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Intentional genetic introgression influences survival of adults and subadults in a small, inbred felid population.  


1. Inbreeding and low genetic diversity can cause reductions in individual fitness and increase extinction risk in animal populations. Intentional introgression, achieved by releasing genetically diverse individuals into inbred populations, has been used as a conservation tool to improve demographic performance in endangered populations. 2. By the 1980s, Florida panthers (Puma concolor coryi) had been reduced to a small, inbred population that appeared to be on the brink of extinction. In 1995, female pumas from Texas (P. c. stanleyana) were released in occupied panther range as part of an intentional introgression programme to restore genetic variability and improve demographic performance of panthers. 3. We used 25 years (1981-2006) of continuous radiotelemetry and genetic data to estimate and model subadult and adult panther survival and cause-specific mortality to provide rigorous sex and age class-specific survival estimates and evaluate the effect of the introgression programme on these parameters. 4. Genetic ancestry influenced annual survival of subadults and adults after introgression, as F(1) generation admixed panthers ( = 0·98) survived better than pre-introgression type panthers ( = 0·77) and other admixed individuals ( = 0·82). Furthermore, heterozygosity was higher for admixed panthers relative to pre-introgression type panthers and positively influenced survival. 5. Our results are consistent with hybrid vigour; however, extrinsic factors such as low density of males in some areas of panther range may also have contributed to higher survival of F(1) panthers. Regardless, improved survival of F(1) subadults and adults likely contributed to the numerical increase in panthers following introgression, and our results indicate that intentional admixture, achieved here by releasing individuals from another population, appears to have been successful in improving demographic performance in this highly endangered population. PMID:21338353

Benson, John F; Hostetler, Jeffrey A; Onorato, David P; Johnson, Warren E; Roelke, Melody E; O'Brien, Stephen J; Jansen, Deborah; Oli, Madan K



Maternal genotype affects adult offspring lipid, obesity, and diabetes phenotypes in LGXSM recombinant inbred strains.  


Maternal effects on offspring phenotypes occur because mothers in many species provide an environment for their developing young. Although these factors are correctly "environmental" with respect to the offspring genome, their variance may have both a genetic and an environmental basis in the maternal generation. Here, reciprocal crosses between C57BL/6J and 10 LGXSM recombinant inbred (RI) strains were performed, and litters were divided at weaning into high-fat and low-fat dietary treatments. Differences between reciprocal litters were used to measure genetic maternal effects on offspring phenotypes. Nearly all traits, including weekly body weights and adult blood serum traits, show effects indicative of genetic variation in maternal effects across RI strains, allowing the quantitative trait loci involved to be mapped. Although much of the literature on maternal effects relates to early life traits, we detect strong and significant maternal effects on traits measured at adulthood (as much as 10% of the trait variance at 17 or more weeks after weaning). We also found an interaction affecting adult phenotype between the effects of maternal care between RI strain mothers and C57BL/6J mothers and a later environmental factor (dietary fat intake) for some age-specific weights. PMID:15897602

Jarvis, Joseph P; Kenney-Hunt, Jane; Ehrich, Thomas H; Pletscher, L Susan; Semenkovich, Clay F; Cheverud, James M



Dynamics of cell proliferation in the adult dentate gyrus of two inbred strains of mice  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The output potential of proliferating populations in either the developing or the adult nervous system is critically dependent on the length of the cell cycle (T(c)) and the size of the proliferating population. We developed a new approach for analyzing the cell cycle, the 'Saturate and Survive Method' (SSM), that also reveals the dynamic behaviors in the proliferative population and estimates of the size of the proliferating population. We used this method to analyze the proliferating population of the adult dentate gyrus in 60 day old mice of two inbred strains, C57BL/6J and BALB/cByJ. The results show that the number of cells labeled by exposure to BUdR changes dramatically with time as a function of the number of proliferating cells in the population, the length of the S-phase, cell division, the length of the cell cycle, dilution of the S-phase label, and cell death. The major difference between C57BL/6J and BALB/cByJ mice is the size of the proliferating population, which differs by a factor of two; the lengths of the cell cycle and the S-phase and the probability that a newly produced cell will die within the first 10 days do not differ in these two strains. This indicates that genetic regulation of the size of the proliferating population is independent of the genetic regulation of cell death among those newly produced cells. The dynamic changes in the number of labeled cells as revealed by the SSM protocol also indicate that neither single nor repeated daily injections of BUdR accurately measure 'proliferation.'.

Hayes, N. L.; Nowakowski, R. S.



Intentional genetic introgression influences survival of adults and subadults in a small, inbred felid population  

E-print Network

populations. 2. By the 1980s, Florida panthers (Puma concolor coryi) had been reduced to a small, inbred popu- lation that appeared to be on the brink of extinction. In 1995, female pumas from Texas (P. c. stanleyana

Oli, Madan K.


Communal Nesting Increases Pup Growth But Has Limited Effects on Adult Behavior and Neurophysiology in Inbred Mice  

PubMed Central

Laboratory mice preferentially rear their offspring in communal nests (CN), with all mothers contributing to maternal care and feeding of all the pups. Previous studies using primarily outbred mice have shown that offspring reared under CN conditions may display increased preweaning growth rates and differences in adult behavior and neurobiology compared with mice reared under single-nesting (SN; one dam with her litter) conditions. Here we compared pup mortality; weaning and adult body weights; adult behavior; and gene expression in the hippocampus and frontal cortex between C57BL/6J, DBA/2J and 129x1/SvJ mice reared by using CN (3 dams and their litters sharing a single nest) or SN. Male and female pups of all 3 strains reared in CN cages showed higher body weight at weaning than did SN pups of the same strain, with no significant difference in pup mortality between groups. Adult male offspring reared in CN showed no differences in any behavioral test when compared with SN offspring. Combining CN dams and litters after parturition revealed greater cortical brain-derived neurotropic factor expression in adult male C57BL/6J offspring and cortical glucocorticoid receptor expression in adult male C57BL/6J and 129x1/SvJ offspring as compared with SN offspring of the same strain. Communal rearing can enhance juvenile growth rates but does not change adult behavior in inbred mouse strains, although potential effects on adult neurophysiology are possible. PMID:24602541

Heiderstadt, Kathleen M; Vandenbergh, David J; Gyekis, Joseph P; Blizard, David A



Adult stem cells from bone marrow (MSCs) isolated from different strains of inbred mice vary in surface epitopes, rates of proliferation, and differentiation potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

For reasons that are not apparent, it has been difficult to isolate and expand the adult stem cells referred to as mesenchy- mal stem cells or marrow stromal cells (MSCs) from murine bone marrow. We developed a protocol that provides rap- idly expanding MSCs from 5 strains of inbred mice. The MSCs obtained from 5 different strains of mice were

Alexandra Peister; Jason A. Mellad; Benjamin L. Larson; Brett M. Hall; Laura F. Gibson; Darwin J. Prockop



Measuring Relatedness between Inbred Individuals.  


Genetic relatedness between individuals is an important measure in many areas of biology. However, some relatedness measures for use with molecular (allele) data assume that the individuals themselves are not inbred. Here, we present a new measure of relatedness based on the different modes of identity-by-descent for alleles that has an upper bound of 1 even when the individuals being compared are themselves inbred. This new measure is compared to several other measures of relatedness using several simple examples and pedigree data from the wolf population in Isle Royale National Park. PMID:25472983

Hedrick, Philip W; Lacy, Robert C



RI-INBRE: College of Pharmacy: Video Conferencing Tutorial  

E-print Network

RI-INBRE: College of Pharmacy: Video;RI-INBRE: College of Pharmacy: Moving the Cart the center of the cart. #12;RI-INBRE: College of Pharmacy:

Rhode Island, University of


Identification of inbred strains of mice, Mus musculus . I. Genetic control of inbred strains of mice using starch gel electrophoresis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifteen biochemical markers were tested in 30 inbred strains of mice to control the genetic constitution of each strain. Discrepancies in pattern from “Standardized Nomenclature for Inbred Strains of Mice” are reported and discussed.

H.-H. Krog



Comprehensive genotyping of the USA national maize inbred seed bank  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The germplasm bank at the USDA-ARS North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station (NCRPIS) in Ames, Iowa, preserves maize inbred lines from breeding programs from all over the world, including some of the key lines from the breeding history of maize. We genotyped 2,815 maize inbred accessions, mo...


Uptake and distribution of cadmium in maize inbred lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genotypic variation in uptake and distribution of cadmium (Cd) was studied in 19 inbred lines of maize (Zea mays L.). The inbred lines were grown for 27 days on an in situ Cd-contaminated sandy soil or for 20 days on nutrient solution culture with 10 µg Cd L-1. The Cd concentrations in the shoots showed large genotypic variation, ranging from

P. J. Florijn; M. L. VAN BEUSICHEM



The Genomes of Recombinant Inbred Lines  

PubMed Central

Recombinant inbred lines (RILs) can serve as powerful tools for genetic mapping. Recently, members of the Complex Trait Consortium proposed the development of a large panel of eight-way RILs in the mouse, derived from eight genetically diverse parental strains. Such a panel would be a valuable community resource. The use of such eight-way RILs will require a detailed understanding of the relationship between alleles at linked loci on an RI chromosome. We extend the work of Haldane and Waddington on two-way RILs and describe the map expansion, clustering of breakpoints, and other features of the genomes of multiple-strain RILs as a function of the level of crossover interference in meiosis. PMID:15545647

Broman, Karl W.



Genetic architecture of adiposity in the cross of LG\\/J and SM\\/J inbred mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The genetic basis of variation in obesity in human populations is thought to be owing to many genes of relatively small effect\\u000a and their interactions. The LG\\/J by SM\\/J intercross of mouse inbred strains provides an excellent model system in which to\\u000a investigate multigenic obesity. We previously mapped a large number of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting adult body

James M. Cheverud; Ty T. Vaughn; L. Susan Pletscher; Andrea C. Peripato; Emily S. Adams; Christopher F. Erikson; Kelly J. King-Ellison



Cytoarchitecture and Transcriptional Profiles of Neocortical Malformations in Inbred Mice  

PubMed Central

Malformations of neocortical development are associated with cognitive dysfunction and increased susceptibility to epileptogenesis. Rodent models are widely used to study neocortical malformations and have revealed important genetic and environmental mechanisms that contribute to neocortical development. Interestingly, several inbred mice strains commonly used in behavioral, anatomical, and/or physiological studies display neocortical malformations. In the present report we examine the cytoarchitecture and myeloarchitecture of the neocortex of 11 inbred mouse strains and identified malformations of cortical development, including molecular layer heterotopia, in all but one strain. We used in silico methods to confirm our observations and determined the transcriptional profiles of cells found within heterotopia. These data indicate cellular and transcriptional diversity present in cells in malformations. Furthermore, the presence of dysplasia in nearly every inbred strain examined suggests that malformations of neocortical development are a common feature in the neocortex of inbred mice. PMID:18308707

Ramos, Raddy L.; Smith, Phoebe T.; DeCola, Christopher; Tam, Danny; Corzo, Oscar



Wild-derived inbred mouse strains have short telomeres  

PubMed Central

Telomere length and telomerase activity directly affect the replicative capacity of primary human cells. Some have suggested that telomere length influences organismal lifespan. We compared telomere length distributions in a number of inbred and outbred established mouse strains with those of strains recently derived from wild mice. Telomere length was considerably shorter in wild-derived strains than in the established strains. We found no correlation of telomere length with lifespan, even among closely related inbred mouse strains. Thus, while telomere length plays a role in cellular lifespan in cultured human cells, it is not a major factor in determining organismal lifespan. PMID:11071935

Hemann, Michael T.; Greider, Carol W.



Biochemical polymorphisms in feral and inbred mice ( Mus musculus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examination of the frequencies of several loci controlling isozymes in three geographically distinct feral populations of mice showed the average animal to be heterozygous at 10.3% of his loci. There was no evidence for interaction between loci, nor any evidence for inbreeding in the populations. Thirty-nine inbred strains, including four newly derived ones, were also characterized for their alleles for

Thomas H. Roderick; Frank H. Ruddle; Verne M. Chapman; Thomas B. Shows



Sites of ozone sensitivity in diverse maize inbred lines  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tropospheric ozone (O3) is an air pollutant that costs ~$14-26 billion in global crop losses and is projected to worsen in the future. Potential sites of O3 sensitivity in maize were tested by growing 200 inbred lines, including the nested association mapping population founder lines, under ambient...


Detection of Misspecified Relationships in Inbred and Outbred Pedigrees  

E-print Network

,2 , Mary Sara McPeek1,2 1 Department of Statistics, 2 Department of Human Genetics, University of Chicago, Chicago Genome screen data collected for linkage analysis can be used to detect pedigree errors. We have a graphical method for error detection in complex inbred pedigrees, with application to the Hutterites. Key

Das, Soma


Tympanometry Assessment of 61 Inbred Strains of Mice  

PubMed Central

Otitis Media (OM) accounts for more than 20 million clinic visits in the United States every year. Resistance to antibiotics has hampered current management of the disease. Identification of genetic factors underlying susceptibility to OM is greatly needed in order to develop alternative treatment strategies. Genetically defined inbred mouse strains offer a powerful tool for dissecting genetic and environmental factors that may lead to OM in mice. Here we report a study of middle ear function of 61 genetically diverse inbred strains of mice using tympanometry. Of the 61 inbred strains tested, the 129P1/ReJ, 129P3/J, 129S1/SvImJ, 129X1/SvJ, A/HeJ, BALB/cJ, BUB/BnJ, C57L/J, EL/SuzSeyFrkJ, FVB/NJ, I/LnJ, LP/J, NZB/BlNJ, PL/J and YBR/Ei strains exhibited tympanograms that were statistically different from other healthy strains according to parameters including middle ear pressure, volume and compliance. These differences are most likely the result of genetic factors that, when understood, will facilitate prevention and treatment of otitis media in humans. In addition, a negative correlation between age and compliance of the tympanic membrane was discovered. This is the first report to successfully use tympanometry to measure mouse middle ear function, which has been a challenge for the hearing research field because of the mouse’s tiny ear size. PMID:17611057

Zheng, Qing Yin; Tong, Yi-Cai Isaac; Alagramam, Kumar N.; Yu, Heping



DE INBRE -PI Steiner 25 14.0 DE COBRE -PI Shaffer 3 1.7  

E-print Network

Group # % DE INBRE - PI Steiner 25 14.0 DE COBRE - PI Shaffer 3 1.7 DE COBRE - PI Buchanan 1 0.6 DE COBRE - PI Lenhoff 3 1.7 DE COBRE - PI Beebe 2 1.1 ME INBRE - PI Hand 19 10.7 ME COBRE - PI Wojchowski 9 5.1 ME COBRE - PI Friesel 3 1.7 NH INBRE - PI Taylor 12 6.7 NH COBRE - PI Stanton 9 5.1 NH COBRE

Rhode Island, University of


SSR analysis of genetic diversity among maize inbred lines adapted to cold regions of Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information regarding diversity and relationships among breeding material is necessary for hybrid maize (Zea mays L.) breeding. Simple-sequence repeat (SSR) analysis of the 60 loci distributed uniformly throughout the maize genome was carried out for 65 inbred lines adapted to cold regions of Japan in order to assess genetic diversity among the inbred lines and to assign them to heterotic

H. Enoki; H. Sato; K. Koinuma



Of ``mice'' and mammals: utilizing classical inbred mice to study the genetic architecture of function and  

E-print Network

Of ``mice'' and mammals: utilizing classical inbred mice to study the genetic architecture of function and performance in mammals Christopher J. Vinyard1, * and Bret A. Payseur *Department of Anatomy successful mammals and the premier research animal in mammalian biology. The classical inbred strains

Payseur, Bret


Molecular Characterization of Maize Inbreds with Expired U.S. Plant Variety Protection  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Maize inbred lines with expired Plant Variety Protection Act (PVPA) certificates are publically available and potentially represent a new germplasm resource for many public and private breeding programs. However, accurate pedigree and genetic background information for ex-PVPA maize inbreds is nece...


Helitrons contribute to the lack of gene colinearity observed in modern maize inbreds  

E-print Network

Helitrons contribute to the lack of gene colinearity observed in modern maize inbreds Shailesh K recently, it was assumed that the order of gene se- quences within modern maize would be virtually (1­3) have found DNA regions rich in gene sequences that are present in some maize inbred lines


Copyright 2003 by the Genetics Society of America Genetic Structure and Diversity Among Maize Inbred Lines  

E-print Network

and the cluster analysis. Tropical and subtropical inbreds possess a greater number of alleles and greater gene segments of the landrace gene pool to each inbred group's gene pool were estimated using a novel likelihood for the analysis of the maps (Burr et al. 1988), quantitative trait locus mapping effects of genetic background

Doebley, John


Nonhistone chromosomal protein patterns in leucocytes of inbred chicken and their crosses  

E-print Network

Nonhistone chromosomal protein patterns in leucocytes of inbred chicken and their crosses Sylvia proteins (NHCP) soluble in 0.3 M NaCI of pure inbred chicken lines and their crosses have been analyzed of the analysis of NHCP patterns in animal production are discussed. Key words :Nonhistones, chicken, leucocytes

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Mapping stripe rust resistance in a BrundageXCoda winter wheat recombinant inbred line population.  


A recombinant inbred line (RIL) mapping population developed from a cross between winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars Coda and Brundage was evaluated for reaction to stripe rust (caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici). Two hundred and sixty eight RIL from the population were evaluated in replicated field trials in a total of nine site-year locations in the U.S. Pacific Northwest. Seedling reaction to stripe rust races PST-100, PST-114 and PST-127 was also examined. A linkage map consisting of 2,391 polymorphic DNA markers was developed covering all chromosomes of wheat with the exception of 1D. Two QTL on chromosome 1B were associated with adult plant and seedling reaction and were the most significant QTL detected. Together these QTL reduced adult plant infection type from a score of seven to a score of two reduced disease severity by an average of 25% and provided protection against race PST-100, PST-114 and PST-127 in the seedling stage. The location of these QTL and the race specificity provided by them suggest that observed effects at this locus are due to a complementation of the previously known but defeated resistances of the cultivar Tres combining with that of Madsen (the two parent cultivars of Coda). Two additional QTL on chromosome 3B and one on 5B were associated with adult plant reaction only, and a single QTL on chromosome 5D was associated with seedling reaction to PST-114. Coda has been resistant to stripe rust since its release in 2000, indicating that combining multiple resistance genes for stripe rust provides durable resistance, especially when all-stage resistance genes are combined in a fashion to maximize the number of races they protect against. Identified molecular markers will allow for an efficient transfer of these genes into other cultivars, thereby continuing to provide excellent resistance to stripe rust. PMID:24642574

Case, Austin J; Naruoka, Yukiko; Chen, Xianming; Garland-Campbell, Kimberly A; Zemetra, Robert S; Carter, Arron H



Distribution of Parental Genome Blocks in Recombinant Inbred Lines  

PubMed Central

We consider recombinant inbred lines obtained by crossing two given homozygous parents and then applying multiple generations of self-crossings or full-sib matings. The chromosomal content of any such line forms a mosaic of blocks, each alternatively inherited identically by descent from one of the parents. Quantifying the statistical properties of such mosaic genomes has remained an open challenge for many years. Here, we solve this problem by taking a continuous chromosome picture and assuming crossovers to be noninterfering. Using a continuous-time random walk framework and Markov chain theory, we determine the statistical properties of these identical-by-descent blocks. We find that successive block lengths are only very slightly correlated. Furthermore, the blocks on the ends of chromosomes are larger on average than the others, a feature understandable from the nonexponential distribution of block lengths. PMID:21840856

Martin, Olivier C.; Hospital, Frédéric



Comprehensive genotyping of the USA national maize inbred seed bank  

PubMed Central

Background Genotyping by sequencing, a new low-cost, high-throughput sequencing technology was used to genotype 2,815 maize inbred accessions, preserved mostly at the National Plant Germplasm System in the USA. The collection includes inbred lines from breeding programs all over the world. Results The method produced 681,257 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers distributed across the entire genome, with the ability to detect rare alleles at high confidence levels. More than half of the SNPs in the collection are rare. Although most rare alleles have been incorporated into public temperate breeding programs, only a modest amount of the available diversity is present in the commercial germplasm. Analysis of genetic distances shows population stratification, including a small number of large clusters centered on key lines. Nevertheless, an average fixation index of 0.06 indicates moderate differentiation between the three major maize subpopulations. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) decays very rapidly, but the extent of LD is highly dependent on the particular group of germplasm and region of the genome. The utility of these data for performing genome-wide association studies was tested with two simply inherited traits and one complex trait. We identified trait associations at SNPs very close to known candidate genes for kernel color, sweet corn, and flowering time; however, results suggest that more SNPs are needed to better explore the genetic architecture of complex traits. Conclusions The genotypic information described here allows this publicly available panel to be exploited by researchers facing the challenges of sustainable agriculture through better knowledge of the nature of genetic diversity. PMID:23759205



Furman University NIH-INBRE and NSF-RII Programs 2013 Summer Undergraduate Research Application  

E-print Network

(start and end dates are somewhat flexible with permission of the Furman research advisor). A salary of Psychology/Neuroscience (NIH-INBRE) (Neuroscience: Endocannabinoid System


Selection of Maize Inbred Lines with High Regeneration and Susceptibility to Agrobacterium tumifacien  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten-maize inbred lines of maize (Zea mays L.) with high-induction rate and proliferation ability of embryonic calli were selected from 70-maize inbred lines by immature embryo culturing. Some of the embryonic calli were transferred onto regeneration medium to examine the ability of regeneration, some were transformed via Agrobacterium tumifaciens C58 carrying intron-?-glucuronidase (gus) gene, and GV3301 carrying the green fluorescent

Yu Wang; Shaohong Fu; Ying Wen; Zhiming Zhang; Yanli Xia; Yuzhen Liu; Tingzhao Rong; Guangtang Pan



Detected microsatellite polymorphisms in genetically altered inbred mouse strains.  


Microsatellites are 50-200 repetitive DNA sequences composed of 1- to 6-base-pair-long reiterative motifs within the genome. They are vulnerable to DNA modifications, such as recombination and/or integration, and are recognized as "sentinel" DNA. Our previous report indicated that the genotypes of the microsatellite loci could change from mono- to poly-morphisms (CMP) in gene knockout (KO) mice, implying that genetic modification induces microsatellite mutation. However, it is still unclear whether the random insertion of DNA fragments into mice genomes produced via transgene (Tg) or N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) would also result in microsatellite mutations or microsatellite loci genotypes changes. This study was designed to find possible clues to answer this question. In brief, 198 microsatellite loci that were distributed among almost all of the chromosomes (except for the Y) were examined through polymerase chain reaction to screen possible CMPs in six Tg strains. First, for each strain, the microsatellite sequences of all loci were compared between Tg and the corresponding background strain to exclude genetic interference. Simultaneously, to exclude spontaneous mutation-related CMPs that might exist in the examined six strains, mice from five spontaneously mutated inbred strains were used as the negative controls. Additionally, the sequences of all loci in these spontaneous mutated mice were compared to corresponding genetic background controls. The results showed that 40 of the 198 (20.2%) loci were identified as having CMPs in the examined Tg mice strains. The CMP genotypes were either homozygous or heterozygous compared to the background controls. Next, we applied the 40 CMP positive loci in ENU-mutated mice and their corresponding background controls. After that, a general comparison of CMPs that exist among Tg, ENU-treated and KO mouse strains was performed. The results indicated that four (D11mit258, D13mit3, D14mit102 and DXmit172) of the 40 (10%) CMP loci were shared by Tg and KO mice, two (D15mit5 and D14mit102) (5%) by Tg and ENU-treated mice, and one (D14mit102) (2.5%) by all three genetic modifications. Collectively, our study implies that genetic modifications by KO, Tg or chemical mutant can trigger microsatellite CMPs in inbred mouse strains. These shared microsatellite loci could be regarded as "hot spots" of microsatellite mutation for genetic monitoring in genetic modified mice. PMID:23700121

Du, Xiaoyan; Cui, Jing; Wang, Chao; Huo, Xueyun; Lu, Jing; Li, Yichen; Chen, Zhenwen



Improved Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of three maize inbred lines using MS salts.  


Transformation technology as a research or breeding tool to improve maize is routinely used in most industrial and some specialized public laboratories. However, transformation of many inbred lines remains a challenging task, especially when using Agrobacterium tumefaciens as the delivery method. Here we report success in generating transgenic plants and progeny from three maize inbred lines using an Agrobacterium-mediated standard binary vector system to target maize immature embryos. Eleven maize inbred lines were pre-screened for transformation frequency using N6 salts. A subset of three maize inbred lines was then systematically evaluated for frequency of post-infection embryogenic callus induction and transformation on four media regimes: N6 or MS salts in each of two distinct media backgrounds. Transgenic plants recovered from inbred lines B104, B114, and Ky21 were analyzed for transgene integration, expression, and transmission. Average transformation frequencies of 6.4% (for B104), 2.8% (for B114), and 8% (for Ky21) were achieved using MS salts. Availability of Agrobacterium-mediated maize inbred line transformation will improve future opportunities for maize genetic and functional genomic studies. PMID:16710703

Frame, Bronwyn R; McMurray, Jennifer M; Fonger, Tina M; Main, Marcy L; Taylor, Kyle W; Torney, François J; Paz, Margie M; Wang, Kan



Strain differences in delay discounting using inbred rats.  


A heightened aversion to delayed rewards is associated with substance abuse and numerous other neuropsychiatric disorders. Many of these disorders are heritable, raising the possibility that delay aversion may also have a significant genetic or heritable component. To examine this possibility, we compared delay discounting in six inbred strains of rats (Brown Norway, Copenhagen, Lewis, Fischer, Noble and Wistar Furth) using the adjusting amount procedure, which provides a measure of the subjective value of delayed rewards. The subjective value of rewards decreased as the delay to receipt increased for all strains. However, a main effect of strain and a strain x delay interaction indicated that some strains were more sensitive to the imposition of delays than others. Fitting a hyperbolic discount equation showed significant strain differences in sensitivity to delay (k). These data indicate that there are significant strain differences in delay discounting. All strains strongly preferred the 10% sucrose solution (the reinforcer in the delay discounting task) over water and the amount of sucrose consumed was correlated with sensitivity to delay. Locomotor activity was not correlated with delay discounting behavior. Additional research will be required to disentangle genetic influences from maternal effects and to determine how these factors influence the underlying association between heightened delay discounting and neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:19243451

Wilhelm, C J; Mitchell, S H



Genetic evidence for discordance between obesity- and diabetes-related traits in the LGXSM recombinant inbred mouse strains.  


Obesity and its comorbidities, particularly type 2 diabetes, have become serious public health problems over the past few decades. Although the current pandemic is largely caused by societal environmental changes in diet, variation in response to these changes have, in part, a genetic basis. Here we address the genetic basis for both obesity- and diabetes-related traits themselves and dietary fat responses for these traits in a set of recombinant inbred mouse strains formed from the cross of LG/J with SM/J (LGXSM lines) fed a standard low-fat (15% calories from fat) or high-fat (42% calories from fat) diet. We found substantial genetic variation for most of the traits studied. Weight at time of death, liver weight, and weight of the reproductive fat pad had especially high heritabilities, whereas heart weight and serum levels of free fatty acids and triglycerides had low heritabilities. Genetic correlations were very high among fat pad weights and serum leptin, indicating shared genetic variation between fat levels and hormonal appetite control. These obesity traits were moderately correlated with adult growth, liver weight, and serum insulin and cholesterol levels. A majority of traits also displayed genetic variation in response to a high-fat diet, especially the weight of the reproductive and renal fat pads as well as the liver. Genetic correlations in dietary response followed a pattern similar to that found for the traits themselves. Several strains manifested discordant responses for obesity, glucose, and insulin, consistent with the presence of genotypes protective for diabetes in the presence of obesity. These recombinant inbred strains represent potentially valuable new models for dissecting the complex physiological relationships among obesity and diabetes. PMID:15448104

Cheverud, James M; Ehrich, Thomas H; Kenney, Jane P; Pletscher, L Susan; Semenkovich, Clay F



Resolution of Genetic Map Expansion Caused by Excess Heterozygosity in Plant Recombinant Inbred Populations  

PubMed Central

Recombinant inbred populations of many plant species exhibit more heterozygosity than expected under the Mendelian model of segregation. This segregation distortion causes the overestimation of recombination frequencies and consequent genetic map expansion. Here we build upon existing genetic models of differential zygotic viability to model a heterozygote fitness term and calculate expected genotypic proportions in recombinant inbred populations propagated by selfing. We implement this model using the existing open-source genetic map construction code base for R/qtl to estimate recombination fractions. Finally, we show that accounting for excess heterozygosity in a sorghum recombinant inbred mapping population shrinks the genetic map by 213 cM (a 13% decrease corresponding to 4.26 fewer recombinations per meiosis). More accurate estimates of linkage benefit linkage-based analyses used in the identification and utilization of causal genetic variation. PMID:25128435

Truong, Sandra K.; McCormick, Ryan F.; Morishige, Daryl T.; Mullet, John E.



