Sample records for adult inbred mhc-defined

  1. Early environmental and social factors affecting adult aggressiveness in inbred mice 

    E-print Network

    Allender, Michael Lynn

    1971-01-01

    EARLY ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL FACTORS AFFECTING ADULT AGGRESSIVENESS IN INBRED MICE A Thesis by MICHAEL LYNN ALLENDER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1971 Major Subject: Psychology EARLY ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL FACTORS AFFECTING ADULT AGGRESSIVENESS IN INBRED MICE A Thesis by MICHAEL LYNN ALLENDER Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Commi ee) (Member...

  2. Development of teratomas from embryos transplanted into outbred and inbred adult hamsters.

    PubMed

    Damjanov, I

    1978-09-01

    Six- to 8 1/2-day inbred MHA/SsLak and outbred Syrian golden hamster embryos and 14-day fetal lungs, testes, and portions of small intestine were transplanted into cheek pouches or under kidney capsules of adult recipients. Embryonic grafts gave rise to benign teratomas, irrespective of the age of the embryo, transplantation site, and the strain or stock of recipient. Fetal lung and testis grew little in extrauterine sites, whereas fetal intestine formed large mucus-filled cysts lined with proliferating and apparently functionally active epithelium. PMID:357749

  3. Dynamics of cell proliferation in the adult dentate gyrus of two inbred strains of mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, N. L.; Nowakowski, R. S.

    2002-01-01

    The output potential of proliferating populations in either the developing or the adult nervous system is critically dependent on the length of the cell cycle (T(c)) and the size of the proliferating population. We developed a new approach for analyzing the cell cycle, the 'Saturate and Survive Method' (SSM), that also reveals the dynamic behaviors in the proliferative population and estimates of the size of the proliferating population. We used this method to analyze the proliferating population of the adult dentate gyrus in 60 day old mice of two inbred strains, C57BL/6J and BALB/cByJ. The results show that the number of cells labeled by exposure to BUdR changes dramatically with time as a function of the number of proliferating cells in the population, the length of the S-phase, cell division, the length of the cell cycle, dilution of the S-phase label, and cell death. The major difference between C57BL/6J and BALB/cByJ mice is the size of the proliferating population, which differs by a factor of two; the lengths of the cell cycle and the S-phase and the probability that a newly produced cell will die within the first 10 days do not differ in these two strains. This indicates that genetic regulation of the size of the proliferating population is independent of the genetic regulation of cell death among those newly produced cells. The dynamic changes in the number of labeled cells as revealed by the SSM protocol also indicate that neither single nor repeated daily injections of BUdR accurately measure 'proliferation.'.

  4. Communal nesting increases pup growth but has limited effects on adult behavior and neurophysiology in inbred mice.

    PubMed

    Heiderstadt, Kathleen M; Vandenbergh, David J; Gyekis, Joseph P; Blizard, David A

    2014-03-01

    Laboratory mice preferentially rear their offspring in communal nests (CN), with all mothers contributing to maternal care and feeding of all the pups. Previous studies using primarily outbred mice have shown that offspring reared under CN conditions may display increased preweaning growth rates and differences in adult behavior and neurobiology compared with mice reared under single-nesting (SN; one dam with her litter) conditions. Here we compared pup mortality; weaning and adult body weights; adult behavior; and gene expression in the hippocampus and frontal cortex between C57BL/6J, DBA/2J and 129x1/SvJ mice reared by using CN (3 dams and their litters sharing a single nest) or SN. Male and female pups of all 3 strains reared in CN cages showed higher body weight at weaning than did SN pups of the same strain, with no significant difference in pup mortality between groups. Adult male offspring reared in CN showed no differences in any behavioral test when compared with SN offspring. Combining CN dams and litters after parturition revealed greater cortical brain-derived neurotropic factor expression in adult male C57BL/6J offspring and cortical glucocorticoid receptor expression in adult male C57BL/6J and 129x1/SvJ offspring as compared with SN offspring of the same strain. Communal rearing can enhance juvenile growth rates but does not change adult behavior in inbred mouse strains, although potential effects on adult neurophysiology are possible. PMID:24602541

  5. A pubertal immune challenge alters the antidepressant-like effects of chronic estradiol treatment in inbred and outbred adult female mice

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Nafissa; Kumlin, Ashley M.; Blaustein, Jeffrey D.

    2012-01-01

    Puberty is a period characterized by brain reorganization that contributes to the development of neural and behavioral responses to gonadal steroids. A single injection of the bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), during the pubertal period decreases sexual receptivity in response to ovarian hormones in adulthood. Because chronic estradiol treatment alleviates depression-like symptoms in ovariectomized adult mice, we investigated the effect of pubertal LPS treatment on estradiol’s antidepressant effects. We hypothesized that pubertal LPS treatment would decrease the antidepressant-like effect of estradiol in adult ovariectomized female mice, as it decreases other behavioral responses to ovarian hormones. As expected, chronic estradiol treatment decreased depression-like behavior, as measured by the duration of immobility, in saline-treated mice from two different strains, as well as in mice treated with LPS in adulthood. In contrast, in mice treated pubertally with LPS, estradiol strikingly increased the duration of immobility. No difference in body weight and in locomotion was found among the groups, suggesting that the differences in depression-like behavior were not due to differences in body weight or locomotor activity between LPS-treated and control mice. These results suggest that exposure to an immune challenge during the pubertal period alters the responsiveness of depression-like behavior to estradiol. PMID:23036617

  6. Field performance of inbred and partially inbred lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Self-fertile breeding accessions were evaluated. These materials are being used to develop recombinant inbred populations for genetic analyses of agronomic and disease resistance traits, which is difficult with the normally self-sterile breeding populations used traditionally. Populations were devel...

  7. Genealogies of mouse inbred strains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jon A. Beck; Sarah Lloyd; Majid Hafezparast; Moyha Lennon-Pierce; Janan T. Eppig; Michael F. W. Festing; Elizabeth M. C. Fisher

    2000-01-01

    The mouse is a prime organism of choice for modelling human disease. Over 450 inbred strains of mice have been described, providing a wealth of different genotypes and phenotypes for genetic and other studies. As new strains are generated and others become extinct, it is useful to review periodically what strains are available and how they are related to each

  8. Registration of maize inbred line GT603

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    GT603 (Reg. No. xxxx, PI xxxxxx) is a yellow dent maize (Zea mays L.) inbred line developed and released by the USDA-ARS Crop Protection and Management Research Unit in cooperation with the University of Georgia Coastal Plain Experiment Station in 2010. GT603 was developed through seven generations ...

  9. Microsatellite Loci in Wild-Type and Inbred Strongylocentrotus purpuratus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Andrew Cameron; Patrick S. Leahy; Roy J. Britten; Eric H. Davidson

    1999-01-01

    Strongylocentrotus purpuratus,a major research model in developmental molecular biology, has been inbred through six generations of sibling matings. Though viability initially decreased, as described earlier, the inbred line now consists of healthy, fertile animals. These are intended to serve as a genomic resource in which the level of polymorphism is decreased with respect to wildS. purpuratus.To genotype the inbred animals

  10. Genetic architecture of adiposity in the cross of LG\\/J and SM\\/J inbred mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James M. Cheverud; Ty T. Vaughn; L. Susan Pletscher; Andrea C. Peripato; Emily S. Adams; Christopher F. Erikson; Kelly J. King-Ellison

    2001-01-01

    .   The genetic basis of variation in obesity in human populations is thought to be owing to many genes of relatively small effect\\u000a and their interactions. The LG\\/J by SM\\/J intercross of mouse inbred strains provides an excellent model system in which to\\u000a investigate multigenic obesity. We previously mapped a large number of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting adult body

  11. Inbreeding depression and heterosis : Expected means and variances among inbred lines

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Inbreeding depression and heterosis : Expected means and variances among inbred lines depression are investigated from a theoretical point of view in an experiment involving several inbred lines depression phenomena ! Many experiments led to the definition of the relations hipbetweentheincrease

  12. Pharmacoproteomic investigation into antidepressant response in two mouse inbred strains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Malki; J. Campbell; M. Davies; R. Keers; R. Uher; M. Ward; J. Paya-Cano; K. J. Aitchinson; E. Binder; F. Sluyter; K. Kuhn; S. Selzer; I. Craig; P. McGuffin; L. C. Schalkwyk

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we present a pharmacoproteomic investigation of response to antidepressants two inbred strains. Our aim was to uncover molecular mechanisms underlying antidepressant action and identify new biomarkers to determine therapeutic response to two antidepressants with proven efficacy in the treatment of depression but divergent mechanisms of action. Mice were treated with the pro-noradrenergic drug nortriptyline, the pro-serotonergic drug

  13. Enzyme polymorphism in feral, outbred and inbred rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K Eriksson; O Halkka; J Lokki; A Saura

    1976-01-01

    Polymorphism at 25 loci coding for liver enzymes was studied in two feral, three outbred and three inbred rat strains by starch gel electrophoresis. No variation was found at 14 loci, and a low degree of polymorphism was detected at three. Eight loci were polymorphic in more than one population. The average degree of heterozygosity per locus per individual feral

  14. Genetic polymorphisms among C57BL\\/6 mouse inbred strains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Esther ZuritaMonica; Mónica Chagoyen; Marta Cantero; Rosario Alonso; Anna González-Neira; Alejandro López-Jiménez; José Antonio López-Moreno; Carlisle P. Landel; Javier Benítez; Florencio Pazos; Lluís Montoliu

    2011-01-01

    Mice from the inbred C57BL\\/6 strain have been commonly used for the generation and analysis of transgenic and knockout animal\\u000a models. However, several C57BL\\/6 substrains exist, and these are genetically and phenotypically different. In addition, each\\u000a of these substrains can be purchased from different animal providers and, in some cases, they have maintained their breeding\\u000a stocks separated for a long

  15. Voluntary consumption of ethanol in 15 inbred mouse strains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. K. Belknap; J. C. Crabbe; E. R. Young

    1993-01-01

    To determine genetic differences in ethanol consumption, 15 commonly used inbred strains of mice were given ad libitum two-bottle choice between ethanol, 0.2% saccharin, or ethanol plus saccharin in one bottle versus tap water in the other bottle. Three different concentrations of ethanol were used: 3%, 6% and 10% (v\\/v). Of the 15 strains, the C57BL\\/6J, C57BR\\/cdJ and C57L\\/J strains

  16. Brugia pahangi: quantitative analysis of infection in several inbred rat strains.

    PubMed

    Bell, R G; Adams, L; Coleman, S; Negrao-Correa, D; Klei, T

    1999-06-01

    We report a comprehensive study of the infectivity of Brugia pahangi in male and female rats of eight different inbred strains. A single infection of any inbred rat strain will produce rats that become microfilaremic, have occult infection, or clear the primary infection. The proportion belonging to any category is determined by the basic susceptibility level of that strain. Patency rates (blood microfilaria+) ranged from 24% (AO rats) to 73% (WKA rats). The period for which microfilaria were in the circulation was directly related to microfilarial burden, with rats carrying less than 50 mf/ml of blood patent for 11.8 weeks +/- 12.2; for 50-499 mf/ml it was 37.6 +/- 14.8 and for 500+ mf/ml it was 63.3 +/- 34.2 weeks. Suckling rats were resistant to infection (0 patent) and weanlings were intermediate in resistance between suckling and adult rats. Female rats were highly resistant to infection. Approximately half of amicrofilaremic rats have occult infections. A high proportion of patent infections involve the testes or testicular lymphatics. In the most susceptible rat strains, more than 95% of the administered L3 or developing L4 parasites were killed within 28 days. During the course of the first 6 months, the ratio of males to females fell significantly, suggesting a shorter life span in male worms. The features of the infectivity/patency patterns in rats are compared with recognized patterns obtaining in human populations. We conclude that rats provide a valuable and underutilized model for the experimental analysis of filarial infections. PMID:10366537

  17. Genetic and biochemical characterization of corn inbred lines tolerant to the sulfonylurea herbicide primisulfuron

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. T. Harms; A. L. Montoya; L. S. Privalle; R. W. Briggs

    1990-01-01

    Inbred lines of corn (Zea mays L.) have been characterized, which exhibit differential sensitivity to the sulfonylurea herbicide primisulfuron (2-[3-(4,6-bis(di-fluoromethoxy) pyrimidin-2-yl)-ureidosulfonyl]-benzoic acid methylester). When treated postemergence with 160 g a.i. per hectare, inbred 4CO exhibited complete tolerance while inbred 4N5 was killed. The F1 hybrid 4C0 x 4N5 was uniformly tolerant indicating dominance of the tolerance trait. The field observations

  18. DE INBRE -PI Steiner 25 14.0 DE COBRE -PI Shaffer 3 1.7

    E-print Network

    Rhode Island, University of

    Group # % DE INBRE - PI Steiner 25 14.0 DE COBRE - PI Shaffer 3 1.7 DE COBRE - PI Buchanan 1 0.6 DE COBRE - PI Lenhoff 3 1.7 DE COBRE - PI Beebe 2 1.1 ME INBRE - PI Hand 19 10.7 ME COBRE - PI Wojchowski 9 5.1 ME COBRE - PI Friesel 3 1.7 NH INBRE - PI Taylor 12 6.7 NH COBRE - PI Stanton 9 5.1 NH COBRE

  19. Evaluation of maize inbred Iines for resistance to sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV)

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Evaluation of maize inbred Iines for resistance to sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) and maize dwarf experiments were performed to evaluate 124 maize inbreds for their reaction to inoculation with sugarcane Sugarcane mosaic and maize dwarf mosaic are the most important virus diseases of maize in Europe. Maize

  20. COMBINING ABILITY OF INBRED LINES DERIVED FROM A YELLOW FLINT MAIZE SYNTHETIC CMS 53

    Microsoft Academic Search

    EUGENIO GOMES E GAMA; WALTER FERNANDES MEIRELES; PAULO EVARISTO GUIMARĂES; ROMÁRIO GAVA FERRĂO; SIDNEY NETO PARENTONI; ANTÔNIO PATTO PACHECO; MANOEL XAVIER DOS SANTOS; ANTÔNIO CARLOS DE OLIVEIRA

    The objectives were to study the combining ability of lines, derived from synthetic maize (Zea mays L.) CMS 53, in a diallel crosses, to identify lines for developing more stable and superior yielding hybrids combinations with a dent heterotic group. The 9 inbreds were crossed to form 36 single crosses, in 1999. Parental inbreds and crosses together with a single

  1. Diagnostics of low-pressure discharges containing InBr studied for lighting applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briefi, S.; Fantz, U.

    2013-10-01

    The utilization of InBr in low-pressure rare-gas plasmas for lighting applications may serve as an efficient alternative to hazardous mercury, which is used in common fluorescent lamps as a radiator. In order to perform systematic investigations of these discharges, diagnostic methods are required to gain insight into the relevant plasma parameters. This goal can be achieved by using white light absorption and optical emission spectroscopy supported by an extended corona model of the indium atom and a simulation of the relative intensity of the InBr emission. The set of diagnostic methods is exemplarily applied to measurements on an inductively coupled argon discharge at 100 W power with varying InBr content. The plasma parameters are derived and the processes determining their changes with varying InBr density are identified. Increasing the InBr density results in a decrease in Te but an increase in ne, which can be explained by considering the ionization and power balance. The relevant population processes for the rovibrational states of InBr are inelastic collisions with heavy particles with an increasing importance of electron impact excitation at a higher InBr density. The radiated power is maximal at a cold spot temperature between 210 and 220 °C as reabsorption occurs at a high InBr density.

  2. Physiological and biochemical bases of fall armyworm resistance in the seedlings of maize inbred lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four CIMMYT maize inbred lines (i.e., CML333, CML335, CML 336, and CML338), and a susceptible (i.e., AB24E) and resistant (i.e., Mp780) control were examined for the mechanisms of fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda (JE Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) resistance. The six inbred lines were ev...

  3. Nonhistone chromosomal protein patterns in leucocytes of inbred chicken and their crosses

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Nonhistone chromosomal protein patterns in leucocytes of inbred chicken and their crosses Sylvia proteins (NHCP) soluble in 0.3 M NaCI of pure inbred chicken lines and their crosses have been analyzed of the analysis of NHCP patterns in animal production are discussed. Key words :Nonhistones, chicken, leucocytes

  4. Pharmacoproteomic investigation into antidepressant response in two mouse inbred strains.

    PubMed

    Malki, Karim; Campbell, James; Davies, Matthew; Keers, Robert; Uher, Rudolf; Ward, Malcolm; Paya-Cano, Jose; Aitchinson, Katherine J; Binder, Elke; Sluyter, Frans; Kuhn, Karsten; Selzer, Stefan; Craig, Ian; McGuffin, Peter; Schalkwyk, Leonard C

    2012-08-01

    In this study, we present a pharmacoproteomic investigation of response to antidepressants two inbred strains. Our aim was to uncover molecular mechanisms underlying antidepressant action and identify new biomarkers to determine therapeutic response to two antidepressants with proven efficacy in the treatment of depression but divergent mechanisms of action. Mice were treated with the pro-noradrenergic drug nortriptyline, the pro-serotonergic drug escitalopram or saline. Quantitative proteomic analyses were undertaken on hippocampal tissue from a study design that used two inbred mouse strains, two depressogenic protocols and a control condition, (maternal separation, chronic mild stress, control), two antidepressant drugs and two dosing protocols. The proteomic analysis was aimed at the identification of specific drug-response markers. Complementary approaches, 2DE and isobaric tandem mass tagging (TMT), were applied to the selected experimental groups. To investigate the relationship between proteomic profiles, depressogenic protocols and drug response, 2DE and TMT data sets were analysed using multivariate methods. The results highlighted significant strain- and stress-related differences across both 2DE and TMT data sets and identified the three gene products involved in serotonergic (PXBD5, YHWAB, SLC25A4) and one in noradrenergic antidepressant action (PXBD6). PMID:22696452

  5. Comprehensive genotyping of the USA national maize inbred seed bank

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Genotyping by sequencing, a new low-cost, high-throughput sequencing technology was used to genotype 2,815 maize inbred accessions, preserved mostly at the National Plant Germplasm System in the USA. The collection includes inbred lines from breeding programs all over the world. Results The method produced 681,257 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers distributed across the entire genome, with the ability to detect rare alleles at high confidence levels. More than half of the SNPs in the collection are rare. Although most rare alleles have been incorporated into public temperate breeding programs, only a modest amount of the available diversity is present in the commercial germplasm. Analysis of genetic distances shows population stratification, including a small number of large clusters centered on key lines. Nevertheless, an average fixation index of 0.06 indicates moderate differentiation between the three major maize subpopulations. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) decays very rapidly, but the extent of LD is highly dependent on the particular group of germplasm and region of the genome. The utility of these data for performing genome-wide association studies was tested with two simply inherited traits and one complex trait. We identified trait associations at SNPs very close to known candidate genes for kernel color, sweet corn, and flowering time; however, results suggest that more SNPs are needed to better explore the genetic architecture of complex traits. Conclusions The genotypic information described here allows this publicly available panel to be exploited by researchers facing the challenges of sustainable agriculture through better knowledge of the nature of genetic diversity. PMID:23759205

  6. Genetic polymorphisms among C57BL/6 mouse inbred strains.

    PubMed

    Zurita, Esther; Chagoyen, Mónica; Cantero, Marta; Alonso, Rosario; González-Neira, Anna; López-Jiménez, Alejandro; López-Moreno, José Antonio; Landel, Carlisle P; Benítez, Javier; Pazos, Florencio; Montoliu, Lluís

    2011-06-01

    Mice from the inbred C57BL/6 strain have been commonly used for the generation and analysis of transgenic and knockout animal models. However, several C57BL/6 substrains exist, and these are genetically and phenotypically different. In addition, each of these substrains can be purchased from different animal providers and, in some cases, they have maintained their breeding stocks separated for a long time, allowing genetic differences to accumulate due to individual variability and genetic drift. With the aim of describing the differences in the genotype of several C57BL/6 substrains, we applied the Illumina(®) Mouse Medium Density Linkage Mapping panel, with 1,449 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), to individuals from ten C57BL/6-related strains: C57BL/6JArc, C57BL/6J from The Jackson Lab, C57BL/6J from Crl, C57BL6/JRccHsd, C57BL/6JOlaHsd, C57BL/6JBomTac, B6(Cg)-Tyr ( c-2j )/J, C57BL/6NCrl, C57BL/6NHsd and C57BL/6NTac. Twelve SNPs were found informative to discriminate among the mouse strains considered. Mice derived from the original C57BL/6J: C57BL/6JArc, C57BL/6J from The Jackson Lab and C57BL/6J from Crl, were indistinguishable. Similarly, all C57BL/6N substrains displayed the same genotype, whereas the additional substrains showed intermediate cases with substrain-specific polymorphisms. These results will be instrumental for the correct genetic monitoring and appropriate mouse colony handling of different transgenic and knockout mice produced in distinct C57BL/6 inbred substrains. PMID:20506040

  7. Autism-related behavioral phenotypes in an inbred rat substrain.

    PubMed

    Zhang-James, Yanli; Yang, Li; Middleton, Frank A; Yang, Lina; Patak, Jameson; Faraone, Stephen V

    2014-08-01

    Behavioral and genetic differences among Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats from different vendors and different breeders have long been observed, but generally overlooked. In our prior work, we found that two closely related WKY substrains, the WKY/NCrl and WKY/NHsd rats, differ in a small percentage of their genome which appeared to be highly enriched for autism risk genes. Although both substrains have been used widely in studies of hypertension, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and depression, they have not been tested for any autism-related behavioral phenotypes. Furthermore, these two substrains have often been used interchangeably in previous studies; no study has systematically examined the phenotypic differences that could be attributed by their small yet potentially meaningful genetic differences. In this paper we compared these two substrains on a battery of neurobehavioral tests. Although two substrains were similar in locomotor activity, WKY/NCrl rats were significantly different from WKY/NHsd rats in the elevated plus maze test, as well as measures of social interaction and ultrasonic vocalization. These strains were also compared with Sprague Dawley (SD) rats, a common outbred strain, and spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR), an inbred rat model for ADHD and hypertension, which were derived from the same ancestor strain as the WKY strains. Our behavioral findings suggest that WKY/NCrl rats may be useful as a model autism spectrum disorders due to their lower social interest, lower ultrasonic vocalization and higher anxiety levels when WKY/NHsd rats are used as the control strain. Given the small genetic difference between the two inbred substrains, future studies to identify the exact gene and sequence variants that differ between the two may be useful for identifying the genetic mechanisms underlying these behaviors. PMID:24780868

  8. Neutral glycosphingolipids and gangliosides from spleen T lymphoblasts of genetically different inbred mouse strains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johannes Muthing

    1997-01-01

    The gangliosides GM1b, GalNAc-GM1b and GD1? are typical compounds of concanavalin A stimulated splenic T lymphoblasts of CBA\\/J\\u000a inbred mice. Their structural characterization has been described in previous studies. The intention of this work was the\\u000a comparative TLC immunostaining analysis of the glycosphingolipid composition of lectin stimulated splenic T lymphoblasts obtained\\u000a from six genetically different inbred mouse strains. The strains

  9. Cadmium distribution in maize inbred lines: Effects of pH and level of Cd supply

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. J. Florijn; M. L. Van Beusichem

    1993-01-01

    In order to investigate the physiological basis of the differential Cd distribution and the degree of variation of this Cd\\u000a distribution among maize inbred lines, six inbreds designated earlier as ‘shoot Cd excluders’ (B73, H99, and H96) and ‘non-shoot\\u000a Cd excluders’ (B37, H98, and N28) were grown in nutrient solution culture at different external Cd levels or at different\\u000a pH.

  10. NaCl Taste Thresholds in 13 Inbred Mouse Strains

    PubMed Central

    Ishiwatari, Yutaka

    2012-01-01

    Molecular mechanisms of salty taste in mammals are not completely understood. We use genetic approaches to study these mechanisms. Previously, we developed a high-throughput procedure to measure NaCl taste thresholds, which involves conditioning mice to avoid LiCl and then examining avoidance of NaCl solutions presented in 48-h 2-bottle preference tests. Using this procedure, we measured NaCl taste thresholds of mice from 13 genealogically divergent inbred stains: 129P3/J, A/J, BALB/cByJ, C3H/HeJ, C57BL/6ByJ, C57BL/6J, CBA/J, CE/J, DBA/2J, FVB/NJ, NZB/BlNJ, PWK/PhJ, and SJL/J. We found substantial strain variation in NaCl taste thresholds: mice from the A/J and 129P3/J strains had high thresholds (were less sensitive), whereas mice from the BALB/cByJ, C57BL/6J, C57BL/6ByJ, CE/J, DBA/2J, NZB/BINJ, and SJL/J had low thresholds (were more sensitive). NaCl taste thresholds measured in this study did not significantly correlate with NaCl preferences or amiloride sensitivity of chorda tympani nerve responses to NaCl determined in the same strains in other studies. To examine whether strain differences in NaCl taste thresholds could have been affected by variation in learning ability or sensitivity to toxic effects of LiCl, we used the same method to measure citric acid taste thresholds in 4 inbred strains with large differences in NaCl taste thresholds but similar acid sensitivity in preference tests (129P3/J, A/J, C57BL/6J, and DBA/2J). Citric acid taste thresholds were similar in these 4 strains. This suggests that our technique measures taste quality–specific thresholds that are likely to represent differences in peripheral taste responsiveness. The strain differences in NaCl taste sensitivity found in this study provide a basis for genetic analysis of this phenotype. PMID:22293936

  11. Social deficits, stereotypy and early emergence of repetitive behavior in the C58/J inbred mouse strain.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Bryce C; Young, Nancy B; Crawley, Jacqueline N; Bodfish, James W; Moy, Sheryl S

    2010-03-17

    Mouse lines with behavioral phenotypes relevant to symptoms in neurodevelopmental disorders may provide models to test hypotheses about disease etiology and to evaluate potential treatments. The present studies were designed to confirm and expand earlier work on the intriguing behavioral profile of the C58/J inbred strain, including low social approach and aberrant repetitive movements. Additional tests were selected to reflect aspects of autism, a severe neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by emergence of symptoms early in life, higher prevalence in males, social deficits and abnormal repetitive behavior. Mice from the C57BL/6J inbred strain, which has a similar genetic lineage and physical appearance to C58/J, served as a comparison group. Our results revealed that C58/J mice display elevated activity levels by postnatal day 6, which persist into adulthood. Despite normal olfactory ability, young adult male C58/J mice showed deficits in social approach in the three-chambered choice assay and failed to demonstrate social transmission of food preference. In contrast, female C58/J mice performed similarly to female C57BL/6J mice in both social tests. C58/J mice of both sexes demonstrated abnormal repetitive behaviors, displaying excessive jumping and back flipping in both social and non-social situations. These stereotypies were clearly evident in C58/J pups by postnatal days 20-21, and were also observed in C58/J dams during a test for maternal behavior. Overall, the strain profile for C58/J, including spontaneously developing motor stereotypies emerging early in the developmental trajectory, and social deficits primarily in males, models multiple components of the autism phenotype. PMID:19941908

  12. Recombinant inbred systems can advance research in behavioral ecology

    PubMed Central

    Gini, Beatrice; Hager, Reinmar

    2012-01-01

    Recombinant inbred (RI) systems such as the BXD mouse family represent a population with defined genetic architecture and variation that approximates those of natural populations. With the development of novel RI lines and sophisticated methods that conjointly analyze phenotype, gene sequence, and expression data, RI systems such as BXD are a timely and powerful tool to advance the field of behavioral ecology. The latter traditionally focused on functional questions such as the adaptive value of behavior but largely ignored underlying genetics and mechanisms. In this perspective, we argue that using RI systems to address questions in behavioral ecology and evolutionary biology has great potential to advance research in these fields. We outline key questions and how they can be tackled using RI systems and BXD in particular. The unique opportunity to analyze genetic and phenotypic data from studies conducted in different laboratories and at different times is a key benefit of RI systems and may lead the way to a better understanding of how adaptive phenotypes arise from genetic and environmental factors. PMID:23060902

  13. Social Approach and Repetitive Behavior in Eleven Inbred Mouse Strains

    PubMed Central

    Moy, Sheryl S.; Nadler, Jessica J.; Young, Nancy B.; Nonneman, Randal J.; Segall, Samantha K.; Andrade, Gabriela M.; Crawley, Jacqueline N.; Magnuson, Terry R.

    2008-01-01

    Core symptoms of autism include deficits in social interaction, impaired communication, and restricted, repetitive behaviors. The repetitive behavior domain encompasses abnormal motoric stereotypy, an inflexible insistence on sameness, and resistance to change. In recent years, many genetic mouse models of autism and related disorders have been developed, based on candidate genes for disease susceptibility. The present studies are part of an ongoing initiative to develop appropriate behavioral tasks for the evaluation of mouse models relevant to autism. We have previously reported profiles for sociability, preference for social novelty, and resistance to changes in a learned pattern of behavior, as well as other functional domains, for 10 inbred mouse strains of divergent genetic backgrounds. The present studies extend this multi-component behavioral characterization to several additional strains: C58/J, NOD/LtJ, NZB/B1NJ, PL/J, SJL/J, SWR/J, and the wild-derived PERA/EiJ. C58/J, NOD/LtJ, NZB/B1NJ, SJL/J, and PERA/EiJ demonstrated low sociability, measured by time spent in proximity to an unfamiliar conspecific, with 30% to 60% of mice from these strains showing social avoidance. In the Morris water maze, NZB/B1NJ had a persistent bias for the quadrant where the hidden platform was located during acquisition, even after nine days of reversal training. A particularly interesting profile was found for C58/J, which had low social preference, poor performance in the T-maze, and overt motoric stereotypy. Overall, this set of tasks and observational methods provides a strategy for evaluating novel mouse models in behavioral domains relevant to the autism phenotype. PMID:18440079

  14. Resolution of Genetic Map Expansion Caused by Excess Heterozygosity in Plant Recombinant Inbred Populations

    PubMed Central

    Truong, Sandra K.; McCormick, Ryan F.; Morishige, Daryl T.; Mullet, John E.

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant inbred populations of many plant species exhibit more heterozygosity than expected under the Mendelian model of segregation. This segregation distortion causes the overestimation of recombination frequencies and consequent genetic map expansion. Here we build upon existing genetic models of differential zygotic viability to model a heterozygote fitness term and calculate expected genotypic proportions in recombinant inbred populations propagated by selfing. We implement this model using the existing open-source genetic map construction code base for R/qtl to estimate recombination fractions. Finally, we show that accounting for excess heterozygosity in a sorghum recombinant inbred mapping population shrinks the genetic map by 213 cM (a 13% decrease corresponding to 4.26 fewer recombinations per meiosis). More accurate estimates of linkage benefit linkage-based analyses used in the identification and utilization of causal genetic variation. PMID:25128435

  15. Development of the recombinant inbred line population of tropical japonica Lemont crossed with indica Jasmine 85

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of rice is routinely used in studying agronomically important genes, and is particularly useful for analyzing quantitative trait loci (QTL) since phenotypes can be assessed over years. Jasmine 85, a midseason aromatic long-grain indica rice cultivar develo...

  16. COMPARISONS OF QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCUS MAPPING PROPERTIES BETWEEN TWO METHODS OF RECOMBINANT INBRED LINE DEVELOPMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The theoretical comparisons for QTL mapping properties were conducted between bulk-based recombinant inbred (RI) populations and single seed descent (SSD) RI populations by Monte Carlo simulations based on various population sizes, heritabilities, and QTL effects. The comparisons included estimatio...

  17. Strain typing of U.S. scrapie strains using a panel of inbred mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prion strains may vary in their ability to transmit to humans and animals. Few experimental studies have been done to provide evidence of differences between U.S. strains of scrapie, which can be distinguished by incubation times in inbred mice, microscopic lesions, immunoreactivity to various anti...

  18. Evaluation of some cucumber inbred lines and their hybrids for Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) resistance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. H. Khereba; Naglaa A. Abdallah; H. A. Hassan; Mahassen A. Mohamed; S. Abdelkader; A. M. Abdrabou; H. S. Zein

    The major objective of our cucumber breeding progra m involves breeding for CMV disease resistance to reduce losses in quality and yield. S even half diallel cross hybrids resistant to CMV were developed at the Vegetables Breeding Dept., Ho rt. Res. Inst., Egypt during March, 2006. Sixteen genetically different pure inbred lines of Cucumis sativus were used to develop the

  19. Age-related changes in sleep in inbred mice are genotype dependent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sibah Hasan; Yves Dauvilliers; Valérie Mongrain; Paul Franken; Mehdi Tafti

    2010-01-01

    Aging produces major changes in sleep structure and intensity which might be linked to cognitive impairment in the elderly. In this study, the genetic contribution to age-related changes in sleep was assessed in three inbred mouse strains of various ages. Baseline sleep and the response to 6 hours sleep deprivation (SD) achieved by gentle handling were quantified in young, middle-aged,

  20. Molecular Characterization of the Recombinant Inbred Line Population of the Cross of Lemont with Jasmine 85

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations of rice are an essential genetic resource for the construction of molecular genetic linkage maps and map-based identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL). The RIL F5 population derived from a cross of the United Stated tropical japonica rice cultivar Le...

  1. Rate of gastric emptying influences dietary cholesterol absorption efficiency in selected inbred strains of mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Jason Kirby; Philip N. Howles; David Y. Hui

    2003-01-01

    This study compared the physiological process of cholesterol absorption in different strains of inbred mice with the goal of identifying novel mechanism(s) by which cholesterol absorption can be controlled. The rate and amount of cholesterol absorption were evaluated based on ( 14 C)cholesterol appearance in plasma after feeding a meal containing ( 14 C)cholesterol and by the percentage of (

  2. Profiling polyphenols of two diploid strawberry (Fragaria vesca) inbred lines using UHPLC-HRMSn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phenolic compounds in the fruits of two diploid strawberries (Fragaria vesca f. semperflorens) inbred lines-Ruegen F7-4 (a red fruited genotype) and YW5AF7 (a yellow fruited genotype) were characterized using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography in tandem with high resolution mass spectromet...

  3. IMPACT OF EARLY SEED QUALITY SELECTION ON MAIZE INBREDS AND HYBRIDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed composition and genetic background influence seed quality. Plant breeders seldom select or evaluate their inbreds on the basis of seed quality characteristics that could prevent poor germination and field emergence. The standard germination test evaluates seed viability, but it often overesti...

  4. Initial characterization of a Stoneville 474 X Phytogen 72 recombinant inbred population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study represents the initial characterization of a F7 recombinant inbred population developed to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with the inheritance of flower shape (open versus cupped petals), abiotic stress tolerance of mature cotton [Gossypium hirsutum (L.)] pollen, and fiber ...

  5. Characterization of the Recombinant Inbred Line Population Derived from the Cross of Nipponbare/9311

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a part of the project entitled “Understanding the rice epigenome: From genes to genomes” funded by the National Science Foundation, a mapping population of 480 F6-8 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross of Nipponbare with 9311 (Nip/9311) was developed. Phenotyping important agronom...

  6. Homozygosity Mapping: A Way to Map Human Recessive Traits with the DNA of Inbred Children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric S. Lander; David Botstein

    1987-01-01

    An efficient strategy for mapping human genes that cause recessive traits has been devised that uses mapped restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) and the DNA of affected children from consanguineous marriages. The method involves detection of the disease locus by virtue of the fact that the adjacent region will preferentially be homozygous by descent in such inbred children. A single

  7. Purging deleterious mutations in conservation programmes: combining optimal contributions with inbred matings.

    PubMed

    de Cara, M Á R; Villanueva, B; Toro, M Á; Fernández, J

    2013-06-01

    Conservation programmes aim at minimising the loss of genetic diversity, which allows populations to adapt to potential environmental changes. This can be achieved by calculating how many offspring every individual should contribute to the next generation to minimise global coancestry. However, an undesired consequence of this strategy is that it maintains deleterious mutations, compromising the viability of the population. In order to avoid this, optimal contributions could be combined with inbred matings, to expose and eliminate recessive deleterious mutations by natural selection in a process known as purging. Although some populations that have undergone purging experienced reduced inbreeding depression, this effect is not consistent across species. Whether purging by inbred matings is efficient in conservation programmes depends on the balance between the loss of diversity, the initial decrease in fitness and the reduction in mutational load. Here we perform computer simulations to determine whether managing a population by combining optimal contributions with inbred matings improves its long-term viability while keeping reasonable levels of diversity. We compare the management based on genealogical information with management based on molecular data to calculate coancestries. In the scenarios analysed, inbred matings never led to higher fitness and usually maintained lower diversity than random or minimum coancestry matings. Replacing genealogical with molecular coancestry can maintain a larger genetic diversity but can also lead to a lower fitness. Our results are strongly dependent on the mutational model assumed for the trait under selection, the population size during management and the reproductive rate. PMID:23321706

  8. USDA 846-1 fractal melon and derived recombinant inbred lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture announces the release of a melon (Cucumis melo L.) breeding line with highly branched, fractal-type architectural growth habit and 81 derived recombinant inbred lines (RIL). The indeterminate, monoecious USDA 846-1 produces 2...

  9. Furman University NIH-INBRE and NSF-RII Programs 2013 Summer Undergraduate Research Application

    E-print Network

    : Posttranslational Modifications in Disease Expression) Dr. David Hollis, Assistant Professor, Department of Biology (NIH-INBRE) david.hollis@furman.edu (Human Physiology: Studies of Brain Injury Using Teleost Models) Dr as a Mediator in Toluene Addiction) 2013 NSF-RII Faculty Dr. Tim Hanks, Assistant Professor, Department

  10. FIELD EVALUATIONS FOR MULTIPLE INSECT RESISTANCE IN CORN INBRED LINES AND EXPERIMENTAL HYBRIDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ten experimental corn hybrids and eleven inbred lines that confer corn earworm resistance were screened for their resistance to other major ear-feeding insects (i.e., the fall armyworm, maize weevil, brown and southern green stink bugs) in the Southeastern Coastal Plain region of the U.S. during 200...

  11. Resistance to Beet Armyworm in a Chickpea Recombinant Inbred Line Population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cicer reticulatum Ladzinsky, a good source of insect resistance, was used to develop a chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) recombinant inbred line population (CRIL-7) using FLIP 84-92C (kabuli chickpea) and PI 599072, a resistant C. reticulatum accession, as parents. CRIL-7 lines, parents, and checks wer...

  12. Sex and strain-related differences in the peripheral blood cell values of inbred mouse strains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benjamin T. Kile; Cammy L. Mason-Garrison; Monica J. Justice

    2003-01-01

    With the sequencing of the mouse genome nearing completion, experimental biology is entering a new era. The mouse is the primary experimental organism used to define mammalian gene function and model human disease. Besides the advantages it offers with regard to size, generation time, and evolutionary proximity to humans, the availability of inbred strains makes the mouse highly amenable to

  13. Biodiversity and Biogeography of an Important Inbred Pest of Coffee, Coffee Berry Borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    E-print Network

    Romero-Severson, Jeanne

    GENETICS Biodiversity and Biogeography of an Important Inbred Pest of Coffee, Coffee Berry Borer of coffee, Coffea arabica L., the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari). H. hampei samples (n in the tropics. Unfortunately, a small scolytid, the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari

  14. Genetic relationships between obesity and osteoporosis in LGXSM recombinant inbred mice

    E-print Network

    Cheverud, James M.

    Genetic relationships between obesity and osteoporosis in LGXSM recombinant inbred mice MICHAEL S and osteoporosis affect millions of Americans. While phenotypically, obesity is negatively correlated with fracture obesity and osteoporosis-related traits. First, heritabilities were estimated for (1) bone morphology

  15. Proteomic profiling of two maize inbreds during early gibberella ear rot infection.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Mohsen; Anoop, Valar; Gleddie, Steve; Harris, Linda J

    2011-09-01

    Fusarium graminearum is the causal agent of gibberella ear rot in maize ears, resulting in yield losses due to mouldy and mycotoxin-contaminated grain. This study represents a global proteomic approach to document the early infection by F. graminearum of two maize inbreds, B73 and CO441, which differ in disease susceptibility. Mock- and F. graminearum-treated developing kernels were sampled 48?h post-inoculation over three field seasons. Infected B73 kernels consistently contained higher concentrations of the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol than the kernels of the more tolerant inbred CO441. A total of 2067 maize proteins were identified in the iTRAQ analysis of extracted kernel proteins at a 99% confidence level. A subset of 878 proteins was identified in at least two biological replicates and exhibited statistically significantly altered expression between treatments and/or the two inbred lines of which 96 proteins exhibited changes in abundance >1.5-fold in at least one of the treatments. Many proteins associated with the defense response were more abundant after infection, including PR-10 (PR, pathogenesis-related), chitinases, xylanase inhibitors, proteinase inhibitors, and a class III peroxidase. Kernels of the tolerant inbred CO441 contained higher levels of these defense-related proteins than B73 kernels even after mock treatment, suggesting that these proteins may provide a basal defense against Fusarium infection in CO441. PMID:21751381

  16. Immunological variation between inbred laboratory mouse strains: points to consider in phenotyping genetically immunomodified mice.

    PubMed

    Sellers, R S; Clifford, C B; Treuting, P M; Brayton, C

    2012-01-01

    Inbred laboratory mouse strains are highly divergent in their immune response patterns as a result of genetic mutations and polymorphisms. The generation of genetically engineered mice (GEM) has, in the past, used embryonic stem (ES) cells for gene targeting from various 129 substrains followed by backcrossing into more fecund mouse strains. Although common inbred mice are considered "immune competent," many have variations in their immune system-some of which have been described-that may affect the phenotype. Recognition of these immune variations among commonly used inbred mouse strains is essential for the accurate interpretation of expected phenotypes or those that may arise unexpectedly. In GEM developed to study specific components of the immune system, accurate evaluation of immune responses must take into consideration not only the gene of interest but also how the background strain and microbial milieu contribute to the manifestation of findings in these mice. This article discusses points to consider regarding immunological differences between the common inbred laboratory mouse strains, particularly in their use as background strains in GEM. PMID:22135019

  17. MHC diversity in two Acrocephalus species: the outbred Great reed warbler and the inbred Seychelles warbler

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DAVID. S. Richardson; Helena Westerdahl

    2003-01-01

    The Great reed warbler (GRW) and the Seychelles warbler (SW) are congeners with markedly different demographic histories. The GRW is a normal outbred bird species while the SW population remains isolated and inbred after undergoing a severe population bottleneck. We examined variation at Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) class I exon 3 using restriction fragment length polymorphism, denaturing gradient gel electro-

  18. Genome diversity in Brachypodium distachyon: deep sequencing of highly diverse inbred lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural variation provides a powerful opportunity to study the genetic basis of biological traits. Brachypodium distachyon is a broadly distributed diploid model grass with a small genome and a large collection of diverse inbred lines. As a step towards understanding the genetic basis of the natura...

  19. Phenotypic integration of skeletal traits during growth buffers genetic variants affecting the slenderness of femora in inbred mouse strains

    PubMed Central

    Jepsen, Karl J.; Hu, Bin; Tommasini, Steven M.; Courtland, Hayden-William; Price, Christopher; Cordova, Matthew; Nadeau, Joseph H.

    2009-01-01

    Compensatory interactions among adult skeletal traits are critical for establishing strength but complicate the search for fracture susceptibility genes by allowing many genetic variants to exist in a population without loss of function. A better understanding of how these interactions arise during growth will provide new insight into genotype-phenotype relationships and the biological controls that establish skeletal strength. We tested the hypothesis that genetic variants affecting growth in width relative to growth in length (slenderness) are coordinated with movement of the inner bone surface and matrix mineralization to match stiffness with weight-bearing loads during postnatal growth. Midshaft femoral morphology and tissue-mineral density were quantified at ages of 1 day and at 4, 8, and 16 weeks for a panel of 20 female AXB/BXA recombinant inbred mouse strains. Path Analyses revealed significant compensatory interactions among outer-surface expansion rate, inner-surface expansion rate, and tissue-mineral density during postnatal growth, indicating that genetic variants affecting bone slenderness were buffered mechanically by the precise regulation of bone surface movements and matrix mineralization. Importantly, the covariation between morphology and mineralization resulted from a heritable constraint limiting the amount of tissue that could be used to construct a functional femur. The functional interactions during growth explained 56-99% of the variability in adult traits and mechanical properties. These functional interactions provide quantitative expectations of how genetic or environmental variants affecting one trait should be compensated by changes in other traits. Variants that impair this process or that cannot be fully compensated are expected to alter skeletal growth leading to underdesigned (weak) or overdesigned (bulky) structures. PMID:19082857

  20. Evaluation of rye ( Secale cereale L.) inbred lines and their crosses for tissue culture response and stable genetic transformation of homozygous rye inbred line L22 by biolistic gene transfer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan Carlos Popelka; Fredy Altpeter

    2003-01-01

    The efficient and reproducible production of stably expressing transgenic rye plants is described. Analysis of the genotype-specific callus culture-response of 21 rye inbred lines, single crosses and a population variety resulted in the identification of the highly responsive inbred line L22. Biolistic transformation experiments were performed using line L22 and the impact of different selection agents on the regeneration capacity

  1. A Genetic and Correlation Analysis of Liver Cholesterol Concentration in Rat Recombinant Inbred Strains Fed a High Cholesterol Diet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anita Bottger; Egidius Lankhorst; Hein A. van Lith; L. F. M. van Zutphen; Václav Z??dek; Alena Musilová; Miroslava Šimáková; Rudolf Poledne; Vlasta B??lá; Vladim??r Křen; Michal Pravenec

    1998-01-01

    Liver cholesterol concentration in rats fed a high cholesterol diet, is under genetic control which is supported by significant differences observed among inbred strains. For instance, the Brown Norway (BN-Lx\\/Cub) rat developed a twofold higher liver cholesterol concentration than the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR\\/Ola). In the current study, we used 30 recombinant inbred (RI) strains, derived from BN-Lxand SHR progenitors,

  2. Increased resistance to Ustilago zeae and Fusarium verticilliodes in maize inbred lines bred for Fusarium graminearum resistance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. M. Reid; X. Zhu; A. Parker; W. Yan

    2009-01-01

    Preliminary field observations in our maize breeding nurseries indicated that breeding for improved resistance to gibberella\\u000a ear rot (Fusarium graminearum) in maize may indirectly select for resistance to another ear disease, common smut (Ustilago zeae). To investigate this, we compared the disease severity ratings obtained on 189 maize inbreds, eight of which included our\\u000a inbreds developed with selection for gibberella

  3. FVB\\/N: An Inbred Mouse Strain Preferable for Transgenic Analyses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Makoto Taketo; Allen C. Schroeder; Larry E. Mobraaten; Kerry B. Gunning; Gerri Hanten; Richard R. Fox; Thomas H. Roderick; Colin L. Stewart; Frank Lilly; Carl T. Hansen; Paul A. Overbeek

    1991-01-01

    FVB\\/N mice offer a system suitable for most transgenic experiments and subsequent genetic analyses. The inbred FVB\\/N strain is characterized by vigorous reproductive performance and consistently large litters. Moreover, fertilized FVB\\/N eggs contain large and prominent pronuclei, which facilitate microinjection of DNA. The phenotype of large pronuclei in the zygote is a dominant trait associated with the FVB\\/N oocyte but

  4. Differences between inbred strains of mice in Morris water maze performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margaret Upchurch; Jeanne M. Wehner

    1988-01-01

    Four inbred strains of mice, BALB\\/cByJ, C3H\\/2Ibg, C57BL\\/6Ibg, and DBA\\/2Ibg, were tested for their learning ability in the Morris water maze. Two forms of learning were examined: cue learning, in which the mice were required to swim toward a submerged platform marked by a proximal visual cue; and place learning, in which the animals were required to use distal visual

  5. Emotionality, Exploratory Behavior, and Locomotion in Aging Inbred Strains of Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Penelope Kelly Elias; Merrill F. Elias; Basil E. Eleftheriou

    1975-01-01

    Two inbred strains of mice, C57BL\\/6J and DBA\\/2J, ranging in age from 2 to 38 months, were tested in an open field using the free exploration method. Scores were obtained for locomotor activity, exploratory behavior and emotionality. Strain differences were observed for all three variables. Beginning at late maturity (12 months), locomotor activity decreased with increasing age. Exploratory behavior was

  6. Characteristics of Sleep and Wakefulness inWild-Derived Inbred Mice

    PubMed Central

    HIYOSHI, Hideyuki; TERAO, Akira; OKAMATSU-OGURA, Yuko; KIMURA, Kazuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Genetic variations in the wild-derived inbred mouse strains are more diverse than that of classical laboratory inbred mouse strains, including C57BL/6J (B6). The sleep/wake and monoamine properties of six wild-derived inbred mouse strains (PGN2, NJL, BLG2, KJR, MSM, HMI) were characterized and compared with those of B6 mice. All examined mice were nocturnal and had a polyphasic sleep pattern with a “main sleep period” identified during the light period. However, there were three sleep/wake phenotypic differences between the wild-derived mouse strains and B6 strain. First, the amount of sleep during the dark phase was comparable with that of B6 mice. However, the amount of sleep during the light phase was more varied among strains, in particular, NJL and HMI had significantly less sleep compared with that of B6 mice. Second, PGN2, NJL, BLG2, and KJR mice showed a “highly awake period” (in which the hourly total sleep time was <10%) immediately after the onset of the dark period, which was not seen in B6 mice. Third, relative to that of B6 mice, PGN2 and KJR mice showed longer duration of wakefulness episodes during the 12-h dark phase. Differences in whole brain noradrenaline, dopamine, and 5-hydroxy-tryptamine contents between the wild-derived mouse strains and B6 strain were also found. These identified phenotypes might be potentially under strong genetic control. Hence, wild-derived inbred mice could be useful for identifying the genetic factors underlying the regulation of sleep and wakefulness. PMID:24770646

  7. QTL mapping of stay-green in two sorghum recombinant inbred populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. I. G. Haussmann; V. Mahalakshmi; B. V. S. Reddy; N. Seetharama; C. T. Hash; H. H. Geiger

    2002-01-01

    The stay-green trait is a reported component of tolerance to terminal drought stress in sorghum. To map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for stay-green, two sorghum recombinant inbred populations (RIPs) of 226 F3:5 lines each were developed from crosses (1) IS9830 2 E36-1 and (2) N13 2 E36-1. The common parental line, E36-1 of Ethiopian origin, was the stay-green trait source.

