Science.gov

Sample records for adult inbred mhc-defined

  1. Myelogenous Leukemia in Adult Inbred MHC Defined Miniature Swine: a model for human myeloid leukemias

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Patricia S.; Teague, Alexander G.S.; Fishman, Brian; Fishman, Aaron S.; Hanekamp, John S.; Moran, Shannon G.; Wikiel, Krzysztof J.; Ferguson, Kelly K.; Lo, Diana P.; Duggan, Michael; Arn, J. Scott; Billiter, Bob; Horner, Ben; Houser, Stuart; Yeap, Beow Yong; Westmoreland, Susan V.; Spitzer, Thomas R.; McMorrow, Isabel M.; Sachs, David H.; Bronson, Roderick T; Huang, Christene A.

    2010-01-01

    This manuscript reports on five cases of spontaneous myelogenous leukemia, similar to human disease, occurring within highly inbred, histocompatible sublines of Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) MHC-defined miniature swine. In cases where a neoplasm was suspected based on clinical observations, samples were obtained for complete blood count, peripheral blood smear, and flow cytometric analysis. Animals confirmed to have neoplasms were euthanized and underwent necropsy. Histological samples were obtained from abnormal tissues and suspect lesions. The phenotype of the malignancies was assessed by flow cytometric analysis of processed peripheral blood mononuclear cells and affected tissues. Five cases of spontaneous myeloid leukemia were identified in adult animals older than 30 months of age. All animals presented with symptoms of weight loss, lethargy, and marked leukocytosis. At autopsy, all animals had systemic disease involvement and presented with severe hepatosplenomegaly. Three of the five myelogenous leukemias have successfully been expanded in vitro. The clustered incidence of disease in this closed herd suggests that genetic factors may be contributing to disease development. Myelogenous leukemia cell lines established from inbred sublines of MGH MHC-defined miniature swine have the potential to be utilized as a model to evaluate therapies of human leukemia. PMID:20079939

  2. Intentional genetic introgression influences survival of adults and subadults in a small, inbred felid population.

    PubMed

    Benson, John F; Hostetler, Jeffrey A; Onorato, David P; Johnson, Warren E; Roelke, Melody E; O'Brien, Stephen J; Jansen, Deborah; Oli, Madan K

    2011-09-01

    1. Inbreeding and low genetic diversity can cause reductions in individual fitness and increase extinction risk in animal populations. Intentional introgression, achieved by releasing genetically diverse individuals into inbred populations, has been used as a conservation tool to improve demographic performance in endangered populations. 2. By the 1980s, Florida panthers (Puma concolor coryi) had been reduced to a small, inbred population that appeared to be on the brink of extinction. In 1995, female pumas from Texas (P. c. stanleyana) were released in occupied panther range as part of an intentional introgression programme to restore genetic variability and improve demographic performance of panthers. 3. We used 25 years (1981-2006) of continuous radiotelemetry and genetic data to estimate and model subadult and adult panther survival and cause-specific mortality to provide rigorous sex and age class-specific survival estimates and evaluate the effect of the introgression programme on these parameters. 4. Genetic ancestry influenced annual survival of subadults and adults after introgression, as F(1) generation admixed panthers ( = 0·98) survived better than pre-introgression type panthers ( = 0·77) and other admixed individuals ( = 0·82). Furthermore, heterozygosity was higher for admixed panthers relative to pre-introgression type panthers and positively influenced survival. 5. Our results are consistent with hybrid vigour; however, extrinsic factors such as low density of males in some areas of panther range may also have contributed to higher survival of F(1) panthers. Regardless, improved survival of F(1) subadults and adults likely contributed to the numerical increase in panthers following introgression, and our results indicate that intentional admixture, achieved here by releasing individuals from another population, appears to have been successful in improving demographic performance in this highly endangered population. PMID:21338353

  3. Dynamics of cell proliferation in the adult dentate gyrus of two inbred strains of mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, N. L.; Nowakowski, R. S.

    2002-01-01

    The output potential of proliferating populations in either the developing or the adult nervous system is critically dependent on the length of the cell cycle (T(c)) and the size of the proliferating population. We developed a new approach for analyzing the cell cycle, the 'Saturate and Survive Method' (SSM), that also reveals the dynamic behaviors in the proliferative population and estimates of the size of the proliferating population. We used this method to analyze the proliferating population of the adult dentate gyrus in 60 day old mice of two inbred strains, C57BL/6J and BALB/cByJ. The results show that the number of cells labeled by exposure to BUdR changes dramatically with time as a function of the number of proliferating cells in the population, the length of the S-phase, cell division, the length of the cell cycle, dilution of the S-phase label, and cell death. The major difference between C57BL/6J and BALB/cByJ mice is the size of the proliferating population, which differs by a factor of two; the lengths of the cell cycle and the S-phase and the probability that a newly produced cell will die within the first 10 days do not differ in these two strains. This indicates that genetic regulation of the size of the proliferating population is independent of the genetic regulation of cell death among those newly produced cells. The dynamic changes in the number of labeled cells as revealed by the SSM protocol also indicate that neither single nor repeated daily injections of BUdR accurately measure 'proliferation.'.

  4. Communal Nesting Increases Pup Growth But Has Limited Effects on Adult Behavior and Neurophysiology in Inbred Mice

    PubMed Central

    Heiderstadt, Kathleen M; Vandenbergh, David J; Gyekis, Joseph P; Blizard, David A

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory mice preferentially rear their offspring in communal nests (CN), with all mothers contributing to maternal care and feeding of all the pups. Previous studies using primarily outbred mice have shown that offspring reared under CN conditions may display increased preweaning growth rates and differences in adult behavior and neurobiology compared with mice reared under single-nesting (SN; one dam with her litter) conditions. Here we compared pup mortality; weaning and adult body weights; adult behavior; and gene expression in the hippocampus and frontal cortex between C57BL/6J, DBA/2J and 129x1/SvJ mice reared by using CN (3 dams and their litters sharing a single nest) or SN. Male and female pups of all 3 strains reared in CN cages showed higher body weight at weaning than did SN pups of the same strain, with no significant difference in pup mortality between groups. Adult male offspring reared in CN showed no differences in any behavioral test when compared with SN offspring. Combining CN dams and litters after parturition revealed greater cortical brain-derived neurotropic factor expression in adult male C57BL/6J offspring and cortical glucocorticoid receptor expression in adult male C57BL/6J and 129x1/SvJ offspring as compared with SN offspring of the same strain. Communal rearing can enhance juvenile growth rates but does not change adult behavior in inbred mouse strains, although potential effects on adult neurophysiology are possible. PMID:24602541

  5. Heat-stress survival in the pre-adult stage of the life cycle in an intercontinental set of recombinant inbred lines of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Sambucetti, P; Scannapieco, A C; Loeschcke, V; Norry, F M

    2013-08-01

    In insects, pre-adult stages of the life cycle are exposed to variation in temperature that may differ from that in adults. However, the genetic basis for adaptation to environmental temperature could be similar between the pre-adult and the adult stages of the life cycle. Here, we tested quantitative trait loci (QTL) for heat-stress survival in larvae of Drosophila melanogaster, with and without a mild-heat-stress pre-treatment. Two sets of recombinant inbred lines derived from lines artificially selected for high and low levels of knockdown resistance to high temperature in young flies were used as the mapping population. There was no apparent increase in heat-shock survival between heat-pretreated and non-pretreated larvae. There was a positive correlation between the two experimental conditions of heat-shock survival (with and without a heat pre-treatment) except for males from one set of lines. Several QTL were identified involving all three major chromosomes. Most QTL for larval thermotolerance overlapped with thermotolerance QTL identified in previous studies for adults, indicating that heat-stress resistance is not genetically independent between life cycle stages because of either linkage or pleiotropy. The sign of the effects of some QTL alleles differed both between the sexes and between life stages. PMID:23580721

  6. An MHC-defined primate model reveals significant rejection of bone marrow after mixed-chimerism induction despite full MHC matching

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Christian P.; Page, Andrew; Linzie, Kelly Hamby; Russell, Maria; Deane, Taylor; Stempora, Linda; Strobert, Elizabeth; Penedo, Maria Cecilia T.; Ward, Thea; Wiseman, Roger; O'Connor, David; Miller, Weston; Sen, Sharon; Singh, Karnail; Kean, Leslie S.

    2010-01-01

    In murine models, mixed hematopoietic chimerism-induction leads to robust immune tolerance. However, translation to primates and to patients has been difficult. In this study, we used a novel MHC-defined rhesus macaque model to examine the impact of MHC matching on the stability of costimulation blockade/sirolimus-mediated chimerism, and to probe possible mechanisms of bone marrow rejection after non-myeloablative transplant. Using busulfan-based pre-transplant preparation and maintenance immunosuppression with sirolimus, as well as CD28- and CD154-blockade, all recipients demonstrated donor engraftment after transplant. However, the mixed-chimerism that resulted was compartmentalized, with recipients demonstrating significantly higher whole blood chimerism compared to T cell chimerism Thus, the vast majority of T cells present post-transplant were recipient- rather than donor-derived. Surprisingly, even in MHC-matched transplants, rejection of donor hematopoiesis predominated after immunosuppression withdrawal. Weaning of immunosuppression was associated with a surge of antigen-experienced T cells, and transplant rejection was associated with the acquisition of donor-directed T cell alloreactivity. These results suggest that a reservoir of alloreactive cells was present despite prior costimulation blockade and sirolimus, and that the post-immunosuppression lymphocytic rebound may have lead to a phenotypic shift in these recipient T cells towards an activated, antigen experienced phenotype, and ultimately, to transplant rejection. PMID:20849552

  7. Ketamine exposure in adult mice leads to increased cell death in C3H, DBA2 and FVB inbred mouse strains

    PubMed Central

    Majewski-Tiedeken, Chalon R.; Rabin, Cara R.; Siegel, Steven J.

    2008-01-01

    Background Drug abuse is common among adolescents and young adults. Although the consequences of intoxication are known, sequelae of drugs emerging on campuses and in clubs nationwide are not. We previously demonstrated that ketamine exposure results in lasting physiological abnormalities in mice. However, the extent to which these deficits reflect neuropathologic changes is not known. Methods The current study examines neuropathologic changes following sub-anesthetic ketamine administration (5 mg/kg i.p. 5) to three inbred mouse strains. Stereologic quantification of silver stained nuclear and linear profiles as well as activated caspase-3 labeling was used to address: 1) whether or not ketamine increases excitotoxic and apoptotic cell death in hippocampal CA3 and 2) whether or not ketamine-induced cell death varies by genetic background. Results Ketamine increased cell death in hippocampal CA3 of adult C3H, DBA2 and FVB mice. Neither silver staining nor activated caspase-3 labeling varied by strain, nor was there an interaction between ketamine-induced cell death and strain. Conclusions Ketamine exposure among young adults, even in limited amounts, may lead to irreversible changes in both brain function and structure. Loss of CA3 hippocampal cells may underlie persistent ERP changes previously shown in mice and possibly contribute to lasting cognitive deficits among ketamine abusers. PMID:17920787

  8. Measuring relatedness between inbred individuals.

    PubMed

    Hedrick, Philip W; Lacy, Robert C

    2015-01-01

    Genetic relatedness between individuals is an important measure in many areas of biology. However, some relatedness measures for use with molecular (allele) data assume that the individuals themselves are not inbred. Here, we present a new measure of relatedness based on the different modes of identity-by-descent for alleles that has an upper bound of 1 even when the individuals being compared are themselves inbred. This new measure is compared to several other measures of relatedness using several simple examples and pedigree data from the wolf population in Isle Royale National Park. PMID:25472983

  9. A pubertal immune challenge alters the antidepressant-like effects of chronic estradiol treatment in inbred and outbred adult female mice

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Nafissa; Kumlin, Ashley M.; Blaustein, Jeffrey D.

    2012-01-01

    Puberty is a period characterized by brain reorganization that contributes to the development of neural and behavioral responses to gonadal steroids. A single injection of the bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), during the pubertal period decreases sexual receptivity in response to ovarian hormones in adulthood. Because chronic estradiol treatment alleviates depression-like symptoms in ovariectomized adult mice, we investigated the effect of pubertal LPS treatment on estradiols antidepressant effects. We hypothesized that pubertal LPS treatment would decrease the antidepressant-like effect of estradiol in adult ovariectomized female mice, as it decreases other behavioral responses to ovarian hormones. As expected, chronic estradiol treatment decreased depression-like behavior, as measured by the duration of immobility, in saline-treated mice from two different strains, as well as in mice treated with LPS in adulthood. In contrast, in mice treated pubertally with LPS, estradiol strikingly increased the duration of immobility. No difference in body weight and in locomotion was found among the groups, suggesting that the differences in depression-like behavior were not due to differences in body weight or locomotor activity between LPS-treated and control mice. These results suggest that exposure to an immune challenge during the pubertal period alters the responsiveness of depression-like behavior to estradiol. PMID:23036617

  10. Field performance of inbred and partially inbred lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Self-fertile breeding accessions were evaluated. These materials are being used to develop recombinant inbred populations for genetic analyses of agronomic and disease resistance traits, which is difficult with the normally self-sterile breeding populations used traditionally. Populations were devel...

  11. Registration of maize inbred line 'GT888'

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize (Zea mays L.) inbred line GT888 (PI 670116) was developed and released by the USDA-ARS in cooperation with the University of Georgia, and in participation with the USDA Germplasm Enhancement of Maize (GEM) project. GT888 was derived from GEM population DK888:N11 (GEMN-0177), which has 50% tro...

  12. Registration of maize inbred line GT603

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    GT603 (Reg. No. xxxx, PI xxxxxx) is a yellow dent maize (Zea mays L.) inbred line developed and released by the USDA-ARS Crop Protection and Management Research Unit in cooperation with the University of Georgia Coastal Plain Experiment Station in 2010. GT603 was developed through seven generations ...

  13. Recombinant inbred lines derived from potato interspecific hybrids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recombinant inbred lines (RILs) offer new opportunities for mapping traits of interest to potato breeders. We are developing a set of six RILs, which will comprise a nested association mapping population. The common parent is M6, an inbred line of the diploid wild relative Solanum chacoense. Other g...

  14. Comprehensive genotyping of the USA national maize inbred seed bank

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The germplasm bank at the USDA-ARS North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station (NCRPIS) in Ames, Iowa, preserves maize inbred lines from breeding programs from all over the world, including some of the key lines from the breeding history of maize. We genotyped 2,815 maize inbred accessions, mo...

  15. A quantitative study of cerebrovascular variation in inbred mice.

    PubMed Central

    Ward, R; Collins, R L; Tanguay, G; Miceli, D

    1990-01-01

    The arteries of the base of the mouse brain were examined after perfusion with India ink. A qualitative difference exists between inbred mice of three strains (C57BL/6J, 129/J and BALB/cCF) on the one hand, and genetically defined heterogeneous mice on the other; the latter consistently show anomalies similar to those previously described in genetically undefined rodents, whereas inbred mice do not. A quantitative morphometric analysis of the Circle of Willis of inbred mice was undertaken. The results of this analysis are consistent with the notion that the differences in shape between the circles of Willis of different strains of inbred mice are due to additive genetic variation between these strains. PMID:2074233

  16. Transcriptome analysis of Inbred Long Sleep and Inbred Short Sleep mice

    PubMed Central

    Darlington, Todd; Ehringer, Marissa; Larson, Colin; Phang, Tzu; Radcliffe, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have utilized the Inbred Long Sleep and Inbred Short Sleep mouse strains to model the genetic influence on initial sensitivity to ethanol. The mechanisms underlying this divergent phenotype are still not completely understood. In this study, we attempt to identify genes that are differentially expressed between these two strains and to identify baseline networks of co-expressed genes, which may provide insight regarding their phenotypic differences. We examined the whole brain and striatal transcriptomes of both strains, using next generation RNA sequencing techniques. Many genes were differentially expressed between strains, including several in chromosomal regions previously shown to influence initial sensitivity to ethanol. These results are in concordance with a similar sample of striatal transcriptomes measured using microarrays. In addition to the higher dynamic range, RNA-Seq is not hindered by high background noise or polymorphisms in probesets as with microarray technology, and we are able to analyze exome sequence of abundant genes. Furthermore, utilizing Weighted Gene Co-expression Network Analysis (WGCNA) we identified several modules of co-expressed genes corresponding to strain differences. Several candidate genes were identified, including protein phosphatase 1 regulatory unit 1b (Ppp1r1b), prodynorphin (Pdyn), proenkephalin (Penk), ras association (RalGDS/AF-6) domain family member 2 (Rassf2), myosin 1d (Myo1d), and transthyretin (Ttr). In addition, we propose a role for potassium channel activity as well as map kinase signaling in the observed phenotypic differences between the two strains. PMID:23433184

  17. USDA, ARS beit alpha cucumber inbred backcross line population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A series of Beit Alpha cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) market type inbred backcross were released in January 2010 by the Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture. The IBL were made available to U.S. cucumber breeders to supply a source from which they may develop Beit Al...

  18. Sites of ozone sensitivity in diverse maize inbred lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) is an air pollutant that costs ~$14-26 billion in global crop losses and is projected to worsen in the future. Potential sites of O3 sensitivity in maize were tested by growing 200 inbred lines, including the nested association mapping population founder lines, under ambient...

  19. Progress toward the development of recombinant inbred lines in potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Complexities due to tetraploid genetics limit breeding progress in potato. Diploids offer more simple genetics. Homozygous populations such as recombinant inbred lines are powerful resources for genetic mapping and the subsequent development of markers for marker-assisted selection. Most potato dipl...

  20. Genetic Regulation of Mup Production in Recombinant Inbred Mice

    PubMed Central

    Szoka, P. R.; Paigen, K.

    1979-01-01

    Inbred strains of mice excrete all three major urinary proteins (mups) when induced by testosterone, but differ as to the relative proportions and total levels of each mup present. We have now determined the urinary mup phenotypes before and after testosterone treatment of seven recombinant inbred strains derived from progenitor strains exhibiting different mup phenotypes. The results confirm previous observations indicating that total control of mup protein production is a multigenic process. One locus, Mup-a on chromosome 4, determines the relative mup protein proportions after induction by testosterone. Mup-a, together with other genetic sites, determines the basal mup proportions. Genes other than Mup-a determine the kinetics of mup induction and total mup excretion. PMID:548348

  1. INBRE Support of Core Facilities at Multiple Institutions

    PubMed Central

    Meyn, Susan; Turpen, James

    2013-01-01

    The Nebraska INBRE is an NIH-IDEA supported program that focuses on development of the research capacity at multiple institutions of higher education in Nebraska. One component of the project is the development of research capacity at primarily undergraduate institutions and a second component focuses on the research capacity at research intensive institutions. A major portion of our support is focused on the establishment and functioning of six multiuser core facilities at the research intensive institutions. At the University of Nebraska Medical Center, these facilities include a DNA Microarray and Next Generation Sequencing Core, a Mass Spectrometry and Proteomics Core, and a Structural Biology and Biophysics Core. Two cores at Creighton University Medical center receive INBRE support, the Integrated Biomedical Imaging Facility and the Structural Proteomics Core. A collaborative Bioinformatics Core has been established at the University of Nebraska at Omaha with ancillary facilities at UNMC. Support for all of these cores takes the general form of partial support for technical personnel and core directors, ongoing contributions to supply costs and maintenance agreements. One of our critical INBRE activities has been to coordinate with other units on these campuses to cooperatively fund the purchase of major instruments such as the Next Generation Sequencer and Mass Spectrometer. INBRE has played a key role in being the first to commit resources toward such purchases, thus initiating the process of identifying multiple sources of funding. This is an ongoing and essential process due to the constant technological advances in instrumentation and software used by core facilities. Challenges we have faced include termination of support for core facilities for a variety of reasons and, perhaps surprisingly, getting users of the core facilities to acknowledge all of the funding sources the cores rely on in publications that depend on data contributed by the cores.

  2. Breeding Designs for Recombinant Inbred Advanced Intercross Lines

    PubMed Central

    Rockman, Matthew V.; Kruglyak, Leonid

    2008-01-01

    Recombinant inbred lines derived from an advanced intercross, in which multiple generations of mating have increased the density of recombination breakpoints, are powerful tools for mapping the loci underlying complex traits. We investigated the effects of intercross breeding designs on the utility of such lines for mapping. The simplest design, random pair mating with each pair contributing exactly two offspring to the next generation, performed as well as the most extreme inbreeding avoidance scheme at expanding the genetic map, increasing fine-mapping resolution, and controlling genetic drift. Circular mating designs offer negligible advantages for controlling drift and exhibit greatly reduced map expansion. Random-mating designs with variance in offspring number are also poor at increasing mapping resolution. Given equal contributions of each parent to the next generation, the constraint of monogamy has no impact on the qualities of the final population of inbred lines. We find that the easiest crosses to perform are well suited to the task of generating populations of highly recombinant inbred lines. PMID:18505881

  3. Condition, innate immunity and disease mortality of inbred crows

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Andrea K.; Clark, Anne B.; McGowan, Kevin J.; Miller, Andrew D.; Buckles, Elizabeth L.

    2010-01-01

    Cooperatively breeding American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) suffer a severe disease-mediated survival cost from inbreeding, but the proximate mechanisms linking inbreeding to disease are unknown. Here, we examine indices of nestling body condition and innate immunocompetence in relationship to inbreeding and disease mortality. Using an estimate of microsatellite heterozygosity that predicts inbreeding in this population, we show that inbred crows were in relatively poor condition as nestlings, and that body condition index measured in the first 233 days after hatching, in addition to inbreeding index, predicted disease probability in the first 34 months of life. Inbred nestlings also mounted a weaker response along one axis of innate immunity: the proportion of bacteria killed in a microbiocidal assay increased as heterozygosity index increased. Relatively poor body condition and low innate immunocompetence are two mechanisms that might predispose inbred crows to ultimate disease mortality. A better understanding of condition-mediated inbreeding depression can guide efforts to minimize disease costs of inbreeding in small populations. PMID:20444716

  4. Genetic analysis of intestinal cholesterol absorption in inbred mice.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, M; Davis, D L; Vick, B R; Russell, D W

    2001-11-01

    A genetic mapping strategy was employed to identify chromosomal regions harboring genes that influence the absorption of intestinal cholesterol in the mouse. Analysis of seven inbred strains of male mice (129P3, AKR, BALB/c, C3H/He, C57BL/6, DBA/2, and SJL, all from Jackson Laboratories) revealed substantial differences in their abilities to absorb a bolus of cholesterol delivered by gavage. Crosses between high (AKR, 129) and low (DBA/2, SJL) absorbing strains revealed evidence for the presence of dominant genes that increase and decrease cholesterol absorption. Backcrosses between F1 offspring and parental strains (DBA/2xAKD2F1 and 129xSJL129F1) followed by linkage analyses revealed four quantitative trait loci that influenced cholesterol absorption. Analyses of recombinant inbred strains identified an additional three loci affecting this phenotype. These seven quantitative trait loci, which map to different chromosomes and are termed Cholesterol absorption 1-7 (Chab1-7) loci, together influence the absorption of intestinal cholesterol in mice and are likely to be involved in different steps of this complex pathway. PMID:11714849

  5. Physiological and biochemical bases of fall armyworm resistance in the seedlings of maize inbred lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four CIMMYT maize inbred lines (i.e., CML333, CML335, CML 336, and CML338), and a susceptible (i.e., AB24E) and resistant (i.e., Mp780) control were examined for the mechanisms of fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda (JE Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) resistance. The six inbred lines were ev...

  6. Registration of the TM-1/NM24016 Cotton Recombinant Inbred Mapping Population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The TM-1/NM24016 cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) mapping population consists of 95 F5:9 recombinant inbred lines. This cotton mapping population was constructed from a cross between inbred lines TM-1, the genetic standard for G. hirsutum, and NM24016, an advanced selection with stable expression of i...

  7. Molecular Characterization of Maize Inbreds with Expired U.S. Plant Variety Protection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize inbred lines with expired Plant Variety Protection Act (PVPA) certificates are publically available and potentially represent a new germplasm resource for many public and private breeding programs. However, accurate pedigree and genetic background information for ex-PVPA maize inbreds is nece...

  8. Diagnostics of low-pressure discharges containing InBr studied for lighting applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briefi, S.; Fantz, U.

    2013-10-01

    The utilization of InBr in low-pressure rare-gas plasmas for lighting applications may serve as an efficient alternative to hazardous mercury, which is used in common fluorescent lamps as a radiator. In order to perform systematic investigations of these discharges, diagnostic methods are required to gain insight into the relevant plasma parameters. This goal can be achieved by using white light absorption and optical emission spectroscopy supported by an extended corona model of the indium atom and a simulation of the relative intensity of the InBr emission. The set of diagnostic methods is exemplarily applied to measurements on an inductively coupled argon discharge at 100 W power with varying InBr content. The plasma parameters are derived and the processes determining their changes with varying InBr density are identified. Increasing the InBr density results in a decrease in Te but an increase in ne, which can be explained by considering the ionization and power balance. The relevant population processes for the rovibrational states of InBr are inelastic collisions with heavy particles with an increasing importance of electron impact excitation at a higher InBr density. The radiated power is maximal at a cold spot temperature between 210 and 220 C as reabsorption occurs at a high InBr density.

  9. Registration of the Ki14 B73 recombinant inbred mapping population of maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center released Ki14 B73 (KB) maize (Zea mays L.) mapping population, a set of 119 recombinant inbred lines (RILs), in March 2007. The mapping population was derived from a biparental cross between inbreds Ki14 (NCRPIS accession Ames 27259) and B73 (...

  10. R/qtlDesign: inbred line cross experimental design

    PubMed Central

    Sen, ?aunak; Satagopan, Jaya M.; Broman, Karl W.; Churchill, Gary A.

    2008-01-01

    An investigator planning a QTL (quantitative trait locus) experiment has to choose which strains to cross, the type of cross, genotyping strategies, and the number of progeny to raise and phenotype. To help make such choices, we have developed an interactive program for power and sample size calculations for QTL experiments, R/qtlDesign. Our software includes support for selective genotyping strategies, variable marker spacing, and tools to optimize information content subject to cost constraints for backcross, intercross, and recombinant inbred lines from two parental strains. We review the impact of experimental design choices on the variance attributable to a segregating locus, the residual error variance, and the effective sample size. We give examples of software usage in real-life settings. The software is available at http://www.biostat.ucsf.edu/sen/software.html. PMID:17347894

  11. Variation in actual relationship among descendants of inbred individuals

    PubMed Central

    HILL, W. G.; WEIR, B. S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary In previous analyses, the variation in actual, or realized, relationship has been derived as a function of map length of chromosomes and type of relationship, the variation being greater the shorter the total chromosome length and the coefficient of variation being greater the more distant the relationship. Here, the results are extended to allow for the relatives' ancestor being inbred. Inbreeding of a parent reduces variation in actual relationship among its offspring, by an amount that depends on the inbreeding level and the type of mating that led to that level. For descendants of full-sibs, the variation is reduced in later generations, but for descendants of half-sibs, it is increased. PMID:23298449

  12. Autism-related behavioral phenotypes in an inbred rat substrain.

    PubMed

    Zhang-James, Yanli; Yang, Li; Middleton, Frank A; Yang, Lina; Patak, Jameson; Faraone, Stephen V

    2014-08-01

    Behavioral and genetic differences among Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats from different vendors and different breeders have long been observed, but generally overlooked. In our prior work, we found that two closely related WKY substrains, the WKY/NCrl and WKY/NHsd rats, differ in a small percentage of their genome which appeared to be highly enriched for autism risk genes. Although both substrains have been used widely in studies of hypertension, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and depression, they have not been tested for any autism-related behavioral phenotypes. Furthermore, these two substrains have often been used interchangeably in previous studies; no study has systematically examined the phenotypic differences that could be attributed by their small yet potentially meaningful genetic differences. In this paper we compared these two substrains on a battery of neurobehavioral tests. Although two substrains were similar in locomotor activity, WKY/NCrl rats were significantly different from WKY/NHsd rats in the elevated plus maze test, as well as measures of social interaction and ultrasonic vocalization. These strains were also compared with Sprague Dawley (SD) rats, a common outbred strain, and spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR), an inbred rat model for ADHD and hypertension, which were derived from the same ancestor strain as the WKY strains. Our behavioral findings suggest that WKY/NCrl rats may be useful as a model autism spectrum disorders due to their lower social interest, lower ultrasonic vocalization and higher anxiety levels when WKY/NHsd rats are used as the control strain. Given the small genetic difference between the two inbred substrains, future studies to identify the exact gene and sequence variants that differ between the two may be useful for identifying the genetic mechanisms underlying these behaviors. PMID:24780868

  13. InbR, a TetR family regulator, binds with isoniazid and influences multidrug resistance in Mycobacterium bovis BCG

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Min; Gao, Chun-Hui; Hu, Jialing; Zhao, Lei; Huang, Qiaoyun; He, Zheng-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Isoniazid (INH), an anti-tuberculosis (TB) drug, has been widely used for nearly 60 years. However, the pathway through which Mycobacterium tuberculosis responds INH remain largely unclear. In this study, we characterized a novel transcriptional factor, InbR, which is encoded by Rv0275c and belongs to the TetR family, that is directly responsive to INH. Disrupting inbR made mycobacteria more sensitive to INH, whereas overexpressing inbR decreased bacterial susceptibility to the drug. InbR could bind specifically to the upstream region of its own operon at two inverted repeats and act as an auto-repressor. Furthermore, InbR directly bind with INH, and the binding reduced InbRs DNA-binding ability. Interestingly, susceptibilities were also changed by InbR for other anti-TB drugs, such as rifampin, implying that InbR may play a role in multi-drug resistance. Additionally, microarray analyses revealed a portion genes of the inbR regulon have similar expression patterns in inbR-overexpressing strain and INH-treated wild type strain, suggesting that these genes, for example iniBAC, may be responsible to the drug resistance of inbR-overexpressing strain. The regulation of these genes by InbR were further assessed by ChIP-seq assay. InbR may regulate multiple drug resistance of mycobacteria through the regulation of these genes. PMID:26353937

  14. Physiological basis of fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) resistance in the seedlings of maize inbred lines with varying levels of silk maysin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To assess both foliage- and ear-feeding insect resistance in the same maize inbred lines, fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda (JE Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) resistance at the seedling stage was examined in six corn inbred lines. The six inbred lines included the four CIMMYT maize inbred...

  15. Difference between Pb and Cd Accumulation in 19 Elite Maize Inbred Lines and Application Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhiming; Jin, Feng; Wang, Cui; Luo, Jun; Lin, Haijian; Xiang, Kui; Liu, Li; Zhao, Maojun; Zhang, Yunsong; Ding, Haiping; Zhou, Shufeng; Shen, Yaou; Pan, Guangtang

    2012-01-01

    In the last two decades, the accumulation of heavy metal in crop grains has become the study hotspot. In this study, 19 representative elite maize inbred lines and 3 hybrid varieties were investigated at the seedling stage, which can accumulate Pb and Cd in the stems and leaves, respectively. The results demonstrated that significant differences are among inbred lines for accumulation of heavy metals, implying that the Cd accumulation is significant correlation between the male parents and their hybrids and some inbred lines have been selected for cross-breeding with low Pb or Cd accumulation, such as S37, 9782, and ES40; Moreover, some inbred lines could be suitable for phytoremediation species for soil bioremediation with high levels of Pb and Cd accumulation, including 178, R08, 48-2, and Mo17ht. PMID:22665982

  16. Difference between Pb and Cd accumulation in 19 elite maize inbred lines and application prospects.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiming; Jin, Feng; Wang, Cui; Luo, Jun; Lin, Haijian; Xiang, Kui; Liu, Li; Zhao, Maojun; Zhang, Yunsong; Ding, Haiping; Zhou, Shufeng; Shen, Yaou; Pan, Guangtang

    2012-01-01

    In the last two decades, the accumulation of heavy metal in crop grains has become the study hotspot. In this study, 19 representative elite maize inbred lines and 3 hybrid varieties were investigated at the seedling stage, which can accumulate Pb and Cd in the stems and leaves, respectively. The results demonstrated that significant differences are among inbred lines for accumulation of heavy metals, implying that the Cd accumulation is significant correlation between the male parents and their hybrids and some inbred lines have been selected for cross-breeding with low Pb or Cd accumulation, such as S37, 9782, and ES40; Moreover, some inbred lines could be suitable for phytoremediation species for soil bioremediation with high levels of Pb and Cd accumulation, including 178, R08, 48-2, and Mo17ht. PMID:22665982

  17. Whole-Genome Sequence of the C57L/J Mouse Inbred Strain

    PubMed Central

    Ananda, Guruprasad; Takemon, Yuka; Hinerfeld, Douglas; Korstanje, Ron

    2014-01-01

    We sequenced the complete genome of the widely used C57L/J mouse inbred strain. With 40 average coverage, we compared the C57L/J sequence with that of the C57BL/6J and identified many known as well as novel private variants. This genome sequence adds another strain to the growing number of mouse inbred strains with complete genome sequences and is a valuable resource to the scientific community. PMID:25053706

  18. Susceptibility and resistance of inbred mice to Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed Central

    Calich, V. L.; Singer-Vermes, L. M.; Siqueira, A. M.; Burger, E.

    1985-01-01

    Nine different inbred strains of mice inoculated intraperitoneally with yeast cells of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis showed significantly varying patterns of susceptibility. The A/SN strain was found to be the most resistant, while BIOD2/nSn, BIO.A and BIOD2/oSn the most susceptible strains. These susceptibility differences were not dependent on the size of challenge inocula and sex of animals. All strains studied showed a mean survival time proportional to the size of inocula used. Although almost all infected male mice presented a shorter survival time when compared with females, significant mortality differences between sexes were found only in two of the strains studied, namely BALB/c and BIOD2/nSn. The H-2 region did not influence the susceptibility pattern since the A/SN and BIO.A strains share the same H-2 haplotype and were respectively highly resistant and susceptible to P. brasiliensis. Furthermore, the presence of C5 and unresponsiveness to lipopolysaccharide had no influence on the mortality data observed. Specific antibodies were detected only in a small number of animals and titres were consistently low, appearing later in the resistant (A/SN) than in a susceptible strain (BIO.A). Omentum, spleen and liver were the most affected organs in both strains, but the susceptible mice had more granulomatous lesions and earlier dissemination of the fungus. PMID:4063162

  19. Recombinant inbred systems can advance research in behavioral ecology

    PubMed Central

    Gini, Beatrice; Hager, Reinmar

    2012-01-01

    Recombinant inbred (RI) systems such as the BXD mouse family represent a population with defined genetic architecture and variation that approximates those of natural populations. With the development of novel RI lines and sophisticated methods that conjointly analyze phenotype, gene sequence, and expression data, RI systems such as BXD are a timely and powerful tool to advance the field of behavioral ecology. The latter traditionally focused on functional questions such as the adaptive value of behavior but largely ignored underlying genetics and mechanisms. In this perspective, we argue that using RI systems to address questions in behavioral ecology and evolutionary biology has great potential to advance research in these fields. We outline key questions and how they can be tackled using RI systems and BXD in particular. The unique opportunity to analyze genetic and phenotypic data from studies conducted in different laboratories and at different times is a key benefit of RI systems and may lead the way to a better understanding of how adaptive phenotypes arise from genetic and environmental factors. PMID:23060902

  20. The genetic architecture of NAFLD among inbred strains of mice.

    PubMed

    Hui, Simon T; Parks, Brian W; Org, Elin; Norheim, Frode; Che, Nam; Pan, Calvin; Castellani, Lawrence W; Charugundla, Sarada; Dirks, Darwin L; Psychogios, Nikolaos; Neuhaus, Isaac; Gerszten, Robert E; Kirchgessner, Todd; Gargalovic, Peter S; Lusis, Aldons J

    2015-01-01

    To identify genetic and environmental factors contributing to the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, we examined liver steatosis and related clinical and molecular traits in more than 100 unique inbred mouse strains, which were fed a diet rich in fat and carbohydrates. A >30-fold variation in hepatic TG accumulation was observed among the strains. Genome-wide association studies revealed three loci associated with hepatic TG accumulation. Utilizing transcriptomic data from the liver and adipose tissue, we identified several high-confidence candidate genes for hepatic steatosis, including Gde1, a glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase not previously implicated in triglyceride metabolism. We confirmed the role of Gde1 by in vivo hepatic over-expression and shRNA knockdown studies. We hypothesize that Gde1 expression increases TG production by contributing to the production of glycerol-3-phosphate. Our multi-level data, including transcript levels, metabolite levels, and gut microbiota composition, provide a framework for understanding genetic and environmental interactions underlying hepatic steatosis. PMID:26067236

  1. The genetic architecture of NAFLD among inbred strains of mice

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Simon T; Parks, Brian W; Org, Elin; Norheim, Frode; Che, Nam; Pan, Calvin; Castellani, Lawrence W; Charugundla, Sarada; Dirks, Darwin L; Psychogios, Nikolaos; Neuhaus, Isaac; Gerszten, Robert E; Kirchgessner, Todd; Gargalovic, Peter S; Lusis, Aldons J

    2015-01-01

    To identify genetic and environmental factors contributing to the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, we examined liver steatosis and related clinical and molecular traits in more than 100 unique inbred mouse strains, which were fed a diet rich in fat and carbohydrates. A >30-fold variation in hepatic TG accumulation was observed among the strains. Genome-wide association studies revealed three loci associated with hepatic TG accumulation. Utilizing transcriptomic data from the liver and adipose tissue, we identified several high-confidence candidate genes for hepatic steatosis, including Gde1, a glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase not previously implicated in triglyceride metabolism. We confirmed the role of Gde1 by in vivo hepatic over-expression and shRNA knockdown studies. We hypothesize that Gde1 expression increases TG production by contributing to the production of glycerol-3-phosphate. Our multi-level data, including transcript levels, metabolite levels, and gut microbiota composition, provide a framework for understanding genetic and environmental interactions underlying hepatic steatosis. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05607.001 PMID:26067236

  2. Social Deficits, Stereotypy, and Early Emergence of Repetitive Behavior in the C58/J Inbred Mouse Strain

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Bryce C.; Young, Nancy B.; Crawley, Jacqueline N.; Bodfish, James W.; Moy, Sheryl S.

    2010-01-01

    Mouse lines with behavioral phenotypes relevant to symptoms in neurodevelopmental disorders may provide models to test hypotheses about disease etiology and to evaluate potential treatments. The present studies were designed to confirm and expand earlier work on the intriguing behavioral profile of the C58/J inbred strain, including low social approach and aberrant repetitive movements. Additional tests were selected to reflect aspects of autism, a severe neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by emergence of symptoms early in life, higher prevalence in males, social deficits and abnormal repetitive behavior. Mice from the C57BL/6J inbred strain, which has a similar genetic lineage and physical appearance to C58/J, served as a comparison group. Our results revealed that C58/J mice display elevated activity levels by postnatal day 6, which persist into adulthood. Despite normal olfactory ability, young adult male C58/J mice showed deficits in social approach in the three-chambered choice assay and failed to demonstrate social transmission of food preference. In contrast, female C58/J mice performed similarly to female C57BL/6J mice in both social tests. C58/J mice of both sexes demonstrated abnormal repetitive behaviors, displaying excessive jumping and back flipping in both social and non-social situations. These stereotypies were clearly evident in C58/J pups by postnatal days 20–21, and were also observed in C58/J dams during a test for maternal behavior. Overall, the strain profile for C58/J, including spontaneously developing motor stereotypies emerging early in the developmental trajectory, and social deficits primarily in males, models multiple components of the autism phenotype. PMID:19941908

  3. Variation in Taxonomic Composition of the Fecal Microbiota in an Inbred Mouse Strain across Individuals and Time.

    PubMed

    Hoy, Yana Emmy; Bik, Elisabeth M; Lawley, Trevor D; Holmes, Susan P; Monack, Denise M; Theriot, Julie A; Relman, David A

    2015-01-01

    Genetics, diet, and other environmental exposures are thought to be major factors in the development and composition of the intestinal microbiota of animals. However, the relative contributions of these factors in adult animals, as well as variation with time in a variety of important settings, are still not fully understood. We studied a population of inbred, female mice fed the same diet and housed under the same conditions. We collected fecal samples from 46 individual mice over two weeks, sampling four of these mice for periods as long as 236 days for a total of 190 samples, and determined the phylogenetic composition of their microbial communities after analyzing 1,849,990 high-quality pyrosequencing reads of the 16S rRNA gene V3 region. Even under these controlled conditions, we found significant inter-individual variation in community composition, as well as variation within an individual over time, including increases in alpha diversity during the first 2 months of co-habitation. Some variation was explained by mouse membership in different cage and vendor shipment groups. The differences among individual mice from the same shipment group and cage were still significant. Overall, we found that 23% of the variation in intestinal microbiota composition was explained by changes within the fecal microbiota of a mouse over time, 12% was explained by persistent differences among individual mice, 14% by cage, and 18% by shipment group. Our findings suggest that the microbiota of controlled populations of inbred laboratory animals may not be as uniform as previously thought, that animal rearing and handling may account for some variation, and that as yet unidentified factors may explain additional components of variation in the composition of the microbiota within populations and individuals over time. These findings have implications for the design and interpretation of experiments involving laboratory animals. PMID:26565698

  4. Variation in Taxonomic Composition of the Fecal Microbiota in an Inbred Mouse Strain across Individuals and Time

    PubMed Central

    Hoy, Yana Emmy; Bik, Elisabeth M.; Lawley, Trevor D.; Holmes, Susan P.; Monack, Denise M.

    2015-01-01

    Genetics, diet, and other environmental exposures are thought to be major factors in the development and composition of the intestinal microbiota of animals. However, the relative contributions of these factors in adult animals, as well as variation with time in a variety of important settings, are still not fully understood. We studied a population of inbred, female mice fed the same diet and housed under the same conditions. We collected fecal samples from 46 individual mice over two weeks, sampling four of these mice for periods as long as 236 days for a total of 190 samples, and determined the phylogenetic composition of their microbial communities after analyzing 1,849,990 high-quality pyrosequencing reads of the 16S rRNA gene V3 region. Even under these controlled conditions, we found significant inter-individual variation in community composition, as well as variation within an individual over time, including increases in alpha diversity during the first 2 months of co-habitation. Some variation was explained by mouse membership in different cage and vendor shipment groups. The differences among individual mice from the same shipment group and cage were still significant. Overall, we found that 23% of the variation in intestinal microbiota composition was explained by changes within the fecal microbiota of a mouse over time, 12% was explained by persistent differences among individual mice, 14% by cage, and 18% by shipment group. Our findings suggest that the microbiota of controlled populations of inbred laboratory animals may not be as uniform as previously thought, that animal rearing and handling may account for some variation, and that as yet unidentified factors may explain additional components of variation in the composition of the microbiota within populations and individuals over time. These findings have implications for the design and interpretation of experiments involving laboratory animals. PMID:26565698

  5. The ancestor of extant Japanese fancy mice contributed to the mosaic genomes of classical inbred strains

    PubMed Central

    Takada, Toyoyuki; Ebata, Toshinobu; Noguchi, Hideki; Keane, Thomas M.; Adams, David J.; Narita, Takanori; Shin-I, Tadasu; Fujisawa, Hironori; Toyoda, Atsushi; Abe, Kuniya; Obata, Yuichi; Sakaki, Yoshiyuki; Moriwaki, Kazuo; Fujiyama, Asao; Kohara, Yuji; Shiroishi, Toshihiko

    2013-01-01

    Commonly used classical inbred mouse strains have mosaic genomes with sequences from different subspecific origins. Their genomes are derived predominantly from the Western European subspecies Mus musculus domesticus, with the remaining sequences derived mostly from the Japanese subspecies Mus musculus molossinus. However, it remains unknown how this intersubspecific genome introgression occurred during the establishment of classical inbred strains. In this study, we resequenced the genomes of two M. m. molossinusderived inbred strains, MSM/Ms and JF1/Ms. MSM/Ms originated from Japanese wild mice, and the ancestry of JF1/Ms was originally found in Europe and then transferred to Japan. We compared the characteristics of these sequences to those of the C57BL/6J reference sequence and the recent data sets from the resequencing of 17 inbred strains in the Mouse Genome Project (MGP), and the results unequivocally show that genome introgression from M. m. molossinus into M. m. domesticus provided the primary framework for the mosaic genomes of classical inbred strains. Furthermore, the genomes of C57BL/6J and other classical inbred strains have long consecutive segments with extremely high similarity (>99.998%) to the JF1/Ms strain. In the early 20th century, Japanese waltzing mice with a morphological phenotype resembling that of JF1/Ms mice were often crossed with European fancy mice for early studies of Mendelism, which suggests that the ancestor of the extant JF1/Ms strain provided the origin of the M. m. molossinus genome in classical inbred strains and largely contributed to its intersubspecific genome diversity. PMID:23604024

  6. Phenotypic variation of fluoride responses between inbred strains of mice.

    PubMed

    Yan, Dong; Willett, Thomas L; Gu, Xiao-Mei; Martinez-Mier, E Angeles; Sardone, Laura; McShane, Lauren; Grynpas, Marc; Everett, Eric T

    2011-01-01

    Excessive systemic exposure to fluoride (F) can lead to disturbances in bone homeostasis and dental enamel development. We have previously shown strain-specific responses to F in the development of dental fluorosis (DF) and in bone formation/mineralization. The current study was undertaken to further investigate F responsive variations in bone metabolism and to determine possible relationships with DF susceptibility. Seven-week-old male mice from FVB/NJ, C57BL/6J, C3H/HeJ, A/J, 129S1/SvImJ, AKR/J, DBA/2J, and BALB/cByJ inbred strains were exposed to NaF (0 or 50 ppm as F(-)) in drinking water for 60 days. Sera were collected for F, Ca, Mg, PO(4), iPTH, sRANKL, and ALP levels. Bone marrow cells were subjected to ex vivo cell culture for osteoclast potential and CFU colony assays (CFU-fibroblast, CFU-osteoblast, CFU-erythrocyte/granulocyte/macrophage/megakaryocyte, CFU-granulocyte/macrophage, CFU-macrophage, and CFU-granulocyte). Femurs and vertebrae were subjected to micro-CT analyses, biomechanical testing, and F, Mg, and Ca content assays. DF was evaluated using quantitative fluorescence and clinical criteria. Strain-specific responses to F were observed for DF, serum studies, ex vivo cell culture studies, and bone quality. Among the strains, there were no patterns or significant correlations between DF severity and the actions of F on bone homeostasis (serum studies, ex vivo assays, or bone quality parameters). The genetic background continues to play a role in the actions of F on tooth enamel development and bone homeostasis. F exposure led to variable phenotypic responses between strains involving dental enamel development and bone metabolism. PMID:21555858

  7. Intergenerational effects of inbreeding in Nicrophorus vespilloides: offspring suffer fitness costs when either they or their parents are inbred.

    PubMed

    Mattey, S N; Strutt, L; Smiseth, P T

    2013-04-01

    Inbreeding depression is the reduction in fitness caused by mating between related individuals. Inbreeding is expected to cause a reduction in offspring fitness when the offspring themselves are inbred, but outbred individuals may also suffer a reduction in fitness when they depend on care from inbred parents. At present, little is known about the significance of such intergenerational effects of inbreeding. Here, we report two experiments on the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides, an insect with elaborate parental care, in which we investigated inbreeding depression in offspring when either the offspring themselves or their parents were inbred. We found substantial inbreeding depression when offspring were inbred, including reductions in hatching success of inbred eggs and survival of inbred offspring. We also found substantial inbreeding depression when parents were inbred, including reductions in hatching success of eggs produced by inbred parents and survival of outbred offspring that received care from inbred parents. Our results suggest that intergenerational effects of inbreeding can have substantial fitness costs to offspring, and that future studies need to incorporate such costs to obtain accurate estimates of inbreeding depression. PMID:23442044

  8. Approaches to Investigating Complex Genetic Traits in a Large-Scale Inbred Mouse Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Sundberg, J P; Berndt, A; Sundberg, B A; Silva, K A; Kennedy, V; Smith, R S; Cooper, T K; Schofield, P N

    2016-03-01

    Inbred mice are a unique model system for studying aging because of the genetic homogeneity within inbred strains, the short life span of mice relative to humans, and the rich array of analytic tools that are available. A large-scale aging study was conducted on 28 inbred strains representing great genetic diversity to determine, via histopathology, the type and diversity of spontaneous diseases that aging mice develop. A total of 20 885 different diagnoses were made, with an average of 12 diagnoses per mouse in the study. Eighteen inbred strains have had their genomes sequenced, and many others have been partially sequenced to provide large repositories of data on genetic variation among the strains. This vast amount of genomic information can be utilized in genome-wide association studies to find candidate genes that are involved in the pathogenesis of spontaneous diseases. As an illustration, this article presents a genome-wide association study of the genetic associations of age-related intestinal amyloidosis, which implicated 3 candidate genes: translocating chain-associated membrane protein 1 (Tram1); splicing factor 3b, subunit 5 (Sf3b5); and syntaxin 11 (Stx11). Representative photomicrographs are available on the Mouse Tumor Biology Database and Pathbase to serve as a reference when evaluating inbred mice used in other genetic or experimental studies to rule out strain background lesions. Many of the age-related mouse diseases are similar, if not identical, to human diseases; therefore, the genetic discoveries have direct translational benefit. PMID:26936752

  9. No association between tumor necrosis factor-alpha production and gene polymorphisms among inbred rat strains.

    PubMed

    Warl, Michiel C; van der Laan, Luc J W; Kusters, Johannes G; Pot, Raymond G J; Hop, Wim C J; Segeren, Katja C A; Ijzermans, Jan N M; Metselaar, Herold J; Tilanus, Hugo W

    2005-06-01

    Differences in spontaneous allograft acceptance after liver transplantation among inbred rat strains might be explained by variation in the local production of TNF-alpha as a potent mediator of the inflammatory response. In this study, we hypothesize that nucleotide differences in the rat Tnf gene influence TNF-alpha protein expression. As such, polymorphisms in the Tnf gene may also provide a possible explanation for differences in survival of allogeneic liver grafts among inbred rat strains. We therefore investigated the capacity of mononuclear cells to produce TNF-alpha in response to a mitogenic stimulus and the Tnf locus was sequenced in six different inbred rat strains. Among the six strains (AUG, BN, DA, LEW, PVG and WF), 44 nucleotide differences including 36 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), five simple sequence length polymorphisms, two deletions and one insertion, were found in the Tnf gene. Although, the inbred rat strains differed significantly in mean levels of maximum TNF-alpha production (P = 0.001), no associations were found with nucleotide differences within the Tnf gene. In conclusion, our results indicate that differential in vitro TNF-alpha responses among inbred rat strains are not associated with nucleotide differences within non-coding regulatory regions of the rat TNF-alpha gene. Without an established relationship between polymorphisms and expression of the TNF-alpha gene, it is preliminary to address a possible association of Tnf gene polymorphisms with rat liver allograft survival. PMID:15935297

  10. Resolution of genetic map expansion caused by excess heterozygosity in plant recombinant inbred populations.

    PubMed

    Truong, Sandra K; McCormick, Ryan F; Morishige, Daryl T; Mullet, John E

    2014-10-01

    Recombinant inbred populations of many plant species exhibit more heterozygosity than expected under the Mendelian model of segregation. This segregation distortion causes the overestimation of recombination frequencies and consequent genetic map expansion. Here we build upon existing genetic models of differential zygotic viability to model a heterozygote fitness term and calculate expected genotypic proportions in recombinant inbred populations propagated by selfing. We implement this model using the existing open-source genetic map construction code base for R/qtl to estimate recombination fractions. Finally, we show that accounting for excess heterozygosity in a sorghum recombinant inbred mapping population shrinks the genetic map by 213 cM (a 13% decrease corresponding to 4.26 fewer recombinations per meiosis). More accurate estimates of linkage benefit linkage-based analyses used in the identification and utilization of causal genetic variation. PMID:25128435

  11. Resolution of Genetic Map Expansion Caused by Excess Heterozygosity in Plant Recombinant Inbred Populations

    PubMed Central

    Truong, Sandra K.; McCormick, Ryan F.; Morishige, Daryl T.; Mullet, John E.

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant inbred populations of many plant species exhibit more heterozygosity than expected under the Mendelian model of segregation. This segregation distortion causes the overestimation of recombination frequencies and consequent genetic map expansion. Here we build upon existing genetic models of differential zygotic viability to model a heterozygote fitness term and calculate expected genotypic proportions in recombinant inbred populations propagated by selfing. We implement this model using the existing open-source genetic map construction code base for R/qtl to estimate recombination fractions. Finally, we show that accounting for excess heterozygosity in a sorghum recombinant inbred mapping population shrinks the genetic map by 213 cM (a 13% decrease corresponding to 4.26 fewer recombinations per meiosis). More accurate estimates of linkage benefit linkage-based analyses used in the identification and utilization of causal genetic variation. PMID:25128435

  12. Recombinant inbreds for molecular mapping in maize: theoretical and practical considerations.

    PubMed

    Burr, B; Burr, F A

    1991-02-01

    Molecular mapping is rapidly being extended to more species as one result of the current emphasis on genome initiatives. The choice of the population used for mapping can have important consequences on the efficiency and accessibility of the mapping information. Recombinant inbred lines offer certain advantages over other mapping populations for many species. These more or less permanent populations permit many geneticists to contribute to the mapping effort and to profit from each other's work. Recombinant inbred lines are used extensively in mouse genetics and have been used in maize to compile a detailed molecular map. PMID:2035192

  13. Phenotypic differences in cardiovascular regulation in inbred rat models of aerobic capacity.

    PubMed

    Koch, L G; Britton, S L; Barbato, J C; Rodenbaugh, D W; DiCarlo, S E

    1999-08-31

    The Dark Aouti (DA) inbred strain of rats has superior aerobic treadmill running capacity compared with the Copenhagen (COP) strain of inbred rats. This difference in aerobic capacity provides a model to explore the genetic basis of variation in this trait. The present study evaluated intermediate phenotypic differences between 10 male COP inbred rats and 10 male DA inbred rats that might contribute to the difference in aerobic capacity between the strains. Five autonomically regulated cardiovascular variables were evaluated during rest or exercise by measuring the response to autonomic antagonists. The DA rat had enhanced autonomic function for the regulation of peripheral blood flow and cardiac output. Specifically, at rest the DA rats had significantly more sympathetic (123 +/- 8 vs. 99 +/- 7 beats/min) and parasympathetic (35 +/- 5 vs. 12 +/- 3 beats/min) tonus for heart rate control and more sympathetic support of blood pressure (70 +/- 7 vs. 38 +/- 6 mmHg) compared with the COP rats. During three graded levels of treadmill exercise the DA rats had higher blood pressures (16% on average) and higher heart rates (4% on average) relative to the COP rats. In addition, the DA rats had a 27% greater heart weight-to-body weight ratio compared with the COP strain of rats (3.63 +/- 0.08 vs. 2.85 +/- 0.07 g/kg). All five of these intermediate phenotypes could participate as variables causative of the difference in treadmill running capacity between the DA and COP strains of rats. PMID:11015562

  14. MAPPING RESISTANCE TO SOUTHERN CORN RUST IN A SEMI-TROPICAL RECOMBINANT INBRED TOPCROSS POPULATION.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recombinant inbred (RI) lines derived from a cross between NC300, an all-tropical, temperate-adapted line, and B104, a stiff-stalk line were genotyped at 113 loci spaced throughout the genome, and topcrossed to the sister-line tester FR615xFR697. The 143 topcrosses were evaluated for resistance to ...

  15. Genome diversity in Brachypodium distachyon: deep sequencing of highly diverse inbred lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural variation provides a powerful opportunity to study the genetic basis of biological traits. Brachypodium distachyon is a broadly distributed diploid model grass with a small genome and a large collection of diverse inbred lines. As a step towards understanding the genetic basis of the natura...

  16. Registration of the MN98550/MN99394 Wheat Recombinant Inbred Mapping Population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A mapping population was developed from the two hard red spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) breeding lines MN98550 and MN99394 at the University of Minnesota. This population has 139 F6:8 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) and was assigned the USDA-ARS Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) ac...

  17. Doubled haploid inbred lines USVL048 and USVL131 of heading broccoli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two inbred lines of heading broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica), designated USVL048 and USVL131, were released by the Agricultural Research Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture in 2012. Both of the released lines are doubled haploids originally derived from another culture. As do...

  18. Joint Analysis of Near Isogenic and Recombinant Inbred Line Populations Yields Precise Positional Estimates for QTL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Near isogenic lines (NILs) are typically constructed to fine-map quantitative trait loci (QTL). The data generated for the initial QTL mapping are usually ignored for fine-mapping purposes. However, combining already-available data from initial recombinant inbred line (RIL) studies with new data fro...

  19. Selective Advance for Accelerated Development of Recombinant Inbred QTL Mapping Populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recombinant inbred lines, conventionally used for QTL mapping in biparental populations of self-pollinating plant species, afford limited mapping resolution. Intercrossing during line development is sometimes used to counter this disadvantage, but is tedious. It is desirable to improve mapping resol...

  20. Whole mitochondrial genome sequence and mutations of the hypertension model inbred rat strain (Muridae; Rattus).

    PubMed

    Song, Wei; Gao, Lin-Lin; Zhen, Lin-Lin

    2016-03-01

    We reported the complete mitochondrial genome sequencing of a important hypertension model inbred rat strain for the first time. The total length of the mitogenome was 16,310?bp. It harbored 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and 1 non-coding control region. The mutation events contained in this strain were also reported. PMID:25391027

  1. Purging deleterious mutations in conservation programmes: combining optimal contributions with inbred matings

    PubMed Central

    de Cara, M Á R; Villanueva, B; Toro, M Á; Fernández, J

    2013-01-01

    Conservation programmes aim at minimising the loss of genetic diversity, which allows populations to adapt to potential environmental changes. This can be achieved by calculating how many offspring every individual should contribute to the next generation to minimise global coancestry. However, an undesired consequence of this strategy is that it maintains deleterious mutations, compromising the viability of the population. In order to avoid this, optimal contributions could be combined with inbred matings, to expose and eliminate recessive deleterious mutations by natural selection in a process known as purging. Although some populations that have undergone purging experienced reduced inbreeding depression, this effect is not consistent across species. Whether purging by inbred matings is efficient in conservation programmes depends on the balance between the loss of diversity, the initial decrease in fitness and the reduction in mutational load. Here we perform computer simulations to determine whether managing a population by combining optimal contributions with inbred matings improves its long-term viability while keeping reasonable levels of diversity. We compare the management based on genealogical information with management based on molecular data to calculate coancestries. In the scenarios analysed, inbred matings never led to higher fitness and usually maintained lower diversity than random or minimum coancestry matings. Replacing genealogical with molecular coancestry can maintain a larger genetic diversity but can also lead to a lower fitness. Our results are strongly dependent on the mutational model assumed for the trait under selection, the population size during management and the reproductive rate. PMID:23321706

  2. Analysis of wild-species introgressions in tomato inbreds uncovers ancestral origins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Decades of intensive tomato breeding using wild germplasm has resulted in genomes of domesticated accessions (Solanum lycopersicum) to be intertwined with introgressions from their wild relatives. Here we present the first whole genome sequences of two tomato inbreds Gh13 and BTI87, both carrying a ...

  3. USDA 846-1 fractal melon and derived recombinant inbred lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture announces the release of a melon (Cucumis melo L.) breeding line with highly branched, fractal-type architectural growth habit and 81 derived recombinant inbred lines (RIL). The indeterminate, monoecious USDA 846-1 produces 2...

  4. Analysis of the genetic diversity of super sweet corn inbred lines using SSR and SSAP markers.

    PubMed

    Ko, W R; Sa, K J; Roy, N S; Choi, H-J; Lee, J K

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we compared the efficiency of simple sequence repeat (SSR) and sequence specific amplified polymorphism (SSAP) markers for analyzing genetic diversity, genetic relationships, and population structure of 87 super sweet corn inbred lines from different origins. SSR markers showed higher average gene diversity and Shannon's information index than SSAP markers. To assess genetic relationships and characterize inbred lines using SSR and SSAP markers, genetic similarity (GS) matrices were constructed. The dendrogram using SSR marker data showed a complex pattern with nine clusters and a GS of 53.0%. For SSAP markers, three clusters were observed with a GS of 50.8%. Results of combined marker data showed six clusters with 53.5% GS. To analyze the genetic population structure of SSR and SSAP marker data, the 87 inbred lines were divided into groups I, II, and admixed based on the membership probability threshold of 0.8. Using combined marker data, the population structure was K = 3 and was divided into groups I, II, III, and admixed. This study represents a comparative analysis of SSR and SSAP marker data for the study of genetic diversity and genetic relationships in super sweet corn inbred lines. Our results would be useful for maize-breeding programs in Korea. PMID:26909914

  5. Strain typing of U.S. scrapie strains using a panel of inbred mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prion strains may vary in their ability to transmit to humans and animals. Few experimental studies have been done to provide evidence of differences between U.S. strains of scrapie, which can be distinguished by incubation times in inbred mice, microscopic lesions, immunoreactivity to various anti...

  6. COMPARISONS OF QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCUS MAPPING PROPERTIES BETWEEN TWO METHODS OF RECOMBINANT INBRED LINE DEVELOPMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The theoretical comparisons for QTL mapping properties were conducted between bulk-based recombinant inbred (RI) populations and single seed descent (SSD) RI populations by Monte Carlo simulations based on various population sizes, heritabilities, and QTL effects. The comparisons included estimatio...

  7. MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF RICE RECOMBINANT INBRED LINE POPULATION DERIVED FROM A JAPONICA-INDICA CROSS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations of rice represent a permanent genetic source usable for the construction of molecular genetic linkage maps and map-based identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL). The objective of this study was to characterize a population of 269 F10-11 RILs from a ...

  8. SEED QUALITY ASSURANCE IN MAIZE BREEDING PROGRAMS: TESTS TO EXPLAIN VARIATIONS IN CORN INBREDS AND POPULATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize (Zea mays L.) breeders are interested in evaluating seed quality of their inbred lines, and seed companies rigorously test the seed quality of the hybrids they produce. Seed quality has a strong relationship to field emergence. There is little information, however, on the influence of the se...

  9. Registration of a rice gene mapping population of Lemont X Jasmine 85 recombinant inbred lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A mapping population developed from a cross of rice (Oryza sativa L.) tropical japonica cultivar ‘Lemont’ and indica cultivar ‘Jasmine 85’ was developed to facilitate genetic studies for important agronomic traits. The indica- and japonica-based rice recombinant inbred line (RIL) mapping population ...

  10. Development of the recombinant inbred line population of tropical japonica Lemont crossed with indica Jasmine 85

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of rice is routinely used in studying agronomically important genes, and is particularly useful for analyzing quantitative trait loci (QTL) since phenotypes can be assessed over years. Jasmine 85, a midseason aromatic long-grain indica rice cultivar develo...

  11. Molecular Characterization of the Recombinant Inbred Line Population of the Cross of Lemont with Jasmine 85

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations of rice are an essential genetic resource for the construction of molecular genetic linkage maps and map-based identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL). The RIL F5 population derived from a cross of the United Stated tropical japonica rice cultivar Le...

  12. Characterization of the Recombinant Inbred Line Population Derived from the Cross of Nipponbare/9311

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a part of the project entitled “Understanding the rice epigenome: From genes to genomes” funded by the National Science Foundation, a mapping population of 480 F6-8 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross of Nipponbare with 9311 (Nip/9311) was developed. Phenotyping important agronom...

  13. Evaluation of maize inbred lines for resistance to Aspergillus and Fusarium ear rot and mycotoxin accumulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycotoxin contamination in corn grain is a worldwide threat to both human food safety and animal feed ingredients. A select group of inbred corn lines was evaluated in field trials for mycotoxin accumulation in grain and ear rot caused by Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium verticillioides. Our goal ...

  14. Profiling polyphenols of two diploid strawberry (Fragaria vesca) inbred lines using UHPLC-HRMSn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phenolic compounds in the fruits of two diploid strawberries (Fragaria vesca f. semperflorens) inbred lines-Ruegen F7-4 (a red fruited genotype) and YW5AF7 (a yellow fruited genotype) were characterized using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography in tandem with high resolution mass spectromet...

  15. Mapping stripe rust resistance genes in a Brundage x Coda winter wheat recombinant inbred line population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A recombinant inbred line (RIL) mapping population developed from a cross between winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars Coda and Brundage was evaluated for reaction to stripe rust (caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici). Two hundred and sixty eight RIL from the population were evalua...

  16. In-silico mapping of quantitative trait loci for lactation-associated traits in inbred mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Significant variation exists for fecundity and maternal nurturing ability in inbred mice. Classical gene mapping approaches in mice have identified several quantitative trait loci (QTL) that account for some this variation. Current studies in our laboratory are aimed at identifying QTL genes that un...

  17. Field Screening of Experimental Corn Hybrids and Inbred Lines for Multiple Ear-Feeding Insect Resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Identifying and utilizing native insect resistance genes is the core of integrated pest management. In this study, ten experimental corn hybrids and ten inbred lines were screened for resistance to major ear-feeding insects in the southeastern Coastal Plain region of the U.S.A. during 2004 and 2005...

  18. Development and phenotyping of recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations for peanut (Arachis hypogaea)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The identification of molecular markers for economically significant traits should greatly improve the speed and efficiency of all peanut(Arachis hypogaea L.) breeding programs. Development and phenotypic evaluation of recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations of peanut, along with molecular genotyp...

  19. Registration of USG 3209/Jaypee Wheat Recombinant Inbred Line Mapping Population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘USG 3209’/‘Jaypee’ (Reg. No. MP-3, NSL 465777 MAP), is a soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) recombinant inbred line (RIL) population developed by Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University and submitted to the USDA–ARS National Small Grains Germplasm Research Facility in Aberdeen...

  20. IMPACT OF EARLY SEED QUALITY SELECTION ON MAIZE INBREDS AND HYBRIDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed composition and genetic background influence seed quality. Plant breeders seldom select or evaluate their inbreds on the basis of seed quality characteristics that could prevent poor germination and field emergence. The standard germination test evaluates seed viability, but it often overesti...

  1. Resistance to Beet Armyworm in a Chickpea Recombinant Inbred Line Population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cicer reticulatum Ladzinsky, a good source of insect resistance, was used to develop a chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) recombinant inbred line population (CRIL-7) using FLIP 84-92C (kabuli chickpea) and PI 599072, a resistant C. reticulatum accession, as parents. CRIL-7 lines, parents, and checks wer...

  2. Genetic Analysis of Recombinant Inbred Lines For Sorghum Bicolor x Perennial S. Propinquum.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    From an annual S. bicolor x perennial S. propinquum F2 population used in early-generation genetic analysis, we have produced and describe here a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of 161 F5 genotypes that segregates for rhizomatousness and many other traits. The genetic map of the recombinant...

