation and cell killing were overrepresented in high variability regions and metabolic process ontology, within low variability regions. Further, a genome wide Hudson–Kreitman–Aguadé test was carried out per window; overall, variability was in agreement with neutral expectations.

Esteve-Codina, A; Kofler, R; Himmelbauer, H; Ferretti, L; Vivancos, A P; Groenen, M A M; Folch, J M; Rodriguez, M C; Perez-Enciso, M

2011-01-01

173

Maternal heterozygosity and progeny fitness association in an inbred Scots pine population.  

PubMed

Associations between heterozygosity and fitness traits have typically been investigated in populations characterized by low levels of inbreeding. We investigated the associations between standardized multilocus heterozygosity (stMLH) in mother trees (obtained from12 nuclear microsatellite markers) and five fitness traits measured in progenies from an inbred Scots pine population. The traits studied were proportion of sound seed, mean seed weight, germination rate, mean family height of one-year old seedlings under greenhouse conditions (GH) and mean family height of three-year old seedlings under field conditions (FH). The relatively high average inbreeding coefficient (F) in the population under study corresponds to a mixture of trees with different levels of co-ancestry, potentially resulting from a recent bottleneck. We used both frequentist and Bayesian methods of polynomial regression to investigate the presence of linear and non-linear relations between stMLH and each of the fitness traits. No significant associations were found for any of the traits except for GH, which displayed negative linear effect with stMLH. Negative HFC for GH could potentially be explained by the effect of heterosis caused by mating of two inbred mother trees (Lippman and Zamir 2006), or outbreeding depression at the most heterozygote trees and its negative impact on the fitness of the progeny, while their simultaneous action is also possible (Lynch. 1991). However,since this effect wasn't detected for FH, we cannot either rule out that the greenhouse conditions introduce artificial effects that disappear under more realistic field conditions. PMID:23400838

Abrahamsson, S; Ahlinder, J; Waldmann, P; García-Gil, M R

2013-02-12

174

Genetic analysis in a variant of limb girdle muscular dystrophy in an inbred aboriginal community  

SciTech Connect

Limb girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) is a heterogeneous group of disorders with variable inheritance patterns, age-of-onset, rates of progression and patterns of muscle involvement. To date, 4 different chromosomal assignments have been described; LGMD1 to chromosome 5q, LGMD2 to chromosome 15q, SCARMD to chromosome 13q and a fourth locus on chromosome 2p. Because of this genetic heterogeneity, only large unambiguous multiplex families which are clearly linked to a particular locus can be utilized in a genetic analysis. We now report preliminary findings in a large highly inbred aboriginal kindred with 8 probands (5 females, 3 males) from 6 nuclear families with a progressive LMD. All presented in their mid- to late teens with gait disturbances. At time of presentation all except one had both proximal as well as distal muscle involvement, facial muscle sparing, CK levels 25 to 100 times normal (3762-20,400 U/l), dystrophic muscle biopsies and normal dystrophin and dystrophin-associated glycoprotein expression. We have studied the segregation of highly informative microsatellite markers for FBN1, D15S132 and the gene for thrombospondin on chromosome 15q and D2S134, D2S136, D2S147, and D2S166 on chromosome 2. Linkage to chromosome 15q has been excluded and two-point lod scores are not significant as yet to either confirm or exclude linkage to chromosome 2p. However, visual inspection reveals that affected individuals are not consistently homozygous for the chromosome 2p markers as would be predicted in such an inbred population. Clinically, SCARMD is unlikely and if the locus on chromosomes 2p and 5q can also be excluded, a genome-wide search using evenly spaced microsatellites will be initiated. A second geographically distinct aboriginal kindred with a similar clinical phenotype has now also been identified.

Greenberg, C.R.; Nylen, E.G.; Halliday, W. [Univ. of Manitoba, Winnipeg (Canada)] [and others

1994-09-01

175

Caenorhabditis briggsae Recombinant Inbred Line Genotypes Reveal Inter-Strain Incompatibility and the Evolution of Recombination  

PubMed Central

The nematode Caenorhabditis briggsae is an emerging model organism that allows evolutionary comparisons with C. elegans and exploration of its own unique biological attributes. To produce a high-resolution C. briggsae recombination map, recombinant inbred lines were generated from reciprocal crosses between two strains and genotyped at over 1,000 loci. A second set of recombinant inbred lines involving a third strain was also genotyped at lower resolution. The resulting recombination maps exhibit discrete domains of high and low recombination, as in C. elegans, indicating these are a general feature of Caenorhabditis species. The proportion of a chromosome's physical size occupied by the central, low-recombination domain is highly correlated between species. However, the C. briggsae intra-species comparison reveals striking variation in the distribution of recombination between domains. Hybrid lines made with the more divergent pair of strains also exhibit pervasive marker transmission ratio distortion, evidence of selection acting on hybrid genotypes. The strongest effect, on chromosome III, is explained by a developmental delay phenotype exhibited by some hybrid F2 animals. In addition, on chromosomes IV and V, cross direction-specific biases towards one parental genotype suggest the existence of cytonuclear epistatic interactions. These interactions are discussed in relation to surprising mitochondrial genome polymorphism in C. briggsae, evidence that the two strains diverged in allopatry, the potential for local adaptation, and the evolution of Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities. The genetic and genomic resources resulting from this work will support future efforts to understand inter-strain divergence as well as facilitate studies of gene function, natural variation, and the evolution of recombination in Caenorhabditis nematodes.

Ross, Joseph A.; Koboldt, Daniel C.; Staisch, Julia E.; Chamberlin, Helen M.; Gupta, Bhagwati P.; Baird, Scott E.; Haag, Eric S.

2011-01-01

176

Development of a Murine Model for Aerosolized Ebolavirus Infection Using a Panel of Recombinant Inbred Mice  

PubMed Central

Countering aerosolized filovirus infection is a major priority of biodefense research. Aerosol models of filovirus infection have been developed in knock-out mice, guinea pigs and non-human primates; however, filovirus infection of immunocompetent mice by the aerosol route has not been reported. A murine model of aerosolized filovirus infection in mice should be useful for screening vaccine candidates and therapies. In this study, various strains of wild-type and immunocompromised mice were exposed to aerosolized wild-type (WT) or mouse-adapted (MA) Ebola virus (EBOV). Upon exposure to aerosolized WT-EBOV, BALB/c, C57BL/6 (B6), and DBA/2 (D2) mice were unaffected, but 100% of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) and 90% of signal transducers and activators of transcription (Stat1) knock-out (KO) mice became moribund between 7–9 days post-exposure (dpe). Exposure to MA-EBOV caused 15% body weight loss in BALB/c, but all mice recovered. In contrast, 10–30% lethality was observed in B6 and D2 mice exposed to aerosolized MA-EBOV, and 100% of SCID, Stat1 KO, interferon (IFN)-? KO and Perforin KO mice became moribund between 7–14 dpe. In order to identify wild-type, inbred, mouse strains in which exposure to aerosolized MA-EBOV is uniformly lethal, 60 BXD (C57BL/6 crossed with DBA/2) recombinant inbred (RI) and advanced RI (ARI) mouse strains were exposed to aerosolized MA-EBOV, and monitored for disease severity. A complete spectrum of disease severity was observed. All BXD strains lost weight but many recovered. However, infection was uniformly lethal within 7 to 12 days post-exposure in five BXD strains. Aerosol exposure of these five BXD strains to 10-fold less MA-EBOV resulted in lethality ranging from 0% in two strains to 90–100% lethality in two strains. Analysis of post-mortem tissue from BXD strains that became moribund and were euthanized at the lower dose of MA-EBOV, showed liver damage in all mice as well as lung lesions in two of the three strains. The two BXD strains that exhibited 90–100% mortality, even at a low dose of airborne MA-EBOV will be useful mouse models for testing vaccines and therapies. Additionally, since disease susceptibility is affected by complex genetic traits, a systems genetics approach was used to identify preliminary gene loci modulating disease severity among the panel BXD strains. Preliminary quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were identified that are likely to harbor genes involved in modulating differential susceptibility to Ebola infection.

Zumbrun, Elizabeth E.; Abdeltawab, Nourtan F.; Bloomfield, Holly A.; Chance, Taylor B.; Nichols, Donald K.; Harrison, Paige E.; Kotb, Malak; Nalca, Aysegul

2012-01-01

177

Temporal factors in the extinction of fear in inbred mouse strains differing in extinction efficacy  

PubMed Central

Background Various neuropsychiatric conditions, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), are characterized by deficient fear extinction, but individuals differ greatly in risk for these. While there is growing evidence that fear extinction is influenced by certain procedural variables, it is unclear how these influences might vary across individuals and subpopulations. To model individual differences in fear extinction, prior studies identified a strain of inbred mouse, 129S1/SvImJ (S1), which exhibits a profound deficit in fear extinction, as compared to other inbred strains, such as C57BL/6J (B6). Methods Here, we assessed the effects of procedural variables on the impaired extinction phenotype of the S1 strain and, by comparison, the extinction-intact B6 strain. The variables studied were 1) the interval between conditioning and extinction, 2) the interval between cues during extinction training, 3) single-cue exposure before extinction training, and 4) extinction of a second-order conditioned cue. Results Conducting extinction training soon after (‘immediately’) conditioning attenuated fear retrieval in S1 mice and impaired extinction in B6 mice. Spacing cue presentations with long inter-trial intervals during extinction training augmented fear in S1 and B6 mice. The effect of spacing was lost with one-trial fear conditioning in B6, but not S1 mice. A single exposure to a conditioned cue before extinction training did not alter extinction retrieval, either in B6 or S1 mice. Both the S1 and B6 strains exhibited robust second-order fear conditioning, in which a cue associated with footshock was sufficient to serve as a conditioned exciter to condition a fear association to a second cue. B6 mice extinguished the fear response to the second-order conditioned cue, but S1 mice failed to do so. Conclusions These data provide further evidence that fear extinction is strongly influenced by multiple procedural variables and is so in a highly strain-dependent manner. This suggests that the efficacy of extinction-based behavioral interventions, such as exposure therapy, for trauma-related anxiety disorders will be determined by the procedural parameters employed and the degree to which the patient can extinguish.

2013-01-01

178

Generating embryonic stem cells from the inbred mouse strain DBA/2J, a model of glaucoma and other complex diseases.  

PubMed

Mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells are derived from the inner cell mass of blastocyst stage embryos and are used primarily for the creation of genetically engineered strains through gene targeting. While some inbred strains of mice are permissive to the derivation of embryonic stem cell lines and are therefore easily engineered, others are nonpermissive or recalcitrant. Genetic engineering of recalcitrant strain backgrounds requires gene targeting in a permissive background followed by extensive backcrossing of the engineered allele into the desired strain background. The inbred mouse strain DBA/2J is a recalcitrant strain that is used as a model of many human diseases, including glaucoma, deafness and schizophrenia. Here, we describe the generation of germ-line competent ES cell lines derived from DBA/2J mice. We also demonstrate the utility of DBA/2J ES cells with the creation of conditional knockout allele for Endothelin-2 (Edn2) directly on the DBA/2J strain background. PMID:23209647

Reinholdt, Laura G; Howell, Gareth R; Czechanski, Anne M; Macalinao, Danilo G; Macnicoll, Katharine H; Lin, Chyuan-Sheng; Donahue, Leah Rae; John, Simon W M

2012-11-27

179

Quantitative trait loci associated with the behavioral response of B×D recombinant inbred mice to restraint stress: A preliminary communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was used to make provisional identification of loci containing genes influencing vulnerability\\u000a to stress. The effect of restraint stress on openfield activity was measured in C57BL\\/6J and DBA\\/2J inbred strains of mice\\u000a and in 22 B×D recombinant inbred strains of mice. QTL analyses were performed by correlating the behavioral delta scores for\\u000a each group with

B. J. Tarricone; J. N. Hingtgen; J. K. Belknap; S. R. Mitchell; J. I. Nurnberger

1995-01-01

180

Use of SHIRPA and discriminant analysis to characterise marked differences in the behavioural phenotype of six inbred mouse strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detailed characterisation of six inbred strains of mice commonly used in transgenic and knockout research was carried out using a battery of behavioural tests (SHIRPA) followed by discriminant analysis of the data. In the primary observation screen, DBA\\/2 mice were relatively irritable and vocalised during handling. C57BL\\/6 were hyperactive as measured by transfer arousal, arena activity and touch-escape tests. By

Derek C. Rogers; Declan N. C. Jones; Paul R. Nelson; C. Matthew Jones; Charlotte A. Quilter; Tracey L. Robinson; Jim J. Hagan

1999-01-01

181

Aging in inbred strains of mice: study design and interim report on median lifespans and circulating IGF1 levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

To better characterize aging in mice, the Jackson Aging Center carried out a lifespan study of 31 genetically-diverse inbred mouse strains housed in a specific pathogen-free facility. Clinical assessments were carried out every 6 months, measuring multiple age-related phenotypes including neuromuscular, kidney and heart function, body composition, bone density, hematology, hormonal levels, and immune system parameters. In a concurrent cross-sectional

R Tsaih S Yuan; S Marion M Xing; L L Bult Peters

2009-01-01

182

Multivariate and behavior genetic analysis of avoidance of complex visual stimuli and activity in recombinant inbred strains of mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixty-six mice of 11 genetic stocks (the Bailey recombinant inbred strains CXBD, CXBE, CXBG, CXBH, CXBI, CXBJ, CXBK; their progenitor strains, BALB\\/cBy and C57BL\\/6By; and the reciprocal hybrids, B6CF and CB6F) were tested in a two-compartment apparatus and in a shuttlebox, with five measures taken relating to activity and to approaches to novel and complex stimuli. A factor analysis of

Edward C. Simmel; Basil E. Eleftheriou

1977-01-01

183

Identification of QTLs affecting traits of agronomic importance in a recombinant inbred population derived from a subspecific rice cross  

Microsoft Academic Search

To detect QTLs controlling traits of agronomic importance in rice, two elite homozygous lines 9024 and LH422, which represent the indica and japonica subspecies of rice (Oryza sativa), were crossed. Subsequently a modified single-seed-descent procedure was employed to produce 194 recombinant inbred lines (F8). The 194 lines were genotyped at 141 RFLP marker loci and evaluated in a field trial

J. Xiao; J. Li; L. Yuan; S. D. Tanksley

1996-01-01

184

Molecular marker analysis of Helianthus annuus L. 1. Restriction fragment length polymorphism between inbred lines of cultivated sunflower  

Microsoft Academic Search

cDNA and PstI genomic clones have been used to assess levels of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) in Helianthus annuus and to determine the inter-relationships between a diverse set of 24 inbred lines. Of the cDNA clones screened 45% were useful as RFLP probes, compared to less than 20% from the PstI library, which showed high levels of redundancy for

S. T. Berry; R. J. Allen; S. R. Barnes; P. D. S. Caligari

1994-01-01

185

Quantitative Trait Loci Associated with Leaf and Neck Blast Resistance in Recombinant Inbred Line Population of Rice (Oryza Sativa)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blast is an economically important disease of rice. To map genes controlling blast resistance, re- combinant inbred lines (RIL) were developed from Khao Dawk Mali 105, an aromatic, blast-susceptible cultivar and the blast resistance donor, CT 9993-5-10-M (CT). A linkage map encompassing 2112 cM was constructed from 141 RILs using 90 restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) and 31 simple sequence

Pattama Sirithunya; Somvong Tragoonrung; Apichart Vanavichit; Chanakarn Vongsaprom; Theerayut Toojinda

2002-01-01

186

Expression characteristics of heat shock protein genes in two comparable inbred lines of Chinese cabbage, Chiifu and Kenshin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat-shock proteins (HSPs) and heat-shock transcription factors (HSFs) are central components of the heat-shock regulatory\\u000a network and are involved in cellular responses to various forms of stresses. To examine the differences in heat shock responses\\u000a (HSRs) of two comparable inbred lines of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa), 51 genes were selected from 130,000 Brassica rapa ESTs that belong to an HSF

Jeongyeo Lee; Hayoung Song; Ching-Tack Han; Yong Pyo Lim; Sang-Min Chung; Yoonkang Hur

2010-01-01

187

Thermal Properties of Starch in Corn Variants Isolated After Chemical Mutagenesis of Inbred Line B73 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 76(2):175-181 The starch from eight ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) treated M4 families of the corn (Zea mays L.) inbred line B73 was analyzed using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), a Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA), a texture analyzer (TA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with image analysis. The eight families were chosen from 144 families previously selected for having starch

F. F. Yamin; M. Lee; L. M. Pollak; P. J. White

1999-01-01

188

Gene actions of QTLs affecting several agronomic traits resolved in a recombinant inbred rice population and two backcross populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand the types of gene action controlling seven quantitative traits in rice, we carried out quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping in order to distinguish between the main-effect QTLs (M-QTLs) and digenic epistatic QTLs (E-QTLs) responsible for the trait performance of 254 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from rice varieties Lemont\\/ Teqing and two backcross hybrid (BCF 1) populations derived from

H. W. Mei; Z. K. Li; Q. Y. Shu; L. B. Guo; Y. P. Wang; X. Q. Yu; C. S. Ying; L. J. Luo

2005-01-01

189

Genetic differences in the elevated plus-maze persist after first exposure of inbred rats to the test apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The elevated plus-maze (EPM) is an anxiety model thought to assess different types of emotional states depending on whether or not the animals have been previously exposed to the test apparatus. Accordingly, benzodiazepine-treated rodents generally differ from controls in the first but not in the second EPM trial. Inbred Lewis and SHR rats of both sexes (N=10) were submitted twice

G. S. Izídio; L. Spricigo Jr; A. Ramos

2005-01-01

190

Enhancement of morphine self-administration in drug naive, inbred strains of mice by acute emotional stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary reinforcing effect of morphine was compared in two genetically inbred strains of mice (C57BL\\/6 and DBA\\/2) using the intravenous self-administration procedure in drug naive animals. The morphine self-administration differed between the mouse strains. DBA\\/2 but not C57BL\\/6 acquired self-administration of morphine with a bell-shaped unit dose-response curve. Acute physical stress induced by electrical footshocks did not significantly affect

Alexander Kuzmin; Svetlana Semenova; Edwin E. Zvartau; Jan M. Van Ree

1996-01-01

191

Further characterization of AFLP® data as a tool in genetic diversity assessments among maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

AFLP® markers generated by CNG methylation sensitive (PstI\\/MseI) and CNG methylation insensitive (EcoRI\\/MseI) enzyme combinations and AFLP markers collected from hypomethylated (PstI\\/MseI) and hypermethylated (mPstI\\/MseI) regions were compared for their polymorphism information content, sampling variance and patterns of genetic diversity in a representative sample of 33 inbred lines of maize (Zea mays L.). We demonstrate that the mean polymorphism information

M. Vuylsteke; R. Mank; B. Brugmans; P. Stam; M. Kuiper

2000-01-01

192

Inbred Strains Derived from Feral Mice Reveal New Pathogenic Mechanisms of Experimental Leishmaniasis Due to Leishmania major  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two inbred mouse strains, derived from feral founders, are susceptible to experimental leishmaniasis due to Leishmania major and support a disease of a severity intermediate between those observed in strains C57BL\\/6 and BALB\\/c. Mice of the MAI strain develop a severe, nonhealing, but nonfatal disease with no resistance to a secondary parasite challenge. The immunological responses showed a TH2 dominance

Besma E. C. Babay; Hechmi Louzir; C. Kebaier; S. Boubaker; K. Dellagi; P.-A. Cazenave

2004-01-01

193

Hypothetical quantitative trait loci (QTL) for circadian period of locomotor activity in CXB recombinant inbred strains of mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The locomotor activity of male mice (Mus musculus) of 13 CXB (BALB\\/cBy C57BL\\/6J) recombinant inbred (RI) strains and their progenitor strains was monitored for 4 to 6 weeks\\u000a by infrared photoelectric beams under constant dark. The circadian period (?) of locomotor activity was calculated and used\\u000a in quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of strains' means. Results were compared with potential

Aimee R. Mayeda; John R. Hofstetter; John K. Belknap; John I. Nurnberger

1996-01-01

194

Identification of genetically homozygous rapid and slow acetylators of drugs and environmental carcinogens among established inbred rabbit strains  

SciTech Connect

Liver and gut mucosa N-acetyltransferase (NAT) cytosol (105,000 x g) was prepared from selected lines of New Zealand White rapid and slow acetylator rabbits bred and housed at the University of Michigan, and from inbred and partially inbred rabbits obtained from The Jackson Laboratory. Liver NAT activity was determined with p-aminobenzoic acid, p-aminosalicylic acid, procainamide, sulfamethazine, isoniazid and 2-aminofluorene as substrates. Gut mucosal NAT activity was determined with 2-aminofluorene. A gene dose-response relationship was observed for both liver NAT and gut mucosa NAT with all substrates tested. Highest levels were always observed in homozygous rapid acetylator inbred strains (B/J, III/J, IIIC/J, III/DwJ, IIIEP/J and IIIVO/J), lower levels in obligate heterozygous rapid acetylator rabbits and lowest levels in homozygous slow acetylator inbred (ACEP/J, III/cdJ, IIIVO/ahJ, and IIIVO/vptJ) and outbred rabbits. The differences in magnitude of liver NAT activity level between acetylator genotypes was dependent on the substrate employed, progressively increasing in the following order: p-aminobenzoic acid, p-aminosalicyclic acid, procainamide, sulfamethazine, isoniazid, 2-aminofluorene. The determination of kinetic constants for liver p-aminosalicyclic acid NAT activity indicated a 2-fold difference in apparent Vmax between rapid acetylator genotypes and a 30-fold difference between rapid and slow acetylator phenotypes. In addition, the apparent Km for p-aminosalicyclic acid was significantly lower in the slow acetylators than in the rapid acetylators.

Hein, D.W.; Smolen, T.N.; Fox, R.R.; Weber, W.W.

1982-10-01

195

Relationships among maize inbred lines and populations from European and North-American origins as estimated using RFLP markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

RFLP markers have proven to be a reliable and highly informative tool for characterizing genetic diversity in maize. Joint\\u000a analysis of inbred lines and populations should provide valuable information with respect to (1) a better understanding of\\u000a the genetic basis of present elite germplasm and (2) the identification of populations that may prove to be useful sources\\u000a of genetic diversity

P. Dubreuil; A. Charcosset

1999-01-01

196

SKHIN/Sprd, a new genetically defined inbred hairless mouse strain for UV-induced skin carcinogenesis studies.  

PubMed

Strains of mice vary in their susceptibility to ultra-violet (UV) radiation-induced skin tumors. Some strains of hairless mice (homozygous for the spontaneous Hr(hr) mutation) are particularly susceptible to these tumors. The skin tumors that develop in hairless mice resemble, both at the morphologic and molecular levels, UV-induced squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) and their precursors in human. The most commonly employed hairless mice belong to the SKH1 stock. However, these mice are outbred and their genetic background is not characterized, which makes them a poor model for genetic studies. We have developed a new inbred strain from outbred SKH1 mice that we named SKHIN/Sprd (now at generation F31). In order to characterize the genetic background of this new strain, we genotyped a cohort of mice at F30 with 92 microsatellites and 140 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) evenly distributed throughout the mouse genome. We also exposed SKHIN/Sprd mice to chronic UV irradiation and showed that they are as susceptible to UV-induced skin carcinogenesis as outbred SKH1 mice. In addition, we proved that, albeit with low efficiency, inbred SKHIN/Sprd mice are suitable for transgenic production by classical pronuclear microinjection. This new inbred strain will be useful for the development of transgenic and congenic strains on a hairless inbred background as well as the establishment of syngeneic tumor cell lines. These new tools can potentially help elucidate a number of features of the cutaneous response to UV irradiation in humans, including the effect of genetic background and modifier genes. PMID:22379968

Perez, Carlos; Parker-Thornburg, Jan; Mikulec, Carol; Kusewitt, Donna F; Fischer, Susan M; Digiovanni, John; Conti, Claudio J; Benavides, Fernando

2012-03-01

197

Genetic Architecture of Maize Kernel Composition in the Nested Association Mapping and Inbred Association Panels1[W  

PubMed Central

The maize (Zea mays) kernel plays a critical role in feeding humans and livestock around the world and in a wide array of industrial applications. An understanding of the regulation of kernel starch, protein, and oil is needed in order to manipulate composition to meet future needs. We conducted joint-linkage quantitative trait locus mapping and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for kernel starch, protein, and oil in the maize nested association mapping population, composed of 25 recombinant inbred line families derived from diverse inbred lines. Joint-linkage mapping revealed that the genetic architecture of kernel composition traits is controlled by 21–26 quantitative trait loci. Numerous GWAS associations were detected, including several oil and starch associations in acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase1-2, a gene that regulates oil composition and quantity. Results from nested association mapping were verified in a 282 inbred association panel using both GWAS and candidate gene association approaches. We identified many beneficial alleles that will be useful for improving kernel starch, protein, and oil content.

Cook, Jason P.; McMullen, Michael D.; Holland, James B.; Tian, Feng; Bradbury, Peter; Ross-Ibarra, Jeffrey; Buckler, Edward S.; Flint-Garcia, Sherry A.

2012-01-01

198

The mouse as a model for understanding chronic diseases of aging: the histopathologic basis of aging in inbred mice  

PubMed Central

Inbred mice provide a unique tool to study aging populations because of the genetic homogeneity within an inbred strain, their short life span, and the tools for analysis which are available. A large-scale longitudinal and cross-sectional aging study was conducted on 30 inbred strains to determine, using histopathology, the type and diversity of diseases mice develop as they age. These data provide tools that when linked with modern in silico genetic mapping tools, can begin to unravel the complex genetics of many of the common chronic diseases associated with aging in humans and other mammals. In addition, novel disease models were discovered in some strains, such as rhabdomyosarcoma in old A/J mice, to diseases affecting many but not all strains including pseudoxanthoma elasticum, pulmonary adenoma, alopecia areata, and many others. This extensive data set is now available online and provides a useful tool to help better understand strain-specific background diseases that can complicate interpretation of genetically engineered mice and other manipulatable mouse studies that utilize these strains.

Sundberg, John P.; Berndt, Annerose; Sundberg, Beth A.; Silva, Kathleen A.; Kennedy, Victoria; Bronson, Roderick; Yuan, Rong; Paigen, Beverly; Harrison, David; Schofield, Paul N.

2011-01-01

199

Segmental Phylogenetic Relationships of Inbred Mouse Strains Revealed by Fine-Scale Analysis of Sequence Variation Across 4.6 Mb of Mouse Genome  

PubMed Central

High-density SNP screening of panels of inbred mouse strains has been proposed as a method to accelerate the identification of genes associated with complex biomedical phenotypes. To evaluate the potential of these studies, a more detailed understanding of the fine structure of sequence variation across inbred mouse strains is needed. Here, we use high-density oligonucleotide arrays to discover an extremely dense set of SNPs in 13 classical and two wild-derived inbred strains in five genomic intervals totaling 4.6 Mb of DNA sequence, and then analyze the segmental haplotype structure defined by these high-density SNPs. This analysis reveals segments ranging from 12 to 608 kb in length within which the inbred strains have a simple and distinct phylogenetic relationship with typically two or three clades accounting for the 13 classical strains examined. The phylogenetic relationships among strains change abruptly and unpredictably from segment to segment, and are distinct in each of the five genomic regions examined. The data suggest that at least 12 strains would need to be resequenced for exhaustive SNP discovery in every region of the mouse genome, that ?97% of the variation among inbred strains is ancestral (between clades) and ?3% private (within clades), and provides critical insights into the proposed use of panels of inbred strains to identify genes underlying quantitative trait loci.

Frazer, Kelly A.; Wade, Claire M.; Hinds, David A.; Patil, Nila; Cox, David R.; Daly, Mark J.

2004-01-01

200

Differences in resistance to Trypanosoma musculi infection among strains of inbred mice.  

PubMed Central

Inbred strains of mice were inoculated with Trypanosoma musculi, and the course of the ensuing parasitemia was followed. The mouse strains fell into three groups: those displaying high and moderate (fivefold less) parasitemia and C57BL/6 (B/6) mice which had exceptionally low infections. To gain insight concerning the mechanisms responsible for interstrain variations in infections, several types of experiments were performed. Comparison of the ability of spleen cells from the various strains to provide the growth-promoting substances required by T. musculi for growth in culture revealed that B/6 cells were deficient; this suggested one mechanism for regulating parasite infections. Exposure of C3H (high parasitemia) and B/6 mice to graded levels of ionizing radiation revealed that B/6 mice have much greater innate resistance to infection than do C3H mice. The effects of treating mice with silica dust or mercaptoethanol indicated that relative resistance to infection is not primarily associated with macrophage activity or limited growth-promoting substances. We conclude that variations in immune responsiveness to parasite antigens (probably not associated with the H-2 complex), possibly in concert with variations in a non-immunological mechanism, account for interstrain variation in resistance to T. musculi infections.

Albright, J W; Albright, J F

1981-01-01

201

Infections of inbred mice with three Trypanosoma cruzi isolates from Louisiana mammals.  

PubMed

Trypanosoma cruzi isolates from a dog (Tc-D), opossum (Tc-O), and an armadillo (Tc-A) from southern Louisiana were inoculated into 6 inbred mouse strains. None of the isolates produced fatal infections in the mouse strains tested. Parasitemias were quantified over 34 days and found to be similar in mouse strains infected with Tc-O and Tc-A. Parasitemias in Tc-D-infected mice were detectable only by blood culture. Pseudocyst numbers, inflammatory changes, and weight changes were quantified in CF1 mice infected with the 3 isolates. Tc-O- and Tc-A-infected CF1 mice were shown to be myotropic and produced comparable weight increases, pseudocyst numbers, and inflammatory changes in similar tissues. Tissues found to contain pseudocysts were muscles of the bladder, abdominal wall, thigh, heart, and diaphragm. Clinical signs of infection, pseudocyst numbers, and inflammatory changes were minimal in Tc-D-infected CF1 mice. Tissue tropism of this isolate was not determined. The in vivo infectivity characteristics of these isolates suggests that Tc-O and Tc-A are similar and differ markedly from Tc-D. PMID:2123925

Barr, S C; Brown, C C; Dennis, V A; Klei, T R

1990-12-01

202

Expression of murine leukemia viruses in the highly lymphomatous BXH-2 recombinant inbred mouse strain.  

PubMed Central

Among 12 recombinant inbred strains of mice derived from crossing two strains, C57BL/6J and C3H/HeJ, which have a low incidence of neoplastic disease, one strain (BXH-2) has been found to have a high incidence of lymphoma, of non-T-cell origin, at an early age. The BXH-2 strain carries the Fv-1b allele and spontaneously expresses a B-tropic murine leukemia virus beginning at as early as 10 days of gestation and continuing throughout their life. No significant differences in ecotropic virus titers were observed at any age tested (16 to 17 days of gestation through 7 months), whereas xenotropic virus was first detected in lymphoid tissues of 2-month-old mice and virus titers increased with age. Dual tropic virus(es), which induced cytopathic changes on mink lung cells, was isolated from BXH-2 lymphomatous tissues. Unlike AKR mink lung focus-forming virus (N-tropic recombinant), BXH-2 dual tropic virus is B tropic and induces cytopathic changes in mouse fibroblast cultures as well. The BXH-2 mouse provides a model system for studying the role of replication-competent viruses in spontaneously occurring leukemias of non-T-cell lineage and neurological disease. Images

Bedigian, H G; Taylor, B A; Meier, H

1981-01-01

203

Establishment of ES cells from inbred strain mice by dual inhibition (2i).  

PubMed

A number of mouse ES cells from inbred strains have been established to date, but efficiency varies across the different strains. The 129 strain mouse is efficient to establish, whereas C57BL/6 and BALB/c strains are not. It is possible that their genetic backgrounds account for the difference in their ability to establish ES cell lines. In this study, we attempted to establish C57BL/6J and BALB/c Cr ES cells by dual inhibition (2i) using two inhibitors (PD0325901 and CHIR99021) of extracellular signal regulated-kinase (ERK) and glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3), which promote ES cell differentiation. The results revealed that the establishment efficiencies of C57BL/6J and BALB/c Cr ES cells were remarkably increased by 2i. These ES cells stably expressed pluripotent markers and generated high-contribution chimeras with germline transmission. Furthermore, we generated germline chimeras from C57BL/6J ES cells through the method of gene modification. These findings indicate that 2i is a powerful tool for establishing C57BL/6J and BALB/c Cr ES cells with the ability to generate germline chimeras. PMID:22052006

Kanda, Akifumi; Sotomaru, Yusuke; Shiozawa, Seiji; Hiyama, Eiso

2011-11-04

204

Phenotypic and genotypic variation among Capsicum annuum recombinant inbred lines resistant to bacterial spot.  

PubMed

A breeding program carried out under Brazilian growing conditions to obtain Capsicum annuum cultivars with disease resistance to bacterial spot (BS) produced 8 promising recombinant inbred lines (RILs). The present study aimed to characterize these RILs using phenotypic descriptors and molecular markers (inter-simple sequence repeat) and to confirm their resistance to BS. Twenty-two phenotypic descriptors and 15 inter-simple sequence repeat primers were used to characterize the RILs. The parent, UENF 1381, which is resistant to BS, and 'Casca Dura Ikeda', a traditional cultivar, were used as standards. Variability among genotypes was observed considering either binary or multicategorical characteristics, such as fruit length, fruit diameter, and fruit longitudinal and transversal section. Such variability in fruit traits can be exploited to develop new genotypes with BS resistance for various types of market consumption. RILs numbered 1, 3, and 6 were the most homogenous, whereas those coded 2, 5, 8, and 11 had the same level of heterogeneity as that observed in 'Casca Dura Ikeda'. Molecular analysis clustered the genotypes into 5 groups, with RILs 1, 2, 3, and 5 allocated in isolated groups. RILs 1, 2, 6, and 8 confirmed resistance to BS. Considering homogeneity level and BS resistance, RILs 1 and 6 were suitable for use as pre-cultivars in final tests to register and release two new C. annuum cultivars. PMID:23661448

Moreira, S O; Rodrigues, R; Oliveira, H S; Medeiros, A M; Sudré, C P; Gonçalves, L S A

2013-04-17

205

Genomewide Association Analysis in Diverse Inbred Mice: Power and Population Structure  

PubMed Central

The discovery of quantitative trait loci (QTL) in model organisms has relied heavily on the ability to perform controlled breeding to generate genotypic and phenotypic diversity. Recently, we and others have demonstrated the use of an existing set of diverse inbred mice (referred to here as the mouse diversity panel, MDP) as a QTL mapping population. The use of the MDP population has many advantages relative to traditional F2 mapping populations, including increased phenotypic diversity, a higher recombination frequency, and the ability to collect genotype and phenotype data in community databases. However, these methods are complicated by population structure inherent in the MDP and the lack of an analytical framework to assess statistical power. To address these issues, we measured gene expression levels in hypothalamus across the MDP. We then mapped these phenotypes as quantitative traits with our association algorithm, resulting in a large set of expression QTL (eQTL). We utilized these eQTL, and specifically cis-eQTL, to develop a novel nonparametric method for association analysis in structured populations like the MDP. These eQTL data confirmed that the MDP is a suitable mapping population for QTL discovery and that eQTL results can serve as a gold standard for relative measures of statistical power.

McClurg, Phillip; Janes, Jeff; Wu, Chunlei; Delano, David L.; Walker, John R.; Batalov, Serge; Takahashi, Joseph S.; Shimomura, Kazuhiro; Kohsaka, Akira; Bass, Joseph; Wiltshire, Tim; Su, Andrew I.

2007-01-01

206

Comt1 Genotype and Expression Predicts Anxiety and Nociceptive Sensitivity in Inbred Strains of Mice  

PubMed Central

Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is an ubiquitously expressed enzyme that maintains basic biologic functions by inactivating catechol substrates. In humans, polymorphic variance at the COMT locus has been associated with modulation of pain sensitivity (Andersen & Skorpen, 2009) and risk for developing psychiatric disorders (Harrison & Tunbridge, 2008). A functional haplotype associated with increased pain sensitivity was shown to result in decreased COMT activity by altering mRNA secondary structure-dependent protein translation (Nackley et al., 2006). However, the exact mechanisms whereby COMT modulates pain sensitivity and behavior remain unclear and can be further studied in animal models. We have assessed Comt1 gene expression levels in multiple brain regions in inbred strains of mice and have discovered that Comt1 is differentially expressed among the strains, and this differential expression is cis-regulated. A B2 Short Interspersed Element (SINE) was inserted in the 3?UTR of Comt1 in 14 strains generating a common haplotype that correlates with gene expression. Experiments using mammalian expression vectors of full-length cDNA clones with and without the SINE element demonstrate that strains with the SINE haplotype (+SINE) have greater Comt1 enzymatic activity. +SINE mice also exhibit behavioral differences in anxiety assays and decreased pain sensitivity. These results suggest that a haplotype, defined by a 3? UTR B2 SINE element, regulates Comt1 expression and some mouse behaviors.