Susceptibility to Tuberculosis: Clues from Studies with Inbred and Outbred New Zealand White Rabbits  

PubMed Central

The rabbit model of tuberculosis (TB) is important because rabbits develop a disease that is similar to TB in humans, namely, granulomas with caseous necrosis, liquefaction, and cavities. We describe here a comparison of inbred and outbred New Zealand White rabbits infected by aerosol with either Mycobacterium tuberculosis Erdman or H37Rv strain. Five weeks after infection with either bacillary strain, the inbred rabbits had significantly larger pulmonary tubercles than did outbred rabbits (2.7 versus 1.4 mm in diameter; P < 0.01). After infection with H37Rv, the inbred rabbits had significantly more pulmonary tubercles than did the outbred rabbits (98 ± 12 versus 33 ± 13; P < 0.01), with more mycobacterial CFU per tubercle (809 ± 210 versus 215 ± 115; P = 0.027) (means ± standard errors of the means). Compared with histologic examination of lung granulomas from outbred rabbits, histologic examination of those from inbred rabbits showed more caseous necrosis, more visible bacilli, and fewer mature epithelioid cells. The delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses to intradermal tuberculin were significantly lower, and peritoneal macrophages from uninfected inbred rabbits produced significantly less tumor necrosis factor alpha after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation in vitro than those from the outbred rabbits (2,413 ± 1,154 versus 8,879 ± 966 pg/ml). We conclude that these inbred rabbits were more susceptible to TB than their outbred counterparts and had an impaired ability to contain disease, resulting in more grossly visible tubercles that were larger than those observed in outbred rabbits. Preliminary evidence is presented for a cell-mediated immune defect with lower DTH responses and macrophages that have a decreased ability to respond to in vitro stimulation with LPS or M. tuberculosis infection. PMID:14977978

Dorman, Susan E.; Hatem, Christine L.; Tyagi, Sandeep; Aird, Katherine; Lopez-Molina, Javier; Pitt, M. Louise M.; Zook, Bernard C.; Dannenberg, Arthur M.; Bishai, William R.; Manabe, Yukari C.



Effects of inbreeding and genetic modification on Aedes aegypti larval competition and adult energy reserves  

PubMed Central

Background Genetic modification of mosquitoes offers a promising strategy for the prevention and control of mosquito-borne diseases. For such a strategy to be effective, it is critically important that engineered strains are competitive enough to serve their intended function in population replacement or reduction of wild mosquitoes in nature. Thus far, fitness evaluations of genetically modified strains have not addressed the effects of competition among the aquatic stages and its consequences for adult fitness. We therefore tested the competitive success of combinations of wild, inbred and transgenic (created in the inbred background) immature stages of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti in the presence of optimal and sub-optimal larval diets. Results The wild strain of Ae. aegypti demonstrated greater performance (based on a composite index of survival, development rate and size) than the inbred strain, which in turn demonstrated greater performance than the genetically modified strain. Moreover, increasing competition through lowering the amount of diet available per larva affected fitness disproportionately: transgenic larvae had a reduced index of performance (95-119%) compared to inbred (50-88%) and wild type larvae (38-54%). In terms of teneral energy reserves (glycogen, lipid and sugar), adult wild type mosquitoes had more reserves directly available for flight, dispersal and basic metabolic functions than transgenic and inbred mosquitoes. Conclusions Our study provides a detailed assessment of inter- and intra-strain competition across aquatic stages of wild type, inbred, and transgenic mosquitoes and the impact of these conditions on adult energy reserves. Although it is not clear what competitive level is adequate for success of transgenic strains in nature, strong gene drive mechanisms are likely to be necessary in order to overcome competitive disadvantages in the larval stage that carryover to affect adult fitness. PMID:20925917



Comparing the performace of f1 testers versus their inbred line parents in evaluating experimental sorghum b and r lines in testcrosses.  

E-print Network

An appropriate tester correctly identifies the relative performance of experimental lines while maximizing the differences between lines. Most sorghum breeding programs use elite inbred lines testers. Inbred line testers evaluate experimental lines...

Packer, Daniel Jacob



Differentiation of Embryonic Stem Cell Lines Generated from Adult Somatic Cells by Nuclear Transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Embryonic stem (ES) cells are fully pluripotent in that they can differentiate into all cell types, including gametes. We have derived 35 ES cell lines via nuclear transfer (ntES cell lines) from adult mouse somatic cells of inbred, hybrid, and mutant strains. ntES cells contributed to an extensive variety of cell types, including dopaminergic and serotonergic neurons in vitro and

Teruhiko Wakayama; Viviane Tabar; Ivan Rodriguez; Anthony C. F. Perry; Lorenz Studer; Peter Mombaerts




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The theoretical comparisons for QTL mapping properties were conducted between bulk-based recombinant inbred (RI) populations and single seed descent (SSD) RI populations by Monte Carlo simulations based on various population sizes, heritabilities, and QTL effects. The comparisons included estimatio...


Use of recombinant inbred strains to identify quantitative trait loci in psychopharmacology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unlike simple Mendelian characteristics, individual differences in complex quantitative phenotypes studied in psychopharmacology are generally distributed continuously and are likely to be influenced by many genes. Recombinant inbred (RI) strains are valuable not only for their traditional use of detecting major gene segregation and linkage but also for identifying associations between quantitative traits and quantitative trait loci (QTL) that account

Grazyna Gora-Maslak; Gerald E. McClearn; John C. Crabbe; Tamara J. Phillips; John K. Belknap; Robert Plomin




Microsoft Academic Search

Comparative studies of behavioral responses to centrally acting drugs in inbred strains of mice which show differences in brain neurotransmitter activity represent a major strategy in the investigation of the neurochemical bases underlying behavioral expression. Moreover, these studies represent a preliminary stage in behavioral genetic research since they allow quantitative scales to be established and suggest correlations to be tested




A reference map of Cucumis melo based on two recombinant inbred line populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A composite genetic melon map was generated based on two recombinant inbred line (RI) populations. By analyzing the segregation of 346 AFLPs, 113 IMAs and phenotypic characters on a RI population of 163 individuals derived from the cross Védrantais 2 PI 161375, a first map was constructed. About 20% of the molecular markers were skewed, and the residual heterozygosity was

C. Périn; L. Hagen; V. De Conto; N. Katzir; Y. Danin-Poleg; V. Portnoy; S. Baudracco-Arnas; J. Chadoeuf; C. Dogimont; M. Pitrat



SNP frequency, haplotype structure and linkage disequilibrium in elite maize inbred lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Recent studies of ancestral maize populations indicate that linkage disequilibrium tends to dissipate rapidly, sometimes within 100 bp. We set out to examine the linkage disequilibrium and diversity in maize elite inbred lines, which have been subject to population bottlenecks and intense selection by breeders. Such population events are expected to increase the amount of linkage disequilibrium, but reduce

Ada Ching; Katherine S Caldwell; Mark Jung; Maurine Dolan; Scott Tingey; Michele Morgante; Antoni J Rafalski



Fall armyworm resistance and natural enemy attraction in elite GEM inbred lines  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Multiple foliar- and ear-feeding insects are important impediments for corn production in the southern US. After being assessed for ear-feeding insect resistance in 2007 and 2008, 20 elite inbred lines from the Germplasm Enhancement of Maize (GEM) Project were evaluated for whorl-feeding fall armyw...


Establishment of inbred strains of chicken and Japanese quail and their potential as animal models.  


We started establishing inbred strains of chicken and Japanese quail in 1970. In class Aves, full sib mating is highly difficult due to inbreeding depression. In the chicken, we attempted to establish some inbred strains in three breeds, Black Minorca, White Leghorn and Fayoumi by fixing all the characters that differentiate individuals homozygously. In this paper, we describe some marker genes and characters fixed in the inbred strains of chicken and Japanese quail as well as a calculation of a putative coefficient of inbreeding in 8 chicken inbred strains using band sharing values detected by AFLP analysis. We established generalized glycogenosis type II quail, myotonic dystrophy quail, neurofilament deficient quail, visually impaired chicken, double oviduct chicken with partial kidney deficiency, chicken showing spontaneous lymphocytic thyroiditis with feathered amelanosis, and chicken with a hereditary nervous disorder. The processes of establishment and characteristics of these animal models are described with some interesting information obtained from these animal models. In generalized glycogenosis type II quail, the results of enzyme replacement therapy and gene therapy are described. PMID:12451702

Mizutani, Makoto



A SNaPshot multiplex typing strategy for mtDNA identification of mouse inbred strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mouse inbred strains have been continuously used for research in numerous fields in laboratories throughout the world. Rapid genotyping methods that allow the distinction of the different strains are important for both the distinction of materials such as tissue and cell collections and to identify the origin of new strains.Taking advantage of the homogeneity of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences inside

Ana Goios; Leonor Gusmão; Ana Mafalda Rocha; Luísa Pereira; Molly Bogue; António Amorim



Effects of competition between alfalfa (Medi-cago sativa L.) hybrid and inbred plants on their  

E-print Network

Effects of competition between alfalfa (Medi- cago sativa L.) hybrid and inbred plants on their seed and forage yield (1) Fabio VERONESI, Francesco DAMIANI Stefania GRANDO Franco LORENZETTI Plant Breeding Institute of University of Perugia, 1 06100 Perugia, Italy (*) Forage Plant Breeding Centre

Boyer, Edmond


Increased egg infertility associated with translocating inbred takahe (Porphyrio hochstetteri) to island refuges in New Zealand  

E-print Network

Increased egg infertility associated with translocating inbred takahe (Porphyrio hochstetteri infertility than birds that have remained within their natural habitat range. For takahe, whether breeders had success. The coecient of inbreeding was high for island takahe but high infertility and low juvenile

Jamieson, Ian



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Maize (Zea mays L.) breeders are interested in evaluating seed quality of their inbred lines, and seed companies rigorously test the seed quality of the hybrids they produce. Seed quality has a strong relationship to field emergence. There is little information, however, on the influence of the se...


Selective Advance for Accelerated Development of Recombinant Inbred QTL Mapping Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping resolu- tion of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) is limited by the amount of recombination they experience during development. Intercrossing during line development can be used to counter this disad- vantage but requires additional generations and is diffi cult in self-pollinated species. It is desir- able to improve mapping resolution for success of marker-assisted selection and

Prashanth Boddhireddy; Jean-Luc Jannink; James C. Nelson



Evaluation of maize inbred lines for resistance to Aspergillus and Fusarium ear rot and mycotoxin accumulation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mycotoxin contamination in corn grain is a worldwide threat to both human food safety and animal feed ingredients. A select group of inbred corn lines was evaluated in field trials for mycotoxin accumulation in grain and ear rot caused by Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium verticillioides. Our goal ...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Seed composition and genetic background influence seed quality. Plant breeders seldom select or evaluate their inbreds on the basis of seed quality characteristics that could prevent poor germination and field emergence. The standard germination test evaluates seed viability, but it often overesti...


Exploring the ethical basis for conservation policy: the case of inbred wolves on Isle Royale, USA  

E-print Network

rules. Empirical conservation ethics integrate social science methods with conservation dilemmasLETTER Exploring the ethical basis for conservation policy: the case of inbred wolves on Isle and Environmental Sciences, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI 49931, USA 4 Tourism Research Unit


Susceptibility to Tuberculosis: Clues from Studies with Inbred and Outbred New Zealand White Rabbits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Received 26 August 2003\\/Returned for modification 29 October 2003\\/Accepted 11 December 2003 The rabbit model of tuberculosis (TB) is important because rabbits develop a disease that is similar to TB in humans, namely, granulomas with caseous necrosis, liquefaction, and cavities. We describe here a compar- ison of inbred and outbred New Zealand White rabbits infected by aerosol with either Mycobacterium

Susan E. Dorman; Christine L. Hatem; Sandeep Tyagi; Katherine Aird; Javier Lopez-Molina; M. L. M. Pitt; B. C. Zook; A. M. Dannenberg; W. R. Bishai; Y. C. Manabe



MHC diversity in two Acrocephalus species: the outbred Great reed warbler and the inbred Seychelles warbler  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Great reed warbler (GRW) and the Seychelles warbler (SW) are congeners with markedly different demographic histories. The GRW is a normal outbred bird species while the SW population remains isolated and inbred after undergoing a severe population bottleneck. We examined variation at Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) class I exon 3 using restriction fragment length polymorphism, denaturing gradient gel electro-

DAVID. S. Richardson; Helena Westerdahl



Registration of USG 3209/Jaypee Wheat Recombinant Inbred Line Mapping Population  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘USG 3209’/‘Jaypee’ (Reg. No. MP-3, NSL 465777 MAP), is a soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) recombinant inbred line (RIL) population developed by Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University and submitted to the USDA–ARS National Small Grains Germplasm Research Facility in Aberdeen...


Initial characterization of a Stoneville 474 X Phytogen 72 recombinant inbred population  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study represents the initial characterization of a F7 recombinant inbred population developed to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with the inheritance of flower shape (open versus cupped petals), abiotic stress tolerance of mature cotton [Gossypium hirsutum (L.)] pollen, and fiber ...


Complementation contributes to transcriptome complexity in maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids relative to their inbred parents  

PubMed Central

Typically, F1-hybrids are more vigorous than their homozygous, genetically distinct parents, a phenomenon known as heterosis. In the present study, the transcriptomes of the reciprocal maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids B73×Mo17 and Mo17×B73 and their parental inbred lines B73 and Mo17 were surveyed in primary roots, early in the developmental manifestation of heterotic root traits. The application of statistical methods and a suitable experimental design established that 34,233 (i.e., 86%) of all high-confidence maize genes were expressed in at least one genotype. Nearly 70% of all expressed genes were differentially expressed between the two parents and 42%–55% of expressed genes were differentially expressed between one of the parents and one of the hybrids. In both hybrids, ?10% of expressed genes exhibited nonadditive gene expression. Consistent with the dominance model (i.e., complementation) for heterosis, 1124 genes that were expressed in the hybrids were expressed in only one of the two parents. For 65 genes, it could be shown that this was a consequence of complementation of genomic presence/absence variation. For dozens of other genes, alleles from the inactive inbred were activated in the hybrid, presumably via interactions with regulatory factors from the active inbred. As a consequence of these types of complementation, both hybrids expressed more genes than did either parental inbred. Finally, in hybrids, ?14% of expressed genes exhibited allele-specific expression (ASE) levels that differed significantly from the parental-inbred expression ratios, providing further evidence for interactions of regulatory factors from one parental genome with target genes from the other parental genome. PMID:23086286

Paschold, Anja; Jia, Yi; Marcon, Caroline; Lund, Steve; Larson, Nick B.; Yeh, Cheng-Ting; Ossowski, Stephan; Lanz, Christa; Nettleton, Dan; Schnable, Patrick S.; Hochholdinger, Frank



Phenotypic integration of skeletal traits during growth buffers genetic variants affecting the slenderness of femora in inbred mouse strains  

PubMed Central

Compensatory interactions among adult skeletal traits are critical for establishing strength but complicate the search for fracture susceptibility genes by allowing many genetic variants to exist in a population without loss of function. A better understanding of how these interactions arise during growth will provide new insight into genotype-phenotype relationships and the biological controls that establish skeletal strength. We tested the hypothesis that genetic variants affecting growth in width relative to growth in length (slenderness) are coordinated with movement of the inner bone surface and matrix mineralization to match stiffness with weight-bearing loads during postnatal growth. Midshaft femoral morphology and tissue-mineral density were quantified at ages of 1 day and at 4, 8, and 16 weeks for a panel of 20 female AXB/BXA recombinant inbred mouse strains. Path Analyses revealed significant compensatory interactions among outer-surface expansion rate, inner-surface expansion rate, and tissue-mineral density during postnatal growth, indicating that genetic variants affecting bone slenderness were buffered mechanically by the precise regulation of bone surface movements and matrix mineralization. Importantly, the covariation between morphology and mineralization resulted from a heritable constraint limiting the amount of tissue that could be used to construct a functional femur. The functional interactions during growth explained 56-99% of the variability in adult traits and mechanical properties. These functional interactions provide quantitative expectations of how genetic or environmental variants affecting one trait should be compensated by changes in other traits. Variants that impair this process or that cannot be fully compensated are expected to alter skeletal growth leading to underdesigned (weak) or overdesigned (bulky) structures. PMID:19082857

Jepsen, Karl J.; Hu, Bin; Tommasini, Steven M.; Courtland, Hayden-William; Price, Christopher; Cordova, Matthew; Nadeau, Joseph H.



Genetic diversity for restriction fragment length polymorphisms and heterosis for two diallel sets of maize inbreds.  


Changes that may have occurred over the past 50 years of hybrid breeding in maize (Zea maize L.) with respect to heterosis for yield and heterozygosity at the molecular level are of interest to both maize breeders and quantitative geneticists. The objectives of this study were twofold: The first, to compare two diallels produced from six older maize inbreds released in the 1950's and earlier and six newer inbreds released during the 1970's with respect to (a) genetic variation for restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) and (b) the size of heterosis and epistatic effects, and the second, to evaluate the usefulness of RFLP-based genetic distance measures in predicting heterosis and performance of single-cross hybrids. Five generations (parents, F1; F2, and backcrosses) from the 15 crosses in each diallel were evaluated for grain yield and yield components in four Iowa environments. Genetic effects were estimated from generation means by ordinary diallel analyses and by the Eberhart-Gardner model. Newer lines showed significantly greater yield for inbred generations than did older lines but smaller heterosis estimates. In most cases, estimates of additive x additive epistatic effects for yield and yield components were significantly positive for both groups of lines. RFLP analyses of inbred lines included two restriction enzymes and 82 genomic DNA clones distributed over the maize genome. Eighty-one clones revealed polymorphisms with at least one enzyme. In each set, about three different RFLP variants were typically found per RFLP locus. Genetic distances between inbred lines were estimated from RFLP data as Rogers' distance (RD), which was subdivided into general (GRD) and specific (SRD) Rogers' distances within each diallel. The mean and range of RDs were similar for the older and newer lines, suggesting that the level of heterozygosity at the molecular level had not changed. GRD explained about 50% of the variation among RD values in both sets. Cluster analyses, based on modified Rogers' distances, revealed associations among lines that were generally consistent with expectations based on known pedigree and on previous research. Correlations of RD and SRD with f1 performance, specific combining ability, and heterosis for yield and yield components, were generally positive, but too small to be of predictive value. In agreement with previous studies, our results suggest that RFLPs can be used to investigate relationships among maize inbreds, but that they are of limited usefulness for predicting the heterotic performance of single crosses between unrelated lines. PMID:24221007

Melchinger, A E; Lee, M; Lamkey, K R; Hallauer, A R; Woodman, W L



Influence of genetic background on ex vivo and in vivo cardiac function in several commonly used inbred mouse strains  

PubMed Central

Inbred mouse strains play a critical role in biomedical research. Genetic homogeneity within inbred strains and their general amenability to genetic manipulation have made them an ideal resource for dissecting the physiological function(s) of individual genes. However, the inbreeding that makes inbred mice so useful also results in genetic divergence between them. This genetic divergence is often unaccounted for but may be a confounding factor when comparing studies that have utilized distinct inbred strains. Here, we compared the cardiac function of C57BL/6J mice to seven other commonly used inbred mouse strains: FVB/NJ, DBA/2J, C3H/HeJ, BALB/cJ, 129X1/SvJ, C57BL/10SnJ, and 129S1/SvImJ. The assays used to compare cardiac function were the ex vivo isolated Langendorff heart preparation and in vivo real-time hemodynamic analysis using conductance micromanometry. We report significant strain-dependent differences in cardiac function between C57BL/6J and other commonly used inbred strains. C57BL/6J maintained better cardiac function than most inbred strains after ex vivo ischemia, particularly compared with 129S1/SvImJ, 129X1/SvJ, and C57BL/10SnJ strains. However, during in vivo acute hypoxia 129X1/SvJ and 129S1/SvImJ maintained relatively normal cardiac function, whereas C57BL/6J animals showed dramatic cardiac decompensation. Additionally, C3H/HeJ showed rapid and marked cardiac decompensation in response to esmolol infusion compared with effects of other strains. These findings demonstrate the complex effects of genetic divergence between inbred strains on cardiac function. These results may help inform analysis of gene ablation or transgenic studies and further demonstrate specific quantitative traits that could be useful in discovery of genetic modifiers relevant to cardiac health and disease. PMID:20627938

Barnabei, Matthew S.; Palpant, Nathan J.



Analyses of genetic diversity among maize inbred lines differing for resistance to pink borer and post-flowering stalk rot  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identification of the diverse sources of resistance is an important issue among the breeders for developing pest and disease\\u000a free hybrids, to reduce the inoculum load, to prolong the life of inbred lines\\/hybrids and to reduce the cost of cultivation.\\u000a Molecular diversity analysis was carried out among 23 maize inbred lines with respect to post flowering stalk rot and pink

Sujay Rakshit; H. B. Santosh; J. C. Sekhar; Rabindra Nath; Meena Shekhar; G. K. Chikkappa; R. N. Gadag; Sain Dass



Homozygosity mapping: a way to map human recessive traits with the DNA of inbred children  

SciTech Connect

An efficient strategy for mapping human genes that cause recessive traits has been devised that uses mapped restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) and the DNA of affected children from consanguineous marriages. The method involves detection of the disease locus by virtue of the fact that the adjacent region will preferentially be homozygous by descent in such inbred children. A single affected child of a first-cousin marriage is shown to contain the same total information about linkage as a nuclear family with three affected children. Calculations show that it should be practical to map a recessive disease gene by studying DNA from fewer than a dozen unrelated, affected inbred children, given a complete RFLP linkage map. The method should make it possible to map many recessive diseases for which it is impractical or impossible to collect adequate numbers of families with multiple affected offspring.

Lander, E.S.; Botstein, D.



The genetic rescue of two bottlenecked South Island robin populations using translocations of inbred donors  

PubMed Central

Populations forced through bottlenecks typically lose genetic variation and exhibit inbreeding depression. ‘Genetic rescue’ techniques that introduce individuals from outbred populations can be highly effective in reversing the deleterious effects of inbreeding, but have limited application for the majority of endangered species, which survive only in a few bottlenecked populations. We tested the effectiveness of using highly inbred populations as donors to rescue two isolated and bottlenecked populations of the South Island robin (Petroica australis). Reciprocal translocations significantly increased heterozygosity and allelic diversity. Increased genetic diversity was accompanied by increased juvenile survival and recruitment, sperm quality, and immunocompetence of hybrid individuals (crosses between the two populations) compared with inbred control individuals (crosses within each population). Our results confirm that the implementation of ‘genetic rescue’ using bottlenecked populations as donors provides a way of preserving endangered species and restoring their viability when outbred donor populations no longer exist. PMID:23235701

Heber, S.; Varsani, A.; Kuhn, S.; Girg, A.; Kempenaers, B.; Briskie, J.



FVB\\/N: An Inbred Mouse Strain Preferable for Transgenic Analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

FVB\\/N mice offer a system suitable for most transgenic experiments and subsequent genetic analyses. The inbred FVB\\/N strain is characterized by vigorous reproductive performance and consistently large litters. Moreover, fertilized FVB\\/N eggs contain large and prominent pronuclei, which facilitate microinjection of DNA. The phenotype of large pronuclei in the zygote is a dominant trait associated with the FVB\\/N oocyte but

Makoto Taketo; Allen C. Schroeder; Larry E. Mobraaten; Kerry B. Gunning; Gerri Hanten; Richard R. Fox; Thomas H. Roderick; Colin L. Stewart; Frank Lilly; Carl T. Hansen; Paul A. Overbeek



PCR-analyzed microsatellites: Data concerning laboratory and wild-derived mouse inbred strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated 67 primers designed by Dr. J. Todd and co-workers to amplify microsatellites sequences in the mouse. We report on additional polymorphisms concerning seven laboratory inbred strains, complementary to those already published. We include the survey of three independently derived strains of Mus spretus: SPE\\/Pas, SEG\\/Pas and SPR\\/Smh. SPE\\/Pas and SEG\\/Pas are very close (3% polymorphism), whereas the

Xavier Montagutelli; Tadao Serikawa; Jean-Louis Guénet



I, P, and D are inbred strains of mice J. Lipid Res. 47: 1780  

E-print Network

Lactuca serriola X F1 x F1 F2 F2 F2 F2 F2 F2 F2 F2 F2 F2 F2 F2 F2 F2 F2 F2Each F2 from a single seed, and each generation from a single seed Recombinant Inbred Lines Task: Determine their phenotypes and SNPs germination HTG ­ hi temp germination GFR ­ germination in far red light #12;Fig. 2 Frequency distributions


Characteristics of Sleep and Wakefulness inWild-Derived Inbred Mice  

PubMed Central

Genetic variations in the wild-derived inbred mouse strains are more diverse than that of classical laboratory inbred mouse strains, including C57BL/6J (B6). The sleep/wake and monoamine properties of six wild-derived inbred mouse strains (PGN2, NJL, BLG2, KJR, MSM, HMI) were characterized and compared with those of B6 mice. All examined mice were nocturnal and had a polyphasic sleep pattern with a “main sleep period” identified during the light period. However, there were three sleep/wake phenotypic differences between the wild-derived mouse strains and B6 strain. First, the amount of sleep during the dark phase was comparable with that of B6 mice. However, the amount of sleep during the light phase was more varied among strains, in particular, NJL and HMI had significantly less sleep compared with that of B6 mice. Second, PGN2, NJL, BLG2, and KJR mice showed a “highly awake period” (in which the hourly total sleep time was <10%) immediately after the onset of the dark period, which was not seen in B6 mice. Third, relative to that of B6 mice, PGN2 and KJR mice showed longer duration of wakefulness episodes during the 12-h dark phase. Differences in whole brain noradrenaline, dopamine, and 5-hydroxy-tryptamine contents between the wild-derived mouse strains and B6 strain were also found. These identified phenotypes might be potentially under strong genetic control. Hence, wild-derived inbred mice could be useful for identifying the genetic factors underlying the regulation of sleep and wakefulness. PMID:24770646

HIYOSHI, Hideyuki; TERAO, Akira; OKAMATSU-OGURA, Yuko; KIMURA, Kazuhiro



Genetic variation in bone-regenerative capacity among inbred strains of mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic variation in bone-regenerative capacity has not been studied in any animal model system. We developed a “drill-hole” model in the tail vertebra of inbred strains of mice that allows us to reproducibly introduce an injury with a defined boundary and quantify the rate of bone healing using the combination of high-resolution Faxitron X-ray imaging and the ChemiImager 4000 Low

X Li; W Gu; G Masinde; M Hamilton-Ulland; C. H Rundle; S Mohan; D. J Baylink



Production and propagation of fully inbred clonal lines in the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.).  


Fully inbred clonal lines of fish are likely to be of great value in research on immunology, sex determination, quantitative genetics, and toxicology. In this study on the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), gynogenesis or androgenesis were used to produce a first generation of completely inbred fish, from which clonal lines were established using gynogenesis, androgenesis, hormonal sex reversal and intraline crosses. The clonal nature of these lines was verified by using multilocus DNA fingerprinting and the isozyme locus ADA*. Although these lines might be expected to be monosex in nature (all-female XX or all-male YY depending on the clone), one line did contain both sexes of fish. The presence of males in this gynogenetic clonal line and data from progeny testing of these males suggested that this line was homozygous for an allele or combination of alleles at an autosomal locus or loci which caused female to male sex reversal but with limited penetrance. Outbred clonal lines were also produced by crossing between different inbred clones. J. Exp. Zool. 284:675-685, 1999. PMID:10531554

Sarder, M R; Penman, D J; Myers, J M; McAndrew, B J



Strong genetic influences on measures of behavioral-regulation among inbred rat strains.  


A fundamental challenge for any complex nervous system is to regulate behavior in response to environmental challenges. Three measures of behavioral-regulation were tested in a panel of eight inbred rat strains. These measures were: (1) sensation seeking as assessed by locomotor response to novelty and the sensory reinforcing effects of light onset, (2) attention and impulsivity, as measured by a choice reaction time task and (3) impulsivity as measured by a delay discounting task. Deficient behavioral-regulation has been linked to a number of psychopathologies, including ADHD, Schizophrenia, Autism, drug abuse and eating disorders. Eight inbred rat strains (August Copenhagen Irish, Brown Norway, Buffalo, Fischer 344, Wistar Kyoto, Spontaneous Hypertensive Rat, Lewis, Dahl Salt Sensitive) were tested. With n?=?9 for each strain, we observed robust strain differences for all tasks; heritability was estimated between 0.43 and 0.66. Performance of the eight inbred rat strains on the choice reaction time task was compared to the performance of outbred Sprague Dawley (n?=?28) and Heterogeneous strain rats (n?=?48). The results indicate a strong genetic influence on complex tasks related to behavioral-regulation and indicate that some of the measures tap common genetically driven processes. Furthermore, our results establish the potential for future studies aimed at identifying specific alleles that influence variability for these traits. Identification of such alleles could contribute to our understanding of the molecular genetic basis of behavioral-regulation, which is of fundamental importance and likely contributes to multiple psychiatric disorders. PMID:23710681

Richards, J B; Lloyd, D R; Kuehlewind, B; Militello, L; Paredez, M; Solberg Woods, L; Palmer, A A



Phenotypic Characterization of the KK/HlJ Inbred Mouse Strain.  


Detailed histopathological diagnoses of inbred mouse strains are important for interpreting research results and defining novel models of human diseases. The aim of this study was to histologically detect lesions affecting the KK/HlJ inbred strain. Mice were examined at 6, 12, and 20 months of age and near natural death (ie, moribund mice). Histopathological lesions were quantified by percentage of affected mice per age group and sex. Predominant lesions were mineralization, hyperplasia, and fibro-osseous lesions. Mineralization was most frequently found in the connective tissue dermal sheath of vibrissae, the heart, and the lung. Mineralization was also found in many other organs but to a lesser degree. Hyperplasia was found most commonly in the pancreatic islets, and fibro-osseous lesions were observed in several bones. The percentage of lesions increased with age until 20 months. This study shows that KK/HlJ mice demonstrate systemic aberrant mineralization, with greatest frequency in aged mice. The detailed information about histopathological lesions in the inbred strain KK/HlJ can help investigators to choose the right model and correctly interpret the experimental results. PMID:24009271

Berndt, A; Sundberg, B A; Silva, K A; Kennedy, V E; Richardson, M A; Li, Q; Bronson, R T; Uitto, J; Sundberg, J P



Population structure and genetic diversity of maize inbreds derived from tropical hybrids.  