  3. Comparative Performance of Hybrid and Elite Inbred Rice Varieties with respect to Their Source-Sink Relationship

    PubMed Central

    Haque, Md Moinul; Pramanik, Habibur Rahman; Biswas, Jiban Krishna; Iftekharuddaula, K. M.; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid rice varieties have higher yield potential over inbred varieties. This improvement is not always translated to the grain yield and its physiological causes are still unclear. In order to clarify it, two field experiments were conducted including two popular indica hybrids (BRRI hybrid dhan2 and Heera2) and one elite inbred (BRRI dhan45) rice varieties. Leaf area index, chlorophyll status, and photosynthetic rate of flag leaf, postheading crop growth rate, shoot reserve translocation, source-sink relation and yield, and its attributes of each variety were comprehensively analyzed. Both hybrid varieties outyielded the inbred. However, the hybrids and inbred varieties exhibited statistically identical yield in late planting. Both hybrids accumulated higher amount of biomass before heading and exhibited greater remobilization of assimilates to the grain in early plantings compared to the inbred variety. Filled grain (%) declined significantly at delayed planting in the hybrids compared to elite inbred due to increased temperature impaired-inefficient transport of assimilates. Flag leaf photosynthesis parameters were higher in the hybrid varieties than those of the inbred variety. Results suggest that greater remobilization of shoot reserves to the grain rendered higher yield of hybrid rice varieties. PMID:25705712

  4. The genetic rescue of two bottlenecked South Island robin populations using translocations of inbred donors

    PubMed Central

    Heber, S.; Varsani, A.; Kuhn, S.; Girg, A.; Kempenaers, B.; Briskie, J.

    2013-01-01

    Populations forced through bottlenecks typically lose genetic variation and exhibit inbreeding depression. Genetic rescue techniques that introduce individuals from outbred populations can be highly effective in reversing the deleterious effects of inbreeding, but have limited application for the majority of endangered species, which survive only in a few bottlenecked populations. We tested the effectiveness of using highly inbred populations as donors to rescue two isolated and bottlenecked populations of the South Island robin (Petroica australis). Reciprocal translocations significantly increased heterozygosity and allelic diversity. Increased genetic diversity was accompanied by increased juvenile survival and recruitment, sperm quality, and immunocompetence of hybrid individuals (crosses between the two populations) compared with inbred control individuals (crosses within each population). Our results confirm that the implementation of genetic rescue using bottlenecked populations as donors provides a way of preserving endangered species and restoring their viability when outbred donor populations no longer exist. PMID:23235701

  5. Homozygosity mapping: a way to map human recessive traits with the DNA of inbred children

    SciTech Connect

    Lander, E.S.; Botstein, D.

    1987-06-19

    An efficient strategy for mapping human genes that cause recessive traits has been devised that uses mapped restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) and the DNA of affected children from consanguineous marriages. The method involves detection of the disease locus by virtue of the fact that the adjacent region will preferentially be homozygous by descent in such inbred children. A single affected child of a first-cousin marriage is shown to contain the same total information about linkage as a nuclear family with three affected children. Calculations show that it should be practical to map a recessive disease gene by studying DNA from fewer than a dozen unrelated, affected inbred children, given a complete RFLP linkage map. The method should make it possible to map many recessive diseases for which it is impractical or impossible to collect adequate numbers of families with multiple affected offspring.

  6. Detecting the phase transition in thylakoid membranes of maize inbred lines by means of delayed fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Radenović, C N; Maksimov, G V; Tyutyaev, E V; Stanković, G J; Jovanović, Z V; Beljanski, M V

    2014-08-01

    In this paper the changes on growth, photosynthesis and water relations were tested by non-invasive fluorescence method. The applications of this method allow to determine some functional properties of prestigious maize inbred lines with erect top leaves. So the temperature dependency of delayed fluorescence intensity maximum of ZPPL 16 is observed at higher temperatures than for ZPPZ 62. This fact correlates with low values of phase transition of activation energy Ea in thylakoid membrane and accompanied by a decrease of the angle and area of the leaf, as well as with the content and the rate of water release from the seed. It seems reasonable to assume that, DF can be applied in breeding and maize hybrid seed production for the estimation of prestigious maize inbred lines and their resistance adaptability to increased and high temperatures, as well as, to drought. PMID:24836446

  7. Characteristics of sleep and wakefulness in wild-derived inbred mice.

    PubMed

    Hiyoshi, Hideyuki; Terao, Akira; Okamatsu-Ogura, Yuko; Kimura, Kazuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Genetic variations in the wild-derived inbred mouse strains are more diverse than that of classical laboratory inbred mouse strains, including C57BL/6J (B6). The sleep/wake and monoamine properties of six wild-derived inbred mouse strains (PGN2, NJL, BLG2, KJR, MSM, HMI) were characterized and compared with those of B6 mice. All examined mice were nocturnal and had a polyphasic sleep pattern with a "main sleep period" identified during the light period. However, there were three sleep/wake phenotypic differences between the wild-derived mouse strains and B6 strain. First, the amount of sleep during the dark phase was comparable with that of B6 mice. However, the amount of sleep during the light phase was more varied among strains, in particular, NJL and HMI had significantly less sleep compared with that of B6 mice. Second, PGN2, NJL, BLG2, and KJR mice showed a "highly awake period" (in which the hourly total sleep time was <10%) immediately after the onset of the dark period, which was not seen in B6 mice. Third, relative to that of B6 mice, PGN2 and KJR mice showed longer duration of wakefulness episodes during the 12-h dark phase. Differences in whole brain noradrenaline, dopamine, and 5-hydroxy-tryptamine contents between the wild-derived mouse strains and B6 strain were also found. These identified phenotypes might be potentially under strong genetic control. Hence, wild-derived inbred mice could be useful for identifying the genetic factors underlying the regulation of sleep and wakefulness. PMID:24770646

  8. Characteristics of Sleep and Wakefulness inWild-Derived Inbred Mice

    PubMed Central

    HIYOSHI, Hideyuki; TERAO, Akira; OKAMATSU-OGURA, Yuko; KIMURA, Kazuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Genetic variations in the wild-derived inbred mouse strains are more diverse than that of classical laboratory inbred mouse strains, including C57BL/6J (B6). The sleep/wake and monoamine properties of six wild-derived inbred mouse strains (PGN2, NJL, BLG2, KJR, MSM, HMI) were characterized and compared with those of B6 mice. All examined mice were nocturnal and had a polyphasic sleep pattern with a main sleep period identified during the light period. However, there were three sleep/wake phenotypic differences between the wild-derived mouse strains and B6 strain. First, the amount of sleep during the dark phase was comparable with that of B6 mice. However, the amount of sleep during the light phase was more varied among strains, in particular, NJL and HMI had significantly less sleep compared with that of B6 mice. Second, PGN2, NJL, BLG2, and KJR mice showed a highly awake period (in which the hourly total sleep time was <10%) immediately after the onset of the dark period, which was not seen in B6 mice. Third, relative to that of B6 mice, PGN2 and KJR mice showed longer duration of wakefulness episodes during the 12-h dark phase. Differences in whole brain noradrenaline, dopamine, and 5-hydroxy-tryptamine contents between the wild-derived mouse strains and B6 strain were also found. These identified phenotypes might be potentially under strong genetic control. Hence, wild-derived inbred mice could be useful for identifying the genetic factors underlying the regulation of sleep and wakefulness. PMID:24770646

  9. Sensitivity of Female Inbreds of Cucumis sativus to Sex Reversion by Gibberellin.

    PubMed

    Shifriss, O; George, W L

    1964-03-27

    Two female inbred cucumbers were developed by substituting gene Acr for acr in the genetic backgrounds of the monoecious races Marketer and Tokyo, which exhibit weak and strong male tendency respectively. Marketer females are resistant and Tokyo females are sensitive to sex reversion in response to treatments with gibberellin A(3). Resistance and sensitivity of this type appear to depend upon the genetic system which controls sex tendency. PMID:17807849

  10. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence and mutations of the cardiac hypertrophy model inbred rat strain (Muridae; Rattus).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Rong; Meng, Zi-Li; Chen, Liang; Chen, Wei; Wang, Hong; Hong, Yong-Qing

    2016-03-01

    In the present work we undertook the complete mitochondrial genome sequencing of a important cardiac hypertrophy model inbred rat strain for the first time. The total length of the mitogenome was 16,308?bp. It harbored 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and 1 non-coding control region (D-loop region). The mutation events were also reported. PMID:25109625

  11. Whole mitochondrial genome sequence and mutations of the cervical carcinoma model inbred rat strain (Muridae; Rattus).

    PubMed

    Wan, Xiao-Hui; Mei, Long; Abudureyimu, Zainuer

    2016-03-01

    We reported the complete mitochondrial genome sequencing of an important cervical carcinoma model inbred rat strain for the first time. The total length of the mitogenome was 16,314?bp. It harbored 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and 1 non-coding control region. The mutation events contained in this strain were also reported. PMID:25187122

  12. Effects of inbreeding and genetic modification on Aedes aegypti larval competition and adult energy reserves

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Genetic modification of mosquitoes offers a promising strategy for the prevention and control of mosquito-borne diseases. For such a strategy to be effective, it is critically important that engineered strains are competitive enough to serve their intended function in population replacement or reduction of wild mosquitoes in nature. Thus far, fitness evaluations of genetically modified strains have not addressed the effects of competition among the aquatic stages and its consequences for adult fitness. We therefore tested the competitive success of combinations of wild, inbred and transgenic (created in the inbred background) immature stages of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti in the presence of optimal and sub-optimal larval diets. Results The wild strain of Ae. aegypti demonstrated greater performance (based on a composite index of survival, development rate and size) than the inbred strain, which in turn demonstrated greater performance than the genetically modified strain. Moreover, increasing competition through lowering the amount of diet available per larva affected fitness disproportionately: transgenic larvae had a reduced index of performance (95-119%) compared to inbred (50-88%) and wild type larvae (38-54%). In terms of teneral energy reserves (glycogen, lipid and sugar), adult wild type mosquitoes had more reserves directly available for flight, dispersal and basic metabolic functions than transgenic and inbred mosquitoes. Conclusions Our study provides a detailed assessment of inter- and intra-strain competition across aquatic stages of wild type, inbred, and transgenic mosquitoes and the impact of these conditions on adult energy reserves. Although it is not clear what competitive level is adequate for success of transgenic strains in nature, strong gene drive mechanisms are likely to be necessary in order to overcome competitive disadvantages in the larval stage that carryover to affect adult fitness. PMID:20925917

  13. Unexpected positive and negative effects of continuing inbreeding in one of the world's most inbred wild animals.

    PubMed

    Weiser, Emily L; Grueber, Catherine E; Kennedy, Euan S; Jamieson, Ian G

    2016-01-01

    Inbreeding depression, the reduced fitness of offspring of related individuals, is a central theme in evolutionary biology. Inbreeding effects are influenced by the genetic makeup of a population, which is driven by any history of genetic bottlenecks and genetic drift. The Chatham Island black robin represents a case of extreme inbreeding following two severe population bottlenecks. We tested whether inbreeding measured by a 20-year pedigree predicted variation in fitness among individuals, despite the high mean level of inbreeding and low genetic diversity in this species. We found that paternal and maternal inbreeding reduced fledgling survival and individual inbreeding reduced juvenile survival, indicating that inbreeding depression affects even this highly inbred population. Close inbreeding also reduced survival for fledglings with less-inbred mothers, but unexpectedly improved survival for fledglings with highly inbred mothers. This counterintuitive interaction could not be explained by various potentially confounding variables. We propose a genetic mechanism, whereby a highly inbred chick with a highly inbred parent inherits a "proven" genotype and thus experiences a fitness advantage, which could explain the interaction. The positive and negative effects we found emphasize that continuing inbreeding can have important effects on individual fitness, even in populations that are already highly inbred. PMID:26683565

  14. Interacting Hobo Transposons in an Inbred Strain and Interaction Regulation in Hybrids of Drosophila Melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Y. T.; Weber, S. M.; Lim, J. K.

    1993-01-01

    A transposable hobo element in the Notch locus of the Uc-1 X chromosome, which does not interfere with the normal expression of the locus, interacts with other hobo elements in the same X chromosome to produce Notch mutations. Almost all of these mutations are associated with deficiencies, inversions or other rearrangements, and hobo elements are present at each of the breakpoints. The Uc-1 X chromosome produces the Notch mutations at a rate of 4-8% in both sexes of flies in a strain that has been inbred for 96 generations. At least two-thirds of the mutations are produced in clusters suggesting that they have originated in mitotic (premeiotic) germ cells of the Uc-1 inbred strain. The interaction of hobo elements in the Uc-1 X chromosome can be repressed by at least two different mechanisms. One found in three inbred strains not related to the Uc-1 strain involves a maternal effect that is not attributable to the actions or products of hobo elements. Repression by this mechanism is manifested by a clear reciprocal cross effect so that the production of Notch mutations is repressed in the daughters of Uc-1 males, but not in the daughters of Uc-1 females. The other mechanism apparently requires genetic factors and/or hobo elements in a particular strain of Oregon-R; complete repression is present in both types of hybrids between Uc-1 and this strain. PMID:8394265

  15. Digit ratio (2Dratio4D) differences between 20 strains of inbred mice.

    PubMed

    Yan, Reginia H Y; Bunning, Mark; Wahlsten, Douglas; Hurd, Peter L

    2009-01-01

    The second to fourth digit ratio (2Dratio4D) is sexually differentiated in a variety of species, including humans, rats, birds, and lizards. In humans, this ratio tends to be lower in males than in females. Lower digit ratios are believed to indicate increased prenatal testosterone exposure, and are associated with more masculinized behavior across a range of traits. The story seems more complicated in laboratory mice. We have previously shown that there is no sex difference in the digit ratios of inbred mice, but found behavioral evidence to suggest that higher 2Dratio4D is associated with more masculinized behaviors. Work examining intrauterine position effects show that neighbouring males raise pup digit ratio, suggesting again that higher digit ratios are associated with increased developmental androgens. Other work has suggested that masculinization is associated with lower digit ratios in lab mice. Here, we examine the fore- and hindlimb digit ratios of 20 inbred mouse strains. We find large inter-strain differences, but no sexual dimorphism. Digit ratios also did not correlate with mice behavioral traits. This result calls into question the use of this trait as a broadly applicable indicator for prenatal androgen exposure. We suggest that the inbred mice model presents an opportunity for researchers to investigate the genetic, and gene-environmental influence on the development of digit ratios. PMID:19495421

  16. The Mouse Genomes Project: a repository of inbred laboratory mouse strain genomes.

    PubMed

    Adams, David J; Doran, Anthony G; Lilue, Jingtao; Keane, Thomas M

    2015-10-01

    The Mouse Genomes Project was initiated in 2009 with the goal of using next-generation sequencing technologies to catalogue molecular variation in the common laboratory mouse strains, and a selected set of wild-derived inbred strains. The initial sequencing and survey of sequence variation in 17 inbred strains was completed in 2011 and included comprehensive catalogue of single nucleotide polymorphisms, short insertion/deletions, larger structural variants including their fine scale architecture and landscape of transposable element variation, and genomic sites subject to post-transcriptional alteration of RNA. From this beginning, the resource has expanded significantly to include 36 fully sequenced inbred laboratory mouse strains, a refined and updated data processing pipeline, and new variation querying and data visualisation tools which are available on the project's website ( http://www.sanger.ac.uk/resources/mouse/genomes/ ). The focus of the project is now the completion of de novo assembled chromosome sequences and strain-specific gene structures for the core strains. We discuss how the assembled chromosomes will power comparative analysis, data access tools and future directions of mouse genetics. PMID:26123534

  17. Phenotypic Characterization of the KK/HlJ Inbred Mouse Strain

    PubMed Central

    Berndt, A.; Sundberg, B. A.; Silva, K. A.; Kennedy, V. E.; Richardson, M. A.; Li, Q.; Bronson, R. T.; Uitto, J.; Sundberg, J. P.

    2014-01-01

    Detailed histopathological diagnoses of inbred mouse strains are important for interpreting research results and defining novel models of human diseases. The aim of this study was to histologically detect lesions affecting the KK/HlJ inbred strain. Mice were examined at 6, 12, and 20 months of age and near natural death (ie, moribund mice). Histopathological lesions were quantified by percentage of affected mice per age group and sex. Predominant lesions were mineralization, hyperplasia, and fibro-osseous lesions. Mineralization was most frequently found in the connective tissue dermal sheath of vibrissae, the heart, and the lung. Mineralization was also found in many other organs but to a lesser degree. Hyperplasia was found most commonly in the pancreatic islets, and fibro-osseous lesions were observed in several bones. The percentage of lesions increased with age until 20 months. This study shows that KK/HlJ mice demonstrate systemic aberrant mineralization, with greatest frequency in aged mice. The detailed information about histopathological lesions in the inbred strain KK/HlJ can help investigators to choose the right model and correctly interpret the experimental results. PMID:24009271

  18. Olfactory Discrimination Learning in an Outbred and an Inbred Strain of Mice.

    PubMed

    Laska, Matthias

    2015-09-01

    The present study compared olfactory discrimination learning in CD-1 mice, a widely used outbred strain of mice with that of C57BL/6J mice, one of the most widely used inbred mouse strains. Using an automated olfactometer and a standard operant conditioning procedure, I found that CD-1 mice needed 60 trials to reach learning criterion in an initial 2-odor discrimination task. They improved in learning speed in subsequent discrimination tasks in which either the rewarded or the unrewarded stimulus was replaced for a new stimulus. C57BL/6J mice, in contrast, needed 120 trials to reach learning criterion in an initial 2-odor discrimination task and also needed significantly more trials than the CD-1 mice in 3 of the 4 subsequent discrimination tasks. Further, the results showed that discrimination learning performance of both mouse strains was largely unaffected by the odor stimuli used. The results of the present study demonstrate differences between an outbred and an inbred strain of mice with regard to odor discrimination learning, a classical measure of cognitive performance in comparative psychology. Thus, they emphasize the need to be careful with generalizing statements as to cognitive or sensory abilities of Mus musculus when inbred strains of mice are used. PMID:26123553

  19. Evidence should trump intuition by preferring inbred strains to outbred stocks in preclinical research.

    PubMed

    Festing, Michael F W

    2014-01-01

    Inbred strains of mice such as C57BL and BALB/c are more widely used in published work than outbred stocks of mice such as ICR and CD-1. In contrast, outbred stocks of rats such as Wistar and Sprague-Dawley are more widely used than inbred strains such as F344 and LEW. The properties of inbred and outbred mice and rats are briefly reviewed, and it is concluded that, with some exceptions, there is a strong case for using inbred strains in most controlled experiments. This is because they are usually more uniform, so that fewer animals are usually needed to detect a specified response and they are more repeatable, because they are genetically defined (i.e., the strain can be identified using genetic markers) and less liable to genetic change. Yet many scientists continue to use outbred animals. In Daniel Kahneman's book "Thinking Fast and Slow" he explains that we can answer questions in 2 ways: "fast" by intuition or "slow" by analytical reasoning. The former method is instantaneous, requires no thought but is not evidence based. Analytical reasoning is evidence based but requires hard work, which we all avoid. He has found that "… when faced with a difficult question, we often answer an easier one instead, usually without noticing the substitution." The target question of whether to choose outbred or inbred strains in controlled experiments is a difficult one requiring knowledge of the characteristics of these strains and the principles of experimental design. A substitute question, "are humans and outbred stocks both genetically heterogeneous," is easily answered in the affirmative. It is likely that many scientists are intuitively answering the substitute question and are assuming that they have answered the target question. If so they may be using the wrong animals in their research. Nor is the fact that humans and outbred stocks are alike in being genetically heterogeneous a reason for using them. The whole concept of a "model" is that it is similar to the target in some respects but different in others. Rats and mice differ from humans in that we can control their genotype. This is a positive attribute that enormously increases their value in research. Funding organizations should support research in comparing the 2 types in real experiments. PMID:25541542

  20. Two traditional maize inbred lines of contrasting technological abilities are discriminated by the seed flour proteome.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Carla; Sergeant, Kjell; Machado, Ctia M; Renaut, Jenny; Ricardo, Cndido P

    2013-07-01

    The seed proteome of two traditional maize inbred lines (pb269 and pb369) contrasting in grain hardness and in preferable use for bread-making was evaluated. The pb269 seeds, of flint type (i.e., hard endosperm), are preferably used by manufacturers, while pb369 (dent, soft endosperm) is rejected. The hypothesis that the content and relative amounts of specific proteins in the maize flour are relevant for such discrimination of the inbred lines was tested. The flour proteins were sequentially extracted following the Osborne fractionation (selective solubilization), and the four Osborne fractions were submitted to two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE). The total amount of protein extracted from the seeds was not significantly different, but pb369 flour exhibited significantly higher proportions of salt-extracted proteins (globulins) and ethanol-extracted proteins (alcohol-soluble prolamins). The proteome analysis allowed discrimination between the two inbred lines, with pb269 demonstrating higher heterogeneity than pb369. From the 967 spots (358 common to both lines, 208 specific to pb269, and 401 specific to pb369), 588 were submitted to mass spectrometry (MS). Through the combined use of trypsin and chymotrypsin it was possible to identify proteins in 436 spots. The functional categorization in combination with multivariate analysis highlighted the most discriminant biological processes (carbohydrate metabolic process, response to stress, chitin catabolic process, oxidation-reduction process) and molecular function (nutrient reservoir activity). The inbred lines exhibited quantitative and qualitative differences in these categories. Differences were also revealed in the amounts, proportions, and distribution of several groups of storage proteins, which can have an impact on the organization of the protein body and endosperm hardness. For some proteins (granule-bound starch synthase-1, cyclophilin, zeamatin), a change in the protein solubility rather than in the total amount extracted was observed, which reveals distinct in vivo associations and/or changes in binding strength between the inbred lines. Our approach produced information that relates protein content, relative protein content, and specific protein types to endosperm hardness and to the preferable use for "broa" bread-making. PMID:23701026

  1. Cross reactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes from MHC-defined birds against homologous and heterologous avian influenza subtypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous reports have implicated a role of the major-histocompatibility complex (MHC) in genetic resistance of chickens to bacterial infection and viral diseases. However, little is known about the role of MHC in generating protective immunity following avian influenza (AI) infection. Because vacc...

  2. Expression of social behaviors of C57BL/6J versus BTBR inbred mouse strains in the visible burrow system

    PubMed Central

    Pobbe, Roger L. H.; Pearson, Brandon L.; Defensor, Erwin B.; Bolivar, Valerie J.; Blanchard, D. Caroline; Blanchard, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    The core symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) include deficits in social interaction, impaired communication, and repetitive behaviors with restricted interests. Mouse models with behavioral phenotypes relevant to these core symptoms offer an experimental approach to advance the investigation of genes associated with ASD. Previous findings demonstrate that BTBR T+ tf/J (BTBR) is an inbred mouse strain that shows robust behavioral phenotypes with analogies to all three of the diagnostic symptoms of ASD. In the present study, we investigated the expression of social behaviors in a semi-natural visible burrow system (VBS), during colony formation and maintenance in groups comprising three adult male mice of the same strain, either C57BL/6J (B6) or BTBR. For comparative purposes, an extensively investigated three-chambered test was subsequently used to assess social approach in both strains. The effects of strain on these two situations were consistent and highly significant. In the VBS, BTBR mice showed reductions in all interactive behaviors: approach (front and back), flight, chase/follow, allo-grooming and huddling, along with increases in self-grooming and alone, as compared to B6. These results were corroborated in the three-chambered test: in contrast to B6, male BTBR mice failed to spend more time in the side of the test box containing the unfamiliar CD-1 mouse. Overall, the present data indicates that the strain profile for BTBR mice, including consistent social deficits and high levels of repetitive self-grooming, models multiple components of the ASD phenotype. PMID:20600340

  3. Comparative Evaluation of Two Vaccine Candidates against Experimental Leishmaniasis Due to Leishmania major Infection in Four Inbred Mouse Strains?

    PubMed Central

    Benhnini, Fouad; Chenik, Mehdi; Laouini, Dhafer; Louzir, Hechmi; Cazenave, Pierre Andr; Dellagi, Koussay

    2009-01-01

    Experimental leishmaniasis in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice are the most investigated murine models that were used for the preclinical evaluation of Leishmania vaccine candidates. We have previously described two new inbred mouse strains named PWK and MAI issued from feral founders that also support the development of experimental leishmaniasis due to L. major. In this study, we sought to determine whether different mouse inbred strains generate concordant or discordant results when used to evaluate the potential of Leishmania proteins to protect against experimental leishmaniasis. To this end, two Leishmania proteins, namely, LACK (for Leishmania homolog of receptor for activated C kinase) and LmPDI (for L. major protein disulfide isomerase) were compared for their capacity to protect against experimental leishmaniasis in PWK, MAI, BALB/c, and C57BL/6 inbred mouse strains. Our data show that the capacity of Leishmania proteins to confer protection depends on the mouse strain used, stressing the important role played by the genetic background in shaping the immune response against the pathogen. These results may have important implications for the preclinical evaluation of candidate Leishmania vaccines: rather than using a single mouse strain, a panel of different inbred strains of various genetic backgrounds should be tested in parallel. The antigen that confers protection in the larger range of inbred strains may have better chances to be also protective in outbred human populations and should be selected for clinical trials. PMID:19726616

  4. Differential pre-mRNA Splicing Alters the Transcript Diversity of Helitrons Between the Maize Inbred Lines

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Brian T.; Patrick, Tara L.; Moreno, Jennifer J.; Siebert, Amy E.; Klusman, Katarina M.; Shodja, Donya N.; Hannah, L. Curtis; Lal, Shailesh K.

    2015-01-01

    The propensity to capture and mobilize gene fragments by the highly abundant Helitron family of transposable elements likely impacts the evolution of genes in Zea mays. These elements provide a substrate for natural selection by giving birth to chimeric transcripts by intertwining exons of disparate genes. They also capture flanking exons by read-through transcription. Here, we describe the expression of selected Helitrons in different maize inbred lines. We recently reported that these Helitrons produce multiple isoforms of transcripts in inbred B73 via alternative splicing. Despite sharing high degrees of sequence similarity, the splicing profile of Helitrons differed among various maize inbred lines. The comparison of Helitron sequences identified unique polymorphisms in inbred B73, which potentially give rise to the alternatively spliced sites utilized by transcript isoforms. Some alterations in splicing, however, do not have obvious explanations. These observations not only add another level to the creation of transcript diversity by Helitrons among inbred lines but also provide novel insights into the cis-acting elements governing splice-site selection during pre-mRNA processing. PMID:26070844

  5. Differential pre-mRNA Splicing Alters the Transcript Diversity of Helitrons Between the Maize Inbred Lines.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Brian T; Patrick, Tara L; Moreno, Jennifer J; Siebert, Amy E; Klusman, Katarina M; Shodja, Donya N; Hannah, L Curtis; Lal, Shailesh K

    2015-08-01

    The propensity to capture and mobilize gene fragments by the highly abundant Helitron family of transposable elements likely impacts the evolution of genes in Zea mays. These elements provide a substrate for natural selection by giving birth to chimeric transcripts by intertwining exons of disparate genes. They also capture flanking exons by read-through transcription. Here, we describe the expression of selected Helitrons in different maize inbred lines. We recently reported that these Helitrons produce multiple isoforms of transcripts in inbred B73 via alternative splicing. Despite sharing high degrees of sequence similarity, the splicing profile of Helitrons differed among various maize inbred lines. The comparison of Helitron sequences identified unique polymorphisms in inbred B73, which potentially give rise to the alternatively spliced sites utilized by transcript isoforms. Some alterations in splicing, however, do not have obvious explanations. These observations not only add another level to the creation of transcript diversity by Helitrons among inbred lines but also provide novel insights into the cis-acting elements governing splice-site selection during pre-mRNA processing. PMID:26070844

  6. Susceptibility of the wild-derived inbred CAST/Ei mouse to infection by orthopoxviruses analyzed by live bioluminescence imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Americo, Jeffrey L.; Sood, Cindy L.; Cotter, Catherine A.; Vogel, Jodi L.; Kristie, Thomas M.; Moss, Bernard Earl, Patricia L.

    2014-01-20

    Classical inbred mice are extensively used for virus research. However, we recently found that some wild-derived inbred mouse strains are more susceptible than classical strains to monkeypox virus. Experiments described here indicated that the 50% lethal dose of vaccinia virus (VACV) and cowpox virus (CPXV) were two logs lower in wild-derived inbred CAST/Ei mice than classical inbred BALB/c mice, whereas there was little difference in the susceptibility of the mouse strains to herpes simplex virus. Live bioluminescence imaging was used to follow spread of pathogenic and attenuated VACV strains and CPXV virus from nasal passages to organs in the chest and abdomen of CAST/Ei mice. Luminescence increased first in the head and then simultaneously in the chest and abdomen in a dose-dependent manner. The spreading kinetics was more rapid with VACV than CPXV although the peak photon flux was similar. These data suggest advantages of CAST/Ei mice for orthopoxvirus studies. - Highlights: • Wild-derived inbred CAST/Ei mice are susceptible to vaccinia virus and cowpox virus. • Morbidity and mortality from orthopoxviruses are greater in CAST/Ei than BALB/c mice. • Morbidity and mortality from herpes simplex virus type 1 are similar in both mice. • Imaging shows virus spread from nose to lungs, abdominal organs and brain. • Vaccinia virus spreads more rapidly than cowpox virus.

  7. Identification of genetic determinants of IGF-1 levels and longevity among mouse inbred strains

    PubMed Central

    Leduc, Magalie S.; Hageman, Rachael S.; Meng, Qingying; Verdugo, Ricardo A.; Tsaih, Shirng-Wern; Churchill, Gary A.; Paigen, Beverly; Yuan, Rong

    2011-01-01

    Summary The IGF-1 signaling pathway plays an important role in regulating longevity. To identify the genetic loci and genes that regulate plasma IGF-1 levels, we intercrossed MRL/MpJ and SM/J, inbred mouse strains that differ in IGF-1 levels. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis of IGF-1 levels of these F2 mice detected four QTL on chromosomes (Chrs) 9 (48 Mb), 10 (86 Mb), 15 (18 Mb) and 17 (85 Mb). Haplotype association mapping of IGF-1 levels in 28 domesticated inbred strains identified three suggestive loci in females on Chrs 2 (13 Mb), 10 (88 Mb) and 17 (28 Mb) and in males on Chrs 1 (159 Mb), 3 (52 and 58 Mb) and 16 (74 Mb). Except for the QTL on Chr 9 and 16, all loci co-localized with IGF-1 QTL previously identified in other mouse crosses. The most significant locus was the QTL on Chr 10, which contains the Igf1 gene and which had a LOD score of 31.8. Haplotype analysis among 28 domesticated inbred strains revealed a major QTL on Chr 10 overlapping with the QTL identified in the F2 mice. This locus showed three major haplotypes; strains with haplotype 1 had significantly lower plasma IGF-1 and extended longevity (P < 0.05) than strains with haplotype 2 or 3. Bioinformatic analysis, combined with sequencing and expression studies, showed that Igf1 is the most likely QTL gene, but that other genes may also play a role in this strong QTL. PMID:20735370

  8. Transcriptome Analysis of Nodes and Buds from High and Low Tillering Switchgrass Inbred Lines

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yixing; Zeng, Xin; Peal, Lila; Tang, Yuhong; Wu, Yanqi; Mahalingam, Ramamurthy

    2013-01-01

    In the last two decades switchgrass has received increasing attention as a promising bioenergy feedstock. Biomass is the principal trait for improvement in switchgrass breeding programs and tillering is an important component of biomass yield. Switchgrass inbred lines derived from a single parent showing vast variation in tiller number trait was used in this study. Axillary buds, which can develop into tillers, and node tissues, which give rise to axillary buds, were collected from high and low tillering inbred lines growing in field conditions. RNA from buds and nodes from the contrasting inbred lines were used for transcriptome profiling with switchgrass Affymetrix genechips. Nearly 7% of the probesets on the genechip exhibited significant differential expression in these lines. Real-time PCR analysis of 30 genes confirmed the differential expression patterns observed with genechips. Cluster analysis aided in identifying probesets unique to high or low tillering lines as well as those specific to buds or nodes of high tillering lines. Rice orthologs of the switchgrass genes were used for gene ontology (GO) analysis with AgriGO. Enrichment of genes associated with amino acid biosynthesis, lipid transport and vesicular transport were observed in low tillering lines. Enrichment of GOs for translation, RNA binding and gene expression in high tillering lines were indicative of active metabolism associated with rapid growth and development. Identification of different classes of transcription factor genes suggests that regulation of many genes determines the complex process of axillary bud initiation and development. Genes identified in this study will complement the current ongoing efforts in quantitative trait loci mapping of tillering in switchgrass. PMID:24386276

  9. Hippocampal commissure defects in crosses of four inbred mouse strains with absentcorpus callosum

    PubMed Central

    Bohlen, M. O.; Bailoo, Jeremy D.; Jordan, R. L.; Wahlsten, D.

    2012-01-01

    It is known that four common inbred mouse strains show defects of the forebrain commissures. The BALB/cJ strain has a low frequency of abnormally small corpus callosum, while the 129 strains have many animals with deficient corpus callosum. The I/LnJ and BTBR T+ tf/J strains never have a corpus callosum, while half of I/LnJ and almost all BTBR show severely reduced size of the hippocampal commissure. Certain of the F1 hybrid crosses among these strains are known to be less severely abnormal than the inbred parents, suggesting the parent strains have different genetic causes of commissure defects. In this study, all hybrid crosses among the four strains were investigated. The BTBR x I/Ln hybrid expressed almost no defects of the hippocampal commissure, unlike its inbred parent strains. Numerous 3-way crosses among the four strains yielded many mice with no corpus callosum and severely reduced hippocampal commissure, which shows that the phenotypic defect can result from several different combinations of genetic alleles. The F2 and F3 hybrid crosses of BTBR and I/LnJ had almost 100% absence of the corpus callosum but about 50% frequency of deficient hippocampal commissure. The 4-way hybrid cross among all four abnormal strains involved highly fertile parents and yielded a very wide phenotypic range of defects from almost no hippocampal commissure to totally normal forebrain commissures. The F2 and F3 crosses as well as the 4-way cross provide excellent material for studies of genetic linkage and behavioral consequences of commissure defects. PMID:22537318

  10. Efficient collection and cryopreservation of embryos in F344 strain inbred rats.

    PubMed

    Taketsuru, Hiroaki; Kaneko, Takehito

    2013-10-01

    In rats, it is now possible to produce genetically engineered strains, not only as transgenic animals but also using gene knockout techniques. Reproductive technologies have been used as indispensable tools to produce and maintain these novel valuable strains. Although studies for collecting and cryopreserving embryos have been reported using outbred rats, efficient methods have not been established in inbred strains. The F344 inbred strain is important in rat breeding and has been used for the production of transgenic/knockout strains and for genome sequencing. Here we studied the optimal conditions for oocyte collection by induction of superovulation, and the development of embryos after cryopreservation in F344 rats. The response to pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) was examined by injection of 150 IU/kg PMSG + 75 IU/kg hCG or 300 IU/kg PMSG + 300 IU/kg hCG. Superovulation was achieved at high efficiency by an injection of 150 IU/kg PMSG + 75 IU/kg hCG. Furthermore, superovulation in this strain showed similar high response as Wistar rats. Of 2-cell embryos cryopreserved by vitrification in a solution containing 10% propylene glycol, 30% ethylene glycol, 20% Percoll and 0.3 M sucrose, more than 90% survived after warming and 32% developed to offspring. However, the freezability of pronuclear stage embryos was extremely low. This study demonstrated that sufficient unfertilized oocytes and embryos can be collected from F344 rats by the induction of superovulation with 150 IU/kg PMSG + 75 IU/kg hCG. Furthermore, cryopreservation of 2-cell embryos using this vitrification protocol can now be applied to maintaining valuable rat strains derived from the F344 inbred strain as genetic resources. PMID:23928269

  11. Cardiac mitochondrial proteomic expression in inbred rat strains divergent in survival time after hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Klemcke, Harold G; DeKroon, Robert M; Mocanu, Mihaela; Robinette, Jennifer B; Alzate, Oscar

    2013-04-01

    We have previously identified inbred rat strains differing in survival time to a severe controlled hemorrhage (StaH). In efforts to identify cellular mechanisms and ultimately genes that are important contributors to enhanced STaH, we conducted a study to characterize potential differences in cardiac mitochondrial proteins in these rats. Inbred rats from three strains [Brown Norway/Medical College of Wisconsin (BN); Dark Agouti (DA), and Fawn Hooded Hypertensive (FHH)] with different StaH (DA = FHH > BN) were assigned to one of three treatment groups (n = 4/strain): nonoperated controls, surgically catheterized rats, or rats surgically catheterized and hemorrhaged 24 h postsurgery. Rats were euthanized 30 min after handling or 30 min after initiation of a 26 min hemorrhage. After euthanasia, hearts were removed and mitochondria isolated. Differential protein expression was determined using 2D DIGE-based Quantitative Intact Proteomics and proteins identified by MALDI/TOF mass spectrometry. Hundreds of proteins (791) differed among inbred rat strains (P ? 0.038), and of these 81 were identified. Thirty-eight were unique proteins and 43 were apparent isoforms. For DA rats (longest STaH), 36 proteins increased and 30 decreased compared with BN (shortest STaH). These 81 proteins were associated with lipid (e.g., acyl CoA dehydrogenase) and carbohydrate (e.g., fumarase) metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation (e.g., ubiquinol-cytochrome C reductase), ATP synthesis (F1 ATPase), and H2S synthesis (3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase). Although we cannot make associations between these identified mitochondrial proteins and StaH, our data do provide evidence for future candidate proteins with which to consider such associations. PMID:23386204

  12. No Effect of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure on Activity in Three Inbred Strains of Mice

    PubMed Central

    Downing, Chris; Balderrama-Durbin, Christina; Hayes, Jonathan; Johnson, Thomas E.; Gilliam, David

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Prenatal exposure to alcohol can have adverse effects on the developing fetus. Two of the hallmarks of children exposed to alcohol prenatally are attention deficits and hyperactivity. While hyperactivity has been observed in rats following prenatal ethanol exposure, few studies have examined these effects in mice. The present study investigated the effects of prenatal ethanol exposure on activity in mice from three inbred strains: C57BL/6 (B6), Inbred Long Sleep (ILS) and Inbred Short Sleep (ISS). Methods: On Days 7 through 18 of gestation, mice were intragastrically intubated twice daily with either 3.0 g/kg ethanol (E) or an isocaloric amount of maltose–dextrin (MD); non-intubated control (NIC) litters were also generated. Offspring activity was monitored at 30, 60, 90 and 150 days of age. Results: While results showed no effects of prenatal ethanol exposure on any measures of activity, we did observe differences in baseline activity among the strains. ISS mice were more active than B6 and ILS for all activity measures except stereotypy; B6 mice had higher measures of stereotypy than ILS and ISS. Younger mice were more active than older mice. The only sex effects were on measures of stereotypy, where males had higher scores. Conclusions: Mice are an excellent organism to study genetic influences on many phenotypes. However, our study and others have shown few effects of prenatal ethanol exposure on behavior in mice. It appears as if the prenatal period in mice, corresponding to organogenesis, is not a sensitive period for producing behavioral deficits following ethanol exposure. It is likely that the first 2 weeks postnatally, corresponding to the brain growth spurt, are more sensitive for producing behavioral effects. PMID:18854366

  13. Gastrointestinal microbiota of wild and inbred individuals of two house mouse subspecies assessed using high-throughput parallel pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Kreisinger, Jakub; Cížková, Dagmar; Vohánka, Jaroslav; Piálek, Jaroslav

    2014-10-01

    The effects of gastrointestinal tract microbiota (GTM) on host physiology and health have been the subject of considerable interest in recent years. While a variety of captive bred species have been used in experiments, the extent to which GTM of captive and/or inbred individuals resembles natural composition and variation in wild populations is poorly understood. Using 454 pyrosequencing, we performed 16S rDNA GTM barcoding for 30 wild house mice (Mus musculus) and wild-derived inbred strain mice belonging to two subspecies (M. m. musculus and M. m. domesticus). Sequenced individuals were selected according to a 2 × 2 experimental design: wild (14) vs. inbred origin (16) and M. m. musculus (15) vs. M. m. domesticus (15). We compared alpha diversity (i.e. number of operational taxonomic units - OTUs), beta diversity (i.e. interindividual variability) and microbiota composition across the four groups. We found no difference between M. m. musculus and M. m. domesticus subspecies, suggesting low effect of genetic differentiation between these two subspecies on GTM structure. Both inbred and wild populations showed the same level of microbial alpha and beta diversity; however, we found strong differentiation in microbiota composition between wild and inbred populations. Relative abundance of ~ 16% of OTUs differed significantly between wild and inbred individuals. As laboratory mice represent the most abundant model for studying the effects of gut microbiota on host metabolism, immunity and neurology, we suggest that the distinctness of laboratory-kept mouse microbiota, which differs from wild mouse microbiota, needs to be considered in future biomedical research. PMID:25204516

  14. Substrains of Inbred Mice Differ in Their Physical Activity as a Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Coletti, Dario; Berardi, Emanuele; Aulino, Paola; Rossi, Eleonora; Moresi, Viviana; Li, Zhenlin; Adamo, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies strengthen the belief that physical activity as a behavior has a genetic basis. Screening wheel-running behavior in inbred mouse strains highlighted differences among strains, showing that even very limited genetic differences deeply affect mouse behavior. We extended this observation to substrains of the same inbred mouse strain, that is, BALB/c mice. We found that only a minority of the population of one of these substrains, the BALB/c J, performs spontaneous physical activity. In addition, the runners of this substrain cover a significantly smaller distance than the average runners of two other substrains, namely, the BALB/c ByJ and the BALB/c AnNCrl. The latter shows a striking level of voluntary activity, with the average distance run/day reaching up to about 12 kilometers. These runners are not outstanders, but they represent the majority of the population, with important scientific and economic fallouts to be taken into account during experimental planning. Spontaneous activity persists in pathological conditions, such as cancer-associated cachexia. This important amount of physical activity results in a minor muscle adaptation to endurance exercise over a three-week period; indeed, only a nonsignificant increase in NADH transferase+ fibers occurs in this time frame. PMID:23533342

  15. Difference in susceptibility to activity-based anorexia in two inbred strains of mice.

    PubMed

    Gelegen, Cigdem; Collier, David A; Campbell, Iain C; Oppelaar, Hugo; van den Heuvel, Jos; Adan, Roger A H; Kas, Martien J H

    2007-02-01

    Food restricted rodents develop activity-based anorexia in the presence of a running wheel, characterised by increased physical activity, weight loss and decreased leptin levels. Here, we determined trait differences in the development of activity-based anorexia between C57BL/6J and DBA/2J inbred mouse lines previously reported as having low and high anxiety, respectively. C57BL/6J mice housed with running wheels and exposed to scheduled feeding reduced their wheel activity, in contrast to DBA/2J mice which exhibited increased behavioural activity under these conditions. Food restriction induced hypoleptinemia in both strains, but the decline in plasma leptin was stronger in DBA/2J mice and correlated with increased activity only in that strain. These data suggest that plasma leptin level dynamics rather than hypoleptinemia alone influences the development of activity-based anorexia and that recombinant inbred panels based on these progenitor lines offer opportunities for the identification of molecular determinants for anorexia nervosa related behavioural traits. PMID:16735105

  16. [Factors influencing agrobacterium-mediated transformation of maize elite inbred lines].

    PubMed

    Huang, Xue Qing; Wei, Zhi Ming

    2004-10-01

    Using the maize elite inbred lines 9046, Qi319, 414, Mo17 as target genotypes, a highly efficient transformation system was developed based on the study of factors influencing the Agrobacterium-mediated maize transformation. The results showed that the immature embryos of 1.0-2.0 mm in length were optimal transformation explants. Inclusion of acetosyringone (200 micromol/L) and ascorbatic acid (50 mg/L) in both infection medium and co-cultivation medium led to a significantly increase in the transformation efficiency. However, high osmotic treatment on the explants before inoculation didn't improve transformation efficiency. Delaying selection was beneficial to the survival of resistant calli. Using the optimized transformation procedure, 42 PCR-positive transgenic plants were obtained from the 4 elite inbred lines and the frequency of PCR-positive plant ranged from 1.71%-4.09%. The integration of the transgenes into the maize nuclear genome was confirmed by PCR analysis using bar- and gus-specific primers and by Southern blot using gus- specific probe. Most of transgenic plants (71.4%) had one copy of T-DNA insert. The establishment of the transformation system in maize provides an efficient way for transferring useful foreign genes to maize plants. PMID:15636368

  17. In silico QTL mapping of basal liver iron levels in inbred mouse strains

    PubMed Central

    McLachlan, Stela; Lee, Seung-Min; Steele, Teresa M.; Hawthorne, Paula L.; Zapala, Matthew A.; Eskin, Eleazar; Schork, Nicholas J.; Anderson, Gregory J.

    2011-01-01

    Both iron deficiency and iron excess are detrimental in many organisms, and previous studies in both mice and humans suggest that genetic variation may influence iron status in mammals. However, these genetic factors are not well defined. To address this issue, we measured basal liver iron levels in 18 inbred strains of mice of both sexes on a defined iron diet and found ?4-fold variation in liver iron in males (lowest 153 ?g/g, highest 661 ?g/g) and ?3-fold variation in females (lowest 222 ?g/g, highest 658 ?g/g). We carried out a genome-wide association mapping to identify haplotypes underlying differences in liver iron and three other related traits (copper and zinc liver levels, and plasma diferric transferrin levels) in a subset of 14 inbred strains for which genotype information was available. We identified two putative quantitative trait loci (QTL) that contain genes with a known role in iron metabolism: Eif2ak1 and Igf2r. We also identified four putative QTL that reside in previously identified iron-related QTL and 22 novel putative QTL. The most promising putative QTL include a 0.22 Mb region on Chromosome 7 and a 0.32 Mb region on Chromosome 11 that both contain only one candidate gene, Adam12 and Gria1, respectively. Identified putative QTL are good candidates for further refinement and subsequent functional studies. PMID:21062905

  18. Proteomic Analysis of Silk Viability in Maize Inbred Lines and Their Corresponding Hybrids

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yafei; Zhao, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Fangfang; Tang, Jihua; Fu, Zhiyuan

    2015-01-01

    A long period of silk viability is critical for a good seed setting rate in maize (Zea mays L.), especially for inbred lines and hybrids with a long interval between anthesis and silking. To explore the molecular mechanism of silk viability and its heterosis, three inbred lines with different silk viability characteristics (Xun928, Lx9801, and Zong3) and their two hybrids (Xun928×Zong3 and Lx9801×Zong3) were analyzed at different developmental stages by a proteomic method. The differentially accumulated proteins were identified by mass spectrometry and classified into metabolism, protein biosynthesis and folding, signal transduction and hormone homeostasis, stress and defense responses, and cellular processes. Proteins involved in nutrient (methionine) and energy (ATP) supply, which support the pollen tube growth in the silk, were important for silk viability and its heterosis. The additive and dominant effects at a single locus, as well as complex epistatic interactions at two or more loci in metabolic pathways, were the primary contributors for mid-parent heterosis of silk viability. Additionally, the proteins involved in the metabolism of anthocyanins, which indirectly negatively regulate local hormone accumulation, were also important for the mid-parent heterosis of silk viability. These results also might imply the developmental dependence of heterosis, because many of the differentially accumulated proteins made distinct contributions to the heterosis of silk viability at specific developmental stages. PMID:26630375

  19. Origins of mouse inbred strains deduced from whole-genome scanning by polymorphic microsatellite loci.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Takahiro; Kikkawa, Yoshiaki; Miura, Ikuo; Inoue, Takeshi; Moriwaki, Kazuo; Shiroishi, Toshihiko; Satta, Yoko; Takahata, Naoyuki; Yonekawa, Hiromichi

    2005-01-01

    Microsatellite loci are uniformly distributed at approximately 100-kbp intervals on all chromosomes except the chromosome Y, and genetic information about more than 9000 loci and high-throughput polymorphism analysis are now available. Taking advantage of these properties, we carried out whole-genome scanning using eight common inbred strains (CIS) of laboratory mice, including A/J, C57BL/6J, CBA/J, DBA/2J, SM/J, SWR/J, NC/Nga, and 129/SvJ, and eight wild-derived inbred strains (WIS), BGL2/Ms, CAST/Ei, JF1/Ms, MSM/Ms, NJL/Ms, PGN2/Ms, SK/CamEi, and SWN/Ms. We selected and located 1226 informative loci at 1.2-cM average intervals on all of the chromosomes of the 16 strains and compared the polymorphisms of the eight CIS with those from the eight WIS as subspecies representatives. More than 50% of the loci can be identified as WIS (therefore, subspecies-specific) alleles in the CIS genomes. We also discovered that the CIS chromosomes form a mosaic structure with an average ratio of domesticus to non-domesticus alleles of 3:1. Furthermore, the domesticus alleles were present much more frequently on the CIS chromosome X than on their autosomes, suggesting that successive backcrossing of non-domesticus stocks to domesticus stocks had been undergone at the beginning of CIS history. PMID:15674729

  20. Assessment of genetic diversity in quality protein maize(QPM) inbreds using ISSR markers.

    PubMed

    Lenka, Devraj; Tripathy, Swapan K; Kumar, Ramesh; Behera, Meenakshi; Ranjan, Rajesh

    2015-07-01

    Genetic diversity of 49 maize inbreds was assessed using twelve ISSR primers. A wide variation in PCR products was revealed in terms of size (280 to 3000 bp), extent of polymorphism (94.87%) and number of bands (4-9). As a whole, 78 ISSR bands were produced (including four monomorphic bands) with an average of 6.5 bands per primer and the maximum number of bands (9) being produced by primer OUAT-8. Five ISSR primers (OUAT-8, OUAT-9, OUAT-15, OUAT 17 and OUAT-18) revealed higher PIC value (around 0.70) along with 100% polymorphism indicating better allelic diversity. While, ISSR primer OUAT-15 revealed higher number of polymorphic bands (8) with 100% polymorphism as well as considerably high PIC and Rp values. Thus, such an informative and discriminative primer is of immense value for the study of genetic diversity in a set of maize genotypes. The similarity index values ranged from 0.3 to 0.9 with an average of 0.522 and BQPM-1-14 maintained the highest genetic distance as revealed from its lowest average similarity coefficient value (0.393) with rest of the genotypes. BQPM 1-14, BQPM 1-8, BQPM 3-10, BQPM 6-8 and B 1110-7-2 were identified to be highly divergent among the test inbreds which could be sorted out as valuable materials for heterosis breeding for production of single cross hybrids. PMID:26364479

  1. Inducible Monooxygenase Activities and 3-Methylcholanthrene-Initiated Tumorigenesis in Mouse Recombinant Inbred Sublines

    PubMed Central

    Atlas, Steven A.; Taylor, Benjamin A.; Diwan, Bhalchandra A.; Nebert, Daniel W.

    1976-01-01

    The induction of a certain group of hepatic monooxygenase activities by polycyclic aromatic compounds is regulated by the same locus or gene cluster controlling the formation of cytochrome P1450 (P448) in mice. Certain inbred strains of mice are "responsive" (Ahb) to such induction, whereas others are "nonresponsive" (Ahd). A pair of closely related sublines that differ with respect to the Ah locus (for aromatic hydrocarbon responsiveness) were used to identify or confirm the pleiotropic effects of this gene. The lines were derived by sibling-mating without selection from (C57L/J x AKR/J)F 2 mice; the two sublines were separated at the F12 generation. Ten microsomal monooxygenase activities and one cytosol enzyme activity known to be associated with the Ah locus were similarly associated with cytochrome P1450 formation in these recombinant inbred sublines as well. Nine additional hepatic monooxygenase activities studied were found not to be associated with the Ah locus; certain of these activities were increased slightly, following treatment of nonresponsive as well as responsive mice with polycyclic aromatic compounds. The Ahb-containing subline was highly susceptible to 3-methylcholanthrene-induced subcutaneous sarcomas, whereas the Ah-d-containing subline was relatively resistant. These results emphasize the potential importance of this particular enzyme for the study of coordinated regulation in mammals. PMID:955403

  2. A General Bayesian Approach to Analyzing Diallel Crosses of Inbred Strains

    PubMed Central

    Lenarcic, Alan B.; Svenson, Karen L.; Churchill, Gary A.; Valdar, William

    2012-01-01

    The classic diallel takes a set of parents and produces offspring from all possible mating pairs. Phenotype values among the offspring can then be related back to their respective parentage. When the parents are diploid, sexed, and inbred, the diallel can characterize aggregate effects of genetic background on a phenotype, revealing effects of strain dosage, heterosis, parent of origin, epistasis, and sex-specific versions thereof. However, its analysis is traditionally intricate, unforgiving of unplanned missing information, and highly sensitive to imbalance, making the diallel unapproachable to many geneticists. Nonetheless, imbalanced and incomplete diallels arise frequently, albeit unintentionally, as by-products of larger-scale experiments that collect F1 data, for example, pilot studies or multiparent breeding efforts such as the Collaborative Cross or the Arabidopsis MAGIC lines. We present a general Bayesian model for analyzing diallel data on dioecious diploid inbred strains that cleanly decomposes the observed patterns of variation into biologically intuitive components, simultaneously models and accommodates outliers, and provides shrinkage estimates of effects that automatically incorporate uncertainty due to imbalance, missing data, and small sample size. We further present a model selection procedure for weighing evidence for or against the inclusion of those components in a predictive model. We evaluate our method through simulation and apply it to incomplete diallel data on the founders and F1's of the Collaborative Cross, robustly characterizing the genetic architecture of 48 phenotypes. PMID:22345610

  3. Transplantable Marek's disease lymphomas. I. Growth characteristics during development in two inbred lines of chickens.

    PubMed

    Coleman, R M; Schierman, L W

    1982-01-01

    Lymphomas developed in the pectoral muscle of most chickens inoculated with cells from primary Marek's disease virus-induced visceral tumors obtained from chickens of the same inbred line. However, serial passaging of the lymphoma cells in histocompatible hosts generally resulted either in an eventual absence of tumor formation at the inoculation site or in tumor regression. Exceptions occurred in two experiments, where tumors grew rapidly and the hosts died early. Subsequent passaging of cells from these tumors into syngeneic recipients resulted in the development of two new transplantable Marek's disease (MD) lymphomas. These lymphomas, which were developed in chickens of related inbred lines--G-B1 and G-B2--were designated MDCT-UG1 and MDCT-UG2, respectively. Cells from the transplantable lymphomas possess different major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens, since G-B1 and G-B2 chickens have different MHC genotypes. A change in the cellular composition during a particular passage for both lymphomas, as indicated by marked increases in the percentage of cells possessing a MD tumor-associated surface antigen (MATSA), suggests that each arose as a result of the emergence and selection of a highly malignant clone of cells. PMID:7103886

  4. Slc:Wistar outbred rats show close genetic similarity with F344 inbred rats.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Satoshi; Serikawa, Tadao; Kuramoto, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Although Slc:Wistar rats are used widely in biomedical research as outbred rats, close similarities in growth curves, survival rates, and immunological and biochemical phenotypes have been reported between Slc:Wistar and F344 inbred rats. We reported previously that nine genetic variations that were fixed in Slc:Wistar rats had identical genotypes in F344 rats. Here, we examined the genetic characteristics of Slc:Wistar rats using 27 simple-sequence length polymorphism (SSLP) markers and compared them with other Wistar stocks available in Japan and with some F344 strains. Among 27 SSLP loci, 23 (85%) were fixed in the Slc:Wistar rats, which was the highest among the other Wistar stocks. The 23 fixed loci shared identical genotypes with corresponding loci in F344 rats. Further, the predominant allele types in the unfixed loci had allele frequencies as high as 80%, and these alleles were identical in the F344 rats. When the nine genetic variations reported previously are added, a total of 32 (89%) out of the 36 loci examined were fixed and identical in the Slc:Wistar and F344 rat genomes. These findings indicate the low genetic variation in Slc:Wistar rats and the high genetic similarity between the Slc:Wistar and F344 inbred rats. This study demonstrates the importance of characterizing outbred rats and the need to pay ample attention to the genetic characteristics the Slc:Wistar rats for their proper use. PMID:25195633

  5. Profiling polyphenols of two diploid strawberry (Fragaria vesca) inbred lines using UHPLC-HRMSn

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jianghao; Liu, Xianjin; Yang, Tianbao; Slovin, Janet; Chen, Pei

    2013-01-01

    Phenolic compounds in the fruits of two diploid strawberries (Fragaria vesca f. semperflorens) inbred lines-Ruegen F7-4 (a red-fruited genotype) and YW5AF7 (a yellow-fruited genotype) were characterised using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMSn). The changes of anthocyanin composition during fruit development and between Ruegen F7-4 and YW5AF7 were studied. About 67 phenolic compounds, including taxifolin 3-O-arabinoside, glycosides of quercetin, kaempferol, cyanidin, pelargonidin, peonidin, ellagic acid derivatives, and other flavonols were identified in these two inbred lines. Compared to the regular octoploid strawberry, unique phenolic compounds were found in F. vesca fruits, such as taxifolin 3-O-arabinoside (both) and peonidin 3-O-malonylglucoside (Ruegen F7-4). The results provide the basis for comparative analysis of polyphenolic compounds in yellow and red diploid strawberries, as well as with the cultivated octoploid strawberries. PMID:24176345

  6. Hidden in plain sight: spike-wave discharges in mouse inbred strains.

    PubMed

    Letts, V A; Beyer, B J; Frankel, W N

    2014-07-01

    Twenty-seven inbred strains of mice were tested for spike-wave discharge (SWD) activity by video-electroencephalographic recordings over a 24-h recording period. Eight strains had reproducible, frequent SWDs, including five strains (C57BLKS/J, CBA/J, DBA/1J, NOR/LtJ, SM/J) previously undiagnosed for this distinctive phenotype. Eighteen other strains exhibited no such activity. Spike-wave discharges usually occurred while the subject was motionless, and in a significant number of annotated instances coincided with an arrest of the subject's relatively unrestrained locomotor activity, which resumed immediately after the discharge ended. In all five new strains, SWDs were suppressed by ethosuximide administration. From the genealogy of inbred strains, we suggest that two ancestors, A and DBA, transmitted genotypes required for SWD in all positive strains. Together these strains with SWDs provide new opportunities to understand the genetic core susceptibility of this distinctive electroencephalographic activity and to explore its relationship to absence epilepsy, a human disorder for which few genes are known. PMID:24861780

  7. High-Density Genotypes of Inbred Mouse Strains: Improved Power and Precision of Association Mapping.

    PubMed

    Rau, Christoph D; Parks, Brian; Wang, Yibin; Eskin, Eleazar; Simecek, Petr; Churchill, Gary A; Lusis, Aldons J

    2015-01-01

    Human genome-wide association studies have identified thousands of loci associated with disease phenotypes. Genome-wide association studies also have become feasible using rodent models and these have some important advantages over human studies, including controlled environment, access to tissues for molecular profiling, reproducible genotypes, and a wide array of techniques for experimental validation. Association mapping with common mouse inbred strains generally requires 100 or more strains to achieve sufficient power and mapping resolution; in contrast, sample sizes for human studies typically are one or more orders of magnitude greater than this. To enable well-powered studies in mice, we have generated high-density genotypes for ?175 inbred strains of mice using the Mouse Diversity Array. These new data increase marker density by 1.9-fold, have reduced missing data rates, and provide more accurate identification of heterozygous regions compared with previous genotype data. We report the discovery of new loci from previously reported association mapping studies using the new genotype data. The data are freely available for download, and Web-based tools provide easy access for association mapping and viewing of the underlying intensity data for individual loci. PMID:26224782

  8. Signatures of Dobzhansky-Muller Incompatibilities in the Genomes of Recombinant Inbred Lines.

    PubMed

    Colomé-Tatché, Maria; Johannes, Frank

    2016-02-01

    In the construction of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from two divergent inbred parents certain genotype (or epigenotype) combinations may be functionally "incompatible" when brought together in the genomes of the progeny, thus resulting in sterility or lower fertility. Natural selection against these epistatic combinations during inbreeding can change haplotype frequencies and distort linkage disequilibrium (LD) relations between loci on the same or on different chromosomes. These LD distortions have received increased experimental attention, because they point to genomic regions that may drive a Dobzhansky-Muller type of reproductive isolation and, ultimately, speciation in the wild. Here we study the selection signatures of two-locus epistatic incompatibility models and quantify their impact on the genetic composition of the genomes of two-way RILs obtained by selfing. We also consider the biases introduced by breeders when trying to counteract the loss of lines by selectively propagating only viable seeds. Building on our theoretical results, we develop model-based maximum-likelihood (ML) tests that can be applied to multilocus RIL genotype data to infer the precise mode of incompatibility as well as the relative fitness of incompatible loci. We illustrate this ML approach in the context of two published Arabidopsis thaliana RIL panels. Our work lays the theoretical foundation for studying more complex systems such as RILs obtained by sibling mating and/or from multiparental crosses. PMID:26680662

  9. Genetics of body weight in the LXS recombinant inbred mouse strains

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, Beth; Carosone-Line, Phyllis; Lu, Lu; Chesler, Elissa J; Johnson, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    This is the first phenotypic analysis of 75 new recombinant inbred (RI) strains derived from ILS and ISS progenitors. We analyzed body weight in two independent cohorts of female mice at various ages and in males at 60 days. Body weight is a complex trait which has been mapped in numerous crosses in rodents. The LXS RI strains displayed a large range of weights, transgressing those of the inbred progenitors, supporting the utility of this large panel for mapping traits not selected in the progenitors. Numerous QTLs for body weight mapped in singleand multilocus scans. We assessed replication between these and previously reported QTLs based on overlapping confidence intervals of published QTLs for body weight at 60 days and used meta-analyses to determine combined p values for three QTL regions located on Chromosomes 4, 5, and 11. Strain distribution patterns of microsatellite marker genotypes, weight, and other phenotypes are available on Web- QTL (http://www.webqtl.org/search.html) and allow genetic mapping of any heritable quantitative phenotype measured in these strains. We report one such analysis, correlating brain and body weights. Large reference panels of RI strains, such as the LXS, are invaluable for identifying genetic correlations, GXE (Gene X Environment) interactions, and replicating previously identified QTLs.

  10. Macronutrient selection by seven inbred mouse strains and three taste-related knockout strains.

    PubMed

    Tordoff, Michael G; Downing, Arnelle; Voznesenskaya, Anna

    2014-08-01

    Many animals thrive when given a choice of separate sources of macronutrients. How they do this is unknown. Here, we report some studies comparing the spontaneous choices between carbohydrate- and fat-containing food sources of seven inbred mouse strains (B6, BTBR, CBA, JF1, NZW, PWD and PWK) and three mouse models with genetic ablation of taste transduction components (T1R3, ITPR3 and CALHM1). For 8days, each mouse could choose between sources of carbohydrate (CHO-P; sucrose-cornstarch) and fat (Fat-P; vegetable shortening) with each source also containing protein (casein). We found that the B6 and PWK strains markedly preferred the CHO-P diet to the Fat-P diet, the BTBR and JF1 strains markedly preferred the Fat-P diet to the CHO-P diet, and the CBA, NZW and PWD strains showed equal intakes of the two diets (by weight). Relative to their WT littermates, ITPR3 and CALHM1 KO mice had elevated Fat-P preferences but T1R3 KO mice did not. There were differences among strains in adaption to the diet choice and there were differences in response between males and females on some days. These results demonstrate the diverse responses to macronutrients of inbred mice and they point to the involvement of chemosensory detectors (but not sweetness) as contributors to macronutrient selection. PMID:24912134

  11. High-Density Genotypes of Inbred Mouse Strains: Improved Power and Precision of Association Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Rau, Christoph D.; Parks, Brian; Wang, Yibin; Eskin, Eleazar; Simecek, Petr; Churchill, Gary A.; Lusis, Aldons J.

    2015-01-01

    Human genome-wide association studies have identified thousands of loci associated with disease phenotypes. Genome-wide association studies also have become feasible using rodent models and these have some important advantages over human studies, including controlled environment, access to tissues for molecular profiling, reproducible genotypes, and a wide array of techniques for experimental validation. Association mapping with common mouse inbred strains generally requires 100 or more strains to achieve sufficient power and mapping resolution; in contrast, sample sizes for human studies typically are one or more orders of magnitude greater than this. To enable well-powered studies in mice, we have generated high-density genotypes for ?175 inbred strains of mice using the Mouse Diversity Array. These new data increase marker density by 1.9-fold, have reduced missing data rates, and provide more accurate identification of heterozygous regions compared with previous genotype data. We report the discovery of new loci from previously reported association mapping studies using the new genotype data. The data are freely available for download, and Web-based tools provide easy access for association mapping and viewing of the underlying intensity data for individual loci. PMID:26224782

  12. Relationship between Plasma Albumin Concentration and Plasma Volume in 5 Inbred Rat Strains

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Rajiv; Klemcke, Harold G

    2015-01-01

    Using the Evans Blue procedure, we previously found strain-related differences in plasma volumes in 5 inbred rat strains. Because albumin binds strongly with Evans blue, this protein is important in the Evans blue method of plasma volume determination. Therefore, we speculated that interstrain differences in plasma albumin concentration (PAC) could distort calculated plasma volumes. To address this concern, we used ELISA techniques to measure PAC in these inbred rat strains. In study A, the blood volume was measured by using Evans blue dye, and albumin was measured at the start of hemorrhage. In study B, blood volume was not measured, and albumin was measured twice, near the start and end of hemorrhage (approximately 14 min apart). Neither study revealed any interstrain differences in PAC, which decreased after hemorrhage in all 5 strains. No correlation was found between PAC and plasma volume, survival time, blood lactate, or blood base excess. Percentage changes in PAC during hemorrhage were greater in salt-sensitive compared with Lewis rats. Moreover, these percentage changes were associated with survival time in Fawn hooded hypertensive rats. Our data show that the plasma volumes we measured previously were not misrepresented due to variations in PAC. PMID:26424242

  13. Proteomic Analysis of Silk Viability in Maize Inbred Lines and Their Corresponding Hybrids.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhihui; Qin, Yongtian; Wang, Yafei; Zhao, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Fangfang; Tang, Jihua; Fu, Zhiyuan

    2015-01-01

    A long period of silk viability is critical for a good seed setting rate in maize (Zea mays L.), especially for inbred lines and hybrids with a long interval between anthesis and silking. To explore the molecular mechanism of silk viability and its heterosis, three inbred lines with different silk viability characteristics (Xun928, Lx9801, and Zong3) and their two hybrids (Xun928Zong3 and Lx9801Zong3) were analyzed at different developmental stages by a proteomic method. The differentially accumulated proteins were identified by mass spectrometry and classified into metabolism, protein biosynthesis and folding, signal transduction and hormone homeostasis, stress and defense responses, and cellular processes. Proteins involved in nutrient (methionine) and energy (ATP) supply, which support the pollen tube growth in the silk, were important for silk viability and its heterosis. The additive and dominant effects at a single locus, as well as complex epistatic interactions at two or more loci in metabolic pathways, were the primary contributors for mid-parent heterosis of silk viability. Additionally, the proteins involved in the metabolism of anthocyanins, which indirectly negatively regulate local hormone accumulation, were also important for the mid-parent heterosis of silk viability. These results also might imply the developmental dependence of heterosis, because many of the differentially accumulated proteins made distinct contributions to the heterosis of silk viability at specific developmental stages. PMID:26630375

  14. Macronutrient selection by seven inbred mouse strains and three taste-related knockout strains

    PubMed Central

    Tordoff, Michael G.; Downing, Arnelle; Voznesenskaya, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Many animals thrive when given a choice of separate sources of macronutrients. How they do this is unknown. Here, we report some studies comparing the spontaneous choices between carbohydrate-and fat-containing food sources of seven inbred mouse strains (B6, BTBR, CBA, JF1, NZW, PWD and PWK) and three mouse models with genetic ablation of taste transduction components (T1R3, ITPR3 and CALHM1). For 8 days, each mouse could choose between sources of carbohydrate (CHO-P; sucrose-corn-starch) and fat (Fat-P; vegetable shortening) with each source also containing protein (casein). We found that the B6 and PWK strains markedly preferred the CHO-P diet to the Fat-P diet, the BTBR and JF1 strains markedly preferred the Fat-P diet to the CHO-P diet, and the CBA, NZW and PWD strains showed equal intakes of the two diets (by weight). Relative to their WT littermates, ITPR3 and CALHM1 KO mice had elevated Fat-P preferences but T1R3 KO mice did not. There were differences among strains in adaption to the diet choice and there were differences in response between males and females on some days. These results demonstrate the diverse responses to macronutrients of inbred mice and they point to the involvement of chemosensory detectors (but not sweetness) as contributors to macronutrient selection. PMID:24912134

  15. Two genes conferring resistance to Pythium stalk rot in maize inbred line Qi319.

    PubMed

    Song, Feng-Jing; Xiao, Ming-Gang; Duan, Can-Xing; Li, Hong-Jie; Zhu, Zhen-Dong; Liu, Bao-Tao; Sun, Su-Li; Wu, Xiao-Fei; Wang, Xiao-Ming

    2015-08-01

    Stalk rots are destructive diseases in maize around the world, and are most often caused by the pathogen Pythium, Fusarium and other fungi. The most efficient management for controlling stalk rots is to breed resistant cultivars. Pythium stalk rot can cause serious yield loss on maize, and to find the resistance genes from the existing germplasm is the basis to develop Pythium-resistance hybrid lines. In this study, we investigated the genetic resistance to Pythium stalk rot in inbred line Qi319 using F2 and F2:3 population, and found that the resistance to Pythium inflatum in Qi319 was conferred by two independently inherited dominant genes, RpiQI319-1 and RpiQI319-2. Linkage analysis uncovered that the RpiQI319-1 co-segregated with markers bnlg1203, and bnlg2057 on chromosome 1, and that the RpiQI319-2 locus co-segregated with markers umc2069 and bnlg1716 on chromosome 10. The RpiQI319-1 locus was further mapped into a ~500-kb interval flanked by markers SSRZ33 and SSRZ47. These results will facilitate marker-assisted selection of Pythium stalk rot-resistant cultivars in maize breeding. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the resistance to P. inflatum in the inbred line Qi319, and is also the first description of two independently inherited dominant genes conferring the resistance of Pythium stalk rot in maize. PMID:25724693

  16. Brachypodium sylvaticum, a Model for Perennial Grasses: Transformation and Inbred Line Development

    PubMed Central

    Steinwand, Michael A.; Young, Hugh A.; Bragg, Jennifer N.; Tobias, Christian M.; Vogel, John P.