  8. Behavioral phenotypes of inbred mouse strains: implications and recommendations for molecular studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. N. Crawley; John K. Belknap; Allan Collins; John C. Crabbe; Wayne Frankel; Norman Henderson; Robert J. Hitzemann; Stephen C. Maxson; Lucinda L. Miner; Alcino J. Silva; Jeanne M. Wehner; Anthony Wynshaw-Boris; R. Paylor

    1997-01-01

    Choosing the best genetic strains of mice for developing a new knockout or transgenic mouse requires extensive knowledge\\u000a of the endogenous traits of inbred strains. Background genes from the parental strains may interact with the mutated gene,\\u000a in a manner which could severely compromise the interpretation of the mutant phenotype. The present overview summarizes the\\u000a literature on a wide variety

  9. Gangliosides in various brain areas of three inbred strains of mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Dreyfus; S. Harth; A. Giuliani-Debernardi; M. Roos; G. Mack; P. Mandel

    1982-01-01

    The ganglioside patterns of cerebellum, cortex, pons-medulla, hypothalamus, hippocampus and caudate nucleus of three inbred strains of mice (C57BL\\/6J, DBA\\/2J and BALB\\/cJ) have been analysed. All brain areas contained both the simple and complex species of gangliosides. GD1a was the major ganglioside in cortex, hippocampus and caudate nucleus whereas GT1b was the major species in cerebellum, hypothalamus and pons-medulla. In

  10. A phenomics approach detected differential epigenetic growth regulation between inbreds and their hybrid in Oryza sativa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takanari Tanabata; Fumio Taguchi-Shiobara; Naoki Kishimoto; Svetlana Chechetka; Tomoko Shinomura; Yoshiki Habu

    2010-01-01

    Epigenetic changes in chromatin can be induced upon hybridization, but their contribution to phenotypic changes in F1 hybrids\\u000a is not known. In this study, we examined the effect of genome-wide alteration of epigenetic chromatin status on the growth\\u000a of inbreds and their F1 hybrid by large-scale fine-time-lapse growth monitoring of rice (Oryza sativa L.) under a controlled environment. This allowed

  11. Callus induction and whole plant regeneration in elite Indian maize ( Zea mays L.) inbreds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sujay RakshitZerka RashidJ; Zerka Rashid; J. C. Sekhar; T. Fatma; Sain Dass

    2010-01-01

    Callus induction and regeneration ability of five elite maize inbred lines, CM 111, CM 117, CM 124, CM 125 and CM 300 were\\u000a investigated using 14-day-old immature embryos as explants. Genotype, medium, source of auxin and their concentrations influenced\\u000a induction of callus. Explants grown on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid at\\u000a 1 mg l?1 showed the highest frequency

  12. Increased induction of regenerable callus cultures from cultured kernels of the maize inbred FR27rhm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David R. Duncan; George W. Singletary; Jack M. Widholm

    1989-01-01

    Kernels of the maize inbred FR27rhm were cultured on various media to determine if the treatments would alter the frequency of formation of regenerable callus (induction frequency) by embryos excised from the kernels when they were placed on callus induction medium. The addition of 60 µM dicamba (3,6-dichloro-o-anisic acid) to the kernel culture medium resulted in an induction frequency of

  13. Assessment of hearing in 80 inbred strains of mice by ABR threshold analyses

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Qing Yin; Johnson, Kenneth R.; Erway, Lawrence C.

    2010-01-01

    The common occurrence of hearing loss in both humans and mice, and the anatomical and functional similarities of their inner ears, attest to the potential of mice being used as models to study inherited hearing loss. A large-scale, auditory screening project is being undertaken at The Jackson Laboratory (TJL) to identify mice with inherited hearing disorders. To assess hearing sensitivity, at least five mice from each inbred strain had auditory brainstem response (ABR) thresholds determined. Thus far, we have screened 80 inbred strains of mice; 60 of them exhibited homogeneous ABR threshold values not significantly different from those of the control strain CBA/CaJ. This large database establishes a reliable reference for normal hearing mouse strains. The following 16 inbred strains exhibited significantly elevated ABR thresholds before the age of 3 months: 129/J, 129/ReJ, 129/SvJ, A/J, ALR/LtJ, ALS/LtJ, BUB/BnJ, C57BLKS/J, C57BR/cdJ, C57L/J, DBA/2J, I/LnJ, MA/MyJ, NOD/LtJ, NOR/LtJ, and SKH2/J. These hearing impaired strains may serve as models for some forms of human non-syndromic hearing loss and aid in the identification of the underlying genes. PMID:10320101

  14. Phenotypic Characterization of the KK/HlJ Inbred Mouse Strain

    PubMed Central

    Berndt, A.; Sundberg, B. A.; Silva, K. A.; Kennedy, V. E.; Richardson, M. A.; Li, Q.; Bronson, R. T.; Uitto, J.; Sundberg, J. P.

    2014-01-01

    Detailed histopathological diagnoses of inbred mouse strains are important for interpreting research results and defining novel models of human diseases. The aim of this study was to histologically detect lesions affecting the KK/HlJ inbred strain. Mice were examined at 6, 12, and 20 months of age and near natural death (ie, moribund mice). Histopathological lesions were quantified by percentage of affected mice per age group and sex. Predominant lesions were mineralization, hyperplasia, and fibro-osseous lesions. Mineralization was most frequently found in the connective tissue dermal sheath of vibrissae, the heart, and the lung. Mineralization was also found in many other organs but to a lesser degree. Hyperplasia was found most commonly in the pancreatic islets, and fibro-osseous lesions were observed in several bones. The percentage of lesions increased with age until 20 months. This study shows that KK/HlJ mice demonstrate systemic aberrant mineralization, with greatest frequency in aged mice. The detailed information about histopathological lesions in the inbred strain KK/HlJ can help investigators to choose the right model and correctly interpret the experimental results. PMID:24009271

  15. Inbred and Outbred Mice Have Equivalent Variability in a Cockroach Allergen-Induced Model of Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Vaickus, Louis J; Bouchard, Jacqueline; Kim, Jiyoun; Natarajan, Sudha; Remick, Daniel G

    2010-01-01

    Outbred mice traditionally are considered to display high variability, thereby limiting their use in some studies. Researchers frequently are encouraged to use inbred strains of mice because of the greater homogeneity of these experimental animals. We compared the pulmonary inflammatory response of inbred BALB/cJ mice to that of outbred HSD-ICR mice by measuring multiple variables, including cytokines, chemokines, number of pulmonary inflammatory cells, and respiratory parameters. Cockroach allergens induced significant pulmonary inflammation in both BALB and ICR mice. Our comparisons of the coefficients of variance for 148 discrete data sets for each strain or stock indicated that BALB and ICR mice have roughly equivalent intrastrain or -stock variability in our model of asthma-like pulmonary inflammation. The average coefficient of variance, calculated as the ratio of the SD to the mean of a data set, was 0.35 ± 0.34 for BALB mice compared with 0.31 ± 0.32 for ICR mice. In conclusion, inbred BALB and outbred ICR mice have roughly equivalent intrastrain or -stock variability in a murine model of asthma-like pulmonary inflammation. PMID:21262127

  16. Functional gene expression differences between inbred alcohol-preferring and —non-prerats in five brain regions

    PubMed Central

    Kimpel, Mark W.; Strother, Wendy N.; McClintick, Jeanette N.; Carr, Lucinda G.; Liang, Tiebing; Edenberg, Howard J.; McBride, William J.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if there are innate differences in gene expression in selected CNS regions between inbred alcohol-preferring (iP) and —non-preferring (iNP) rats. Gene expression was determined in the nucleus accumbens (ACB), amygdala (AMYG), frontal cortex (FC), caudate-putamen (CPU), and hippocampus (HIPP) of alcohol-naďve adult male iP and iNP rats, using Affymetrix Rat Genome U34A microarrays (n = 6/strain). Using Linear Modeling for Microarray Analysis with a false discovery rate threshold of 0.1, there were 16 genes with differential expression in the ACB, 54 in the AMYG, 8 in the FC, 24 in the CPU, and 21 in the HIPP. When examining the main effect of strain across regions, 296 genes were differentially expressed. Although the relatively small number of genes found significant within individual regions precluded a powerful analysis for over-represented Gene Ontology categories, the much larger list resulting from the main effect of strain analysis produced 17 over-represented categories (P <.05), including axon guidance, gliogenesis, negative regulation of programmed cell death, regulation of programmed cell death, regulation of synapse structure function, and transmission of nerve impulse. Co-citation analysis and graphing of significant genes revealed a network involved in the neuropeptide Y (NPY) transmitter system. Correlation of all significant genes with those located within previously established rat alcohol QTLs revealed that of the total of 313 significant genes, 71 are located within such QTLs. The many regional and overall gene expression differences between the iP and iNP rat lines may contribute to the divergent alcohol drinking phenotypes of these rats. PMID:17517326

  17. Comparative analysis of callus formation and regeneration on cultured immature maize embryos of the inbred lines A188 and A632

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. B. F. Bronsema; W. J. F. van Oostveen; A. A. M. van Lammeren

    1997-01-01

    Induction, maintenance, differentiation and embryogenic capacity of callus obtained from immature embryos by culture on induction\\u000a medium, proliferation medium, maturation medium and regeneration medium, respectively, were compared for two inbred lines\\u000a of maize, i.e. A188 and A632. The callus of inbred line A188 was embryogenic and maintained embryogenic capacity for at least\\u000a 1 year. Immature embryos of inbred line A632

  18. Expression of a Thatcher wheat adult plant stem rust resistance QTL on chromosome arm 2BL is enhanced by Lr34

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An F6 recombinant inbred line (RIL) spring wheat population derived from RL6071, a stem rust susceptible line and RL6058, a backcross line of Thatcher wheat with Lr34 that is highly resistant to stem rust, was evaluated for adult plant stem rust resistance in North Dakota in 1999, and in Kenya in 20...

  19. Transcriptome Analysis of Nodes and Buds from High and Low Tillering Switchgrass Inbred Lines

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yixing; Zeng, Xin; Peal, Lila; Tang, Yuhong; Wu, Yanqi; Mahalingam, Ramamurthy

    2013-01-01

    In the last two decades switchgrass has received increasing attention as a promising bioenergy feedstock. Biomass is the principal trait for improvement in switchgrass breeding programs and tillering is an important component of biomass yield. Switchgrass inbred lines derived from a single parent showing vast variation in tiller number trait was used in this study. Axillary buds, which can develop into tillers, and node tissues, which give rise to axillary buds, were collected from high and low tillering inbred lines growing in field conditions. RNA from buds and nodes from the contrasting inbred lines were used for transcriptome profiling with switchgrass Affymetrix genechips. Nearly 7% of the probesets on the genechip exhibited significant differential expression in these lines. Real-time PCR analysis of 30 genes confirmed the differential expression patterns observed with genechips. Cluster analysis aided in identifying probesets unique to high or low tillering lines as well as those specific to buds or nodes of high tillering lines. Rice orthologs of the switchgrass genes were used for gene ontology (GO) analysis with AgriGO. Enrichment of genes associated with amino acid biosynthesis, lipid transport and vesicular transport were observed in low tillering lines. Enrichment of GOs for translation, RNA binding and gene expression in high tillering lines were indicative of active metabolism associated with rapid growth and development. Identification of different classes of transcription factor genes suggests that regulation of many genes determines the complex process of axillary bud initiation and development. Genes identified in this study will complement the current ongoing efforts in quantitative trait loci mapping of tillering in switchgrass. PMID:24386276

  20. Low fertility in vivo resulting from female factors causes small litter size in 129 inbred mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshiaki Hino; Kanako Oda; Kenji Nakamura; Yutaka Toyoda; Minesuke Yokoyama

    2009-01-01

    Purpose  129 inbred mice show poor reproductive ability, as evidenced by small litters; however, the exact cause of this is unknown.\\u000a In the present in vivo study we examined fertility and subsequent post-implantation development in an attempt to clarify the\\u000a cause of small litter size in 129 mice.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  129 or C57BL\\/6J females that displayed vaginal plugs 1 day after mating with males

  1. Antidepressant response to chronic citalopram treatment in eight inbred mouse strains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianwei Jiao; Angela M. Nitzke; Demetrios G. Doukas; Mariel P. Seiglie; Stephanie C. Dulawa

    2011-01-01

    Rationale  The antidepressant response exhibits a characteristic delay. BALB\\/cJ mice respond to chronic, but not subchronic, treatment\\u000a with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), providing a model of antidepressant onset. Identification of other mouse\\u000a strains exhibiting this phenotype will provide additional tools for studying mechanisms of the antidepressant response.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives  We aimed to identify inbred mouse strains that respond to chronic, but not

  2. CPR - adult

    MedlinePLUS

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation - adult; Rescue breathing and chest compressions - adult; Resuscitation - cardiopulmonary - adult ... CPR can be lifesaving, but it is best performed by those who have been trained in an ...

  3. Detection of QTLs Linked to Leaf and Smoke Properties in Nicotiana tabacum Based on a Study of 114 Recombinant Inbred Lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Julio; B. Denoyes-Rothan; J.-L. Verrier

    2006-01-01

    Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were investigated in a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population descended from a cross between two flue-cured Nicotiana tabacum L. inbred lines with unrelated breeding origins. A total of 59 traits, related to diverse agronomic, leaf quality, chemical composition and smoke properties were assessed. Chemical traits and smoke mutagenicity were estimated by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) analyses

  4. RFLP analyses of early-maturing European maize germ plasm : I. Genetic diversity among flint and dent inbreds.

    PubMed

    Messmer, M M; Melchinger, A E; Boppenmaier, J; Herrmann, R G; Brunklaus-Jung, E

    1992-05-01

    Thirty inbred lines representing a wide range of early-maturing European elite germ plasm of maize (Zea mays L.) were assayed for RFLPs using 203 clone-enzyme combinations (106 DNA clones with restriction enzymes EcoR1 and HindIII). The genetic materials comprised 14 flint, 12 dent, and 4 lines of miscellaneous origin. Objectives were to (1) characterize the genetic diversity for RFLPs in these materials, (2) compare the level of genetic diversity found within and between the flint and the dent heterotic groups, and (3) examine the usefulness of RFLPs for assigning inbreds to heterotic groups. All but two DNA clones yielded polymorphism with at least one restriction enzyme. A total of 82 and 121 clone-enzyme combinations gave single-banded and multiple-banded RFLP patterns, respectively, with an average of 3.9 and 7.7 RFLP patterns per clone-enzyme combination across all 30 inbreds, respectively. Genetic similarity (GS) between lines, estimated from RFLP data as Dice's similarity coefficient, showed considerable variation (0.32 to 0.58) among unrelated inbreds. The mean GS for line combinations of type flint x dent (0.41) was significantly smaller than for unrelated flint lines (0.46) and dent lines (0.46), but there was considerable variation in GS estimates of individual line combinations within each group. Cluster and principal coordinate analyses based on GS values resulted in separate groupings of flint and dent lines in accordance with phylogenetic information. Positioning of lines of miscellaneous origin was generally consistent with expectations based on known breeding behavior and pedigrees. Results from this study corroborated that RFLP data can be used for assigning inbreds to heterotic groups and revealing pedigree relationships among inbreds. PMID:24202927

  5. Genetic regulation of cold-induced albinism in the maize inbred line A661

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Víctor M.; Velasco, Pablo; Garrido, José L.; Revilla, Pedro; Ordás, Amando; Butrón, Ana

    2013-01-01

    In spite of multiple studies elucidating the regulatory pathways controlling chlorophyll biosynthesis and photosynthetic activity, little is known about the molecular mechanism regulating cold-induced chlorosis in higher plants. Herein the characterization of the maize inbred line A661 which shows a cold-induced albino phenotype is reported. The data show that exposure of seedlings to low temperatures during early leaf biogenesis led to chlorophyll losses in this inbred. A661 shows a high plasticity, recovering resting levels of photosynthesis activity when exposed to optimal temperatures. Biochemical and transcriptome data indicate that at suboptimal temperatures chlorophyll could not be fully accommodated in the photosynthetic antenna in A661, remaining free in the chloroplast. The accumulation of free chlorophyll activates the expression of an early light inducible protein (elip) gene which binds chlorophyll to avoid cross-reactions that could lead to the generation of harmful reactive oxygen species. Higher levels of the elip transcript were observed in plants showing a cold-induced albino phenotype. Forward genetic analysis reveals that a gene located on the short arm of chromosome 2 regulates this protective mechanism. PMID:23881393

  6. A General Bayesian Approach to Analyzing Diallel Crosses of Inbred Strains

    PubMed Central

    Lenarcic, Alan B.; Svenson, Karen L.; Churchill, Gary A.; Valdar, William

    2012-01-01

    The classic diallel takes a set of parents and produces offspring from all possible mating pairs. Phenotype values among the offspring can then be related back to their respective parentage. When the parents are diploid, sexed, and inbred, the diallel can characterize aggregate effects of genetic background on a phenotype, revealing effects of strain dosage, heterosis, parent of origin, epistasis, and sex-specific versions thereof. However, its analysis is traditionally intricate, unforgiving of unplanned missing information, and highly sensitive to imbalance, making the diallel unapproachable to many geneticists. Nonetheless, imbalanced and incomplete diallels arise frequently, albeit unintentionally, as by-products of larger-scale experiments that collect F1 data, for example, pilot studies or multiparent breeding efforts such as the Collaborative Cross or the Arabidopsis MAGIC lines. We present a general Bayesian model for analyzing diallel data on dioecious diploid inbred strains that cleanly decomposes the observed patterns of variation into biologically intuitive components, simultaneously models and accommodates outliers, and provides shrinkage estimates of effects that automatically incorporate uncertainty due to imbalance, missing data, and small sample size. We further present a model selection procedure for weighing evidence for or against the inclusion of those components in a predictive model. We evaluate our method through simulation and apply it to incomplete diallel data on the founders and F1's of the Collaborative Cross, robustly characterizing the genetic architecture of 48 phenotypes. PMID:22345610

  7. Development of SNP markers for C57BL/6N-derived mouse inbred strains

    PubMed Central

    Mekada, Kazuyuki; Hirose, Mayu; Murakami, Ayumi; Yoshiki, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    C57BL/6N inbred mice are used as the genetic background for producing knockout mice in large-scale projects worldwide; however, the genetic divergence among C57BL/6N-derived substrains has not been verified. Here, we identified novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) specific to the C57BL/6NJ strain and selected useful SNPs for the genetic monitoring of C57BL/6N-derived substrains. Informative SNPs were selected from the public SNP database at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute by comparing sequence data from C57BL/6NJ and C57BL/6J mice. A total of 1,361 candidate SNPs from the SNP database could distinguish the C57BL/6NJ strain from 12 other inbred strains. We confirmed 277 C57BL/6NJ-specific SNPs including 10 nonsynonymous SNPs by direct sequencing, and selected 100 useful SNPs that cover all of the chromosomes except Y. Genotyping of 11 C57BL/6N-derived substrains at these 100 SNP loci demonstrated genetic differences among the substrains. This information will be useful for accurate genetic monitoring of mouse strains with a C57BL/6N-derived background. PMID:25341966

  8. Genotype Probabilities at Intermediate Generations in the Construction of Recombinant Inbred Lines

    PubMed Central

    Broman, Karl W.

    2012-01-01

    The mouse Collaborative Cross (CC) is a panel of eight-way recombinant inbred lines: eight diverse parental strains are intermated, followed by repeated sibling mating, many times in parallel, to create a new set of inbred lines whose genomes are random mosaics of the genomes of the original eight strains. Many generations are required to reach inbreeding, and so a number of investigators have sought to make use of phenotype and genotype data on mice from intermediate generations during the formation of the CC lines (so-called pre-CC mice). The development of a hidden Markov model for genotype reconstruction in such pre-CC mice, on the basis of incompletely informative genetic markers (such as single-nucleotide polymorphisms), formally requires the two-locus genotype probabilities at an arbitrary generation along the path to inbreeding. In this article, I describe my efforts to calculate such probabilities. While closed-form solutions for the two-locus genotype probabilities could not be derived, I provide a prescription for calculating such probabilities numerically. In addition, I present a number of useful quantities, including single-locus genotype probabilities, two-locus haplotype probabilities, and the fixation probability and map expansion at each generation along the course to inbreeding. PMID:22345609

  9. Profiling polyphenols of two diploid strawberry (Fragaria vesca) inbred lines using UHPLC-HRMS(n.).

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianghao; Liu, Xianjin; Yang, Tianbao; Slovin, Janet; Chen, Pei

    2014-03-01

    Phenolic compounds in the fruits of two diploid strawberries (Fragaria vesca f. semperflorens) inbred lines-Ruegen F7-4 (a red-fruited genotype) and YW5AF7 (a yellow-fruited genotype) were characterised using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS(n)). The changes of anthocyanin composition during fruit development and between Ruegen F7-4 and YW5AF7 were studied. About 67 phenolic compounds, including taxifolin 3-O-arabinoside, glycosides of quercetin, kaempferol, cyanidin, pelargonidin, peonidin, ellagic acid derivatives, and other flavonols were identified in these two inbred lines. Compared to the regular octoploid strawberry, unique phenolic compounds were found in F. vesca fruits, such as taxifolin 3-O-arabinoside (both) and peonidin 3-O-malonylglucoside (Ruegen F7-4). The results provide the basis for comparative analysis of polyphenolic compounds in yellow and red diploid strawberries, as well as with the cultivated octoploid strawberries. PMID:24176345

  10. Two genes conferring resistance to Pythium stalk rot in maize inbred line Qi319.

    PubMed

    Song, Feng-Jing; Xiao, Ming-Gang; Duan, Can-Xing; Li, Hong-Jie; Zhu, Zhen-Dong; Liu, Bao-Tao; Sun, Su-Li; Wu, Xiao-Fei; Wang, Xiao-Ming

    2015-08-01

    Stalk rots are destructive diseases in maize around the world, and are most often caused by the pathogen Pythium, Fusarium and other fungi. The most efficient management for controlling stalk rots is to breed resistant cultivars. Pythium stalk rot can cause serious yield loss on maize, and to find the resistance genes from the existing germplasm is the basis to develop Pythium-resistance hybrid lines. In this study, we investigated the genetic resistance to Pythium stalk rot in inbred line Qi319 using F2 and F2:3 population, and found that the resistance to Pythium inflatum in Qi319 was conferred by two independently inherited dominant genes, RpiQI319-1 and RpiQI319-2. Linkage analysis uncovered that the RpiQI319-1 co-segregated with markers bnlg1203, and bnlg2057 on chromosome 1, and that the RpiQI319-2 locus co-segregated with markers umc2069 and bnlg1716 on chromosome 10. The RpiQI319-1 locus was further mapped into a ~500-kb interval flanked by markers SSRZ33 and SSRZ47. These results will facilitate marker-assisted selection of Pythium stalk rot-resistant cultivars in maize breeding. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the resistance to P. inflatum in the inbred line Qi319, and is also the first description of two independently inherited dominant genes conferring the resistance of Pythium stalk rot in maize. PMID:25724693

  11. Hidden in plain sight: spike-wave discharges in mouse inbred strains.

    PubMed

    Letts, V A; Beyer, B J; Frankel, W N

    2014-07-01

    Twenty-seven inbred strains of mice were tested for spike-wave discharge (SWD) activity by video-electroencephalographic recordings over a 24-h recording period. Eight strains had reproducible, frequent SWDs, including five strains (C57BLKS/J, CBA/J, DBA/1J, NOR/LtJ, SM/J) previously undiagnosed for this distinctive phenotype. Eighteen other strains exhibited no such activity. Spike-wave discharges usually occurred while the subject was motionless, and in a significant number of annotated instances coincided with an arrest of the subject's relatively unrestrained locomotor activity, which resumed immediately after the discharge ended. In all five new strains, SWDs were suppressed by ethosuximide administration. From the genealogy of inbred strains, we suggest that two ancestors, A and DBA, transmitted genotypes required for SWD in all positive strains. Together these strains with SWDs provide new opportunities to understand the genetic core susceptibility of this distinctive electroencephalographic activity and to explore its relationship to absence epilepsy, a human disorder for which few genes are known. PMID:24861780

  12. Brachypodium sylvaticum, a model for perennial grasses: transformation and inbred line development.

    PubMed

    Steinwand, Michael A; Young, Hugh A; Bragg, Jennifer N; Tobias, Christian M; Vogel, John P

    2013-01-01

    Perennial species offer significant advantages as crops including reduced soil erosion, lower energy inputs after the first year, deeper root systems that access more soil moisture, and decreased fertilizer inputs due to the remobilization of nutrients at the end of the growing season. These advantages are particularly relevant for emerging biomass crops and it is projected that perennial grasses will be among the most important dedicated biomass crops. The advantages offered by perennial crops could also prove favorable for incorporation into annual grain crops like wheat, rice, sorghum and barley, especially under the dryer and more variable climate conditions projected for many grain-producing regions. Thus, it would be useful to have a perennial model system to test biotechnological approaches to crop improvement and for fundamental research. The perennial grass Brachypodiumsylvaticum is a candidate for such a model because it is diploid, has a small genome, is self-fertile, has a modest stature, and short generation time. Its close relationship to the annual model Brachypodiumdistachyon will facilitate comparative studies and allow researchers to leverage the resources developed for B. distachyon. Here we report on the development of two keystone resources that are essential for a model plant: high-efficiency transformation and inbred lines. Using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation we achieved an average transformation efficiency of 67%. We also surveyed the genetic diversity of 19 accessions from the National Plant Germplasm System using SSR markers and created 15 inbred lines. PMID:24073248

  13. A novel active endogenous retrovirus family contributes to genome variability in rat inbred strains

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yongming; Liška, František; Gosele, Claudia; Šedová, Lucie; K?en, Vladimír; K?enová, Drahomíra; Ivics, Zoltán; Hubner, Norbert; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna

    2010-01-01

    Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) contribute to a range of germline, as well as somatic mutations in mammals. However, autonomous retrotransposition of potentially active elements has not been demonstrated in the rat genome. We cloned an insertion that disrupted the normal splicing of the Cntrob gene that was subsequently identified as a nonautonomous, novel endogenous retrovirus of the RnERV-K8e family. The RnERV-K8e family is closely related to the recently reported MmERV-K10c elements, but differs from the autonomous mouse MusD or IAP families. In addition, we identified a novel, unexpectedly close relative of RnERV-K8e in the mouse, suggesting ERV-K cross-species transmission between mice and rats. We cloned a potentially autonomous RnERV-K8e element identified by in silico analysis and, using an in vitro retrotransposition assay, demonstrated that it is capable of retrotransposition. This particular element (named Rat-?, pronounced “retro”) encodes a retroviral envelope gene (env); however, env is not required for de novo retrotransposition events. Significant levels of RnERV-K8e-associated genetic polymorphisms were detected among inbred rat strains, suggesting ongoing retrotransposition in the rat genome. This study identifies an ERV-K-type family in rats that shows obvious signs of recent activity. Ongoing retrotranspositional activity may significantly add to genomic variability among inbred rat strains. PMID:19887576

  14. Brachypodium sylvaticum, a Model for Perennial Grasses: Transformation and Inbred Line Development

    PubMed Central

    Steinwand, Michael A.; Young, Hugh A.; Bragg, Jennifer N.; Tobias, Christian M.; Vogel, John P.

    2013-01-01

    Perennial species offer significant advantages as crops including reduced soil erosion, lower energy inputs after the first year, deeper root systems that access more soil moisture, and decreased fertilizer inputs due to the remobilization of nutrients at the end of the growing season. These advantages are particularly relevant for emerging biomass crops and it is projected that perennial grasses will be among the most important dedicated biomass crops. The advantages offered by perennial crops could also prove favorable for incorporation into annual grain crops like wheat, rice, sorghum and barley, especially under the dryer and more variable climate conditions projected for many grain-producing regions. Thus, it would be useful to have a perennial model system to test biotechnological approaches to crop improvement and for fundamental research. The perennial grass Brachypodiumsylvaticum is a candidate for such a model because it is diploid, has a small genome, is self-fertile, has a modest stature, and short generation time. Its close relationship to the annual model Brachypodiumdistachyon will facilitate comparative studies and allow researchers to leverage the resources developed for B. distachyon. Here we report on the development of two keystone resources that are essential for a model plant: high-efficiency transformation and inbred lines. Using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation we achieved an average transformation efficiency of 67%. We also surveyed the genetic diversity of 19 accessions from the National Plant Germplasm System using SSR markers and created 15 inbred lines. PMID:24073248

  15. Inbred strains of zebrafish exhibit variation in growth performance and myostatin expression following fasting

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Ben M.; Froehlich, Jacob M.; Galt, Nicholas J.; Biga, Peggy R.

    2012-01-01

    Although the zebrafish (Danio rerio) has been widely utilized as a model organism for several decades, there is little information available on physiological variation underlying genetic variation among the most commonly used inbred strains. This study evaluated growth performance using physiological and molecular markers of growth in response to fasting in six commonly used zebrafish strains [AB, TU, TL, SJA, WIK, and petstore (PET) zebrafish]. Fasting resulted in a standard decrease in whole blood glucose levels, typical vertebrate glucose metabolism pattern, in AB, PET, TL, and TU zebrafish strains. Alternatively, fasting did not affect glucose levels in SJA and WIK zebrafish strains. Similarly, fasting had no effect on myostatin mRNA levels in AB, PET, TU, and WIK zebrafish strains, but decreased myostatin-1 and -2 mRNA levels in SJA zebrafish. Consistent with previous work, fasting increased myostatin-2 mRNA levels in TL zebrafish. These data demonstrate that variation is present in growth performance between commonly used inbred strains of zebrafish. These data can help future research endeavors by highlighting the attributes of each strain with regard to growth performance so that the most fitting strain may be utilized. PMID:23047051

  16. In silico QTL mapping of basal liver iron levels in inbred mouse strains

    PubMed Central

    McLachlan, Stela; Lee, Seung-Min; Steele, Teresa M.; Hawthorne, Paula L.; Zapala, Matthew A.; Eskin, Eleazar; Schork, Nicholas J.; Anderson, Gregory J.

    2011-01-01

    Both iron deficiency and iron excess are detrimental in many organisms, and previous studies in both mice and humans suggest that genetic variation may influence iron status in mammals. However, these genetic factors are not well defined. To address this issue, we measured basal liver iron levels in 18 inbred strains of mice of both sexes on a defined iron diet and found ?4-fold variation in liver iron in males (lowest 153 ?g/g, highest 661 ?g/g) and ?3-fold variation in females (lowest 222 ?g/g, highest 658 ?g/g). We carried out a genome-wide association mapping to identify haplotypes underlying differences in liver iron and three other related traits (copper and zinc liver levels, and plasma diferric transferrin levels) in a subset of 14 inbred strains for which genotype information was available. We identified two putative quantitative trait loci (QTL) that contain genes with a known role in iron metabolism: Eif2ak1 and Igf2r. We also identified four putative QTL that reside in previously identified iron-related QTL and 22 novel putative QTL. The most promising putative QTL include a 0.22 Mb region on Chromosome 7 and a 0.32 Mb region on Chromosome 11 that both contain only one candidate gene, Adam12 and Gria1, respectively. Identified putative QTL are good candidates for further refinement and subsequent functional studies. PMID:21062905

  17. The influence of morphological differences between sunflower inbred lines on their SCA effects for yield components.

    PubMed

    ?uczkiewicz, Tadeusz; Kaczmarek, Zygmunt

    2004-01-01

    Genetic distances between seven oil sunflower inbred lines expressed in the variability of five morphological traits were analysed in terms of their effect on the specific combining ability (SCA) effects in these lines for yield component traits. The multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and other related multidimensional methods were used to recognize the differences between genotypes with respect to morphological traits. Canonical analysis was applied for a graphical configuration of parental lines and diallele hybrids in the two-dimensional space. As a measure of the difference between parental lines with respect to the analysed morphological traits jointly, i.e. as a measure of the morphological distance between these forms, Mahalanobis' distance was used. Phenotypic differences between lines were estimated using Mahalanobis' distance for each pair of crossed lines calculated for all the analysed morphological traits. The effect of morphological differences between inbred lines on the mean SCA effect for individual yield components, measured by the linear regression, was significant for oil yield per plant and for the number of seeds per plant. PMID:15131348

  18. Macronutrient selection by seven inbred mouse strains and three taste-related knockout strains.

    PubMed

    Tordoff, Michael G; Downing, Arnelle; Voznesenskaya, Anna

    2014-08-01

    Many animals thrive when given a choice of separate sources of macronutrients. How they do this is unknown. Here, we report some studies comparing the spontaneous choices between carbohydrate- and fat-containing food sources of seven inbred mouse strains (B6, BTBR, CBA, JF1, NZW, PWD and PWK) and three mouse models with genetic ablation of taste transduction components (T1R3, ITPR3 and CALHM1). For 8days, each mouse could choose between sources of carbohydrate (CHO-P; sucrose-cornstarch) and fat (Fat-P; vegetable shortening) with each source also containing protein (casein). We found that the B6 and PWK strains markedly preferred the CHO-P diet to the Fat-P diet, the BTBR and JF1 strains markedly preferred the Fat-P diet to the CHO-P diet, and the CBA, NZW and PWD strains showed equal intakes of the two diets (by weight). Relative to their WT littermates, ITPR3 and CALHM1 KO mice had elevated Fat-P preferences but T1R3 KO mice did not. There were differences among strains in adaption to the diet choice and there were differences in response between males and females on some days. These results demonstrate the diverse responses to macronutrients of inbred mice and they point to the involvement of chemosensory detectors (but not sweetness) as contributors to macronutrient selection. PMID:24912134

  19. Genetic studies of the susceptibility of classical and wild-derived inbred mouse strains to monkeypox virus.

    PubMed

    Earl, Patricia L; Americo, Jeffrey L; Moss, Bernard

    2015-07-01

    Previously, we screened 38 inbred mouse strains for susceptibility to monkeypox virus (MPXV) and focused on wild-derived CAST mice because of their extreme vulnerability. Here, we provide further analysis of inbred mouse strains. NZW/Lac and C58 mice exhibited more weight loss than other classical inbred strains but all survived intranasal challenges with 10(4) to10(6)PFU of MPXV. Mice from three wild derived strains, in addition to CAST, exhibited severe weight loss and died or were euthanized. LD50 values for CASA, MOLF and PERA were 100, 6800 and >10(5)PFU, respectively. CASA was inbred independently from the same founders as CAST, whereas MOLF and PERA are genetically and geographically distinct. The MPXV susceptibility of the F1 progeny of CAST and either C57BL/6 or BALB/c indicated that resistance is dominant. Back-crossing the F1 progeny of C57BL/6 and CAST to CAST suggested more than one independent resistant locus. PMID:25791934

  20. A Common Genetic Basis in Sweet Corn Inbred Cr1 for Cross Sensitivity to Multiple Cytochrome P450-Metabolized Herbicides

    E-print Network

    Sims, Gerald K.

    A Common Genetic Basis in Sweet Corn Inbred Cr1 for Cross Sensitivity to Multiple Cytochrome P450 sensitivity to multiple cytochrome P450 enzyme-metabolized herbicides. Nomenclature: Bentazon; carfentrazone herbicides from different chemical families with different modes of action. An association between

  1. Fall armyworm and corn earworm resistance in the breeding crosses of maize inbreds with high levels of phytoalexins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to develop maize germplasm with resistance to multiple insect pests and aflatoxin accumulation, a set of reciprocal breeding crosses was made using maize inbred lines with high levels of kauralexins or zealexins. The evaluation of the breeding crosses for insect resistance utilized the rand...

  2. Molecular mapping of four blast resistance genes using recombinant inbred lines of 93-11 and nipponbare

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Molecular mapping of new blast resistance genes is important for developing resistant rice cultivars using marker-assisted selection. In this study, 259 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) were developed from a cross between Nipponbare and 93-11, and were used to construct a 1165.8-cM linkage map with 1...

  3. Mapping Fiber and Yield QTLs with Main, Epistatic, and QTL × Environment Interaction Effects in Recombinant Inbred Lines of Upland Cotton

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xinlian Shen; Tianzhen Zhang; Wangzhen Guo; Xiefei Zhu; Xiaoyang Zhang

    2006-01-01

    Most agronomic traits of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) are quan- titatively inherited and affected by environment. The importance of epistasis as the genetic basis for complex traits has been reported in many crops. In this study, a linkage map was constructed by means of a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from 72353TM-1. Main effects, epistatic effects, and environmental interaction

  4. Evaluation of inbred germ-free Fischer 344 albino rats as an experimental model for oral candidiasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. W. Van Wyk; N. J. Basson; B. M. Gibson

    1989-01-01

    Summary Inbred germ-free Fischer 344 albino rats were evaluated as models for experimental candidiasis in order to investigate bacterial interaction with Candida albicans. Female rats were exposed to C. albicans in their drinking water and killed at intervals from 2 to 22 days after initial contact with the contaminant. C. albicans was cultured from their mouths from day 2 but

  5. A deleterious effect associated with UNH159 is attenuated in twin embryos of an inbred line of tilapia (Oreochromis aureus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Offspring of a highly inbred gynogenetic line of Oreochromis aureus displayed 12-fold increase in twinning rate compared to the outbred population. Asymmetric conjoined twins which consist of a normal embryo attached to a malformed-atrophic twin were frequently encountered in both gynogenetic (90.7%...

  6. New Arabidopsis recombinant inbred line populations genotyped using SNPWave and their use for mapping flowering-time quantitative trait loci

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohamed E. El-Lithy; Leonie Bentsink; Corrie J. Hanhart; Gerda J. Ruys; Daniela Rovito; J. L. M. Broekhof; Poel van der H. J; Michiel J. T. van Eijk; Dick Vreugdenhil; Maarten Koornneef

    2006-01-01

    The SNPWave marker system, based on SNPs between the reference accessions Colombia-0 and Landsberg erecta (Ler), was used to distinguish a set of 92 Arabidopsis accessions from various parts of the world. In addition, we used these markers to genotype three new recombinant inbred line populations for Arabidopsis, having Ler as a common parent that was crossed with the accessions

  7. Social deficits, stereotypy and early emergence of repetitive behavior in the C58\\/J inbred mouse strain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bryce C. Ryan; Nancy B. Young; Jacqueline N. Crawley; James W. Bodfish; Sheryl S. Moy

    2010-01-01

    Mouse lines with behavioral phenotypes relevant to symptoms in neurodevelopmental disorders may provide models to test hypotheses about disease etiology and to evaluate potential treatments. The present studies were designed to confirm and expand earlier work on the intriguing behavioral profile of the C58\\/J inbred strain, including low social approach and aberrant repetitive movements. Additional tests were selected to reflect

  8. Recovery of maize (Zea mays L.) inbreds and hybrids from chilling stress of various duration: photosynthesis and antioxidant enzymes.

    PubMed

    Holá, Dana; Kocová, Marie; Rothová, Olga; Wilhelmová, Nad'a; Benesová, Monika

    2007-07-01

    The differences between two maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines and their F1 hybrids in their response to chilling periods of various duration (1, 2, 3 or 4 weeks) and subsequent return to optimum temperatures were analysed by the measurement of the photosystem (PS) 1 and 2 activity, the photosynthetic pigments' content and the activity of antioxidant enzymes. The PS2 activity and the chlorophyll content decreased in plants subjected to 3 or 4 weeks of chilling, but not in those subjected to 1 or 2 weeks of chilling. This decrease was more pronounced in inbreds compared to their hybrids. The activity of superoxide dismutase did not much change with the increasing length of chilling period in the inbreds but decreased in the hybrids, the glutathione reductase activity increased in both types of genotypes but more in the inbred lines, while for ascorbate peroxidase and catalase the changes in parents-hybrids relationship did not show any specific trend. The PS1 activity and the carotenoids' content was not much affected. PMID:16884820

  9. Genetic differences in alcohol drinking preference between inbred strains of mice.

    PubMed

    He, X X; Nebert, D W; Vasiliou, V; Zhu, H; Shertzer, H G

    1997-06-01

    Genetic factors are known to influence the preference for drinking alcohol-in humans as well as certain inbred strains of laboratory animals. Here we examined the possible role of the aromatic hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) in alcohol-preferring C57BL/6J (B6, high-affinity AHR) and alcohol-avoiding DBA/2J (D2, low-affinity AHR) inbred mouse strains, and in the two congenic lines B6.D2-Ahrd (> 99% B6 genome with the D2 low-affinity AHR) and D2.B6-Ahrb-1 (> 99% D2 genome with the B6 high-affinity AHR). This laboratory had previously shown an association between resistance to intraperitoneal ethanol-induced toxicity and the high-affinity AHR. Offering the choice between drinking water and 10% ethanol, we found that alcohol preference is three- to four-fold greater in B6 than D2 mice, as well as three- to four-fold greater in B6.D2-Ahrd than D2.B6-Ahrb-1 mice-indicating that alcohol preference is AHR-independent. The prototype AHR agonist 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD; dioxin) did not affect the rates of chronic alcohol consumption in B6 or D2 mice, suggesting that dioxin-inducible metabolism does not play a major role in alcohol drinking preference. In B6 mice, we found that oral treatment with the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) inhibitor disulfiram decreased alcohol preference by 50%, whereas oral treatment of the catalase inhibitor 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole increased alcohol drinking preference by 15-20%. Although liver and brain ALDH activities were both significantly higher in D2 than B6, these activities were not related to alcohol consumption. Hepatic and brain catalase activities, on the other hand, were two- to three-fold higher in D2 and D2.B6-Ahrb-1 mice, compared with that in B6 and B6.D2-Ahrd. Furthermore, brain acetaldehyde levels were inversely related to the quantity of alcohol voluntarily consumed. We conclude that the alcohol drinking preference between the B6 and D2 inbred mouse strains is independent of the Ah receptor-but is genetically determined, in part, by the level of brain catalase activity which, in turn, regulates brain acetaldehyde concentrations. PMID:9241662

  10. Genetic Divergence in Mandible Form in Relation to Molecular Divergence in Inbred Mouse Strains

    PubMed Central

    Atchley, W. R.; Newman, S.; Cowley, D. E.

    1988-01-01

    Genetic divergence in the form of the mandible is examined in ten inbred strains of mice. Several univariate and multivariate genetic distance estimates are given for the morphological data and these estimates are compared to measures of genealogical and molecular divergence. Highly significant divergence occurs among the ten strains in all 11 mandible traits considered individually and simultaneously. Genealogical relationship among strains is highly correlated with genetic divergence in single locus molecular traits. However, the concordance between genealogical relationship and multivariate genetic divergence in morphology is much more complex. Whether there is a significant correlation between morphological divergence and genealogy depends upon the method of analysis and the particular genetic distance statistic being employed. PMID:3220250

  11. Interstrain differences in the liver effects of trichloroethylene in a multistrain panel of inbred mice.

    PubMed

    Bradford, Blair U; Lock, Eric F; Kosyk, Oksana; Kim, Sungkyoon; Uehara, Takeki; Harbourt, David; DeSimone, Michelle; Threadgill, David W; Tryndyak, Volodymyr; Pogribny, Igor P; Bleyle, Lisa; Koop, Dennis R; Rusyn, Ivan

    2011-03-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a widely used industrial chemical and a common environmental contaminant. It is a well-known carcinogen in rodents and a probable carcinogen in humans. Studies utilizing panels of mouse inbred strains afford a unique opportunity to understand both metabolic and genetic basis for differences in responses to TCE. We tested the hypothesis that strain- and liver-specific toxic effects of TCE are genetically controlled and that the mechanisms of toxicity and susceptibility can be uncovered by exploring responses to TCE using a diverse panel of inbred mouse strains. TCE (2100 mg/kg) or corn oil vehicle was administered by gavage to 6- to 8-week-old male mice of 15 mouse strains. Serum and liver were collected at 2, 8, and 24 h postdosing and were analyzed for TCE metabolites, hepatocellular injury, and gene expression of liver. TCE metabolism, as evident from the levels of individual oxidative and conjugative metabolites, varied considerably between strains. TCE treatment-specific effect on the liver transcriptome was strongly dependent on genetic background. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-mediated molecular networks, consisting of the metabolism genes known to be induced by TCE, represent some of the most pronounced molecular effects of TCE treatment in mouse liver that are dependent on genetic background. Conversely, cell death, liver necrosis, and immune-mediated response pathways, which are altered by TCE treatment in liver, are largely genetic background independent. These studies provide better understanding of the mechanisms of TCE-induced toxicity anchored on metabolism and genotype-phenotype correlations that may define susceptibility or resistance. PMID:21135412

  12. Variation in intake of sweet and bitter solutions by inbred strains of golden hamsters.

    PubMed

    Frank, Marion E; Wada, Yumiko; Makino, Junshiro; Mizutani, Makoto; Umezawa, Hidehiko; Katsuie, Yasutomi; Hettinger, Thomas P; Blizard, David A

    2004-07-01

    Variation in intake of sweet and bitter solutions by inbred strains of laboratory mice has helped identify genes related to taste behaviors; but similar information is not available for golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus ), a species used much in taste research. Thus, 6-hour, 1-bottle intake by water-replete hamsters of 7 inbred strains was measured for water and 2 concentrations of sucrose, maltose, D-phenylalanine (D-Phe), and sodium saccharin, which are sweet; and quinine.HCl, L-phenylalanine (L-Phe), caffeine, and sucrose octaacetate (SOA), which are bitter to humans. Difference scores (DIF), calculated as solution intake minus mean baseline water intake (mL) for each animal, were evaluated by analysis of variance. Compared to ACN, CN, APA, APG, and CBN, five strains with similar DIF for all compounds, GN, an ancestral strain of ACNT, and ACNT preferred sucrose, caffeine, and SOA more strongly; ACNT also preferred saccharin and maltose more strongly and rejected quinine more strongly. Narrow sense heritabilities for the 6 compounds for which strain differences were revealed ranged from 0.31 to 0.57. Genetic correlations indicated the strain variations in intake of sucrose, saccharin, SOA, and caffeine were coupled; a statistical association with several possible interpretations. Intakes of the two amino acids, preferred D-Phe and aversive L-Phe, did not reveal strain differences, and heritability ranged from 0.13 to 0.23 for the two optical isomers. Thus, although, compared to mice, genetic variation in laboratory hamsters may be small, genetic differences that influence taste behaviors in existing strains may help identify relevant genes. PMID:15082943

  13. Caenorhabditis briggsae Recombinant Inbred Line Genotypes Reveal Inter-Strain Incompatibility and the Evolution of Recombination

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Joseph A.; Koboldt, Daniel C.; Staisch, Julia E.; Chamberlin, Helen M.; Gupta, Bhagwati P.; Baird, Scott E.; Haag, Eric S.