The objectives of this study were to identify the population structure and to assess the genetic diversity of maize inbreds. We genotyped 81 microsatellite loci of 90 maize inbreds that were derived from tropical hybrids and populations. The population structure analysis was based on a Bayesian approach. Each subpopulation was characterized for the effective number of alleles, gene diversity, and number of private alleles. We also performed an analysis of molecular variance and computed a measure of population differentiation (FST). The genetic distances were computed from the similarity index of Lynch and the dissimilarity measures proposed by Smouse and Peakall. The cluster analyses were based on the unweighted pair-group method using arithmetic averages and Tocher method. The clustering efficiency was assessed by the error rate of the discriminant analysis. We also performed a principal coordinates analysis. The population structure analysis revealed three tropical heterotic pools, which have been used by worldwide and Brazilian maize seed companies. The degree of genetic differentiation and of intra- and inter-population genetic diversity for these tropical heterotic pools are comparable to that observed for temperate and subtropical heterotic pools. The higher allelic frequency variation within each tropical heterotic pool and the high genetic diversity between the inbreds were evidence of heterotic groups within the main tropical heterotic pools. PMID:25222235

Lanes, E C M; Viana, J M S; Paes, G P; Paula, M F B; Maia, C; Caixeta, E T; Miranda, G V



Genetic variation in bone-regenerative capacity among inbred strains of mice.  


Genetic variation in bone-regenerative capacity has not been studied in any animal model system. We developed a "drill-hole" model in the tail vertebra of inbred strains of mice that allows us to reproducibly introduce an injury with a defined boundary and quantify the rate of bone healing using the combination of high-resolution Faxitron X-ray imaging and the ChemiImager 4000 Low Light Imaging System. Using this model, we demonstrate that bone-regenerative capacity is a genetically controlled trait with an estimated heritability of 72%, and that it differs significantly among inbred strains of mice. Of the 12 inbred strains tested, Sencar/PtJ was identified as the most suitable model for the study of hard-tissue regeneration. This strain regained 73% of bone loss 30 days after injury, in contrast to the slow healer, CBA/J, which recovered only 25% of the bone loss during the same period. Bone-regenerative capacity was not correlated with soft-tissue-regenerative capacity, suggesting that different sets of genes may regulate soft- and hard-tissue regeneration. It was, however, significantly correlated with total bone mineral density (R = 0.49, p < 0.01), indicating that high bone density is associated not only with prevention of bone fracture, but also with promotion of bone regeneration. PMID:11502474

Li, X; Gu, W; Masinde, G; Hamilton-Ulland, M; Rundle, C H; Mohan, S; Baylink, D J



Cross reactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes from MHC-defined birds against homologous and heterologous avian influenza subtypes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Numerous reports have implicated a role of the major-histocompatibility complex (MHC) in genetic resistance of chickens to bacterial infection and viral diseases. However, little is known about the role of MHC in generating protective immunity following avian influenza (AI) infection. Because vacc...


Two traditional maize inbred lines of contrasting technological abilities are discriminated by the seed flour proteome.  


The seed proteome of two traditional maize inbred lines (pb269 and pb369) contrasting in grain hardness and in preferable use for bread-making was evaluated. The pb269 seeds, of flint type (i.e., hard endosperm), are preferably used by manufacturers, while pb369 (dent, soft endosperm) is rejected. The hypothesis that the content and relative amounts of specific proteins in the maize flour are relevant for such discrimination of the inbred lines was tested. The flour proteins were sequentially extracted following the Osborne fractionation (selective solubilization), and the four Osborne fractions were submitted to two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE). The total amount of protein extracted from the seeds was not significantly different, but pb369 flour exhibited significantly higher proportions of salt-extracted proteins (globulins) and ethanol-extracted proteins (alcohol-soluble prolamins). The proteome analysis allowed discrimination between the two inbred lines, with pb269 demonstrating higher heterogeneity than pb369. From the 967 spots (358 common to both lines, 208 specific to pb269, and 401 specific to pb369), 588 were submitted to mass spectrometry (MS). Through the combined use of trypsin and chymotrypsin it was possible to identify proteins in 436 spots. The functional categorization in combination with multivariate analysis highlighted the most discriminant biological processes (carbohydrate metabolic process, response to stress, chitin catabolic process, oxidation-reduction process) and molecular function (nutrient reservoir activity). The inbred lines exhibited quantitative and qualitative differences in these categories. Differences were also revealed in the amounts, proportions, and distribution of several groups of storage proteins, which can have an impact on the organization of the protein body and endosperm hardness. For some proteins (granule-bound starch synthase-1, cyclophilin, zeamatin), a change in the protein solubility rather than in the total amount extracted was observed, which reveals distinct in vivo associations and/or changes in binding strength between the inbred lines. Our approach produced information that relates protein content, relative protein content, and specific protein types to endosperm hardness and to the preferable use for "broa" bread-making. PMID:23701026

Pinheiro, Carla; Sergeant, Kjell; Machado, Cátia M; Renaut, Jenny; Ricardo, Cândido P



Functional gene expression differences between inbred alcohol-preferring and —non-prerats in five brain regions  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to determine if there are innate differences in gene expression in selected CNS regions between inbred alcohol-preferring (iP) and —non-preferring (iNP) rats. Gene expression was determined in the nucleus accumbens (ACB), amygdala (AMYG), frontal cortex (FC), caudate-putamen (CPU), and hippocampus (HIPP) of alcohol-naïve adult male iP and iNP rats, using Affymetrix Rat Genome U34A microarrays (n = 6/strain). Using Linear Modeling for Microarray Analysis with a false discovery rate threshold of 0.1, there were 16 genes with differential expression in the ACB, 54 in the AMYG, 8 in the FC, 24 in the CPU, and 21 in the HIPP. When examining the main effect of strain across regions, 296 genes were differentially expressed. Although the relatively small number of genes found significant within individual regions precluded a powerful analysis for over-represented Gene Ontology categories, the much larger list resulting from the main effect of strain analysis produced 17 over-represented categories (P <.05), including axon guidance, gliogenesis, negative regulation of programmed cell death, regulation of programmed cell death, regulation of synapse structure function, and transmission of nerve impulse. Co-citation analysis and graphing of significant genes revealed a network involved in the neuropeptide Y (NPY) transmitter system. Correlation of all significant genes with those located within previously established rat alcohol QTLs revealed that of the total of 313 significant genes, 71 are located within such QTLs. The many regional and overall gene expression differences between the iP and iNP rat lines may contribute to the divergent alcohol drinking phenotypes of these rats. PMID:17517326

Kimpel, Mark W.; Strother, Wendy N.; McClintick, Jeanette N.; Carr, Lucinda G.; Liang, Tiebing; Edenberg, Howard J.; McBride, William J.



Restraint stress and exogenous corticosterone differentially alter sensitivity to the sedative-hypnotic effects of ethanol in inbred long-sleep and inbred short-sleep mice.  


Decreased sensitivity to ethanol is a genetically mediated trait implicated in susceptibility to developing alcoholism. Here, we explore genotype by environment differences in ethanol sensitivity. The relationship between acute- and repeated-restraint stress, corticosterone (CORT) levels, and sensitivity to sedative-hypnotic properties of ethanol was explored using inbred long-sleep (ILS) and inbred short-sleep (ISS) mice. In ILS mice, acute restraint decreased ethanol sensitivity at a 4.1g/kg dose, as measured by a decrease in the duration of loss of the righting reflex (LORE) and an increase in blood ethanol concentration at regain of the righting response (BECRR). Repeated restraint also decreased LORE duration, but had no effect on BECRR. In the ISS mice, there was no effect of acute restraint on either LORE duration or BECRR. However, repeated restraint increased ethanol sensitivity at a 4.1g/kg dose; with an increase in LORE duration, but a decrease in BECRR. Differences in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responsiveness to restraint stress (as measured by plasma CORT) were also examined between genotypes. ILS mice displayed habituation to repeated restraint, whereas ISS mice did not. Lastly, the effect of enhanced CORT levels independent of psychological stress was examined for its effects on the sedative-hypnotic effects of ethanol. There were no effects of CORT pretreatment on LORE duration or BECRR in ILS mice compared to saline- or noninjected littermates. In contrast, ISS mice injected with CORT showed a decreased duration of LORE, but no effects on BECRR. These findings suggest that in addition to genetic susceptibility, environmental factors (e.g., restraint stress, exogenous CORT administration) also influence sensitivity to the sedative effects of ethanol through alteration of central nervous system sensitivity and pharmacokinetic parameters, and do so in a genotype-dependent manner. PMID:18760716

Parker, Clarissa Carlin; Ponicsan, Heather; Spencer, Robert Leon; Holmes, Andrew; Johnson, Thomas Eugene



Transcriptome analysis of nodes and buds from high and low tillering switchgrass inbred lines.  


In the last two decades switchgrass has received increasing attention as a promising bioenergy feedstock. Biomass is the principal trait for improvement in switchgrass breeding programs and tillering is an important component of biomass yield. Switchgrass inbred lines derived from a single parent showing vast variation in tiller number trait was used in this study. Axillary buds, which can develop into tillers, and node tissues, which give rise to axillary buds, were collected from high and low tillering inbred lines growing in field conditions. RNA from buds and nodes from the contrasting inbred lines were used for transcriptome profiling with switchgrass Affymetrix genechips. Nearly 7% of the probesets on the genechip exhibited significant differential expression in these lines. Real-time PCR analysis of 30 genes confirmed the differential expression patterns observed with genechips. Cluster analysis aided in identifying probesets unique to high or low tillering lines as well as those specific to buds or nodes of high tillering lines. Rice orthologs of the switchgrass genes were used for gene ontology (GO) analysis with AgriGO. Enrichment of genes associated with amino acid biosynthesis, lipid transport and vesicular transport were observed in low tillering lines. Enrichment of GOs for translation, RNA binding and gene expression in high tillering lines were indicative of active metabolism associated with rapid growth and development. Identification of different classes of transcription factor genes suggests that regulation of many genes determines the complex process of axillary bud initiation and development. Genes identified in this study will complement the current ongoing efforts in quantitative trait loci mapping of tillering in switchgrass. PMID:24386276

Wang, Yixing; Zeng, Xin; Peal, Lila; Tang, Yuhong; Wu, Yanqi; Mahalingam, Ramamurthy



Diallel analysis of leaf disease resistance in inbred Brazilian popcorn cultivars.  


We estimated general and specific combining abilities and examined resistance to northern leaf blight (Exserohilum turcicum) and to gray leaf spot (Cercospora zeae-maydis) in a set of nine inbred popcorn lines. These inbreds were crossed in a complete diallel scheme without reciprocals, which produced 36 F(1) hybrids. Two experiments with a square lattice design and three replications were conducted during the 2008/2009 crop season, in Maringá, PR, Brazil. The severity of northern leaf blight and gray leaf spot was assessed under natural infestation conditions. Data were examined by individual and joint analysis of variance. Individual and joint Griffing's diallel analyses were carried out for adjusted means. General combining ability and specific combining ability were significant (P < 0.10) by the F-test for northern leaf blight and gray leaf spot infestation levels. This denotes that additive and non-additive gene effects both contributed to resistance to these diseases, but that the additive gene effects were more important. Among the inbred lines, P(8) and P(9) gave the highest resistance to northern leaf blight, and P(3) and P(4.3) gave the highest resistance to gray leaf spot. The hybrids P(7.4) x P(8) and P(4.3) x P(9) could be exploited by reciprocal recurrent selection to provide genotypes with both northern leaf blight and gray leaf spot resistance. Significant interaction between general combining ability and crop season (P < 0.10) denotes the importance of environment, even though the disease levels in the hybrids were quite consistent. PMID:20013656

Vieira, R A; Scapim, C A; Moterle, L M; Tessmann, D J; Conrado, T V; Amaral Júnior, A T



Cardiac mitochondrial proteomic expression in inbred rat strains divergent in survival time after hemorrhage.  


We have previously identified inbred rat strains differing in survival time to a severe controlled hemorrhage (StaH). In efforts to identify cellular mechanisms and ultimately genes that are important contributors to enhanced STaH, we conducted a study to characterize potential differences in cardiac mitochondrial proteins in these rats. Inbred rats from three strains [Brown Norway/Medical College of Wisconsin (BN); Dark Agouti (DA), and Fawn Hooded Hypertensive (FHH)] with different StaH (DA = FHH > BN) were assigned to one of three treatment groups (n = 4/strain): nonoperated controls, surgically catheterized rats, or rats surgically catheterized and hemorrhaged 24 h postsurgery. Rats were euthanized 30 min after handling or 30 min after initiation of a 26 min hemorrhage. After euthanasia, hearts were removed and mitochondria isolated. Differential protein expression was determined using 2D DIGE-based Quantitative Intact Proteomics and proteins identified by MALDI/TOF mass spectrometry. Hundreds of proteins (791) differed among inbred rat strains (P ? 0.038), and of these 81 were identified. Thirty-eight were unique proteins and 43 were apparent isoforms. For DA rats (longest STaH), 36 proteins increased and 30 decreased compared with BN (shortest STaH). These 81 proteins were associated with lipid (e.g., acyl CoA dehydrogenase) and carbohydrate (e.g., fumarase) metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation (e.g., ubiquinol-cytochrome C reductase), ATP synthesis (F1 ATPase), and H2S synthesis (3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase). Although we cannot make associations between these identified mitochondrial proteins and StaH, our data do provide evidence for future candidate proteins with which to consider such associations. PMID:23386204

Klemcke, Harold G; DeKroon, Robert M; Mocanu, Mihaela; Robinette, Jennifer B; Alzate, Oscar



Efficient collection and cryopreservation of embryos in F344 strain inbred rats.  


In rats, it is now possible to produce genetically engineered strains, not only as transgenic animals but also using gene knockout techniques. Reproductive technologies have been used as indispensable tools to produce and maintain these novel valuable strains. Although studies for collecting and cryopreserving embryos have been reported using outbred rats, efficient methods have not been established in inbred strains. The F344 inbred strain is important in rat breeding and has been used for the production of transgenic/knockout strains and for genome sequencing. Here we studied the optimal conditions for oocyte collection by induction of superovulation, and the development of embryos after cryopreservation in F344 rats. The response to pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) was examined by injection of 150 IU/kg PMSG + 75 IU/kg hCG or 300 IU/kg PMSG + 300 IU/kg hCG. Superovulation was achieved at high efficiency by an injection of 150 IU/kg PMSG + 75 IU/kg hCG. Furthermore, superovulation in this strain showed similar high response as Wistar rats. Of 2-cell embryos cryopreserved by vitrification in a solution containing 10% propylene glycol, 30% ethylene glycol, 20% Percoll and 0.3 M sucrose, more than 90% survived after warming and 32% developed to offspring. However, the freezability of pronuclear stage embryos was extremely low. This study demonstrated that sufficient unfertilized oocytes and embryos can be collected from F344 rats by the induction of superovulation with 150 IU/kg PMSG + 75 IU/kg hCG. Furthermore, cryopreservation of 2-cell embryos using this vitrification protocol can now be applied to maintaining valuable rat strains derived from the F344 inbred strain as genetic resources. PMID:23928269

Taketsuru, Hiroaki; Kaneko, Takehito



Transcriptome Analysis of Nodes and Buds from High and Low Tillering Switchgrass Inbred Lines  

PubMed Central

In the last two decades switchgrass has received increasing attention as a promising bioenergy feedstock. Biomass is the principal trait for improvement in switchgrass breeding programs and tillering is an important component of biomass yield. Switchgrass inbred lines derived from a single parent showing vast variation in tiller number trait was used in this study. Axillary buds, which can develop into tillers, and node tissues, which give rise to axillary buds, were collected from high and low tillering inbred lines growing in field conditions. RNA from buds and nodes from the contrasting inbred lines were used for transcriptome profiling with switchgrass Affymetrix genechips. Nearly 7% of the probesets on the genechip exhibited significant differential expression in these lines. Real-time PCR analysis of 30 genes confirmed the differential expression patterns observed with genechips. Cluster analysis aided in identifying probesets unique to high or low tillering lines as well as those specific to buds or nodes of high tillering lines. Rice orthologs of the switchgrass genes were used for gene ontology (GO) analysis with AgriGO. Enrichment of genes associated with amino acid biosynthesis, lipid transport and vesicular transport were observed in low tillering lines. Enrichment of GOs for translation, RNA binding and gene expression in high tillering lines were indicative of active metabolism associated with rapid growth and development. Identification of different classes of transcription factor genes suggests that regulation of many genes determines the complex process of axillary bud initiation and development. Genes identified in this study will complement the current ongoing efforts in quantitative trait loci mapping of tillering in switchgrass. PMID:24386276

Wang, Yixing; Zeng, Xin; Peal, Lila; Tang, Yuhong; Wu, Yanqi; Mahalingam, Ramamurthy



Spontaneous hypertriglyceridemic obesity and hyperglycemia in an inbred line of rats.  


A genetically mild obesity syndrome of pubertal onset in a highly inbred line of rats differentiated as beta (beta) has been described. It was discovered in both sexes fed a stock diet for rodents. Hyperphagia was not noticeable. Total fat content reached 31 percent of total body weight in mature males. Obesity was associated with normal plasma cholesterol values and hypertriglyceridemia. Fasting blood sugar levels at maturity were within the normal range for rats, but significantly higher than in lean alpha (alpha) controls. This syndrome developed into a mild glucose intolerance and glucosuria in older obese rats. PMID:3440679

Calderari, S A; Gonzalez, A C; Gayol, M D



Characterization of Photosynthetic Performance during Senescence in Stay-Green and Quick-Leaf-Senescence Zea mays L. Inbred Lines  

PubMed Central

The net photosynthetic rate, chlorophyll content, chlorophyll fluorescence and 820 nm transmission were investigated to explore the behavior of the photosynthetic apparatus, including light absorption, energy transformation and the photoactivities of photosystem II (PSII) and photosystem I (PSI) during senescence in the stay-green inbred line of maize (Zea mays) Q319 and the quick-leaf-senescence inbred line of maize HZ4. The relationship between the photosynthetic performance and the decrease in chlorophyll content in the two inbred lines was also studied. Both the field and laboratory data indicated that the chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate, and the photoactivities of PSII and PSI decreased later and slower in Q319 than in HZ4, indicating that Q319 is a functional stay-green inbred line. In order to avoid the influence of different development stages and environmental factors on senescence, age-matched detached leaf segments from the two inbred lines were treated with ethephon under controlled conditions to induce senescence. The net photosynthetic rate, light absorption, energy transformation, the activities of PSII acceptor side and donor side and the PSI activities decreased much slower in Q319 than in HZ4 during the ethephon-induced senescence. These results suggest that the retention of light absorption, energy transformation and activity of electron transfer contribute to the extended duration of active photosynthesis in Q319. Although the chlorophyll content decreased faster in HZ4, with decrease of chlorophyll content induced by ethephon, photosynthetic performance of Q319 deteriorated much more severely than that of HZ4, indicating that, compared with Q319, HZ4 has an advantage at maintaining higher photosynthetic activity with decrease of chlorophyll although HZ4 is a quick-leaf-senescence inbred line. We conclude that attention should be paid to two favorable characteristics in breeding long duration of active photosynthesis hybrids: 1) maintaining more chlorophyll content during senescence and 2) maintaining higher photosynthetic activity during the loss of chlorophyll. PMID:22900069

Gao, Huiyuan; Zhang, Litao; Yang, Cheng; Liu, Peng; Meng, Qingwei



Gastrointestinal microbiota of wild and inbred individuals of two house mouse subspecies assessed using high-throughput parallel pyrosequencing.  


The effects of gastrointestinal tract microbiota (GTM) on host physiology and health have been the subject of considerable interest in recent years. While a variety of captive bred species have been used in experiments, the extent to which GTM of captive and/or inbred individuals resembles natural composition and variation in wild populations is poorly understood. Using 454 pyrosequencing, we performed 16S rDNA GTM barcoding for 30 wild house mice (Mus musculus) and wild-derived inbred strain mice belonging to two subspecies (M. m. musculus and M. m. domesticus). Sequenced individuals were selected according to a 2 × 2 experimental design: wild (14) vs. inbred origin (16) and M. m. musculus (15) vs. M. m. domesticus (15). We compared alpha diversity (i.e. number of operational taxonomic units - OTUs), beta diversity (i.e. interindividual variability) and microbiota composition across the four groups. We found no difference between M. m. musculus and M. m. domesticus subspecies, suggesting low effect of genetic differentiation between these two subspecies on GTM structure. Both inbred and wild populations showed the same level of microbial alpha and beta diversity; however, we found strong differentiation in microbiota composition between wild and inbred populations. Relative abundance of ~ 16% of OTUs differed significantly between wild and inbred individuals. As laboratory mice represent the most abundant model for studying the effects of gut microbiota on host metabolism, immunity and neurology, we suggest that the distinctness of laboratory-kept mouse microbiota, which differs from wild mouse microbiota, needs to be considered in future biomedical research. PMID:25204516

Kreisinger, Jakub; Cížková, Dagmar; Vohánka, Jaroslav; Piálek, Jaroslav



Maize Dwarf Mosaic Virus: Effect of Strain A On Corn Inbreds, Single- and Double-Cross Hybrids.  

E-print Network

of MDMV control is through host resistance (1). Hybrids and inbred lines of corn have been screened for their reaction to MDMV in Arkansas, Ohio, Georgia, Missouri, and Tennessee (3, 4, 9, 11,16,17). Several Texas inbred lines were screened in Illinois... of growth with an artist's airbrush (13) using 7.06 kg/cm 2 pressure a flow rate of 10 ml Imi n and a 1 eaf di stance of 2.5 cm. Inoculum consisted of infected sorghum sudan hybrid homogenized in a Waring blender with equal volume of phosphate buffer p...

Toler, R.W.; Bockholt, A.J.; Alston, F.G.



Nucleotide Polymorphisms and Haplotype Diversity of RTCS Gene in China Elite Maize Inbred Lines  

PubMed Central

The maize RTCS gene, encoding a LOB domain transcription factor, plays important roles in the initiation of embryonic seminal and postembryonic shoot-borne root. In this study, the genomic sequences of this gene in 73 China elite inbred lines, including 63 lines from 5 temperate heteroric groups and 10 tropic germplasms, were obtained, and the nucleotide polymorphisms and haplotype diversity were detected. A total of 63 sequence variants, including 44 SNPs and 19 indels, were identified at this locus, and most of them were found to be located in the regions of UTR and intron. The coding region of this gene in all tested inbred lines carried 14 haplotypes, which encoding 7 deferring RTCS proteins. Analysis of the polymorphism sites revealed that at least 6 recombination events have occurred. Among all 6 groups tested, only the P heterotic group had a much lower nucleotide diversity than the whole set, and selection analysis also revealed that only this group was under strong negative selection. However, the set of Huangzaosi and its derived lines possessed a higher nucleotide diversity than the whole set, and no selection signal were identified. PMID:23437145

Wang, Yifan; Hu, Yunyun; Song, Xiyun; Xu, Chenwu



Genotype Probabilities at Intermediate Generations in the Construction of Recombinant Inbred Lines  

PubMed Central

The mouse Collaborative Cross (CC) is a panel of eight-way recombinant inbred lines: eight diverse parental strains are intermated, followed by repeated sibling mating, many times in parallel, to create a new set of inbred lines whose genomes are random mosaics of the genomes of the original eight strains. Many generations are required to reach inbreeding, and so a number of investigators have sought to make use of phenotype and genotype data on mice from intermediate generations during the formation of the CC lines (so-called pre-CC mice). The development of a hidden Markov model for genotype reconstruction in such pre-CC mice, on the basis of incompletely informative genetic markers (such as single-nucleotide polymorphisms), formally requires the two-locus genotype probabilities at an arbitrary generation along the path to inbreeding. In this article, I describe my efforts to calculate such probabilities. While closed-form solutions for the two-locus genotype probabilities could not be derived, I provide a prescription for calculating such probabilities numerically. In addition, I present a number of useful quantities, including single-locus genotype probabilities, two-locus haplotype probabilities, and the fixation probability and map expansion at each generation along the course to inbreeding. PMID:22345609

Broman, Karl W.



Sustained heterozygosity across a self-incompatibility locus in an inbred ascidian.  


Because self-incompatibility loci are maintained heterozygous and recombination within self-incompatibility loci would be disadvantageous, self-incompatibility loci are thought to contribute to structural and functional differentiation of chromosomes. Although the hermaphrodite chordate, Ciona intestinalis, has two self-incompatibility genes, this incompatibility system is incomplete and self-fertilization occurs under laboratory conditions. Here, we established an inbred strain of C. intestinalis by repeated self-fertilization. Decoding genome sequences of sibling animals of this strain identified a 2.4-Mbheterozygous region on chromosome 7. A self-incompatibility gene, Themis-B, was encoded within this region. This observation implied that this self-incompatibility locus and the linkage disequilibrium of its flanking region contribute to the formation of the 2.4-Mb heterozygous region, probably through recombination suppression. We showed that different individuals in natural populations had different numbers and different combinations of Themis-B variants, and that the rate of self-fertilization varied among these animals. Our result explains why self-fertilization occurs under laboratory conditions. It also supports the concept that the Themis-B locus is preferentially retained heterozygous in the inbred line and contributes to the formation of the 2.4-Mb heterozygous region. High structural variations might suppress recombination, and this long heterozygous region might represent a preliminary stage of structural differentiation of chromosomes. PMID:25234703

Satou, Yutaka; Hirayama, Kazuko; Mita, Kaoru; Fujie, Manabu; Chiba, Shota; Yoshida, Reiko; Endo, Toshinori; Sasakura, Yasunori; Inaba, Kazuo; Satoh, Nori



No inbreeding depression but increased sexual investment in highly inbred ant colonies.  


Inbreeding can lead to the expression of deleterious recessive alleles and to a subsequent fitness reduction. In Hymenoptera, deleterious alleles are purged in haploid males moderating inbreeding costs. However, in these haplodiploid species, inbreeding can result in the production of sterile diploid males. We investigated the effects of inbreeding on the individual and colony level in field colonies of the highly inbred ant Hypoponera opacior. In this species, outbreeding winged sexuals and nest-mating wingless sexuals mate during two separate reproductive periods. We show that regular sib-matings lead to high levels of homozygosity and the occasional production of diploid males, which sporadically sire triploid offspring. On the individual level, inbreeding was associated with an increased body size in workers. On the colony level, we found no evidence for inbreeding depression as productivity was unaffected by the level of homozygosity. Instead, inbred colonies altered their allocation strategies by investing more resources into sexuals than into workers. This shift towards sexual production was due to an increased investment in both males and queens, which was particularly pronounced in the dispersive generation. The absence of inbreeding depression combined with increased reproductive investment, especially in outbreeding sexuals, suggests that these ants have evolved active strategies to regulate the extent and effects of frequent inbreeding. PMID:23043297

Kureck, Ilka M; Jongepier, Evelien; Nicolai, Beate; Foitzik, Susanne



Genetic regulation of cold-induced albinism in the maize inbred line A661  

PubMed Central

In spite of multiple studies elucidating the regulatory pathways controlling chlorophyll biosynthesis and photosynthetic activity, little is known about the molecular mechanism regulating cold-induced chlorosis in higher plants. Herein the characterization of the maize inbred line A661 which shows a cold-induced albino phenotype is reported. The data show that exposure of seedlings to low temperatures during early leaf biogenesis led to chlorophyll losses in this inbred. A661 shows a high plasticity, recovering resting levels of photosynthesis activity when exposed to optimal temperatures. Biochemical and transcriptome data indicate that at suboptimal temperatures chlorophyll could not be fully accommodated in the photosynthetic antenna in A661, remaining free in the chloroplast. The accumulation of free chlorophyll activates the expression of an early light inducible protein (elip) gene which binds chlorophyll to avoid cross-reactions that could lead to the generation of harmful reactive oxygen species. Higher levels of the elip transcript were observed in plants showing a cold-induced albino phenotype. Forward genetic analysis reveals that a gene located on the short arm of chromosome 2 regulates this protective mechanism. PMID:23881393

Rodríguez, Víctor M.



Development of SNP markers for C57BL/6N-derived mouse inbred strains  

PubMed Central

C57BL/6N inbred mice are used as the genetic background for producing knockout mice in large-scale projects worldwide; however, the genetic divergence among C57BL/6N-derived substrains has not been verified. Here, we identified novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) specific to the C57BL/6NJ strain and selected useful SNPs for the genetic monitoring of C57BL/6N-derived substrains. Informative SNPs were selected from the public SNP database at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute by comparing sequence data from C57BL/6NJ and C57BL/6J mice. A total of 1,361 candidate SNPs from the SNP database could distinguish the C57BL/6NJ strain from 12 other inbred strains. We confirmed 277 C57BL/6NJ-specific SNPs including 10 nonsynonymous SNPs by direct sequencing, and selected 100 useful SNPs that cover all of the chromosomes except Y. Genotyping of 11 C57BL/6N-derived substrains at these 100 SNP loci demonstrated genetic differences among the substrains. This information will be useful for accurate genetic monitoring of mouse strains with a C57BL/6N-derived background.

Mekada, Kazuyuki; Hirose, Mayu; Murakami, Ayumi; Yoshiki, Atsushi



Efficient QTL detection for nonhost resistance in wild lettuce: backcross inbred lines versus F2 population  

PubMed Central

In plants, several population types [F2, recombinant inbred lines, backcross inbred lines (BILs), etc.] are used for quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses. However, dissection of the trait of interest and subsequent confirmation by introgression of QTLs for breeding purposes has not been as successful as that predicted from theoretical calculations. More practical knowledge of different QTL mapping approaches is needed. In this recent study, we describe the detection and mapping of quantitative resistances to downy mildew in a set of 29 BILs of cultivated lettuce (L. sativa) containing genome segments introgressed from wild lettuce (L. saligna). Introgression regions that are associated with quantitative resistance are considered to harbor a QTL. Furthermore, we compare this with results from an already existing F2 population derived from the same parents. We identified six QTLs in our BIL approach compared to only three in the F2 approach, while there were two QTLs in common. We performed a simulation study based on our actual data to help us interpret them. This revealed that two newly detected QTLs in the BILs had gone unnoticed in the F2, due to a combination of recessiveness of the trait and skewed segregation, causing a deficit of the wild species alleles. This study clearly illustrates the added value of extended genetic studies on two different population types (BILs and F2) to dissect complex genetic traits. PMID:18251002

Pelgrom, K.; Stam, P.; Lindhout, P.