    2013-01-01

    Perennial species offer significant advantages as crops including reduced soil erosion, lower energy inputs after the first year, deeper root systems that access more soil moisture, and decreased fertilizer inputs due to the remobilization of nutrients at the end of the growing season. These advantages are particularly relevant for emerging biomass crops and it is projected that perennial grasses will be among the most important dedicated biomass crops. The advantages offered by perennial crops could also prove favorable for incorporation into annual grain crops like wheat, rice, sorghum and barley, especially under the dryer and more variable climate conditions projected for many grain-producing regions. Thus, it would be useful to have a perennial model system to test biotechnological approaches to crop improvement and for fundamental research. The perennial grass Brachypodiumsylvaticum is a candidate for such a model because it is diploid, has a small genome, is self-fertile, has a modest stature, and short generation time. Its close relationship to the annual model Brachypodiumdistachyon will facilitate comparative studies and allow researchers to leverage the resources developed for B. distachyon. Here we report on the development of two keystone resources that are essential for a model plant: high-efficiency transformation and inbred lines. Using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation we achieved an average transformation efficiency of 67%. We also surveyed the genetic diversity of 19 accessions from the National Plant Germplasm System using SSR markers and created 15 inbred lines. PMID:24073248

  17. MAIN EFFECTS, EPISTASIS AND ENVIROMENTAL INTERACTIONS OF QTLS FOR FUSARIUM HEAD BLIGHT RESISTANCE IN A RECOMBINANT INBRED POPULATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chinese Spring-Sumai 3 chromosome 7A disomic substitution line (CS-SM3- 7 ADS) is highly resistant to Fusarium head blight (FHB), and an F7 population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from the cross CS-SM3-7ADS x Annong 8455 was evaluated for resistance to FHB to investigate main effects, ...

  18. Production of inbred progenies of diploid potatoes using an S-locus inhibitor (Sli) gene, and their characterization.

    PubMed

    Birhman, R K; Hosaka, K

    2000-06-01

    To develop inbred lines from self-incompatible, cultivated diploid potatoes, an S-locus inhibitor (Sli) gene derived from a self-compatible variant of a wild potato species, Solanum chacoense, was incorporated into various cultivated diploid potatoes. The progeny was selfed twice by the action of the Sli gene to obtain 74 S2 inbred clones belonging to 8 families. More than 40% of them were either non-flowering or pollen sterile. Among the pollen fertile clones, self-compatible clones occurred with a much lower frequency (20.9%) than expected (83.3%). The result demonstrated that self-compatibility was introduced and expressed in the gene pool of cultivated diploid potatoes by an action of the Sli gene, although serious inbreeding depression associated with selfing occurred. The genotypes of S2 inbreds were surveyed using 46 S. chacoense-specific RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) markers covering the whole potato genome. More than half of the markers (67.4%) showed distorted segregation. Particularly, all markers on chromosome 12 were overrepresented in the S2 inbreds. This confirms our earlier finding that the Sli gene locates on chromosome 12 and the alleles linked with this gene are preferentially transmitted because of its essential requirement for selfing. PMID:10902714

  19. Carotenoid accumulation and carotenogenic gene expression during fruit development in novel interspecific inbred squash lines and their parents.

    PubMed

    Nakkanong, Korakot; Yang, Jing Hua; Zhang, Ming Fang

    2012-06-13

    Carotenoid levels and composition during squash fruit development were compared in Cucurbita moschata , Cucurbita maxima , and two lines of their interspecific inbred lines, namely, Maxchata1 and Maxchata2. Eight genes associated with carotenoid biosynthesis were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. The two squash species and their interspecific inbred lines exhibited different qualitative and quantitative carotenoid profiles and regulatory mechanisms. C. moschata had the lowest total carotenoid content and mainly accumulated ?-carotene and ?-carotene, as expected in a fruit with pale-orange flesh. Low carotenoid content in this species was probably due to the comparatively low expression of all genes investigated, especially PSY1 gene, compared to the other squashes. The predominant carotenoids in C. maxima were violaxanthin and lutein, which produced a corresponding yellow flesh color in mature fruit. The relationship between the expression of the CHYB and ZEP genes may result in almost equal concentrations of violaxanthin and lutein in C. maxima at fruit ripening. In contrast, their interspecific inbred lines principally accumulated lutein and ?-carotene, leading to orange flesh color. The PSY1 gene exhibited higher expression levels at earlier stages of fruit development in the Maxchata lines, potentially triggering the increased carotenoid accumulation seen in these fruits. Likewise, the higher transcription level of CHYB gene observed in the two interspecific inbred lines might be correlated with high lutein in these hybrids. However, this study could not explain the observed ?-carotene accumulation on the basis of gene expression. PMID:22574777

  20. Registration of the IS3620C/BTx623 recombinant inbred mapping population of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. [Moench.])

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The BTx623 x IS3620C sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.] mapping population (Reg. No. _______, NSL ____, [represented as BTx623/IS3620C]), is a set of 430 F7 to F9 recombinant inbred lines [RILs](USDA-ARS Germplasm Information Network (GRIN) PI 658758 through PI 659060 and PI 659144 through PI 65...

  1. Mapping QTL controlling southern leaf blight resistance by combined analysis of three related recombinant inbred line populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance to southern leaf blight (SLB) disease caused by Cochliobolus heterostrophus race O were identified in three maize recombinant inbred populations assed in two environments. Each population derived from a cross between a temperate and a tropical maize li...

  2. Joint QTL analyses for partial resistance to Phytophthora sojae using six nested inbred populations with heterogeneous conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Partial resistance to Phytophthora sojae in soybean is controlled by multiple quantitative trait loci (QTL). With traditional QTL mapping approaches, power to detect these QTL, frequently of small effect, can be limited by population size. Joint linkage QTL analysis of nested recombinant inbred li...

  3. Learning Strategy Selection in the Water Maze and Hippocampal CREB Phosphorylation Differ in Two Inbred Strains of Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Jin-Young; Goo, June-Seo; Lee, Dong-Eun; Jin, Da-Qing; Bizon, Jennifer L.; Gallagher, Michela; Han, Jung-Soo

    2008-01-01

    Learning strategy selection was assessed in two different inbred strains of mice, C57BL/6 and DBA/2, which are used for developing genetically modified mouse models. Male mice received a training protocol in a water maze using alternating blocks of visible and hidden platform trials, during which mice escaped to a single location. After training,

  4. High-throughput sequencing reveals differing immune responses in the intestinal mucosa of two inbred lines afflicted with Necrotic enteritis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated the necrotic enteritis (NE)-induced transcripts of immune-related genes in the intestinal mucosa of two highly inbred White Leghorn chicken lines, line 6.3 and line 7.2, which share the same MHC haplotype and show different levels of NE susceptibility using high-throughput RNA sequen...

  5. Integration of TRAP markers onto a sunflower SSR marker linkage map constructed from 92 recombinant inbred lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The target region amplification polymorphism (TRAP) marker technique was employed to expand the published sunflower simple sequence repeat (SSR) linkage map constructed from a recombinant inbred population derived from the cross of RHA 280 x RHA 801. A previous report described the mapping of 183 TR...

  6. A deleterious effect associated with UNH159 is attenuated in twin embryos of an inbred line of tilapia (Oreochromis aureus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Offspring of a highly inbred gynogenetic line of Oreochromis aureus displayed 12-fold increase in twinning rate compared to the outbred population. Asymmetric conjoined twins which consist of a normal embryo attached to a malformed-atrophic twin were frequently encountered in both gynogenetic (90.7%...

  7. Evaluation of reproductive characteristics of 21 highly inbred lines of White Leghorns divergently selected for or segregating in tumor resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reproduction performance of 21 inbred experimental lines of White Leghorns were evaluated based on samples of reproduction records over a period of eight consecutive years. Two lines (63 and 72) have been extensively used in studies, especially in research seeking for genetic and epigenetic factors ...

  8. Learning Strategy Selection in the Water Maze and Hippocampal CREB Phosphorylation Differ in Two Inbred Strains of Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Jin-Young; Goo, June-Seo; Lee, Dong-Eun; Jin, Da-Qing; Bizon, Jennifer L.; Gallagher, Michela; Han, Jung-Soo

    2008-01-01

    Learning strategy selection was assessed in two different inbred strains of mice, C57BL/6 and DBA/2, which are used for developing genetically modified mouse models. Male mice received a training protocol in a water maze using alternating blocks of visible and hidden platform trials, during which mice escaped to a single location. After training,…

  9. Genome-Wide Patterns of Polymorphism in an Inbred Line of the African Malaria Mosquito Anopheles gambiae

    PubMed Central

    Turissini, David A.; Gamez, Stephanie; White, Bradley J.

    2014-01-01

    Anopheles gambiae is a major mosquito vector of malaria in Africa. Although increased use of insecticide-based vector control tools has decreased malaria transmission, elimination is likely to require novel genetic control strategies. It can be argued that the absence of an A. gambiae inbred line has slowed progress toward genetic vector control. In order to empower genetic studies and enable precise and reproducible experimentation, we set out to create an inbred line of this species. We found that amenability to inbreeding varied between populations of A. gambiae. After full-sib inbreeding for ten generations, we genotyped 112 individuals—56 saved prior to inbreeding and 56 collected after inbreeding—at a genome-wide panel of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Although inbreeding dramatically reduced diversity across much of the genome, we discovered numerous, discrete genomic blocks that maintained high heterozygosity. For one large genomic region, we were able to definitively show that high diversity is due to the persistent polymorphism of a chromosomal inversion. Inbred lines in other eukaryotes often exhibit a qualitatively similar retention of polymorphism when typed at a small number of markers. Our whole-genome SNP data provide the first strong, empirical evidence supporting associative overdominance as the mechanism maintaining higher than expected diversity in inbred lines. Although creation of A. gambiae lines devoid of nearly all polymorphism may not be feasible, our results provide critical insights into how more fully isogenic lines can be created. PMID:25377942

  10. Recovery of maize (Zea mays L.) inbreds and hybrids from chilling stress of various duration: photosynthesis and antioxidant enzymes.

    PubMed

    Holá, Dana; Kocová, Marie; Rothová, Olga; Wilhelmová, Nad'a; Benesová, Monika

    2007-07-01

    The differences between two maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines and their F1 hybrids in their response to chilling periods of various duration (1, 2, 3 or 4 weeks) and subsequent return to optimum temperatures were analysed by the measurement of the photosystem (PS) 1 and 2 activity, the photosynthetic pigments' content and the activity of antioxidant enzymes. The PS2 activity and the chlorophyll content decreased in plants subjected to 3 or 4 weeks of chilling, but not in those subjected to 1 or 2 weeks of chilling. This decrease was more pronounced in inbreds compared to their hybrids. The activity of superoxide dismutase did not much change with the increasing length of chilling period in the inbreds but decreased in the hybrids, the glutathione reductase activity increased in both types of genotypes but more in the inbred lines, while for ascorbate peroxidase and catalase the changes in parents-hybrids relationship did not show any specific trend. The PS1 activity and the carotenoids' content was not much affected. PMID:16884820

  11. Molecular mapping of four blast resistance genes using recombinant inbred lines of 93-11 and nipponbare

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Molecular mapping of new blast resistance genes is important for developing resistant rice cultivars using marker-assisted selection. In this study, 259 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) were developed from a cross between Nipponbare and 93-11, and were used to construct a 1165.8-cM linkage map with 1...

  12. ROOT TRAITS AND NODULATION OF RECOMBINANT INBRED BEAN LINES FROM A JAMAPA CALIMA POPULATION INOCULATED WITH TWO STRAINS OF RHIZOBIUM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bean cultivars of Andean and Middle American origin often have contrasting above-ground traits. Less is known, however, of possible differences in root traits of beans from different gene pools. Recombinant inbred lines (RIL) derived from a cross between the Andean cultivar Calima and the Middle A...

  13. AROMA VOLATILE DIFFERENCES IN COMMERCIAL ORANGE-FLESHED CANTALOUPES, THE INBRED PARENTAL LINES, AND STORED FRESH-CUTS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Substantial differences exist in muskmelons regarding flavor and fresh-cut processing quality. We are attempting to discriminate volatile compounds that can be used as reliable breeding indicators for melon quality. Analysis of commercially available varieties, and their male and female inbred bre...

  14. Quantitative trait locus analysis for kernel width using maize recombinant inbred lines.

    PubMed

    Hui, G Q; Wen, G Q; Liu, X H; Yang, H P; Luo, Q; Song, H X; Wen, L; Sun, Y; Zhang, H M

    2015-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) kernel width is one of the most important traits that is related to yield and appearance. To understand its genetic mechanisms more clearly, a recombinant inbred line (RIL) segregation population consisting of 239 RILs was used for quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping for kernel width. We found four QTLs on chromosomes 3 (one), 5 (two), and 10 (one). The QTLs were close to their adjacent markers, with a range of 0-23.8 cM, and explained 6.2-19.7% of the phenotypic variation. The three QTLs on chromosomes 3 and 5 had positive additive effects, and to a certain extent increased kernel width, whereas the one on chromosome 10 exhibited negative additive effects and decreased kernel width. These results can be used for gene cloning and marker-assisted selection in maize-breeding programs. PMID:26600508

  15. Recombinant inbred line differential identifies race-specific resistance to phytophthora root rot in Capsicum annuum.

    PubMed

    Sy, O; Steiner, R; Bosland, P W

    2008-08-01

    A differential series is the normal method for identification of races within a plant pathogen and a host interaction. A host differential is extremely useful for phytopathological as well as breeding purposes. A set of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) were developed and characterized for race differentiation of Phytophthora root rot caused by Phytophthora capsici. The highly resistant Capsicum annuum accession Criollo de Morelos-334 was hybridized to a susceptible cultivar, Early Jalapeno, to generate the RIL population. The host differential characterized 17 isolates of P. capsici into 13 races. The establishment of a stable host differential for the P. capsici and C. annuum interaction will assist researchers in understanding the complex inheritance of resistance to Phytophthora root rot and to develop resistant cultivars. PMID:18943204

  16. Differentiating Inbred Mouse Strains from Each Other and Those with Single Gene Mutations Using Hair Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Robert H.; Bradshaw, Katie M.; Durbin-Johnson, Blythe P.; Rocke, David M.; Eigenheer, Richard A.; Phinney, Brett S.; Sundberg, John P.

    2012-01-01

    Mutant laboratory mice with distinctive hair phenotypes are useful for identifying genes responsible for hair diseases. The work presented here demonstrates that shotgun proteomic profiling can distinguish hair shafts from different inbred mouse strains. For this purpose, analyzing the total hair shaft provided better discrimination than analyzing the isolated solubilized and particulate (cross-linked) fractions. Over 100 proteins exhibited significant differences among the 11 strains and 5 mutant stocks across the wide spectrum of strains surveyed. Effects on the profile of single gene mutations causing hair shaft defects were profound. Since the hair shaft provides a discrete sampling of the species proteome, with constituents serving important functions in epidermal appendages and throughout the body, this work provides a foundation for non-invasive diagnosis of genetic diseases of hair and perhaps other tissues. PMID:23251662

  17. Maternal heterozygosity and progeny fitness association in an inbred Scots pine population.

    PubMed

    Abrahamsson, S; Ahlinder, J; Waldmann, P; Garca-Gil, M R

    2013-03-01

    Associations between heterozygosity and fitness traits have typically been investigated in populations characterized by low levels of inbreeding. We investigated the associations between standardized multilocus heterozygosity (stMLH) in mother trees (obtained from12 nuclear microsatellite markers) and five fitness traits measured in progenies from an inbred Scots pine population. The traits studied were proportion of sound seed, mean seed weight, germination rate, mean family height of one-year old seedlings under greenhouse conditions (GH) and mean family height of three-year old seedlings under field conditions (FH). The relatively high average inbreeding coefficient (F) in the population under study corresponds to a mixture of trees with different levels of co-ancestry, potentially resulting from a recent bottleneck. We used both frequentist and Bayesian methods of polynomial regression to investigate the presence of linear and non-linear relations between stMLH and each of the fitness traits. No significant associations were found for any of the traits except for GH, which displayed negative linear effect with stMLH. Negative HFC for GH could potentially be explained by the effect of heterosis caused by mating of two inbred mother trees (Lippman and Zamir 2006), or outbreeding depression at the most heterozygote trees and its negative impact on the fitness of the progeny, while their simultaneous action is also possible (Lynch. 1991). However,since this effect wasn't detected for FH, we cannot either rule out that the greenhouse conditions introduce artificial effects that disappear under more realistic field conditions. PMID:23400838

  18. Interstrain Differences in the Liver Effects of Trichloroethylene in a Multistrain Panel of Inbred Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bradford, Blair U.; Lock, Eric F.; Kosyk, Oksana; Kim, Sungkyoon; Uehara, Takeki; Harbourt, David; DeSimone, Michelle; Threadgill, David W.; Tryndyak, Volodymyr; Pogribny, Igor P.; Bleyle, Lisa; Koop, Dennis R.; Rusyn, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a widely used industrial chemical and a common environmental contaminant. It is a well-known carcinogen in rodents and a probable carcinogen in humans. Studies utilizing panels of mouse inbred strains afford a unique opportunity to understand both metabolic and genetic basis for differences in responses to TCE. We tested the hypothesis that strain- and liver-specific toxic effects of TCE are genetically controlled and that the mechanisms of toxicity and susceptibility can be uncovered by exploring responses to TCE using a diverse panel of inbred mouse strains. TCE (2100 mg/kg) or corn oil vehicle was administered by gavage to 6- to 8-week-old male mice of 15 mouse strains. Serum and liver were collected at 2, 8, and 24 h postdosing and were analyzed for TCE metabolites, hepatocellular injury, and gene expression of liver. TCE metabolism, as evident from the levels of individual oxidative and conjugative metabolites, varied considerably between strains. TCE treatment-specific effect on the liver transcriptome was strongly dependent on genetic background. Peroxisome proliferatoractivated receptormediated molecular networks, consisting of the metabolism genes known to be induced by TCE, represent some of the most pronounced molecular effects of TCE treatment in mouse liver that are dependent on genetic background. Conversely, cell death, liver necrosis, and immune-mediated response pathways, which are altered by TCE treatment in liver, are largely genetic background independent. These studies provide better understanding of the mechanisms of TCE-induced toxicity anchored on metabolism and genotype-phenotype correlations that may define susceptibility or resistance. PMID:21135412

  19. Genetic analysis in a variant of limb girdle muscular dystrophy in an inbred aboriginal community

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, C.R.; Nylen, E.G.; Halliday, W.

    1994-09-01

    Limb girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) is a heterogeneous group of disorders with variable inheritance patterns, age-of-onset, rates of progression and patterns of muscle involvement. To date, 4 different chromosomal assignments have been described; LGMD1 to chromosome 5q, LGMD2 to chromosome 15q, SCARMD to chromosome 13q and a fourth locus on chromosome 2p. Because of this genetic heterogeneity, only large unambiguous multiplex families which are clearly linked to a particular locus can be utilized in a genetic analysis. We now report preliminary findings in a large highly inbred aboriginal kindred with 8 probands (5 females, 3 males) from 6 nuclear families with a progressive LMD. All presented in their mid- to late teens with gait disturbances. At time of presentation all except one had both proximal as well as distal muscle involvement, facial muscle sparing, CK levels 25 to 100 times normal (3762-20,400 U/l), dystrophic muscle biopsies and normal dystrophin and dystrophin-associated glycoprotein expression. We have studied the segregation of highly informative microsatellite markers for FBN1, D15S132 and the gene for thrombospondin on chromosome 15q and D2S134, D2S136, D2S147, and D2S166 on chromosome 2. Linkage to chromosome 15q has been excluded and two-point lod scores are not significant as yet to either confirm or exclude linkage to chromosome 2p. However, visual inspection reveals that affected individuals are not consistently homozygous for the chromosome 2p markers as would be predicted in such an inbred population. Clinically, SCARMD is unlikely and if the locus on chromosomes 2p and 5q can also be excluded, a genome-wide search using evenly spaced microsatellites will be initiated. A second geographically distinct aboriginal kindred with a similar clinical phenotype has now also been identified.

  20. Genetic determinants of fibro-osseous lesions in aged inbred mice.

    PubMed

    Berndt, Annerose; Ackert-Bicknell, Cheryl; Silva, Kathleen A; Kennedy, Victoria E; Sundberg, Beth A; Cates, Justin M; Schofield, Paul N; Sundberg, John P

    2016-02-01

    Fibro-osseous lesions in mice are progressive aging changes in which the bone marrow is replaced to various degrees by fibrovascular stroma and bony trabeculae in a wide variety of bones. The frequency and severity varied greatly among 28 different inbred mouse stains, predominantly affecting females, ranging from 0% for 10 strains to 100% for KK/HlJ and NZW/LacJ female mice. Few lesions were observed in male mice and for 23 of the strains, no lesions were observed in males for any of the cohorts. There were no significant correlations between strain-specific severities of fibro-osseous lesions and ovarian (r=0.11; P=0.57) or endometrial (r=0.03; P=0.89) cyst formation frequency or abnormalities in parathyroid glands. Frequency of fibro-osseous lesions was most strongly associated (P<10(-6)) with genome variations on chromosome (Chr) 8 at 90.6 and 90.8Mb (rs33108071, rs33500669; P=5.010(-10), 1.310(-6)), Chr 15 at 23.6 and 23.8Mb (rs32087871, rs45770368; P=7.310(-7), 2.710(-6)), and Chr 19 at 33.2, 33.4, and 33.6Mb (rs311004232, rs30524929, rs30448815; P=2.810(-6), 2.810(-6), 2.810(-6)) in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). The relatively large number of candidate genes identified in the GWAS analyses suggests that this may be an extremely complex polygenic disease. These results indicate that fibro-osseous lesions are surprisingly common in many inbred strains of laboratory mice as they age. While this presents little problem in most studies that utilize young animals, it may complicate aging studies, particularly those focused on bone. PMID:26589134

  1. Delayed inflammatory response to primary pneumonic plague occurs in both outbred and inbred mice.

    PubMed

    Bubeck, Sarah S; Cantwell, Angelene M; Dube, Peter H

    2007-02-01

    Yersinia pestis is the causative agent of plague, a disease that can manifest as either bubonic or pneumonic plague. An interesting feature of plague is that it is a rapidly progressive disease, suggesting that Y. pestis either evades and/or suppresses the innate immune response to infection. Therefore, the early host response during the course of primary pneumonic plague was investigated in two mouse strains, the outbred strain CD1 and the inbred strain C57BL/6. A comparative analysis of the course of disease in these two strains of mice indicated that they are susceptible to intranasal Y. pestis CO92 infection and have similar 50% lethal doses and kinetics of infection with respect to colonization of the lung, liver, and spleen. Significantly, in both strains of mice, robust neutrophil recruitment to the lungs was not observed until 48 h after infection, suggesting that there was a delay in inflammatory cell recruitment to the site of infection. In addition, proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6 [IL-6], tumor necrosis factor alpha, gamma interferon, IL-12p70, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1) and chemokines (KC, MIP-2) in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluids were not readily detected until 48 h after infection, which coincided with the increase in polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) recruitment to the lungs. In comparison, CD1 mice with gram-negative pneumonia caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae exhibited strong inflammatory responses early in infection, with PMNs comprising the majority of the cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid 24 h postinfection, indicating that PMN recruitment to the lungs could occur earlier in this infection than in Y. pestis infection. Together, our results indicate that there is a delay in the recruitment of neutrophils to the lungs in the mouse model of primary plague pneumonia that correlates with delayed expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in both outbred and inbred mice. PMID:17101642

  2. Association of Nrf2 Polymorphism Haplotypes with Acute Lung Injury Phenotypes in Inbred Strains of Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jedlicka, Anne E.; Gladwell, Wesley; Marzec, Jacqui; McCaw, Zackary R.; Bienstock, Rachelle J.; Kleeberger, Steven R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Nrf2 is a master transcription factor for antioxidant response element (ARE)-mediated cytoprotective gene induction. A protective role for pulmonary Nrf2 was determined in model oxidative disorders, including hyperoxia-induced acute lung injury (ALI). To obtain additional insights into the function and genetic regulation of Nrf2, we assessed functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of Nrf2 in inbred mouse strains and tested whether sequence variation is associated with hyperoxia susceptibility. Results: Nrf2 SNPs were compiled from publicly available databases and by re-sequencing DNA from inbred strains. Hierarchical clustering of Nrf2 SNPs categorized the strains into three major haplotypes. Hyperoxia susceptibility was greater in haplotypes 2 and 3 strains than in haplotype 1 strains. A promoter SNP −103 T/C adding an Sp1 binding site in haplotype 2 diminished promoter activation basally and under hyperoxia. Haplotype 3 mice bearing nonsynonymous coding SNPs located in (1862 A/T, His543Gln) and adjacent to (1417 T/C, Thr395Ile) the Neh1 domain showed suppressed nuclear transactivation of pulmonary Nrf2 relative to other strains, and overexpression of haplotype 3 Nrf2 showed lower ARE responsiveness than overexpression of haplotype 1 Nrf2 in airway cells. Importantly, we found a significant correlation of Nrf2 haplotypes and hyperoxic lung injury phenotypes. Innovation and Conclusion: The results indicate significant influence of Nrf2 polymorphisms and haplotypes on gene function and hyperoxia susceptibility. Our findings further support Nrf2 as a genetic determinant in ALI pathogenesis and provide useful tools for investigators who use mouse strains classified by Nrf2 haplotypes to elucidate the role for Nrf2 in oxidative disorders. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 22, 325–338. PMID:25268541

  3. Heterogeneity of respiratory dendritic cell subsets and lymphocyte populations in inbred mouse strains

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Inbred mouse strains are used in different models of respiratory diseases but the variation of critical respiratory leukocyte subpopulations across different strains is unknown. Methods By using multiparameter flow cytometry we have quantitated respiratory leukocyte subsets including dendritic cells subpopulations, macrophages, classical T and B cells, natural killer cells, ??TCR+ T cells and lineage-negative leukocytes in the five most common inbred mouse strains BALB/c, C57BL/6, DBA/2, 129SV and C3H. To minimize confounding environmental factors, age-matched animals were received from the same provider and were housed under identical specific-pathogen-free conditions. Results Results revealed significant strain differences with respect to respiratory neutrophils (p=0.005; up to 1.4 fold differences versus C57BL/6 mice), eosinophils (p=0.029; up to 2.7 fold), certain dendritic cell subsets (p?0.0003; up to 3.4 fold), T (p<0.001; up to 1.6 fold) and B lymphocyte subsets (p=0.005; up to 0.4 fold), ?? T lymphocytes (p=0.003; up to 1.6 fold), natural killer cells (p<0.0001; up to 0.6 fold) and lineage-negative innate leukocytes (p?0.007; up to 3.6 fold). In contrast, total respiratory leukocytes, macrophages, total dendritic cells and bronchoalveolar lavage leukocytes did not differ significantly. Stimulation of respiratory leukocytes via Toll-like receptor 4 and 9 as well as CD3/CD28 revealed significant strain differences of TNF-? and IL-10 production. Conclusion Our study demonstrates significant strain heterogeneity of respiratory leukocyte subsets that may impact respiratory immunity in different disease models. Additionally, the results may help identification of optimal strains for purification of rare respiratory leukocyte subsets for ex vivo analyses. PMID:23066782

  4. Genomic variation in the vomeronasal receptor gene repertoires of inbred mice

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Vomeronasal receptors (VRs), expressed in sensory neurons of the vomeronasal organ, are thought to bind pheromones and mediate innate behaviours. The mouse reference genome has over 360 functional VRs arranged in highly homologous clusters, but the vast majority are of unknown function. Differences in these receptors within and between closely related species of mice are likely to underpin a range of behavioural responses. To investigate these differences, we interrogated the VR gene repertoire from 17 inbred strains of mice using massively parallel sequencing. Results Approximately half of the 6222 VR genes that we investigated could be successfully resolved, and those that were unambiguously mapped resulted in an extremely accurate dataset. Collectively VRs have over twice the coding sequence variation of the genome average; but we identify striking non-random distribution of these variants within and between genes, clusters, clades and functional classes of VRs. We show that functional VR gene repertoires differ considerably between different Mus subspecies and species, suggesting these receptors may play a role in mediating behavioural adaptations. Finally, we provide evidence that widely-used, highly inbred laboratory-derived strains have a greatly reduced, but not entirely redundant capacity for differential pheromone-mediated behaviours. Conclusions Together our results suggest that the unusually variable VR repertoires of mice have a significant role in encoding differences in olfactory-mediated responses and behaviours. Our dataset has expanded over nine fold the known number of mouse VR alleles, and will enable mechanistic analyses into the genetics of innate behavioural differences in mice. PMID:22908939

  5. Caenorhabditis briggsae Recombinant Inbred Line Genotypes Reveal Inter-Strain Incompatibility and the Evolution of Recombination

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Joseph A.; Koboldt, Daniel C.; Staisch, Julia E.; Chamberlin, Helen M.; Gupta, Bhagwati P.; Baird, Scott E.; Haag, Eric S.

    2011-01-01

    The nematode Caenorhabditis briggsae is an emerging model organism that allows evolutionary comparisons with C. elegans and exploration of its own unique biological attributes. To produce a high-resolution C. briggsae recombination map, recombinant inbred lines were generated from reciprocal crosses between two strains and genotyped at over 1,000 loci. A second set of recombinant inbred lines involving a third strain was also genotyped at lower resolution. The resulting recombination maps exhibit discrete domains of high and low recombination, as in C. elegans, indicating these are a general feature of Caenorhabditis species. The proportion of a chromosome's physical size occupied by the central, low-recombination domain is highly correlated between species. However, the C. briggsae intra-species comparison reveals striking variation in the distribution of recombination between domains. Hybrid lines made with the more divergent pair of strains also exhibit pervasive marker transmission ratio distortion, evidence of selection acting on hybrid genotypes. The strongest effect, on chromosome III, is explained by a developmental delay phenotype exhibited by some hybrid F2 animals. In addition, on chromosomes IV and V, cross direction-specific biases towards one parental genotype suggest the existence of cytonuclear epistatic interactions. These interactions are discussed in relation to surprising mitochondrial genome polymorphism in C. briggsae, evidence that the two strains diverged in allopatry, the potential for local adaptation, and the evolution of Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities. The genetic and genomic resources resulting from this work will support future efforts to understand inter-strain divergence as well as facilitate studies of gene function, natural variation, and the evolution of recombination in Caenorhabditis nematodes. PMID:21779179

  6. Differential hormonal and gene expression dynamics in two inbred sunflower lines with contrasting dormancy level.

    PubMed

    Roselló, Paula L; Vigliocco, Ana E; Andrade, Andrea M; Riera, Natalí V; Calafat, Mario; Molas, María L; Alemano, Sergio G

    2016-05-01

    Seed germination and dormancy are tightly regulated by hormone metabolism and signaling pathway. We investigated the endogenous content of abscisic acid (ABA), its catabolites, and gibberellins (GAs), as well as the expression level of certain ABA and GAs metabolic and signaling genes in embryo of dry and imbibed cypselas of inbred sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., Asteraceae) lines: B123 (dormant) and B91 (non-dormant). Under our experimental conditions, the expression of RGL2 gene might be related to the ABA peak in B123 line at 3 h of imbibition. Indeed, RGL2 transcripts are absent in dry and early embedded cypselas of the non-dormant line B91. ABA increase was accompanied by a significant ABA-Glucosyl ester (ABA-GE) and phaseic acid (PA) (two ABA catabolites) decrease in B123 line (3 h) which indicates that ABA metabolism seems to be more active in this line, and that it would be involved in the imposition and maintenance of sunflower seed dormancy, as it has been reported for many species. Finally, an increase of bioactive GAs (GA1 and GA3) occurs at 12 h of imbibition in both lines after a decrease in ABA content. This study shows the first report about the RGL2 tissue-specific gene expression in sunflower inbred lines with contrasting dormancy level. Furthermore, our results provide evidence that ABA and GAs content and differential expression of metabolism and signaling genes would be interacting in seed dormancy regulation through a mechanism of action related to embryo itself. PMID:26934102

  7. Quantitative trait loci for non-race-specific, high-temperature adult-plant resistance to stripe rust in wheat cultivar Express

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat cultivar Express has durable, high-temperature adult-plant (HTAP) resistance to stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici). To elucidate the genetic basis of the resistance, Express was crossed with Avocet Susceptible (AVS). A mapping population of 146 F5 recombinant inbred lines (R...

  8. Expression of a Thatcher wheat adult plant stem rust resistance QTL on chromosome arm 2BL is enhanced by Lr34

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An F6 recombinant inbred line (RIL) spring wheat population derived from RL6071, a stem rust susceptible line and RL6058, a backcross line of Thatcher wheat with Lr34 that is highly resistant to stem rust, was evaluated for adult plant stem rust resistance in North Dakota in 1999, and in Kenya in 20...

  9. A Common Genetic Basis for Cross-Sensitivity to Mesotrione and Nicosulfuron in Sweet Corn Hybrid Cultivars and Inbreds Grown Throughout North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In previous research, the sweet corn inbred line Cr1 was observed to be sensitive to multiple postemergence herbicides, including four acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibiting herbicides, three 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD)-inhibiting herbicides, a growth regulator herbicide combination, ...

  10. Temporal factors in the extinction of fear in inbred mouse strains differing in extinction efficacy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Various neuropsychiatric conditions, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), are characterized by deficient fear extinction, but individuals differ greatly in risk for these. While there is growing evidence that fear extinction is influenced by certain procedural variables, it is unclear how these influences might vary across individuals and subpopulations. To model individual differences in fear extinction, prior studies identified a strain of inbred mouse, 129S1/SvImJ (S1), which exhibits a profound deficit in fear extinction, as compared to other inbred strains, such as C57BL/6J (B6). Methods Here, we assessed the effects of procedural variables on the impaired extinction phenotype of the S1 strain and, by comparison, the extinction-intact B6 strain. The variables studied were 1) the interval between conditioning and extinction, 2) the interval between cues during extinction training, 3) single-cue exposure before extinction training, and 4) extinction of a second-order conditioned cue. Results Conducting extinction training soon after (immediately) conditioning attenuated fear retrieval in S1 mice and impaired extinction in B6 mice. Spacing cue presentations with long inter-trial intervals during extinction training augmented fear in S1 and B6 mice. The effect of spacing was lost with one-trial fear conditioning in B6, but not S1 mice. A single exposure to a conditioned cue before extinction training did not alter extinction retrieval, either in B6 or S1 mice. Both the S1 and B6 strains exhibited robust second-order fear conditioning, in which a cue associated with footshock was sufficient to serve as a conditioned exciter to condition a fear association to a second cue. B6 mice extinguished the fear response to the second-order conditioned cue, but S1 mice failed to do so. Conclusions These data provide further evidence that fear extinction is strongly influenced by multiple procedural variables and is so in a highly strain-dependent manner. This suggests that the efficacy of extinction-based behavioral interventions, such as exposure therapy, for trauma-related anxiety disorders will be determined by the procedural parameters employed and the degree to which the patient can extinguish. PMID:23830244

  11. Generating Embryonic Stem Cells from the Inbred Mouse Strain DBA/2J, a Model of Glaucoma and Other Complex Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Czechanski, Anne M.; Macalinao, Danilo G.; MacNicoll, Katharine H.; Lin, Chyuan-Sheng; Donahue, Leah Rae; John, Simon W. M.

    2012-01-01

    Mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells are derived from the inner cell mass of blastocyst stage embryos and are used primarily for the creation of genetically engineered strains through gene targeting. While some inbred strains of mice are permissive to the derivation of embryonic stem cell lines and are therefore easily engineered, others are nonpermissive or recalcitrant. Genetic engineering of recalcitrant strain backgrounds requires gene targeting in a permissive background followed by extensive backcrossing of the engineered allele into the desired strain background. The inbred mouse strain DBA/2J is a recalcitrant strain that is used as a model of many human diseases, including glaucoma, deafness and schizophrenia. Here, we describe the generation of germ-line competent ES cell lines derived from DBA/2J mice. We also demonstrate the utility of DBA/2J ES cells with the creation of conditional knockout allele for Endothelin-2 (Edn2) directly on the DBA/2J strain background. PMID:23209647

  12. Basal and induced granulopoiesis in outbred, F1 hybrid and inbred mice: can inbreeding depression influence the experimental practice?

    PubMed

    Hofer, Michal; Pospísil, Milan; Dusek, Ladislav; Holá, Jirina; Hoferová, Zuzana; Weiterová, Lenka

    2010-08-01

    In this study we examined differences in selected indices of granulopoiesis in outbred, F(1) hybrid and inbred mouse strains. Specifically, serum granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) levels, numbers of marrow granulocyte-macrophage progenitor cells and morphologically recognizable proliferative marrow granulocytic precursor cells were evaluated. These parameters were determined in untreated controls, and in mice exposed either to a non-specific stimulus (injection of saline) or to a granulopoiesis-enhancing stimulus (administration of a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, meloxicam). Lower levels of G-CSF were detectable in the outbred ICR mice, which also demonstrated an enhanced response to both types of the stimuli. Considering the fact that outbred mice are closer to natural mammalian populations, including human ones, the possibility of using outbred mice, instead of the often used inbred strains, for experiments evaluating the effects of pharmacological interventions on hematopoiesis should be investigated. PMID:20660092

  13. Quantitative trait loci determining weight reduction of testes and pituitary by diethylstilbesterol in LEXF and FXLE recombinant inbred strain rats.

    PubMed

    Tachibana, Masayoshi; Lu, Lingmin; Hiai, Hiroshi; Tamura, Atsushi; Matsushima, Yoshibumi; Shisa, Hayase

    2006-04-01

    Increasing exposure to environmental endocrine disruptor, xeno-estrogen, is a serious hazard to male reproductive activity. To explore possible genetic control in susceptibility to xeno-estrogen, the weight reduction of testes induced by the continuous administration of a synthetic estrogen, diethylstilbesterol, were investigated by quantitative trait analysis in LEXF and FXLE recombinant inbred strain rats, consisting of 21 independent strains, 9 of their substrains, parental F344/Stm and LE/Stm strains, and (F344 x LE)F1. For the weight of testes, one highly significant quantitative trait locus (QTL) and one significant QTL were mapped on chromosomes 7 and 1, respectively. The QTL on chromosome 7 is closely associated with c-myc. Pituitary weight and serum prolactin were also variable among recombinant inbred strains, but no QTL was detected for them in this study. PMID:16651691

  14. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence and mutations of the Lung cancer model inbred rat strain (Muridae; Rattus).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Da-Ming; Zhu, Dan-Dan; Lu, Qing-Feng; Qiao, Wen-Bo; Zhuang, Yong-Zhi

    2016-03-01

    We reported the complete mitochondrial genome sequencing of an important Lung cancer model inbred rat strain for the first time. The total length of the mitogenome was 16,312?bp. It harbored 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and 1 non-coding control region. The mutation sites were analyzed by comparing with the reference BN strain. PMID:25391029

  15. SKHIN/Sprd, a new genetically defined inbred hairless mouse strain for UV-induced skin carcinogenesis studies

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Carlos; Parker-Thornburg, Jan; Mikulec, Carol; Kusewitt, Donna F.; Fischer, Susan M.; DiGiovanni, John; Conti, Claudio J.; Benavides, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Strains of mice vary in their susceptibility to ultra-violet (UV) radiation-induced skin tumors. Some strains of hairless mice (homozygous for the spontaneous Hrhr mutation) are particularly susceptible to these tumors. The skin tumors that develop in hairless mice resemble, both at the morphologic and molecular levels, UV-induced squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) and their precursors in human. The most commonly employed hairless mice belong to the SKH1 stock. However, these mice are outbred and their genetic background is not characterized, which makes them a poor model for genetic studies. We have developed a new inbred strain from outbred SKH1 mice that we named SKHIN/Sprd (now at generation F31). In order to characterize the genetic background of this new strain, we genotyped a cohort of mice at F30 with 92 microsatellites and 140 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) evenly distributed throughout the mouse genome. We also exposed SKHIN/Sprd mice to chronic UV irradiation and showed that they are as susceptible to UV-induced skin carcinogenesis as outbred SKH1 mice. In addition, we proved that, albeit with low efficiency, inbred SKHIN/Sprd mice are suitable for transgenic production by classical pronuclear microinjection. This new inbred strain will be useful for the development of transgenic and congenic strains on a hairless inbred background as well as the establishment of syngeneic tumor cell lines. These new tools can potentially help elucidate a number of features of the cutaneous response to UV irradiation in humans, including the effect of genetic background and modifier genes. PMID:22379968

  16. Genetic Architecture of Maize Kernel Composition in the Nested Association Mapping and Inbred Association Panels1[W

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Jason P.; McMullen, Michael D.; Holland, James B.; Tian, Feng; Bradbury, Peter; Ross-Ibarra, Jeffrey; Buckler, Edward S.; Flint-Garcia, Sherry A.

    2012-01-01

    The maize (Zea mays) kernel plays a critical role in feeding humans and livestock around the world and in a wide array of industrial applications. An understanding of the regulation of kernel starch, protein, and oil is needed in order to manipulate composition to meet future needs. We conducted joint-linkage quantitative trait locus mapping and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for kernel starch, protein, and oil in the maize nested association mapping population, composed of 25 recombinant inbred line families derived from diverse inbred lines. Joint-linkage mapping revealed that the genetic architecture of kernel composition traits is controlled by 2126 quantitative trait loci. Numerous GWAS associations were detected, including several oil and starch associations in acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase1-2, a gene that regulates oil composition and quantity. Results from nested association mapping were verified in a 282 inbred association panel using both GWAS and candidate gene association approaches. We identified many beneficial alleles that will be useful for improving kernel starch, protein, and oil content. PMID:22135431

  17. Bone Morphology in 46 BXD Recombinant Inbred Strains and Femur-Tibia Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yueying; Lu, Lu; Hasty, Karen A.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the bone properties of BXD recombinant inbred (RI) mice by analyzing femur and tibia and compared their phenotypes of different compartments. 46 BXD RI mouse strains were analyzed including progenitor C57BL/6J (n = 16) and DBA/2J (n = 15) and two first filial generations (D2B6F1 and B6D2F1). Strain differences were observed in bone quality and structural properties (P < 0.05) in each bone profile (whole bone, cortical bone, or trabecular bone). It is well known that skeletal phenotypes are largely affected by genetic determinants and genders, such as bone mineral density (BMD). While genetics and gender appear expectedly as the major determinants of bone mass and structure, significant correlations were also observed between femur and tibia. More importantly, positive and negative femur-tibia associations indicated that genetic makeup had an influence on skeletal integrity. We conclude that (a) femur-tibia association in bone morphological properties significantly varies from strain to strain, which may be caused by genetic differences among strains, and (b) strainwise variations were seen in bone mass, bone morphology, and bone microarchitecture along with bone structural property. PMID:25811045

  18. Bayesian mapping of multiple quantitative trait loci from incomplete inbred line cross data.

    PubMed

    Sillanp, M J; Arjas, E

    1998-03-01

    A novel fine structure mapping method for quantitative traits is presented. It is based on Bayesian modeling and inference, treating the number of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) as an unobserved random variable and using ideas similar to composite interval mapping to account for the effects of QTLs in other chromosomes. The method is introduced for inbred lines and it can be applied also in situations involving frequent missing genotypes. We propose that two new probabilistic measures be used to summarize the results from the statistical analysis: (1) the (posterior) QTL intensity, for estimating the number of QTLs in a chromosome and for localizing them into some particular chromosomal regions, and (2) the locationwise (posterior) distributions of the phenotypic effects of the QTLs. Both these measures will be viewed as functions of the putative QTL locus, over the marker range in the linkage group. The method is tested and compared with standard interval and composite interval mapping techniques by using simulated backcross progeny data. It is implemented as a software package. Its initial version is freely available for research purposes under the name Multimapper at URL http://www.rni.helsinki.fi/mjs. PMID:9539450

  19. Dynamic QTL analysis of protein content and glutamine synthetase activity in recombinant inbred wheat lines.

    PubMed

    Li, H M; Liang, H; Li, Z; Tang, Z X; Fu, S L; Geng, Y Y; Yan, B J; Ren, Z L

    2015-01-01

    Protein content (PC) is a crucial factor that determines the end-use and nutritional quality of wheat (Triticum aestivum). Glutamine synthetase (GS), which is a major participant in nitrogen metabolism, can convert inorganic nitrogen into organic nitrogen. Although many studies have been conducted on PC and GS, a dynamic analysis of all of the filling stages has not been conducted. Therefore, 115 F9-10 recombinant inbred wheat lines of 'R131/R142' were used to analyze PC and GS activity during different developmental stages, using the conditional quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping method. Twenty-two and six conditional QTL were detected for PC and GS activily, respectively. More QTL in leaf PC were detected during the early filling stages than in the later filling stages. Grain PC QTL displayed different dynamic variations to leaf PC QTL during the entire grain-filling stages. All of the QTL were expressed differently over time, and nine conditional QTL were detected across two filling stages. QTL with similar functions may have tended to group in specific locales. This study provides dynamic genetic information on protein accumulation during grain-filling stages. PMID:26345802

  20. Bayesian mapping of multiple quantitative trait loci from incomplete inbred line cross data.

    PubMed Central

    Sillanp, M J; Arjas, E

    1998-01-01

    A novel fine structure mapping method for quantitative traits is presented. It is based on Bayesian modeling and inference, treating the number of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) as an unobserved random variable and using ideas similar to composite interval mapping to account for the effects of QTLs in other chromosomes. The method is introduced for inbred lines and it can be applied also in situations involving frequent missing genotypes. We propose that two new probabilistic measures be used to summarize the results from the statistical analysis: (1) the (posterior) QTL intensity, for estimating the number of QTLs in a chromosome and for localizing them into some particular chromosomal regions, and (2) the locationwise (posterior) distributions of the phenotypic effects of the QTLs. Both these measures will be viewed as functions of the putative QTL locus, over the marker range in the linkage group. The method is tested and compared with standard interval and composite interval mapping techniques by using simulated backcross progeny data. It is implemented as a software package. Its initial version is freely available for research purposes under the name Multimapper at URL http://www.rni.helsinki.fi/mjs. PMID:9539450

  1. Variation in Nicotine Consumption in Inbred Mice Is Not Linked to Orosensory Ability

    PubMed Central

    Glatt, A. Rebecca; Denton, Kelley

    2009-01-01

    Genetic studies of nicotine addiction in mice have utilized the oral self-administration model. However, it is unclear if strain differences in nicotine consumption are influenced by variation in bitter taste sensitivity. We measured both nicotine consumption and nicotine brief-access licking behavior in several commonly used inbred strains of mice that were previously shown to differ in nicotine consumption. A/J (A), C57BL/6J (B6), and DBA/2J (D2) mice were given a 2-bottle choice test with a single concentration of nicotine (75 ?g/ml; nicotine vs. water). Mice of these strains were also tested with a range of nicotine concentrations (5400 ?g/ml) using a brief-access test, which measures orosensory response and minimizes postingestive effects. Although B6 mice consumed more 75-?g/ml nicotine than A or D2 mice in the 2-bottle test, these strains did not differ in level of aversion to nicotine when tested with the brief-access procedure. Strain differences in orosensory response to nicotine were not found; yet, differences emerged during the 2-bottle tests. This study provides evidence that variation in intake level of nicotine is likely not due to differences in taste or trigeminal sensitivity but likely due to postingestive factors. PMID:18775876

  2. Pericarp anatomy and hormone profiles of cypselas in dormant and non-dormant inbred sunflower lines.

    PubMed

    Andrade, A; Riera, N; Lindstrom, L; Alemano, S; Alvarez, D; Abdala, G; Vigliocco, A

    2015-03-01

    The pericarp anatomy and the effects of storage after harvest, storage temperature and early cypsela imbibition on phytohormone profiles were studied in inbred sunflower lines B123 and B91. On day 0, germination of B123 cypselas was near 0%, indicating dormancy, whereas that of B91 cypselas was near 100%, indicating non-dormancy. The germination of B123 and B91 on day 33 at room temperature (25C) storage was similar. Cell wall thickness and sclerification of the pericarp were higher in B123 than B91, suggesting that structural characteristics may contribute to physical dormancy in B123. Jasmonates (JAs), salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA) were measured in dry and imbibed pericarps. SA content of dry pericarp was higher on day 33 than day 0. SA content during imbibition on day 33 was similar for room and low (-20C) storage temperatures. ABA content after 12h imbibition was similar on days 0 and 33 at low temperature, but it increased on day 33 at room temperature for B123. 12-Oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) was maximal on day 0 for B123, but peaked at day 33 at low temperature for B91. JA was higher on days 0 and 33 at room temperature as compared with low temperature. Our findings indicate that pericarp hormone profiles are affected in the two lines with different dormancy degree depending on storage conditions and imbibition processes. PMID:25272333

  3. Inheritance of Nitrogen Use Efficiency in Inbred Progenies of Tropical Maize Based on Multivariate Diallel Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Guedes, Fernando Lisboa; Diniz, Rafael Parreira; Balestre, Marcio; Ribeiro, Camila Bastos; Camargos, Renato Barbosa; Souza, Joo Cndido

    2014-01-01

    The objective of our study was to characterize and determine the patterns of genetic control in relation to tolerance and efficiency of nitrogen use by means of a complete diallel cross involving contrasting inbred progenies of tropical maize based on a univariate approach within the perspective of a multivariate mixed model. Eleven progenies, previously classified regarding the tolerance and responsiveness to nitrogen, were crossed in a complete diallel cross. Fifty-five hybrids were obtained. The hybrids and the progenies were evaluated at two different nitrogen levels, in two locations. The grain yield was measured as well as its yield components. The heritability values between the higher and lower nitrogen input environment did not differ among themselves. It was observed that the general combining ability values were similar for both approaches univariate and multivariate, when it was analyzed within each location and nitrogen level. The estimate of variance of the specific combining ability was higher than general combining ability estimate and the ratio between them was 0.54. The univariate and multivariate approaches are equivalent in experiments with good precision and high heritability. The nonadditive genetic effects exhibit greater quantities than the additive genetic effects for the genetic control of nitrogen use efficiency. PMID:25587575

  4. Genome-wide association mapping of acute lung injury in neonatal inbred mice.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Jennifer L; Gladwell, Wesley; Verhein, Kirsten C; Cho, Hye-Youn; Wess, Jrgen; Suzuki, Oscar; Wiltshire, Tim; Kleeberger, Steven R

    2014-06-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to the pathogenesis of many acute and chronic pulmonary disorders, including bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), a respiratory condition that affects preterm infants. However, the mechanisms of susceptibility to oxidant stress in neonatal lungs are not completely understood. We evaluated the role of genetic background in response to oxidant stress in the neonatal lung by exposing mice from 36 inbred strains to hyperoxia (95% O2) for 72 h after birth. Hyperoxia-induced lung injury was evaluated by using bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) analysis and pathology. Statistically significant interstrain variation was found for BALF inflammatory cells and protein (heritability estimates range: 33.6-55.7%). Genome-wide association mapping using injury phenotypes identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs) on chromosomes 1, 2, 4, 6, and 7. Comparative mapping of the chromosome 6 QTLs identified Chrm2 (cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 2, cardiac) as a candidate susceptibility gene, and mouse strains with a nonsynonymous coding single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in Chrm2 that causes an amino acid substitution (P265L) had significantly reduced hyperoxia-induced inflammation compared to strains without the SNP. Further, hyperoxia-induced lung injury was significantly reduced in neonatal mice with targeted deletion of Chrm2, relative to wild-type controls. This study has important implications for understanding the mechanisms of oxidative lung injury in neonates. PMID:24571919

  5. Differing rates of cholesterol absorption among inbred mouse strains yield differing levels of HDL-cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Sontag, Timothy J; Chellan, Bijoy; Getz, Godfrey S; Reardon, Catherine A

    2013-09-01

    Inbred strains of mice with differing susceptibilities to atherosclerosis possess widely varying plasma HDL levels. Cholesterol absorption and lipoprotein formation were compared between atherosclerosis-susceptible, low-HDL C57BL6/J mice and atherosclerosis-resistant, high-HDL FVBN/J mice. [(3)H]cholesterol and triglyceride appeared in the plasma of FVB mice gavaged with cholesterol in olive oil at a much higher rate than in C57 mice. The plasma cholesterol was found almost entirely as HDL-cholesterol in both strains. Inhibition of lipoprotein catabolism with Tyloxapol revealed that the difference in the rate of [(3)H]cholesterol appearance in the plasma was due entirely to a greater rate of chylomicron secretion from the intestine of the FVB mice. Lipid absorption into the 2nd quarter of the small intestine is greater in the FVB mice and indicates that this region may contain the factors that give rise to the differences in absorption observed between the two mouse strains. Additionally, ad libitum feeding prior to cholesterol gavage accentuates the absorption rate differences compared with fasting. The resultant remodeling of the increased levels of chylomicron in the plasma may contribute to increased plasma HDL. Intestinal gene expression analysis reveals several genes that may play a role in these differences, including microsomal triglyceride transfer protein and ABCG8. PMID:23812556

  6. Duplications and deletions of Vh genes in inbred strains of mice.

    PubMed

    Tutter, A; Riblet, R

    1988-01-01

    The evolution of variable region (Vh) gene family copy number and polymorphism was investigated by the analysis of the immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region (Igh-V) locus in 74 inbred strains and substrains of mice. Several strains were found to have slight differences from Igh-V haplotypes previously identified, usually involving the gain or loss of one or a few members of a single Vh gene family. These results indicate that the evolution of copy number in the mouse Igh-V locus proceeds largely by the accumulation of incremental changes, reflecting the clustered organization of the mouse Igh-V locus. We have found no evidence of very large or frequent duplication or deletion events indicative of rapid expansion or contraction processes. The existence of one or more particularly large Vh gene families most likely reflects random copy number variation, rather than selection for the amplification of their members. The identification of strains with recombinant Vh gene arrays demonstrates that recombination, both within and between haplotypes, appears to be the predominant mechanism generating the high restriction fragment length polymorphism in the Igh-V locus. PMID:2899547

  7. Inter-strain differences of serotonergic inhibitory pain control in inbred mice

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Descending inhibitory pain control contributes to the endogenous defense against chronic pain and involves noradrenergic and serotonergic systems. The clinical efficacy of antidepressants suggests that serotonin may be particularly relevant for neuropathic pain conditions. Serotonergic signaling is regulated by synthesis, metabolisms, reuptake and receptors. Results To address the complexity, we used inbred mouse strains, C57BL/6J, 129 Sv, DBA/2J and Balb/c, which differ in brain serotonin levels. Serotonin analysis after nerve injury revealed inter-strain differences in the adaptation of descending serotonergic fibers. Upregulation of spinal cord and midbrain serotonin was apparent only in 129 Sv mice and was associated with attenuated nerve injury evoked hyperalgesia and allodynia in this strain. The increase of dorsal horn serotonin was blocked by hemisectioning of descending fibers but not by rhizotomy of primary afferents indicating a midbrain source. Para-chlorophenylalanine-mediated serotonin depletion in spinal cord and midbrain intensified pain hypersensitivity in the nerve injury model. In contrast, chronic inflammation of the hindpaw did not evoke equivalent changes in serotonin levels in the spinal cord and midbrain and nociceptive thresholds dropped in a parallel manner in all strains. Conclusion The results suggest that chronic nerve injury evoked hypernociception may be contributed by genetic differences of descending serotonergic inhibitory control. PMID:20977736

  8. Seed yield and its components of indeterminate and determinate lines in recombinant inbred lines of soybean

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Shin; Fujii, Kenichiro; Yumoto, Setsuzo; Ishimoto, Masao; Shiraiwa, Tatsuhiko; Sayama, Takashi; Kikuchi, Akio; Nishio, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the benefits of indeterminate growth habit in breeding to improve yield potential of Japanese soybean varieties, which exclusively have determinate growth habit. Two populations of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from crosses between determinate Japanese cultivars and indeterminate US cultivars were grown in Akita and Kyoto, and seed weight per plant (SW) and its components were compared between indeterminate and determinate RILs. The difference of SW between the two growth habits in RILs varied depending on maturation time. The SW of early indeterminate lines was significantly higher than that of early determinate ones in Akita, but not in Kyoto. Among yield components, the number of seeds per pod was constantly larger in indeterminate lines than that in determinate ones irrespective of maturation time. The number of seeds per plant and the number of pods per plant of the indeterminate lines were greater than those of the determinate lines in early maturation in Akita. These results suggest that the indeterminate growth habit is an advantageous characteristic in breeding for high yield of early maturing soybean varieties in the Tohoku region. PMID:26069445

  9. Genetic identification of endogenous polytropic proviruses by using recombinant inbred mice.

    PubMed Central

    Frankel, W N; Stoye, J P; Taylor, B A; Coffin, J M

    1989-01-01

    Forty-seven endogenous polytropic murine viruses (Pmv) were identified by examination of proviral-cellular DNA junction fragment segregation in recombinant inbred (RI) mice. Most Pmv loci were found in more than one of the seven RI progenitor strains analyzed, but only four were present in all strains. Chromosomal assignments for 41 Pmv loci were determined by comparing their RI strain distribution patterns with those of known genetic markers. Pmv loci were found dispersed throughout the genome, with chromosomes 1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 11, 12, 15, and 16 each carrying three or more proviruses. Linkage analysis in the AKXD RI set suggested that the gene encoding mink cell focus-forming virus resistance (Rcmfr) of DBA/2J mice is probably not a Pmv provirus. It was also deduced that no single, AKR/J-specific Pmv provirus is required as an env gene donor for thymomagenic mink cell focus-forming viruses. In addition, a Pmv provirus was very closely associated with the albino mutation on chromosome 7. Images PMID:2547997

  10. Markers for Heightened Monitoring, Imminent Death, and Euthanasia in Aged Inbred Mice

    PubMed Central

    Trammell, Rita A; Cox, Lisa; Toth, Linda A

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to identify objective criteria that would reliably predict spontaneous death in aged inbred mice. We evaluated male and female AKR/J mice, which die at a relatively young age due to the development of lymphoma, as well as male C57BL/6J and BALB/cByJ mice. Mice were implanted subcutaneously with an identification chip that also allowed remote measurement of body temperature. Temperatures and body weights were measured weekly until spontaneous death occurred or until euthanasia was performed for humane reasons. In AKR/J mice, hypothermia and weight loss began about 4 wk prior to death and increased gradually during that antemortem interval. In C57BL/6J and BALB/cByJ mice, these declines began earlier and were more prolonged prior to death. However, C57BL/6J and BALB/cByJ mice developed a relatively precipitous hypothermia during the 2 wk prior to death. For all 3 strains, the derived composite score of temperature × weight, expressed as a percentage of stable values for each mouse, was similarly informative. These changes in individual and composite measures can signal the need for closer observation or euthanasia of individual mice. Validated markers of clinical decline or imminent death can allow the use of endpoints that reduce terminal distress, do not significantly affect longevity or survival data, and permit timely collection of biologic samples. PMID:22776049

  11. Selection and phenotypic characterization of a core collection of Brachypodium distachyon inbred lines

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The model grass Brachypodium distachyon is increasingly used to study various aspects of grass biology. A large and genotypically diverse collection of B. distachyon germplasm has been assembled by the research community. The natural variation in this collection can serve as a powerful experimental tool for many areas of inquiry, including investigating biomass traits. Results We surveyed the phenotypic diversity in a large collection of inbred lines and then selected a core collection of lines for more detailed analysis with an emphasis on traits relevant to the use of grasses as biofuel and grain crops. Phenotypic characters examined included plant height, growth habit, stem density, flowering time, and seed weight. We also surveyed differences in cell wall composition using near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) and comprehensive microarray polymer profiling (CoMPP). In all cases, we observed extensive natural variation including a two-fold variation in stem density, four-fold variation in ferulic acid bound to hemicellulose, and 1.7-fold variation in seed mass. Conclusion These characterizations can provide the criteria for selecting diverse lines for future investigations of the genetic basis of the observed phenotypic variation. PMID:24423101

  12. Comt1 Genotype and Expression Predicts Anxiety and Nociceptive Sensitivity in Inbred Strains of Mice

    PubMed Central

    Segall, SK; Nackley, AG; Diatchenko, L; Lariviere, WR; Lu, X; Marron, JS; Grabowski-Boase, L; Walker, JR; Slade, G; Gauthier, J; Bailey, JS; Steffy, BM; Maynard, TM; Tarantino, LM; Wiltshire, T

    2010-01-01

    Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is an ubiquitously expressed enzyme that maintains basic biologic functions by inactivating catechol substrates. In humans, polymorphic variance at the COMT locus has been associated with modulation of pain sensitivity (Andersen & Skorpen, 2009) and risk for developing psychiatric disorders (Harrison & Tunbridge, 2008). A functional haplotype associated with increased pain sensitivity was shown to result in decreased COMT activity by altering mRNA secondary structure-dependent protein translation (Nackley et al., 2006). However, the exact mechanisms whereby COMT modulates pain sensitivity and behavior remain unclear and can be further studied in animal models. We have assessed Comt1 gene expression levels in multiple brain regions in inbred strains of mice and have discovered that Comt1 is differentially expressed among the strains, and this differential expression is cis-regulated. A B2 Short Interspersed Element (SINE) was inserted in the 3?UTR of Comt1 in 14 strains generating a common haplotype that correlates with gene expression. Experiments using mammalian expression vectors of full-length cDNA clones with and without the SINE element demonstrate that strains with the SINE haplotype (+SINE) have greater Comt1 enzymatic activity. +SINE mice also exhibit behavioral differences in anxiety assays and decreased pain sensitivity. These results suggest that a haplotype, defined by a 3? UTR B2 SINE element, regulates Comt1 expression and some mouse behaviors. PMID:20659173

  13. Hypervitaminosis D and Metastatic Calcification in a Colony of Inbred Strain 13 Guinea Pigs, Cavia porcellus.

    PubMed

    Holcombe, H; Parry, N M; Rick, M; Brown, D E; Albers, T M; Refsal, K R; Morris, J; Kelly, R; Marko, S T

    2015-07-01

    A commercial diet fed to a colony of inbred strain 13 guinea pigs for approximately 6 weeks was subsequently recalled for excessive levels of vitamin D. Twenty-one of 62 animals exhibited clinical signs, including anorexia, lethargy, and poor body condition. Nine affected and 4 clinically normal animals were euthanized for further evaluation, including serum chemistry, urinalysis, and gross and/or histopathology. Macroscopic findings included white discoloration in multiple organs in 8 animals, and microscopic evaluation confirmed multiorgan mineralization in tissues from 7 animals. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were elevated in 10 animals. Serum inorganic phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase levels were increased in all exposed animals; however, total calcium and ionized calcium levels were not significantly higher in exposed animals than in control strain 13 guinea pigs from a different institution. The data support a diagnosis of hypervitaminosis D with metastatic calcification. Following the diet recall, the remaining guinea pigs increased their food intake and regained body condition. Diagnostic testing of 8 animals euthanized approximately 3 months after returning to a normal diet demonstrated that serum parathyroid hormone remained significantly lower, and ionized calcium and ionized magnesium were significantly higher, in recovered animals compared to controls and exposed animals. These results indicate that diagnostic tests other than serum calcium are necessary for a diagnosis of hypervitaminosis D in guinea pigs. PMID:25281651

  14. Genetic analysis of health-related secondary metabolites in a Brassica rapa recombinant inbred line population.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Hedayat; El-Soda, Mohamed; Kim, Hye Kyong; Fritsche, Steffi; Jung, Christian; Aarts, Mark G M

    2013-01-01

    The genetic basis of the wide variation for nutritional traits in Brassica rapa is largely unknown. A new Recombinant Inbred Line (RIL) population was profiled using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) analysis to detect quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling seed tocopherol and seedling metabolite concentrations. RIL population parent L58 had a higher level of glucosinolates and phenylpropanoids, whereas levels of sucrose, glucose and glutamate were higher in the other RIL population parent, R-o-18. QTL related to seed tocopherol (?-, ?-, ?-, ?-, ?-??- and total tocopherol) concentrations were detected on chromosomes A3, A6, A9 and A10, explaining 11%-35% of the respective variation. The locus on A3 co-locates with the BrVTE1gene, encoding tocopherol cyclase. NMR spectroscopy identified the presence of organic/amino acid, sugar/glucosinolate and aromatic compounds in seedlings. QTL positions were obtained for most of the identified compounds. Compared to previous studies, novel loci were found for glucosinolate concentrations. This work can be used to design markers for marker-assisted selection of nutritional compounds in B. rapa. PMID:23892600

  15. NKX2-5 mutations in an inbred consanguineous population: genetic and phenotypic diversity.

    PubMed

    Abou Hassan, Ossama K; Fahed, Akl C; Batrawi, Manal; Arabi, Mariam; Refaat, Marwan M; DePalma, Steven R; Seidman, J G; Seidman, Christine E; Bitar, Fadi F; Nemer, Georges M

    2015-01-01

    NKX2-5 mutations are associated with different forms of congenital heart disease. Despite the knowledge gained from molecular and animal studies, genotype-phenotype correlations in humans are limited by the lack of large cohorts and the incomplete assessment of family members. We hypothesized that studying the role of NKX2-5 in inbred populations with homogeneous genetic backgrounds and high consanguinity rates such as Lebanon could help closing this gap. We sequenced NKX2-5 in 188 index CHD cases (25 with ASD). Five variants (three segregated in families) were detected in eleven families including the previously documented p.R25C variant, which was found in seven patients from different families, and in one healthy individual. In 3/5 familial dominant ASD cases, we identified an NKX2-5 mutation. In addition to the heterogeneity of NKX2-5 mutations, a diversity of phenotypes occurred within the families with predominant ASD and AV block. We did in fact identify a large prevalence of Sudden Cardiac Death (SCD) in families with truncating mutations, and two patients with coronary sinus disease. NKX2-5 is thus responsible for dominant familial ASD even in consanguineous populations, and a wide genetic and phenotypic diversity is characteristic of NKX2-5 mutations in the Lebanese population. PMID:25742962

  16. Neoplastic and nonneoplastic lesions in aging mice of unique and common inbred strains contribution to modeling of human neoplastic diseases.