Segall, SK; Nackley, AG; Diatchenko, L; Lariviere, WR; Lu, X; Marron, JS; Grabowski-Boase, L; Walker, JR; Slade, G; Gauthier, J; Bailey, JS; Steffy, BM; Maynard, TM; Tarantino, LM; Wiltshire, T

2010-01-01

207

Two genetic loci control syllable sequences of ultrasonic courtship vocalizations in inbred mice  

PubMed Central

Background The ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) of courting male mice are known to possess a phonetic structure with a complex combination of several syllables. The genetic mechanisms underlying the syllable sequence organization were investigated. Results This study compared syllable sequence organization in two inbred strains of mice, 129S4/SvJae (129) and C57BL6J (B6), and demonstrated that they possessed two mutually exclusive phenotypes. The 129S4/SvJae (129) strain frequently exhibited a "chevron-wave" USV pattern, which was characterized by the repetition of chevron-type syllables. The C57BL/6J strain produced a "staccato" USV pattern, which was characterized by the repetition of short-type syllables. An F1 strain obtained by crossing the 129S4/SvJae and C57BL/6J strains produced only the staccato phenotype. The chevron-wave and staccato phenotypes reappeared in the F2 generations, following the Mendelian law of independent assortment. Conclusions These results suggest that two genetic loci control the organization of syllable sequences. These loci were occupied by the staccato and chevron-wave alleles in the B6 and 129 mouse strains, respectively. Recombination of these alleles might lead to the diversity of USV patterns produced by mice.

2011-01-01

208

Host-Specific Pathogenicity and Genome Differences between Inbred Strains of Meloidogyne hapla  

PubMed Central

Five isolates of M. hapla originating from the Netherlands and California were inbred by sequential transfer of single egg masses to produce six strains. Cytological examination showed that oocytes of these strains underwent meiosis and had n = 16 chromosomes. Strains were tested for ability to infect and to develop on several hosts by in vitro assays. The two strains from California infected tomato roots at a higher rate than those from the Netherlands, but no difference among strains was seen for ability to develop on tomato with or without the resistance gene Mi-1. All strains developed on the common bean cultivar Kentucky Wonder, but strains differed in ability to develop on the nematode-resistant cultivar NemaSnap. Strain-specific differences were also seen in ability to infect and to develop on Solanum bulbocastanum clone SB-22. Strain VW13, derived from nematodes treated with the mutagen EMS, was defective in ability to infect tomato and potato roots in vitro. Comparison of DNA using AFLP markers showed an average of 4% of the bands were polymorphic across the six strains, but no correlation was observed between the geographical origin or virulence and DNA polymorphism pattern.

Liu, Q. L.; Williamson, V. M.

2006-01-01

209

DIFFERENTIAL EXPRESSION OF RESPIRATORY LONG-TERM FACILITATION AMONG INBRED RAT STRAINS  

PubMed Central

We tested the hypotheses that: 1) long-term facilitation (LTF) following acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH) varies among three inbred rat strains: Fischer 344 (F344), Brown Norway (BN) and Lewis rats, and 2) ventral cervical spinal levels of genes important for phrenic LTF (pLTF) vary in association with pLTF magnitude. Lewis and F344, but not BN rats exhibited significant increases in phrenic and hypoglossal burst amplitude 60 min post-AIH that were significantly greater than control experiments without AIH, indicating strain differences in phrenic (98%, 56% and 20%, respectively) and hypoglossal LTF (66%, 77% and 5%, respectively). Ventral spinal 5-HT2A receptor mRNA and protein levels were higher in F344 and Lewis versus BN, suggesting that higher 5-HT2A receptor levels are associated with greater pLTF. More complex relationships were found for 5-HT7, BDNF and TrkB mRNA. BN had higher 5-HT7 and TrkB mRNA versus F344; BN and Lewis had higher BDNF mRNA levels versus F344. Genetic variations in serotonergic function may underlie strain differences in AIH-induced pLTF.

Baker-Herman, T.L.; Bavis, R.W.; Dahlberg, J.M.; Mitchell, A.Z.; Wilkerson, J.E.R.; Golder, F.J.; MacFarlane, P.M.; Watters, J.J.; Behan, M.; Mitchell, G.S.

2010-01-01

210

Multiple trait multiple interval mapping of quantitative trait loci from inbred line crosses  

PubMed Central

Background Although many experiments have measurements on multiple traits, most studies performed the analysis of mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for each trait separately using single trait analysis. Single trait analysis does not take advantage of possible genetic and environmental correlations between traits. In this paper, we propose a novel statistical method for multiple trait multiple interval mapping (MTMIM) of QTL for inbred line crosses. We also develop a novel score-based method for estimating genome-wide significance level of putative QTL effects suitable for the MTMIM model. The MTMIM method is implemented in the freely available and widely used Windows QTL Cartographer software. Results Throughout the paper, we provide compelling empirical evidences that: (1) the score-based threshold maintains proper type I error rate and tends to keep false discovery rate within an acceptable level; (2) the MTMIM method can deliver better parameter estimates and power than single trait multiple interval mapping method; (3) an analysis of Drosophila dataset illustrates how the MTMIM method can better extract information from datasets with measurements in multiple traits. Conclusions The MTMIM method represents a convenient statistical framework to test hypotheses of pleiotropic QTL versus closely linked nonpleiotropic QTL, QTL by environment interaction, and to estimate the total genotypic variance-covariance matrix between traits and to decompose it in terms of QTL-specific variance-covariance matrices, therefore, providing more details on the genetic architecture of complex traits.

2012-01-01

211

Effect of adult experience on oviposition choice and short-distance attraction in Drosophila buzzatii  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a series of experiments, no consistent effect of adult experience, i.e., exposure to the naturally occurring yeasts, Candida sonorensisand Clavispora opuntiae,on oviposition choice or short-distance attraction in inbred lines of Drosophila buzzatiiwas found. The lack of consistent effect on oviposition choice was also found in one experiment in which the flies were starved and in another experiment in which

Philip W. Hedrick; J. S. F. Barker; T. Armstrong

1990-01-01

212

Variable Suppression of Serum Thyroxine in Female Mice of Different Inbred Strains by Triiodothyronine Administered in Drinking Water  

PubMed Central

Background Recombinant-inbred mouse strains differ in their susceptibility to Graves'-like hyperthyroidism induced by immunization with adenovirus expressing the human thyrotropin (TSH) receptor. Because one genetic component contributing to this susceptibility is altered thyroid sensitivity to TSH receptor agonist stimulation, we wished to quantify thyroid responsiveness to TSH. For such studies, it is necessary to suppress endogenous TSH by administering L-3,5,3?-triiodothyronine (L-T3), with the subsequent decrease in serum thyroxine (T4) reflecting endogenous TSH suppression. Our two objectives were to assess in different inbred strains of mice (i) the extent of serum T4 suppression after L-T3 administration and (ii) the magnitude of serum T4 increase induced by TSH. Methods Mice were tail-bled to establish baseline-serum T4 before L-T3 administration. We initially employed a protocol of L-T3-supplemented drinking water for 7 days. In subsequent experiments, we injected L-T3 intraperitoneally (i.p.) daily for 3 days. Mice were then injected i.p. with bovine TSH (10?mU) and euthanized 5 hours later. Serum T4 was assayed before L-T3 administration, and before and after TSH injection. In some experiments, serum T3 and estradiol were measured in pooled sera. Results Oral L-T3 (3 or 5??g/mL) suppressed serum T4 levels by 26%–64% in female BALB/c mice but >95% in males. T4 suppression in female B6 mice ranged from 0% to 90%. In C3H mice, L-T3 at 3??g/mL was ineffective but 5??g/mL achieved >80% serum T4 reduction. Unlike inbred mice, in outbred CF1 mice the same protocol was more effective: 83% in females and 100% suppression in males. The degree of T4 suppression was unrelated to baseline T4, T3, or estradiol, but was related to mouse weight and postmortem T3, with greater suppression in larger mice (outbred CF1 animals and inbred males). Among females with serum T4 suppression >80%, the increase in serum T4 after TSH injection was greater for BALB/c and C3H versus B6 mice. Moreover, the T4 increment was higher in female than in male BALB/c. Conclusions Our data provide important, practical information for future in vivo studies in inbred mice: we recommend that responses to TSH be performed in female animals injected with L-T3 i.p. to suppress baseline T4.

Hamidi, Sepehr; Aliesky, Holly; Chen, Chun-Rong; Rapoport, Basil

2010-01-01

213

QTL mapping of stalk bending strength in a recombinant inbred line maize population.  

PubMed

Stalk bending strength (SBS) is a reliable indicator for evaluating stalk lodging resistance of maize plants. Based on biomechanical considerations, the maximum load exerted to breaking (F max), the breaking moment (M max) and critical stress (? max) are three important parameters to characterize SBS. We investigated the genetic architecture of SBS by phenotyping F max, M max and ? max of the fourth internode of maize plants in a population of 216 recombinant inbred lines derived from the cross B73 × Ce03005 evaluated in four environments. Heritability of F max, M max and ? max was 0.81, 0.79 and 0.75, respectively. F max and ? max were positively correlated with several other stalk characters. By using a linkage map with 129 SSR markers, we detected two, three and two quantitative trait loci (QTL) explaining 22.4, 26.1 and 17.2 % of the genotypic variance for F max, M max and ? max, respectively. The QTL for F max, M max and ? max located in adjacent bins 5.02 and 5.03 as well as in bin 10.04 for F max were detected with high frequencies in cross-validation. As our QTL mapping results suggested a complex polygenic inheritance for SBS-related traits, we also evaluated the prediction accuracy of two genomic prediction methods (GBLUP and BayesB). In general, we found that both explained considerably higher proportions of the genetic variance than the values obtained in QTL mapping with cross-validation. Nevertheless, the identified QTL regions could be used as a starting point for fine mapping and gene cloning. PMID:23737073

Hu, Haixiao; Liu, Wenxin; Fu, Zhiyi; Homann, Linda; Technow, Frank; Wang, Hongwu; Song, Chengliang; Li, Shitu; Melchinger, Albrecht E; Chen, Shaojiang

2013-06-05

214

Behavioral differences among fourteen inbred mouse strains commonly used as disease models.  

PubMed

We compared the behavior of 14 inbred mouse strains and an F1 hybrid commonly used in transgenic and knockout production. These strains were 129P3/J, 129S1/SvImJ, 129S6/SvEvTac, 129T2/SvEmsJ, 129X1/SvJ (formerly 129/J, 129/Sv-p+Tyr+Kitl+/J, 129/SvEvTac, 129SvEmsJ, and 129/SvJ, respectively), A/JCrTac, BALB/cAnNTac, C3H/HeNTac, C57BL/6J, C57BL/6NTac, DBA/2NTac, FVB/NTac, NOD/MrkTac, SJL/JCrNTac, and the hybrid B6129S6F1Tac. Performance in three behavioral tests (rotorod, open-field activity-habituation, and contextual and cued fear conditioning) was determined. On the rotorod assay, SJL/JCrNTac mice had the shortest latencies to fall on the first day of testing, and DBA/2NTac mice showed impaired motor learning. Open-field behavior was analyzed using the parameters total distance, center distance, velocity, and vertical activity. 129T2/EvEmsJ and A/JCrTac were least active in the open field, whereas NOD/MrkTac mice were most active. Contrary to earlier studies, we found that all strains habituated to the open field in at least one of these parameters. In contextual and cued fear conditioning, all strains displayed activity suppression. However, FVB/NTac mice reacted less strongly to both context and cue than did most of the other strains. There were no significant behavioral differences between C57BL/6J and C57BL/6NTac, except for higher open-field activity in C57BL/6J female mice. These findings illustrate the importance of the appropriate selection of background strain for transgenic, gene targeting, or drug research. PMID:16158908

Bothe, Gerald W M; Bolivar, Valerie J; Vedder, Michelle J; Geistfeld, James G

2005-08-01

215

Transpositional reactivation of two LTR retrotransposons in rice-Zizania recombinant inbred lines (RILs).  

PubMed

Hybridization is prevalent in plants, which plays important roles in genome evolution. Apart from direct transfer and recombinatory generation of genetic variations by hybridization, de novo genetic instabilities can be induced by the process per se. One mechanism by which such de novo genetic variability can be generated by interspecific hybridization is transpositional reactivation of quiescent parental transposable elements (TEs) in the nascent hybrids. We have reported previously that introgressive hybridization between rice (Oryza sativa L.) and Zizania latifolia Griseb had induced rampant mobilization of three TEs, a copia-like LTR retrotransposon Tos17, a MITE mPing and a class II TE belonging to the hAT superfamily, Dart/nDart. In this study, we further found that two additional LTR retrotransposons, a gypsy-like (named RIRE2) and a copia-like (named Copia076), were also transpositionally reactivated in three recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from introgressive hybridization between rice and Z. latifolia. Novel bands of these two retroelements appeared in the RILs relative to their rice parental line (cv. Matsumae) in Southern blot, suggestive of retrotransposition, which was substantiated by transposon display (TD) and locus-specific PCR amplification for insertion sites. Both elements were found to be transcribed but at variable levels in the leaf tissue of the parental line and the RILs, suggesting that transcriptional control was probably not a mechanism for their transpositional activity in the RILs. Expression analysis of four genes adjacent to de novo insertions by Copia076 revealed marked difference in the transcript abundance for each of the genes between the RILs and their rice parental line, but the alterations in expression appeared unrelated with the retroelement insertions. PMID:21166796

Wang, Hong-Yan; Tian, Qin; Ma, Yi-Qiao; Wu, Ying; Miao, Gao-Jian; Ma, Yan; Cao, Dong-Hui; Wang, Xiao-Li; Lin, Chunjing; Pang, Jingsong; Liu, Bao

2010-11-18

216

Using Monosodium Glutamate to Initiate Ethanol Self-Administration in Inbred Mouse Strains  

PubMed Central

Voluntary oral ethanol consumption in rodents is generally limited by strong taste-aversion in these species. Historically, this has been overcome by combining ethanol with a sweetener, typically sucrose or saccharine, and then slowly ‘fading’ away the sweetener. While useful in most instances, this approach has not proven as successful for some inbred strains of mice (e.g. DBA/2J) despite consistent evidence in the literature that these same strains express strong conditioned place preference for intraperitoneal- or intragastric-administered ethanol. Importantly, DBA/2J mice express a polymorphism in a ‘sweet’ taste receptor subunit gene that reduces the potency of sweet substances in these mice. We hypothesized that the presence of this polymorphism might help explain the contrasting behavioral findings of weak voluntary oral ethanol consumption following sucrose-fade yet robust conditioned place-preference for ethanol in this strain. To test this, we compared ethanol consumption initiated by either a ‘traditional’ sucrose-fade or a fade from an alternative tastant, monosodium glutamate (MSG). We found that in both C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice the MSG-fade produced robust increases in home-cage ethanol consumption relative to the traditional sucrose-fade. This increased ethanol intake following MSG-fade was evident across a range of ethanol concentrations. Our findings suggest the potential utility of the MSG-fade to establish stable voluntary oral ethanol consumption in mice, particularly ethanol ‘non-preferring’ strains like DBA/2J, and lend additional support to the notion that ethanol consumption in DBA/2J mice is limited by pronounced taste aversion.

McCool, Brian A.; Chappell, A. M.

2010-01-01

217

Hunting effects on favourable conservation status of highly inbred Swedish wolves.  

PubMed

The wolf (Canis lupus) is classified as endangered in Sweden by the Swedish Species Information Centre, which is the official authority for threat classification. The present population, which was founded in the early 1980s, descends from 5 individuals. It is isolated and highly inbred, and on average individuals are more related than siblings. Hunts have been used by Swedish authorities during 2010 and 2011 to reduce the population size to its upper tolerable level of 210 wolves. European Union (EU) biodiversity legislation requires all member states to promote a concept called "favourable conservation status" (FCS) for a series of species including the wolf. Swedish national policy stipulates maintenance of viable populations with sufficient levels of genetic variation of all naturally occurring species. Hunting to reduce wolf numbers in Sweden is currently not in line with national and EU policy agreements and will make genetically based FCS criteria less achievable for this species. We suggest that to reach FCS for the wolf in Sweden the following criteria need to be met: (1) a well-connected, large, subdivided wolf population over Scandinavia, Finland, and the Russian Karelia-Kola region should be reestablished, (2) genetically effective size (Ne ) of this population is in the minimum range of Ne = 500-1000, (3) Sweden harbors a part of this total population that substantially contributes to the total Ne and that is large enough to not be classified as threatened genetically or according to IUCN criteria, and (4) average inbreeding levels in the Swedish population are <0.1. PMID:23282216

Laikre, Linda; Jansson, Mija; Allendorf, Fred W; Jakobsson, Sven; Ryman, Nils

2013-01-02

218

Divergent physiological characteristics and responses to endurance training among inbred mouse strains.  

PubMed

Both baseline values and adaptive changes in mice can vary depending on the genetic background. We aimed to assess variation in a battery of variables and their adaptations to endurance training in six inbred mouse strains. Males, n?=?184, from A/J, BALB/cByJ, C3H/HeJ, C57BL/6J, DBA/2J, and PWD/PhJ strains were assigned to a control or an endurance group (5 weeks swimming exercise). Enzyme activity, histology of soleus (SOL) muscle, swimming endurance, cardiac ventricular and hind limb muscle weight, and femur length were examined. Endurance capacity, morphological and histological variables, and enzyme activity substantially differed among strains. For example, SOL weight was twofold higher and cross-sectional area (CSA) of fibers was ?30% greater in C57BL/6J than in PWD/PhJ strain. The CSA of type 1 fibers were larger than type 2A in PWD/PhJ (P?

Kilikevicius, A; Venckunas, T; Zelniene, R; Carroll, A M; Lionikaite, S; Ratkevicius, A; Lionikas, A

2012-03-13

219

Mapping resistance to Southern rust in a tropical by temperate maize recombinant inbred topcross population.  

PubMed

Southern rust, caused by Puccinia polysora Underw, is a foliar disease that can severely reduce grain yield in maize (Zea mays L.). Major resistance genes exist, but their effectiveness can be limited in areas where P. polysora is multi-racial. General resistance could be achieved by combining quantitative and race-specific resistances. This would be desirable if the resistance alleles maintained resistance across environments while not increasing plant maturity. Recombinant inbred (RI) lines were derived from a cross between NC300, a temperate-adapted all-tropical line, and B104, an Iowa Stiff Stalk Synthetic line. The RI lines were topcrossed to the tester FR615 x FR697. The 143 topcrosses were scored for Southern rust in four environments. Time to flowering was measured in two environments. The RI lines were genotyped at 113 simple sequence repeat markers and quantitative trait loci (QTL) were mapped for both traits. The entry mean heritability estimate for Southern rust resistance was 0.93. A multiple interval mapping model, including four QTL, accounted for 88% of the variation among average disease ratings. A major QTL located on the short arm of chromosome 10, explained 83% of the phenotypic variation, with the NC300 allele carrying the resistance. Significant (P < 0.001), but relatively minor, topcross-by-environment interaction occurred for Southern rust, and resulted from the interaction of the major QTL with the environment. Maturity and Southern rust rating were slightly correlated, but QTL for the two traits did not co-localize. Resistance was simply inherited in this population and the major QTL is likely a dominant resistant gene that is independent of plant maturity. PMID:17177063

Jines, M P; Balint-Kurti, P; Robertson-Hoyt, L A; Molnar, T; Holland, J B; Goodman, M M

2006-12-20

220

Polyoma Virus-Induced Osteosarcomas in Inbred Strains of Mice: Host Determinants of Metastasis  

PubMed Central

The mouse polyoma virus induces a broad array of solid tumors in mice of many inbred strains. In most strains tumors grow rapidly but fail to metastasize. An exception has been found in the Czech-II/Ei mouse in which bone tumors metastasize regularly to the lung. These tumors resemble human osteosarcoma in their propensity for pulmonary metastasis. Cell lines established from these metastatic tumors have been compared with ones from non-metastatic osteosarcomas arising in C3H/BiDa mice. Osteopontin, a chemokine implicated in migration and metastasis, is known to be transcriptionally induced by the viral middle T antigen. Czech-II/Ei and C3H/BiDa tumor cells expressed middle T and secreted osteopontin at comparable levels as the major chemoattractant. The tumor cell lines migrated equally well in response to recombinant osteopontin as the sole attractant. An important difference emerged in assays for invasion in which tumor cells from Czech-II/Ei mice were able to invade across an extracellular matrix barrier while those from C3H/BiDa mice were unable to invade. Invasive behavior was linked to elevated levels of the metalloproteinase MMP-2 and of the transcription factor NFAT. Inhibition of either MMP-2 or NFAT inhibited invasion by Czech-II/Ei osteosarcoma cells. The metastatic phenotype is dominant in F1 mice. Osteosarcoma cell lines from F1 mice expressed intermediate levels of MMP-2 and NFAT and were invasive. Osteosarcomas in Czech-II/Ei mice retain functional p53. This virus-host model of metastasis differs from engineered models targeting p53 or pRb and provides a system for investigating the genetic and molecular basis of bone tumor metastasis in the absence of p53 loss.

Tian, Yu; Dahl, Jean; Carroll, John; Bronson, Roderick; Benjamin, Thomas

2010-01-01

221

High-throughput behavioral phenotyping in the expanded panel of BXD recombinant inbred strains  

PubMed Central

Genetic reference populations, particularly the BXD recombinant inbred (BXD RI) strains derived from C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice, are a valuable resource for the discovery of the bio-molecular substrates and genetic drivers responsible for trait variation and covariation. This approach can be profitably applied in the analysis of susceptibility and mechanisms of drug and alcohol use disorders for which many predisposing behaviors may predict the occurrence and manifestation of increased preference for these substances. Many of these traits are modeled by common mouse behavioral assays, facilitating the detection of patterns and sources of genetic coregulation of predisposing phenotypes and substance consumption. Members of the Tennessee Mouse Genome Consortium (TMGC) have obtained phenotype data from over 250 measures related to multiple behavioral assays across several batteries: response to, and withdrawal from cocaine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine; “ecstasy” (MDMA), morphine and alcohol; novelty seeking; behavioral despair and related neurological phenomena; pain sensitivity; stress sensitivity; anxiety; hyperactivity and sleep/wake cycles. All traits have been measured in both sexes in approximately 70 strains of the recently expanded panel of BXD RI strains. Sex differences and heritability estimates were obtained for each trait, and a comparison of early (N = 32) and recent (N = 37) BXD RI lines was performed. Primary data are publicly available for heritability, sex difference and genetic analyses using the MouseTrack database, and are also available in GeneNetwork.org for quantitative trait locus (QTL) detection and genetic analysis of gene expression. Together with the results of related studies, these data form a public resource for integrative systems genetic analysis of neurobehavioral traits.

Philip, V M; Duvvuru, S; Gomero, B; Ansah, T A; Blaha, C D; Cook, M N; Hamre, K M; Lariviere, W R; Matthews, D B; Mittleman, G; Goldowitz, D; Chesler, E J

2010-01-01

222

Strain screen and haplotype association mapping of wheel running in inbred mouse strains  

PubMed Central

Previous genetic association studies of physical activity, in both animal and human models, have been limited in number of subjects and genetically homozygous strains used as well as number of genomic markers available for analysis. Expansion of the available mouse physical activity strain screens and the recently published dense single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) map of the mouse genome (?8.3 million SNPs) and associated statistical methods allowed us to construct a more generalizable map of the quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with physical activity. Specifically, we measured wheel running activity in male and female mice (average age 9 wk) in 41 inbred strains and used activity data from 38 of these strains in a haplotype association mapping analysis to determine QTL associated with activity. As seen previously, there was a large range of activity patterns among the strains, with the highest and lowest strains differing significantly in daily distance run (27.4-fold), duration of activity (23.6-fold), and speed (2.9-fold). On a daily basis, female mice ran further (24%), longer (13%), and faster (11%). Twelve QTL were identified, with three (on Chr. 12, 18, and 19) in both male and female mice, five specific to males, and four specific to females. Eight of the 12 QTL, including the 3 general QTL found for both sexes, fell into intergenic areas. The results of this study further support the findings of a moderate to high heritability of physical activity and add general genomic areas applicable to a large number of mouse strains that can be further mined for candidate genes associated with regulation of physical activity. Additionally, results suggest that potential genetic mechanisms arising from traditional noncoding regions of the genome may be involved in regulation of physical activity.

Leamy, Larry; Pomp, Daniel; Turner, Michael J.; Fodor, Anthony A.; Knab, Amy; Bowen, Robert S.; Ferguson, David; Moore-Harrison, Trudy; Hamilton, Alicia

2010-01-01

223

Strain screen and haplotype association mapping of wheel running in inbred mouse strains.  

PubMed

Previous genetic association studies of physical activity, in both animal and human models, have been limited in number of subjects and genetically homozygous strains used as well as number of genomic markers available for analysis. Expansion of the available mouse physical activity strain screens and the recently published dense single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) map of the mouse genome (approximately 8.3 million SNPs) and associated statistical methods allowed us to construct a more generalizable map of the quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with physical activity. Specifically, we measured wheel running activity in male and female mice (average age 9 wk) in 41 inbred strains and used activity data from 38 of these strains in a haplotype association mapping analysis to determine QTL associated with activity. As seen previously, there was a large range of activity patterns among the strains, with the highest and lowest strains differing significantly in daily distance run (27.4-fold), duration of activity (23.6-fold), and speed (2.9-fold). On a daily basis, female mice ran further (24%), longer (13%), and faster (11%). Twelve QTL were identified, with three (on Chr. 12, 18, and 19) in both male and female mice, five specific to males, and four specific to females. Eight of the 12 QTL, including the 3 general QTL found for both sexes, fell into intergenic areas. The results of this study further support the findings of a moderate to high heritability of physical activity and add general genomic areas applicable to a large number of mouse strains that can be further mined for candidate genes associated with regulation of physical activity. Additionally, results suggest that potential genetic mechanisms arising from traditional noncoding regions of the genome may be involved in regulation of physical activity. PMID:20538847

Lightfoot, J Timothy; Leamy, Larry; Pomp, Daniel; Turner, Michael J; Fodor, Anthony A; Knab, Amy; Bowen, Robert S; Ferguson, David; Moore-Harrison, Trudy; Hamilton, Alicia

2010-06-10

224

Genetic Analysis of Recombinant Inbred Lines for Sorghum bicolor × Sorghum propinquum  

PubMed Central

We describe a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of 161 F5 genotypes for the widest euploid cross that can be made to cultivated sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) using conventional techniques, S. bicolor × Sorghum propinquum, that segregates for many traits related to plant architecture, growth and development, reproduction, and life history. The genetic map of the S. bicolor × S. propinquum RILs contains 141 loci on 10 linkage groups collectively spanning 773.1 cM. Although the genetic map has DNA marker density well-suited to quantitative trait loci mapping and samples most of the genome, our previous observations that sorghum pericentromeric heterochromatin is recalcitrant to recombination is highlighted by the finding that the vast majority of recombination in sorghum is concentrated in small regions of euchromatin that are distal to most chromosomes. The advancement of the RIL population in an environment to which the S. bicolor parent was well adapted (indeed bred for) but the S. propinquum parent was not largely eliminated an allele for short-day flowering that confounded many other traits, for example, permitting us to map new quantitative trait loci for flowering that previously eluded detection. Additional recombination that has accrued in the development of this RIL population also may have improved resolution of apices of heterozygote excess, accounting for their greater abundance in the F5 than the F2 generation. The S. bicolor × S. propinquum RIL population offers advantages over early-generation populations that will shed new light on genetic, environmental, and physiological/biochemical factors that regulate plant growth and development.

Kong, Wenqian; Jin, Huizhe; Franks, Cleve D.; Kim, Changsoo; Bandopadhyay, Rajib; Rana, Mukesh K.; Auckland, Susan A.; Goff, Valorie H.; Rainville, Lisa K.; Burow, Gloria B.; Woodfin, Charles; Burke, John J.; Paterson, Andrew H.

2013-01-01

225

Gene expression in accumbens GABA neurons from inbred rats with different drug-taking behavior.  

PubMed

Inbred Lewis and Fisher 344 rat strains differ greatly in drug self-administration; Lewis rats operantly self-administer drugs of abuse including nicotine, whereas Fisher self-administer poorly. As shown herein, operant food self-administration is similar. On the basis of their pivotal role in drug reward, we hypothesized that differences in basal gene expression in GABAergic neurons projecting from nucleus accumbens (NAcc) to ventral pallidum (VP) play a role in vulnerability to drug-taking behavior. The transcriptomes of NAcc shell-VP GABAergic neurons from these two strains were analyzed in adolescents, using a multidisciplinary approach that combined stereotaxic ionotophoretic brain microinjections, laser-capture microdissection (LCM) and microarray measurement of transcripts. Laser-capture microdissection enriched the gene transcripts detected in gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurons compared to the residual NAcc tissue: a ratio of neuron/residual >1 and false discovery rate (FDR) <5% yielded 6623 transcripts, whereas a ratio of >3 yielded 3514. Strain-dependent differences in gene expression within GABA neurons were identified; 322 vs. 60 transcripts showed 1.5-fold vs. 2-fold differences in expression (FDR < 5%). Classification by gene ontology showed that these 322 transcripts were widely distributed, without categorical enrichment. This is most consistent with a global change in GABA neuron function. Literature mining by Chilibot found 38 genes related to synaptic plasticity, signaling and gene transcription, all of which determine drug abuse; 33 genes have no known association with addiction or nicotine. In Lewis rats, upregulation of Mint-1, Cask, CamkII , Ncam1, Vsnl1, Hpcal1 and Car8 indicates that these transcripts likely contribute to altered signaling and synaptic function in NAcc GABA projection neurons to VP. PMID:21745336

Sharp, B M; Chen, H; Gong, S; Wu, X; Liu, Z; Hiler, K; Taylor, W L; Matta, S G

2011-08-01

226

Complex Genetic Architecture of Cardiac Disease in a Wild Type Inbred Strain of Drosophila melanogaster  

PubMed Central

Natural populations of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, segregate genetic variation that leads to cardiac disease phenotypes. One nearly isogenic line from a North Carolina peach orchard, WE70, is shown to harbor two genetically distinct heart phenotypes: elevated incidence of arrhythmias, and a dramatically constricted heart diameter in both diastole and systole, with resemblance to restrictive cardiomyopathy in humans. Assuming the source to be rare variants of large effect, we performed Bulked Segregant Analysis using genomic DNA hybridization to Affymetrix chips to detect single feature polymorphisms, but found that the mutant phenotypes are more likely to have a polygenic basis. Further mapping efforts revealed a complex architecture wherein the constricted cardiomyopathy phenotype was observed in individual whole chromosome substitution lines, implying that variants on both major autosomes are sufficient to produce the phenotype. A panel of 170 Recombinant Inbred Lines (RIL) was generated, and a small subset of mutant lines selected, but these each complemented both whole chromosome substitutions, implying a non-additive (epistatic) contribution to the “disease” phenotype. Low coverage whole genome sequencing was also used to attempt to map chromosomal regions contributing to both the cardiomyopathy and arrhythmia, but a polygenic architecture had to be again inferred to be most likely. These results show that an apparently simple rare phenotype can have a complex genetic basis that would be refractory to mapping by deep sequencing in pedigrees. We present this as a cautionary tale regarding assumptions related to attempts to map new disease mutations on the assumption that probands carry a single causal mutation.

Zhang, Zhi; Hsieh, Benjamin; Poe, Amy; Anderson, Julie; Ocorr, Karen; Gibson, Greg; Bodmer, Rolf

2013-01-01

227

Complex genetic architecture of cardiac disease in a wild type inbred strain of Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed

Natural populations of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, segregate genetic variation that leads to cardiac disease phenotypes. One nearly isogenic line from a North Carolina peach orchard, WE70, is shown to harbor two genetically distinct heart phenotypes: elevated incidence of arrhythmias, and a dramatically constricted heart diameter in both diastole and systole, with resemblance to restrictive cardiomyopathy in humans. Assuming the source to be rare variants of large effect, we performed Bulked Segregant Analysis using genomic DNA hybridization to Affymetrix chips to detect single feature polymorphisms, but found that the mutant phenotypes are more likely to have a polygenic basis. Further mapping efforts revealed a complex architecture wherein the constricted cardiomyopathy phenotype was observed in individual whole chromosome substitution lines, implying that variants on both major autosomes are sufficient to produce the phenotype. A panel of 170 Recombinant Inbred Lines (RIL) was generated, and a small subset of mutant lines selected, but these each complemented both whole chromosome substitutions, implying a non-additive (epistatic) contribution to the "disease" phenotype. Low coverage whole genome sequencing was also used to attempt to map chromosomal regions contributing to both the cardiomyopathy and arrhythmia, but a polygenic architecture had to be again inferred to be most likely. These results show that an apparently simple rare phenotype can have a complex genetic basis that would be refractory to mapping by deep sequencing in pedigrees. We present this as a cautionary tale regarding assumptions related to attempts to map new disease mutations on the assumption that probands carry a single causal mutation. PMID:23638165

Zhang, Zhi; Hsieh, Benjamin; Poe, Amy; Anderson, Julie; Ocorr, Karen; Gibson, Greg; Bodmer, Rolf

2013-04-29

228

Gene expression analyses in maize inbreds and hybrids with varying levels of heterosis  

PubMed Central

Background Heterosis is the superior performance of F1 hybrid progeny relative to the parental phenotypes. Maize exhibits heterosis for a wide range of traits, however the magnitude of heterosis is highly variable depending on the choice of parents and the trait(s) measured. We have used expression profiling to determine whether the level, or types, of non-additive gene expression vary in maize hybrids with different levels of genetic diversity or heterosis. Results We observed that the distributions of better parent heterosis among a series of 25 maize hybrids generally do not exhibit significant correlations between different traits. Expression profiling analyses for six of these hybrids, chosen to represent diversity in genotypes and heterosis responses, revealed a correlation between genetic diversity and transcriptional variation. The majority of differentially expressed genes in each of the six different hybrids exhibited additive expression patterns, and ~25% exhibited statistically significant non-additive expression profiles. Among the non-additive profiles, ~80% exhibited hybrid expression levels between the parental levels, ~20% exhibited hybrid expression levels at the parental levels and ~1% exhibited hybrid levels outside the parental range. Conclusion We have found that maize inbred genetic diversity is correlated with transcriptional variation. However, sampling of seedling tissues indicated that the frequencies of additive and non-additive expression patterns are very similar across a range of hybrid lines. These findings suggest that heterosis is probably not a consequence of higher levels of additive or non-additive expression, but may be related to transcriptional variation between parents. The lack of correlation between better parent heterosis levels for different traits suggests that transcriptional diversity at specific sets of genes may influence heterosis for different traits.

Stupar, Robert M; Gardiner, Jack M; Oldre, Aaron G; Haun, William J; Chandler, Vicki L; Springer, Nathan M

2008-01-01

229

Characterization of miRNAs in response to short-term waterlogging in three inbred lines of Zea mays.  

PubMed

Waterlogging of plants leads to low oxygen levels (hypoxia) in the roots and causes a metabolic switch from aerobic respiration to anaerobic fermentation that results in rapid changes in gene transcription and protein synthesis. Our research seeks to characterize the microRNA-mediated gene regulatory networks associated with short-term waterlogging. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate many genes involved in growth, development and various biotic and abiotic stress responses. To characterize the involvement of miRNAs and their targets in response to short-term hypoxia conditions, a quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) assay was used to quantify the expression of the 24 candidate mature miRNA signatures (22 known and 2 novel mature miRNAs, representing 66 miRNA loci) and their 92 predicted targets in three inbred Zea mays lines (waterlogging tolerant Hz32, mid-tolerant B73, and sensitive Mo17). Based on our studies, miR159, miR164, miR167, miR393, miR408 and miR528, which are mainly involved in root development and stress responses, were found to be key regulators in the post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms under short-term waterlogging conditions in three inbred lines. Further, computational approaches were used to predict the stress and development related cis-regulatory elements on the promoters of these miRNAs; and a probable miRNA-mediated gene regulatory network in response to short-term waterlogging stress was constructed. The differential expression patterns of miRNAs and their targets in these three inbred lines suggest that the miRNAs are active participants in the signal transduction at the early stage of hypoxia conditions via a gene regulatory network; and crosstalk occurs between different biochemical pathways. PMID:22768123

Liu, Zhijie; Kumari, Sunita; Zhang, Lifang; Zheng, Yonglian; Ware, Doreen

2012-06-29

230

Characterization of miRNAs in Response to Short-Term Waterlogging in Three Inbred Lines of Zea mays  

PubMed Central

Waterlogging of plants leads to low oxygen levels (hypoxia) in the roots and causes a metabolic switch from aerobic respiration to anaerobic fermentation that results in rapid changes in gene transcription and protein synthesis. Our research seeks to characterize the microRNA-mediated gene regulatory networks associated with short-term waterlogging. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate many genes involved in growth, development and various biotic and abiotic stress responses. To characterize the involvement of miRNAs and their targets in response to short-term hypoxia conditions, a quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) assay was used to quantify the expression of the 24 candidate mature miRNA signatures (22 known and 2 novel mature miRNAs, representing 66 miRNA loci) and their 92 predicted targets in three inbred Zea mays lines (waterlogging tolerant Hz32, mid-tolerant B73, and sensitive Mo17). Based on our studies, miR159, miR164, miR167, miR393, miR408 and miR528, which are mainly involved in root development and stress responses, were found to be key regulators in the post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms under short-term waterlogging conditions in three inbred lines. Further, computational approaches were used to predict the stress and development related cis-regulatory elements on the promoters of these miRNAs; and a probable miRNA-mediated gene regulatory network in response to short-term waterlogging stress was constructed. The differential expression patterns of miRNAs and their targets in these three inbred lines suggest that the miRNAs are active participants in the signal transduction at the early stage of hypoxia conditions via a gene regulatory network; and crosstalk occurs between different biochemical pathways.