    2011-01-01

    The nematode Caenorhabditis briggsae is an emerging model organism that allows evolutionary comparisons with C. elegans and exploration of its own unique biological attributes. To produce a high-resolution C. briggsae recombination map, recombinant inbred lines were generated from reciprocal crosses between two strains and genotyped at over 1,000 loci. A second set of recombinant inbred lines involving a third strain was also genotyped at lower resolution. The resulting recombination maps exhibit discrete domains of high and low recombination, as in C. elegans, indicating these are a general feature of Caenorhabditis species. The proportion of a chromosome's physical size occupied by the central, low-recombination domain is highly correlated between species. However, the C. briggsae intra-species comparison reveals striking variation in the distribution of recombination between domains. Hybrid lines made with the more divergent pair of strains also exhibit pervasive marker transmission ratio distortion, evidence of selection acting on hybrid genotypes. The strongest effect, on chromosome III, is explained by a developmental delay phenotype exhibited by some hybrid F2 animals. In addition, on chromosomes IV and V, cross direction-specific biases towards one parental genotype suggest the existence of cytonuclear epistatic interactions. These interactions are discussed in relation to surprising mitochondrial genome polymorphism in C. briggsae, evidence that the two strains diverged in allopatry, the potential for local adaptation, and the evolution of Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities. The genetic and genomic resources resulting from this work will support future efforts to understand inter-strain divergence as well as facilitate studies of gene function, natural variation, and the evolution of recombination in Caenorhabditis nematodes. PMID:21779179

  14. Genomic variation in the vomeronasal receptor gene repertoires of inbred mice

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Vomeronasal receptors (VRs), expressed in sensory neurons of the vomeronasal organ, are thought to bind pheromones and mediate innate behaviours. The mouse reference genome has over 360 functional VRs arranged in highly homologous clusters, but the vast majority are of unknown function. Differences in these receptors within and between closely related species of mice are likely to underpin a range of behavioural responses. To investigate these differences, we interrogated the VR gene repertoire from 17 inbred strains of mice using massively parallel sequencing. Results Approximately half of the 6222 VR genes that we investigated could be successfully resolved, and those that were unambiguously mapped resulted in an extremely accurate dataset. Collectively VRs have over twice the coding sequence variation of the genome average; but we identify striking non-random distribution of these variants within and between genes, clusters, clades and functional classes of VRs. We show that functional VR gene repertoires differ considerably between different Mus subspecies and species, suggesting these receptors may play a role in mediating behavioural adaptations. Finally, we provide evidence that widely-used, highly inbred laboratory-derived strains have a greatly reduced, but not entirely redundant capacity for differential pheromone-mediated behaviours. Conclusions Together our results suggest that the unusually variable VR repertoires of mice have a significant role in encoding differences in olfactory-mediated responses and behaviours. Our dataset has expanded over nine fold the known number of mouse VR alleles, and will enable mechanistic analyses into the genetics of innate behavioural differences in mice. PMID:22908939

  15. Phenotypic differences in the hemodynamic response during REM sleep in six strains of inbred mice.

    PubMed

    Campen, Matthew J; Tagaito, Yugo; Jenkins, Todd P; Smith, Philip L; Schwartz, Alan R; O'Donnell, Christopher P

    2002-12-01

    The pattern of cardiovascular changes that occur at nighttime can have an impact on morbidity and mortality. Rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, in particular, represents a period of increased risk due to marked cardiovascular instability. We hypothesized that genetic differences between inbred strains of mice would affect the phenotypic expression of cardiovascular responses that occur in REM sleep. We monitored polysomnography and arterial blood pressure (P(SA)) simultaneously in six inbred strains of mice as they naturally cycled through sleep/wake states. Two strains elevated their P(SA) above non-REM (NREM) levels for 57.9 +/- 6.6% (BALB/cJ) and 51.8 +/- 8.4% (DBA/2J) of the REM period and exhibited a significant (P < 0.05) number of P(SA) surges greater than 10 mmHg (0.78 +/- 0.36 surges/min for BALB/cJ; 0.63 +/- 0.13 surges/min for DBA/2J). Despite similar P(SA) responses, the DBA/2J strain exhibited a decreased heart rate and the BALB/cJ strain exhibited an increased heart rate during REM sleep. The four other strains (A/J, C57BL/6J, C3H/HeJ, and CBA/J) exhibited a significant hypotensive response associated with no change in heart rate in three of the strains and a significant decrease in heart rate in the A/J strain. The overall variability in P(SA) during REM sleep was significantly greater in the C3H/HeJ strain (26.8 +/- 2.0 mmHg; P < 0.0125) compared with the other five strains. We conclude that genetic background contributes to the magnitude, variability, and arterial baroreceptor buffering capacity of cardiovascular responses during REM sleep. PMID:12388788

  16. Genome-wide association mapping of acute lung injury in neonatal inbred mice

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Jennifer L.; Gladwell, Wesley; Verhein, Kirsten C.; Cho, Hye-Youn; Wess, Jürgen; Suzuki, Oscar; Wiltshire, Tim; Kleeberger, Steven R.

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to the pathogenesis of many acute and chronic pulmonary disorders, including bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), a respiratory condition that affects preterm infants. However, the mechanisms of susceptibility to oxidant stress in neonatal lungs are not completely understood. We evaluated the role of genetic background in response to oxidant stress in the neonatal lung by exposing mice from 36 inbred strains to hyperoxia (95% O2) for 72 h after birth. Hyperoxia-induced lung injury was evaluated by using bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) analysis and pathology. Statistically significant interstrain variation was found for BALF inflammatory cells and protein (heritability estimates range: 33.6–55.7%). Genome-wide association mapping using injury phenotypes identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs) on chromosomes 1, 2, 4, 6, and 7. Comparative mapping of the chromosome 6 QTLs identified Chrm2 (cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 2, cardiac) as a candidate susceptibility gene, and mouse strains with a nonsynonymous coding single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in Chrm2 that causes an amino acid substitution (P265L) had significantly reduced hyperoxia-induced inflammation compared to strains without the SNP. Further, hyperoxia-induced lung injury was significantly reduced in neonatal mice with targeted deletion of Chrm2, relative to wild-type controls. This study has important implications for understanding the mechanisms of oxidative lung injury in neonates.—Nichols, J. L., Gladwell, W., Verhein, K. C., Cho, H.-Y., Wess, J., Suzuki, O., Wiltshire, T., Kleeberger, S. R. Genome-wide association mapping of acute lung injury in neonatal inbred mice. PMID:24571919

  17. Association of Nrf2 Polymorphism Haplotypes with Acute Lung Injury Phenotypes in Inbred Strains of Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jedlicka, Anne E.; Gladwell, Wesley; Marzec, Jacqui; McCaw, Zackary R.; Bienstock, Rachelle J.; Kleeberger, Steven R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Nrf2 is a master transcription factor for antioxidant response element (ARE)-mediated cytoprotective gene induction. A protective role for pulmonary Nrf2 was determined in model oxidative disorders, including hyperoxia-induced acute lung injury (ALI). To obtain additional insights into the function and genetic regulation of Nrf2, we assessed functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of Nrf2 in inbred mouse strains and tested whether sequence variation is associated with hyperoxia susceptibility. Results: Nrf2 SNPs were compiled from publicly available databases and by re-sequencing DNA from inbred strains. Hierarchical clustering of Nrf2 SNPs categorized the strains into three major haplotypes. Hyperoxia susceptibility was greater in haplotypes 2 and 3 strains than in haplotype 1 strains. A promoter SNP ?103?T/C adding an Sp1 binding site in haplotype 2 diminished promoter activation basally and under hyperoxia. Haplotype 3 mice bearing nonsynonymous coding SNPs located in (1862?A/T, His543Gln) and adjacent to (1417?T/C, Thr395Ile) the Neh1 domain showed suppressed nuclear transactivation of pulmonary Nrf2 relative to other strains, and overexpression of haplotype 3 Nrf2 showed lower ARE responsiveness than overexpression of haplotype 1 Nrf2 in airway cells. Importantly, we found a significant correlation of Nrf2 haplotypes and hyperoxic lung injury phenotypes. Innovation and Conclusion: The results indicate significant influence of Nrf2 polymorphisms and haplotypes on gene function and hyperoxia susceptibility. Our findings further support Nrf2 as a genetic determinant in ALI pathogenesis and provide useful tools for investigators who use mouse strains classified by Nrf2 haplotypes to elucidate the role for Nrf2 in oxidative disorders. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 22, 325–338. PMID:25268541

  18. Comparison of inbred mouse substrains reveals segregation of maladaptive fear phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Temme, Stephanie J.; Bell, Ryan Z.; Pahumi, Reciton; Murphy, Geoffrey G.

    2014-01-01

    Maladaptive fear, such as fear that is persistent or easily generalized to a nonthreatening stimuli, is associated with anxiety-related disorders in humans. In the laboratory, maladaptive fear can be modeled in rodents using Pavlovian fear conditioning. Recently, an inbred mouse strain known as 129S1/SvImJ, or 129S1 has been reported as exhibiting impairments in fear extinction and enhanced fear generalization. With a long-term goal of identifying segregating genetic markers of maladaptive fear, we used Pavlovian fear conditioning to characterize a closely related substrain designated as 129S6/SvEvTac, or 129S6. Here we report that, like 129S1 animals, 129S6 mice exhibit appropriate levels of fear upon conditioning, but are unable to extinguish fear memories once they are consolidated. Importantly, the maladaptive fear phenotype in this inbred stain can be segregated by sub-strain when probed using conditioning protocols designed to assess generalized fear. We find that unlike the 129S1 substrain, mice from the 129S6 sub-strain do not generalize conditioned fear to previously novel contexts and can learn to discriminate between two similar contexts when trained using a discrimination protocol. These results suggest that at least two forms of maladaptive fear (deficits in fear extinction and fear generalization) can be can be functionally segregated, further suggesting that the underlying neurobiology is heritable. Given the observation that two closely related sub-strains can exhibit different constellations of maladaptive fear suggests that these findings could be exploited to facilitate the identification of candidate genes for anxiety-related disorders. PMID:25191238

  19. Adult Strabismus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 03/2015 Eye Terms & Conditions Most Common Searches Adult Strabismus Amblyopia Cataract Conjunctivitis Corneal Abrasions Dilating Eye Drops Lazy ... Screening Vision Screening Recommendations Loading... Most Common Searches Adult ... Abrasions Dilating Eye Drops Lazy ...

  20. RFLP studies of genetic relationships among inbred lines of the cultivated sunflower, Helianthus annuus L.: evidence for distinct restorer and maintainer germplasm pools

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Gentzbittel; Y.-X. Zhang; F. Vear; B. Griveau; P. Nicolas

    1994-01-01

    One-hundred-and-eighty-one nuclear DNA probes were used to examine restriction-fragment length polymorphism in inbred lines of the cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). The probes were from six libraries: two genomic libraries — one made with PstI and the other with HindIII, and four cDNA libraries — from etiolated plantlets, green leaves, ovaries, petals and anthers. Total DNA from 17 inbred lines

  1. Basal and induced granulopoiesis in outbred, F1 hybrid and inbred mice: can inbreeding depression influence the experimental practice?

    PubMed

    Hofer, Michal; Pospísil, Milan; Dusek, Ladislav; Holá, Jirina; Hoferová, Zuzana; Weiterová, Lenka

    2010-08-01

    In this study we examined differences in selected indices of granulopoiesis in outbred, F(1) hybrid and inbred mouse strains. Specifically, serum granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) levels, numbers of marrow granulocyte-macrophage progenitor cells and morphologically recognizable proliferative marrow granulocytic precursor cells were evaluated. These parameters were determined in untreated controls, and in mice exposed either to a non-specific stimulus (injection of saline) or to a granulopoiesis-enhancing stimulus (administration of a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, meloxicam). Lower levels of G-CSF were detectable in the outbred ICR mice, which also demonstrated an enhanced response to both types of the stimuli. Considering the fact that outbred mice are closer to natural mammalian populations, including human ones, the possibility of using outbred mice, instead of the often used inbred strains, for experiments evaluating the effects of pharmacological interventions on hematopoiesis should be investigated. PMID:20660092

  2. Thermal Properties of Starch in Corn Variants Isolated After Chemical Mutagenesis of Inbred Line B73 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. F. Yamin; M. Lee; L. M. Pollak; P. J. White

    1999-01-01

    Cereal Chem. 76(2):175-181 The starch from eight ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) treated M4 families of the corn (Zea mays L.) inbred line B73 was analyzed using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), a Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA), a texture analyzer (TA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with image analysis. The eight families were chosen from 144 families previously selected for having starch

  3. AFLP mapping of QTLs for in vitro organogenesis traits using recombinant inbred lines in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Flores Berrios; L. Gentzbittel; H. Kayyal; G. Alibert; A. Sarrafi

    2000-01-01

    Genetic control for two in vitro organogenesis traits, the number of shoots per explant plated (S\\/E) and the number of shoots\\u000a per regenerating explant (S\\/RE), was investigated in 75 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of sunflower and their two parents\\u000a (PAC-2 and RHA-266). Genetic variability was observed among the 75 RILs for the organogenesis traits studied. Some RILs presented\\u000a significant differences

  4. Relationships among maize inbred lines and populations from European and North-American origins as estimated using RFLP markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Dubreuil; A. Charcosset

    1999-01-01

    RFLP markers have proven to be a reliable and highly informative tool for characterizing genetic diversity in maize. Joint\\u000a analysis of inbred lines and populations should provide valuable information with respect to (1) a better understanding of\\u000a the genetic basis of present elite germplasm and (2) the identification of populations that may prove to be useful sources\\u000a of genetic diversity

  5. Mapping quantitative trait loci controlling seed dormancy and heading date in rice, Oryza sativa L., using backcross inbred lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Y. Lin; T. Sasaki; M. Yano

    1998-01-01

    To detect quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling seed dormancy, 98 BC1F5 lines (backcross inbred lines) derived from a backcross of Nipponbare (japonica)\\/Kasalath (indica)\\/\\/Nipponbare were analyzed genetically. We used 245 RFLP markers to construct a framework linkage map. Five putative QTLs\\u000a affecting seed dormancy were detected on chromosomes 3, 5, 7 (two regions) and 8, respectively. Phenotypic variations explained\\u000a by each

  6. Integrated map of AFLP, SSLP and RFLP markers using a recombinant inbred population of rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. G. Cho; S. R. McCouch; M. Kuiper; J. Pot; J. T. M. Groenen; M. Y. Eun

    1998-01-01

    A molecular map of rice consisting of 231 amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs), 212 restriction fragment length\\u000a polymorphisms (RFLPs), 86 simple-sequence length polymorphisms (SSLPs), five isozyme loci, and two morphological mutant loci\\u000a [phenol staining of grain (Ph), semi-dwarf habit (sd-1)] has been constructed using an F11 recombinant inbred (RI) population. The mapping population consisted of 164 RI lines and was

  7. Prediction of hybrid performance in maize using molecular markers and joint analyses of hybrids and parental inbreds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tobias A. Schrag; Jens Möhring; Albrecht E. Melchinger; Barbara Kusterer; Baldev S. Dhillon; Hans-Peter Piepho; Matthias Frisch

    2010-01-01

    The identification of superior hybrids is important for the success of a hybrid breeding program. However, field evaluation\\u000a of all possible crosses among inbred lines requires extremely large resources. Therefore, efforts have been made to predict\\u000a hybrid performance (HP) by using field data of related genotypes and molecular markers. In the present study, the main objective\\u000a was to assess the

  8. Genetic mapping of new cotton fiber loci using EST-derived microsatellites in an interspecific recombinant inbred line cotton population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Young-Hoon Park; Magdy S. Alabady; Mauricio Ulloa; Brad Sickler; Thea A. Wilkins; John Yu; David M. Stelly; Russell J. Kohel; Osama M. El-Shihy; Roy G. Cantrell

    2005-01-01

    There is an immediate need for a high-density genetic map of cotton anchored with fiber genes to facilitate marker-assisted\\u000a selection (MAS) for improved fiber traits. With this goal in mind, genetic mapping with a new set of microsatellite markers\\u000a [comprising both simple (SSR) and complex (CSR) sequence repeat markers] was performed on 183 recombinant inbred lines (RILs)\\u000a developed from the

  9. Molecular markers assist in the development of diverse inbred backcross lines in European Long cucumber ( Cucumis sativus L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isabelle Y. DelannayJack; Jack E. Staub

    2011-01-01

    The popular fresh-market European Long cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is grown commercially worldwide under controlled, greenhouse environments. However, it has a narrow genetic base, where\\u000a private and public improvement programs can trace their origins to comparatively few accessions. Therefore, a project was\\u000a designed to identify diverse genotypes for use in the formation and analysis of inbred backcross (BC2S3) lines (IBL)

  10. Quantitative trait loci that determine lipoprotein cholesterol levels in DBA\\/2J and CAST\\/Ei inbred mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Malcolm A. Lyons; Henning Wittenburg; Renhua Li; Kenneth A. Walsh; Martin C. Carey; Beverly Paigen

    2003-01-01

    To investigate genetic contributions to individual variations of lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations, we performed quantitative trait locus\\/loci (QTL) analyses of an intercross of CAST\\/Ei and DBA\\/2J inbred mouse strains after feeding a high-cholesterol cholic acid diet for 10 weeks. In total, we identified four QTL for HDL cholesterol. Three of these were novel and were named Hdlq10 [20 centimorgans (cM), chromosome

  11. Comparison between marker-assisted selection and phenotypical selection in a set of Arabidopsis thaliana recombinant inbred lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Van Berloo; P. Stam

    1999-01-01

    Parents were selected from a well-characterised Arabidopsis recombinant inbred line (RIL) population based on (1) their phenotype for flowering time or (2)?marker and QTL information\\u000a that had been assessed previously. The F2 offspring obtained from pairs of selected RILs was analysed for these traits, and the results obtained with these two methods\\u000a of selection were compared. Selection based on marker

  12. A genetic linkage map of lentil (Lens sp.) based on RAPD and AFLP markers using recombinant inbred lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Eujayl; M. Baum; W. Powell; W. Erskine; E. Pehu

    1998-01-01

    A genetic linkage map of Lens sp. was constructed with 177 markers (89 RAPD, 79 AFLP, six RFLP and three morphological markers) using 86 recombinant inbred\\u000a lines (F6:8) obtained from a partially interspecific cross. The map covered 1073?cM of the lentil genome with an average distance of\\u000a 6.0?cM between adjacent markers. Previously mapped RFLP markers were used as anchor probes.

  13. Genetic rescue of small inbred populations: meta-analysis reveals large and consistent benefits of gene flow.

    PubMed

    Frankham, Richard

    2015-06-01

    Many species have fragmented distribution with small isolated populations suffering inbreeding depression and/or reduced ability to evolve. Without gene flow from another population within the species (genetic rescue), these populations are likely to be extirpated. However, there have been only ~ 20 published cases of such outcrossing for conservation purposes, probably a very low proportion of populations that would potentially benefit. As one impediment to genetic rescues is the lack of an overview of the magnitude and consistency of genetic rescue effects in wild species, I carried out a meta-analysis. Outcrossing of inbred populations resulted in beneficial effects in 92.9% of 156 cases screened as having a low risk of outbreeding depression. The median increase in composite fitness (combined fecundity and survival) following outcrossing was 148% in stressful environments and 45% in benign ones. Fitness benefits also increased significantly with maternal ?F (reduction in inbreeding coefficient due to gene flow) and for naturally outbreeding versus inbreeding species. However, benefits did not differ significantly among invertebrates, vertebrates and plants. Evolutionary potential for fitness characters in inbred populations also benefited from gene flow. There are no scientific impediments to the widespread use of outcrossing to genetically rescue inbred populations of naturally outbreeding species, provided potential crosses have a low risk of outbreeding depression. I provide revised guidelines for the management of genetic rescue attempts. PMID:25740414

  14. Genome-wide association study of 107 phenotypes in Arabidopsis thaliana inbred lines.

    PubMed

    Atwell, Susanna; Huang, Yu S; Vilhjálmsson, Bjarni J; Willems, Glenda; Horton, Matthew; Li, Yan; Meng, Dazhe; Platt, Alexander; Tarone, Aaron M; Hu, Tina T; Jiang, Rong; Muliyati, N Wayan; Zhang, Xu; Amer, Muhammad Ali; Baxter, Ivan; Brachi, Benjamin; Chory, Joanne; Dean, Caroline; Debieu, Marilyne; de Meaux, Juliette; Ecker, Joseph R; Faure, Nathalie; Kniskern, Joel M; Jones, Jonathan D G; Michael, Todd; Nemri, Adnane; Roux, Fabrice; Salt, David E; Tang, Chunlao; Todesco, Marco; Traw, M Brian; Weigel, Detlef; Marjoram, Paul; Borevitz, Justin O; Bergelson, Joy; Nordborg, Magnus

    2010-06-01

    Although pioneered by human geneticists as a potential solution to the challenging problem of finding the genetic basis of common human diseases, genome-wide association (GWA) studies have, owing to advances in genotyping and sequencing technology, become an obvious general approach for studying the genetics of natural variation and traits of agricultural importance. They are particularly useful when inbred lines are available, because once these lines have been genotyped they can be phenotyped multiple times, making it possible (as well as extremely cost effective) to study many different traits in many different environments, while replicating the phenotypic measurements to reduce environmental noise. Here we demonstrate the power of this approach by carrying out a GWA study of 107 phenotypes in Arabidopsis thaliana, a widely distributed, predominantly self-fertilizing model plant known to harbour considerable genetic variation for many adaptively important traits. Our results are dramatically different from those of human GWA studies, in that we identify many common alleles of major effect, but they are also, in many cases, harder to interpret because confounding by complex genetics and population structure make it difficult to distinguish true associations from false. However, a-priori candidates are significantly over-represented among these associations as well, making many of them excellent candidates for follow-up experiments. Our study demonstrates the feasibility of GWA studies in A. thaliana and suggests that the approach will be appropriate for many other organisms. PMID:20336072

  15. Inbred mouse strain resistance to Mycobacterium lepraemurium follows the Ity/Lsh pattern.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, I N; Glynn, A A; Plant, J

    1982-01-01

    Inbred mouse strains and their F1 hybrids infected intravenously with Mycobacterium lepraemurium showed different mean survival times (MST). BALB/c and C57BL mice were particularly susceptible, whereas C3H, CBA and DBA/2 mice were relatively resistant. Resistance as judged by MST was dominant in the F1 hybrids. A similar ranking order was obtained by comparing the doubling time of the bacillus in the bone marrow, the increase in spleen weight between 4 and 12 weeks after infection, and the pathology of the liver during infection. The general pattern suggests that mouse resistance to M. lepraemurium is, at least in part, controlled by a gene with the same strain distribution as the genes for resistance to Salmonella typhimurium (Ity') and Leishmania donovani (Lsh') and the gene controlling resistance to Mycobacterium bovis BCG (Bcg). Ity, Lsh and Bcg are all known to be on chromosome 1, suggesting a centre controlling reactions to intracellular infections. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:6749659

  16. [Construction of a genetic map of sunflower using a population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs)].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yonghu; Yu, Haifeng; Hou, Jianhua; Li, Suping; Lv, Pin; Yu, Zhixian

    2014-10-01

    A genetic linkage map of sunflower was constructed by combined applying the SSR and AFLP markers using 187 F5:6 individuals of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) which derived from the cross between Helianthus annuus K55 and Helianthus annuus K58 through single-seed descent (SSD). Using 78 pairs of SSR primers and 48 pairs of AFLP primer, 341 and 1119 bands were amplified, respectively. Among these 1460 bands, 557 bands (39.52%) were polymorphic, including 184 bands by SSR markers and 393 bands by AFLP markers. In the group of these polymorphic bands, 84 bands from SSR markers and 108 bands from AFLP markers showed the genetic distortion (P = 0.05). A total of 192 segregation distortion markers were obtained in this study. By using the JoinMap 4.0 software to do the linkage analysis, a genetic linkage map was established with length of 2759.4 cM, consisted of 17 linkage groups, and comprised of 495 polymorphic molecular markers including 170 segregation distortion markers. The mean marker interval distance is 5.57 cM between markers. In addition, the number of markers in the linkage groups varied from 5 to 72, and the length of linkage groups were from 68.88 cM to 250.17 cM. The genetic map developed in the present study could be used for QTL mapping and gene cloning of sunflower important genes. PMID:25406252

  17. Quantitative trait loci linked to thalamus and cortex gray matter volumes in BXD recombinant inbred mice

    PubMed Central

    Dong, H; Martin, MV; Colvin, J; Ali, Z; Wang, L; Lu, L; Williams, RW; Rosen, GD; Csernansky, JG; Cheverud, JM

    2015-01-01

    To investigate whether there are separate or shared genetic influences on the development of the thalamus and cerebral cortex, we identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for relevant structural volumes in BXD recombinant inbred (RI) strains of mice. In 34 BXD RI strains and two parental strains (C57BL/ 6J and DBA/2J), we measured the volumes of the entire thalamus and cortex gray matter using point counting and Cavalieri’s rule. Heritability was calculated using analysis of variance (ANOVA), and QTL analysis was carried out using WebQTL (http://www.genenetwork.org). The heritability of thalamus volume was 36%, and three suggestive QTLs for thalamus volume were identified on chromosomes 10, 11 and 16. The heritability of cortical gray matter was 43%, and four suggestive QTLs for cortex gray matter volume were identified on chromosomes 2, 8, 16 and 19. The genetic correlation between thalamus and cortex gray matter volumes was 0.64. Also, a single QTL on chromosome 16 (D16Mit100) was identified for thalamus volume, cortex gray matter volume and Morris water maze search-time preference (r = 0.71). These results suggest that there are separate and shared genetic influences on the development of the thalamus and cerebral cortex. PMID:17406662

  18. Seed yield and its components of indeterminate and determinate lines in recombinant inbred lines of soybean

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Shin; Fujii, Kenichiro; Yumoto, Setsuzo; Ishimoto, Masao; Shiraiwa, Tatsuhiko; Sayama, Takashi; Kikuchi, Akio; Nishio, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the benefits of indeterminate growth habit in breeding to improve yield potential of Japanese soybean varieties, which exclusively have determinate growth habit. Two populations of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from crosses between determinate Japanese cultivars and indeterminate US cultivars were grown in Akita and Kyoto, and seed weight per plant (SW) and its components were compared between indeterminate and determinate RILs. The difference of SW between the two growth habits in RILs varied depending on maturation time. The SW of early indeterminate lines was significantly higher than that of early determinate ones in Akita, but not in Kyoto. Among yield components, the number of seeds per pod was constantly larger in indeterminate lines than that in determinate ones irrespective of maturation time. The number of seeds per plant and the number of pods per plant of the indeterminate lines were greater than those of the determinate lines in early maturation in Akita. These results suggest that the indeterminate growth habit is an advantageous characteristic in breeding for high yield of early maturing soybean varieties in the Tohoku region.

  19. Markers for Heightened Monitoring, Imminent Death, and Euthanasia in Aged Inbred Mice

    PubMed Central

    Trammell, Rita A; Cox, Lisa; Toth, Linda A

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to identify objective criteria that would reliably predict spontaneous death in aged inbred mice. We evaluated male and female AKR/J mice, which die at a relatively young age due to the development of lymphoma, as well as male C57BL/6J and BALB/cByJ mice. Mice were implanted subcutaneously with an identification chip that also allowed remote measurement of body temperature. Temperatures and body weights were measured weekly until spontaneous death occurred or until euthanasia was performed for humane reasons. In AKR/J mice, hypothermia and weight loss began about 4 wk prior to death and increased gradually during that antemortem interval. In C57BL/6J and BALB/cByJ mice, these declines began earlier and were more prolonged prior to death. However, C57BL/6J and BALB/cByJ mice developed a relatively precipitous hypothermia during the 2 wk prior to death. For all 3 strains, the derived composite score of temperature × weight, expressed as a percentage of stable values for each mouse, was similarly informative. These changes in individual and composite measures can signal the need for closer observation or euthanasia of individual mice. Validated markers of clinical decline or imminent death can allow the use of endpoints that reduce terminal distress, do not significantly affect longevity or survival data, and permit timely collection of biologic samples. PMID:22776049

  20. Variation in Nicotine Consumption in Inbred Mice Is Not Linked to Orosensory Ability

    PubMed Central

    Glatt, A. Rebecca; Denton, Kelley

    2009-01-01

    Genetic studies of nicotine addiction in mice have utilized the oral self-administration model. However, it is unclear if strain differences in nicotine consumption are influenced by variation in bitter taste sensitivity. We measured both nicotine consumption and nicotine brief-access licking behavior in several commonly used inbred strains of mice that were previously shown to differ in nicotine consumption. A/J (A), C57BL/6J (B6), and DBA/2J (D2) mice were given a 2-bottle choice test with a single concentration of nicotine (75 ?g/ml; nicotine vs. water). Mice of these strains were also tested with a range of nicotine concentrations (5–400 ?g/ml) using a brief-access test, which measures orosensory response and minimizes postingestive effects. Although B6 mice consumed more 75-?g/ml nicotine than A or D2 mice in the 2-bottle test, these strains did not differ in level of aversion to nicotine when tested with the brief-access procedure. Strain differences in orosensory response to nicotine were not found; yet, differences emerged during the 2-bottle tests. This study provides evidence that variation in intake level of nicotine is likely not due to differences in taste or trigeminal sensitivity but likely due to postingestive factors. PMID:18775876

  1. Genetic basis of response to 50 generations of selection on body weight in inbred mice.

    PubMed

    Keightley, P D

    1998-04-01

    A long-established inbred strain of mice was divergently selected for body weight for 50 generations. Selection of new mutations affecting the trait eventually led to a divergence of approximately three phenotypic standard deviations between the high and low lines. Heritability for body weight increased at a rate between 0.23% and 0.57% per generation from new mutations, depending on the genetic model assumed. About two-thirds of the selection response was in the upward direction. The response was episodic, suggesting a substantial contribution from the selection of mutations with large effects on the trait. A maximum likelihood procedure was used to estimate the number of factors contributing to the response using data from line crosses, with models of n equivalent gene effects (i.e., to estimate the Wright-Castle index), or n genes with variable effects. The results of the analysis of data from a cross between the selected high line and an unselected control line indicated that two major factors were involved, with the suggestion of an additional minor factor. PMID:9560406

  2. The mouse antibody heavy chain repertoire is germline-focused and highly variable between inbred strains.

    PubMed

    Collins, Andrew M; Wang, Yan; Roskin, Krishna M; Marquis, Christopher P; Jackson, Katherine J L

    2015-09-01

    The human and mouse antibody repertoires are formed by identical processes, but like all small animals, mice only have sufficient lymphocytes to express a small part of the potential antibody repertoire. In this study, we determined how the heavy chain repertoires of two mouse strains are generated. Analysis of IgM- and IgG-associated VDJ rearrangements generated by high-throughput sequencing confirmed the presence of 99 functional immunoglobulin heavy chain variable (IGHV) genes in the C57BL/6 genome, and inferred the presence of 164 IGHV genes in the BALB/c genome. Remarkably, only five IGHV sequences were common to both strains. Compared with humans, little N nucleotide addition was seen in the junctions of mouse VDJ genes. Germline human IgG-associated IGHV genes are rare, but many murine IgG-associated IGHV genes were unmutated. Together these results suggest that the expressed mouse repertoire is more germline-focused than the human repertoire. The apparently divergent germline repertoires of the mouse strains are discussed with reference to reports that inbred mouse strains carry blocks of genes derived from each of the three subspecies of the house mouse. We hypothesize that the germline genes of BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice may originally have evolved to generate distinct germline-focused antibody repertoires in the different mouse subspecies. PMID:26194750

  3. Plasticity genes and plasticity costs: a new approach using an Arabidopsis recombinant inbred population.

    PubMed

    Callahan, Hilary S; Dhanoolal, Natalie; Ungerer, Mark C

    2005-04-01

    Earlier flowering is triggered by vernalization in some but not all Arabidopsis ecotypes, often reflecting allelic variation at the FRIGIDA (FRI) locus. Using a recombinant inbred (RI) population polymorphic at FRI, we examined fitness consequences of variation for plasticity. Flowering and fitness were scored for 68 RI genotypes following full and partial vernalization treatments. Within-environment and mixed-model anovas estimated variance components for a genotype effect and a G x E term, respectively. Selection analyses examined whether delayed bolting increases fitness; a plasticity costs analysis asked whether increased plasticity lowers fitness. We also explored whether trait QTL had environment-specific effects, colocated in the immediate vicinity of FRI, or overlapped with fitness QTL. Selection may favor fri alleles and constitutive early flowering, especially in conditions that only partially vernalize plants. Plasticity costs, detected only after partial vernalization and only marginally significant, were nonetheless consistent with FRI-FLC function. We discuss how information about QTL with environment-specific effects, fitness QTL, and knowledge about plasticity genes can improve interpretation of selection or plasticity cost analyses. PMID:15760357

  4. Inbred mouse strains reveal biomarkers that are pro-longevity, antilongevity or role switching

    PubMed Central

    Moeller, Mark; Hirose, Misa; Mueller, Sarah; Roolf, Catrin; Baltrusch, Simone; Ibrahim, Saleh; Junghanss, Christian; Wolkenhauer, Olaf; Jaster, Robert; Köhling, Rüdiger; Kunz, Manfred; Tiedge, Markus; Schofield, Paul N; Fuellen, Georg

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, biomarkers of aging are classified as either pro-longevity or antilongevity. Using longitudinal data sets from the large-scale inbred mouse strain study at the Jackson Laboratory Nathan Shock Center, we describe a protocol to identify two kinds of biomarkers: those with prognostic implication for lifespan and those with longitudinal evidence. Our protocol also identifies biomarkers for which, at first sight, there is conflicting evidence. Conflict resolution is possible by postulating a role switch. In these cases, high biomarker values are, for example, antilongevity in early life and pro-longevity in later life. Role-switching biomarkers correspond to features that must, for example, be minimized early, but maximized later, for optimal longevity. The clear-cut pro-longevity biomarkers we found reflect anti-inflammatory, anti-immunosenescent or anti-anaemic mechanisms, whereas clear-cut antilongevity biomarkers reflect inflammatory mechanisms. Many highly significant blood biomarkers relate to immune system features, indicating a shift from adaptive to innate processes, whereas most role-switching biomarkers relate to blood serum features and whole-body phenotypes. Our biomarker classification approach is applicable to any combination of longitudinal studies with life expectancy data, and it provides insights beyond a simplified scheme of biomarkers for long or short lifespan. PMID:24862908

  5. Segregation distortion caused by weak hybrid necrosis in recombinant inbred lines of common wheat.

    PubMed

    Takumi, Shigeo; Motomura, Yoichi; Iehisa, Julio Cesar Masaru; Kobayashi, Fuminori

    2013-12-01

    Segregation distortion of molecular markers is closely related to hybrid incompatibility in progeny from intraspecific crosses. Recent reports in higher plants have demonstrated that hybrid sterility results in segregation distortion at the causal gene regions in progeny of intraspecific crosses. Ne1 and Ne2 complementary loci are known to control hybrid necrosis in intraspecific crosses of common wheat cultivars. Here, we examine the effect of a weak necrosis allele Ne1(w) on the segregation ratio of molecular markers in recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of common wheat. Some RILs showed accelerated cell death in the leaves at the heading stage due to the epistatic interaction between two quantitative trait loci (QTL) on chromosomes 5B and 2B. Chromosomal localization of these QTL corresponding to Ne1(w) and Ne2 showed distorted segregation ratios of assigned markers having oppositely biased direction. Although the Ne1(w) and Ne2 interaction had no obvious effect on seed fertility, Ne1(w) reduced completion of grain development under the Ne2-homozygous background. This reduction might be one of causes that induces segregation distortion in the 5B and 2B chromosomal regions of RILs. The present study demonstrated that weak hybrid necrosis has limited phenotypic effects; it causes segregation distortion in progeny from intraspecific crosses. PMID:24146090

  6. Hypervitaminosis D and Metastatic Calcification in a Colony of Inbred Strain 13 Guinea Pigs, Cavia porcellus.

    PubMed

    Holcombe, H; Parry, N M; Rick, M; Brown, D E; Albers, T M; Refsal, K R; Morris, J; Kelly, R; Marko, S T

    2014-10-01

    A commercial diet fed to a colony of inbred strain 13 guinea pigs for approximately 6 weeks was subsequently recalled for excessive levels of vitamin D. Twenty-one of 62 animals exhibited clinical signs, including anorexia, lethargy, and poor body condition. Nine affected and 4 clinically normal animals were euthanized for further evaluation, including serum chemistry, urinalysis, and gross and/or histopathology. Macroscopic findings included white discoloration in multiple organs in 8 animals, and microscopic evaluation confirmed multiorgan mineralization in tissues from 7 animals. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were elevated in 10 animals. Serum inorganic phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase levels were increased in all exposed animals; however, total calcium and ionized calcium levels were not significantly higher in exposed animals than in control strain 13 guinea pigs from a different institution. The data support a diagnosis of hypervitaminosis D with metastatic calcification. Following the diet recall, the remaining guinea pigs increased their food intake and regained body condition. Diagnostic testing of 8 animals euthanized approximately 3 months after returning to a normal diet demonstrated that serum parathyroid hormone remained significantly lower, and ionized calcium and ionized magnesium were significantly higher, in recovered animals compared to controls and exposed animals. These results indicate that diagnostic tests other than serum calcium are necessary for a diagnosis of hypervitaminosis D in guinea pigs. PMID:25281651

  7. Increased induction of regenerable callus cultures from cultured kernels of the maize inbred FR27rhm.

    PubMed

    Duncan, D R; Singletary, G W; Below, F E; Widholm, J M

    1989-06-01

    Kernels of the maize inbred FR27rhm were cultured on various media to determine if the treatments would alter the frequency of formation of regenerable callus (induction frequency) by embryos excised from the kernels when they were placed on callus induction medium. The addition of 60 ?M dicamba (3,6-dichloro-o-anisic acid) to the kernel culture medium resulted in an induction frequency of 27-38% compared to 0% for controls on standard kernel culture medium. Embryos excised from dicamba-treated kernels also showed in-ovule callus-like tissue proliferation. The increased induction frequency and the callus-like tissue proliferation could also be produced by injecting the ears of field grown FR27rhm plants, 3-d post pollination, with 1.08 ?moles of dicamba. The results indicate that treatment of the developing ear with dicamba, in vivo or the developing kernel in vitro, may be an effective means to increase the frequency of regenerable callus induction from recalcitrant maize genotypes, such as the B73 derivative FR27rhm. PMID:24233273

  8. Transpiration, and Nitrogen Uptake and Flow in Two Maize (Zea mays L.) Inbred Lines as Affected by Nitrogen Supply

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Junfang; Chen, Fanjun; Mi, Guohua; Li, Chunjian; Zhang, Fusuo

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims The influence of two nitrogen (N) levels on growth, water relations, and N uptake and flow was investigated in two different inbred lines of maize (N-efficient Zi330 and N-inefficient Chen94-11) to analyse the differences in N uptake and cycling within a plant. Methods Xylem sap from different leaves of the inbred lines cultured in quartz sand was collected by application of pressure to the root system. Plant transpiration was measured on a daily basis by weighing five pots of each of the treatments. Key Results N-efficient Zi330 had a higher relative growth rate and water-use efficiency at both high (4 mm) and low (0·08 mm) N levels. At a high N level, the amount of N taken up was similar for the two inbred lines; the amount of N transported in the xylem and retranslocated in the phloem was slight greater in Chen94-11 than in Zi330. At a low N level, however, the total amount of N taken up, transported in the xylem and retranslocated in the phloem of Zi330 was 2·2, 2·7 and 2·7 times more, respectively, than that of Chen94-11. Independent of inbred line and N level, the amounts of N transported in the xylem and cycled in the phloem were far more than that taken up by roots at the same time. Low N supply shifted NO3?1 reduction towards the roots. The major nitrogenous compound in the xylem sap was NO3?1, when plants grew at the high N level, while amino acid-N was predominant when plants grew at the low N level. Conclusions The N-efficient maize inbred line Zi330 had a higher ability to take up N and cycle N within the plant than N-inefficient Chen94-11 when grown under N-deficiency. PMID:17088295

  9. Using monosodium glutamate to initiate ethanol self-administration in inbred mouse strains.

    PubMed

    McCool, Brian A; Chappell, Ann M

    2012-01-01

    Voluntary oral ethanol consumption in rodents is generally limited by strong taste-aversion in these species. Historically, this has been overcome by combining ethanol with a sweetener, typically sucrose or saccharine, and then slowly 'fading' away the sweetener. While useful in most instances, this approach has not proven as successful for some inbred strains of mice (e.g. DBA/2J) despite consistent evidence in the literature that these same strains express strong conditioned place preference for intraperitoneal- or intragastric-administered ethanol. Importantly, DBA/2J mice express a polymorphism in a 'sweet' taste receptor subunit gene that reduces the potency of sweet substances in these mice. We hypothesized that the presence of this polymorphism might help explain the contrasting behavioral findings of weak voluntary oral ethanol consumption following sucrose-fade yet robust conditioned place preference for ethanol in this strain. To test this, we compared ethanol consumption initiated by either a 'traditional' sucrose-fade or a fade from an alternative tastant, monosodium glutamate (MSG). We found that in both C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice, the MSG-fade produced robust increases in home cage ethanol consumption relative to the traditional sucrose-fade. This increased ethanol intake following MSG-fade was evident across a range of ethanol concentrations. Our findings suggest the potential utility of the MSG-fade to establish stable voluntary oral ethanol consumption in mice, particularly ethanol 'non-preferring' strains such as DBA/2J and lend additional support to the notion that ethanol consumption in DBA/2J mice is limited by pronounced taste aversion. PMID:21054690

  10. Enhanced alcohol self-administration and reinstatement in a highly impulsive, inattentive recombinant inbred mouse strain

    PubMed Central

    Loos, Maarten; Staal, Jorn; Smit, August B.; De Vries, Taco J.; Spijker, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    Deficits in executive control have frequently been associated with alcohol use disorder. Here we investigated to what extent pre-existing genetically encoded levels of impulsive/inattentive behavior associate with motivation to take alcohol and vulnerability to cue-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking in an operant self-administration paradigm. We took advantage of BXD16, a recombinant inbred strain previously shown to have enhanced impulsivity and poor attentional control. We compared BXD16 with C57BL/6J mice in a simple choice reaction time task (SCRTT) and confirmed its impulsive/inattentive phenotype. BXD16 mice were less active in a novel open field (OF), and were equally active in an automated home cage environment, showing that increased impulsive responding of BXD16 mice could not be explained by enhanced general activity compared to C57BL/6J mice. After training in a sucrose/alcohol fading self-administration procedure, BXD16 showed increased motivation to earn 10% alcohol solution, both under fixed ratio (FR1) and progressive ratio (PR2) schedules of reinforcement. Responding on the active lever readily decreased during extinction training with no apparent differences between strains. However, upon re-exposure to alcohol-associated cues, alcohol seeking was reinstated to a larger extent in BXD16 than in C57BL/6J mice. Although further studies are needed to determine whether impulsivity/inattention and alcohol seeking depend on common or separate genetic loci, these data show that in mice enhanced impulsivity coincides with increased motivation to take alcohol, as well as relapse vulnerability. PMID:24198771

  11. Display of individuality in avoidance behavior and risk assessment of inbred mice

    PubMed Central

    Hager, Torben; Jansen, René F.; Pieneman, Anton W.; Manivannan, Suriya N.; Golani, Ilan; van der Sluis, Sophie; Smit, August B.; Verhage, Matthijs; Stiedl, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Factors determining individuality are still poorly understood. Rodents are excellent model organisms to study individuality, due to a rich behavioral repertoire and the availability of well-characterized isogenic populations. However, most current behavioral assays for rodents have short test duration in novel test environments and require human interference, which introduce coercion, thereby limiting the assessment of naturally occurring individuality. Thus, we developed an automated behavior system to longitudinally monitor conditioned fear for assessing PTSD-like behavior in individual mice. The system consists of a safe home compartment connected to a risk-prone test compartment (TC). Entry and exploration of the TC is solely based on deliberate choice determined by individual fear responsiveness and fear extinction. In this novel ethological assay, C57BL/6J mice show homogeneous responses after shock exposure (innate fear), but striking variation in long-lasting fear responses based on avoidance and risk assessment (learned fear), including automated stretch-attend posture quantification. TC entry (retention) latencies after foot shock differed >24 h and the re-explored TC area differed >50% among inbred mice. Next, we compared two closely related C57BL/6 substrains. Despite substantial individual differences, previously observed higher fear of C57BL/6N vs. C57BL/6J mice was reconfirmed, whereas fear extinction was fast and did not differ. The observed variation in fear expression in isogenic mice suggests individual differences in coping style with PTSD-like avoidance. Investigating the assumed epigenetic mechanisms, with reduced interpretational ambiguity and enhanced translational value in this assay, may help improve understanding of personality type-dependent susceptibility and resilience to neuropsychiatric disorders such as PTSD. PMID:25278853

  12. Genotype-dependent consequences of traumatic stress in four inbred mouse strains.

    PubMed

    Szklarczyk, K; Korostynski, M; Golda, S; Solecki, W; Przewlocki, R

    2012-11-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder that develops in predisposed individuals following a terrifying event. Studies on isogenic animal populations might explain susceptibility to PTSD by revealing associations between the molecular and behavioural consequences of traumatic stress. Our study employed four inbred mouse strains to search for differences in post-stress response to a 1.5-mA electric foot shock. One day to 6?weeks after the foot shock anxiety, depression and addiction-like phenotypes were assessed. In addition, expression levels of selected stress-related genes were analysed in hippocampus and amygdala. C57BL/6J mice exhibited up-regulation in the expression of Tsc22d3, Nfkbia, Plat and Crhr1 genes in both brain regions. These alterations were associated with an increase of sensitized fear and depressive-like behaviour over time. Traumatic stress induced expression of Tsc22d3, Nfkbia, Plat and Fkbp5 genes and developed social withdrawal in DBA/2J mice. In 129P3/J strain, exposure to stress produced the up-regulation of Tsc22d3 and Nfkbia genes and enhanced sensitivity to the rewarding properties of morphine. Whereas, SWR/J mice displayed increase only in Pdyn expression in the amygdala and had the lowest conditioned fear. Our results reveal a complex genetic background of phenotypic variation in response to stress and indicate the SWR/J strain as a valuable model of stress resistance. We found potential links between the alterations in expression of Tsc22d3, Nfkbia and Pdyn, and different aspects of susceptibility to stress. PMID:22974489

  13. QTL mapping for Mediterranean corn borer resistance in European flint germplasm using recombinant inbred lines

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Ostrinia nubilalis (ECB) and Sesamia nonagrioides (MCB) are two maize stem borers which cause important losses in temperate maize production, but QTL analyses for corn borer resistance were mostly restricted to ECB resistance and maize materials genetically related (mapping populations derived from B73). Therefore, the objective of this work was to identify and characterize QTLs for MCB resistance and agronomic traits in a RILs population derived from European flint inbreds. Results Three QTLs were detected for stalk tunnel length at bins 1.02, 3.05 and 8.05 which explained 7.5% of the RILs genotypic variance. The QTL at bin 3.05 was co-located to a QTL related to plant height and grain humidity and the QTL at bin 8.05 was located near a QTL related to yield. Conclusions Our results, when compared with results from other authors, suggest the presence of genes involved in cell wall biosynthesis or fortification with effects on resistance to different corn borer species and digestibility for dairy cattle. Particularly, we proposed five candidate genes related to cell wall characteristics which could explain the QTL for stalk tunnelling in the region 3.05. However, the small proportion of genotypic variance explained by the QTLs suggest that there are also many other genes of small effect regulating MCB resistance and we conclude that MAS seems not promising for this trait. Two QTLs detected for stalk tunnelling overlap with QTLs for agronomic traits, indicating the presence of pleitropism or linkage between genes affecting resistance and agronomic traits. PMID:20230603

  14. High-throughput behavioral phenotyping in the expanded panel of BXD recombinant inbred strains

    PubMed Central

    Philip, V M; Duvvuru, S; Gomero, B; Ansah, T A; Blaha, C D; Cook, M N; Hamre, K M; Lariviere, W R; Matthews, D B; Mittleman, G; Goldowitz, D; Chesler, E J

    2010-01-01

    Genetic reference populations, particularly the BXD recombinant inbred (BXD RI) strains derived from C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice, are a valuable resource for the discovery of the bio-molecular substrates and genetic drivers responsible for trait variation and covariation. This approach can be profitably applied in the analysis of susceptibility and mechanisms of drug and alcohol use disorders for which many predisposing behaviors may predict the occurrence and manifestation of increased preference for these substances. Many of these traits are modeled by common mouse behavioral assays, facilitating the detection of patterns and sources of genetic coregulation of predisposing phenotypes and substance consumption. Members of the Tennessee Mouse Genome Consortium (TMGC) have obtained phenotype data from over 250 measures related to multiple behavioral assays across several batteries: response to, and withdrawal from cocaine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine; “ecstasy” (MDMA), morphine and alcohol; novelty seeking; behavioral despair and related neurological phenomena; pain sensitivity; stress sensitivity; anxiety; hyperactivity and sleep/wake cycles. All traits have been measured in both sexes in approximately 70 strains of the recently expanded panel of BXD RI strains. Sex differences and heritability estimates were obtained for each trait, and a comparison of early (N = 32) and recent (N = 37) BXD RI lines was performed. Primary data are publicly available for heritability, sex difference and genetic analyses using the MouseTrack database, and are also available in GeneNetwork.org for quantitative trait locus (QTL) detection and genetic analysis of gene expression. Together with the results of related studies, these data form a public resource for integrative systems genetic analysis of neurobehavioral traits. PMID:19958391

  15. Two distinct pathological syndromes in male CBA/J inbred mice with chronic Schistosoma mansoni infections.

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, G. S.; Nix, N. A.; Montesano, M. A.; Gold, D.; Freeman, G. L.; McCurley, T. L.; Colley, D. G.