Hidden in plain sight: spike-wave discharges in mouse inbred strains.  


Twenty-seven inbred strains of mice were tested for spike-wave discharge (SWD) activity by video-electroencephalographic recordings over a 24-h recording period. Eight strains had reproducible, frequent SWDs, including five strains (C57BLKS/J, CBA/J, DBA/1J, NOR/LtJ, SM/J) previously undiagnosed for this distinctive phenotype. Eighteen other strains exhibited no such activity. Spike-wave discharges usually occurred while the subject was motionless, and in a significant number of annotated instances coincided with an arrest of the subject's relatively unrestrained locomotor activity, which resumed immediately after the discharge ended. In all five new strains, SWDs were suppressed by ethosuximide administration. From the genealogy of inbred strains, we suggest that two ancestors, A and DBA, transmitted genotypes required for SWD in all positive strains. Together these strains with SWDs provide new opportunities to understand the genetic core susceptibility of this distinctive electroencephalographic activity and to explore its relationship to absence epilepsy, a human disorder for which few genes are known. PMID:24861780

Letts, V A; Beyer, B J; Frankel, W N



In silico QTL mapping of basal liver iron levels in inbred mouse strains  

PubMed Central

Both iron deficiency and iron excess are detrimental in many organisms, and previous studies in both mice and humans suggest that genetic variation may influence iron status in mammals. However, these genetic factors are not well defined. To address this issue, we measured basal liver iron levels in 18 inbred strains of mice of both sexes on a defined iron diet and found ?4-fold variation in liver iron in males (lowest 153 ?g/g, highest 661 ?g/g) and ?3-fold variation in females (lowest 222 ?g/g, highest 658 ?g/g). We carried out a genome-wide association mapping to identify haplotypes underlying differences in liver iron and three other related traits (copper and zinc liver levels, and plasma diferric transferrin levels) in a subset of 14 inbred strains for which genotype information was available. We identified two putative quantitative trait loci (QTL) that contain genes with a known role in iron metabolism: Eif2ak1 and Igf2r. We also identified four putative QTL that reside in previously identified iron-related QTL and 22 novel putative QTL. The most promising putative QTL include a 0.22 Mb region on Chromosome 7 and a 0.32 Mb region on Chromosome 11 that both contain only one candidate gene, Adam12 and Gria1, respectively. Identified putative QTL are good candidates for further refinement and subsequent functional studies. PMID:21062905

McLachlan, Stela; Lee, Seung-Min; Steele, Teresa M.; Hawthorne, Paula L.; Zapala, Matthew A.; Eskin, Eleazar; Schork, Nicholas J.; Anderson, Gregory J.



Genetic architecture of rind penetrometer resistance in two maize recombinant inbred line populations  

PubMed Central

Background Maize (Zea Mays L.) is one of the most important cereal crops worldwide and provides food for billions of people. Stalk lodging can greatly undermine the standability of maize plants and therefore decrease crop yields. Rind penetrometer resistance is an effective and reliable method for evaluating maize stalk strength, which is highly correlated with stalk lodging resistance. In this study, two recombinant inbred line populations were constructed from crosses between the H127R and Chang7-2 lines, and between the B73 and By804 lines. We genotyped these two populations and their parents using 3,072 single nucleotide polymorphism markers and performed phenotypic assessment of rind penetrometer resistance in multiple environments to dissect the genetic architecture of rind penetrometer resistance in maize. Results Based on two linkage maps of 1,397.1 and 1,600.4 cM with average interval of 1.7 and 2.1 cM between adjacent makers, respectively, seven quantitative trait loci (QTL) for rind penetrometer resistance were detected in the two recombinant inbred line populations. These QTL were distributed in seven genomic regions, and each accounted for 4.4–18.9% of the rind penetrometer resistance variation. The QTL with the largest effect on rind penetrometer resistance, qRPR3-1, was located on chromosome 3 with the flanking markers PZE-103123325 and SYN23245. This locus was further narrowed down to a 3.1-Mb interval by haplotype analysis using high-density markers in the target region. Within this interval, four genes associated with the biosynthesis of cell wall components were considered as potential candidate genes for the rind penetrometer resistance effect. Conclusions The inheritance of rind penetrometer resistance is rather complex. A few large-effect quantitative trait loci, together with a several minor-effect QTL, contributed to the phenotypic variation in rind penetrometer resistance in the two recombinant inbred line populations that were examined. A potential approach for improving stalk strength and crop yields in commercial maize lines may be to introgress favorable alleles of the locus that was found to have the largest effect on rind penetrometer resistance (qRPR3-1). PMID:24893717



A deleterious effect associated with UNH159 is attenuated in twin embryos of an inbred line of tilapia (Oreochromis aureus)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Offspring of a highly inbred gynogenetic line of Oreochromis aureus displayed 12-fold increase in twinning rate compared to the outbred population. Asymmetric conjoined twins which consist of a normal embryo attached to a malformed-atrophic twin were frequently encountered in both gynogenetic (90.7%...


Phenotypic and molecular characterization of selected tomato recombinant inbred lines derived from the cross Solanum lycopersicum x S. pimpinellifolium.  


An important trait defining fresh tomato marketability is fruit shelf life. Exotic germplasm of Solanum pimpinellifolium is able to prolong shelf life. Sixteen recombinant inbred lines with differing values of shelf life and fruit weight were derived by antagonistic-divergent selection from an interspecific cross involving Solanum pimpinellifolium. The objective of this study was to evaluate these recombinant inbred lines for many fruit quality traits such as diameter, height, size, acidity, colour, firmness, shelf life and weight, and to characterize them by amplified fragment length polymorphism markers. For most traits, a wide range of genetic variability was found and a wide range of molecular variation was also detected. Both sets of data allowed the identification of recombinant inbred lines by means of cluster analysis and principal component analysis. Genetic association among some amplified fragment length polymorphism markers and fruit quality traits, suggested by the principal component analysis, could be identified by single point analysis. Potential molecular markers underlying agronomical traits were detected in these recombinant inbred lines. PMID:21869471

Pratta, Guillermo R; Rodriguez, Gustavo R; Zorzoli, Roxana; Valle, Estela M; Picardi, Liliana A



Genome-Wide Patterns of Polymorphism in an Inbred Line of the African Malaria Mosquito Anopheles gambiae  

PubMed Central

Anopheles gambiae is a major mosquito vector of malaria in Africa. Although increased use of insecticide-based vector control tools has decreased malaria transmission, elimination is likely to require novel genetic control strategies. It can be argued that the absence of an A. gambiae inbred line has slowed progress toward genetic vector control. In order to empower genetic studies and enable precise and reproducible experimentation, we set out to create an inbred line of this species. We found that amenability to inbreeding varied between populations of A. gambiae. After full-sib inbreeding for ten generations, we genotyped 112 individuals—56 saved prior to inbreeding and 56 collected after inbreeding—at a genome-wide panel of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Although inbreeding dramatically reduced diversity across much of the genome, we discovered numerous, discrete genomic blocks that maintained high heterozygosity. For one large genomic region, we were able to definitively show that high diversity is due to the persistent polymorphism of a chromosomal inversion. Inbred lines in other eukaryotes often exhibit a qualitatively similar retention of polymorphism when typed at a small number of markers. Our whole-genome SNP data provide the first strong, empirical evidence supporting associative overdominance as the mechanism maintaining higher than expected diversity in inbred lines. Although creation of A. gambiae lines devoid of nearly all polymorphism may not be feasible, our results provide critical insights into how more fully isogenic lines can be created. PMID:25377942

Turissini, David A.; Gamez, Stephanie; White, Bradley J.



Susceptibility of the wild-derived inbred CAST/Ei mouse to infection by orthopoxviruses analyzed by live bioluminescence imaging  

PubMed Central

Classical inbred mice are extensively used for virus research. However, we recently found that some wild-derived inbred mouse strains are more susceptible than classical strains to monkeypox virus. Experiments described here indicated that the 50% lethal dose of vaccinia virus (VACV) and cowpox virus (CPXV) were two logs lower in wild-derived inbred CAST/Ei mice than classical inbred BALB/c mice, whereas there was little difference in the susceptibility of the mouse strains to herpes simplex virus. Live bioluminescence imaging was used to follow spread of pathogenic and attenuated VACV strains and CPXV virus from nasal passages to organs in the chest and abdomen of CAST/Ei mice. Luminescence increased first in the head and then simultaneously in the chest and abdomen in a dose-dependent manner. The spreading kinetics was more rapid with VACV than CPXV although the peak photon flux was similar. These data suggest advantages of CAST/Ei mice for orthopoxvirus studies. PMID:24418545

Americo, Jeffrey L.; Sood, Cindy L.; Cotter, Catherine A.; Vogel, Jodi L.; Kristie, Thomas M.; Moss, Bernard; Earl, Patricia L.



Genetic mapping and QTL analysis of horticultural traits in cucumber ( Cucumis sativus L.) using recombinant inbred lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of 171 recombinant inbred lines (RIL) were developed from a narrow cross in cucumber ( Cucumis sativus L.; 2n = 2 x = 14) using the determinate ( de), gynoecious ( F), standard-sized leaf line G421 and the indeterminate, monoecious, little-leaf ( ll) line H-19. A 131-point genetic map was constructed using these RILs and 216 F 2

G. Fazio; J. E. Staub; M. R. Stevens



Joint QTL analyses for partial resistance to Phytophthora sojae using six nested inbred populations with heterogeneous conditions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Partial resistance to Phytophthora sojae in soybean is controlled by multiple quantitative trait loci (QTL). With traditional QTL mapping approaches, power to detect these QTL, frequently of small effect, can be limited by population size. Joint linkage QTL analysis of nested recombinant inbred li...


Structural variation of the pseudoautosomal region between and within inbred mouse strains.  

PubMed Central

The pseudoautosomal region (PAR) is a segment of shared homology between the sex chromosomes. Here we report additional probes for this region of the mouse genome. Genetic and fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses indicate that one probe, PAR-4, hybridizes to the pseudoautosomal telomere and a minor locus at the telomere of chromosome 9 and that a PCR assay based on the PAR-4 sequence amplifies only the pseudoautosomal locus (DXYHgu1). The region detected by PAR-4 is structurally unstable; it shows polymorphism both between mouse strains and between animals of the same inbred strain, which implies an unusually high mutation rate. Variation occurs in the region adjacent to a (TTAGGG)n array. Two pseudoautosomal probes can also hybridize to the distal telomeres of chromosomes 9 and 13, and all three telomeres contain DXYMov15. The similarity between these telomeres may reflect ancestral telomere-telomere exchange. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8552598

Kipling, D; Wilson, H E; Thomson, E J; Lee, M; Perry, J; Palmer, S; Ashworth, A; Cooke, H J



Association of Nrf2 Polymorphism Haplotypes with Acute Lung Injury Phenotypes in Inbred Strains of Mice  

PubMed Central

Abstract Aims: Nrf2 is a master transcription factor for antioxidant response element (ARE)-mediated cytoprotective gene induction. A protective role for pulmonary Nrf2 was determined in model oxidative disorders, including hyperoxia-induced acute lung injury (ALI). To obtain additional insights into the function and genetic regulation of Nrf2, we assessed functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of Nrf2 in inbred mouse strains and tested whether sequence variation is associated with hyperoxia susceptibility. Results: Nrf2 SNPs were compiled from publicly available databases and by re-sequencing DNA from inbred strains. Hierarchical clustering of Nrf2 SNPs categorized the strains into three major haplotypes. Hyperoxia susceptibility was greater in haplotypes 2 and 3 strains than in haplotype 1 strains. A promoter SNP ?103?T/C adding an Sp1 binding site in haplotype 2 diminished promoter activation basally and under hyperoxia. Haplotype 3 mice bearing nonsynonymous coding SNPs located in (1862?A/T, His543Gln) and adjacent to (1417?T/C, Thr395Ile) the Neh1 domain showed suppressed nuclear transactivation of pulmonary Nrf2 relative to other strains, and overexpression of haplotype 3 Nrf2 showed lower ARE responsiveness than overexpression of haplotype 1 Nrf2 in airway cells. Importantly, we found a significant correlation of Nrf2 haplotypes and hyperoxic lung injury phenotypes. Innovation and Conclusion: The results indicate significant influence of Nrf2 polymorphisms and haplotypes on gene function and hyperoxia susceptibility. Our findings further support Nrf2 as a genetic determinant in ALI pathogenesis and provide useful tools for investigators who use mouse strains classified by Nrf2 haplotypes to elucidate the role for Nrf2 in oxidative disorders. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 22, 325–338. PMID:25268541

Jedlicka, Anne E.; Gladwell, Wesley; Marzec, Jacqui; McCaw, Zackary R.; Bienstock, Rachelle J.; Kleeberger, Steven R.



Genetic analysis in a variant of limb girdle muscular dystrophy in an inbred aboriginal community  

SciTech Connect

Limb girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) is a heterogeneous group of disorders with variable inheritance patterns, age-of-onset, rates of progression and patterns of muscle involvement. To date, 4 different chromosomal assignments have been described; LGMD1 to chromosome 5q, LGMD2 to chromosome 15q, SCARMD to chromosome 13q and a fourth locus on chromosome 2p. Because of this genetic heterogeneity, only large unambiguous multiplex families which are clearly linked to a particular locus can be utilized in a genetic analysis. We now report preliminary findings in a large highly inbred aboriginal kindred with 8 probands (5 females, 3 males) from 6 nuclear families with a progressive LMD. All presented in their mid- to late teens with gait disturbances. At time of presentation all except one had both proximal as well as distal muscle involvement, facial muscle sparing, CK levels 25 to 100 times normal (3762-20,400 U/l), dystrophic muscle biopsies and normal dystrophin and dystrophin-associated glycoprotein expression. We have studied the segregation of highly informative microsatellite markers for FBN1, D15S132 and the gene for thrombospondin on chromosome 15q and D2S134, D2S136, D2S147, and D2S166 on chromosome 2. Linkage to chromosome 15q has been excluded and two-point lod scores are not significant as yet to either confirm or exclude linkage to chromosome 2p. However, visual inspection reveals that affected individuals are not consistently homozygous for the chromosome 2p markers as would be predicted in such an inbred population. Clinically, SCARMD is unlikely and if the locus on chromosomes 2p and 5q can also be excluded, a genome-wide search using evenly spaced microsatellites will be initiated. A second geographically distinct aboriginal kindred with a similar clinical phenotype has now also been identified.

Greenberg, C.R.; Nylen, E.G.; Halliday, W. [Univ. of Manitoba, Winnipeg (Canada)] [and others



A Common Genetic Basis for Cross-Sensitivity to Mesotrione and Nicosulfuron in Sweet Corn Hybrid Cultivars and Inbreds Grown Throughout North America  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In previous research, the sweet corn inbred line Cr1 was observed to be sensitive to multiple postemergence herbicides, including four acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibiting herbicides, three 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD)-inhibiting herbicides, a growth regulator herbicide combination, ...


RFLP studies of genetic relationships among inbred lines of the cultivated sunflower, Helianthus annuus L.: evidence for distinct restorer and maintainer germplasm pools  

Microsoft Academic Search

One-hundred-and-eighty-one nuclear DNA probes were used to examine restriction-fragment length polymorphism in inbred lines of the cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). The probes were from six libraries: two genomic libraries — one made with PstI and the other with HindIII, and four cDNA libraries — from etiolated plantlets, green leaves, ovaries, petals and anthers. Total DNA from 17 inbred lines

L. Gentzbittel; Y.-X. Zhang; F. Vear; B. Griveau; P. Nicolas



Generating Embryonic Stem Cells from the Inbred Mouse Strain DBA/2J, a Model of Glaucoma and Other Complex Diseases  

PubMed Central

Mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells are derived from the inner cell mass of blastocyst stage embryos and are used primarily for the creation of genetically engineered strains through gene targeting. While some inbred strains of mice are permissive to the derivation of embryonic stem cell lines and are therefore easily engineered, others are nonpermissive or recalcitrant. Genetic engineering of recalcitrant strain backgrounds requires gene targeting in a permissive background followed by extensive backcrossing of the engineered allele into the desired strain background. The inbred mouse strain DBA/2J is a recalcitrant strain that is used as a model of many human diseases, including glaucoma, deafness and schizophrenia. Here, we describe the generation of germ-line competent ES cell lines derived from DBA/2J mice. We also demonstrate the utility of DBA/2J ES cells with the creation of conditional knockout allele for Endothelin-2 (Edn2) directly on the DBA/2J strain background. PMID:23209647

Czechanski, Anne M.; Macalinao, Danilo G.; MacNicoll, Katharine H.; Lin, Chyuan-Sheng; Donahue, Leah Rae; John, Simon W. M.



Comparing the van Oosterhout and Chybicki-Burczyk methods of estimating null allele frequencies for inbred populations.  


In spite of the usefulness of codominant markers in population genetics, the existence of null alleles raises challenging estimation issues in natural populations that are characterized by positive inbreeding coefficients (F > 0). Disregarding the possibility of F > 0 in a population will generally lead to overestimates of null allele frequencies. Conversely, estimates of inbreeding coefficients (F) may be strongly biased upwards (excess homozygotes), in the presence of nontrivial frequencies of null alleles. An algorithm has been presented for the estimation of null allele frequencies in inbred populations (van Oosterhout method), using external estimates of the F-statistics. The goal of this study is to introduce a modification of this method and to provide a formal comparison with an alternative likelihood-based method (Chybicki-Burczyk). Using simulated data, we illustrate the strengths and limitations of these competing methods. Under most circumstances, the likelihood method is preferable, but for highly inbred organisms, a modified van Oosterhout method offers some advantages. PMID:23227485

Campagne, P; Smouse, P E; Varouchas, G; Silvain, J-F; Leru, B



Prediction of hybrid performance in maize using molecular markers and joint analyses of hybrids and parental inbreds.  


The identification of superior hybrids is important for the success of a hybrid breeding program. However, field evaluation of all possible crosses among inbred lines requires extremely large resources. Therefore, efforts have been made to predict hybrid performance (HP) by using field data of related genotypes and molecular markers. In the present study, the main objective was to assess the usefulness of pedigree information in combination with the covariance between general combining ability (GCA) and per se performance of parental lines for HP prediction. In addition, we compared the prediction efficiency of AFLP and SSR marker data, estimated marker effects separately for reciprocal allelic configurations (among heterotic groups) of heterozygous marker loci in hybrids, and imputed missing AFLP marker data for marker-based HP prediction. Unbalanced field data of 400 maize dent x flint hybrids from 9 factorials and of 79 inbred parents were subjected to joint analyses with mixed linear models. The inbreds were genotyped with 910 AFLP and 256 SSR markers. Efficiency of prediction (R (2)) was estimated by cross-validation for hybrids having no or one parent evaluated in testcrosses. Best linear unbiased prediction of GCA and specific combining ability resulted in the highest efficiencies for HP prediction for both traits (R (2) = 0.6-0.9), if pedigree and line per se data were used. However, without such data, HP for grain yield was more efficiently predicted using molecular markers. The additional modifications of the marker-based approaches had no clear effect. Our study showed the high potential of joint analyses of hybrids and parental inbred lines for the prediction of performance of untested hybrids. PMID:19916002

Schrag, Tobias A; Möhring, Jens; Melchinger, Albrecht E; Kusterer, Barbara; Dhillon, Baldev S; Piepho, Hans-Peter; Frisch, Matthias



AFLP mapping of QTLs for in vitro organogenesis traits using recombinant inbred lines in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic control for two in vitro organogenesis traits, the number of shoots per explant plated (S\\/E) and the number of shoots\\u000a per regenerating explant (S\\/RE), was investigated in 75 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of sunflower and their two parents\\u000a (PAC-2 and RHA-266). Genetic variability was observed among the 75 RILs for the organogenesis traits studied. Some RILs presented\\u000a significant differences

E. Flores Berrios; L. Gentzbittel; H. Kayyal; G. Alibert; A. Sarrafi



Hypothetical quantitative trait loci (QTL) for circadian period of locomotor activity in CXB recombinant inbred strains of mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The locomotor activity of male mice (Mus musculus) of 13 CXB (BALB\\/cBy C57BL\\/6J) recombinant inbred (RI) strains and their progenitor strains was monitored for 4 to 6 weeks\\u000a by infrared photoelectric beams under constant dark. The circadian period (?) of locomotor activity was calculated and used\\u000a in quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of strains' means. Results were compared with potential

Aimee R. Mayeda; John R. Hofstetter; John K. Belknap; John I. Nurnberger



Modelling ethanol-induced sleeping time in inbred strains of mice : A repeated measures design with left-censored data  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a repeated measures analysis of ethanol-induced anesthesia (sleeping time) in mice from the inbred long-sleep (ILS) and short-sleep (ISS) strains of mice and their derived F1 and F2 generations. Due to the difficulty in the assessment of ethanol-induced sleeping time, some of the measurements are left-censored by a fixed detection limit of 1 min. Furthermore

Roel Braekers; Paul Markel


Mapping of southern corn rust-resistant genes in the W2D inbred line of maize ( Zea mays L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Southern corn rust, caused by Puccinia polysora Underw., has destructive potential on the susceptible host. In this study, the resistance inheritance was investigated in\\u000a an F\\u000a 2 and its F\\u000a 2:3 populations derived from a cross from two inbred lines W2D (resistant) and W222 (susceptible). The 3:1 ratio of resistant\\u000a to susceptible plants indicated that the resistance is controlled by

Ya ZhangLi; Li Xu; Deng-Feng Zhang; Jing-Rui Dai; Shou-Cai Wang



[Construction of a genetic map of sunflower using a population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs)].  


A genetic linkage map of sunflower was constructed by combined applying the SSR and AFLP markers using 187 F5:6 individuals of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) which derived from the cross between Helianthus annuus K55 and Helianthus annuus K58 through single-seed descent (SSD). Using 78 pairs of SSR primers and 48 pairs of AFLP primer, 341 and 1119 bands were amplified, respectively. Among these 1460 bands, 557 bands (39.52%) were polymorphic, including 184 bands by SSR markers and 393 bands by AFLP markers. In the group of these polymorphic bands, 84 bands from SSR markers and 108 bands from AFLP markers showed the genetic distortion (P = 0.05). A total of 192 segregation distortion markers were obtained in this study. By using the JoinMap 4.0 software to do the linkage analysis, a genetic linkage map was established with length of 2759.4 cM, consisted of 17 linkage groups, and comprised of 495 polymorphic molecular markers including 170 segregation distortion markers. The mean marker interval distance is 5.57 cM between markers. In addition, the number of markers in the linkage groups varied from 5 to 72, and the length of linkage groups were from 68.88 cM to 250.17 cM. The genetic map developed in the present study could be used for QTL mapping and gene cloning of sunflower important genes. PMID:25406252

Zhang, Yonghu; Yu, Haifeng; Hou, Jianhua; Li, Suping; Lv, Pin; Yu, Zhixian



Inheritance of Nitrogen Use Efficiency in Inbred Progenies of Tropical Maize Based on Multivariate Diallel Analysis  

PubMed Central

The objective of our study was to characterize and determine the patterns of genetic control in relation to tolerance and efficiency of nitrogen use by means of a complete diallel cross involving contrasting inbred progenies of tropical maize based on a univariate approach within the perspective of a multivariate mixed model. Eleven progenies, previously classified regarding the tolerance and responsiveness to nitrogen, were crossed in a complete diallel cross. Fifty-five hybrids were obtained. The hybrids and the progenies were evaluated at two different nitrogen levels, in two locations. The grain yield was measured as well as its yield components. The heritability values between the higher and lower nitrogen input environment did not differ among themselves. It was observed that the general combining ability values were similar for both approaches univariate and multivariate, when it was analyzed within each location and nitrogen level. The estimate of variance of the specific combining ability was higher than general combining ability estimate and the ratio between them was 0.54. The univariate and multivariate approaches are equivalent in experiments with good precision and high heritability. The nonadditive genetic effects exhibit greater quantities than the additive genetic effects for the genetic control of nitrogen use efficiency. PMID:25587575

Guedes, Fernando Lisboa; Diniz, Rafael Parreira; Balestre, Marcio; Ribeiro, Camila Bastos; Camargos, Renato Barbosa; Souza, João Cândido



Selection and phenotypic characterization of a core collection of Brachypodium distachyon inbred lines  

PubMed Central

Background The model grass Brachypodium distachyon is increasingly used to study various aspects of grass biology. A large and genotypically diverse collection of B. distachyon germplasm has been assembled by the research community. The natural variation in this collection can serve as a powerful experimental tool for many areas of inquiry, including investigating biomass traits. Results We surveyed the phenotypic diversity in a large collection of inbred lines and then selected a core collection of lines for more detailed analysis with an emphasis on traits relevant to the use of grasses as biofuel and grain crops. Phenotypic characters examined included plant height, growth habit, stem density, flowering time, and seed weight. We also surveyed differences in cell wall composition using near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) and comprehensive microarray polymer profiling (CoMPP). In all cases, we observed extensive natural variation including a two-fold variation in stem density, four-fold variation in ferulic acid bound to hemicellulose, and 1.7-fold variation in seed mass. Conclusion These characterizations can provide the criteria for selecting diverse lines for future investigations of the genetic basis of the observed phenotypic variation. PMID:24423101



Host-Specific Pathogenicity and Genome Differences between Inbred Strains of Meloidogyne hapla  

PubMed Central

Five isolates of M. hapla originating from the Netherlands and California were inbred by sequential transfer of single egg masses to produce six strains. Cytological examination showed that oocytes of these strains underwent meiosis and had n = 16 chromosomes. Strains were tested for ability to infect and to develop on several hosts by in vitro assays. The two strains from California infected tomato roots at a higher rate than those from the Netherlands, but no difference among strains was seen for ability to develop on tomato with or without the resistance gene Mi-1. All strains developed on the common bean cultivar Kentucky Wonder, but strains differed in ability to develop on the nematode-resistant cultivar NemaSnap. Strain-specific differences were also seen in ability to infect and to develop on Solanum bulbocastanum clone SB-22. Strain VW13, derived from nematodes treated with the mutagen EMS, was defective in ability to infect tomato and potato roots in vitro. Comparison of DNA using AFLP markers showed an average of 4% of the bands were polymorphic across the six strains, but no correlation was observed between the geographical origin or virulence and DNA polymorphism pattern. PMID:19259441

Liu, Q. L.; Williamson, V. M.



Genetic Analysis of Health-Related Secondary Metabolites in a Brassica rapa Recombinant Inbred Line Population  

PubMed Central

The genetic basis of the wide variation for nutritional traits in Brassica rapa is largely unknown. A new Recombinant Inbred Line (RIL) population was profiled using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) analysis to detect quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling seed tocopherol and seedling metabolite concentrations. RIL population parent L58 had a higher level of glucosinolates and phenylpropanoids, whereas levels of sucrose, glucose and glutamate were higher in the other RIL population parent, R-o-18. QTL related to seed tocopherol (?-, ?-, ?-, ?-, ?-/?- and total tocopherol) concentrations were detected on chromosomes A3, A6, A9 and A10, explaining 11%–35% of the respective variation. The locus on A3 co-locates with the BrVTE1gene, encoding tocopherol cyclase. NMR spectroscopy identified the presence of organic/amino acid, sugar/glucosinolate and aromatic compounds in seedlings. QTL positions were obtained for most of the identified compounds. Compared to previous studies, novel loci were found for glucosinolate concentrations. This work can be used to design markers for marker-assisted selection of nutritional compounds in B. rapa. PMID:23892600

Bagheri, Hedayat; El-Soda, Mohamed; Kim, Hye Kyong; Fritsche, Steffi; Jung, Christian; Aarts, Mark G. M.



Variation of high-molecular-weight secalin subunit composition in Rye (Secale cereale L.) inbred lines.  


In this study, identification and characterization of the rye HMW secalin subunit (HMW-SS) composition in 68 inbred rye (Secale cereale L.) lines was performed by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE). The HMW-SS were separated in an uncoated fused-silica capillary using an isoelectric iminodiacetic buffer in combination with poly(ethylene oxide), lauryl sulfobetaine, and acetonitrile as the separation buffer. The separations of the nonalkylated HMW-SS provided very good resolution and high reproducibility. Generally, the x-type rye HMW-SS were more abundant and have longer migration times than the y-type subunits. Both types of rye HMW-SS were separated into the major protein peak and one or two minor peaks. In total, seven x-type HMW-SS, five of which were newly identified subunits, and six y-type subunits, four of which were new, were distinguished on the basis of their CZE migration times. The migration order of the rye HMW-SS using CZE differed considerably from the relative electrophoretic mobilities in the SDS-PAGE gels. PMID:25307487

Salmanowicz, Boles?aw P; Langner, Monika; Kubicka-Matusiewicz, Helena



Genetic variability in the development of pulmonary tolerance to inhaled pollutants in inbred mice.  


After repeated exposures, many individuals develop tolerance to the adverse health effects of inhaled pollutants. Pulmonary tolerance can be characterized as the ability of the lung to withstand the adverse actions of a toxic compound after repeated exposures. To determine whether genetic background is important to the development of pulmonary tolerance to inhaled pollutants, 11 inbred strains of mice were exposed once (1x) or for 5 consecutive days (5x) to 1.0 mg/m(3) of zinc oxide (ZnO). Development of pulmonary tolerance was assessed by measuring polymorphonuclear leukocyte and protein levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and comparing the responses of the 1x and 5x groups. Significant interstrain variation in polymorphonuclear leukocyte and protein responses was observed between the groups with 1x and 5x exposures, which indicates that genetic background has an important role in the development of pulmonary tolerance. The BALB/cByJ strain and the DBA/2J strain were the most tolerant and nontolerant, respectively. The CByD2F1/J offspring were uniformly nontolerant. The development of tolerance was also investigated in BALB/cByJ and DBA/2J mice after 1x and 5x exposure to ozone and aerosolized endotoxin. Discordance in the phenotypic pattern of pulmonary tolerance among strains after exposure to ZnO, ozone, and endotoxin suggested that different mechanisms may be responsible for the development of pulmonary tolerance to these agents. PMID:11597912

Wesselkamper, S C; Chen, L C; Kleeberger, S R; Gordon, T



Segregation distortion caused by weak hybrid necrosis in recombinant inbred lines of common wheat.  