Liu, Zhijie; Kumari, Sunita; Zhang, Lifang; Zheng, Yonglian; Ware, Doreen

2012-01-01

231

Genome-wide copy number variant analysis in inbred chickens lines with different susceptibility to Marek's disease.  

PubMed

Breeding of genetically resistant chickens to Marek's disease (MD) is a vital strategy to poultry health. To find the markers underlying the genetic resistance to MD, copy number variation (CNV) was examined in inbred MD-resistant and -susceptible chicken lines. A total of 45 CNVs were found in four lines of chickens, and 28 were potentially involved in immune response and cell proliferation, etc. Importantly, two CNVs related with MD resistance were transmitted to descendent recombinant congenic lines that differ in susceptibility to MD. Our findings may lead to better strategies for genetic improvement of disease resistance in poultry. PMID:23390598

Luo, Juan; Yu, Ying; Mitra, Apratim; Chang, Shuang; Zhang, Huanmin; Liu, George; Yang, Ning; Song, Jiuzhou

2013-02-01

232

Antibody responses to ganglio-series gangliosides in different strains of inbred mice.  

PubMed

We studied antibody responses after immunization with ganglio-series gangliosides against 10 strains of inbred mice, including Balb/c, C57BL/6, A/J, C3H/HeN, C3H/HeJ, CBA/N, AKR/N, NZB/N, DBA/2 and nu/nu Balb/c. Twelve gangliosides having NeuAc as their sialic acid moiety (GM4, GM3, GM2, GM1, GD3, O-Ac-GD3, GD2, GD1a, GD1b, GT1a, GT1b and GQ1b), four gangliosides having NeuGc (GM3, GM2, GM1 and GD3) and four asialo-gangliosides (GA4, GA3, GA2 and GA1) were injected intravenously adsorbed to Salmonella minnesota. The antibody titers of the mice sera were determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and an immune adherence assay. Antibody responses were found to depend not only on the ganglioside used as an immunogen but also on the mouse strain. Gangliosides having a trisaccharide sequence (NeuAc alpha 2----8NeuAc alpha 2----3Gal-) such as GD3, GD2, GD1b, GT1a and GQ1b, in particular O-Ac-GD3, induced high-titer antibody responses, whereas those having a disaccharide sequence (NeuAc alpha 2----3Gal-) such as GM4, GM3, GM2, GM1, GD1a and GT1b induced low-titer antibody responses. On the other hand, gangliosides with NeuGc developed minimum titers. In contrast, asialogangliosides induced much higher responses than the corresponding gangliosides. The differences in ceramide portions of these gangliosides did not appear to be involved in inducing antibody responses. Mice could be divided into three groups according to the magnitude of their antibody responses: Group 1, those that produce the highest antibody responses (C3H/HeN and A/J); Group 2, those that demonstrate moderate antibody titers (Balb/c, C57BL/6, DBA/2 and nu/nu Balb/c); and Group 3, those that make minimum responses (AKR/N, C3H/HeJ, CBA/N and NZB/N). The pattern of reactivity to the various gangliosides was similar in all the strains tested. PMID:1584231

Kawashima, I; Nakamura, O; Tai, T

1992-05-01

233

Mouse Behavioral Tasks Relevant to Autism: Phenotypes of Ten Inbred Strains  

PubMed Central

Three defining clinical symptoms of autism are aberrant reciprocal social interactions, deficits in social communication, and repetitive behaviors, including motor stereotypies and insistence on sameness. We developed a set of behavioral tasks designed to model components of these core symptoms in mice. Male mice from ten inbred strains were characterized in assays for sociability, preference for social novelty, and reversal of the spatial location of the reinforcer in T-maze and Morris water maze tasks. Six strains, C57BL/6J, C57L/J, DBA/2J, FVB/NJ, C3H/HeJ, and AKR/J, showed significant levels of sociability, while A/J, BALB/cByJ, BTBR T+tf/J, and 129S1/SvImJ mice did not. C57BL/6J, C57L/J, DBA/2J, FVB/NJ, BALB/cByJ, and BTBR T+tf/J showed significant preference for social novelty, while C3H/HeJ, AKR/J, A/J, and 129S1/SvImJ did not. Normal scores on relevant control measures confirmed general health and physical abilities in all strains, ruling out artifactual explanations for social deficits. Elevated plus maze scores confirmed high anxiety-like behaviors in A/J, BALB/cByJ, and 129S1/SvImJ, which could underlie components of their low social approach. Strains that showed high levels of performance on acquisition of a T-maze task were also able to reach criterion for reversal learning. On the Morris water maze task, DBA/2J, AKR/J, BTBR T+tf/J, and 129S1/SvImJ failed to show significant quadrant preference during the reversal probe trial. These results highlight a dissociation between social task performance and reversal learning. BTBR T+tf/J is a particularly interesting strain, displaying both low social approach and resistance to change in routine on the water maze, consistent with an autism-like phenotype. Our multitask strategy for modeling symptoms of autism will be useful for investigating targeted and random gene mutations, QTLs, and microarray analyses.

Moy, Sheryl S.; Nadler, Jessica J.; Young, Nancy B.; Perez, Antonio; Holloway, L. Paige; Barbaro, Ryan P.; Barbaro, Justin R.; West, Lindsay M.; Threadgill, David W.; Lauder, Jean M.; Magnuson, Terry R.; Crawley, Jacqueline N.

2007-01-01

234

Physical Activity and Food Consumption in High- and Low-Active Inbred Mouse Strains  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine the effect of innate activity level and running wheel access on food consumption in high-active (SWR/J) low-active (DBA/2J) mice. Methods Two strains of inbred mice were used in this study due to their high activity level (SWR/J) and low activity level (DBA/2J). The mice were housed in individual cages, and half of the mice in each strain had free access to running wheels in their cages, while the other mice received no running wheel. All mice consumed standard chow and water ad libitum for 13 weeks during the study period. Running-wheel activity (daily), food consumption (bi-weekly), and body mass (weekly) were recorded. Results SWR/J runners consumed more food (6.0±0.4g/day) than SWR/J non-runners (4.7±0.2g/day; p=0.03), DBA/2J runners (4.6±0.2g/day; p=0.02), and DBA/2J non-runners (4.2±0.2g/day; p=0.006). SWR/J non-runners consumed more food than DBA/2J non-runners (p=0.03). Average daily distance and duration were significantly greater for the SWR/J runners (6.4±0.7km/day and 333.6±40.5min/day, respectively) compared to the DBA/2J runners (1.6±0.4km/day and 91.3±23.0min/day, respectively). There was a significant correlation between food consumption and distance (r=0.74, p<0.001), duration (r=0.68, p<0.001), and speed (r=0.58, p<0.001), respectively, in all mice. However, when considering the individuals strains, the relationship between running-wheel activity and food consumption was only statistically significant for the SWR/J mice. Conclusion Higher running-wheel activity in mice was associated with increased food consumption in the SWR/J mice but not the DBA/2J mice. In DBA/2J mice the addition of a running wheel did not result in increased food consumption, suggesting energy expenditure of non-wheel cage activity in the control DBA/2J mice was similar to the energy expenditure of the wheel activity since body mass was similar between the two groups.

Jung, Alan P.; Curtis, Tamera S.; Turner, Michael J.; Lightfoot, J. Timothy

2010-01-01

235

Dissecting structural and nucleotide genome-wide variation in inbred Iberian pigs  

PubMed Central

Background In contrast to international pig breeds, the Iberian breed has not been admixed with Asian germplasm. This makes it an important model to study both domestication and relevance of Asian genes in the pig. Besides, Iberian pigs exhibit high meat quality as well as appetite and propensity to obesity. Here we provide a genome wide analysis of nucleotide and structural diversity in a reduced representation library from a pool (n=9 sows) and shotgun genomic sequence from a single sow of the highly inbred Guadyerbas strain. In the pool, we applied newly developed tools to account for the peculiarities of these data. Results A total of 254,106 SNPs in the pool (79.6 Mb covered) and 643,783 in the Guadyerbas sow (1.47 Gb covered) were called. The nucleotide diversity (1.31x10-3 per bp in autosomes) is very similar to that reported in wild boar. A much lower than expected diversity in the X chromosome was confirmed (1.79x10-4 per bp in the individual and 5.83x10-4 per bp in the pool). A strong (0.70) correlation between recombination and variability was observed, but not with gene density or GC content. Multicopy regions affected about 4% of annotated pig genes in their entirety, and 2% of the genes partially. Genes within the lowest variability windows comprised interferon genes and, in chromosome X, genes involved in behavior like HTR2C or MCEP2. A modified Hudson-Kreitman-Aguadé test for pools also indicated an accelerated evolution in genes involved in behavior, as well as in spermatogenesis and in lipid metabolism. Conclusions This work illustrates the strength of current sequencing technologies to picture a comprehensive landscape of variability in livestock species, and to pinpoint regions containing genes potentially under selection. Among those genes, we report genes involved in behavior, including feeding behavior, and lipid metabolism. The pig X chromosome is an outlier in terms of nucleotide diversity, which suggests selective constraints. Our data further confirm the importance of structural variation in the species, including Iberian pigs, and allowed us to identify new paralogs for known gene families.

2013-01-01

236

Repeated subacute ozone exposure of inbred mice: Airway inflammation and ventilation  

SciTech Connect

The present study was designed to assess the effects of repeated subacute ozone (O{sub 3}) exposure on pulmonary inflammation and ventilation in two inbred strains of mice differentially susceptible to a single O{sub 3} exposure. Susceptible C57BL/6J(B6) and resistant C3H/HeJ (C3) mice were exposed to 0.3 ppm O{sub 3} for 48 and 72 h and, after 14 days recovery, both strains were reexposed. Airway inflammation and lung injury were assessed by counting inflammatory cells and measuring total protein content and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) returns. Minute ventilation [V{sub E,} the product of breathing frequency (f), and tidal volume (V{sub T})] was measured prior to and immediately following each exposure. After the initial exposure, B6 mice developed greater O{sub 3}-induced increases in total protein, inflammatory cell influx, and LDH activity compared to C3 mice. In normal air, V{sub E} was also significantly elevated in B6, but not C3, mice after O{sub 3}. The hypercapnic f of B6 and hypercapnic V{sub T} of C3 mice were significantly altered after O{sub 3} exposure. Reexposure to O{sub 3} caused a smaller increase in the numbers of macrophages, lymphocytes, epithelial cells, and BAL protein in both strains, and no changes in LDH activity. However, the number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes significantly increased in B6 and C3 mice as compared to the initial O{sub 3} exposure. In both strains, the ventilatory responses to normal air or hypercapnia were largely reproducible after O{sub 3} reexposure. Results indicated that differential susceptibility to O{sub 3}-induced inflammation was maintained in B6 and C3 mice with O{sub 3} reexposure although the magnitude of the difference was reduced. Results also suggest that the ventilatory responses to O{sub 3} in B6 and C3 mice were reproducible with reexposure, and that airway inflammation and ventilation were not codependent. 34 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Paquette, N.C.; Tankersley, C.G.; Zhang, L.Y. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)] [and others

1994-11-01

237

Expression of Glucocorticoid Receptor and Early Growth Response Gene 1 during Postnatal Development of Two Inbred Strains of Mice Exposed to Early Life Stress  

PubMed Central

Early life stress can elicit profound changes in adult gene expression and behavior. One consequence of early life stress is a decreased expression of glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) in the frontal cortex and hippocampus. However, neither the time of onset nor the mechanism(s) leading to decreased GR expression during postnatal development are known. The present study used two inbred strains of mice that differ in their behavioral responsiveness to stress (Balb/c and C57Bl/6), exposed them to an established paradigm of early life stress (infant maternal separation), and measured their expression of frontal cortical and hippocampal GRs and the putative transcriptional activator of the GR gene, early growth response gene (egr)-1, at defined stages of postnatal development. In both strains, real-time RT-PCR experiments revealed that decreased expression of GR in adolescence and adulthood is, in fact, preceded by increased GR expression during early life stress exposure. Thus, the early life stress-induced disruption of the normal stress-hyporesponsive period during infancy is accompanied by increased GR expression. Moreover, chronic treatment with the antidepressant drug fluoxetine during adolescence or adulthood reversed the effect of early life stress on adult GR mRNA expression. In contrast to the strain-independent effect of early life stress on GR expression, however, changes in egr-1 expression occurred only in Balb/c mice, and unlike the biphasic developmental changes in GR mRNA expression, egr-1 mRNA was decreased throughout postnatal development. Moreover, there was no consistent overlap of anatomic regions affected by decreased GR and egr-1 protein expression. Thus, in Balb/c mice, changes in GR and egr-1 expression can independently contribute to the phenotypes resulting from early life stress exposure. These findings illustrate that the impact of early life stress on gene expression changes is modulated by the genetic background and that the persistent changes in GR and egr-1 expression that arise early during postnatal developmental are reversible by chronic fluoxetine treatment during adolescence and adulthood.

Navailles, Sylvia; Zimnisky, Ross; Schmauss, Claudia

2010-01-01

238

Simulation of the A-X and B-X transition emission spectra of the InBr molecule for diagnostics in low-pressure plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inductively coupled low-pressure discharges containing InBr have been investigated spectroscopically. In order to obtain plasma parameters such as the vibrational and rotational temperature of the InBr molecule, the emission spectra of the A\\,^3\\!\\Pi_{0^+}\\rightarrow X\\,^1\\!\\Sigma_{0}^+ and the B\\,^3\\! \\Pi_{1}\\rightarrow X\\,^1\\!\\Sigma_{0}^+ transitions have been simulated. The program is based on the molecular constants and takes into account vibrational states up to v = 24. The required Franck-Condon factors and vibrationally resolved transition probabilities have been computed solving the Schrödinger equation using the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. The ground state density of the InBr molecule in the plasma has been determined from absorption spectra using effective transition probabilities for the A-X and B-X transition according to the vibrational population. The obtained densities agree well with densities derived from an Arrhenius type vapour pressure equation.

Briefi, S.; Fantz, U.

2011-04-01

239

CD40 Blockade Combines with CTLA4Ig and Sirolimus To Produce Mixed Chimerism in an MHC-defined Rhesus Macaque Transplant Model  

PubMed Central

In murine models, T-cell costimulation blockade of the CD28:B7 and CD154:CD40 pathways synergistically promotes immune tolerance after transplantation. While CD28 blockade has been successfully translated to the clinic, translation of blockade of the CD154:CD40 pathway has been less successful, in large part due to thromboembolic complications associated with anti-CD154 antibodies. Translation of CD40 blockade has also been slow, in part due to the fact that synergy between CD40 blockade and CD28 blockade had not yet been demonstrated in either primate models or humans. Here we show that a novel, non-depleting CD40 monoclonal antibody, 3A8, can combine with combined CTLA4Ig and sirolimus in a well-established primate bone marrow chimerism-induction model. Prolonged engraftment required the presence of all three agents during maintenance therapy, and resulted in graft acceptance for the duration of immunosuppressive treatment, with rejection resulting upon immunosuppression withdrawal. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that upregulation of CD95 expression on both CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells correlated with rejection, suggesting that CD95 may be a robust biomarker of graft loss. These results are the first to demonstrate prolonged chimerism in primates treated with CD28/mTOR blockade and non-depletional CD40 blockade, and support further investigation of combined costimulation blockade targeting the CD28 and CD40 pathways.

Page, Andrew; Srinivasan, Swetha; Singh, Karnail; Russell, Maria; Hamby, Kelly; Deane, Taylor; Sen, Sharon; Stempora, Linda; Leopardi, Frank; Price, Andrew A.; Strobert, Elizabeth; Reimann, Keith A.; Kirk, Allan D.; Larsen, Christian P.; Kean, Leslie S.

2011-01-01

240

Altered CD8+ T cell immunodominance after vaccinia virus infection and the na?ve repertoire in inbred and F1 mice1  

PubMed Central

Previous studies of CD8+ T cell immunodominance after primary virus infection of F1 mice compared with their inbred parents have generally concluded that no dramatic changes occur. Here we re-visit this issue using vaccinia virus (VACV), which has a large genome, a recently defined immunodominance hierarchy in mice and is a candidate vector for vaccines. We found that immunogenicity of VACV peptides defined using inbred mice was highly variable in F1 progeny: some peptides were equally immunogenic in F1 and inbred, while others elicited responses that were reduced by more than 90% in F1 mice. Further, the dominance of a peptide in the relevant inbred parent did not predict whether or not it would be poorly immunogenic in F1 mice. This result held using F1 hybrids of MHC-congenic mice, suggesting that MHC differences alone were responsible. It was also extended to foreign epitopes expressed by a recombinant VACV vaccine. F1 mice were less able to mount responses to the poorly immunogenic peptides when used as a sole immunogen, ruling out immunodomination. In addition, conserved TCR V? usage between inbred and F1 mice did not always correlate with strong responses in F1 mice. However direct estimation of naïve precursor numbers showed that these were reduced in F1 compared with inbred mice for specificities that were poorly immunogenic in the hybrids. These data have implications for our understanding of the extent to which MHC diversity alters the range of epitopes that are immunogenic in outbred populations.

Flesch, Inge E.A.; Woo, Wai-Ping; Wang, Yang; Panchanathan, Vijay; Wong, Yik-Chun; La Gruta, Nicole L.; Cukalac, Tania; Tscharke, David C.

2010-01-01

241

Heritability and Components of Resistance to Cercospora zeae-maydis Derived from Maize Inbred VO613Y.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Gray leaf spot (GLS), caused by the fungus Cercospora zeae-maydis, is one of the most important foliar diseases of maize. This study was undertaken to estimate heritability of C. zeae-maydis resistance and examine the relationship between previously identified resistance loci and certain components of resistance including incubation period, lesion number, and maximum lesion length. Partially inbred progenies arising from hybridization between maize inbred lines VO613Y (high level of partial resistance) and Pa405 (susceptible) were examined in Ohio and South Africa. Heritability estimates of resistance were calculated based on severity and incubation period values. The range of heritability estimates based on severity was broad, with values ranging from approximately 0.46 to 0.81 (mean = 0.59). Estimates of mean heritability for incubation period were lowest (0.18), indicating that this component would likely be unsuitable for selection of germ plasm intended for deployment in diverse regions. Length of GLS lesions was significantly affected by host genotype, with resistant genotypes having shorter lesions from one site in Ohio during two seasons. Genotype also had a significant effect on incubation period and lesion number; the lower values for these components also were associated with resistant genotypes. The combined action of these resistance components resulted in lower overall disease severity. PMID:18943176

Gordon, Stuart G; Lipps, Patrick E; Pratt, Richard C

2006-06-01

242

Genetic variation among species, races, forms and inbred lines of lac insects belonging to the genus Kerria (Homoptera, Tachardiidae).  

PubMed

THE LAC INSECTS (HOMOPTERA: Tachardiidae), belonging to the genus Kerria, are commercially exploited for the production of lac. Kerria lacca is the most commonly used species in India. RAPD markers were used for assessing genetic variation in forty-eight lines of Kerria, especially among geographic races, infrasubspecific forms, cultivated lines, inbred lines, etc., of K. lacca. In the 48 lines studied, the 26 RAPD primers generated 173 loci, showing 97.7% polymorphism. By using neighbor-joining, the dendrogram generated from the similarity matrix resolved the lines into basically two clusters and outgroups. The major cluster, comprising 32 lines, included mainly cultivated lines of the rangeeni form, geographic races and inbred lines of K. lacca. The second cluster consisted of eight lines of K. lacca, seven of the kusmi form and one of the rangeeni from the southern state of Karnataka. The remaining eight lines formed a series of outgroups, this including a group of three yellow mutant lines of K. lacca and other species of the Kerria studied, among others. Color mutants always showed distinctive banding patterns compared to their wild-type counterparts from the same population. This study also adds support to the current status of kusmi and rangeeni, as infraspecific forms of K. lacca. PMID:21931527

Ranjan, Sanjeev Kumar; Mallick, Chandana Basu; Saha, Dipnarayan; Vidyarthi, Ambarish S; Ramani, Ranganathan

2011-07-01

243

Genetic basis of transcriptome differences between the founder strains of the rat HXB/BXH recombinant inbred panel  

PubMed Central

Background With the advent of next generation sequencing it has become possible to detect genomic variation on a large scale. However, predicting which genomic variants are damaging to gene function remains a challenge, as knowledge of the effects of genomic variation on gene expression is still limited. Recombinant inbred panels are powerful tools to study the cis and trans effects of genetic variation on molecular phenotypes such as gene expression. Results We generated a comprehensive inventory of genomic differences between the two founder strains of the rat HXB/BXH recombinant inbred panel: SHR/OlaIpcv and BN-Lx/Cub. We identified 3.2 million single nucleotide variants, 425,924 small insertions and deletions, 907 copy number changes and 1,094 large structural genetic variants. RNA-sequencing analyses on liver tissue of the two strains identified 532 differentially expressed genes and 40 alterations in transcript structure. We identified both coding and non-coding variants that correlate with differential expression and alternative splicing. Furthermore, structural variants, in particular gene duplications, show a strong correlation with transcriptome alterations. Conclusions We show that the panel is a good model for assessing the genetic basis of phenotypic heterogeneity and for providing insights into possible underlying molecular mechanisms. Our results reveal a high diversity and complexity underlying quantitative and qualitative transcriptional differences.

2012-01-01

244

Genetic control of mammalian meiotic recombination. I. Variation in exchange frequencies among males from inbred mouse strains.  

PubMed Central

Genetic background effects on the frequency of meiotic recombination have long been suspected in mice but never demonstrated in a systematic manner, especially in inbred strains. We used a recently described immunostaining technique to assess meiotic exchange patterns in male mice. We found that among four different inbred strains--CAST/Ei, A/J, C57BL/6, and SPRET/Ei--the mean number of meiotic exchanges per cell and, thus, the recombination rates in these genetic backgrounds were significantly different. These frequencies ranged from a low of 21.5 exchanges in CAST/Ei to a high of 24.9 in SPRET/Ei. We also found that, as expected, these crossover events were nonrandomly distributed and displayed positive interference. However, we found no evidence for significant differences in the patterns of crossover positioning between strains with different exchange frequencies. From our observations of >10,000 autosomal synaptonemal complexes, we conclude that achiasmate bivalents arise in the male mouse at a frequency of 0.1%. Thus, special mechanisms that segregate achiasmate chromosomes are unlikely to be an important component of mammalian male meiosis.

Koehler, Kara E; Cherry, Jonathan P; Lynn, Audrey; Hunt, Patricia A; Hassold, Terry J

2002-01-01

245

Dissecting yield-associated loci in super hybrid rice by resequencing recombinant inbred lines and improving parental genome sequences  

PubMed Central

The growing world population and shrinkage of arable land demand yield improvement of rice, one of the most important staple crops. To elucidate the genetic basis of yield and uncover its associated loci in rice, we resequenced the core recombinant inbred lines of Liang–You–Pei–Jiu, the widely cultivated super hybrid rice, and constructed a high-resolution linkage map. We detected 43 yield-associated quantitative trait loci, of which 20 are unique. Based on the high-density physical map, the genome sequences of paternal variety 93–11 and maternal cultivar PA64s of Liang–You–Pei–Jiu were significantly improved. The large recombinant inbred line population combined with plentiful high-quality single nucleotide polymorphisms and insertions/deletions between parental genomes allowed us to fine-map two quantitative trait loci, qSN8 and qSPB1, and to identify days to heading8 and lax panicle1 as candidate genes, respectively. The quantitative trait locus qSN8 was further confirmed to be days to heading8 by a complementation test. Our study provided an ideal platform for molecular breeding by targeting and dissecting yield-associated loci in rice.

Gao, Zhen-Yu; Zhao, Shan-Cen; He, Wei-Ming; Guo, Long-Biao; Peng, You-Lin; Wang, Jin-Jin; Guo, Xiao-Sen; Zhang, Xue-Mei; Rao, Yu-Chun; Zhang, Chi; Dong, Guo-Jun; Zheng, Feng-Ya; Lu, Chang-Xin; Hu, Jiang; Zhou, Qing; Liu, Hui-Juan; Wu, Hai-Yang; Xu, Jie; Ni, Pei-Xiang; Zeng, Da-Li; Liu, Deng-Hui; Tian, Peng; Gong, Li-Hui; Ye, Chen; Zhang, Guang-Heng; Wang, Jian; Tian, Fu-Kuan; Xue, Da-Wei; Liao, Yi; Zhu, Li; Chen, Ming-Sheng; Li, Jia-Yang; Cheng, Shi-Hua; Zhang, Geng-Yun; Wang, Jun; Qian, Qian

2013-01-01

246

Genetic analysis of photoperiod sensitivity in a tropical by temperate maize recombinant inbred population using molecular markers.  

PubMed

Photoperiod sensitivity is an important consideration in maize cultivation. Flowering time is affected by photoperiod and sensitivity to it limits the potential for successful exchange of germplasm across different latitudes. For resolving the genetic basis of photoperiod sensitivity in maize, a set of 207 recombinant inbred lines derived from a temperate and tropical inbred line cross was evaluated for 2 years in a long-day and short-day environment. Genetic linkage maps were constructed using 237 SSR markers with a total length 1,974.3 cM, and an average space between two makers of 8.33 cM. Twenty-nine QTL were detected for the five measured photoperiod sensitivity traits using composite interval mapping and multiple interval mapping. QTL for flowering time, plant height and leaf number, under long-day conditions, were found clustered on chromosome 10, while QTL for short-day conditions resided on chromosome 3. The QTL in the bin 10.04 region of chromosome 10 were detected associated with photoperiod sensitivity and related traits during long days. These results indicated that this region might contain an important photoperiod sensitivity element. PMID:18677461

Wang, C L; Cheng, F F; Sun, Z H; Tang, J H; Wu, L C; Ku, L X; Chen, Y H

2008-08-02

247

Transcriptional and Metabolic Changes Associated to the Infection by Fusarium verticillioides in Maize Inbreds with Contrasting Ear Rot Resistance  

PubMed Central

Fusarium verticillioides causes ear rot and grain mycotoxins in maize (Zea mays L.), which are harmful to human and animal health. Breeding and growing less susceptible plant genotypes is one alternative to reduce these detrimental effects. A better understanding of the resistance mechanisms would facilitate the implementation of strategic molecular agriculture to breeding of resistant germplasm. Our aim was to identify genes and metabolites that may be related to the Fusarium reaction in a resistant (L4637) and a susceptible (L4674) inbred. Gene expression data were obtained from microarray hybridizations in inoculated and non-inoculated kernels from both inbreds. Fungal inoculation did not produce considerable changes in gene expression and metabolites in L4637. Defense-related genes changed in L4674 kernels, responding specifically to the pathogen infection. These results indicate that L4637 resistance may be mainly due to constitutive defense mechanisms preventing fungal infection. These mechanisms seem to be poorly expressed in L4674; and despite the inoculation activate a defense response; this is not enough to prevent the disease progress in this susceptible line. Through this study, a global view of differential genes expressed and metabolites accumulated during resistance and susceptibility to F. verticillioides inoculation has been obtained, giving additional information about the mechanisms and pathways conferring resistance to this important disease in maize.

Campos-Bermudez, Valeria A.; Fauguel, Carolina M.; Tronconi, Marcos A.; Casati, Paula; Presello, Daniel A.; Andreo, Carlos S.

2013-01-01

248

Dissecting yield-associated loci in super hybrid rice by resequencing recombinant inbred lines and improving parental genome sequences.  

PubMed

The growing world population and shrinkage of arable land demand yield improvement of rice, one of the most important staple crops. To elucidate the genetic basis of yield and uncover its associated loci in rice, we resequenced the core recombinant inbred lines of Liang-You-Pei-Jiu, the widely cultivated super hybrid rice, and constructed a high-resolution linkage map. We detected 43 yield-associated quantitative trait loci, of which 20 are unique. Based on the high-density physical map, the genome sequences of paternal variety 93-11 and maternal cultivar PA64s of Liang-You-Pei-Jiu were significantly improved. The large recombinant inbred line population combined with plentiful high-quality single nucleotide polymorphisms and insertions/deletions between parental genomes allowed us to fine-map two quantitative trait loci, qSN8 and qSPB1, and to identify days to heading8 and lax panicle1 as candidate genes, respectively. The quantitative trait locus qSN8 was further confirmed to be days to heading8 by a complementation test. Our study provided an ideal platform for molecular breeding by targeting and dissecting yield-associated loci in rice. PMID:23940322

Gao, Zhen-Yu; Zhao, Shan-Cen; He, Wei-Ming; Guo, Long-Biao; Peng, You-Lin; Wang, Jin-Jin; Guo, Xiao-Sen; Zhang, Xue-Mei; Rao, Yu-Chun; Zhang, Chi; Dong, Guo-Jun; Zheng, Feng-Ya; Lu, Chang-Xin; Hu, Jiang; Zhou, Qing; Liu, Hui-Juan; Wu, Hai-Yang; Xu, Jie; Ni, Pei-Xiang; Zeng, Da-Li; Liu, Deng-Hui; Tian, Peng; Gong, Li-Hui; Ye, Chen; Zhang, Guang-Heng; Wang, Jian; Tian, Fu-Kuan; Xue, Da-Wei; Liao, Yi; Zhu, Li; Chen, Ming-Sheng; Li, Jia-Yang; Cheng, Shi-Hua; Zhang, Geng-Yun; Wang, Jun; Qian, Qian

2013-08-12

249

Can we improve heterosis for root growth of maize by selecting parental inbred lines with different temperature behaviour?  

PubMed Central

Tolerance to high and low temperature is an important breeding aim for Central and Northern Europe, where temperature fluctuations are predicted to increase. However, the extent to which genotypes differ in their response to the whole range of possible temperatures is not well understood. We tested the hypothesis that the combination of maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines with differing temperature optima for root growth would lead to superior hybrids. This hypothesis is based on the concept of ‘marginal overdominance’ in which the hybrid expresses higher relative fitness than its parents, summed over all situations. The elongation rates of axile and lateral roots of the reciprocal cross between two flint and two dent inbred lines were assessed at temperatures between 15°C and 40°C. Indeed, the cross between UH005 and UH250 with lateral root growth temperature optima at 34°C and 28°C, respectively, resulted in intermediate hybrids. At temperatures below and above 31°C, the hybrids' root growth was comparable to the better parent, respectively, thereby increasing temperature tolerance of the hybrid compared with its parents. The implications of and reasons for this heterosis effect are discussed in the context of breeding for abiotic stress tolerance and of putatively underlying molecular mechanisms. This finding paves the way for more detailed investigations of this phenomenon in future studies.

Hund, Andreas; Reimer, Regina; Stamp, Peter; Walter, Achim

2012-01-01

250

Genetic variance contributes to ingestive processes: a survey of eleven inbred mouse strains for fat (Intralipid) intake.  

PubMed

Genetic variation across inbred and outbred mouse strains have been observed for intake of sweet solutions, salts, bitter tastants and a high-fat diet. Our laboratory recently reported marked strain differences in the amounts and/or percentages of kilocalories of sucrose consumed among 11 inbred and one outbred mouse strains exposed to a wide range of nine sucrose concentrations (0.0001-5%) in two-bottle 24-h preference tests. To assess whether differences in fat intake were similarly associated with genetic variation, the present study examined intake of chow, water and an emulsified fat source (Intralipid) across nine different concentrations (0.00001-5%) in the same 11 inbred and 1 outbred mouse strains using two-bottle 24-h preference tests, which controlled for Intralipid concentration presentation effects, Intralipid and water bottle positions, and measurement of kilocalorie intake consumed as Intralipid or chow. Strains displayed differential increases in Intralipid intake relative to corresponding water with significant effects observed at the seven (BALB/cJ: 0.001% threshold sensitivity), four (AKR/J, C57BL/6J, DBA/2J, SWR/J: 0.5% threshold sensitivity), three (CD-1, C57BL/10J, SJL/J: 1% threshold sensitivity) and two (A/J, CBA/J, C3H/HeJ, 129P3/J: 2% threshold sensitivity) highest concentrations. In assessing the percentage of kilocalories consumed as Intralipid, SWR/J mice consumed significantly more at the three highest concentrations to a greater degree than BALB/cJ, C57BL/6J, CD-1, C3H/HeJ, DBA/J and 129P3/J strains which in turn consumed more than A/J, AKR/J, CBA/J, C57BL/10J and SJL/J mice. Relatively strong (h2 = 0.73-0.79) heritability estimates were obtained for weight-adjusted Intralipid intake at those concentrations (0.001-1%) that displayed the largest strain-specific effects in sensitivity to Intralipid. The identification of strains with diverging abilities to regulate kilocalorie intake when presented with high Intralipid concentrations may lead to the successful mapping of genes related to hedonics and obesity. PMID:17028044

Lewis, Sarah R; Dym, Cheryl; Chai, Christina; Singh, Amreeta; Kest, Benjamin; Bodnar, Richard J

2006-10-09

251

Complex genetics controls natural variation among seed quality phenotypes in a recombinant inbred population of an interspecific cross between Solanum lycopersicum × Solanum pimpinellifolium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seed quality in tomato is associated with many complex physiological and genetic traits. While plant processes are frequently controlled by the action of small- to large-effect genes that follow classic Mendelian inheritance, our study suggests that seed quality is primarily quantitative and genetically complex. Using a recombinant inbred line population of Solanum lycopersicum × Solanum pimpinellifolium, we identified quantitative trait

R. H. Kazmi; N. Khan; L. A. J. Willems; Heusden van A. W; J. W. Ligterink; H. W. M. Hilhorst

2012-01-01

252

Analysis of natural allelic variation of Arabidopsis seed germination and seed longevity traits between the accessions Landberg erecta and Shakdara, using a new recombinant inbred line population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping was used to identify loci controlling various aspects of seed longevity during storage and germination. Similar locations for QTLs controlling different traits might be an indication for a common genetic control of such traits. For this analysis we used a new recombinant inbred line population derived from a cross between the accessions Landsberg erecta (Ler)

Emile J. M. Clerkx; Mohamed E. El-Lithy; E. Vierling; G. J. Ruijs; Vries de M. H. C; S. P. C. Groot; D. Vreugdenhil; M. Koornneef

2004-01-01

253

Analysis of Natural Allelic Variation of Arabidopsis Seed Germination and Seed Longevity Traits between the Accessions Landsberg erecta and Shakdara, Using a New Recombinant Inbred Line Population1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping was used to identify loci controlling various aspects of seed longevity during storage and germination. Similar locations for QTLs controlling different traits might be an indication for a common genetic control of such traits. For this analysis we used a new recombinant inbred line population derived from a cross between the accessions Landsberg erecta (Ler)

Emile J. M. Clerkx; Mohamed E. El-Lithy; Elizabeth Vierling; Gerda J. Ruys; Hetty Blankestijn-De; Steven P. C. Groot; Dick Vreugdenhil; Maarten Koornneef

254

Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci for Resistance to Southern Leaf Blight and Days to Anthesis in Two Maize Recombinant Inbred Line Populations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two recombinant inbred line populations derived from crosses between maize lines H99 and B73 (HB population) and between B73 and B52 (BB population) were evaluated for resistance to southern leaf blight (SLB) disease caused by Cochliobolus heterostrophus race O and for days to anthesis (DTA) in tw...