    1993-01-01

    Humans chronically infected with Schistosoma mansoni most commonly present with the relatively asymptomatic intestinal form of the disease, whereas a small minority develop hepatosplenism characterized by severe hepatic disease with portal hypertension. Investigation of hypotheses describing the pathogenic mechanisms underlying the clinical forms of the human disease has been limited by the absence of an animal model that predictably develops such a spectrum of disease. We report that inbred male CBA/J mice that are chronically infected with S. mansoni develop two distinct syndromes, hypersplenomegaly syndrome (HSS) and moderate splenomegaly syndrome (MSS). Pathologically and immunologically, MSS and HSS remarkably parallel the intestinal and hepatosplenic clinical forms, respectively, in humans. HSS affects approximately 20% of these mice and consists of massive splenomegaly, ascites, thymic atrophy, severe anemia, and cachexia. The remaining majority of mice with MSS develop moderate splenomegaly only. Histopathological features of HSS include 1) relatively extensive hepatic fibrosis and granulomatous inflammation, 2) splenic congestion, 3) lymph node plasmacytosis, and 4) worms and eggs in the pulmonary vasculature. Immunologically, the idiotypes present on antisoluble egg antigen antibodies from HSS mice are distinct from those from mice with acute infections or the chronic MSS infection. These idiotypic differences are similar to those observed in patients with intestinal and hepatosplenic forms of the disease and may have regulatory importance. Investigation of the cellular and molecular events that lead to the development of MSS and HSS may advance current understanding of the pathogenesis of the clinical forms of chronic schistosomiasis in humans. Images Figure 1 Figure 4 PMID:8456934

  16. Functional Coding Variation in Recombinant Inbred Mouse Lines Reveals Novel Serotonin Transporter-Associated Phenotypes

    SciTech Connect

    Carneiro, Ana [Vanderbilt University; Airey, David [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Thompson, Brent [Vanderbilt University; Zhu, C [Vanderbilt University; Rinchik, Eugene M [ORNL; Lu, Lu [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Chesler, Elissa J [ORNL; Erikson, Keith [University of North Carolina; Blakely, Randy [Vanderbilt University

    2009-01-01

    The human serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) transporter (hSERT, SLC6A4) figures prominently in the etiology or treatment of many prevalent neurobehavioral disorders including anxiety, alcoholism, depression, autism and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Here we utilize naturally occurring polymorphisms in recombinant inbred (RI) lines to identify novel phenotypes associated with altered SERT function. The widely used mouse strain C57BL/6J, harbors a SERT haplotype defined by two nonsynonymous coding variants (Gly39 and Lys152 (GK)). At these positions, many other mouse lines, including DBA/2J, encode Glu39 and Arg152 (ER haplotype), assignments found also in hSERT. Synaptosomal 5-HT transport studies revealed reduced uptake associated with the GK variant. Heterologous expression studies confirmed a reduced SERT turnover rate for the GK variant. Experimental and in silico approaches using RI lines (C57Bl/6J X DBA/2J=BXD) identifies multiple anatomical, biochemical and behavioral phenotypes specifically impacted by GK/ER variation. Among our findings are multiple traits associated with anxiety and alcohol consumption, as well as of the control of dopamine (DA) signaling. Further bioinformatic analysis of BXD phenotypes, combined with biochemical evaluation of SERT knockout mice, nominates SERT-dependent 5-HT signaling as a major determinant of midbrain iron homeostasis that, in turn, dictates ironregulated DA phenotypes. Our studies provide a novel example of the power of coordinated in vitro, in vivo and in silico approaches using murine RI lines to elucidate and quantify the system-level impact of gene variation.

  17. Study of immune function in inbred miniature pigs vaccinated and challenged with suid herpesvirus 1.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, P P

    1995-01-01

    Specific immune responses of inbred miniature pigs following vaccination and challenge with suid herpesvirus 1 (SHV-1) were determined. Vaccination of swine with SHV-1 elicited both specific neutralizing antibody and lymphoproliferative responses. Moreover, pigs vaccinated with SHV-1 were fully protected against a lethal virus challenge. Pigs vaccinated with a recombinant (r) SHV-1 virus, followed by challenge with a virulent SHV-1, had lower percentages of circulating T- and B-lymphocytes, and showed a significant (P < or = 0.05) reduction in peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) antibody-dependent cell-cytotoxicity than control (noninfected, SHV-1 sero-negative) animals. From the 5th through the 8th week of postchallenge, rSHV-1 was isolated from 2 of 4 pigs. Presence of r-virus was indicative that PBMC were infectious in vivo. The rSHV-1, with beta-galactosidase activity, was only recovered from ConA- and IL-2-stimulated primary PBMC cocultivated with porcine kidney cells. Control pigs exposed to challenge SHV-1 elicited both specific neutralizing antibody and lympho-proliferative responses followed by subsequent infection. These infected pigs, compared to control pigs, had significantly (P < or = 0.05) lowered percentages of T- and B-lymphocytes, lowered T-cell mitogenic responses, variable PBMC counts, and lowered blood phagocytic cell function. When PBMC from control pigs were cultured and infected with SHV-1, the virus caused a significant (P < or = 0.05) suppression of T-cell proliferation and PBMC mitochondrial dehydrogenase and macrophage activities. PMID:8548690

  18. Snoring - adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... systematic review. Sleep . 2009;32:27-36. Friedman M, Schalch P. Surgery of the palate and oropharynx. Otolaryngol Clin North Am . 2007 Aug;40(4):829-43. Patil SP, Schneider H, Schwartz AR, Smith PL. Adult ...

  19. Histological and transcript analyses of intact somatic embryos in an elite maize (Zea mays L.) inbred line Y423.

    PubMed

    Liu, Beibei; Su, Shengzhong; Wu, Ying; Li, Ying; Shan, Xiaohui; Li, Shipeng; Liu, Hongkui; Dong, Haixiao; Ding, Meiqi; Han, Junyou; Yuan, Yaping

    2015-07-01

    Intact somatic embryos were obtained from an elite maize inbred line Y423, bred in our laboratory. Using 13-day immature embryos after self-pollination as explants, and after 4-5 times subculture, a large number of somatic embryos were detected on the surface of the embryonic calli on the medium. The intact somatic embryos were transferred into the differential medium, where the plantlets regenerated with shoots and roots forming simultaneously. Histological analysis and scanning electron micrographs confirmed the different developmental stages of somatic embryogenesis, including globular-shaped embryo, pear-shaped embryo, scutiform embryo, and mature embryo. cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) was used for comparative transcript profiling between embryogenic and non-embryogenic calli of a new elite maize inbred line Y423 during somatic embryogenesis. Differentially expressed genes were cloned and sequenced. Gene Ontology analysis of 117 candidate genes indicated their involvement in cellular component, biological process and molecular function. Nine of the candidate genes were selected. The changes in their expression levels during embryo induction and regeneration were analyzed in detail using quantitative real-time PCR. Two full-length cDNA sequences, encoding ZmSUF4 (suppressor of fir 4-like protein) and ZmDRP3A (dynamin-related protein), were cloned successfully from intact somatic embryos of the elite inbred maize line Y423. Here, a procedure for maize plant regeneration from somatic embryos is described. Additionally, the possible roles of some of these genes during the somatic embryogenesis has been discussed. This study is a systematic analysis of the cellular and molecular mechanism during the formation of intact somatic embryos in maize. PMID:25931320

  20. Adult Day Care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Resize Text Printer Friendly Online Chat Adult Day Care What is Adult Day Care? How Do Adult ... More About Local Services? What is Adult Day Care? Adult Day Care Centers are designed to provide ...

  1. Growth and formation of the foreleg skeleton inbred mice and rats under conditions of hypo-, normo- and hyperdynamia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kogan, B. I.; Antipov, Y. S.

    1980-01-01

    Inbred 1 month old males of C57B 1/6, CBA, CC57Br/Mw interlinear hybrid mice of the first generation and rats of the August and Wistar lines were subjected to conditions of hypo-, normo- and hyperdynamia for 2 months. The statistically reliable dependence is shown between mechanical underloadings and overloadings and macro microscopic changes in the hind limb skeleton of animals. Genetic determination of growth and formation of the forelimb skeleton is established. Hereditary susceptibility and the phenomenon of heterosis are preserved under all motor conditions.

  2. Natural variation and genetic covariance in adult hippocampal neurogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Kempermann, Gerd [Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin, Germany; Chesler, Elissa J [ORNL; Lu, Lu [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Williams, Robert [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Gage, Fred [Salk Institute for Biological Studies, The, San Diego, CA

    2006-01-01

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is highly variable and heritable among laboratory strains of mice. Adult neurogenesis is also remarkably plastic and can be modulated by environment and activity. Here, we provide a systematic quantitative analysis of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in two large genetic reference panels of recombinant inbred strains (BXD and AXB?BXA, n ? 52 strains). We combined data on variation in neurogenesis with a new transcriptome database to extract a set of 190 genes with expression patterns that are also highly variable and that covary with rates of (i) cell proliferation, (ii) cell survival, or the numbers of surviving (iii) new neurons, and (iv) astrocytes. Expression of a subset of these neurogenesis-associated transcripts was controlled in cis across the BXD set. These self-modulating genes are particularly interesting candidates to control neurogenesis. Among these were musashi (Msi1h) and prominin1?CD133 (Prom1), both of which are linked to stem-cell maintenance and division. Twelve neurogenesis-associated transcripts had significant cis-acting quantitative trait loci, and, of these, six had plausible biological association with adult neurogenesis (Prom1, Ssbp2, Kcnq2, Ndufs2, Camk4, and Kcnj9). Only one cis- cting candidate was linked to both neurogenesis and gliogenesis, Rapgef6, a downstream target of ras signaling. The use of genetic reference panels coupled with phenotyping and global transcriptome profiling thus allowed insight into the complexity of the genetic control of adult neurogenesis.

  3. Adult vaccination.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Kena A; Schmitt, H Josef; Jansen, Kathrin U; Anderson, Annaliesa S

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination of children has had a major impact on the morbidity and mortality of many infectious diseases globally. However, with age, immune responses to vaccines can be less robust, which can be further enhanced by underlying diseases that are common in the older adult. In many countries around the globe booster vaccinations against diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis are recommended for adults. For the older adult, vaccination against pneumococcal diseases, influenza and herpes zoster are also recommended. Despite these recommendations, the widespread use of these vaccines in the adult population clearly lags behind the vaccine uptake and successes documented for pediatric vaccination programs. Furthermore, extensive and sometimes inappropriate use of antibiotics have fostered the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (e.g., methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)) as well as increased susceptibility in the elderly to bacterial species such as Clostridium difficile. Infectious diseases remain an important unmet medical need and new concepts to successfully implement vaccination of adults are urgently needed. PMID:25483533

  4. Induction of autoimmunity to antigens of the glomerular basement membrane in inbred Brown-Norway rats.

    PubMed Central

    Stuffers-Heiman, M; Günther, E; van Es, L A

    1979-01-01

    Induction of autoimmune antibodies against antigens of glomerular basement membrane (GBM) was studied in nine inbred strains of rats each with a different major histocompatibility complex H-1. Brown-Norway (BN) (H-1n), Lewis (H-1(1)), PVG/c (H-1c), AS2 (H-1f), AVN (H-1a), BD V (H-1d), DA (H-1a) and F344 (H-1(1)) rats were immunized with bovine GBM and Freund's complete adjuvent (CFA). A pronounced linear deposition of host IgG (IgG1 and IgG2a) along the GBM was found in BN rats. No deposition of C3 could be detected in the glomeruli nor did the animals develop proteinuria. The quantity of autoimmune antibodies fixed to the GBM was low (48 microgram +/- 14) which could explain the absence of C3 deposition and proteinuria. The antigenic specificity of the antibodies deposited along the GBM in BN rats was shown by the fixation in vitro of the eluted antibodies to the GBM and tubular basement membrane (TBM) of normal kidneys. A much weaker and irregular deposition of host IgG along the GBM was observed in PVG/c, AS2. AVN, BD V, DA and F344 rats. Of these strains, eluates from the glomeruli of PVG/c, AVN, BD V and DA rats fixed very weakly to the GBM of normal kidneys whereas eluates from AS2 and F344 rats did not fix to GBM or TBM. No deposition of host IgG was found in Lewis rats, and the eluates did not fix to normal kidneys. Congenic L.BN rats with the BN H-1n haplotype and a Lewis background did not respond. This study shows a genetic predisposition in rats to an autoimmune anti-GBM response which is not, or not exclusively, controlled by genes linked to the H-1 histo-compatibility complex. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:374260

  5. The Relationship between PROP and Ethanol Preferences: An Evaluation of 4 Inbred Mouse Strains

    PubMed Central

    White, Theresa L.; Dishaw, Laura V.; Sheehe, Paul R.; Youngentob, Steven L.

    2012-01-01

    Ethanol’s taste attributes undoubtedly contribute to the development of drug preference. Ethanol’s taste is both sweet and bitter. Taster status for bitter 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) has been proposed as a genetic marker for alcoholism; however, human results are conflicting. We collected preference scores for both tastants in 4 mouse strains selected on the basis of previously reported taste preference, with the generally accepted idea that inbred mice show minimal within-strain variation. Eighty-eight male mice (22 per strain) participated. The strains were as follows: C57BL/6J, ethanol preferring; BALB/cJ, ethanol avoiding; SWR/J, PROP avoiding; and C3HeB/FeJ, PROP neutral. Using a brief-access (1-min trials) 2-bottle preference test, we assessed the taste response of each strain to PROP and ethanol on separate days. Although PROP avoiding versus neutral mice could be segregated into significantly different populations, this was not the case for ethanol avoiding versus preferring mice, and all strains showed high variability. On average, only BALB/cJ, SWR/J, and C3HeB/FeJ mice conformed to their literature-reported preferences; nonetheless, there were a substantial number of discordant animals. C57BL/6J did not conform to previous results, indicating that they are ethanol preferring. Finally, we did not observe a significant relationship between PROP and ethanol preferences across strains. The high variability per strain and the number of animals in disagreement with their respective literature-reported preference raise concerns regarding their utility for investigations underlying mechanisms of taste-mediated ingestive responses. Absent postingestive consequences, the brief-access results suggest a possible degree of previously masked polymorphisms in taste preferences or a more recent drift in underlying genetic factors. The absence of a relationship between PROP and ethanol indicates that the bitter quality in ethanol may be more highly related to other bitter compounds that are mediated by different genetic influences. PMID:17693415

  6. Gene expression profiling in the striatum of inbred mouse strains with distinct opioid-related phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Korostynski, Michal; Kaminska-Chowaniec, Dorota; Piechota, Marcin; Przewlocki, Ryszard

    2006-01-01

    Background Mouse strains with a contrasting response to morphine provide a unique model for studying the genetically determined diversity of sensitivity to opioid reward, tolerance and dependence. Four inbred strains selected for this study exhibit the most distinct opioid-related phenotypes. C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice show remarkable differences in morphine-induced antinociception, self-administration and locomotor activity. 129P3/J mice display low morphine tolerance and dependence in contrast to high sensitivity to precipitated withdrawal observed in SWR/J and C57BL/6J strains. In this study, we attempted to investigate the relationships between genetic background and basal gene expression profile in the striatum, a brain region involved in the mechanism of opioid action. Results Gene expression was studied by Affymetrix Mouse Genome 430v2.0 arrays with probes for over 39.000 transcripts. Analysis of variance with the control for false discovery rate (q < 0.01) revealed inter-strain variation in the expression of ~3% of the analyzed transcripts. A combination of three methods of array pre-processing was used to compile a list of ranked transcripts covered by 1528 probe-sets significantly different between the mouse strains under comparison. Using Gene Ontology analysis, over-represented patterns of genes associated with cytoskeleton and involved in synaptic transmission were identified. Differential expression of several genes with relevant neurobiological function (e.g. GABA-A receptor alpha subunits) was validated by quantitative RT-PCR. Analysis of correlations between gene expression and behavioural data revealed connection between the level of mRNA for K homology domain containing, RNA binding, signal transduction associated 1 (Khdrbs1) and ATPase Na+/K+ alpha2 subunit (Atp1a2) with morphine self-administration and analgesic effects, respectively. Finally, the examination of transcript structure demonstrated a possible inter-strain variability of expressed mRNA forms as for example the catechol-O-methyltransferase (Comt) gene. Conclusion The presented study led to the recognition of differences in the gene expression that may account for distinct phenotypes. Moreover, results indicate strong contribution of genetic background to differences in gene transcription in the mouse striatum. The genes identified in this work constitute promising candidates for further animal studies and for translational genetic studies in the field of addictive and analgesic properties of opioids. PMID:16772024

  7. Genetic control of mammalian meiotic recombination. I. Variation in exchange frequencies among males from inbred mouse strains.

    PubMed Central

    Koehler, Kara E; Cherry, Jonathan P; Lynn, Audrey; Hunt, Patricia A; Hassold, Terry J

    2002-01-01

    Genetic background effects on the frequency of meiotic recombination have long been suspected in mice but never demonstrated in a systematic manner, especially in inbred strains. We used a recently described immunostaining technique to assess meiotic exchange patterns in male mice. We found that among four different inbred strains--CAST/Ei, A/J, C57BL/6, and SPRET/Ei--the mean number of meiotic exchanges per cell and, thus, the recombination rates in these genetic backgrounds were significantly different. These frequencies ranged from a low of 21.5 exchanges in CAST/Ei to a high of 24.9 in SPRET/Ei. We also found that, as expected, these crossover events were nonrandomly distributed and displayed positive interference. However, we found no evidence for significant differences in the patterns of crossover positioning between strains with different exchange frequencies. From our observations of >10,000 autosomal synaptonemal complexes, we conclude that achiasmate bivalents arise in the male mouse at a frequency of 0.1%. Thus, special mechanisms that segregate achiasmate chromosomes are unlikely to be an important component of mammalian male meiosis. PMID:12242241

  8. Can we improve heterosis for root growth of maize by selecting parental inbred lines with different temperature behaviour?

    PubMed Central

    Hund, Andreas; Reimer, Regina; Stamp, Peter; Walter, Achim

    2012-01-01

    Tolerance to high and low temperature is an important breeding aim for Central and Northern Europe, where temperature fluctuations are predicted to increase. However, the extent to which genotypes differ in their response to the whole range of possible temperatures is not well understood. We tested the hypothesis that the combination of maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines with differing temperature optima for root growth would lead to superior hybrids. This hypothesis is based on the concept of ‘marginal overdominance’ in which the hybrid expresses higher relative fitness than its parents, summed over all situations. The elongation rates of axile and lateral roots of the reciprocal cross between two flint and two dent inbred lines were assessed at temperatures between 15°C and 40°C. Indeed, the cross between UH005 and UH250 with lateral root growth temperature optima at 34°C and 28°C, respectively, resulted in intermediate hybrids. At temperatures below and above 31°C, the hybrids' root growth was comparable to the better parent, respectively, thereby increasing temperature tolerance of the hybrid compared with its parents. The implications of and reasons for this heterosis effect are discussed in the context of breeding for abiotic stress tolerance and of putatively underlying molecular mechanisms. This finding paves the way for more detailed investigations of this phenomenon in future studies. PMID:22527401

  9. C-type virus protein p30 in blood from inbred mice correlates with their later incidence of leukemia.

    PubMed Central

    Nexř, B A; Krog, H H

    1977-01-01

    The major core protein, p30, of mouse C-type viruses was quantitated radioimmunologically in lymphoid organs and blood from inbred strains of mice. The concentration of p30 in thymus and spleen had a weak and moderate correlation, respectively, to leukemia frequency. In contrast, the concentration of p30 in blood from mice with a high incidence of leukemia (strains AKR and C58) was 100-fold increased at 2 months of age compared with 10 strains with a low incidence of the disease. The SJL mice, which have a high incidence of reticulum cell neoplasms, showed generally elevated, but variable, values. The high concentration in AKR blood developed during the first weeks of life. Approximately one-third of the DBA/2 mice had elevated levels after 4 to 5 months, whereas the values from mice of the 129 strain were low irrespective in their age. The major part of p30 appeared to be associated with the erythrocytes. The concentration of p30 in the blood seems to reflect the presence of replicating virus in mice. It identifies among the inbred strains a high leukemia group one-half year prior to disease. PMID:191398

  10. Estimating numbers of EMS-induced mutations affecting life history traits in Caenorhabditis elegans in crosses between inbred sublines.

    PubMed

    Halligan, Daniel L; Peters, Andrew D; Keightley, Peter D

    2003-12-01

    Inbred lines of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans containing independent EMS-induced mutations were crossed to the ancestral wild-type strain (N2). Replicated inbred sublines were generated from the F1 offspring under conditions of minimal selection and, along with the N2 and mutant progenitor lines, were assayed for several fitness correlates including relative fitness (w). A modification of the Castle-Wright estimator and a maximum-likelihood (ML) method were used to estimate the numbers and effects of detectable mutations affecting these characters. The ML method allows for variation in mutational effects by fitting either one or two classes of mutational effect, and uses a Box-Cox power transformation of residual values to account for a skewed distribution of residuals. Both the Castle-Wright and the ML analyses suggest that most of the variation among sublines was due to a few (approximately 1.5-2.5 on average) large-effect mutations. Under ML, a model with two classes of mutational effects, including a class with small effects, fitted better than a single mutation class model, although not significantly better. Nonetheless, given that we expect there to be many mutations induced per line, our results support the hypothesis that mutations vary widely in their effects. PMID:15134198

  11. Transcriptional and Metabolic Changes Associated to the Infection by Fusarium verticillioides in Maize Inbreds with Contrasting Ear Rot Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Campos-Bermudez, Valeria A.; Fauguel, Carolina M.; Tronconi, Marcos A.; Casati, Paula; Presello, Daniel A.; Andreo, Carlos S.

    2013-01-01

    Fusarium verticillioides causes ear rot and grain mycotoxins in maize (Zea mays L.), which are harmful to human and animal health. Breeding and growing less susceptible plant genotypes is one alternative to reduce these detrimental effects. A better understanding of the resistance mechanisms would facilitate the implementation of strategic molecular agriculture to breeding of resistant germplasm. Our aim was to identify genes and metabolites that may be related to the Fusarium reaction in a resistant (L4637) and a susceptible (L4674) inbred. Gene expression data were obtained from microarray hybridizations in inoculated and non-inoculated kernels from both inbreds. Fungal inoculation did not produce considerable changes in gene expression and metabolites in L4637. Defense-related genes changed in L4674 kernels, responding specifically to the pathogen infection. These results indicate that L4637 resistance may be mainly due to constitutive defense mechanisms preventing fungal infection. These mechanisms seem to be poorly expressed in L4674; and despite the inoculation activate a defense response; this is not enough to prevent the disease progress in this susceptible line. Through this study, a global view of differential genes expressed and metabolites accumulated during resistance and susceptibility to F. verticillioides inoculation has been obtained, giving additional information about the mechanisms and pathways conferring resistance to this important disease in maize. PMID:23637860

  12. A quantitative analysis of the effects of qualitatively different reinforcers on fixed ratio responding in inbred strains of mice

    PubMed Central

    Hutsell, Blake A.; Newland, M. Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies of inbred mouse strains have shown reinforcer-strain interactions that may potentially mask differences among strains in memory performance. The present research examined the effects of two qualitatively different reinforcers (heterogeneous mix of flavored pellets and sweetened-condensed milk) on responding maintained by fixed-ratio schedules of reinforcement in three inbred strains of mice (BALB/c, C57BL/6, & DBA/2). Responses rates for all strains were a bitonic (inverted U) function of the size of the fixed-ratio schedule and were generally higher when responding was maintained by milk. For the DBA/2 and C57BL/6 and to a lesser extent the BALB/c, milk primarily increased response rates at moderate fixed ratios, but not at the largest fixed ratios tested. A formal model of ratio-schedule performance, Mathematical Principles of Reinforcement (MPR), was applied to the response rate functions of individual mice. According to MPR, the differences in response rates maintained by pellets and milk were mostly due to changes in motoric processes as indicated by changes in the minimum response time (?) produced by each reinforcer type and not specific activation (a), a model term that represents value and is correlated with reinforcer magnitude and the break point obtained under progressive ratio schedules. In addition, MPR also revealed that, although affected by reinforcer type, a parameter interpreted as the rate of saturation of working memory (?), differed among the strains. PMID:23357283

  13. Consulting Adults. NIACE Lifelines in Adult Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jude, Chris

    This document explains how adult and community educators in the United Kingdom can involve adults as equal partners in the provision and delivery of adult learning. The guide profiles many innovative and imaginative ways in which adult and community learning practitioners are engaging with their communities in increasing the demand for adult

  14. Towards achieving dense genetic maps and detecting disease resistance QTLs using a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dense genetic map constructed using recombinant inbred lines (RILs) have several applications in genetic and breeding approaches including the use in identification of consistent QTLs using multi-environment phenotyping data. Realizing the serious threat from Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and lea...

  15. Identification of multiple ear-colonizing insect and disease resistance in CIMMYT maize inbred lines with varying levels of silk maysin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ninety four corn inbred lines selected from International Center for the Improvement of Maize and Wheat (CIMMYT) in Mexico were evaluated for levels of silk maysin in 2001 and 2002. Damage by major ear-feeding insects [i.e., the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), the m...

  16. Association of Size Exclusion HPLC of Endosperm Proteins with Dough Mixing and Bread-making Characteristics in a Recombinant Inbred Population of Hard Red Spring Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Variation of polymeric proteins is known to affect wheat end-use quality. This research aimed to investigate the composition of polymeric proteins and their associations with dough mixing strength and bread-making characteristics in a near-homogenous population of 139 recombinant inbred lines (RILs...

  17. Protection conferred by a fully recombinant sub-unit vaccine against Yersinia pestis in male and female mice of four inbred strains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M Jones; F Day; A. J Stagg; E. D Williamson

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we describe for the first time the use of a fully recombinant sub-unit vaccine for plague. We have compared the protection afforded by the recombinant vaccine against Yersinia pestis in male and female mice of four inbred strains. We also determined the in vivo cellular memory and antibody response after one year. The recombinant vaccine was capable

  18. Registration of the MY2 Cypress/LaGrue rice recombinant inbred line mapping population. Journal of Plant Registrations 4(3): 261-265.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grain quality plays a crucial economic role for producers, millers, and exporters of rice (Oryza sativa L.). The objective of this research was to develop a japonica -based rice recombinant inbred line (RIL) mapping population to assist in the identification of genomic regions associated with whole-...

  19. Use of the QTL approach to the study of soybean trait relationships in two populations of recombinant inbred lines at the F7 and F8 generations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio José Dias Vieira; Dario Alves de Oliveira; Taís Cristina Bastos Soares; Ivan Schuster; Newton Deniz Piovesan; Carlos Alberto Martínez; Everaldo Gonçalves de Barros; Maurílio Alves Moreira

    2006-01-01

    This work aimed to identify the quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with photosynthesis and growth and productivity traits of soybean and to study possible associations between these traits by the analysis of coincidence of QTL in linkage groups (LGs). Thus, populations of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of the F 7 and F 8 generations derived from the cross between the

  20. A high resolution genetic linkage map of soybean based on 357 recombinant inbred lines genotyped with BARCSoySNP6K

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to construct a high density genetic map of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr) using a high throughput single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping on 357 F7 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from a cross of ‘Wyandot’ × PI 567301B. Of 5,403 SNP loci scored from the Infiniu...

  1. Ultrastructure and Dimensions of Chloroplasts in Leaves of Three Maize ( Zea mays L.) Inbred Lines and their F 1 Hybrids Grown Under Moderate Chilling Stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Kutík; D. Holá; M. Ko?ová; O. Rothová; D. Haisel; N. Wilhelmová; I. Tichá

    2004-01-01

    Influence of moderate chilling stress on vascular bundle sheath cell (BSC) and especially mesophyll cell (MC) chloroplasts of mature maize leaves was studied by electron microscopy and stereology. Plants of two inbred lines of maize, differing in their photosynthetic activity, and their F1 hybrids were cultivated during autumn in heated or unheated glasshouse. Generally, chilling temperatures resulted mainly in the

  2. ADULT EDUCATION OF MIGRANT ADULTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BEAL, CATHERINE; AND OTHERS

    UNITS ON MIGRANT ADULT EDUCATION, AND A UNIT ON ORGANIZING INFORMAL GROUPS OF MIGRANT WOMEN TO DISCUSS MAINTAINING AND IMPROVING THEIR TEMPORARY HOMES, ARE PRESENTED. THE GOALS OF THE UNIT ON EDUCATION FOR MIGRANT MEN ARE ECONOMIC INDEPENDENCE, BETTER HEALTH AND WELL-BEING, AND BETTER HANDLING OF RESPONSIBILITIES. THE MAIN DIVISIONS OF THE…

  3. [Adult twins].

    PubMed

    Charlemaine, Christiane

    2006-12-31

    This paper explores the deep roots of closeness that twins share in their youngest age and their effect on their destiny at the adult age. Psychologists believe the bond between twins begins in utero and develops throughout the twins' lives. The four patterns of twinship described show that the twin bond is determined by the quality of parenting that twins receive in their infancy and early childhood. Common problems of adult twins bring about difficulties to adapt in a non-twin world. The nature versus nurture controversy has taken on new life focusing on inter-twin differences and the importance of parent-child interaction as fundamental to the growth and development of personality. PMID:17352324

  4. How similar are inbred rats? The influence of anatomical variations, shipment and sampling time on experimental surgery.

    PubMed

    Jin, H; Huang, H; Zhang, J; Dirsch, O; Dahmen, U

    2012-01-01

    Variations among inbred rats in terms of anatomy and routine laboratory values can potentially blur surgical experimental results. Therefore, a retrospective analysis aiming at investigating hepatic and perihepatic anatomical variations, liver weight, body weight, liver weight/body weight ratio (LBWR), variations in routine laboratory values, and the influence of shipment and repeated sampling was performed. In our study, liver weight of rats seemed to be strain-specific. LBWR was weakly and negatively correlated with body weight in rats. A statistically significant difference in routine blood tests was found among normal rats grouped by different body weight or shipment. Weekly repeated sampling from the same rats revealed a statistically significant difference in a blood test. In conclusion, the fact that variation among rats or their environment can blur the results of a surgical experimental study should be kept in mind. PMID:22813726

  5. Exposure to the calls of predators of mice activates defensive mechanisms and inhibits consummatory behaviour in an inbred mouse strain.

    PubMed

    Hendrie, C A; Neill, J C

    1991-01-01

    As two-minute exposures to the tape-recorded calls of barn and tawny owls activate endogenous opioid-mediated analgesia mechanisms in laboratory mice, the behavioural effects of the calls of a variety of predator and nonpredator species were ethologically assessed. While no clear effect could be seen on cage-orientated behaviour, the calls of the barn owl and tawny owl produced consistent increases in self-orientated, call-orientated and defensive behaviour indicating that these calls were recognised as belonging to predators. The call of the gull also produced an increase in defense, but, as this could be attributed to an increase in attend only, test animals may react to a change in stimulus properties without the gull call unequivocally representing a potential threat. These results indicate recognition of, and appropriate reaction to, the calls of known night-hunting, airborne primary predators of mice by an inbred laboratory strain. PMID:1792009

  6. High-throughput behavioral phenotyping of drug and alcohol susceptibility traits in the expanded panel of BXD recombinant inbred strains

    SciTech Connect

    Philip, Vivek M [ORNL; Ansah, T [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Blaha, C, [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Cook, Melloni N. [University of Memphis; Hamre, Kristin M. [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Lariviere, William R [University of Pittsburgh; Matthews, Douglas B [Baylor University; Goldowitz, Daniel [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Chesler, Elissa J [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Genetic reference populations, particularly the BXD recombinant inbred strains, are a valuable resource for the discovery of the bio-molecular substrates and genetic drivers responsible for trait variation and co- ariation. This approach can be profitably applied in the analysis of susceptibility and mechanisms of drug and alcohol use disorders for which many predisposing behaviors may predict occurrence and manifestation of increased preference for these substances. Many of these traits are modeled by common mouse behavioral assays, facilitating the detection of patterns and sources of genetic co-regulation of predisposing phenotypes and substance consumption. Members of the Tennessee Mouse Genome Consortium have obtained behavioral phenotype data from 260 measures related to multiple behavioral assays across several domains: self-administration, response to, and withdrawal from cocaine, MDMA, morphine and alcohol; novelty seeking; behavioral despair and related neurological phenomena; pain sensitivity; stress sensitivity; anxiety; hyperactivity; and sleep/wake cycles. All traits have been measured in both sexes and the recently expanded panel of 69 additional BXD recombinant inbred strains (N=69). Sex differences and heritability estimates were obtained for each trait, and a comparison of early (N = 32) and recent BXD RI lines was performed. Primary data is publicly available for heritability, sex difference and genetic analyses using www.GeneNetwork.org. These analyses include QTL detection and genetic analysis of gene expression. Stored results from these analyses are available at http://ontologicaldiscovery.org for comparison to other genomic analysis results. Together with the results of related studies, these data form a public resource for integrative systems genetic analysis of neurobehavioral traits.

  7. Haplotypes at the Tas2r locus on distal chromosome 6 vary with quinine taste sensitivity in inbred mice

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Theodore M; Munger, Steven D; Boughter, John D

    2005-01-01

    Background The detection of bitter-tasting compounds by the gustatory system is thought to alert animals to the presence of potentially toxic food. Some, if not all, bitter stimuli activate specific taste receptors, the T2Rs, which are expressed in subsets of taste receptor cells on the tongue and palate. However, there is evidence for both receptor-dependent and -independent transduction mechanisms for a number of bitter stimuli, including quinine hydrochloride (QHCl) and denatonium benzoate (DB). Results We used brief-access behavioral taste testing of BXD/Ty recombinant inbred (RI) mouse strains to map the major quantitative trait locus (QTL) for taste sensitivity to QHCl. This QTL is restricted to a ~5 Mb interval on chromosome 6 that includes 24 genes encoding T2Rs (Tas2rs). Tas2rs at this locus display in total 307 coding region single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) between the two BXD/Ty RI parental strains, C57BL/6J (quinine-sensitive) and DBA/2J (quinine insensitive); approximately 50% of these mutations are silent. Individual RI lines contain exclusively either C57BL/6J or DBA/2J Tas2r alleles at this locus, and RI lines containing C57BL/6J Tas2r alleles are more sensitive to QHCl than are lines containing DBA/2J alleles. Thus, the entire Tas2r cluster comprises a large haplotype that correlates with quinine taster status. Conclusion These studies, the first using a taste-salient assay to map the major QTL for quinine taste, indicate that a T2R-dependent transduction cascade is responsible for the majority of strain variance in quinine taste sensitivity. Furthermore, the large number of polymorphisms within coding exons of the Tas2r cluster, coupled with evidence that inbred strains exhibit largely similar bitter taste phenotypes, suggest that T2R receptors are quite tolerant to variation. PMID:15938754

  8. Adult Neurogenesis

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    GrandPré, Tadzia

    2007-03-21

    BioEd Online is an â??educational resource for educators, students, and parentsâ?ť from the Baylor College of Medicine. This is an excellent place to find educational materials and current information in the field of biology. The â??Hot Topicsâ?ť section of this site focus on current events and issues in biology that are â??receiving national attention.â?ť This site, created by Tadzia GrandPrĂ©, PhD, contains a brief discussion of Adult Neurogenesis or the ability for new neurons to develop in the brain. The article includes background information on the field of neuroscience, as well as information about how neurons work. The site includes links to references and further reading. In addition, a related slide set, "Adult Neurogenesis," is available for viewing along with links to several related news articles. Both the slide set and the news articles could be easily used in the classroom along with the other resources provided in this â??Hot Topicâ?ť from BioEd Online.

  9. Expression of NR1, NR2A and NR2B NMDA receptor subunits is not altered in the genetically-inbred Balb\\/c mouse strain with heightened behavioral sensitivity to MK-801, a noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pin-Yu Perera; Jack H. Lichy; John Mastropaolo; Richard B. Rosse; Stephen I. Deutsch

    2008-01-01

    The genetically-inbred Balb\\/c mouse strain shows heightened sensitivity to the ability of MK-801 (dizocilpine), a noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist, to raise the threshold voltage necessary to precipitate tonic hindlimb extension and elicit irregular episodes of intense jumping behavior (referred to as “popping”), relative to other inbred mouse strains and the outbred NIH Swiss mouse. Moreover, an allosteric modulatory effect of

  10. Adult flatfoot.

    PubMed

    Toullec, E

    2015-02-01

    Adult flatfoot is defined as a flattening of the medial arch of the foot in weight-bearing and lack of a propulsive gait. The 3 lesion levels are the talonavicular, tibiotarsal and midfoot joints. The subtalar joint is damaged by the consequent rotational defects. Clinical examination determines deformity and reducibility, and assesses any posterior tibialis muscle deficit, the posterior tibialis tendon and spring ligament being frequently subject to degenerative lesions. Radiographic examination in 3 incidences in weight-bearing is essential, to determine the principal level of deformity. Tendon (posterior tibialis tendon) and ligamentous lesions (spring ligament and interosseous ligament) are analyzed on MRI or ultrasound. In fixed deformities, CT explores for arthritic evolution or specific etiologies. 3D CT reconstruction can analyze bone and joint morphology and contribute to the planning of any osteotomy. Medical management associates insoles and physiotherapy. Acute painful flatfoot requires strict cast immobilization. Surgical treatment associates numerous combinations of procedures, currently under assessment for supple flatfoot: for the hindfoot: medial slide calcaneal osteotomy, calcaneal lengthening osteotomy, or arthroereisis; for the midfoot: arthrodesis on one or several rays, or first cuneiform or first metatarsal osteotomy; for the ankle: medial collateral ligament repair with tendon transfer. Fixed deformities require arthrodesis of one or several joint-lines in the hindfoot; for the ankle, total replacement after realignment of the foot, or tibiotalocalcaneal fusion or ankle and hindfoot fusion; and, for the midfoot, cuneonavicular or cuneometatarsal fusion. Tendinous procedures are often associated. Specific etiologies may need individualized procedures. In conclusion, adult flatfoot tends to be diagnosed and managed too late, with consequent impact on the ankle, the management of which is complex and poorly codified. PMID:25595429

  11. Older Adults and Alcohol

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Other Psychiatric Disorders Other Substance Abuse HIV/AIDS Older Adults A national 2008 survey found that about 40 ... of adults ages 65 and older drink alcohol. Older adults can experience a variety of problems from drinking ...

  12. Depression in Older Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Depression In Older Adults: More Facts Depression In Older Adults: More Facts Depression affects more than 19 million ... medication, psychotherapy or a combination of both. [8] Older Adult Attitudes Toward Depression: According to a Mental Health ...

  13. Identification of quantitative trait loci that regulate obesity and serum lipid levels in MRL\\/MpJ x SJL\\/J inbred mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Apurva K. Srivastava; Subburaman Mohan; Godfred L. Masinde; Hongrun Yu; David J. Baylink

    2005-01-01

    The total body fat mass and serum concentration of total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglyceride (TG) differ between standard diet-fed female inbred mouse strains MRL\\/MpJ (MRL) and SJL\\/J (SJL) by 38-120% (P , 0.01). To investigate genetic regulation of obesity and serum lipid levels, we performed a genome-wide linkage analysis in 621 MRL3 SJL F2 female mice. Fat mass was

  14. Determination of mechanisms of host plant resistance to the Banks grass mite Oligonychus pratensis (Banks) (Acari: Tetranychidae) in selected maize inbreds 

    E-print Network

    Krakowsky, Matthew David

    1999-01-01

    to the Banks Grass Mite Oligonychus Pratensis (Banks) (Acari: Tetranychidae) in Selected Maize Inbreds. (May 1999) Matthew D. Krakowsky, B. S. Cornell University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Anton J. Bockholt Maize lines selected for resistance...: Jeffrey and Susan Krakowsky, my parents Dr. Renke, my high school biology teacher who set me on the course of biological research Dr. Bockholt, for serving as my major professor during my time at Texas A&M Dr. Archer, for guiding my research activities...

  15. IMMUNOLOGY, HEALTH, AND DISEASE Immune Response to a Killed Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Vaccine in Inbred Chicken Lines with Different Major Histocompatibility Complex Haplotypes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. R. Juul-Madsen; T. S. Dalgaard; C. M. Rřntved; K. H. Jensen; N. Bumstead

    The influence of MHC on antibody re- sponses to killed infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) vaccine was investigated in several MHC inbred chicken lines. We found a notable MHC haplotype effect on the specific antibody response against IBDV as measured by ELISA. Some MHC haplotypes were high responders (B201,B4, andBR5), whereas other MHC haplotypes were low responders (B19, B12 and

  16. Heterosis in early maize ear inflorescence development: a genome-wide transcription analysis for two maize inbred lines and their hybrid.

    PubMed

    Ding, Haiping; Qin, Cheng; Luo, Xirong; Li, Lujiang; Chen, Zhe; Liu, Hongjun; Gao, Jian; Lin, Haijian; Shen, Yaou; Zhao, Maojun; Lübberstedt, Thomas; Zhang, Zhiming; Pan, Guangtang

    2014-01-01

    Heterosis, or hybrid vigor, contributes to superior agronomic performance of hybrids compared to their inbred parents. Despite its importance, little is known about the genetic and molecular basis of heterosis. Early maize ear inflorescences formation affects grain yield, and are thus an excellent model for molecular mechanisms involved in heterosis. To determine the parental contributions and their regulation during maize ear-development-genesis, we analyzed genome-wide digital gene expression profiles in two maize elite inbred lines (B73 and Mo17) and their F1 hybrid using deep sequencing technology. Our analysis revealed 17,128 genes expressed in these three genotypes and 22,789 genes expressed collectively in the present study. Approximately 38% of the genes were differentially expressed in early maize ear inflorescences from heterotic cross, including many transcription factor genes and some presence/absence variations (PAVs) genes, and exhibited multiple modes of gene action. These different genes showing differential expression patterns were mainly enriched in five cellular component categories (organelle, cell, cell part, organelle part and macromolecular complex), five molecular function categories (structural molecule activity, binding, transporter activity, nucleic acid binding transcription factor activity and catalytic activity), and eight biological process categories (cellular process, metabolic process, biological regulation, regulation of biological process, establishment of localization, cellular component organization or biogenesis, response to stimulus and localization). Additionally, a significant number of genes were expressed in only one inbred line or absent in both inbred lines. Comparison of the differences of modes of gene action between previous studies and the present study revealed only a small number of different genes had the same modes of gene action in both maize seedlings and ear inflorescences. This might be an indication that in different tissues or developmental stages, different global expression patterns prevail, which might nevertheless be related to heterosis. Our results support the hypotheses that multiple molecular mechanisms (dominance and overdominance modes) contribute to heterosis. PMID:25116687

  17. Hearing loss associated with the modifier of deaf waddler (mdfw) locus corresponds with age-related hearing loss in 12 inbred strains of mice

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Qing Yin; Johnson, Kenneth R.

    2010-01-01

    The modifier of deaf waddler (mdfw) and age-related hearing loss (Ahl) loci were both discovered as inbred strain polymorphisms that affect hearing loss in mice. Both loci map to the same position on chromosome (Chr) 10. The mdfw locus interacts epistatically with the deaf waddler (dfw) mutation on Chr 6, and the Ahl locus is a major contributor to AHL in several inbred strains. To investigate the possibility of allelism, we examined the correspondence of mdfw and Ahl phenotypes among 12 inbred mouse strains. The effects of strain-specific mdfw alleles on hearing loss were assessed in dfw2J/+ F1 hybrids produced from mating BALB-dfw2J/+ mice with mice from each of 12 inbred strains. F1 hybrids were then assessed for hearing by auditory-evoked brainstem response threshold analysis and classified as dfw2J/+ or +/+ by polymerase chain reaction typing. Heterozygosity for dfw2J accelerated hearing loss in F1 hybrids derived from all strains tested, except those produced with the B6.CAST +Ahl congenic strain. dfw2J/+ F1 hybrids derived from parental strains 129P1/ReJ, A/J, BUB/BnJ, C57BR/cdJ, DBA/2J, NOD/LtJ and SKH2/J exhibited a severe hearing loss by 12 weeks of age. Those derived from strains 129T2/SvEmsJ, C3H/HeJ, CBA/CaJ and NON/LtJ exhibited only a slight to intermediate hearing loss at that age. The hearing loss associated with these strain-specific mdfw alleles corresponds with previously determined Ahl allele effects, providing additional evidence that mdfw and Ahl are manifestations of the same gene. A functional relationship therefore may exist between the Ca2+ transporting activity of the dfw gene (Atp2b2) and AHL. PMID:11423214

  18. Romanian Maize (Zea mays) Inbred Lines as a Source of Genetic Diversity in SE Europe, and Their Potential in Future Breeding Efforts

    PubMed Central

    Ha?, Voichi?a; Ha?, Ioan; Micl?u?, Mihai

    2013-01-01

    Maize has always been under constant human selection ever since it had been domesticated. Intensive breeding programs that resulted in the massive use of hybrids nowadays have started in the 60s. That brought significant yield increases but reduced the genetic diversity at the same time. Consequently, breeders and researchers alike turned their attention to national germplasm collections established decades ago in many countries, as they may hold allelic variations that could prove useful for future improvements. These collections are mainly composed of inbred lines originating from well-adapted local open pollinated varieties. However, there is an overall lack of data in the literature about the genetic diversity of maize in SE Europe, and its potential for future breeding efforts. There are no data, whatsoever, on the nutritional quality of the grain, primarily dictated by the zein proteins. We therefore sought to use the Romanian maize germplasm as an entry point in understanding the molecular make-up of maize in this part of Europe. By using 80 SSR markers, evenly spread throughout the genome, on 82 inbred lines from various parts of the country, we were able to decipher population structure and the existing relationships between those and the eight international standards used, including the reference sequenced genome B73. Corroborating molecular data with a standardized morphological, physiological, and biochemical characterization of all 90 inbred lines, this is the first comprehensive such study on the existing SE European maize germplasm. The inbred lines we present here are an important addition to the ever-shrinking gene pool that the breeding programs are faced-with, because of the allelic richness they hold. They may serve as parental lines in crosses that will lead to new hybrids, characterized by a high level of heterosis, nationwide and beyond, due to their existing relationship with the international germplasm. PMID:24392016

  19. Chromosomal regions associated with segregation distortion of molecular markers in F 2 ?, backcross, doubled haploid, and recombinant inbred populations in rice ( Oryza sativa L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Xu; L. Zhu; J. Xiao; N. Huang; S. R. McCouch

    1997-01-01

    Chromosomal regions associated with marker segregation distortion in rice were compared based on six molecular linkage maps.\\u000a Mapping populations were derived from one interspecific backcross and five intersubspecific (indica?\\/?japonica) crosses, including two F2 populations, two doubled haploid (DH) populations, and one recombinant inbred (RI) population. Mapping data for each population\\u000a consisted of 129–629 markers. Segregation distortion was determined based on

  20. Mitochondrial DNA Restriction Map for the Caribbean Fruit Fly, Anastrepha suspensa , and Occurrence of Mitochondrial DNA Diversity Within Highly Inbred Colonies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Heath; D. Kuhn; R. Schnell; C. Olano

    2002-01-01

    A restriction map has been constructed for Anastrepha suspensa mitochondrial DNA. One HaeIII site was found to be polymorphic among individuals in highly inbred colonies and a feral population. Based on mapping information, the polymorphic site was determined to be in the ATPase 6 gene. Primers TK-J-3804 and C3-N-5460 amplified this region. The amplicon was cut by HaeIII in flies

  1. Detection of QTL for yield-related traits using recombinant inbred lines derived from exotic and elite US Western Shipping melon germplasm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. E. Zalapa; J. E. Staub; J. D. McCreight; S. M. Chung; H Cuevas

    2007-01-01

    The inheritance of yield-related traits in melon (Cucumis melo L.; 2n = 2x = 24) is poorly understood, and the mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for such traits has not been reported. Therefore,\\u000a a set of 81 recombinant inbred lines (RIL) was developed from a cross between the monoecious, highly branched line USDA 846-1\\u000a and a standard vining, andromonoecious cultivar, ‘Top Mark’. The

  2. The Effect of Low Growth Temperature on Hill Reaction and Photosystem 1 Activities and Pigment Contents in Maize Inbred Lines and Their F 1 Hybrids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Körnerová; D. Holá

    1999-01-01

    Young plants of maize inbred lines CE777, CE704, and CE810 and their F1 hybrids displaying a positive heterotic effect in various photosynthetic characteristics were exposed to low temperature\\u000a during their early growth developmental stage. The photochemical activity of isolated mesophyll chloroplasts and the contents\\u000a of photosynthetic pigments in leaves of stressed and non-stressed plants were compared with the aim to

  3. Genetic Variance Contributes to Dopamine Receptor Antagonist-Induced Inhibition of Sucrose Intake in Inbred and Outbred Mouse Strains

    PubMed Central

    Dym, Cheryl T.; Pinhas, Alexander; Robak, Magdalena; Sclafani, Anthony; Bodnar, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    Preference and intake of sucrose varies across inbred and outbred strains of mice. Pharmacological analyses revealed that the greatest sensitivity to naltrexone-induced inhibition of sucrose (10%) intake was observed in C57BL10/J and C57BL/6J strains, whereas 129P3/J, SWR/J and SJL/J strains displayed far less sensitivity to naltrexone-induced inhibition of sucrose intake. Given that dopamine D1 (SCH23390) and D2 (raclopride) receptor antagonism potently reduce sucrose intake in outbred rat and mouse strains, the present study examined the possibility of genetic variance in the dose-dependent (50–1600 nmol/kg) and time-dependent (5–120 min) effects of these antagonists upon sucrose (10%) intake in the eight inbred (BALB/cJ, C3H/HeJ, C57BL/6J, C57BL/10J, DBA/2J, SJL/J, SWR/J, 129P3/J) and one outbred (CD-1) mouse strains previously tested with naltrexone. SCH23390 significantly reduced sucrose intake across all five doses in 129P3/J and SJL/J mice, across four doses in C57BL/6J and BALB/cJ mice, across three doses in DBA/2J, SWR/J, C3H/HeJ and C57BL/10J mice, but only at the two highest doses in CD-1 mice. SCH23390 was 2–3-fold more potent in inhibiting sucrose intake in 129P3/J and SJL/J mice relative to CD-1 mice. In contrast, only the highest equimolar 1600 nmol/kg dose of raclopride significantly reduced sucrose intake in the BALB/cJ, C3H/HeJ, C57BL/6J, C57BL/10J, DBA/2J, SJL/J and 129P3/J, but not the SWR/J and CD-1 strains. The present and previous data demonstrate specific and differential patterns of genetic variability in inhibition of sucrose intake by dopamine and opioid antagonists, suggesting that distinct neurochemical mechanisms control sucrose intake across different mouse strains. PMID:19135035

  4. Inhibition of non-enzymatic glycation by silk extracts from a Mexican land race and modern inbred lines of maize (Zea mays).