Segregation distortion of molecular markers is closely related to hybrid incompatibility in progeny from intraspecific crosses. Recent reports in higher plants have demonstrated that hybrid sterility results in segregation distortion at the causal gene regions in progeny of intraspecific crosses. Ne1 and Ne2 complementary loci are known to control hybrid necrosis in intraspecific crosses of common wheat cultivars. Here, we examine the effect of a weak necrosis allele Ne1(w) on the segregation ratio of molecular markers in recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of common wheat. Some RILs showed accelerated cell death in the leaves at the heading stage due to the epistatic interaction between two quantitative trait loci (QTL) on chromosomes 5B and 2B. Chromosomal localization of these QTL corresponding to Ne1(w) and Ne2 showed distorted segregation ratios of assigned markers having oppositely biased direction. Although the Ne1(w) and Ne2 interaction had no obvious effect on seed fertility, Ne1(w) reduced completion of grain development under the Ne2-homozygous background. This reduction might be one of causes that induces segregation distortion in the 5B and 2B chromosomal regions of RILs. The present study demonstrated that weak hybrid necrosis has limited phenotypic effects; it causes segregation distortion in progeny from intraspecific crosses. PMID:24146090

Takumi, Shigeo; Motomura, Yoichi; Iehisa, Julio Cesar Masaru; Kobayashi, Fuminori



Markers for Heightened Monitoring, Imminent Death, and Euthanasia in Aged Inbred Mice  

PubMed Central

The goal of this study was to identify objective criteria that would reliably predict spontaneous death in aged inbred mice. We evaluated male and female AKR/J mice, which die at a relatively young age due to the development of lymphoma, as well as male C57BL/6J and BALB/cByJ mice. Mice were implanted subcutaneously with an identification chip that also allowed remote measurement of body temperature. Temperatures and body weights were measured weekly until spontaneous death occurred or until euthanasia was performed for humane reasons. In AKR/J mice, hypothermia and weight loss began about 4 wk prior to death and increased gradually during that antemortem interval. In C57BL/6J and BALB/cByJ mice, these declines began earlier and were more prolonged prior to death. However, C57BL/6J and BALB/cByJ mice developed a relatively precipitous hypothermia during the 2 wk prior to death. For all 3 strains, the derived composite score of temperature × weight, expressed as a percentage of stable values for each mouse, was similarly informative. These changes in individual and composite measures can signal the need for closer observation or euthanasia of individual mice. Validated markers of clinical decline or imminent death can allow the use of endpoints that reduce terminal distress, do not significantly affect longevity or survival data, and permit timely collection of biologic samples. PMID:22776049

Trammell, Rita A; Cox, Lisa; Toth, Linda A



Genome diversity in Brachypodium distachyon: deep sequencing of highly diverse inbred lines.  


Brachypodium distachyon is small annual grass that has been adopted as a model for the grasses. Its small genome, high-quality reference genome, large germplasm collection, and selfing nature make it an excellent subject for studies of natural variation. We sequenced six divergent lines to identify a comprehensive set of polymorphisms and analyze their distribution and concordance with gene expression. Multiple methods and controls were utilized to identify polymorphisms and validate their quality. mRNA-Seq experiments under control and simulated drought-stress conditions, identified 300 genes with a genotype-dependent treatment response. We showed that large-scale sequence variants had extremely high concordance with altered expression of hundreds of genes, including many with genotype-dependent treatment responses. We generated a deep mRNA-Seq dataset for the most divergent line and created a de novo transcriptome assembly. This led to the discovery of >2400 previously unannotated transcripts and hundreds of genes not present in the reference genome. We built a public database for visualization and investigation of sequence variants among these widely used inbred lines. PMID:24888695

Gordon, Sean P; Priest, Henry; Des Marais, David L; Schackwitz, Wendy; Figueroa, Melania; Martin, Joel; Bragg, Jennifer N; Tyler, Ludmila; Lee, Cheng-Ruei; Bryant, Doug; Wang, Wenqin; Messing, Joachim; Manzaneda, Antonio J; Barry, Kerrie; Garvin, David F; Budak, Hikmet; Tuna, Metin; Mitchell-Olds, Thomas; Pfender, William F; Juenger, Thomas E; Mockler, Todd C; Vogel, John P



Hypervitaminosis D and Metastatic Calcification in a Colony of Inbred Strain 13 Guinea Pigs, Cavia porcellus.  


A commercial diet fed to a colony of inbred strain 13 guinea pigs for approximately 6 weeks was subsequently recalled for excessive levels of vitamin D. Twenty-one of 62 animals exhibited clinical signs, including anorexia, lethargy, and poor body condition. Nine affected and 4 clinically normal animals were euthanized for further evaluation, including serum chemistry, urinalysis, and gross and/or histopathology. Macroscopic findings included white discoloration in multiple organs in 8 animals, and microscopic evaluation confirmed multiorgan mineralization in tissues from 7 animals. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were elevated in 10 animals. Serum inorganic phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase levels were increased in all exposed animals; however, total calcium and ionized calcium levels were not significantly higher in exposed animals than in control strain 13 guinea pigs from a different institution. The data support a diagnosis of hypervitaminosis D with metastatic calcification. Following the diet recall, the remaining guinea pigs increased their food intake and regained body condition. Diagnostic testing of 8 animals euthanized approximately 3 months after returning to a normal diet demonstrated that serum parathyroid hormone remained significantly lower, and ionized calcium and ionized magnesium were significantly higher, in recovered animals compared to controls and exposed animals. These results indicate that diagnostic tests other than serum calcium are necessary for a diagnosis of hypervitaminosis D in guinea pigs. PMID:25281651

Holcombe, H; Parry, N M; Rick, M; Brown, D E; Albers, T M; Refsal, K R; Morris, J; Kelly, R; Marko, S T



Inbred mouse strains reveal biomarkers that are pro-longevity, antilongevity or role switching  

PubMed Central

Traditionally, biomarkers of aging are classified as either pro-longevity or antilongevity. Using longitudinal data sets from the large-scale inbred mouse strain study at the Jackson Laboratory Nathan Shock Center, we describe a protocol to identify two kinds of biomarkers: those with prognostic implication for lifespan and those with longitudinal evidence. Our protocol also identifies biomarkers for which, at first sight, there is conflicting evidence. Conflict resolution is possible by postulating a role switch. In these cases, high biomarker values are, for example, antilongevity in early life and pro-longevity in later life. Role-switching biomarkers correspond to features that must, for example, be minimized early, but maximized later, for optimal longevity. The clear-cut pro-longevity biomarkers we found reflect anti-inflammatory, anti-immunosenescent or anti-anaemic mechanisms, whereas clear-cut antilongevity biomarkers reflect inflammatory mechanisms. Many highly significant blood biomarkers relate to immune system features, indicating a shift from adaptive to innate processes, whereas most role-switching biomarkers relate to blood serum features and whole-body phenotypes. Our biomarker classification approach is applicable to any combination of longitudinal studies with life expectancy data, and it provides insights beyond a simplified scheme of biomarkers for long or short lifespan. PMID:24862908

Moeller, Mark; Hirose, Misa; Mueller, Sarah; Roolf, Catrin; Baltrusch, Simone; Ibrahim, Saleh; Junghanss, Christian; Wolkenhauer, Olaf; Jaster, Robert; Köhling, Rüdiger; Kunz, Manfred; Tiedge, Markus; Schofield, Paul N; Fuellen, Georg



Genetic Variation in an Inbred Plant: Variation in Tissue Cultures of Soybean [Glycine Max (L.) Merrill  

PubMed Central

Although soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] grows as an inbreeding, generally homozygous, plant, the germplasm of the species contains large amounts of genetic variation. Analysis of soybean DNA has indicated that variation of RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) markers within the species usually entails only two alleles at any one locus and that mixtures of such dimorphic loci account for virtually all of the restriction fragment variation seen in soybean (G. max), and in its ancestors, G. soja and G. gracilis. We report here that tissue cultures prepared from root tissue of individual soybean plants develop RFLP allelic differences at various loci. However, these newly generated alleles are almost always the same as ones previously found and characterized in other varieties of cultivated soybean (cultivars). This repeated generation of particular alleles suggests that much of the genetic variation seen in soybean could be the consequence of specific, relatively frequently employed, recombinational events. Such a mechanism would allow inbred cultivars to generate genetic variation (in the form of alternative alleles) in a controlled manner, perhaps in response to stress. PMID:2567263

Roth, E. J.; Frazier, B. L.; Apuya, N. R.; Lark, K. G.



Standing variation and new mutations both contribute to a fast response to selection for flowering time in maize inbreds  

PubMed Central

Background In order to investigate the rate and limits of the response to selection from highly inbred genetic material and evaluate the respective contribution of standing variation and new mutations, we conducted a divergent selection experiment from maize inbred lines in open-field conditions during 7 years. Two maize commercial seed lots considered as inbred lines, F252 and MBS847, constituted two biological replicates of the experiment. In each replicate, we derived an Early and a Late population by selecting and selfing the earliest and the latest individuals, respectively, to produce the next generation. Results All populations, except the Early MBS847, responded to selection despite a short number of generations and a small effective population size. Part of the response can be attributed to standing genetic variation in the initial seed lot. Indeed, we identified one polymorphism initially segregating in the F252 seed lot at a candidate locus for flowering time, which explained 35% of the trait variation within the Late F252 population. However, the model that best explained our data takes into account both residual polymorphism in the initial seed lots and a constant input of heritable genetic variation by new (epi)mutations. Under this model, values of mutational heritability range from 0.013 to 0.025, and stand as an upper bound compare to what is reported in other species. Conclusions Our study reports a long-term divergent selection experiment for a complex trait, flowering time, conducted on maize in open-field conditions. Starting from a highly inbred material, we created within a few generations populations that strikingly differ from the initial seed lot for flowering time while preserving most of the phenotypic characteristics of the initial inbred. Such material is unique for studying the dynamics of the response to selection and its determinants. In addition to the fixation of a standing beneficial mutation associated with a large phenotypic effect, a constant input of genetic variance by new mutations has likely contributed to the response. We discuss our results in the context of the evolution and mutational dynamics of populations characterized by a small effective population size. PMID:20047647



Transpiration, and Nitrogen Uptake and Flow in Two Maize (Zea mays L.) Inbred Lines as Affected by Nitrogen Supply  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The influence of two nitrogen (N) levels on growth, water relations, and N uptake and flow was investigated in two different inbred lines of maize (N-efficient Zi330 and N-inefficient Chen94-11) to analyse the differences in N uptake and cycling within a plant. Methods Xylem sap from different leaves of the inbred lines cultured in quartz sand was collected by application of pressure to the root system. Plant transpiration was measured on a daily basis by weighing five pots of each of the treatments. Key Results N-efficient Zi330 had a higher relative growth rate and water-use efficiency at both high (4 mm) and low (0·08 mm) N levels. At a high N level, the amount of N taken up was similar for the two inbred lines; the amount of N transported in the xylem and retranslocated in the phloem was slight greater in Chen94-11 than in Zi330. At a low N level, however, the total amount of N taken up, transported in the xylem and retranslocated in the phloem of Zi330 was 2·2, 2·7 and 2·7 times more, respectively, than that of Chen94-11. Independent of inbred line and N level, the amounts of N transported in the xylem and cycled in the phloem were far more than that taken up by roots at the same time. Low N supply shifted NO3?1 reduction towards the roots. The major nitrogenous compound in the xylem sap was NO3?1, when plants grew at the high N level, while amino acid-N was predominant when plants grew at the low N level. Conclusions The N-efficient maize inbred line Zi330 had a higher ability to take up N and cycle N within the plant than N-inefficient Chen94-11 when grown under N-deficiency. PMID:17088295

Niu, Junfang; Chen, Fanjun; Mi, Guohua; Li, Chunjian; Zhang, Fusuo



Adult Intussusception  

PubMed Central

Recurrent abdominal pain is a common and challenging presenting chief complaint in the Emergency Department. Intussusception in adults, although rare, is an important etiology to consider. The diagnosis can often be delayed because of the nonspecific and intermittent nature of symptoms in adults. This report presents the case of a 37-year-old man with multiple Emergency Department visits for abdominal pain and with negative results for prior imaging studies, who was eventually diagnosed with intussusception after 5 years of recurrent symptoms. The case study is followed by a review of the literature regarding the diagnosis and management of intussusception in adults. PMID:25663210

Lu, Teng; Chng, Yi-mei



Genetic Relationships between Obesity and Osteoporosis in LGXSM Recombinant Inbred Mice  

PubMed Central

Summary Obesity and osteoporosis affect millions of Americans. While phenotypically, obesity is negatively correlated with fracture risk, research on a genetic basis for this relationship is lacking. We used males and females from 16 LGXSM recombinant inbred (RI) mouse strains to investigate the genetically-mediated relationship between obesity and osteoporosis-related traits. First, heritabilities were estimated for (1) bone morphological properties determined by microCT (femoral and radial diaphyseal bone cross-sectional area and moments of inertia, as well as proximal tibial trabecular bone volume, connectivity density, structure model index, trabecular number, trabecular thickness, and trabecular separation), (2) mechanical properties determined by bending tests (femoral and radial rigidity, yield moment, ultimate moment, fracture displacement, and post-yield displacement), and (3) effective material properties (femoral and radial modulus of elasticity and ultimate tensile strength). All femoral (H2: 43-74%) and tibial traits (H2: 31-56%) were heritable; as were eight of 10 radial traits (H2: 21-33%). Eighteen significant genetic correlations were discovered between obesity- and osteoporosis-related phenotypes. Genetic correlations indicate that gene effects associated with increased fat mass and leptin levels are also associated with larger, stronger femora. Gene effects associated with larger, stronger radii and with denser tibiae were also associated with increased fat mass but not with leptin levels. Furthermore, quantitative trait loci (QTLs) previously reported for obesity and leptin levels also had effects on bone morphology, mechanical, and material properties. Our results support the use of the LG/J x SM/J mouse intercross populations as models for normal, complex genetic variation in obesity, bone properties, and their interrelationship. PMID:19061533

Reich, Michael S.; Jarvis, Joseph P.; Silva, Matthew J.; Cheverud, James M.



High-throughput behavioral phenotyping in the expanded panel of BXD recombinant inbred strains  

PubMed Central

Genetic reference populations, particularly the BXD recombinant inbred (BXD RI) strains derived from C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice, are a valuable resource for the discovery of the bio-molecular substrates and genetic drivers responsible for trait variation and covariation. This approach can be profitably applied in the analysis of susceptibility and mechanisms of drug and alcohol use disorders for which many predisposing behaviors may predict the occurrence and manifestation of increased preference for these substances. Many of these traits are modeled by common mouse behavioral assays, facilitating the detection of patterns and sources of genetic coregulation of predisposing phenotypes and substance consumption. Members of the Tennessee Mouse Genome Consortium (TMGC) have obtained phenotype data from over 250 measures related to multiple behavioral assays across several batteries: response to, and withdrawal from cocaine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine; “ecstasy” (MDMA), morphine and alcohol; novelty seeking; behavioral despair and related neurological phenomena; pain sensitivity; stress sensitivity; anxiety; hyperactivity and sleep/wake cycles. All traits have been measured in both sexes in approximately 70 strains of the recently expanded panel of BXD RI strains. Sex differences and heritability estimates were obtained for each trait, and a comparison of early (N = 32) and recent (N = 37) BXD RI lines was performed. Primary data are publicly available for heritability, sex difference and genetic analyses using the MouseTrack database, and are also available in for quantitative trait locus (QTL) detection and genetic analysis of gene expression. Together with the results of related studies, these data form a public resource for integrative systems genetic analysis of neurobehavioral traits. PMID:19958391

Philip, V M; Duvvuru, S; Gomero, B; Ansah, T A; Blaha, C D; Cook, M N; Hamre, K M; Lariviere, W R; Matthews, D B; Mittleman, G; Goldowitz, D; Chesler, E J



Two distinct pathological syndromes in male CBA/J inbred mice with chronic Schistosoma mansoni infections.  

PubMed Central

Humans chronically infected with Schistosoma mansoni most commonly present with the relatively asymptomatic intestinal form of the disease, whereas a small minority develop hepatosplenism characterized by severe hepatic disease with portal hypertension. Investigation of hypotheses describing the pathogenic mechanisms underlying the clinical forms of the human disease has been limited by the absence of an animal model that predictably develops such a spectrum of disease. We report that inbred male CBA/J mice that are chronically infected with S. mansoni develop two distinct syndromes, hypersplenomegaly syndrome (HSS) and moderate splenomegaly syndrome (MSS). Pathologically and immunologically, MSS and HSS remarkably parallel the intestinal and hepatosplenic clinical forms, respectively, in humans. HSS affects approximately 20% of these mice and consists of massive splenomegaly, ascites, thymic atrophy, severe anemia, and cachexia. The remaining majority of mice with MSS develop moderate splenomegaly only. Histopathological features of HSS include 1) relatively extensive hepatic fibrosis and granulomatous inflammation, 2) splenic congestion, 3) lymph node plasmacytosis, and 4) worms and eggs in the pulmonary vasculature. Immunologically, the idiotypes present on antisoluble egg antigen antibodies from HSS mice are distinct from those from mice with acute infections or the chronic MSS infection. These idiotypic differences are similar to those observed in patients with intestinal and hepatosplenic forms of the disease and may have regulatory importance. Investigation of the cellular and molecular events that lead to the development of MSS and HSS may advance current understanding of the pathogenesis of the clinical forms of chronic schistosomiasis in humans. Images Figure 1 Figure 4 PMID:8456934

Henderson, G. S.; Nix, N. A.; Montesano, M. A.; Gold, D.; Freeman, G. L.; McCurley, T. L.; Colley, D. G.



Spontaneous and induced leukemias of myeloid origin in recombinant inbred BXH mice.  

PubMed Central

BXH-2 recombinant inbred (RI) mice produce high titers of B-ecotropic murine leukemia virus beginning early in life and have a high incidence of non-T-cell leukemias that occur before 1 year of age. The leukemias that develop are in some cases associated with hind limb paralysis. In addition, a dualtropic mink cell focus-forming virus has been isolated from leukemic cells of BXH-2 mice. Immunological and cytochemical characterization of the BXH-2 leukemias showed that they are of the myeloid lineage. To assess the oncogenicity of the BXH-2 viruses, newborn mice of several BXH RI strains were inoculated at birth with biologically cloned B-ecotropic or mink cell focus-forming murine leukemia virus. These studies demonstrated that the B-ecotropic virus can induce myeloid leukemias in other BXH RI strains, whereas the dualtropic mink cell focus-forming isolates were nononcogenic in the strains tested. DNA-DNA reassociation analysis indicated that the organotropism of the B-ecotropic murine leukemia virus is confined to lymphoid tissues. Southern analysis of tumor DNAs showed that there was amplification of ecotropic virus-specific sequences in BXH-2 myeloid tumors and in all leukemias induced in other BXH RI strains by inoculation of the BXH-2 B-ecotropic virus. Although B-ecotropic virus is expressed in central nervous tissues of paralyzed BXH-2 mice, we were unable to induce the disorder in several BXH RI strains inoculated intracranially at birth with either the B-ecotropic or dualtropic virus. These results suggest that the paralysis that occurs in BXH-2 mice is due to the infiltration of leukemic cells into the central nervous system. Images PMID:6088784

Bedigian, H G; Johnson, D A; Jenkins, N A; Copeland, N G; Evans, R



Transpositional reactivation of two LTR retrotransposons in rice-Zizania recombinant inbred lines (RILs).  


Hybridization is prevalent in plants, which plays important roles in genome evolution. Apart from direct transfer and recombinatory generation of genetic variations by hybridization, de novo genetic instabilities can be induced by the process per se. One mechanism by which such de novo genetic variability can be generated by interspecific hybridization is transpositional reactivation of quiescent parental transposable elements (TEs) in the nascent hybrids. We have reported previously that introgressive hybridization between rice (Oryza sativa L.) and Zizania latifolia Griseb had induced rampant mobilization of three TEs, a copia-like LTR retrotransposon Tos17, a MITE mPing and a class II TE belonging to the hAT superfamily, Dart/nDart. In this study, we further found that two additional LTR retrotransposons, a gypsy-like (named RIRE2) and a copia-like (named Copia076), were also transpositionally reactivated in three recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from introgressive hybridization between rice and Z. latifolia. Novel bands of these two retroelements appeared in the RILs relative to their rice parental line (cv. Matsumae) in Southern blot, suggestive of retrotransposition, which was substantiated by transposon display (TD) and locus-specific PCR amplification for insertion sites. Both elements were found to be transcribed but at variable levels in the leaf tissue of the parental line and the RILs, suggesting that transcriptional control was probably not a mechanism for their transpositional activity in the RILs. Expression analysis of four genes adjacent to de novo insertions by Copia076 revealed marked difference in the transcript abundance for each of the genes between the RILs and their rice parental line, but the alterations in expression appeared unrelated with the retroelement insertions. PMID:21166796

Wang, Hong-Yan; Tian, Qin; Ma, Yi-Qiao; Wu, Ying; Miao, Gao-Jian; Ma, Yan; Cao, Dong-Hui; Wang, Xiao-Li; Lin, Chunjing; Pang, Jingsong; Liu, Bao



Display of individuality in avoidance behavior and risk assessment of inbred mice  

PubMed Central

Factors determining individuality are still poorly understood. Rodents are excellent model organisms to study individuality, due to a rich behavioral repertoire and the availability of well-characterized isogenic populations. However, most current behavioral assays for rodents have short test duration in novel test environments and require human interference, which introduce coercion, thereby limiting the assessment of naturally occurring individuality. Thus, we developed an automated behavior system to longitudinally monitor conditioned fear for assessing PTSD-like behavior in individual mice. The system consists of a safe home compartment connected to a risk-prone test compartment (TC). Entry and exploration of the TC is solely based on deliberate choice determined by individual fear responsiveness and fear extinction. In this novel ethological assay, C57BL/6J mice show homogeneous responses after shock exposure (innate fear), but striking variation in long-lasting fear responses based on avoidance and risk assessment (learned fear), including automated stretch-attend posture quantification. TC entry (retention) latencies after foot shock differed >24 h and the re-explored TC area differed >50% among inbred mice. Next, we compared two closely related C57BL/6 substrains. Despite substantial individual differences, previously observed higher fear of C57BL/6N vs. C57BL/6J mice was reconfirmed, whereas fear extinction was fast and did not differ. The observed variation in fear expression in isogenic mice suggests individual differences in coping style with PTSD-like avoidance. Investigating the assumed epigenetic mechanisms, with reduced interpretational ambiguity and enhanced translational value in this assay, may help improve understanding of personality type-dependent susceptibility and resilience to neuropsychiatric disorders such as PTSD. PMID:25278853

Hager, Torben; Jansen, René F.; Pieneman, Anton W.; Manivannan, Suriya N.; Golani, Ilan; van der Sluis, Sophie; Smit, August B.; Verhage, Matthijs; Stiedl, Oliver



Enhanced alcohol self-administration and reinstatement in a highly impulsive, inattentive recombinant inbred mouse strain  

PubMed Central

Deficits in executive control have frequently been associated with alcohol use disorder. Here we investigated to what extent pre-existing genetically encoded levels of impulsive/inattentive behavior associate with motivation to take alcohol and vulnerability to cue-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking in an operant self-administration paradigm. We took advantage of BXD16, a recombinant inbred strain previously shown to have enhanced impulsivity and poor attentional control. We compared BXD16 with C57BL/6J mice in a simple choice reaction time task (SCRTT) and confirmed its impulsive/inattentive phenotype. BXD16 mice were less active in a novel open field (OF), and were equally active in an automated home cage environment, showing that increased impulsive responding of BXD16 mice could not be explained by enhanced general activity compared to C57BL/6J mice. After training in a sucrose/alcohol fading self-administration procedure, BXD16 showed increased motivation to earn 10% alcohol solution, both under fixed ratio (FR1) and progressive ratio (PR2) schedules of reinforcement. Responding on the active lever readily decreased during extinction training with no apparent differences between strains. However, upon re-exposure to alcohol-associated cues, alcohol seeking was reinstated to a larger extent in BXD16 than in C57BL/6J mice. Although further studies are needed to determine whether impulsivity/inattention and alcohol seeking depend on common or separate genetic loci, these data show that in mice enhanced impulsivity coincides with increased motivation to take alcohol, as well as relapse vulnerability. PMID:24198771

Loos, Maarten; Staal, Jorn; Smit, August B.; De Vries, Taco J.; Spijker, Sabine



Strain screen and haplotype association mapping of wheel running in inbred mouse strains  

PubMed Central

Previous genetic association studies of physical activity, in both animal and human models, have been limited in number of subjects and genetically homozygous strains used as well as number of genomic markers available for analysis. Expansion of the available mouse physical activity strain screens and the recently published dense single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) map of the mouse genome (?8.3 million SNPs) and associated statistical methods allowed us to construct a more generalizable map of the quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with physical activity. Specifically, we measured wheel running activity in male and female mice (average age 9 wk) in 41 inbred strains and used activity data from 38 of these strains in a haplotype association mapping analysis to determine QTL associated with activity. As seen previously, there was a large range of activity patterns among the strains, with the highest and lowest strains differing significantly in daily distance run (27.4-fold), duration of activity (23.6-fold), and speed (2.9-fold). On a daily basis, female mice ran further (24%), longer (13%), and faster (11%). Twelve QTL were identified, with three (on Chr. 12, 18, and 19) in both male and female mice, five specific to males, and four specific to females. Eight of the 12 QTL, including the 3 general QTL found for both sexes, fell into intergenic areas. The results of this study further support the findings of a moderate to high heritability of physical activity and add general genomic areas applicable to a large number of mouse strains that can be further mined for candidate genes associated with regulation of physical activity. Additionally, results suggest that potential genetic mechanisms arising from traditional noncoding regions of the genome may be involved in regulation of physical activity. PMID:20538847

Leamy, Larry; Pomp, Daniel; Turner, Michael J.; Fodor, Anthony A.; Knab, Amy; Bowen, Robert S.; Ferguson, David; Moore-Harrison, Trudy; Hamilton, Alicia



New Arabidopsis Advanced Intercross Recombinant Inbred Lines Reveal Female Control of Nonrandom Mating1[OPEN  

PubMed Central

Female control of nonrandom mating has never been genetically established, despite being linked to inbreeding depression and sexual selection. In order to map the loci that control female-mediated nonrandom mating, we constructed a new advanced intercross recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from a cross between Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) accessions Vancouver (Van-0) and Columbia (Col-0) and mapped quantitative trait loci (QTLs) responsible for nonrandom mating and seed yield traits. We genotyped a population of 490 RILs. A subset of these lines was used to construct an expanded map of 1,061.4 centimorgans with an average interval of 6.7 ± 5.3 centimorgans between markers. QTLs were then mapped for female- and male-mediated nonrandom mating and seed yield traits. To map the genetic loci responsible for female-mediated nonrandom mating and seed yield, we performed mixed pollinations with genetically marked Col-0 pollen and Van-0 pollen on RIL pistils. To map the loci responsible for male-mediated nonrandom mating and seed yield, we performed mixed pollinations with genetically marked Col-0 and RIL pollen on Van-0 pistils. Composite interval mapping of these data identified four QTLs that control female-mediated nonrandom mating and five QTLs that control female-mediated seed yield. We also identified four QTLs that control male-mediated nonrandom mating and three QTLs that control male-mediated seed yield. Epistasis analysis indicates that several of these loci interact. To our knowledge, the results of these experiments represent the first time female-mediated nonrandom mating has been genetically defined. PMID:24623850

Fitz Gerald, Jonathan Nesbit; Carlson, Ann Louise; Smith, Evadne; Maloof, Julin N.; Weigel, Detlef; Chory, Joanne; Borevitz, Justin O.; Swanson, Robert John



Adult frog  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The adult frog now lives on land and has nostrils and lungs to breathe air. It also has front and hind legs to hop around on. This frog can start the life cycle over again by laying eggs and reproducing.

Harmen Piekema (None;)



Assessing Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In assessing the social skills of adults, many of the same factors in assessing social skills among children and adolescents\\u000a will influence the resulting data. Issues such as single versus multiple prompts, standardized or individualized scenarios,\\u000a and molar versus molecular ratings all impact the use and validity of social skills assessments with adults, adolescents,\\u000a and children alike. However, the assessment

Peter J. Norton; Amie E. Grills-Taquechel; Mona Raouf


Adult Day Care  


... Resize Text Printer Friendly Online Chat Adult Day Care What is Adult Day Care? How Do Adult ... More About Local Services? What is Adult Day Care? Adult Day Care Centers are designed to provide ...


Growth and formation of the foreleg skeleton inbred mice and rats under conditions of hypo-, normo- and hyperdynamia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Inbred 1 month old males of C57B 1/6, CBA, CC57Br/Mw interlinear hybrid mice of the first generation and rats of the August and Wistar lines were subjected to conditions of hypo-, normo- and hyperdynamia for 2 months. The statistically reliable dependence is shown between mechanical underloadings and overloadings and macro microscopic changes in the hind limb skeleton of animals. Genetic determination of growth and formation of the forelimb skeleton is established. Hereditary susceptibility and the phenomenon of heterosis are preserved under all motor conditions.

Kogan, B. I.; Antipov, Y. S.