255

Similarities among a group of elite maize inbreds as measured by pedigree, F 1 grain yield, grain yield, heterosis, and RFLPs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic distances were calculated among 37 inbred lines representing a wide range of related and unrelated elite Corn Belt germ plasm of maize (Zea Mays L.), using 257 probe restriction enzyme combinations. Genetic distances based on RFLP data were highly correlated with coefficients of parentage among pairs of lines. The RFLP-based distance had a higher correlation with single-cross grain yield

O. S. Smith; J. S. C. Smith; S. L. Bowen; R. A. Tenborg; S. J. Wall

1990-01-01

256

Relationships among Early European Maize Inbreds: IV. Genetic Diversity Revealed with AFLP Markers and Comparison with RFLP, RAPD, and Pedigree Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

data ranged between 0.38 and 0.77 between unrelated ( f 5 0) pairs of lines. All flint and dent inbreds showed a smaller mean GS to lines rate estimation of genetic similarity by coancestry re- from the other heterotic group than to unrelated lines from the same quires reliable and detailed pedigree records. However, heterotic group. For lines of mixed

Thomas Lubberstedt; Albrecht E. Melchinger; Marnik Vuylsteke; Martin Kuiper

257

Higher Frequency of Aberrant Crypt Foci in Rapid Than Slow Acetylator Inbred Rats Administered the Colon Carcinogen 3,2?Dimethyl4-aminobiphenyl  

Microsoft Academic Search

Humans and other mammals such as rats exhibit a genetic polymorphism in acetyltransferase (NAT2) capacity, yielding rapid and slow acetylator phenotypes. The rapid acetylator phenotype has been associated with increased incidence of human colorectal cancer in some, but not all, epidemiological studies. In order to investigate this possible association, a rapid (F-344) and slow (WKY) acetylator inbred rat model was

Yi Feng; Adrian J. Fretland; Timothy D. Rustan; Wen Jiang; William K. Becker; David W. Hein

1997-01-01

258

LYMPHOID ORGAN SIZE VARIES AMONG INBRED LINES 63, 72 AND THEIR THIRTEEN RECOMBINANT CONGENIC STRAINS OF CHICKENS WITH THE SAME MHC  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective was to evaluate lymphoid organ size in chickens from a series of thirteen recombinant congenic strains (RCS) and their highly inbred parental lines (63 and 72). The parental line 63 was selected for resistance to tumors induced by Marek’s disease virus and avian leukosis viruses, where...

259

Differential Performance and Parasitism of Caterpillars on Maize Inbred Lines with Distinctly Different Herbivore-Induced Volatile Emissions  

PubMed Central

Plant volatiles induced by insect feeding are known to attract natural enemies of the herbivores. Six maize inbred lines that showed distinctly different patterns of volatile emission in laboratory assays were planted in randomized plots in the Central Mexican Highlands to test their ability to recruit parasitic wasps under field conditions. The plants were artificially infested with neonate larvae of the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda, and two of its main endoparasitoids, Campoletis sonorensis and Cotesia marginiventris, were released in the plots. Volatiles were collected from equally treated reference plants in the neighbourhood of the experimental field. The cumulative amount of 36 quantified volatile compounds determined for each line was in good accordance with findings from the laboratory; there was an almost 15-fold difference in total emission between the two extreme lines. We found significant differences among the lines with respect to the numbers of armyworms recovered from the plants, their average weight gain and parasitism rates. Average weight of the caterpillars was negatively correlated with the average total amount of volatiles released by the six inbred lines. However, neither total volatile emission nor any specific single compound within the blend could explain the differential parasitism rates among the lines, with the possible exception of (E)-2-hexenal for Campoletis sonorensis and methyl salicylate for Cotesia marginiventris. Herbivore-induced plant volatiles and/or correlates thereof contribute to reducing insect damage of maize plants through direct plant defence and enhanced attraction of parasitoids, alleged indirect defence. The potential to exploit these volatiles for pest control deserves to be further evaluated.

Degen, Thomas; Bakalovic, Nenad; Bergvinson, David; Turlings, Ted C. J.

2012-01-01

260

Molecular characterization of diverse CIMMYT maize inbred lines from eastern and southern Africa using single nucleotide polymorphic markers  

PubMed Central

Background Knowledge of germplasm diversity and relationships among elite breeding materials is fundamentally important in crop improvement. We genotyped 450 maize inbred lines developed and/or widely used by CIMMYT breeding programs in both Kenya and Zimbabwe using 1065 SNP markers to (i) investigate population structure and patterns of relationship of the germplasm for better exploitation in breeding programs; (ii) assess the usefulness of SNPs for identifying heterotic groups commonly used by CIMMYT breeding programs; and (iii) identify a subset of highly informative SNP markers for routine and low cost genotyping of CIMMYT germplasm in the region using uniplex assays. Results Genetic distance for about 94% of the pairs of lines fell between 0.300 and 0.400. Eighty four percent of the pairs of lines also showed relative kinship values ? 0.500. Model-based population structure analysis, principal component analysis, neighbor-joining cluster analysis and discriminant analysis revealed the presence of 3 major groups and generally agree with pedigree information. The SNP markers did not show clear separation of heterotic groups A and B that were established based on combining ability tests through diallel and line x tester analyses. Our results demonstrated large differences among the SNP markers in terms of reproducibility, ease of scoring, polymorphism, minor allele frequency and polymorphic information content. About 40% of the SNPs in the multiplexed chip-based GoldenGate assays were found to be uninformative in this study and we recommend 644 of the 1065 for low to medium density genotyping in tropical maize germplasm using uniplex assays. Conclusions There were high genetic distance and low kinship coefficients among most pairs of lines, clearly indicating the uniqueness of the majority of the inbred lines in these maize breeding programs. The results from this study will be useful to breeders in selecting best parental combinations for new breeding crosses, mapping population development and marker assisted breeding.

2012-01-01

261

Differences in Health Status Affect Susceptibility and Mapping of Genetic Loci for Atherosclerosis (Fatty Streak) in Inbred Mice  

PubMed Central

Objective We observed differences in atherosclerosis susceptibility in mouse inbred strains over the years as the health status of our animal rooms increased. Therefore, we investigated the effect of animal room health status on atherosclerosis susceptibility in different strains. As this data can also be used for genome-wide association mapping, we performed a mapping study and compared our results with previously found quantitative trait loci for atherosclerosis in mouse and human. Methods and Results Males and females from 48 inbred strains were housed in two animal rooms with different health status and given an atherogenic diet. We compared atherosclerosis susceptibility between animal rooms and between sexes and found that susceptibility is dependent on both health status and sex. Subsequently, the data were used for associations with loci on the mouse genome using 63,222 SNPs. Three loci in males and four loci in females were identified using the data from the low health status room. No significant associations were identified using the data from the high health status room. Conclusion Health status influences susceptibility to atherosclerosis and suggests that microbiological pressure plays an important role in the development of atherosclerosis in many strains. As we were only able to map susceptibility loci using the data from the lower health status room, we argue that susceptibility under these conditions is determined by a few key loci, while in the higher health status room different mechanisms might play a role in the differences in atherosclerosis susceptibility between strains and we did not have enough power to map the loci that are involved.

Srivastava, Ujala; Paigen, Beverly J.; Korstanje, Ron

2012-01-01

262

Identification of five novel modifier loci of ApcMin harbored in the BXH14 recombinant inbred strain  

PubMed Central

Every year thousands of people in the USA are diagnosed with small intestine and colorectal cancers (CRC). Although environmental factors affect disease etiology, uncovering underlying genetic factors is imperative for risk assessment and developing preventative therapies. Familial adenomatous polyposis is a heritable genetic disorder in which individuals carry germ-line mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene that predisposes them to CRC. The Apc Min mouse model carries a point mutation in the Apc gene and develops polyps along the intestinal tract. Inbred strain background influences polyp phenotypes in Apc Min mice. Several Modifier of Min (Mom) loci that alter tumor phenotypes associated with the Apc Min mutation have been identified to date. We screened BXH recombinant inbred (RI) strains by crossing BXH RI females with C57BL/6J (B6) Apc Min males and quantitating tumor phenotypes in backcross progeny. We found that the BXH14 RI strain harbors five modifier loci that decrease polyp multiplicity. Furthermore, we show that resistance is determined by varying combinations of these modifier loci. Gene interaction network analysis shows that there are multiple networks with proven gene–gene interactions, which contain genes from all five modifier loci. We discuss the implications of this result for studies that define susceptibility loci, namely that multiple networks may be acting concurrently to alter tumor phenotypes. Thus, the significance of this work resides not only with the modifier loci we identified but also with the combinations of loci needed to get maximal protection against polyposis and the impact of this finding on human disease studies. Abbreviations:APCadenomatous polyposis coliGWASgenome-wide association studiesQTLquantitative trait lociSNPsingle-nucleotide polymorphism.

Siracusa, Linda D.

2012-01-01

263

Distinct genetic signatures for variability in total and free serum thyroxine levels in four sets of recombinant inbred mice.  

PubMed

C3H/He and BALB/c mice have elevated serum thyroxine levels associated with low deiodinase type-1 activity whereas C57BL/6 (B6) mice have low thyroxine levels and elevated deiodinase type-1 activity. High-resolution genetic maps are available for four sets of recombinant inbred (RI) mice derived from B6 parents bred to C3H/He, BALB/c, DBA/2, or A strains. Total and free T4 (T-T4 and F-T4) levels in females from these RI sets (BXH, CXB, BXD, and AXBXA) were analyzed to test two hypotheses: first, serum T4 variability is linked to the deiodinase type-1 gene; second, because of their shared B6 parent, the RI sets will share linkages responsible for T-T4 or F-T4 variability. A number of chromosomes (Chr) and loci were linked to T-T4 (Chr 1, 4, 13, 11) or F-T4 (Chr 1, 6, 13, 18, 19). Linkage between T-T4 and Chr 4 was limited to CXB and BXH strains, but the locus was distinct from the deiodinase type-1 gene. Surprisingly, many linkages were unique providing "genetic signatures" for T-T4 or F-T4 in each set of RI mice. Indeed, the strongest linkage between T-T4 (or F-T4) and a Chr 2 locus (logarithm of the odds scores >4.4) was only observed in AXBXA strains. Some loci corresponded to genes/Chr associated in humans with variable TSH or T-T4 levels. Unlike inbred mice, human populations are extremely diverse. Consequently, our data suggest that the contributions of unique chromosomes/loci controlling T-T4 and F-T4 in distinct human subgroups are likely to be "buried" in genetic analyses of heterogeneous human populations. PMID:21209025

McLachlan, Sandra M; Lu, Lu; Aliesky, Holly A; Williams, Robert W; Rapoport, Basil

2011-01-05

264

Distinct Genetic Signatures for Variability in Total and Free Serum Thyroxine Levels in Four Sets of Recombinant Inbred Mice  

PubMed Central

C3H/He and BALB/c mice have elevated serum thyroxine levels associated with low deiodinase type-1 activity whereas C57BL/6 (B6) mice have low thyroxine levels and elevated deiodinase type-1 activity. High-resolution genetic maps are available for four sets of recombinant inbred (RI) mice derived from B6 parents bred to C3H/He, BALB/c, DBA/2, or A strains. Total and free T4 (T-T4 and F-T4) levels in females from these RI sets (BXH, CXB, BXD, and AXBXA) were analyzed to test two hypotheses: first, serum T4 variability is linked to the deiodinase type-1 gene; second, because of their shared B6 parent, the RI sets will share linkages responsible for T-T4 or F-T4 variability. A number of chromosomes (Chr) and loci were linked to T-T4 (Chr 1, 4, 13, 11) or F-T4 (Chr 1, 6, 13, 18, 19). Linkage between T-T4 and Chr 4 was limited to CXB and BXH strains, but the locus was distinct from the deiodinase type-1 gene. Surprisingly, many linkages were unique providing “genetic signatures” for T-T4 or F-T4 in each set of RI mice. Indeed, the strongest linkage between T-T4 (or F-T4) and a Chr 2 locus (logarithm of the odds scores >4.4) was only observed in AXBXA strains. Some loci corresponded to genes/Chr associated in humans with variable TSH or T-T4 levels. Unlike inbred mice, human populations are extremely diverse. Consequently, our data suggest that the contributions of unique chromosomes/loci controlling T-T4 and F-T4 in distinct human subgroups are likely to be “buried” in genetic analyses of heterogeneous human populations.

Lu, Lu; Aliesky, Holly A.; Williams, Robert W.; Rapoport, Basil

2011-01-01

265

Quantitative trait loci for non-race-specific, high-temperature adult-plant resistance to stripe rust in wheat cultivar Express  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheat cultivar Express has durable, high-temperature adult-plant (HTAP) resistance to stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici). To elucidate the genetic basis of the resistance, Express was crossed with ‘Avocet Susceptible’ (AVS). A mapping population\\u000a of 146 F5 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) was developed using single-seed descent. The RILs were evaluated at two sites near Pullman\\u000a in eastern Washington and

F. Lin; X. M. Chen

2009-01-01

266

Genetic differences in phenytoin pharmacokinetics. In vivo clearance and in vitro metabolism among inbred strains of mice.  

PubMed

Plasma phenytoin elimination rates were examined among twelve inbred strains of mice. Two populations are identified--the 'fast metabolizers' (BALB/cN, C57BL/6N, C57BL/6J, AKR/N, AKR/J and C3H/HeN) having almost exactly twice as rapid an elimination rate as the 'slow metabolizers' (CL/FR, CBA/J, DBA/2N, STAR/N, SJL/N, DBA/2J and RF/N). The difference in elimination rate between C57BL/6J and DBA/2J cannot be accounted for by dissimilarities in volume of distribution. The phenytoin elimination rate in the (C57BL/6J)(DBA/2J)F1 heterozygote is expressed as an additive trait. A good correlation exists between phenytoin elimination rates in vivo and phenytoin metabolism by liver microsomes in vitro, as determined by a newly described assay using high-performance liquid chromatography. 3-Methylcholanthrene pretreatment does not enhance phenytoin elimination or metabolism. The cytochrome P-450-mediated monoxygenase metabolism of phenytoin is not associated with the Ah locus or with coat color among progeny of the (C57BL/6N)(DBA/2N) F1 x DBA/2N backcross. Phenobarbital pretreatment enhances phenytoin elimination and metabolism in both a fast metabolizer (C57BL/6N) and a slow metabolizer (DBA/2N) strain. Phenobarbital pretreatment probably also induces non-P-450 enzymes, such as those which form the phenytoin dihydrodiol and the glucuronide and glutathione conjugates, in addition to inducing one or more forms of P-450 that oxygenate phenytoin. These data probably reflect allelic differences in a structural gene encoding for one (or more) form(s) of control cytochrome P-450 that metabolizes phenytoin, rather than allelic differences in a regulatory gene. The marked sensitivity of inbred mouse strains CL/FR and A/J and the marked resistance of STAR/N, Swiss-Webster, and C57BL/6 to phenytoin-induced cleft lip and/or palate cannot be explained by genetic differences in phenytoin elimination rates or liver microsomal metabolism in vitro, as measured by the methods described in this report. PMID:7438974

Atlas, S A; Zweier, J L; Nebert, D W

1980-01-01

267

Modulation of high alcohol drinking in the inbred Fawn-Hooded (FH/Wjd) rat strain: implications for treatment.  

PubMed

The Fawn-Hooded rat (FH/Wjd) is an inbred alcohol-preferring rat strain, unlike most of the other strains that were selectively bred for high alcohol intake and preference. It was chosen for study some 16 years ago because of a reported mutation that disrupted platelet serotonin function. Although the FH/Wjd rat has high alcohol intake (>5 g/kg/day) and preference (>65%), interbreeding with an alcohol-non-preferring inbred strain suggested that these measures are unrelated to the serotonin abnormality. Similarly, the exaggerated immobility of the FH/Wjd rats in the forced swim test did not correlate with the high alcohol intake. Many compounds have been tested in the FH/Wjd rats after both acute and chronic treatment and a substantial number of them have proved effective. However, as the case with opiate antagonists, tolerance to the effects of the drug can develop. An up-regulation of opioid receptors accompanied the chronic treatment and this mechanism may account for the development of tolerance. Tolerance to opiate antagonists has also been demonstrated in two of the selectively bred alcohol-preferring rat lines, but it is unknown whether this process may contribute to the relapses seen in individuals being treated with naltrexone. Other drugs that reliably decrease alcohol intake in the FH/Wjd rats include the 5-hydroxytryptamine-2A receptor antagonist, amperozide, the mGlu5 receptor antagonist 3-[(2-methyl-1,3-thiazol-4-yl)ethynyl]pyridine (MTEP) and herbal derivatives such as ibogaine, St. John's wort and kudzu extract. Thus, studies in the FH/Wjd rat have led to the discovery of a wide variety of targets for the development of novel agents to treat alcoholism. The fact that several of these drugs were shown to reduce alcohol intake in some of the selectively bred alcohol-preferring rat lines and/or alcohol-preferring vervet monkeys increases our confidence that they are good candidates for further development. PMID:16961764

Overstreet, David H; Rezvani, Amir H; Cowen, Michael; Chen, Feng; Lawrence, Andrew J

2006-09-01

268

Adult frog  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The adult frog now lives on land and has nostrils and lungs to breathe air. It also has front and hind legs to hop around on. This frog can start the life cycle over again by laying eggs and reproducing.

Harmen Piekema (None;)

2005-05-28

269

Adult Strabismus  

MedlinePLUS

... misaligned eyes are able to have successful surgical correction [See figure 1]. Why do adults get strabismus? ... initially successful surgery. Additional surgery may be indicated. Correction of double vision may be improved with the ...

270

Natural variation and genetic covariance in adult hippocampal neurogenesis  

SciTech Connect

Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is highly variable and heritable among laboratory strains of mice. Adult neurogenesis is also remarkably plastic and can be modulated by environment and activity. Here, we provide a systematic quantitative analysis of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in two large genetic reference panels of recombinant inbred strains (BXD and AXB?BXA, n ? 52 strains). We combined data on variation in neurogenesis with a new transcriptome database to extract a set of 190 genes with expression patterns that are also highly variable and that covary with rates of (i) cell proliferation, (ii) cell survival, or the numbers of surviving (iii) new neurons, and (iv) astrocytes. Expression of a subset of these neurogenesis-associated transcripts was controlled in cis across the BXD set. These self-modulating genes are particularly interesting candidates to control neurogenesis. Among these were musashi (Msi1h) and prominin1?CD133 (Prom1), both of which are linked to stem-cell maintenance and division. Twelve neurogenesis-associated transcripts had significant cis-acting quantitative trait loci, and, of these, six had plausible biological association with adult neurogenesis (Prom1, Ssbp2, Kcnq2, Ndufs2, Camk4, and Kcnj9). Only one cis- cting candidate was linked to both neurogenesis and gliogenesis, Rapgef6, a downstream target of ras signaling. The use of genetic reference panels coupled with phenotyping and global transcriptome profiling thus allowed insight into the complexity of the genetic control of adult neurogenesis.

Kempermann, Gerd [Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin, Germany; Chesler, Elissa J [ORNL; Lu, Lu [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Williams, Robert [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Gage, Fred [Salk Institute for Biological Studies, The, San Diego, CA

2006-01-01

271

Identification of trait-improving quantitative trait loci for grain yield components from a dent corn inbred line in an advanced backcross BC 2 F 2 population and comparison with its F 2:3 population in popcorn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Normal maize germplasm could be used to improve the grain yield of popcorn inbreds. Our first objective was to locate genetic\\u000a factors associated with trait variation and make first assessment on the efficiency of advanced backcross quantitative trait\\u000a locus (AB-QTL) analysis for the identification and transfer of favorable QTL alleles for grain yield components from the dent\\u000a corn inbred. A

Y. L. Li; S. Z. Niu; Y. B. Dong; D. Q. Cui; Y. Z. Wang; Y. Y. Liu; M. G. Wei

2007-01-01

272

Polyvalent strain-specific alloantisera as tools for routine genetic quality control of inbred and congenic strains of rats and mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Strain-specific polyvalent alloantisera may be obtained by injecting lymphocytes pooled from several different strains into an inbred recipient. 6 sera ofthis type were produced in rats and 23 in mice. A dye-exclusion microcytotoxic test was used to evaluate the strain specificity of such sera. A total of 663 out of 713 (93.0%) of the tests conformed with expectation, but

Michael F. W. Festing; Peter Totman

1980-01-01

273

Effect of gliadins and HMW and LMW subunits of glutenin on dough properties in the F 6 recombinant inbred lines from a bread wheat cross  

Microsoft Academic Search

The storage proteins of 64 F2-derived F6 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from the bread wheat cross ‘Prinqual’\\/‘Marengo’ were analyzed. Parents differed at four loci: Gli-B1 (coding for gliadins), Glu-B1 (coding for HMW glutenin subunits), Glu-A3\\/Gli-A1 (coding for LMW glutenin subunits\\/gliadins) and Glu-D3 (coding for LMW glutenin subunits). The effect of allelic variation at these loci on tenacity, extensibility and dough

M. T. Nieto-Taladriz; M. R. Perretant; M. Rousset

1994-01-01

274

Effects of Testosterone and 7?-Methyl-19-Nortestosterone (MENT) on Sexual and Aggressive Behaviors in Two Inbred Strains of Male Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioral and endocrine effects of a synthetic androgen, 7?-methyl-19-nortestosterone (MENT), which is not 5?-reduced to dihydrotestosterone, were compared to those of testosterone in two inbred strains of male mice, C57BL\\/6J and DBA\\/2J, in two experiments. In the first experiment, seminal vesicle (SV) weights, kidney weights, and circulating steroid levels were examined in castrated mice treated with three doses of testosterone

Sonoko Ogawa; Ann Robbins; Narender Kumar; Donald W. Pfaff; Kalyan Sundaram; C. Wayne Bardin

1996-01-01

275

Genetic dissection of tocopherol and phytosterol in recombinant inbred lines of sunflower through quantitative trait locus analysis and the candidate gene approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) contains tocopherol, a non-enzymatic antioxidant known as lipid-soluble vitamin E, and phytosterol, with interesting\\u000a properties, which can result in decreased risk of chronic diseases in humans and with several beneficial effects in plants.\\u000a The genetic control of tocopherol and phytosterol content in a population of 123 recombinant inbred lines of sunflower was\\u000a studied through quantitative trait

P. Haddadi; A. Ebrahimi; N. B. Langlade; B. Yazdi-samadi; M. Berger; A. Calmon; M. R. Naghavi; P. Vincourt; A. Sarrafi

276

Cyclic electron flow around PSI monitored by afterglow luminescence in leaves of maize inbred lines ( Zea mays L.): correlation with chilling tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines of contrasting chilling sensitivity (three tolerant, three sensitive lines) were acclimated to 280 µmol photons m-2 s-1 white light at a 17°C sub-optimal temperature. They showed no symptoms of photoinhibition, despite slight changes in photosystem II (PSII) fluorescence and thermoluminescence properties in two tolerant lines. A luminescence “afterglow” emission [Bertsch and Azzi (1965) Biochim Biophys Acta

Jean-Marc Ducruet; Miruna Roman; Michel Havaux; Tibor Janda; André Gallais

2005-01-01

277

Mitochondrial DNA Restriction Map for the Caribbean Fruit Fly, Anastrepha suspensa , and Occurrence of Mitochondrial DNA Diversity Within Highly Inbred Colonies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A restriction map has been constructed for Anastrepha suspensa mitochondrial DNA. One HaeIII site was found to be polymorphic among individuals in highly inbred colonies and a feral population. Based on mapping information, the polymorphic site was determined to be in the ATPase 6 gene. Primers TK-J-3804 and C3-N-5460 amplified this region. The amplicon was cut by HaeIII in flies

M. Heath; D. Kuhn; R. Schnell; C. Olano

2002-01-01

278

Identification of quantitative trait loci associated with rice eating quality traits using a population of recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross between two temperate japonica cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improved eating quality is a major breeding target in japonica rice due to market demand. In this study, we performed genetic analysis to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that control\\u000a rice eating quality traits using 192 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between two japonica cultivars, ‘Suweon365’ and ‘Chucheongbyeo’. We evaluated the stickiness (ST) and overall evaluation (OE)

Soon-Wook Kwon; Young-Chan Cho; Jeong-Heui Lee; Jung-Pil Suh; Jeong-Ju Kim; Myeong-Ki Kim; Im-Soo Choi; Hung-Goo Hwang; Hee-Jong Koh; Yeon-Gyu Kim

2011-01-01

279

Chromosomal regions associated with segregation distortion of molecular markers in F 2 ?, backcross, doubled haploid, and recombinant inbred populations in rice ( Oryza sativa L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chromosomal regions associated with marker segregation distortion in rice were compared based on six molecular linkage maps.\\u000a Mapping populations were derived from one interspecific backcross and five intersubspecific (indica?\\/?japonica) crosses, including two F2 populations, two doubled haploid (DH) populations, and one recombinant inbred (RI) population. Mapping data for each population\\u000a consisted of 129–629 markers. Segregation distortion was determined based on

Y. Xu; L. Zhu; J. Xiao; N. Huang; S. R. McCouch

1997-01-01

280

IMMUNOLOGY, HEALTH, AND DISEASE Immune Response to a Killed Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Vaccine in Inbred Chicken Lines with Different Major Histocompatibility Complex Haplotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of MHC on antibody re- sponses to killed infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) vaccine was investigated in several MHC inbred chicken lines. We found a notable MHC haplotype effect on the specific antibody response against IBDV as measured by ELISA. Some MHC haplotypes were high responders (B201,B4, andBR5), whereas other MHC haplotypes were low responders (B19, B12 and

H. R. Juul-Madsen; T. S. Dalgaard; C. M. Røntved; K. H. Jensen; N. Bumstead

281

Ethanol-induced anesthesia in inbred strains of long-sleep and short-sleep mice: A genetic analysis of repeated measures using censored data  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a repeated-measures, genetic analysis of ethanol-induced anesthesia (sleep time) in mice from the inbred long-sleep (ILS) and short-sleep (ISS) strains of mice and their derived F1 and F2 generations. Mice (totalN>1300) were administered a 4.1 g\\/kg intraperitoneal dose of ethanol at two times, 7 to 10 days apart. A method suggested by Cohen was used to analyze the

Paul D. Markel; John C. DeFries; Thomas E. Johnson

1995-01-01

282

Different responsiveness to a high-fat\\/cholesterol diet in two inbred mice and underlying genetic factors: a whole genome microarray analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: To investigate different responses to a high-fat\\/cholesterol diet and uncover their underlying genetic factors between C57BL\\/6J (B6) and DBA\\/2J (D2) inbred mice. METHODS: B6 and D2 mice were fed a high-fat\\/cholesterol diet for a series of time-points. Serum and bile lipid profiles, bile acid yields, hepatic apoptosis, gallstones and atherosclerosis formation were measured. Furthermore, a whole genome microarray was

Mingzhe Zhu; Guozhen Ji; Gang Jin; Zuobiao Yuan

2009-01-01

283

Genetics of the. cap alpha. 1,6-dextran response: expression of the QUPC52 idiotype in different inbred and congenic strains of mice  

SciTech Connect

Antibodies to dextran B512 were raised in various strains of mice and were assayed by a radioimunoassay procedure. Idiotypic antibodies to the IgA(k) dextran B512 binding myeloma proteins QUOC52 and W3129 of BALB/c origin were prepred in rabbits. After adsorption, each antiserum was specific for the immunizing myeloma protein and did not react with hundreds of other myeloma proteins; nonetheless, antibodies to dextran B512 from various strains of mice cross-reacted in these test systems. Of the 2 idiotypes tested, the W3129 idiotype was more universally expressed in different strains of mice. The QUPC52 idiotype was the predominant idiotype in BALB/c anti-dextran B512 antibodies and was found in only a few other inbred strains. Using a battery of congenic and inbred strains, it was shown that the QUPC52 idiotype was controlled by genes linked to the Igh complex locus (chromosome 12) and to the Ig k complex locus (chromosome 6). The W3129 idiotype was found in a number of stocks of mice in the genus Mus recently isolated from the wild. The QUPC52 idiotype thus far was found only in inbred mice.

D'Hoostelaere, L. (Litton Bionetics, Kensington, MD); Potter, M.

1982-01-01

284

WNIN/GR-Ob - An insulin-resistant obese rat model from inbred WNIN strain  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: WNIN/GR-Ob is a mutant obese rat strain with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) developed at the National Institute of Nutrition (NIN), Hyderabad, India, from the existing 80 year old Wistar rat (WNIN) stock colony. The data presented here pertain to its obese nature along with IGT trait as evidenced by physical, physiological and biochemical parameters. The study also explains its existence, in three phenotypes: homozygous lean (+/+), heterozygous carrier (+/-) and homozygous obese (-/-). Methods: Thirty animals (15 males and 15 females) from each phenotype (+/+, +/-, -/-) and 24 lean and obese (6 males and 6 females) rats were taken for growth and food intake studies respectively. Twelve adult rats from each phenotype were taken for body composition measurement by total body electrical conductivity (TOBEC); 12 rats of both genders from each phenotype at different ages were taken for clinical chemistry parameters. Physiological indices of insulin resistance were calculated according to the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and also by studying U14C 2-deoxy glucose uptake (2DG). Results: WNINGR-Ob mutants had high growth, hyperphagia, polydipsia, polyurea, glycosuria, and significantly lower lean body mass, higher fat mass as compared with carrier and lean rats. These mutants, at 50 days of age displayed abnormal response to glucose load (IGT), hyperinsulinaemia, hypertriglyceridaemia, hypercholesterolaemia and hyperleptinaemia. Basal and insulin-stimulated glucose uptakes by diaphragm were significantly decreased in obese rats as compared with lean rats. Interpretation & conclusions: Obese rats of the designated WNIN/GR-Ob strain showed obesity with IGT, as adjudged by physical, physiological and biochemical indices. These indices varied among the three phenotypes, being lowest in lean, highest in obese and intermediate in carrier phenotypes thereby suggesting that obesity is inherited as autosomal incomplete dominant trait in this strain. This mutant obese rat model is easy to propagate, and can easily be transformed to frank diabetes model by dietary manipulation and thus can be used for screening anti-diabetic drugs.

Harishankar, N.; Vajreswari, A.; Giridharan, N. V.

2011-01-01

285

Different rankings of inbred mouse strains on the Morris maze and a refined 4-arm water escape task.  

PubMed

The submerged platform or Morris water escape task is widely used to study genetic variation in spatial learning and memory, but interpretation is sometimes difficult because of wall hugging, jumping off the platform, floating or non-spatial swim strategies. We modified the task by introducing four wide arms into the circular tank and adding features that reduced, eliminated, or compensated for several competing behaviors. Three versions of the 4-arm task were evaluated in detail, and the third version yielded good results for six of eight inbred strains. Furthermore, the 4-arm task could be scored adequately without computerized video tracking. Although performance on the 4-arm task was generally superior to the Morris maze, the extent of the improvement was strain dependent. Two strains with retinal degeneration (C3H/HeJ, FVB/NJ) performed poorly on both the Morris and 4-arm mazes, whereas C57BL/6J and DBA/2J did well on both mazes. A/J performed poorly on the Morris task but became very proficient on the 4-arm maze, despite its strong tendency to hug the walls of the tank. The BALB/cByJ strain, on the other hand, exhibited the best probe trial performance on the Morris maze but was very slow in acquiring the 4-arm task. We conclude that no single task can reveal the full richness of spatially guided behavior in a wide range of mouse genotypes. PMID:16191444

Wahlsten, Douglas; Cooper, Sean F; Crabbe, John C

2005-09-26

286

Maize inbreds exhibit high levels of copy number variation (CNV) and presence/absence variation (PAV) in genome content.  

PubMed

Following the domestication of maize over the past approximately 10,000 years, breeders have exploited the extensive genetic diversity of this species to mold its phenotype to meet human needs. The extent of structural variation, including copy number variation (CNV) and presence/absence variation (PAV), which are thought to contribute to the extraordinary phenotypic diversity and plasticity of this important crop, have not been elucidated. Whole-genome, array-based, comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) revealed a level of structural diversity between the inbred lines B73 and Mo17 that is unprecedented among higher eukaryotes. A detailed analysis of altered segments of DNA conservatively estimates that there are several hundred CNV sequences among the two genotypes, as well as several thousand PAV sequences that are present in B73 but not Mo17. Haplotype-specific PAVs contain hundreds of single-copy, expressed genes that may contribute to heterosis and to the extraordinary phenotypic diversity of this important crop. PMID:19956538

Springer, Nathan M; Ying, Kai; Fu, Yan; Ji, Tieming; Yeh, Cheng-Ting; Jia, Yi; Wu, Wei; Richmond, Todd; Kitzman, Jacob; Rosenbaum, Heidi; Iniguez, A Leonardo; Barbazuk, W Brad; Jeddeloh, Jeffrey A; Nettleton, Daniel; Schnable, Patrick S

2009-11-20

287

A rating scale for wildness and ease of handling laboratory mice: results for 21 inbred strains tested in two laboratories.  

PubMed

Rating scales for difficulty in capturing and holding mice were devised that proved to be easy to use and highly sensitive to differences among mouse strains on the A and B priority lists of the Mouse Phenome Project. The simplicity of the scales makes it feasible to rate wildness during behavioral test sessions without adding much to testing time or distracting the technician from the principal task at hand. Overall wildness and placidity ratings obtained by combining capture and hold ratings provide a good impression of the difficulties encountered while working with lab mice in the course of complex experiments. Ratings of 21 inbred strains during the course of 15 behavioral tests in two laboratories demonstrated that the SPRET/Ei, PERA/Ei, CAST/Ei and SWR/J strains were particularly difficult to handle. The NOD/LtJ strain posed no special challenge in the Edmonton laboratory but was very difficult to handle in the Portland lab. The rating scales should be useful for judging the difficulties in working with novel targeted or induced mutations in mice as well as effects of a variety of environmental treatments or drugs. PMID:12884964

Wahlsten, D; Metten, P; Crabbe, J C

2003-04-01

288

Genetic modulation of striatal volume by loci on Chrs 6 and 17 in BXD recombinant inbred mice  

PubMed Central

Natural variation in the absolute and relative size of different parts of the human brain is substantial, with a range that often exceeds a factor of two. Much of this variation is generated by the cumulative effects of sets of unknown gene variants that modulate the proliferation, growth, and death of neurons and glial cells. Discovering and testing the functions of these genes should contribute significantly to our understanding of differences in brain development, behavior, and disease susceptibility. We have exploited a large population of genetically well-characterized strains of mice (BXD recombinant inbred strains to map gene variants that influence the volume of the dorsal striatum (caudate-putamen without nucleus accumbens). We used unbiased methods to estimate volumes bilaterally in a sex-balanced sample taken from the Mouse Brain Library (www.mbl.org). We generated a matched microarray data set to efficiently evaluate candidate genes (www.genenetwork.org). As in humans, volume of the striatum is highly heritable, with greater than two-fold differences among strains. We mapped a locus that modulates striatal volume on chromosome (Chr) 6 at 88 ± 5 Mb. We also uncovered an epistatic interaction between loci on Chr 6 and Chr 17 that modulates striatal volume. Using bioinformatic tools and the corresponding expression database, we have identified positional candidates in these QTL intervals.

Rosen, Glenn D.; Pung, Christopher J.; Owens, Cullen B.; Caplow, Julie; Kim, Heejung; Mozhui, Khyobeni; Lu, Lu; Williams, Robert W.

2009-01-01

289

The major histocompatibility complex-restricted response of recombinant inbred strains of mice to natural tick transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi  

PubMed Central

The causative agent of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, is transmitted by ticks of the Ixodes ricinus complex. In this study, we report the antibody response of recombinant inbred strains of mice of the H-2, b, d, and k haplotypes, infected with B. burgdorferi as a result of exposure to infected I. dammini. The patterns of antibody response assayed by Western blot analysis indicate significant major histocompatibility complex (MHC) restriction to bacterial antigens within the first 2 mo of infection in mice. Other bacterial antigens induce a significant response across the MHC haplotypes tested when assayed on the same bacterial strain used to transmit the infection, but do not crossreact with the same proteins derived from heterologous strains of B. burgdorferi. No response to outer surface protein A was detected at any time during the 60-d period we analyzed this infection. A third group of bacterial antigens appear to generate a MHC- nonrestricted response, and this lack of restriction is maintained when assaying the crossreactivity of the response with other strains of B. burgdorferi. These proteins may provide more accurate diagnostic probes than those currently in use. Finally, there appears to be a significant difference in the expression of most bacterial antigens when the spirochete is cultured for many passages since the same strain of bacterium isolated from low-passage and high-passage preparations exhibit different banding patterns in Western blots when assayed with the same sera.