    PubMed

    Farsi, Darius Arthur; Harris, Cory S; Reid, Lana; Bennett, Steffany A L; Haddad, Pierre S; Martineau, Louis C; Arnason, John Thor

    2008-01-01

    Non-enzymatic glycation and the accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are associated with various disease states, including complications of diabetes and aging. Secondary metabolites from several plant species are known to inhibit non-enzymatic glycation and the formation of AGEs, including flavonoids found in the style (silk) of Zea mays (maize). Thirteen modern maize inbreds and one land race were tested for in vitro inhibition of non-enzymatic glycation of bovine serum albumin. Many of the tested extracts exhibited inhibitory activity, in particular the newest inbreds, which were bred for resistance to gibberella ear rot (Fusarium graminearum) and common smut (Ustilago maydis). The most active maize genotype (CO441), displaying an IC50 of 9.5 microg/mL, was more effective than aminoguanidine, a known inhibitor of glycation. Zapalote chico, a land race with high maysin content, showed only moderate inhibitory activity compared with the modern maize genotypes. Antiglycation activity was highly correlated with the total phenolic content of silk extracts and mildly correlated with resistance to certain fungal infections. The results identify modern resistant and high phenolic maize inbreds as promising candidates for the development of natural AGE inhibitors for the prevention and treatment of diabetic complications and the degenerative effects of aging. PMID:17724765

  5. Adult Education and Adult Needs. Research Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havighurst, Robert J.; Orr, Betty

    In this part of the Kansas City Study of Adult Life, educational implications of adult activities and goals were explored, with emphasis on effective living in middle life. Performance of adult developmental tasks and motivation toward effort in these areas were investigated. Criteria were offered for assessing high, medium, and low performance in…

  6. Sealed adult mice: new model for enterotoxin evaluation.

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, S H; Giles, J C; Kruger, K S

    1984-01-01

    Outbred, inbred, and congenic strains of conventional mice which were ano-rectally occluded with cyanoacrylate ester glue and converted to sealed adult mice (SAM) were given, per os, crude cholera enterotoxin (CT) in 10% NaHCO3. At 6 h when the response was maximal, mice were killed, the small intestines were removed, and gut weight/body weight ratios were calculated. Experimental mice gave a linear response after receiving 1.5 to 60 micrograms of CT. Purified heat-stable enterotoxin from Escherichia coli and purified heat-labile enterotoxins from E. coli, Vibrio cholerae, and Clostridium difficile all elicited vigorous fluid outpouring as did culture filtrates from Vibrio fluvialis with cytotoxic activity. Active and passive immunization with crude CT completely or partially neutralized fluid secretion due to CT. Monospecific anti-CT incubated with CT before feeding also eliminated the response. Mice pretreated with penicillin, held in barrier cages, converted to SAM, and fed live vibrios, showed fluid responses similar to those seen with low doses of CT. Each of six different strains of inbred mice fed a half-maximal fluid accumulation response dose of CT gave fluid accumulation ratios which varied fourfold. There was no correlation of fluid accumulation with body weight, gut length, age, or sex. All poor responders were of H-2k haplotype and all good responders were H-2b. BALB congenic mice which differed only in H-2 haplotypes showed the same correlations, and body weights and gut lengths of all haplotypes were not significantly different. Images PMID:6363287

  7. RNA-Seq transcriptome analysis of maize inbred carrying nicosulfuron-tolerant and nicosulfuron-susceptible alleles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaomin; Xu, Xian; Li, Binghua; Wang, Xueqing; Wang, Guiqi; Li, Moran

    2015-01-01

    Postemergence applications of nicosulfuron can cause great damage to certain maize inbred lines and hybrids. Variation among different responses to nicosulfuron may be attributed to differential rates of herbicide metabolism. We employed RNA-Seq analysis to compare transcriptome responses between nicosulfuron-treated and untreated in both tolerant and susceptible maize plants. A total of 71.8 million paired end Illumina RNA-Seq reads were generated, representing the transcription of around 40,441 unique reads. About 345,171 gene ontology (GO) term assignments were conducted for the annotation in terms of biological process, cellular component and molecular function categories, and 6413 sequences with 108 enzyme commission numbers were assigned to 134 predicted Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) metabolic pathways. Digital gene expression profile (DGE) analysis using Solexa sequencing was performed within the susceptible and tolerant maize between the nicosulfuron-treated and untreated conditions, 13 genes were selected as the candidates most likely involved in herbicide metabolism, and quantitative RT-PCR validated the RNA-Seq results for eight genes. This transcriptome data may provide opportunities for the study of sulfonylurea herbicides susceptibility emergence of Zea mays. PMID:25782159

  8. Abiotic stress growth conditions induce different responses in kernel iron concentration across genotypically distinct maize inbred varieties

    PubMed Central

    Kandianis, Catherine B.; Michenfelder, Abigail S.; Simmons, Susan J.; Grusak, Michael A.; Stapleton, Ann E.

    2013-01-01

    The improvement of grain nutrient profiles for essential minerals and vitamins through breeding strategies is a target important for agricultural regions where nutrient poor crops like maize contribute a large proportion of the daily caloric intake. Kernel iron concentration in maize exhibits a broad range. However, the magnitude of genotype by environment (GxE) effects on this trait reduces the efficacy and predictability of selection programs, particularly when challenged with abiotic stress such as water and nitrogen limitations. Selection has also been limited by an inverse correlation between kernel iron concentration and the yield component of kernel size in target environments. Using 25 maize inbred lines for which extensive genome sequence data is publicly available, we evaluated the response of kernel iron density and kernel mass to water and nitrogen limitation in a managed field stress experiment using a factorial design. To further understand GxE interactions we used partition analysis to characterize response of kernel iron and weight to abiotic stressors among all genotypes, and observed two patterns: one characterized by higher kernel iron concentrations in control over stress conditions, and another with higher kernel iron concentration under drought and combined stress conditions. Breeding efforts for this nutritional trait could exploit these complementary responses through combinations of favorable allelic variation from these already well-characterized genetic stocks. PMID:24363659

  9. Hybridization and crossability in Caiophora (Loasaceae subfam. Loasoideae): Are interfertile species and inbred populations results of a recent radiation?

    PubMed

    Ackermann, Markus; Achatz, Michaela; Weigend, Maximilian

    2008-09-01

    Interspecific hybridization is considered a possible mechanism of plant diversification. The Andes are a hotspot of biodiversity, but hybridization in Andean taxa has so far not been investigated intensively. The current study investigates crossability in Caiophora (Loasaceae subfam. Loasoideae) by experimental interspecific hybridization of seven different species. Hand pollination was undertaken, developing fruits counted, thousand (seed) grain weights, and seed viability were examined. Cross pollination led to some fruit set in 36 of the 37 different combinations. Overall fruit set was virtually identical irrespective of the combination of parental plants. Mean germination rates were much higher in hybrid seeds, indicating a marked heterosis effect and the possible presence of an inbreeding depression in the source populations: In experimental hybridization the divergent taxa of Caiophora behave like isolated, inbred populations of a single species. Allopatry and different habitat preferences seem to be the key factors keeping the (interfertile) taxa of Caiophora apart in the apparent absence of both postmating isolating mechanisms and obvious isolating mechanisms in phenology and floral biology. Interspecific hybrids reported from the wild appear to be the result of secondary contact due to human impact. PMID:21632430

  10. Effect of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius leaf extract on the blood glucose and insulin levels of inbred type 2 diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Oladeinde, F O; Kinyua, A M; Laditan, A A; Michelin, R; Bryant, J L; Denaro, F; Makinde, J M; Williams, A L; Kennedy, A P; Bronner, Y

    2007-01-01

    The effects of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius (CA) leaf extract and chlorpropamide on blood glucose and insulin levels in the inbred type 2 diabetic mice are reported. After treatment with CA, the glucose levels were measured at 0 and 2-hour intervals in experimental groups and controls. Group I received no treatment and served as control; Group II was the reference and it received chlorpropamide; Groups I-III were moderately diabetic, 100-300 mg/dL blood glucose levels while Group IV were severely diabetic (> 300 mg/dL). Groups III and IV received CA and served as test groups. There was no significant difference between the blood glucose levels at 0 and 2 hours for the control group, (P>0.23) but there were statistically significant differences for Group II (P<0.0002); Group III (P<0.002) and Group IV (P<0.0001). For moderately diabetic mice, CA and chlorpropamide decreased the glucose levels by 25.6% and 16.3% respectively while for the severely diabetic mice CA decreased the blood glucose by 43.7%. It is proposed that CA has an insulinogenic property that possibly stimulated dormant beta-cells to secrete insulin. The histopathology of several organs in the treated animals was found to differ from the expected. The islets of Langerhans for example were found to be preserved in the time frame examined. Also the liver and kidney were found to display milder pathology in the treated groups. PMID:17531147

  11. Leukaemia x fibroblast hybrid cells augment the antibody response to sheep red blood cells in inbred mice.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, E P; Hagen, K

    1985-01-01

    ASL-1 x LM(TK-) hybrid cells, an established murine leukaemia x fibroblast hybrid cell line, augment the antibody response to sheep red blood cells in inbred mice, as determined by the plaque assay method. The intraperitoneal injection of viable hybrid cells or of growth medium conditioned by the cells leads to an increase both in the total number as well as the proportion of cells forming antibodies to sheep red blood cells. CSF-1, (M-CSF), is detected by radioimmunoassay in the medium conditioned by the hybrid and LM(TK-) cells, but not ASL-1 parental cells. Prior treatment of the conditioned medium with CSF-1 antiserum reduces its capacity to augment the antibody response, and its proliferative stimulus on cells from the marrow indicating that CSF-1 may be at least partly responsible for the adjuvant effect observed. The intraperitoneal implantation of diffusion chambers containing viable CSF-1 producing hybrid cells, like the cells themselves, also leads to an increase in the number of spleen cells forming antibodies to sheep red blood cells. PMID:3908292

  12. Adult Learning Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grigsby, Lindle

    This booklet addresses two of the competencies needed by part-time faculty who teach adults. The competencies are adult learning and the need for quality in preparation to assure quality in instruction. The booklet begins with a discussion of just who the adult learners are. The next topic is adult motivation to learn at the beginning, during, and…

  13. In Vitro Multilineage Differentiation and Self-Renewal of Single Pancreatic Colony-Forming Cells from Adult C57Bl/6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Liang; Feng, Tao; Zerda, Ricardo; Chen, Ching-Cheng; Riggs, Arthur D.

    2014-01-01

    In a previous study we established colony assays suitable for studying murine adult (2–4 months) pancreatic progenitor cells plated in semisolid media containing methylcellulose and extracellular matrix proteins. Using these assays, we found robust in vitro progenitor cell activities (multilineage differentiation and self-renewal) from pancreatic cells of adult mice in the CD-1 outbred background. However, it was not clear whether progenitor cell activities can be detected from inbred mice, a preferred mouse model for various genetic studies. It was also not clear whether a single cell is sufficient to self-renew. Here, we show that fluorescent activated cell sorting pancreatic CD133+ but not CD133? cells from adult C57Bl/6 inbred mice are enriched for progenitor cells that self-renew and give rise to multilineage colonies in vitro. The number of cells in a colony is in proportion to its diameter. Around 60% of single handpicked 3-week-old colonies express trilineage markers, indicating most progenitors are tripotent for ductal, acinar, and endocrine lineage differentiation. Approximately 80% of primary (freshly sorted) colony-forming progenitor cells are capable of giving rise to secondary progenitors in vitro, indicating that a majority of the primary progenitors self-renew. A single cell is sufficient for self-renewal and a Wnt agonist, R-Spondin1, enhances the number of secondary progenitors from the primary progenitors. Together, our pancreatic colony assays allow quantitative analyses of progenitors at a single-cell level from inbred mice. These assays will be useful for elucidating in vitro mechanisms of pancreatic progenitor cell biology. PMID:24261600

  14. Litter Size Predicts Adult Stereotypic Behavior in Female Laboratory Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bechard, Allison; Nicholson, Anthony; Mason, Georgia

    2012-01-01

    Stereotypic behaviors are repetitive invariant behaviors that are common in many captive species and potentially indicate compromised welfare and suitability as research subjects. Adult laboratory mice commonly perform stereotypic bar-gnawing, route-tracing, and back-flipping, although great individual variation in frequency occurs. Early life factors (for example, level of maternal care received) have lasting effects on CNS functioning and abilities to cope with stress and therefore may also affect stereotypic behavior in offspring. Access to maternal resources and care are influenced by the number of pups in a litter; therefore, we examined both litter size and its potential correlate, weight at weaning, as early environmental predictors of adult stereotypic behavior in laboratory mice. Further, we assessed the effects on offspring stereotypic behavior of delaying the separation of mother and pups (weaning) beyond the standard 21 d of age. Analyzing stereotypic behavior in 3 different mouse colonies composed of 2 inbred strains (C57BL/6N and C57BL/6J) and an outbred stock (CD1[ICR]) revealed significant positive correlation between litter size and stereotypic behavior in female, but not male, mice. Weight and age at weaning did not significantly affect levels of stereotypy in either sex. Litter size therefore may be a useful indicator of individual predisposition to stereotypic behavior in female laboratory mice. PMID:23043805

  15. QTL mapping of agronomic waterlogging tolerance using recombinant inbred lines derived from tropical maize (Zea mays L) germplasm.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, Pervez Haider; Rashid, Zerka; Vinayan, Madhumal Thayil; Almeida, Gustavo Dias; Phagna, Ramesh Kumar; Babu, Raman

    2015-01-01

    Waterlogging is an important abiotic stress constraint that causes significant yield losses in maize grown throughout south and south-east Asia due to erratic rainfall patterns. The most economic option to offset the damage caused by waterlogging is to genetically incorporate tolerance in cultivars that are grown widely in the target agro-ecologies. We assessed the genetic variation in a population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from crossing a waterlogging tolerant line (CAWL-46-3-1) to an elite but sensitive line (CML311-2-1-3) and observed significant range of variation for grain yield (GY) under waterlogging stress along with a number of other secondary traits such as brace roots (BR), chlorophyll content (SPAD), % stem and root lodging (S&RL) among the RILs. Significant positive correlation of GY with BR and SPAD and negative correlation with S&RL indicated the potential use of these secondary traits in selection indices under waterlogged conditions. RILs were genotyped with 331 polymorphic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers using KASP (Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR) Platform. QTL mapping revealed five QTL on chromosomes 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10, which together explained approximately 30% of phenotypic variance for GY based on evaluation of RIL families under waterlogged conditions, with effects ranging from 520 to 640 kg/ha for individual genomic regions. 13 QTL were identified for various secondary traits associated with waterlogging tolerance, each individually explaining from 3 to 14% of phenotypic variance. Of the 22 candidate genes with known functional domains identified within the physical intervals delimited by the flanking markers of the QTL influencing GY and other secondary traits, six have previously been demonstrated to be associated with anaerobic responses in either maize or other model species. A pair of flanking SNP markers has been identified for each of the QTL and high throughput marker assays were developed to facilitate rapid introgression of waterlogging tolerance in tropical maize breeding programs. PMID:25884393

  16. QTL Mapping of Agronomic Waterlogging Tolerance Using Recombinant Inbred Lines Derived from Tropical Maize (Zea mays L) Germplasm

    PubMed Central

    Zaidi, Pervez Haider; Rashid, Zerka; Vinayan, Madhumal Thayil; Almeida, Gustavo Dias; Phagna, Ramesh Kumar; Babu, Raman

    2015-01-01

    Waterlogging is an important abiotic stress constraint that causes significant yield losses in maize grown throughout south and south-east Asia due to erratic rainfall patterns. The most economic option to offset the damage caused by waterlogging is to genetically incorporate tolerance in cultivars that are grown widely in the target agro-ecologies. We assessed the genetic variation in a population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from crossing a waterlogging tolerant line (CAWL-46-3-1) to an elite but sensitive line (CML311-2-1-3) and observed significant range of variation for grain yield (GY) under waterlogging stress along with a number of other secondary traits such as brace roots (BR), chlorophyll content (SPAD), % stem and root lodging (S&RL) among the RILs. Significant positive correlation of GY with BR and SPAD and negative correlation with S&RL indicated the potential use of these secondary traits in selection indices under waterlogged conditions. RILs were genotyped with 331 polymorphic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers using KASP (Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR) Platform. QTL mapping revealed five QTL on chromosomes 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10, which together explained approximately 30% of phenotypic variance for GY based on evaluation of RIL families under waterlogged conditions, with effects ranging from 520 to 640 kg/ha for individual genomic regions. 13 QTL were identified for various secondary traits associated with waterlogging tolerance, each individually explaining from 3 to 14% of phenotypic variance. Of the 22 candidate genes with known functional domains identified within the physical intervals delimited by the flanking markers of the QTL influencing GY and other secondary traits, six have previously been demonstrated to be associated with anaerobic responses in either maize or other model species. A pair of flanking SNP markers has been identified for each of the QTL and high throughput marker assays were developed to facilitate rapid introgression of waterlogging tolerance in tropical maize breeding programs. PMID:25884393

  17. Impaired Pavlovian fear extinction is a common phenotype across genetic lineages of the 129 inbred mouse strain.

    PubMed

    Camp, M; Norcross, M; Whittle, N; Feyder, M; D'Hanis, W; Yilmazer-Hanke, D; Singewald, N; Holmes, A

    2009-11-01

    Fear extinction is impaired in psychiatric disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder and schizophrenia, which have a major genetic component. However, the genetic factors underlying individual variability in fear extinction remain to be determined. By comparing a panel of inbred mouse strains, we recently identified a strain, 129S1/SvImJ (129S1), that exhibits a profound and selective deficit in Pavlovian fear extinction, and associated abnormalities in functional activation of a key prefrontal-amygdala circuit, as compared with C57BL/6J. The first aim of the present study was to assess fear extinction across multiple 129 substrains representing the strain's four different genetic lineages (parental, steel, teratoma and contaminated). Results showed that 129P1/ReJ, 129P3/J, 129T2/SvEmsJ and 129X1/SvJ exhibited poor fear extinction, relative to C57BL/6J, while 129S1 showed evidence of fear incubation. On the basis of these results, the second aim was to further characterize the nature and specificity of the extinction phenotype in 129S1, as an exemplar of the 129 substrains. Results showed that the extinction deficit in 129S1 was neither the result of a failure to habituate to a sensitized fear response nor an artifact of a fear response to (unconditioned) tone per se. A stronger conditioning protocol (i.e. five x higher intensity shocks) produced an increase in fear expression in 129S1, relative to C57BL/6J, due to rapid rise in freezing during tone presentation. Taken together, these data show that impaired fear extinction is a phenotypic feature common across 129 substrains, and provide preliminary evidence that impaired fear extinction in 129S1 may reflect a pro-fear incubation-like process. PMID:19674120

  18. Acute intravenous toxicity of dimethyl sulfoxide, polyethylene glycol 400, dimethylformamide, absolute ethanol, and benzyl alcohol in inbred mouse strains.

    PubMed

    Montaguti, P; Melloni, E; Cavalletti, E

    1994-04-01

    Acute intravenous toxicity of some solvents, i.e. dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG 400), dimethylformamide (DMF), absolute ethanol (EtOH) and benzyl alcohol (BeOH), was determined in three inbred (CD2F1, B6D2F1 and C57BL/6N) mouse strains used in many preclinical tests, mainly in oncology and toxicology. Haemolytic and precipitation potential tests in vitro were performed to assess the blood compatibility of the investigated solvents and its relationship with the observed symptoms. The single tested solvents did not show any major differences in acute toxicity in the three tested strains with the exclusion of DMSO (less toxic in CD2F1) and BeOH and EtOH (less toxic in B6D2F1). The tested dose ranges in the three strains (in ml/kg) were 1.0-5.66 for DMSO, 2.0-8.0 for PEG 400, 1.0-4.0 for DMF, 0.75-4.24 for EtOH, 0.025-0.4 for BeOH. The lowest tested dose was a safe dose and the highest one was the dose causing mortality in no more than half the animals in each group. The in vitro results suggest avoiding the use of BeOH (which also is more toxic than the other solvents in the in vivo test) and DMSO and using PEG400, EtOH and DMF even though the latter induced a body weight decrease in the B6D2F1 mouse strain. As a general conclusion, dilution of these solvents in water is suggested to ameliorate their blood compatibility and the use of doses not higher than the lowest dose tested in this study is recommended. PMID:8011014

  19. Cartilage and Bone Changes during Development of Post-Traumatic Osteoarthritis in Selected LGXSM Recombinant Inbred Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Shingo; Rai, Muhammad Farooq; Janiszak, Kara L.; Cheverud, James M.; Sandell, Linda J.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Little evidence is available on the natural course of osteoarthritis development and the genes that protect and predispose individuals to it. This study was designed to compare strain-dependent development of osteoarthritis and its association with tissue regeneration in mice. Two recombinant inbred lines LGXSM-6 and LGXSM-33 generated from LG/J and SM/J intercross were used. Previous studies have indicated that LGXSM-6 can regenerate both articular cartilage and ear hole punch while LGXSM-33 cannot. Methods Transection of the medial meniscotibial ligament was performed on 10-week-old male mice to induce osteoarthritis. Cartilage damage was analyzed by histology and bone morphology was evaluated using micro-CT. Ear punches were performed and evaluated by measurement of residual hole diameter. Results Cartilage analysis showed that LGXSM-33 developed a significantly higher grade of osteoarthritis than LGXSM-6. Bone analysis showed that LGXSM-33 had substantial subchondral bone and trabecular bone thickening 8 weeks post-surgery, while LGXSM-6 showed bone loss over time. We also confirmed that LGXSM-6 can heal ear tissues significantly better than LGXSM-33. Conclusions Osteoarthritis was found to be negatively correlated with the degree of tissue regeneration. LGXSM-33, a poor healer of ear tissues (and articular cartilage), developed more osteoarthritis compared to LGXSM-6, which had better regenerative ability for ear tissues and articular cartilage. While these lines have different distribution of the alleles, we assume that the phenotypic differences observed here are due to genetic differences further suggesting that similar sets of physiological processes and gene variants may mediate variation in human osteoarthritis development and tissue regeneration. PMID:22361237

  20. EFFECT OF POLYMORPHISM ON EXPRESSION OF THE NEUROPEPTIDE Y GENE IN INBRED ALCOHOL-PREFERRING AND -NONPREFERRING RATS

    PubMed Central

    SPENCE, J. P.; LIANG, T.; HABEGGER, K.; CARR, L. G.

    2015-01-01

    Using animal models of alcoholism, previous studies suggest that neuropeptide Y (NPY) may be implicated in alcohol preference and consumption due to its role in the modulation of feeding and anxiety. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis previously identified an interval on rat chromosome 4 that is highly associated with alcohol preference and consumption using an F2 population derived from inbred alcohol-preferring (iP) and -nonpreferring (iNP) rats. NPY mapped to the peak of this QTL region and was prioritized as a candidate gene for alcohol-seeking behavior in the iP and iNP rats. In order to identify a potential mechanism for reduced NPY protein levels documented in the iP rat, genetic and molecular components that influence NPY expression were analyzed between iP and iNP rats. Comparing the iP rat to the iNP rat, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction detected significantly decreased levels of NPY mRNA expression in the iP rat in the six brain regions tested: nucleus accumbens, frontal cortex, amygdala, hippocampus, caudate-putamen, and hypothalamus. In addition, the functional significance of three previously identified polymorphisms was assessed using in vitro expression analysis. The polymorphism defined by microsatellite marker D4Mit7 in iP rats reduced luciferase reporter gene expression in SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cells. These results suggest that differential expression of the NPY gene resulting from the D4mit7 marker polymorphism may contribute to reduced levels of NPY in discrete brain regions in the iP rats. PMID:15749341

  1. Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci Across Recombinant Inbred Lines and Testcross Populations for Traits of Agronomic Importance in Rice

    PubMed Central

    You, Aiqing; Lu, Xinggui; Jin, Huajun; Ren, Xiang; Liu, Kai; Yang, Guocai; Yang, Haiyuan; Zhu, Lili; He, Guangcun

    2006-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine whether quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling traits of agronomic importance detected in recombinant inbred lines (RILs) are also expressed in testcross (TC) hybrids of rice. A genetic map was constructed using an RIL population derived from a cross between B5 and Minghui 63, a parent of the most widely grown hybrid rice cultivar in China. Four TC hybrid populations were produced by crossing the RILs with three maintaining lines for the widely used cytoplasmic male-sterile (CMS) lines and the genic male-sterile line Peiai64s. The mean values of the RILs for the seven traits investigated were significantly correlated to those of the F1 hybrids in the four TC populations. Twenty-seven main-effect QTL were identified in the RILs. Of these, the QTL that had the strongest effect on each of the seven traits in the RILs was detected in two or more of the TC populations, and six other QTL were detected in one TC population. Epistatic analysis revealed that the effect of epistatic QTL was relatively weak and cross combination specific. Searching publicly available QTL data in rice revealed the positional convergence of the QTL with the strongest effect in a wide range of populations and under different environments. Since the main-effect QTL is expressed across different testers, and in different genetic backgrounds and environments, it is a valuable target for gene manipulation and for further application in rice breeding. When a restorer line that expresses main-effect QTL is bred, it could be used in a number of cross combinations. PMID:16322522

  2. Genetic Linkages for Thyroxine Released in Response to Thyrotropin Stimulation in Three Sets of Recombinant Inbred Mice Provide Evidence for Shared and Novel Genes Controlling Thyroid Function

    PubMed Central

    Hamidi, Sepehr; Aliesky, Holly A.; Williams, Robert W.; Rapoport, Basil

    2013-01-01

    Background Graves' hyperthyroidism is induced by immunizing mice with adenovirus expressing the human thyrotropin (TSH)-receptor. Using families of recombinant-inbred mice, we previously discovered that genetic susceptibility to induced thyroid-stimulating antibodies and hyperthyroidism are linked to loci on different chromosomes, indicating a fundamental genetic difference in thyroid sensitivity to ligand stimulation. An approach to assess thyroid sensitivity involves challenging genetically diverse lines of mice with TSH and measuring the genotype/strain-specific increase in serum thyroxine (T4). Methods We investigated genetic susceptibility and genetic control of T4 stimulation by 10?mU bovine TSH in female mice of the CXB, BXH, and AXB/BXA strain families, all previously studied for induced Graves' hyperthyroidism. Results Before TSH injection, T4 levels must be suppressed by inhibiting endogenous TSH secretion. Three daily intraperitoneal L-triiodothyronine injections efficiently suppressed serum T4 in females of 50 of 51 recombinant inbred strains. T4 stimulation by TSH was more strongly linked in CXB and BXH sets, derived from parental strains with divergent T4 stimulation, than in AXB/BXA strains generated from parents with similar TSH-induced responses. Genetic loci linked to the acute TSH-induced T4 response (hours) were not the same as those linked to induced hyperthyroidism (which develops over months). Conclusions Genetic susceptibility for thyroid sensitivity to TSH stimulation was distinct for three families of inbred mouse lines. These observations parallel the human situation with multiple genetic loci contributing to the same trait and different loci associated with the same trait in different ethnic groups. Of the genetic loci highlighted in mice, three overlap with, or are located up or downstream, of human TSH-controlling genes. Other studies show that human disease genes can be identified through cross-species gene mapping of evolutionary conserved processes. Consequently, our findings suggest that novel thyroid function genes may yet be revealed in humans. PMID:22988948

  3. Experimental infection of inbred BALB/c and A/J mice with Massachusetts and Brazilian strains of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV).

    PubMed

    Martini, Matheus C; Gameiro, Jacy; Cardoso, Tereza Cristina; Caserta, Leonardo C; Gualberto, Ana Carolina M; Keid, Lara Borges; Oliveira, Trícia M F de S; Dos Santos, Marcia M A B; Arns, Clarice W; Ferreira, Helena L

    2015-07-01

    The ability of avian coronaviruses to replicate in mice was investigated to investigate interspecies transmission. Two inbred mouse strains (BALB/c and A/J) with different genetic backgrounds were inoculated with the avian coronavirus strains Mass and BR-I and monitored for at least 10 days. Analysis of viral RNA, histopathological examinations, immunohistochemistry and serology were performed. After virus inoculation, neither clinical signs nor evident gross lesions were observed. Viral RNA, histopathological changes, and viral nucleoprotein were observed in the lung, trachea and sinus of all inoculated mice. Our study demonstrates the importance of elucidating the epidemiology of coronaviruses, including in rodents that are pests in poultry production. PMID:25951972

  4. Dietary phytosterols and phytostanols decrease cholesterol levels but increase blood pressure in WKY inbred rats in the absence of salt-loading

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There are safety concerns regarding widespread consumption of phytosterol and phytostanol supplemented food products. The aim of this study was to determine, in the absence of excess dietary salt, the individual effects of excess accumulation of dietary phytosterols and phytostanols on blood pressure in Wistar Kyoto (WKY) inbred rats that have a mutation in the Abcg5 gene and thus over absorb phytosterols and phytostanols. Methods Thirty 35-day old male WKY inbred rats (10/group) were fed a control diet or a diet containing phytosterols or phytostanols (2.0 g/kg diet) for 5 weeks. The sterol composition of the diets, plasma and tissues were analysed by gas chromatography. Blood pressure was measured by the tail cuff method. mRNA levels of several renal blood pressure regulatory genes were measured by real-time quantitative PCR. Results Compared to the control diet, the phytosterol diet resulted in 3- to 4-fold increases in the levels of phytosterols in plasma, red blood cells, liver, aorta and kidney of WKY inbred rats (P < 0.05). The phytostanol diet dramatically increased (> 9-fold) the levels of phytostanols in plasma, red blood cells, liver, aorta and kidney of these rats (P < 0.05). The phytosterol diet decreased cholesterol levels by 40%, 31%, and 19% in liver, aorta and kidney, respectively (P < 0.05). The phytostanol diet decreased cholesterol levels by 15%, 16%, 20% and 14% in plasma, liver, aorta and kidney, respectively (P < 0.05). The phytostanol diet also decreased phytosterol levels by 29% to 54% in plasma and tissues (P < 0.05). Both the phytosterol and phytostanol diets produced significant decreases in the ratios of cholesterol to phytosterols and phytostanols in plasma, red blood cells, liver, aorta and kidney. Rats that consumed the phytosterol or phytostanol diets displayed significant increases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure compared to rats that consumed the control diet (P < 0.05). The phytosterol diet increased renal angiotensinogen mRNA levels of these rats. Conclusion These data suggest that excessive accumulation of dietary phytosterols and phytostanols in plasma and tissues may contribute to the increased blood pressure in WKY inbred rats in the absence of excess dietary salt. Therefore, even though phytosterols and phytostanols lower cholesterol levels, prospective clinical studies testing the net beneficial effects of dietary phytosterols and phytostanols on cardiovascular events for subgroups of individuals that have an increased incorporation of these substances are needed. PMID:20637058

  5. Note: Implementation of a cold spot setup for controlled variation of vapor pressures and its application to an InBr containing discharge lamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briefi, S.

    2013-02-01

    In order to allow for a systematic investigation of the plasma properties of discharges containing indium halides, which are proposed as an efficient alternative for mercury based low pressure discharge lamps, a controlled variation of the indium halide density is mandatory. This can be achieved by applying a newly designed setup in which a well-defined cold spot location is implemented and the cold spot temperature can be adjusted between 50 and 350 °C without influencing the gas temperature. The performance of the setup has been proved by comparing the calculated evaporated InBr density (using the vapor pressure curve) with the one measured via white light absorption spectroscopy.

  6. Note: implementation of a cold spot setup for controlled variation of vapor pressures and its application to an InBr containing discharge lamp.

    PubMed

    Briefi, S

    2013-02-01

    In order to allow for a systematic investigation of the plasma properties of discharges containing indium halides, which are proposed as an efficient alternative for mercury based low pressure discharge lamps, a controlled variation of the indium halide density is mandatory. This can be achieved by applying a newly designed setup in which a well-defined cold spot location is implemented and the cold spot temperature can be adjusted between 50 and 350 °C without influencing the gas temperature. The performance of the setup has been proved by comparing the calculated evaporated InBr density (using the vapor pressure curve) with the one measured via white light absorption spectroscopy. PMID:23464268

  7. Depression - older adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... daily life for weeks or longer. Depression in older adults is a widespread problem, but it is not ... In older adults, life changes can increase the risk for depression or make existing depression worse. Some of these changes ...

  8. Smoking and Older Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Stop Smoking > About Smoking > Facts & Figures Smoking and Older Adults Older smokers are at greater risks from smoking ... health. 1 Key Facts About Tobacco Use Among Older Adults Today's generation of older Americans had smoking rates ...

  9. Yoga and Older Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to learn more about its safe use in older adults. Recent studies in people in their late 40’s ... yet available on its effectiveness and safety for older adults. If you’re thinking about practicing yoga, keep ...

  10. Medications and Older Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... My Membership About the AAAAI Share | Medications and Older Adults This article has been reviewed by Thanai Pongdee, ... effects can be. This is especially true for older adults with allergies or asthma. Asthma Medications There are ...

  11. Older Adults and Alcohol

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Alcohol: You Can Get Help Heath and Aging Older Adults and Alcohol: You Can Get Help What's inside ... and Fractures Also of Interest Alcohol Use and Older Adults - NIHSeniorHealth PDF (284.1 KB) Order Share this: ? ...

  12. Can Fluoride Help Adults?

    MedlinePLUS

    Can Fluoride Help Adults? Fluoride isn't just for children. The use of fluoride can prove beneficial for both children and adults. Research has shown that fluoride applied directly to teeth is important for fighting ...

  13. Adult Learning Assumptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baskas, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine Knowles' theory of andragogy and his six assumptions of how adults learn while providing evidence to support two of his assumptions based on the theory of andragogy. As no single theory explains how adults learn, it can best be assumed that adults learn through the accumulation of formal and informal…

  14. Navajo Adult Basic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navajo Community Coll., Tsaile, AZ.

    The objectives of this Special Experimental Demonstration Project in Adult Basic Education for the Navajo were: (1) to raise the educational and social level of Navajo adult students who are unable to read, write, and speak English; (2) to assist the Navajo adult students to take advantage of occupational and vocational training programs; (3) to…

  15. Canadian Adult Basic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooke, W. Michael, Comp.

    "Trends," a publication of the Canadian Association for Adult Education, is a collection of abstracts on selected subjects affecting adult education; this issue is on adult basic education (ABE). It covers teachers and teacher training, psychological factors relating to the ABE teacher and students, manuals for teachers, instructional materials,…

  16. Adult Education in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokkos, Alexios

    2008-01-01

    The central aim of this article is to analyse the current situation of adult education in Greece. The article focuses on the following points: (a) the degree of participation in programmes of continuing professional training and general adult education courses, (b) the quality and the outcomes of the adult education provision in Greece, and (c)…

  17. Adult stem cell plasticity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Poulsom; Malcolm R. Alison; Stuart J. Forbes; Nicholas A. Wright

    2002-01-01

    Observations made in the last few years support the existence of pathways, in adult humans and rodents, that allow adult stem cells to be surprisingly flexible in their differentiation repertoires. Termed plasticity, this property allows adult stem cells, assumed, until now, to be committed to generating a fixed range of progeny, to switch, when they have been relocated, to make

  18. Adult Day Services

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 3 $35-45 $60-70 $130-140 Adult Day Services $75,000 $50,000 $25,000 $0 Adult Day Services At-a-Glance • Families share in the ... as many locations 5 • More funding for adult day services decreases Medicaid costs by reducing full-time ...

  19. Young Adult Library Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The Bookmark, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Eight articles in this Spring 1985 issue of The Bookmark focus on young adult library services. In addition to these thematic articles, an introduction and three reports are presented. The issue contains: (1) "In Perspective" (E. J. Josey); (2) "Young Adult Literature in the 1980's--Awesome!" (Ellin Chu); (3) "Young Adult Services' Public…

  20. Dimensions of Adult Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Griff, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    This broad introduction to adult and postcompulsory education offers an overview of the field for students, adult educators and workplace trainers. The book establishes an analytical framework to emphasize the nature of learning and agency of learners; examines the core knowledge and skills that adult educators need; discusses policy, research and…

  1. Adults Role in Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notar, Charles E.; Padgett, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Do adults play a role in bullying? Do parents, teachers, school staff, and community adult leaders influence bullying behavior in children and teenagers? This article will focus on research regarding all adults who have almost daily contact with children and teens and their part in how bullying is identified, addressed, and prevented. This article…

  2. Adult Education in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miser, Rifat; Ural, Ozana; Ünlühisarýklý, Özlem

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the situation and practices of adult education in Turkey in terms of (a) participants, (b) providers, and (c) program areas. The data were derived from published statistical data and one-to-one interaction with adult education providers when such data are unavailable. Turkey has a long tradition of adult education with…

  3. Adult Numeracy Core Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steeds, Andrew, Ed.

    Designed primarily for adult literacy teachers and tutors, this curriculum describes the content of what should be taught in numeracy programs in order to meet the individual needs of adults through the selection and teaching of skills appropriate to those adults' needs. An introduction describes national standards and qualifications, learners,…

  4. Adult Education in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Harry; And Others

    Folk high schools, study circles, labor market training, union education, and municipal adult schools are the major providers of adult education in Sweden. For the most part, these programs are financed by the government and are tuition free. Folk high schools, which are the oldest type, were founded to provide young adults with a general civic…

  5. Dementia: Unique to Older Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Aging & Health A to Z Dementia Unique to Older Adults This section provides information to help older adults ... quality of life. Managing Additional Health Problems in Older Adults with Dementia Dementia is rare in adults younger ...

  6. Microglia are polarized to M1 type in high-anxiety inbred mice in response to lipopolysaccharide challenge.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhilin; Ma, Li; Kulesskaya, Natalia; Vőikar, Vootele; Tian, Li

    2014-05-01

    Immune activation in the brain has been shown to contribute to neurodevelopmental and pathological progression of mental disorders, and microglia play a central role in these processes. But how genetic predisposition and environmental risk factors may act in combination to affect microglial activation and the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unclear. In this work, we studied the inflammatory profile of microglia across four inbred strains of mice with different anxiety traits: C57BL/6J, FVB/N, DBA/2J, and 129S2/Sv. Importantly, we found that a high-anxiety strain, naďve DBA/2J mice, had significantly more M1 (MHCII(+)CD206(-))-polarized microglia, whereas another high-anxiety strain, naďve 129S2/Sv mice, expressed significantly more activated (MHCII(+)) perivascular macrophages than the other strains. After a systemic LPS challenge, polarization to M1 microglia in DBA/2J and 129S2/Sv mice was even more prominent than in C57BL/6J and FVB/N mice, and was correlated with their anxiety-like behaviors. Macrophage M1/M2 polarization in the spleen showed a similar pattern in DBA/2J and 129S2/Sv mice in response to LPS stimulation. Furthermore, DBA/2J mice expressed higher mRNA levels of Il1b, Il6, and Tnf, and higher Nos2/Arg1 ratio but lower Chi3l3 level in the hypothalamus before and after LPS stimulation, respectively. In comparison, 129S1/Sv, a sibling line of 129S2/Sv, expressed significantly higher levels of other immune-related genes in the brain. We further discovered a group of myeloid transcription factors that may underpin the strain-specific differences in microglial activation. We conclude that proinflammatory microglial activation reflects anxiety traits in mice, especially after a peripheral innate immune challenge. Our work sheds new light in understanding the potential molecular mechanisms of stress-induced microglial activation and polarization. PMID:24561490

  7. Retained Features of Embryonic Metabolism in the Adult MRL Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Naviaux, Robert K.; Le, Thuy P.; Bedelbaeva, Khamillia; Leferovich, John; Gourevitch, Dmitri; Sachadyn, Pawel; Zhang, Xiang-Ming; Clark, Lise; Heber-Katz, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    The MRL mouse is an inbred laboratory strain that was derived by selective breeding in 1960 from the rapidly growing LG/J (Large) strain. MRL mice grow to nearly twice the size of other commonly used mouse strains, display uncommonly robust healing and regeneration properties, and express later onset autoimmune traits similar to Systemic Lupus Erythematosis. The regeneration trait (heal) in the MRL mouse maps to 14–20 quantitative trait loci and the autoimmune traits map to 5–8 loci. In this paper we report the metabolic and biochemical features that characterize the adult MRL mouse and distinguish it from C57BL/6 control animals. We found that adult MRL mice have retained a number of features of embryonic metabolism that are normally lost during development in other strains. These include an emphasis on aerobic glycolytic energy metabolism, increased glutamate oxidation, and a reduced capacity for fatty acid oxidation. MRL tissues, including the heart, liver, and regenerating ear hole margins, showed considerable mitochondrial genetic and physiologic reserve, decreased mitochondrial transmembrane potential (??m), decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS), and decreased oxidative phosphorylation, yet increased mitochondrial DNA and protein content. The discovery of embryonic metabolic features led us to look for cells that express markers of embryonic stem cells. We found that the adult MRL mouse has retained populations of cells that express the stem cell markers Nanog, Islet-1, and Sox2. These are present in the heart at baseline and highly induced after myocardial injury. The retention of embryonic features of metabolism in adulthood is rare in mammals. The MRL mouse provides a unique experimental window into the relationship between metabolism, stem cell biology, and regeneration. PMID:19131261

  8. Expression Analysis of Stress-Related Genes in Kernels of Different Maize (Zea mays L.) Inbred Lines with Different Resistance to Aflatoxin Contamination

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Tingbo; Zhou, Boru; Luo, Meng; Abbas, Hamed K.; Kemerait, Robert; Lee, Robert Dewey; Scully, Brian T.; Guo, Baozhu

    2011-01-01

    This research examined the expression patterns of 94 stress-related genes in seven maize inbred lines with differential expressions of resistance to aflatoxin contamination. The objective was to develop a set of genes/probes associated with resistance to A. flavus and/or aflatoxin contamination. Ninety four genes were selected from previous gene expression studies with abiotic stress to test the differential expression in maize lines, A638, B73, Lo964, Lo1016, Mo17, Mp313E, and Tex6, using real-time RT-PCR. Based on the relative-expression levels, the seven maize inbred lines clustered into two different groups. One group included B73, Lo1016 and Mo17, which had higher levels of aflatoxin contamination and lower levels of overall gene expression. The second group which included Tex6, Mp313E, Lo964 and A638 had lower levels of aflatoxin contamination and higher overall levels of gene expressions. A total of six “cross-talking” genes were identified between the two groups, which are highly expressed in the resistant Group 2 but down-regulated in susceptible Group 1. When further subjected to drought stress, Tex6 expressed more genes up-regulated and B73 has fewer genes up-regulated. The transcript patterns and interactions measured in these experiments indicate that the resistant mechanism is an interconnected process involving many gene products and transcriptional regulators, as well as various host interactions with environmental factors, particularly, drought and high temperature. PMID:22069724

  9. Determination of resistance spectra of the Pi-ta and Pi-k genes to US races of Magnaporthe oryzae causing rice blast in a recombinant inbred line population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resistance (R) genes to ten common races of Magnaporthe oryzae were mapped using an F10 recombinant inbred line population of a cross of a tropical japonica cultivar Katy with a breeding line RU9101001. Katy was found to confer resistance to all common races IA-45, IB-1, IB-45, IB-49, IB-54, IC-17,...

  10. Safeguarding vulnerable adults.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Richard

    2015-07-01

    Nurses have a professional duty to safeguard vulnerable adults from abuse under the provisions of the Nursing and Midwifery Council's (NMC) revised Code (2015) . With adult abuse continuing to increase, all members of the nursing team are well placed to identify and take action to safeguard the vulnerable. This article sets out how the Care Act 2014 seeks to improve the safeguarding of vulnerable adults and the role of nurses in that process. PMID:26153813

  11. Transthoracic echocardiography reference values in juvenile and adult 129/Sv mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In the recent years, the use of Doppler-echocardiography has become a standard non-invasive technique in the analysis of cardiac malformations in genetically modified mice. Therefore, normal values have to be established for the most commonly used inbred strains in whose genetic background those mutations are generated. Here we provide reference values for transthoracic echocardiography measurements in juvenile (3 weeks) and adult (8 weeks) 129/Sv mice. Methods Echocardiographic measurements were performed using B-mode, M-mode and Doppler-mode in 15 juvenile (3 weeks) and 15 adult (8 weeks) mice, during isoflurane anesthesia. M-mode measurements variability of left ventricle (LV) was determined. Results Several echocardiographic measurements significantly differ between juvenile and adult mice. Most of these measurements are related with cardiac dimensions. All B-mode measurements were different between juveniles and adults (higher in the adults), except for fractional area change (FAC). Ejection fraction (EF) and fractional shortening (FS), calculated from M-mode parameters, do not differ between juvenile and adult mice. Stroke volume (SV) and cardiac output (CO) were significantly different between juvenile and adult mice. SV was 31.93?±?8.67 ?l in juveniles vs 70.61?±?24.66 ?l in adults, ??adults, ??adult mice. It was demonstrated that variability of M-mode measurements of LV is minimal. Conclusions This study suggests that differences in cardiac dimensions, as wells as in pulmonary and aorta outflow parameters, were found between juvenile and adult mice. However, mitral and tricuspid inflow parameters seem to be similar between 3 weeks and 8 weeks mice. The reference values established in this study would contribute as a basis to future studies in post-natal cardiovascular development and diagnosing cardiovascular disorders in genetically modified mouse mutant lines. PMID:23634975

  12. Specific hybridization probes demonstrate fewer xenotropic than mink cell focus-forming murine leukemia virus env-related sequences in DNAs from inbred laboratory mice

    SciTech Connect

    O'Neill, R.R.; Khan, A.S.; Hoggan, D.; Hartley, J.W.; Martin, M.A.; Repaske, R.

    1986-05-01

    The authors have derived hybridization probes from analogous 100-base-pair segments located within the N-terminal region of gp70 coding sequences which differentiate xenotropic from mink cell focus-forming (MCF)-related murine leukemia virus (MuLV) DNAs. The MCF probe annealed to the integrated proviruses of all six MCF MuLV isolates tested; the xenotropic probe hybridized to the DNAs of all four xenotropic proviral isolates examined. No cross-hybridization was observed, and neither probe reacted with the env segments of amphotropic or ecotropic MuLV DNAs. Southern blot analysis of HindIII- or EcoRI-digested genomic DNAs from a variety of inbred laboratory mice demonstrated the presence of more MCF- than xenotropic MuLV-related segments in every strain tested.