    PubMed

    Szymanska, H; Lechowska-Piskorowska, J; Krysiak, E; Strzalkowska, A; Unrug-Bielawska, K; Grygalewicz, B; Skurzak, H M; Pienkowska-Grela, B; Gajewska, M

    2014-05-01

    The evaluation of spontaneous lesions in classical inbred strains of mice has become increasingly important because genetically engineered mice (GEMs) are created on these backgrounds. Novel inbred strains-genetically diverse from classic strains-are valuable both as a new background for GEM mice and to increase the genetic variation found in laboratory mice. Newly arising spontaneous genetic alterations in commonly used strains may also lead to new and valuable mouse models of disease. This report evaluates gross and histological lesions in relatively new, classic, and rarely explored mouse inbred strains. Pathological lesions of 1273 mice from 12 inbred strains (129S1/SvW, A.CA-H2(f) /W, AKR/W, BALB/cW, BN/aW, C57BL/6 W, C57BL/10 W, C3H/W, C3H (wad) /W, CBA/W, DBA/2 W, and WOM/W) are reported. BN/aW, WOM/W, and C3H (wad) /W are novel inbred strains produced and maintained in the Department of Genetics and Laboratory Animal Breeding at the Center of Oncology, Warsaw, Poland. Both neoplastic and nonneoplastic lesions were examined. The prevalence of lung neoplasms was significantly higher in A.CA-H2(f) /W (33.3%) and BALB/cW (33.8%) mice (P < .01). The prevalence of liver neoplasms was significantly higher in the CBA/W strain (P < .01). Mammary gland neoplasms arose at a greater frequency in C3H/W mice (P < .01). The occurrence of uterine neoplasms was higher in DBA/W and 129S1/SvW mice. AKR/W and WOM/W mice developed T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma with high frequency (110/121 [90.9%] and 159/175 [90.9%], respectively) before 1 year of age. The occurrence of nonneoplastic lesions in the kidneys of BN/aW mice was increased (P < .01). PMID:24019352

  17. Maize peroxidase Px5 has a highly conserved sequence in inbreds resistant to mycotoxin producing fungi which enhances fungal and insect resistance.

    PubMed

    Dowd, Patrick F; Johnson, Eric T

    2016-01-01

    Mycotoxin presence in maize causes health and economic issues for humans and animals. Although many studies have investigated expression differences of genes putatively governing resistance to producing fungi, few have confirmed a resistance role, or examined putative resistance gene structure in more than a couple of inbreds. The pericarp expression of maize Px5 has previously been associated with resistance to Aspergillus flavus growth and insects in a set of inbreds. Genes from 14 different inbreds that included ones with resistance and susceptibility to A. flavus, Fusarium proliferatum, F. verticillioides and F. graminearum and/or mycotoxin production were cloned using high fidelity enzymes, and sequenced. The sequence of Px5 from all resistant inbreds was identical, except for a single base change in two inbreds, only one of which affected the amino acid sequence. Conversely, the Px5 sequence from several susceptible inbreds had several base variations, some of which affected amino acid sequence that would potentially alter secondary structure, and thus enzyme function. The sequence of the maize peroxidase Px5 common to inbreds resistant to mycotoxigenic fungi was overexpressed in maize callus. Callus transformants overexpressing the gene caused significant reductions in growth for fall armyworms, corn earworms, and F. graminearum compared to transformant callus with a ?-glucuronidase gene. This study demonstrates rarer transcripts of potential resistance genes overlooked by expression screens can be identified by sequence comparisons. A role in pest resistance can be verified by callus expression of the candidate genes, which can thereby justify larger scale transformation and regeneration of transgenic plants expressing the resistance gene for further evaluation. PMID:26659597

  18. Differential miRNA expression in inherently high- and low-active inbred mice

    PubMed Central

    Dawes, Michelle; Kochan, Kelli J; Riggs, Penny K; Timothy Lightfoot, J

    2015-01-01

    Despite established health benefits of regular exercise, the majority of Americans do not meet the recommended levels of physical activity. While it is known that voluntary activity levels are largely heritable, the genetic mechanisms that regulate activity are not well understood. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that inhibit transcription by binding to a target gene, inhibiting protein production. The purpose of this study was to investigate differential miRNA expression between inherently high- (C57L/J) and low- (C3H/HeJ) active inbred mice in soleus, extensor digitorum longus (EDL), and nucleus accumbens tissues. Expression was initially determined by miRNA microarray analysis, and selected miRNAs were validated by qRT-PCR. Expression of 13 miRNAs varied between strains in the nucleus accumbens, 20 in soleus, and eight in EDL, by microarray analysis. Two miRNAs were validated by qRT-PCR in the nucleus accumbens; miR-466 was downregulated (∼4 fold; P < 0.0004), and miR-342-5p was upregulated (∼115 fold; P < 0.0001) in high-active mice. MiR-466 was downregulated (∼5 fold; P < 0.0001) in the soleus of high-active mice as well. Interestingly, miR-466 is one of several miRNA families with sequence located in intron 10 of Sfmbt2; miRNAs at this locus are thought to drive imprinting of this gene. “Pathways in cancer” and “TGFβ signaling” were the most significant pathways of putative target genes in both the soleus and nucleus accumbens. Our results are the first to consider differential miRNA expression between high- and low-active mice, and suggest that miRNAs may play a role in regulation of physical activity. PMID:26229004

  19. Genetic Relationships between Obesity and Osteoporosis in LGXSM Recombinant Inbred Mice

    PubMed Central

    Reich, Michael S.; Jarvis, Joseph P.; Silva, Matthew J.; Cheverud, James M.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Obesity and osteoporosis affect millions of Americans. While phenotypically, obesity is negatively correlated with fracture risk, research on a genetic basis for this relationship is lacking. We used males and females from 16 LGXSM recombinant inbred (RI) mouse strains to investigate the genetically-mediated relationship between obesity and osteoporosis-related traits. First, heritabilities were estimated for (1) bone morphological properties determined by microCT (femoral and radial diaphyseal bone cross-sectional area and moments of inertia, as well as proximal tibial trabecular bone volume, connectivity density, structure model index, trabecular number, trabecular thickness, and trabecular separation), (2) mechanical properties determined by bending tests (femoral and radial rigidity, yield moment, ultimate moment, fracture displacement, and post-yield displacement), and (3) effective material properties (femoral and radial modulus of elasticity and ultimate tensile strength). All femoral (H2: 43-74%) and tibial traits (H2: 31-56%) were heritable; as were eight of 10 radial traits (H2: 21-33%). Eighteen significant genetic correlations were discovered between obesity- and osteoporosis-related phenotypes. Genetic correlations indicate that gene effects associated with increased fat mass and leptin levels are also associated with larger, stronger femora. Gene effects associated with larger, stronger radii and with denser tibiae were also associated with increased fat mass but not with leptin levels. Furthermore, quantitative trait loci (QTLs) previously reported for obesity and leptin levels also had effects on bone morphology, mechanical, and material properties. Our results support the use of the LG/J x SM/J mouse intercross populations as models for normal, complex genetic variation in obesity, bone properties, and their interrelationship. PMID:19061533

  20. Hunting effects on favourable conservation status of highly inbred Swedish wolves.

    PubMed

    Laikre, Linda; Jansson, Mija; Allendorf, Fred W; Jakobsson, Sven; Ryman, Nils

    2013-04-01

    The wolf (Canis lupus) is classified as endangered in Sweden by the Swedish Species Information Centre, which is the official authority for threat classification. The present population, which was founded in the early 1980s, descends from 5 individuals. It is isolated and highly inbred, and on average individuals are more related than siblings. Hunts have been used by Swedish authorities during 2010 and 2011 to reduce the population size to its upper tolerable level of 210 wolves. European Union (EU) biodiversity legislation requires all member states to promote a concept called "favourable conservation status" (FCS) for a series of species including the wolf. Swedish national policy stipulates maintenance of viable populations with sufficient levels of genetic variation of all naturally occurring species. Hunting to reduce wolf numbers in Sweden is currently not in line with national and EU policy agreements and will make genetically based FCS criteria less achievable for this species. We suggest that to reach FCS for the wolf in Sweden the following criteria need to be met: (1) a well-connected, large, subdivided wolf population over Scandinavia, Finland, and the Russian Karelia-Kola region should be reestablished, (2) genetically effective size (Ne ) of this population is in the minimum range of Ne = 500-1000, (3) Sweden harbors a part of this total population that substantially contributes to the total Ne and that is large enough to not be classified as threatened genetically or according to IUCN criteria, and (4) average inbreeding levels in the Swedish population are <0.1. PMID:23282216

  1. Study of immune function in inbred miniature pigs vaccinated and challenged with suid herpesvirus 1.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, P P

    1995-01-01

    Specific immune responses of inbred miniature pigs following vaccination and challenge with suid herpesvirus 1 (SHV-1) were determined. Vaccination of swine with SHV-1 elicited both specific neutralizing antibody and lymphoproliferative responses. Moreover, pigs vaccinated with SHV-1 were fully protected against a lethal virus challenge. Pigs vaccinated with a recombinant (r) SHV-1 virus, followed by challenge with a virulent SHV-1, had lower percentages of circulating T- and B-lymphocytes, and showed a significant (P < or = 0.05) reduction in peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) antibody-dependent cell-cytotoxicity than control (noninfected, SHV-1 sero-negative) animals. From the 5th through the 8th week of postchallenge, rSHV-1 was isolated from 2 of 4 pigs. Presence of r-virus was indicative that PBMC were infectious in vivo. The rSHV-1, with beta-galactosidase activity, was only recovered from ConA- and IL-2-stimulated primary PBMC cocultivated with porcine kidney cells. Control pigs exposed to challenge SHV-1 elicited both specific neutralizing antibody and lympho-proliferative responses followed by subsequent infection. These infected pigs, compared to control pigs, had significantly (P < or = 0.05) lowered percentages of T- and B-lymphocytes, lowered T-cell mitogenic responses, variable PBMC counts, and lowered blood phagocytic cell function. When PBMC from control pigs were cultured and infected with SHV-1, the virus caused a significant (P < or = 0.05) suppression of T-cell proliferation and PBMC mitochondrial dehydrogenase and macrophage activities. PMID:8548690

  2. Opioid-dependent regulation of high and low fear responses in two inbred mouse strains.

    PubMed

    Szklarczyk, Klaudia; Korostynski, Michal; Cieslak, Przemyslaw Eligiusz; Wawrzczak-Bargiela, Agnieszka; Przewlocki, Ryszard

    2015-10-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying the susceptibility or resilience to trauma-related disorders remain incompletely understood. Opioids modulate emotional learning, but the roles of specific receptors are unclear. Here, we aimed to analyze the contribution of the opioid system to fear responses in two inbred mouse strains exhibiting distinct behavioral phenotypes. SWR/J and C57BL/6J mice were subjected to five consecutive electric footshocks (1mA each), and the contextual freezing time was measured. Stress-induced alterations in gene expression were analyzed in the amygdala and the hippocampus. In both strains, the fear response was modulated using pharmacological tools. SWR/J mice did not develop conditioned fear but exhibited increased transcriptional expression of Pdyn and Penk in the amygdala region. Blocking opioid receptors prior to the footshocks using naltrexone (2 mg/kg) or naltrindole (5 mg/kg) increased the freezing responses in these animals. The C57BL/6J strain displayed high conditioned fear, although no alteration in the mRNA abundance of genes encoding opioid precursors was observed. Double-injection of morphine (20 mg/kg) following stress and upon context re-exposure prevented the enhancement of freezing. Moreover, selective delta and kappa agonists caused a reduction in conditioned fear responses. To summarize, the increased expression of the Pdyn and Penk genes corresponded to reduced intensity of fear responses. Blockade of the endogenous opioid system restored freezing behavior in stress-resistant animals. The pharmacological stimulation of the kappa and delta opioid receptors in stress-susceptible individuals may alleviate fear. Thus, subtype-selective opioid receptor agonists may protect against the development of trauma-related disorders. PMID:26051817

  3. Enhanced alcohol self-administration and reinstatement in a highly impulsive, inattentive recombinant inbred mouse strain

    PubMed Central

    Loos, Maarten; Staal, Jorn; Smit, August B.; De Vries, Taco J.; Spijker, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    Deficits in executive control have frequently been associated with alcohol use disorder. Here we investigated to what extent pre-existing genetically encoded levels of impulsive/inattentive behavior associate with motivation to take alcohol and vulnerability to cue-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking in an operant self-administration paradigm. We took advantage of BXD16, a recombinant inbred strain previously shown to have enhanced impulsivity and poor attentional control. We compared BXD16 with C57BL/6J mice in a simple choice reaction time task (SCRTT) and confirmed its impulsive/inattentive phenotype. BXD16 mice were less active in a novel open field (OF), and were equally active in an automated home cage environment, showing that increased impulsive responding of BXD16 mice could not be explained by enhanced general activity compared to C57BL/6J mice. After training in a sucrose/alcohol fading self-administration procedure, BXD16 showed increased motivation to earn 10% alcohol solution, both under fixed ratio (FR1) and progressive ratio (PR2) schedules of reinforcement. Responding on the active lever readily decreased during extinction training with no apparent differences between strains. However, upon re-exposure to alcohol-associated cues, alcohol seeking was reinstated to a larger extent in BXD16 than in C57BL/6J mice. Although further studies are needed to determine whether impulsivity/inattention and alcohol seeking depend on common or separate genetic loci, these data show that in mice enhanced impulsivity coincides with increased motivation to take alcohol, as well as relapse vulnerability. PMID:24198771

  4. Mapping Genetic Variants Associated with Beta-Adrenergic Responses in Inbred Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hersch, Micha; Peter, Bastian; Kang, Hyun Min; Schpfer, Fanny; Abriel, Hugues; Pedrazzini, Thierry; Eskin, Eleazar; Beckmann, Jacques S.

    2012-01-01

    ?-blockers and ?-agonists are primarily used to treat cardiovascular diseases. Inter-individual variability in response to both drug classes is well recognized, yet the identity and relative contribution of the genetic players involved are poorly understood. This work is the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) addressing the values and susceptibility of cardiovascular-related traits to a selective ?1-blocker, Atenolol (ate), and a ?-agonist, Isoproterenol (iso). The phenotypic dataset consisted of 27 highly heritable traits, each measured across 22 inbred mouse strains and four pharmacological conditions. The genotypic panel comprised 79922 informative SNPs of the mouse HapMap resource. Associations were mapped by Efficient Mixed Model Association (EMMA), a method that corrects for the population structure and genetic relatedness of the various strains. A total of 205 separate genome-wide scans were analyzed. The most significant hits include three candidate loci related to cardiac and body weight, three loci for electrocardiographic (ECG) values, two loci for the susceptibility of atrial weight index to iso, four loci for the susceptibility of systolic blood pressure (SBP) to perturbations of the ?-adrenergic system, and one locus for the responsiveness of QTc (p<10?8). An additional 60 loci were suggestive for one or the other of the 27 traits, while 46 others were suggestive for one or the other drug effects (p<10?6). Most hits tagged unexpected regions, yet at least two loci for the susceptibility of SBP to ?-adrenergic drugs pointed at members of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. Loci for cardiac-related traits were preferentially enriched in genes expressed in the heart, while 23% of the testable loci were replicated with datasets of the Mouse Phenome Database (MPD). Altogether these data and validation tests indicate that the mapped loci are relevant to the traits and responses studied. PMID:22859963

  5. Quantitative Trait Loci for Cold Tolerance of Rice Recombinant Inbred Lines in Low Temperature Environments

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wenzhu; Jin, Yong-Mei; Lee, Joohyun; Lee, Kang-Ie; Piao, Rihua; Han, Longzhi; Shin, Jin-Chul; Jin, Rong-De; Cao, Tiehua; Pan, Hong-Yu; Du, Xinglin; Koh, Hee-Jong

    2011-01-01

    Low temperature is one of the major environmental stresses in rice cultivation in high-altitude and high-latitude regions. In this study, we cultivated a set of recombinant inbred lines (RIL) derived from Dasanbyeo (indica) / TR22183 (japonica) crosses in Yanji (high-latitude area), Kunming (high-altitude area), Chuncheon (cold water irrigation) and Suwon (normal) to evaluate the main effects of quantitative trait loci (QTL) and epistatic QTL (E-QTL) with regard to their interactions with environments for coldrelated traits. Six QTLs for spikelet fertility (SF) were identified in three cold treatment locations. Among them, four QTLs on chromosomes 2, 7, 8, and 10 were validated by several near isogenic lines (NILs) under cold treatment in Chuncheon. A total of 57 QTLs and 76 E-QTLs for nine cold-related traits were identified as distributing on all 12 chromosomes; among them, 19 QTLs and E-QTLs showed significant interactions of QTLs and environments (QEIs). The total phenotypic variation explained by each trait ranged from 13.2 to 29.1% in QTLs, 10.6 to 29.0% in EQTLs, 2.2 to 8.8% in QEIs and 1.0% to 7.7% in E-QTL environment interactions (E-QEIs). These results demonstrate that epistatic effects and QEIs are important properties of QTL parameters for cold tolerance at the reproductive stage. In order to develop cold tolerant varieties adaptable to wide-ranges of cold stress, a strategy facilitating marker-assisted selection (MAS) is being adopted to accumulate QTLs identified from different environments. PMID:22080374

  6. Using Monosodium Glutamate to Initiate Ethanol Self-Administration in Inbred Mouse Strains

    PubMed Central

    McCool, Brian A.; Chappell, A. M.

    2010-01-01

    Voluntary oral ethanol consumption in rodents is generally limited by strong taste-aversion in these species. Historically, this has been overcome by combining ethanol with a sweetener, typically sucrose or saccharine, and then slowly fading away the sweetener. While useful in most instances, this approach has not proven as successful for some inbred strains of mice (e.g. DBA/2J) despite consistent evidence in the literature that these same strains express strong conditioned place preference for intraperitoneal- or intragastric-administered ethanol. Importantly, DBA/2J mice express a polymorphism in a sweet taste receptor subunit gene that reduces the potency of sweet substances in these mice. We hypothesized that the presence of this polymorphism might help explain the contrasting behavioral findings of weak voluntary oral ethanol consumption following sucrose-fade yet robust conditioned place-preference for ethanol in this strain. To test this, we compared ethanol consumption initiated by either a traditional sucrose-fade or a fade from an alternative tastant, monosodium glutamate (MSG). We found that in both C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice the MSG-fade produced robust increases in home-cage ethanol consumption relative to the traditional sucrose-fade. This increased ethanol intake following MSG-fade was evident across a range of ethanol concentrations. Our findings suggest the potential utility of the MSG-fade to establish stable voluntary oral ethanol consumption in mice, particularly ethanol non-preferring strains like DBA/2J, and lend additional support to the notion that ethanol consumption in DBA/2J mice is limited by pronounced taste aversion. PMID:21054690

  7. New Arabidopsis Advanced Intercross Recombinant Inbred Lines Reveal Female Control of Nonrandom Mating1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Fitz Gerald, Jonathan Nesbit; Carlson, Ann Louise; Smith, Evadne; Maloof, Julin N.; Weigel, Detlef; Chory, Joanne; Borevitz, Justin O.; Swanson, Robert John

    2014-01-01

    Female control of nonrandom mating has never been genetically established, despite being linked to inbreeding depression and sexual selection. In order to map the loci that control female-mediated nonrandom mating, we constructed a new advanced intercross recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from a cross between Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) accessions Vancouver (Van-0) and Columbia (Col-0) and mapped quantitative trait loci (QTLs) responsible for nonrandom mating and seed yield traits. We genotyped a population of 490 RILs. A subset of these lines was used to construct an expanded map of 1,061.4 centimorgans with an average interval of 6.7 ± 5.3 centimorgans between markers. QTLs were then mapped for female- and male-mediated nonrandom mating and seed yield traits. To map the genetic loci responsible for female-mediated nonrandom mating and seed yield, we performed mixed pollinations with genetically marked Col-0 pollen and Van-0 pollen on RIL pistils. To map the loci responsible for male-mediated nonrandom mating and seed yield, we performed mixed pollinations with genetically marked Col-0 and RIL pollen on Van-0 pistils. Composite interval mapping of these data identified four QTLs that control female-mediated nonrandom mating and five QTLs that control female-mediated seed yield. We also identified four QTLs that control male-mediated nonrandom mating and three QTLs that control male-mediated seed yield. Epistasis analysis indicates that several of these loci interact. To our knowledge, the results of these experiments represent the first time female-mediated nonrandom mating has been genetically defined. PMID:24623850

  8. A Simple and Reliable Method for Early Pregnancy Detection in Inbred Mice

    PubMed Central

    Heyne, Galen W; Plisch, Erin H; Melberg, Cal G; Sandgren, Eric P; Peter, Jody A; Lipinski, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    The study of normal and abnormal development typically requires precise embryonic staging. In mice, this task is accomplished through timed matings and the detection of a copulation plug. However, the presence of a plug is not a definitive indicator of true pregnancy, particularly in inbred mice, in which false-pregnancy rates have been reported to be 50% or higher, depending on the strain. This high rate poses considerable financial and animal use burdens because manipulation of the putative dam is often required before pregnancy can be confirmed by palpation or visual inspection. To address this problem, we examined weight gain in a population of 275 wildtype C57BL/6J mice (age, 12 wk or older) between the time of plug detection and during early embryogenesis (gestational days 7 to 10). In this population, assessing pregnancy according to the presence of a plug alone yielded a 37.1% false-positive rate. Pregnant mice gained an average of 3.49 g, whereas nonpregnant mice gained only 1.15 g. Beginning at gestational day 7.75, implementing an optimal weight-gain discrimination threshold of 1.75 g reduced the false-positive rate to 10.5%, without excluding any pregnant mice. These results were consistent with those from younger (age, 8 wk) wildtype C57BL/6J and FVB/NTac female mice, suggesting broad applicability of this method across age and strain. Our findings provide a simple and effective method for reducing animal use and study costs. PMID:26224435

  9. Functional Coding Variation in Recombinant Inbred Mouse Lines Reveals Novel Serotonin Transporter-Associated Phenotypes

    SciTech Connect

    Carneiro, Ana; Airey, David; Thompson, Brent; Zhu, C; Rinchik, Eugene M; Lu, Lu; Chesler, Elissa J; Erikson, Keith; Blakely, Randy

    2009-01-01

    The human serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) transporter (hSERT, SLC6A4) figures prominently in the etiology or treatment of many prevalent neurobehavioral disorders including anxiety, alcoholism, depression, autism and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Here we utilize naturally occurring polymorphisms in recombinant inbred (RI) lines to identify novel phenotypes associated with altered SERT function. The widely used mouse strain C57BL/6J, harbors a SERT haplotype defined by two nonsynonymous coding variants (Gly39 and Lys152 (GK)). At these positions, many other mouse lines, including DBA/2J, encode Glu39 and Arg152 (ER haplotype), assignments found also in hSERT. Synaptosomal 5-HT transport studies revealed reduced uptake associated with the GK variant. Heterologous expression studies confirmed a reduced SERT turnover rate for the GK variant. Experimental and in silico approaches using RI lines (C57Bl/6J X DBA/2J=BXD) identifies multiple anatomical, biochemical and behavioral phenotypes specifically impacted by GK/ER variation. Among our findings are multiple traits associated with anxiety and alcohol consumption, as well as of the control of dopamine (DA) signaling. Further bioinformatic analysis of BXD phenotypes, combined with biochemical evaluation of SERT knockout mice, nominates SERT-dependent 5-HT signaling as a major determinant of midbrain iron homeostasis that, in turn, dictates ironregulated DA phenotypes. Our studies provide a novel example of the power of coordinated in vitro, in vivo and in silico approaches using murine RI lines to elucidate and quantify the system-level impact of gene variation.

  10. New Arabidopsis advanced intercross recombinant inbred lines reveal female control of nonrandom mating.

    PubMed

    Fitz Gerald, Jonathan Nesbit; Carlson, Ann Louise; Smith, Evadne; Maloof, Julin N; Weigel, Detlef; Chory, Joanne; Borevitz, Justin O; Swanson, Robert John

    2014-05-01

    Female control of nonrandom mating has never been genetically established, despite being linked to inbreeding depression and sexual selection. In order to map the loci that control female-mediated nonrandom mating, we constructed a new advanced intercross recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from a cross between Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) accessions Vancouver (Van-0) and Columbia (Col-0) and mapped quantitative trait loci (QTLs) responsible for nonrandom mating and seed yield traits. We genotyped a population of 490 RILs. A subset of these lines was used to construct an expanded map of 1,061.4 centimorgans with an average interval of 6.75.3 centimorgans between markers. QTLs were then mapped for female- and male-mediated nonrandom mating and seed yield traits. To map the genetic loci responsible for female-mediated nonrandom mating and seed yield, we performed mixed pollinations with genetically marked Col-0 pollen and Van-0 pollen on RIL pistils. To map the loci responsible for male-mediated nonrandom mating and seed yield, we performed mixed pollinations with genetically marked Col-0 and RIL pollen on Van-0 pistils. Composite interval mapping of these data identified four QTLs that control female-mediated nonrandom mating and five QTLs that control female-mediated seed yield. We also identified four QTLs that control male-mediated nonrandom mating and three QTLs that control male-mediated seed yield. Epistasis analysis indicates that several of these loci interact. To our knowledge, the results of these experiments represent the first time female-mediated nonrandom mating has been genetically defined. PMID:24623850

  11. Two distinct pathological syndromes in male CBA/J inbred mice with chronic Schistosoma mansoni infections.

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, G. S.; Nix, N. A.; Montesano, M. A.; Gold, D.; Freeman, G. L.; McCurley, T. L.; Colley, D. G.

    1993-01-01

    Humans chronically infected with Schistosoma mansoni most commonly present with the relatively asymptomatic intestinal form of the disease, whereas a small minority develop hepatosplenism characterized by severe hepatic disease with portal hypertension. Investigation of hypotheses describing the pathogenic mechanisms underlying the clinical forms of the human disease has been limited by the absence of an animal model that predictably develops such a spectrum of disease. We report that inbred male CBA/J mice that are chronically infected with S. mansoni develop two distinct syndromes, hypersplenomegaly syndrome (HSS) and moderate splenomegaly syndrome (MSS). Pathologically and immunologically, MSS and HSS remarkably parallel the intestinal and hepatosplenic clinical forms, respectively, in humans. HSS affects approximately 20% of these mice and consists of massive splenomegaly, ascites, thymic atrophy, severe anemia, and cachexia. The remaining majority of mice with MSS develop moderate splenomegaly only. Histopathological features of HSS include 1) relatively extensive hepatic fibrosis and granulomatous inflammation, 2) splenic congestion, 3) lymph node plasmacytosis, and 4) worms and eggs in the pulmonary vasculature. Immunologically, the idiotypes present on antisoluble egg antigen antibodies from HSS mice are distinct from those from mice with acute infections or the chronic MSS infection. These idiotypic differences are similar to those observed in patients with intestinal and hepatosplenic forms of the disease and may have regulatory importance. Investigation of the cellular and molecular events that lead to the development of MSS and HSS may advance current understanding of the pathogenesis of the clinical forms of chronic schistosomiasis in humans. Images Figure 1 Figure 4 PMID:8456934

  12. Natural variations in postpartum maternal care in inbred and outbred mice.

    PubMed

    Champagne, Frances A; Curley, James P; Keverne, Eric B; Bateson, Patrick P G

    2007-06-01

    The role of maternal care in mediating variation in offspring phenotype has been examined in the rat and demonstrates that mother-infant interactions are critical for inducing long-term changes in behavior. Though phenotypic differences between mice strains are often attributed to genetic factors, the influence of early maternal environment has not been extensively explored. To understand maternal influence on phenotype in mice, we must first explore the nature of differences in behavior. In the present study, we examine aspects of maternal care differentiating mice strains and explore the relationship between postpartum behavior and measures obtained by a standard test of maternal responsivity (Retrieval Test). We compared inbred 129Sv (n=25), C57BL/6J (n=23), and outbred Swiss (n=23) lactating female mice. Swiss females had shorter latencies to retrieve and crouch over pups (P<.01), whereas 129Sv females had shorter latencies to nestbuild (P<.05). Conversely, observations of homecage behavior indicate that 129Sv females nestbuild less frequently. 129Sv females also engaged in very low levels of pup licking/grooming (P<.001) and long periods of nursing/contact (P<.05) with pups compared to C57BL/6J and Swiss females. Temporal analysis suggests that the magnitude of these differences varies both within and between days. No significant correlations were found between any aspect of maternal responsivity and postpartum behavior. These results illustrate that through detailed analysis of maternal behavior in mice, variations between strains can be observed. These variations represent strain specific strategies for promoting growth and survival of offspring during infancy that may also mediate "epigenetic" differences in phenotype in adulthood. PMID:17477940

  13. Variability in empathic fear response among 11 inbred strains of mice.

    PubMed

    Keum, S; Park, J; Kim, A; Park, J; Kim, K K; Jeong, J; Shin, H-S

    2016-02-01

    Empathy is an important emotional process that involves the ability to recognize and share emotions with others. We have previously developed an observational fear learning (OFL) behavioral assay to measure empathic fear in mice. In the OFL task, a mouse is conditioned for context-dependent fear when it observes a conspecific demonstrator receiving aversive stimuli. In the present study, by comparing 11 different inbred mouse strains that are commonly used in the laboratory, we found that empathic fear response was highly variable between different strains. Five strains - C57BL/6J, C57BL/6NTac, 129S1/SvImJ, 129S4/SvJae and BTBR T(+) Itpr3(tf) /J - showed observational fear (OF) responses, whereas AKR/J, BALB/cByJ, C3H/HeJ, DBA/2J, FVB/NJ and NOD/ShiLtJ mice exhibited low empathic fear response. Importantly, day 2 OF memory was significantly correlated with contextual memory in the classical fear conditioning among the 11 strains. Innate differences in anxiety, locomotor activity, sociability and preference for social novelty were not significantly correlated with OFL. Interestingly, early adolescent C57BL/6J mice exhibited an increase in acquisition of OF. The level of OFL in C57BL/6J strain was not affected by sex or strains of the demonstrator. Taken together, these data strongly suggest that there are naturally occurring OFL-specific genetic variations modulating empathic fear behaviors in mice. The identification of causal genes may uncover novel genetic pathways and underlying neural mechanisms that modulate empathic fear and, ultimately, provide new targets for therapeutic intervention in human mental disorders associated with impaired empathy. PMID:26690560

  14. Genetic Analysis of Recombinant Inbred Lines for Sorghum bicolor Sorghum propinquum

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Wenqian; Jin, Huizhe; Franks, Cleve D.; Kim, Changsoo; Bandopadhyay, Rajib; Rana, Mukesh K.; Auckland, Susan A.; Goff, Valorie H.; Rainville, Lisa K.; Burow, Gloria B.; Woodfin, Charles; Burke, John J.; Paterson, Andrew H.

    2013-01-01

    We describe a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of 161 F5 genotypes for the widest euploid cross that can be made to cultivated sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) using conventional techniques, S. bicolor Sorghum propinquum, that segregates for many traits related to plant architecture, growth and development, reproduction, and life history. The genetic map of the S. bicolor S. propinquum RILs contains 141 loci on 10 linkage groups collectively spanning 773.1 cM. Although the genetic map has DNA marker density well-suited to quantitative trait loci mapping and samples most of the genome, our previous observations that sorghum pericentromeric heterochromatin is recalcitrant to recombination is highlighted by the finding that the vast majority of recombination in sorghum is concentrated in small regions of euchromatin that are distal to most chromosomes. The advancement of the RIL population in an environment to which the S. bicolor parent was well adapted (indeed bred for) but the S. propinquum parent was not largely eliminated an allele for short-day flowering that confounded many other traits, for example, permitting us to map new quantitative trait loci for flowering that previously eluded detection. Additional recombination that has accrued in the development of this RIL population also may have improved resolution of apices of heterozygote excess, accounting for their greater abundance in the F5 than the F2 generation. The S. bicolor S. propinquum RIL population offers advantages over early-generation populations that will shed new light on genetic, environmental, and physiological/biochemical factors that regulate plant growth and development. PMID:23316442

  15. Complex genetic architecture of cardiac disease in a wild type inbred strain of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi; Hsieh, Benjamin; Poe, Amy; Anderson, Julie; Ocorr, Karen; Gibson, Greg; Bodmer, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    Natural populations of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, segregate genetic variation that leads to cardiac disease phenotypes. One nearly isogenic line from a North Carolina peach orchard, WE70, is shown to harbor two genetically distinct heart phenotypes: elevated incidence of arrhythmias, and a dramatically constricted heart diameter in both diastole and systole, with resemblance to restrictive cardiomyopathy in humans. Assuming the source to be rare variants of large effect, we performed Bulked Segregant Analysis using genomic DNA hybridization to Affymetrix chips to detect single feature polymorphisms, but found that the mutant phenotypes are more likely to have a polygenic basis. Further mapping efforts revealed a complex architecture wherein the constricted cardiomyopathy phenotype was observed in individual whole chromosome substitution lines, implying that variants on both major autosomes are sufficient to produce the phenotype. A panel of 170 Recombinant Inbred Lines (RIL) was generated, and a small subset of mutant lines selected, but these each complemented both whole chromosome substitutions, implying a non-additive (epistatic) contribution to the "disease" phenotype. Low coverage whole genome sequencing was also used to attempt to map chromosomal regions contributing to both the cardiomyopathy and arrhythmia, but a polygenic architecture had to be again inferred to be most likely. These results show that an apparently simple rare phenotype can have a complex genetic basis that would be refractory to mapping by deep sequencing in pedigrees. We present this as a cautionary tale regarding assumptions related to attempts to map new disease mutations on the assumption that probands carry a single causal mutation. PMID:23638165

  16. Histological and transcript analyses of intact somatic embryos in an elite maize (Zea mays L.) inbred line Y423.

    PubMed

    Liu, Beibei; Su, Shengzhong; Wu, Ying; Li, Ying; Shan, Xiaohui; Li, Shipeng; Liu, Hongkui; Dong, Haixiao; Ding, Meiqi; Han, Junyou; Yuan, Yaping

    2015-07-01

    Intact somatic embryos were obtained from an elite maize inbred line Y423, bred in our laboratory. Using 13-day immature embryos after self-pollination as explants, and after 4-5 times subculture, a large number of somatic embryos were detected on the surface of the embryonic calli on the medium. The intact somatic embryos were transferred into the differential medium, where the plantlets regenerated with shoots and roots forming simultaneously. Histological analysis and scanning electron micrographs confirmed the different developmental stages of somatic embryogenesis, including globular-shaped embryo, pear-shaped embryo, scutiform embryo, and mature embryo. cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) was used for comparative transcript profiling between embryogenic and non-embryogenic calli of a new elite maize inbred line Y423 during somatic embryogenesis. Differentially expressed genes were cloned and sequenced. Gene Ontology analysis of 117 candidate genes indicated their involvement in cellular component, biological process and molecular function. Nine of the candidate genes were selected. The changes in their expression levels during embryo induction and regeneration were analyzed in detail using quantitative real-time PCR. Two full-length cDNA sequences, encoding ZmSUF4 (suppressor of fir 4-like protein) and ZmDRP3A (dynamin-related protein), were cloned successfully from intact somatic embryos of the elite inbred maize line Y423. Here, a procedure for maize plant regeneration from somatic embryos is described. Additionally, the possible roles of some of these genes during the somatic embryogenesis has been discussed. This study is a systematic analysis of the cellular and molecular mechanism during the formation of intact somatic embryos in maize. PMID:25931320

  17. Medium effects on capacitation and sperm penetration through the zona pellucida in inbred BALB/c spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Kito, Seiji; Ohta, Yuki

    2005-05-01

    Inbred BALB/c mice are one of the most difficult inbred strains to fertilize in vitro. In this study we examined the abilities of various media used for mouse in vitro fertilization (IVF) to support capacitation and sperm penetration through the zona pellucida (ZP) of inbred BALB/c spermatozoa. Media examined were TYH, M16, CZB, mWhitten medium, T6, modified Tyrode's solution (mTyrode's), mKSOM, MEM and TCM199. Modified human tubal fluid (mHTF) was used as a control medium. When sperm were capacitated and inseminated in the same medium, mHTF showed the best fertilization (approximately 80%) scored by male pronuclear formation (<26%) at 5h post-insemination (PI). When sperm were capacitated in various media and inseminated in mHTF, sperm capacitated in TYH solution (93%) but no other media (<45%) showed a significantly higher level of sperm nuclear decondensation (SND) than mHTF at 2 h PI (approximately 65%). When sperm were capacitated in mHTF and inseminated in various media, only mTyrode's (52%) was not significantly lower than mHTF (66%) in terms of SND at 2h PI (<49%). Sperm capacitation also was examined by chlortetracycline (CTC) staining. Sperm capacitated in TYH solution showed a significantly higher percentage of capacitation (46%) than those treated in HTF (28%) and other media (<24%). These results indicate that the best approach for IVF in the BALB/c strain is capacitation in TYH and insemination in mHTF. Poor fertilization of BALB/c may result from suboptimal conditions of sperm capacitation and insemination, and overall IVF success may differ depending on strains used. PMID:16128410

  18. A dramatic enhancing effect of InBr3 towards the oxidative Sonogashira cross-coupling reaction of 2-ethynylanilines.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, A; Omote, M; Kusumoto, K; Komori, M; Tarui, A; Sato, K; Ando, A

    2016-02-01

    The addition of InBr3 to the oxidative Sonogashira cross-coupling reaction of 2-ethynylaniline with (E)-trimethyl(3,3,3-trifluoroprop-1-enyl)silane led to a dramatic increase in the reactivity to afford the corresponding 1,3-enynes bearing a trifluoromethyl group on their terminal sp(2) carbon. The subsequent cyclization of these 1,3-enynes under palladium catalysis provides access to the corresponding indoles bearing a 3,3,3-trifluoroprop-1-enyl group at their 2-position. PMID:26782816

  19. Marker-trait association analysis of functional gene markers for provitamin A levels across diverse tropical yellow maize inbred lines

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Biofortification of staple crops is a cost effective and sustainable approach that can help combat vitamin A and other micronutrient deficiencies in developing countries. PCR -based DNA markers distinguishing alleles of three key genes of maize endosperm carotenoid biosynthesis (PSY1, lcyE and crtRB1) have been developed to facilitate maize provitamin A biofortification via marker assisted selection. Previous studies of these functional DNA markers revealed inconsistent effects. The germplasm previously employed for discovering and validating these functional markers was mainly of temperate origin containing low frequencies of the favourable allele of the most significant polymorphism, crtRB1-5?TE. Here, we investigate the vitamin A biofortification potential of these DNA markers in a germplasm panel of diverse tropical yellow maize inbred lines, with mixed genetic backgrounds of temperate and tropical germplasm to identify the most effective diagnostic markers for vitamin A biofortification. Results The functional DNA markers crtRB1-5?TE and crtRB1-3?TE were consistently and strongly associated with provitamin A content across the tropical maize inbred lines tested. The alleles detected by these two functional markers were in high linkage disequilibrium (R2?=?0.75) and occurred in relatively high frequency (18%). Genotypes combining the favourable alleles at the two loci (N?=?20) displayed a 3.22 fold average increase in ?-carotene content compared to those genotypes lacking the favourable alleles (N?=?106). The PSY1 markers were monomorphic across all of the inbred lines. The functional DNA markers for lcyE were associated with lutein, and with the ratio of carotenoids in the alpha and beta branches, but not with provitamin A levels. However, the combined effects of the two genes were stronger than their individual effects on all carotenoids. Conclusions Tropical maize inbred lines harbouring the favourable alleles of the crtRB1-5?TE and 3?TE functional markers produce higher levels of provitamin A. Such maize lines can be used as donor parents to speed up the development of provitamin A biofortified tropical maize varieties adapted to growing conditions and consumer preferences, providing a route towards mitigation of vitamin A malnutrition in Sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:24373137

  20. Growth and formation of the foreleg skeleton inbred mice and rats under conditions of hypo-, normo- and hyperdynamia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kogan, B. I.; Antipov, Y. S.

    1980-01-01

    Inbred 1 month old males of C57B 1/6, CBA, CC57Br/Mw interlinear hybrid mice of the first generation and rats of the August and Wistar lines were subjected to conditions of hypo-, normo- and hyperdynamia for 2 months. The statistically reliable dependence is shown between mechanical underloadings and overloadings and macro microscopic changes in the hind limb skeleton of animals. Genetic determination of growth and formation of the forelimb skeleton is established. Hereditary susceptibility and the phenomenon of heterosis are preserved under all motor conditions.

  1. Identification of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms and analysis of Linkage Disequilibrium in sunflower elite inbred lines using the candidate gene approach

    PubMed Central

    Fusari, Corina M; Lia, Verónica V; Hopp, H Esteban; Heinz, Ruth A; Paniego, Norma B

    2008-01-01

    Background Association analysis is a powerful tool to identify gene loci that may contribute to phenotypic variation. This includes the estimation of nucleotide diversity, the assessment of linkage disequilibrium structure (LD) and the evaluation of selection processes. Trait mapping by allele association requires a high-density map, which could be obtained by the addition of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) and short insertion and/or deletions (indels) to SSR and AFLP genetic maps. Nucleotide diversity analysis of randomly selected candidate regions is a promising approach for the success of association analysis and fine mapping in the sunflower genome. Moreover, knowledge of the distance over which LD persists, in agronomically meaningful sunflower accessions, is important to establish the density of markers and the experimental design for association analysis. Results A set of 28 candidate genes related to biotic and abiotic stresses were studied in 19 sunflower inbred lines. A total of 14,348 bp of sequence alignment was analyzed per individual. In average, 1 SNP was found per 69 nucleotides and 38 indels were identified in the complete data set. The mean nucleotide polymorphism was moderate (θ = 0.0056), as expected for inbred materials. The number of haplotypes per region ranged from 1 to 9 (mean = 3.54 ± 1.88). Model-based population structure analysis allowed detection of admixed individuals within the set of accessions examined. Two putative gene pools were identified (G1 and G2), with a large proportion of the inbred lines being assigned to one of them (G1). Consistent with the absence of population sub-structuring, LD for G1 decayed more rapidly (r2 = 0.48 at 643 bp; trend line, pooled data) than the LD trend line for the entire set of 19 individuals (r2 = 0.64 for the same distance). Conclusion Knowledge about the patterns of diversity and the genetic relationships between breeding materials could be an invaluable aid in crop improvement strategies. The relatively high frequency of SNPs within the elite inbred lines studied here, along with the predicted extent of LD over distances of 100 kbp (r2~0.1) suggest that high resolution association mapping in sunflower could be achieved with marker densities lower than those usually reported in the literature. PMID:18215288

  2. Genotype is an important determinant factor of host susceptibility to periodontitis in the Collaborative Cross and inbred mouse populations

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Periodontal infection (Periodontitis) is a chronic inflammatory disease, which results in the breakdown of the supporting tissues of the teeth. Previous epidemiological studies have suggested that resistance to chronic periodontitis is controlled to some extent by genetic factors of the host. The aim of this study was to determine the phenotypic response of inbred and Collaborative Cross (CC) mouse populations to periodontal bacterial challenge, using an experimental periodontitis model. In this model, mice are co-infected with Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum, bacterial strains associated with human periodontal disease. Six weeks following the infection, the maxillary jaws were harvested and analyzed for alveolar bone loss relative to uninfected controls, using computerized microtomography (microCT). Initially, four commercial inbred mouse strains were examined to calibrate the procedure and test for gender effects. Subsequently, we applied the same protocol to 23 lines (at inbreeding generations 10–18) from the newly developed mouse genetic reference population, the Collaborative Cross (CC) to determine heritability and genetic variation of control bone volume prior to infection (CBV, naïve bone volume around the teeth of uninfected mice), and residual bone volume (RBV, bone volume after infection) and loss of bone volume (LBV, the difference between CBV and RBV) following infection. Results BALB/CJ mice were highly susceptible (P<0.05) whereas DBA/2J, C57BL/6J and A/J mice were resistant. Six lines of the tested CC population were susceptible, whereas the remaining lines were resistant to alveolar bone loss. Gender effects on bone volume were tested across the four inbred and 23 CC lines, and found not to be significant. Based on ANOVA analyses, broad-sense heritabilities were statistically significant and equal to 0.4 for CBV and 0.2 for LBV. Conclusions The moderate heritability values indicate that the variation in host susceptibility to the disease is controlled to an appreciable extent by genetic factors. These results strongly support the possibility of using the Collaborative Cross, as well as developing dedicated F2 (resistant x susceptible inbred strains) resource populations, for future dissection of genetic factors in periodontitis. PMID:23937452

  3. Genetic Architecture of Atherosclerosis in Mice: A Systems Genetics Analysis of Common Inbred Strains

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Brian J.; Davis, Richard C.; Civelek, Mete; Orozco, Luz; Wu, Judy; Qi, Hannah; Pan, Calvin; Packard, René R. Sevag; Eskin, Eleazar; Yan, Mujing; Kirchgessner, Todd; Wang, Zeneng; Li, Xinmin; Gregory, Jill C.; Hazen, Stanley L.; Gargalovic, Peter S.; Lusis, Aldons J.

    2015-01-01

    Common forms of atherosclerosis involve multiple genetic and environmental factors. While human genome-wide association studies have identified numerous loci contributing to coronary artery disease and its risk factors, these studies are unable to control environmental factors or examine detailed molecular traits in relevant tissues. We now report a study of natural variations contributing to atherosclerosis and related traits in over 100 inbred strains of mice from the Hybrid Mouse Diversity Panel (HMDP). The mice were made hyperlipidemic by transgenic expression of human apolipoprotein E-Leiden (APOE-Leiden) and human cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP). The mice were examined for lesion size and morphology as well as plasma lipid, insulin and glucose levels, and blood cell profiles. A subset of mice was studied for plasma levels of metabolites and cytokines. We also measured global transcript levels in aorta and liver. Finally, the uptake of acetylated LDL by macrophages from HMDP mice was quantitatively examined. Loci contributing to the traits were mapped using association analysis, and relationships among traits were examined using correlation and statistical modeling. A number of conclusions emerged. First, relationships among atherosclerosis and the risk factors in mice resemble those found in humans. Second, a number of trait-loci were identified, including some overlapping with previous human and mouse studies. Third, gene expression data enabled enrichment analysis of pathways contributing to atherosclerosis and prioritization of candidate genes at associated loci in both mice and humans. Fourth, the data provided a number of mechanistic inferences; for example, we detected no association between macrophage uptake of acetylated LDL and atherosclerosis. Fifth, broad sense heritability for atherosclerosis was much larger than narrow sense heritability, indicating an important role for gene-by-gene interactions. Sixth, stepwise linear regression showed that the combined variations in plasma metabolites, including LDL/VLDL-cholesterol, trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), arginine, glucose and insulin, account for approximately 30 to 40% of the variation in atherosclerotic lesion area. Overall, our data provide a rich resource for studies of complex interactions underlying atherosclerosis. PMID:26694027

  4. Mouse Behavioral Tasks Relevant to Autism: Phenotypes of Ten Inbred Strains

    PubMed Central

    Moy, Sheryl S.; Nadler, Jessica J.; Young, Nancy B.; Perez, Antonio; Holloway, L. Paige; Barbaro, Ryan P.; Barbaro, Justin R.; West, Lindsay M.; Threadgill, David W.; Lauder, Jean M.; Magnuson, Terry R.; Crawley, Jacqueline N.

    2007-01-01

    Three defining clinical symptoms of autism are aberrant reciprocal social interactions, deficits in social communication, and repetitive behaviors, including motor stereotypies and insistence on sameness. We developed a set of behavioral tasks designed to model components of these core symptoms in mice. Male mice from ten inbred strains were characterized in assays for sociability, preference for social novelty, and reversal of the spatial location of the reinforcer in T-maze and Morris water maze tasks. Six strains, C57BL/6J, C57L/J, DBA/2J, FVB/NJ, C3H/HeJ, and AKR/J, showed significant levels of sociability, while A/J, BALB/cByJ, BTBR T+tf/J, and 129S1/SvImJ mice did not. C57BL/6J, C57L/J, DBA/2J, FVB/NJ, BALB/cByJ, and BTBR T+tf/J showed significant preference for social novelty, while C3H/HeJ, AKR/J, A/J, and 129S1/SvImJ did not. Normal scores on relevant control measures confirmed general health and physical abilities in all strains, ruling out artifactual explanations for social deficits. Elevated plus maze scores confirmed high anxiety-like behaviors in A/J, BALB/cByJ, and 129S1/SvImJ, which could underlie components of their low social approach. Strains that showed high levels of performance on acquisition of a T-maze task were also able to reach criterion for reversal learning. On the Morris water maze task, DBA/2J, AKR/J, BTBR T+tf/J, and 129S1/SvImJ failed to show significant quadrant preference during the reversal probe trial. These results highlight a dissociation between social task performance and reversal learning. BTBR T+tf/J is a particularly interesting strain, displaying both low social approach and resistance to change in routine on the water maze, consistent with an autism-like phenotype. Our multitask strategy for modeling symptoms of autism will be useful for investigating targeted and random gene mutations, QTLs, and microarray analyses. PMID:16971002

  5. Dissecting structural and nucleotide genome-wide variation in inbred Iberian pigs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In contrast to international pig breeds, the Iberian breed has not been admixed with Asian germplasm. This makes it an important model to study both domestication and relevance of Asian genes in the pig. Besides, Iberian pigs exhibit high meat quality as well as appetite and propensity to obesity. Here we provide a genome wide analysis of nucleotide and structural diversity in a reduced representation library from a pool (n=9 sows) and shotgun genomic sequence from a single sow of the highly inbred Guadyerbas strain. In the pool, we applied newly developed tools to account for the peculiarities of these data. Results A total of 254,106 SNPs in the pool (79.6 Mb covered) and 643,783 in the Guadyerbas sow (1.47 Gb covered) were called. The nucleotide diversity (1.31x10-3 per bp in autosomes) is very similar to that reported in wild boar. A much lower than expected diversity in the X chromosome was confirmed (1.79x10-4 per bp in the individual and 5.83x10-4 per bp in the pool). A strong (0.70) correlation between recombination and variability was observed, but not with gene density or GC content. Multicopy regions affected about 4% of annotated pig genes in their entirety, and 2% of the genes partially. Genes within the lowest variability windows comprised interferon genes and, in chromosome X, genes involved in behavior like HTR2C or MCEP2. A modified Hudson-Kreitman-Aguad test for pools also indicated an accelerated evolution in genes involved in behavior, as well as in spermatogenesis and in lipid metabolism. Conclusions This work illustrates the strength of current sequencing technologies to picture a comprehensive landscape of variability in livestock species, and to pinpoint regions containing genes potentially under selection. Among those genes, we report genes involved in behavior, including feeding behavior, and lipid metabolism. The pig X chromosome is an outlier in terms of nucleotide diversity, which suggests selective constraints. Our data further confirm the importance of structural variation in the species, including Iberian pigs, and allowed us to identify new paralogs for known gene families. PMID:23497037

  6. Physical Activity and Food Consumption in High- and Low-Active Inbred Mouse Strains

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Alan P.; Curtis, Tamera S.; Turner, Michael J.; Lightfoot, J. Timothy

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To determine the effect of innate activity level and running wheel access on food consumption in high-active (SWR/J) low-active (DBA/2J) mice. Methods Two strains of inbred mice were used in this study due to their high activity level (SWR/J) and low activity level (DBA/2J). The mice were housed in individual cages, and half of the mice in each strain had free access to running wheels in their cages, while the other mice received no running wheel. All mice consumed standard chow and water ad libitum for 13 weeks during the study period. Running-wheel activity (daily), food consumption (bi-weekly), and body mass (weekly) were recorded. Results SWR/J runners consumed more food (6.0±0.4g/day) than SWR/J non-runners (4.7±0.2g/day; p=0.03), DBA/2J runners (4.6±0.2g/day; p=0.02), and DBA/2J non-runners (4.2±0.2g/day; p=0.006). SWR/J non-runners consumed more food than DBA/2J non-runners (p=0.03). Average daily distance and duration were significantly greater for the SWR/J runners (6.4±0.7km/day and 333.6±40.5min/day, respectively) compared to the DBA/2J runners (1.6±0.4km/day and 91.3±23.0min/day, respectively). There was a significant correlation between food consumption and distance (r=0.74, p<0.001), duration (r=0.68, p<0.001), and speed (r=0.58, p<0.001), respectively, in all mice. However, when considering the individuals strains, the relationship between running-wheel activity and food consumption was only statistically significant for the SWR/J mice. Conclusion Higher running-wheel activity in mice was associated with increased food consumption in the SWR/J mice but not the DBA/2J mice. In DBA/2J mice the addition of a running wheel did not result in increased food consumption, suggesting energy expenditure of non-wheel cage activity in the control DBA/2J mice was similar to the energy expenditure of the wheel activity since body mass was similar between the two groups. PMID:20216465

  7. Dissecting yield-associated loci in super hybrid rice by resequencing recombinant inbred lines and improving parental genome sequences

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Zhen-Yu; Zhao, Shan-Cen; He, Wei-Ming; Guo, Long-Biao; Peng, You-Lin; Wang, Jin-Jin; Guo, Xiao-Sen; Zhang, Xue-Mei; Rao, Yu-Chun; Zhang, Chi; Dong, Guo-Jun; Zheng, Feng-Ya; Lu, Chang-Xin; Hu, Jiang; Zhou, Qing; Liu, Hui-Juan; Wu, Hai-Yang; Xu, Jie; Ni, Pei-Xiang; Zeng, Da-Li; Liu, Deng-Hui; Tian, Peng; Gong, Li-Hui; Ye, Chen; Zhang, Guang-Heng; Wang, Jian; Tian, Fu-Kuan; Xue, Da-Wei; Liao, Yi; Zhu, Li; Chen, Ming-Sheng; Li, Jia-Yang; Cheng, Shi-Hua; Zhang, Geng-Yun; Wang, Jun; Qian, Qian

    2013-01-01

    The growing world population and shrinkage of arable land demand yield improvement of rice, one of the most important staple crops. To elucidate the genetic basis of yield and uncover its associated loci in rice, we resequenced the core recombinant inbred lines of Liang–You–Pei–Jiu, the widely cultivated super hybrid rice, and constructed a high-resolution linkage map. We detected 43 yield-associated quantitative trait loci, of which 20 are unique. Based on the high-density physical map, the genome sequences of paternal variety 93–11 and maternal cultivar PA64s of Liang–You–Pei–Jiu were significantly improved. The large recombinant inbred line population combined with plentiful high-quality single nucleotide polymorphisms and insertions/deletions between parental genomes allowed us to fine-map two quantitative trait loci, qSN8 and qSPB1, and to identify days to heading8 and lax panicle1 as candidate genes, respectively. The quantitative trait locus qSN8 was further confirmed to be days to heading8 by a complementation test. Our study provided an ideal platform for molecular breeding by targeting and dissecting yield-associated loci in rice. PMID:23940322

  8. Allele dosage-dependent penetrance of RET proto-oncogene in an Israeli-Arab inbred family segregating Hirschsprung disease.

    PubMed

    Basel-Vanagaite, Lina; Pelet, Anna; Steiner, Zvi; Munnich, Arnold; Rozenbach, Yoram; Shohat, Mordechai; Lyonnet, Stanislas

    2007-02-01

    Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) is characterised by intestinal obstruction resulting from an absence of ganglion cells in the intestinal tract. The mutations in the major gene, RET, associated with isolated HSCR, are dominant loss-of-function mutations with incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity. We have ascertained a large inbred Israeli-Arab family segregating HSCR. Sequencing of the RET gene showed a splicing mutation, IVS6+5G- >A, in the homozygous state in all the females with severe forms of HSCR and in the heterozygous state in the male patient with short-segment HSCR. The recently described hypomorphic-RET predisposing allele, rs2435357, was transmitted in the heterozygous state to the male patient, but was not transmitted to the three affected females. Although the heterozygous IVS6+5G- >A is of low-penetrance for short-segment HSCR disease, the homozygous state is fully penetrant for total aganglionosis or long-segment HSCR. As in other inbred populations segregating a weakly penetrant RET allele (Mennonite), our findings support the hypothesis that the penetrance of RET gene mutations for the HSCR phenotype depends on: (i) the nature of the mutation, (ii) the allele dosage and (iii) modifier-loci. PMID:17091122

  9. An inbred 129SvEv GFPCre transgenic mouse that deletes loxP-flanked genes in all tissues

    PubMed Central

    Scheel, John R.; Garrett, Lisa J.; Allen, Duane M.; Carter, Todd A.; Randolph-Moore, Lynne; Gambello, Micheal J.; Gage, Fred H.; Wynshaw-Boris, Anthony; Barlow, Carrolee

    2003-01-01

    A common method for generating mice with subtle genetic manipulations uses homologous recombination (HR) in embryonic stem (ES) cells to replace a wild-type gene with a slightly modified one. Generally, a drug resistance gene is inserted with the modified gene to select correctly targeted clones. Often, however, the presence of this drug resistance gene interferes with the normal locus and creates a null or hypomorphic allele. Flanking of the selectable marker by loxP sites followed by Cre-mediated deletion after drug selection can overcome this problem. The simplest method used to remove a loxP-flanked selectable marker is to breed an animal carrying a loxP-flanked drug resistance gene to an animal that expresses Cre recombinase in the germline. To date only outbred transgenic mice are available for this purpose. This can be problematic for phenotypic analysis in many organ systems, including the brain, and for the analysis of behavior. While attempting to make 129S6/SvEvTac inbred background (isogenic to our ES cells) mice that express Cre under the control of several tissue-specific promoters, we serendipitously generated a line that excises loxP-flanked drug resistance genes in all tissues, including the germline. This reagent allows deletion of loxP-flanked sequences while maintaining the mutation on an inbred background. PMID:12736323

  10. Genetic variation among species, races, forms and inbred lines of lac insects belonging to the genus Kerria (Homoptera, Tachardiidae)

    PubMed Central

    Ranjan, Sanjeev Kumar; Mallick, Chandana Basu; Saha, Dipnarayan; Vidyarthi, Ambarish S; Ramani, Ranganathan

    2011-01-01

    The lac insects (Homoptera: Tachardiidae), belonging to the genus Kerria, are commercially exploited for the production of lac. Kerria lacca is the most commonly used species in India. RAPD markers were used for assessing genetic variation in forty-eight lines of Kerria, especially among geographic races, infrasubspecific forms, cultivated lines, inbred lines, etc., of K. lacca. In the 48 lines studied, the 26 RAPD primers generated 173 loci, showing 97.7% polymorphism. By using neighbor-joining, the dendrogram generated from the similarity matrix resolved the lines into basically two clusters and outgroups. The major cluster, comprising 32 lines, included mainly cultivated lines of the rangeeni form, geographic races and inbred lines of K. lacca. The second cluster consisted of eight lines of K. lacca, seven of the kusmi form and one of the rangeeni from the southern state of Karnataka. The remaining eight lines formed a series of outgroups, this including a group of three yellow mutant lines of K. lacca and other species of the Kerria studied, among others. Color mutants always showed distinctive banding patterns compared to their wild-type counterparts from the same population. This study also adds support to the current status of kusmi and rangeeni, as infraspecific forms of K. lacca. PMID:21931527

  11. Genetic relationship between ethanol-induced conditioned place preference and other ethanol phenotypes in 15 inbred mouse strains.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Christopher L

    2014-08-01

    The genetic relationships between different behaviors used to index the rewarding or reinforcing effects of alcohol are poorly understood. To address this issue, ethanol-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) was tested in a genetically diverse panel of inbred mouse strains, and strain means from this study and other inbred strain studies were used to examine the genetic correlation between CPP and several ethanol-related phenotypes, including activity measures recorded during CPP training and testing. Mice from each strain were exposed to a well-characterized unbiased place conditioning procedure using ethanol doses of 2 or 4 g/kg; an additional group from each strain was exposed to saline alone on all trials. Genotype had a significant effect on CPP, basal locomotor activity, ethanol-stimulated activity, and the effect of repeated ethanol exposure on activity. Correlational analyses showed significant negative genetic correlations between CPP and sweetened ethanol intake and between CPP and test session activity, as well as a significant positive genetic correlation between CPP and chronic ethanol withdrawal severity. Moreover, there was a trend toward a positive genetic correlation between CPP and ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion. These genetic correlations suggest overlap in the genetic mechanisms underlying CPP and each of these traits. The patterns of genetic relationships suggest a greater impact of ethanol's aversive effects on drinking and a greater impact of ethanol's rewarding effects on CPP. Overall, these data support the idea that genotype influences ethanol's rewarding effect, a factor that may contribute importantly to addictive vulnerability. PMID:24841742

  12. CD40 Blockade Combines with CTLA4Ig and Sirolimus To Produce Mixed Chimerism in an MHC-defined Rhesus Macaque Transplant Model

    PubMed Central

    Page, Andrew; Srinivasan, Swetha; Singh, Karnail; Russell, Maria; Hamby, Kelly; Deane, Taylor; Sen, Sharon; Stempora, Linda; Leopardi, Frank; Price, Andrew A.; Strobert, Elizabeth; Reimann, Keith A.; Kirk, Allan D.; Larsen, Christian P.; Kean, Leslie S.

    2011-01-01

    In murine models, T-cell costimulation blockade of the CD28:B7 and CD154:CD40 pathways synergistically promotes immune tolerance after transplantation. While CD28 blockade has been successfully translated to the clinic, translation of blockade of the CD154:CD40 pathway has been less successful, in large part due to thromboembolic complications associated with anti-CD154 antibodies. Translation of CD40 blockade has also been slow, in part due to the fact that synergy between CD40 blockade and CD28 blockade had not yet been demonstrated in either primate models or humans. Here we show that a novel, non-depleting CD40 monoclonal antibody, 3A8, can combine with combined CTLA4Ig and sirolimus in a well-established primate bone marrow chimerism-induction model. Prolonged engraftment required the presence of all three agents during maintenance therapy, and resulted in graft acceptance for the duration of immunosuppressive treatment, with rejection resulting upon immunosuppression withdrawal. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that upregulation of CD95 expression on both CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells correlated with rejection, suggesting that CD95 may be a robust biomarker of graft loss. These results are the first to demonstrate prolonged chimerism in primates treated with CD28/mTOR blockade and non-depletional CD40 blockade, and support further investigation of combined costimulation blockade targeting the CD28 and CD40 pathways. PMID:21929643

  13. Construction and characterization of a genomic BAC library for the Mus m. musculus mouse subspecies (PWD/Ph inbred strain)

    PubMed Central

    Jansa, Petr; Divina, Petr; Forejt, Jiří

    2005-01-01

    Background The genome of classical laboratory strains of mice is an artificial mosaic of genomes originated from several mouse subspecies with predominant representation (>90%) of the Mus m. domesticus component. Mice of another subspecies, East European/Asian Mus m. musculus, can interbreed with the classical laboratory strains to generate hybrids with unprecedented phenotypic and genotypic variations. To study these variations in depth we prepared the first genomic large insert BAC library from an inbred strain derived purely from the Mus m. musculus-subspecies. The library will be used to seek and characterize genomic sequences controlling specific monogenic and polygenic complex traits, including modifiers of dominant and recessive mutations. Results A representative mouse genomic BAC library was derived from a female mouse of the PWD/Ph inbred strain of Mus m. musculus subspecies. The library consists of 144 768 primary clones from which 97% contain an insert of 120 kb average size. The library represents an equivalent of 6.7 × mouse haploid genome, as estimated from the total number of clones carrying genomic DNA inserts and from the average insert size. The clones were arrayed in duplicates onto eight high-density membranes that were screened with seven single-copy gene probes. The individual probes identified four to eleven positive clones, corresponding to 6.9-fold coverage of the mouse genome. Eighty-seven BAC-ends of PWD/Ph clones were sequenced, edited, and aligned with mouse C57BL/6J (B6) genome. Seventy-three BAC-ends displayed unique hits on B6 genome and their alignment revealed 0.92 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) per 100 bp. Insertions and deletions represented 0.3% of the BAC end sequences. Conclusion Analysis of the novel genomic library for the PWD/Ph inbred strain demonstrated coverage of almost seven mouse genome equivalents and a capability to recover clones for specific regions of PWD/Ph genome. The single nucleotide polymorphism between the strains PWD/Ph and C57BL/6J was 0.92/100 bp, a value significantly higher than between classical laboratory strains. The library will serve as a resource for dissecting the phenotypic and genotypic variations between mice of the Mus m. musculus subspecies and classical laboratory mouse strains. PMID:16288658

  14. Towards achieving dense genetic maps and detecting disease resistance QTLs using a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dense genetic map constructed using recombinant inbred lines (RILs) have several applications in genetic and breeding approaches including the use in identification of consistent QTLs using multi-environment phenotyping data. Realizing the serious threat from Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and lea...

  15. Association of Size Exclusion HPLC of Endosperm Proteins with Dough Mixing and Bread-making Characteristics in a Recombinant Inbred Population of Hard Red Spring Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Variation of polymeric proteins is known to affect wheat end-use quality. This research aimed to investigate the composition of polymeric proteins and their associations with dough mixing strength and bread-making characteristics in a near-homogenous population of 139 recombinant inbred lines (RILs...

  16. Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci for Resistance to Southern Leaf Blight and Days to Anthesis in Two Maize Recombinant Inbred Line Populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two recombinant inbred line populations derived from crosses between maize lines H99 and B73 (HB population) and between B73 and B52 (BB population) were evaluated for resistance to southern leaf blight (SLB) disease caused by Cochliobolus heterostrophus race O and for days to anthesis (DTA) in tw...

  17. Identification of multiple ear-colonizing insect and disease resistance in CIMMYT maize inbred lines with varying levels of silk maysin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ninety four corn inbred lines selected from International Center for the Improvement of Maize and Wheat (CIMMYT) in Mexico were evaluated for levels of silk maysin in 2001 and 2002. Damage by major ear-feeding insects [i.e., the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), the m...

  18. A SNP genetic linkage map based on the Hamilton by Spencer recombinant inbred line (RIL) population identified QTL for seed Isoflavone contents in soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean is one of the most important crops worldwide for its protein, oil as well as the health beneficial phytoestrogens or isoflavone. This study reports a relatively dense SNP-Based genetic map based on Hamilton by Spencer recombinant inbred line (RIL) population and quantitative t...