1993-01-01

290

Comparison of unrestrained plethysmography and forced oscillation for identifying genetic variability of airway responsiveness in inbred mice  

PubMed Central

Lung function detection in mice is currently most accurately measured by invasive techniques, which are costly, labor intensive, and terminal. This limits their use for large-scale or longitudinal studies. Noninvasive assays are often used instead, but their accuracy for measuring lung function parameters such as resistance and elastance has been questioned in studies involving small numbers of mouse strains. Here we compared parameters detected by two different methods using 29 inbred mouse strains: enhanced pause (Penh), detected by unrestrained plethysmography, and central airway resistance and lung elastance, detected by a forced oscillation technique. We further tested whether the phenotypic variations were determined by the same genomic location in genome-wide association studies using a linear mixed model algorithm. Penh, resistance, and elastance were measured in nonexposed mice or mice exposed to saline and increasing doses of aerosolized methacholine. Because Penh differed from airway resistance in several strains and because the peak genetic associations found for Penh, resistance, or elastance were located at different genomic regions, we conclude that using Penh as an indicator for lung function changes in high-throughput genetic studies (i.e., genome-wide association studies or quantitative trait locus studies) measures something fundamentally different than airway resistance and lung elastance.

Leme, Adriana S.; Williams, Laura K.; Smith, Randy Von; Savage, Holly S.; Stearns, Timothy M.; Tsaih, Shirng-Wern; Shapiro, Steven D.; Peters, Luanne L.; Paigen, Beverly; Svenson, Karen L.

2011-01-01

291

Strain difference of cadmium accumulation by liver slices of inbred Wistar-Imamichi and Fischer 344 rats.  

PubMed

Strain difference in the accumulation of cadmium (Cd) by liver slices was examined in inbred Cd-resistant Wistar-Imamichi (WI) and Cd-sensitive Fischer 344 (F344) rats. The accumulation of Cd by liver slices of WI rats was significantly lower than that of F344 rats, suggesting strain-related differences in the transport of Cd into the liver cells of these two rat strains. In addition, a similar strain difference was observed in the accumulation of zinc (Zn) by liver slices from WI and F344 rats. Cd accumulation by F344 liver slices decreased when Zn was added to the medium in combination with Cd. Furthermore, in F344 liver slices, Zn accumulation was significantly decreased when Cd was added to the medium. These results suggest that the accumulation of Cd by the liver is probably mediated, at least in part, by Zn transport systems. However, we found no strain difference in hepatic ZnT3 or ZIP3 transcript levels between WI and F344 rats. Further work is in progress to identify the transporter that causes the strain differences in hepatic Cd accumulation seen with WI and F344 rats. PMID:17980552

Shimada, Hideaki; Yasutake, Akira; Hirashima, Takaomi; Takamure, Yasutaka; Kitano, Takeshi; Waalkes, Michael P; Imamura, Yorishige

2007-11-05

292

Quantitative trait loci for cell wall components in recombinant inbred lines of maize (Zea mays L.) II: leaf sheath tissue.  

PubMed

While maize silage is a significant feed component in animal production operations, little information is available on the genetic bases of fiber and lignin concentrations in maize, which are negatively correlated with digestibility. Fiber is composed largely of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, which are the primary components of plant cell walls. Variability for these traits in maize germplasm has been reported, but the sources of the variation and the relationships between these traits in different tissues are not well understood. In this study, 191 recombinant inbred lines of B73 (low-intermediate levels of cell wall components, CWCs) x De811 (high levels of CWCs) were analyzed for quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with CWCs in the leaf sheath. Samples were harvested from plots at two locations in 1998 and one in 1999 and assayed for neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and acid detergent lignin (ADL). QTL were detected on all ten chromosomes, most in tissue specific clusters in concordance with the high genotypic correlations for CWCs within the same tissue. Adjustment of NDF for its subfraction, ADF, revealed that most of the genetic variation in NDF was probably due to variation in ADF. The low to moderate genotypic correlations for the same CWC across leaf sheath and stalk tissues indicate that some genes for CWCs may only be expressed in certain tissues. Many of the QTL herein were detected in other populations, and some are linked to candidate genes for cell wall carbohydrate biosynthesis. PMID:16362276

Krakowsky, M D; Lee, M; Coors, J G

2005-12-15

293

High Genetic Variability of Herbivore-Induced Volatile Emission within a Broad Range of Maize Inbred Lines1  

PubMed Central

Maize plants (Zea mays) attacked by caterpillars release a mixture of odorous compounds that attract parasitic wasps, natural enemies of the herbivores. We assessed the genetic variability of these induced volatile emissions among 31 maize inbred lines representing a broad range of genetic diversity used by breeders in Europe and North America. Odors were collected from young plants that had been induced by injecting them with caterpillar regurgitant. Significant variation among lines was found for all 23 volatile compounds included in the analysis: the lines differed enormously in the total amount of volatiles emitted and showed highly variable odor profiles distinctive of each genotype. Principal component analysis performed on the relative quantities of particular compounds within the blend revealed clusters of highly correlated volatiles, which may share common metabolic pathways. European and American lines belonging to established heterotic groups were loosely separated from each other, with the most clear-cut difference in the typical release of (E)-?-caryophyllene by European lines. There was no correlation between the distances among the lines based on their odor profiles and their respective genetic distances previously assessed by neutral RFLP markers. This most comprehensive study to date on intraspecific variation in induced odor emission by maize plants provides a further example of the remarkably high genetic diversity conserved within this important crop plant. A better understanding of the genetic control of induced odor emissions may help in the development of maize varieties particularly attractive to parasitoids and other biological control agents and perhaps more repellent for herbivores.

Degen, Thomas; Dillmann, Christine; Marion-Poll, Frederic; Turlings, Ted C.J.

2004-01-01

294

Immune response to a killed infectious bursal disease virus vaccine in inbred chicken lines with different major histocompatibility complex haplotypes.  

PubMed

The influence of MHC on antibody responses to killed infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) vaccine was investigated in several MHC inbred chicken lines. We found a notable MHC haplotype effect on the specific antibody response against IBDV as measured by ELISA. Some MHC haplotypes were high responders (B201, B4, and BR5), whereas other MHC haplotypes were low responders (B19, B12 and BW3). The humoral response of 1 pair of recombinants isolated from a Red Jungle Fowl (BW3 and BW4) being identical on BF and BG, but different on BL, indicated that part of the primary vaccine response was an MHC II restricted T-cell dependent response. The humoral response in another pair of recombinant haplotypes originating in 2 different White Leghorn chickens being BF21, BL21, BG15 (BR4) and BF15, BL15, BG21 (BR5) on the MHC locus indicated that the BG locus may perform an adjuvant effect on the antibody response as well. Vaccination of chickens at different ages and in lines with different origin indicated that age and background genes also influence the specific antibody response against inactivated IBDV vaccine. PMID:16776466

Juul-Madsen, H R; Dalgaard, T S; Røntved, C M; Jensen, K H; Bumstead, N

2006-06-01

295

Genetic Regulation of Hypothalamic Cocaine and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (CART) in BxD Inbred Mice  

PubMed Central

Cocaine-Amphetamine Regulated Transcript (CART) peptides are implicated in a wide range of behaviors including in the reinforcing properties of psychostimulants, feeding and energy balance and stress and anxiety responses. We conducted a complex trait analysis to examine natural variation in the regulation of CART transcript abundance (CARTta) in the hypothalamus. CART transcript abundance was measured in total hypothalamic RNA from 26 BxD recombinant inbred (RI) mouse strains and in the C57BL/6 (B6) and DBA/2J (D2) progenitor strains. The strain distribution pattern for CARTta was continuous across the RI panel, which is consistent with this being a quantitative trait. Marker regression and interval mapping revealed significant quantitative trait loci (QTL) on mouse chromosome 4 (around 58.2cM) and chromosome 11 (between 20–36cM) that influence CARTta and account for 31% of the between strain variance in this phenotype. There are numerous candidate genes and QTL in these chromosomal regions that may indicate shared genetic regulation between CART expression and other neurobiological processes referable to known actions of this neuropeptide.

Hawks, Brian W.; Li, Wei; Garlow, Steven J.

2009-01-01

296

Characterization of Glutathione S-Transferase Isoforms in Three Maize Inbred Lines Exhibiting Differential Sensitivity to Alachlor.  

PubMed Central

Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are a family of isozymes that catalyze the conjugation of glutathione to several xenobiotics, including a number of important herbicides. Several GST isoforms have been identified in maize (Zea mays L.). In this study we focused on three isoforms, GST I, II, and IV, derived from homo-or heterodimerization of two subunits GST-29 and GST-27, which have been shown to be responsible for reactivity to alachlor. The expression of these isoforms was examined in three inbred lines of maize that showed tolerance, susceptibility, and intermediate resistance to alachlor (2-Cl-N-[2,6-diethylphenyl]-N-[methoxymethyl]acetamide) treatment. The different isoforms were separated by anion-exchange chromatography and subunits were quantified by western blot analysis. GST assays were performed against both 1-Cl-2,4-dinitrobenzene and alachlor. This analysis showed that the susceptible and intermediate lines exhibit impaired function in the GST-27 and GST-29 subunits, respectively. In addition, this study suggests that GST IV is the principal, detoxifying enzyme for alachlor, although GST I and II are required to achieve tolerance to high rates of the herbicide.

Rossini, L.; Jepson, I.; Greenland, A. J.; Gorla, M. S.

1996-01-01

297

Behavioral effects of oral subacute exposure to BDE-209 in young adult mice: a preliminary study.  

PubMed

In this study, we examined the effects of an oral subacute exposure to 2,2',3,3',4,4',5,5',6,6'-decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) on young adult inbred wild type Tg2576 mice. BDE-209 was administered by gavage at doses of 0 and 20 mg/kg/day dissolved in sunflower oil for 15 days. Two behavioral endpoints were examined: anxiety-activity in a light/dark test and a zero maze test, and learning and spatial memory in a water maze test. Young adult mice exposed to BDE-209 showed a reduction in anxiety levels and a delayed learning in a spatial memory task. Although the results indicated that behavioral effects were present in a young adult exposed population of wild type Tg2576 mice, further studies on chronic exposure to BDE-209 are clearly necessary in order to corroborate these effects. PMID:22178224

Heredia, Luis; Torrente, Margarita; Colomina, María T; Domingo, José L

2011-12-09

298

Adult Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume comprehensively reviews the research on the psychology of the middle aged (ages 40-65). Topics include the concept of maturity and maturation models, the measurement and influences of adult self image; marriage and sexual patterns; intergenerational relationships between and children; vocations and avocations (work, retirement, play,…

Bischof, Ledford J.

299

Learning, memory and search strategies of inbred mouse strains with different visual abilities in the Barnes maze.  

PubMed

Visuo-spatial learning and memory were assessed in male and female mice of 13 inbred strains on a small diameter mouse version of the Barnes maze surrounded by a wall and intra-maze visual cues. Mice completed acquisition and reversal training to assess learning, followed by a probe test to assess memory for the spatial location of the escape hole. The C57BL/6J and CAST/EiJ strains showed better learning performance than the other strains. A/J and 129/SvImJ strains showed poor learning performance, which may be due to their low rates of exploration. No differences in memory were found between strains in the probe test. Males showed better learning performance than females in the DBA/2J and C3H/HeJ strains, but there were no sex differences in the other strains. However, mice may not have used visuo-spatial cues to locate the escape hole in this maze, as (1) all strains primarily used the non-spatial serial/thigmotaxic search strategy, (2) no strains showed a reversal effect when the escape hole location was moved, and (3) learning and memory performance were not correlated with measures of visual ability. Multivariate and univariate analyses of variance indicated that mice with good visual ability performed better than mice with poor visual ability, but the effect sizes were small. The small diameter of the maze and the presence of a wall around the edge of the maze may promote thigmotaxis in mice, increasing the use of a non-visual search strategy, thereby reducing the influence of vision on performance and decreasing the sensitivity of this maze design to detect strain differences in visuo-spatial learning and memory. These results indicate that the design of the Barnes maze has a significant effect on learning and memory processes. PMID:20801160

O'Leary, Timothy P; Savoie, Vicki; Brown, Richard E

2010-08-27

300

Strain Differences in Behavioral Inhibition in a Go/No-go Task Demonstrated Using 15 Inbred Mouse Strains  

PubMed Central

Background High levels of impulsivity have been associated with a number of substance abuse disorders including alcohol abuse. Research has not yet revealed whether these high levels predate the development of alcohol abuse. Methods The current study examined impulsivity in 15 inbred strains of mice (A/HeJ, AKR/J, BALB/cJ, C3H/HeJ, C57BL/6J, C57L/J, C58/J, CBA/J, DBA/1J, DBA/2J, NZB/B1NJ, PL/J, SJL/J, SWR/J, and 129P3/J) using a Go/No-go task, which was designed to measure a subject’s ability to inhibit a behavior. Numerous aspects of response to ethanol and other drugs of abuse have been examined in these strains. Results There were significant strain differences in the number of responses made during the No-go signal (false alarms) and the extent to which strains responded differentially during the Go and No-go signals (d?). The rate of responding prior to the cue did not differ among strains, although there was a statistically significant correlation between false alarms and precue responding that was not related to basal activity level. Interstrain correlations suggested that false alarms and rate of responding were associated with strain differences in ethanol-related traits from the published literature. Conclusions The results of this study do support a link between innate level of impulsivity and response to ethanol and are consistent with a genetic basis for some measures of behavioral inhibition.

Gubner, Noah R.; Wilhelm, Clare J.; Phillips, Tamara J.; Mitchell, Suzanne H.

2012-01-01

301

The alteration of immune reactions in inbred BALB/c mice following low-level sarin inhalation exposure.  

PubMed

To study the influence of low-level sarin inhalation exposure on immune functions, inbred BALB/c mice were exposed to low concentrations of sarin for 60 min in the inhalation chamber. The evaluation of immune functions was carried out using phenotyping of CD3 (T lymphocytes), CD4 (helper T lymphocytes), CD8 (cytotoxic T lymphocytes), and CD19 cells (B lymphocytes) in the lungs, blood, and spleen, lymphoproliferation of spleen cells stimulated in vitro by various mitogens (concanavalin A, lipopolysaccharides), phagocyte activity of peritoneal and alveolar macrophages, production of N-oxides by peritoneal macrophages, and the measurement of the natural killer cell activity at 1 wk following sarin exposure. The results were compared to the values obtained from control mice exposed to pure air instead of sarin. The results indicate that low doses of sarin are able to alter the reaction of immune system at one week following exposure to sarin. While the numbers of CD3 cells in the lungs, blood, and spleen were slightly decreased, an increase in CD19 cells was observed, especially in the lungs and blood. The reduced proportion of T lymphocytes is caused by decay of CD4-positive T cells. Lymphoproliferation was significantly decreased regardless of the mitogen and sarin concentration used. The production of N-oxides by peritoneal macrophages was stimulated after exposure to the highest dose of sarin, whereas their ability to phagocytize the microbes was increased after exposure to the lowest dose of sarin. The natural killer cell activity was significantly higher in the case of inhalation exposure of mice to the highest level of sarin. Thus, not only organophosphorus insecticides but also nerve agents such as sarin are able to alter immune functions even at a dose that does not cause clinically manifested disruption of cholinergic nervous system in the case of inhalation exposure. Nevertheless, the alteration of immune functions following the inhalation exposure to a symptomatic concentration of sarin seems to be more pronounced. PMID:15204742

Kassa, Jirí; Krocová, Zuzana; Sevelová, Lucie; Sheshko, Valerie; Kasalová, Irena; Neubauerová, Vera

2004-07-01

302

Identification of a novel gene, H34, in wheat using recombinant inbred lines and single nucleotide polymorphism markers.  

PubMed

Hessian fly (HF), Mayetiola destructor, is an important pest of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) worldwide. Because it has multiple biotypes that are virulent to different wheat HF resistance genes, pyramiding multiple resistance genes in a cultivar can improve resistance durability, and finding DNA markers tightly linked to these genes is essential to this process. This study identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for Hessian fly resistance (HFR) in the wheat cultivar 'Clark' and tightly linked DNA markers for the QTLs. A linkage map was constructed with single nucleotide polymorphism and simple sequence repeat markers using a population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from the cross 'Ning7840' × 'Clark' by single-seed descent. Two QTLs associated with resistance to fly biotype GP were identified on chromosomes 6B and 1A, with the resistance alleles contributed from 'Clark'. The QTL on 6B flanked by loci Xsnp921 and Xsnp2745 explained about 37.2 % of the phenotypic variation, and the QTL on 1A was flanked by Xgwm33 and Xsnp5150 and accounted for 13.3 % of phenotypic variation for HFR. The QTL on 6B has not been reported before and represents a novel wheat gene with resistance to HF, thus, it is designated H34. A significant positive epistasis was detected between the two QTLs that accounted for about 9.5 % of the mean phenotypic variation and increased HFR by 0.16. Our results indicated that different QTLs may contribute different degrees of resistance in a cultivar and that epistasis may play an important role in HFR. PMID:23689741

Li, Chunlian; Chen, Mingshun; Chao, Shiaoman; Yu, Jianming; Bai, Guihua

2013-05-21

303

Multi-environment QTL analyses for drought-related traits in a recombinant inbred population of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).  

PubMed

A recombinant inbred line (RIL) population, comprising 181 lines derived from ILC588 × ILC3279, was evaluated in 10 environments across three locations with different moisture gradients. A drought resistance score (DRS) and three phenology traits-plant height (PLHT), days to flowering (DFLR), and days to maturity (MAT)-were recorded along with seven yield-related traits-grain yield (GY), biological yield (BY), harvest index (HI), the number of pods/3 plants (Pod), percentage of empty pods (%Epod), 100 seed weight (100 sw), and seed number/3 plants (SN). Two RILs (152, 162) showed the best GYs and DRSs under stressed and non-stressed environments. The quantitative trait loci (QTLs) analyses detected 93 significant QTLs (LOD ? 2.0) across the genome × environment interactions. The highest phenotypic variation (>24 %) was explained by the QTLDFLR in Terbol-11. Four common possible pleiotropic QTLs on LG3 and LG4 were identified as associated with DFLR, DRS, GY, MAT, HI, SN, and Pod. No significant epistatic interactions were found between these QTLs and the other markers. However, the QTL for DRS was detected as a conserved QTL in three late planting environments. The markers H6C-07 (on LG3) and H5G01 (on LG4) were associated with QTLs for many traits in all environments studied except two. The allele 'A' of marker H6C07 (from the tolerant parent ILC588) explained 80 % of the yield increase under late planting and 29.8 % of that under dry environments. Concentrating on LG3 and LG4 in molecular breeding programs for drought could speed up improvement for these traits. PMID:23283512

Hamwieh, A; Imtiaz, M; Malhotra, R S

2013-01-03

304

Aging in inbred strains of mice: study design and interim report on median lifespans and circulating IGF1 levels.  

PubMed

To better characterize aging in mice, the Jackson Aging Center carried out a lifespan study of 31 genetically-diverse inbred mouse strains housed in a specific pathogen-free facility. Clinical assessments were carried out every 6 months, measuring multiple age-related phenotypes including neuromuscular, kidney and heart function, body composition, bone density, hematology, hormonal levels, and immune system parameters. In a concurrent cross-sectional study of the same 31 strains at 6, 12, and 20 months, more invasive measurements were carried out followed by necropsy to assess apoptosis, DNA repair, chromosome fragility, and histopathology. In this report, which is the initial paper of a series, the study design, median lifespans, and circulating insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) levels at 6, 12, and 18 months are described for the first cohort of 32 females and 32 males of each strain. Survival curves varied dramatically among strains with the median lifespans ranging from 251 to 964 days. Plasma IGF1 levels, which also varied considerably at each time point, showed an inverse correlation with a median lifespan at 6 months (R = -0.33, P = 0.01). This correlation became stronger if the short-lived strains with a median lifespan < 600 days were removed from the analysis (R = -0.53, P < 0.01). These results support the hypothesis that the IGF1 pathway plays a key role in regulating longevity in mice and indicates that common genetic mechanisms may exist for regulating IGF1 levels and lifespan. PMID:19627267

Yuan, Rong; Tsaih, Shirng-Wern; Petkova, Stefka B; Marin de Evsikova, Caralina; Xing, Shuqin; Marion, Michael A; Bogue, Molly A; Mills, Kevin D; Peters, Luanne L; Bult, Carol J; Rosen, Clifford J; Sundberg, John P; Harrison, David E; Churchill, Gary A; Paigen, Beverly

2009-04-09

305

Absence of Replication-Competent Human-Tropic Porcine Endogenous Retroviruses in the Germ Line DNA of Inbred Miniature Swine  

PubMed Central

The potential transmission of porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs) has raised concern in the development of porcine xenotransplantation products. Our previous studies have resulted in the identification of animals within a research herd of inbred miniature swine that lack the capacity to transmit PERV to human cells in vitro. In contrast, other animals were capable of PERV transmission. The PERVs that were transmitted to human cells are recombinants between PERV-A and PERV-C in the post-VRA region of the envelope (B. A. Oldmixon, J. C. Wood, T. A. Ericsson, C. A. Wilson, M. E. White-Scharf, G. Andersson, J. L. Greenstein, H. J. Schuurman, and C. Patience, J. Virol. 76:3045-3048, 2002); these viruses we term PERV-A/C. This observation prompted us to determine whether these human-tropic replication-competent (HTRC) PERV-A/C recombinants were present in the genomic DNA of these miniature swine. Genomic DNA libraries were generated from one miniature swine that transmitted HTRC PERV as well as from one miniature swine that did not transmit HTRC PERV. HTRC PERV-A/C proviruses were not identified in the germ line DNAs of these pigs by using genomic mapping. Similarly, although PERV-A loci were identified in both libraries that possessed long env open reading frames, the Env proteins encoded by these loci were nonfunctional according to pseudotype assays. In the absence of a germ line source for HTRC PERV, further studies are warranted to assess the mechanisms by which HTRC PERV can be generated. Once identified, it may prove possible to generate animals with further reduced potential to produce HTRC PERV.

Scobie, Linda; Taylor, Samantha; Wood, James C.; Suling, Kristen M.; Quinn, Gary; Meikle, Sharon; Patience, Clive; Schuurman, Henk-Jan; Onions, David E.

2004-01-01

306

Shared and unique susceptibility genes in a mouse model of Graves' disease determined in BXH and CXB recombinant inbred mice.  

PubMed

Susceptibility genes for TSH receptor (TSHR) antibodies and hyperthyroidism can be probed in recombinant inbred (RI) mice immunized with adenovirus expressing the TSHR A-subunit. The RI set of CXB strains, derived from susceptible BALB/c and resistant C57BL/6 (B6) mice, were studied previously. High-resolution genetic maps are also available for RI BXH strains, derived from B6 and C3H/He parents. We found that C3H/He mice develop TSHR antibodies, and some animals become hyperthyroid after A-subunit immunization. In contrast, the responses of the F1 progeny of C3H/He x B6 mice, as well as most BXH RI strains, are dominated by the B6 resistance to hyperthyroidism. As in the CXB set, linkage analysis of BXH strains implicates different chromosomes (Chr) or loci in the susceptibility to induced TSHR antibodies vs. hyperthyroidism. Importantly, BXH and CXB mice share genetic loci controlling the generation of TSHR antibodies (Chr 17, major histocompatibility complex region, and Chr X) and development of hyperthyroidism (Chr 1 and 3). Moreover, some chromosomal linkages are unique to either BXH or CXB strains. An interesting candidate gene linked to thyroid-stimulating antibody generation in BXH mice is the Ig heavy chain locus, suggesting a role for particular germline region genes as precursors for these antibodies. In conclusion, our findings reinforce the importance of major histocompatibility complex region genes in controlling the generation of TSHR antibodies measured by TSH binding inhibition. Moreover, these data emphasize the value of RI strains to dissect the genetic basis for induced TSHR antibodies vs. their effects on thyroid function in Graves' disease. PMID:18162518

McLachlan, Sandra M; Aliesky, Holly A; Pichurin, Pavel N; Chen, Chun-Rong; Williams, Robert W; Rapoport, Basil

2007-12-27

307

Shared and Unique Susceptibility Genes in a Mouse Model of Graves' Disease Determined in BXH and CXB Recombinant Inbred Mice  

PubMed Central

Susceptibility genes for TSH receptor (TSHR) antibodies and hyperthyroidism can be probed in recombinant inbred (RI) mice immunized with adenovirus expressing the TSHR A-subunit. The RI set of CXB strains, derived from susceptible BALB/c and resistant C57BL/6 (B6) mice, were studied previously. High-resolution genetic maps are also available for RI BXH strains, derived from B6 and C3H/He parents. We found that C3H/He mice develop TSHR antibodies, and some animals become hyperthyroid after A-subunit immunization. In contrast, the responses of the F1 progeny of C3H/He × B6 mice, as well as most BXH RI strains, are dominated by the B6 resistance to hyperthyroidism. As in the CXB set, linkage analysis of BXH strains implicates different chromosomes (Chr) or loci in the susceptibility to induced TSHR antibodies vs. hyperthyroidism. Importantly, BXH and CXB mice share genetic loci controlling the generation of TSHR antibodies (Chr 17, major histocompatibility complex region, and Chr X) and development of hyperthyroidism (Chr 1 and 3). Moreover, some chromosomal linkages are unique to either BXH or CXB strains. An interesting candidate gene linked to thyroid-stimulating antibody generation in BXH mice is the Ig heavy chain locus, suggesting a role for particular germline region genes as precursors for these antibodies. In conclusion, our findings reinforce the importance of major histocompatibility complex region genes in controlling the generation of TSHR antibodies measured by TSH binding inhibition. Moreover, these data emphasize the value of RI strains to dissect the genetic basis for induced TSHR antibodies vs. their effects on thyroid function in Graves’ disease.

McLachlan, Sandra M.; Aliesky, Holly A.; Pichurin, Pavel N.; Chen, Chun-Rong; Williams, Robert W.; Rapoport, Basil

2008-01-01

308

Inbreeding depression increases susceptibility to bovine tuberculosis in lions: an experimental test using an inbred-outbred contrast through translocation.  

PubMed

Disease can dramatically influence the dynamics of endangered wildlife populations, especially when they are small and isolated, with increased risk of inbreeding. In Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park (HiP), a small, enclosed reserve in South Africa, a large lion (Panthera leo) population arose from a small founder group in the 1960s and started showing conspicuous signs of inbreeding. To restore the health status of the HiP lion population, outbred lions were translocated into the existing population. In this study, we determined the susceptibility to bovine tuberculosis (bTB), and the prevalence of antibody to feline viruses of native lions, and compared the findings with those from translocated outbred lions and their offspring. Antibodies to feline herpesvirus, feline calicivirus, feline parvovirus, and feline coronavirus were present in the lion population, but there was no significant difference in antibody prevalence between native and translocated lions and their offspring, and these feline viruses did not appear to have an effect on the clinical health of HiP lions. However, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), which was previously absent from HiP, appears to have been introduced into the lion population through translocation. Within 7 yr, the prevalence of antibody to FIV increased up to 42%. Bovine tuberculosis posed a major threat to the inbred native lion population, but not to translocated lions and their offspring. More than 30% of the native lion population died from bTB or malnutrition compared with <2% of the translocated lions and their offspring. We have demonstrated that management of population genetics through supplementation can successfully combat a disease that threatens population persistence. However, great care must be taken not to introduce new diseases into populations through translocation. PMID:21719814

Trinkel, Martina; Cooper, Dave; Packer, Craig; Slotow, Rob

2011-07-01

309

Teachers' Tools: Adult Program  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... Teachers' Tools: Adult Program. Medicines in My Home. -. ... Program Description and Objectives: Adult Program; Teachers' Kit - Adult Program. -. -. -. ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/resourcesforyou/consumers

310

[Adult twins].  

PubMed

This paper explores the deep roots of closeness that twins share in their youngest age and their effect on their destiny at the adult age. Psychologists believe the bond between twins begins in utero and develops throughout the twins' lives. The four patterns of twinship described show that the twin bond is determined by the quality of parenting that twins receive in their infancy and early childhood. Common problems of adult twins bring about difficulties to adapt in a non-twin world. The nature versus nurture controversy has taken on new life focusing on inter-twin differences and the importance of parent-child interaction as fundamental to the growth and development of personality. PMID:17352324

Charlemaine, Christiane

2006-12-31

311

Transplantation of inbred adipose-derived stromal cells in rats with plasma gel containing fragmin/protamine microparticles and FGF-2.  

PubMed

Fragmin/protamine microparticles (F/P MPs) have been used as a cell carrier for adipose-derived stromal cells (IR-ASCs) in inbred male Fisher 344 rats, and for preservation and controlled-release of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 and various cytokines in inbred rat plasma (IRP)-DMEM (Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium) gel. In this study, we investigated the capability of an IRP-DMEM gel containing F/P MPs and/or FGF-2, as a three-dimensional (3D)-culture, to expand IR-ASCs. We found that IR-ASCs grow faster under 3D-culture conditions in low IRP (3%)-DMEM gel containing F/P MPs and FGF-2 without any animal serum than those under 2D-culture in low inbred rat serum (3%)-DMEM with F/P MPs and FGF-2. About 0.3 mL of IR-ASCs (about 4,000,000 cells mL?¹) grown in IRP (6%)-DMEM gel containing F/P MPs and FGF-2 disappeared 8 days after subcutaneous injection in rats, suggesting that they are rapidly biodegradable. The number of large (diameter ?200 ?m or containing ?100 erythrocytes), medium (diameter = 20-200 ?m or containing 10-100 erythrocytes) and small (diameter ?20 ?m or containing 1-10 erythrocytes) capillaries after injection with IR-ASCs in an IRP-DMEM gel containing both F/P MPs and FGF-2, as well as the thickness of tissue granulation per microphotograph at the injected site, was significantly higher than those after injection with IR-ASCs in an IRP-DMEM gel containing either FGF-2 or F/P MPs. Thus, IRP-DMEM gel containing F/P MPs and FGF-2 are useful and safe IR-ASC carriers that facilitate cell proliferation, vascularization, and tissue granulation locally at injection sites. PMID:23359413

Sumi, Yuki; Ishihara, Masayuki; Kishimoto, Satoko; Takikawa, Megumi; Doumoto, Takashi; Azuma, Ryuichi; Nakamura, Shingo; Hattori, Hidemi; Fujita, Masanori; Kiyosawa, Tomoharu

2013-01-29

312

Evolutionary conservation of the mouse apolipoprotein e-c1-c2 gene cluster: Structure and genetic variability in inbred mice  

SciTech Connect

The human apolipoprotein E (APOE), APOC1, pseudo APOC1 (APOC1[prime]), and APOC2 genes are clustered within 48 kb on the long arm of chromosome 19. A mouse Apoe cDNA probe was used to isolate overlapping cosmid clones from a cosmid library of the C57BL/Rij inbred mouse strain. These clones were investigated for the presence of the Apocl and Apoc2 genes by heterologous hybridization. Our results show that the Apoe-cl-c2 gene cluster is conserved in the mouse. In line with evolutionary data, the mouse lacks the equivalent of APOC1[prime]. These data were confirmed using a mouse Apoc2 cDNA clone, and surprisingly the CDNA clone isolated here was 965 bp in size, which is on average 450 bp longer than other APOC2 cDNAs described so far. Correspondingly, the Apoc2 gene occupies an unusually large genomic region, due to an extended 5[prime] end. Interestingly, a variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) in the third intron of the human APOC2 gene shows a high sequence homology and is located at the identical position in the mouse gene. Despite the high copy number of this VNTR (27 or 34 copies) only two variants were found among 11 different inbred strains. With the aid of six restriction fragment length variations in this gene cluster only two different haplotypes could be deduced, indicating that the Apoe-cl-c2 gene cluster is highly conserved in the inbred strains that were studied. 32 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Hoffer, M.J.V.; Hofker, M.H.; Eck, M.M. van; Frants, R.R. (Leiden Univ. (Netherlands)); Havekes, L.M. (IVVO-TNO, Leiden (Netherlands))

1993-01-01

313

Characterization of variation and quantitative trait loci related to terpenoid indole alkaloid yield in a recombinant inbred line mapping population of Catharanthus roseus.  

PubMed

Improved Catharanthus roseus cultivars are required for high yields of vinblastine, vindoline and catharanthine and/or serpentine and ajmalicine, the pharmaceutical terpenoid indole alkaloids. An approach to derive them is to map QTL for terpenoid indole alkaloids yields, identify DNA markers tightly linked to the QTL and apply marker assisted selection. Towards the end, 197 recombinant inbred lines from a cross were grown over two seasons to characterize variability for seven biomass and 23 terpenoid indole alkaloids content-traits and yield-traits. The recombinant inbred lines were genotyped for 178 DNA markers which formed a framework genetic map of eight linkage groups (LG), spanning 1786.5 cM, with 10.0 cM average intermarker distance. Estimates of correlations between traits allowed selection of seven relatively more important traits for terpenoid indole alkaloids yields. QTL analysis was performed on them using single marker (regression) analysis, simple interval mapping and composite interval mapping procedures. A total of 20 QTL were detected on five of eight LG, 10 for five traits on LG1, five for four traits on LG2, three for one trait on LG3 and one each for different traits on LG three and four. QTL for the same or different traits were found clustered on three LG. Co-location of two QTL for biomass traits was in accord of correlation between them. The QTL were validated for use in marker assisted selection by the recombinant inbred line which transgressively expressed 16 traits contributory to the yield vinblastine, vindoline and catharanthine from leaves and roots that possessed favourable alleles of 13 relevant QTL. PMID:22546825

Sharma, Vishakha; Chaudhary, Swati; Srivastava, Suchi; Pandey, Richa; Kumar, Sushil

2012-01-01

314

Adult Day Care  

MedlinePLUS

... Text Printer Friendly Download Reader Online Chat Adult Day Care What is Adult Day Care? How Do ... Learn More About Local Services? What is Adult Day Care? Adult Day Care Centers are designed to ...

315

Radial maze learning in two inbred mouse strains and their reciprocal congenics for the non-pseudoautosomal region of the Y chromosome.  

PubMed

The effect of the non-pseudoautosomal region of the Y chromosome on spatial learning in a radial maze task was examined in two inbred mouse strains, NZB and CBA/H, and their respective congenics for the Y(NPAR). Seven variables reflecting learning performance, learning strategy and lateralisation were measured. We found no substantial effect of the Y(NPAR) on radial maze learning, but modest influences on behavioral strategies. These findings are in agreement with previous results regarding the sizes of the intra- and infrapyramidal mossy fiber (IIPMF) terminal fields. PMID:10448197

Sluyter, F; Marican, C C; Roubertoux, P L; Crusio, W E

1999-07-17

316

Genetic analysis and mapping of biochemical markers in an F2 intercross of two inbred strains of the rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus).  

PubMed

A total of 40 biochemical and four immunological markers found to be polymorphic in the rabbit in previous studies were screened in the AX/JU and IIIVO/JU inbred strains. Although the strains are considered unrelated, only eight (biochemical) markers werefound to be polymorphic between the two strains. These eight markers were analyzed in an F2 intercross population. Linkage was found for Est-5 and C on chromosome 1 and for Es-1, Est-2, Est-4, Est-6 and HP on linkage group VI. Two polymorphic markers, Es-3 and Mhr-1 could not be linked to any of the other markers. PMID:11530854

Korstanje, R; den Bieman, M; Campos, R; Esteves, P J; Lankhorst, A E; van der Loo, W; van Zutphen, L F; van Lith, H A; Ferrand, N

2001-06-01

317

Note: Implementation of a cold spot setup for controlled variation of vapor pressures and its application to an InBr containing discharge lamp  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to allow for a systematic investigation of the plasma properties of discharges containing indium halides, which are proposed as an efficient alternative for mercury based low pressure discharge lamps, a controlled variation of the indium halide density is mandatory. This can be achieved by applying a newly designed setup in which a well-defined cold spot location is implemented and the cold spot temperature can be adjusted between 50 and 350 °C without influencing the gas temperature. The performance of the setup has been proved by comparing the calculated evaporated InBr density (using the vapor pressure curve) with the one measured via white light absorption spectroscopy.

Briefi, S.