  13. Inbred mouse strains C57BL/6J and DBA/2J vary in sensitivity to a subset of bitter stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Boughter, John D; Raghow, Sandeep; Nelson, Theodore M; Munger, Steven D

    2005-01-01

    Background Common inbred mouse strains are genotypically diverse, but it is still poorly understood how this diversity relates to specific differences in behavior. To identify quantitative trait genes that influence taste behavior differences, it is critical to utilize assays that exclusively measure the contribution of orosensory cues. With a few exceptions, previous characterizations of behavioral taste sensitivity in inbred mouse strains have generally measured consumption, which can be confounded by post-ingestive effects. Here, we used a taste-salient brief-access procedure to measure taste sensitivity to eight stimuli characterized as bitter or aversive in C57BL/6J (B6) and DBA/2J (D2) mice. Results B6 mice were more sensitive than D2 mice to a subset of bitter stimuli, including quinine hydrochloride (QHCl), 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP), and MgCl2. D2 mice were more sensitive than B6 mice to the bitter stimulus raffinose undecaacetate (RUA). These strains did not differ in sensitivity to cycloheximide (CYX), denatonium benzoate (DB), KCl or HCl. Conclusion B6-D2 taste sensitivity differences indicate that differences in consumption of QHCl, PROP, MgCl2 and RUA are based on immediate orosensory cues, not post-ingestive effects. The absence of a strain difference for CYX suggests that polymorphisms in a T2R-type taste receptor shown to be differentially sensitive to CYX in vitro are unlikely to differentially contribute to the CYX behavioral response in vivo. The results of these studies point to the utility of these common mouse strains and their associated resources for investigation into the genetic mechanisms of taste. PMID:15967025

  14. Adult Learning and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubenson, Kjell, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    As individuals and societies try to respond to fundamental economic and social transformation, the field of adult learning and education is rapidly getting increased attention and new topics for research on adult learning have emerged. This collection of articles from the International Encyclopedia of Education 3e offers practitioners and…

  15. Adult Education Regional Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Community Colleges, Chancellor's Office, 2015

    2015-01-01

    For more than one hundred and fifty years, until 2008, California was an undisputed national leader in its commitment to adult education. The state's investment in adult learners topped $750 million, a sum greater than the combined total of every other state in the nation. However, for the past several years recession and fiscal crisis have left…

  16. The adult scoliosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Max Aebi

    2005-01-01

    Adult scoliosis is defined as a spinal deformity in a skeletally mature patient with a Cobb angle of more than 10° in the coronal plain. Adult scoliosis can be separated into four major groups: Type 1: Primary degenerative scoliosis, mostly on the basis of a disc and\\/or facet joint arthritis, affecting those structures asymmetrically with predominantly back pain symptoms, often

  17. Adult Education in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szekely, Radu

    2006-01-01

    Ever since the first ideas of national independence appeared in Finland, adult education has played an essential role in shaping the destiny of the Finns. With a history of almost 130 years, during which it has continuously increased in quality and quantity, the Finnish adult education system has ensured that Finland stays among the most…

  18. Adult Education and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinzen, Heribert, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This document contains 19 papers on adult education and development worldwide. The following papers are included: "Editorial" (Heribert Hinzen); "Lifelong Learning in Europe: Moving towards EFA (Dakar Framework for Action on Education for All) Goals and the CONFINTEA V Agenda" (Sofia Conference on Adult Education); "Poverty and Schooling in the…

  19. Counseling Adult Adoptees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corder, Kate

    2012-01-01

    This review presents various resources about working with adult adoptees in order to inform counselors in their practice. Topics covered include basics of adoption, including types of adoption and adoption statistics; possible issues adult adoptees may face; and suggestions and implications for counselors. The article addresses some of the serious…

  20. Libraries and Adult Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Josey, E. J., Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Of the 13 essays presented in this special issue on libraries and adult education, 8 focus on programs and services from the public library for adult learners. These essays provide information on: (1) an Education Information Centers Program (EIC) designed to complement employment skills training provided under the Comprehensive Employment and…

  1. Adult Learning Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    Adult Learners' Week--which is supported by the Department for Innovation, Universities and Skills and the European Social Fund, amongst a raft of other organisations--is all about raising demand for learning. At its core, the campaign is about encouraging under-represented groups--including low-skilled, unemployed and low-paid adults and those…

  2. Today's Adult Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Who are the adult students in career and technical education (CTE) today? There is not one simple answer to that question. Some are young with little life experience, while others are returning to the workforce and learning new skills to reinvent themselves. Whatever the case, educating adult students is an integral part of ACTE's mission, and the…

  3. Older Adults and Depression

    MedlinePLUS

    ... you well. If you are in a crisis Older adults with depression are at risk for suicide. In fact, white men age 85 and older ... be connected to a trained counselor at a suicide crisis center nearest you. For more information on Older Adults and Depression Contact us to find out more ...

  4. Older Adult Psychological Assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barry A. Edelstein; Erin L. Woodhead; Daniel L. Segal; Marnin J. Heisel; Emily H. Bower; Angela J. Lowery; Sarah A. Stoner

    2007-01-01

    The psychological assessment of older adults is often challenging due to the frequent co-morbidity of mental and physical health problems, multiple medications, interactions among medications, age-related sensory and cognitive deficits, and the paucity of assessment instruments with psychometric support for use with older adults. First, psychological assessment instruments for examining five important clinical areas (suicide ideation, sleep disorders, anxiety, depression,

  5. Adults in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Centre for Educational Research and Innovation.

    Issues concerning the enrollment of adults in degree programs in countries belonging to the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development are considered. Of concern are policies and institutional practices that affect adult participation in degree studies. The growing importance of continuing academic and professional education is…

  6. Hearing Loss and Older Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... I find additional information about hearing loss and older adults? The NIDCD maintains a directory of organizations that ... questions and provide information on hearing loss and older adults: Late-deafened adults Hearing aids Presbycusis For more ...

  7. Osteoporosis: Unique to Older Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    Unique to Older Adults This section provides information to help older adults and their caregivers consider their disease or condition in conjunction with other health issues. As older adults live longer, they may have more than one ...

  8. Alcohol Use and Older Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Alcohol Use and Older Adults Alcohol and Aging Adults of any age can ... likely than women to have problems with alcohol. Older Adults are Sensitive to Alcohol's Effects As people age, ...

  9. Delirium: Unique to Older Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    Unique to Older Adults This section provides information to help older adults and their caregivers consider their disease or condition in conjunction with other health issues. As older adults live longer, they may have more than one ...

  10. CDC Vital Signs: Adult Obesity

    MedlinePLUS

    ... About CDC.gov . Vital Signs Share Compartir Adult Obesity Obesity Rises Among Adults August 2010 72M+ More than ... eating and active living. Issue Details Problem Adult Obesity Obesity is a national epidemic, causing higher medical ...

  11. Depression in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Fiske, Amy; Wetherell, Julie Loebach; Gatz, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Depression is less prevalent among older adults than among younger adults but can have serious consequences. Over half of cases represent a first onset in later life. Although suicide rates in the elderly are declining, they are still higher than in younger adults and more closely associated with depression. Depressed older adults are less likely to endorse affective symptoms and more likely to display cognitive changes, somatic symptoms, and loss of interest than are younger adults. Risk factors leading to the development of late life depression likely comprise complex interactions among genetic vulnerabilities, cognitive diathesis, age-associated neurobiological changes, and stressful events. Insomnia is an often overlooked risk factor for late life depression. We suggest that a common pathway to depression in older adults, regardless of which predisposing risks are most prominent, may be curtailment of daily activities. Accompanying self-critical thinking may exacerbate and maintain a depressed state. Offsetting the increasing prevalence of certain risk factors in late life are age-related increases in psychological resilience. Other protective factors include higher education and socioeconomic status, engagement in valued activities, and religious or spiritual involvement. Treatments including behavioral therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, cognitive bibliotherapy, problem-solving therapy, brief psychodynamic therapy, and life review/reminiscence therapy are effective but too infrequently used with older adults. Preventive interventions including education for individuals with chronic illness, behavioral activation, cognitive restructuring, problem-solving skills training, group support, and life review have also received support. PMID:19327033

  12. TRANSFORMATION OF ADULT ALLOGENEIC SMALL LYMPHOCYTES AFTER TRANSFUSION INTO NEWBORN RATS

    PubMed Central

    Porter, K. A.; Cooper, E. H.

    1962-01-01

    Newborn rats of one inbred strain were given an intracardiac injection of adult thoracic duct lymphocytes from another inbred strain. It was found that although there was a direct relationship between the number of small lymphocytes injected and the incidence of fatal runt disease, there was no particular relationship between the large lymphocyte content of an inoculum and its runt-inducing potentiality. Using tritiated thymidine and an autoradiographic technique, the small lymphocytes in the inoculum were labelled and found to migrate in large numbers into the cortex of the lymph nodes and into the Peyer's patches of the host animal, and in smaller numbers into the white pulp of the spleen. Within 24 hours isotope, previously present in the DNA of small lymphocytes, appeared in a number of the large pyroninophilic cells which were a characteristic feature of the spleen and lymph nodes in this early phase of runt disease. When the large lymphocytes in the inoculum were labelled they were found to migrate to the red pulp of the spleen, medulla of the lymph nodes, and the Peyer's patches and the lamina propria of the small intestine. Later some labelled small lymphocytes appeared at these sites. These findings suggest that: (1) Some small lymphocytes are immunologically competent cells, and (2) After introduction into the circulation of a newborn rat, these same small lymphocytes are the first cells to react with the antigens of the host, and in the process they become transformed into large pyroninophilic cells capable of division. The large lymphocytes seem to play little part in this initiating of an immunological response, but do give rise to some small lymphocytes. PMID:14488083

  13. Nutrition for Older Adults

    E-print Network

    Sweeten, Mary K.; Ryan-Crowe, V. Cass

    1982-01-01

    of younger adults. The primary difference is that older adults should reduce energy or calorie intake. Energy Older adults may eat smaller amounts of food because of their decreased energy need. They need to avoid foods which are high in calories... products. Much water is con- sumed in food, beverages and soup. Liquid intake needed varies with the individual and the food eaten, but older persons should get at least 1 quart a day. Sodium and Potassium Sodium and potassium play a major role...

  14. Application for Adult Access Award: Adult Non-Traditional Students

    E-print Network

    Bogaerts, Steven

    2014-2015 Application for Adult Access Award: Adult Non-Traditional Students Name either "Yes" or "No" 1. Did you or will you live with your parents or other supporting adults (other than or any other supporting adults (except spouse) claim you as an income tax exemption during 2013

  15. Application for Adult Access Award: Adult Non-Traditional Students

    E-print Network

    Bogaerts, Steven

    2013-2014 Application for Adult Access Award: Adult Non-Traditional Students Name either "Yes" or "No" 1. Did you or will you live with your parents or other supporting adults (other than or any other supporting adults (except spouse) claim you as an income tax exemption during 2012

  16. Environmental Adult Education from the Perspective of the Adult Learner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finger, Matthias

    1989-01-01

    The process of adult transformation should be the focus of environmental adult educators. Examination of the life histories of adults reveals what, where, and how they learn about the environment, what they do with this information, and how this learning contributes to adult transformation. (SK)

  17. Creativity and Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edelson, Paul Jay

    1999-01-01

    Examines creativity theories and models such as "great men and women" and Domain-Individual-Field-Interaction. Links creativity and self-efficacy and describes ways adult educators can promote creativity. (SK)

  18. Falls and Older Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Falls and Older Adults: About Falls In This Topic About Falls Causes and Risk Factors Making Personal ... for More Information National Institute on Aging Related Topics Balance Problems Osteoporosis The information in this topic ...

  19. Adult fragile X syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. D. Rudelli; W. T. Brown; K. Wisniewski; E. C. Jenkins; M. Laure-Kamionowska; F. Connell; H. M. Wisniewski

    1985-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome [fra (X)] is currently accepted as the second most frequent chromosomal disorder associated with developmental disability. Although next to Down syndrome in frequency, no postmortem studies of confirmed adult cases had been reported.

  20. Adults Learning Mathematics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Adults Learning Mathematics (ALM) organization is "an international research forum bringing together researchers and practitioners in adult mathematics/numeracy teaching and learning in order to promote the learning of mathematics by adults." The site contains sections such as "For teachers", "For PhD students", and "For policy makers". The "For teachers" area includes links to the ALM newsletters and their resources, which include downloadable posters and factsheets. Moving along, the "For PhD students" area includes information for those doctoral students that are seeking to incorporate pedagogical techniques for teaching math to adults in their research. Additionally, the "For policy makers" area includes helpful documents such as "High stakes assessment: Assessing numeracy for Nursing in two recent projects".

  1. Tracking adult stem cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hugo J Snippert; Hans Clevers

    2011-01-01

    The maintenance of stem-cell-driven tissue homeostasis requires a balance between the generation and loss of cell mass. Adult stem cells have a close relationship with the surrounding tissue—known as their niche—and thus, stem-cell studies should preferably be performed in a physiological context, rather than outside their natural environment. The mouse is an attractive model in which to study adult mammalian

  2. The ABC's of Adult Ed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roehrig, Lucy

    2010-01-01

    According to the 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy, it is estimated that 93 million adults in the United States have basic or below basic literacy skills. Those individuals found most lacking in literacy skills were adults living in poverty, adults lacking a high school diploma, seniors and the elderly aged 65 and older, the more than one…

  3. The H-mshi antigen is conserved among standard BALB\\/cBy, C57BL\\/6J, and wild-derived CAST\\/Ei and SPRET\\/Ei inbred strains of mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Audrey L. Hildebrandt; Angelene M. Cantwell; Michael C. Rule; T. R. King

    1999-01-01

    The recessive male sterility and histoincompatibility mutation (mshi) arose spontaneously in the standard inbred mouse strain BALB\\/cBy. In addition to generating sterility in homozygous males,\\u000a mshi controls the loss of a minor histocompatibility antigen designated H-mshi. To determine whether the H-mshi antigen normally\\u000a expressed by the BALB\\/cBy strain (H-mshic) is the same as or different from the antigen (H-mshix) expressed

  4. Contribution of amygdala neurons containing peptides and calcium-binding proteins to fear-potentiated startle and exploration-related anxiety in inbred Roman high- and low-avoidance rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deniz M. Yilmazer-Hanke; Heidi Faber-Zuschratter; Rudiger Linke; Herbert Schwegler

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate amygdala-related fear and anxiety in two inbred rat lines differing in emotionality (RHA\\/Verh and RLA\\/Verh), and to relate the behaviour of the animals to neuronal types in different nuclei of the amygdala. The behavioural tests used were the motility test, elevated plus-maze and fear-potentiated startle response. The neurons investigated were immunoreactive for

  5. Photosynthetic Parameters of Maize ( Zea mays L.) Inbred Lines and F 1 Hybrids: Their Different Response to, and Recovery from Rapid or Gradual Onset of Low-temperature Stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Holá; K. Langrová; M. Ko?ová; O. Rothová

    2003-01-01

    The activity of photosystems (PS) 1 and 2, together with the content and ratio of photosynthetic pigments, were measured in three inbred lines and two F1 hybrids of maize (Zea mays L.), grown in either optimum or low temperature (LT) conditions. The ability of chilling-stressed plants to deal with the negative effects of long-term exposure to LT and to recover

  6. Comparison of whole-genome prediction models for traits with contrasting genetic architecture in a diversity panel of maize inbred lines

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is increasing empirical evidence that whole-genome prediction (WGP) is a powerful tool for predicting line and hybrid performance in maize. However, there is a lack of knowledge about the sensitivity of WGP models towards the genetic architecture of the trait. Whereas previous studies exclusively focused on highly polygenic traits, important agronomic traits such as disease resistances, nutrifunctional or climate adaptational traits have a genetic architecture which is either much less complex or unknown. For such cases, information about model robustness and guidelines for model selection are lacking. Here, we compared five WGP models with different assumptions about the distribution of the underlying genetic effects. As contrasting model traits, we chose three highly polygenic agronomic traits and three metabolites each with a major QTL explaining 22 to 30% of the genetic variance in a panel of 289 diverse maize inbred lines genotyped with 56,110 SNPs. Results We found the five WGP models to be remarkable robust towards trait architecture with the largest differences in prediction accuracies ranging between 0.05 and 0.14 for the same trait, most likely as the result of the high level of linkage disequilibrium prevailing in elite maize germplasm. Whereas RR-BLUP performed best for the agronomic traits, it was inferior to LASSO or elastic net for the three metabolites. We found the approach of genome partitioning of genetic variance, first applied in human genetics, as useful in guiding the breeder which model to choose, if prior knowledge of the trait architecture is lacking. Conclusions Our results suggest that in diverse germplasm of elite maize inbred lines with a high level of LD, WGP models differ only slightly in their accuracies, irrespective of the number and effects of QTL found in previous linkage or association mapping studies. However, small gains in prediction accuracies can be achieved if the WGP model is selected according to the genetic architecture of the trait. If the trait architecture is unknown e.g. for novel traits which only recently received attention in breeding, we suggest to inspect the distribution of the genetic variance explained by each chromosome for guiding model selection in WGP. PMID:22947126

  7. Adult supraglottitis: changing trends.

    PubMed

    Ovnat Tamir, Sharon; Marom, Tal; Barbalat, Irina; Spevak, Stanislav; Goldfarb, Abraham; Roth, Yehudah

    2015-04-01

    There is no clinical dynamic staging system which scores according to severity all the anatomical regions in adult supraglottitis. The objective of the study was to describe the demographics, clinical presentation, interventions and outcomes of adult patients diagnosed with acute supraglottitis (AS), and to study the correlation of a new AS classification with the need for airway intervention, in comparison with the current classification. This was a retrospective, cohort study conducted at a secondary medical care center. Adults diagnosed with AS from the years 1990-2013 were identified. Data were extracted for demographic and clinical information and there was no intervention. The main outcome and measures were the need for airway intervention. 288 eligible patients were enrolled. AS incidence rate was 4.3/100,000 patients/year. The mean age was 50 ± 16 years. Sore throat (94 %) and dysphagia (88 %) were the most common presenting symptoms. Patients were hospitalized either in the Otolaryngology Department (n = 255, 89 %) or in the Intensive Care Unit (n = 33, 11 %). Of the latter, 19 (58 %) had an airway securing intervention procedure. Our suggested classification was more sensitive than the current one for predicting the need for intubation (p = 0.03). Signs and symptoms of AS in adults are different from those in children. Adult patients presenting with oropharyngeal complaints should be suspected for AS and treated appropriately. PMID:25528553

  8. Adult-Onset Asthma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samuel Louie; Nicholas J. Kenyon; Kimberly A. Hardin; Ken Y. Yoneda

    \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Asthma in adults is composed of a complex group of reversible airway disorders in contrast to childhood asthma that is largely\\u000a allergic in nature.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Adult-onset asthma may be recently acquired in adulthood or represent various stages of long-standing disease. Atopic adults\\u000a may carry the genotype of childhood asthma symptomatically into adulthood only to have the phenotype finally expressed

  9. Adult Seborrheic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis is a common chronic-recurrent inflammatory disorder that most commonly affects adults; however, a more transient infantile form also occurs. The definitive cause of seborrheic dermatitis is unknown. However, proliferation of Malassezia species has been described as a contributing factor. The adult form of seborrheic dermatitis affects up to approximately five percent of the general population. The disorder commonly affects the scalp, face, and periauricular region, with the central chest, axillae, and genital region also involved in some cases. Pruritus is not always present and is relatively common, especially with scalp disease. A variety of treatments are available including topical corticosteroids, topical antifungal agents, topical calcineurin inhibitors, and more recently, a nonsteroidal “device ”cream. This article reviews the practical topical management of seborrheic dermatitis in the United States, focusing on the adult population. PMID:21607192

  10. Immunological and nonimmunological control of severity of Trypanosoma musculi infections in C3H and C57BL/6 inbred mice

    SciTech Connect

    Albright, J.W.; Albright, J.F.

    1989-06-01

    Studies concerned with the mechanisms responsible for relative resistance or susceptibility of strains of inbred mice to Trypanosoma musculi infections are presented. Treatment with 400 rads of ionizing radiation, silica dust, or trypan blue (reticuloendothelial blocking agents) rendered C3H mice unable to control the initial maximum level of parasite growth, and the mice died of overwhelming infections. In contrast, similarly treated C57BL/6 (relatively resistant) mice controlled initial trypanosome growth as well as controls; however, the duration of infection, preceding eventual cure, was approximately doubled. Combined treatment with trypan blue and 400 rads of radiation resulted in much higher initial levels of infection in C57BL/6 mice, and about half of the mice died; the remaining mice eventually recovered after a prolonged course of infection. These results indicate that a nonimmunological mechanism, which controls initial infection, and an immunological mechanism cooperate to limit T. musculi infections in normal mice. We present results that suggest that both mechanisms are less effective in C3H than in C57BL/6 mice. The initial control of infection presumably reflects the activity of some type(s) of phagocytic effector cell; we show, however, that the initial control of infection is not an attribute of the liver Kupffer cells. Identification and characterization of the cells capable of controlling initial infection could lead to procedures for enhancing their function and, thus, to enhanced resistance to, and elimination of, trypanosome infections.

  11. Genetic differentiation induced by selection in an inbred population of the silkworm Bombyx mori, revealed by RAPD and ISSR marker systems.

    PubMed

    Pradeep, Appukuttan R; Chatterjee, Shankar N; Nair, Chirakkara V

    2005-01-01

    Artificial selection has been widely utilized in breeding programmes concerning the commercially important silk-producing insect Bombyx mori. Selection increases the frequency of homozygotes and makes homozygous effects stronger. Molecular variation induced by selection in the inbred population of B. mori strain Nistari, was assessed in terms of genic differentiation by using a polymorphic profile generated by RAPD and ISSR marker systems. Artificial selection for longer larval duration (LLD) for 4 generations resulted in a significant prolongation of larval duration (F = 89.28; P = 5.14 x 10(-7)). The lines selected for shorter larval duration (SLD) were not significantly different from the control group. RAPD and ISSR primers generated polymorphic profiles when amplified with genomic DNA of individuals of LLD and SLD lines. Distinct markers specific to LLD individuals were observed from the 3rd generation and indicated selection-induced differentiation of allelic variants for longer larval duration. Both SLD and LLD were characterized by high gene diversity (h approximately equal to 0.197) and total heterozygosity (Ht > or =0.26), low homogeneity (chi-square test, p < 0.005) as well as a large coefficient of gene differentiation (Gst > or =0.42) but low gene flow (Nm < or =0.42). Genetic distance was the highest (0.824) between 3rd generations of SLD and LLD. High heterozygosity and prolonged larval duration substituted for shorter larval duration (the traditional trait of fitness) in the Nistari LLD larvae. PMID:16110186

  12. Maximizing the Reliability of Genomic Selection by Optimizing the Calibration Set of Reference Individuals: Comparison of Methods in Two Diverse Groups of Maize Inbreds (Zea mays L.)

    PubMed Central

    Rincent, R.; Laloë, D.; Nicolas, S.; Altmann, T.; Brunel, D.; Revilla, P.; Rodríguez, V.M.; Moreno-Gonzalez, J.; Melchinger, A.; Bauer, E.; Schoen, C-C.; Meyer, N.; Giauffret, C.; Bauland, C.; Jamin, P.; Laborde, J.; Monod, H.; Flament, P.; Charcosset, A.; Moreau, L.

    2012-01-01

    Genomic selection refers to the use of genotypic information for predicting breeding values of selection candidates. A prediction formula is calibrated with the genotypes and phenotypes of reference individuals constituting the calibration set. The size and the composition of this set are essential parameters affecting the prediction reliabilities. The objective of this study was to maximize reliabilities by optimizing the calibration set. Different criteria based on the diversity or on the prediction error variance (PEV) derived from the realized additive relationship matrix–best linear unbiased predictions model (RA–BLUP) were used to select the reference individuals. For the latter, we considered the mean of the PEV of the contrasts between each selection candidate and the mean of the population (PEVmean) and the mean of the expected reliabilities of the same contrasts (CDmean). These criteria were tested with phenotypic data collected on two diversity panels of maize (Zea mays L.) genotyped with a 50k SNPs array. In the two panels, samples chosen based on CDmean gave higher reliabilities than random samples for various calibration set sizes. CDmean also appeared superior to PEVmean, which can be explained by the fact that it takes into account the reduction of variance due to the relatedness between individuals. Selected samples were close to optimality for a wide range of trait heritabilities, which suggests that the strategy presented here can efficiently sample subsets in panels of inbred lines. A script to optimize reference samples based on CDmean is available on request. PMID:22865733

  13. Compositional assessments of key maize populations: b73 hybrids of the nested association mapping founder lines and diverse landrace inbred lines.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, Tyamagondlu V; Harrigan, George G; Perez, Tim; Flint-Garcia, Sherry

    2015-06-01

    The present study provides an assessment of the compositional diversity in maize B73 hybrids derived both from the Nested Association Mapping (NAM) founder lines and from a diverse collection of landrace accessions from North and South America. The NAM founders represent a key population of publicly available lines that are used extensively in the maize community to investigate the genetic basis of complex traits. Landraces are also of interest to the maize community as they offer the potential to discover new alleles that could be incorporated into modern maize lines. The compositional analysis of B73 hybrids from the 25 NAM founders and 24 inbred lines derived from landraces included measurements of proximates (protein, fat, ash, and starch), fibers, minerals, amino acids, fatty acids, tocopherols (?-, ?-, and ?-), ?-carotene, phytic acid, and raffinose. Grain was harvested from a replicated trial in New York, USA. For each data set (NAM and landrace) canonical discriminant analysis allowed separation of distinct breeding groups (tropical, temperate, flint, mixed/intermediate) within each data set. Overall, results highlighted extensive variation in all composition components assessed for both sets of hybrids. The variation observed for some components within the landraces may therefore be of value for increasing their levels in modern maize lines. The study described here provided significant information on contributions of conventional breeding to crop compositional variation, as well as valuable information on key genetic resources for the maize community in the development of new improved lines. PMID:25966324

  14. Differential Expressions of the Alternatively Spliced Variant mRNAs of the µ Opioid Receptor Gene, OPRM1, in Brain Regions of Four Inbred Mouse Strains

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jin; Lu, Zhigang; Xu, Mingming; Rossi, Grace C.; Kest, Benjamin; Waxman, Amanda R.; Pasternak, Gavril W.; Pan, Ying-Xian

    2014-01-01

    The µ opioid receptor gene, OPRM1, undergoes extensive alternative pre-mRNA splicing in rodents and humans, with dozens of alternatively spliced variants of the OPRM1 gene. The present studies establish a SYBR green quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay to more accurately quantify mouse OPRM1 splice variant mRNAs. Using these qPCR assays, we examined the expression of OPRM1 splice variant mRNAs in selected brain regions of four inbred mouse strains displaying differences in µ opioid-induced tolerance and physical dependence: C56BL/6J, 129P3/J, SJL/J and SWR/J. The complete mRNA expression profiles of the OPRM1 splice variants reveal marked differences of the variant mRNA expression among the brain regions in each mouse strain, suggesting region-specific alternative splicing of the OPRM1 gene. The expression of many variants was also strain-specific, implying a genetic influence on OPRM1 alternative splicing. The expression levels of a number of the variant mRNAs in certain brain regions appear to correlate with strain sensitivities to morphine analgesia, tolerance and physical dependence in four mouse strains. PMID:25343478

  15. Fixation, Segregation and Linkage of Allozyme Loci in Inbred Families of the Pacific Oyster Crassostrea Gigas (Thunberg): Implications for the Causes of Inbreeding Depression

    PubMed Central

    McGoldrick, D. J.; Hedgecock, D.

    1997-01-01

    The effect that inbreeding has on the fixation and segregation of genes has rarely been confirmed by direct observation. Here, fixation, segregation, and linkage of allozymes is investigated in the progeny of self-fertilized hermaphrodites of the normally outcrossing Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. The estimate of fixation pooled over loci, individuals, and families, F = 0.462, is significantly lower than the expected value of 0.5. Log-likelihood ratios reveal significant heterogeneity in fixation among individuals, among families, and among loci. In addition, the grand pooled segregation ratio, 127:243:54, deviates significantly from 1:2:1, with a bias against homozygotes for alleles of lesser frequency in the natural population. Segregation ratios for 11 of 14 loci are significantly heterogeneous among families, and exact tests for segregation within families reveal 16 significant results out of 51 tests. Thus, fixation and segregation of allozyme markers in inbred oyster families deviates from the expectations of neutral inbreeding theory. Di-genic disequilibria are significant for four of 74 di-locus pairs revealing two linkage groups. Strong viability selection is apparently conditional on the genotype of the hermaphrodite-founders and is largely focused on these two linkage groups. These genetic effects are explained by interaction between cis-linked factors and polymorphic regulatory backgrounds. PMID:9136021

  16. A deleterious effect associated with UNH159 is attenuated in twin embryos of an inbred line of blue tilapia Oreochromis aureus.

    PubMed

    Shirak, A; Palti, Y; Bern, O; Kocher, T D; Gootwine, E; Seroussi, E; Hulata, G; Ron, M; Avtalion, R R

    2013-01-01

    Offspring of a highly inbred gynogenetic line of Oreochromis aureus displayed 12-fold increase in twinning rate compared to the outbred population. Asymmetric conjoined twins, which consist of a normal embryo attached to a malformed-atrophic twin, were frequently encountered in both gynogenetic (90·7%) and outbred (38·2%) embryos. The monozygotic origin of these twins was determined using five microsatellite markers. Progeny of heterozygous parents for the microsatellite UNH159 were separated into sub-sets of twins and normal full-sibs. Consistent with previous reports, the normal embryo sub-set exhibited elimination of both types of homozygotes for the UNH159 genetic marker at 2-8 days after fertilization. Unexpectedly, this elimination was less frequent in twins. The UNH159 marker as well as RNA-binding motif protein, X-linked (rbmx), SRY-box containing gene 3 (sox3) and alpha-thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked (atrx) genes were mapped to linkage group 2. These gene orthologues are all located on the mammalian X chromosome and atrx is necessary for the X-chromosome inactivation. PMID:23331137

  17. Acne in the adult.

    PubMed

    Ascenso, A; Marques, H Cabral

    2009-01-01

    This paper is a general overview that contributes for the knowledge systematization concerning the characteristics of the acne in the adult, its prevalence, causes, diagnosis, classification and drugs available for treatment. The reference therapy is the combination between topical retinoids and oral antibiotics. Oral isotretinoin is still the only available therapy that may modify the different acne physiopathologic factors and therefore it is the standard treatment for severe acne. The importance of the acne treatment in the adult should be enhanced as it can also lead to symptoms of serious depression and anxiety. PMID:19149656

  18. Police and Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Vic

    The literature on adult education for police is reviewed and criticized. Among the publications that have been influential in debating the need for police education are Charles B. Saunder's "The Challenge of Crime in a Free Society" (1976), which endorses the Presidential Commission on Law Enforcement's recommendations regarding the vital…

  19. Cutaneous Mastocytosis in Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Tebbe; P. G. Stavropoulos; K. Krasagakis; C. E. Orfanos

    1998-01-01

    Background and Objective: Systemic mastocytosis is a rather rare disorder involving the skin and several other organs. The aim of this study was to analyse the extent of extracutaneous manifestations in 14 adult patients who presented with prominent cutaneous involvement within the last 5 years. Results: The cutaneous lesions were clinically diagnosed as telangiectasia macularis eruptiva perstans in 2 patients,

  20. Technology and Adult Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sargant, Naomi

    1997-01-01

    Technology, one of several delivery options for adult learning, has the advantages of personalization and interactivity. New digital television and satellite arrangements in Britain are not making provision for educational uses. New learning support structures for technology use are needed. (SK)

  1. Adult Education on Prescription.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Challis, Juliet

    1996-01-01

    A joint venture between an adult education service and a health promotion team in Kent, England, enables doctors to refer patients to health and fitness courses. More than 49% of participants are over age 60. A wide range of offerings, personal counseling, health diaries, and 50% fee reduction encourage participation. (SK)

  2. Educational Guidance for Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eagleson, Dorothy; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Feature articles include the following: "Engaging with Guidance: Twenty Years of Educational Guidance for Adults" (Eagleson); "What Is Educational Guidance?" (Brown); "Guidance and Unemployment in Canada" (Edwards); "The Great Training Debate: Let's Have One!" (Imeson); "Educational Guidance and Flexible Learning" (Cooper); and "Part-time Study…

  3. Hearing Loss in Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, John W.

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses hearing loss in adults. It begins with an explanation of the anatomy of the ear and then explains the three types of hearing loss: conductive hearing loss, sensorineural hearing loss, and mixed conductive-sensorineural hearing loss. Tinnitus, hearing aids, and cochlear implants are also addressed. (CR)

  4. Older Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forman, Jeffrey

    In an effort to improve the quality of life for area senior citizens, De Anza College has established an older adult education program which combines adaptive physical education with holistic health care principles to instruct students in relaxation, nutrition, and physical activity. Classes are held in convalescent hospitals, retirement homes,…

  5. Bereavement in Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, James P.

    1994-01-01

    Factors that place older adults at risk for problems associated with the bereavement process are identified and discussed. Provides guidelines for distinguishing between normal bereavement depression and clinical depression, discusses the impact of different types of loss, describes three types of intervention, and explores countertransference.…

  6. Immigration and Adult Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rumbaut, Ruben G.; Komaie, Golnaz

    2010-01-01

    Almost 30 percent of the more than 68 million young adults aged eighteen to thirty-four in the United States today are either foreign born or of foreign parentage. As these newcomers make their transitions to adulthood, say Ruben Rumbaut and Golnaz Komaie, they differ significantly not only from one another but also from their native-parentage…

  7. The Adult Student Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Fred A.; Blocker, Clyde E.

    This study is concerned with the following topics on adult student attendance at Harrisburg Area Community College (HACC) during the 1969-70 academic year: student background, reason for attendance, enrollment in programs or courses, academic success, evidence of personal and occupational development. The report is based on the useable…

  8. Simulation in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knolle, Lawrence M.; Nicely, Robert F., Jr.

    Various simulations designed for adult learning experiences are described. A simulation is defined as "an operating model that displays processes over time and thus may develop dynamically." It is stated that this definition implies that the teacher can design a simulation that he can manage and then can increase its complexity. One simulation…

  9. Teaching Hebrew to Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischler, Ben-Zion

    1987-01-01

    A history of the teaching of Hebrew to adults chronicles both the role of Hebrew as a unifying force among Jewish people around the world and efforts to improve the effectiveness of instruction. It is proposed that the rebirth of Hebrew has been due to substantial work, and contributed to the language's expansion from a holy to a literary and…

  10. Helping Adults Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmundson, Phyllis J.

    2007-01-01

    Increased attention to preparing addictions counselors and related professionals to use evidence-based practices has brought new attention to the preparation programs for addictions counselors. Research and theory about adult learning emphasizes the importance of students as active participants in problem and experience based learning. This paper…

  11. Working with Adult Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cranton, Patricia

    This guide provides practical information, within a theoretical context, for educators who work with adult learners in formal and informal settings ranging from college and university courses to business and industrial training programs to community and special interest groups. The first two chapters examine the theoretical framework within which…

  12. Teaching Nontraditional Adult Students: Adult Learning Theories in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Joseph C.

    2014-01-01

    As the USA experiences rapid growth of nontraditional adult students in higher education, educators and institutions will increasingly need to look beyond the traditional youth-centric educational models to better address adult learning needs. To date, no research has been conducted examining the learning experiences of adult students enrolled in…

  13. National Adult Day Services Association

    MedlinePLUS

    THE NATIONAL VOICE FOR THE ADULT DAY SERVICE COMMUNITY NADSA advances the national development, recognition and use of adult day services. They provide a coordinated program of professional and compassionate supervised ...

  14. Diabetes Resources for Older Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Older Adults Text Size: S M L | About Diabetes Resources for Older Adults Diabetes occurs in people of ... issues that affect this population. Help me find resources for: Managing My Diabetes Preventing Type 2 Diabetes ...

  15. Older Adults and Mental Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... About Us Home > Health & Education > Mental Health Information Older Adults and Mental Health Depression Depression is not a ... increased risk for suicide . Share Science News About Older Adults NIMH Hosts Twitter Chat on Depression and Older ...

  16. Medications Older Adults Should Avoid

    MedlinePLUS

    Medications Older Adults Should Avoid Tools and Tips Printer-friendly PDF Click here to see our other tip sheets. Because older adults often experience chronic health conditions that require treatment ...

  17. Quitting Smoking for Older Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Quitting Smoking for Older Adults Quitting When You’re Older If you’re ... for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Challenges for Older Adults Click for more information There are a few ...

  18. Older-Adults and Asthma

    MedlinePLUS

    ... younger age groups. How Common Is Asthma in Older Adults? To learn about how common certain diseases are ... from the hospital. How Is Asthma Different Among Older Adults? Most persons with asthma have their first symptoms ...

  19. Pain in older adults.

    PubMed

    Miller, Lois L; Talerico, Karen Amann

    2002-01-01

    This chapter reviews 80 published research reports of pain and pain problems in older adults by nurse researchers and researchers from other disciplines. Reports were identified through searches of MEDLINE and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) using the search terms pain, older adult, aged and pain, and dementia. Reports were included if published between 1985 to 2001, if conducted on samples age 60 or older, if conducted by nurses or relevant to nursing research, and if published in English. Descriptive, qualitative, correlational, longitudinal, and intervention studies were included. Key findings include the following: pain is widely prevalent in older adult populations; few studies have included minority groups; under-identification and undertreatment of pain in older adults is a consistent interpretation of research findings; pain intensity rating scales are as valid and reliable in older populations as in younger populations; current observational methods of assessing pain in cognitively impaired older adults must be used with caution; nursing intervention studies demonstrate the beneficial effects of education and interventions aimed at improved pain assessment. The main recommendations are: careful attention should be given to the conceptualization and definition of pain; examination of pain should include physiological, motivational, cognitive, and affective factors; studies evaluating undertreatment of pain should include measures of pain self-report; standardized pain measures should be used; studies of persons over the age of 85 and studies of ethnic minorities are needed; more attention should be given to nursing intervention studies and should include both pharmacological and nonpharmacological, psychosocial interventions. PMID:12092519

  20. Helping Adults Learn. Facilitator's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ. and Colleges, Long Beach. Office of the Chancellor.

    This publication is a guide for those planning and facilitating a "Helping Adults Learn" Workshop designed to assist higher education faculty and staff in promoting greater access and success for adult learners in higher education. An overview of the workshop describes the purpose, goals (to increase understanding of theory and research on adult

  1. Helping Adults Learn. Participant Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ. and Colleges, Long Beach. Office of the Chancellor.

    This publication is a workbook for those attending a "Helping Adults Learn" Workshop designed to assist higher education faculty and staff in promoting greater access and success for adult learners in higher education. An overview of the workshop describes the purpose, goals (to increase understanding of theory and research on adult learning, to…

  2. Rural Adult Education: Current Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritchey, Jeffrey A.

    2008-01-01

    "Context". The word pervades the literature on adult and continuing education. For adult education practitioners and researchers alike, understanding the beliefs and actions of their educational place continues to be of significant concern, and rightfully so. That adults wish to have their histories, experiences, and abilities appreciated and…

  3. Adult Education and Development, 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adult Education and Development, 1994

    1994-01-01

    The publication is a half-yearly journal for adult education in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Issue 42 includes the following: "Adult Education for Self-Reliance in Community Health Education Programmes" (Kweka); "Promoting Good Nutrition" (Mangvwat); "Incorporating Health-Improvement Activities in Adult Education Programmes in Nigeria"…

  4. PATTERNS OF ADULT INFORMATION SEEKING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PARKER, EDWIN B.; AND OTHERS

    INSTRUMENTAL INFORMATION-SEEKING BEHAVIOR AMONG ADULTS WAS STUDIED TO DETERMINE "WHAT KINDS OF PEOPLE SEEK WHAT KINDS OF INFORMATION THROUGH WHAT CHANNELS." INTERVIEWS WERE CONDUCTED WITH 1,869 ADULTS WHO WERE ASKED ABOUT (1) THEIR USE OF ADULT EDUCATION, MASS MEDIA, AND INTERPERSONAL INFORMATION SOURCES, AND (2) THEIR METHODS OF OBTAINING…

  5. Assessment Matters in Adult Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donley, Jan; Napper, Rosemary

    This handbook was developed to give tutors of adult education information and ideas about assessing adult learning. It can be used as a reference for information about assessment and as a practical tool for tutors. Section 1, Introduction to Assessment in Adult Learning, includes information on these topics: what assessment is, how to assess, why…

  6. Tribal People and Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redbird-Selam, Helen Marie, Ed.

    Authored by four American Indians, this handbook is concerned with topics directly related to the retention of Indian adult learners in the adult educational process. The topics are aimed at improved understanding of the tribal learner and improved adult educational programs. Topics include: (1) religion (approached from an educational viewpoint…

  7. Adult College Completion Tool Kit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolbert, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    This "Adult College Completion Tool Kit" is designed to connect state administrators and local practitioners to the strategies, resources, and technical assistance tools resulting from the Department's work. States can use this information to identify and implement state adult education leadership priorities, supported by federal "Adult Education…

  8. Adult Learning and HRD. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This symposium on adult learning and human resource development consists of three presentations. "Adult Learning Principles and Concepts in the Workplace: Implications for Training in HRD" (Margot B. Weinstein) reports on findings from interviews with restaurant employees who reported that training practices using adult learning principles…

  9. Philosophies of Adult Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    This article offers a typology of philosophical traditions in environmental education for adults, based on five philosophical perspectives of adult education described by Elias and Merriam. These five traditions are liberal, progressive, behaviorist, humanist, and radical adult environmental education, respectively. A summary of each philosophy's…

  10. Adult Literacy Programs: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Anabel P.

    1994-01-01

    This article examines the broad array of adult literacy program alternatives currently available. These include government-funded adult education programs, such as Adult Basic Education and Even Start, volunteer programs such as Laubach Literacy Action and Literacy Volunteers of America, business and industry sponsored programs, community-based…

  11. General Information about Adult Primary Liver Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... General Information About Adult Primary Liver Cancer Key Points Adult primary liver cancer is a disease in ... liver. Stages of Adult Primary Liver Cancer Key Points After adult primary liver cancer has been diagnosed, ...

  12. Stages of Adult Primary Liver Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... General Information About Adult Primary Liver Cancer Key Points Adult primary liver cancer is a disease in ... liver. Stages of Adult Primary Liver Cancer Key Points After adult primary liver cancer has been diagnosed, ...

  13. 76 FR 30542 - Adult Signature Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ...POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 111 Adult Signature Services AGENCY: Postal Service...8, to add a new extra service called Adult Signature. This new service has two available options: Adult Signature Required and Adult Signature...

  14. A Quantitative Analysis of Previously Launched Adults 

    E-print Network

    Farris, Demetrea Nicole

    2012-02-14

    Young adults are moving back into their family homes and are now living with their parents. Common terms for the adult children include "previously launched adult" and "incompletely launched adult." I used data from Wave 3 (2001 to 2003...

  15. Adult hepatoblastoma: learning from children.

    PubMed

    Rougemont, Anne-Laure; McLin, Valérie A; Toso, Christian; Wildhaber, Barbara E

    2012-06-01

    Hepatoblastoma is the most common malignant liver tumour in infants and young children. Its occurrence in the adult population is debated and has been questioned. The aim of this paper is to review the histological and clinical features of adult hepatoblastoma as described in the adult literature, and to compare the findings with those of paediatric hepatoblastoma. The developmental and molecular aspects of hepatoblastoma are reviewed and their potential contribution to diagnosis of adult hepatoblastoma discussed. Case reports of adult hepatoblastoma identified by a PubMed search of the English, French, German, Italian, and Spanish literature through March 2011 were reviewed. Forty-five cases of hepatoblastoma were collected. Age at presentation was variable. Survival was uniformly poor, except for the rare patients who presented with the relatively differentiated, foetal type. The common denominator between adult and paediatric cases is the occurrence of embryonal or immature aspect of the tumours. Whether the adult cases of hepatoblastoma represent blastemal tumours, stem cell tumours, or unusual differentiation patterns in otherwise more frequent adult liver tumours remains to be established. Adult tumours labelled as hepatoblastoma are characterised by malignant appearing mesenchymal components. Surgical management is the cornerstone of therapy in children and also appears to confer an improved prognosis in adults. Whether adult hepatoblastoma exists, remains controversial. Indeed, several features described in adult cases are markedly different from hepatoblastoma as it is understood in children, and other differential diagnoses should also be entertained. Nonetheless, hepatoblastoma should be considered in adults presenting with primary liver tumours in the absence of pre-existing liver disease. Adult and paediatric patients with immature hepatoblastoma appear to have worse outcomes, and adults presenting with presumed hepatoblastoma have an overall poorer prognosis than children with hepatoblastoma. In all patients, surgery should be the treatment of choice, neoadjuvant chemotherapy is advisable. PMID:22326463

  16. Natural herbicide resistance (HR) to broad-spectrum herbicide, glyphosate among traditional and inbred-cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Weerakoon, S R; Somaratne, S; Wijeratne, R G D; Ekanyaka, E M S I

    2013-08-15

    Weeds along with insect pests and plant diseases are sources of biotic stress in crop systems. Weeds are responsible for serious problems in rice worldwide affecting growth and causing a considerable reduction in quality and quantity in yield. High concentrations of pre-emergent-broad-spectrum systemic herbicide, Glyphosate is prevalently applied to control rice weeds which intern causes severe damages to cultivated rice varieties, susceptible to Glyphosate. However, there may be rice varieties with natural Herbicide Resistance (HR) which are so far, has not been evaluated. In this study Six traditional and eighteen developed-cultivated rice varieties (Bg, Bw, At and Ld series developed by Rice Research Development Institute, Sri Lanka) were used to screen their natural HR. RCBD with five replicates and three blocks in each treatment-combination was used as the experimental design. As observations, time taken-to seed germination, time taken to flowering; plant height and number of leaves at 12-weeks after sawing, leaf-length, breadth, panicle-length, number of seeds/panicle of resistant plants and controls were recorded. Plants with > or = 40% resistance were considered as resistant to Glyphosate. Ten inbred-cultivated rice varieties (Bg250, Bg94-1, Bg304, Bg359, Bg406, Bg379-2, Bg366, Bg300, Bw364, At362) and three traditional rice varieties ("Kalu Heenati", "Sudu Heenati", "Pachchaperumal") were naturally resistant to 0.25 g L(-1) Glyphosate concentration and when increased the concentration (0.5 g L(-1)) resistance was reduced. This study showed the usefulness of modern statistical method, classification and regression tree analysis (CART) in exploring and visualizing the patterns reflected by a large number of rice varieties (larger experimental database) on herbicide resistance in future. PMID:24498832

  17. Genetically inbred Balb/c mice differ from outbred Swiss Webster mice on discrete measures of sociability: relevance to a genetic mouse model of autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Jacome, Luis F; Burket, Jessica A; Herndon, Amy L; Deutsch, Stephen I

    2011-12-01

    The Balb/c mouse is proposed as a model of human disorders with prominent deficits of sociability, such as autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) that may involve pathophysiological disruption of NMDA receptor-mediated neurotransmission. A standard procedure was used to measure sociability in 8-week-old male genetically inbred Balb/c and outbred Swiss Webster mice. Moreover, because impaired sociability may influence the social behavior of stimulus mice, we also measured the proportion of total episodes of social approach made by the stimulus mouse while test and stimulus mice were allowed to interact freely. Three raters with good inter-rater agreement evaluated operationally defined measures of sociability chosen because of their descriptive similarity to deficits of social behavior reported in persons with ASDs. The data support previous reports that the Balb/c mouse is a genetic mouse model of impaired sociability. The data also show that the behavior of the social stimulus mouse is influenced by the impaired sociability of the Balb/c strain. Interestingly, operationally defined measures of sociability did not necessarily correlate with each other within mouse strain and the profile of correlated measures differed between strains. Finally, "stereotypic" behaviors (i.e. rearing, grooming and wall climbing) recorded during the session of free interaction between the test and social stimulus mice were more intensely displayed by Swiss Webster than Balb/c mice, suggesting that the domains of sociability and "restricted repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior" are independent of each other in the Balb/c strain. PMID:21882363

  18. ATR-FTIR spectroscopy reveals genomic loci regulating the tissue response in high fat diet fed BXD recombinant inbred mouse strains

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity-associated organ-specific pathological states can be ensued from the dysregulation of the functions of the adipose tissues, liver and muscle. However, the influence of genetic differences underlying gross-compositional differences in these tissues is largely unknown. In the present study, the analytical method of ATR-FTIR spectroscopy has been combined with a genetic approach to identify genetic differences responsible for phenotypic alterations in adipose, liver and muscle tissues. Results Mice from 29 BXD recombinant inbred mouse strains were put on high fat diet and gross-compositional changes in adipose, liver and muscle tissues were measured by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. The analysis of genotype-phenotype correlations revealed significant quantitative trait loci (QTL) on chromosome 12 for the content of fat and collagen, collagen integrity, and the lipid to protein ratio in adipose tissue and on chromosome 17 for lipid to protein ratio in liver. Using gene expression and sequence information, we suggest Rsad2 (viperin) and Colec11 (collectin-11) on chromosome 12 as potential quantitative trait candidate genes. Rsad2 may act as a modulator of lipid droplet contents and lipid biosynthesis; Colec11 might play a role in apoptopic cell clearance and maintenance of adipose tissue. An increased level of Rsad2 transcripts in adipose tissue of DBA/2J compared to C57BL/6J mice suggests a cis-acting genetic variant leading to differential gene activation. Conclusion The results demonstrate that the analytical method of ATR-FTIR spectroscopy effectively contributed to decompose the macromolecular composition of tissues that accumulate fat and to link this information with genetic determinants. The candidate genes in the QTL regions may contribute to obesity-related diseases in humans, in particular if the results can be verified in a bigger BXD cohort. PMID:23758785

  19. Genetic Determinants for Enzymatic Digestion of Lignocellulosic Biomass Are Independent of Those for Lignin Abundance in a Maize Recombinant Inbred Population1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Penning, Bryan W.; Sykes, Robert W.; Babcock, Nicholas C.; Dugard, Christopher K.; Held, Michael A.; Klimek, John F.; Shreve, Jacob T.; Fowler, Matthew; Ziebell, Angela; Davis, Mark F.; Decker, Stephen R.; Turner, Geoffrey B.; Mosier, Nathan S.; Springer, Nathan M.; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Weil, Clifford F.; McCann, Maureen C.; Carpita, Nicholas C.