Genotype is an important determinant factor of host susceptibility to periodontitis in the Collaborative Cross and inbred mouse populations  

PubMed Central

Background Periodontal infection (Periodontitis) is a chronic inflammatory disease, which results in the breakdown of the supporting tissues of the teeth. Previous epidemiological studies have suggested that resistance to chronic periodontitis is controlled to some extent by genetic factors of the host. The aim of this study was to determine the phenotypic response of inbred and Collaborative Cross (CC) mouse populations to periodontal bacterial challenge, using an experimental periodontitis model. In this model, mice are co-infected with Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum, bacterial strains associated with human periodontal disease. Six weeks following the infection, the maxillary jaws were harvested and analyzed for alveolar bone loss relative to uninfected controls, using computerized microtomography (microCT). Initially, four commercial inbred mouse strains were examined to calibrate the procedure and test for gender effects. Subsequently, we applied the same protocol to 23 lines (at inbreeding generations 10–18) from the newly developed mouse genetic reference population, the Collaborative Cross (CC) to determine heritability and genetic variation of control bone volume prior to infection (CBV, naïve bone volume around the teeth of uninfected mice), and residual bone volume (RBV, bone volume after infection) and loss of bone volume (LBV, the difference between CBV and RBV) following infection. Results BALB/CJ mice were highly susceptible (P<0.05) whereas DBA/2J, C57BL/6J and A/J mice were resistant. Six lines of the tested CC population were susceptible, whereas the remaining lines were resistant to alveolar bone loss. Gender effects on bone volume were tested across the four inbred and 23 CC lines, and found not to be significant. Based on ANOVA analyses, broad-sense heritabilities were statistically significant and equal to 0.4 for CBV and 0.2 for LBV. Conclusions The moderate heritability values indicate that the variation in host susceptibility to the disease is controlled to an appreciable extent by genetic factors. These results strongly support the possibility of using the Collaborative Cross, as well as developing dedicated F2 (resistant x susceptible inbred strains) resource populations, for future dissection of genetic factors in periodontitis. PMID:23937452



Identification of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms and analysis of Linkage Disequilibrium in sunflower elite inbred lines using the candidate gene approach  

PubMed Central

Background Association analysis is a powerful tool to identify gene loci that may contribute to phenotypic variation. This includes the estimation of nucleotide diversity, the assessment of linkage disequilibrium structure (LD) and the evaluation of selection processes. Trait mapping by allele association requires a high-density map, which could be obtained by the addition of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) and short insertion and/or deletions (indels) to SSR and AFLP genetic maps. Nucleotide diversity analysis of randomly selected candidate regions is a promising approach for the success of association analysis and fine mapping in the sunflower genome. Moreover, knowledge of the distance over which LD persists, in agronomically meaningful sunflower accessions, is important to establish the density of markers and the experimental design for association analysis. Results A set of 28 candidate genes related to biotic and abiotic stresses were studied in 19 sunflower inbred lines. A total of 14,348 bp of sequence alignment was analyzed per individual. In average, 1 SNP was found per 69 nucleotides and 38 indels were identified in the complete data set. The mean nucleotide polymorphism was moderate (? = 0.0056), as expected for inbred materials. The number of haplotypes per region ranged from 1 to 9 (mean = 3.54 ± 1.88). Model-based population structure analysis allowed detection of admixed individuals within the set of accessions examined. Two putative gene pools were identified (G1 and G2), with a large proportion of the inbred lines being assigned to one of them (G1). Consistent with the absence of population sub-structuring, LD for G1 decayed more rapidly (r2 = 0.48 at 643 bp; trend line, pooled data) than the LD trend line for the entire set of 19 individuals (r2 = 0.64 for the same distance). Conclusion Knowledge about the patterns of diversity and the genetic relationships between breeding materials could be an invaluable aid in crop improvement strategies. The relatively high frequency of SNPs within the elite inbred lines studied here, along with the predicted extent of LD over distances of 100 kbp (r2~0.1) suggest that high resolution association mapping in sunflower could be achieved with marker densities lower than those usually reported in the literature. PMID:18215288

Fusari, Corina M; Lia, Verónica V; Hopp, H Esteban; Heinz, Ruth A; Paniego, Norma B



Dissecting structural and nucleotide genome-wide variation in inbred Iberian pigs  

PubMed Central

Background In contrast to international pig breeds, the Iberian breed has not been admixed with Asian germplasm. This makes it an important model to study both domestication and relevance of Asian genes in the pig. Besides, Iberian pigs exhibit high meat quality as well as appetite and propensity to obesity. Here we provide a genome wide analysis of nucleotide and structural diversity in a reduced representation library from a pool (n=9 sows) and shotgun genomic sequence from a single sow of the highly inbred Guadyerbas strain. In the pool, we applied newly developed tools to account for the peculiarities of these data. Results A total of 254,106 SNPs in the pool (79.6 Mb covered) and 643,783 in the Guadyerbas sow (1.47 Gb covered) were called. The nucleotide diversity (1.31x10-3 per bp in autosomes) is very similar to that reported in wild boar. A much lower than expected diversity in the X chromosome was confirmed (1.79x10-4 per bp in the individual and 5.83x10-4 per bp in the pool). A strong (0.70) correlation between recombination and variability was observed, but not with gene density or GC content. Multicopy regions affected about 4% of annotated pig genes in their entirety, and 2% of the genes partially. Genes within the lowest variability windows comprised interferon genes and, in chromosome X, genes involved in behavior like HTR2C or MCEP2. A modified Hudson-Kreitman-Aguadé test for pools also indicated an accelerated evolution in genes involved in behavior, as well as in spermatogenesis and in lipid metabolism. Conclusions This work illustrates the strength of current sequencing technologies to picture a comprehensive landscape of variability in livestock species, and to pinpoint regions containing genes potentially under selection. Among those genes, we report genes involved in behavior, including feeding behavior, and lipid metabolism. The pig X chromosome is an outlier in terms of nucleotide diversity, which suggests selective constraints. Our data further confirm the importance of structural variation in the species, including Iberian pigs, and allowed us to identify new paralogs for known gene families. PMID:23497037



Genetic loci affecting bone structure and strength in inbred COP and DA rats  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have shown that the Copenhagen 2331 (COP) and Dark Agouti (DA) rats have significant differences in bone structure and strength despite their similar body mass. Thus, these inbred rat strains may provide a unique resource to identify the genetics underlying the phenotypic variation in bone fragility. A sample of 828 (405 males and 423 females) COP × DA F2 progeny had extensive phenotyping for bone structure measures including cortical bone area and polar moment of inertia at the femur midshaft and total, cortical and trabecular bone areas, for the lumbar vertebra 5 (L5). Bone strength phenotypes included ultimate force, stiffness and work to failure of femur and L5. These skeletal phenotypes were measured using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) and mechanical testing. A whole-genome screen was conducted in the F2 rats, using microsatellite markers spaced at approximately 20 cM intervals. Genetic marker maps were generated from the F2 data and used for genome-wide linkage analyses to detect linkage to the bone structure and strength phenotypes. Permutation testing was employed to obtain the thresholds for genome-wide significance (p<0.01). Significant QTL for femur structure and strength were identified on chromosome (Chr) 1 with a maximum LOD score of 33.5; evidence of linkage was found in both the male and female rats. In addition, Chrs 6, 7, 10, 13, 15 and 18 were linked to femur midshaft structure. QTL linked to femur strength were identified on Chrs 5 and 10. For L5 vertebrae, Chrs 2, 16, and 18 harbored QTL for cortical structure and trabecular structure for L5 was linked to Chrs 1, 7, 12, and 18. One female-specific QTL for femur ultimate force was identified on Chr 5, and two male-specific QTL for L5 cortical area were found on Chrs 2 and 18. Our study demonstrates strong evidence of linkage for bone structure and strength to multiple rat chromosomes. PMID:18158281

Sun, Qiwei; Alam, Imranul; Liu, Lixiang; Koller, Daniel L.; Carr, Lucinda G.; Econs, Michael J.; Foroud, Tatiana; Turner, Charles H.



The relationship between PROP and ethanol preferences: an evaluation of 4 inbred mouse strains.  


Ethanol's taste attributes undoubtedly contribute to the development of drug preference. Ethanol's taste is both sweet and bitter. Taster status for bitter 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) has been proposed as a genetic marker for alcoholism; however, human results are conflicting. We collected preference scores for both tastants in 4 mouse strains selected on the basis of previously reported taste preference, with the generally accepted idea that inbred mice show minimal within-strain variation. Eighty-eight male mice (22 per strain) participated. The strains were as follows: C57BL/6J, ethanol preferring; BALB/cJ, ethanol avoiding; SWR/J, PROP avoiding; and C3HeB/FeJ, PROP neutral. Using a brief-access (1-min trials) 2-bottle preference test, we assessed the taste response of each strain to PROP and ethanol on separate days. Although PROP avoiding versus neutral mice could be segregated into significantly different populations, this was not the case for ethanol avoiding versus preferring mice, and all strains showed high variability. On average, only BALB/cJ, SWR/J, and C3HeB/FeJ mice conformed to their literature-reported preferences; nonetheless, there were a substantial number of discordant animals. C57BL/6J did not conform to previous results, indicating that they are ethanol preferring. Finally, we did not observe a significant relationship between PROP and ethanol preferences across strains. The high variability per strain and the number of animals in disagreement with their respective literature-reported preference raise concerns regarding their utility for investigations underlying mechanisms of taste-mediated ingestive responses. Absent postingestive consequences, the brief-access results suggest a possible degree of previously masked polymorphisms in taste preferences or a more recent drift in underlying genetic factors. The absence of a relationship between PROP and ethanol indicates that the bitter quality in ethanol may be more highly related to other bitter compounds that are mediated by different genetic influences. PMID:17693415

White, Theresa L; Dishaw, Laura V; Sheehe, Paul R; Youngentob, Steven L



Natural variation and genetic covariance in adult hippocampal neurogenesis  

SciTech Connect

Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is highly variable and heritable among laboratory strains of mice. Adult neurogenesis is also remarkably plastic and can be modulated by environment and activity. Here, we provide a systematic quantitative analysis of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in two large genetic reference panels of recombinant inbred strains (BXD and AXB?BXA, n ? 52 strains). We combined data on variation in neurogenesis with a new transcriptome database to extract a set of 190 genes with expression patterns that are also highly variable and that covary with rates of (i) cell proliferation, (ii) cell survival, or the numbers of surviving (iii) new neurons, and (iv) astrocytes. Expression of a subset of these neurogenesis-associated transcripts was controlled in cis across the BXD set. These self-modulating genes are particularly interesting candidates to control neurogenesis. Among these were musashi (Msi1h) and prominin1?CD133 (Prom1), both of which are linked to stem-cell maintenance and division. Twelve neurogenesis-associated transcripts had significant cis-acting quantitative trait loci, and, of these, six had plausible biological association with adult neurogenesis (Prom1, Ssbp2, Kcnq2, Ndufs2, Camk4, and Kcnj9). Only one cis- cting candidate was linked to both neurogenesis and gliogenesis, Rapgef6, a downstream target of ras signaling. The use of genetic reference panels coupled with phenotyping and global transcriptome profiling thus allowed insight into the complexity of the genetic control of adult neurogenesis.

Kempermann, Gerd [Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin, Germany; Chesler, Elissa J [ORNL; Lu, Lu [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Williams, Robert [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Gage, Fred [Salk Institute for Biological Studies, The, San Diego, CA



Genetic diversity among INERA maize inbred lines with single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and their relationship with CIMMYT, IITA, and temperate lines.  


BackgroundGenetic diversity provides the capacity for plants to meet changing environments. It is fundamentally important in crop improvement. Fifty-nine local maize lines developed at INERA and 41 exotic (temperate and tropical) inbred lines were characterized using 1057 SNP markers to (1) analyse the genetic diversity in a diverse set of maize inbred lines; (2) determine the level of genetic diversity in INERA inbred lines and patterns of relationships of these inbred lines developed from two sources; and (3) examine the genetic differences between local and exotic germplasms.ResultsRoger¿s genetic distance for about 64% of the pairs of lines fell between 0.300 and 0.400. Sixty one per cent of the pairs of lines also showed relative kinship values of zero. Model-based population structure analysis and principal component analysis revealed the presence of 5 groups that agree, to some extent, with the origin of the germplasm. There was genetic diversity among INERA inbred lines, which were genetically less closely related and showed a low level of heterozygosity. These lines could be divided into 3 major distinct groups and a mixed group consistent with the source population of the lines. Pairwise comparisons between local and exotic germplasms showed that the temperate and some IITA lines were differentiated from INERA lines. There appeared to be substantial levels of genetic variation between local and exotic germplasms as revealed by missing and unique alleles.ConclusionsAllelic frequency differences observed between the germplasms, together with unique alleles identified within each germplasm, shows the potential for a mutual improvement between the sets of germplasm. The results from this study will be useful to breeders in designing inbred-hybrid breeding programs, association mapping population studies and marker assisted breeding. PMID:25421948

Dao, Abdalla; Sanou, Jacob; Mitchell, Sharon E; Gracen, Vernon; Danquah, Eric Y



Can we improve heterosis for root growth of maize by selecting parental inbred lines with different temperature behaviour?  

PubMed Central

Tolerance to high and low temperature is an important breeding aim for Central and Northern Europe, where temperature fluctuations are predicted to increase. However, the extent to which genotypes differ in their response to the whole range of possible temperatures is not well understood. We tested the hypothesis that the combination of maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines with differing temperature optima for root growth would lead to superior hybrids. This hypothesis is based on the concept of ‘marginal overdominance’ in which the hybrid expresses higher relative fitness than its parents, summed over all situations. The elongation rates of axile and lateral roots of the reciprocal cross between two flint and two dent inbred lines were assessed at temperatures between 15°C and 40°C. Indeed, the cross between UH005 and UH250 with lateral root growth temperature optima at 34°C and 28°C, respectively, resulted in intermediate hybrids. At temperatures below and above 31°C, the hybrids' root growth was comparable to the better parent, respectively, thereby increasing temperature tolerance of the hybrid compared with its parents. The implications of and reasons for this heterosis effect are discussed in the context of breeding for abiotic stress tolerance and of putatively underlying molecular mechanisms. This finding paves the way for more detailed investigations of this phenomenon in future studies. PMID:22527401

Hund, Andreas; Reimer, Regina; Stamp, Peter; Walter, Achim



Heritability and Components of Resistance to Cercospora zeae-maydis Derived from Maize Inbred VO613Y.  


ABSTRACT Gray leaf spot (GLS), caused by the fungus Cercospora zeae-maydis, is one of the most important foliar diseases of maize. This study was undertaken to estimate heritability of C. zeae-maydis resistance and examine the relationship between previously identified resistance loci and certain components of resistance including incubation period, lesion number, and maximum lesion length. Partially inbred progenies arising from hybridization between maize inbred lines VO613Y (high level of partial resistance) and Pa405 (susceptible) were examined in Ohio and South Africa. Heritability estimates of resistance were calculated based on severity and incubation period values. The range of heritability estimates based on severity was broad, with values ranging from approximately 0.46 to 0.81 (mean = 0.59). Estimates of mean heritability for incubation period were lowest (0.18), indicating that this component would likely be unsuitable for selection of germ plasm intended for deployment in diverse regions. Length of GLS lesions was significantly affected by host genotype, with resistant genotypes having shorter lesions from one site in Ohio during two seasons. Genotype also had a significant effect on incubation period and lesion number; the lower values for these components also were associated with resistant genotypes. The combined action of these resistance components resulted in lower overall disease severity. PMID:18943176

Gordon, Stuart G; Lipps, Patrick E; Pratt, Richard C



Transcriptional and metabolic changes associated to the infection by Fusarium verticillioides in maize inbreds with contrasting ear rot resistance.  


Fusarium verticillioides causes ear rot and grain mycotoxins in maize (Zea mays L.), which are harmful to human and animal health. Breeding and growing less susceptible plant genotypes is one alternative to reduce these detrimental effects. A better understanding of the resistance mechanisms would facilitate the implementation of strategic molecular agriculture to breeding of resistant germplasm. Our aim was to identify genes and metabolites that may be related to the Fusarium reaction in a resistant (L4637) and a susceptible (L4674) inbred. Gene expression data were obtained from microarray hybridizations in inoculated and non-inoculated kernels from both inbreds. Fungal inoculation did not produce considerable changes in gene expression and metabolites in L4637. Defense-related genes changed in L4674 kernels, responding specifically to the pathogen infection. These results indicate that L4637 resistance may be mainly due to constitutive defense mechanisms preventing fungal infection. These mechanisms seem to be poorly expressed in L4674; and despite the inoculation activate a defense response; this is not enough to prevent the disease progress in this susceptible line. Through this study, a global view of differential genes expressed and metabolites accumulated during resistance and susceptibility to F. verticillioides inoculation has been obtained, giving additional information about the mechanisms and pathways conferring resistance to this important disease in maize. PMID:23637860

Campos-Bermudez, Valeria A; Fauguel, Carolina M; Tronconi, Marcos A; Casati, Paula; Presello, Daniel A; Andreo, Carlos S



Transcriptional and Metabolic Changes Associated to the Infection by Fusarium verticillioides in Maize Inbreds with Contrasting Ear Rot Resistance  

PubMed Central

Fusarium verticillioides causes ear rot and grain mycotoxins in maize (Zea mays L.), which are harmful to human and animal health. Breeding and growing less susceptible plant genotypes is one alternative to reduce these detrimental effects. A better understanding of the resistance mechanisms would facilitate the implementation of strategic molecular agriculture to breeding of resistant germplasm. Our aim was to identify genes and metabolites that may be related to the Fusarium reaction in a resistant (L4637) and a susceptible (L4674) inbred. Gene expression data were obtained from microarray hybridizations in inoculated and non-inoculated kernels from both inbreds. Fungal inoculation did not produce considerable changes in gene expression and metabolites in L4637. Defense-related genes changed in L4674 kernels, responding specifically to the pathogen infection. These results indicate that L4637 resistance may be mainly due to constitutive defense mechanisms preventing fungal infection. These mechanisms seem to be poorly expressed in L4674; and despite the inoculation activate a defense response; this is not enough to prevent the disease progress in this susceptible line. Through this study, a global view of differential genes expressed and metabolites accumulated during resistance and susceptibility to F. verticillioides inoculation has been obtained, giving additional information about the mechanisms and pathways conferring resistance to this important disease in maize. PMID:23637860

Campos-Bermudez, Valeria A.; Fauguel, Carolina M.; Tronconi, Marcos A.; Casati, Paula; Presello, Daniel A.; Andreo, Carlos S.



Adult Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume comprehensively reviews the research on the psychology of the middle aged (ages 40-65). Topics include the concept of maturity and maturation models, the measurement and influences of adult self image; marriage and sexual patterns; intergenerational relationships between and children; vocations and avocations (work, retirement, play,…

Bischof, Ledford J.


Adult Questionnnaire

­ OMB No. 0925-0583 Expiration Date: 12/31/2010 ­Questionnaire on­Adult­Care Physi?ian­Survey­ of­Pra?ti?es­on­Diet,­ Physi?al­A?tivity,­ and­Weight­Control Condu?ted­by: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) National Institutes


Protection conferred by a fully recombinant sub-unit vaccine against Yersinia pestis in male and female mice of four inbred strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe for the first time the use of a fully recombinant sub-unit vaccine for plague. We have compared the protection afforded by the recombinant vaccine against Yersinia pestis in male and female mice of four inbred strains. We also determined the in vivo cellular memory and antibody response after one year. The recombinant vaccine was capable

S. M Jones; F Day; A. J Stagg; E. D Williamson




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective was to evaluate lymphoid organ size in chickens from a series of thirteen recombinant congenic strains (RCS) and their highly inbred parental lines (63 and 72). The parental line 63 was selected for resistance to tumors induced by Marek’s disease virus and avian leukosis viruses, where...


Comparison of Conventional, Modified Single Seed Descent, and Double Haploid Breeding Methods for Maize Inbred Line Development Using GEM Breeding Crosses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Good choice of germplasm, breeding methods, and careful evaluation are essential for maize inbred line and hybrid development. Choice of germplasm is particularly important since it may limit genetic gain given even the best breeding methodology and selection strategies. Exotic germplasm has the pot...


Identification of multiple ear-colonizing insect and disease resistance in CIMMYT maize inbred lines with varying levels of silk maysin  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ninety four corn inbred lines selected from International Center for the Improvement of Maize and Wheat (CIMMYT) in Mexico were evaluated for levels of silk maysin in 2001 and 2002. Damage by major ear-feeding insects [i.e., the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), the m...


Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci for Resistance to Southern Leaf Blight and Days to Anthesis in Two Maize Recombinant Inbred Line Populations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two recombinant inbred line populations derived from crosses between maize lines H99 and B73 (HB population) and between B73 and B52 (BB population) were evaluated for resistance to southern leaf blight (SLB) disease caused by Cochliobolus heterostrophus race O and for days to anthesis (DTA) in tw...


Association of Size Exclusion HPLC of Endosperm Proteins with Dough Mixing and Bread-making Characteristics in a Recombinant Inbred Population of Hard Red Spring Wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Variation of polymeric proteins is known to affect wheat end-use quality. This research aimed to investigate the composition of polymeric proteins and their associations with dough mixing strength and bread-making characteristics in a near-homogenous population of 139 recombinant inbred lines (RILs...


Direct mapping of density response in a population of B73 × Mo17 recombinant inbred lines of maize (Zea Mays L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maize yield per unit area has dramatically increased over time as have plant population densities, but the genetic basis for plant response to density is unknown as is its stability over environments. To elucidate the genetic basis of plant response to density in maize, we mapped QTL for plant density-related traits in a population of 186 recombinant inbred lines (RILs)

M Gonzalo; J B Holland; T J Vyn; L M McIntyre



Development and characterization of a new inbred transgenic rat strain expressing DsRed monomeric fluorescent protein.  


The inbred rat is a suitable model for studying human disease and because of its larger size is more amenable to complex surgical manipulation than the mouse. While the rodent fulfills many of the criteria for transplantation research, an important requirement is the ability to mark and track donors cells and assess organ viability. However, tracking ability is limited by the availability of transgenic (Tg) rats that express suitable luminescent or fluorescent proteins. Red fluorescent protein cloned from Discosoma coral (DsRed) has several advantages over other fluorescent proteins, including in vivo detection in the whole animal and ex vivo visualization in organs as there is no interference with autofluorescence. We generated and characterized a novel inbred Tg Lewis rat strain expressing DsRed monomeric (DsRed mono) fluorescent protein under the control of a ubiquitously expressed ROSA26 promoter. DsRed mono Tg rats ubiquitously expressed the marker gene as detected by RT-PCR but the protein was expressed at varying levels in different organs. Conventional skin grafting experiments showed acceptance of DsRed monomeric Tg rat skin on wild-type rats for more than 30 days. Cardiac transplantation of DsRed monomeric Tg rat hearts into wild-type recipients further showed graft acceptance and long-term organ viability (>6 months). The DsRed monomeric Tg rat provides marked cells and/or organs that can be followed for long periods without immune rejection and therefore is a suitable model to investigate cell tracking and organ transplantation. PMID:25011565

Montanari, Sonia; Wang, Xing-Hua; Yannarelli, Gustavo; Dayan, Victor; Berger, Thorsten; Zocche, Larissa; Kobayashi, Eiji; Viswanathan, Sowmya; Keating, Armand



Molecular characterization of diverse CIMMYT maize inbred lines from eastern and southern Africa using single nucleotide polymorphic markers  

PubMed Central

Background Knowledge of germplasm diversity and relationships among elite breeding materials is fundamentally important in crop improvement. We genotyped 450 maize inbred lines developed and/or widely used by CIMMYT breeding programs in both Kenya and Zimbabwe using 1065 SNP markers to (i) investigate population structure and patterns of relationship of the germplasm for better exploitation in breeding programs; (ii) assess the usefulness of SNPs for identifying heterotic groups commonly used by CIMMYT breeding programs; and (iii) identify a subset of highly informative SNP markers for routine and low cost genotyping of CIMMYT germplasm in the region using uniplex assays. Results Genetic distance for about 94% of the pairs of lines fell between 0.300 and 0.400. Eighty four percent of the pairs of lines also showed relative kinship values ? 0.500. Model-based population structure analysis, principal component analysis, neighbor-joining cluster analysis and discriminant analysis revealed the presence of 3 major groups and generally agree with pedigree information. The SNP markers did not show clear separation of heterotic groups A and B that were established based on combining ability tests through diallel and line x tester analyses. Our results demonstrated large differences among the SNP markers in terms of reproducibility, ease of scoring, polymorphism, minor allele frequency and polymorphic information content. About 40% of the SNPs in the multiplexed chip-based GoldenGate assays were found to be uninformative in this study and we recommend 644 of the 1065 for low to medium density genotyping in tropical maize germplasm using uniplex assays. Conclusions There were high genetic distance and low kinship coefficients among most pairs of lines, clearly indicating the uniqueness of the majority of the inbred lines in these maize breeding programs. The results from this study will be useful to breeders in selecting best parental combinations for new breeding crosses, mapping population development and marker assisted breeding. PMID:22443094



Comparative analysis of the relationship between trichloroethylene metabolism and tissue-specific toxicity among inbred mouse strains: kidney effects.  


Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a well-known environmental and occupational toxicant that is classified as carcinogenic to humans based on the epidemiological evidence of an association with higher risk of renal-cell carcinoma. A number of scientific issues critical for assessing human health risks from TCE remain unresolved, such as the amount of kidney-toxic glutathione conjugation metabolites formed, interspecies and interindividual differences, and the mode of action for kidney carcinogenicity. It was postulated that TCE renal metabolite levels are associated with kidney-specific toxicity. Oral dosing with TCE was conducted in subacute (600 mg/kg/d; 5 d; 7 inbred mouse strains) and subchronic (100 or 400 mg/kg/d; 1, 2, or 4 wk; 2 inbred mouse strains) designs. The quantitative relationship was evaluated between strain-, dose, and time-dependent formation of TCE metabolites from cytochrome P-450-mediated oxidation (trichloroacetic acid [TCA], dichloroacetic acid [DCA], and trichloroethanol) and glutathione conjugation [S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine and S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)glutathione], and various kidney toxicity phenotypes. In subacute study, interstrain differences in renal TCE metabolite levels were observed. In addition, data showed that in several strains kidney-specific effects of TCE included induction of peroxisome proliferator-marker genes Cyp4a10 and Acox1, increased cell proliferation, and expression of KIM-1, a marker of tubular damage and regeneration. In subchronic study, peroxisome proliferator-marker gene induction and renal toxicity diminished while cell proliferative response was elevated in a dose-dependent manner in NZW/LacJ but not C57BL/6J mice. Overall, data demonstrated that renal TCE metabolite levels are associated with kidney-specific toxicity and that these effects are strain dependent. PMID:25424545

Yoo, Hong Sik; Bradford, Blair U; Kosyk, Oksana; Uehara, Takeki; Shymonyak, Svitlana; Collins, Leonard B; Bodnar, Wanda M; Ball, Louise M; Gold, Avram; Rusyn, Ivan



Comparative analysis of the relationship between trichloroethylene metabolism and tissue-specific toxicity among inbred mouse strains: liver effects.  


Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a widely used organic solvent. Although TCE is classified as carcinogenic to humans, substantial gaps remain in our understanding of interindividual variability in TCE metabolism and toxicity, especially in the liver. A hypothesis was tested that amounts of oxidative metabolites of TCE in mouse liver are associated with hepatic-specific toxicity. Oral dosing with TCE was conducted in subacute (600 mg/kg/d; 5 d; 7 inbred mouse strains) and subchronic (100 or 400 mg/kg/d; 1, 2, or 4 wk; 2 inbred mouse strains) designs. The quantitative relationship was evaluated between strain-, dose-, and time-dependent formation of TCE metabolites from cytochrome P-450-mediated oxidation (trichloroacetic acid [TCA], dichloroacetic acid [DCA], and trichloroethanol) and glutathione conjugation [S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine and S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)glutathione] in serum and liver, and various hepatic toxicity phenotypes. In subacute study, interstrain variability in TCE metabolite amounts was observed in serum and liver. No marked induction of Cyp2e1 protein levels in liver was detected. Serum and hepatic levels of TCA and DCA were correlated with increased transcription of peroxisome proliferator-marker genes Cyp4a10 and Acox1 but not with degree of induction in hepatocellular proliferation. In subchronic study, serum and liver levels of oxidative metabolites gradually decreased over time despite continuous dosing. Hepatic protein levels of CYP2E1, ADH, and ALDH2 were unaffected by treatment with TCE. While the magnitude of induction of peroxisome proliferator-marker genes also declined, hepatocellular proliferation increased. This study offers a unique opportunity to provide a scientific data-driven rationale for some of the major assumptions in human health assessment of TCE. PMID:25424544

Yoo, Hong Sik; Bradford, Blair U; Kosyk, Oksana; Shymonyak, Svitlana; Uehara, Takeki; Collins, Leonard B; Bodnar, Wanda M; Ball, Louise M; Gold, Avram; Rusyn, Ivan



Differential Performance and Parasitism of Caterpillars on Maize Inbred Lines with Distinctly Different Herbivore-Induced Volatile Emissions  

PubMed Central

Plant volatiles induced by insect feeding are known to attract natural enemies of the herbivores. Six maize inbred lines that showed distinctly different patterns of volatile emission in laboratory assays were planted in randomized plots in the Central Mexican Highlands to test their ability to recruit parasitic wasps under field conditions. The plants were artificially infested with neonate larvae of the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda, and two of its main endoparasitoids, Campoletis sonorensis and Cotesia marginiventris, were released in the plots. Volatiles were collected from equally treated reference plants in the neighbourhood of the experimental field. The cumulative amount of 36 quantified volatile compounds determined for each line was in good accordance with findings from the laboratory; there was an almost 15-fold difference in total emission between the two extreme lines. We found significant differences among the lines with respect to the numbers of armyworms recovered from the plants, their average weight gain and parasitism rates. Average weight of the caterpillars was negatively correlated with the average total amount of volatiles released by the six inbred lines. However, neither total volatile emission nor any specific single compound within the blend could explain the differential parasitism rates among the lines, with the possible exception of (E)-2-hexenal for Campoletis sonorensis and methyl salicylate for Cotesia marginiventris. Herbivore-induced plant volatiles and/or correlates thereof contribute to reducing insect damage of maize plants through direct plant defence and enhanced attraction of parasitoids, alleged indirect defence. The potential to exploit these volatiles for pest control deserves to be further evaluated. PMID:23112820

Degen, Thomas; Bakalovic, Nenad; Bergvinson, David; Turlings, Ted C. J.