  19. Registration of the MY2 Cypress/LaGrue rice recombinant inbred line mapping population. Journal of Plant Registrations 4(3): 261-265.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grain quality plays a crucial economic role for producers, millers, and exporters of rice (Oryza sativa L.). The objective of this research was to develop a japonica -based rice recombinant inbred line (RIL) mapping population to assist in the identification of genomic regions associated with whole-...

  20. Quantitative trait loci analysis of fiber quality traits using a random-mated recombinant inbred population in Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using 11 diverse Upland cotton cultivars as parents, a random-mated recombinant inbred (RI) population consisting of 550 RI lines was developed after 6 cycles of random-mating and 6 generations of self-pollination. The 550 RILs were planted in triplicates for three years in Mississippi State, MS, US...

  1. LYMPHOID ORGAN SIZE VARIES AMONG INBRED LINES 63, 72 AND THEIR THIRTEEN RECOMBINANT CONGENIC STRAINS OF CHICKENS WITH THE SAME MHC

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to evaluate lymphoid organ size in chickens from a series of thirteen recombinant congenic strains (RCS) and their highly inbred parental lines (63 and 72). The parental line 63 was selected for resistance to tumors induced by Mareks disease virus and avian leukosis viruses, where...

  2. Comparison of Conventional, Modified Single Seed Descent, and Doubled Haploid Breeding Methods for Maize Inbred Line Development Using GEM Breeding Crosses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Breeding crosses from the Germplasm Enhancement of Maize (GEM) project between exotic accessions and elite Corn Belt Dent inbreds provide a unique opportunity for broadening the genetic base of the United States maize crop by incorporating favorable exotic alleles in elite genetic backgrounds. Genet...

  3. Comparison of Conventional, Modified Single Seed Descent, and Double Haploid Breeding Methods for Maize Inbred Line Development Using GEM Breeding Crosses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Good choice of germplasm, breeding methods, and careful evaluation are essential for maize inbred line and hybrid development. Choice of germplasm is particularly important since it may limit genetic gain given even the best breeding methodology and selection strategies. Exotic germplasm has the pot...

  4. Expression analysis of stress-related genes in kernels of different maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines with different resistance to aflatoxin contamination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research examined the expression patterns of 94 stress-related genes in 7 maize inbred lines with differential expression of resistance to aflatoxin contamination. The objective was to develop a set of genes/probes associated with resistance to A. flavus and/or aflatoxin contamination. We sele...

  5. Adult Strabismus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... cause. Is eye straightening as an adult strictly cosmetic? No. Eye alignment surgery is performed in adults ... this surgery? Eye muscle surgery is reconstructive (not cosmetic). In most cases, insurance will cover strabismus surgery ...

  6. Polymyositis - adult

    MedlinePLUS

    ... gamma globulin has been tried, with mixed results. Biologic drugs also may play in part in treating ... most adults, however, immunosuppressant drugs are needed to control the disease. In adults, death may result from: ...

  7. Exposure to the calls of predators of mice activates defensive mechanisms and inhibits consummatory behaviour in an inbred mouse strain.

    PubMed

    Hendrie, C A; Neill, J C

    1991-01-01

    As two-minute exposures to the tape-recorded calls of barn and tawny owls activate endogenous opioid-mediated analgesia mechanisms in laboratory mice, the behavioural effects of the calls of a variety of predator and nonpredator species were ethologically assessed. While no clear effect could be seen on cage-orientated behaviour, the calls of the barn owl and tawny owl produced consistent increases in self-orientated, call-orientated and defensive behaviour indicating that these calls were recognised as belonging to predators. The call of the gull also produced an increase in defense, but, as this could be attributed to an increase in attend only, test animals may react to a change in stimulus properties without the gull call unequivocally representing a potential threat. These results indicate recognition of, and appropriate reaction to, the calls of known night-hunting, airborne primary predators of mice by an inbred laboratory strain. PMID:1792009

  8. Mode of inheritance of major genes controlling life span differences between two inbred strains of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Yonemura, I; Motoyama, T; Hasekura, H

    1989-01-01

    Although life span is generally considered to be under polygenic control, we obtained experimental evidence of Mendelian genes exerting major effects on life span differences between two inbred strains of Drosophila melanogaster. Our data indicate two loci with major effects, one being autosomal and the other sex-linked. The alleles at the autosomal locus are designated A1 and A2, the latter producing longer life. Heterozygotes, A1A2, exhibit over-dominance. The alleles at the sex-linked locus, designated X1 and X2, produce life-extending effects. X1 revealed a dosage effect, causing homozygous females to live longer than hemizygous males; X2 showed no dosage effect. The identified genes are considered to control the period of activity of many genes maintaining life. PMID:2517284

  9. Comparative transcriptome analysis among parental inbred and crosses reveals the role of dominance gene expression in heterosis in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xianwen; Li, Rongni; Li, Qianqian; Bao, Haigang; Wu, Changxin

    2016-01-01

    We observed heteroses for body weight in Drosophila melanogaster after generating hybrids from three inbred lines. To better understand the mechanism for this phenomenon at the mRNA level, we compared the mRNA profiles of the parental and hybrid lines using high-throughput RNA-seq. A total of 5877 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were found and about 92% of these exhibited parental expression level dominance. Genes in the dominance category were functionally characterized using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and the gene classifications offered by the Gene Ontology (GO) Consortium. The analysis identified genes associated with crucial processes such as development and growth in all three crosses. Functional assignments involving aminoglycan metabolism, starch and sucrose metabolism, and galactose metabolism are significantly overrepresented amongst the 215 common dominance DEGs. We conclude that dominance DEGs are important in heteroses in Drosophila melanogaster and contribute specifically to body weight heterosis. PMID:26928435

  10. Comparative transcriptome analysis among parental inbred and crosses reveals the role of dominance gene expression in heterosis in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xianwen; Li, Rongni; Li, Qianqian; Bao, Haigang; Wu, Changxin

    2016-01-01

    We observed heteroses for body weight in Drosophila melanogaster after generating hybrids from three inbred lines. To better understand the mechanism for this phenomenon at the mRNA level, we compared the mRNA profiles of the parental and hybrid lines using high-throughput RNA-seq. A total of 5877 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were found and about 92% of these exhibited parental expression level dominance. Genes in the dominance category were functionally characterized using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and the gene classifications offered by the Gene Ontology (GO) Consortium. The analysis identified genes associated with crucial processes such as development and growth in all three crosses. Functional assignments involving aminoglycan metabolism, starch and sucrose metabolism, and galactose metabolism are significantly overrepresented amongst the 215 common dominance DEGs. We conclude that dominance DEGs are important in heteroses in Drosophila melanogaster and contribute specifically to body weight heterosis. PMID:26928435

  11. Identification of multiple ear-colonizing insect and disease resistance in CIMMYT maize inbred lines with varying levels of silk maysin.

    PubMed

    Ni, Xinzhi; Krakowsky, Matthew D; Buntin, G David; Rector, Brian G; Guo, Baozhu; Snook, Maurice E

    2008-08-01

    Ninety four corn inbred lines selected from International Center for the Improvement of Maize and Wheat (CIMMYT) in Mexico were evaluated for levels of silk maysin in 2001 and 2002. Damage by major ear-feeding insects [i.e., corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae); maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae); brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say); southern green stink bugs, Nezara viridula (L.) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae)], and common smut [Ustilago maydis DC (Corda)] infection on these inbred lines were evaluated in 2005 and 2006 under subtropical conditions at Tifton, GA. Ten inbred lines possessing good agronomic traits were also resistant to the corn earworm. The correlation between ear-feeding insect damage or smut infection and three phenotypic traits (silk maysin level, husk extension, and husk tightness of corn ears) was also examined. Corn earworm and stink bug damage was negatively correlated to husk extension, but not to either silk maysin levels or husk tightness. In combination with the best agronomic trait ratings that show the least corn earworm and stink bug damage, lowest smut infection rate, and good insect-resistant phenotypic traits (i.e., high maysin and good husk coverage and husk tightness), 10 best inbred lines (CML90, CML92, CML94, CML99, CML104, CML108, CML114, CML128, CML137, and CML373) were identified from the 94 lines examined. These selected inbred lines will be used for further examination of their resistance mechanisms and development of new corn germplasm that confers multiple ear-colonizing pest resistance. PMID:18767760

  12. Comparative Analysis of the Relationship between Trichloroethylene Metabolism and Tissue-Specific Toxicity among Inbred Mouse Strains: Kidney Effects

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Hong Sik; Bradford, Blair U.; Kosyk, Oksana; Uehara, Takeki; Shymonyak, Svitlana; Collins, Leonard B.; Bodnar, Wanda M.; Ball, Louise M.; Gold, Avram; Rusyn, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a well-known environmental and occupational toxicant that is classified as carcinogenic to humans based on the epidemiological evidence of an association with higher risk of renal cell carcinoma. A number of scientific issues critical for assessing human health risks from TCE remain unresolved, such as the amount of kidney-toxic glutathione conjugation metabolites formed, inter-species and -individual differences, and the mode of action for kidney carcinogenicity. We hypothesized that TCE metabolite levels in the kidney are associated with kidney-specific toxicity. Oral dosing with TCE was conducted in sub-acute (600 mg/kg/d; 5 days; 7 inbred mouse strains) and sub-chronic (100 or 400 mg/kg/d; 1, 2, or 4 weeks; 2 inbred mouse strains) designs. We evaluated the quantitative relationship between strain-, dose-, and time-dependent formation of TCE metabolites from cytochrome P450-mediated oxidation [trichloroacetic acid (TCA), dichloroacetic acid (DCA), and trichloroethanol] and glutathione conjugation [S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine and S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)glutathione], and various kidney toxicity phenotypes. In sub-acute study, we observed inter-strain differences in TCE metabolite levels in the kidney. In addition, we found that in several strains kidney-specific effects of TCE included induction of peroxisome proliferator-marker genes Cyp4a10 and Acox1, increased cell proliferation, and expression of KIM-1, a marker of tubular damage and regeneration. In sub-chronic study, peroxisome proliferator-marker gene induction and kidney toxicity diminished while cell proliferative response was elevated in a dose-dependent manner in NZW/LacJ, but not C57BL/6J mice. Overall, we show that TCE metabolite levels in the kidney are associated with kidney-specific toxicity and that these effects are strain-dependent. PMID:25424545

  13. Comparative Analysis of the Relationship between Trichloroethylene Metabolism and Tissue-Specific Toxicity among Inbred Mouse Strains: Liver Effects

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Hong Sik; Bradford, Blair U.; Kosyk, Oksana; Shymonyak, Svitlana; Uehara, Takeki; Collins, Leonard B.; Bodnar, Wanda M.; Ball, Louise M.; Gold, Avram; Rusyn, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a widely used organic solvent. Although TCE is classified as carcinogenic to humans, substantial gaps remain in our understanding of inter-individual variability in TCE metabolism and toxicity, especially in the liver. We tested a hypothesis that amounts of oxidative metabolites of TCE in mouse liver are associated with liver-specific toxicity. Oral dosing with TCE was conducted in sub-acute (600 mg/kg/d; 5 days; 7 inbred mouse strains) and sub-chronic (100 or 400 mg/kg/d; 1, 2, or 4 weeks; 2 inbred mouse strains) designs. We evaluated the quantitative relationship between strain-, dose-, and time-dependent formation of TCE metabolites from cytochrome P450-mediated oxidation [trichloroacetic acid (TCA), dichloroacetic acid (DCA), and trichloroethanol] and glutathione conjugation [S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine and S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)glutathione] in serum and liver, and various liver toxicity phenotypes. In sub-acute study, inter-strain variability in TCE metabolite amounts was observed in serum and liver. No induction of Cyp2e1 protein levels in liver was detected. Serum and liver levels of TCA and DCA were correlated with increased transcription of peroxisome proliferator-marker genes Cyp4a10 and Acox1, but not with degree of induction in hepatocellular proliferation. In sub-chronic study, serum and liver levels of oxidative metabolites gradually decreased over time despite continuous dosing. Liver protein levels of Cyp2e1, Adh and Aldh2 were unaffected by treatment with TCE. While the magnitude of induction of peroxisome proliferator-marker genes also declined, hepatocellular proliferation increased. This study offers a unique opportunity to provide a scientific data-driven rationale for some of the major assumptions in human health assessment of TCE. PMID:25424544

  14. High-throughput behavioral phenotyping of drug and alcohol susceptibility traits in the expanded panel of BXD recombinant inbred strains

    SciTech Connect

    Philip, Vivek M; Ansah, T; Blaha, C,; Cook, Melloni N.; Hamre, Kristin M.; Lariviere, William R; Matthews, Douglas B; Goldowitz, Daniel; Chesler, Elissa J

    2010-01-01

    Genetic reference populations, particularly the BXD recombinant inbred strains, are a valuable resource for the discovery of the bio-molecular substrates and genetic drivers responsible for trait variation and co- ariation. This approach can be profitably applied in the analysis of susceptibility and mechanisms of drug and alcohol use disorders for which many predisposing behaviors may predict occurrence and manifestation of increased preference for these substances. Many of these traits are modeled by common mouse behavioral assays, facilitating the detection of patterns and sources of genetic co-regulation of predisposing phenotypes and substance consumption. Members of the Tennessee Mouse Genome Consortium have obtained behavioral phenotype data from 260 measures related to multiple behavioral assays across several domains: self-administration, response to, and withdrawal from cocaine, MDMA, morphine and alcohol; novelty seeking; behavioral despair and related neurological phenomena; pain sensitivity; stress sensitivity; anxiety; hyperactivity; and sleep/wake cycles. All traits have been measured in both sexes and the recently expanded panel of 69 additional BXD recombinant inbred strains (N=69). Sex differences and heritability estimates were obtained for each trait, and a comparison of early (N = 32) and recent BXD RI lines was performed. Primary data is publicly available for heritability, sex difference and genetic analyses using www.GeneNetwork.org. These analyses include QTL detection and genetic analysis of gene expression. Stored results from these analyses are available at http://ontologicaldiscovery.org for comparison to other genomic analysis results. Together with the results of related studies, these data form a public resource for integrative systems genetic analysis of neurobehavioral traits.

  15. Evidence for Persistence of Ectromelia Virus in Inbred Mice, Recrudescence Following Immunosuppression and Transmission to Naïve Mice.

    PubMed

    Sakala, Isaac G; Chaudhri, Geeta; Scalzo, Anthony A; Eldi, Preethi; Newsome, Timothy P; Buller, Robert M; Karupiah, Gunasegaran

    2015-12-01

    Orthopoxviruses (OPV), including variola, vaccinia, monkeypox, cowpox and ectromelia viruses cause acute infections in their hosts. With the exception of variola virus (VARV), the etiological agent of smallpox, other OPV have been reported to persist in a variety of animal species following natural or experimental infection. Despite the implications and significance for the ecology and epidemiology of diseases these viruses cause, those reports have never been thoroughly investigated. We used the mouse pathogen ectromelia virus (ECTV), the agent of mousepox and a close relative of VARV to investigate virus persistence in inbred mice. We provide evidence that ECTV causes a persistent infection in some susceptible strains of mice in which low levels of virus genomes were detected in various tissues late in infection. The bone marrow (BM) and blood appeared to be key sites of persistence. Contemporaneous with virus persistence, antiviral CD8 T cell responses were demonstrable over the entire 25-week study period, with a change in the immunodominance hierarchy evident during the first 3 weeks. Some virus-encoded host response modifiers were found to modulate virus persistence whereas host genes encoded by the NKC and MHC class I reduced the potential for persistence. When susceptible strains of mice that had apparently recovered from infection were subjected to sustained immunosuppression with cyclophosphamide (CTX), animals succumbed to mousepox with high titers of infectious virus in various organs. CTX treated index mice transmitted virus to, and caused disease in, co-housed naïve mice. The most surprising but significant finding was that immunosuppression of disease-resistant C57BL/6 mice several weeks after recovery from primary infection generated high titers of virus in multiple tissues. Resistant mice showed no evidence of a persistent infection. This is the strongest evidence that ECTV can persist in inbred mice, regardless of their resistance status. PMID:26700306

  16. Evidence for Persistence of Ectromelia Virus in Inbred Mice, Recrudescence Following Immunosuppression and Transmission to Naïve Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sakala, Isaac G.; Chaudhri, Geeta; Scalzo, Anthony A.; Eldi, Preethi; Newsome, Timothy P.; Buller, Robert M.; Karupiah, Gunasegaran

    2015-01-01

    Orthopoxviruses (OPV), including variola, vaccinia, monkeypox, cowpox and ectromelia viruses cause acute infections in their hosts. With the exception of variola virus (VARV), the etiological agent of smallpox, other OPV have been reported to persist in a variety of animal species following natural or experimental infection. Despite the implications and significance for the ecology and epidemiology of diseases these viruses cause, those reports have never been thoroughly investigated. We used the mouse pathogen ectromelia virus (ECTV), the agent of mousepox and a close relative of VARV to investigate virus persistence in inbred mice. We provide evidence that ECTV causes a persistent infection in some susceptible strains of mice in which low levels of virus genomes were detected in various tissues late in infection. The bone marrow (BM) and blood appeared to be key sites of persistence. Contemporaneous with virus persistence, antiviral CD8 T cell responses were demonstrable over the entire 25-week study period, with a change in the immunodominance hierarchy evident during the first 3 weeks. Some virus-encoded host response modifiers were found to modulate virus persistence whereas host genes encoded by the NKC and MHC class I reduced the potential for persistence. When susceptible strains of mice that had apparently recovered from infection were subjected to sustained immunosuppression with cyclophosphamide (CTX), animals succumbed to mousepox with high titers of infectious virus in various organs. CTX treated index mice transmitted virus to, and caused disease in, co-housed naïve mice. The most surprising but significant finding was that immunosuppression of disease-resistant C57BL/6 mice several weeks after recovery from primary infection generated high titers of virus in multiple tissues. Resistant mice showed no evidence of a persistent infection. This is the strongest evidence that ECTV can persist in inbred mice, regardless of their resistance status. PMID:26700306

  17. Comparative analysis of the relationship between trichloroethylene metabolism and tissue-specific toxicity among inbred mouse strains: liver effects.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Hong Sik; Bradford, Blair U; Kosyk, Oksana; Shymonyak, Svitlana; Uehara, Takeki; Collins, Leonard B; Bodnar, Wanda M; Ball, Louise M; Gold, Avram; Rusyn, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a widely used organic solvent. Although TCE is classified as carcinogenic to humans, substantial gaps remain in our understanding of interindividual variability in TCE metabolism and toxicity, especially in the liver. A hypothesis was tested that amounts of oxidative metabolites of TCE in mouse liver are associated with hepatic-specific toxicity. Oral dosing with TCE was conducted in subacute (600 mg/kg/d; 5 d; 7 inbred mouse strains) and subchronic (100 or 400 mg/kg/d; 1, 2, or 4 wk; 2 inbred mouse strains) designs. The quantitative relationship was evaluated between strain-, dose-, and time-dependent formation of TCE metabolites from cytochrome P-450-mediated oxidation (trichloroacetic acid [TCA], dichloroacetic acid [DCA], and trichloroethanol) and glutathione conjugation [S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine and S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)glutathione] in serum and liver, and various hepatic toxicity phenotypes. In subacute study, interstrain variability in TCE metabolite amounts was observed in serum and liver. No marked induction of Cyp2e1 protein levels in liver was detected. Serum and hepatic levels of TCA and DCA were correlated with increased transcription of peroxisome proliferator-marker genes Cyp4a10 and Acox1 but not with degree of induction in hepatocellular proliferation. In subchronic study, serum and liver levels of oxidative metabolites gradually decreased over time despite continuous dosing. Hepatic protein levels of CYP2E1, ADH, and ALDH2 were unaffected by treatment with TCE. While the magnitude of induction of peroxisome proliferator-marker genes also declined, hepatocellular proliferation increased. This study offers a unique opportunity to provide a scientific data-driven rationale for some of the major assumptions in human health assessment of TCE. PMID:25424544

  18. Comparative analysis of the relationship between trichloroethylene metabolism and tissue-specific toxicity among inbred mouse strains: kidney effects.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Hong Sik; Bradford, Blair U; Kosyk, Oksana; Uehara, Takeki; Shymonyak, Svitlana; Collins, Leonard B; Bodnar, Wanda M; Ball, Louise M; Gold, Avram; Rusyn, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a well-known environmental and occupational toxicant that is classified as carcinogenic to humans based on the epidemiological evidence of an association with higher risk of renal-cell carcinoma. A number of scientific issues critical for assessing human health risks from TCE remain unresolved, such as the amount of kidney-toxic glutathione conjugation metabolites formed, interspecies and interindividual differences, and the mode of action for kidney carcinogenicity. It was postulated that TCE renal metabolite levels are associated with kidney-specific toxicity. Oral dosing with TCE was conducted in subacute (600 mg/kg/d; 5 d; 7 inbred mouse strains) and subchronic (100 or 400 mg/kg/d; 1, 2, or 4 wk; 2 inbred mouse strains) designs. The quantitative relationship was evaluated between strain-, dose, and time-dependent formation of TCE metabolites from cytochrome P-450-mediated oxidation (trichloroacetic acid [TCA], dichloroacetic acid [DCA], and trichloroethanol) and glutathione conjugation [S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine and S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)glutathione], and various kidney toxicity phenotypes. In subacute study, interstrain differences in renal TCE metabolite levels were observed. In addition, data showed that in several strains kidney-specific effects of TCE included induction of peroxisome proliferator-marker genes Cyp4a10 and Acox1, increased cell proliferation, and expression of KIM-1, a marker of tubular damage and regeneration. In subchronic study, peroxisome proliferator-marker gene induction and renal toxicity diminished while cell proliferative response was elevated in a dose-dependent manner in NZW/LacJ but not C57BL/6J mice. Overall, data demonstrated that renal TCE metabolite levels are associated with kidney-specific toxicity and that these effects are strain dependent. PMID:25424545

  19. Sequence and Ionomic Analysis of Divergent Strains of Maize Inbred Line B73 with an Altered Growth Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Gahrtz, Manfred; Bucher, Marcel; Scholz, Uwe; Dresselhaus, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays) is the most widely grown crop species in the world and a classical model organism for plant research. The completion of a high-quality reference genome sequence and the advent of high-throughput sequencing have greatly empowered re-sequencing studies in maize. In this study, plants of maize inbred line B73 descended from two different sets of seed material grown for several generations either in the field or in the greenhouse were found to show a different growth phenotype and ionome under phosphate starvation conditions and moreover a different responsiveness towards mycorrhizal fungi of the species Glomus intraradices (syn: Rhizophagus irregularis). Whole genome re-sequencing of individuals from both sets and comparison to the B73 reference sequence revealed three cryptic introgressions on chromosomes 1, 5 and 10 in the line grown in the greenhouse summing up to a total of 5,257 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Transcriptome sequencing of three individuals from each set lent further support to the location of the introgression intervals and confirmed them to be fixed in all sequenced individuals. Moreover, we identified >120 genes differentially expressed between the two B73 lines. We thus have found a nearly-isogenic line (NIL) of maize inbred line B73 that is characterized by an altered growth phenotype under phosphate starvation conditions and an improved responsiveness towards symbiosis with mycorrhizal fungi. Through next-generation sequencing of the genomes and transcriptomes we were able to delineate exact introgression intervals. Putative de novo mutations appeared approximately uniformly distributed along the ten maize chromosomes mainly representing G:C -> A:T transitions. The plant material described in this study will be a valuable tool both for functional studies of genes differentially expressed in both B73 lines and for research on growth behavior especially in response to symbiosis between maize and mycorrhizal fungi. PMID:24804793

  20. Genetic Variance Contributes to Dopamine Receptor Antagonist-Induced Inhibition of Sucrose Intake in Inbred and Outbred Mouse Strains

    PubMed Central

    Dym, Cheryl T.; Pinhas, Alexander; Robak, Magdalena; Sclafani, Anthony; Bodnar, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    Preference and intake of sucrose varies across inbred and outbred strains of mice. Pharmacological analyses revealed that the greatest sensitivity to naltrexone-induced inhibition of sucrose (10%) intake was observed in C57BL10/J and C57BL/6J strains, whereas 129P3/J, SWR/J and SJL/J strains displayed far less sensitivity to naltrexone-induced inhibition of sucrose intake. Given that dopamine D1 (SCH23390) and D2 (raclopride) receptor antagonism potently reduce sucrose intake in outbred rat and mouse strains, the present study examined the possibility of genetic variance in the dose-dependent (501600 nmol/kg) and time-dependent (5120 min) effects of these antagonists upon sucrose (10%) intake in the eight inbred (BALB/cJ, C3H/HeJ, C57BL/6J, C57BL/10J, DBA/2J, SJL/J, SWR/J, 129P3/J) and one outbred (CD-1) mouse strains previously tested with naltrexone. SCH23390 significantly reduced sucrose intake across all five doses in 129P3/J and SJL/J mice, across four doses in C57BL/6J and BALB/cJ mice, across three doses in DBA/2J, SWR/J, C3H/HeJ and C57BL/10J mice, but only at the two highest doses in CD-1 mice. SCH23390 was 23-fold more potent in inhibiting sucrose intake in 129P3/J and SJL/J mice relative to CD-1 mice. In contrast, only the highest equimolar 1600 nmol/kg dose of raclopride significantly reduced sucrose intake in the BALB/cJ, C3H/HeJ, C57BL/6J, C57BL/10J, DBA/2J, SJL/J and 129P3/J, but not the SWR/J and CD-1 strains. The present and previous data demonstrate specific and differential patterns of genetic variability in inhibition of sucrose intake by dopamine and opioid antagonists, suggesting that distinct neurochemical mechanisms control sucrose intake across different mouse strains. PMID:19135035

  1. Gene-by-Diet Interactions Affect Serum 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D Levels in Male BXD Recombinant Inbred Mice.

    PubMed

    Fleet, James C; Replogle, Rebecca A; Reyes-Fernandez, Perla; Wang, Libo; Zhang, Min; Clinkenbeard, Erica L; White, Kenneth E

    2016-02-01

    1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25[OH]2D) regulates calcium (Ca), phosphate, and bone metabolism. Serum 1,25(OH)2D levels are reduced by low vitamin D status and high fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) levels and increased by low Ca intake and high PTH levels. Natural genetic variation controls serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels, but it is unclear how it controls serum 1,25(OH)2D or the response of serum 1,25(OH)2D levels to dietary Ca restriction (RCR). Male mice from 11 inbred lines and from 51 BXD recombinant inbred lines were fed diets with either 0.5% (basal) or 0.25% Ca from 4 to 12 weeks of age (n = 8 per line per diet). Significant variation among the lines was found in basal serum 1,25(OH)2D and in the RCR as well as basal serum 25(OH)D and FGF23 levels. 1,25(OH)2D was not correlated to 25(OH)D but was negatively correlated to FGF23 (r = -0.5). Narrow sense heritability of 1,25(OH)2D was 0.67 on the 0.5% Ca diet, 0.66 on the 0.25% Ca diet, and 0.59 for the RCR, indicating a strong genetic control of serum 1,25(OH)2D. Genetic mapping revealed many loci controlling 1,25(OH)2D (seven loci) and the RCR (three loci) as well as 25(OH)D (four loci) and FGF23 (two loci); a locus on chromosome 18 controlled both 1,25(OH)2D and FGF23. Candidate genes underlying loci include the following: Ets1 (1,25[OH]2D), Elac1 (FGF23 and 1,25[OH]2D), Tbc1d15 (RCR), Plekha8 and Lyplal1 (25[OH]D), and Trim35 (FGF23). This report is the first to reveal that serum 1,25(OH)2D levels are controlled by multiple genetic factors and that some of these genetic loci interact with the dietary environment. PMID:26587785

  2. Genetic differences in phenytoin pharmacokinetics. In vivo clearance and in vitro metabolism among inbred strains of mice.

    PubMed

    Atlas, S A; Zweier, J L; Nebert, D W

    1980-01-01

    Plasma phenytoin elimination rates were examined among twelve inbred strains of mice. Two populations are identified--the 'fast metabolizers' (BALB/cN, C57BL/6N, C57BL/6J, AKR/N, AKR/J and C3H/HeN) having almost exactly twice as rapid an elimination rate as the 'slow metabolizers' (CL/FR, CBA/J, DBA/2N, STAR/N, SJL/N, DBA/2J and RF/N). The difference in elimination rate between C57BL/6J and DBA/2J cannot be accounted for by dissimilarities in volume of distribution. The phenytoin elimination rate in the (C57BL/6J)(DBA/2J)F1 heterozygote is expressed as an additive trait. A good correlation exists between phenytoin elimination rates in vivo and phenytoin metabolism by liver microsomes in vitro, as determined by a newly described assay using high-performance liquid chromatography. 3-Methylcholanthrene pretreatment does not enhance phenytoin elimination or metabolism. The cytochrome P-450-mediated monoxygenase metabolism of phenytoin is not associated with the Ah locus or with coat color among progeny of the (C57BL/6N)(DBA/2N) F1 x DBA/2N backcross. Phenobarbital pretreatment enhances phenytoin elimination and metabolism in both a fast metabolizer (C57BL/6N) and a slow metabolizer (DBA/2N) strain. Phenobarbital pretreatment probably also induces non-P-450 enzymes, such as those which form the phenytoin dihydrodiol and the glucuronide and glutathione conjugates, in addition to inducing one or more forms of P-450 that oxygenate phenytoin. These data probably reflect allelic differences in a structural gene encoding for one (or more) form(s) of control cytochrome P-450 that metabolizes phenytoin, rather than allelic differences in a regulatory gene. The marked sensitivity of inbred mouse strains CL/FR and A/J and the marked resistance of STAR/N, Swiss-Webster, and C57BL/6 to phenytoin-induced cleft lip and/or palate cannot be explained by genetic differences in phenytoin elimination rates or liver microsomal metabolism in vitro, as measured by the methods described in this report. PMID:7438974

  3. Urinary tract infection - adults

    MedlinePLUS

    Bladder infection - adults; UTI - adults; Cystitis - bacterial - adults; Pyelonephritis - adults; Kidney infection - adults ... to the hospital if you: Are an older adult Have kidney stones or changes in the anatomy ...

  4. Genetic characterization of inbred lines of Chinese cabbage by DNA markers; towards the application of DNA markers to breeding of F1 hybrid cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Kawamura, Kazutaka; Kawanabe, Takahiro; Shimizu, Motoki; Okazaki, Keiichi; Kaji, Makoto; Dennis, Elizabeth S.; Osabe, Kenji; Fujimoto, Ryo

    2015-01-01

    Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. var. pekinensis) is an important vegetable in Asia, and most Japanese commercial cultivars of Chinese cabbage use an F1 hybrid seed production system. Self-incompatibility is successfully used for the production of F1 hybrid seeds in B. rapa vegetables to avoid contamination by non-hybrid seeds, and the strength of self-incompatibility is important for harvesting a highly pure F1 seeds. Prediction of agronomically important traits such as disease resistance based on DNA markers is useful. In this dataset, we identified the S haplotypes by DNA markers and evaluated the strength of self-incompatibility in Chinese cabbage inbred lines. The data described the predicted disease resistance to Fusarium yellows or clubroot in 22 Chinese cabbage inbred lines using gene associated or gene linked DNA markers. PMID:26862564

  5. Genetic characterization of inbred lines of Chinese cabbage by DNA markers; towards the application of DNA markers to breeding of F1 hybrid cultivars.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Kazutaka; Kawanabe, Takahiro; Shimizu, Motoki; Okazaki, Keiichi; Kaji, Makoto; Dennis, Elizabeth S; Osabe, Kenji; Fujimoto, Ryo

    2016-03-01

    Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. var. pekinensis) is an important vegetable in Asia, and most Japanese commercial cultivars of Chinese cabbage use an F1 hybrid seed production system. Self-incompatibility is successfully used for the production of F1 hybrid seeds in B. rapa vegetables to avoid contamination by non-hybrid seeds, and the strength of self-incompatibility is important for harvesting a highly pure F1 seeds. Prediction of agronomically important traits such as disease resistance based on DNA markers is useful. In this dataset, we identified the S haplotypes by DNA markers and evaluated the strength of self-incompatibility in Chinese cabbage inbred lines. The data described the predicted disease resistance to Fusarium yellows or clubroot in 22 Chinese cabbage inbred lines using gene associated or gene linked DNA markers. PMID:26862564

  6. ADULT EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Union of Students, London (England). Dept. of Education and Welfare.

    TO STIMULATE PUBLIC DISCUSSION AND ACTION TO IMPROVE PROVISIONS FOR ADULT EDUCATION AND TO BRING ATTENTION TO PROBLEMS WHICH HAD NOT BEEN FULLY CONSIDERED BY THE ROBBINS COMMITTEE, THE NATIONAL UNION OF STUDENTS PRESENT THIS REPORT OF ALL FORMS OF OPPORTUNITY OPEN TO ADULTS OUTSIDE THE NORMAL FRAMEWORK OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN GREAT BRITAIN. IT

  7. Integration of genome-wide association and extant brain expression QTL identifies candidate genes influencing prepulse inhibition in inbred F1 mice.

    PubMed

    Sittig, L J; Carbonetto, P; Engel, K A; Krauss, K S; Palmer, A A

    2016-02-01

    Genetic association mapping in structured populations of model organisms can offer a fruitful complement to human genetic studies by generating new biological hypotheses about complex traits. Here we investigated prepulse inhibition (PPI), a measure of sensorimotor gating that is disrupted in a number of psychiatric disorders. To identify genes that influence PPI, we constructed a panel of half-sibs by crossing 30 females from common inbred mouse strains with inbred C57BL/6J males to create male and female F1 offspring. We used publicly available single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotype data from these inbred strains to perform a genome-wide association scan using a dense panel of over 150?000 SNPs in a combined sample of 604 mice representing 30 distinct F1 genotypes. We identified two independent PPI-associated loci on Chromosomes 2 and 7, each of which explained 12-14% of the variance in PPI. Searches of available databases did not identify any plausible causative coding polymorphisms within these loci. However, previously collected expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) data from hippocampus and striatum indicated that the SNPs on Chromosomes 2 and 7 that showed the strongest association with PPI were also strongly associated with expression of several transcripts, some of which have been implicated in human psychiatric disorders. This integrative approach successfully identified a focused set of genes which can be prioritized for follow-up studies. More broadly, our results show that F1 crosses among common inbred strains can be used in combination with other informatics and expression datasets to identify candidate genes for complex behavioral traits. PMID:26482417

  8. Heterosis in Early Maize Ear Inflorescence Development: A Genome-Wide Transcription Analysis for Two Maize Inbred Lines and Their Hybrid

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Haiping; Qin, Cheng; Luo, Xirong; Li, Lujiang; Chen, Zhe; Liu, Hongjun; Gao, Jian; Lin, Haijian; Shen, Yaou; Zhao, Maojun; Lübberstedt, Thomas; Zhang, Zhiming; Pan, Guangtang

    2014-01-01

    Heterosis, or hybrid vigor, contributes to superior agronomic performance of hybrids compared to their inbred parents. Despite its importance, little is known about the genetic and molecular basis of heterosis. Early maize ear inflorescences formation affects grain yield, and are thus an excellent model for molecular mechanisms involved in heterosis. To determine the parental contributions and their regulation during maize ear-development-genesis, we analyzed genome-wide digital gene expression profiles in two maize elite inbred lines (B73 and Mo17) and their F1 hybrid using deep sequencing technology. Our analysis revealed 17,128 genes expressed in these three genotypes and 22,789 genes expressed collectively in the present study. Approximately 38% of the genes were differentially expressed in early maize ear inflorescences from heterotic cross, including many transcription factor genes and some presence/absence variations (PAVs) genes, and exhibited multiple modes of gene action. These different genes showing differential expression patterns were mainly enriched in five cellular component categories (organelle, cell, cell part, organelle part and macromolecular complex), five molecular function categories (structural molecule activity, binding, transporter activity, nucleic acid binding transcription factor activity and catalytic activity), and eight biological process categories (cellular process, metabolic process, biological regulation, regulation of biological process, establishment of localization, cellular component organization or biogenesis, response to stimulus and localization). Additionally, a significant number of genes were expressed in only one inbred line or absent in both inbred lines. Comparison of the differences of modes of gene action between previous studies and the present study revealed only a small number of different genes had the same modes of gene action in both maize seedlings and ear inflorescences. This might be an indication that in different tissues or developmental stages, different global expression patterns prevail, which might nevertheless be related to heterosis. Our results support the hypotheses that multiple molecular mechanisms (dominance and overdominance modes) contribute to heterosis. PMID:25116687

  9. Inhibition of non-enzymatic glycation by silk extracts from a Mexican land race and modern inbred lines of maize (Zea mays).

    PubMed

    Farsi, Darius Arthur; Harris, Cory S; Reid, Lana; Bennett, Steffany A L; Haddad, Pierre S; Martineau, Louis C; Arnason, John Thor

    2008-01-01

    Non-enzymatic glycation and the accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are associated with various disease states, including complications of diabetes and aging. Secondary metabolites from several plant species are known to inhibit non-enzymatic glycation and the formation of AGEs, including flavonoids found in the style (silk) of Zea mays (maize). Thirteen modern maize inbreds and one land race were tested for in vitro inhibition of non-enzymatic glycation of bovine serum albumin. Many of the tested extracts exhibited inhibitory activity, in particular the newest inbreds, which were bred for resistance to gibberella ear rot (Fusarium graminearum) and common smut (Ustilago maydis). The most active maize genotype (CO441), displaying an IC50 of 9.5 microg/mL, was more effective than aminoguanidine, a known inhibitor of glycation. Zapalote chico, a land race with high maysin content, showed only moderate inhibitory activity compared with the modern maize genotypes. Antiglycation activity was highly correlated with the total phenolic content of silk extracts and mildly correlated with resistance to certain fungal infections. The results identify modern resistant and high phenolic maize inbreds as promising candidates for the development of natural AGE inhibitors for the prevention and treatment of diabetic complications and the degenerative effects of aging. PMID:17724765

  10. Dopaminergic and brain-derived neurotrophic factor signalling in inbred mice exposed to a restricted feeding schedule.

    PubMed

    Gelegen, C; van den Heuvel, J; Collier, D A; Campbell, I C; Oppelaar, H; Hessel, E; Kas, M J H

    2008-07-01

    Increased physical activity and decreased motivation to eat are common features in anorexia nervosa. We investigated the development of these features and the potential implication of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and dopaminergic signalling in their development in C57BL/6J and A/J inbred mice, using the 'activity-based anorexia' model. In this model, mice on a restricted-feeding schedule are given unlimited access to running wheels. We measured dopamine receptor D2 and BDNF expression levels in the caudate putamen and the hippocampus, respectively, using in situ hybridization. We found that in response to scheduled feeding, C57BL/6J mice reduced their running wheel activity and displayed food anticipatory activity prior to food intake from day 2 of scheduled feeding as an indication of motivation to eat. In contrast, A/J mice increased running wheel activity during scheduled feeding and lacked food anticipatory activity. These were accompanied by increased dopamine receptor D2 expression in the caudate putamen and reduced BDNF expression in the hippocampus. Consistent with human linkage and association studies on BDNF and dopamine receptor D2 in anorexia nervosa, our study shows that dopaminergic and BDNF signalling are altered as a function of susceptibility to activity-based anorexia. Differences in gene expression and behaviour between A/J and C57BL/6J mice indicate that mouse genetic mapping populations based on these progenitor lines are valuable for identifying molecular determinants of anorexia-related traits. PMID:18363853

  11. Construction of integrated linkage map of a recombinant inbred line population of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.).

    PubMed

    Vipin, Cina Ann; Luckett, David J; Harper, John D I; Ash, Gavin J; Kilian, Andrzej; Ellwood, Simon R; Phan, Huyen T T; Raman, Harsh

    2013-09-01

    We report the development of a Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) marker panel and its utilisation in the development of an integrated genetic linkage map of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) using an F8 recombinant inbred line population derived from Kiev Mutant/P27174. One hundred and thirty-six DArT markers were merged into the first genetic linkage map composed of 220 amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) and 105 genic markers. The integrated map consists of 38 linkage groups of 441 markers and spans a total length of 2,169 cM, with an average interval size of 4.6 cM. The DArT markers exhibited good genome coverage and were associated with previously identified genic and AFLP markers linked with quantitative trait loci for anthracnose resistance, flowering time and alkaloid content. The improved genetic linkage map of white lupin will aid in the identification of markers for traits of interest and future syntenic studies. PMID:24273424

  12. Polymorphisms of the tumor necrosis factor alpha locus among autoimmune disease susceptible and resistant inbred rat strains.

    PubMed

    Furuya, T; Joe, B; Salstrom, J L; Hashiramoto, A; Dobbins, D E; Wilder, R L; Remmers, E F

    2001-06-01

    Inbred rat strains manifest remarkable differences in susceptibility/severity to autoimmune disease. MHC alleles strongly influence the pathogenesis of autoimmune disease in rats, but the precise mechanism(s) remain inadequately defined. The TNFalpha gene is located in the class III region of the MHC. Polymorphisms, influencing either the structure or expression of the TNF protein, might contribute to differences in autoimmune disease susceptibility/severity. We therefore sequenced the Tnf locus using genomic DNA from ACI, BB(DR), BN, DA, F344, and LEW rats that vary in susceptibility/severity to autoimmune diseases. We found 42 polymorphisms among these six strains. Although none of these polymorphisms are predicted to change the amino acid sequence of the TNF protein, several reside in potential non-coding regulatory regions and may influence expression levels. These polymorphisms may serve as good candidates for analysis of TNF expression to elucidate the mechanism(s) by which the MHC regulates susceptibility and/or severity of autoimmune diseases. PMID:11477479

  13. A Set of Lotus japonicus Gifu Lotus burttii Recombinant Inbred Lines Facilitates Map-based Cloning and QTL Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Sandal, Niels; Jin, Haojie; Rodriguez-Navarro, Dulce Nombre; Temprano, Francisco; Cvitanich, Cristina; Brachmann, Andreas; Sato, Shusei; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi; Tabata, Satoshi; Parniske, Martin; Ruiz-Sainz, Jose E.; Andersen, Stig U.; Stougaard, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Model legumes such as Lotus japonicus have contributed significantly to the understanding of symbiotic nitrogen fixation. This insight is mainly a result of forward genetic screens followed by map-based cloning to identify causal alleles. The L. japonicus ecotype Gifu was used as a common parent for inter-accession crosses to produce F2 mapping populations either with other L. japonicus ecotypes, MG-20 and Funakura, or with the related species L. filicaulis. These populations have all been used for genetic studies but segregation distortion, suppression of recombination, low polymorphism levels, and poor viability have also been observed. More recently, the diploid species L. burttii has been identified as a fertile crossing partner of L. japonicus. To assess its qualities in genetic linkage analysis and to enable quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping for a wider range of traits in Lotus species, we have generated and genotyped a set of 163 Gifu L. burttii recombinant inbred lines (RILs). By direct comparisons of RIL and F2 population data, we show that L. burttii is a valid alternative to MG-20 as a Gifu mapping partner. In addition, we demonstrate the utility of the Gifu L. burttii RILs in QTL mapping by identifying an Nfr1-linked QTL for Sinorhizobium fredii nodulation. PMID:22619310

  14. Effect of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius leaf extract on the blood glucose and insulin levels of inbred type 2 diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Oladeinde, F O; Kinyua, A M; Laditan, A A; Michelin, R; Bryant, J L; Denaro, F; Makinde, J M; Williams, A L; Kennedy, A P; Bronner, Y

    2007-01-01

    The effects of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius (CA) leaf extract and chlorpropamide on blood glucose and insulin levels in the inbred type 2 diabetic mice are reported. After treatment with CA, the glucose levels were measured at 0 and 2-hour intervals in experimental groups and controls. Group I received no treatment and served as control; Group II was the reference and it received chlorpropamide; Groups I-III were moderately diabetic, 100-300 mg/dL blood glucose levels while Group IV were severely diabetic (> 300 mg/dL). Groups III and IV received CA and served as test groups. There was no significant difference between the blood glucose levels at 0 and 2 hours for the control group, (P>0.23) but there were statistically significant differences for Group II (P<0.0002); Group III (P<0.002) and Group IV (P<0.0001). For moderately diabetic mice, CA and chlorpropamide decreased the glucose levels by 25.6% and 16.3% respectively while for the severely diabetic mice CA decreased the blood glucose by 43.7%. It is proposed that CA has an insulinogenic property that possibly stimulated dormant beta-cells to secrete insulin. The histopathology of several organs in the treated animals was found to differ from the expected. The islets of Langerhans for example were found to be preserved in the time frame examined. Also the liver and kidney were found to display milder pathology in the treated groups. PMID:17531147

  15. Abiotic stress growth conditions induce different responses in kernel iron concentration across genotypically distinct maize inbred varieties

    PubMed Central

    Kandianis, Catherine B.; Michenfelder, Abigail S.; Simmons, Susan J.; Grusak, Michael A.; Stapleton, Ann E.

    2013-01-01

    The improvement of grain nutrient profiles for essential minerals and vitamins through breeding strategies is a target important for agricultural regions where nutrient poor crops like maize contribute a large proportion of the daily caloric intake. Kernel iron concentration in maize exhibits a broad range. However, the magnitude of genotype by environment (GxE) effects on this trait reduces the efficacy and predictability of selection programs, particularly when challenged with abiotic stress such as water and nitrogen limitations. Selection has also been limited by an inverse correlation between kernel iron concentration and the yield component of kernel size in target environments. Using 25 maize inbred lines for which extensive genome sequence data is publicly available, we evaluated the response of kernel iron density and kernel mass to water and nitrogen limitation in a managed field stress experiment using a factorial design. To further understand GxE interactions we used partition analysis to characterize response of kernel iron and weight to abiotic stressors among all genotypes, and observed two patterns: one characterized by higher kernel iron concentrations in control over stress conditions, and another with higher kernel iron concentration under drought and combined stress conditions. Breeding efforts for this nutritional trait could exploit these complementary responses through combinations of favorable allelic variation from these already well-characterized genetic stocks. PMID:24363659

  16. QTL mapping of fruit rot resistance to the plant pathogen Phytophthora capsici in a recombinant inbred line Capsicum annuum population.

    PubMed

    Naegele, R P; Ashrafi, H; Hill, T A; Chin-Wo, S Reyes; Van Deynze, A E; Hausbeck, M K

    2014-05-01

    Phytophthora capsici is an important pepper (Capsicum annuum) pathogen causing fruit and root rot, and foliar blight in field and greenhouse production. Previously, an F6 recombinant inbred line population was evaluated for fruit rot susceptibility. Continuous variation among lines and partial and isolate-specific resistance were found. In this study, Phytophthora fruit rot resistance was mapped in the same F6 population between Criollo del Morelos 334 (CM334), a landrace from Mexico, and 'Early Jalapeno' using a high-density genetic map. Isolate-specific resistance was mapped independently in 63 of the lines evaluated and the two parents. Heritability of the resistance for each isolate at 3 and 5 days postinoculation (dpi) was high (h(2) = 0.63 to 0.68 and 0.74 to 0.83, respectively). Significant additive and epistatic quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified for resistance to isolates OP97 and 13709 (3 and 5 dpi) and 12889 (3 dpi only). Mapping of fruit traits showed potential linkage with few disease resistance QTL. The partial fruit rot resistance from CM334 suggests that this may not be an ideal source for fruit rot resistance in pepper. PMID:24168044

  17. Biological behavior of Leishmania (L.) amazonensis isolated from a human diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis in inbred strains of mice.

    PubMed

    Cupolilo, S M N; Souza, C S F; Abreu-Silva, A L; Calabrese, K S; Goncalves da Costa, S C

    2003-10-01

    After a subcutaneous injection of 100000 purified amastigotes of an isolate from a diffuse case of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by the MHOM/BR/76/Ma-5 strain of Leishmania amazonensis, three inbred mouse strains developed a progressive nodular lesion, which evolved to an ulcerated lesion. Based on these data, mice of BALB/c, C57BL/6 or C57BL/10 could be classified as susceptible. The majority of mice developed metastases in the footpads, ear, tail, nose and oral mucosa. Amputation of the members related to the primary lesion was frequent. Experiments using the limiting dilution analysis showed that there was no correlation between lesion and parasite load. It has been demonstrated that these mouse strains could be considered excellent models for mucocutaneous leishmaniasis when infected with L. amazonensis. Metastatic lesions caused destruction of the nasal region with many parasitized macrophages under the epithelial surface of the nasal mucosa. Bone destruction occurred with an extensive inflammatory reaction presenting macrophages heavily parasitized by amastigotes. The parasites also spread to the periodontal ligament and other structures of the oral cavity, which could induce a severe inflammatory process. This study indicates that both nasal and oral lesions in mice infected by L. amazonensis were characterized by an inflammatory reaction with the presence of a high parasite load within macrophages. PMID:12973675

  18. Association mapping for chilling tolerance in elite flint and dent maize inbred lines evaluated in growth chamber and field experiments.

    PubMed

    Strigens, Alexander; Freitag, Niclas M; Gilbert, Xavier; Grieder, Christoph; Riedelsheimer, Christian; Schrag, Tobias A; Messmer, Rainer; Melchinger, Albrecht E

    2013-10-01

    Chilling sensitivity of maize is a strong limitation for its cultivation in the cooler areas of the northern and southern hemisphere because reduced growth in early stages impairs on later biomass accumulation. Efficient breeding for chilling tolerance is hampered by both the complex physiological response of maize to chilling temperatures and the difficulty to accurately measure chilling tolerance in the field under fluctuating climatic conditions. For this research, we used genome-wide association (GWA) mapping to identify genes underlying chilling tolerance under both controlled and field conditions in a broad germplasm collection of 375 maize inbred lines genotyped with 56?110 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). We identified 19 highly significant association signals explaining between 5.7 and 52.5% of the phenotypic variance observed for early growth and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters. The allelic effect of several SNPs identified for early growth was associated with temperature and incident radiation. Candidate genes involved in ethylene signalling, brassinolide, and lignin biosynthesis were found in their vicinity. The frequent involvement of candidate genes into signalling or gene expression regulation underlines the complex response of photosynthetic performance and early growth to climatic conditions, and supports pleiotropism as a major cause of co-locations of quantitative trait loci for these highly polygenic traits. PMID:23488576

  19. Cell proliferation and growth of gastric carcinoma induced in inbred Wistar rats by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine

    SciTech Connect

    Hattori, T.; Helpap, B.; Gedigk, P.

    1984-11-01

    Gastric carcinoma was induced in inbred Wistar rats by p.o. administration of N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine for 25 weeks, and cell proliferation and growth of the gastric carcinoma in an incipient stage were studied. A microscopic cancer was found by 24 weeks, and macroscopic cancers were found after 27 weeks. All the cancers were a single lesion located at the midpoint of the lesser curvature of the stomach. Histologically, they were tubular adenocarcinomas. The mucosal changes predisposing to the development of carcinomas were focal erosions and dysplasias confined to the midpoint of the lesser curvature. The malignant transformation appeared to occur in the dysplastic cells of the eroded mucosa by 17 to 18 weeks after N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine treatment. Following the malignant change, the labeling indices of the tissues with (/sup 3/H)thymidine decreased, suggesting an elongation of cell cycle time. By repeated injections of (/sup 3/H)thymidine, a time required for all the cancer cells to enter S phase (reflecting the maximum cell cycle time) was estimated to be about 3.5 days. This gave a theoretical doubling time for the gastric cancers. On the other hand, from the temporal observations of tumor volumes, it was shown that the gastric cancers in an incipient stage underwent exponential growth with a doubling time of 14 days. The difference between the theoretical and actual doubling time might reflect a cell loss rate in the cancer tissue.

  20. Effect of regression of Rous sarcoma tumors upon egg production in an inbred line of White Leghorns.

    PubMed

    Corbett, A C; Collins, W M; Dunlop, W R

    1975-01-01

    Reserach was conducted to determine whether development and subsequent regression of a Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) induced wing-web tumor influenced egg production. Fifty-seven six-week old pullet chicks of inbred line 6 of the United States Department of Agriculture, Regional Poultry Research Laboratory, East Lansing, Michigan, were inoculated subcutaneously in the left wing-web with 0.1 ml. of a 10-minus 3 dilution of a pseudotype of Bryan high titer RSV designated BH-RSV (RAV-1). Thirty chicks were left uninoculated. Each chick was examined for tumor growth at regular intervals to 10 weeks post-inoculation. A tumor was considered regressed if it disappeared completely. Ninteen regressor and 22 uninoculated females were placed in laying cages at 4.5 months of age and egg production data obtained over seven 28-day periods. The difference in hen-day egg production between regressors and uninoculated controls favored regressors by 2.7 eggs/bird and was statistically significant. Physiological stimulus from cellular immunity, linkage and pleiotropy are discussed as possible caused of the higher egg production in regressors. PMID:166364

  1. Genomic DNA sequence comparison between two inbred soybean cyst nematode biotypes facilitated by massively parallel 454 micro-bead sequencing.

    PubMed

    Bekal, Sadia; Craig, J P; Hudson, M E; Niblack, T L; Domier, L L; Lambert, K N

    2008-05-01

    Heterodera glycines, the soybean cyst nematode (SCN), is a damaging agricultural pest that could be effectively managed if critical phenotypes, such as virulence and host range could be understood. While SCN is amenable to genetic analysis, lack of DNA sequence data prevents the use of such methods to study this pathogen. Fortunately, new methods of DNA sequencing that produced large amounts of data and permit whole genome comparative analyses have become available. In this study, 400 million bases of genomic DNA sequence were collected from two inbred biotypes of SCN using 454 micro-bead DNA sequencing. Comparisons to a BAC, sequenced by Sanger sequencing, showed that the micro-bead sequences could identify low and high copy number regions within the BAC. Potential single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) between the two SCN biotypes were identified by comparing the two sets of sequences. Selected resequencing revealed that up to 84% of the SNPs were correct. We conclude that the quality of the micro-bead sequence data was sufficient for de novo SNP identification and should be applicable to organisms with similar genome sizes and complexities. The SNPs identified will be an important starting point in associating phenotypes with specific regions of the SCN genome. PMID:18324416

  2. Impaired vasorelaxation in inbred mice is associated with alterations in both nitric oxide and super oxide pathways.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun; Korshunov, Vyacheslav A; Massett, Michael P; Yan, Chen; Berk, Bradford C

    2007-01-01

    Recently, we showed that genetic factors determine flow-dependent vascular remodeling. Among five inbred mouse strains, the SJL strain developed the largest intima in response to low flow. Because SJL mice have a spontaneous mutation in superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD-2) we tested the hypothesis that strain-specific variations in vascular function are due to alterations in redox and nitric oxide (NO) pathways. Vasorelaxation to acetylcholine was significantly impaired in aortic rings from SJL compared to C3H or FVB mice (up to 40%). Relaxation to the endothelium-independent vasodilator sodium nitroprusside (SNP) in SJL mice was also significantly impaired at low concentrations, with decreases in sensitivity and maximal relaxation to SNP compared to C3H and FVB mice. Western blot analyses showed significantly decreased expression (approximately 40%) of eNOS, PKG and SOD-2 proteins in SJL vasculature compared to C3H. Intact aortas from SJL showed significantly increased nitrotyrosine and decreased SOD-2 expression compared to C3H by immunohistochemistry. Basal levels of superoxide in aortas from SJL were not significantly different than C3H as measured by dihydroethidine. In summary, relatively small alterations in redox (SOD-2) and NO pathways (eNOS and PKG) may contribute to significantly impaired vasorelaxation in SJL mice. PMID:17664889

  3. Genetic analysis of morphological traits in a new, versatile, rapid-cycling Brassica rapa recombinant inbred line population

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri, Hedayat; El-Soda, Mohamed; van Oorschot, Inge; Hanhart, Corrie; Bonnema, Guusje; Jansen-van den Bosch, Tanja; Mank, Rolf; Keurentjes, Joost J. B.; Meng, Lin; Wu, Jian; Koornneef, Maarten; Aarts, Mark G. M.

    2012-01-01

    A recombinant inbred line (RIL) population was produced based on a wide cross between the rapid-cycling and self-compatible genotypes L58, a Caixin vegetable type, and R-o-18, a yellow sarson oil type. A linkage map based on 160 F7 lines was constructed using 100 Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 130 AFLP®, 27 InDel, and 13 publicly available SSR markers. The map covers a total length of 1150 centiMorgan (cM) with an average resolution of 4.3 cM/marker. To demonstrate the versatility of this new population, 17 traits, related to plant architecture and seed characteristics, were subjected to quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis. A total of 47 QTLs were detected, each explaining between 6 and 54% of the total phenotypic variance for the concerned trait. The genetic analysis shows that this population is a useful new tool for analyzing genetic variation for interesting traits in B. rapa, and for further exploitation of the recent availability of the B. rapa whole genome sequence for gene cloning and gene function analysis. PMID:22912644

  4. RNA-Seq Transcriptome Analysis of Maize Inbred Carrying Nicosulfuron-Tolerant and Nicosulfuron-Susceptible Alleles

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaomin; Xu, Xian; Li, Binghua; Wang, Xueqing; Wang, Guiqi; Li, Moran

    2015-01-01

    Postemergence applications of nicosulfuron can cause great damage to certain maize inbred lines and hybrids. Variation among different responses to nicosulfuron may be attributed to differential rates of herbicide metabolism. We employed RNA-Seq analysis to compare transcriptome responses between nicosulfuron-treated and untreated in both tolerant and susceptible maize plants. A total of 71.8 million paired end Illumina RNA-Seq reads were generated, representing the transcription of around 40,441 unique reads. About 345,171 gene ontology (GO) term assignments were conducted for the annotation in terms of biological process, cellular component and molecular function categories, and 6413 sequences with 108 enzyme commission numbers were assigned to 134 predicted Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) metabolic pathways. Digital gene expression profile (DGE) analysis using Solexa sequencing was performed within the susceptible and tolerant maize between the nicosulfuron-treated and untreated conditions, 13 genes were selected as the candidates most likely involved in herbicide metabolism, and quantitative RT-PCR validated the RNA-Seq results for eight genes. This transcriptome data may provide opportunities for the study of sulfonylurea herbicides susceptibility emergence of Zea mays. PMID:25782159

  5. Genome-wide association study of 107 phenotypes in a common set of Arabidopsis thaliana inbred lines

    PubMed Central

    Atwell, Susanna; Huang, Yu S.; Vilhjálmsson, Bjarni J.; Willems, Glenda; Horton, Matthew; Li, Yan; Meng, Dazhe; Platt, Alexander; Tarone, Aaron M.; Hu, Tina T.; Jiang, Rong; Muliyati, N. Wayan; Zhang, Xu; Amer, Muhammad Ali; Baxter, Ivan; Brachi, Benjamin; Chory, Joanne; Dean, Caroline; Debieu, Marilyne; de Meaux, Juliette; Ecker, Joseph R.; Faure, Nathalie; Kniskern, Joel M.; Jones, Jonathan D. G.; Michael, Todd; Nemri, Adnane; Roux, Fabrice; Salt, David E.; Tang, Chunlao; Todesco, Marco; Traw, M. Brian; Weigel, Detlef; Marjoram, Paul; Borevitz, Justin O.; Bergelson, Joy; Nordborg, Magnus

    2010-01-01

    Although pioneered by human geneticists as a potential solution to the challenging problem of finding the genetic basis of common human diseases1,2, advances in genotyping and sequencing technology have made genome-wide association (GWA) studies an obvious general approach for studying the genetics of natural variation and traits of agricultural importance. They are particularly useful when inbred lines are available because once these lines have been genotyped, they can be phenotyped multiple times, making it possible (as well as extremely cost-effective) to study many different traits in many different environments, while replicating the phenotypic measurements to reduce environmental noise. Here we demonstrate the power of this approach by carrying out a GWA study of 107 phenotypes in Arabidopsis thaliana, a widely distributed, predominantly selfing model plant, known to harbor considerable genetic variation for many adaptively important traits3. Our results are dramatically different from those of human GWA studies in that we identify many common alleles with major effect, but they are also, in many cases, harder to interpret because confounding by complex genetics and population structure make it difficult to distinguish true from false associations. However, a priori candidates are significantly overrepresented among these associations as well, making many of them excellent candidates for follow-up experiments by the Arabidopsis community. Our study clearly demonstrates the feasibility of GWA studies in A. thaliana, and suggests that the approach will be appropriate for many other organisms. PMID:20336072

  6. Genetic analysis of morphological traits in a new, versatile, rapid-cycling Brassica rapa recombinant inbred line population.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Hedayat; El-Soda, Mohamed; van Oorschot, Inge; Hanhart, Corrie; Bonnema, Guusje; Jansen-van den Bosch, Tanja; Mank, Rolf; Keurentjes, Joost J B; Meng, Lin; Wu, Jian; Koornneef, Maarten; Aarts, Mark G M

    2012-01-01

    A recombinant inbred line (RIL) population was produced based on a wide cross between the rapid-cycling and self-compatible genotypes L58, a Caixin vegetable type, and R-o-18, a yellow sarson oil type. A linkage map based on 160 F7 lines was constructed using 100 Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 130 AFLP, 27 InDel, and 13 publicly available SSR markers. The map covers a total length of 1150 centiMorgan (cM) with an average resolution of 4.3 cM/marker. To demonstrate the versatility of this new population, 17 traits, related to plant architecture and seed characteristics, were subjected to quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis. A total of 47 QTLs were detected, each explaining between 6 and 54% of the total phenotypic variance for the concerned trait. The genetic analysis shows that this population is a useful new tool for analyzing genetic variation for interesting traits in B. rapa, and for further exploitation of the recent availability of the B. rapa whole genome sequence for gene cloning and gene function analysis. PMID:22912644

  7. Relationship between parasite load and immune responses in early stages of Leishmania donovani infection in inbred BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Wahinya, D N; Mbati, P A; Jomo, P M; Githure, J I

    1998-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if a correlation exists between Leishmania donovani parasite load and the corresponding humoral and cellular mediated immune responses in the early stages of Leishmania donovani infection in inbred BALB/c mice. Five groups of ten BALB/c mice each were inoculated intraperitoneally with stationary phase metacyclic promastigotes of Leishmania donovani at doses 1 x 10(2), 1 x 10(4), 10(6) and 1 x 10(8) respectively per mouse. Group five mice were not manipulated in any way and were left to serve as control. At weekly intervals, for five weeks, the mice were assayed for cellular mediated immune responses to leishmania antigen by the delayed type hypersensitivity skin test (DTH) and humoral responses by the direct agglutination test (DAT) and the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A correlation was established between parasite load and humoral responses as assayed by DAT and ELISA techniques. This study demonstrates that it is possible to diagnose visceral leishmaniasis in experimentally infected laboratory mice by DAT and ELISA. These techniques have the potential in screening large numbers of animals suspected to be reservoirs of visceral leishmaniasis by examining the peripheral blood taken from the tail of the animal. PMID:9640813

  8. Genetic Analysis of Tongue Size and Taste Papillae Number and Size in Recombinant Inbred Strains of Mice

    PubMed Central

    Reiner, David J.; Jan, Taha A.; Boughter, John D.; Li, Cheng-Xiang; Lu, Lu; Williams, Robert W.

    2008-01-01

    Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) analysis has been used to examine natural variation of phenotypes in the mouse somatosensory cortex, hippocampus, cerebellum, and amygdala. QTL analysis has also been utilized to map and identify genes underlying anatomical features such as muscle, organ, and body weights. However, this methodology has not been previously applied to identification of anatomical structures related to gustatory phenotypes. In this study, we used QTL analysis to map and characterize genes underlying tongue size, papillae number, and papillae area. In a set of 43 BXD recombinant inbred (RI) mice (n = 111) and 2 parental strains (C57BL/6J and DBA/2J; n = 7), we measured tongue length, width, and weight. In a subset of 23 BXD RI mice and the parental mice, we measured filiform and fungiform papillae number and fungiform papillae area. Using QTL linkage analysis (through WebQTL), we detected 2 significant and noninteracting QTLs influencing tongue length on chromosomes 5 and 7. We also found a significant QTL on chromosome 19 underlying fungiform papillae area and a suggestive QTL on chromosome 2 linked to fungiform papillae number. From these QTLs, we identified a number of candidate genes within the QTL intervals that include SRY-box containing gene, nebulin-related anchoring protein, and actin-binding LIM protein 1. This study is an important first step in identifying genetic factors underlying tongue size, papillae size, and papillae number using QTL analysis. PMID:18653645

  9. The Nxsm Recombinant Inbred Strains of Mice: Genetic Profile for 58 Loci Including the Mtv Proviral Loci

    PubMed Central

    Eicher, E. M.; Lee, B. K.

    1990-01-01

    We report the construction of 17 recombinant inbred (RI) strains of mice derived from the progenitor strains NZB/BINRe and SM/J and the typing of this RI strain set, designated NXSM, for 58 loci distributed on 16 autosomes and the X chromosome. Two backcrosses involving NZB/BINJ and SM/J were constructed to confirm chromosomal assignments and determine gene orders suggested from NXSM RI strain data. From these results we recommend that chromosomal assignments and gene orders suggested from analyses of RI strain sets be confirmed using data obtained by other means. We also typed NZB/BINJ and SM/J for mammary tumor proviral (Mtv) loci. Both strains share three previously described Mtv loci: Mtv-7, Mtv-14 and Mtv-17. In addition, NZB/BINJ contains the previously described Mtv-3 and Mtv-9 loci and two new Mtv proviral loci: Mtv-27 located on chromosome (Chr) 1 and Mtv-28 located on the X chromosome. SM/J contains the previously described loci Mtv-6 and Mtv-8. Four LTR, mink cell focus-forming murine leukemia viral loci were identified and mapped: Ltrm-1 on Chr 12, Ltrm-2 on Chr 16, Ltrm-3 on Chr 5, and Ltrm-4 on Chr 13. The Tgn locus was positioned proximal to the Ly-6 locus on Chr 15. PMID:2165966

  10. Variation in cadmium tolerance and accumulation and their relationship in wheat recombinant inbred lines at seedling stage.