2013-02-01

318

Caries Susceptibility in Inbred Mouse Strains and Inheritance Patterns in F1 and Backcross (N2) Progeny from Strains with High and Low Caries Susceptibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied dental caries susceptibility in various inbred mice strains infected with Streptococcus mutans and the inheritance pattern in the F1 and the N2 backcross animals. A high caries score was observed in four laboratory strains, BALB\\/cAJcl, C57BL\\/6NJcl, C57BL\\/10Slc and DBA\\/2NJcl. Three strains, C3H\\/HeNJcl, AKR\\/JSlc and CBA\\/JNCrj, showed less caries. Males of strain C57BL\\/10Slc (mean caries score = 112.2) and

Y. Kurihara; T. Naito; K. Obayashi; M. Hirasawa; K. Moriwaki

1991-01-01

319

Anxiety-related behavior and densities of glutamate, GABA A, acetylcholine and serotonin receptors in the amygdala of seven inbred mouse strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amygdala is a brain region involved in the regulation of anxiety-related behavior. The purpose of this study was to correlate anxiety-related behavior of inbred mouse strains (BA\\/\\/c, BALB\\/cJ, C3H\\/HeJ, C57BL\\/6J, CPB-K, DBA\\/2J, NMRI) to receptor binding in the amygdala. Binding site densities of receptors (NMDA, AMPA, kainate, GABAA, serotonin, muscarinergic M1–M2) were measured with quantitative receptor autoradiography using tritiated

Deniz M Yilmazer-Hanke; Thomas Roskoden; Karl Zilles; Herbert Schwegler

2003-01-01

320

Exploring the genetic characteristics of two recombinant inbred line populations via high-density SNP markers in maize.  

PubMed

Understanding genetic characteristics can reveal the genetic diversity in maize and be used to explore evolutionary mechanisms and gene cloning. A high-density linkage map was constructed to determine recombination rates (RRs), segregation distortion regions (SDRs), and recombinant blocks (RBs) in two recombinant inbred line populations (RILs) (B73/By804 and Zong3/87-1) generated by the single seed descent method. Population B73/By804 containing 174 lines were genotyped with 198 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) markers while population Zong3/87-1 comprised of 175 lines, were genotyped with 210 SSR markers along with 1536 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for each population, spanning 1526.7 cM and 1996.2 cM in the B73/By804 and Zong3/87-1 populations, respectively. The total variance of the RR in the whole genome was nearly 100 fold, and the maximum average was 10.43-11.50 cM/Mb while the minimum was 0.08-0.10 cM/Mb in the two populations. The average number of RB was 44 and 37 in the Zong3/87-1 and B73/By804 populations, respectively, whereas 28 SDRs were observed in both populations. We investigated 11 traits in Zong3/87-1 and 10 traits in B73/By804. Quantitative trait locus (QTLs) mapping of SNP+SSR with SNP and SSR marker sets were compared to showed the impact of different density markers on QTL mapping and resolution. The confidence interval of QTL Pa19 (FatB gene controlling palmitic acid content) was reduced from 3.5 Mb to 1.72 Mb, and the QTL Oil6 (DGAT1-2 gene controlling oil concentration) was significantly reduced from 10.8 Mb to 1.62 Mb. Thus, the use of high-density markers considerably improved QTL mapping resolution. The genetic information resulting from this study will support forthcoming efforts to understand recombination events, SDRs, and variations among different germplasm. Furthermore, this study will facilitate gene cloning and understanding of the fundamental sources of total variation and RR in maize, which is the most widely cultivated cereal crop. PMID:23300772

Pan, Qingchun; Ali, Farhan; Yang, Xiaohong; Li, Jiansheng; Yan, Jianbing

2012-12-27

321

Comparative studies of purified subviral component vaccines and formalin-treated mammary tumor viruses from four inbred strains of mice.  

PubMed

Formalin-treated virus vaccines were prepared from purified murine mammary tumor viruses (MuMTV) from 4 inbred strains of mice: RIII/Imr, GR/Imr, C3H/Imr, and A/Imr. In addition, subviral components were isolated from these 4 strains and purified to homogeneity. The inactivated viruses, their major envelope glycoproteins (gp50-gp55), and their major internal core protein (p28) were emulsified in complete Freund's adjuvant and used as vaccines for prevention of mammary tumors in mice. All 4 Formalin-treated virus vaccines reduced significantly the incidence of mammary tumors in "virus-free" C57BL and BALB/c mice when inoculated prior to challenge with live MuMTV. The RIII-, GR-, and A-MuMTV strains showed extensive heterologous cross-protection, whereas the C3H-MuMTV strain showed significant protection only against C3H- and A-MuMTV challenge. The major viral glycoproteins gp50-gp55 reduced significantly the tumor incidence when mice were challenged with isologous infectious virus after immunization, although these glycoproteins showed different degrees of cross-protection than did the same virus strains used as "intact" but Formalin-treated preparations. RIII-gp55 and GR-gp55 cross-protected against each other but not against challenge with C3H- and A-MuMTV strains; the A-gp50 protected against challenge with A- and RIII-MuMTV strains; C3H-gp55 demonstrated limited activity against C3H-MuMTV challenge only. The internal viral core proteins (p28) were ineffective in all systems studied. The same vaccines were tested in MuMTV-positive, high-tumor-incidence strains from which they were derived. At best, the appearance of spontaneous tumors was delayed in a few experimental sets; eventually, all mice developed mammary tumors. The foster-nursed C3HfC57BL strain of mice, which is not exposed to exogenous MuMTV during suckling and which develops mammary tumors after activation of the endogenous virus genome later in life, was responsive only when the heterologous GR-MuMTV Formalin-treated vaccine was used. The association between the ability of virus vaccines to protect a mouse strain and the degree of natural virus expression in that strain is discussed. PMID:2983136

Girardi, A J; Dion, A S; Pomenti, A A; Holben, J A

1985-02-01

322

Adjuvant-induced arthritis in four inbred strains of rats. An in vitro study of peripheral T and B lymphocytes.  

PubMed

The lymphoblastic response (LTT) to non-specific mitogens (PHA, PWM and ConA) of peripheral lymphocytes was investigated at days 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 after adjuvant injection in four strains of inbred rats: Wistar (WAG), Long Evans (LE), Lewis (LEW) and Brown Norway (BN). LTT was assessed by using 18 hours H3 TdR incorporation in 5 days cultures of whole blood (micromethod). The statistical treatment of data, using principal components multifactorial analysis and analysis of variance showed a striking difference between strains. In control animals the responses to PHA and PWM were correlated and were higher in LE and WAG than in LEW and BN (BN=LEW less than LE=WAG). The response to ConA was independent of that to the other mitogens. It was generally low, but significantly higher in LEW and BN than in WAG and LE. In adjuvant-injected animals the responses to PHA and PWM were still correlated, but modified compared to control: in LE and LEW, but not in WAG and BN, a marked decrease of the response was found, reaching a minimum value within days 7 and 14. In the same time the response to ConA increased in the four strains, later in LE than in the others. However the intensity of the ConA response varied from one strain to another: it was constantly low in LE and WAG compared to LEW and BN. So the most striking modification of LTT were observed in LE and LEW, which both developed the most severe arthritis. However these different behaviours after adjuvant injection were not explained by the initial level of LTT to the different mitogens. These data suggest that the development of intense arthritis is associated with the proliferation and the release into the blood stream of a lymphocyte subpopulation, which exhibits a low response to PHA and PWM and a high response to ConA. These LTT modifications are not paralleled by quantitative variations of B-cells assessed by surface Ig immunofluorescent staining and EAC rosetting. PMID:1085095

Kahan, A; Perlik, F; Le Go, A; Delbarre, F; Giroud, J P

1976-02-01

323

The influence of single or repeated low-level sarin exposure on immune functions of inbred BALB/c mice.  

PubMed

To study the influence of single or repeated low-level sarin inhalation exposure on immune functions, inbred BALB/c mice were exposed to low clinically asymptomatic concentrations of sarin for 60 min. in the inhalation chamber. The evaluation of immune functions was carried out using phenotyping of CD3 (T-lymphocytes), CD4 (helper T-lymphocytes), CD8 (cytotoxic T-lymphocytes) and CD19 (B-lymphocytes) in the lungs, blood and spleen, lymphoproliferation of spleen cells stimulated in vitro by various mitogens (concanavalin A, lipopolysaccharides), phagocyte activity of peritoneal and alveolar macrophages, production of N-oxides by peritoneal macrophages and the measurement of the natural killer cell activity at one week after sarin exposure. The results were compared to the values obtained from control mice exposed to pure air instead of sarin. The results indicate that an asymptomatic dose of sarin is able to alter the reaction of the immune system at one week after exposure to sarin. While the number of CD3 cells in lung was significantly decreased, a slight increase in CD19 cells was observed especially in the lungs after a single sarin inhalation exposure. Lymphoproliferation was significantly decreased regardless of the mitogen and sarin concentration used and the number of low-level sarin exposures. The ability of peritoneal and alveolar macrophages to phagocyte the microbes was also decreased regardless of the number of low-level sarin exposures. The production of N-oxides by peritoneal macrophages was decreased following a single low-level sarin exposure but increased following repeated low-level sarin inhalation exposure. Nevertheless, the changes in the production of N-oxides that reflects a bactericidal activity of peritoneal macrophages was not significant. The natural killer cell activity was significantly higher in the case of inhalation exposure of mice to low concentration of sarin regardless of the number of exposures. Thus, not only organophosphorous insecticides but also nerve agents such as sarin are able to alter immune functions following a single inhalation exposure even at a dose that does not cause clinically manifested intoxication. Generally, the repeated exposure to low concentrations of sarin does not increase the alteration of immune functions compared to the single low-level sarin exposure with the exception of phagocyte activity of alveolar macrophages and natural killer cell activity. PMID:15053000

Kassa, Jirí; Krocová, Z; Sevelová, L; Sheshko, V; Kasalová, I; Neubauerová, V

2004-03-01

324

Exploring the Genetic Characteristics of Two Recombinant Inbred Line Populations via High-Density SNP Markers in Maize  

PubMed Central

Understanding genetic characteristics can reveal the genetic diversity in maize and be used to explore evolutionary mechanisms and gene cloning. A high-density linkage map was constructed to determine recombination rates (RRs), segregation distortion regions (SDRs), and recombinant blocks (RBs) in two recombinant inbred line populations (RILs) (B73/By804 and Zong3/87-1) generated by the single seed descent method. Population B73/By804 containing 174 lines were genotyped with 198 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) markers while population Zong3/87-1 comprised of 175 lines, were genotyped with 210 SSR markers along with 1536 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for each population, spanning 1526.7 cM and 1996.2 cM in the B73/By804 and Zong3/87-1 populations, respectively. The total variance of the RR in the whole genome was nearly 100 fold, and the maximum average was 10.43–11.50 cM/Mb while the minimum was 0.08–0.10 cM/Mb in the two populations. The average number of RB was 44 and 37 in the Zong3/87-1 and B73/By804 populations, respectively, whereas 28 SDRs were observed in both populations. We investigated 11 traits in Zong3/87-1 and 10 traits in B73/By804. Quantitative trait locus (QTLs) mapping of SNP+SSR with SNP and SSR marker sets were compared to showed the impact of different density markers on QTL mapping and resolution. The confidence interval of QTL Pa19 (FatB gene controlling palmitic acid content) was reduced from 3.5 Mb to 1.72 Mb, and the QTL Oil6 (DGAT1-2 gene controlling oil concentration) was significantly reduced from 10.8 Mb to 1.62 Mb. Thus, the use of high-density markers considerably improved QTL mapping resolution. The genetic information resulting from this study will support forthcoming efforts to understand recombination events, SDRs, and variations among different germplasm. Furthermore, this study will facilitate gene cloning and understanding of the fundamental sources of total variation and RR in maize, which is the most widely cultivated cereal crop.

Pan, Qingchun; Ali, Farhan; Yang, Xiaohong; Li, Jiansheng; Yan, Jianbing

2012-01-01

325

Lichen striatus in Adults or ‘Adult Blaschkitis’?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Lichen striatus (LS) is a well-known acquired linear inflammatory dermatosis. In 1990, Grosshans and Marot introduced the term ‘adult blaschkitis’ (AB), describing an eruption similar to LS occurring in an adult (adult LS). Does there really exist a new entity or a need for a new naming? Objective and Methods: Two new cases of adult LS are described and

Thomas Hofer

2003-01-01

326

Adult Neurogenesis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

BioEd Online is an âÂÂeducational resource for educators, students, and parentsâ from the Baylor College of Medicine. This is an excellent place to find educational materials and current information in the field of biology. The âÂÂHot Topicsâ section of this site focus on current events and issues in biology that are âÂÂreceiving national attention.â This site, created by Tadzia GrandPré, PhD, contains a brief discussion of Adult Neurogenesis or the ability for new neurons to develop in the brain. The article includes background information on the field of neuroscience, as well as information about how neurons work. The site includes links to references and further reading. In addition, a related slide set, "Adult Neurogenesis," is available for viewing along with links to several related news articles. Both the slide set and the news articles could be easily used in the classroom along with the other resources provided in this âÂÂHot Topicâ from BioEd Online.

Grandprãâ©, Tadzia

2007-03-21

327

Differential learning strategies in spatial and nonspatial versions of the Morris water maze in the C57BL/6J inbred mouse strain.  

PubMed

We recently developed a new nonspatial version of the Morris water maze that requires the use of four visually distinct intra-maze patterns to efficiently locate a hidden platform. The nonspatial version was designed to match the spatial version on complexity of cue usage, and differs only on spatiality of cues, thereby allowing more meaningful comparisons between the two versions. Following a previous experiment that demonstrated nonspatial learning with the BXSB inbred mouse strain, C57 inbred mice were tested in this study. They received spatial and nonspatial training in a counter-balanced order so that Test Order and information transfer could be assessed. Subjects that received spatial training first had superior performance in both the spatial and the nonspatial tasks when compared to mice that received nonspatial training first. The mice that received spatial training first used extra-maze cues as a spatial strategy. However, during nonspatial testing they did not use the intra-maze cues to locate the platform; instead, the mice used an egocentric strategy of circling through the platform annulus. Subjects that received spatial testing first were superior on the nonspatial task to those subjects that received nonspatial training first. Moreover, subjects that received nonspatial testing first were unable to learn the spatial version. Overall, C57 mice can learn both the spatial and nonspatial versions of the Morris maze presented here; however, the nonspatial version is more difficult and is solved using an egocentric strategy. PMID:12110459

Stavnezer, Amy Jo; Hyde, Lynn A; Bimonte, Heather A; Armstrong, Cary M; Denenberg, Victor H

2002-07-18

328

Expression analysis of stress-related genes in kernels of different maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines with different resistance to aflatoxin contamination.  

PubMed

This research examined the expression patterns of 94 stress-related genes in seven maize inbred lines with differential expressions of resistance to aflatoxin contamination. The objective was to develop a set of genes/probes associated with resistance to A. flavus and/or aflatoxin contamination. Ninety four genes were selected from previous gene expression studies with abiotic stress to test the differential expression in maize lines, A638, B73, Lo964, Lo1016, Mo17, Mp313E, and Tex6, using real-time RT-PCR. Based on the relative-expression levels, the seven maize inbred lines clustered into two different groups. One group included B73, Lo1016 and Mo17, which had higher levels of aflatoxin contamination and lower levels of overall gene expression. The second group which included Tex6, Mp313E, Lo964 and A638 had lower levels of aflatoxin contamination and higher overall levels of gene expressions. A total of six "cross-talking" genes were identified between the two groups, which are highly expressed in the resistant Group 2 but down-regulated in susceptible Group 1. When further subjected to drought stress, Tex6 expressed more genes up-regulated and B73 has fewer genes up-regulated. The transcript patterns and interactions measured in these experiments indicate that the resistant mechanism is an interconnected process involving many gene products and transcriptional regulators, as well as various host interactions with environmental factors, particularly, drought and high temperature. PMID:22069724

Jiang, Tingbo; Zhou, Boru; Luo, Meng; Abbas, Hamed K; Kemerait, Robert; Lee, Robert Dewey; Scully, Brian T; Guo, Baozhu

2011-06-09

329

Breeding maize as biogas substrate in Central Europe: II. Quantitative-genetic parameters for inbred lines and correlations with testcross performance.  

PubMed

Breeding maize for use as a biogas substrate (biogas maize) has recently gained considerable importance. To optimize hybrid breeding programs, information about line per se performance (LP) of inbreds and its relation to their general combining ability (GCA) is required. The objectives of our research were to (1) estimate variance components and heritability of LP for agronomic and quality traits relevant to biogas production, (2) study correlations among traits as well as between LP and GCA, and (3) discuss implications for breeding of biogas maize. We evaluated 285 diverse dent maize inbred lines in six environments. Data were recorded on agronomic and quality traits, including dry matter yield (DMY), methane fermentation yield (MFY), and their product, methane yield (MY), as the main target trait. In agreement with observations made for GCA in a companion study, variation in MY was mainly determined by DMY. MFY, which showed moderate correlation with lignin but only weak correlation with starch, revealed only low genotypic variation. Thus, our results favor selection of genotypes with high DMY and less focus on ear proportion for biogas maize. Genotypic correlations between LP and GCA [r (g) (LP, GCA)] were highest (?0.94) for maturity traits (days to silking, dry matter concentration) and moderate (?0.65) for DMY and MY. Multistage selection is recommended. Selection for GCA of maturity traits, plant height, and to some extent also quality traits and DMY on the level of LP looks promising. PMID:22159757

Grieder, Christoph; Dhillon, Baldev S; Schipprack, Wolfgang; Melchinger, Albrecht E

2011-12-13

330

Expression Analysis of Stress-Related Genes in Kernels of Different Maize (Zea mays L.) Inbred Lines with Different Resistance to Aflatoxin Contamination  

PubMed Central

This research examined the expression patterns of 94 stress-related genes in seven maize inbred lines with differential expressions of resistance to aflatoxin contamination. The objective was to develop a set of genes/probes associated with resistance to A. flavus and/or aflatoxin contamination. Ninety four genes were selected from previous gene expression studies with abiotic stress to test the differential expression in maize lines, A638, B73, Lo964, Lo1016, Mo17, Mp313E, and Tex6, using real-time RT-PCR. Based on the relative-expression levels, the seven maize inbred lines clustered into two different groups. One group included B73, Lo1016 and Mo17, which had higher levels of aflatoxin contamination and lower levels of overall gene expression. The second group which included Tex6, Mp313E, Lo964 and A638 had lower levels of aflatoxin contamination and higher overall levels of gene expressions. A total of six “cross-talking” genes were identified between the two groups, which are highly expressed in the resistant Group 2 but down-regulated in susceptible Group 1. When further subjected to drought stress, Tex6 expressed more genes up-regulated and B73 has fewer genes up-regulated. The transcript patterns and interactions measured in these experiments indicate that the resistant mechanism is an interconnected process involving many gene products and transcriptional regulators, as well as various host interactions with environmental factors, particularly, drought and high temperature.

Jiang, Tingbo; Zhou, Boru; Luo, Meng; Abbas, Hamed K.; Kemerait, Robert; Lee, Robert Dewey; Scully, Brian T.; Guo, Baozhu

2011-01-01

331

Sealed adult mice: new model for enterotoxin evaluation.  

PubMed Central

Outbred, inbred, and congenic strains of conventional mice which were ano-rectally occluded with cyanoacrylate ester glue and converted to sealed adult mice (SAM) were given, per os, crude cholera enterotoxin (CT) in 10% NaHCO3. At 6 h when the response was maximal, mice were killed, the small intestines were removed, and gut weight/body weight ratios were calculated. Experimental mice gave a linear response after receiving 1.5 to 60 micrograms of CT. Purified heat-stable enterotoxin from Escherichia coli and purified heat-labile enterotoxins from E. coli, Vibrio cholerae, and Clostridium difficile all elicited vigorous fluid outpouring as did culture filtrates from Vibrio fluvialis with cytotoxic activity. Active and passive immunization with crude CT completely or partially neutralized fluid secretion due to CT. Monospecific anti-CT incubated with CT before feeding also eliminated the response. Mice pretreated with penicillin, held in barrier cages, converted to SAM, and fed live vibrios, showed fluid responses similar to those seen with low doses of CT. Each of six different strains of inbred mice fed a half-maximal fluid accumulation response dose of CT gave fluid accumulation ratios which varied fourfold. There was no correlation of fluid accumulation with body weight, gut length, age, or sex. All poor responders were of H-2k haplotype and all good responders were H-2b. BALB congenic mice which differed only in H-2 haplotypes showed the same correlations, and body weights and gut lengths of all haplotypes were not significantly different. Images

Richardson, S H; Giles, J C; Kruger, K S

1984-01-01

332

Adult Day Centers  

MedlinePLUS

... programs and discussion groups. Why use an adult day center One reason to use an adult day ... your needs for future care. Evaluating an adult day center Consider the following when you evaluate an ...

333

Quantitative trait loci for bone density in C57BL\\/6J and CAST\\/EiJ inbred mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Genetic analyses for loci regulating bone mineral density have been conducted in a cohort of F2 mice derived from intercross matings of (C57BL\\/6J × CAST\\/EiJ)F1 parents. Femurs were isolated from 714 4-month-old females when peak adult bone density had been achieved. Bone mineral density\\u000a (BMD) data were obtained by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT), and genotype data were obtained

Wesley G. Beamer; Kathryn L. Shultz; Gary A. Churchill; Wayne N. Frankel; David J. Baylink; Clifford J. Rosen; Leah Rae Donahue

1999-01-01

334

Direct evidence for a stem cell common to hematopoiesis and its in vitro microenvironment: studies on syngeneic (inbred) Wistar Furth rats  

SciTech Connect

When injected into a group of lethally irradiated syngeneic (inbred) Wistar Furth (WF) rats, suspensions of stromal cells grown in monolayer culture from the marrow of WF rats produced hemopoietic colonies in the spleen and rescued 50% of the rats, while 90% of the non-injected (control) rats died within 30 days and had no hemopoietic colonies in the spleens. Fifty percent of the injected (test) rats which died between days 6 and 22 showed hemopoietic regeneration in the bone marrow, while little or no evidence of hemopoietic regeneration was seen in the control animals. Our results suggest that the marrow stroma grown in vitro contain cells with hemopoietic potential and are transplantable.

Islam, A.; Gong, J.K.; Henderson, E.S.

1988-01-01

335

Two reproductively isolated cytotypes and a swarm of highly inbred, disconnected populations: a glimpse into Salicornia's evolutionary history and challenging taxonomy.  

PubMed

The main factor of differentiation at six nuclear microsatellite and seven cpDNA loci in Salicornia from the Mediterranean and Atlantic coasts of France is cytotypic identity, suggesting the presence of a strong reproductive barrier among sympatric cytotypes. Within cytotypes, a substantial proportion of the differentiation between species is due to confounded phylogeographic signal. Conspecific individuals tend to be significantly more related than individuals from different species at the population scale, but mean kinship coefficients among pairs of conspecific and nonconspecific individuals from different populations are not significantly different, suggesting the absence of reproductive isolation among species of the same cytotype. The observed association between morphology and genetic variation within populations would thus result from the selfing mating system (F(is)) = 0.70) generating substantial linkage within the genome, linkage that would quickly disappear among unrelated individuals from different populations. Salicornia species thus function as a network of inbred populations, strongly challenging taxonomic concepts. PMID:21175911

Vanderpoorten, A; Hardy, O J; Lambinon, J; Raspé, O

2010-12-22

336

DNA variation and brain region-specific expression profiles exhibit different relationships between inbred mouse strains: implications for eQTL mapping studies  

PubMed Central

Background Expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) mapping is used to find loci that are responsible for the transcriptional activity of a particular gene. In recent eQTL studies, expression profiles were derived from either homogenized whole brain or collections of large brain regions. However, the brain is a very heterogeneous organ, and expression profiles of different brain regions vary significantly. Because of the importance and potential power of eQTL studies in identifying regulatory networks, we analyzed gene expression patterns in different brain regions from multiple inbred mouse strains and investigated the implications for the design and analysis of eQTL studies. Results Gene expression profiles of five brain regions in six inbred mouse strains were studied. Few genes exhibited a significant strain-specific expression pattern, whereas a large number of genes exhibited brain region-specific patterns. We constructed phylogenetic trees based on the expression relationships between the strains and compared them with a DNA-level relationship tree. The trees based on the expression of strain-specific genes were constant across brain regions and mirrored DNA-level variation. However, the trees based on region-specific genes exhibited a different set of strain relationships, depending on the brain region. An eQTL analysis showed enrichment of cis-acting regulators among strain-specific genes, whereas brain region-specific genes appear to be mainly regulated by trans-acting elements. Conclusion Our results suggest that many regulatory networks are highly brain region specific and indicate the importance of conducting eQTL mapping studies using data from brain regions or tissues that are physiologically and phenotypically relevant to the trait of interest.

Hovatta, Iiris; Zapala, Matthew A; Broide, Ron S; Schadt, Eric E; Libiger, Ondrej; Schork, Nicholas J; Lockhart, David J; Barlow, Carrolee

2007-01-01

337

GVHD after haploidentical transplantation: a novel, MHC-defined rhesus macaque model identifies CD28? CD8+ T cells as a reservoir of breakthrough T-cell proliferation during costimulation blockade and sirolimus-based immunosuppression  

PubMed Central

We have developed a major histocompatibility complex–defined primate model of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and have determined the effect that CD28/CD40-directed costimulation blockade and sirolimus have on this disease. Severe GVHD developed after haploidentical transplantation without prophylaxis, characterized by rapid clinical decline and widespread T-cell infiltration and organ damage. Mechanistic analysis showed activation and possible counter-regulation, with rapid T-cell expansion and accumulation of CD8+ and CD4+ granzyme B+ effector cells and FoxP3pos/CD27high/CD25pos/CD127low CD4+ T cells. CD8+ cells down-regulated CD127 and BCl-2 and up-regulated Ki-67, consistent with a highly activated, proliferative profile. A cytokine storm also occurred, with GVHD-specific secretion of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), IL-18, and CCL4. Costimulation Blockade and Sirolimus (CoBS) resulted in striking protection against GVHD. At the 30-day primary endpoint, CoBS-treated recipients showed 100% survival compared with no survival in untreated recipients. CoBS treatment resulted in survival, increasing from 11.6 to 62 days (P < .01) with blunting of T-cell expansion and activation. Some CoBS-treated animals did eventually develop GVHD, with both clinical and histopathologic evidence of smoldering disease. The reservoir of CoBS-resistant breakthrough immune activation included secretion of interferon-?, IL-2, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and IL-12/IL-23 and proliferation of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte–associated antigen 4 immunoglobulin-resistant CD28? CD8+ T cells, suggesting adjuvant treatments targeting this subpopulation will be needed for full disease control.

Miller, Weston P.; Srinivasan, Swetha; Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Angela; Singh, Karnail; Sen, Sharon; Hamby, Kelly; Deane, Taylor; Stempora, Linda; Beus, Jonathan; Turner, Alexa; Wheeler, Caleb; Anderson, Daniel C.; Sharma, Prachi; Garcia, Anapatricia; Strobert, Elizabeth; Elder, Eric; Crocker, Ian; Crenshaw, Timothy; Penedo, M. Cecilia T.; Ward, Thea; Song, Mingqing; Horan, John; Larsen, Christian P.; Blazar, Bruce R.

2010-01-01

338

Outbred ICR/CD1 mice display more severe neuroinflammation mediated by microglial TLR4/CD14 activation than inbred C57Bl/6 mice.  

PubMed

Neuroinflammation mediated by microglia is a pathological hallmark of many CNS disorders. Cell lines derived from inbred C57Bl/6 and outbred ICR/CD1 mice (BV-2 and N9 respectively), are often used to study microglial inflammatory activities. Although many studies demonstrate different responses of these cell lines to the same stimulus, no comparisons have been done in vivo. Because inbreeding reduces resistance to pathogens and parasites, we hypothesized that microglia from outbred ICR/CD1 mice would have a stronger response to centrally administered LPS than microglia from inbred C57Bl/6 mice. The evaluation of gene expression in freshly isolated CD11b+ cells from brain revealed that microglia from ICR/CD1 mice were more pro-inflammatory than those from C57Bl/6 mice, although these differences did not appear to result from alterations in the expression levels of the LPS receptors TLR4 or CD14. Notably, the timing of inflammatory gene expression did not correlate with CD11b+ cell proliferation/infiltration. The highest expression of TNF?, IL-6 and iNOS occurred 3 h after LPS injection when the number of CD11b+ cells was not changed. Whereas the expression of these pro-inflammatory genes had returned to basal by 48 h when the highest number of CD11b+ cells in the brain was found, the expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was still significantly up-regulated. This is important because the increased presence of CD11b+ cells in the CNS is often used as an indicator of neuroinflammation. While LPS did not affect the expression of the growth factors VEGF or BDNF, we observed that mechanical injury (caused by intraparenchymal injection) induced distinct patterns of microglial activation characterized by increased expression of VEGF and down-regulation of BDNF. It remains to be determined which type of microglia is more beneficial/detrimental to the CNS, but our data suggest that genetic traits determining microglial properties may have profound effect on many CNS pathologies. PMID:21683771

Nikodemova, M; Watters, J J

2011-06-13

339

Outbred ICR/CD1 mice display more severe neuroinflammation mediated by microglial TLR4/CD14 activation than inbred C57Bl/6 mice  

PubMed Central

Neuroinflammation mediated by microglia is a pathological hallmark of many CNS disorders. Cell lines derived from inbred C57Bl/6 and outbred ICR/CD1 mice (BV2 and N9 respectively), are often used to study microglial inflammatory activities. Although many studies demonstrate different responses of these cell lines to the same stimulus, no comparisons have been done in vivo. Because inbreeding reduces resistance to pathogens and parasites, we hypothesized that microglia from outbred ICR/CD1 mice would have a stronger response to centrally administered LPS than microglia from inbred C57Bl/6 mice. The evaluation of gene expression in freshly-isolated CD11b+ cells from brain revealed that microglia from ICR/CD1 mice were more pro-inflammatory than those from C57Bl/6 mice, although these differences did not appear to result from alterations in the expression levels of the LPS receptors TLR4 or CD14. Notably, the timing of inflammatory gene expression did not correlate with CD11b+ cell proliferation/infiltration. The highest expression of TNF?, IL-6 and iNOS occurred 3 hours after LPS injection when the number of CD11b+ cells was not changed. Whereas the expression of these pro-inflammatory genes had returned to basal by 48 hours when the highest number of CD11b+ cells in the brain was found, the expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was still significantly up-regulated. This is important because the increased presence of CD11b+ cells in the CNS is often used as an indicator of neuroinflammation. While LPS did not affect the expression of the growth factors VEGF or BDNF, we observed that mechanical injury (caused by intraparenchymal injection) induced distinct patterns of microglial activation characterized by increased expression of VEGF and down-regulation of BDNF. It remains to be determined which type of microglia is more beneficial/detrimental to the CNS, but our data suggest that genetic traits determining microglial properties may have profound effect on many CNS pathologies.

Nikodemova, Maria; Watters, Jyoti J

2011-01-01

340

Iso-lines and inbred-lines confirmed loci that underlie resistance from cultivar 'Hartwig' to three soybean cyst nematode populations.  

PubMed

Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] cultivars varied in their resistance to different populations of the soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines, called HG Types. The rhg1 locus on linkage group G was necessary for resistance to all HG types. However, the loci for resistance to H. glycines HG Type 1.3- (race 14) and HG Type 1.2.5- (race 2) of the soybean cyst nematode have varied in their reported locations. The aims were to compare the inheritance of resistance to three nematode HG Types in a population segregating for resistance to SCN and to identify the underlying quantitative trait loci (QTL). 'Hartwig', a soybean cultivar resistant to most SCN HG Types, was crossed with the susceptible cultivar 'Flyer'. A total of 92 F5-derived recombinant inbred lines (RILs; or inbred lines) and 144 molecular markers were used for map development. The rhg1 associated QTL found in earlier studies were confirmed and shown to underlie resistance to all three HG Types in RILs (Satt309; HG Type 0, P = 0.0001 R (2) = 22%; Satt275; HG Type 1.3, P = 0.001, R (2) = 14%) and near isogeneic lines (NILs; or iso-lines; Satt309; HG Type 1.2.5-, P = 0.001 R (2) = 24%). A new QTL underlying resistance to HG Type 1.2.5- was detected on LG D2 (Satt574; P = 0.001, R (2) = 11%) among 14 RILs resistant to the other HG types. The locus was confirmed in a small NIL population consisting of 60 plants of ten genotypes (P = 0.04). This QTL (cqSCN-005) is located in an interval previously associated with resistance to both SDS leaf scorch from 'Pyramid' and 'Ripley' (cqSDS-001) and SCN HG Type 1.3- from Hartwig and Pyramid. The QTL detected will allow marker assisted selection for multigenic resistance to complex nematode populations in combination with sudden death syndrome resistance (SDS) and other agronomic traits. PMID:19856174

Kazi, Samreen; Shultz, J; Afzal, J; Hashmi, Rizwan; Jasim, Mohammed; Bond, Jason; Arelli, Prakash R; Lightfoot, David A

2009-10-25

341

Quantitative trait locus mapping of genes associated with vacuolation in the adrenal X-zone of the DDD/Sgn inbred mouse  

PubMed Central

Background Adrenal gland of mice contains a transient zone between the adrenal cortex and the adrenal medulla: the X-zone. There are clear strain differences in terms of X-zone morphology. Nulliparous females of the inbred mouse DDD strain develop adrenal X-zones containing exclusively vacuolated cells, whereas females of the inbred mouse B6 strain develop X-zones containing only non-vacuolated cells. The X-zone vacuolation is a physiologic process associated with the X-zone degeneration and is tightly regulated by genetic factors. Identification of the genetic factors controlling such strain differences should help analyze the X-zone function. In this study, a quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis for the extent of X-zone vacuolation was performed for two types of F2 female mice: F2Ay mice (F2 mice with the Ay allele) and F2 non-Ay mice (F2 mice without the Ay allele). These were produced by crossing B6 females and DDD.Cg-Ay males. DDD.Cg-Ay is a congenic mouse strain for the Ay allele at the agouti locus and is used for this study because a close association between the X-zone morphology and the agouti locus genotype has been suggested. The Ay allele is dominant and homozygous lethal; therefore, living Ay mice are invariably heterozygotes. Results Single QTL scans identified significant QTLs on chromosomes 1, 2, 6, and X for F2 non-Ay mice, and on chromosomes 2, 6, and 12 for F2Ay mice. The QTL on chromosome 2 was considered to be because of the agouti locus, which has been suggested to be associated with X-zone vacuolation. A significant QTL that interacted with the agouti locus was identified on chromosome 8. Conclusions The extent of X-zone vacuolation in DDD females was controlled by multiple genes with complex interactions. The murine X-zone is considered analogous structure to the human fetal zone. Therefore, the results of this study will aid in understanding function of not only of the X-zone but also of the human fetal zone. Identifying the genes responsible for the QTLs will be essential for understanding the molecular basis of X-zone function, which is currently unclear.

2012-01-01

342

Imprinting of R-r, paramutation of B-I and Pl, and epigenetic silencing of MuDR/Mu transposons in Zea mays L. are coordinately affected by inbred background.  

PubMed

The extent of imprinting at R-r, frequency of paramutation at B-Intense and Pl, and epigenetic silencing of Mu transposons were evaluated in the W23 and A188 inbred lines of maize. All types of epigenetic phenomena affecting these loci of the anthocyanin pathway occurred more frequently in the W23 inbred line. Absence of down-regulation was dominant in F1 hybrid progeny. Identical alleles programme lower anthocyanin accumulation in A188 than in W23, and A188 plants develop more rapidly than W23. The possibilities that specific genetic factors, intrinsic gene expression levels and/or the rapidity of the life cycle modulate epigenetic gene controls are discussed. PMID:11486505

Walbot, V

2001-06-01

343

Young Adult Books.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Poses the question of why coming-of-age stories about girls are usually published as juveniles while those about boys originate on adult book lists. Challenges the conventional wisdom on how best to market young adult literature. (FL)|

Epstein, Connie C.

1987-01-01

344

Adult Protective Services  

MedlinePLUS

... programs serve only younger adults ages 18-59. APS Interventions Receiving reports of elder/vulnerable adult abuse, ... supportive services Service monitoring Evaluation Additional Information About APS Please select from the following list for more ...