Identification of Wild-Derived Inbred Mouse Strains Highly Susceptible to Monkeypox Virus Infection for Use as Small Animal Models?  

PubMed Central

Infection with monkeypox virus (MPXV) causes disease manifestations in humans that are similar, although usually less severe, than those of smallpox. Since routine vaccination for smallpox ceased more than 30 years ago, there is concern that MPXV could be used for bioterrorism. Thus, there is a need to develop animal models to study MPXV infection. Accordingly, we screened 38 inbred mouse strains for susceptibility to MPXV. Three highly susceptible wild-derived inbred strains were identified, of which CAST/EiJ was further developed as a model. Using an intranasal route of infection with an isolate of the Congo Basin clade of MPXV, CAST/EiJ mice exhibited weight loss, morbidity, and death in a dose-dependent manner with a calculated 50% lethal dose (LD50) of 680 PFU, whereas there were no deaths of BALB/c mice at a 10,000-fold higher dose. CAST/EiJ mice exhibited greater MPXV sensitivity when infected via the intraperitoneal route, with an LD50 of 14 PFU. Both routes resulted in MPXV replication in the lung, spleen, and liver. Intranasal infection with an isolate of the less-pathogenic West African clade yielded an LD50 of 7,600 PFU. The immune competence of CAST/EiJ mice was established by immunization with vaccinia virus, which induced antigen-specific T- and B-lymphocyte responses and fully protected mice from lethal doses of MPXV. The new mouse model has the following advantages for studying pathogenesis of MPXV, as well as for evaluation of potential vaccines and therapeutics: relative sensitivity to MPXV through multiple routes, genetic homogeneity, available immunological reagents, and commercial production. PMID:20519404

Americo, Jeffrey L.; Moss, Bernard; Earl, Patricia L.



Adult Neurogenesis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

BioEd Online is an âÂÂeducational resource for educators, students, and parentsâ from the Baylor College of Medicine. This is an excellent place to find educational materials and current information in the field of biology. The âÂÂHot Topicsâ section of this site focus on current events and issues in biology that are âÂÂreceiving national attention.â This site, created by Tadzia GrandPré, PhD, contains a brief discussion of Adult Neurogenesis or the ability for new neurons to develop in the brain. The article includes background information on the field of neuroscience, as well as information about how neurons work. The site includes links to references and further reading. In addition, a related slide set, "Adult Neurogenesis," is available for viewing along with links to several related news articles. Both the slide set and the news articles could be easily used in the classroom along with the other resources provided in this âÂÂHot Topicâ from BioEd Online.

Grandprãâ©, Tadzia



Adult Day Centers  


... programs and discussion groups. Why use an adult day center One reason to use an adult day ... your needs for future care. Evaluating an adult day center Consider the following when you evaluate an ...


Epigenetic Transgenerational Inheritance of Vinclozolin Induced Mouse Adult Onset Disease and Associated Sperm Epigenome Biomarkers  

PubMed Central

The endocrine disruptor vinclozolin has previously been shown to promote epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset disease in the rat. The current study was designed to investigate the transgenerational actions of vinclozolin on the mouse. Transient exposure of the F0 generation gestating female during gonadal sex determination promoted transgenerational adult onset disease in F3 generation male and female mice, including spermatogenic cell defects, testicular abnormalities, prostate abnormalities, kidney abnormalities and polycystic ovarian disease. Pathology analysis demonstrated 75% of the vinclozolin lineage animals developed disease with 34% having two or more different disease states. Interestingly, the vinclozolin induced transgenerational disease was observed in the outbred CD-1 strain, but not the inbred 129 mouse strain. Analysis of the F3 generation sperm epigenome identified differential DNA methylation regions that can potentially be utilized as epigenetic biomarkers for transgenerational exposure and disease. PMID:23041264

Guerrero-Bosagna, Carlos; Covert, Trevor R.; Haque, Md. M.; Settles, Matthew; Nilsson, Eric E.; Anway, Matthew D.; Skinner, Michael K.



Heterosis in Early Maize Ear Inflorescence Development: A Genome-Wide Transcription Analysis for Two Maize Inbred Lines and Their Hybrid  

PubMed Central

Heterosis, or hybrid vigor, contributes to superior agronomic performance of hybrids compared to their inbred parents. Despite its importance, little is known about the genetic and molecular basis of heterosis. Early maize ear inflorescences formation affects grain yield, and are thus an excellent model for molecular mechanisms involved in heterosis. To determine the parental contributions and their regulation during maize ear-development-genesis, we analyzed genome-wide digital gene expression profiles in two maize elite inbred lines (B73 and Mo17) and their F1 hybrid using deep sequencing technology. Our analysis revealed 17,128 genes expressed in these three genotypes and 22,789 genes expressed collectively in the present study. Approximately 38% of the genes were differentially expressed in early maize ear inflorescences from heterotic cross, including many transcription factor genes and some presence/absence variations (PAVs) genes, and exhibited multiple modes of gene action. These different genes showing differential expression patterns were mainly enriched in five cellular component categories (organelle, cell, cell part, organelle part and macromolecular complex), five molecular function categories (structural molecule activity, binding, transporter activity, nucleic acid binding transcription factor activity and catalytic activity), and eight biological process categories (cellular process, metabolic process, biological regulation, regulation of biological process, establishment of localization, cellular component organization or biogenesis, response to stimulus and localization). Additionally, a significant number of genes were expressed in only one inbred line or absent in both inbred lines. Comparison of the differences of modes of gene action between previous studies and the present study revealed only a small number of different genes had the same modes of gene action in both maize seedlings and ear inflorescences. This might be an indication that in different tissues or developmental stages, different global expression patterns prevail, which might nevertheless be related to heterosis. Our results support the hypotheses that multiple molecular mechanisms (dominance and overdominance modes) contribute to heterosis. PMID:25116687

Ding, Haiping; Qin, Cheng; Luo, Xirong; Li, Lujiang; Chen, Zhe; Liu, Hongjun; Gao, Jian; Lin, Haijian; Shen, Yaou; Zhao, Maojun; Lübberstedt, Thomas; Zhang, Zhiming; Pan, Guangtang



Fine mapping of the FT1 locus for soybean flowering time using a residual heterozygous line derived from a recombinant inbred line  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fine-mapping of loci related to complex quantitative traits is essential for map-based cloning. A residual heterozygous line (RHL) of soybean ( Glycine max) derived from a recombinant inbred line (RIL) was used for fine-mapping FT1, which is a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) responsible for soybean flowering time. The residual heterozygous line RHL1-156 was selected from the RILs that were

Naoki Yamanaka; Satoshi Watanabe; Kyoko Toda; Masaki Hayashi; Hiroki Fuchigami; Ryoji Takahashi; Kyuya Harada



Detection of QTL for yield-related traits using recombinant inbred lines derived from exotic and elite US Western Shipping melon germplasm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inheritance of yield-related traits in melon (Cucumis melo L.; 2n = 2x = 24) is poorly understood, and the mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for such traits has not been reported. Therefore,\\u000a a set of 81 recombinant inbred lines (RIL) was developed from a cross between the monoecious, highly branched line USDA 846-1\\u000a and a standard vining, andromonoecious cultivar, ‘Top Mark’. The

J. E. Zalapa; J. E. Staub; J. D. McCreight; S. M. Chung; H Cuevas



Significant Improvement in Cloning Efficiency of an Inbred Miniature Pig by Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Treatment after Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer1  

PubMed Central

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) miniature pig was developed specifically for xenotransplantation and has been extensively used as a large-animal model in many other biomedical experiments. However, the cloning efficiency of this pig is very low (<0.2%), and this has been an obstacle to the promising application of these inbred swine genetics for biomedical research. It has been demonstrated that increased histone acetylation in somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos, by applying a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor such as trichostatin A (TSA), significantly enhances the developmental competence in several species. However, some researchers also reported that TSA treatment had various detrimental effects on the in vitro and in vivo development of the SCNT embryos. Herein, we report that treatment with 500 nM 6-(1,3-dioxo-1H, 3H-benzo[de]isoquinolin-2-yl)-hexanoic acid hydroxyamide (termed scriptaid), a novel HDAC inhibitor, significantly enhanced the development of SCNT embryos to the blastocyst stage when NIH inbred fetal fibroblast cells (FFCs) were used as donors compared with the untreated group (21% vs. 9%, P < 0.05). Scriptaid treatment resulted in eight pregnancies from 10 embryo transfers (ETs) and 14 healthy NIH miniature pigs from eight litters, while no viable piglets (only three mummies) were obtained from nine ETs in the untreated group. Thus, scriptaid dramatically increased the cloning efficiency when using inbred genetics from 0.0% to 1.3%. In contrast, scriptaid treatment decreased the blastocyst rate in in vitro fertilization embryos (from 37% to 26%, P < 0.05). In conclusion, the extremely low cloning efficiency in the NIH miniature pig may be caused by its inbred genetic background and can be improved by alteration of genomic histone acetylation patterns. PMID:19386991

Zhao, Jianguo; Ross, Jason W.; Hao, Yanhong; Spate, Lee D.; Walters, Eric M.; Samuel, Melissa S.; Rieke, August; Murphy, Clifton N.; Prather, Randall S.



Romanian Maize (Zea mays) Inbred Lines as a Source of Genetic Diversity in SE Europe, and Their Potential in Future Breeding Efforts  

PubMed Central

Maize has always been under constant human selection ever since it had been domesticated. Intensive breeding programs that resulted in the massive use of hybrids nowadays have started in the 60s. That brought significant yield increases but reduced the genetic diversity at the same time. Consequently, breeders and researchers alike turned their attention to national germplasm collections established decades ago in many countries, as they may hold allelic variations that could prove useful for future improvements. These collections are mainly composed of inbred lines originating from well-adapted local open pollinated varieties. However, there is an overall lack of data in the literature about the genetic diversity of maize in SE Europe, and its potential for future breeding efforts. There are no data, whatsoever, on the nutritional quality of the grain, primarily dictated by the zein proteins. We therefore sought to use the Romanian maize germplasm as an entry point in understanding the molecular make-up of maize in this part of Europe. By using 80 SSR markers, evenly spread throughout the genome, on 82 inbred lines from various parts of the country, we were able to decipher population structure and the existing relationships between those and the eight international standards used, including the reference sequenced genome B73. Corroborating molecular data with a standardized morphological, physiological, and biochemical characterization of all 90 inbred lines, this is the first comprehensive such study on the existing SE European maize germplasm. The inbred lines we present here are an important addition to the ever-shrinking gene pool that the breeding programs are faced-with, because of the allelic richness they hold. They may serve as parental lines in crosses that will lead to new hybrids, characterized by a high level of heterosis, nationwide and beyond, due to their existing relationship with the international germplasm. PMID:24392016

Ha?, Voichi?a; Ha?, Ioan; Micl?u?, Mihai



Differential responsiveness of inbred strains of rats to antidepressants in the forced swimming test: are Wistar Kyoto rats an animal model of subsensitivity to antidepressants?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In three experiments we have studied the effects of acute administration of various doses (5, 10, 15 and 25 mg\\/kg) of desipramine (DMI) and two doses (0.5 and 2 mg\\/kg) of 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT), a selective 5HT1A receptor agonist, on behaviour of five inbred strains of rats in the holeboard and the forced swimming test (FST). The strains were Brown-Norway (BN),

Abdeljalil Lahmame; Antonio Armario



Additive effects of two quantitative trait loci that confer Rhopalosiphum maidis (corn leaf aphid) resistance in maize inbred line Mo17  

PubMed Central

Plants show considerable within-species variation in their resistance to insect herbivores. In the case of Zea mays (cultivated maize), Rhopalosiphum maidis (corn leaf aphids) produce approximately twenty times more progeny on inbred line B73 than on inbred line Mo17. Genetic mapping of this difference in maize aphid resistance identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) on chromosomes 4 and 6, with the Mo17 allele reducing aphid reproduction in each case. The chromosome 4 QTL mapping interval includes several genes involved in the biosynthesis of DIMBOA (2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one), a maize defensive metabolite that also is required for callose accumulation in response to aphid feeding. Consistent with the known association of callose with plant defence against aphids, R. maidis reproduction on B73×Mo17 recombinant inbred lines was negatively correlated with both DIMBOA content and callose formation. Further genetic mapping, as well as experiments with near-isogenic lines, confirmed that the Mo17 allele causes increased DIMBOA accumulation relative to the B73 allele. The chromosome 6 aphid resistance QTL functions independently of DIMBOA accumulation and has an effect that is additive to that of the chromosome 4 QTL. Thus, at least two separate defence mechanisms account for the higher level of R. maidis resistance in Mo17 compared with B73. PMID:25249072

Betsiashvili, Mariam; Ahern, Kevin R.; Jander, Georg



Additive effects of two quantitative trait loci that confer Rhopalosiphum maidis (corn leaf aphid) resistance in maize inbred line Mo17.  


Plants show considerable within-species variation in their resistance to insect herbivores. In the case of Zea mays (cultivated maize), Rhopalosiphum maidis (corn leaf aphids) produce approximately twenty times more progeny on inbred line B73 than on inbred line Mo17. Genetic mapping of this difference in maize aphid resistance identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) on chromosomes 4 and 6, with the Mo17 allele reducing aphid reproduction in each case. The chromosome 4 QTL mapping interval includes several genes involved in the biosynthesis of DIMBOA (2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one), a maize defensive metabolite that also is required for callose accumulation in response to aphid feeding. Consistent with the known association of callose with plant defence against aphids, R. maidis reproduction on B73×Mo17 recombinant inbred lines was negatively correlated with both DIMBOA content and callose formation. Further genetic mapping, as well as experiments with near-isogenic lines, confirmed that the Mo17 allele causes increased DIMBOA accumulation relative to the B73 allele. The chromosome 6 aphid resistance QTL functions independently of DIMBOA accumulation and has an effect that is additive to that of the chromosome 4 QTL. Thus, at least two separate defence mechanisms account for the higher level of R. maidis resistance in Mo17 compared with B73. PMID:25249072

Betsiashvili, Mariam; Ahern, Kevin R; Jander, Georg



Tracking the total CD8 T cell response to infection reveals substantial discordance in magnitude and kinetics between inbred and outbred hosts1  

PubMed Central

Determining the magnitude and kinetics, together with the phenotypic and functional characteristics of responding CD8 T cells, is critical for understanding the regulation of adaptive immunity as well as in evaluating vaccine candidates. Recent technical advances have allowed tracking of some CD8 T cells responding to infection, and a body of information now exists describing phenotypic changes that occur in CD8 T cells of known Ag-specificity during their activation, expansion, and memory generation in inbred mice. Here, we demonstrate that antigen but not inflammation driven changes in expression of CD11a and CD8? can be used to distinguish naïve from Ag-experienced (effector and memory) CD8 T cells after infection or vaccination. Interestingly and in contrast to inbred mice, tracking polyclonal CD8 T cell responses with this approach after bacterial and viral infections revealed substantial discordance in the magnitude and kinetics of CD8 T cell responses in outbred hosts. These data reveal limitations to the use of inbred mouse strains as preclinical models at vaccine development and suggest the same dose of infection or vaccination can lead to substantial differences in the magnitude and timing of Ag-specific CD8 expansion as well in differences in protective memory CD8 T cell numbers in outbred individuals. This concept has direct relevance to development of vaccines in outbred humans. PMID:19933864

Rai, Deepa; Pham, Nhat-Long L.; Harty, John T.; Badovinac, Vladimir P.



Strain-dependent differences in susceptibility to lung cancer in inbred mice exposed to mainstream cigarette smoke.  


It is becoming increasingly clear that genetic susceptibility is an important host factor determining the effects of exposure to a number of airborne particles and gases. Although numerous studies have identified a genetic component for spontaneous pulmonary tumor development and for chemically induced lung cancer (e.g., urethane) in mice, a systematic examination of murine inter-strain differences in response to cigarette smoke inhalation has not been conducted. We addressed this research gap by examining the strain distribution pattern of lung cancer in nine inbred strains of mice exposed to 258 mg/m(3) mainstream cigarette smoke for 5 months followed by 4 months of rest. Lung tumors were enumerated on fixed lungs visualized at low magnification and on serial step sections examined microscopically. With the low magnification examination, we observed statistically significant increases in the number of lung tumors in cigarette smoke-exposed A/J and the genetically-related A/HeJ mice (p<0.05). While fewer tumors were identified by the microscopic enumeration method, it confirmed that significant increases in lung tumors occurred only in A/J and A/HeJ mice exposed to cigarette smoke (p<0.05). Thus, as predicted by epidemiologic studies and animal experiments using chemically induced lung cancer models, these findings suggest that genetic host factors play a significant role in the pulmonary tumorigenic response of mice to mainstream cigarette smoke. PMID:19118942

Gordon, Terry; Bosland, Maarten



Genetic analysis of morphological traits in a new, versatile, rapid-cycling Brassica rapa recombinant inbred line population  

PubMed Central

A recombinant inbred line (RIL) population was produced based on a wide cross between the rapid-cycling and self-compatible genotypes L58, a Caixin vegetable type, and R-o-18, a yellow sarson oil type. A linkage map based on 160 F7 lines was constructed using 100 Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 130 AFLP®, 27 InDel, and 13 publicly available SSR markers. The map covers a total length of 1150 centiMorgan (cM) with an average resolution of 4.3 cM/marker. To demonstrate the versatility of this new population, 17 traits, related to plant architecture and seed characteristics, were subjected to quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis. A total of 47 QTLs were detected, each explaining between 6 and 54% of the total phenotypic variance for the concerned trait. The genetic analysis shows that this population is a useful new tool for analyzing genetic variation for interesting traits in B. rapa, and for further exploitation of the recent availability of the B. rapa whole genome sequence for gene cloning and gene function analysis. PMID:22912644

Bagheri, Hedayat; El-Soda, Mohamed; van Oorschot, Inge; Hanhart, Corrie; Bonnema, Guusje; Jansen-van den Bosch, Tanja; Mank, Rolf; Keurentjes, Joost J. B.; Meng, Lin; Wu, Jian; Koornneef, Maarten; Aarts, Mark G. M.



Identification of quantitative trait loci influencing traits related to energy balance in selection and inbred lines of mice.  

PubMed Central

Energy balance is a complex trait with relevance to the study of human obesity and maintenance energy requirements of livestock. The objective of this study was to identify, using unique mouse models, quantitative trait loci (QTL) influencing traits that contribute to variation in energy balance. Two F2 resource populations were created from lines of mice differing in heat loss measured by direct calorimetry as an indicator of energy expenditure. The HB F2 resource population originated from a cross between a noninbred line selected for high heat loss and an inbred line with low heat loss. Evidence for significant QTL influencing heat loss was found on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, and 7. Significant QTL influencing body weight and percentage gonadal fat, brown fat, liver, and heart were also identified. The LH F2 resource population originated from noninbred lines of mice that had undergone divergent selection for heat loss. Chromosomes 1 and 3 were evaluated. The QTL for heat loss identified on chromosome 1 in the HB population was confirmed in the LH population, although the effect was smaller. The presence of a QTL influencing 6-wk weight was also confirmed. Suggestive evidence for additional QTL influencing heat loss, percentage subcutaneous fat, and percentage heart was found for chromosome 1. PMID:10353911

Moody, D E; Pomp, D; Nielsen, M K; Van Vleck, L D



Abiotic stress growth conditions induce different responses in kernel iron concentration across genotypically distinct maize inbred varieties  

PubMed Central

The improvement of grain nutrient profiles for essential minerals and vitamins through breeding strategies is a target important for agricultural regions where nutrient poor crops like maize contribute a large proportion of the daily caloric intake. Kernel iron concentration in maize exhibits a broad range. However, the magnitude of genotype by environment (GxE) effects on this trait reduces the efficacy and predictability of selection programs, particularly when challenged with abiotic stress such as water and nitrogen limitations. Selection has also been limited by an inverse correlation between kernel iron concentration and the yield component of kernel size in target environments. Using 25 maize inbred lines for which extensive genome sequence data is publicly available, we evaluated the response of kernel iron density and kernel mass to water and nitrogen limitation in a managed field stress experiment using a factorial design. To further understand GxE interactions we used partition analysis to characterize response of kernel iron and weight to abiotic stressors among all genotypes, and observed two patterns: one characterized by higher kernel iron concentrations in control over stress conditions, and another with higher kernel iron concentration under drought and combined stress conditions. Breeding efforts for this nutritional trait could exploit these complementary responses through combinations of favorable allelic variation from these already well-characterized genetic stocks. PMID:24363659

Kandianis, Catherine B.; Michenfelder, Abigail S.; Simmons, Susan J.; Grusak, Michael A.; Stapleton, Ann E.



Maize Inbreds Exhibit High Levels of Copy Number Variation (CNV) and Presence/Absence Variation (PAV) in Genome Content  

PubMed Central

Following the domestication of maize over the past ?10,000 years, breeders have exploited the extensive genetic diversity of this species to mold its phenotype to meet human needs. The extent of structural variation, including copy number variation (CNV) and presence/absence variation (PAV), which are thought to contribute to the extraordinary phenotypic diversity and plasticity of this important crop, have not been elucidated. Whole-genome, array-based, comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) revealed a level of structural diversity between the inbred lines B73 and Mo17 that is unprecedented among higher eukaryotes. A detailed analysis of altered segments of DNA conservatively estimates that there are several hundred CNV sequences among the two genotypes, as well as several thousand PAV sequences that are present in B73 but not Mo17. Haplotype-specific PAVs contain hundreds of single-copy, expressed genes that may contribute to heterosis and to the extraordinary phenotypic diversity of this important crop. PMID:19956538

Fu, Yan; Ji, Tieming; Yeh, Cheng-Ting; Jia, Yi; Wu, Wei; Richmond, Todd; Kitzman, Jacob; Rosenbaum, Heidi; Iniguez, A. Leonardo; Barbazuk, W. Brad; Jeddeloh, Jeffrey A.; Nettleton, Dan; Schnable, Patrick S.



Gene actions of QTLs affecting several agronomic traits resolved in a recombinant inbred rice population and two backcross populations.  


To understand the types of gene action controlling seven quantitative traits in rice, we carried out quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping in order to distinguish between the main-effect QTLs (M-QTLs) and digenic epistatic QTLs (E-QTLs) responsible for the trait performance of 254 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from rice varieties Lemont/Teqing and two backcross hybrid (BCF1) populations derived from these RILs. We identified 44 M-QTL and 95 E-QTL pairs in the RI and BCF1 populations as having significant effects on the mean values and mid-parental heterosis of heading date, plant height, flag leaf length, flag leaf width, panicle length, spikelet number and spikelet fertility. The E-QTLs detected collectively explained a larger portion of the total phenotypic variation than the M-QTLs in both the RI and BCF1 populations. In both BCF1 populations, over-dominant (or under-dominant) loci were more important than additive and complete or partially dominant loci for M-QTLs and E-QTL pairs, thereby supporting prior findings that overdominance resulting from epistatic loci are the primary genetic basis of inbreeding depression and heterosis in rice. PMID:15647921

Mei, H W; Li, Z K; Shu, Q Y; Guo, L B; Wang, Y P; Yu, X Q; Ying, C S; Luo, L J



Effect of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius leaf extract on the blood glucose and insulin levels of inbred type 2 diabetic mice.  


The effects of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius (CA) leaf extract and chlorpropamide on blood glucose and insulin levels in the inbred type 2 diabetic mice are reported. After treatment with CA, the glucose levels were measured at 0 and 2-hour intervals in experimental groups and controls. Group I received no treatment and served as control; Group II was the reference and it received chlorpropamide; Groups I-III were moderately diabetic, 100-300 mg/dL blood glucose levels while Group IV were severely diabetic (> 300 mg/dL). Groups III and IV received CA and served as test groups. There was no significant difference between the blood glucose levels at 0 and 2 hours for the control group, (P>0.23) but there were statistically significant differences for Group II (P<0.0002); Group III (P<0.002) and Group IV (P<0.0001). For moderately diabetic mice, CA and chlorpropamide decreased the glucose levels by 25.6% and 16.3% respectively while for the severely diabetic mice CA decreased the blood glucose by 43.7%. It is proposed that CA has an insulinogenic property that possibly stimulated dormant beta-cells to secrete insulin. The histopathology of several organs in the treated animals was found to differ from the expected. The islets of Langerhans for example were found to be preserved in the time frame examined. Also the liver and kidney were found to display milder pathology in the treated groups. PMID:17531147

Oladeinde, F O; Kinyua, A M; Laditan, A A; Michelin, R; Bryant, J L; Denaro, F; Makinde, J M; Williams, A L; Kennedy, A P; Bronner, Y



The influence of cyclosporin A on alloantibody responses in inbred rats: provisional evidence for a serum factor with antiidiotypic activity.  

PubMed Central

The effect of cyclosporin A (CsA) on alloantibody synthesis has been investigated in inbred F344 (RTl1v1) rats receiving weekly transfusions of DA (RT1a) rat whole blood. Whereas repeated transfusion resulted in a persistent alloantibody response (Group I) administration of CsA (15 mg/kg/day) from either days 0-7 (Group II), days 8-49 (Group III) or days 15-49 (Group IV) resulted in the eventual suppression of alloantibody responses before the end of the experiment on day 49. Antiidiotypic activity was detected in sera obtained on day 49 from animals in Groups II, III and IV, shown to reside in the serum fraction of apparent molecular mass of between 150 and 170 kD and to be specific for alloantisera raised in F344 and the closely related LEW (RTl1) rats but not the unrelated AO (RTlu) strain. These experiments suggest that the immunosuppressive action of CsA may, in part, be due to the development of anti-idiotypic activity whose nature remains to be more fully characterized. PMID:3260835

Cunningham, C; Power, D A; Stewart, K N; Catto, G R



A Set of Lotus japonicus Gifu × Lotus burttii Recombinant Inbred Lines Facilitates Map-based Cloning and QTL Mapping  

PubMed Central

Model legumes such as Lotus japonicus have contributed significantly to the understanding of symbiotic nitrogen fixation. This insight is mainly a result of forward genetic screens followed by map-based cloning to identify causal alleles. The L. japonicus ecotype ‘Gifu’ was used as a common parent for inter-accession crosses to produce F2 mapping populations either with other L. japonicus ecotypes, MG-20 and Funakura, or with the related species L. filicaulis. These populations have all been used for genetic studies but segregation distortion, suppression of recombination, low polymorphism levels, and poor viability have also been observed. More recently, the diploid species L. burttii has been identified as a fertile crossing partner of L. japonicus. To assess its qualities in genetic linkage analysis and to enable quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping for a wider range of traits in Lotus species, we have generated and genotyped a set of 163 Gifu × L. burttii recombinant inbred lines (RILs). By direct comparisons of RIL and F2 population data, we show that L. burttii is a valid alternative to MG-20 as a Gifu mapping partner. In addition, we demonstrate the utility of the Gifu × L. burttii RILs in QTL mapping by identifying an Nfr1-linked QTL for Sinorhizobium fredii nodulation. PMID:22619310

Sandal, Niels; Jin, Haojie; Rodriguez-Navarro, Dulce Nombre; Temprano, Francisco; Cvitanich, Cristina; Brachmann, Andreas; Sato, Shusei; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi; Tabata, Satoshi; Parniske, Martin; Ruiz-Sainz, Jose E.; Andersen, Stig U.; Stougaard, Jens



Limitation of Number of Strains and Persistence of False Positive Loci in QTL Mapping Using Recombinant Inbred Strains  

PubMed Central

While the identification of causal genes of quantitative trait loci (QTL) remains a difficult problem in the post-genome era, the number of QTL continues to accumulate, mainly identified using the recombinant inbred (RI) strains. Over the last decade, hundreds of publications have reported nearly a thousand QTL identified from RI strains. We hypothesized that the inaccuracy of most of these QTL makes it difficult to identify causal genes. Using data from RI strains derived from C57BL/6J (B6) X DBA/2J (D2), we tested the possibility of detection of reliable QTL with different numbers of strains in the same trait in five different traits. Our results indicated that studies using RI strains of less than 30 in general have a higher probability of failing to detect reliable QTL. Errors in many studies could include false positive loci, switches between QTL with small and major effects, and missing the real major loci. The similar data was obtained from a RI strain population derived from a different pair of parents and a RI strain population of rat. Thus, thousands of reported QTL from studies of RI strains may need to be double-checked for accuracy before proceeding to causal gene identification. PMID:25032693

Wang, Lishi; Jiao, Yan; Cao, Yanhong; Liu, Gaifen; Wang, Yongjun; Gu, Weikuan



Adult Recruitment Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Findings of an American College Testing Program 1981 survey on college recruitment of adult students are summarized, and 12 articles on adult recruitment are presented. Titles and authors are as follows: "Adult Recruitment Practices: A Report of a National Survey" (Patricia Spratt, Juliet Kaufmann, Lee Noel); "Three Programs for Adults in Shopping…

Kaufman, Juliet, Ed.; And Others


Arizona Adult Education Standards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adult education standards are the cornerstone for quality teaching, quality learning, and quality lives. The Arizona Adult Education Standards Initiative (Standards Initiative) represents a proactive effort by Arizona's adult education community to ensure rigor and consistency in program content and student outcomes for adult learners throughout…

Arizona Department of Education, 2006



Early Regression of Spermatogenesis in Boars of an Inbred Duroc Strain Caused by Incident Orchitis/Epididymo-orchitis  

PubMed Central

Abstract In the process of establishment of an inbred Duroc pig strain, males with size asymmetry of the testes were frequently observed. To clarify the possible causes of this asymmetry, we examined the testes and epididymides of 67 males of the F4-F7 generations at 35–100 weeks of age. Testicular weights showed a wide variation (120–610 g). When the weights of the testes were compared bilaterally, 35 of the 67 males showed more than a 10% difference. Histological examination of testes from this asymmetry group revealed a range of seminiferous tubule disruption including disappearance of all germ cells, but not Sertoli cells, in the epithelium. Focal lesions associated with the degenerated tubules were observed. Trends of incident fibrosis or hyalinization of these lesions were seen in aged males of the asymmetry group. Besides this abnormality of spermatogenesis, infiltration of mononuclear inflammatory cells around the tubule was frequently observed in the asymmetry group (32.9%, compared with 1.6% in males showing testis symmetry). In severe cases, the inflammatory cells were concentrated in the intertubular region instead of Leydig cells. Cellular infiltration was also observed around the epididymal duct and blood vessels, but its incidence did not differ between the symmetry and asymmetry groups. Testicular testosterone levels were significantly increased in the asymmetry group, but those of E2 and inhibin did not differ between the two groups. These histopathological features indicate that disruption of spermatogenesis after orchitis/epididymo-orchitis could induce testicular atrophy. Genetic predispositions for this trait may cause prevalent retrograde infections, resulting in orchitis/epididymo-orchitis. PMID:23428633

NOGUCHI, Junko; NAKAI, Michiko; KIKUCHI, Kazuhiro; KANEKO, Hiroyuki; IMAEDA, Noriaki



Learning, memory and search strategies of inbred mouse strains with different visual abilities in the Barnes maze.  