    PubMed

    Ci, Dunwei; Jiang, Dong; Dai, Tingbo; Jing, Qi; Cao, Weixing

    2011-09-01

    In order to identify the variation of cadmium (Cd) tolerance and accumulation in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), a study was conducted in hydroponic culture with or without Cd using recombinant inbred lines (RILs) consisting of 103 RILs derived from a cross of Chuan 35050??Shannong 483 at seedling stage. The parameters of shoot height, secondary roots numbers, tiller numbers, shoot dry weights, root dry weights, and maximum efficiency of photosystem II photochemistry under dark-adopted conditions were measured. Cd-tolerant indexes were then calculated as relative the above traits under Cd stress to those under the control. Cd concentration in shoot or root was determined and Cd accumulation and translocation were calculated. Based on the Cd-tolerant indexes, membership function analysis was used to determine the variation of the above parameters. The results showed a continuous distribution among the RILs and then the RILs were divided into five groups according to their tolerance. Lines 76 and 17 were considered as the most Cd-tolerant lines while lines 103 and 51 were as the most Cd-sensitive lines. Meanwhile, lines 38 and 79 were with minimum Cd translocation ratio while lines 88 and 53 were with maximum Cd translocation ratio, respectively. The relationship between Cd tolerance and accumulation was not significant, indicating Cd tolerance and accumulation may be independent traits in the RILs. Thus, lines with high Cd tolerance and less Cd accumulation could be selected for wheat breeding. PMID:20809273

  11. Natural variation and genetic covariance in adult hippocampal neurogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Kempermann, Gerd; Chesler, Elissa J; Lu, Lu; Williams, Robert; Gage, Fred

    2006-01-01

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is highly variable and heritable among laboratory strains of mice. Adult neurogenesis is also remarkably plastic and can be modulated by environment and activity. Here, we provide a systematic quantitative analysis of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in two large genetic reference panels of recombinant inbred strains (BXD and AXB?BXA, n ? 52 strains). We combined data on variation in neurogenesis with a new transcriptome database to extract a set of 190 genes with expression patterns that are also highly variable and that covary with rates of (i) cell proliferation, (ii) cell survival, or the numbers of surviving (iii) new neurons, and (iv) astrocytes. Expression of a subset of these neurogenesis-associated transcripts was controlled in cis across the BXD set. These self-modulating genes are particularly interesting candidates to control neurogenesis. Among these were musashi (Msi1h) and prominin1?CD133 (Prom1), both of which are linked to stem-cell maintenance and division. Twelve neurogenesis-associated transcripts had significant cis-acting quantitative trait loci, and, of these, six had plausible biological association with adult neurogenesis (Prom1, Ssbp2, Kcnq2, Ndufs2, Camk4, and Kcnj9). Only one cis- cting candidate was linked to both neurogenesis and gliogenesis, Rapgef6, a downstream target of ras signaling. The use of genetic reference panels coupled with phenotyping and global transcriptome profiling thus allowed insight into the complexity of the genetic control of adult neurogenesis.

  12. WNIN/GR-Ob - An insulin-resistant obese rat model from inbred WNIN strain

    PubMed Central

    Harishankar, N.; Vajreswari, A.; Giridharan, N. V.

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives: WNIN/GR-Ob is a mutant obese rat strain with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) developed at the National Institute of Nutrition (NIN), Hyderabad, India, from the existing 80 year old Wistar rat (WNIN) stock colony. The data presented here pertain to its obese nature along with IGT trait as evidenced by physical, physiological and biochemical parameters. The study also explains its existence, in three phenotypes: homozygous lean (+/+), heterozygous carrier (+/-) and homozygous obese (-/-). Methods: Thirty animals (15 males and 15 females) from each phenotype (+/+, +/-, -/-) and 24 lean and obese (6 males and 6 females) rats were taken for growth and food intake studies respectively. Twelve adult rats from each phenotype were taken for body composition measurement by total body electrical conductivity (TOBEC); 12 rats of both genders from each phenotype at different ages were taken for clinical chemistry parameters. Physiological indices of insulin resistance were calculated according to the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and also by studying U14C 2-deoxy glucose uptake (2DG). Results: WNINGR-Ob mutants had high growth, hyperphagia, polydipsia, polyurea, glycosuria, and significantly lower lean body mass, higher fat mass as compared with carrier and lean rats. These mutants, at 50 days of age displayed abnormal response to glucose load (IGT), hyperinsulinaemia, hypertriglyceridaemia, hypercholesterolaemia and hyperleptinaemia. Basal and insulin-stimulated glucose uptakes by diaphragm were significantly decreased in obese rats as compared with lean rats. Interpretation & conclusions: Obese rats of the designated WNIN/GR-Ob strain showed obesity with IGT, as adjudged by physical, physiological and biochemical indices. These indices varied among the three phenotypes, being lowest in lean, highest in obese and intermediate in carrier phenotypes thereby suggesting that obesity is inherited as autosomal incomplete dominant trait in this strain. This mutant obese rat model is easy to propagate, and can easily be transformed to frank diabetes model by dietary manipulation and thus can be used for screening anti-diabetic drugs. PMID:21985815

  13. Adult Sinusitis

    MedlinePLUS

    Members & Professionals | Patients & Caregivers Contact ARS HOME ANATOMY Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure Statement CONDITIONS Adult Sinusitis Pediatric Sinusitis Fungal Sinusitis Sinusitis & ...

  14. Adult Scoliosis

    MedlinePLUS

    Back To Top Scoliosis Research Society Close Menu Member Login Become a Member Home Find a Specialist | Calendar Contact | Donate Patients and Families ... Conditions & Treatments For Parents For Adolescents For Adults Scoliosis Kyphosis Spondylolysis Other Spine Deformities & Conditions Conditions of ...

  15. Discrimination against 15N among recombinant inbred lines of Phaseolus vulgaris L. contrasting in phosphorus use efficiency for nitrogen fixation.

    PubMed

    Lazali, Mohamed; Bargaz, Adnane; Carlsson, Georg; Ounane, Sidi Mohamed; Drevon, Jean Jacques

    2014-02-15

    Although isotopic discrimination processes during nitrogen (N) transformations influence the outcome of (15)N based quantification of N2 fixation in legumes, little attention has been given to the effects of genotypic variability and environmental constraints such as phosphorus (P) deficiency, on discrimination against (15)N during N2 fixation. In this study, six Phaseolus vulgaris recombinant inbred lines (RILs), i.e. RILs 115, 104, 34 (P deficiency tolerant) and 147, 83, 70 (P deficiency sensitive), were inoculated with Rhizobium tropici CIAT899, and hydroaeroponically grown with P-sufficient (250 ?mol P plant(-1) week(-1)) versus P-deficient (75 ?mol P plant(-1) week(-1)) supply. Two harvests were done at 15 (before nodule functioning) and 42 (flowering stage) days after transplanting. Nodulation, plant biomass, P and N contents, and the ratios of (15)N over total N content ((15)N/Nt) for shoots, roots and nodules were determined. The results showed lower (15)N/Nt in shoots than in roots, both being much lower than in nodules. P deficiency caused a larger decrease in (15)N/Nt in shoots (-0.18%) than in nodules (-0.11%) for all of the genotypes, and the decrease in shoots was greatest for RILs 34 (-0.33%) and 104 (-0.25%). Nodule (15)N/Nt was significantly related to both the quantity of N2 fixed (R(2)=0.96***) and the P content of nodules (R(2)=0.66*). We conclude that the discrimination against (15)N in the legume N2-fixing symbiosis of common bean with R. tropici CIAT899 is affected by P nutrition and plant genotype, and that the (15)N/Nt in nodules may be used to screen for genotypic variation in P use efficiency for N2 fixation. PMID:24035519

  16. Quantitative Trait Loci and Candidate Genes for Neutrophil Recruitment in Sterile Inflammation Mapped in AXB-BXA Recombinant Inbred Mice

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Quyen; Seltzer, Ze’ev; Sima, Corneliu; Lakschevitz, Flavia S.; Glogauer, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Neutrophil recruitment (NR) to sites of sterile inflammation plays a key role in tissue damage and healing potential of lesions characteristic to non-infectious inflammatory diseases. Previous studies suggested significant genetic control of neutrophil survival, function, and migration in inflammatory responses to endogenous and exogenous stimuli. We have mapped the murine genome for quantitative trait loci (QTLs) harbouring genetic determinants that regulate NR in SI using a murine model of chemically-induced peritonitis. NR was quantified in 16 AXB-BXA recombinant inbred strains and their progenitors, A/J (A) and C57BL/6J (B). A continuous distribution of NR was found among the strains, with parent B showing higher NR and parent A showing lower NR (3.0-fold difference, p=0.05). Within the progeny strains, a 5.5-fold difference in NR was observed between the lowest, BXA1, and the highest responders AXB19 (p<0.001). This data was analyzed using GeneNetwork, which linked NR to one significant QTL on chromosome 12 (Peritoneal Neutrophil Recruitment 1, PNR1) and two suggestive QTLs (PNR2, PNR3) on chromosomes 12 and 16 respectively. Sixty-four candidate genes within PNR1 were cross-referenced with currently published data, mRNA expression from two NR microarrays, and single nucleotide polymorphism analysis. The present study brings new light into the genetics of NR in response to cell injury and highlights potential candidate genes Hif1α, Fntb, and Prkch and their products for further studies on neutrophil infiltration and inflammation resolution in sterile inflammation. PMID:25942439

  17. Identification of Genetic Factors Contributing to Heterosis in a Hybrid from Two Elite Maize Inbred Lines Using Molecular Markers

    PubMed Central

    Stuber, C. W.; Lincoln, S. E.; Wolff, D. W.; Helentjaris, T.; Lander, E. S.

    1992-01-01

    The use of molecular markers to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting agriculturally important traits has become a key approach in plant genetics-both for understanding the genetic basis of these traits and to help design novel plant improvement programs. In the study reported here, we mapped QTLs (and evaluated their phenotypic effects) associated with seven major traits (including grain yield) in a cross between two widely used elite maize inbred lines, B73 and Mo17, in order to explore two important phenomena in maize genetics-heterosis (hybrid vigor) and genotype-by-environment (G X E) interaction. We also compared two analytical approaches for identifying QTLs, the traditional single-marker method and the more recently described interval-mapping method. Phenotypic evaluations were made on 3168 plots (nearly 100,000 plants) grown in three states. Using 76 markers that represented 90-95% of the maize genome, both analytical methods showed virtually the same results in detecting QTLs affecting grain yield throughout the genome, except on chromosome 6. Fewer QTLs were detected for other quantitative traits measured. Whenever a QTL for grain yield was detected, the heterozygote had a higher phenotype than the respective homozygote (with only one exception) suggesting not only overdominance (or pseudo-overdominance) but also that these detected QTLs play a significant role in heterosis. This conclusion was reinforced by a high correlation between grain yield and proportion of heterozygous markers. Although plant materials were grown and measured in six diverse environments (North Carolina, Iowa and Illinois) there was little evidence for G X E interaction for most QTLs. PMID:1468633

  18. QTL mapping of agronomic waterlogging tolerance using recombinant inbred lines derived from tropical maize (Zea mays L) germplasm.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, Pervez Haider; Rashid, Zerka; Vinayan, Madhumal Thayil; Almeida, Gustavo Dias; Phagna, Ramesh Kumar; Babu, Raman

    2015-01-01

    Waterlogging is an important abiotic stress constraint that causes significant yield losses in maize grown throughout south and south-east Asia due to erratic rainfall patterns. The most economic option to offset the damage caused by waterlogging is to genetically incorporate tolerance in cultivars that are grown widely in the target agro-ecologies. We assessed the genetic variation in a population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from crossing a waterlogging tolerant line (CAWL-46-3-1) to an elite but sensitive line (CML311-2-1-3) and observed significant range of variation for grain yield (GY) under waterlogging stress along with a number of other secondary traits such as brace roots (BR), chlorophyll content (SPAD), % stem and root lodging (S&RL) among the RILs. Significant positive correlation of GY with BR and SPAD and negative correlation with S&RL indicated the potential use of these secondary traits in selection indices under waterlogged conditions. RILs were genotyped with 331 polymorphic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers using KASP (Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR) Platform. QTL mapping revealed five QTL on chromosomes 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10, which together explained approximately 30% of phenotypic variance for GY based on evaluation of RIL families under waterlogged conditions, with effects ranging from 520 to 640 kg/ha for individual genomic regions. 13 QTL were identified for various secondary traits associated with waterlogging tolerance, each individually explaining from 3 to 14% of phenotypic variance. Of the 22 candidate genes with known functional domains identified within the physical intervals delimited by the flanking markers of the QTL influencing GY and other secondary traits, six have previously been demonstrated to be associated with anaerobic responses in either maize or other model species. A pair of flanking SNP markers has been identified for each of the QTL and high throughput marker assays were developed to facilitate rapid introgression of waterlogging tolerance in tropical maize breeding programs. PMID:25884393

  19. QTL Mapping of Agronomic Waterlogging Tolerance Using Recombinant Inbred Lines Derived from Tropical Maize (Zea mays L) Germplasm

    PubMed Central

    Zaidi, Pervez Haider; Rashid, Zerka; Vinayan, Madhumal Thayil; Almeida, Gustavo Dias; Phagna, Ramesh Kumar; Babu, Raman

    2015-01-01

    Waterlogging is an important abiotic stress constraint that causes significant yield losses in maize grown throughout south and south-east Asia due to erratic rainfall patterns. The most economic option to offset the damage caused by waterlogging is to genetically incorporate tolerance in cultivars that are grown widely in the target agro-ecologies. We assessed the genetic variation in a population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from crossing a waterlogging tolerant line (CAWL-46-3-1) to an elite but sensitive line (CML311-2-1-3) and observed significant range of variation for grain yield (GY) under waterlogging stress along with a number of other secondary traits such as brace roots (BR), chlorophyll content (SPAD), % stem and root lodging (S&RL) among the RILs. Significant positive correlation of GY with BR and SPAD and negative correlation with S&RL indicated the potential use of these secondary traits in selection indices under waterlogged conditions. RILs were genotyped with 331 polymorphic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers using KASP (Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR) Platform. QTL mapping revealed five QTL on chromosomes 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10, which together explained approximately 30% of phenotypic variance for GY based on evaluation of RIL families under waterlogged conditions, with effects ranging from 520 to 640 kg/ha for individual genomic regions. 13 QTL were identified for various secondary traits associated with waterlogging tolerance, each individually explaining from 3 to 14% of phenotypic variance. Of the 22 candidate genes with known functional domains identified within the physical intervals delimited by the flanking markers of the QTL influencing GY and other secondary traits, six have previously been demonstrated to be associated with anaerobic responses in either maize or other model species. A pair of flanking SNP markers has been identified for each of the QTL and high throughput marker assays were developed to facilitate rapid introgression of waterlogging tolerance in tropical maize breeding programs. PMID:25884393

  20. A Novel Statistical Approach for Jointly Analyzing RNA-Seq Data from F1 Reciprocal Crosses and Inbred Lines

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Fei; Sun, Wei; Crowley, James J.; Zhabotynsky, Vasyl; Sullivan, Patrick F.; Pardo-Manuel de Villena, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) not only measures total gene expression but may also measure allele-specific gene expression in diploid individuals. RNA-seq data collected from F1 reciprocal crosses in mice can powerfully dissect strain and parent-of-origin effects on allelic imbalance of gene expression. In this article, we develop a novel statistical approach to analyze RNA-seq data from F1 and inbred strains. Method development was motivated by a study of F1 reciprocal crosses derived from highly divergent mouse strains, to which we apply the proposed method. Our method jointly models the total number of reads and the number of allele-specific reads of each gene, which significantly boosts power for detecting strain and particularly parent-of-origin effects. The method deals with the overdispersion problem commonly observed in read counts and can flexibly adjust for the effects of covariates such as sex and read depth. The X chromosome in mouse presents particular challenges. As in other mammals, X chromosome inactivation silences one of the two X chromosomes in each female cell, although the choice of which chromosome to be silenced can be highly skewed by alleles at the X-linked X-controlling element (Xce) and stochastic effects. Our model accounts for these chromosome-wide effects on an individual level, allowing proper analysis of chromosome X expression. Furthermore, we propose a genomic control procedure to properly control type I error for RNA-seq studies. A number of these methodological improvements can also be applied to RNA-seq data from other species as well as other types of next-generation sequencing data sets. Finally, we show through simulations that increasing the number of samples is more beneficial than increasing the library size for mapping both the strain and parent-of-origin effects. Unless sample recruiting is too expensive to conduct, we recommend sequencing more samples with lower coverage. PMID:24561482

  1. Learning strategy selection in the water maze and hippocampal CREB phosphorylation differ in two inbred strains of mice

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Jin-Young; Goo, June-Seo; Lee, Dong-Eun; Jin, Da-Qing; Bizon, Jennifer L.; Gallagher, Michela; Han, Jung-Soo

    2008-01-01

    Learning strategy selection was assessed in two different inbred strains of mice, C57BL/6 and DBA/2, which are used for developing genetically modified mouse models. Male mice received a training protocol in a water maze using alternating blocks of visible and hidden platform trials, during which mice escaped to a single location. After training, mice were required to choose between the spatial location where the platform had been during training (a place strategy) and a visible platform presented in a new location (a cued/response strategy). Both strains of mice had similar escape performance on the visible and hidden platform trials during training. However, in the strategy preference test, C57BL/6 mice selected a place strategy significantly more often than DBA/2 mice. Because much evidence implicates the hippocampus and striatum as important neural substrates for spatial/place and cued/response learning, respectively, the engagement of the hippocampus was then assessed after either place or cue training by determining levels of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and phosphorylated CREB (pCREB) in these two mouse strains. Results revealed that hippocampal CREB levels in both strains of mice were significantly increased after place in comparison to cued training. However, the relation of hippocampal pCREB levels to training was strain dependent; pCREB was significantly higher in C57BL/6 mice than in DBA/2 mice after place training, while hippocampal pCREB levels did not differ between strains after cued training. These findings indicate that pCREB, specifically associated with place/spatial training, is closely tied to differences in spatial/place strategy preference between C57BL/6 and DBA/2 mice. PMID:18353993

  2. Genomic regions influencing resistance to the parasitic weed Striga hermonthica in two recombinant inbred populations of sorghum.

    PubMed

    Haussmann, B I G; Hess, D E; Omanya, G O; Folkertsma, R T; Reddy, B V S; Kayentao, M; Welz, H G; Geiger, H H

    2004-09-01

    Molecular markers for resistance of sorghum to the hemi-parasitic weed Striga hermonthica were mapped in two recombinant inbred populations (RIP-1, and -2) of F(3:5) lines developed from the crosses IS9830 x E36-1 (1) and N13 x E36-1 (2). The resistant parental lines were IS9830 and N13; the former is characterized by a low stimulation of striga seed germination, the latter by "mechanical" resistance. The genetic maps of RIP-1 and RIP-2 spanned 1,498 cM and 1,599 cM, respectively, with 137 and 157 markers distributed over 11 linkage groups. To evaluate striga resistance, we divided each RIP into set 1 (116 lines tested in 1997) and set 2 (110 lines evaluated in 1998). Field trials were conducted in five environments per year in Mali and Kenya. Heritability estimates for area under the striga number progress curve (ASNPC) in sets 1 and 2 were respectively 0.66 and 0.74 in RIP-1 0.81 and 0.82 in RIP-2. Across sites, composite interval mapping detected 11 QTL (quantitative trait loci) and nine QTL in sets 1 and 2 of RIP-1, explaining 77% and 80% of the genetic variance for ASNPC, respectively. The most significant RIP-1 QTL corresponded to the major-gene locus lgs (low stimulation of striga seed germination) in linkage group I. In RIP-2, 11 QTL and nine QTL explained 79% and 82% of the genetic variance for ASNPC in sets 1 and 2, respectively. Five QTL were common to both sets of each RIP, wtih the resistance alleles deriving from IS9830 or N13. Since their effects were validated across environments, years and independent RIP samples, these QTL are excellent candidates for marker-assisted selection. PMID:15160241

  3. Environmental stress increases selection against and dominance of deleterious mutations in inbred families of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas.

    PubMed

    Plough, Louis V

    2012-08-01

    The deleterious effects of inbreeding are well documented and of major concern in conservation biology. Stressful environments have generally been shown to increase inbreeding depression; however, little is known about the underlying genetic mechanisms of the inbreeding-by-stress interaction and to what extent the fitness of individual deleterious mutations is altered under stress. Using microsatellite marker segregation data and quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping methods, I performed a genome scan for deleterious mutations affecting viability (viability or vQTL) in two inbred families of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, reared in a stressful, nutrient-poor diet and a favourable, nutrient-rich diet, which had significant effects on growth and survival. Twice as many vQTL were detected in the stressful diet compared with the favourable diet, resulting primarily from substantially greater mortality of homozygous genotypes. At vQTL, estimates of selection (s) and dominance (h) were greater in the stressful environment (= 0.86 vs. 0.54 and = 0.35 vs. 0.18, in stressful and nonstressful diets, respectively). There was no evidence of interaction between vQTL. Individual vQTL differed across diets in selection only, or in both selection and dominance, and some vQTL were not affected by diet. These results suggest that stress-associated increases in selection against individual deleterious alleles underlie greater inbreeding depression with stress. Furthermore, the finding that inbreeding-by-environment interaction appears, to some extent, to be locus specific, helps to explain previous observations of lineage-specific expression of inbreeding depression and environment-specific purging, which have important implications for conservation and evolutionary biology. PMID:22747636

  4. Comparison of susceptibility of inbred and outbred infant mice to Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin STa.

    PubMed Central

    Bertin, A

    1992-01-01

    Comparison of the susceptibility of outbred OF1 and inbred BALB/c, C57BL/6, DBA/2, and CBA mice to heat-stable toxin (STa) of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli was made at different levels of induced secretion. STa was able to elicit fluid accumulation into the intestine of each strain of mice; however, quantitatively different results were obtained. Results were as usual expressed by gut weight/remaining body weight ratios. Fluid accumulation weight and fluid accumulation weight/remaining body weight ratios were also estimated. Values obtained for BALB/c and OF1 mice were never significantly different, but values for OF1 mice were significantly higher than those for DBA and C57BL/6 mice at the highest concentrations of toxin (toxin dilutions of 1/2, 1/4, and 1/5). At the highest toxin concentration, gut weight/remaining body weight ratio in C57BL/6 mice was significantly lower than that for every other strain, but the fluid accumulation value obtained for DBA mice did not differ from that for C57BL/6 mice. Fluid accumulation values for DBA mice were also significantly lower at toxin dilutions of 1/5 and 1/8 than those for every other strain, and this was also the case when estimating the fluid accumulation weight/remaining body weight ratio at a dilution of 1/8. Although the intestine of each strain of mice was able to respond to STa by fluid accumulation, differences in susceptibility of the STa receptor could exist and make DBA mice more resistant to enterotoxigenic E. coli diarrhea. PMID:1639480

  5. High Genetic Variability of Herbivore-Induced Volatile Emission within a Broad Range of Maize Inbred Lines1

    PubMed Central

    Degen, Thomas; Dillmann, Christine; Marion-Poll, Frédéric; Turlings, Ted C.J.

    2004-01-01

    Maize plants (Zea mays) attacked by caterpillars release a mixture of odorous compounds that attract parasitic wasps, natural enemies of the herbivores. We assessed the genetic variability of these induced volatile emissions among 31 maize inbred lines representing a broad range of genetic diversity used by breeders in Europe and North America. Odors were collected from young plants that had been induced by injecting them with caterpillar regurgitant. Significant variation among lines was found for all 23 volatile compounds included in the analysis: the lines differed enormously in the total amount of volatiles emitted and showed highly variable odor profiles distinctive of each genotype. Principal component analysis performed on the relative quantities of particular compounds within the blend revealed clusters of highly correlated volatiles, which may share common metabolic pathways. European and American lines belonging to established heterotic groups were loosely separated from each other, with the most clear-cut difference in the typical release of (E)-β-caryophyllene by European lines. There was no correlation between the distances among the lines based on their odor profiles and their respective genetic distances previously assessed by neutral RFLP markers. This most comprehensive study to date on intraspecific variation in induced odor emission by maize plants provides a further example of the remarkably high genetic diversity conserved within this important crop plant. A better understanding of the genetic control of induced odor emissions may help in the development of maize varieties particularly attractive to parasitoids and other biological control agents and perhaps more repellent for herbivores. PMID:15299140

  6. Sheltering Behavior and Locomotor Activity in 11 Genetically Diverse Common Inbred Mouse Strains Using Home-Cage Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Aarts, Emmeke; Maroteaux, Gregoire; van der Sluis, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    Functional genetic analyses in mice rely on efficient and in-depth characterization of the behavioral spectrum. Automated home-cage observation can provide a systematic and efficient screening method to detect unexplored, novel behavioral phenotypes. Here, we analyzed high-throughput automated home-cage data using existing and novel concepts, to detect a plethora of genetic differences in spontaneous behavior in a panel of commonly used inbred strains (129S1/SvImJ, A/J, C3H/HeJ, C57BL/6J, BALB/cJ, DBA/2J, NOD/LtJ, FVB/NJ, WSB/EiJ, PWK/PhJ and CAST/EiJ). Continuous video-tracking observations of sheltering behavior and locomotor activity were segmented into distinguishable behavioral elements, and studied at different time scales, yielding a set of 115 behavioral parameters of which 105 showed highly significant strain differences. This set of 115 parameters was highly dimensional; principal component analysis identified 26 orthogonal components with eigenvalues above one. Especially novel parameters of sheltering behavior and parameters describing aspects of motion of the mouse in the home-cage showed high genetic effect sizes. Multi-day habituation curves and patterns of behavior surrounding dark/light phase transitions showed striking strain differences, albeit with lower genetic effect sizes. This spontaneous home-cage behavior study demonstrates high dimensionality, with a strong genetic contribution to specific sets of behavioral measures. Importantly, spontaneous home-cage behavior analysis detects genetic effects that cannot be studied in conventional behavioral tests, showing that the inclusion of a few days of undisturbed, labor extensive home-cage assessment may greatly aid gene function analyses and drug target discovery. PMID:25264768

  7. Identification of a novel gene, H34, in wheat using recombinant inbred lines and single nucleotide polymorphism markers.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunlian; Chen, Mingshun; Chao, Shiaoman; Yu, Jianming; Bai, Guihua

    2013-08-01

    Hessian fly (HF), Mayetiola destructor, is an important pest of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) worldwide. Because it has multiple biotypes that are virulent to different wheat HF resistance genes, pyramiding multiple resistance genes in a cultivar can improve resistance durability, and finding DNA markers tightly linked to these genes is essential to this process. This study identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for Hessian fly resistance (HFR) in the wheat cultivar 'Clark' and tightly linked DNA markers for the QTLs. A linkage map was constructed with single nucleotide polymorphism and simple sequence repeat markers using a population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from the cross 'Ning7840' × 'Clark' by single-seed descent. Two QTLs associated with resistance to fly biotype GP were identified on chromosomes 6B and 1A, with the resistance alleles contributed from 'Clark'. The QTL on 6B flanked by loci Xsnp921 and Xsnp2745 explained about 37.2 % of the phenotypic variation, and the QTL on 1A was flanked by Xgwm33 and Xsnp5150 and accounted for 13.3 % of phenotypic variation for HFR. The QTL on 6B has not been reported before and represents a novel wheat gene with resistance to HF, thus, it is designated H34. A significant positive epistasis was detected between the two QTLs that accounted for about 9.5 % of the mean phenotypic variation and increased HFR by 0.16. Our results indicated that different QTLs may contribute different degrees of resistance in a cultivar and that epistasis may play an important role in HFR. PMID:23689741

  8. Adult vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Kena A; Schmitt, H Josef; Jansen, Kathrin U; Anderson, Annaliesa S

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination of children has had a major impact on the morbidity and mortality of many infectious diseases globally. However, with age, immune responses to vaccines can be less robust, which can be further enhanced by underlying diseases that are common in the older adult. In many countries around the globe booster vaccinations against diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis are recommended for adults. For the older adult, vaccination against pneumococcal diseases, influenza and herpes zoster are also recommended. Despite these recommendations, the widespread use of these vaccines in the adult population clearly lags behind the vaccine uptake and successes documented for pediatric vaccination programs. Furthermore, extensive and sometimes inappropriate use of antibiotics have fostered the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (e.g., methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)) as well as increased susceptibility in the elderly to bacterial species such as Clostridium difficile. Infectious diseases remain an important unmet medical need and new concepts to successfully implement vaccination of adults are urgently needed. PMID:25483533

  9. Different attentional abilities among inbred mice strains using virtual object recognition task (VORT): SNAP25⁺/⁻ mice as a model of attentional deficit.

    PubMed

    Braida, Daniela; Ponzoni, Luisa; Matteoli, Michela; Sala M, Mariaelvina

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), schizophrenia, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease are characterized by attentional deficits. In the present study we first applied the virtual object recognition test (VORT), where 3D objects were replaced with highly discriminated geometrical shapes and presented on two 3.5-inch widescreen displays, in different inbred mice strains (C57BL/6N, DBA/2J, BALB/cJ), in comparison with the standard object recognition test (NOR). In both NOR and VORT, there was a progressive decay of performance in terms of reduced discrimination index from 5 min to 72 h of inter-trial delay in all strains. However, BALB/cJ inbred mice showed a better long lasting performance than C57BL/6N and DBA/2J, when tested in NOR. In VORT, BALB/cJ showed the best performance. Total exploration time was always higher in BALB/cJ than C57BL/6N and DBA/2J mice. C57BL/6N were less explorative strain than DBA/2J and BALB/cJ mice. When VORT was applied to SNAP-25(+/-) mice, an impairment in both NOR and VORT was shown. However, when moving shapes were applied, these heterozygous mice improved their performance, suggesting that the introduction of motion is a strong cue that makes the task more valuable to study attention deficits. Taken together, these data indicate that VORT provides a useful and rapid tool to identify the attentional deficit in different inbred strains and genetically modified mice, enhancing the value of psychiatric mouse models. PMID:26300453

  10. Experimental infection of inbred BALB/c and A/J mice with Massachusetts and Brazilian strains of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV).

    PubMed

    Martini, Matheus C; Gameiro, Jacy; Cardoso, Tereza Cristina; Caserta, Leonardo C; Gualberto, Ana Carolina M; Keid, Lara Borges; Oliveira, Trcia M F de S; dos Santos, Marcia M A B; Arns, Clarice W; Ferreira, Helena L

    2015-07-01

    The ability of avian coronaviruses to replicate in mice was investigated to investigate interspecies transmission. Two inbred mouse strains (BALB/c and A/J) with different genetic backgrounds were inoculated with the avian coronavirus strains Mass and BR-I and monitored for at least 10days. Analysis of viral RNA, histopathological examinations, immunohistochemistry and serology were performed. After virus inoculation, neither clinical signs nor evident gross lesions were observed. Viral RNA, histopathological changes, and viral nucleoprotein were observed in the lung, trachea and sinus of all inoculated mice. Our study demonstrates the importance of elucidating the epidemiology of coronaviruses, including in rodents that are pests in poultry production. PMID:25951972

  11. Adult Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles, John M.

    In its broadest context, play can be interpreted as any pleasurable use of discretionary time. Playfulness is an intrinsic feature of being human, and should be viewed in the light of a total lifestyle, not as an occurrence in an isolated time of life. Adult play appears to be an indefinable and controversial concept. A holistic approach should be

  12. The genetic control of tolerance to aluminum toxicity in the 'Essex' by 'Forrest' recombinant inbred line population.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Aman D; Sharma, Hemlata; Lightfoot, David A

    2011-03-01

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity to plant roots is a major problem of acidic soils. The main chemical reaction involved is Al hydrolysis. Application of lime or nitrate fertilizers to raise soil pH reduces Al toxicity but not as economically as a plant genotypes with natural tolerance against this stress. Ammonium fertilization of crops and assimilation of ammonium (even that derived from dinitrogen) are particularly acidifying of the root zone. The aims of the present study were to find genotypes of soybean tolerant to aluminum stress and identify QTL underlying that trait. Used were recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from the cross of 'Essex' by 'Forrest'. RILs were grown in a greenhouse for 3 weeks and then transferred to hydroponics in a growth chamber. Root lengths (RL) were measured before and 72 h after Al treatment. RL before and after Al treatment were measured and used to calculate root tolerance index (RTI) and relative mean growth (RMG). RILs 1, 85, 40 and 83 had significant (P<0.005) tolerance to Al stress judged by RL after Al, RTI and RMG. Eleven minor but significant marker-trait associations (P<0.05) were detected using one-way ANOVA but only two major loci were significant in composite interval maps (LOD>3.0). The QTL on linkage group F (chromosome 13) was in the interval Satt160-Satt252 with a peak at 24 cM (peak LOD was 3.3). The QTL underlay 31% of trait variation and the Essex allele provided an additional 1.61 cm of root growth over 72 h in the presence of Al. The QTL on linkage group C2 (probably chromosome 4) was in the interval from Satt202 to Satt371 with a peak at 3.2 cM (peak LOD was 14.7). The QTL underlay 34% of trait variation or 1.81 cm of growth over 72 h in the presence of Al. Both loci encompassed genes implicated in citrate metabolism, a method of aluminum detoxification known to vary among soybean cultivars. Two major loci and at least nine minor loci were inferred to underlie tolerance to Al. RILs and markers may be used to select alleles that increase tolerance to soybean against Al stress. PMID:21060987

  13. Novel Genetic Regulation of ?T Helper 1 (Th1)/Th2 Cytokine Production and Encephalitogenicity in Inbred Mouse Strains

    PubMed Central

    Conboy, Irina M.; DeKruyff, Rosemarie H.; Tate, Keri M.; Cao, Zhu A.; Moore, Tom A.; Umetsu, Dale T.; Jones, Patricia P.

    1997-01-01

    Development of T helper cell (Th)1 or Th2 cytokine responses is essential for effector and regulatory functions of T helper cells. We have compared cytokine profiles of myelin basic protein (MBP) Ac1-16 peptide-specific T helper cells from inbred mouse strains expressing identical k haplotype-derived MHC class II molecules B10.A and B10.BR. B10.BR T cell lines (TCL) produced Th1 cytokines (including high levels of TNF-?) and induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis after adoptive transfer. In contrast, B10.A TCL produced Th2 cytokines (including low levels of TNF-?) and were poorly encephalitogenic. The contributions of the genetic origin of the T cells and the APC were explored. Serial restimulations of the B10.BR TCL with B10.A or (B10.A B10.BR) F1 splenic antigen presenting cells (APC) during the establishment of TCL markedly reduced both Th1 cytokine production and encephalitogenicity. In addition, a single restimulation with B10.A splenic APC reduced IFN-? and TNF-? production by established Th1 MBP-specific Ak-restricted B10.BR TCL and by a Th1 KLH-specific, Ek-restricted B10.BR T cell clone. These studies suggest that B10.A and B10.BR APC differ in their ability to stimulate IFN-? and TNF-? production by mature Th1 cells and also influence their Th1/Th2 commitment in vivo. The nature of the downregulatory activity of B10.A APC on IFN-? and TNF-? production was explored. 2-hour supernatants from antigen-activated B10.A APC/TCL cultures or from B10.A APC activated by LPS had the same inhibitory effects on IFN-? and TNF-? production by B10.BR TCL. The downregulatory effects of B10.A APC are independent of TNF-?, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12p40, IFN-?, IL-13, TGF-?, and PGE2. Thus, genetic difference(s) between B10.A and B10.BR APC appear(s) to control the production or activity of a novel soluble cytokine regulatory factor that influences Th1/Th2 commitment and controls production of IFN-? and TNF-? by mature Th1 cells. PMID:9053444

  14. Mapping quantitative trait loci associated with aluminum toxin tolerance in NJRIKY recombinant inbred line population of soybean (Glycine max).

    PubMed

    Qi, Bo; Korir, Paul; Zhao, Tuanjie; Yu, Deyue; Chen, Shouyi; Gai, Junyi

    2008-09-01

    To investigate the genetic mechanism of Al-tolerance in soybean, a recombinant inbred line population (RIL) with 184 F(2:7:11) lines derived from the cross of Kefeng No.1 x Nannong 1138-2 (Al-tolerant x Al-sensitive) were tested in pot experiment with sand culture medium in net room in Nanjing. Four traits, i.e. plant height, number of leaves, shoot dry weight and root dry weight at seedling stage, were evaluated and used to calculate the average membership index (FAi) as the indicator of Al-tolerance. The composite interval mapping (CIM) under WinQTL Cartographer v. 2.5 detected five QTLs (i.e. qFAi-1, qFAi-2, qFAi-3, qFAi-4 and qFAi-5), explaining 5.20%-9.07% of the total phenotypic variation individually. While with the multiple interval mapping (MIM) of the same software, five QTLs (qFAi-1, qFAi-5, qFAi-6, qFAi-7, and qFAi-8) explaining 5.7%-24.60% of the total phenotypic variation individually were mapped. Here qFAi-1 and qFAi-5 were detected by both CIM and MIM with the locations in a same flanking marker region, GMKF046-GMKF080 on B1 and satt278-sat_95 on L, respectively. While qFAi-2 under CIM and qFAi-6 under MIM both on D1b2 were located in neighboring regions with their confidence intervals overlapped and might be the same locus. Segregation analysis under major gene plus polygene inheritance model showed that Al-tolerance was controlled by two major genes (h(2) (mg) = 33.05%) plus polygenes (h(2) (pg) = 52.73%). Both QTL mapping and segregation analysis confirmed two QTLs responsible for Al-tolerance with relatively low heritability, and there might be a third QTL, confounded with the polygenes in segregation analysis. PMID:18844777

  15. Mapping Isoflavone QTL with Main, Epistatic and QTL × Environment Effects in Recombinant Inbred Lines of Soybean

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Han, Yingpeng; Zhao, Xue; Li, Yongguang; Teng, Weili; Li, Dongmei; Zhan, Yong; Li, Wenbin

    2015-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) isoflavone is important for human health and plant defense system. To identify novel quantitative trait loci (QTL) and epistatic QTL underlying isoflavone content in soybean, F5:6, F5:7 and F5:8 populations of 130 recombinant inbred (RI) lines, derived from the cross of soybean cultivar ‘Zhong Dou 27′ (high isoflavone) and ‘Jiu Nong 20′ (low isoflavone), were analyzed with 95 new SSR markers. A new linkage map including 194 SSR markers and covering 2,312 cM with mean distance of about 12 cM between markers was constructed. Thirty four QTL for both individual and total seed isoflavone contents of soybean were identified. Six, seven, ten and eleven QTL were associated with daidzein (DZ), glycitein (GC), genistein (GT) and total isoflavone (TI), respectively. Of them 23 QTL were newly identified. The qTIF_1 between Satt423 and Satt569 shared the same marker Satt569 with qDZF_2, qGTF_1 and qTIF_2. The qGTD2_1 between Satt186 and Satt226 was detected in four environments and explained 3.41%-10.98% of the phenotypic variation. The qGTA2_1, overlapped with qGCA2_1 and detected in four environments, was close to the previously identified major QTL for GT, which were responsible for large a effects. QTL (qDZF_2, qGTF_1 and qTIF_2) between Satt144-Satt569 were either clustered or pleiotropic. The qGCM_1, qGTM_1 and qTIM_1 between Satt540-Sat_244 explained 2.02%–9.12% of the phenotypic variation over six environments. Moreover, the qGCE_1 overlapped with qGTE_1 and qTIE_1, the qTIH_2 overlapped with qGTH_1, qGCI_1 overlapped with qDZI_1, qTIL_1 overlapped with qGTL_1, and qTIO_1 overlapped with qGTO_1. In this study, some of unstable QTL were detected in different environments, which were due to weak expression of QTL, QTL by environment interaction in the opposite direction to a effects, and/or epistasis. The markers identified in multi-environments in this study could be applied in the selection of soybean cultivars for higher isoflavone content and in the map-based gene cloning. PMID:25738957

  16. [Genetic characteristics associated with drought tolerance of plant height and thousand-grain mass of recombinant inbred lines of wheat].

    PubMed

    Yang, De-Long; Zhang, Guo-Hong; Li, Xing-Mao; Xing, Hua; Cheng, Hong-Bo; Ni, Sheng-Li; Chen, Xiao-Ping

    2012-06-01

    A total of 120 recombinant inbred lines (RIL) derived from Chinese winter wheat cultivars Longjian 19xQ9086 and the two parents were taken as test materials to study the quantitative genetics characteristics of their plant height at different development stages, thousand-grain mass, as well as the correlations between the two traits under rainfed (drought stress) and well-watered conditions, and evaluate the genetic variation of the RIL. Under the two water conditions, the target traits of the RIL showed substantial transgressive segregation and great sensitivity to water condition. The drought stress coefficient of the plant height was higher at jointing stage, being up to 0.851. There was a significant positive correlation between the plant height at different development stages and the thousand-grain mass, and comparing with that at other growth stages, the plant height at jointing stage had a higher correlation coefficient with the thousand-grain mass (R2DS = 0.32, R2WW = 0.28). The plant height at both jointing and flowering stages had significant positive and direct effect but negative and indirect gross effect on the thousand-grain mass, while the plant height at heading and maturing stages was in adverse. The target traits showed a lower heritability ranged from 0.27 to 0.60. The numbers of the gene pairs controlling the thousand-grain mass were 10 under rainfed and 13 under well-watered conditions, while those of the gene pairs controlling the plant height at different development stages were 3-7 under rainfed and 4-14 under well-watered conditions, respectively. According to the clustering of the drought stress coefficient of plant height, the RIL could be classified into five subgroups, showing the abundant variation of the RIL in their phe- notypes and in the sensitivity to water condition. It was considered that the test RIL were appropriate for the study of the quantitative genetics of wheat drought resistance. PMID:22937645

  17. [Histological analysis of spontaneous adenomyosis-like changes in recombinant inbred mouse uterus (SMXA mouse)--a novel animal model for adenomyosis].

    PubMed

    Kida, H

    1994-04-01

    The etiology and the pathogenesis of adenomyosis, which is a benign uterine disease featuring the ectopic proliferation of endometrial tissues and glands into the myometrium and the serosa in the uterus, are still unknown. A novel mouse strain, which showed signs of a condition resembling adenomyosis, was found and the localization of alpha-actin and tenascin was analyzed in order to characterize the histological features of this disease. 1. The uteri of recombinant inbred SMXA mice were shown to have undergone spontaneous histological changes similar to adenomyosis. 2. Compared with SMXA mice, the uteri of F1 mice between the SMXA and NJL strains showed further prominent changes resembling human adenomyosis, which suggests that some hereditary factors may be involved in the pathogenesis of adenomyosis. 3. In a normal mouse uterus, the regions in which tenascin was expressed change with the estrus cycle. In SMXA mice, tenascin was expressed around the dysplastic and cystic uterine glands, and in the myometrium. These results indicated that tenascin is an important marker of the histological changes in adenomyosis. 4. SMXA mice, which are recombinant inbred mice, are shown to be a useful animal model to use in analyzing the pathogenetic mechanisms of adenomyosis. PMID:8151174

  18. Two novel frame shift, recurrent and de novo mutations in the ITGB2 (CD18) gene causing leukocyte adhesion deficiency in a highly inbred North African population

    PubMed Central

    2001-01-01

    We have identified four different mutations causing leukocyte adhesion deficiency (LAD) in the ITGB2 gene of patients from a highly inbred population. Two were novel single-bp deletions (1497delG and 1920delG) causing frame shift and the two others were the missense mutations G284S and R593C. In our study, the G284S was a recurrent mutation while the R593C occurred de novo. We have also characterized a novel Xba1 polymorphic site located at the 5? end of the ITGB2 locus. Family studies showed that the 1497delG mutation segregated with this marker and the intragenic AvaII polymorphic marker, suggesting the presence of a founder effect. The observation of a heterogeneous spectrum including de novo and recurrent mutations causing LAD in a highly inbred population is rather unexpected. In view of the literature published on the molecular genetics of LAD and considering the ethnic origin of the patients studied, our findings confirm the heterogeneity of the mutations causing LAD and point out potential mutational hot spots in the ITGB2 gene. PMID:12488604

  19. Obstructive sleep apnea - adults

    MedlinePLUS

    Sleep apnea - obstructive - adults; Apnea - obstructive sleep apnea syndrome - adults; Sleep-disordered breathing - adults; OSA - adults ... When you sleep, all of the muscles in your body become more relaxed. This includes the muscles that help keep your ...

  20. Epigenetic Transgenerational Inheritance of Vinclozolin Induced Mouse Adult Onset Disease and Associated Sperm Epigenome Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero-Bosagna, Carlos; Covert, Trevor R.; Haque, Md. M.; Settles, Matthew; Nilsson, Eric E.; Anway, Matthew D.; Skinner, Michael K.

    2012-01-01

    The endocrine disruptor vinclozolin has previously been shown to promote epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset disease in the rat. The current study was designed to investigate the transgenerational actions of vinclozolin on the mouse. Transient exposure of the F0 generation gestating female during gonadal sex determination promoted transgenerational adult onset disease in F3 generation male and female mice, including spermatogenic cell defects, testicular abnormalities, prostate abnormalities, kidney abnormalities and polycystic ovarian disease. Pathology analysis demonstrated 75% of the vinclozolin lineage animals developed disease with 34% having two or more different disease states. Interestingly, the vinclozolin induced transgenerational disease was observed in the outbred CD-1 strain, but not the inbred 129 mouse strain. Analysis of the F3 generation sperm epigenome identified differential DNA methylation regions that can potentially be utilized as epigenetic biomarkers for transgenerational exposure and disease. PMID:23041264

  1. Epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of vinclozolin induced mouse adult onset disease and associated sperm epigenome biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Bosagna, Carlos; Covert, Trevor R; Haque, Md M; Settles, Matthew; Nilsson, Eric E; Anway, Matthew D; Skinner, Michael K

    2012-12-01

    The endocrine disruptor vinclozolin has previously been shown to promote epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset disease in the rat. The current study was designed to investigate the transgenerational actions of vinclozolin on the mouse. Transient exposure of the F0 generation gestating female during gonadal sex determination promoted transgenerational adult onset disease in F3 generation male and female mice, including spermatogenic cell defects, testicular abnormalities, prostate abnormalities, kidney abnormalities and polycystic ovarian disease. Pathology analysis demonstrated 75% of the vinclozolin lineage animals developed disease with 34% having two or more different disease states. Interestingly, the vinclozolin induced transgenerational disease was observed in the outbred CD-1 strain, but not the inbred 129 mouse strain. Analysis of the F3 generation sperm epigenome identified differential DNA methylation regions that can potentially be utilized as epigenetic biomarkers for transgenerational exposure and disease. PMID:23041264

  2. Inbred Strain-Specific Response to Biglycan Deficiency in the Cortical Bone of C57BL6/129 and C3H/He Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Joseph M; Golcuk, Kurtulus; Morris, Michael D; Kohn, David H

    2009-01-01

    Inbred strain-specific differences in mice exist in bone cross-sectional geometry, mechanical properties, and indices of bone formation. Inbred strain-specific responses to external stimuli also exist, but the role of background strain in response to genetic deletion is not fully understood. Biglycan (bgn) deficiency impacts bone through negative regulation of osteoblasts, resulting in extracellular matrix alterations and decreased mechanical properties. Because osteoblasts from C3H/He (C3H) mice are inherently more active versus osteoblasts from other inbred strains, and the bones of C3H mice are less responsive to other insults, it was hypothesized that C3H mice would be relatively more resistant to changes associated with bgn deficiency compared with C57BL6/129 (B6;129) mice. Changes in mRNA expression, tissue composition, mineral density, bone formation rate, cross-sectional geometry, and mechanical properties were studied at 8 and 11 wk of age in the tibias of male wildtype and bgn-deficient mice bred on B6;129 and C3H background strains. Bgn deficiency altered collagen cross-linking and gene expression and the amount and composition of mineral in vivo. In bgn's absence, changes in collagen were independent of mouse strain. Bgn-deficiency increased the amount of mineral in both strains, but changes in mineral composition, cross-sectional geometry, and mechanical properties were dependent on genetic background. Bgn deficiency influenced the amount and composition of bone in mice from both strains at 8 wk, but C3H mice were better able to maintain properties close to wildtype (WT) levels. By 11 wk, most properties from C3H knockout (KO) bones were equal to or greater than WT levels, whereas phenotypic differences persisted in B6;129 KO mice. This is the first study into mouse strain-specific changes in a small leucine-rich proteoglycan gene disruption model in properties across the bone hierarchy and is also one of the first to relate these changes to mechanical competence. This study supports the importance of genetic factors in determining the response to a gene deletion and defines biglycan's importance to collagen and mineral composition in vivo. PMID:19113913

  3. Determination of resistance spectra of the Pi-ta and Pi-k genes to US races of Magnaporthe oryzae causing rice blast in a recombinant inbred line population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resistance (R) genes to ten common races of Magnaporthe oryzae were mapped using an F10 recombinant inbred line population of a cross of a tropical japonica cultivar Katy with a breeding line RU9101001. Katy was found to confer resistance to all common races IA-45, IB-1, IB-45, IB-49, IB-54, IC-17,...

  4. A missense mutation in the LIM2 gene is associated with autosomal recessive presenile cataract in an inbred Iraqi Jewish family.

    PubMed

    Pras, Eran; Levy-Nissenbaum, Etgar; Bakhan, Tangiz; Lahat, Hadas; Assia, Ehud; Geffen-Carmi, Noa; Frydman, Moshe; Goldman, Boleslaw; Pras, Elon

    2002-05-01

    In an inbred Iraqi Jewish family, we have studied three siblings with presenile cataract first noticed between the ages of 20 and 51 years and segregating in an autosomal recessive mode. Using microsatellite repeat markers in close proximity to 25 genes and loci previously associated with congenital cataracts in humans and mice, we identified five markers on chromosome 19q that cosegregated with the disease. Sequencing of LIM2, one of two candidate genes in this region, revealed a homozygous T-->G change resulting in a phenylalanine-to-valine substitution at position 105 of the protein. To our knowledge, this constitutes the first report, in humans, of cataract formation associated with a mutation in LIM2. Studies of late-onset single-gene cataracts may provide insight into the pathogenesis of the more common age-related cataracts. PMID:11917274

  5. Adult flatfoot.

    PubMed

    Toullec, E

    2015-02-01

    Adult flatfoot is defined as a flattening of the medial arch of the foot in weight-bearing and lack of a propulsive gait. The 3 lesion levels are the talonavicular, tibiotarsal and midfoot joints. The subtalar joint is damaged by the consequent rotational defects. Clinical examination determines deformity and reducibility, and assesses any posterior tibialis muscle deficit, the posterior tibialis tendon and spring ligament being frequently subject to degenerative lesions. Radiographic examination in 3 incidences in weight-bearing is essential, to determine the principal level of deformity. Tendon (posterior tibialis tendon) and ligamentous lesions (spring ligament and interosseous ligament) are analyzed on MRI or ultrasound. In fixed deformities, CT explores for arthritic evolution or specific etiologies. 3D CT reconstruction can analyze bone and joint morphology and contribute to the planning of any osteotomy. Medical management associates insoles and physiotherapy. Acute painful flatfoot requires strict cast immobilization. Surgical treatment associates numerous combinations of procedures, currently under assessment for supple flatfoot: for the hindfoot: medial slide calcaneal osteotomy, calcaneal lengthening osteotomy, or arthroereisis; for the midfoot: arthrodesis on one or several rays, or first cuneiform or first metatarsal osteotomy; for the ankle: medial collateral ligament repair with tendon transfer. Fixed deformities require arthrodesis of one or several joint-lines in the hindfoot; for the ankle, total replacement after realignment of the foot, or tibiotalocalcaneal fusion or ankle and hindfoot fusion; and, for the midfoot, cuneonavicular or cuneometatarsal fusion. Tendinous procedures are often associated. Specific etiologies may need individualized procedures. In conclusion, adult flatfoot tends to be diagnosed and managed too late, with consequent impact on the ankle, the management of which is complex and poorly codified. PMID:25595429

  6. Preparing Educators of Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabowski, Stanley M.; And Others

    Model programs are described for two areas of adult education--the preparation of adult educators and the training conducted by adult educators. In Chapter One, Phyllis Caldwell reviews the literature concerning the preservice training of adult educators, concentrating on the competencies of adult education administrators and teachers. In Chapter

  7. Y chromosome of the inbred mouse KK/Ta strain is associated with reduced body size in Y-consomic strains

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We have established 17 Y chromosome consomic (Y-consomic) mouse strains in an inbred DH/Sgn strain. In this study, based on investigations in four different genetic backgrounds, we proved that the Y chromosome of the inbred mouse KK/Ta strain is associated with reduced body size. Findings In the DH-Chr Y-+/+ background, Y chromosome substitution significantly decreased the body weight in DH-Chr YKK-+/+ and DH-Chr YSJL-+/+ strains, and the DH-Chr YKK-+/+ strain was the lightest among the 17 Y-consomic strains. In the DH-Chr Y-Dh/+ background (Dh/+ mice have skeletal malformations and are usually lighter than +/+ mice), although Y chromosome substitution did not significantly alter the body weight, the DH-Chr YKK-Dh/+ strain was the lightest among the 17 Y-consomic-Dh/+ strains. In the (B6.Cg-Ay × DH-Chr Y) F1-+/+ background, Y chromosome substitution significantly decreased the body weight and length in the (B6.Cg-Ay × DH-Chr YKK) F1 hybrids. In the (B6.Cg-Ay × DH-Chr Y) F1-Ay/+ background (Ay causes obesity and promotes linear growth), Y chromosome substitution significantly decreased body weight and length in the (B6.Cg-Ay × DH-Chr YKK) F1-Ay/+ hybrids. Conclusion A body-size-reducing effect of the Y chromosome of the KK/Ta mouse strain was observed irrespective of genetic background. The effect was observed in the presence of Dh and Ay, the autosomal dominant mutations, both of which are known to have substantial effects on body size. These results suggest that there are Y-linked genes that control the body size in mice. PMID:23418893

  8. 1 + 1 = 3: Development and validation of a SNP-based algorithm to identify genetic contributions from three distinct inbred mouse strains.

    PubMed

    Gorham, James D; Ranson, Matthew S; Smith, Janebeth C; Gorham, Beverly J; Muirhead, Kristen-Ashley

    2012-12-01

    State-of-the-art, genome-wide assessment of mouse genetic background uses single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) PCR. As SNP analysis can use multiplex testing, it is amenable to high-throughput analysis and is the preferred method for shared resource facilities that offer genetic background assessment of mouse genomes. However, a typical individual SNP query yields only two alleles (A vs. B), limiting the application of this methodology to distinguishing contributions from no more than two inbred mouse strains. By contrast, simple sequence length polymorphism (SSLP) analysis yields multiple alleles but is not amenable to high-throughput testing. We sought to devise a SNP-based technique to identify donor strain origins when three distinct mouse strains potentially contribute to the genetic makeup of an individual mouse. A computational approach was used to devise a three-strain analysis (3SA) algorithm that would permit identification of three genetic backgrounds while still using a binary-output SNP platform. A panel of 15 mosaic mice with contributions from BALB/c, C57Bl/6, and DBA/2 genetic backgrounds was bred and analyzed using a genome-wide SNP panel using 1449 markers. The 3SA algorithm was applied and then validated using SSLP. The 3SA algorithm assigned 85% of 1449 SNPs as informative for the C57Bl/6, BALB/c, or DBA/2 backgrounds, respectively. Testing the panel of 15 F2 mice, the 3SA algorithm predicted donor strain origins genome-wide. Donor strain origins predicted by the 3SA algorithm correlated perfectly with results from individual SSLP markers located on five different chromosomes (n=70 tests). We have established and validated an analysis algorithm based on binary SNP data that can successfully identify the donor strain origins of chromosomal regions in mice that are bred from three distinct inbred mouse strains. PMID:23204929

  9. Flies who cannot take the heat: genome-wide gene expression analysis of temperature-sensitive lethality in an inbred line of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, C J; Srensen, P; Gagalova, K K; Loeschcke, V

    2014-10-01

    Fitness decreases associated with inbreeding depression often become more pronounced in a stressful environment. The functional genomic causes of these inbreeding-by-environment (IנE) interactions, and of inbreeding depression in general, are poorly known. To further our understanding of IנE interactions, we performed a genome-wide gene expression study of a single inbred line that suffers from temperature-sensitive lethality. We confirmed that increased differential expression between the thermosensitive line and the control line occurs at the restrictive temperature. This demonstrates that IנE interactions in survival are reflected in similar IנE interactions at the gene expression level. To make an impression of the cellular response associated with the lethal effect, we analysed all functional annotation terms that were overrepresented among the differentially expressed genes. Some sets of differentially expressed genes function in the general stress response, and these are more likely to also be differentially expressed in other studies of inbreeding, inbreeding depression, immunity and heat stress. Other sets of differentially expressed genes are shared with studies of gene expression in inbred lines, but not studies of the response to extrinsic stress, and represent a general transcriptomic signature of inbreeding. Finally, some sets of genes have an annotation that is not reported in other studies. These we consider to be candidates for the genes harbouring the mutations responsible for the thermosensitive phenotype, as these mutations are expected to be unique to this line. These genes may also serve as candidate QTL in studies of thermal tolerance and heat resistance. PMID:25233925

  10. Depression in Older Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... here Home » Depression In Older Adults: More Facts Depression In Older Adults: More Facts Depression affects more ... combination of both. [8] Older Adult Attitudes Toward Depression: According to a Mental Health America survey [9] ...

  11. Adult Still's disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Still's disease - adult; AOSD ... than 1 out of 100,000 people develop adult-onset Still's disease each year. It affects women more often than men. The cause of adult Still's disease is unknown. No risk factors for ...

  12. Panic Disorder among Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among ...

  13. Bipolar Disorder Among Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among ...

  14. Major Depression Among Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among ...

  15. Genetic influence on phenotypic differentiation in adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kempermann, Gerd; Gage, Fred H

    2002-03-31

    Regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis has different regulatory levels, including cell proliferation, survival and differentiation. Cell proliferation and survival are differentially influenced by inheritable traits and the genetic background determines which regulatory levels of adult hippocampal neurogenesis are preferentially involved in a neurogenic response to environmental stimuli. We here compared baseline adult neurogenesis in wild-derived strain Mus spretus and three inbred laboratory strains: A/J, C3H/HeJ and DBA/2J. Proliferation of was similar in the four strains, with the extremes being A/J, which had about 2100+/-570 (mean+/-S.D.) labeled newborn cells per dentate gyrus (after 6 days of bromodeoxyuridine injections), and DBA/2J, which had approximately 1400+/-260. C3H/HeJ had approximately 1500+/-600 and M. spretus had 1550+/-270. Survival of new cells after 4 weeks was 19% in A/J and DBA/2J, and 21% in M. spretus, but 37% in C3H/HeJ. Survival in C3H/HeJ was significantly different from DBA/2. Phenotypic analysis revealed that DBA/2J produced significantly fewer new neurons than A/J and C3H/HeJ (47% vs. 63% and 67%) but significantly more new astrocytes than A/J and C3H/HeJ (28% vs. 9% and 11%). In absolute terms there were 370+/-120 new neurons in C3H/HeJ, 250+/-60 in A/J, 130+/-50 in DBA/2J, and 190+/-130 in M. spretus. Our results indicate that regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis affects the level of phenotypic differentiation. At the present time it cannot be determined whether this regulation occurs by influencing cell fate decisions or by promoting selective survival. PMID:11947932

  16. Genetic analysis of behavioral, neuroendocrine, and biochemical parameters in inbred rodents: initial studies in Lewis and Fischer 344 rats and in A/J and C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Brodkin, E S; Carlezon, W A; Haile, C N; Kosten, T A; Heninger, G R; Nestler, E J

    1998-09-14

    Previous work has identified inherent behavioral, neuroendocrine, and biochemical differences among inbred rodent strains that have been related to the animals' differential responsiveness to drugs of abuse or stress. In the present study, we sought to determine (1) whether there are genetic correlations among particular phenotypic traits that differ between a pair of inbred rat strains (Lewis and Fischer 344) or a pair of inbred mouse strains (A/J and C57BL/6J); (2) which of these traits might be amenable to quantitative trait locus analysis; and (3) whether additional behavioral or biochemical differences relevant to drug- or stress-responsiveness could be identified in these strains. Specifically, we measured several behavioral, neuroendocrine, and biochemical traits in parental Lewis and Fischer 344 rats and in 298 members of an F2 intercross population, as well as in parental A/J and C57BL/6J mice and in 11 of the AXB/BXA recombinant inbred mouse strains. Traits measured included exploratory locomotor activity in a novel environment; amphetamine-induced locomotor activity; several specific protein levels in striatal regions, including inhibitory G protein subunits, the dopamine transporter, the Fos family member transcription factor DeltaFosB, and the protein phosphatase inhibitor DARPP-32; and late-afternoon plasma corticosterone concentrations. Each of the traits measured in F2 rats or recombinant inbred mice appears to be influenced by multiple genes, as well as by environmental factors. There were statistically significant, albeit relatively weak, correlations among several traits in an F2 intercross population bred from Lewis and Fischer rats. Among the traits studied in Lewis and Fischer rats, one seemed most amenable to quantitative trait locus analysis: the level of the inhibitory G-protein subunit, Galphai, in the nucleus accumbens. We also found a robust genetic correlation between levels of DeltaFosB and levels of the dopamine transporter in striatal regions in AXB/BXA recombinant inbred mouse strains. While these studies demonstrate the likely complexity of the genetic factors that influence the numerous phenotypes associated with altered responsiveness to drugs of abuse and stress, they represent an initial and necessary step toward identifying specific genetic factors involved. PMID:9733917

  17. The Effect of Resistant Soybean on Male and Female Development and Adult Sex Ratios of Heterodera glycines.

    PubMed

    Colgrove, A L; Niblack, T L

    2005-06-01

    To determine whether currently used sources of resistance (soybean Plant Introductions [PI] 548402, 88788, 90763, 437654, 209332, 89772, and 548316) influence sex ratios in H. glycines, four inbred lines of the nematode characterized by zero or high numbers of females on resistant soybean were used to observe the number of adult males produced. Nematodes were allowed to infect soybean roots for 5 days in pasteurized sand. Infected plants were washed and transferred to hydroponic culture tubes. Males were collected every 2 to 3 days up to 30 days after infestation (DAI), and females were collected at 30 DAI. Resistance that suppressed adult females also altered adult male numbers. On PI 548402, 90763, and 437654, male numbers were low and close to zero, whereas on PI 88788, male numbers were higher (alpha = 0.05). In a separate experiment, the same PIs were infected by an inbred line that tested as an HG Type 0 (i.e., the numbers of females that developed on each PI were less than 10% of the number that developed on the standard susceptible soybean cultivar Lee). In this experiment, male numbers were similar to female numbers on PI 548402, 90763, 437654, and 89772, whereas male numbers on PI 88788, 209332, and 548316 were higher than those of females (alpha = 0.05). In all experiments, the total number of adults that developed to maturity relative to the number of second-stage juveniles that initially penetrated the root was less on resistant than on susceptible soybean (P

  18. Adult Recruitment Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Juliet, Ed.; And Others

    Findings of an American College Testing Program 1981 survey on college recruitment of adult students are summarized, and 12 articles on adult recruitment are presented. Titles and authors are as follows: "Adult Recruitment Practices: A Report of a National Survey" (Patricia Spratt, Juliet Kaufmann, Lee Noel); "Three Programs for Adults in Shopping

  19. Arizona Adult Education Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Adult education standards are the cornerstone for quality teaching, quality learning, and quality lives. The Arizona Adult Education Standards Initiative (Standards Initiative) represents a proactive effort by Arizona's adult education community to ensure rigor and consistency in program content and student outcomes for adult learners throughout

  20. Comparison of whole-genome prediction models for traits with contrasting genetic architecture in a diversity panel of maize inbred lines

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is increasing empirical evidence that whole-genome prediction (WGP) is a powerful tool for predicting line and hybrid performance in maize. However, there is a lack of knowledge about the sensitivity of WGP models towards the genetic architecture of the trait. Whereas previous studies exclusively focused on highly polygenic traits, important agronomic traits such as disease resistances, nutrifunctional or climate adaptational traits have a genetic architecture which is either much less complex or unknown. For such cases, information about model robustness and guidelines for model selection are lacking. Here, we compared five WGP models with different assumptions about the distribution of the underlying genetic effects. As contrasting model traits, we chose three highly polygenic agronomic traits and three metabolites each with a major QTL explaining 22 to 30% of the genetic variance in a panel of 289 diverse maize inbred lines genotyped with 56,110 SNPs. Results We found the five WGP models to be remarkable robust towards trait architecture with the largest differences in prediction accuracies ranging between 0.05 and 0.14 for the same trait, most likely as the result of the high level of linkage disequilibrium prevailing in elite maize germplasm. Whereas RR-BLUP performed best for the agronomic traits, it was inferior to LASSO or elastic net for the three metabolites. We found the approach of genome partitioning of genetic variance, first applied in human genetics, as useful in guiding the breeder which model to choose, if prior knowledge of the trait architecture is lacking. Conclusions Our results suggest that in diverse germplasm of elite maize inbred lines with a high level of LD, WGP models differ only slightly in their accuracies, irrespective of the number and effects of QTL found in previous linkage or association mapping studies. However, small gains in prediction accuracies can be achieved if the WGP model is selected according to the genetic architecture of the trait. If the trait architecture is unknown e.g. for novel traits which only recently received attention in breeding, we suggest to inspect the distribution of the genetic variance explained by each chromosome for guiding model selection in WGP. PMID:22947126

  1. Quantitative trait locus mapping of genes associated with vacuolation in the adrenal X-zone of the DDD/Sgn inbred mouse

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Adrenal gland of mice contains a transient zone between the adrenal cortex and the adrenal medulla: the X-zone. There are clear strain differences in terms of X-zone morphology. Nulliparous females of the inbred mouse DDD strain develop adrenal X-zones containing exclusively vacuolated cells, whereas females of the inbred mouse B6 strain develop X-zones containing only non-vacuolated cells. The X-zone vacuolation is a physiologic process associated with the X-zone degeneration and is tightly regulated by genetic factors. Identification of the genetic factors controlling such strain differences should help analyze the X-zone function. In this study, a quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis for the extent of X-zone vacuolation was performed for two types of F2 female mice: F2Ay mice (F2 mice with the Ay allele) and F2 non-Ay mice (F2 mice without the Ay allele). These were produced by crossing B6 females and DDD.Cg-Ay males. DDD.Cg-Ay is a congenic mouse strain for the Ay allele at the agouti locus and is used for this study because a close association between the X-zone morphology and the agouti locus genotype has been suggested. The Ay allele is dominant and homozygous lethal; therefore, living Ay mice are invariably heterozygotes. Results Single QTL scans identified significant QTLs on chromosomes 1, 2, 6, and X for F2 non-Ay mice, and on chromosomes 2, 6, and 12 for F2Ay mice. The QTL on chromosome 2 was considered to be because of the agouti locus, which has been suggested to be associated with X-zone vacuolation. A significant QTL that interacted with the agouti locus was identified on chromosome 8. Conclusions The extent of X-zone vacuolation in DDD females was controlled by multiple genes with complex interactions. The murine X-zone is considered analogous structure to the human fetal zone. Therefore, the results of this study will aid in understanding function of not only of the X-zone but also of the human fetal zone. Identifying the genes responsible for the QTLs will be essential for understanding the molecular basis of X-zone function, which is currently unclear. PMID:23131041

  2. A non-synonymous SNP within the isopentenyl transferase 2 locus is associated with kernel weight in Chinese maize inbreds (Zea mays L.)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Kernel weight, controlled by quantitative trait loci (QTL), is an important component of grain yield in maize. Cytokinins (CKs) participate in determining grain morphology and final grain yield in crops. ZmIPT2, which is expressed mainly in the basal transfer cell layer, endosperm, and embryo during maize kernel development, encodes an isopentenyl transferase (IPT) that is involved in CK biosynthesis. Results The coding region of ZmIPT2 was sequenced across a panel of 175 maize inbred lines that are currently used in Chinese maize breeding programs. Only 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and seven haplotypes were detected among these inbred lines. Nucleotide diversity (?) within the ZmIPT2 window and coding region were 0.347 and 0.0047, respectively, and they were significantly lower than the mean nucleotide diversity value of 0.372 for maize Chromosome 2 (P?