345

Immobility and Hyperthermia in the Tail Suspension Test: Association with the Porsolt Test and the Reflex Startle Reaction in 11 Inbred Mouse Strains and the Effects of Genetic Knockout of MAO A  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immobility and hyperthermia induced by unavoidable stress imposed by the tail suspension test (TST) and the acoustic startle\\u000a reaction were assessed in mice of 11 inbred strains and in Tg8 mice, which have genetic knockout of MAO A. Sharp genotypic\\u000a differences in immobility were seen, while there was no correlation with the hyperthermic response to the TST. A correlation\\u000a was

N. K. Popova; M. A. Tibeikina

2010-01-01

346

Contribution of amygdala neurons containing peptides and calcium-binding proteins to fear-potentiated startle and exploration-related anxiety in inbred Roman high- and low-avoidance rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate amygdala-related fear and anxiety in two inbred rat lines differing in emotionality (RHA\\/Verh and RLA\\/Verh), and to relate the behaviour of the animals to neuronal types in different nuclei of the amygdala. The behavioural tests used were the motility test, elevated plus-maze and fear-potentiated startle response. The neurons investigated were immunoreactive for

Deniz M. Yilmazer-Hanke; Heidi Faber-Zuschratter; Rudiger Linke; Herbert Schwegler

2002-01-01

347

The H-mshi antigen is conserved among standard BALB\\/cBy, C57BL\\/6J, and wild-derived CAST\\/Ei and SPRET\\/Ei inbred strains of mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recessive male sterility and histoincompatibility mutation (mshi) arose spontaneously in the standard inbred mouse strain BALB\\/cBy. In addition to generating sterility in homozygous males,\\u000a mshi controls the loss of a minor histocompatibility antigen designated H-mshi. To determine whether the H-mshi antigen normally\\u000a expressed by the BALB\\/cBy strain (H-mshic) is the same as or different from the antigen (H-mshix) expressed

Audrey L. Hildebrandt; Angelene M. Cantwell; Michael C. Rule; T. R. King

1999-01-01

348

Quantitative trait loci analysis for plasma HDL-cholesterol concentrations and atherosclerosis susceptibility between inbred mouse strains C57BL\\/6J and 129S1\\/SvImJ  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: The C57BL\\/6 (B6) and 129 mouse inbred strains differ markedly in plasma HDL-cholesterol concentrations and atherosclerosis susceptibility after a high-fat diet consumption. To identify loci controlling these traits, we performed quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis. METHODS AND RESULTS: We fed a high-fat diet to 294 (B6x129S1\\/SvImJ)F2 females for 14 weeks, measured plasma HDL concentrations and size of aortic fatty-streak

Naoki Ishimori; Renhua Li; Peter M. Kelmenson; Ron Korstanje; Kenneth A. Walsh; Semb K Forsman; Beverly Paigen

2004-01-01

349

Adult Education in Greece  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The central aim of this article is to analyse the current situation of adult education in Greece. The article focuses on the following points: (a) the degree of participation in programmes of continuing professional training and general adult education courses, (b) the quality and the outcomes of the adult education provision in Greece, and (c)…

Kokkos, Alexios

2008-01-01

350

Adult Survival Skills Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this instrument is to supplement data from the Adult Basic Learning Examination in assessing the functional level of adults in daily situations. It may also be used as a teaching tool for adults requesting tutoring in specific concepts and skills presented in the instrument. This instrument is an informal assessment instrument and…

Walsko, Gregory M.

351

The Adult Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The 14 chapters of this textbook chronicle adult development from youth through old age, emphasizing both research and interviews with adults at various stages in their lives. Topics covered include the following: (1) the academic field of adult development; (2) theories and research methods; (3) aging and disease prevention; (4) sexuality and…

Belsky, Janet

352

The Adult Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 14 chapters of this textbook chronicle adult development from youth through old age, emphasizing both research and interviews with adults at various stages in their lives. Topics covered include the following: (1) the academic field of adult development; (2) theories and research methods; (3) aging and disease prevention; (4) sexuality and…

Belsky, Janet

353

Adult Learning: A Reader.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book on adult learning is divided into six sections. Section 1, Cognitive Processes, includes the following chapters: "Cognitive Processes: Contemporary Paradigms of Learning" (Jack Mezirow); "Information Processing, Memory, Age and Adult Learning" (Gillian Boulton-Lewis); "Adult Learners' Metacognitive Behaviour in Higher Education" (Barry…

Sutherland, Peter, Ed.

354

Kids Who Outwit Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Kids who distrust adults are highly skilled at hiding their real nature and resisting change. Most adults shun such youths or get mired in conflict with them. Punitive get tough practices as well as traditional flaw-fixing treatment are reactive strategies that often drive these youths further from adult bonds and reinforce oppositional and…

Seita, John R.; Brendtro, Larry K.

355

Mapping resistance quantitative trait Loci for three foliar diseases in a maize recombinant inbred line population-evidence for multiple disease resistance?  

PubMed

Southern leaf blight (SLB), gray leaf spot (GLS), and northern leaf blight (NLB) are all important foliar diseases impacting maize production. The objectives of this study were to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance to these diseases in a maize recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from a cross between maize lines Ki14 and B73, and to evaluate the evidence for the presence genes or loci conferring multiple disease resistance (MDR). Each disease was scored in multiple separate trials. Highly significant correlations between the resistances and the three diseases were found. The highest correlation was identified between SLB and GLS resistance (r = 0.62). Correlations between resistance to each of the diseases and time to flowering were also highly significant. Nine, eight, and six QTL were identified for SLB, GLS, and NLB resistance, respectively. QTL for all three diseases colocalized in bin 1.06, while QTL colocalizing for two of the three diseases were identified in bins 1.08 to 1.09, 2.02/2.03, 3.04/3.05, 8.05, and 10.05. QTL for time to flowering were also identified at four of these six loci (bins 1.06, 3.04/3.05, 8.05, and 10.05). No disease resistance QTL was identified at the largest-effect QTL for flowering time in bin 10.03. PMID:19968551

Zwonitzer, John C; Coles, Nathan D; Krakowsky, Matthew D; Arellano, Consuelo; Holland, James B; McMullen, Michael D; Pratt, Richard C; Balint-Kurti, Peter J

2010-01-01

356

Water maze and radial maze learning and the density of binding sites of glutamate, GABA, and serotonin receptors in the hippocampus of inbred mouse strains.  

PubMed

Correlations between the densities of ionotropic glutamate, GABA(A), and serotonin binding sites in the hippocampus of seven inbred mouse strains and strain-specific learning capacities in two types of maze were studied. Binding site densities were measured with quantitative receptor autoradiography. Learning capacities were determined in a water maze task as well as in spatial and nonspatial versions of an eight-arm radial maze. The densities of most binding sites differed significantly between the strains in the subfields of Ammon's horn (CA1 and CA3) and the dentate gyrus, except for serotonin binding sites in CA1. By comparing the different strains, significant receptor-behavioral correlations between the densities of the GABA(A) receptors and the activity-dependent behavior in the water maze as well as the spatial learning in the radial maze were found. The densities of D,L-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxalone propionate (AMPA) and kainate receptors correlated positively with learning capacity in the spatial eight-arm radial maze. We conclude that hereditary variations mainly in AMPA, kainate, and GABA(A) receptor densities are involved in behavioral variations in spatial and nonspatial learning tasks. PMID:10902891

Zilles, K; Wu, J; Crusio, W E; Schwegler, H

2000-01-01

357

Quantitative trait loci that determine plasma lipids and obesity in C57BL/6J and 129S1/SvImJ inbred mice.  

PubMed

The plasma lipid concentrations and obesity of C57BL/6J (B6) and 129S1/SvImJ (129) inbred mouse strains fed a high-fat diet containing 15% dairy fat, 1% cholesterol, and 0.5% cholic acid differ markedly. To identify the loci controlling these traits, we conducted a quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis of 294 (B6 x 129) F(2) females fed a high-fat diet for 14 weeks. Non-HDL cholesterol concentrations were affected by five significant loci: Nhdlq1 [chromosome 8, peak centimorgan (cM) 38, logarithm of odds [LOD] 4.4); Nhdlq4 (chromosome 10, cM 70, LOD 4.0); Nhdlq5 (chromosome 6, cM 0) interacting with Nhdlq4; Nhdlq6 (chromosome 7, cM 10) interacting with Nhdlq1; and Nhdlq7 (chromosome 15, cM 0) interacting with Nhdlq4. Triglyceride (TG) concentrations were affected by three significant loci: Tgq1 (chromosome 18, cM 42, LOD 3.2) and Tgq2 (chromosome 9, cM 66) interacting with Tgq3 (chromosome 4, cM 58). Obesity measured by percentage of body fat mass and body mass index was affected by two significant loci: Obq16 (chromosome 8, cM 48, LOD 10.0) interacting with Obq18 (chromosome 9, cM 65). Knowing the genes for these QTL will enhance our understanding of obesity and lipid metabolism. PMID:15210844

Ishimori, Naoki; Li, Renhua; Kelmenson, Peter M; Korstanje, Ron; Walsh, Kenneth A; Churchill, Gary A; Forsman-Semb, Kristina; Paigen, Beverly

2004-06-21

358

Lith6: a new QTL for cholesterol gallstones from an intercross of CAST/Ei and DBA/2J inbred mouse strains.  

PubMed

A complex genetic basis determines the individual predisposition to develop cholesterol gallstones in response to environmental factors. We employed quantitative trait locus/loci (QTL) analyses of an intercross between inbred strains CAST/Ei (susceptible) and DBA/2J (resistant) to determine the subset of gallstone susceptibility (Lith) genes these strains possess. Parental and first filial generation mice of both genders and male intercross offspring were evaluated for gallstone formation after feeding a lithogenic diet. Linkage analysis was performed using a form of multiple interval mapping. One significant QTL colocalized with Lith1 [chromosome (chr) 2, 50 cM], a locus identified previously. Significantly, new QTL were detected and named Lith10 (chr 6, 4 cM), Lith6 (chr 6, 54 cM), and Lith11 (chr 8, 58 cM). Statistical and genetic analyses suggest that Lith6 comprises two QTL in close proximity. Our molecular and genetic data support the candidacy of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (Pparg) and Slc21a1, encoding Pparg, and the basolateral bile acid transporter SLC21A1 (Slc21a1/Oatp1), respectively, as genes underlying Lith6. PMID:12810825

Lyons, Malcolm A; Wittenburg, Henning; Li, Renhua; Walsh, Kenneth A; Leonard, Monika R; Korstanje, Ron; Churchill, Gary A; Carey, Martin C; Paigen, Beverly

2003-06-16

359

Maximizing the Reliability of Genomic Selection by Optimizing the Calibration Set of Reference Individuals: Comparison of Methods in Two Diverse Groups of Maize Inbreds (Zea mays L.)  

PubMed Central

Genomic selection refers to the use of genotypic information for predicting breeding values of selection candidates. A prediction formula is calibrated with the genotypes and phenotypes of reference individuals constituting the calibration set. The size and the composition of this set are essential parameters affecting the prediction reliabilities. The objective of this study was to maximize reliabilities by optimizing the calibration set. Different criteria based on the diversity or on the prediction error variance (PEV) derived from the realized additive relationship matrix–best linear unbiased predictions model (RA–BLUP) were used to select the reference individuals. For the latter, we considered the mean of the PEV of the contrasts between each selection candidate and the mean of the population (PEVmean) and the mean of the expected reliabilities of the same contrasts (CDmean). These criteria were tested with phenotypic data collected on two diversity panels of maize (Zea mays L.) genotyped with a 50k SNPs array. In the two panels, samples chosen based on CDmean gave higher reliabilities than random samples for various calibration set sizes. CDmean also appeared superior to PEVmean, which can be explained by the fact that it takes into account the reduction of variance due to the relatedness between individuals. Selected samples were close to optimality for a wide range of trait heritabilities, which suggests that the strategy presented here can efficiently sample subsets in panels of inbred lines. A script to optimize reference samples based on CDmean is available on request.

Rincent, R.; Laloe, D.; Nicolas, S.; Altmann, T.; Brunel, D.; Revilla, P.; Rodriguez, V.M.; Moreno-Gonzalez, J.; Melchinger, A.; Bauer, E.; Schoen, C-C.; Meyer, N.; Giauffret, C.; Bauland, C.; Jamin, P.; Laborde, J.; Monod, H.; Flament, P.; Charcosset, A.; Moreau, L.

2012-01-01

360

Expression levels of candidate genes for intramuscular fat deposition in two Banna mini-pig inbred lines divergently selected for fatness traits.  

PubMed

Intramuscular fat (IMF) content plays an important role in meat quality. Many genes involved in lipid and energy metabolism were identified as candidate genes for IMF deposition, since genetic polymorphisms within these genes were associated with IMF content. However, there is less information on the expression levels of these genes in the muscle tissue. This study aimed at investigating the expression levels of sterol regulating element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT-1), heart-fatty acids binding protein (H-FABP), leptin receptor (LEPR) and melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) genes and proteins in two divergent Banna mini-pig inbred lines (BMIL). A similar growth performance was found in both the fat and the lean BMIL. The fat meat and IMF content in the fat BMIL were significantly higher than in the lean BMIL, but the lean meat content was lower. The serum triacylglycerol (TAG) and free fatty acid (FFA) contents were significantly higher in the fat than in the lean BMIL. The expression levels of SREBP-1c, DGAT-1 and H-FABP genes and proteins in fat BMIL were increased compared to the lean BMIL. However, the expression levels of LEPR and MC4R genes and proteins were lower. PMID:23271939

Zhao, Su-Mei; Li, Wei-Zhen; Pan, Hong-Bin; Huang, Ying; Yang, Ming-Hua; Wei, Hong-Jiang; Gao, Shi-Zheng

2012-11-13

361

Fixation, Segregation and Linkage of Allozyme Loci in Inbred Families of the Pacific Oyster Crassostrea Gigas (Thunberg): Implications for the Causes of Inbreeding Depression  

PubMed Central

The effect that inbreeding has on the fixation and segregation of genes has rarely been confirmed by direct observation. Here, fixation, segregation, and linkage of allozymes is investigated in the progeny of self-fertilized hermaphrodites of the normally outcrossing Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. The estimate of fixation pooled over loci, individuals, and families, F = 0.462, is significantly lower than the expected value of 0.5. Log-likelihood ratios reveal significant heterogeneity in fixation among individuals, among families, and among loci. In addition, the grand pooled segregation ratio, 127:243:54, deviates significantly from 1:2:1, with a bias against homozygotes for alleles of lesser frequency in the natural population. Segregation ratios for 11 of 14 loci are significantly heterogeneous among families, and exact tests for segregation within families reveal 16 significant results out of 51 tests. Thus, fixation and segregation of allozyme markers in inbred oyster families deviates from the expectations of neutral inbreeding theory. Di-genic disequilibria are significant for four of 74 di-locus pairs revealing two linkage groups. Strong viability selection is apparently conditional on the genotype of the hermaphrodite-founders and is largely focused on these two linkage groups. These genetic effects are explained by interaction between cis-linked factors and polymorphic regulatory backgrounds.

McGoldrick, D. J.; Hedgecock, D.

1997-01-01

362

Gene expression profiling during thymus ontogeny and its association with TCRVbeta8.1-Dbeta2.1 rearrangements of inbred mouse strains.  

PubMed

The V(D)J recombination of TCRalpha and beta in early developing T-cells is a highly modulated phenomenon initiated and completed by recombinase complex (RAG-1 and RAG-2), and regulated by other gene products such as interleukins. To further evaluate the association of several other gene products with the evolution of TCRVbeta8.1 V(D)J rearrangements in vivo, the mRNA expression levels of seven interleukins, three cytokines, receptors TCRVbeta8.1 and IL-2Rbeta, MHC-I/MHC-II, RAG-1/ RAG-2 and retroviral superantigen MMTV(SW) were measured by RT-PCR during the fetal development of the thymus of three inbred mouse strains (Balb-c, C57B1/6 and CBA/J). Clustering using the Tree View software, was used to organize these genes based on similarity of expression patterns. Each strain displayed a different expression profile during thymus ontogeny. During the late developmental stage the most evident association was the kinetics of MMTV(SW) retrovirus, IL-2Rbeta and IL-7 overexpression with reduction of TCRVbeta8.1-D1beta2.1 rearrangement in the thymus of CBA/J mice. These data suggest a susceptibility of this strain to expression of MMTV(SW) upon reduction of the rearranged TCRVbeta8.1-Dbeta2.1 segment in developing thymocytes, with parallel IL-7 overexpression. PMID:14577596

Espanhol, Aline R; Macedo, Cláudia; Junta, Cristina M; Cardoso, Renato Sousa; Victorero, Geneviève; Loriod, Beatrice; Nguyen, Catherine; Jordan, Bertrand; Passos, Geraldo A S

2003-10-01

363

New quantitative trait loci that regulate wound healing in an intercross progeny from DBA/1J and 129 x 1/SvJ inbred strains of mice.  

PubMed

Wound healing/regeneration mouse models are few, and studies performed have mainly utilized crosses between MRL/MPJ (a good healer) and SJL/J (a poor healer) or MRL/lpr (a good healer) and C57BL/6J (a poor healer). Wound healing is a complex trait with many genes involved in the expression of the phenotype. Based on data from previous studies that common and additional quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified using different crosses of inbred strains of mice for various complex traits, we hypothesized that a new cross would identify common and additional QTL, unique modes of inheritance, and interacting loci, which are responsible for variation in susceptibility to fast wound healing. In this study, we crossed DBA/1J (DBA, a good healer) and 129/SvJ (129, a poor healer) and performed a genome-wide scan using 492 (DBA x 129) F2 mice and 98 markers to identify QTL that regulate wound healing/regeneration. Four QTL on chromosomes 1, 4, 12, and 18 were identified which contributed toward wound healing in F2 mice and accounted for 17.1% of the phenotypic variation in ear punch healing. Surprisingly, locus interactions contributed to 55.7% of the phenotype variation in ear punch healing. In conclusion, we have identified novel QTL and shown that minor interacting loci contribute significantly to wound healing in DBA x 129 mice cross. PMID:16208538

Masinde, Godfred L; Li, Runzhi; Nguyen, Bay; Yu, Hongrun; Srivastava, Apurva K; Edderkaoui, Bouchra; Wergedal, Jon E; Baylink, David J; Mohan, Subburaman

2005-10-06

364

Complex genetics controls natural variation among seed quality phenotypes in a recombinant inbred population of an interspecific cross between Solanum lycopersicum × Solanum pimpinellifolium.  

PubMed

Seed quality in tomato is associated with many complex physiological and genetic traits. While plant processes are frequently controlled by the action of small- to large-effect genes that follow classic Mendelian inheritance, our study suggests that seed quality is primarily quantitative and genetically complex. Using a recombinant inbred line population of Solanum lycopersicum?×?Solanum pimpinellifolium, we identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs) influencing seed quality phenotypes under non-stress, as well as salt, osmotic, cold, high-temperature and oxidative stress conditions. In total, 42 seed quality traits were analysed and 120 QTLs were identified for germination traits under different conditions. Significant phenotypic correlations were observed between germination traits under optimal conditions, as well as under different stress conditions. In conclusion, one or more QTLs were identified for each trait with some of these QTLs co-locating. Co-location of QTLs for different traits can be an indication that a locus has pleiotropic effects on multiple traits due to a common mechanistic basis. However, several QTLs also dissected seed quality in its separate components, suggesting different physiological mechanisms and signalling pathways for different seed quality attributes. PMID:22074055

Kazmi, Rashid H; Khan, Noorullah; Willems, Leo A J; VAN Heusden, Adriaan W; Ligterink, Wilco; Hilhorst, Henk W M

2011-12-08

365

Maximizing the reliability of genomic selection by optimizing the calibration set of reference individuals: comparison of methods in two diverse groups of maize inbreds (Zea mays L.).  

PubMed

Genomic selection refers to the use of genotypic information for predicting breeding values of selection candidates. A prediction formula is calibrated with the genotypes and phenotypes of reference individuals constituting the calibration set. The size and the composition of this set are essential parameters affecting the prediction reliabilities. The objective of this study was to maximize reliabilities by optimizing the calibration set. Different criteria based on the diversity or on the prediction error variance (PEV) derived from the realized additive relationship matrix-best linear unbiased predictions model (RA-BLUP) were used to select the reference individuals. For the latter, we considered the mean of the PEV of the contrasts between each selection candidate and the mean of the population (PEVmean) and the mean of the expected reliabilities of the same contrasts (CDmean). These criteria were tested with phenotypic data collected on two diversity panels of maize (Zea mays L.) genotyped with a 50k SNPs array. In the two panels, samples chosen based on CDmean gave higher reliabilities than random samples for various calibration set sizes. CDmean also appeared superior to PEVmean, which can be explained by the fact that it takes into account the reduction of variance due to the relatedness between individuals. Selected samples were close to optimality for a wide range of trait heritabilities, which suggests that the strategy presented here can efficiently sample subsets in panels of inbred lines. A script to optimize reference samples based on CDmean is available on request. PMID:22865733

Rincent, R; Laloë, D; Nicolas, S; Altmann, T; Brunel, D; Revilla, P; Rodríguez, V M; Moreno-Gonzalez, J; Melchinger, A; Bauer, E; Schoen, C-C; Meyer, N; Giauffret, C; Bauland, C; Jamin, P; Laborde, J; Monod, H; Flament, P; Charcosset, A; Moreau, L

2012-08-03

366

Plasma activities of lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase, lipid transfer proteins and post-heparin lipases in inbred strains of rabbits hypo- or hyper-responsive to dietary cholesterol.  

PubMed Central

Plasma lipoproteins, plasma activities of lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP), cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and post-heparin lipases were measured before and after cholesterol challenge in two inbred strains of rabbits with either a high (hyper-responders) or a low (hyporesponders) response of plasma cholesterol to dietary cholesterol. The purpose of this study was to provide clues about the mechanisms underlying the effect of dietary cholesterol on lipoprotein levels and composition, and particularly those underlying the strain difference of this effect. Cholesterol feeding (0.15 g of cholesterol/100 g of diet) caused increased plasma total cholesterol concentrations and an increased ratio of cholesteryl esters:triacylglycerol in all lipoprotein particles in both strains; these effects were significantly greater in hyper- than hypo-responsive rabbits. Feeding on the high-cholesterol diet lowered plasma triacylglycerols in hyper-responders, but caused increased plasma triacylglycerol levels in hyporesponders. This was accompanied by significantly greater increases in the activities of hepatic triacylglycerol lipase and lipoprotein lipase in hyper- than in hypo-responders. Both strains showed a dietary-cholesterol-induced rise in plasma CETP as well as in PLTP activity. The increase in PLTP activity was greater in the hyper-responders, but that of CETP was less. There was no effect of dietary cholesterol on LCAT activity. It is hypothesized that the lipases are involved in the removal of cholesterol-rich lipoproteins.

Meijer, G W; Demacker, P N; Van Tol, A; Groener, J E; Van der Palen, J G; Stalenhoef, A F; Van Zutphen, L M; Beynen, A C

1993-01-01

367

Breeding Value and Variance Component Estimation from Data Containing Inbred Individuals: Application to Gynogenetic Families in Common Carp (Cyprinus Carpio L.)  

PubMed Central

Under gynogenetic reproduction, offspring receive genes only from their dams and completely homozygous offspring are produced within one generation. When gynogenetic reproduction is applied to fully inbred individuals, homozygous clone lines are produced. A mixed model method was developed for breeding value and variance component estimation in gynogenetic families, which requires the inverse of the numerator relationship matrix. A general method for creating the inverse for a population with unusual relationships between animals is presented, which reduces to simple rules as is illustrated for gynogenetic populations. The presence of clones in gynogenetic populations causes singularity of the numerator relationship matrix. However, clones can be regarded as repeated observations of the same genotype, which can be accommodated by modifying the incidence matrix, and by considering only unique genotypes in the estimation procedure. Optimum gynogenetic sib family sizes for estimating heritabilities and estimates of their accuracy were derived and compared to those for conventional full-sib designs. This was done by means of a deterministic derivation and by stochastic simulation using Gibbs sampling. Optimum family sizes were smallest for gynogenetic families. Only for low heritabilities, there was a small advantage in accuracy under the gynogenetic design.

Bijma, P.; Van-Arendonk, JAM.; Bovenhuis, H.

1997-01-01

368

Immunological and nonimmunological control of severity of Trypanosoma musculi infections in C3H and C57BL/6 inbred mice  

SciTech Connect

Studies concerned with the mechanisms responsible for relative resistance or susceptibility of strains of inbred mice to Trypanosoma musculi infections are presented. Treatment with 400 rads of ionizing radiation, silica dust, or trypan blue (reticuloendothelial blocking agents) rendered C3H mice unable to control the initial maximum level of parasite growth, and the mice died of overwhelming infections. In contrast, similarly treated C57BL/6 (relatively resistant) mice controlled initial trypanosome growth as well as controls; however, the duration of infection, preceding eventual cure, was approximately doubled. Combined treatment with trypan blue and 400 rads of radiation resulted in much higher initial levels of infection in C57BL/6 mice, and about half of the mice died; the remaining mice eventually recovered after a prolonged course of infection. These results indicate that a nonimmunological mechanism, which controls initial infection, and an immunological mechanism cooperate to limit T. musculi infections in normal mice. We present results that suggest that both mechanisms are less effective in C3H than in C57BL/6 mice. The initial control of infection presumably reflects the activity of some type(s) of phagocytic effector cell; we show, however, that the initial control of infection is not an attribute of the liver Kupffer cells. Identification and characterization of the cells capable of controlling initial infection could lead to procedures for enhancing their function and, thus, to enhanced resistance to, and elimination of, trypanosome infections.

Albright, J.W.; Albright, J.F.

1989-06-01

369

Genetic factors in lipoprotein metabolism. Analysis of a genetic cross between inbred mouse strains NZB/BINJ and SM/J using a complete linkage map approach.  

PubMed Central

A genetic cross was constructed from two parental inbred strains of mice, NZB/BINJ and SM/J, which differ markedly in their plasma lipoprotein levels. Plasma lipid and apolipoprotein values were measured in 184 F2 progeny on a normal chow diet and on an atherogenic diet. Genetic markers were typed at 126 loci spanning all chromosomes except the Y. Statistical analysis revealed significant linkage or suggestive linkage of lipoprotein levels with markers on a number of chromosomes. Chromosome 1 markers were linked to levels of total cholesterol (lod 5.9) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (lod 8.1), chromosome 5 markers were linked to levels of total cholesterol (lod 6.7) and HDL cholesterol (lod 5.6), and chromosome 7 markers were linked to levels of total plasma triglycerides (lod 5.1) and free fatty acids (lod 5.6). Plasma apoAII levels were linked to the apoAII gene (lod score 19.6) and were highly correlated with plasma HDL cholesterol levels (r = 0.63, P = 0.0001), indicating that apoAII expression influences HDL cholesterol levels. Molecular studies suggested that structural differences in the apoAII polypeptide of the two strains may contribute to differences in clearance of the protein. Images

Purcell-Huynh, D A; Weinreb, A; Castellani, L W; Mehrabian, M; Doolittle, M H; Lusis, A J

1995-01-01

370

Chromosomal regions associated with segregation distortion of molecular markers in F2, backcross, doubled haploid, and recombinant inbred populations in rice (Oryza sativa L.).  

PubMed

Chromosomal regions associated with marker segregation distortion in rice were compared based on six molecular linkage maps. Mapping populations were derived from one interspecific backcross and five inter-subspecific (indica/japonica) crosses, including two F2 populations, two doubled haploid (DH) populations, and one recombinant inbred (RI) population. Mapping data for each population consisted of 129-629 markers. Segregation distortion was determined based on chi-square analysis (P < 0.01) and was observed at 6.8-31.8%, of the mapped marker loci. Marker loci associated with skewed allele frequencies were distributed on all 12 chromosomes. Distortion in eight chromosomal regions bracketed previously identified gametophyte (ga) or sterility genes (S). Distortion in three other chromosomal regions was found only in DH populations, where japonica alleles were over-represented, suggesting that loci in these regions may be associated with preferential regeneration of japonica genotypes during anther culture. Three additional clusters of skewed markers were observed in more than one population in regions where no gametophytic or sterility loci have previously been reported. A total of 17 segregation distortion loci may be postulated based on this study and their locations in the rice genome were estimated. PMID:9065686

Xu, Y; Zhu, L; Xiao, J; Huang, N; McCouch, S R

1997-02-20

371

Somatic cell hybrids for high-density mapping of chromosome 2 breakpoints in radiation-induced myeloid leukemia cell lines from inbred mice.  

PubMed

Chromosome 2 (chr 2) deletions are recurrent abnormalities in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) induced by ionizing radiation in the mouse. The localization of deletion sites has proven extremely useful in providing information on the molecular mechanisms of leukemogenesis. The models available for the study of AML are mostly represented by inbred mouse strains, in which the molecular resolution of breakpoints is problematic. In this study, we have examined five leukemic cell lines exhibiting hemizygous chr 2 loss, derived from CBA, C3H, or (C57BLxCBA/H) F1 mice in which AML had been induced by a whole-body dose of radiation. By application of a somatic cell hybridization technique, we have generated interspecific cell hybrids retaining the deleted murine chr 2 homologue. This strategy permitted a very detailed genetic analysis allowing the utilization of any genetic marker on chr 2 without a requirement for polymorphism. Somatic cell hybrid clones were subjected to a high-density polymerase chain reaction-based microsatellite screening using 62-106 informative markers for each cell line. Detailed maps accurately defining chr 2 breakpoints were obtained. The identification of critical breakpoint markers allowed the construction of partial yeast artificial chromosome contigs across chr 2 breakpoints. These maps represent an essential resource for cloning of the breakpoint regions. PMID:10708484

Pazzaglia, S; Pariset, L; Rebessi, S; Saran, A; Coppola, M; Covelli, V; Moody, J; Bouffler, S; Cox, R; Silver, A

2000-03-01

372

Heterosis and outbreeding depression in descendants of natural immigrants to an inbred population of song sparrows (Melospiza melodia).  

PubMed

We studied heterosis and outbreeding depression among immigrants and their descendants in a population of song sparrows on Mandarte Island, Canada. Using data spanning 19 generations, we compared survival, seasonal reproductive success, and lifetime reproductive success of immigrants, natives (birds with resident-hatched parents and grandparents), and their offspring (F1s, birds with an immigrant and a native parent, and F2s, birds with an immigrant grandparent and resident-hatched grandparent in each of their maternal and paternal lines). Lifetime reproductive success of immigrants was no worse than that of natives, but other measures of performance differed in several ways. Immigrant females laid later and showed a tendency to lay fewer clutches, but had relatively high success raising offspring per egg produced. The few immigrant males survived well but were less likely to breed than native males of the same age that were alive in the same year. Female F1s laid earlier than expected based on the average for immigrant and native females, and adult male F1s were more likely to breed than expected based on the average for immigrant and native males. The performance differences between immigrant and native females and between F1s and the average of immigrants and natives are consistent with the hypothesis that immigrants were disadvantaged by a lack of site experience and that immigrant offspring benefited from heterosis. However, we could not exclude the possibility that immigrants had a different strategy for optimizing reproductive success or that they experienced ecological compensation for life-history parameters. For example, the offspring of immigrants may have survived well because immigrants laid later and produced fewer clutches, thereby raising offspring during a period of milder climatic conditions. Although sample sizes were small, we found large performance differences between F1s and F2s, which suggested that either heterosis was associated with epistasis in F1s, that F2s experienced outbreeding depression, or that both phenomena occurred. These findings indicate that the performance of dispersers may be affected more by fine-scale genetic differentiation than previously assumed in this and comparable systems. PMID:11913658

Marr, Amy B; Keller, Lukas F; Arcese, Peter

2002-01-01

373

Complementary DNA cloning, sequence analysis, and tissue transcription profile of a novel U2AF2 gene from the Chinese Banna mini-pig inbred line.  

PubMed

U2 small nuclear RNA auxiliary factor 2 (U2AF2) is an important gene for pre-messenger RNA splicing in higher eukaryotes. In this study, the Banna mini-pig inbred line (BMI) U2AF2 coding sequence (CDS) was cloned, sequenced, and characterized. The U2AF2 complete CDS was amplified using the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique based on the conserved sequence information of cattle and known highly homologous swine expressed sequence tags. This novel gene was deposited into the National Center for Biotechnology Information database (Accession No. JQ839267). Sequence analysis revealed that the BMI U2AF2 coding sequence consisted of 1416 bp and encoded 471 amino acids with a molecular weight of 53.12 kDa. The protein sequence has high sequence homology with U2AF65 of 6 species - Homo sapiens (100%), Equus caballus (100%), Canis lupus (100%), Macaca mulatta (99.8%), Bos taurus (74.4%), and Mus musculus (74.4%). The phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that BMI U2AF65 has a closer genetic relationship with B. taurus U2AF65 than with U2AF65 of E. caballus, C. lupus, M. mulatta, H. sapiens, and M. musculus. RT-PCR analysis showed that BMI U2AF2 was most highly expressed in the brain; moderately expressed in the spleen, lung, muscle, and skin; and weakly expressed in the liver, kidney, and ovary. Its expression was nearly silent in the spinal cord, nerve fiber, heart, stomach, pancreas, and intestine. Three microRNA target sites were predicted in the CDS of BMI U2AF2 messenger RNA. Our results establish a foundation for further insight into this swine gene. PMID:23613239

Wang, S Y; Huo, J L; Miao, Y W; Cheng, W M; Zeng, Y Z

2013-04-02

374

Quantitative trait loci for urinary albumin in crosses between C57BL/6J and A/J inbred mice in the presence and absence of Apoe.  

PubMed

We investigated the effect of apolipoprotein E (Apoe) on albuminuria in the males of two independent F2 intercrosses between C57BL/6J and A/J mice, using wild-type inbred strains in the first cross and B6-Apoe(-/-) animals in the second cross. In the first cross, we identified three quantitative trait loci (QTL): chromosome (Chr) 2 [LOD 3.5, peak at 70 cM, confidence interval (C.I.) 28-88 cM]; Chr 9 (LOD 2.0, peak 5 cM, C.I. 5-25 cM); and Chr 19 (LOD 1.9, peak 49 cM, C.I. 23-54 cM). The Chr 2 and Chr 19 QTL were concordant with previously found QTL for renal damage in rat and human. The Chr 9 QTL was concordant with a locus found in rat. The second cross, testing only Apoe(-/-) progeny, did not identify any of these loci, but detected two other loci on Chr 4 (LOD 3.2, peak 54 cM, C.I. 29-73 cM) and Chr 6 (LOD 2.6, peak 33 cM, C.I. 11-61 cM), one of which was concordant with a QTL found in rat. The dependence of QTL detection on the presence of Apoe and the concordance of these QTL with rat and human kidney disease QTL suggest that Apoe plays a role in renal damage. PMID:18493081

Doorenbos, Carolien; Tsaih, Shirng-Wern; Sheehan, Susan; Ishimori, Naoki; Navis, Gerjan; Churchill, Gary; Dipetrillo, Keith; Korstanje, Ron

2008-05-01

375

Quantitative Trait Loci for Urinary Albumin in Crosses Between C57BL/6J and A/J Inbred Mice in the Presence and Absence of Apoe  

PubMed Central

We investigated the effect of apolipoprotein E (Apoe) on albuminuria in the males of two independent F2 intercrosses between C57BL/6J and A/J mice, using wild-type inbred strains in the first cross and B6-Apoe?/? animals in the second cross. In the first cross, we identified three quantitative trait loci (QTL): chromosome (Chr) 2 [LOD 3.5, peak at 70 cM, confidence interval (C.I.) 28–88 cM]; Chr 9 (LOD 2.0, peak 5 cM, C.I. 5–25 cM); and Chr 19 (LOD 1.9, peak 49 cM, C.I. 23–54 cM). The Chr 2 and Chr 19 QTL were concordant with previously found QTL for renal damage in rat and human. The Chr 9 QTL was concordant with a locus found in rat. The second cross, testing only Apoe?/? progeny, did not identify any of these loci, but detected two other loci on Chr 4 (LOD 3.2, peak 54 cM, C.I. 29–73 cM) and Chr 6 (LOD 2.6, peak 33 cM, C.I. 11–61 cM), one of which was concordant with a QTL found in rat. The dependence of QTL detection on the presence of Apoe and the concordance of these QTL with rat and human kidney disease QTL suggest that Apoe plays a role in renal damage.

Doorenbos, Carolien; Tsaih, Shirng-Wern; Sheehan, Susan; Ishimori, Naoki; Navis, Gerjan; Churchill, Gary; DiPetrillo, Keith; Korstanje, Ron

2008-01-01

376

ATR-FTIR spectroscopy reveals genomic loci regulating the tissue response in high fat diet fed BXD recombinant inbred mouse strains  

PubMed Central

Background Obesity-associated organ-specific pathological states can be ensued from the dysregulation of the functions of the adipose tissues, liver and muscle. However, the influence of genetic differences underlying gross-compositional differences in these tissues is largely unknown. In the present study, the analytical method of ATR-FTIR spectroscopy has been combined with a genetic approach to identify genetic differences responsible for phenotypic alterations in adipose, liver and muscle tissues. Results Mice from 29 BXD recombinant inbred mouse strains were put on high fat diet and gross-compositional changes in adipose, liver and muscle tissues were measured by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. The analysis of genotype-phenotype correlations revealed significant quantitative trait loci (QTL) on chromosome 12 for the content of fat and collagen, collagen integrity, and the lipid to protein ratio in adipose tissue and on chromosome 17 for lipid to protein ratio in liver. Using gene expression and sequence information, we suggest Rsad2 (viperin) and Colec11 (collectin-11) on chromosome 12 as potential quantitative trait candidate genes. Rsad2 may act as a modulator of lipid droplet contents and lipid biosynthesis; Colec11 might play a role in apoptopic cell clearance and maintenance of adipose tissue. An increased level of Rsad2 transcripts in adipose tissue of DBA/2J compared to C57BL/6J mice suggests a cis-acting genetic variant leading to differential gene activation. Conclusion The results demonstrate that the analytical method of ATR-FTIR spectroscopy effectively contributed to decompose the macromolecular composition of tissues that accumulate fat and to link this information with genetic determinants. The candidate genes in the QTL regions may contribute to obesity-related diseases in humans, in particular if the results can be verified in a bigger BXD cohort.