    2014-01-01

    Biotechnological approaches to reduce or modify lignin in biomass crops are predicated on the assumption that it is the principal determinant of the recalcitrance of biomass to enzymatic digestion for biofuels production. We defined quantitative trait loci (QTL) in the Intermated B73 × Mo17 recombinant inbred maize (Zea mays) population using pyrolysis molecular-beam mass spectrometry to establish stem lignin content and an enzymatic hydrolysis assay to measure glucose and xylose yield. Among five multiyear QTL for lignin abundance, two for 4-vinylphenol abundance, and four for glucose and/or xylose yield, not a single QTL for aromatic abundance and sugar yield was shared. A genome-wide association study for lignin abundance and sugar yield of the 282-member maize association panel provided candidate genes in the 11 QTL of the B73 and Mo17 parents but showed that many other alleles impacting these traits exist among this broader pool of maize genetic diversity. B73 and Mo17 genotypes exhibited large differences in gene expression in developing stem tissues independent of allelic variation. Combining these complementary genetic approaches provides a narrowed list of candidate genes. A cluster of SCARECROW-LIKE9 and SCARECROW-LIKE14 transcription factor genes provides exceptionally strong candidate genes emerging from the genome-wide association study. In addition to these and genes associated with cell wall metabolism, candidates include several other transcription factors associated with vascularization and fiber formation and components of cellular signaling pathways. These results provide new insights and strategies beyond the modification of lignin to enhance yields of biofuels from genetically modified biomass. PMID:24972714

  20. Screening of inbred lines to develop a thermotolerant sunflower hybrid using the temperature induction response (TIR) technique: a novel approach by exploiting residual variability.

    PubMed

    Senthil-Kumar, M; Srikanthbabu, V; Mohan Raju, B; Ganeshkumar; Shivaprakash, N; Udayakumar, M

    2003-11-01

    Plants, when exposed to sub-lethal stress (induction stress), develop the ability to withstand severe temperatures and this phenomenon is often referred to as acquired thermotolerance. Earlier it was reported that induction stress alters gene expression and brings greater adaptation to heat stress and that the genetic variability in thermotolerance is only seen upon induction stress. Based on this concept, the temperature induction response (TIR) technique has been developed to identify thermotolerant lines. By following the TIR technique, sunflower hybrid KBSH-1 parents were screened for high temperature tolerance. Seedlings of parental lines including CMS 234 A, CMS 234 B and 6 D-1 showed considerable genetic variability for thermotolerance and it was attributed to the expression of existing residual variability for stress responses. Thus, the existing variability forms the basis for identifying thermotolerant lines. The identified parental inbred lines were selected and established in the field and crossed to get F1 hybrid seeds. The KBSH-1 hybrid developed from selected variants of parental lines was compared with the original KBSH-1 for thermotolerance. The selected KBSH-1 was more tolerant compared with the original hybrid both at the seedling as well as at the plant level. The physiological and molecular basis of thermotolerance was studied in the KBSH-1 original and the hybrid developed from selected variants of parental lines. The selected hybrid exhibited high tolerance to Menadione (naphthoquinone)-induced oxidative stress. Even the methyl viologen-induced oxidative stress damage was relatively less in the selected hybrid population. The selected hybrid also showed enhanced expression of the heat shock proteins HSP 90 and HSP 104 and also accumulated higher levels of the heat shock transcription factor HSFA. PMID:14565951

  1. Different responsiveness to a high-fat/cholesterol diet in two inbred mice and underlying genetic factors: a whole genome microarray analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Mingzhe; Ji, Guozhen; Jin, Gang; Yuan, Zuobiao

    2009-01-01

    Background To investigate different responses to a high-fat/cholesterol diet and uncover their underlying genetic factors between C57BL/6J (B6) and DBA/2J (D2) inbred mice. Methods B6 and D2 mice were fed a high-fat/cholesterol diet for a series of time-points. Serum and bile lipid profiles, bile acid yields, hepatic apoptosis, gallstones and atherosclerosis formation were measured. Furthermore, a whole genome microarray was performed to screen hepatic genes expression profile. Quantitative real-time PCR, western blot and TUNEL assay were conducted to validate microarray data. Results After fed the high-fat/cholesterol diet, serum and bile total cholesterol, serum cholesterol esters, HDL cholesterol and Non-HDL cholesterol levels were altered in B6 but not significantly changed in D2; meanwhile, biliary bile acid was decreased in B6 but increased in D2. At the same time, hepatic apoptosis, gallstones and atherosclerotic lesions occurred in B6 but not in D2. The hepatic microarray analysis revealed distinctly different genes expression patterns between B6 and D2 mice. Their functional pathway groups included lipid metabolism, oxidative stress, immune/inflammation response and apoptosis. Quantitative real time PCR, TUNEL assay and western-blot results were consistent with microarray analysis. Conclusion Different genes expression patterns between B6 and D2 mice might provide a genetic basis for their distinctive responses to a high-fat/cholesterol diet, and give us an opportunity to identify novel pharmaceutical targets in related diseases in the future. PMID:19835623

  2. Phenocopies for deafness and goiter development in a large inbred Brazilian kindred with Pendred's syndrome associated with a novel mutation in the PDS gene.

    PubMed

    Kopp, P; Arseven, O K; Sabacan, L; Kotlar, T; Dupuis, J; Cavaliere, H; Santos, C L; Jameson, J L; Medeiros-Neto, G

    1999-01-01

    Pendred's syndrome is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by goiter, impaired iodide organification, and congenital sensorineural deafness. The gene mutated in Pendred's syndrome, PDS (Pendred's syndrome gene), was cloned very recently and encodes the putative sulfate transporter pendrin. Pendred's syndrome may account for up to 10% of the cases with hereditary hearing loss, and pendrin mutations have also been found in a kindred with non-syndromic deafness. In this study, 41 individuals from a large, highly inbred pedigree from Northeastern Brazil were examined for features of Pendred's syndrome. Linkage studies and sequence analysis of the coding region of the PDS gene were performed with DNA from 36 individuals. The index patient, with the classical triad of deafness, positive perchlorate test, and goiter, was found to be homozygous for a deletion of thymidine 279 in exon 3, resulting in a frameshift and a premature stop codon at amino acid 96. This alteration resulted in truncation of the protein in the first transmembrane domain. Two other patients with deafness were found to be homozygous for this mutation; 19 were heterozygous and 14 were homozygous for the wild type allele. Surprisingly, 6 deaf individuals in this kindred were not homozygous for the PDS gene mutation; 3 were heterozygous and 3 were homozygous for the wild type allele, suggesting a probable distinct genetic cause for their deafness. All 3 homozygous individuals for the PDS mutation had goiters. However, goiters were also found in 10 heterozygous individuals and in 6 individuals without the PDS mutation and are most likely caused by iodine deficiency. In conclusion, we identified a novel mutation in the PDS gene causing Pendred's syndrome. The comparison of phenotype and genotype reveals, however, that phenocopies generated by distinct environmental and/or genetic causes are present in this kindred and that the diagnosis of Pendred's syndrome may be difficult without molecular analysis. PMID:9920104

  3. Complementary DNA cloning, sequence analysis, and tissue transcription profile of a novel U2AF2 gene from the Chinese Banna mini-pig inbred line.

    PubMed

    Wang, S Y; Huo, J L; Miao, Y W; Cheng, W M; Zeng, Y Z

    2013-01-01

    U2 small nuclear RNA auxiliary factor 2 (U2AF2) is an important gene for pre-messenger RNA splicing in higher eukaryotes. In this study, the Banna mini-pig inbred line (BMI) U2AF2 coding sequence (CDS) was cloned, sequenced, and characterized. The U2AF2 complete CDS was amplified using the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique based on the conserved sequence information of cattle and known highly homologous swine expressed sequence tags. This novel gene was deposited into the National Center for Biotechnology Information database (Accession No. JQ839267). Sequence analysis revealed that the BMI U2AF2 coding sequence consisted of 1416 bp and encoded 471 amino acids with a molecular weight of 53.12 kDa. The protein sequence has high sequence homology with U2AF65 of 6 species - Homo sapiens (100%), Equus caballus (100%), Canis lupus (100%), Macaca mulatta (99.8%), Bos taurus (74.4%), and Mus musculus (74.4%). The phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that BMI U2AF65 has a closer genetic relationship with B. taurus U2AF65 than with U2AF65 of E. caballus, C. lupus, M. mulatta, H. sapiens, and M. musculus. RT-PCR analysis showed that BMI U2AF2 was most highly expressed in the brain; moderately expressed in the spleen, lung, muscle, and skin; and weakly expressed in the liver, kidney, and ovary. Its expression was nearly silent in the spinal cord, nerve fiber, heart, stomach, pancreas, and intestine. Three microRNA target sites were predicted in the CDS of BMI U2AF2 messenger RNA. Our results establish a foundation for further insight into this swine gene. PMID:23613239

  4. Genetic factors responsible for eating and cooking qualities of rice grains in a recombinant inbred population of an inter-subspecific cross.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yu-Chia; Tseng, Meng-Chun; Wu, Yong-Pei; Lin, Meng-Ying; Wei, Fu-Jin; Hwu, Kae-Kang; Hsing, Yue-Ie; Lin, Yann-Rong

    2014-01-01

    The eating and cooking qualities of rice grains are the major determinants of consumer preference and, consequently, the economic value of a specific rice variety. These two qualities are largely determined by the physicochemical properties of the starch, i.e. the starch composition, of the rice grain. In our study, we determined the genetic factors responsible for the physicochemical properties of starch in recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of japonica cv. Tainung 78 × indica cv. Taichung Sen 17 (TCS 17) cultivated over two crop seasons by examining palatability characteristics and several Rapid Viscosity Analyzer (RVA) parameters. Thirty-four quantitative trait loci (QTLs), each explaining between 1.2 and 78.1 % phenotypic variation, were mapped in clusters on eight chromosomes in 190 RILs genotyped with 139 markers. Ten pairs of QTLs were detected in the two environments, of which seven were in agreement with previous findings, suggesting that these QTLs may express stable experimental populations across various environments. Waxy (Wx), which controls amylose synthesis, was determined to be a primary gene regulating the physicochemical properties of cooked rice grains, as indicated by the presence of a major QTL cluster on chromosome 6 and by marker regression analysis. Six starch synthesis-related genes (SSRGs) which were located in the QTL intervals significantly differed in terms of gene expression between the two parents during grain-filling and were important genetic factors affecting physicochemical properties. The expression of four genes, PUL, ISA2, GBSSI, and SSII-3, was significantly upregulated in TCS 17, and this expression was positively correlated with six traits. The effects of the six SSRGs and gene interaction depended on genetic background and environment; grain quality may be fine tuned by selecting for SBE4 for japonica and PUL for indica. We provide valuable information for application in the breeding of new rice varieties as daily staple food and for use in industrial manufacturing by marker-assisted selection. PMID:25076839

  5. Immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region and major histocompatibility region genes are linked to induced graves' disease in females from two very large families of recombinant inbred mice.

    PubMed

    McLachlan, Sandra M; Aliesky, Holly; Banuelos, Bianca; Magana, Jessica; Williams, Robert W; Rapoport, Basil

    2014-10-01

    Graves' hyperthyroidism is caused by antibodies to the TSH receptor (TSHR) that mimic thyroid stimulation by TSH. Stimulating TSHR antibodies and hyperthyroidism can be induced by immunizing mice with adenovirus expressing the human TSHR A-subunit. Prior analysis of induced Graves' disease in small families of recombinant inbred (RI) female mice demonstrated strong genetic control but did not resolve trait loci for TSHR antibodies or elevated serum T4. We investigated the genetic basis for induced Graves' disease in female mice of two large RI families and combined data with earlier findings to provide phenotypes for 178 genotypes. TSHR antibodies measured by inhibition of TSH binding to its receptor were highly significantly linked in the BXD set to the major histocompatibility region (chromosome 17), consistent with observations in 3 other RI families. In the LXS family, we detected linkage between T4 levels after TSHR-adenovirus immunization and the Ig heavy chain variable region (Igvh, chromosome 12). This observation is a key finding because components of the antigen binding region of Igs determine antibody specificity and have been previously linked to induced thyroid-stimulating antibodies. Data from the LXS family provide the first evidence in mice of a direct link between induced hyperthyroidism and Igvh genes. A role for major histocompatibility genes has now been established for genetic susceptibility to Graves' disease in both humans and mice. Future studies using arrays incorporating variation in the complex human Ig gene locus will be necessary to determine whether Igvh genes are also linked to Graves' disease in humans. PMID:25051451

  6. Cyclic vomiting syndrome in adults.

    PubMed

    Abell, T L; Adams, K A; Boles, R G; Bousvaros, A; Chong, S K F; Fleisher, D R; Hasler, W L; Hyman, P E; Issenman, R M; Li, B U K; Linder, S L; Mayer, E A; McCallum, R W; Olden, K; Parkman, H P; Rudolph, C D; Taché, Y; Tarbell, S; Vakil, N

    2008-04-01

    Cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS) was initially described in children but can occur in all age groups. Cyclic vomiting syndrome is increasingly recognized in adults. However, the lack of awareness of CVS in adults has led to small numbers of diagnosed patients and a paucity of published data on the causes, diagnosis and management of CVS in adults. This article is a state-of-knowledge overview on CVS in adults and is intended to provide a framework for management and further investigations into CVS in adults. PMID:18371009

  7. An Undergraduate Course in Adult Development: When the Virtual Adult Is an Adult

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Robert B.

    2014-01-01

    An aspect of an undergraduate psychology course on adult development was the preparation of case records on adults who consented to be studied. Participants (1) developed their abilities to observe and accurately record adult behavior across a variety of ages and contexts; (2) withheld judgments about behavior when evidence was lacking; (3)…

  8. Lead encephalopathy in adults

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Janapareddy Vijaya Bhaskara; Vengamma, Bhuma; Naveen, Thota; Naveen, Vandanapu

    2014-01-01

    Lead poisoning is a common occupational health hazard in developing countries. We report the varied clinical presentation, diagnostic and management issues in two adult patients with lead encephalopathy. Both patients worked in a battery manufacturing unit. Both patients presented with seizures and one patient also complained of abdominal colic and vomiting. Both were anemic and a lead line was present. Blood lead level in both the patients was greater than 25 µg/dl. Magnetic resonance imaging of brain revealed bilateral symmetric involvement of the thalamus, lentiform nucleus in both patients and also the external capsules, sub-cortical white matter in one patient. All these changes, seen as hyperintensities in T2-weighted images suggested demyelination. They were advised avoidance of further exposure to lead and were treated with anti-epileptics; one patient also received D-penicillamine. They improved well on follow-up. Lead encephalopathy is an uncommon but important manifestation of lead toxicity in adults. PMID:24966557

  9. Infantile autism: adult outcome.

    PubMed

    Korkmaz, B

    2000-07-01

    Although the core features of autism do not change qualitatively, a gradual overall symptomatic improvement including an increase in adaptive skills is observed in most cases with age. Follow-up studies show that the diagnostic features, the differential diagnosis, and clinical problems of adult autistics differ substantially from that of autistic children. The differential diagnosis of older autistics include personality disorders, learning disabilities, and mood disorder. Depression, epilepsy, and behavioral problems such as aggression and agitation may be major clinical problems during adolescence. The early indicators of a better outcome include a higher level of IQ and language. Among the neuropsychological variables, measures of flexibility and cognitive shift are important as prognostic factors. Early behavioral and educational intervention may especially increase the adaptive skills of the patients and promote the in-family communication. The outcome studies of autism are particularly helpful in addressing the appropriate and most effective programs of remediation for adult autistics. PMID:11291011

  10. Lymphoblastic lymphoma in adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John W. Sweetenham

    2006-01-01

    Understanding of the pathogenesis and biology of precursor T-cell and B-cell neoplasms has advanced significantly with the\\u000a description of gene expression profiling studies, especially in T-cell disease. These studies have demonstrated leukemic arrest\\u000a at various stages of thymocyte maturation, characterized by gene expression signatures with prognostic significance. Optimal\\u000a treatment strategies for adult lymphoblastic lymphoma are uncertain, although current evidence supports

  11. The panorama of physiological responses and gene expression of whole plant of maize inbred line YQ7-96 at the three-leaf stage under water deficit and re-watering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hai-Feng Lu; Hai-Tao Dong; Chang-Bin Sun; Dong-Jin Qing; Ning Li; Zi-Kai Wu; Zhi-Qiang Wang; You-Zhi Li

    Changes in water potential, growth elongation, photosynthesis of three-leaf-old seedlings of maize inbred line YQ7-96 under\\u000a water deficit (WD) for 0.5, 1 and 2 h and re-watering (RW) for 24 h were characterized. Gene expression was analyzed using\\u000a cDNA microarray covering 11,855 maize unigenes. As for whole maize plant, the expression of WD-regulated genes was characterized\\u000a by up-regulation. The expression of WD-regulated

  12. The adult scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Aebi, Max

    2005-12-01

    Adult scoliosis is defined as a spinal deformity in a skeletally mature patient with a Cobb angle of more than 10 degrees in the coronal plain. Adult scoliosis can be separated into four major groups: Type 1: Primary degenerative scoliosis, mostly on the basis of a disc and/or facet joint arthritis, affecting those structures asymmetrically with predominantly back pain symptoms, often accompanied either by signs of spinal stenosis (central as well as lateral stenosis) or without. These curves are often classified as "de novo" scoliosis. Type 2: Idiopathic adolescent scoliosis of the thoracic and/or lumbar spine which progresses in adult life and is usually combined with secondary degeneration and/or imbalance. Some patients had either no surgical treatment or a surgical correction and fusion in adolescence in either the thoracic or thoracolumbar spine. Those patients may develop secondary degeneration and progression of the adjacent curve; in this case those curves belong to the type 3a. Type 3: Secondary adult curves: (a) In the context of an oblique pelvis, for instance, due to a leg length discrepancy or hip pathology or as a secondary curve in idiopathic, neuromuscular and congenital scoliosis, or asymmetrical anomalies at the lumbosacral junction; (b) In the context of a metabolic bone disease (mostly osteoporosis) combined with asymmetric arthritic disease and/or vertebral fractures. Sometimes it is difficult to decide, what exactly the primary cause of the curve was, once it has significantly progressed. However, once an asymmetric load or degeneration occurs, the pathomorphology and pathomechanism in adult scoliosis predominantly located in the lumbar or thoracolumbar spine is quite predictable. Asymmetric degeneration leads to increased asymmetric load and therefore to a progression of the degeneration and deformity, as either scoliosis and/or kyphosis. The progression of a curve is further supported by osteoporosis, particularly in post-menopausal female patients. The destruction of facet joints, joint capsules, discs and ligaments may create mono- or multisegmental instability and finally spinal stenosis. These patients present themselves predominantly with back pain, then leg pain and claudication symptoms, rarely with neurological deficit, and almost never with questions related to cosmetics. The diagnostic evaluation includes static and dynamic imaging, myelo-CT, as well as invasive diagnostic procedures like discograms, facet blocks, epidural and root blocks and immobilization tests. These tests may correlate with the clinical and the pathomorphological findings and may also offer the least invasive and most rational treatment for the patient. The treatment is then tailored to the specific symptomatology of the patient. Surgical management consists of either decompression, correction, stabilization and fusion procedures or a combination of all of these. Surgical procedure is usually complex and has to deal with a whole array of specific problems like the age and the general medical condition of the patient, the length of the fusion, the condition of the adjacent segments, the condition of the lumbosacral junction, osteoporosis and possibly previous scoliosis surgery, and last but not least, usually with a long history of chronified back pain and muscle imbalance which may be very difficult to be influenced. Although this surgery is demanding, the morbidity cannot be considered significantly higher than in other established orthopaedic procedures, like hip replacement, in the same age group of patients. Overall, a satisfactory outcome can be expected in well-differentiated indications and properly tailored surgical procedures, although until today prospective, controlled studies with outcome measures and pre- and post-operative patient's health status are lacking. As patients, who present themselves with significant clinical problems in the context of adult scoliosis, get older, minimal invasive procedures to address exactly the most relevant clinical problem may become more and more important, ba

  13. Adult-onset dystonia.

    PubMed

    Evatt, Marian L; Freeman, Alan; Factor, Stewart

    2011-01-01

    Dystonia is defined as involuntary sustained muscle contractions producing twisting or squeezing movements and abnormal postures. The movements can be stereotyped and repetitive and they may vary in speed from rapid to slow; sustained contractions can result in fixed postures. Dystonic disorders are classified into primary and secondary forms. Several types of adult-onset primary dystonia have been identified but all share the characteristic that dystonia (including tremor) is the sole neurologic feature. The forms most commonly seen in neurological practice include cranial dystonia (blepharospasm, oromandibular and lingual dystonia and spasmodic dysphonia), cervical dystonia (also known as spasmodic torticollis) and writer's cramp. These are the disorders that benefit most from botulinum toxin injections. A general characteristic of dystonia is that the movements or postures may occur in relation to specific voluntary actions by the involved muscle groups (such as in writer's cramp). Dystonic contractions may occur in one body segment with movement of another (overflow dystonia). With progression, dystonia often becomes present at rest. Dystonic movements typically worsen with anxiety, heightened emotions, and fatigue, decrease with relaxation, and disappear during sleep. There may be diurnal fluctuations in the dystonia, which manifest as little or no involuntary movement in the morning followed by severe disabling dystonia in the afternoon and evening. Morning improvement (or honeymoon) is seen with several types of dystonia. Patients often discover maneuvers that reduce the dystonia and which involve sensory stimuli such as touching the chin lightly in cervical dystonia. These maneuvers are known as sensory tricks, or gestes antagonistes. This chapter focuses on adult-onset focal dystonias including cranial dystonia, cervical dystonia, and writer's cramp. The chapter begins with a review of the epidemiology of focal dystonias, followed by discussions of each major type of focal dystonia, covering clinical phenomenology, differential genetics, and diagnosis. The chapter concludes with discussions of the pathophysiology, the few pathological cases published of adult-onset focal dystonia and management options, and a a brief look at the future. PMID:21496604

  14. Adult Stem and Progenitor Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martine Geraerts; Catherine M. Verfaillie

    2009-01-01

    \\u000a The discovery of adult stem cells in most adult tissues is the basis of a number of clinical studies that are carried out,\\u000a with therapeutic use of hematopoietic stem cells as a prime example. Intense scientific debate is still ongoing as to whether\\u000a adult stem cells may have a greater plasticity than previously thought. Although cells with some features of

  15. Adult Learners' Week in Russia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litvinova, Nina

    2002-01-01

    In Russia International Adult Learners Week highlights the democratization process the country is undergoing. Government attention to rural development and training and agrarian policy is needed. (SK)

  16. Genetic Variance Contributes to Dopamine and Opioid Receptor Antagonist-Induced Inhibition of Intralipid (Fat) Intake in Inbred and Outbred Mouse Strains

    PubMed Central

    Dym, Cheryl T.; Bae, Veronica; Kraft, Tamar; Yakubov, Yakov; Winn, Amanda; Sclafani, Anthony; Bodnar, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    Preference for and intake of solid and emulsified fat (Intralipid) solutions vary across different mouse strains. Fat intake in rodents is inhibited by dopamine and opioid receptor antagonists, but any variation in these responses as a function of genetic background is unknown. Therefore, the present study compared the ability of dopamine D1-like (SCH23390) and general opioid (naltrexone) receptor antagonism to alter intake of fat emulsions (Intralipid) in mice. Two-h intakes of 5% Intralipid were measured (5–120 min) in seven inbred (BALB/c, C57BL/6, C57BL/10, DBA/2, SJL, SWR, 129P3) and one outbred (CD-1) mouse strains following treatment with vehicle, SCH23390 (50–1600 nmol/kg, ip) and naltrexone (0.001–5 mg/kg, sc). SCH23390 significantly, dose-dependently and differentially reduced Intralipid intake at all five (DBA/2, SWR, CD-1), four (SJL, C57BL/6), three (129P3) and one (C57BL/10) of the doses tested, but failed to affect Intralipid intake in BALB/c mice. Naltrexone significantly, dose-dependently and differentially reduced Intralipid intake at all four (DBA/2), three (SWR, SJL), two (CD-1, C57BL/10) and one (C57BL/6, 129P3) of the doses tested, and also failed to affect Intralipid intake in BALB/cJ mice. SCH23390 and naltrexone were respectively 13.3-fold and 9.3-fold more potent in inhibiting Intralipid intake in the most sensitive (DBA/2) relative to the least sensitive (BALB/c) mouse strains. A strong positive relationship (r=0.91) was observed for the abilities of SCH23390 and naltrexone to inhibit Intralipid intake across strains. These findings indicate that dopaminergic and opioid signaling mechanisms differentially control Intralipid intake across different mouse strains, suggesting important genetic and pharmacological interactions in the short-term control of rewarding and post-ingestive consequences of fat intake. PMID:20026311

  17. Sexting among young adults

    PubMed Central

    Gordon-Messer, Deborah; Bauermeister, Jose Arturo; Grodzinski, Alison; Zimmerman, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Sexting has stirred debate over its legality and safety, but few researchers have documented the relationship between sexting and health. We describe the sexting behavior of young adults in the United States, and examine its association with sexual behavior and psychological well-being. Methods Using an adapted web version of Respondent-Driven Sampling (webRDS) we recruited a sample of U.S. young adults (ages 18 to 24; N=3447). We examined participant sexting behavior using 4 categories of sexting: 1) Non-Sexters, 2) Receivers, 3) Senders, and 4) Two-way Sexters. We then assessed the relationships between sexting categories and sociodemographic characteristics, sexual behavior and psychological well-being. Results Over half (57%) of respondents were Non-Sexters, 28.2% of the sample were Two-way Sexters, 12.6% were Receivers, and 2% were Senders. Males were more likely to be Receivers than females. Sexually active respondents were more likely to be Two-way Sexters than non-sexually active respondents. Among participants who were sexually active in the past 30 days, we found no differences across sexting groups in number of sexual partners, or number of unprotected sex partners in the past 30 days. We also found no relationship between sexting and psychological well-being. Conclusions Our results suggest that sexting is not related to sexual risk behavior or psychological well-being. We discuss the findings of this study and propose directions for further research on sexting. PMID:23299018

  18. Adult Acute Leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, K.; Wells, D. G.; Clink, H. McD.; Kay, H. E. M.; Powles, R.; McElwain, T. J.

    1974-01-01

    Seventy-eight adult patients with acute leukaemia were classified cytologically into 3 categories: acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), acute myelogenous leukaemia (AML) or acute undifferentiated leukaemia (AUL). The periodic acid-Schiff stain was of little value in differentiating the 3 groups. The treatment response in each group was different: 94% of patients with ALL (16/17) achieved complete remission with prednisone, vincristine and other drugs in standard use in childhood ALL; 59% of patients with AML (27/46) achieved complete remission with cytosine arabinoside and daunorubicin (22 patients), or 6-thioguanine and cyclophosphamide (2 patients), 6-thioguanine, cyclophosphamide and Adriamycin (1 patient), and cytosine and Adriamycin (1 patient); only 2 out of 14 patients (14%) with acute undifferentiated leukaemia achieved complete remission using cytosine and daunorubicin after an initial trial of prednisone and vincristine had failed. Prednisone and vincristine would seem to be of no value in acute undifferentiated leukaemia. It would seem also that no benefit is obtained by classifying all patients with acute leukaemia over 20 years of age as “adult acute leukaemia” and treating them with the same polypharmaceutical regimen. The problems posed by each disease are different and such a policy serves only to obscure them. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3 PMID:4141625

  19. Evaluation of Adult Education Programs. California Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    To assist adult educators in finding meaningful ways to measure the effectiveness of instruction, this monograph provides selected illustrations of specific methods used by adult education instructors to verify student learning. Obtained from teachers in the field, the examples are from programs in (1) dental assisting, (2) instrument pilot ground…

  20. Adult Literacy and Numeracy: Assessing Change. Adult Literacy Research Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumming, J. Joy, Ed.; van Kraayenoord, Christina E., Ed.

    This document contains eight papers from an action research program to foster good practice in adult literacy provision and policy. "Introduction" (J. Joy Cumming, Christina E. van Kraayenoord) presents an overview of the action research project and individual reports. "Assessment: Making a Difference in Adult Literacy and Numeracy Learning" (J.…

  1. Responding to Young Adult Literature. Young Adult Literature Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monseau, Virginia R.

    This book focuses on how readers respond to the power of young adult literature--negating the assumption that because such literature appeals to adolescents it cannot possibly be worthy of a place in the language arts curriculum. The book serves two purposes: it describes and discusses the oral and written response of adolescents and adults to…

  2. Literacy of Older Adults in America. Adult Literacy Fact Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent State Univ., OH. Ohio Literacy Resource Center.

    As part of the National Adult Literacy Survey (NALS) of 1992, the National Center for Education Statistics published a separate study that focuses on the literacy skills of older adults (aged 60 years and older) from a variety of perspectives, such as age, sex, amount of education, race or ethnic background, income, and geographic region. Some of…

  3. Atomoxetine Treatment for ADHD: Younger Adults Compared with Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durell, Todd; Adler, Lenard; Wilens, Timothy; Paczkowski, Martin; Schuh, Kory

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Atomoxetine is a nonstimulant medication for treating child, adolescent, and adult ADHD. This meta-analysis compared the effects in younger and older adults. Method: A post hoc analysis was conducted using data from two double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials. Data from patients aged 18-25 years were compared with data from…

  4. Reversed light-dark cycle and cage enrichment effects on ethanol-induced deficits in motor coordination assessed in inbred mouse strains with a compact battery of refined tests

    PubMed Central

    Munn, Elizabeth; Bunning, Mark; Prada, Sofia; Bohlen, Martin; Crabbe, John C.; Wahlsten, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    The laboratory environment existing outside the test situation itself can have a substantial influence on results of some behavioral tests with mice, and the extent of these influences sometimes depends on genotype. For alcohol research, the principal issue is whether genotype-related ethanol effects will themselves be altered by common variations in the lab environment or instead will be essentially the same across a wide range of lab environments. Data from 20 inbred strains were used to reduce an original battery of seven tests of alcohol intoxication to a compact battery of four tests: the balance beam and grip strength with a 1.25 g/kg ethanol dose and the accelerating rotarod and open-field activation tests with 1.75 g/kg. The abbreviated battery was then used to study eight inbred strains housed under a normal or reversed light-dark cycle, or a standard or enriched home cage environment. The light-dark cycle had no discernable effects on any measure of behavior or response to alcohol. Cage enrichment markedly improved motor coordination in most strains. Ethanol-induced motor coordination deficits were robust; the well documented strain-dependent effects of ethanol were not altered by cage enrichment. PMID:21664382

  5. Facilitating Adult Learning Participant Materials for Notebook

    E-print Network

    UNIT 2: Facilitating Adult Learning Participant Materials for Notebook #12;Navigating for Success Facilitating Adult Learning p 1 Facilitating Adult Learning Adults tend to teach as they remember being taught. This unit is designed to help nutrition educators become more skilled in working with adult learners to make

  6. Curriculum Models in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langenbach, Michael

    This book describes several curriculum models currently used in the field of adult education in an effort to assist adult educators who develop curricula as a routine part of their jobs. The book is divided into 14 chapters that are grouped into 7 sections. Each section covers a type of educational program, and each chapter describes a specific…

  7. Travel and Adult Transformative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindstrom, Steven K.

    2011-01-01

    This phenomenological research study examines the lived experience of individual adult transformation in the context of travel. Adults throughout history have experienced profound personal and perception changes as a result of significant travel events. Transformative learning occurs through experience, crisis, and reflection, all of which are…

  8. A Counselling Service for Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eagleson, D. E.

    1976-01-01

    In 1967 the Northern Ireland Council of Social Service undertook to pioneer a counseling service (the Educational Guidance Service for Adults) for adults who wished to change their educational and/or career direction. A description of its various services and guidelines for setting up a similar service are presented. (Author/BP)

  9. Understanding Adult Education and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Griff, Ed.

    This book introduces readers to issues, debates and literatures related to a number of central areas of practice in adult education and training, especially in Australia. It is intended as a first attempt to define the field of adult education in Australia in an analytical and theoretical, as opposed to a theoretical and practical sense. Written…

  10. Neuropsychological Assessment of Adult Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marceau, Roger; Meghani, Rehana; Reddon, John R.

    2008-01-01

    This report is primarily concerned with reporting on the normative results obtained on a large sample of serious adult offenders. An expanded Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery was administered to 584 adult offenders (OF), 132 normal controls (NC), and 494 acute psychiatric patients (PP). Subjects were between 18 and 44 years of age.…

  11. Predictive Modeling in Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindner, Charles L.

    2011-01-01

    The current economic crisis, a growing workforce, the increasing lifespan of workers, and demanding, complex jobs have made organizations highly selective in employee recruitment and retention. It is therefore important, to the adult educator, to develop models of learning that better prepare adult learners for the workplace. The purpose of…

  12. Native American Adult Reader I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Lovern Root, Ed.

    Aspects of Native American history and culture as well as issues and concerns of American Indians are presented in the twelve short articles in this reader for adults. Intended for use in an adult basic education/GED program, the reader features simply written stories (for grades 0-3), illustrations, vocabulary lists and student study questions.…

  13. Adult Learning Opportunities in Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regmi, Krishna; Regmi, Sharada

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the initial findings from a study of education system in Nepal. This paper examines the adult learning opportunities within the educational and cultural contexts by reviewing available literature relevant to Nepal. Findings show that there are wider opportunities for adult learning than those considered from education and…

  14. Disguising adult neural stem cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cindi M Morshead; Derek van der Kooy

    2004-01-01

    A description of adult neural stem cells has remained somewhat elusive. With no unique and definitive markers to label stem cells in general, neural stem cells are difficult to identify definitively and one is forced to examine cell behavior — leading to the retrospective identification of a stem cell. The most prevalent view in the literature describes the adult forebrain

  15. Plasticity of Adult Stem Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amy J Wagers; Irving L Weissman

    2004-01-01

    Recent years have seen much excitement over the possibility that adult mammalian stem cells may be capable of differentiating across tissue lineage boundaries, and as such may represent novel, accessible, and very versatile effectors of therapeutic tissue regeneration. Yet studies proposing such “plasticity” of adult somatic stem cells remain controversial, and in general, existing evidence suggests that in vivo such

  16. Adult Learners in the Academy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bash, Lee

    Adult learning programs are becoming increasingly important. This book is designed to serve as a wake-up call for members of the academy who prefer to work with traditional students. It provides practical advice for adult learning programs with insights drawn from case studies and the author's experience. Part 1, "Context and Overview," contains:…

  17. Adult Learners in the Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bash, Lee

    1999-01-01

    Adult learners comprise almost 50 percent of all students enrolled in higher Education. Some argue they are pioneering change in today's higher educational landscape. This book is designed to assist faculty members and administrators who want to understand how the impact of adult learning programs has and is helping to transform the academy and…

  18. Economic Essays on Adult Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shetty, Sandeep

    2013-01-01

    Adult students are an important component of the current U.S education landscape. They account for over 40% of the degree-seeking fresh enrollees in the U.S. colleges and according to the U.S. Department of Education, their growth will soon outpace that of traditional students. Adult students have also received considerable attention in higher…

  19. Mass Media and Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemi, John A., Ed.

    Some important developments affecting the use of the mass media in adult education are described in this collection of papers. A paper by Dr. George Gordon accuses educators of lacking imagination in their whole approach to adult education, especially in their use of the media. Dr. Robert Carlson's paper delineates the history of educational…

  20. Planning Events for LD Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Charlotte F.

    Problems and needs specific to learning disabled (LD) adults are examined, and considerations for planning events for LD adults are discussed. Four questions are addressed: Does the event really meet their needs? How can one attract their attention and get them there? What kind of structure should one provide in an event? and How can one meet…

  1. Gangsta Rap and Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guy, Talmadge C.

    2004-01-01

    Adult education instructors and administrators, who typically are not members of the hip-hop generation, have little or no background, sensitivity, or understanding of the influence and significance of black popular culture and music for young African American and white adult learners. (Contains 1 note.)

  2. Adult Literacy: The Next Generation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Daniel A.; Venezky, Richard L.

    1999-01-01

    Focuses on developments in the field of adult literacy in the 1990s and outlines seven areas related to key topics in the field. Provides a brief analysis of major research findings in each of these areas and offers a prognosis of the next generation of adult literacy work in the United States. (SLD)

  3. Perceived Stress among Deaf Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Elaine G.; Ouellette, Sue E.; Kang, Youngmi

    2006-01-01

    The Present Article describes the effectiveness of stress management classes in decreasing perceived stress among Deaf adults. Deaf adults may experience unique stressors, in addition to circumstances associated with increased stress in the general population. The Perceived Stress Scale (S. Cohen, Kamarck, & Mermelstein, 1983) was used as a…

  4. Adult Education in Israel IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirmayer, Paul, Ed.; Michaelson, Serena T., Ed.

    This fourth journal edition, oriented towards the topic of adult education and the community in Israel, focuses on these two major themes: the different approaches to analyzing and understanding the community, its populations, and its connection to adult education; and educational institutions and cultural entities within the community. Seventeen…

  5. Clinical Interviewing with Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohlman, Jan; Sirota, Karen Gainer; Papp, Laszlo A.; Staples, Alison M.; King, Arlene; Gorenstein, Ethan E.

    2012-01-01

    Over the next few decades the older adult population will increase dramatically, and prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders are also expected to increase in the elderly cohort. These demographic projections highlight the need for diagnostic instruments and methods that are specifically tailored to older adults. The current paper discusses the…

  6. Adult Education and "New Times."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westwood, Sallie

    1990-01-01

    Economic and political changes and the resurgence of ethnicity are profoundly transforming the world. Radical adult education has historically worked at the interface of economics, politics, and culture; in the current state of flux, many of the enduring issues of adult education are being raised in new ways. (SK)

  7. Extravasation Injuries in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Al-Benna, S.; O'Boyle, C.; Holley, J.

    2013-01-01

    Insertion of an intravascular catheter is one of the most common invasive procedures in hospitals worldwide. These intravascular lines are crucial in resuscitation, allow vital medication to be administered, and can be used to monitor the patients' real-time vital parameters. There is, however, growing recognition of potential risks to life and limb associated with their use. Medical literature is now replete with isolated case reports of complications succinctly described by Garden and Laussen (2004) as “An unending supply of “unusual” complications from central venous catheters.” This paper reviews complications of venous and arterial catheters and discusses treatment approaches and methods to prevent complications, based on current evidence and endeavours to provide information and guidance that will enable practitioners to prevent, recognise, and successfully treat extravasation injuries in adults. PMID:23738141

  8. Quantitative trait loci for adult-plant resistance to Mycosphaerella graminicola in two winter wheat populations.

    PubMed

    Risser, P; Ebmeyer, E; Korzun, V; Hartl, L; Miedaner, T

    2011-10-01

    Septoria tritici blotch (STB) is one of the most important leaf spot diseases in wheat worldwide. The goal of this study was to detect chromosomal regions for adult-plant resistance in large winter wheat populations to STB. Inoculation by two isolates with virulence to Stb6 and Stb15, both present in the parents, was performed and STB severity was visually scored plotwise as percent coverage of flag leaves with pycnidia-bearing lesions. 'Florett'/'Biscay' and 'Tuareg'/'Biscay', each comprising a cross of a resistant and a susceptible cultivar, with population sizes of 316 and 269 F(7:8) recombinant inbred lines, respectively, were phenotyped across four and five environments and mapped with amplified fragment length polymorphism, diversity array technology, and simple sequence repeat markers covering polymorphic regions of ?1,340 centimorgans. Phenotypic data revealed significant (P < 0.01) genotypic differentiation for STB, heading date, and plant height. Entry-mean heritabilities (h(2)) for STB were 0.73 for 'Florett'/'Biscay' and 0.38 for 'Tuareg'/'Biscay'. All correlations between STB and heading date as well as between STB and plant height were low (r = -0.13 to -0.20). In quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis, nine and six QTL were found for STB ratings explaining, together, 55 and 51% of phenotypic variation in 'Florett'/'Biscay' and 'Tuareg'/'Biscay', respectively. Genotype-environment and QTL-environment interactions had a large impact. Two major QTL were detected consistently across environments on chromosomes 3B and 6D from 'Florett' and chromosomes 4B and 6B from 'Tuareg', each explaining 12 to 17% of normalized adjusted phenotypic variance. These results indicate that adult-plant resistance to STB in both mapping populations was of a quantitative nature. PMID:21635143

  9. Adult attachment and declining birthrates.

    PubMed

    Draper, Thomas W; Holman, Thomas B; White, Whitney; Grandy, Shannon

    2007-02-01

    Attachment scores for 658 young adults living in the U.S.A. were obtained using the Experiences in Close Relationships scale. The participants came from a subsample of the RELATE data set, who had also filled out the adult attachment measure. Those young adults living in Utah County, Utah, an area of the country with a higher than normal birthrate (88% members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints), also had higher than average adult attachment scores. While the methodology was not sufficient to assess causal direction nor eliminate the possibility of unidentified influences, an undiscussed psychological factor, adult attachment, may play a role in the numerical declines observed among nonimmigrant communities in the USA and Europe. PMID:17450996

  10. Older adults challenged financially when adult children move home.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Steven P; Padilla-Frausto, D Imelda

    2014-02-01

    This policy brief looks at the financial burdens imposed on older Californians when adult children return home, often due to a crisis not of their own making, to live with their parents. The findings show that on average in California, the amount of money that older adults need in order to maintain a minimally decent standard of living while supporting one adult child in their home increases their expenses by a minimum of 50 percent. Low-income older adults are usually on fixed incomes, so helping an adult child can provide the child with a critical safety net but at the cost of the parents' own financial well-being. Policy approaches to assisting this vulnerable population of older adults include implementing reforms to increase Supplemental Security Income (SSI), improving the availability of affordable housing, assuring that all eligible nonelderly adults obtain health insurance through health care reform's expansion of Medi-Cal and subsidies, and increasing food assistance through SNAP and senior meal programs. PMID:24804354

  11. Noise-Induced Hearing Loss among Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Noise-Induced Hearing Loss Among Adults Noise-Induced Hearing Loss Among Adults [text version] Note: Lower numbers are ... chart depicts the prevalence of likely noise-induced hearing loss from 2 time periods in adults (20–69 ...

  12. Falls Among Older Adults: An Overview

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Room Social Media Publications Injury Center Falls Among Older Adults: An Overview On this Page How big is ... fracture rates than black women. 17 How can older adults prevent falls? Older adults can stay independent and ...

  13. Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer ON THIS PAGE Types of Cancers in Young Adults Finding a ... Ulman Cancer Fund for Young Adults Vital Options Teens and Adolescents CureSearch Starlight Children's Foundation Teens Living ...

  14. In vivo regulation of low-density lipoprotein receptor and apolipoprotein B gene expressions by dietary fat and cholesterol in inbred strains of mice.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, R A; Jiao, S; Tang, J J; Pfleger, B A; Kitchens, R T; Schonfeld, G

    1991-10-15

    Two proteins that may be important in the hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis produced by dietary fat and/or cholesterol are apoB and the LDL-receptor. We evaluated the molecular and genetic regulation of these two proteins by two important components of atherogenic diets: dietary fatty acids and dietary cholesterol. The control diet (C) contained 5% corn oil; the high cholesterol (HC) diets, 5% corn oil plus 0.5% or 2% cholesterol; the high fat diet (HF) 1% corn oil and 20% hydrogenated coconut oil; the fat plus cholesterol diets (HF/C) were the same as HF diet plus either 0.5% or 2% cholesterol. Ten strains of inbred mice were fed the C and HF/C (2% cholesterol) diets. Three strains; C3H, C57BL and SWR, were studied in greater detail. In them the effects of dietary fat and cholesterol were assessed separately and together. These three strains were fed all six diets. Lipoprotein profiles of plasma and indexes of lipoprotein composition were obtained by gel filtration chromatography and in selected strains by gradient ultracentrifugation. Relative rates of transcription of LDL-receptor mRNA and apoB mRNA were measured in purified mouse liver nuclei and levels of LDL-receptor mRNA and apoB mRNA in liver and intestine were quantified by RNA excess solution hybridization assays. The HF/C diet produced rises in plasma total-, VLDL- and LDL-cholesterol and apoB concentrations in the ten strains. VLDL and LDL became cholesterol-enriched and the proportion of total cholesterol transported in VLDL and LDL rose at the expense of HDL. This general pattern of HF/C diet-induced changes was similar in all strains, but there were marked quantitative differences between strains with respect to lipid and lipoprotein concentrations, and compositions and the distribution of cholesterol on both the HC and HF/C diets. The strain-related differences were not due to differences in absorption of dietary cholesterol because, for any given diet, hepatic cholesterol levels increased to the same extent in all strains. Nor were the strain-related differences related to alleles of the apoB gene as determined by RFLP analyses. In the three strains, hepatic LDL-receptor mRNA transcription was suppressed by all diets. But, LDL-receptor mRNA levels in both intestine and liver were suppressed only by the HC and HF/C diets and not by the HF diet. Thus, dietary cholesterol decreased LDL-receptor mRNA levels by mechanisms operating at the transcriptional level, while dietary fatty acids, in addition to inhibiting transcription also appeared to enhance mRNA stability.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1683257

  15. Thematic relations in adults' concepts.

    PubMed

    Lin, E L; Murphy, G L

    2001-03-01

    Concepts can be organized by their members' similarities, forming a kind (e.g., animal), or by their external relations within scenes or events (e.g., cake and candles). This latter type of relation, known as the thematic relation, is frequently found to be the basis of children's but not adults' classification. However, 10 experiments found that when thematic relations are meaningful and salient, they have significant influence on adults' category construction (sorting), inductive reasoning, and verification of category membership. The authors conclude that concepts function closely with knowledge of scenes and events and that this knowledge has a role in adults' conceptual representations. PMID:11293459

  16. Vitalistic thinking in adults.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Stuart

    2013-11-01

    Vitalistic thinking has traditionally been associated with reasoning about biological phenomena. The current research aimed to investigate a broader range of vitalistic thinking than previously studied. Esoteric notions of 'energy' are frequently used by individuals when making causal attributions for strange occurrences, and previous literature has linked such thinking with paranormal, magical, and superstitious beliefs. Two experiments are described that aim to investigate whether adults are vitalistic when asked to make causal judgments, and whether this can be predicted by thinking styles and prior paranormal belief. Experiment 1 asked participants to rate three causal options (one of which was vitalistic) for six vignettes. Scores on one dimension of paranormal belief (New Age Philosophy) and analytical thinking significantly predicted vitalism, but scores on intuitive thinking and Traditional Paranormal Beliefs did not. Experiment 2 extended the findings by asking participants to generate their own causal responses. Again, paranormal belief was found to be the best predictor of vitalism, but this time Traditional Paranormal Beliefs were associated with vitalistic responses whilst both intuitive and analytical thinking were unable to significantly predict classification. Results challenge previous findings, suggesting that vitalistic thinking may operate differently when applied to everyday causal reasoning. PMID:24094281

  17. Craniopharyngioma in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Zoicas, Flavius; Schöfl, Christof

    2012-01-01

    Craniopharyngiomas are slow growing benign tumors of the sellar and parasellar region with an overall incidence rate of approximately 1.3 per million. During adulthood there is a peak incidence between 40 and 44?years. There are two histopathological types, the adamantinomatous and the papillary type. The later type occurs almost exclusively in adult patients. The presenting symptoms develop over years and display a wide spectrum comprising visual, endocrine, hypothalamic, neurological, and neuropsychological manifestations. Currently, the main treatment option consists in surgical excision followed by radiation therapy in case of residual tumor. Whether gross total or partial resection should be preferred has to be balanced on an individual basis considering the extent of the tumor (e.g., hypothalamic invasion). Although the overall long-term survival is good it is often associated with substantial morbidity. Preexisting disorders are often permanent or even exacerbated by treatment. Endocrine disturbances need careful replacement and metabolic sequelae should be effectively treated. Regular follow-up by a multidisciplinary team is a prerequisite for optimal outcome of these patients. PMID:22654868

  18. Chemical communication in adult schistosomes.

    PubMed

    Haseeb, M A; Eveland, L K

    1986-08-01

    Lipids released bySchistosoma mansoni adult males attract females in vitro. Lipid release is modulated by the presence of other worms. AlthoughS. mansoni males release lipid when paired with females, the release is enhanced when they are separated.S. japonicum adults release more free sterols when incubated individually than when incubated together. Similarly, individually incubatedS. haematobium males release more free sterols than when incubated in groups. However,S. haematobium females incubated in groups release more free fatty acids than do equal numbers of males or pairs incubated in groups. There is evidence thatS. mansoni adult females concomitantly accumulate and release cholesterol in the absence of an exogenous supply, although de novo synthesis of cholesterol in schistosomes has not yet been demonstrated. Schistosomula and adult schistosomes incorporate exogenous lipids. Lipids are incorporated chiefly through the tegument. Cholesterol is transferred between males and females. PMID:24305887

  19. Diabetes: Unique to Older Adults

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... experience, even if they seem minor to you. Drug Interactions If you’re an older adult who ... medications, which can put you at risk for drug interactions. Here’s how to steer clear of problems: ...