  3. In vitro and in vivo effects of kinin B1 and B2 receptor agonists and antagonists in inbred control and cardiomyopathic hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Hall, S; Gobeil, F; Ouellette, J; Lambert, C; Regoli, D

    2000-01-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the possible alterations occurring in the effects of kinins on isolated aortae of inbred control (CHF 148) and cardiomyopathic (CHF 146) hamsters of 150175 and 350375 days of age.Bradykinin (BK) and desArg9BK contracted isolated aortae (with or without endothelium) of hamsters of both strains and ages. After tissue equilibration (90?min), responses elicited by both kinin agonists were stable over the time of experiments. The patterns of isometric contractions of BK and desArg9BK were however found to be different; desArg9BK had a slower onset and a longer duration of action than BK.Potencies (pEC50 values) of BK in all groups of hamsters were significantly increased by preincubating the tissues with captopril (10?5?M).No differences in the pEC50 values and the Emax values for BK or desArg9BK were seen between isolated vessels from inbred control and cardiomyopathic hamsters.The myotropic effect of BK was inhibited by the selective non peptide antagonist, FR 173657 (pIC50 7.250.12 at the bradykinin B2 receptor subtype (B2 receptor)). Those of desArg9BK, at the bradykinin B1 receptor subtype (B1 receptor) were abolished by either R 715 (pIC50 of 7.550.05; ?E=0), Lys[Leu8]desArg9BK (pIC50 of 7.210.01; ?E=0.22) or [Leu8]desArg9BK (pIC50 of 7.250.02; ?E=0.18).FR 173657 had no agonistic activity, exerted a non competitive type of antagonism and was poorly reversible (lasting more than 5?h) from B2 receptor. In vivo, FR 173657 (given per os at 1 and 5?mg?kg?1, 1?h before the experiment) antagonized the acute hypotensive effect of BK in anaesthetized hamsters.It is concluded that aging and/or the presence of a congenital cardiovascular disorder in hamsters are not associated with changes in the in vitro aortic responses to either BK or desArg9BK. PMID:10780969

  4. BALB/c and SWR inbred mice differ in post-oral fructose appetition as revealed by sugar versus non-nutritive sweetener tests.

    PubMed

    Kraft, Tamar T; Huang, Donald; Lolier, Melanie; Warshaw, Deena; LaMagna, Sam; Natanova, Elona; Sclafani, Anthony; Bodnar, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that C57BL/6J (B6) and FVB inbred mouse strains differ in post-oral fructose conditioning. This was demonstrated by their differential flavor conditioning response to intragastric fructose and their preference for fructose versus a non-nutritive sweetener. The present study extended this analysis to SWR and BALB/c inbred strains which are of interest because they both show robust flavor conditioning responses to fructose. In the first experiment, ad-libitum fed mice were given a series of 2-day, two-bottle preference tests between 8% fructose and a more preferred, but non-nutritive 0.1% sucralose +0.1% saccharin (S+S) solution (tests 1 & 4), and fructose or S+S versus water (tests 2 and 3). In test 1, SWR mice preferred S+S to fructose, and in tests 2 and 3, they preferred both sweeteners to water. In test 4, SWR mice switched their preference and consumed more fructose than S+S. In contrast, ad-libitum fed BALB/c mice strongly preferred S+S to fructose in both tests 1 and 4, although they preferred both sweeteners to water in tests 2 and 3. Food-restricted BALB/c mice also preferred the non-nutritive S+S to fructose in tests 1 and 4. The experience-induced fructose preference reversal observed in SWR, but not BALB/c mice indicates that fructose has a post-oral reinforcing effect in SWR mice as in FVB mice. Because B6 and FVB mice prefer glucose to fructose based on the post-oral actions of the two sugars, the second experiment compared the preferences of SWR and BALB/c mice for 8% glucose and fructose solutions. Ad-libitum fed and food-restricted SWR mice strongly preferred glucose to fructose. In contrast, ad-libitum fed BALB/c mice were indifferent to the sugars, perhaps because of their overall low intakes. Food-restricted BALB/c mice, however, strongly preferred glucose. These findings indicate that SWR and BALB/c mice differ in their preference response to the post-oral actions of fructose. PMID:26485292

  5. Laboratory Performance Predicts the Success of Field Releases in Inbred Lines of the Egg Parasitoid Trichogramma pretiosum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).

    PubMed

    Coelho, Aloisio; Rugman-Jones, Paul F; Reigada, Carolina; Stouthamer, Richard; Parra, José R P

    2016-01-01

    In this study we assessed the relationship between the laboratory and field performance of different isofemale lines of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley. In comparative assays, we used three rare mitochondrial haplotypes as genetic markers of the isofemale lines, and by introgressing these mitochondrial haplotypes into each of 15 genetically different nuclear lines, also tested the assumption that mitochondria are neutral markers. In a laboratory trial, 45 isofemale lines (15 nuclear genotypes x three mitochondrial haplotypes) were ranked in three categories (best, intermediate and worst) according to the mean offspring production and the proportion of female offspring. Subsequently, lines from each of the three categories were selected for field releases to quantify field parasitism on Ephestia kuehniella. Temporally separate releases were done in a transgenic Bt cornfield, with four plots, each with 50 points of recapture. The points of recapture consisted of trap cards with eggs of E. kuehniella collected daily. The trap cards were maintained in the laboratory at 25°C until the adult wasps emerged, and the maternal identity of the wasps was determined using qPCR and high-resolution melt curve analysis to determine the mitochondrial haplotype. The results showed that these measures of laboratory performance (fecundity and offspring sex ratio) were good predictors of field success in T. pretiosum. We also report strong evidence discrediting the assumption that mitochondria are neutral, in view of the correlation between performance and mitochondrial haplotype. PMID:26730735

  6. Laboratory Performance Predicts the Success of Field Releases in Inbred Lines of the Egg Parasitoid Trichogramma pretiosum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Aloisio; Rugman-Jones, Paul F.; Reigada, Carolina; Stouthamer, Richard; Parra, José R. P.

    2016-01-01

    In this study we assessed the relationship between the laboratory and field performance of different isofemale lines of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley. In comparative assays, we used three rare mitochondrial haplotypes as genetic markers of the isofemale lines, and by introgressing these mitochondrial haplotypes into each of 15 genetically different nuclear lines, also tested the assumption that mitochondria are neutral markers. In a laboratory trial, 45 isofemale lines (15 nuclear genotypes x three mitochondrial haplotypes) were ranked in three categories (best, intermediate and worst) according to the mean offspring production and the proportion of female offspring. Subsequently, lines from each of the three categories were selected for field releases to quantify field parasitism on Ephestia kuehniella. Temporally separate releases were done in a transgenic Bt cornfield, with four plots, each with 50 points of recapture. The points of recapture consisted of trap cards with eggs of E. kuehniella collected daily. The trap cards were maintained in the laboratory at 25°C until the adult wasps emerged, and the maternal identity of the wasps was determined using qPCR and high-resolution melt curve analysis to determine the mitochondrial haplotype. The results showed that these measures of laboratory performance (fecundity and offspring sex ratio) were good predictors of field success in T. pretiosum. We also report strong evidence discrediting the assumption that mitochondria are neutral, in view of the correlation between performance and mitochondrial haplotype. PMID:26730735

  7. Immunological and nonimmunological control of severity of Trypanosoma musculi infections in C3H and C57BL/6 inbred mice

    SciTech Connect

    Albright, J.W.; Albright, J.F.

    1989-06-01

    Studies concerned with the mechanisms responsible for relative resistance or susceptibility of strains of inbred mice to Trypanosoma musculi infections are presented. Treatment with 400 rads of ionizing radiation, silica dust, or trypan blue (reticuloendothelial blocking agents) rendered C3H mice unable to control the initial maximum level of parasite growth, and the mice died of overwhelming infections. In contrast, similarly treated C57BL/6 (relatively resistant) mice controlled initial trypanosome growth as well as controls; however, the duration of infection, preceding eventual cure, was approximately doubled. Combined treatment with trypan blue and 400 rads of radiation resulted in much higher initial levels of infection in C57BL/6 mice, and about half of the mice died; the remaining mice eventually recovered after a prolonged course of infection. These results indicate that a nonimmunological mechanism, which controls initial infection, and an immunological mechanism cooperate to limit T. musculi infections in normal mice. We present results that suggest that both mechanisms are less effective in C3H than in C57BL/6 mice. The initial control of infection presumably reflects the activity of some type(s) of phagocytic effector cell; we show, however, that the initial control of infection is not an attribute of the liver Kupffer cells. Identification and characterization of the cells capable of controlling initial infection could lead to procedures for enhancing their function and, thus, to enhanced resistance to, and elimination of, trypanosome infections.

  8. Complex genetics controls natural variation among seed quality phenotypes in a recombinant inbred population of an interspecific cross between Solanum lycopersicum Solanum pimpinellifolium.

    PubMed

    Kazmi, Rashid H; Khan, Noorullah; Willems, Leo A J; VAN Heusden, Adriaan W; Ligterink, Wilco; Hilhorst, Henk W M

    2012-05-01

    Seed quality in tomato is associated with many complex physiological and genetic traits. While plant processes are frequently controlled by the action of small- to large-effect genes that follow classic Mendelian inheritance, our study suggests that seed quality is primarily quantitative and genetically complex. Using a recombinant inbred line population of Solanum lycopersicum??Solanum pimpinellifolium, we identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs) influencing seed quality phenotypes under non-stress, as well as salt, osmotic, cold, high-temperature and oxidative stress conditions. In total, 42 seed quality traits were analysed and 120 QTLs were identified for germination traits under different conditions. Significant phenotypic correlations were observed between germination traits under optimal conditions, as well as under different stress conditions. In conclusion, one or more QTLs were identified for each trait with some of these QTLs co-locating. Co-location of QTLs for different traits can be an indication that a locus has pleiotropic effects on multiple traits due to a common mechanistic basis. However, several QTLs also dissected seed quality in its separate components, suggesting different physiological mechanisms and signalling pathways for different seed quality attributes. PMID:22074055

  9. Maximizing the reliability of genomic selection by optimizing the calibration set of reference individuals: comparison of methods in two diverse groups of maize inbreds (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Rincent, R; Laloë, D; Nicolas, S; Altmann, T; Brunel, D; Revilla, P; Rodríguez, V M; Moreno-Gonzalez, J; Melchinger, A; Bauer, E; Schoen, C-C; Meyer, N; Giauffret, C; Bauland, C; Jamin, P; Laborde, J; Monod, H; Flament, P; Charcosset, A; Moreau, L

    2012-10-01

    Genomic selection refers to the use of genotypic information for predicting breeding values of selection candidates. A prediction formula is calibrated with the genotypes and phenotypes of reference individuals constituting the calibration set. The size and the composition of this set are essential parameters affecting the prediction reliabilities. The objective of this study was to maximize reliabilities by optimizing the calibration set. Different criteria based on the diversity or on the prediction error variance (PEV) derived from the realized additive relationship matrix-best linear unbiased predictions model (RA-BLUP) were used to select the reference individuals. For the latter, we considered the mean of the PEV of the contrasts between each selection candidate and the mean of the population (PEVmean) and the mean of the expected reliabilities of the same contrasts (CDmean). These criteria were tested with phenotypic data collected on two diversity panels of maize (Zea mays L.) genotyped with a 50k SNPs array. In the two panels, samples chosen based on CDmean gave higher reliabilities than random samples for various calibration set sizes. CDmean also appeared superior to PEVmean, which can be explained by the fact that it takes into account the reduction of variance due to the relatedness between individuals. Selected samples were close to optimality for a wide range of trait heritabilities, which suggests that the strategy presented here can efficiently sample subsets in panels of inbred lines. A script to optimize reference samples based on CDmean is available on request. PMID:22865733

  10. Comparative live bioluminescence imaging of monkeypox virus dissemination in a wild-derived inbred mouse (Mus musculus castaneus) and outbred African dormouse (Graphiurus kelleni).

    PubMed

    Earl, Patricia L; Americo, Jeffrey L; Cotter, Catherine A; Moss, Bernard

    2015-01-15

    Monkeypox virus belongs to the orthopoxvirus genus, infects rodents and monkeys in Africa, produces a smallpox-like zoonotic disease in humans, and has the potential for global spread and exploitation for bioterrorism. Several small animal models for studying monkeypox virus pathogenesis have been investigated. The African dormouse is a candidate natural host but is outbred and no immunological reagents exist. Although not a natural host, the CAST/EiJ mouse is inbred and animals and reagents are commercially available. We compared the dissemination of monkeypox virus by bioluminescence imaging in CAST/EiJ mice and dormice. In CAST/EiJ mice, intense replication occurred at the intranasal site of inoculation and virus spread rapidly to lungs and abdominal organs, which had a lower virus burden. Compared to CAST/EiJ mice, dormice exhibited a greater variation of virus spread, a slower time course, less replication in the head and chest, and more replication in abdominal organs prior to death. PMID:25462355

  11. Differential Expressions of the Alternatively Spliced Variant mRNAs of the Opioid Receptor Gene, OPRM1, in Brain Regions of Four Inbred Mouse Strains

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jin; Lu, Zhigang; Xu, Mingming; Rossi, Grace C.; Kest, Benjamin; Waxman, Amanda R.; Pasternak, Gavril W.; Pan, Ying-Xian

    2014-01-01

    The opioid receptor gene, OPRM1, undergoes extensive alternative pre-mRNA splicing in rodents and humans, with dozens of alternatively spliced variants of the OPRM1 gene. The present studies establish a SYBR green quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay to more accurately quantify mouse OPRM1 splice variant mRNAs. Using these qPCR assays, we examined the expression of OPRM1 splice variant mRNAs in selected brain regions of four inbred mouse strains displaying differences in opioid-induced tolerance and physical dependence: C56BL/6J, 129P3/J, SJL/J and SWR/J. The complete mRNA expression profiles of the OPRM1 splice variants reveal marked differences of the variant mRNA expression among the brain regions in each mouse strain, suggesting region-specific alternative splicing of the OPRM1 gene. The expression of many variants was also strain-specific, implying a genetic influence on OPRM1 alternative splicing. The expression levels of a number of the variant mRNAs in certain brain regions appear to correlate with strain sensitivities to morphine analgesia, tolerance and physical dependence in four mouse strains. PMID:25343478

  12. Breeding Value and Variance Component Estimation from Data Containing Inbred Individuals: Application to Gynogenetic Families in Common Carp (Cyprinus Carpio L.)

    PubMed Central

    Bijma, P.; Van-Arendonk, JAM.; Bovenhuis, H.

    1997-01-01

    Under gynogenetic reproduction, offspring receive genes only from their dams and completely homozygous offspring are produced within one generation. When gynogenetic reproduction is applied to fully inbred individuals, homozygous clone lines are produced. A mixed model method was developed for breeding value and variance component estimation in gynogenetic families, which requires the inverse of the numerator relationship matrix. A general method for creating the inverse for a population with unusual relationships between animals is presented, which reduces to simple rules as is illustrated for gynogenetic populations. The presence of clones in gynogenetic populations causes singularity of the numerator relationship matrix. However, clones can be regarded as repeated observations of the same genotype, which can be accommodated by modifying the incidence matrix, and by considering only unique genotypes in the estimation procedure. Optimum gynogenetic sib family sizes for estimating heritabilities and estimates of their accuracy were derived and compared to those for conventional full-sib designs. This was done by means of a deterministic derivation and by stochastic simulation using Gibbs sampling. Optimum family sizes were smallest for gynogenetic families. Only for low heritabilities, there was a small advantage in accuracy under the gynogenetic design. PMID:9093872

  13. Compositional assessments of key maize populations: B73 hybrids of the Nested Association Mapping founder lines and diverse landrace inbred lines.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, Tyamagondlu V; Harrigan, George G; Perez, Tim; Flint-Garcia, Sherry

    2015-06-01

    The present study provides an assessment of the compositional diversity in maize B73 hybrids derived both from the Nested Association Mapping (NAM) founder lines and from a diverse collection of landrace accessions from North and South America. The NAM founders represent a key population of publicly available lines that are used extensively in the maize community to investigate the genetic basis of complex traits. Landraces are also of interest to the maize community as they offer the potential to discover new alleles that could be incorporated into modern maize lines. The compositional analysis of B73 hybrids from the 25 NAM founders and 24 inbred lines derived from landraces included measurements of proximates (protein, fat, ash, and starch), fibers, minerals, amino acids, fatty acids, tocopherols (?-, ?-, and ?-), ?-carotene, phytic acid, and raffinose. Grain was harvested from a replicated trial in New York, USA. For each data set (NAM and landrace) canonical discriminant analysis allowed separation of distinct breeding groups (tropical, temperate, flint, mixed/intermediate) within each data set. Overall, results highlighted extensive variation in all composition components assessed for both sets of hybrids. The variation observed for some components within the landraces may therefore be of value for increasing their levels in modern maize lines. The study described here provided significant information on contributions of conventional breeding to crop compositional variation, as well as valuable information on key genetic resources for the maize community in the development of new improved lines. PMID:25966324

  14. Mapping of QTL for Resistance against the Crucifer Specialist Herbivore Pieris brassicae in a New Arabidopsis Inbred Line Population, Da(1)-12Ei-2

    PubMed Central

    Pfalz, Marina; Vogel, Heiko; Mitchell-Olds, Thomas; Kroymann, Juergen

    2007-01-01

    Background In Arabidopsis thaliana and other crucifers, the glucosinolate-myrosinase system contributes to resistance against herbivory by generalist insects. As yet, it is unclear how crucifers defend themselves against crucifer-specialist insect herbivores. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed natural variation for resistance against two crucifer specialist lepidopteran herbivores, Pieris brassicae and Plutella xylostella, among Arabidopsis thaliana accessions and in a new Arabidopsis recombinant inbred line (RIL) population generated from the parental accessions Da(1)-12 and Ei-2. This RIL population consists of 201 individual F8 lines genotyped with 84 PCR-based markers. We identified six QTL for resistance against Pieris herbivory, but found only one weak QTL for Plutella resistance. To elucidate potential factors causing these resistance QTL, we investigated leaf hair (trichome) density, glucosinolates and myrosinase activity, traits known to influence herbivory by generalist insects. We identified several previously unknown QTL for these traits, some of which display a complex pattern of epistatic interactions. Conclusions/Significance Although some trichome, glucosinolate or myrosinase QTL co-localize with Pieris QTL, none of these traits explained the resistance QTL convincingly, indicating that resistance against specialist insect herbivores is influenced by other traits than resistance against generalists. PMID:17593977

  15. Maximizing the Reliability of Genomic Selection by Optimizing the Calibration Set of Reference Individuals: Comparison of Methods in Two Diverse Groups of Maize Inbreds (Zea mays L.)

    PubMed Central

    Rincent, R.; Lalo, D.; Nicolas, S.; Altmann, T.; Brunel, D.; Revilla, P.; Rodrguez, V.M.; Moreno-Gonzalez, J.; Melchinger, A.; Bauer, E.; Schoen, C-C.; Meyer, N.; Giauffret, C.; Bauland, C.; Jamin, P.; Laborde, J.; Monod, H.; Flament, P.; Charcosset, A.; Moreau, L.

    2012-01-01

    Genomic selection refers to the use of genotypic information for predicting breeding values of selection candidates. A prediction formula is calibrated with the genotypes and phenotypes of reference individuals constituting the calibration set. The size and the composition of this set are essential parameters affecting the prediction reliabilities. The objective of this study was to maximize reliabilities by optimizing the calibration set. Different criteria based on the diversity or on the prediction error variance (PEV) derived from the realized additive relationship matrixbest linear unbiased predictions model (RABLUP) were used to select the reference individuals. For the latter, we considered the mean of the PEV of the contrasts between each selection candidate and the mean of the population (PEVmean) and the mean of the expected reliabilities of the same contrasts (CDmean). These criteria were tested with phenotypic data collected on two diversity panels of maize (Zea mays L.) genotyped with a 50k SNPs array. In the two panels, samples chosen based on CDmean gave higher reliabilities than random samples for various calibration set sizes. CDmean also appeared superior to PEVmean, which can be explained by the fact that it takes into account the reduction of variance due to the relatedness between individuals. Selected samples were close to optimality for a wide range of trait heritabilities, which suggests that the strategy presented here can efficiently sample subsets in panels of inbred lines. A script to optimize reference samples based on CDmean is available on request. PMID:22865733

  16. Expression levels of candidate genes for intramuscular fat deposition in two Banna mini-pig inbred lines divergently selected for fatness traits.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Su-Mei; Li, Wei-Zhen; Pan, Hong-Bin; Huang, Ying; Yang, Ming-Hua; Wei, Hong-Jiang; Gao, Shi-Zheng

    2012-12-01

    Intramuscular fat (IMF) content plays an important role in meat quality. Many genes involved in lipid and energy metabolism were identified as candidate genes for IMF deposition, since genetic polymorphisms within these genes were associated with IMF content. However, there is less information on the expression levels of these genes in the muscle tissue. This study aimed at investigating the expression levels of sterol regulating element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT-1), heart-fatty acids binding protein (H-FABP), leptin receptor (LEPR) and melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) genes and proteins in two divergent Banna mini-pig inbred lines (BMIL). A similar growth performance was found in both the fat and the lean BMIL. The fat meat and IMF content in the fat BMIL were significantly higher than in the lean BMIL, but the lean meat content was lower. The serum triacylglycerol (TAG) and free fatty acid (FFA) contents were significantly higher in the fat than in the lean BMIL. The expression levels of SREBP-1c, DGAT-1 and H-FABP genes and proteins in fat BMIL were increased compared to the lean BMIL. However, the expression levels of LEPR and MC4R genes and proteins were lower. PMID:23271939

  17. A deleterious effect associated with UNH159 is attenuated in twin embryos of an inbred line of blue tilapia Oreochromis aureus.

    PubMed

    Shirak, A; Palti, Y; Bern, O; Kocher, T D; Gootwine, E; Seroussi, E; Hulata, G; Ron, M; Avtalion, R R

    2013-01-01

    Offspring of a highly inbred gynogenetic line of Oreochromis aureus displayed 12-fold increase in twinning rate compared to the outbred population. Asymmetric conjoined twins, which consist of a normal embryo attached to a malformed-atrophic twin, were frequently encountered in both gynogenetic (90·7%) and outbred (38·2%) embryos. The monozygotic origin of these twins was determined using five microsatellite markers. Progeny of heterozygous parents for the microsatellite UNH159 were separated into sub-sets of twins and normal full-sibs. Consistent with previous reports, the normal embryo sub-set exhibited elimination of both types of homozygotes for the UNH159 genetic marker at 2-8 days after fertilization. Unexpectedly, this elimination was less frequent in twins. The UNH159 marker as well as RNA-binding motif protein, X-linked (rbmx), SRY-box containing gene 3 (sox3) and alpha-thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked (atrx) genes were mapped to linkage group 2. These gene orthologues are all located on the mammalian X chromosome and atrx is necessary for the X-chromosome inactivation. PMID:23331137

  18. Detection and verification of QTLs associated with heat-induced quality decline of rice (Oryza sativa L.) using recombinant inbred lines and near-isogenic lines

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Asako; Sonoda, Junya; Sugimoto, Kazuhiko; Kondo, Motohiko; Iwasawa, Norio; Hayashi, Takeshi; Tomita, Katsura; Yano, Masahiro; Shimizu, Toyohiro

    2013-01-01

    Decline in the apparent quality of rice (Oryza sativa L.) grain due to high temperatures during ripening recently became a major concern in many areas in Japan. The occurrence of white-back kernels (WBK) is one of the main problems of heat-induced quality decline. We identified QTLs associated with the occurrence of WBK using recombinant inbred lines (RILs) and verified their effects using near-isogenic lines (NILs). The QTL analysis used F7 and F8 RILs derived from ‘Hana-echizen’ (HE), which is tolerant to high temperature, × ‘Niigata-wase’ (NW), which is sensitive to high temperature. Four QTLs were identified on chromosomes 3, 4, 6, and 9 (qWB3, qWB4, qWB6 and qWB9). To verify the effects of qWB6 and qWB9, we developed two NILs in which qWB6 or both were introduced from HE into the NW background. The HE allele at qWB6 significantly decreased WBK under multiple environments. The combination of qWB6 and qWB9 in an F2 population derived from a cross between a NIL and NW showed that the NW allele at qWB9 significantly decreased WBK if the qWB6 allele was HE. These results will be of value in marker-assisted selection for the breeding of rice with tolerance to heat-induced quality decline. PMID:24273430

  19. Proteomic analysis of HDL from inbred mouse strains implicates APOE associated with HDL in reduced cholesterol efflux capacity via the ABCA1 pathway[S

    PubMed Central

    Pamir, Nathalie; Hutchins, Patrick; Ronsein, Graziella; Vaisar, Tomas; Reardon, Catherine A.; Getz, Godfrey S.; Lusis, Aldons J.; Heinecke, Jay W.

    2016-01-01

    Cholesterol efflux capacity associates strongly and negatively with the incidence and prevalence of human CVD. We investigated the relationships of HDL’s size and protein cargo with its cholesterol efflux capacity using APOB-depleted serum and HDLs isolated from five inbred mouse strains with different susceptibilities to atherosclerosis. Like humans, mouse HDL carried >70 proteins linked to lipid metabolism, the acute-phase response, proteinase inhibition, and the immune system. HDL’s content of specific proteins strongly correlated with its size and cholesterol efflux capacity, suggesting that its protein cargo regulates its function. Cholesterol efflux capacity with macrophages strongly and positively correlated with retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) and PLTP, but not APOA1. In contrast, ABCA1-specific cholesterol efflux correlated strongly with HDL’s content of APOA1, APOC3, and APOD, but not RBP4 and PLTP. Unexpectedly, APOE had a strong negative correlation with ABCA1-specific cholesterol efflux capacity. Moreover, the ABCA1-specific cholesterol efflux capacity of HDL isolated from APOE-deficient mice was significantly greater than that of HDL from wild-type mice. Our observations demonstrate that the HDL-associated APOE regulates HDL’s ABCA1-specific cholesterol efflux capacity. These findings may be clinically relevant because HDL’s APOE content associates with CVD risk and ABCA1 deficiency promotes unregulated cholesterol accumulation in human macrophages. PMID:26673204

  20. Genetic dissection of maize seedling root system architecture traits using an ultra-high density bin-map and a recombinant inbred line population.

    PubMed

    Song, Weibin; Wang, Baobao; Hauck, Andrew L; Dong, Xiaomei; Li, Jieping; Lai, Jinsheng

    2016-03-01

    Maize (Zea mays) root system architecture (RSA) mediates the key functions of plant anchorage and acquisition of nutrients and water. In this study, a set of 204 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) was derived from the widely adapted Chinese hybrid ZD958(Zheng58 × Chang7-2), genotyped by sequencing (GBS) and evaluated as seedlings for 24 RSA related traits divided into primary, seminal and total root classes. Significant differences between the means of the parental phenotypes were detected for 18 traits, and extensive transgressive segregation in the RIL population was observed for all traits. Moderate to strong relationships among the traits were discovered. A total of 62 quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified that individually explained from 1.6% to 11.6% (total root dry weight/total seedling shoot dry weight) of the phenotypic variation. Eighteen, 24 and 20 QTL were identified for primary, seminal and total root classes of traits, respectively. We found hotspots of 5, 3, 4 and 12 QTL in maize chromosome bins 2.06, 3.02-03, 9.02-04, and 9.05-06, respectively, implicating the presence of root gene clusters or pleiotropic effects. These results characterized the phenotypic variation and genetic architecture of seedling RSA in a population derived from a successful maize hybrid. PMID:26593310

  1. Proteomic analysis of HDL from inbred mouse strains implicates APOE associated with HDL in reduced cholesterol efflux capacity via the ABCA1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Pamir, Nathalie; Hutchins, Patrick; Ronsein, Graziella; Vaisar, Tomas; Reardon, Catherine A; Getz, Godfrey S; Lusis, Aldons J; Heinecke, Jay W

    2016-02-01

    Cholesterol efflux capacity associates strongly and negatively with the incidence and prevalence of human CVD. We investigated the relationships of HDL's size and protein cargo with its cholesterol efflux capacity using APOB-depleted serum and HDLs isolated from five inbred mouse strains with different susceptibilities to atherosclerosis. Like humans, mouse HDL carried >70 proteins linked to lipid metabolism, the acute-phase response, proteinase inhibition, and the immune system. HDL's content of specific proteins strongly correlated with its size and cholesterol efflux capacity, suggesting that its protein cargo regulates its function. Cholesterol efflux capacity with macrophages strongly and positively correlated with retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) and PLTP, but not APOA1. In contrast, ABCA1-specific cholesterol efflux correlated strongly with HDL's content of APOA1, APOC3, and APOD, but not RBP4 and PLTP. Unexpectedly, APOE had a strong negative correlation with ABCA1-specific cholesterol efflux capacity. Moreover, the ABCA1-specific cholesterol efflux capacity of HDL isolated from APOE-deficient mice was significantly greater than that of HDL from wild-type mice. Our observations demonstrate that the HDL-associated APOE regulates HDL's ABCA1-specific cholesterol efflux capacity. These findings may be clinically relevant because HDL's APOE content associates with CVD risk and ABCA1 deficiency promotes unregulated cholesterol accumulation in human macrophages. PMID:26673204

  2. Genetic and diet effects on Ppar-α and Ppar-γ signaling pathways in the Berlin Fat Mouse Inbred line with genetic predisposition for obesity

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Berlin Fat Mouse Inbred (BFMI) line is a new mouse model for obesity, which was long-term selected for high fatness. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are involved in the control of energy homeostasis, nutrient metabolism and cell proliferation. Here, we studied the expression patterns of the different Ppar genes and the genes in the PPAR pathway in the BFMI line in comparison to physiological changes. Results At the age of 10 weeks, the BFMI mice exhibited marked obesity with enlarged adipocytes and high serum triglycerides concentrations in comparison to the often used mouse line C57BL/6 (B6). Between these two lines, gene expression analyses revealed differentially expressed genes belonging to the PPAR pathway, in particular genes of the lipogenesis and the fatty acid transport. Conclusion Surprisingly, the Ppar-α gene expression was up-regulated in liver and Ppar-γ gene expression was down-regulated in the white adipose tissue, indicating the activation of a mechanism that counteracts the rise of obesity. PMID:20831792

  3. Fixation, Segregation and Linkage of Allozyme Loci in Inbred Families of the Pacific Oyster Crassostrea Gigas (Thunberg): Implications for the Causes of Inbreeding Depression

    PubMed Central

    McGoldrick, D. J.; Hedgecock, D.

    1997-01-01

    The effect that inbreeding has on the fixation and segregation of genes has rarely been confirmed by direct observation. Here, fixation, segregation, and linkage of allozymes is investigated in the progeny of self-fertilized hermaphrodites of the normally outcrossing Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. The estimate of fixation pooled over loci, individuals, and families, F = 0.462, is significantly lower than the expected value of 0.5. Log-likelihood ratios reveal significant heterogeneity in fixation among individuals, among families, and among loci. In addition, the grand pooled segregation ratio, 127:243:54, deviates significantly from 1:2:1, with a bias against homozygotes for alleles of lesser frequency in the natural population. Segregation ratios for 11 of 14 loci are significantly heterogeneous among families, and exact tests for segregation within families reveal 16 significant results out of 51 tests. Thus, fixation and segregation of allozyme markers in inbred oyster families deviates from the expectations of neutral inbreeding theory. Di-genic disequilibria are significant for four of 74 di-locus pairs revealing two linkage groups. Strong viability selection is apparently conditional on the genotype of the hermaphrodite-founders and is largely focused on these two linkage groups. These genetic effects are explained by interaction between cis-linked factors and polymorphic regulatory backgrounds. PMID:9136021

  4. Genetic Determinants of the Network of Primary Metabolism and Their Relationships to Plant Performance in a Maize Recombinant Inbred Line Population[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Weiwei; Li, Kun; Alseekh, Saleh; Omranian, Nooshin; Zhao, Lijun; Zhou, Yang; Xiao, Yingjie; Jin, Min; Yang, Ning; Liu, Haijun; Florian, Alexandra; Li, Wenqiang; Pan, Qingchun; Nikoloski, Zoran; Yan, Jianbing; Fernie, Alisdair R.

    2015-01-01

    Deciphering the influence of genetics on primary metabolism in plants will provide insights useful for genetic improvement and enhance our fundamental understanding of plant growth and development. Although maize (Zea mays) is a major crop for food and feed worldwide, the genetic architecture of its primary metabolism is largely unknown. Here, we use high-density linkage mapping to dissect large-scale metabolic traits measured in three different tissues (leaf at seedling stage, leaf at reproductive stage, and kernel at 15 d after pollination [DAP]) of a maize recombinant inbred line population. We identify 297 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) with moderate (86.2% of the mapped QTL, R2 = 2.4 to 15%) to major effects (13.8% of the mapped QTL, R2 >15%) for 79 primary metabolites across three tissues. Pairwise epistatic interactions between these identified loci are detected for more than 25.9% metabolites explaining 6.6% of the phenotypic variance on average (ranging between 1.7 and 16.6%), which implies that epistasis may play an important role for some metabolites. Key candidate genes are highlighted and mapped to carbohydrate metabolism, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and several important amino acid biosynthetic and catabolic pathways, with two of them being further validated using candidate gene association and expression profiling analysis. Our results reveal a metabolite-metabolite-agronomic trait network that, together with the genetic determinants of maize primary metabolism identified herein, promotes efficient utilization of metabolites in maize improvement. PMID:26187921

  5. Comparative live bioluminescence imaging of monkeypox virus dissemination in a wild-derived inbred mouse (Mus musculus castaneus) and outbred African dormouse (Graphiurus kelleni)

    PubMed Central

    Earl, Patricia L.; Americo, Jeffrey L.; Cotter, Catherine A.; Moss, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Monkeypox virus belongs to the Orthopoxvirus genus, infects rodents and monkeys in Africa, produces a smallpox-like zoonotic disease in humans, and has the potential for global spread and exploitation for bioterrorism. Several small animal models for studying monkeypox virus pathogenesis have been investigated. The African dormouse is a candidate natural host but is outbred and no immunological reagents exist. Although not a natural host, the CAST/EiJ mouse is inbred and animals and reagents are commercially available. We compared the dissemination of monkeypox virus by bioluminescence imaging in CAST/EiJ mice and dormice. In CAST/EiJ mice, intense replication occurred at the intranasal site of inoculation and virus spread rapidly to lungs and abdominal organs, which had a lower virus burden. Compared to CAST/EiJ mice, dormice exhibited a greater variation of virus spread, a slower time course, less replication in the head and chest, and more replication in abdominal organs prior to death. PMID:25462355

  6. Polyvalent strain-specific alloantisera as tools for routine genetic quality control of inbred and congenic strains of rats and mice.

    PubMed

    Festing, M F; Totman, P

    1980-04-01

    Strain-specific polyvalent alloantisera may be obtained by injecting lymphocytes pooled from several different strains into an inbred recipient. 6 sera of this type were produced in rats and 23 in mice. A dye-exclusion microcytotoxic test was used to evaluate the strain specificity of such sera. A total of 663 out of 713 (93.0%) of the tests conformed with expectation, but there were 58 (6.7%) false negative results in which the test failed to detect non-authentic animals. There were also 2 (0.3%) false positive results, in which authentic animals were shown as non-authentic. These were attributed to technical errors. Most false negative results occurred when serum and test cell suspensions matched at the major histocompatibility complex. It was concluded that the use of strain-specific polyvalent immune sera, coupled with a simple immunological test such as the microcytotoxic test, offers a sensitive and quick new method for routine genetic quality control. PMID:7431827

  7. Neural stem/progenitor cells transplanted to the hypoglossal nucleus integrates with the host CNS in adult rats and promotes motor neuron survival.

    PubMed

    Fagerlund, Michael; Prez Estrada, Cynthia; Jaff, Nasren; Svensson, Mikael; Brundin, Lou

    2012-01-01

    Transplantation of neural stem cells and the mobilization of endogenous neuronal precursors in the adult brain have been proposed as therapeutic strategies for central nervous system disorders and injuries. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible survival and integration of grafted neural progenitor cells (NPCs) from the subventricular zone (SVZ) in a hypoglossal nerve avulsion model with substantial neuronal loss. Adult neural progenitor cells (NPCs) from the subventricular zone (SVZ) were cultured from inbred transgenic eGFP Lewis rats and transplanted to the hypoglossal nucleus of inbred Lewis rat from the same family but that were not carrying the eGFP strain after avulsion of the hypoglossal nerve. Grafted cells survived in the host more than 3 months and differentiated into neurons [?III tubulin (Tuj-1 staining)] with fine axon- and dendrite-like processes as well as astrocytes (GFAP) and oligodendrocytes (O4) with typical morphology. Staining for synaptic structures (synaptophysin and bassoon) indicated integration of differentiated cells from the graft with the host CNS. Furthermore, transplantation of NPCs increased the number of surviving motoneurons in the hypoglossal nucleus after nerve avulsion that, if untreated, result in substantial neuronal death. The NPCs used in this study expressed VEGF in vitro as well as in vivo following transplantation that may mediate the rescue effect of the axotomized motoneurons. PMID:22182695

  8. Depression - older adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... life for weeks or longer. Depression in older adults is a widespread problem, but it is not ... In older adults, life changes can increase the risk for depression or make existing depression worse. Some of these changes are: ...

  9. Adults Living with OI

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Contact Us | Login OIF Resources Especially For Parents Adults Youth Medical Professionals Media About OI Information & Support Research & Studies Donate How to Help The ... Adults Living with OI Write to us with your ...

  10. Older Adults and Depression

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Older Adults and Depression Share Older Adults and Depression Download PDF Download ePub Download Mobi Order a ... If so, you may have depression. What is depression? Everyone feels down or sad sometimes, but these ...

  11. Immunization Schedules for Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ACIP Vaccination Recommendations Why Immunize? Vaccines: The Basics Immunization Schedules for Adults in Easy-to-read Formats ... previous immunizations. View or Print a Schedule Recommended Immunizations for Adults (19 Years and Older) by Age ...

  12. Information for Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Considerations in the Adult Patient Input and Surgeon Selection There is a major difference between adults considering ... of the body’s own bone, most surgeons believe natural bone gives a better result. The bone can ...

  13. Adult Education in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miser, Rifat; Ural, Ozana; nlhisarkl, zlem

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the situation and practices of adult education in Turkey in terms of (a) participants, (b) providers, and (c) program areas. The data were derived from published statistical data and one-to-one interaction with adult education providers when such data are unavailable. Turkey has a long tradition of adult education with

  14. Adult Education in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokkos, Alexios

    2008-01-01

    The central aim of this article is to analyse the current situation of adult education in Greece. The article focuses on the following points: (a) the degree of participation in programmes of continuing professional training and general adult education courses, (b) the quality and the outcomes of the adult education provision in Greece, and (c)

  15. Adult Education in Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirmayer, Paul, Ed.; And Others

    This volume contains 13 articles that reflect the development of adult education in Israel during recent years. The material relates to the principal areas with which the Division of Adult Education deals: formal and nonformal education for adults, language and cultural absorption of new immigrants, and training of facilitators for parental

  16. Adult Learning: A Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Peter, Ed.

    This book on adult learning is divided into six sections. Section 1, Cognitive Processes, includes the following chapters: "Cognitive Processes: Contemporary Paradigms of Learning" (Jack Mezirow); "Information Processing, Memory, Age and Adult Learning" (Gillian Boulton-Lewis); "Adult Learners' Metacognitive Behaviour in Higher Education" (Barry

  17. Adults Learning. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Jenny

    Aimed at anyone who wants to know how to teach adults, this guide aims to build confidence, offer practical advice, and give the real-life flavor of helping fellow adults develop. Chapter 1 addresses adult learners: mindsets, motivation, and learning (learning cycle, learning styles, relevance, reinforcement and practice, experience, learning to…

  18. Kids Who Outwit Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seita, John R.; Brendtro, Larry K.

    Kids who distrust adults are highly skilled at hiding their real nature and resisting change. Most adults shun such youths or get mired in conflict with them. Punitive get tough practices as well as traditional flaw-fixing treatment are reactive strategies that often drive these youths further from adult bonds and reinforce oppositional and

  19. Resources for Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortright, Richard; DeCrow, Roger

    This review of information resources in Adult Basic Education, recommends some actions that an individual can take to uncover local information sources in Adult Basic Education, describes the three main national information systems (e.g. ERIC-Education Resources Information Center, NAEC-National Education Association Adult Education Clearinghouse,

  20. Adult Education in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miser, Rifat; Ural, Ozana; Ünlühisarýklý, Özlem

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the situation and practices of adult education in Turkey in terms of (a) participants, (b) providers, and (c) program areas. The data were derived from published statistical data and one-to-one interaction with adult education providers when such data are unavailable. Turkey has a long tradition of adult education with…

  1. Comparing Adult Education Worldwide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charters, Alexander N.; And Others

    Comparative international adult education, defined as that field in which adult educators from various countries compare their own institutions and practices with those of their counterparts in other nations, is examined. Provided is an account of adult education in nine European socialist countries (including the Soviet Union), as well as…

  2. Multifocal adult rhabdomyoma.

    PubMed

    Gardner, D G; Corio, R L

    1983-07-01

    It is not well recognized that a small but significant proportion of extracardiac adult rhabdomyomas have occurred multifocally. The present example of a 60-year-old man with adult rhabdomyomas of the larynx and submandibular region is the seventh multifocal case out of approximately sixty adult rhabdomyomas reported in the literature. Previously published cases are summarized in this article. PMID:6576314

  3. Teaching Languages to Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidwell, Duncan, Ed.

    A collection of six essays focuses on second language instruction for adult learners. In "Modern Languages and the Adult Student" (David Smith), the motivations of adults taking evening classes are examined and the ways in which language teachers need to adjust to this population are discussed. "Language Learning Theories and Their Implications

  4. Adult Competency Education Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Occupational and Adult Education (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC. Div. of Adult Education.

    A compilation of brief descriptions of 20 current resources for Adult Performance Level (APL) and Adult Competency Education (ACE) programs, this guide was developed for adult and secondary education administrators, teachers, and program developers who are beginning or are already involved with APL/ACE programs. Each citation contains information

  5. Adult Competency Education Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Occupational and Adult Education (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC. Div. of Adult Education.

    A compilation of abstracts of 120 current Adult Performance Level (APL) and Adult Competency Education (ACE) federally supported projects being conducted in 34 States and the District of Columbia, this project profile was developed for adult and secondary education administrators, teachers, and program developers who are beginning or are currently

  6. Urbanization and Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, W. Fisher

    1974-01-01

    The impact of urbanization, the main tasks facing the adult educator in an urban context, identifying the casualties of urbanization, recognizing and dealing with social deprivation, and the various agencies involved in adult education are relevant considerations for adult educators. (MW)

  7. Adults Role in Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notar, Charles E.; Padgett, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Do adults play a role in bullying? Do parents, teachers, school staff, and community adult leaders influence bullying behavior in children and teenagers? This article will focus on research regarding all adults who have almost daily contact with children and teens and their part in how bullying is identified, addressed, and prevented. This article…

  8. Dimensions of Adult Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Griff, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    This broad introduction to adult and postcompulsory education offers an overview of the field for students, adult educators and workplace trainers. The book establishes an analytical framework to emphasize the nature of learning and agency of learners; examines the core knowledge and skills that adult educators need; discusses policy, research and

  9. Teaching Languages to Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidwell, Duncan, Ed.

    A collection of six essays focuses on second language instruction for adult learners. In "Modern Languages and the Adult Student" (David Smith), the motivations of adults taking evening classes are examined and the ways in which language teachers need to adjust to this population are discussed. "Language Learning Theories and Their Implications…

  10. Adult Education in Hungary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csoma, Gyula; And Others

    Beginning with a brief survey of the national system, this work covers provisions since 1945 for adult education in Hungary. Educational objectives and other theoretical aspects of adult education in Hungarian society are described, together with the eight year elementary program, technical and vocational adult schools, general and professional…

  11. Adult Survival Skills Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsko, Gregory M.

    The purpose of this instrument is to supplement data from the Adult Basic Learning Examination in assessing the functional level of adults in daily situations. It may also be used as a teaching tool for adults requesting tutoring in specific concepts and skills presented in the instrument. This instrument is an informal assessment instrument and

  12. The Adult Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belsky, Janet

    The 14 chapters of this textbook chronicle adult development from youth through old age, emphasizing both research and interviews with adults at various stages in their lives. Topics covered include the following: (1) the academic field of adult development; (2) theories and research methods; (3) aging and disease prevention; (4) sexuality and

  13. Comparing Adult Education Worldwide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charters, Alexander N.; And Others

    Comparative international adult education, defined as that field in which adult educators from various countries compare their own institutions and practices with those of their counterparts in other nations, is examined. Provided is an account of adult education in nine European socialist countries (including the Soviet Union), as well as

  14. Adult Learning Assumptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baskas, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine Knowles' theory of andragogy and his six assumptions of how adults learn while providing evidence to support two of his assumptions based on the theory of andragogy. As no single theory explains how adults learn, it can best be assumed that adults learn through the accumulation of formal and informal

  15. Adults Learning for Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Alan

    This book, drawing on 30 years of adult education experience in England, Ireland, India, and other countries, contrasts the individualistic approach to adult education in the West with the social responsibility view of adult education in the developing world. The book's thesis is that the gulf between the approach of the West and that of

  16. Young Adult Library Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The Bookmark, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Eight articles in this Spring 1985 issue of The Bookmark focus on young adult library services. In addition to these thematic articles, an introduction and three reports are presented. The issue contains: (1) "In Perspective" (E. J. Josey); (2) "Young Adult Literature in the 1980's--Awesome!" (Ellin Chu); (3) "Young Adult Services' Public

  17. QTL for the thermotolerance effect of heat hardening, knockdown resistance to heat and chill-coma recovery in an intercontinental set of recombinant inbred lines of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Norry, Fabian M; Scannapieco, Alejandra C; Sambucetti, Pablo; Bertoli, Carlos I; Loeschcke, Volker

    2008-10-01

    The thermotolerance effect of heat hardening (also called short-term acclimation), knockdown resistance to high temperature (KRHT) with and without heat hardening and chill-coma recovery (CCR) are important phenotypes of thermal adaptation in insects and other organisms. Drosophila melanogaster from Denmark and Australia were previously selected for low and high KRHT, respectively. These flies were crossed to construct recombinant inbred lines (RIL). KRHT was higher in heat-hardened than in nonhardened RIL. We quantify the heat-hardening effect (HHE) as the ratio in KRHT between heat-hardened and nonhardened RIL. Composite interval mapping revealed a more complex genetic architecture for KRHT without heat-hardening than for KRHT in heat-hardened insects. Five quantitative trait loci (QTL) were found for KRHT, but only two of them were significant after heat hardening. KRHT and CCR showed trade-off associations for QTL both in the middle of chromosome 2 and the right arm of chromosome 3, which should be the result of either pleiotropy or linkage. The major QTL on chromosome 2 explained 18% and 27-33% of the phenotypic variance in CCR and KRHT in nonhardened flies, respectively, but its KRHT effects decreased by heat hardening. We discuss candidate loci for each QTL. One HHE-QTL was found in the region of small heat-shock protein genes. However, HHE-QTL explained only a small fraction of the phenotypic variance. Most heat-resistance QTL did not colocalize with CCR-QTL. Large-effect QTL for CCR and KRHT without hardening (basal thermotolerance) were consistent across continents, with apparent transgressive segregation for CCR. HHE (inducible thermotolerance) was not regulated by large-effect QTL. PMID:18986501

  18. [Effects of low temperature on formation of spikelets and grain filling of indica inbred rice during panicle initiation in early-season].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yan-hua; Zhang, Yu-ping; Xiang, Jing; Wang, Ya-liang; Chen, Hui-zhe; Zhu, De-feng

    2015-07-01

    A pot experiment in phytotron with controlled temperature was conducted to examine the effects of low temperature (LT) on differentiation and retrogression of branches and spikelets and grain filling of rice during panicle initiation (PI). In this study, indica inbred rice called Zhong-jiazaol7 was planted and treated at 17 and 20 C of LT during primary branches anlage differentiation (II) and pollen mother cell meiosis stage (VI) of PI. The results showed that the numbers of differentiated and survived branches per panicle were significantly reduced under LT treatment compared with control, and the number of survived spikelets was significantly decreased by 7.2% - 12.4%, but the numbers of retrograded branches and spikelets were increased. Moreover, LT affected significantly the development of floral organ such as pollen activity and anther dehiscence, and caused harmful grain filling, particularly at 17 C. The numbers of total differentiated and survived branches and spikelets were lower during VI (PI) than during II (PI) under LT stress, but more retrograded secondary branches and spikelets (increased by 11.6%) were found during V (PI) compared with II (PI). Meanwhile, in contrast to II (PI), the seed setting rate was significantly lowered by 3.7% during VI (PI), which was attributed to reductions in pollen activity, pollen grains on stigma, anther dehiscence coefficient and grain filling rate. LT stress impact on rice panicles was higher at 17 C than at 20 C during II and VI (PI). The cultivation measure could be correspondingly strengthened and improved in practice. PMID:26710626

  19. Natural herbicide resistance (HR) to broad-spectrum herbicide, glyphosate among traditional and inbred-cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Weerakoon, S R; Somaratne, S; Wijeratne, R G D; Ekanyaka, E M S I

    2013-08-15

    Weeds along with insect pests and plant diseases are sources of biotic stress in crop systems. Weeds are responsible for serious problems in rice worldwide affecting growth and causing a considerable reduction in quality and quantity in yield. High concentrations of pre-emergent-broad-spectrum systemic herbicide, Glyphosate is prevalently applied to control rice weeds which intern causes severe damages to cultivated rice varieties, susceptible to Glyphosate. However, there may be rice varieties with natural Herbicide Resistance (HR) which are so far, has not been evaluated. In this study Six traditional and eighteen developed-cultivated rice varieties (Bg, Bw, At and Ld series developed by Rice Research Development Institute, Sri Lanka) were used to screen their natural HR. RCBD with five replicates and three blocks in each treatment-combination was used as the experimental design. As observations, time taken-to seed germination, time taken to flowering; plant height and number of leaves at 12-weeks after sawing, leaf-length, breadth, panicle-length, number of seeds/panicle of resistant plants and controls were recorded. Plants with > or = 40% resistance were considered as resistant to Glyphosate. Ten inbred-cultivated rice varieties (Bg250, Bg94-1, Bg304, Bg359, Bg406, Bg379-2, Bg366, Bg300, Bw364, At362) and three traditional rice varieties ("Kalu Heenati", "Sudu Heenati", "Pachchaperumal") were naturally resistant to 0.25 g L(-1) Glyphosate concentration and when increased the concentration (0.5 g L(-1)) resistance was reduced. This study showed the usefulness of modern statistical method, classification and regression tree analysis (CART) in exploring and visualizing the patterns reflected by a large number of rice varieties (larger experimental database) on herbicide resistance in future. PMID:24498832

  20. Genetic Determinants for Enzymatic Digestion of Lignocellulosic Biomass Are Independent of Those for Lignin Abundance in a Maize Recombinant Inbred Population

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Penning, Bryan W.; Sykes, Robert W.; Babcock, Nicholas C.; Dugard, Christopher K.; Held, Michael A.; Klimek, John F.; Shreve, Jacob T.; Fowler, Matthew; Ziebell, Angela; Davis, Mark F.; et al

    2014-06-27

    Biotechnological approaches to reduce or modify lignin in biomass crops are predicated on the assumption that it is the principal determinant of the recalcitrance of biomass to enzymatic digestion for biofuels production. We defined quantitative trait loci (QTL) in the Intermated B73 x 3 Mo17 recombinant inbred maize (Zea mays) population using pyrolysis molecular-beam mass spectrometry to establish stem lignin content and an enzymatic hydrolysis assay to measure glucose and xylose yield. Among five multiyear QTL for lignin abundance, two for 4-vinylphenol abundance, and four for glucose and/or xylose yield, not a single QTL for aromatic abundance and sugar yieldmore » was shared. A genome-wide association study for lignin abundance and sugar yield of the 282- member maize association panel provided candidate genes in the 11 QTL of the B73 and Mo17 parents but showed that many other alleles impacting these traits exist among this broader pool of maize genetic diversity. B73 and Mo17 genotypes exhibited large differences in gene expression in developing stem tissues independent of allelic variation. Combining these complementary genetic approaches provides a narrowed list of candidate genes. A cluster of SCARECROW-LIKE9 and SCARECROW-LIKE14 transcription factor genes provides exceptionally strong candidate genes emerging from the genome-wide association study. In addition to these and genes associated with cell wall metabolism, candidates include several other transcription factors associated with vascularization and fiber formation and components of cellular signaling pathways. Finally, these results provide new insights and strategies beyond the modification of lignin to enhance yields of biofuels from genetically modified biomass.« less

  1. The genetic basis of preference for sweet substances among inbred strains of mice: preference ratio phenotypes and the alleles of the Sac and dpa loci.

    PubMed

    Capeless, C G; Whitney, G

    1995-06-01

    Five inbred strains (129/J, BALB/cByJ, C3HeB/FeJ, C57BI/6J and DBA/2J) were examined with two-bottle (48 h) preference ratio testing across concentrations of sodium saccharin (3 x 10(-4) M, 10(-3) M, 3 x 10(-3) M and 10(-2) M), d-phenylalanine (10(-3) M, 10(-2) M and 10(-1) M), and l-glutamine (10(-2) M, 3 x 10(-2) M, 10(-1) M and 3 x 10(-1) M). Three consistent groupings of strains were observed across substances and concentrations: (1) C57BI/6J (preference at low and high concentrations); (2) BALB/cByJ and C3HeB/FeJ (preference at high concentrations); (3) 129/J and DBA/2J (preference at high concentration for sodium saccharin and indifference to d-phenylalanine and l-glutamine). If a single locus (presumably dpa or Sac) determines these phenotypes, there are likely to be three alleles. If two independent loci (presumably dpa and Sac) determine these phenotypes, an allelic assignment of Sacb/dpa+s for the C57BI/6J strain, Sacb/dpa-s for the BALB/cByJ and C3HeB/FeJ strains, and either Sacd/dpa+s or Sacd/dpa-s for the 129/J and DBA/2J strains is suggested. PMID:7552037

  2. Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Variable Region and Major Histocompatibility Region Genes Are Linked to Induced Graves' Disease in Females From Two Very Large Families of Recombinant Inbred Mice

    PubMed Central

    Aliesky, Holly; Banuelos, Bianca; Magana, Jessica; Williams, Robert W.; Rapoport, Basil

    2014-01-01

    Graves' hyperthyroidism is caused by antibodies to the TSH receptor (TSHR) that mimic thyroid stimulation by TSH. Stimulating TSHR antibodies and hyperthyroidism can be induced by immunizing mice with adenovirus expressing the human TSHR A-subunit. Prior analysis of induced Graves' disease in small families of recombinant inbred (RI) female mice demonstrated strong genetic control but did not resolve trait loci for TSHR antibodies or elevated serum T4. We investigated the genetic basis for induced Graves' disease in female mice of two large RI families and combined data with earlier findings to provide phenotypes for 178 genotypes. TSHR antibodies measured by inhibition of TSH binding to its receptor were highly significantly linked in the BXD set to the major histocompatibility region (chromosome 17), consistent with observations in 3 other RI families. In the LXS family, we detected linkage between T4 levels after TSHR-adenovirus immunization and the Ig heavy chain variable region (Igvh, chromosome 12). This observation is a key finding because components of the antigen binding region of Igs determine antibody specificity and have been previously linked to induced thyroid-stimulating antibodies. Data from the LXS family provide the first evidence in mice of a direct link between induced hyperthyroidism and Igvh genes. A role for major histocompatibility genes has now been established for genetic susceptibility to Graves' disease in both humans and mice. Future studies using arrays incorporating variation in the complex human Ig gene locus will be necessary to determine whether Igvh genes are also linked to Graves' disease in humans. PMID:25051451

  3. Genetic Determinants for Enzymatic Digestion of Lignocellulosic Biomass Are Independent of Those for Lignin Abundance in a Maize Recombinant Inbred Population1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Penning, Bryan W.; Sykes, Robert W.; Babcock, Nicholas C.; Dugard, Christopher K.; Held, Michael A.; Klimek, John F.; Shreve, Jacob T.; Fowler, Matthew; Ziebell, Angela; Davis, Mark F.; Decker, Stephen R.; Turner, Geoffrey B.; Mosier, Nathan S.; Springer, Nathan M.; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Weil, Clifford F.; McCann, Maureen C.; Carpita, Nicholas C.

    2014-01-01

    Biotechnological approaches to reduce or modify lignin in biomass crops are predicated on the assumption that it is the principal determinant of the recalcitrance of biomass to enzymatic digestion for biofuels production. We defined quantitative trait loci (QTL) in the Intermated B73 × Mo17 recombinant inbred maize (Zea mays) population using pyrolysis molecular-beam mass spectrometry to establish stem lignin content and an enzymatic hydrolysis assay to measure glucose and xylose yield. Among five multiyear QTL for lignin abundance, two for 4-vinylphenol abundance, and four for glucose and/or xylose yield, not a single QTL for aromatic abundance and sugar yield was shared. A genome-wide association study for lignin abundance and sugar yield of the 282-member maize association panel provided candidate genes in the 11 QTL of the B73 and Mo17 parents but showed that many other alleles impacting these traits exist among this broader pool of maize genetic diversity. B73 and Mo17 genotypes exhibited large differences in gene expression in developing stem tissues independent of allelic variation. Combining these complementary genetic approaches provides a narrowed list of candidate genes. A cluster of SCARECROW-LIKE9 and SCARECROW-LIKE14 transcription factor genes provides exceptionally strong candidate genes emerging from the genome-wide association study. In addition to these and genes associated with cell wall metabolism, candidates include several other transcription factors associated with vascularization and fiber formation and components of cellular signaling pathways. These results provide new insights and strategies beyond the modification of lignin to enhance yields of biofuels from genetically modified biomass. PMID:24972714

  4. Genetic Determinants for Enzymatic Digestion of Lignocellulosic Biomass Are Independent of Those for Lignin Abundance in a Maize Recombinant Inbred Population

    SciTech Connect

    Penning, Bryan W.; Sykes, Robert W.; Babcock, Nicholas C.; Dugard, Christopher K.; Held, Michael A.; Klimek, John F.; Shreve, Jacob T.; Fowler, Matthew; Ziebell, Angela; Davis, Mark F.; Decker, Stephen R.; Turner, Geoffrey B.; Mosier, Nathan S.; Springer, Nathan M.; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Weil, Clifford F.; McCann, Maureen C.; Carpita, Nicholas C.

    2014-06-27

    Biotechnological approaches to reduce or modify lignin in biomass crops are predicated on the assumption that it is the principal determinant of the recalcitrance of biomass to enzymatic digestion for biofuels production. We defined quantitative trait loci (QTL) in the Intermated B73 x 3 Mo17 recombinant inbred maize (Zea mays) population using pyrolysis molecular-beam mass spectrometry to establish stem lignin content and an enzymatic hydrolysis assay to measure glucose and xylose yield. Among five multiyear QTL for lignin abundance, two for 4-vinylphenol abundance, and four for glucose and/or xylose yield, not a single QTL for aromatic abundance and sugar yield was shared. A genome-wide association study for lignin abundance and sugar yield of the 282- member maize association panel provided candidate genes in the 11 QTL of the B73 and Mo17 parents but showed that many other alleles impacting these traits exist among this broader pool of maize genetic diversity. B73 and Mo17 genotypes exhibited large differences in gene expression in developing stem tissues independent of allelic variation. Combining these complementary genetic approaches provides a narrowed list of candidate genes. A cluster of SCARECROW-LIKE9 and SCARECROW-LIKE14 transcription factor genes provides exceptionally strong candidate genes emerging from the genome-wide association study. In addition to these and genes associated with cell wall metabolism, candidates include several other transcription factors associated with vascularization and fiber formation and components of cellular signaling pathways. Finally, these results provide new insights and strategies beyond the modification of lignin to enhance yields of biofuels from genetically modified biomass.

  5. Genetic variation for N-remobilization and postsilking N-uptake in a set of maize recombinant inbred lines. 3. QTL detection and coincidences.

    PubMed

    Coque, M; Martin, A; Veyrieras, J B; Hirel, B; Gallais, A

    2008-09-01

    The objective of this study was to map and characterize QTLs for traits related to nitrogen utilization efficiency (NUE), grain N yield, N-remobilization and post-silking N-uptake. Furthermore, to examine whether QTLs detected with recombinant inbred lines (RILs) crossed to a tester are common to those detected with line per se evaluation, both types of evaluations were developed from the same set of RILs. The material was studied over two years at high N-input, and one year at low N-input. We used (15)N-labelling to evaluate with accuracy the proportion of N remobilized from stover to kernels and the proportion of postsilking N-uptake allocated to kernels. With 59 traits studied in three environments, 608 QTLs were detected. Using a method of QTL clustering, 72 clusters were identified, with few QTLs being specific to one environment or to the type of plant material (lines or testcross families). However, considering each trait separately, few QTLs were common to both line per se and testcross evaluation. This shows that genetic variability is expressed differently according to the type of progeny. Studies of coincidences among QTLs within the clusters showed an antagonism between N-remobilization and N-uptake in several QTL-clusters. QTLs for N-uptake, root system architecture and leaf greenness coincided positively in eight clusters. QTLs for remobilization mainly coincided in clusters with QTLs for leaf senescence. On the whole, sign of coincidences between QTLs underlined the role of a "stay-green" phenotype in favouring N-uptake capacity, and thus grain yield and N grain yield. PMID:18566796

  6. Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci Associated with Rice Eating Quality Traits Using a Population of Recombinant Inbred Lines Derived from a Cross between Two Temperate japonica Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Soon-Wook; Cho, Young-Chan; Lee, Jeong-Heui; Suh, Jung-Pi; Kim, Jeong-Ju; Kim, Myeong-Ki; Choi, Im-Soo; Hwang, Hung-Goo; Koh, Hee-Jong; Kim, Yeon-Gyu

    2011-01-01

    Improved eating quality is a major breeding target in japonica rice due to market demand. In this study, we performed genetic analysis to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that control rice eating quality traits using 192 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between two japonica cultivars, ‘Suweon365’ and ‘Chucheongbyeo’. We evaluated the stickiness (ST) and overall evaluation (OE) of cooked rice using a sensory test, the glossiness of cooked rice (GCR) using a Toyo-taste meter, and measured the amylose content (AC), protein content (PC), alkali digestion value (ADV), and days to heading (DH) of the RILs in the years 2006 and 2007. Our analysis revealed 21 QTLs on chromosomes 1, 4, 6, 7, 8, and 11. QTLs on chromosomes 6, 7, and 8 were detected for three traits related to eating quality in both years. QTLs for ST and OE were identified by a sensory test in the same region of the QTLs for AC, PC, ADV, GCR and DH on chromosome 8. QTL effects on the GCR were verified using QTL-NILs (near-isogenic lines) of BC3F4-6 in the Suweon365 background, a low eating quality variety, and some BC1F3 lines. Chucheongbyeo alleles at QTLs on chromosomes 7 and 8 increased the GCR in the NILs and backcrossed lines. The QTLs identified by our analysis will be applicable to future marker-assisted selection (MAS) strategies for improving the eating quality of japonica rice. PMID:21360198

  7. Genetic Analysis of Ligation-Induced Neointima Formation in an F2 Intercross of C57BL/6 and FVB/N Inbred Mouse Strains

    PubMed Central

    Östergren, Caroline; Shim, Jeong; Larsen, Jens Vinther; Nielsen, Lars Bo; Bentzon, Jacob F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) are central for arterial diseases including atherosclerosis and restenosis. We hypothesized that the underlying mechanisms may be modeled by carotid ligation in mice. In FVB/N inbred mice, ligation leads to abundant neointima formation with proliferating media-derived SMCs, whereas in C57BL/6 mice hardly any neointima is formed. In the present study, we aimed to identify the chromosomal location of the causative gene variants in an F2 intercross between these two mouse strains. Methods and Results The neointimal cross-sectional area was significantly different between FVB/N, C57BL/6 and F1 female mice 4 weeks after ligation. Carotid artery ligation and a genome scan using 800 informative SNP markers were then performed in 157 female F2 mice. Using quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis, we identified suggestive, but no genome-wide significant, QTLs on chromosomes 7 and 12 for neointimal cross-sectional area and on chromosome 14 for media area. Further analysis of the cross revealed 4 QTLs for plasma cholesterol, which combined explained 69% of the variation among F2 mice. Conclusions We identified suggestive QTLs for neointima and media area after carotid ligation in an intercross of FVB/N and C57BL/6 mice, but none that reached genome-wide significance indicating a complex genetic architecture of the traits. Genome-wide significant QTLs for total cholesterol levels were identified on chromosomes 1, 3, 9, and 12. PMID:25875831

  8. Accumulation, speciation, and coordination of arsenic in an inbred line and a wild type cultivar of the desert plant species Chilopsis linearis (Desert willow).

    PubMed

    Castillo-Michel, Hiram A; Zuverza-Mena, Nubia; Parsons, Jason G; Dokken, Kenneth M; Duarte-Gardea, Maria; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2009-03-01

    This study investigated the absorption of arsenic (As), sulfur (S), and phosphorus (P) in the desert plant Chilopsis linearis (Desert willow). A comparison between an inbred line (red flowered) and wild type (white flowered) plants was performed to look for differential responses to As treatment. One month old seedlings were treated for 7 days with arsenate (As(2)O(5), As(V)) at 0, 20, and 40 mg As(V)L(-1). Results from the ICP-OES analysis showed that at 20mg As(V)L(-1), red flowered plants had 280+/-11 and 98+/-7 mg As kg(-1) dry wt in roots and stems, respectively, while white flowered plants had 196+/-30 and 103+/-13 mg As kg(-1) dry wt for roots and stems. At this treatment level, the concentration of As in leaves was below detection limits for both plants. In red flowered plants treated with 40 mg As(V)L(-1), As was at 290+/-77 and 151+/-60 mg As kg(-1) in roots and stems, respectively, and not detected in leaves, whereas white flowered plants had 406+/-36, 213+/-12, and 177+/-40 mg As kg(-1) in roots, stems, and leaves. The concentration of S increased in all As treated plants, while the concentration of P decreased in roots and stems of both types of plants and in leaves of red flowered plants. X-ray absorption spectroscopy analyses demonstrated partial reduction of arsenate to arsenite in the form of As-(SX)(3) species in both types of plants. PMID:19251289

  9. Opiate-agonist Induced Taste Aversion Learning in the Fischer 344 and Lewis Inbred Rat Strains: Evidence for Differential Mu Opioid Receptor Activation

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Catherine M.; Rice, Kenner C.; Riley, Anthony L.