2013-01-01

377

Detection of Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs) for Resistances to Small Brown Planthopper and Rice Stripe Virus in Rice Using Recombinant Inbred Lines  

PubMed Central

Small brown planthopper (SBPH) and rice stripe virus (RSV) disease transmitted by SBPH cause serious damage to rice (Oryza sativa L.) in China. In the present study, we screened 312 rice accessions for resistance to SBPH. The indica variety, N22, is highly resistant to SBPH. One hundred and eighty two recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross of N22 and the highly susceptible variety, USSR5, were used for quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of resistances to SBPH and RSV. In a modified seedbox screening test, three QTLs for SBPH resistance, qSBPH2, qSBPH3 and qSBPH7.1, were mapped on chromosomes 2, 3 and 7, a total explaining 35.1% of the phenotypic variance. qSBPH7.2 and qSBPH11.2, conferring antibiosis against SBPH, were detected on chromosomes 7 and 11 and accounted for 20.7% of the total phenotypic variance. In addition, qSBPH5 and qSBPH7.3, expressing antixenosis to SBPH, were detected on chromosomes 5 and 7, explaining 23.9% of the phenotypic variance. qSBPH7.1, qSBPH7.2 and qSBPH7.3, located in the same region between RM234 and RM429 on chromosome 7, using three different phenotyping methods indicate that the locus or region plays a major role in conferring resistance to SBPH in N22. Moreover, three QTLs, qSTV4, qSTV11.1 and qSTV11.2, for RSV resistance were detected on chromosomes 4 and 11. qSTV11.1 and qSTV11.2 are located in the same region between RM287 and RM209 on chromosome 11. Molecular markers spanning these QTLs should be useful in the development of varieties with resistance to SBPH and RSV.

Wang, Qi; Liu, Yuqiang; Hu, Jinlong; Zhang, Yingxin; Xie, Kun; Wang, Baoxiang; Tuyen, Le Quang; Song, Zhaoqiang; Wu, Han; Liu, Yanling; Jiang, Ling; Liu, Shijia; Cheng, Xianian; Wang, Chunming; Zhai, Huqu; Wan, Jianmin

2013-01-01

378

Factors predicting nongenetic variability in body weight gain induced by a high-fat diet in inbred C57BL/6J mice.  

PubMed

Inbred C57BL/6J mice displayed large individual variations in weight gain when fed a high-fat diet (HFD). The objective of this study was to examine whether this predominantly nongenetic variability could be predicted by relevant baseline features and to explore whether variations in these significant features were influenced during pregnancy and/or lactation. Fat mass (FM), fat-free mass (FFM), food intake (FI), resting metabolic rate (RMR), physical activity (PA), and body temperature (T(b)) were all evaluated at baseline in 60 mice (aged 10-12 weeks) before HFD feeding. Regression analyses showed that baseline FM was a strong positive predictor of weight gain between 4 and 16 weeks of HFD. Baseline PA was negatively associated with weight gain at week 8, 12, and 16, and baseline FFM had a positive effect at week 12 and 16. In a second experiment, 40 female mice were mated and litter sizes (LS) were manipulated on day 3 of lactation. Weaning weight and postweaning growth rate (GR) had positive impacts on FM and FFM at age 9 weeks (FM, P = 0.001; FFM, P < 0.001: n = 97). Lactation LS had a negative effect on weaning weight and a positive effect on postweaning GR. In conclusion, our results show that obesity induced by HFD was associated with a higher baseline FM, a higher baseline FFM and a lower baseline PA level before the exposure of HFD. Two of these traits (FM and FFM) were influenced by lactation LS via weaning weight and postweaning GR. PMID:21720432

Zhang, Li-Na; Morgan, David G; Clapham, John C; Speakman, John R

2011-06-30

379

A new monoclonal antibody detects a developmentally regulated mouse ecto-ADP-ribosyltransferase on T cells: subset distribution, inbred strain variation, and modulation upon T cell activation.  

PubMed

ADP-ribosylation of membrane proteins on mouse T cells by ecto-ADP-ribosyltransferase(s) (ARTs) can down-regulate proliferation and function. The lack of mAbs against mouse ARTs has heretofore prevented analysis of ART expression on T cell subsets. Using gene gun technology, we immunized a Wistar rat with an Art2b expression vector and produced a novel mAb, Nika102, specific for ART2.2, the Art2b gene product. We show that ART2.2 is expressed as a GPI-anchored protein on the surface of mature T cells. Inbred strain-dependent differences in ART2.2 expression levels were observed. C57BL/6J and C57BLKS/J express the Ag at high level, with up to 70% of CD4+ and up to 95% of CD8+ peripheral T cells expressing ART2.2. CBA/J and DBA/2J represent strains with lowest expression levels. T cell-deficient mice and NZW/LacJ mice with a defective structural gene for this enzyme were ART2.2 negative. In the thymus, ART2.2 expression is restricted to subpopulations of mature cells. During postnatal ontogeny, increasing percentages of T cells express ART2.2, reaching a peak at 6-8 wk of age. Interestingly, ART2.2 and CD25 are reciprocally expressed: activation-induced up-regulation of CD25 is accompanied by loss of ART2.2 from the cell surface. Nika102 thus defines a new differentiation/activation marker of thymic and postthymic T cells in the mouse and should be useful for further elucidating the function of the ART2.2 cell surface enzyme. PMID:10570289

Koch-Nolte, F; Duffy, T; Nissen, M; Kahl, S; Killeen, N; Ablamunits, V; Haag, F; Leiter, E H

1999-12-01

380

Different responsiveness to a high-fat/cholesterol diet in two inbred mice and underlying genetic factors: a whole genome microarray analysis  

PubMed Central

Background To investigate different responses to a high-fat/cholesterol diet and uncover their underlying genetic factors between C57BL/6J (B6) and DBA/2J (D2) inbred mice. Methods B6 and D2 mice were fed a high-fat/cholesterol diet for a series of time-points. Serum and bile lipid profiles, bile acid yields, hepatic apoptosis, gallstones and atherosclerosis formation were measured. Furthermore, a whole genome microarray was performed to screen hepatic genes expression profile. Quantitative real-time PCR, western blot and TUNEL assay were conducted to validate microarray data. Results After fed the high-fat/cholesterol diet, serum and bile total cholesterol, serum cholesterol esters, HDL cholesterol and Non-HDL cholesterol levels were altered in B6 but not significantly changed in D2; meanwhile, biliary bile acid was decreased in B6 but increased in D2. At the same time, hepatic apoptosis, gallstones and atherosclerotic lesions occurred in B6 but not in D2. The hepatic microarray analysis revealed distinctly different genes expression patterns between B6 and D2 mice. Their functional pathway groups included lipid metabolism, oxidative stress, immune/inflammation response and apoptosis. Quantitative real time PCR, TUNEL assay and western-blot results were consistent with microarray analysis. Conclusion Different genes expression patterns between B6 and D2 mice might provide a genetic basis for their distinctive responses to a high-fat/cholesterol diet, and give us an opportunity to identify novel pharmaceutical targets in related diseases in the future.

Zhu, Mingzhe; Ji, Guozhen; Jin, Gang; Yuan, Zuobiao

2009-01-01

381

Opiate-agonist Induced Taste Aversion Learning in the Fischer 344 and Lewis Inbred Rat Strains: Evidence for Differential Mu Opioid Receptor Activation  

PubMed Central

The Fischer 344 (F344) and Lewis (LEW) inbred rat strains react differently to morphine in a number of behavioral and physiological preparations, including the acquisition of aversions induced by this compound. The present experiment tested the ability of various compounds with relative selectivity at kappa, delta and mu receptor subtypes to assess the relative roles of these subtypes in mediating the differential aversive effects of morphine in the two strains. In the assessment of the role of the kappa receptor in morphine-induced aversions, animals in both strains were given access to saccharin followed by varying doses of the kappa agonist (?)?U50,488H (0.0, 0.28, 0.90 and 1.60 mg/kg). Although (?)?U50,488H induced aversions in both strains, no strain differences emerged. A separate subset of subjects was trained with the selective delta opioid agonist, SNC80 (0.0, 5.6, 10.0 and 18.0 mg/kg), and again although SNC80 induced aversions, there were no strain differences. Finally, a third subset of subjects was trained with heroin (0.0, 3.2, 5.6 and 10.0 mg/kg), a compound with activity at all three opiate receptor subtypes. Although heroin induced aversions in both strains, the aversions were significantly greater in the F344 strain, suggesting that differential activation of the mu opioid receptor likely mediates the reported strain differences in morphine-induced aversion learning. These data were discussed in terms of strain differences in opioid system functioning and the implications of such differences for other morphine-induced behavioral effects reported in F344 and LEW rats.

Davis, Catherine M.; Rice, Kenner C.; Riley, Anthony L.

2009-01-01

382

Opiate-agonist induced taste aversion learning in the Fischer 344 and Lewis inbred rat strains: evidence for differential mu opioid receptor activation.  

PubMed

The Fischer 344 (F344) and Lewis (LEW) inbred rat strains react differently to morphine in a number of behavioral and physiological preparations, including the acquisition of aversions induced by this compound. The present experiment tested the ability of various compounds with relative selectivity at kappa, delta and mu receptor subtypes to assess the relative roles of these subtypes in mediating the differential aversive effects of morphine in the two strains. In the assessment of the role of the kappa receptor in morphine-induced aversions, animals in both strains were given access to saccharin followed by varying doses of the kappa agonist (-)-U50,488H (0.0, 0.28, 0.90 and 1.60 mg/kg). Although (-)-U50,488H induced aversions in both strains, no strain differences emerged. A separate subset of subjects was trained with the selective delta opioid agonist, SNC80 (0.0, 5.6, 10.0 and 18.0 mg/kg), and again although SNC80 induced aversions, there were no strain differences. Finally, a third subset of subjects was trained with heroin (0.0, 3.2, 5.6 and 10.0 mg/kg), a compound with activity at all three opiate receptor subtypes. Although heroin induced aversions in both strains, the aversions were significantly greater in the F344 strain, suggesting that differential activation of the mu opioid receptor likely mediates the reported strain differences in morphine-induced aversion learning. These data were discussed in terms of strain differences in opioid system functioning and the implications of such differences for other morphine-induced behavioral effects reported in F344 and LEW rats. PMID:19508878

Davis, Catherine M; Rice, Kenner C; Riley, Anthony L

2009-06-07

383

Quantitative trait locus analysis and construction of consensus genetic map for drought tolerance traits based on three recombinant inbred line populations in cultivated groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.).  

PubMed

Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important food and cash crop grown mainly in semi-arid tropics (SAT) regions of the world where drought is the major constraint on productivity. With the aim of understanding the genetic basis and identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for drought tolerance, two new recombinant inbred line (RIL) mapping populations, namely ICGS 76 × CSMG 84-1 (RIL-2) and ICGS 44 × ICGS 76 (RIL-3), were used. After screening of 3,215 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers on the parental genotypes of these populations, two new genetic maps were developed with 119 (RIL-2) and 82 (RIL-3) SSR loci. Together with these maps and the reference map with 191 SSR loci based on TAG 24 × ICGV 86031 (RIL-1), a consensus map was constructed with 293 SSR loci distributed over 20 linkage groups, spanning 2,840.8 cM. As all these three populations segregate for drought-tolerance-related traits, a comprehensive QTL analysis identified 153 main effect QTL (M-QTL) and 25 epistatic QTL (E-QTL) for drought-tolerance-related traits. Localization of these QTL on the consensus map provided 16 genomic regions that contained 125 QTL. A few key genomic regions were selected on the basis of the QTL identified in each region, and their expected role in drought adaptation is also discussed. Given that no major QTL for drought adaptation were identified, novel breeding approaches such as marker-assisted recurrent selection (MARS) and genomic selection (GS) approaches are likely to be the preferred approaches for introgression of a larger number of QTL in order to breed drought-tolerant groundnut genotypes. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11032-011-9660-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:22924017

Gautami, B; Pandey, M K; Vadez, V; Nigam, S N; Ratnakumar, P; Krishnamurthy, L; Radhakrishnan, T; Gowda, M V C; Narasu, M L; Hoisington, D A; Knapp, S J; Varshney, R K

2011-11-22

384

Phenocopies for deafness and goiter development in a large inbred Brazilian kindred with Pendred's syndrome associated with a novel mutation in the PDS gene.  

PubMed

Pendred's syndrome is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by goiter, impaired iodide organification, and congenital sensorineural deafness. The gene mutated in Pendred's syndrome, PDS (Pendred's syndrome gene), was cloned very recently and encodes the putative sulfate transporter pendrin. Pendred's syndrome may account for up to 10% of the cases with hereditary hearing loss, and pendrin mutations have also been found in a kindred with non-syndromic deafness. In this study, 41 individuals from a large, highly inbred pedigree from Northeastern Brazil were examined for features of Pendred's syndrome. Linkage studies and sequence analysis of the coding region of the PDS gene were performed with DNA from 36 individuals. The index patient, with the classical triad of deafness, positive perchlorate test, and goiter, was found to be homozygous for a deletion of thymidine 279 in exon 3, resulting in a frameshift and a premature stop codon at amino acid 96. This alteration resulted in truncation of the protein in the first transmembrane domain. Two other patients with deafness were found to be homozygous for this mutation; 19 were heterozygous and 14 were homozygous for the wild type allele. Surprisingly, 6 deaf individuals in this kindred were not homozygous for the PDS gene mutation; 3 were heterozygous and 3 were homozygous for the wild type allele, suggesting a probable distinct genetic cause for their deafness. All 3 homozygous individuals for the PDS mutation had goiters. However, goiters were also found in 10 heterozygous individuals and in 6 individuals without the PDS mutation and are most likely caused by iodine deficiency. In conclusion, we identified a novel mutation in the PDS gene causing Pendred's syndrome. The comparison of phenotype and genotype reveals, however, that phenocopies generated by distinct environmental and/or genetic causes are present in this kindred and that the diagnosis of Pendred's syndrome may be difficult without molecular analysis. PMID:9920104

Kopp, P; Arseven, O K; Sabacan, L; Kotlar, T; Dupuis, J; Cavaliere, H; Santos, C L; Jameson, J L; Medeiros-Neto, G

1999-01-01

385

Older Adults and Alcohol  

MedlinePLUS

... Alcohol Use Disorders Fetal Alcohol Exposure Support & Treatment Alcohol Policy Special Populations & Co-occurring Disorders Underage Drinking College Drinking Women Older Adults Minority Health and Health ...

386

Adults in Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Issues concerning the enrollment of adults in degree programs in countries belonging to the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development are considered. Of concern are policies and institutional practices that affect adult participation in degree studies. The growing importance of continuing academic and professional education is…

Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Centre for Educational Research and Innovation.

387

Adult Education in Canada.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this document an attempt is made to present an introduction to adult education in Canada. The first section surveys the historical background, attempts to show what have been the objectives of this field, and tries to assess its present position. Section II, which focuses on the relationship among the Canadian Association for Adult Education,…

Kidd, J. R., Ed.

388

Adult Education and Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document contains 19 papers on adult education and development worldwide. The following papers are included: "Editorial" (Heribert Hinzen); "Lifelong Learning in Europe: Moving towards EFA (Dakar Framework for Action on Education for All) Goals and the CONFINTEA V Agenda" (Sofia Conference on Adult Education); "Poverty and Schooling in the…

Hinzen, Heribert, Ed.

2002-01-01

389

Adult Tech Prep.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|For over 2 years, Blak Hawk College (Illinois) has provided high school equivalency (GED) candidates and recipients, older returning students, and underprepared high school graduates with a Tech Prep curriculum to give them the skills to make the transition from adult basic education to college or work. The Adult Tech Prep (ATP) core curriculum…

Schaad, Donna

390

Education for Senior Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The major objectives of the Education for Senior Adults Leadership Development Institute were: (1) to give a deeper understanding of the characteristics of senior adults; (2) to give a sense of the richness and variety of activities that could be built into a program for the aging; (3) to provide help in problems of organizing and administering…

Hendrickson, Andrew; Aker, George F.

391

Adult Vocational Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Danish adult vocational training activities take the form of specifically targeted initial and continued training for employed and unemployed adults. Planning, development, and adaptation of vocational training programs (AMU programs) are characterized by tripartite cooperation among public authorities and organizations of employers and…

Ministry of Labour, Copenhagen (Denmark).

392

New Zealand Adult Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book contains the history of and commentary upon adult education in New Zealand, describing the ways in which social developments and institutions based on foreign models are modified by indigenous traditions and needs. The growth of the national adult education organizations took place under heavy influence from the Workers Education…

Hall, David W. O.

393

Counseling Adult Adoptees  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This review presents various resources about working with adult adoptees in order to inform counselors in their practice. Topics covered include basics of adoption, including types of adoption and adoption statistics; possible issues adult adoptees may face; and suggestions and implications for counselors. The article addresses some of the…

Corder, Kate

2012-01-01

394

Adult Tech Prep.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For over 2 years, Blak Hawk College (Illinois) has provided high school equivalency (GED) candidates and recipients, older returning students, and underprepared high school graduates with a Tech Prep curriculum to give them the skills to make the transition from adult basic education to college or work. The Adult Tech Prep (ATP) core curriculum…

Schaad, Donna

395

Adult Congenital Heart Disease  

PubMed Central

One million people over the age of 20 suffer from congenital heart disease in the United States. These adult patients can slip through the cracks of our medical system; many are too old to be cared for in most pediatric institutions by pediatric cardiologists and, unfortunately, most adult cardiologists are not trained in congenital heart disease. Therefore, it is important to identify the common lesions in adult congenital heart disease and how they should be managed. Acyanotic congenital heart disease in the adult population primarily involves left-to-right shunts, such as atrial septal defect, patent ductus arteriosus, and obstructive lesions such as aortic coarctation of the aorta. The most common form of cyanotic congenital heart disease in adults is tetralogy of Fallot. Other complex conditions seen in adults include univentricular hearts, Ebstein's anomaly of the tricuspid valve, and corrected transposition of the great vessels. Most patients with congenital heart disease will need to undergo surgery, catheterization, or catheterization intervention. Results are excellent in the adult population. Long-term follow-up is needed for any adult congenital heart patient receiving care in institutions that are well organized and well equipped, as we learn more about the natural and unnatural history of these conditions.

Moodie, Douglas S.

2002-01-01

396

Adult congenital heart disease.  

PubMed

One million people over the age of 20 suffer from congenital heart disease in the United States. These adult patients can slip through the cracks of our medical system; many are too old to be cared for in most pediatric institutions by pediatric cardiologists and, unfortunately, most adult cardiologists are not trained in congenital heart disease. Therefore, it is important to identify the common lesions in adult congenital heart disease and how they should be managed. Acyanotic congenital heart disease in the adult population primarily involves left-to-right shunts, such as atrial septal defect, patent ductus arteriosus, and obstructive lesions such as aortic coarctation of the aorta. The most common form of cyanotic congenital heart disease in adults is tetralogy of Fallot. Other complex conditions seen in adults include univentricular hearts, Ebstein's anomaly of the tricuspid valve, and corrected transposition of the great vessels. Most patients with congenital heart disease will need to undergo surgery, catheterization, or catheterization intervention. Results are excellent in the adult population. Long-term follow-up is needed for any adult congenital heart patient receiving care in institutions that are well organized and well equipped, as we learn more about the natural and unnatural history of these conditions. PMID:22826662

Moodie, Douglas S

2002-01-01

397

California Adult Education Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This handbook provides descriptions of standard practices in adult education administration as well as the policies, regulations, and statutes guiding the practices. It is a useful resource in day-to-day decision making in program administration or a basic guide for adult education program development. Section 000 provides the general requisites…

Bauer, Thomas J.

398

Transsphenoidal meningoencephalocele in adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUNDTranssphenoidal meningoencephalocele is a rare congenital anomaly, reported only in 14 adult patients. It may be subdivided into intrasphenoidal, extending into the sphenoid sinus, and true transsphenoidal, traversing the floor of the sinus and protruding into the nasal cavity or nasopharynx.METHODSWe present the eighth case of true transsphenoidal meningoencephalocele reported in an adult. We review the literature and highlight the

Anthony Jabre; Ronald Tabaddor; Ranji Samaraweera

2000-01-01

399

Financing of Adult Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 2008 EFA Global Monitoring Report recognises adult literacy as the most neglected of the EFA goals. It is neglected most obviously in respect of the financial allocations made by governments and donors. This shortage of financing creates a dangerous situation in which adult educators seek to convince politicians to invest, based on false…

Archer, David

2007-01-01

400

Collagen-induced arthritis in rats. Examination of the epitope specificities of circulating and cartilage-bound antibodies produced by outbred and inbred rats using cyanogen bromide-derived peptides purified from heterologous and homologous type II collagens.  

PubMed

To determine the number and location of antibody binding epitopes on type II collagen, outbred and inbred rats were immunized with chick, bovine, human, and rat type II collagen (CII, BII, HII, and RII); all sera were assayed for reaction with a panel of CB peptides purified and renatured from the immunizing collagen and from RII. Antibody reaction patterns (profiles) varied among individual outbred rats but were essentially constant over time and changed little after boosting. The strongest antibody reactions were to CB11, CB9-7, and CB12 followed by CB8, CB10, and CB6. Antibody profiles varied depending on the species of collagen used for immunization and the strain of rat immunized. Except for CB10, where antibodies were largely specific for heterologous collagens, antibodies reactive with all other CB peptides cross-reacted strongly with renatured rat CB peptides. Sera from inbred BB rats immunized with BII, CII, or HII reacted best with CB11, unlike antisera to RII that reacted strongly with CB9-7. Inbred LEW, COP, WKY, F344, and BUF rats immunized with BII reacted strongest with CB9-7 and variably with CB11 and CB12. BBxLEW F1 hybrid rats reacted almost equally with CB11 and CB9-7 producing an antibody profile intermediate to those elicited in the parent strains. Finally, antibodies reactive with rat CB11, CB9-7, and CB12 could be eluted from normal rat cartilage incubated in anti-BII serum; antibody eluate profiles generally paralleled the profile produced by the sera applied to cartilage. Taken together, these findings indicate that multiple antibody-reactive epitopes on type II collagen may be instrumental in the initiation of collagen-induced arthritis in rats, particularly shared or cross-reactive epitopes located within CB11, CB9-7, CB12, and CB8. PMID:1634761

Cremer, M A; Terato, K; Watson, W C; Griffiths, M M; Townes, A S; Kang, A H

1992-08-01

401

The panorama of physiological responses and gene expression of whole plant of maize inbred line YQ7-96 at the three-leaf stage under water deficit and re-watering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in water potential, growth elongation, photosynthesis of three-leaf-old seedlings of maize inbred line YQ7-96 under\\u000a water deficit (WD) for 0.5, 1 and 2 h and re-watering (RW) for 24 h were characterized. Gene expression was analyzed using\\u000a cDNA microarray covering 11,855 maize unigenes. As for whole maize plant, the expression of WD-regulated genes was characterized\\u000a by up-regulation. The expression of WD-regulated

Hai-Feng Lu; Hai-Tao Dong; Chang-Bin Sun; Dong-Jin Qing; Ning Li; Zi-Kai Wu; Zhi-Qiang Wang; You-Zhi Li

402

Adult Education in the Seventies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The proceedings of the 24th All India Adult Education Conference highlight two symposia, "Adult Education and Urban Development" and "Adult Education and Green Revolution." Commission Reports on the two symposia are given. (DB)

Indian Adult Education Association, New Delhi.

403

Older Adults and Mental Health  

MedlinePLUS

... Health & Education > Mental Health Information Older Adults and Mental Health Depression Depression is not a normal part of ... Research Clinical Trials: Current Studies on Older Adults Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General/Older Adults ...

404

Young Adult Smoking Behavior  

PubMed Central

Background Young adults have the highest smoking rate of any age group in the U.S., and new strategies to decrease young adult smoking are needed. The objective of the current study was to identify psychographic and demographic factors associated with current smoking and quitting behaviors among young adults. Methods Attitudes, social groups, and self-descriptors, including supporting action against the tobacco industry, advertising receptivity, depression, alcohol use, and other factors associated with smoking were tested for associations with smoking behaviors in a 2005 cross-sectional survey of 1528 young adults (aged 18–25 years) from a web-enabled panel. Analyses were conducted in 2007. Results Being older was associated with current smoking, whereas having some higher education and being African American or Hispanic were negatively associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was negatively associated with smoking (AOR=0.34 [95% CI=0.22, 0.52]). Perceived usefulness of smoking, exposure to smokers, increased perceived smoking prevalence, receptivity to tobacco advertising, binge drinking, and exposure to tobacco advertising in bars and clubs were associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was associated with intentions to quit smoking (AOR= 4.43 [95% CI=2.18, 8.60]). Conclusions Young adults are vulnerable to tobacco-industry advertising. Media campaigns that denormalize the tobacco industry and appeal to young adults appear to be a powerful intervention to decrease young adult smoking.

Ling, Pamela M.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Glantz, Stanton A.

2009-01-01

405

Depression in Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Depression is less prevalent among older adults than among younger adults but can have serious consequences. Over half of cases represent a first onset in later life. Although suicide rates in the elderly are declining, they are still higher than in younger adults and more closely associated with depression. Depressed older adults are less likely to endorse affective symptoms and more likely to display cognitive changes, somatic symptoms, and loss of interest than are younger adults. Risk factors leading to the development of late life depression likely comprise complex interactions among genetic vulnerabilities, cognitive diathesis, age-associated neurobiological changes, and stressful events. Insomnia is an often overlooked risk factor for late life depression. We suggest that a common pathway to depression in older adults, regardless of which predisposing risks are most prominent, may be curtailment of daily activities. Accompanying self-critical thinking may exacerbate and maintain a depressed state. Offsetting the increasing prevalence of certain risk factors in late life are age-related increases in psychological resilience. Other protective factors include higher education and socioeconomic status, engagement in valued activities, and religious or spiritual involvement. Treatments including behavioral therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, cognitive bibliotherapy, problem-solving therapy, brief psychodynamic therapy, and life review/reminiscence therapy are effective but too infrequently used with older adults. Preventive interventions including education for individuals with chronic illness, behavioral activation, cognitive restructuring, problem-solving skills training, group support, and life review have also received support.

Fiske, Amy; Wetherell, Julie Loebach; Gatz, Margaret

2010-01-01

406

Stage-specific expression patterns of alkaline phosphatase during development of the first arch skeleton in inbred C57BL/6 mouse embryos  

PubMed Central

Timing and pattern of expression of alkaline phosphatase was examined during early differentiation of the 1st arch skeleton in inbred C57BL/6 mice. Embryos were recovered between 10 and 18 d of gestation and staged using a detailed staging table of craniofacial development prior to histochemical examination. Expression of alkaline phosphatase is initiated at stage 20.2 in the plasma membrane of mesenchymal cells in the distal region of the first arch. Expression is strongest in osteoid (unmineralised bone matrix) and presumptive periosteum at stage 21.32. Mineralisation begins at stage E23. Expression is present in the mineralised bone matrix. Secondary cartilages form in the condylar and angular processes by stage M24. The cartilaginous cells and surrounding cells in the processes are all alkaline phosphatase-positive and surrounded by the common periosteum, suggesting that progenitor cells of the processes, dentary ramus and secondary cartilages all originate from a common pool. Nonhypertrophied chondrocytes of Meckel's cartilage express alkaline phosphatase at stage M23. Expression in these chondrocytes is preceded by the expression in their adjacent perichondrium. This is true of chondrocytes in all other cranial cartilages examined. 3-D reconstruction of expression in Meckel's cartilage also revealed that the chondrocytes of Meckel's cartilage which express alkaline phosphatase and the matrix of which undergoes mineralisation are those surrounded by the alkaline phosphatase-positive dentary ramus. By stage 25, coincident with mineralisation in the distal section of Meckel's cartilage, most chondrocytes are strongly positive. The perichondria of malleus and incus cartilages express alkaline phosphatase at stage M24. Nonhypertrophied chondrocytes along these perichondria also express alkaline phosphatase. Superficial and deep cells in the dental laminae of incisor and 1st molar teeth become alkaline phosphatase-positive at the bud stage, stages 21.16 and 21.32, respectively. Dental papillae are negative until stage M24 when alkaline phosphatase expression begins in the dental papillae and follicles of the incisor teeth and the dental follicles of the 1st molar teeth. The dental papillae of the 1st molar teeth express alkaline phosphatase at stage 25. Expression in the dental papillae and follicles appears to coincide with cellular differentiation of follicle from papilla. The presumptive squamosal, ectotympanic and gonial membrane bones, lingual oral epithelial cells connected to the dental laminae of the incisor teeth, hair follicle papillae and sheath and surrounding dermis all express alkaline phosphatase in a stage-specific manner.

MIYAKE, T.; CAMERON, A. M.; HALL, B. K.

1997-01-01

407

QTL analysis of novel genomic regions associated with yield and yield related traits in new plant type based recombinant inbred lines of rice (Oryza sativa L.)  

PubMed Central

Background Rice is staple food for more than half of the world’s population including two billion Asians, who obtain 60-70% of their energy intake from rice and its derivatives. To meet the growing demand from human population, rice varieties with higher yield potential and greater yield stability need to be developed. The favourable alleles for yield and yield contributing traits are distributed among two subspecies i.e., indica and japonica of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.). Identification of novel favourable alleles in indica/japonica will pave way to marker-assisted mobilization of these alleles in to a genetic background to break genetic barriers to yield. Results A new plant type (NPT) based mapping population of 310 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) was used to map novel genomic regions and QTL hotspots influencing yield and eleven yield component traits. We identified major quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for days to 50% flowering (R2?=?25%, LOD?=?14.3), panicles per plant (R2?=?19%, LOD?=?9.74), flag leaf length (R2?=?22%, LOD?=?3.05), flag leaf width (R2?=?53%, LOD?=?46.5), spikelets per panicle (R2?=?16%, LOD?=?13.8), filled grains per panicle (R2?=?22%, LOD?=?15.3), percent spikelet sterility (R2?=?18%, LOD?=?14.24), thousand grain weight (R2?=?25%, LOD?=?12.9) and spikelet setting density (R2?=?23%, LOD?=?15) expressing over two or more locations by using composite interval mapping. The phenotypic variation (R2) ranged from 8 to 53% for eleven QTLs expressing across all three locations. 19 novel QTLs were contributed by the NPT parent, Pusa1266. 15 QTL hotpots on eight chromosomes were identified for the correlated traits. Six epistatic QTLs effecting five traits at two locations were identified. A marker interval (RM3276-RM5709) on chromosome 4 harboring major QTLs for four traits was identified. Conclusions The present study reveals that favourable alleles for yield and yield contributing traits were distributed among two subspecies of rice and QTLs were co-localized in different genomic regions. QTL hotspots will be useful for understanding the common genetic control mechanism of the co-localized traits and selection for beneficial allele at these loci will result in a cumulative increase in yield due to the integrative positive effect of various QTLs. The information generated in the present study will be useful to fine map and to identify the genes underlying major robust QTLs and to transfer all favourable QTLs to one genetic background to break genetic barriers to yield for sustained food security.

2012-01-01

408

CPR - adult - series (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... call 911 and retrieve an automated external defibrillator (AED) if one is available, even if you have ... the person recovers or help arrives. If an AED for adults is available, use it as soon ...

409

Mosquito, adult (image)  

MedlinePLUS

This illustration shows an adult southern house mosquito. This mosquito feeds on blood and is the carrier of many diseases, such as encephalitis, West Nile, dengue fever, yellow fever, and others. ( ...

410

Disability and Functioning (Adults)  

MedlinePLUS

... least one basic actions difficulty or complex activity limitation: 74.6 million (2011) Percent of adults with ... least one basic actions difficulty or complex activity limitation: 32.9% (2011) Source: Health, United States, 2012, ...

411

Anxiety and Older Adults  

MedlinePLUS

... may believe the traumatic event is happening again. Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) . While OCD is not common among older adults, some older ... violence and harm to loved ones. Some with OCD are preoccupied with order and symmetry; others accumulate ...

412

Cancer in Older Adults  

MedlinePLUS

... unique challenges faced by older people with cancer. Care Management Find practical tips on how older adults can manage their cancer care and cope with financial concerns. Health Assessment Find ...

413

Adults Living with EGIDs  

MedlinePLUS

... in adult EoE specifically with relation to esophageal dilatations? There seem to be more issues with esophageal ... who are more experienced with EoE about using dilatations. This is an excellent question and the issue ...

414

Adult Student Services Office.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Important components of an adult student services office are the focus of this chapter. Examples of outstanding programs are highlighted, and areas of support for institutions at various planning stages of program development are presented. (Author)

Rice, Penny J.

2003-01-01

415

Motivation and Adult Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The paper examines the role of adult education and the contribution it can make to the solution of current problems in developing countries, particularly the problems of economic under-development and over-population. (Author/AG)|

Veeraraghavan, J.

1974-01-01

416

Urbanisation and Adult Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problems raised by urbanization are many. Those whose solution can be assisted through adult education are in economics; health, nutrition, and family planning; citizenship training; recreation; and education and culture. (AG)

Nayar, D. P.

1974-01-01

417

Sarcoidosis: Child vs adult  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To compare the features of sarcoidosis in children to those of adults. In spite of the fact that sarcoidosis is\\u000a a disease frequently seen in adults of 30–40 years, pediatric cases have rarely been reported.Methods: The authors evaluated 17 (3.3%, 12 females, 5 males) of the 516 patients of sarcoidosis, aged 16 yr and diagnosed within\\u000a a 36-year period.Results:

Halil Yanarda?; Ömer Nuri Pamuk; Sedat Uygun; Sabriye Demirci; Tuncer Karayel

2006-01-01

418

Multipotent Adult Progenitor Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2001 the laboratory of Catherine Verfaillie at the University of Minnesota described the multipotent adult progenitor cell\\u000a (MAPC) as a novel progenitor cell present in adult marrow that is biologically and antigenically distinct from the mesenchymal\\u000a stem cell (MSC). MAPCs represent a more primitive progenitor cell population than MSCs and demonstrate remarkable differentiation\\u000a capability along the epithelial, endothelial, neuronal,

Wouter van’t Hof; Niladri Mal; Amy Raber; Ming Zhang; Anthony Ting; Robert Deans

419

Strain-specific cognitive deficits in adult mice exposed to early life stress.  

PubMed

Early life stress is a prominent risk factor for the development of adult psychopathology. Numerous studies have shown that early life stress leads to persistent changes in behavioral and endocrine responses to stress. However, despite recent findings of gene expression changes and structural abnormalities in neurons of the forebrain neocortex, little is known about specific cognitive deficits that can result from early life stress. Here we examined five cognitive functions in two inbred strains of mice, the stress-resilient strain C57Bl/6 and the stress-susceptible strain Balb/c, which were exposed to an infant maternal separation paradigm and raised to adulthood. Between postnatal ages P60 to P90, mice underwent a series of tests examining five cognitive functions: Recognition memory, spatial working memory, associative learning, shifts of attentional sets, and reversal learning. None of these functions were impaired in IMS C57Bl/6 mice. In contrast, IMS Balb/c mice exhibited deficits in spatial working memory and extradimensional shifts of attention, that is, functions governed primarily by the medial prefrontal cortex. Thus, like recently discovered changes in frontocortical gene expression, the emergence of specific cognitive deficits associated with the medial prefrontal cortex is also strain-specific. These findings illustrate that early life stress can indeed affect specific cognitive functions in adulthood, and they support the hypothesis that the genetic background and environmental factors are critical determinants in the development of adult cognitive deficits in subjects with a history of early life stress. PMID:21319884

Mehta, Mukti; Schmauss, Claudia

2011-02-01

420

Comparative susceptibility to amylases of starch granules of several single endosperm mutants representative of floury-opaque, starch-deficient, and modified starch types and their double-mutant combinations with opaque-2 in four inbred lines of maize.  

PubMed

Starch granules were prepared from kernels of eight single endosperm mutants, brittle-1, (bt1), brittle-2 (bt2), floury-1, floury-2, soft starch, opaque-1 (o1), shrunken-2 (sh2), and sugary-2 (su2), and their double-mutant combinations with opaque-2 (o2) of four inbred lines of maize (Zea mays L.), B37, C103, Oh43 and W64A. We compared the suscept