  20. Computer acceptance of older adults.

    PubMed

    Nägle, Sibylle; Schmidt, Ludger

    2012-01-01

    Even though computers play a massive role in everyday life of modern societies, older adults, and especially older women, are less likely to use a computer, and they perform fewer activities on it than younger adults. To get a better understanding of the factors affecting older adults' intention towards and usage of computers, the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Usage of Technology (UTAUT) was applied as part of a more extensive study with 52 users and non-users of computers, ranging in age from 50 to 90 years. The model covers various aspects of computer usage in old age via four key constructs, namely performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influences, and facilitating conditions, as well as the variables gender, age, experience, and voluntariness it. Interestingly, next to performance expectancy, facilitating conditions showed the strongest correlation with use as well as with intention. Effort expectancy showed no significant correlation with the intention of older adults to use a computer. PMID:22317258

  1. Understanding Adult Overweight and Obesity

    MedlinePLUS

    ... resources ??. Alternate Language URL Understanding Adult Overweight and Obesity Page Content How can I tell if I ... National Diabetes Education Program. How are overweight and obesity treated? The best way to control your weight ...

  2. Learning from Native Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orr, Jeffrey A.

    2000-01-01

    Describes the Native American concept of the Medicine Wheel, which symbolizes the unity of mental, spiritual, physical, and emotional dimensions. Includes strategies for using it to cultivate a spiritual way of being in adult education. (SK)

  3. Serving Adult Learners with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polson, Cheryl J.; White, Warren J.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses how adult basic educators can respond to the mandates of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. Addresses remediation versus accommodation, disability identification, and how to choose and evaluate the effectiveness of accommodations. (JOW)

  4. Tethered Cord Syndrome in Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. M. Akay; Y. Er?ahin; Y. Çak?r

    2000-01-01

    Summary  ¶?Background. The tethered cord syndrome (TCS) consists of an abnormally low conus medullaris tethered by a thickened filum terminale or\\u000a various forms of spinal dysraphism. The adult variant of the syndrome seems not to be as rare as once thought.\\u000a \\u000a ?Method. This study includes 11 patients with a TCS. Clinical, radiological findings and outcome were reviewed in these adult patients

  5. Adult Stem and Progenitor Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geraerts, Martine; Verfaillie, Catherine M.

    The discovery of adult stem cells in most adult tissues is the basis of a number of clinical studies that are carried out, with therapeutic use of hematopoietic stem cells as a prime example. Intense scientific debate is still ongoing as to whether adult stem cells may have a greater plasticity than previously thought. Although cells with some features of embryonic stem cells that, among others, express Oct4, Nanog and SSEA1 are isolated from fresh tissue, it is not clear if the greater differentiation potential is acquired during cell culture. Moreover, adult more pluripotent cells do not have all pluripotent characteristics typical for embryonic stem cells. Recently, some elegant studies were published in which adult cells could be completely reprogrammed to embryonic stem cell-like cells by overexpression of some key transcription factors for pluripotency (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc). It will be interesting for the future to investigate the exact mechanisms underlying this reprogramming and whether similar transcription factor pathways are present and/or can be activated in adult more pluripotent stem cells.

  6. Severe sepsis in older adults.

    PubMed

    Umberger, Reba; Callen, Bonnie; Brown, Mary Lynn

    2015-01-01

    Severe sepsis may be underrecognized in older adults. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to review special considerations related to early detection of severe sepsis in older adults. Normal organ changes attributed to aging may delay early detection of sepsis at the time when interventions have the greatest potential to improve patient outcomes. Systems are reviewed for changes. For example, the cardiovascular system may have a limited or absent compensatory response to inflammation after an infectious insult, and the febrile response and recruitment of white blood cells may be blunted because of immunosenescence in aging. Three of the 4 hallmark responses (temperature, heart rate, and white blood cell count) to systemic inflammation may be diminished in older adults as compared with younger adults. It is important to consider that older adults may not always manifest the typical systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Atypical signs such as confusion, decreased appetite, and unsteady gait may occur before sepsis related organ failure. Systemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria and a comparison of organ failure criteria were reviewed. Mortality rates in sepsis and severe sepsis remain high and are often complicated by multiple organ failures. As the numbers of older adults increase, early identification and prompt treatment is crucial in improving patient outcomes. PMID:26039648

  7. Facilitating Adult Learning Unit Preparation Materials and

    E-print Network

    UNIT 2: Facilitating Adult Learning Unit Preparation Materials and Facilitator Guide #12; #12;Navigating for Success Facilitating Adult Learning f i Seven Steps of Planning - Facilitating Adult Learning to teaching. WHY: The Situation Adults tend to teach as they remember being taught. A common teaching method

  8. Picture Books for Young Adult Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborn, Sunya

    2001-01-01

    Notes that picture books for young adults are a great asset to reading and a useful tool for teachers. Considers how dramatic changes in children's and Young Adult publishing over the last decade have blurred the lines between children's and adult books. Discusses implications for teachers of young adults. Notes that picture books help students be…

  9. Policy Review on Adult Learning: The Adult Non-Formal Education Policy of Mali, West Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadio, Moussa

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the issue of policy development for adult learning in Mali, West Africa. On January 2007, the Malian government adopted the "Adult Non-formal Education Policy Document," which was intended to regulate the adult learning sector and federate the actions of policy makers, adult education providers, and adult learners. The…

  10. Adult Literacy and Education in America: Four Studies Based on the National Adult Literacy Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaestle, Carl F.; Campbell, Anne; Finn, Jeremy D.; Johnson, Sylvia T.; Mikulecky, Larry J.

    Based on the National Adult Literacy Survey of 1992, which described the literacy skills of adults in the United States (based on data drawn from a random sample of 13,600 adults across the United States, and from telephone interviews with additional adults and from other sources, with a total of 26,000 adult participants), this report contains…

  11. An overview of adult-learning processes.

    PubMed

    Russell, Sally S

    2006-10-01

    Part of being an effective instructor involves understanding how adults learn best. Theories of adult education are based on valuing the prior learning and experience of adults. Adult learners have different learning styles which must be assessed prior to initiating any educational session. Health care providers can maximize teaching moments by incorporating specific adult-learning principles and learning styles into their teaching strategies. PMID:17078322

  12. Young adults’ experiences with cancer

    PubMed Central

    Miedema, Baukje (Bo); Easley, Julie; Hamilton, Ryan

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the experiences with cancer of adults diagnosed when between 20 and 35 years old. DESIGN Qualitative study using semistructured interviews. SETTING Largest health care region in the province of New Brunswick. PARTICIPANTS Six men and 9 women cancer patients and survivors. METHOD Fifteen adults interviewed when between the ages of 20 and 43 representing a variety of cancers and stages of disease were recruited for this study. Interviews were guided by a set of open-ended questions and explored participants’ experiences with cancer from initial presentation of symptoms through to survivorship issues. MAIN FINDINGS The most important clinical issue that emerged from the analysis was that participants’ youth appeared to contribute to delays in diagnosis of cancer. These delays were attributed to either patients’ or physicians’ inaction. Some patients attributed their initial cancer symptoms to the adverse effects of alcohol or excessive partying; others feared a bad diagnosis and delayed seeking help. Family physicians frequently interpreted nonspecific symptoms as resulting from patients’ lifestyle choices and were reluctant to consider a diagnosis of cancer. Several family physicians reportedly believed that persistent symptoms could not be the result of cancer because patients were too young. CONCLUSION Although cancer is relatively rare in young adults, family physicians need to include it in differential diagnoses. Both patients and physicians tend to minimize cancer symptoms in young adults. Delays in diagnosis might not affect health outcomes, but can cause distress to young adults with cancer. PMID:17279205

  13. Older Adults Make Less Advantageous Decisions than Younger Adults: Cognitive and Psychological Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Fein, George; McGillivray, Shannon; Finn, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This study tested the hypotheses that older adults make less advantageous decisions than younger adults on the Iowa gambling task (IGT). Less advantageous decisions, as measured by the IGT, are characterized by choices that favor larger versus smaller immediate rewards, even though such choices may result in long-term negative consequences. The IGT, and measures of neuropsychological function, personality, and psychopathology were administered to 164 healthy adults 18–85 years of age. Older adults performed less advantageously on the IGT compared with younger adults. Additionally, a greater number of older adult’s IGT performances were classified as ‘impaired’ when compared to younger adults. Less advantageous decisions were associated with obsessive symptoms in older adults and with antisocial symptoms in younger adults. Performance on the IGT was positively associated with auditory working memory and psychomotor function in young adults, and in immediate memory in older adults. PMID:17445297

  14. Performance improvement CME: adult ADHD.

    PubMed

    Adler, Lenard A; Barkley, Russell A; Newcorn, Jeffrey H

    2011-04-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders and is now understood to be a lifelong condition for most individuals. Unfortunately, many adults with ADHD are not being diagnosed, possibly due to insufficient diagnostic criteria, the complex presentation of the disorder, and a reluctance by physicians to diagnose the disorder in adults. Additionally, many of those who have been diagnosed with ADHD do not receive adequate treatment despite the availability of established and effective agents. Performance Improvement CME (PI CME) is an educational activity in which clinicians retrospectively assess their current clinical practice, choose areas for improvement and implement interventions based on treatment guidelines and health care standards, and then re-evaluate their clinical practice to assess the improvements made. This PI CME activity focuses on improving the diagnosis and treatment of adult ADHD. PMID:21527121

  15. Prenatal Famine and Adult Health

    PubMed Central

    Lumey, L.H.; Stein, Aryeh D.; Susser, Ezra

    2013-01-01

    We review human studies on the relation between acute exposures to prenatal famine and adult physical and mental health. These studies are observational and include exposures to a famine environment by natural or man-made causes or, more commonly, from the interplay between natural and human factors. These natural experiments provide an opportunity to examine long-term outcomes after famine exposures by comparing exposed and nonexposed individuals. The studies show consistent associations between prenatal famine and adult body size, diabetes, and schizophrenia. For other measures of adult health, findings are less robust. A relation between prenatal famine and some reported epigenetic changes may provide a potential mechanism to explain specific associations. Much progress can be made if current separate studies are further analyzed with comparable definitions of exposures and outcomes and using common analytic strategies. PMID:21219171

  16. The Adult Learner and Student Veteran Undergraduate Experience Adult learner, nontraditional student, adult student, and student over traditional age are terms used

    E-print Network

    Boone, Randall B.

    The Adult Learner and Student Veteran Undergraduate Experience Adult learner, nontraditional student, adult student, and student over traditional age are terms used interchangeably in reference student, or may have a disability. Adult learners and veterans are a marginalized, student population

  17. The Future of Adult Education in the Military

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zacharakis, Jeffrey; Van Der Werff, Jay A.

    2012-01-01

    The future of adult education in the military is in many ways tied to the future of adult education. If adult educators limit their vision of what adult education is to adult learning principles, to facilitated learning, to adult basic education, and to training and education, they limit the potential of what they can do and how they do it. Adult

  18. Catastrophic events and older adults.

    PubMed

    Cloyd, Elizabeth; Dyer, Carmel B

    2010-12-01

    The plight of older adults during catastrophic events is a societal concern. Older persons have an increased prevalence of cognitive disorders, chronic illnesses, and mobility problems that limit their ability to cope. These disorders may result in a lack of mental capacity and the ability to discern when they should evacuate or resolve problems encountered during a catastrophe. Some older persons may have limited transportation options, and many of the elderly survivors are at increased risk for abuse, neglect, and exploitation. Recommendations for future catastrophic events include the development of a federal tracking system for elders and other vulnerable adults, the designation of separate shelter areas for elders and other vulnerable adults, and involvement of gerontological professionals in all aspects of emergency preparedness and care delivery, including training of frontline workers. Preparation through preevent planning that includes region-specific social services, medical and public health resources, volunteers, and facilities for elders and vulnerable adults is critical. Elders need to be protected from abuse and fraud during catastrophic events. A public health triage system for elders and other vulnerable populations in pre- and postdisaster situations is useful, and disaster preparedness is paramount. Communities and members of safety and rescue teams must address ethical issues before an event. When older adults are involved, consideration needs to be given to triage decision making, transporting those who are immobile, the care of older adults who receive palliative care, and the equitable distribution of resources. Nurses are perfectly equipped with the skills, knowledge, and training needed to plan and implement disaster preparedness programs. In keeping with the tradition of Florence Nightingale, nurses can assume several crucial roles in disaster preparedness for older adults. Nurses possess the ability to participate and lead community policy development, serve on rescue teams, perform patient assessments, and deliver care. Nurses are crucial to well-planned and executed programs for catastrophic events that affect older adults. Also, all health care providers involved must be aware of the physical and psychological ramifications of disaster relief. The health and resilience of disaster-relief teams depend on paying attention to signs and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder and seeking appropriate treatment should it occur. PMID:21095558

  19. Adult Wilms tumor: Case report

    PubMed Central

    Morabito, V.; Guglielmo, N.; Melandro, F.; Mazzesi, G.; Alesini, F.; Bosco, S.; Berloco, P.B.

    2014-01-01

    Wilms tumor (WT) occurs infrequently in adults. Even rarer is adult WT with extension by direct intravascular spread into the right side of the heart. The present report describes a WT with intracaval and intracardiac extension in a 38-year-young man. In addition, thrombus extension above the infrahepatic IVC represents a major technical topic for surgeons because of the possible occurrence of uncontrollable hemorrhages and tumor fragmentation. We report the results of a surgical approach to caval thrombosis including the isolation of the IVC from the liver as routinely performed during liver harvesting. The morphologic and immune-histochemical findings confirmed the diagnosis. PMID:25553532

  20. Adult Basic Education: Aligning Adult Basic Education and Postsecondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In 2007, the 80th Texas Legislature included a rider to the General Appropriations Act for the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board. The rider directed the agency to coordinate with the Texas Education Agency to develop and implement plans to align adult basic education with postsecondary education. The Coordinating Board, in collaboration…

  1. Adult Basic Education. Southeast Florida Training Center for Adult Literacy Educators Conference Proceedings (Miami, Florida, June 8, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polo, Blanca R., Comp.

    Adult education is an umbrella concept under which come various dimensions, including adult literacy, adult basic education, continued education, continued professional education, and adult vocational education. To be effective, an adult educator must realize that: (1) adults learn differently than children do; (2) adult education must develop…

  2. Prenatal stress and adult drug-seeking behavior: interactions with genes and relation to nondrug-related behavior.

    PubMed

    Kippin, Tod E; Campbell, Jaonnalee C; Ploense, Kyle; Knight, Chris P; Bagley, Jared

    2015-01-01

    Addiction inflicts large personal, social, and economic burdens, yet its etiology is poorly defined and effective treatments are lacking. As with other neuropsychiatric disorders, addiction is characterized by a core set of symptoms and behaviors that are believed to be influenced by complex gene-environment interactions. Our group focuses on the interaction between early stress and genetic background in determining addiction vulnerability. Prior work by our group and others has indicated that a history of prenatal stress (PNS) in rodents elevates adult drug seeking in a number of behavioral paradigms. The focus of the present chapter is to summarize work in the area of PNS and addiction models as well as our recent studies of PNS on drug seeking in different strains of mice as a strategy to dissect gene-environment interactions underlying cocaine addiction vulnerability. These studies indicate that ability of PNS to elevate adult cocaine seeking is strain dependent. Further, PNS also alters other nondrug behaviors in a fashion that is dependent on different strains and independent from the strain dependence of drug seeking. Thus, it appears that the ability of PNS to alter behavior related to different psychiatric conditions is orthogonal, with similar nonspecific susceptibility to prenatal stress across genetic backgrounds but with the genetic background determining the specific nature of the PNS effects. Finally, the advent of recombinant inbred mouse strains is allowing us to determine the genetic bases of these gene-environment interactions. Understanding these effects will have broad implications to determining the nature of vulnerability to addiction and perhaps other disorders. PMID:25287537

  3. LIBERAL STUDIES IN ADULT EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MARSH, A.I.

    ALTHOUGH LOCAL EDUCATION AUTHORITIES, THROUGH TECHNICAL COLLEGES AND EVENING INSTITUTES, ARE THE LARGEST PROVIDERS OF ADULT EDUCATION IN BRITAIN, LIBERAL STUDIES ARE DOMINATED BY THE UNIVERSITIES AND BY THE WORKERS' EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION (WEA). LOCAL EDUCATION AUTHORITIES HAVE TENDED TO FAVOR A NON-UNIVERSITY APPROACH BY PROVIDING CLASSES IN A…

  4. Adult Learning. ARIS Information Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Language Australia, Melbourne (Victoria). Adult Education Resource and Information Service.

    Adults may seek out learning at different times in their lives, for different reasons, and for vastly different purposes. Some of the reasons are to achieve pre-determined goals; to fill education gaps; to explore options and make choices; to develop personally; to perform a job or role better; or to enhance employment prospects. Learning itself…

  5. Exceptional Adult Advisory Council Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Michael; Alligood, Jay J.

    Based on the experiences of the Center for Community Education in Clay County, Florida, this handbook is intended to show how to integrate the needs of exceptional adults and the services designed for handicapped persons by including individuals in the planning process through their presence on advisory councils. Following an introduction that…

  6. Personal Health Maintenance for Adults

    PubMed Central

    Holbrook, John H.

    1984-01-01

    The practice of adult medicine provides many opportunities to prolong life, prevent disease and disability and promote health. Essential steps in this process include establishing patient rapport, obtaining a comprehensive data base, providing periodic health examinations for both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients and helping patients change unhealthy behavior. PMID:6395497

  7. Socioeconomic Outcomes from Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gooderham, Paul N.

    1991-01-01

    The degree to which age and gender influence completion of higher secondary education (HSE) and employment status was measured with a sample of 350 Norwegian adults. Application of a Status Attainment model revealed that post-HSE educational attainment is an important determinant of socioeconomic status for both men and women. (SK)

  8. The Economics of Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desjardins, Richard

    2013-01-01

    As the "Hamburg Declaration" makes clear, adult education (AE) is a key component of development strategies that seek to ensure the long-term well-being of nations. Yet, with few exceptions most countries systematically underinvest in AE. Of course, it is no easy task to achieve adequate investment levels that reflect an appropriate balance…

  9. Pain Assessment for Older Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ellen Flaherty

    WHY: Studies on pain in older adults (persons 65 years of age and older) have demonstrated that 25%-50% of community dwelling older people have persistent pain. Additionally, 45-80% of nursing home residents report pain that is often left untreated. Pain is strongly associated with depression and can result in decreased socialization, impaired ambulation and increased healthcare utilization and costs. Older

  10. Morphological Processing in Adult Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leikin, Mark; Hagit, Even Zur

    2006-01-01

    This study employed the masked-priming paradigm [Forster and Davis (J Exp Psychol bearn Mem Cogn 10: 680-698, 1984).], along with traditional methods of evaluation of morphological awareness and phonological processing, to obtain a finer-grained picture of the relationship between morphological abilities and reading in adult dyslexic readers.…

  11. Adult Literacy in Rural Pennsylvania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Askov, Eunice N.

    The rural work force has lower basic skills to supply labor for new jobs with higher literacy demands. At all levels of education the rural population is at a disadvantage compared with the urban population. One out of five rural adults in Pennsylvania has not continued education past the eighth grade. Among the costs to businesses from employee…

  12. Reaching Out to Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawley, Brenda

    1988-01-01

    Reviews demographic and health data on older Americans and describes services at the Topeka Public Library that are targeted to serve adults aged 75 and older, including selection and delivery of books to shut-ins and nursing homes, materials and information for the visually handicapped, and special programing. (8 references) (MES)

  13. Older Adults and Smell Loss

    MedlinePLUS

    ... flavors in food. Narrator: Maryann Perrett is an older adult who lost her sense of smell. Maryann: The type of smell problem I have is, I can't smell at all. I have no sense of ... on the lives of older people. Dr. Beauchamp: For older people, a loss ...

  14. Adult Children and Aging Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Jane E.

    This book was developed to assist counselors and other caregivers in working with adult children and their aging parents. The first chapter addresses normative developmental issues in later life. This includes the demography of aging, theories of aging, and attitudes toward older persons, along with suggestions for identifying at-risk populations,…

  15. Adult Education, Science and Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Paul A.

    1980-01-01

    As ethical and humanistic concerns are balanced with the effects of science and technology, technological literacy appears to be a primary goal of education. The special role of adult education is to bridge the gap between scientific change and human adaptation. (SK)

  16. Reversing Neurodevelopmental Disorders in Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dan Ehninger; Weidong Li; Kevin Fox; Michael P. Stryker; Alcino J. Silva

    2008-01-01

    Abnormalities in brain development, thought to be irreversible in adults, have long been assumed to underlie the neurological and psychiatric symptoms associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. Surprisingly, a number of recent animal model studies of neurodevelopmental disorders demonstrate that reversing the underlying molecular deficits can result in substantial improvements infunctioneveniftreatments are started in adulthood. These findings mark a paradigmatic change in

  17. Adult Mathematics Education and Commonsense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colleran, Noel; O'Donoghue, John

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between quantitative problem solving and commonsense has provided the basis for an expanding exploration for Colleran and O'Donoghue. For example the authors (Colleran et al., 2002, 2001) discovered the pivotal role commonsense plays in adult quantitative problem solving and suggest commonsense is an important "resource? in…

  18. Portfolio Careers in Adult Education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tara Fenwick

    Portfolio educators' are people engaged in adult education activities, who create portfolios of self-employed work arrangements to contract their skills in a variety of contexts. This qualitative study explores the personal experiences of negotiating teaching, research and programme planning activities as a 'portfolio educator', focusing on the life histories of twelve individuals in western Canada. This paper examines, within these

  19. Counseling the Young Adult Lesbian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Rhoda

    1980-01-01

    Focuses on problems faced by young adult lesbians. Suggests counselors should: (1) encourage the counselee to "dump"; (2) guide her in a decision on coming out; (3) explain the legal rights and restrictions; (4) provide ongoing support for those who socialize openly; and (5) publicly promote gay rights. (Author)

  20. Adult Use of Tobacco, 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1976

    In 1964, 1966, and 1970, studies were conducted among the adult (21 and over) population of the United States in order to determine attitudes, knowledge, and behavior related to the use of tobacco--especially cigarette smoking. With a lapse of five years since the last national study, it was necessary to determine what changes in behavior and…

  1. Adult Learning in the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This document contains four symposium papers on adult learning in the workplace. "The Relationship between Workplace Learning and Employee Satisfaction in Small Businesses" (Robert W. Rowden, Shamsuddin Ahmad) reports the results of a study of the nature and extent of HRD, level of job satisfaction among workers, and correlation between HRD…

  2. Technical and Adult Education Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West Virginia State Dept. of Education, Charleston.

    This annual review is a synthesis of the West Virginia Division of Technical and Adult Education Services programs and plans at the conclusion of fiscal year 1991. It begins with letters from the State Superintendent of Schools and Assistant State Superintendent. West Virginia Board of Education mission and goals and the division's programmatic…

  3. Disagreement between Adults and Children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Colin Phillips

    This paper is a study of the relationship between wh-movement andinflectional morphology in adults and children, focusing on what I will callwh-disagreement effects, and their relation to so-called root infinitives in earlychild language. These phenomena raise some interesting questions aboutlanguage learning and language learnability which I think have been overlookedin previous literature on the topic.

  4. Arts & Humanities in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Word's Worth: A Quarterly Newsletter of the Lifelong Learning Network, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This issue of a quarterly newsletter on lifelong learning focuses on the theme of the arts and humanities in adult literacy education. The following articles are included: (1) "In Defense of a Practical Education" (Earl Shorris); (2) "From the Program Director" (Elizabeth Bryant McCrary); (3) "Vermont Council on the Humanities: Book Discussion…

  5. Public libraries and adult learners

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda Ashcroft; Janet Farrow; Chris Watts

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present a discussion of three “grey” areas which emerged from a study on adult learning provision both within and outside public libraries in England – formal and informal learning, promotion and attracting learners, and evaluation and feedback. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper utilises a literature review, interviews with the regional agencies of

  6. Posterior fossa ependymomas in adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Davis; L. Symon

    1986-01-01

    Summary Sixteen patients with posterior fossa ependymomas are presented. This tumour is relatively uncommon in adults and is usually associated with a relatively “benign” course when compared with other posterior fossa glial tumours. The natural history and treatment of these tumours is discussed.

  7. Algebraic Thinking in Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manly, Myrna; Ginsburg, Lynda

    2010-01-01

    In adult education, algebraic thinking can be a sense-making tool that introduces coherence among mathematical concepts for those who previously have had trouble learning math. Further, a modeling approach to algebra connects mathematics and the real world, demonstrating the usefulness of math to those who have seen it as just an academic…

  8. Adult Education and the Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, John

    2008-01-01

    Due to the effects of global warming, writes Field, everyone now lives in times of plague, floods, and famine. While the UK government's track record on green issues is not all bad, still it is vulnerable to criticism. In this article, the author discusses what adult education has to offer to the environmental movement, despite existing…

  9. Retirement Reorientation: Senior Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bynum, Jack E.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Participation in the Senior Adult Education Program eases the transition from the primary occupational role into the retirement role. Intergenerational social distance appears to be minimal between older and younger college students, thus facilitating the sharing of a common campus. (Author/MFD)

  10. Adults with Learning Disabilities Redux.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerber, Paul J.

    2003-01-01

    This introductory article on adults with learning disabilities considers historical antecedents, the role of public policy (the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and the 1975 Education for All Handicapped Children Act), the movement within the field of learning disabilities emphasizing transition to adulthood, and the continuance of public policy…

  11. Cochlear Implantation in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Frank R.; Chien, Wade W.; Li, Lingsheng; Niparko, John K.; Francis, Howard W.

    2012-01-01

    Cochlear implants allow individuals with severe-to-profound hearing loss access to sound and spoken language. The number of older adults in the United States who are potential candidates for cochlear implantation is approximately 150,000 and will continue to increase with the aging of the population. Should cochlear implantation (CI) be routinely recommended for these older adults, and do these individuals benefit from CI? We reviewed our 12 year experience with cochlear implantation in adults ?60 years (n = 445) at Johns Hopkins to investigate the impact of CI on speech understanding and to identify factors associated with speech performance. Complete data on speech outcomes at baseline and 1 year post-CI were available for 83 individuals. Our results demonstrate that cochlear implantation in adults ?60 years consistently improved speech understanding scores with a mean increase of 60. 0% (S. D. 24. 1) on HINT sentences in quiet . The magnitude of the gain in speech scores was negatively associated with age at implantation such that for every increasing year of age at CI the gain in speech scores was 1. 3 percentage points less (95% CI: 0. 6 – 1. 9) after adjusting for age at hearing loss onset. Conversely, individuals with higher pre-CI speech scores (HINT scores between 40–60%) had significantly greater post-CI speech scores by a mean of 10. 0 percentage points (95% CI: 0. 4 – 19. 6) than those with lower pre-CI speech scores (HINT <40%) after adjusting for age at CI and age at hearing loss onset. These results suggest that older adult CI candidates who are younger at implantation and with higher preoperative speech scores obtain the highest speech understanding scores after cochlear implantation with possible implications for current Medicare policy. Finally, we provide an extended discussion of the epidemiology and impact of hearing loss in older adults. Future research of CI in older adults should expand beyond simple speech outcomes to take into account the broad cognitive, social, and physical functioning outcomes that are likely detrimentally impacted by hearing loss and may be mitigated by cochlear implantation. PMID:22932787

  12. Cochlear implantation in older adults.

    PubMed

    Lin, Frank R; Chien, Wade W; Li, Lingsheng; Clarrett, Danisa M; Niparko, John K; Francis, Howard W

    2012-09-01

    Cochlear implants allow individuals with severe to profound hearing loss access to sound and spoken language. The number of older adults in the United States who are potential candidates for cochlear implantation (CI) is approximately 150,000 and will continue to increase with the aging of the population. Should CI be routinely recommended for these older adults, and do these individuals benefit from CI? We reviewed our 12-year experience with CI in adults aged ?60 years (n = 445) at Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions to investigate the impact of CI on speech understanding and to identify factors associated with speech performance. Complete data on speech outcomes at baseline and 1 year post-CI were available for 83 individuals. Our results demonstrate that CI in adults aged ?60 years consistently improved speech understanding scores, with a mean increase of 60.0% (SD 24.1) on HINT (Hearing in Noise Test) sentences in quiet. The magnitude of the gain in speech scores was negatively associated with age at implantation, such that for every increasing year of age at CI the gain in speech scores was 1.3 percentage points less (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.6-1.9) after adjusting for age at hearing loss onset. Conversely, individuals with higher pre-CI speech scores (HINT scores between 40% and 60%) had significantly greater post-CI speech scores by a mean of 10.0 percentage points (95% CI, 0.4-19.6) than those with lower pre-CI speech scores (HINT <40%) after adjusting for age at CI and age at hearing loss onset. These results suggest that older adult CI candidates who are younger at implantation and with higher preoperative speech scores obtain the highest speech understanding scores after CI, with possible implications for current United States Medicare policy. Finally, we provide an extended discussion of the epidemiology and impact of hearing loss in older adults. Future research of CI in older adults should expand beyond simple speech outcomes to take into account the broad cognitive, social, and physical functioning outcomes that are likely detrimentally affected by hearing loss and may be mitigated by CI. PMID:22932787

  13. Weakened Immune System and Adult Vaccination

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Adults with Special Health Conditions Share Compartir Weakened Immune System and Adult Vaccination Vaccines are especially critical for people with health conditions such as a weakened immune system. If you have cancer or other immunocompromising conditions, ...

  14. Comparative Adult Education Research: Methods and Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siddiqui, Dilnawaz A.

    1993-01-01

    Comparative adult education research must take into account the role of beliefs, attitudes, and behavior in determining actions. Comparison of adult education practices should use a cultural rather than a political perspective. (SK)

  15. The day of your surgery - adult

    MedlinePLUS

    Same day surgery - adult; Surgical procedure - adult ... Learn about what to expect on the day of surgery. You will feel better if you are prepared. The doctor’s office will let you know what time you should arrive on ...

  16. Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in 2011. You can learn more about incidence, mortality, and survival for young adults with cancer in the Snapshot of Adolescent and Young Adult Cancers . Finding a Doctor and Hospital View this video on YouTube. Experts in the ...

  17. JAMA Patient Page: Fitness for Older Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... American Medical Association JAMA PATIENT PAGE Fitness for Older Adults K eeping active and remaining fit can help ... Fitness and physical activity are safe for most older adults—even for those with stable chronic conditions, such ...

  18. High Blood Pressure: Unique to Older Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    High Blood Pressure Hypertension Unique to Older Adults This section provides information to help older adults and their caregivers consider their disease or condition in conjunction with other health issues. ...

  19. JAMA Patient Page: Frailty in Older Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... American Medical Association JAMA PATIENT PAGE Frailty in Older Adults F railty , commonly associated with aging, includes several characteristics (see below). Frail older adults are weak, often have many complex medical problems, ...

  20. Four Medication Safety Tips for Older Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Consumers Consumer Updates Four Medication Safety Tips for Older Adults Search the Consumer Updates Section Get Consumer Updates ... More Information Medicines and You: A Guide for Older Adults NIH Senior Health National Institute on Aging More ...

  1. Healthy Weights for Healthy Older Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... For Women For Seniors Healthy Weights for Healthy Older Adults Published June 04, 2014 Print Email Men and ... dramatic difference in the quality of life for older adults. You are never too old to enjoy the ...

  2. Heart Failure: Unique to Older Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    Heart Failure Unique to Older Adults This section provides information to help older adults and their caregivers ... or maintain quality of life. Urinary Incontinence and Heart Failure If you have heart failure, you may ...

  3. Anesthesia for Adults Having Eye Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 3/2015 Eye Terms & Conditions Most Common Searches Adult Strabismus Amblyopia Cataract Conjunctivitis Corneal Abrasions Dilating Eye Drops Lazy ... Screening Vision Screening Recommendations Loading... Most Common Searches Adult ... Abrasions Dilating Eye Drops Lazy ...

  4. Treatment Options for Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 2 treatment phases of adult AML are: Remission induction therapy : This is the first phase of treatment. ... adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML) during the remission induction phase depends on the subtype of AML and ...

  5. Diagnosis of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    Diagnosis of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Adults: A Clinical Practice Guideline From the American College of Physicians The full report is titled “Diagnosis of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Adults: A Clinical Practice Guideline From ...

  6. Idiopathic Adult Growth Hormone Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    GH secretion is controlled by hypothalamic as well as intrapituitary and peripheral signals, all of which converge upon the somatotroph, resulting in integrated GH synthesis and secretion. Enabling an accurate diagnosis of idiopathic adult GH deficiency (IAGHD) is challenged by the pulsatility of GH secretion, provocative test result variability, and suboptimal GH assay standardization. The spectrum between attenuated GH secretion associated with the normal aging process and with obesity and truly well-defined IAGHD is not distinct and may mislead the diagnosis. Adult-onset GHD is mainly caused by an acquired pituitary deficiency, commonly including prior head/neck irradiation, or an expanding pituitary mass causing functional somatotroph compression. To what extent rare cryptic causes account for those patients seemingly classified as IAGHD is unclear. About 15% of patients with adult GHD and receiving GH replacement in open-label surveillance studies are reported as being due to an idiopathic cause. These patients may also reflect a pool of subjects with an as yet to be determined occult defect, or those with unclear or incomplete medical histories (including forgotten past sports head injury or motor vehicle accident). Therefore, submaximal diagnostic evaluation likely leads to an inadvertent diagnosis of IAGHD. In these latter cases, adherence to rigorous biochemical diagnostic criteria and etiology exclusion may result in reclassification of a subset of these patients to a distinct known acquired etiology, or as GH-replete. Accordingly, rigorously verified IAGHD likely comprises less than 10% of adult GHD patients, an already rare disorder. Regardless of etiology, patients with adult GHD, including those with IAGHD, exhibit a well-defined clinical phenotype including increased fat mass, loss of lean muscle mass, decreased bone mass, and enhanced cardiac morbidity. Definition of unique efficacy and dosing parameters for GH replacement and resultant therapeutic efficacy markers in true IAGHD requires prospective study. PMID:23539718

  7. Idiopathic adult growth hormone deficiency.

    PubMed

    Melmed, Shlomo

    2013-06-01

    GH secretion is controlled by hypothalamic as well as intrapituitary and peripheral signals, all of which converge upon the somatotroph, resulting in integrated GH synthesis and secretion. Enabling an accurate diagnosis of idiopathic adult GH deficiency (IAGHD) is challenged by the pulsatility of GH secretion, provocative test result variability, and suboptimal GH assay standardization. The spectrum between attenuated GH secretion associated with the normal aging process and with obesity and truly well-defined IAGHD is not distinct and may mislead the diagnosis. Adult-onset GHD is mainly caused by an acquired pituitary deficiency, commonly including prior head/neck irradiation, or an expanding pituitary mass causing functional somatotroph compression. To what extent rare cryptic causes account for those patients seemingly classified as IAGHD is unclear. About 15% of patients with adult GHD and receiving GH replacement in open-label surveillance studies are reported as being due to an idiopathic cause. These patients may also reflect a pool of subjects with an as yet to be determined occult defect, or those with unclear or incomplete medical histories (including forgotten past sports head injury or motor vehicle accident). Therefore, submaximal diagnostic evaluation likely leads to an inadvertent diagnosis of IAGHD. In these latter cases, adherence to rigorous biochemical diagnostic criteria and etiology exclusion may result in reclassification of a subset of these patients to a distinct known acquired etiology, or as GH-replete. Accordingly, rigorously verified IAGHD likely comprises less than 10% of adult GHD patients, an already rare disorder. Regardless of etiology, patients with adult GHD, including those with IAGHD, exhibit a well-defined clinical phenotype including increased fat mass, loss of lean muscle mass, decreased bone mass, and enhanced cardiac morbidity. Definition of unique efficacy and dosing parameters for GH replacement and resultant therapeutic efficacy markers in true IAGHD requires prospective study. PMID:23539718

  8. Participation in Adult Education: Attitudes and Barriers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeren, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we control the intention theory of Fishbein and Ajzen (1980) for the participation in an adult education course. Based on the Flemish Eurostat Adult Education Survey, we reveal that participants in adult education have a more positive attitude towards learning and that within the group of non-participants, those who formulate an…

  9. Adults as Learners: Proceedings of a Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bortner, Rayman W., Ed.; And Others

    The proceedings consist of 11 papers grouped in two major categories: the context of adult learning (social significance and fact and fiction about adult learning) and the utilization of learning models for adult instruction. Contributors are Floyd B. Fischer, George L. Maddox, Rolf H. Monge, Eric F. Gardner, Arthur W. Combs, William J. Hoyer,…

  10. Wesleyan Adult Fitness Program Participant Feedback Form

    E-print Network

    Royer, Dana

    Wesleyan Adult Fitness Program Participant Feedback Form By responding to the following questions involvement in the Wesleyan Adult Fitness Program. We appreciate your assistance. General Participant been participating in Wesleyan Adult Fitness programming? This is my first year 2 years 3 - 5 years 5

  11. A European Vision for Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waddington, Sue; Tuckett, Alan; Boucher, Fiona

    2012-01-01

    The National Institute of Adult Continuing Education (NIACE) is the UK national coordinator for the European Agenda for Adult Learning, with the challenge of creating a coherent message across the four countries to inform European cooperation on adult learning. To start the debate, the journal staff asked Sue Waddington, Alan Tuckett, and Fiona…

  12. Snake River sockeye salmon estimated adult LGR

    E-print Network

    Snake River sockeye salmon # smolts estimated adult LGR migrating from returns returns Valley-up of the adults returning in 2009, allows us to consider SAR's for sockeye salmon relative to the percent to LGR smolt- to-adult return is 0.08% for the 2005 outmigration. For the 2007 outmigration, the valley

  13. Strengths and Satisfaction across the Adult Lifespan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaacowitz, Derek M.; Vaillant, George E.; Seligman, Martin E. P.

    2003-01-01

    Positive psychology has recently developed a classification of human strengths (Peterson & Seligman, in press). We aimed to evaluate these strengths by investigating the strengths and life satisfaction in three adult samples recruited from the community (young adult, middle-aged, and older adult), as well as in the surviving men of the Grant study…

  14. Adult Type of Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J.-J. Martin

    1991-01-01

    Adult neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL), also called Kufs' disease, is clinically distinct from the other NCLs. It is a rare condition which is difficult to diagnose. More than 50% of the reported cases of Kufs' disease are not adult NCL and correspond very likely to a heterogeneous spectrum of lipidoses. Various clinical and genetic phenotypes of adult NCL may be

  15. Beyond Rhetoric: Adult Learning Policies and Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    Drawing on the experience of Canada, Denmark, Finland, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom, this document identifies effective adult education policies and practices. The following are among the topics discussed: (1) issues in adult learning and why adult learning is important; (2) patterns of participation and…

  16. The Retarded Adult in the Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Elias

    The discussion of a series of questions with case illustrations delineates the problems and possibilities of helping retarded adults become valuable, productive members of society. Among topics considered are the definition of retarded adults in the community, the need for concern, and community evaluation and needs of the retarded adult. Also…

  17. Adult Education and Political and Social Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mwanakatwe, J. M.

    Continuing education of adults plays a vital role in national development and in promoting political and social change. Ways in which adult education affects political change include: increasing the literacy of adults so that they can become responsible citizens; unifying multilingual, multiracial societies through the teaching of English;…

  18. Adult Literacy. Cuyahoga County Data Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Urban Poverty and Community Development (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    There are no direct measures of adult literacy in Cuyahoga County. Instead, this report uses estimates based on a statistical model derived from the National Survey of Adult Literacy. Adult literacy levels range from Level 1 (the most basic) to Level 5 (the most complex). People with Level 1 literacy are at a severe disadvantage in the sense that…

  19. Adult Literacy: Issues for Policy and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beder, Hal

    Based on three studies of adult literacy in Iowa, this book identifies policy issues raised by research on adult literacy and recommends solutions. It also examines adult literacy education from the perspective of the learners themselves in order to inform improved practice. The book addresses six basic questions that are the topics of the first…

  20. Children's Representation of Child and Adult Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitneva, Stanka A.

    2010-01-01

    Do children think that adult knowledge subsumes or only partially overlaps child knowledge? Sixty-four 4- and 6-year-old children were asked either whether a child and an adult know the answers to questions tapping adult- and child-specific knowledge (Experiment 1) or to whom each question should be addressed (Experiment 2). Children were also…

  1. Older Adults and Gambling: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ariyabuddhiphongs, Vanchai

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses the social cognitive theory model to review the literature on older adult gambling, and related personal and environment characteristics. Results show that lottery is the kind of gambling most frequently played by older adults, followed by casino games. Older adults take trips to casinos to socialize, find excitement, and win…

  2. The Emerging City and Higher Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board, Atlanta, GA.

    To meet the challenge of a growing urban population with more older members and more leisure time, higher adult education must concern itself with values, attitudes, and understanding as opposed to simple skills, facts, and information; and new methods for deriving objectives must be developed. Higher adult education should be liberal adult

  3. Suggestions for a Realistic Adult Education Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coombs, Philip H.

    1985-01-01

    Five sets of implementation problems of adult education are examined: (1) diffusion of organizational responsibility, (2) lack of an integrated approach, (3) aims and priorities of adult education and the lack of learner motivation, (4) resource requirements, and (5) the imposition by formal education of constraints upon adult education. (RM)

  4. Learning Havens for Stressed Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seay, Sandra E.

    2005-01-01

    Having stressful workdays is not the sole prerogative of adult students enrolled in educational leadership programs. According to a report released by the American Institute of Stress in 2002, 80% of adult workers felt stress in the workplace. From this it can be assumed that a certain amount of stress accompanies every adult who enters an evening…

  5. Fire Safety Checklist for Older Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    A U.S. Fire Administration Fire Safety Checklist for Older Adults FA-221/July 2012 Older adults (age 65 and older) are more than twice ... die in a fire than the general population. Older adults have a higher risk of injury from fires. ...

  6. Safeguarding Children and Vulnerable Adults 1. Introduction

    E-print Network

    Anderson, Jim

    1 Safeguarding Children and Vulnerable Adults 1. Introduction 2. Definition & Legislation 3. Scope are likely to be a) vulnerable adults or b) children. The welfare and protection from abuse of vulnerable adults and children is paramount and central to this policy. A multi-agency approach is recommended

  7. Adult Students in the College Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Thomas S.; Sturdivant, V. Ann; Smith, Howard W., Jr.

    This paper examines what is known (and not known) about adult college students. It reports on a study which compared different age groups in different types of institutions and reviews the research about how adults learn and methodologies for teaching adults. The study compared age distributions at four Texas institutions: the University of North…

  8. The Craft of Teaching Adults. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barer-Stein, Thelma, Ed.; Kompf, Michael, Ed.

    This book, which is intended as a text for future and experienced adult educators, examines current theories and best practices in adult education. The book consists of 20 chapters written by prominent practitioners in the field of adult education. The chapter titles and authors are as follows: "Teachers Sharing Experiences" (James A. Draper);…

  9. The Adult Learner: Some Things We Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogarty, Robin J.; Pete, Brian M.

    2007-01-01

    This book addresses the "warrior" who rises to the challenge of teaching the adult learner. The discussion is designed as a catalyst for dialogue about the adult learner and to uncover the complexities of teaching this rare and riveting species. This book is organized around three interlocking themes: some things we know about the adult learner;…

  10. Research access to adolescents and young adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eileen Savage; Sinead McCarron

    2009-01-01

    Gaining research access to adolescents and young adults is not straightforward and involves layers of negotiation and administration. Experiences of accessing adolescents and young adults aged 13–21 years are described in this article. Issues raised for consideration are: identifying clinical gatekeepers; seeking ethical approval; making direct contact with adolescents and young adults (hereafter referred to as young people); and dealing

  11. Research access to adolescents and young adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sinead McCarron; Catherine McAuley

    Gaining research access to adolescents and young adults is not straightforward and involves layers of negotiation and administration. Experiences of accessing adolescents and young adults aged 13-21 years are described in this article. Issues raised for consideration are: identifying clinical gatekeepers; seeking ethical approval; making direct contact with adolescents and young adults (hereafter referred to as young people); and dealing

  12. Vocational and Adult Education in Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Wieringen, Fons, Ed.; Attwell, Graham, Ed.

    This book contains 25 papers on vocational and adult education in Europe and the United States. The following papers are included: "Vocational and Adult Education in Europe: Introduction to the Volume" (Fons van Wieringen, Graham Attwell); "Introduction to Section 1: Markets and Institutions in Vocational and Adult Education" (Fons van Wieringen);…

  13. Geometry in the Adult Education Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markus, Nancy

    2001-01-01

    For many adults, geometry is a mathematics topic that immediately makes sense to them and gives them confidence in their ability to learn, while other adult learners identify geometry with failure. Most adults, however, do recognize the need for measurement, and many have a basic understanding of measurement concepts, although they may need to…

  14. Adult Education in the Urban Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Larry G.

    2004-01-01

    Context is vitally important for urban adult education because it tends to create physical, psychological, and sociocultural distance between and among learners and various providers of adult and continuing education programs, thereby creating barriers and the differential provision of adult learning opportunities for some urban populations.

  15. 78 FR 32116 - TRICARE Young Adult

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ...DOD-2011-HA-0029] TRICARE Young Adult AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, DoD...FY11). It establishes the TRICARE Young Adult (TYA) program to provide an extended...purchase worldwide. TYA is similar to young adult coverage under the Patient Protection...

  16. Museums and the Education of Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chadwick, Alan, Ed.; Stannett, Annette, Ed.

    This book, which is intended for individuals involved in the education of adults and museum education, explores the potential role of museums in creation of a learning society, possibilities for collaboration between museums and adult education providers, access to museum resources by adult learners, and training and staff development. The…

  17. Physical Criteria for Adult Learning Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Sally

    The development of learning environments especially for adults has been neglected and research in planning such environments is fragmented and minimal. There is general agreement that facilities for adults should have an aura of adulthood to contribute to an adult's feeling of ease, confidence, and capability; that they should be flexible in room…

  18. Adolescent and Young Adult (AYA) Cancers Quiz

    MedlinePLUS

    ... treatment options for cancers found in pediatric and adult patients. Learn more about treatment options for adolescent patients with ... to 39 who have cancer. Where can I learn more about National Young Adult Cancer Awareness Week®? National Young Adult Cancer Awareness ...

  19. Raising "Hot Topics" through Young Adult Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groenke, Susan; Maples, Joellen; Henderson, Jill

    2010-01-01

    While young adult literature increases adolescents' motivation to read, and adolescents choose to read young adult novels over more canonical works when given opportunities to choose, the authors present yet another reason for teaching young adult literature in the middle school classroom: it provides a medium through which adolescents and their…

  20. Adult Promiscuity Following Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert J. Timms; Patrick Connors

    1992-01-01

    Sexual abuse happens to approximately one in three females and one in five males before age eighteen. This abuse produces many behavioral, emotional, and physical problems in adult life. One such consequence is adult sexual promiscuity. Anxiety which arises over childhood abuse may be dealt with by compulsive or addictive behaviors. Repressed or forgotten abuse may manifest itself in adult