    2009-01-01

    The Fischer 344 (F344) and Lewis (LEW) inbred rat strains react differently to morphine in a number of behavioral and physiological preparations, including the acquisition of aversions induced by this compound. The present experiment tested the ability of various compounds with relative selectivity at kappa, delta and mu receptor subtypes to assess the relative roles of these subtypes in mediating the differential aversive effects of morphine in the two strains. In the assessment of the role of the kappa receptor in morphine-induced aversions, animals in both strains were given access to saccharin followed by varying doses of the kappa agonist (−)−U50,488H (0.0, 0.28, 0.90 and 1.60 mg/kg). Although (−)−U50,488H induced aversions in both strains, no strain differences emerged. A separate subset of subjects was trained with the selective delta opioid agonist, SNC80 (0.0, 5.6, 10.0 and 18.0 mg/kg), and again although SNC80 induced aversions, there were no strain differences. Finally, a third subset of subjects was trained with heroin (0.0, 3.2, 5.6 and 10.0 mg/kg), a compound with activity at all three opiate receptor subtypes. Although heroin induced aversions in both strains, the aversions were significantly greater in the F344 strain, suggesting that differential activation of the mu opioid receptor likely mediates the reported strain differences in morphine-induced aversion learning. These data were discussed in terms of strain differences in opioid system functioning and the implications of such differences for other morphine-induced behavioral effects reported in F344 and LEW rats. PMID:19508878

  10. Detection of Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs) for Resistances to Small Brown Planthopper and Rice Stripe Virus in Rice Using Recombinant Inbred Lines

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qi; Liu, Yuqiang; Hu, Jinlong; Zhang, Yingxin; Xie, Kun; Wang, Baoxiang; Tuyen, Le Quang; Song, Zhaoqiang; Wu, Han; Liu, Yanling; Jiang, Ling; Liu, Shijia; Cheng, Xianian; Wang, Chunming; Zhai, Huqu; Wan, Jianmin

    2013-01-01

    Small brown planthopper (SBPH) and rice stripe virus (RSV) disease transmitted by SBPH cause serious damage to rice (Oryza sativa L.) in China. In the present study, we screened 312 rice accessions for resistance to SBPH. The indica variety, N22, is highly resistant to SBPH. One hundred and eighty two recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross of N22 and the highly susceptible variety, USSR5, were used for quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of resistances to SBPH and RSV. In a modified seedbox screening test, three QTLs for SBPH resistance, qSBPH2, qSBPH3 and qSBPH7.1, were mapped on chromosomes 2, 3 and 7, a total explaining 35.1% of the phenotypic variance. qSBPH7.2 and qSBPH11.2, conferring antibiosis against SBPH, were detected on chromosomes 7 and 11 and accounted for 20.7% of the total phenotypic variance. In addition, qSBPH5 and qSBPH7.3, expressing antixenosis to SBPH, were detected on chromosomes 5 and 7, explaining 23.9% of the phenotypic variance. qSBPH7.1, qSBPH7.2 and qSBPH7.3, located in the same region between RM234 and RM429 on chromosome 7, using three different phenotyping methods indicate that the locus or region plays a major role in conferring resistance to SBPH in N22. Moreover, three QTLs, qSTV4, qSTV11.1 and qSTV11.2, for RSV resistance were detected on chromosomes 4 and 11. qSTV11.1 and qSTV11.2 are located in the same region between RM287 and RM209 on chromosome 11. Molecular markers spanning these QTLs should be useful in the development of varieties with resistance to SBPH and RSV. PMID:23591851

  11. Effect of acute swim stress on plasma corticosterone and brain monoamine levels in bidirectionally selected DxH recombinant inbred mouse strains differing in fear recall and extinction.

    PubMed

    Browne, Caroline A; Hanke, Joachim; Rose, Claudia; Walsh, Irene; Foley, Tara; Clarke, Gerard; Schwegler, Herbert; Cryan, John F; Yilmazer-Hanke, Deniz

    2014-12-01

    Stress-induced changes in plasma corticosterone and central monoamine levels were examined in mouse strains that differ in fear-related behaviors. Two DxH recombinant inbred mouse strains with a DBA/2J background, which were originally bred for a high (H-FSS) and low fear-sensitized acoustic startle reflex (L-FSS), were used. Levels of noradrenaline, dopamine, and serotonin and their metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenyacetic acid (DOPAC), homovanillic acid (HVA), and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) were studied in the amygdala, hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex, striatum, hypothalamus and brainstem. H-FSS mice exhibited increased fear levels and a deficit in fear extinction (within-session) in the auditory fear-conditioning test, and depressive-like behavior in the acute forced swim stress test. They had higher tissue noradrenaline and serotonin levels and lower dopamine and serotonin turnover under basal conditions, although they were largely insensitive to stress-induced changes in neurotransmitter metabolism. In contrast, acute swim stress increased monoamine levels but decreased turnover in the less fearful L-FSS mice. L-FSS mice also showed a trend toward higher basal and stress-induced corticosterone levels and an increase in noradrenaline and serotonin in the hypothalamus and brainstem 30?min after stress compared to H-FSS mice. Moreover, the dopaminergic system was activated differentially in the medial prefrontal cortex and striatum of the two strains by acute stress. Thus, H-FSS mice showed increased basal noradrenaline tissue levels compatible with a fear phenotype or chronic stressed condition. Low corticosterone levels and the poor monoamine response to stress in H-FSS mice may point to mechanisms similar to those found in principal fear disorders or post-traumatic stress disorder. PMID:25117886

  12. Inbred Lewis and Fischer 344 rat strains differ not only in novelty- and amphetamine-induced behaviors, but also in dopamine transporter activity in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Gulley, Joshua M.; Everett, Carson V.; Zahniser, Nancy R.

    2007-01-01

    Inbred Lewis (LEW) and Fischer 344 (F344) rats are differentially sensitive to drugs of abuse, making them useful for studying addiction-related neural mechanisms. Here, we investigated whether strain differences in dopamine transporters (DATs) in dorsal striatum (dSTR) and/or nucleus accumbens (NAc) may help to explain their behavioral differences. The behavior of male LEW and F344 rats was assessed in an open-field arena during habituation to novelty and after an i.v. infusion of saline and/or 0.5 mg/kg d-amphetamine (AMPH). In vitro measures of DAT binding, protein and cell-surface expression, as well as in vitro and in vivo measures of function, were used to compare DATs in dSTR and NAc of these two strains. We found that LEW rats exhibited higher novelty- and AMPH-induced locomotion, but F344 rats exhibited greater AMPH-induced rearing and stereotypy. An initial habituation session with i.v. saline minimized the strain differences in AMPH-induced behaviors except that the more frequent AMPH-induced rearing in F344 rats persisted. Strain differences in DAT total protein and basal activity were also observed, with LEW rats having less protein and slower in vivo clearance of locally-applied DA in dSTR and NAc. AMPH inhibited in vivo DA clearance in dSTR and NAc of both strains, but to a greater extent in F344 rats. Taken together, the lower basal DAT function in LEW rats is consistent with their greater novelty-induced locomotor activation, whereas the greater inhibition of DA clearance by AMPH in F344 rats is consistent with their marked AMPH-induced rearing behavior. PMID:17395161

  13. Effect of Acute Swim Stress on Plasma Corticosterone and Brain Monoamine Levels in Bidirectionally Selected DxH Recombinant Inbred Mouse Strains Differing in Fear Recall and Extinction

    PubMed Central

    Browne, Caroline A.; Hanke, Joachim; Rose, Claudia; Walsh, Irene; Foley, Tara; Clarke, Gerard; Schwegler, Herbert; Cryan, John F.; Yilmazer-Hanke, Deniz

    2015-01-01

    Stress-induced changes in plasma corticosterone and central monoamine levels were examined in mouse strains that differ in fear-related behaviors. Two DxH recombinant inbred mouse strains with a DBA/2J background, which were originally bred for a high (H-FSS) and low fear-sensitized acoustic startle reflex (L-FSS), were used. Levels of noradrenaline, dopamine, and serotonin and their metabolites (DOPAC), homovanillic acid (HVA), and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) were studied in the amygdala, hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex, striatum, hypothalamus, and brainstem. H-FSS mice exhibited increased fear levels and a deficit in fear extinction (within-session) in the auditory fear-conditioning test, and depressive-like behavior in the acute forced swim stress test. They had higher tissue noradrenaline and serotonin levels and lower dopamine and serotonin turnover under basal conditions, although they were largely insensitive to stress-induced changes in neurotransmitter metabolism. In contrast, acute swim stress increased monoamine levels but decreased turnover in the less fearful L-FSS mice. L-FSS mice also showed a trend toward higher basal and stress-induced corticosterone levels and an increase in noradrenaline and serotonin in the hypothalamus and brainstem 30 minutes after stress compared to H-FSS mice. Moreover, the dopaminergic system was activated differentially in the medial prefrontal cortex and striatum of the two strains by acute stress. Thus, H-FSS mice showed increased basal noradrenaline tissue levels compatible with a fear phenotype or chronic stressed condition. Low corticosterone levels and the poor monoamine response to stress in H-FSS mice may point to mechanisms similar to those found in principal fear disorders or posttraumatic stress disorder. PMID:25117886

  14. Genetic analysis of the difference in diet-induced atherosclerosis between the inbred mouse strains SM/J and NZB/BINJ.

    PubMed

    Pitman, W A; Hunt, M H; McFarland, C; Paigen, B

    1998-04-01

    To identify the genetic factors affecting susceptibility to atherosclerosis, we studied the inheritance of plasma total cholesterol (TC) and HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations and susceptibility to atherosclerotic lesion formation in an (SM/J[SM] x NZB/B1NJ[NZB]) outcross, an (SM/NZB)FI[F1] x SM backcross, and the NXSM recombinant inbred (RI) strain set. After 18 or 26 weeks on the atherogenic diet, lesion sizes in female mice were 160+/-110 (SE) microm2 for NZB, 100+/-60 for F1, and 3800+/-920 for SM. After 0, 4, or 26 weeks on the atherogenic diet, NZB had higher TC and HDL-C levels than either SM or F1. The F1 progeny had TC and HDL-C levels slightly higher than or similar to the SM/J parent, while lesion size in the F1 progeny was more similar to the NZB parent. Among the 15 RI strains, 8 resembled NZB and F1, 3 resembled SM, and 4 were intermediate between NZB and SM for lesion size. For the (SM x NZB)F1 x SM backcross offspring, 26 resembled NZB and F1, 7 resembled SM, and 6 were intermediate between NZB and SM for lesion size. There was poor correlation between lesion size and plasma TC or HDL-C in the parental strains and the backcross. These data suggest that resistance to atherosclerosis is determined by at least one major dominant gene contributed by the NZB strain, which we have named Ath8. Ath8 segregates independently of genes controlling TC and HDL-C levels. PMID:9555867

  15. Lack of Structural Variation but Extensive Length Polymorphisms and Heteroplasmic Length Variations in the Mitochondrial DNA Control Region of Highly Inbred Crested Ibis, Nipponia nippon

    PubMed Central

    He, Xue-Lian; Ding, Chang-Qing; Han, Jian-Lin

    2013-01-01

    The animal mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) length polymorphism and heteroplasmy are accepted to be universal. Here we report the lack of structural variation but the presence of length polymorphism as well as heteroplasmy in mtDNA control region of an endangered avian species the Crested Ibis (Nipponia nippon). The complete control region was directly sequenced while the distribution pattern and inheritance of the length variations were examined using both direct sequencing and genotyping of the PCR fragments from captive birds with pedigrees, wild birds and a historical specimen. Our results demonstrated that there was no structural variation in the control region, however, different numbers of short tandem repeats with an identical motif of CA3CA2CA3 at the 3?-end of the control region determined the length polymorphisms among and heteroplasmy within individual birds. There were one to three predominant fragments in every bird; nevertheless multiple minor fragments coexist in all birds. These extremely high polymorphisms were suggested to have derived from the replication slippage of a perfect microsatellite evolution following the step-wise mutational model. The patterns of heteroplasmy were found to be shifted between generations and among siblings but rather stable between blood and feather samples. This study provides the first evidence of a very extensive mtDNA length polymorphism and heteroplasmy in the highly inbred Crested Ibis which carries an mtDNA genome lack of structural genetic diversity. The analysis of pedigreed samples also sheds light on the transmission of mtDNA length heteroplasmy in birds following the genetic bottleneck theory. Further research focusing on the generation and transmission of particular mtDNA heteroplasmy patterns in single germ line of Crested Ibis is encouraged by this study. PMID:23805212

  16. Quantitative trait locus analysis and construction of consensus genetic map for drought tolerance traits based on three recombinant inbred line populations in cultivated groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    Gautami, B; Pandey, M K; Vadez, V; Nigam, S N; Ratnakumar, P; Krishnamurthy, L; Radhakrishnan, T; Gowda, M V C; Narasu, M L; Hoisington, D A; Knapp, S J; Varshney, R K

    2012-08-01

    Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important food and cash crop grown mainly in semi-arid tropics (SAT) regions of the world where drought is the major constraint on productivity. With the aim of understanding the genetic basis and identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for drought tolerance, two new recombinant inbred line (RIL) mapping populations, namely ICGS 76נCSMG 84-1 (RIL-2) and ICGS 44נICGS 76 (RIL-3), were used. After screening of 3,215 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers on the parental genotypes of these populations, two new genetic maps were developed with 119 (RIL-2) and 82 (RIL-3) SSR loci. Together with these maps and the reference map with 191 SSR loci based on TAG 24נICGV 86031 (RIL-1), a consensus map was constructed with 293 SSR loci distributed over 20 linkage groups, spanning 2,840.8cM. As all these three populations segregate for drought-tolerance-related traits, a comprehensive QTL analysis identified 153 main effect QTL (M-QTL) and 25 epistatic QTL (E-QTL) for drought-tolerance-related traits. Localization of these QTL on the consensus map provided 16 genomic regions that contained 125 QTL. A few key genomic regions were selected on the basis of the QTL identified in each region, and their expected role in drought adaptation is also discussed. Given that no major QTL for drought adaptation were identified, novel breeding approaches such as marker-assisted recurrent selection (MARS) and genomic selection (GS) approaches are likely to be the preferred approaches for introgression of a larger number of QTL in order to breed drought-tolerant groundnut genotypes. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11032-011-9660-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:22924017

  17. Identification of QTL for maize resistance to common smut by using recombinant inbred lines developed from the Chinese hybrid Yuyu22.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jun-qiang; Wang, Xiao-ming; Chander, Subhash; Li, Jian-sheng

    2008-01-01

    Common smut in maize, caused by Ustilago maydis, reduces grain yield greatly. Agronomic and chemical approaches to control such diseases are often impractical or ineffective. Resistance breeding could be an efficient approach to minimize the losses caused by common smut. In this study, quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance to common smut in maize were identified. In 2005, a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population along with the resistant (Zong 3) and susceptible (87-1) parents were planted in Beijing and Zhengzhou. Significant genotypic variation in resistance to common smut was observed at both locations after artificial inoculation by injecting inoculum into the whorl of plants with a modified hog vaccinator. Basing on a genetic map containing 246 polymorphic SSR markers with an average linkage distance of 9.11 cM, resistance QTL were analysed by composite interval mapping. Six additive-effect QTL associated with resistance to common smut were identified on chromosomes 3 (three QTL), 5 (one QTL) and 8 (two QTL), and explained 3.2% to 12.4% of the phenotypic variation. Among the 6 QTL, 4 showed significant QTL x environment (Q x E) interaction effects, which accounted for 1.2% to 2.5% of the phenotypic variation. Nine pairs of epistatic interactions were also detected, involving 18 loci distributed on all chromosomes except 2, 6 and 10, which contributed 0.8% to 3.0% of the observed phenotypic variation. However, no significant epistasis x environment interactions were detected. In total, additive QTL effects and Q x E interactions explained 38.8% and 8.0% of the phenotypic variation, respectively. Epistatic effects contributed 15% of the phenotypic variation. The results showed that besides the additive QTL, both epistasis and Q x E interactions formed an important genetic basis for the resistance to Ustilago maydis in maize. PMID:18436989

  18. Complementary DNA cloning, sequence analysis, and tissue transcription profile of a novel U2AF2 gene from the Chinese Banna mini-pig inbred line.

    PubMed

    Wang, S Y; Huo, J L; Miao, Y W; Cheng, W M; Zeng, Y Z

    2013-01-01

    U2 small nuclear RNA auxiliary factor 2 (U2AF2) is an important gene for pre-messenger RNA splicing in higher eukaryotes. In this study, the Banna mini-pig inbred line (BMI) U2AF2 coding sequence (CDS) was cloned, sequenced, and characterized. The U2AF2 complete CDS was amplified using the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique based on the conserved sequence information of cattle and known highly homologous swine expressed sequence tags. This novel gene was deposited into the National Center for Biotechnology Information database (Accession No. JQ839267). Sequence analysis revealed that the BMI U2AF2 coding sequence consisted of 1416 bp and encoded 471 amino acids with a molecular weight of 53.12 kDa. The protein sequence has high sequence homology with U2AF65 of 6 species - Homo sapiens (100%), Equus caballus (100%), Canis lupus (100%), Macaca mulatta (99.8%), Bos taurus (74.4%), and Mus musculus (74.4%). The phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that BMI U2AF65 has a closer genetic relationship with B. taurus U2AF65 than with U2AF65 of E. caballus, C. lupus, M. mulatta, H. sapiens, and M. musculus. RT-PCR analysis showed that BMI U2AF2 was most highly expressed in the brain; moderately expressed in the spleen, lung, muscle, and skin; and weakly expressed in the liver, kidney, and ovary. Its expression was nearly silent in the spinal cord, nerve fiber, heart, stomach, pancreas, and intestine. Three microRNA target sites were predicted in the CDS of BMI U2AF2 messenger RNA. Our results establish a foundation for further insight into this swine gene. PMID:23613239

  19. ATR-FTIR spectroscopy reveals genomic loci regulating the tissue response in high fat diet fed BXD recombinant inbred mouse strains

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity-associated organ-specific pathological states can be ensued from the dysregulation of the functions of the adipose tissues, liver and muscle. However, the influence of genetic differences underlying gross-compositional differences in these tissues is largely unknown. In the present study, the analytical method of ATR-FTIR spectroscopy has been combined with a genetic approach to identify genetic differences responsible for phenotypic alterations in adipose, liver and muscle tissues. Results Mice from 29 BXD recombinant inbred mouse strains were put on high fat diet and gross-compositional changes in adipose, liver and muscle tissues were measured by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. The analysis of genotype-phenotype correlations revealed significant quantitative trait loci (QTL) on chromosome 12 for the content of fat and collagen, collagen integrity, and the lipid to protein ratio in adipose tissue and on chromosome 17 for lipid to protein ratio in liver. Using gene expression and sequence information, we suggest Rsad2 (viperin) and Colec11 (collectin-11) on chromosome 12 as potential quantitative trait candidate genes. Rsad2 may act as a modulator of lipid droplet contents and lipid biosynthesis; Colec11 might play a role in apoptopic cell clearance and maintenance of adipose tissue. An increased level of Rsad2 transcripts in adipose tissue of DBA/2J compared to C57BL/6J mice suggests a cis-acting genetic variant leading to differential gene activation. Conclusion The results demonstrate that the analytical method of ATR-FTIR spectroscopy effectively contributed to decompose the macromolecular composition of tissues that accumulate fat and to link this information with genetic determinants. The candidate genes in the QTL regions may contribute to obesity-related diseases in humans, in particular if the results can be verified in a bigger BXD cohort. PMID:23758785

  20. Private Selective Sweeps Identified from Next-Generation Pool-Sequencing Reveal Convergent Pathways under Selection in Two Inbred Schistosoma mansoni Strains

    PubMed Central

    Clment, Julie A. J.; Toulza, Eve; Gautier, Mathieu; Parrinello, Hugues; Roquis, David; Boissier, Jrme; Rognon, Anne; Mon, Hlne; Mouahid, Gabriel; Buard, Jrme; Mitta, Guillaume; Grunau, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Background The trematode flatworms of the genus Schistosoma, the causative agents of schistosomiasis, are among the most prevalent parasites in humans, affecting more than 200 million people worldwide. In this study, we focused on two well-characterized strains of S. mansoni, to explore signatures of selection. Both strains are highly inbred and exhibit differences in life history traits, in particular in their compatibility with the intermediate host Biomphalaria glabrata. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed high throughput sequencing of DNA from pools of individuals of each strain using Illumina technology and identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and copy number variations (CNV). In total, 708,898 SNPs were identified and roughly 2,000 CNVs. The SNPs revealed low nucleotide diversity (??=?210?4) within each strain and a high differentiation level (Fst?=?0.73) between them. Based on a recently developed in-silico approach, we further detected 12 and 19 private (i.e. specific non-overlapping) selective sweeps among the 121 and 151 sweeps found in total for each strain. Conclusions/Significance Functional annotation of transcripts lying in the private selective sweeps revealed specific selection for functions related to parasitic interaction (e.g. cell-cell adhesion or redox reactions). Despite high differentiation between strains, we identified evolutionary convergence of genes related to proteolysis, known as a key virulence factor and a potential target of drug and vaccine development. Our data show that pool-sequencing can be used for the detection of selective sweeps in parasite populations and enables one to identify biological functions under selection. PMID:24349597

  1. Characterization of Adult Transcriptomes from the Omnivorous Lady Beetle Coleomegilla maculata Fed Pollen or Insect Egg Diet.

    PubMed

    Allen, Margaret Louise

    2015-01-01

    Diet, nutrition, and obesity are important topics of current research. While many insect genome and/or transcriptome models are based on dietary specialists, the lady beetle Coleomegilla maculata, a common New World species, is highly omnivorous. C. maculata feeds on plants, fungi, insects and other arthropods; its diet frequently includes conspecific cannibalism. This study reports and discusses the first nutritionally based C. maculata transcriptomes. These transcriptomes were prepared from highly inbred specimens provided limited diets, after adult eclosion, of either pollen only or eggs of a soft bodied hemipteran insect only. Selected sequences from the transcriptomes were compared to verify basic genetic similarity of the sampled individuals. Differentially expressed genes associated with these diets were identified to aid with studies of omnivore diet and nutrition. Selected transcriptome sequences described herein are filed with the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), GenBank Bioproject PRJNA236444. PMID:25628762

  2. Characterization of Adult Transcriptomes from the Omnivorous Lady Beetle Coleomegilla maculata Fed Pollen or Insect Egg Diet

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Margaret Louise

    2015-01-01

    Diet, nutrition, and obesity are important topics of current research. While many insect genome and/or transcriptome models are based on dietary specialists, the lady beetle Coleomegilla maculata, a common New World species, is highly omnivorous. C. maculata feeds on plants, fungi, insects and other arthropods; its diet frequently includes conspecific cannibalism. This study reports and discusses the first nutritionally based C. maculata transcriptomes. These transcriptomes were prepared from highly inbred specimens provided limited diets, after adult eclosion, of either pollen only or eggs of a soft bodied hemipteran insect only. Selected sequences from the transcriptomes were compared to verify basic genetic similarity of the sampled individuals. Differentially expressed genes associated with these diets were identified to aid with studies of omnivore diet and nutrition. Selected transcriptome sequences described herein are filed with the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), GenBank Bioproject PRJNA236444. PMID:25628762

  3. Energy utilization and growth performance of chickens fed novel wheat inbred lines selected for different pentosan levels with and without xylanase supplementation.

    PubMed

    Pirgozliev, V; Rose, S P; Pellny, T; Amerah, A M; Wickramasinghe, M; Ulker, M; Rakszegi, M; Bedo, Z; Shewry, P R; Lovegrove, A

    2015-02-01

    Different F5 recombinant inbred lines from the cross Yumai 34Ukrainka were grown in replicated trials on a single site in one harvest year at Rothamsted Research. A total of 10 samples from those lines were harvested and used in a broiler experiment. Twenty nutritionally complete meal-form diets that had 630 g/kg of wheat with different amounts of pentosan, with and without exogenous xylanase supplementation, were used to compare broiler growth performance and determine apparent metabolizable energy corrected for N retention (AMEn). We examined the relationship between the nutritive value of the wheat samples and their chemical compositions and results of quality tests. The amounts of total and water soluble pentosans in wheat samples ranged from 36.7 to 48.0 g/kg DM, and 6.7 to 11.6 g/kg DM, respectively. The mean crude oil and protein contents of the wheat samples were 10.5 and 143.9 g/kg DM, respectively. The average determined value for the kinematic viscosity was 0.0018 mPa.s, and 2.1 mPa.s for the dynamic viscosity. The AMEn of the wheat-based diets had a maximum range of 0.47 MJ/kg DM within the ten wheat samples that were tested. Xylanase supplementation improved (P<0.05) dietary AMEn, dry matter, and fat digestibility coefficients. There was a positive (P<0.05) relationship between in vitro kinematic viscosity of the wheat samples and the total pentosan content. There was a negative relationship between the total pentosan content in the wheat and broiler growth performance. An increase by 10 g of pentosan per kg of wheat reduced (P<0.001) daily feed intake and weight gain by 2.9?g and 3.5?g, respectively. The study shows that the feeding quality of wheat samples can be predicted by their total pentosan content. Supplementary xylanase improved energy and nutrient availability of all wheat samples that was independent of differences in pentosan content. PMID:25595480

  4. Quantitative trait locus analysis and construction of consensus genetic map for foliar disease resistance based on two recombinant inbred line populations in cultivated groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    Sujay, V; Gowda, M V C; Pandey, M K; Bhat, R S; Khedikar, Y P; Nadaf, H L; Gautami, B; Sarvamangala, C; Lingaraju, S; Radhakrishan, T; Knapp, S J; Varshney, R K

    2012-08-01

    Late leaf spot (LLS) and rust have the greatest impact on yield losses worldwide in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.). With the objective of identifying tightly linked markers to these diseases, a total of 3,097 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were screened on the parents of two recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations, namely TAG 24 × GPBD 4 (RIL-4) and TG 26 × GPBD 4 (RIL-5), and segregation data were obtained for 209 marker loci for each of the mapping populations. Linkage map analysis of the 209 loci resulted in the mapping of 188 and 181 loci in RIL-4 and RIL-5 respectively. Using 143 markers common to the two maps, a consensus map with 225 SSR loci and total map distance of 1,152.9 cM was developed. Comprehensive quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis detected a total of 28 QTL for LLS and 15 QTL for rust. A major QTL for LLS, namely QTL(LLS)01 (GM1573/GM1009-pPGPseq8D09), with 10.27-62.34% phenotypic variance explained (PVE) was detected in all the six environments in the RIL-4 population. In the case of rust resistance, in addition to marker IPAHM103 identified earlier, four new markers (GM2009, GM1536, GM2301 and GM2079) showed significant association with the major QTL (82.96% PVE). Localization of 42 QTL for LLS and rust on the consensus map identified two candidate genomic regions conferring resistance to LLS and rust. One region present on linkage group AhXV contained three QTL each for LLS (up to 67.98% PVE) and rust (up to 82.96% PVE). The second candidate genomic region contained the major QTL with up to 62.34% PVE for LLS. Molecular markers associated with the major QTL for resistance to LLS and rust can be deployed in molecular breeding for developing groundnut varieties with enhanced resistance to foliar diseases. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11032-011-9661-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:22924018

  5. 19-Nordeoxycorticosterone excretion in male and female inbred salt-sensitive (S/JR) and salt-resistant (R/JR) Dahl rats.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Sanchez, E P; Gomez-Sanchez, C E

    1988-03-01

    Rats were selectively bred for susceptibility (S) and resistance (R) to the hypertensinogenic effects of excess salt intake by Dahl and further inbred to virtual homozygosity by Rapp (S/JR and R/JR). The S strain has been shown to have a mutation of the cytochrome P-450-dependent 11 beta,18-hydroxylase resulting in the enhanced production of 18-hydroxydeoxycorticosterone (18-OH-DOC) compared to that of the R strain. It is known that this enzyme is also responsible for the hydroxylation of deoxycorticosterone at the 19 position to produce 19-hydroxydeoxycorticosterone. Recently, the excretion of 19-nordeoxycorticosterone (19-nor-DOC), a potent mineralocorticoid, has been shown to be markedly increased in S/JR females compared to that in R/JR females consuming a high sodium diet. While the S/JR rat is spontaneously hypertensive, the course of the disease is greatly accelerated and exacerbated by a high sodium diet. If, indeed, 19-nor-DOC is responsible for the spontaneous hypertension in the S/JR rat, then its production should also be higher in the S/JR rat consuming a normal salt diet. Furthermore, since its production is suppressed by NaCl intake, the excretion should be even higher when not suppressed by a high sodium diet. We measured the urinary excretion of 19-nor-DOC, 18-OH-DOC, and corticosterone in male and female S/JR and R/JR rats consuming a normal sodium diet. The excretions of corticosterone and 18-OH-DOC were significantly higher by S/JR of both sexes than by R/JR, with the excretion by female rats being higher than that by male rats within the same strain. The hierarchy of excretion rates of 19-nor-DOC was: S/JR females greater than R/JR females greater than S/JR males greater than R/JR male rats. These studies indicate that while S/JR rats of both sexes develop higher blood pressures than the R/JR even on a standard salt intake, the excretion of 19-nor-DOC does not correlate well with their blood pressure elevation, since the normotensive female R/JR rat excretes significantly higher quantities of 19-nor-DOC than the hypertensive male S/JR rat. Thus, it is unclear whether 19-nor-DOC is playing a significant role in the pathogenesis of the hypertension in the S/JR rat. It also remains unknown whether the renal site of formation of 19-nor-DOC allows access to the mineralocorticoid target sites in the kidney. PMID:3342746

  6. Exercise Capacity and Response to Training Quantitative Trait Loci in a NZW X 129S1 Intercross and Combined Cross Analysis of Inbred Mouse Strains

    PubMed Central

    Massett, Michael P.; Avila, Joshua J.; Kim, Seung Kyum

    2015-01-01

    Genetic factors determining exercise capacity and the magnitude of the response to exercise training are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with exercise training in mice. Based on marked differences in training responses in inbred NZW (-0.65 ± 1.73 min) and 129S1 (6.18 ± 3.81 min) mice, a reciprocal intercross breeding scheme was used to generate 285 F2 mice. All F2 mice completed an exercise performance test before and after a 4-week treadmill running program, resulting in an increase in exercise capacity of 1.54 ± 3.69 min (range = -10 to +12 min). Genome-wide linkage scans were performed for pre-training, post-training, and change in run time. For pre-training exercise time, suggestive QTL were identified on Chromosomes 5 (57.4 cM, 2.5 LOD) and 6 (47.8 cM, 2.9 LOD). A significant QTL for post-training exercise capacity was identified on Chromosome 5 (43.4 cM, 4.1 LOD) and a suggestive QTL on Chromosomes 1 (55.7 cM, 2.3 LOD) and 8 (66.1 cM, 2.2 LOD). A suggestive QTL for the change in run time was identified on Chromosome 6 (37.8 cM, 2.7 LOD). To identify shared QTL, this data set was combined with data from a previous F2 cross between B6 and FVB strains. In the combined cross analysis, significant novel QTL for pre-training exercise time and change in exercise time were identified on Chromosome 12 (54.0 cM, 3.6 LOD) and Chromosome 6 (28.0 cM, 3.7 LOD), respectively. Collectively, these data suggest that combined cross analysis can be used to identify novel QTL and narrow the confidence interval of QTL for exercise capacity and responses to training. Furthermore, these data support the use of larger and more diverse mapping populations to identify the genetic basis for exercise capacity and responses to training. PMID:26710100

  7. Adult Education in Croatian Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pongrac, Silvije, Ed.

    This document contains eight papers on adult education in Croatian society. "Basic Characteristics of Croatian Adult Education up to These Days" (Silvije Pongrac, Ilija Lavrnja) highlights key trends in the development of Croatian adult education. "Adult Education in Croatia Based on Social Changes" (Anita Klapan) discusses Croatian adult

  8. Adult issues in phenylketonuria.

    PubMed

    Hoeks, M P A; den Heijer, M; Janssen, M C H

    2009-01-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a classical example of an inherited metabolic disease, in which mental retardation can be prevented successfully by using a diet. However, in adult PKU new problems occur, such as vitamin deficiencies, osteoporosis and the maternal PKU syndrome. The aim of this review article is to provide guidelines for the clinician to understand and manage PKU in adults. PMID:19155540

  9. Adult Learning Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    Adult Learners' Week--which is supported by the Department for Innovation, Universities and Skills and the European Social Fund, amongst a raft of other organisations--is all about raising demand for learning. At its core, the campaign is about encouraging under-represented groups--including low-skilled, unemployed and low-paid adults and those

  10. Authenticity in Adult Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashton, Sam

    2010-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the relationship between authenticity and adult learning and prompted by some studies in which adult "authentic learning" is a central concept. The implication revealed by them is that real-worldness of learning contexts, learning content and learning tasks is perceived as conferring authenticity on learning. Here,…

  11. Toward Transpersonal Adult Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boucouvalas, Marcie

    2016-01-01

    As a foundation for discussing transpersonal adult development, the author traces her trajectory, involvement in, and contribution to the modern transpersonal movement and her introduction of it to the adult learning literature, beginning during the early 1980s. Highlighted are the transpersonal domain and a differentiation between transpersonal…

  12. Financing of Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, David

    2007-01-01

    The 2008 EFA Global Monitoring Report recognises adult literacy as the most neglected of the EFA goals. It is neglected most obviously in respect of the financial allocations made by governments and donors. This shortage of financing creates a dangerous situation in which adult educators seek to convince politicians to invest, based on false

  13. Adult Education in Liberia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robert M.

    Adult education in Liberia is discussed as to the types of programs offered and the purposes and goals of each type. The programs are classified as Literacy Education, Continuing Education, Vocational Education, In-Service Education, and Fundamental Education. The needs of the adult Liberian in relation to the courses offered are discussed.

  14. Adult Literacy in Zanzibar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saadat, Ahmed H.

    The philosophy behind adult literacy in Zanzibar is that adult literacy is a process whereby the illiterate is empowered to become aware of his or her potential. Literacy activities emphasize a relation to work, sometimes known as functional literacy. Specific objectives of literacy programs are to improve living conditions, impart self-reliant

  15. Adult Learning and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubenson, Kjell, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    As individuals and societies try to respond to fundamental economic and social transformation, the field of adult learning and education is rapidly getting increased attention and new topics for research on adult learning have emerged. This collection of articles from the International Encyclopedia of Education 3e offers practitioners and

  16. Adult Education and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinzen, Heribert, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This document contains 19 papers on adult education and development worldwide. The following papers are included: "Editorial" (Heribert Hinzen); "Lifelong Learning in Europe: Moving towards EFA (Dakar Framework for Action on Education for All) Goals and the CONFINTEA V Agenda" (Sofia Conference on Adult Education); "Poverty and Schooling in the…

  17. Teachers of Adults Will...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pankowski, Mary L.

    1975-01-01

    The article lists the 12 competencies of adult education teachers that are considered essential to assist adults in achieving instructional goals and objectives. Following the listing a brief justification and examples of ways to evaluate teacher competencies are discussed. (Author/BP)

  18. Counseling Adult Adoptees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corder, Kate

    2012-01-01

    This review presents various resources about working with adult adoptees in order to inform counselors in their practice. Topics covered include basics of adoption, including types of adoption and adoption statistics; possible issues adult adoptees may face; and suggestions and implications for counselors. The article addresses some of the serious

  19. Adult Vocational Teacher Competencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hole, F. Marvin

    As part of a larger study to investigate the backgrounds and professional inservice needs of part-time adult vocational teachers in Pennsylvania, research was conducted to identify and assess adult vocational teacher competencies. Following a literature review, a survey instrument was devised which listed thirty-four competencies (basically

  20. Adult Education in Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huddleston, John

    This study is limited essentially to adult education in West Germany, although the historical sections include references to earlier experiences and experiments in areas now Russian-occupied. The terms "adult edcuation" and "workers' education" are clarified. Both are presented as separate movements. Brief reference is made to political, social,

  1. Adult Tech Prep.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaad, Donna

    For over 2 years, Blak Hawk College (Illinois) has provided high school equivalency (GED) candidates and recipients, older returning students, and underprepared high school graduates with a Tech Prep curriculum to give them the skills to make the transition from adult basic education to college or work. The Adult Tech Prep (ATP) core curriculum…

  2. Alternative Programming for Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flint, Thomas A.; Frey, Ruth

    2003-01-01

    The Council for Adult and Experiential Learning is currently cataloguing alternative programming features that are most effective with adult students in a best practices inventory organized around a framework of high-level descriptive principles of effectiveness. This chapter identifies a few interesting features from a quick survey of this

  3. Adult Education Regional Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Community Colleges, Chancellor's Office, 2015

    2015-01-01

    For more than one hundred and fifty years, until 2008, California was an undisputed national leader in its commitment to adult education. The state's investment in adult learners topped $750 million, a sum greater than the combined total of every other state in the nation. However, for the past several years recession and fiscal crisis have left…

  4. Adult Education in Cohesion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubenson, Kjell

    2003-01-01

    International Adult Literacy Survey data show the average adult education participation in Nordic countries is 14% higher than in other industrialized nations. Public support for participation of the disadvantaged, an active labor market policy, and popular education are key characteristics. (Contains 37 references.) (Author/JOW)

  5. Toward Transpersonal Adult Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boucouvalas, Marcie

    2016-01-01

    As a foundation for discussing transpersonal adult development, the author traces her trajectory, involvement in, and contribution to the modern transpersonal movement and her introduction of it to the adult learning literature, beginning during the early 1980s. Highlighted are the transpersonal domain and a differentiation between transpersonal

  6. Today's Adult Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Who are the adult students in career and technical education (CTE) today? There is not one simple answer to that question. Some are young with little life experience, while others are returning to the workforce and learning new skills to reinvent themselves. Whatever the case, educating adult students is an integral part of ACTE's mission, and the

  7. Adult Education in Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Harry G.; Lee, Hyon Chong

    Adult and continuing education in Korea is associated with a national emphasis on social education in nonformal settings outside traditional elementary and secondary systems. During the last decades, achievements have included growth in the variety of programs, national attention to the necessity of adult and continuing education, and expansion of

  8. Adult Counseling Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrone, Phil; Davis, Sandy A.

    In order to determine the specific counseling needs of the adult learner, staff of the Adult Counseling Project began by conducting a literature search pertaining to the problems of returning students and those considering a return to school. The review revealed that little is known about the educational and vocational needs of the returning

  9. Adult Day Services

    MedlinePLUS

    A Smart Choice Adult Day Services Comparison At-a-Glance 1 Adult Day Services Assisted Living Home Care Nursing Homes Live at home with family ... supervision Nursing care available as needed during the day Flexibility to receive care only on days when ...

  10. Schizophrenia in older adults.

    PubMed

    Collier, Elizabeth; Sorrell, Jeanne M

    2011-11-01

    Although the number of people older than 55 with schizophrenia is expected to double during the next 20 years, the research data on older adults with schizophrenia are limited. This appears to be because until the middle of the 20th century, it was assumed that mental illness in older adults was a part of the aging process and because older adults are often excluded from research investigations. Nursing research is needed to explore how people with schizophrenia learn to manage their problems as they age, as well as how those who are first diagnosed with schizophrenia in later life adapt to their illness. Mental health nurses need to be cautious in assigning premature labels to older adults with mental illness that may lead to unsubstantiated assumptions about levels of disability. Instead, nurses should realize individual potential regarding undiscovered strengths and should attempt to create interventions that recognize and foster personal development for older adults with schizophrenia. PMID:22007854

  11. Gender Dysphoria in Adults.

    PubMed

    Zucker, Kenneth J; Lawrence, Anne A; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C

    2016-03-28

    Gender dysphoria (GD), a term that denotes persistent discomfort with one's biologic sex or assigned gender, replaced the diagnosis of gender identity disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders in 2013. Subtypes of GD in adults, defined by sexual orientation and age of onset, have been described; these display different developmental trajectories and prognoses. Prevalence studies conclude that fewer than 1 in 10,000 adult natal males and 1 in 30,000 adult natal females experience GD, but such estimates vary widely. GD in adults is associated with an elevated prevalence of comorbid psychopathology, especially mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and suicidality. Causal mechanisms in GD are incompletely understood, but genetic, neurodevelopmental, and psychosocial factors probably all contribute. Treatment of GD in adults, although largely standardized, is likely to evolve in response to the increasing diversity of persons seeking treatment, demands for greater client autonomy, and improved understanding of the benefits and limitations of current treatment modalities. PMID:26788901

  12. National Adult Day Services Association

    MedlinePLUS

    ... near you THE NATIONAL VOICE FOR THE ADULT DAY SERVICE COMMUNITY The National Adult Day Services Association is seeking an Executive Director. Click ... the national development, recognition and use of adult day services. They provide a coordinated program of professional ...

  13. Adult Education in the Seventies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indian Adult Education Association, New Delhi.

    The proceedings of the 24th All India Adult Education Conference highlight two symposia, "Adult Education and Urban Development" and "Adult Education and Green Revolution." Commission Reports on the two symposia are given. (DB)

  14. Adult male mice conceived by in vitro fertilization exhibit increased glucocorticoid receptor expression in fat tissue.

    PubMed

    Simbulan, R K; Liu, X; Feuer, S K; Maltepe, E; Donjacour, A; Rinaudo, P

    2016-02-01

    Prenatal development is highly plastic and readily influenced by the environment. Adverse conditions have been shown to alter organ development and predispose offspring to chronic diseases, including diabetes and hypertension. Notably, it appears that the changes in glucocorticoid hormones or glucocorticoid receptor (GR) levels in peripheral tissues could play a role in the development of chronic diseases. We have previously demonstrated that in vitro fertilization (IVF) and preimplantation embryo culture is associated with growth alterations and glucose intolerance in mice. However, it is unknown if GR signaling is affected in adult IVF offspring. Here we show that GR expression is increased in inbred (C57Bl6/J) and outbred (CF-1 B6D2F1/J) blastocysts following in vitro culture and elevated levels are also present in the adipose tissue of adult male mice. Importantly, genes involved in lipolysis and triglyceride synthesis and responsive to GR were also increased in adipose tissue, indicating that increased GR activates downstream gene pathways. The promoter region of GR, previously reported to be epigenetically modified by perinatal manipulation, showed no changes in DNA methylation status. Our findings demonstrate that IVF results in a long-term change in GR gene expression in a sex- and tissue-specific manner. These changes in adipose tissues may well contribute to the metabolic phenotype in mice conceived by IVF. PMID:26511158

  15. Depression in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Fiske, Amy; Wetherell, Julie Loebach; Gatz, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Depression is less prevalent among older adults than among younger adults but can have serious consequences. Over half of cases represent a first onset in later life. Although suicide rates in the elderly are declining, they are still higher than in younger adults and more closely associated with depression. Depressed older adults are less likely to endorse affective symptoms and more likely to display cognitive changes, somatic symptoms, and loss of interest than are younger adults. Risk factors leading to the development of late life depression likely comprise complex interactions among genetic vulnerabilities, cognitive diathesis, age-associated neurobiological changes, and stressful events. Insomnia is an often overlooked risk factor for late life depression. We suggest that a common pathway to depression in older adults, regardless of which predisposing risks are most prominent, may be curtailment of daily activities. Accompanying self-critical thinking may exacerbate and maintain a depressed state. Offsetting the increasing prevalence of certain risk factors in late life are age-related increases in psychological resilience. Other protective factors include higher education and socioeconomic status, engagement in valued activities, and religious or spiritual involvement. Treatments including behavioral therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, cognitive bibliotherapy, problem-solving therapy, brief psychodynamic therapy, and life review/reminiscence therapy are effective but too infrequently used with older adults. Preventive interventions including education for individuals with chronic illness, behavioral activation, cognitive restructuring, problem-solving skills training, group support, and life review have also received support. PMID:19327033

  16. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder among Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among ...

  17. Ciprofibrate--racemate and enantiomers: effects of a four-week treatment on male inbred Fischer rats. A biochemical and morphological study.

    PubMed

    Klinger, W; Lupp, A; Karge, E; Oelschlger, H; Rothley, D; Danz, M; Linss, W; Lbel, S; Deufel, T; Mller, M; Klinger, M; Khnel, W

    1998-09-01

    Ciprofibrates (racemate and both enantiomers, Raccip, R- and Scip) were administered orally in doses of 1 and 10 mg/kg once daily over 28 days to male inbred Fischer 344 rats, age 90-110 days at the beginning of the experiment. Body mass gain was observed in all groups. The 1 mg groups showed almost no difference to the control group. The 10 mg groups exhibited less body mass gain, most pronounced in the Scip group. Liver masses were increased in a dose dependent manner up to more than 200%, only the 10 mg Scip group was not significantly different from the 1 mg group which exhibited an increase in liver weight to about 175%. Also the kidney weights increased to 130%, whereas thymus and spleen weights were decreased in the high dose groups. Liver microsomal cytochromes P450 (P450) concentrations were not altered in the 1 mg groups and distinctly lowered in the 10 mg groups. Ethoxyresorufin and ethoxycoumarin O-deethylations were lowered in all experimental groups in a dose dependent manner, after administration of the high doses down to 30% of the control levels or less. Pentoxyresorufin O-depentylation, however, was increased in all 1 mg groups. In the high dose groups it was not altered. Ethylmorphine N-demethylation was decreased after administration of the high doses by about 50%, but only Scip decreased this reaction also after administration of the low dose. NADPH/Fe2+-stimulated microsomal luminol and lucigenin amplified chemiluminescence was increased, whereas hydrogen peroxide formation was depressed even by the low doses to 50% of the normal values, to about 25% by the high doses. Microsomal lipid peroxidation, however, was only slightly or not influenced. Glutathion concentrations (in the reduced and the oxidized form) were increased in a dose dependent manner by about 20 to 30%, the concentration of lipid peroxides was not significantly influenced. Thus, the effects of the enantiomers were not different and were similar to those of the racemate. In serum, cholesterol and triglycerides were only moderately lowered. Albumin concentrations were significantly enhanced in all groups, total proteins after 1 mg/kg Raccip only. Serum bilirubins were not altered, and among the indicator enzymes for liver damage only ALAT, alkaline phosphatase and the dehydrogenases were increased, in no case higher than twofold. Histologically distinct effects were seen after administration of both doses, more pronounced after 10 mg/kg, but with no differences between the enantiomers and Raccip: marked hypertrophy of the hepatocytes, reduced staining of the nuclei, strongly acidophilic granulated cytoplama, no basophilia of the cell bodies, loss of glycogen. These changes were most pronounced around the central veins. Hepatocyte apoptoses also were observed. By immunohistochemistry an increased staining was seen for all P450 isoforms tested (1A1, 2B1, 2E1, 3A2 and 4A1), predominantly perivenously and most pronounced after administration of the high doses without differences between Rcip, Scip or Raccip (preliminary results). By electron microscopy a moderate proliferation of peroxisomes after treatment with 1 mg/kg Cips with a ratio between mitochondria and peroxisomes of about 1:1 (controls: 10:1) was observed, and the peroxisomes were a more heterogeneous population. The relative portions of glycogen and both forms of the ER decreased. Treatment with 10 mg/kg Rcip, Scip or Raccip led to a strong increase in the number of peroxisomes, in some hepatocytes the ratio between mitochondria and peroxisomes was 1:3 with an increased heterogeneity among the peroxisomes evidenced by a broad range of electron densities. Most peroxisomes lacked a nucleoid. Thus, the biochemical effects differed only slightly and the morphological effects of the enantiomers were not different and were similar to those of the racemate. PMID:9784002

  18. Mosquito, adult (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    This illustration shows an adult southern house mosquito. This mosquito feeds on blood and is the carrier of many diseases, such as encephalitis, West Nile, dengue fever, yellow fever, and others. ( ...

  19. Older Adults and Alcohol

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Alcohol Exposure Support & Treatment Alcohol Policy Special Populations & Co-occurring Disorders Publications & Multimedia Brochures & Fact Sheets NIAAA ... are here Home » Alcohol & Your Health » Special Populations & Co-occurring Disorders » Older Adults In this Section Underage ...

  20. Motivation and Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, J. Rodney

    1982-01-01

    The author reviews theories of human motivation: Lewin's force field analysis, Skinner's operant reinforcement theory, and Maslow's hierarchy of needs. He then extracts the implications of these theories for adult learning. SK)

  1. Adult Congenital Heart Association

    MedlinePLUS

    ... year's event, "The Changing Landscape of Adult Congenital Heart Disease," is in Orlando on October 7-8, ... and management of pregnancy for women with congenital heart disease. Learn More Heart to Heart Ambassadors Ambassadors ...

  2. Urbanisation and Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nayar, D. P.

    1974-01-01

    Problems raised by urbanization are many. Those whose solution can be assisted through adult education are in economics; health, nutrition, and family planning; citizenship training; recreation; and education and culture. (AG)

  3. Motivation and Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veeraraghavan, J.

    1974-01-01

    The paper examines the role of adult education and the contribution it can make to the solution of current problems in developing countries, particularly the problems of economic under-development and over-population. (Author/AG)

  4. Adult Day Care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 10 Warning Signs Adult Day Care Assistive Technology Elder Abuse Face the Facts Government Assisted Housing Home ... Hospital Discharges Pension Counseling A Talk with An Elder Driver Brochures Federal Websites Helpful Links Search by ...

  5. Adult soft tissue sarcoma

    MedlinePLUS

    Soft tissue sarcoma is cancer that forms in the soft tissue of the body. Soft tissue connects, supports, or surrounds other body parts. In adults, soft tissue sarcoma is rare. There are many different types of ...

  6. Yoga and Older Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... My Go4Life Get Free Stuff Be a Partner Yoga and Older Adults Yoga is a mind and body practice that typically ... breathing exercises, and relaxation. Researchers are studying how yoga may help improve health and to learn more ...

  7. Environmental stimulation of 129/SvJ mice causes increased cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the adult dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    Kempermann, G; Brandon, E P; Gage, F H

    New neurons are continuously born in the dentate gyrus of the adult mouse hippocampus, and regulation of adult neurogenesis is influenced by both genetic and environmental determinants. Mice of the 129/SvJ strain have significantly less hippocampal neurogenesis than other inbred mouse strains [1] and do not perform well in learning tasks. Here, the impact of environmental stimuli on brain plasticity during adulthood of 129/SvJ mice was studied using 'enriched environments' where mice receive complex inanimate and social stimulation [2,3]. In contrast to our earlier reports on mice of the C57BL/6 strain - which are competent in learning tasks and in which environmental stimulation did not influence cell proliferation [4,5] - environmentally stimulated 129/SvJ mice were found to have twice as many proliferating cells in the dentate gyrus compared with mice in standard housing. Environmental stimulation fostered the survival of newborn cells in 129/SvJ mice; this effect had also been seen in C57BL/6 mice. Phenotypic analysis of the surviving cells revealed that environmental stimulation resulted in 67% more new neurons. In combination with our earlier results, these data indicate a differential impact of inheritable traits on the environmental regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. In addition, we observed behavioral changes in environmentally stimulated 129/SvJ mice. PMID:9707406

  8. Cardiac imaging in adults

    SciTech Connect

    Jaffe, C.C.

    1987-01-01

    This book approaches adult cardiac disease from the correlative imaging perspective. It includes chest X-rays and angiographs, 2-dimensional echocardiograms with explanatory diagrams for clarity, plus details on digital radiology, nuclear medicine techniques, CT and MRI. It also covers the normal heart, valvular heart disease, myocardial disease, pericardial disease, bacterial endocarditis, aortic aneurysm, cardiac tumors, and congenital heart disease of the adult. It points out those aspects where one imaging technique has significant superiority.

  9. Adult Education through World Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassara, Beverly Benner, Ed.

    This book contains the following papers about development/delivery of adult education through the efforts of multinational and bilateral government donors and the International Council for Adult Education (ICAE): "Preface" (Beverly Benner Cassara); "Introduction: Adult Education and Democracy" (Francisco Vio Grossi); "Adult Education and the…

  10. Adult Education in Israel V.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirmayer, Paul, Ed.; Michaelson, Serena T., Ed.

    This fifth journal edition focuses on the didactics of adult education in Israel. Following a "Preface" (Meir Peretz) discussing the didactics of adult education, three major fields are examined: Learning for Adults; Hebrew Language and Culture for Immigrants; and Special Populations (adults with learning disabilities, senior citizens, and

  11. Adult Education through World Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassara, Beverly Benner, Ed.

    This book contains the following papers about development/delivery of adult education through the efforts of multinational and bilateral government donors and the International Council for Adult Education (ICAE): "Preface" (Beverly Benner Cassara); "Introduction: Adult Education and Democracy" (Francisco Vio Grossi); "Adult Education and the

  12. Designing an Adult Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rand, Margaret

    Intended for planners of adult education curriculums, this literature review explains the concepts involved in designing an adult education program, provides information about the roles of the people involved in the adult education process, cites some program planning models, and applies the program planning principles to an Adult Basic Education…

  13. The Adult Learner: Four Aspects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, John A., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Topics concerning the adult learner that are relevant to institutional researchers are addressed in four articles: marketing, predicting success for adult students, enrollment projection, and follow-up studies of adult learners. In "Institutional Research in Support of Marketing the Adult Student," Lydia Jurand notes the importance of identifying

  14. Rich Environments for Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentham, Renee

    2008-01-01

    Unaware of the messages a bare adult learning environment sends and its effect on adult learners, a trainer attends an intensive Reggio Emilia course and learns that the physical environment is the "third teacher"--for adults as well as for children. Using principles of Reggio, she offers suggestions for enhancing adult learning spaces and…

  15. Rich Environments for Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentham, Renee

    2008-01-01

    Unaware of the messages a bare adult learning environment sends and its effect on adult learners, a trainer attends an intensive Reggio Emilia course and learns that the physical environment is the "third teacher"--for adults as well as for children. Using principles of Reggio, she offers suggestions for enhancing adult learning spaces and

  16. Cell wall composition in juvenile and adult leaves of maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Abedon, Bruce G; Hatfield, Ronald D; Tracy, William F

    2006-05-31

    Many leaf characteristics vary with position along the culm in maize (Zea mays L.) due to the existence of vegetative phase change and heteroblasty. The objective of this work was to determine if differences in cell wall composition exist among developmental phases and between Cg1, a developmental mutant, and wild-type maize. In one experiment, the middle third of fully elongated leaf blades from lower and upper regions of the shoot was harvested (midribs removed) and analyzed for several cell wall components. Averaged over five inbreds (De811, Ia5125, Mo17, P39, and Wh8584), lower leaf blades had higher levels of xylose and lower levels of total uronosyls, glucose, arabinose, and galactose (P < 0.05) than did upper leaf blades. With the exception of glucose, upper and lower leaves of Cg1 plants varied in the same manner as their near-isogenic siblings, except cell walls of Cg1 plants were more "juvenile" than cell walls of wild-type siblings at the same leaf stage. These data support the hypothesis that Cg1 delays but does not eliminate the transition from juvenile-vegetative to adult-vegetative phase. In a second experiment, juvenile (leaves 3 and 5), transition (leaf 7), and adult (leaves 9 and 11) leaves from inbreds B73 and De811 were harvested and analyzed as in the first experiment. As leaf number rose, total cell wall content of sample dry matter, total neutral sugars, glucose, xylose, and ester-linked monomers of p-coumaric acid and total ferulates including ferulate dimers increased linearly while total uronosyls acids, arabinose, and galactose declined linearly (P < 0.05). Glucose and xylose are major cell wall components released from cellulose and xylans after acid hydrolysis. Pectin, a minor component of grass cell walls, is composed of galacturonosyls, arabinose, and galactose. Secondary cell wall deposition increased between leaves 3 and 11 in a heteroblastic series, due to either increased cell wall content concomitant with decreased cell lumen size, changes in proportion of cell types (i.e., sclerenchyma), or a combination of these factors. PMID:16719512

  17. Resequencing at ≥40-Fold Depth of the Parental Genomes of a Solanum lycopersicum × S. pimpinellifolium Recombinant Inbred Line Population and Characterization of Frame-Shift InDels That Are Highly Likely to Perturb Protein Function

    PubMed Central

    Kevei, Zoltan; King, Robert C.; Mohareb, Fady; Sergeant, Martin J.; Awan, Sajjad Z.; Thompson, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    A recombinant in-bred line population derived from a cross between Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme (E9) and S. pimpinellifolium (L5) has been used extensively to discover quantitative trait loci (QTL), including those that act via rootstock genotype, however, high-resolution single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping data for this population are not yet publically available. Next-generation resequencing of parental lines allows the vast majority of polymorphisms to be characterized and used to progress from QTL to causative gene. We sequenced E9 and L5 genomes to 40- and 44-fold depth, respectively, and reads were mapped to the reference Heinz 1706 genome. In L5 there were three clear regions on chromosome 1, chromosome 4, and chromosome 8 with increased rates of polymorphism. Two other regions were highly polymorphic when we compared Heinz 1706 with both E9 and L5 on chromosome 1 and chromosome 10, suggesting that the reference sequence contains a divergent introgression in these locations. We also identified a region on chromosome 4 consistent with an introgression from S. pimpinellifolium into Heinz 1706. A large dataset of polymorphisms for the use in fine-mapping QTL in a specific tomato recombinant in-bred line population was created, including a high density of InDels validated as simple size-based polymerase chain reaction markers. By careful filtering and interpreting the SnpEff prediction tool, we have created a list of genes that are predicted to have highly perturbed protein functions in the E9 and L5 parental lines. PMID:25809074

  18. Resequencing at ?40-Fold Depth of the Parental Genomes of a Solanum lycopersicum S. pimpinellifolium Recombinant Inbred Line Population and Characterization of Frame-Shift InDels That Are Highly Likely to Perturb Protein Function.

    PubMed

    Kevei, Zoltan; King, Robert C; Mohareb, Fady; Sergeant, Martin J; Awan, Sajjad Z; Thompson, Andrew J

    2015-05-01

    A recombinant in-bred line population derived from a cross between Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme (E9) and S. pimpinellifolium (L5) has been used extensively to discover quantitative trait loci (QTL), including those that act via rootstock genotype, however, high-resolution single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping data for this population are not yet publically available. Next-generation resequencing of parental lines allows the vast majority of polymorphisms to be characterized and used to progress from QTL to causative gene. We sequenced E9 and L5 genomes to 40- and 44-fold depth, respectively, and reads were mapped to the reference Heinz 1706 genome. In L5 there were three clear regions on chromosome 1, chromosome 4, and chromosome 8 with increased rates of polymorphism. Two other regions were highly polymorphic when we compared Heinz 1706 with both E9 and L5 on chromosome 1 and chromosome 10, suggesting that the reference sequence contains a divergent introgression in these locations. We also identified a region on chromosome 4 consistent with an introgression from S. pimpinellifolium into Heinz 1706. A large dataset of polymorphisms for the use in fine-mapping QTL in a specific tomato recombinant in-bred line population was created, including a high density of InDels validated as simple size-based polymerase chain reaction markers. By careful filtering and interpreting the SnpEff prediction tool, we have created a list of genes that are predicted to have highly perturbed protein functions in the E9 and L5 parental lines. PMID:25809074

  19. Hypertension in young adults.

    PubMed

    De Venecia, Toni; Lu, Marvin; Figueredo, Vincent M

    2016-03-01

    Hypertension remains a major societal problem affecting 76 million, or approximately one third, of US adults. While more prevalent in the older population, an increasing incidence in the younger population, including athletes, is being observed. Active individuals, like the young and athletes, are viewed as free of diseases such as hypertension. However, the increased prevalence of traditional risk factors in the young, including obesity, diabetes mellitus, and renal disease, increase the risk of developing hypertension in younger adults. Psychosocial factors may also be contributing factors to the increasing incidence of hypertension in the younger population. Increased left ventricular wall thickness and mass are increasingly found in young adults on routine echocardiograms and predict future cardiovascular events. This increasing incidence of hypertension in the young calls for early surveillance and prompt treatment to prevent future cardiac events. In this review we present the current epidemiological data, potential mechanisms, clinical implications, and treatment of hypertension in young patients and athletes. PMID:26821528

  20. Adult Seborrheic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis is a common chronic-recurrent inflammatory disorder that most commonly affects adults; however, a more transient infantile form also occurs. The definitive cause of seborrheic dermatitis is unknown. However, proliferation of Malassezia species has been described as a contributing factor. The adult form of seborrheic dermatitis affects up to approximately five percent of the general population. The disorder commonly affects the scalp, face, and periauricular region, with the central chest, axillae, and genital region also involved in some cases. Pruritus is not always present and is relatively common, especially with scalp disease. A variety of treatments are available including topical corticosteroids, topical antifungal agents, topical calcineurin inhibitors, and more recently, a nonsteroidal device cream. This article reviews the practical topical management of seborrheic dermatitis in the United States, focusing on the adult population. PMID:21607192

  1. Shaken Adult Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Azari, Amir A.; Kanavi, Mozhgan R.; Saipe, Noah B.; Potter, Heather D.; Albert, Daniel M.; Stier, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE To establish that the intracranial and ophthalmologic findings present in victims of abusive head trauma can also be seen in shaken adults. OBSERVATIONS We report 2 cases of shaken adults with intracranial and ophthalmologic findings that resulted from repetitive acceleration-deceleration injury. These findings included intracranial hemorrhages, hemorrhages involving the optic nerve sheath, intraretinal and subretinal hemorrhages, and macular folds. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE The intracranial and ophthalmologic findings that are characteristic of abusive head trauma—subdural hemorrhages, optic nerve sheath hemorrhages, and retinal hemorrhages—are generally thought to be limited to young children and infants. Adults may also be victims of shaking abuse, and an ophthalmic examination may be beneficial when shaking is suspected. PMID:24077385

  2. Shigella bacteraemia in adults.

    PubMed Central

    Trevett, A. J.; Ogunbanjo, B. O.; Naraqi, S.; Igo, J. D.

    1993-01-01

    Shigella infections are usually restricted to the intestine. There are few reports of Shigella isolated from the blood and most of these are from children, usually in neonates and the malnourished. In the small number of adult cases of Shigella bacteraemia which have been reported, there appears to be an association with underlying disease and immunosuppression including acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. We report three adult cases in which Shigella were isolated from blood. Two of these patients made an uneventful recovery whilst the third died. An underlying cause of immunosuppression was suspected in this patient but unproven. PMID:8208644

  3. Obesity in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Kalish, Virginia B

    2016-03-01

    The percentage of older obese adults is on the rise. Many clinicians underestimate the health consequences of obesity in the elderly, citing scarce evidence and concerns that weight loss might be detrimental to the health of older adults. Although overweight and obese elders are not at the same risk for morbidity and mortality as younger individuals, quality of life and function are adversely impacted. Weight loss plans in the elderly should include aerobic activities as well as balance and resistance activities to maintain optimal physical function. PMID:26896206

  4. Substance abuse among older adults.

    PubMed

    Kuerbis, Alexis; Sacco, Paul; Blazer, Dan G; Moore, Alison A

    2014-08-01

    Although the myth that older adults do not use mood-altering substances persists, evidence suggests that substance use among older adults has been underidentified for decades. The baby boom generation is unique in its exposure to, attitudes toward, and prevalence of substance use-causing projected rates of substance use to increase over the next twenty years. Given their unique biological vulnerabilities and life stage, older adults who misuse substances require special attention. Prevalence rates of substance use and misuse among older adults, methods of screening and assessment unique to older adults, and treatment options for older adults are reviewed. PMID:25037298

  5. Migration and Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gois, William

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to highlight the role of adult education as a tool in addressing labour migration issues, specifically those concerning the protection of migrant workers' rights and the transformation of the impact of migration into positive holistic developmental gains. The view of labour migration as a means to forge the economic…

  6. TRENDS IN ADULT READING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MILLER, JUSTIN H.

    TRENDS EVIDENT IN ADULT READING DURING THE 1960'S IN THE AREAS OF ADMINISTRATION, PROGRAMS, TEACHING, TECHNIQUES, RESEARCH PROJECTS, AND METHODS OF PROMOTION OF READING PROGRAMS ARE DISCUSSED. TWO INSTANCES OF COMMERCIAL EXPLOITATION BASED ON INTENSE AND OFTEN FALLACIOUS ADVERTISING AND ON PUBLIC IGNORANCE ARE CITED. A POSITIVE TREND IN THE AREA

  7. Adult Literacy Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Maurice C., Ed.; Draper, James A., Ed.

    This book, intended to serve as a professional reference work, proposes to define the field of Adult Basic Education in its evolution, its contribution to professional education, and the principal problems and issues. The volume contains the following treatises: "Definitions and Evolution of the Concepts" (Thomas); "Selected Chronology of Literacy…

  8. Adult Religious Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elias, John L.

    2012-01-01

    Most religious organizations exert their greatest effort in the religious education of children. This makes sense in terms of handing on the faith to the next generation. Historically, however, religious education of adults is the first endeavor of religious groups. Conducting education of children requires the previous religious education of

  9. Adult Education in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerio da Educacao e Cultura, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil).

    The status and goals of adult education programs in Brazil are discussed in this report. Supplemental systems such as the Brazilian Literacy Movement (Mobral) and their results are described and evaluated. Charts detailing the evolution of literacy are shown and priorities in education are suggested. The progress of other educational entities is…

  10. Certificates in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deutscher Volkshochschul-Verband, Frankfurt (West Germany).

    Certificates are awarded to adult candidates who satisfy the examiners that their standard of ability in everyday English is adequate for them to express themselves in writing and to take an active part in conversations about everyday topics. The examination, which makes use of the techniques of objective testing, is set by a central Examining…

  11. Adult Learning Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adults Learning, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Campaigning Alliance for Lifelong Learning is to lobby parliament for the restoration of the 1.5 million adult learning places lost over the past two years. The campaign has attracted supporters from an astonishingly wide range of backgrounds. In this article, Gordon Marsden, Caroline Biggins, Beth Walker, Mike Chaney, Peter Davies, Sian

  12. How Do Adults Learn?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Alan; Illeris, Knud

    2003-01-01

    This dialog between Alan Rogers and Knud Illeris debates arguments Rogers made in a previous article about the differences between adult and child learning. Rogers emphasizes differences in teacher-learner relationships. Illeris believes the differences result from different motivations for learning. (SK)

  13. Police and Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Vic

    The literature on adult education for police is reviewed and criticized. Among the publications that have been influential in debating the need for police education are Charles B. Saunder's "The Challenge of Crime in a Free Society" (1976), which endorses the Presidential Commission on Law Enforcement's recommendations regarding the vital…

  14. Police and Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Vic

    The literature on adult education for police is reviewed and criticized. Among the publications that have been influential in debating the need for police education are Charles B. Saunder's "The Challenge of Crime in a Free Society" (1976), which endorses the Presidential Commission on Law Enforcement's recommendations regarding the vital

  15. Immigration and Adult Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rumbaut, Ruben G.; Komaie, Golnaz

    2010-01-01

    Almost 30 percent of the more than 68 million young adults aged eighteen to thirty-four in the United States today are either foreign born or of foreign parentage. As these newcomers make their transitions to adulthood, say Ruben Rumbaut and Golnaz Komaie, they differ significantly not only from one another but also from their native-parentage…

  16. Older Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forman, Jeffrey

    In an effort to improve the quality of life for area senior citizens, De Anza College has established an older adult education program which combines adaptive physical education with holistic health care principles to instruct students in relaxation, nutrition, and physical activity. Classes are held in convalescent hospitals, retirement homes,…

  17. No Adult Left Behind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arndt, Jason

    2010-01-01

    Left out of the conversation for education reform, at least on the level of grade school, secondary school, and college are the adult education programs provided across the country. These programs receive a fraction of the funds and respect as mainstream programs do. However, they are sorely needed in Northwest Indiana. The region's early 21st…

  18. Encyclopedia of Adult Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kastenbaum, Robert, Ed.

    This encyclopedia contains 106 articles on adult development that were written by more than 75 specialists in such diverse fields as anthropology, communication, education, health sciences, history, and psychology. In a guide to related topics that is presented at the beginning of the encyclopedia, the 106 articles are grouped under the following…

  19. Older Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forman, Jeffrey

    In an effort to improve the quality of life for area senior citizens, De Anza College has established an older adult education program which combines adaptive physical education with holistic health care principles to instruct students in relaxation, nutrition, and physical activity. Classes are held in convalescent hospitals, retirement homes,

  20. Individualized Adult Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, C. G.

    As the proceedings of a national seminar on individualized adult science education, a total of 13 articles is compiled in this volume concerning the theory and techniques of curriculum development and the individualization process in upgrading Canadian science courses. The topics include: The Characteristics and Formulation of Behavioral