Visuo-spatial learning and memory were assessed in male and female mice of 13 inbred strains on a small diameter mouse version of the Barnes maze surrounded by a wall and intra-maze visual cues. Mice completed acquisition and reversal training to assess learning, followed by a probe test to assess memory for the spatial location of the escape hole. The C57BL/6J and CAST/EiJ strains showed better learning performance than the other strains. A/J and 129/SvImJ strains showed poor learning performance, which may be due to their low rates of exploration. No differences in memory were found between strains in the probe test. Males showed better learning performance than females in the DBA/2J and C3H/HeJ strains, but there were no sex differences in the other strains. However, mice may not have used visuo-spatial cues to locate the escape hole in this maze, as (1) all strains primarily used the non-spatial serial/thigmotaxic search strategy, (2) no strains showed a reversal effect when the escape hole location was moved, and (3) learning and memory performance were not correlated with measures of visual ability. Multivariate and univariate analyses of variance indicated that mice with good visual ability performed better than mice with poor visual ability, but the effect sizes were small. The small diameter of the maze and the presence of a wall around the edge of the maze may promote thigmotaxis in mice, increasing the use of a non-visual search strategy, thereby reducing the influence of vision on performance and decreasing the sensitivity of this maze design to detect strain differences in visuo-spatial learning and memory. These results indicate that the design of the Barnes maze has a significant effect on learning and memory processes. PMID:20801160

O'Leary, Timothy P; Savoie, Vicki; Brown, Richard E



A novel statistical approach for jointly analyzing RNA-Seq data from F1 reciprocal crosses and inbred lines.  


RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) not only measures total gene expression but may also measure allele-specific gene expression in diploid individuals. RNA-seq data collected from F1 reciprocal crosses in mice can powerfully dissect strain and parent-of-origin effects on allelic imbalance of gene expression. In this article, we develop a novel statistical approach to analyze RNA-seq data from F1 and inbred strains. Method development was motivated by a study of F1 reciprocal crosses derived from highly divergent mouse strains, to which we apply the proposed method. Our method jointly models the total number of reads and the number of allele-specific reads of each gene, which significantly boosts power for detecting strain and particularly parent-of-origin effects. The method deals with the overdispersion problem commonly observed in read counts and can flexibly adjust for the effects of covariates such as sex and read depth. The X chromosome in mouse presents particular challenges. As in other mammals, X chromosome inactivation silences one of the two X chromosomes in each female cell, although the choice of which chromosome to be silenced can be highly skewed by alleles at the X-linked X-controlling element (Xce) and stochastic effects. Our model accounts for these chromosome-wide effects on an individual level, allowing proper analysis of chromosome X expression. Furthermore, we propose a genomic control procedure to properly control type I error for RNA-seq studies. A number of these methodological improvements can also be applied to RNA-seq data from other species as well as other types of next-generation sequencing data sets. Finally, we show through simulations that increasing the number of samples is more beneficial than increasing the library size for mapping both the strain and parent-of-origin effects. Unless sample recruiting is too expensive to conduct, we recommend sequencing more samples with lower coverage. PMID:24561482

Zou, Fei; Sun, Wei; Crowley, James J; Zhabotynsky, Vasyl; Sullivan, Patrick F; Pardo-Manuel de Villena, Fernando



Discrimination against 15N among recombinant inbred lines of Phaseolus vulgaris L. contrasting in phosphorus use efficiency for nitrogen fixation.  


Although isotopic discrimination processes during nitrogen (N) transformations influence the outcome of (15)N based quantification of N2 fixation in legumes, little attention has been given to the effects of genotypic variability and environmental constraints such as phosphorus (P) deficiency, on discrimination against (15)N during N2 fixation. In this study, six Phaseolus vulgaris recombinant inbred lines (RILs), i.e. RILs 115, 104, 34 (P deficiency tolerant) and 147, 83, 70 (P deficiency sensitive), were inoculated with Rhizobium tropici CIAT899, and hydroaeroponically grown with P-sufficient (250 ?mol P plant(-1) week(-1)) versus P-deficient (75 ?mol P plant(-1) week(-1)) supply. Two harvests were done at 15 (before nodule functioning) and 42 (flowering stage) days after transplanting. Nodulation, plant biomass, P and N contents, and the ratios of (15)N over total N content ((15)N/Nt) for shoots, roots and nodules were determined. The results showed lower (15)N/Nt in shoots than in roots, both being much lower than in nodules. P deficiency caused a larger decrease in (15)N/Nt in shoots (-0.18%) than in nodules (-0.11%) for all of the genotypes, and the decrease in shoots was greatest for RILs 34 (-0.33%) and 104 (-0.25%). Nodule (15)N/Nt was significantly related to both the quantity of N2 fixed (R(2)=0.96***) and the P content of nodules (R(2)=0.66*). We conclude that the discrimination against (15)N in the legume N2-fixing symbiosis of common bean with R. tropici CIAT899 is affected by P nutrition and plant genotype, and that the (15)N/Nt in nodules may be used to screen for genotypic variation in P use efficiency for N2 fixation. PMID:24035519

Lazali, Mohamed; Bargaz, Adnane; Carlsson, Georg; Ounane, Sidi Mohamed; Drevon, Jean Jacques



Multi-environment QTL analyses for drought-related traits in a recombinant inbred population of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).  


A recombinant inbred line (RIL) population, comprising 181 lines derived from ILC588 × ILC3279, was evaluated in 10 environments across three locations with different moisture gradients. A drought resistance score (DRS) and three phenology traits-plant height (PLHT), days to flowering (DFLR), and days to maturity (MAT)-were recorded along with seven yield-related traits-grain yield (GY), biological yield (BY), harvest index (HI), the number of pods/3 plants (Pod), percentage of empty pods (%Epod), 100 seed weight (100 sw), and seed number/3 plants (SN). Two RILs (152, 162) showed the best GYs and DRSs under stressed and non-stressed environments. The quantitative trait loci (QTLs) analyses detected 93 significant QTLs (LOD ? 2.0) across the genome × environment interactions. The highest phenotypic variation (>24 %) was explained by the QTLDFLR in Terbol-11. Four common possible pleiotropic QTLs on LG3 and LG4 were identified as associated with DFLR, DRS, GY, MAT, HI, SN, and Pod. No significant epistatic interactions were found between these QTLs and the other markers. However, the QTL for DRS was detected as a conserved QTL in three late planting environments. The markers H6C-07 (on LG3) and H5G01 (on LG4) were associated with QTLs for many traits in all environments studied except two. The allele 'A' of marker H6C07 (from the tolerant parent ILC588) explained 80 % of the yield increase under late planting and 29.8 % of that under dry environments. Concentrating on LG3 and LG4 in molecular breeding programs for drought could speed up improvement for these traits. PMID:23283512

Hamwieh, A; Imtiaz, M; Malhotra, R S



Airway response to electrical field stimulation in sensitized inbred mice. Passive transfer of increased responsiveness with peribronchial lymph nodes.  

PubMed Central

We have examined the effects of repeated exposure to antigen on airway responses to cholinergic stimulation in two inbred strains of mice that are similar in underlying cholinergic airway responsiveness, yet differ in their ability to produce IgE. Both BALB/c and SJL/J mice were repeatedly exposed to ovalbumin by inhalation for a 10-d period. While the BALB/c mice developed IgE antibody to this allergen, the SJL/J strain failed to mount an appreciable IgE response. In vitro assessments of the response of tracheal smooth muscle from saline exposed mice (controls) of both strains demonstrated responses to both methacholine and electrical field stimulation that were not significantly different between the strains. Following exposure to ovalbumin, the BALB/c strain developed a significant increase in their response to electrical field stimulation, while their response to methacholine was unaltered. In contrast, the in vitro responsiveness to these stimuli did not increase in SJL/J mice following similar exposure to inhaled nebulized ovalbumin. The passive transfer of cells from the peribronchial lymph nodes of ovalbumin-sensitized BALB/c mice into syngeneic nonimmune mice also led to increases in responsiveness of tracheal smooth muscle to electrical field stimulation. In contrast, transfer of cells from nonsensitized mice did not alter responsiveness. These results suggest that murine species capable of developing an IgE response to allergen also develop alterations in the neural control of their airways. Further, this alteration appears to be lymphocyte dependent, in that cells found within peribronchial lymph nodes following allergen exposure are capable of transferring this increase in responsiveness to nonimmune mice. PMID:1541669

Larsen, G L; Renz, H; Loader, J E; Bradley, K L; Gelfand, E W



Joint linkage QTL analyses for partial resistance to Phytophthora sojae in soybean using six nested inbred populations with heterogeneous conditions.  


Partial resistance to Phytophthora sojae in soybean is controlled by multiple quantitative trait loci (QTL). With traditional QTL mapping approaches, power to detect such QTL, frequently of small effect, can be limited by population size. Joint linkage QTL analysis of nested recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations provides improved power to detect QTL through increased population size, recombination, and allelic diversity. However, uniform development and phenotyping of multiple RIL populations can prove difficult. In this study, the effectiveness of joint linkage QTL analysis was evaluated on combinations of two to six nested RIL populations differing in inbreeding generation, phenotypic assay method, and/or marker set used in genotyping. In comparison to linkage analysis in a single population, identification of QTL by joint linkage analysis was only minimally affected by different phenotypic methods used among populations once phenotypic data were standardized. In contrast, genotyping of populations with only partially overlapping sets of markers had a marked negative effect on QTL detection by joint linkage analysis. In total, 16 genetic regions with QTL for partial resistance against P. sojae were identified, including four novel QTL on chromosomes 4, 9, 12, and 16, as well as significant genotype-by-isolate interactions. Resistance alleles from PI 427106 or PI 427105B contributed to a major QTL on chromosome 18, explaining 10-45% of the phenotypic variance. This case study provides guidance on the application of joint linkage QTL analysis of data collected from populations with heterogeneous assay conditions and a genetic framework for partial resistance to P. sojae. PMID:24247235

Lee, Sungwoo; Mian, M A Rouf; Sneller, Clay H; Wang, Hehe; Dorrance, Anne E; McHale, Leah K



Ups and downs of a transcriptional landscape shape iron deficiency associated chlorosis of the maize inbreds B73 and Mo17  

PubMed Central

Background Improving nutrient homeostasis is a major challenge of a sustainable maize cultivation, and cornerstone to ensure food supply for a growing world population. Although, iron constitutes an important nutrient, iron availability is limited. In this respect, iron deficiency associated chlorosis causes severe yield losses every year. Natural variation of the latter trait has yet not been addressed in maize and was therefore studied in the present analysis. Results In this study, we i) report about the contrasting chlorosis phenotypes of the inbreds B73 and Mo17 at 10 and 300 ?M iron regime, ii) identified over 400 significantly regulated transcripts (FDR?inbreds at these growth conditions by deep RNA-Sequencing, iii) linked the gained knowledge with QTL information about iron deficiency related traits within the maize intermated B73 by Mo17 (IBM) population, and iv) highlighted contributing molecular pathways. In this respect, several genes within methionine salvage pathway and phytosiderophore synthesis were found to present constitutively high expression in Mo17, even under sufficient iron supply. Moreover, the same expression pattern could be observed for two putative bHLH transcription factors. In addition, a number of differentially expressed genes showed a co-localisation with QTL confidence intervals for iron deficiency related traits within the IBM population. Conclusions Our study highlights differential iron deficiency associated chlorosis between B73 and Mo17 and represents a valuable resource for differentially expressed genes upon iron limitation and chlorosis response. Besides identifying two putative bHLH transcription factors, we propose that methionine salvage pathway and sterol metabolism amongst others; underlie the contrasting iron deficiency related chlorosis phenotype of both inbreds. Altogether, this study emphasizes a contribution of selected genes and pathways on natural trait variation within the IBM population. PMID:24330725



Characterization of variation and quantitative trait loci related to terpenoid indole alkaloid yield in a recombinant inbred line mapping population of Catharanthus roseus.  


Improved Catharanthus roseus cultivars are required for high yields of vinblastine, vindoline and catharanthine and/or serpentine and ajmalicine, the pharmaceutical terpenoid indole alkaloids. An approach to derive them is to map QTL for terpenoid indole alkaloids yields, identify DNA markers tightly linked to the QTL and apply marker assisted selection. Towards the end, 197 recombinant inbred lines from a cross were grown over two seasons to characterize variability for seven biomass and 23 terpenoid indole alkaloids content-traits and yield-traits. The recombinant inbred lines were genotyped for 178 DNA markers which formed a framework genetic map of eight linkage groups (LG), spanning 1786.5 cM, with 10.0 cM average intermarker distance. Estimates of correlations between traits allowed selection of seven relatively more important traits for terpenoid indole alkaloids yields. QTL analysis was performed on them using single marker (regression) analysis, simple interval mapping and composite interval mapping procedures. A total of 20 QTL were detected on five of eight LG, 10 for five traits on LG1, five for four traits on LG2, three for one trait on LG3 and one each for different traits on LG three and four. QTL for the same or different traits were found clustered on three LG. Co-location of two QTL for biomass traits was in accord of correlation between them. The QTL were validated for use in marker assisted selection by the recombinant inbred line which transgressively expressed 16 traits contributory to the yield vinblastine, vindoline and catharanthine from leaves and roots that possessed favourable alleles of 13 relevant QTL. PMID:22546825

Sharma, Vishakha; Chaudhary, Swati; Srivastava, Suchi; Pandey, Richa; Kumar, Sushil



Immunization Schedules for Adults  


... Immunize? Vaccines: The Basics Vaccines Home Share Compartir Immunization Schedules for Adults in Easy-to-read Formats ... never outgrow the need for vaccines. The specific immunizations you need as an adult are determined by ...


Can Fluoride Help Adults?  


Can Fluoride Help Adults? Fluoride isn't just for children. The use of fluoride can prove beneficial for both children and adults. Research has shown that fluoride applied directly to teeth is important for fighting ...


Adult Numeracy Core Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed primarily for adult literacy teachers and tutors, this curriculum describes the content of what should be taught in numeracy programs in order to meet the individual needs of adults through the selection and teaching of skills appropriate to those adults' needs. An introduction describes national standards and qualifications, learners,…

Steeds, Andrew, Ed.


Adult Survival Skills Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this instrument is to supplement data from the Adult Basic Learning Examination in assessing the functional level of adults in daily situations. It may also be used as a teaching tool for adults requesting tutoring in specific concepts and skills presented in the instrument. This instrument is an informal assessment instrument and…

Walsko, Gregory M.


Adult Education in Turkey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the situation and practices of adult education in Turkey in terms of (a) participants, (b) providers, and (c) program areas. The data were derived from published statistical data and one-to-one interaction with adult education providers when such data are unavailable. Turkey has a long tradition of adult education with…

Miser, Rifat; Ural, Ozana; Ünlühisarýklý, Özlem



Adolescents and Young Adults

Kent EE, Wilder Smith A, Keegan THM, Lynch CF, Kato I, Wu X, Schwartz S, Hamilton A. (in press). Social information needs of adolescent and young adults with cancer in the Adolescent and Young Adult Health Outcomes and Patient Experiences (AYA-HOPE) Study. Jounral of Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology.


Adult Education in Greece  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The central aim of this article is to analyse the current situation of adult education in Greece. The article focuses on the following points: (a) the degree of participation in programmes of continuing professional training and general adult education courses, (b) the quality and the outcomes of the adult education provision in Greece, and (c)…

Kokkos, Alexios



Adult Day Services  


... 3 $35-45 $60-70 $130-140 Adult Day Services $75,000 $50,000 $25,000 $0 Adult Day Services At-a-Glance • Families share in the ... as many locations 5 • More funding for adult day services decreases Medicaid costs by reducing full-time ...


An Adult ESL Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum framework for adult literacy was written by 21 South Carolina adult English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) instructors, as submitted to the South Carolina Literacy Resource Center. It is based on current theories in the fields of adult education and second language acquisition and is designed to be flexible so that it may be adapted to…

South Carolina Literacy Resource Center, Columbia.


The Adult Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 14 chapters of this textbook chronicle adult development from youth through old age, emphasizing both research and interviews with adults at various stages in their lives. Topics covered include the following: (1) the academic field of adult development; (2) theories and research methods; (3) aging and disease prevention; (4) sexuality and…

Belsky, Janet


Exploring the Genetic Characteristics of Two Recombinant Inbred Line Populations via High-Density SNP Markers in Maize  

PubMed Central

Understanding genetic characteristics can reveal the genetic diversity in maize and be used to explore evolutionary mechanisms and gene cloning. A high-density linkage map was constructed to determine recombination rates (RRs), segregation distortion regions (SDRs), and recombinant blocks (RBs) in two recombinant inbred line populations (RILs) (B73/By804 and Zong3/87-1) generated by the single seed descent method. Population B73/By804 containing 174 lines were genotyped with 198 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) markers while population Zong3/87-1 comprised of 175 lines, were genotyped with 210 SSR markers along with 1536 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for each population, spanning 1526.7 cM and 1996.2 cM in the B73/By804 and Zong3/87-1 populations, respectively. The total variance of the RR in the whole genome was nearly 100 fold, and the maximum average was 10.43–11.50 cM/Mb while the minimum was 0.08–0.10 cM/Mb in the two populations. The average number of RB was 44 and 37 in the Zong3/87-1 and B73/By804 populations, respectively, whereas 28 SDRs were observed in both populations. We investigated 11 traits in Zong3/87-1 and 10 traits in B73/By804. Quantitative trait locus (QTLs) mapping of SNP+SSR with SNP and SSR marker sets were compared to showed the impact of different density markers on QTL mapping and resolution. The confidence interval of QTL Pa19 (FatB gene controlling palmitic acid content) was reduced from 3.5 Mb to 1.72 Mb, and the QTL Oil6 (DGAT1-2 gene controlling oil concentration) was significantly reduced from 10.8 Mb to 1.62 Mb. Thus, the use of high-density markers considerably improved QTL mapping resolution. The genetic information resulting from this study will support forthcoming efforts to understand recombination events, SDRs, and variations among different germplasm. Furthermore, this study will facilitate gene cloning and understanding of the fundamental sources of total variation and RR in maize, which is the most widely cultivated cereal crop. PMID:23300772

Pan, Qingchun; Ali, Farhan; Yang, Xiaohong; Li, Jiansheng; Yan, Jianbing



[Genetic characteristics associated with drought tolerance of plant height and thousand-grain mass of recombinant inbred lines of wheat].  


A total of 120 recombinant inbred lines (RIL) derived from Chinese winter wheat cultivars Longjian 19xQ9086 and the two parents were taken as test materials to study the quantitative genetics characteristics of their plant height at different development stages, thousand-grain mass, as well as the correlations between the two traits under rainfed (drought stress) and well-watered conditions, and evaluate the genetic variation of the RIL. Under the two water conditions, the target traits of the RIL showed substantial transgressive segregation and great sensitivity to water condition. The drought stress coefficient of the plant height was higher at jointing stage, being up to 0.851. There was a significant positive correlation between the plant height at different development stages and the thousand-grain mass, and comparing with that at other growth stages, the plant height at jointing stage had a higher correlation coefficient with the thousand-grain mass (R2DS = 0.32, R2WW = 0.28). The plant height at both jointing and flowering stages had significant positive and direct effect but negative and indirect gross effect on the thousand-grain mass, while the plant height at heading and maturing stages was in adverse. The target traits showed a lower heritability ranged from 0.27 to 0.60. The numbers of the gene pairs controlling the thousand-grain mass were 10 under rainfed and 13 under well-watered conditions, while those of the gene pairs controlling the plant height at different development stages were 3-7 under rainfed and 4-14 under well-watered conditions, respectively. According to the clustering of the drought stress coefficient of plant height, the RIL could be classified into five subgroups, showing the abundant variation of the RIL in their phe- notypes and in the sensitivity to water condition. It was considered that the test RIL were appropriate for the study of the quantitative genetics of wheat drought resistance. PMID:22937645

Yang, De-Long; Zhang, Guo-Hong; Li, Xing-Mao; Xing, Hua; Cheng, Hong-Bo; Ni, Sheng-Li; Chen, Xiao-Ping



Adult plant resistance-related gene expression in 'Camp Remy' wheat inoculated with Puccinia striiformis.  


The French wheat variety 'Camp Remy' (CR) possesses a durable, adult plant resistance to yellow rust (YR), caused by the pathogen Puccinia striiformis. Using cDNA-AFLP on different sets of heterogeneous inbred families (HIFs) derived from the cross CR x Récital, we compared gene expression profiles during one seedling and two adult developmental stages following inoculation with P. striiformis. Transcripts differentially expressed in response to YR infection were isolated and cloned. Sequence analysis of the resultant clones revealed several classes of putative genes, including those related to resistance/defence responses, transcription and signal transduction, and primary metabolism. The expression profiles of seven selected genes were obtained using real-time PCR in CR leaves at the same three stages of development. The results confirmed the stage-specific expression of the genes at one or two specific stages in response to P. striiformis infection and demonstrated that CR modifies the expression of some resistance/defence-related genes during its transition from the seedling to adult growth stages. These results provided the first clue to understand the molecular basis of quantitative trait loci for adult plant resistance to YR and connect it with durability. PMID:18705853

Mallard, Stéphanie; Nègre, Sylvie; Pouya, Shala; Gaudet, Denis; Lu, Zhen-Xiang; Dedryver, Françoise



Somaclonal variation in a maize inbred line is not associated with changes in the number or location of Ac-homologous sequences.  


Somaclonal variation (tissue culture-induced mutations) may result, in some instances, from the activation of transposable elements. This study was conducted to determine whether somaclonal variants in the Zea maize L. inbred line FR27rhm were associated with movement of the transposable element Activator (Ac). Ten variants, seven of which from genetic analyses fit a single recessive gene model and three which did not due to a low number of mutant plants, were selected for analysis. Total DNA from these and from uncultured FR27rhm seedlings were examined by Southern blot analysis using the internal 1.6-kb Hind III fragment derived from the cloned Ac7 element as a probe. By using a restriction endonuclease which does not cut within the element, the number and distribution of the copies of Acrelated sequences in the FR27rhm genome could be determined. From the number of bands seen in the blots, we conclude that the FR27rhm inbred contains large numbers of Ac -related sequences. However, the pattern of bands seen in the ten variants and in the uncultured seedlings were identical, indicating that there had been no movement of any of the Acrelated sequences to cause the tissue culture-induced mutations. PMID:24221213

Williams, M E; Hepburn, A G; Widholm, J M



Increased apoB100 mRNA in inbred strains of mice by estrogen is caused by decreased RNA editing protein mRNA.  


Estrogen administration to rats diminishes all apoproteins and lipoproteins from plasma. In contrast, some inbred strains of mice raise their plasma apoB and LDL levels by more than 2-fold (Srivastava et al, 1993, Eur. J. Biochem. 216, 527-538). Further studies with 13 inbred strains of mice given 3 micrograms beta-estradiol/g body weight/day for 5 consecutive days suggest that some mouse strains increased their apoB and LDL levels and some did not. To examine the mechanism of influence of genetic factors on apoB regulation, two strains, C57L and C57BL, that increased their VLDL- and LDL-cholesterol, and 2 strains, BALB and C3H, that did not, were chosen. Estrogen increased plasma apoB levels selectively in the strains C57L and C57BL, termed as 'responders,' but did not change in BALB and C3H, termed as 'non-responders.' One of the mechanisms for increased plasma apoB levels could be through increased production of apoB-containing particles. This possibility was investigated. ApoB and REPR mRNA were quantified by RNase protection assay, and apoB-100 mRNA by apoB mRNA editing assay. Hepatic apoB mRNA increased by 30% in 'non-responders,' but decreased by 20% in the 'responders.' However, apoB-100 mRNA increased relative to apoB-48 mRNA in all the 4 strains by 50%. The mRNA for RNA editing protein (REPR) decreased in all strains, suggesting that apoB-100 mRNA increased as a result of decreased apoB mRNA editing activity. These results suggest that:(a) modulation of apoB mRNA by estrogen was strain-specific;(b) increased apoB100 mRNA in inbred strains of mice were caused by decreased apoB mRNA editing activity; and (c) the differences in the plasma apoB levels among 'responder' and 'nonresponder' strains of mice occur through mechanisms other than the apoB mRNA editing. PMID:7626051

Srivastava, R A



Transthoracic echocardiography reference values in juvenile and adult 129/Sv mice  

PubMed Central

Background In the recent years, the use of Doppler-echocardiography has become a standard non-invasive technique in the analysis of cardiac malformations in genetically modified mice. Therefore, normal values have to be established for the most commonly used inbred strains in whose genetic background those mutations are generated. Here we provide reference values for transthoracic echocardiography measurements in juvenile (3 weeks) and adult (8 weeks) 129/Sv mice. Methods Echocardiographic measurements were performed using B-mode, M-mode and Doppler-mode in 15 juvenile (3 weeks) and 15 adult (8 weeks) mice, during isoflurane anesthesia. M-mode measurements variability of left ventricle (LV) was determined. Results Several echocardiographic measurements significantly differ between juvenile and adult mice. Most of these measurements are related with cardiac dimensions. All B-mode measurements were different between juveniles and adults (higher in the adults), except for fractional area change (FAC). Ejection fraction (EF) and fractional shortening (FS), calculated from M-mode parameters, do not differ between juvenile and adult mice. Stroke volume (SV) and cardiac output (CO) were significantly different between juvenile and adult mice. SV was 31.93?±?8.67 ?l in juveniles vs 70.61?±?24.66 ?l in adults, ??adults, ??adult mice. It was demonstrated that variability of M-mode measurements of LV is minimal. Conclusions This study suggests that differences in cardiac dimensions, as wells as in pulmonary and aorta outflow parameters, were found between juvenile and adult mice. However, mitral and tricuspid inflow parameters seem to be similar between 3 weeks and 8 weeks mice. The reference values established in this study would contribute as a basis to future studies in post-natal cardiovascular development and diagnosing cardiovascular disorders in genetically modified mouse mutant lines. PMID:23634975




Microsoft Academic Search

Discriminant function analyses were used to examine the daily functioning levels of three populations of elderly: Senior citizen center participants, adult day care clients and nursing home patients. The analyses revealed that the adult day care program was serving a distinct population of elderly who have unique needs. The Level of Care Rating Scale, developed to assess functioning and used

James Ullmer; Leah Abrahams; Diane Brown



Adult Day Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

For frail elders and those afflicted with Alzheimer's Disease, adult day care is a maturing service option linking clients and their caregivers with formal community supports. Integrating two programs for the aging, such as an adult day care program and a senior center, increases participant service options while decreasing service cost.

Patricia M. Kirwin



Adult Education and Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains 19 papers on adult education and development worldwide. The following papers are included: "Editorial" (Heribert Hinzen); "Lifelong Learning in Europe: Moving towards EFA (Dakar Framework for Action on Education for All) Goals and the CONFINTEA V Agenda" (Sofia Conference on Adult Education); "Poverty and Schooling in the…

Hinzen, Heribert, Ed.



Adult Learning Matters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adult Learners' Week--which is supported by the Department for Innovation, Universities and Skills and the European Social Fund, amongst a raft of other organisations--is all about raising demand for learning. At its core, the campaign is about encouraging under-represented groups--including low-skilled, unemployed and low-paid adults and those…

Thomson, Rachel



Recruiting Adult Education Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is the first nationwide compilation of successful recruiting techniques for students in adult basic education, literacy, General Educational Development classes, and adult high school degree programs. Information for the publication was gathered from a literature search and other sources, especially "Reaching the Least Educated," a…

Learning Resources Network, Manhattan, KS.


Leisure Reading for Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bibliography was developed for use by librarians, curriculum specialists, learning center directors, and teachers to help them find interesting non-instructional materials for adults with limited reading ability (including young adults). Following a brief introductory discussion on simplified literature, the nearly 450 abstracts of fiction…

Jacques, Joseph W., Comp; Schwartz, Beverly, Comp.


Adult Day Care Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult day care programs are rapidly becoming an alternative long term care service offered by nursing homes, community hospitals, and community agencies. For an adult day care program to be most effective a therapeutic triad needs to exist between formal caregivers, the elderly client and the informal family caregivers. The purpose of this descriptive study was to identify the profile

Joyce Hedenstrom; Sharon K. Ostwald



Direct evidence for a stem cell common to hematopoiesis and its in vitro microenvironment: studies on syngeneic (inbred) Wistar Furth rats  

SciTech Connect

When injected into a group of lethally irradiated syngeneic (inbred) Wistar Furth (WF) rats, suspensions of stromal cells grown in monolayer culture from the marrow of WF rats produced hemopoietic colonies in the spleen and rescued 50% of the rats, while 90% of the non-injected (control) rats died within 30 days and had no hemopoietic colonies in the spleens. Fifty percent of the injected (test) rats which died between days 6 and 22 showed hemopoietic regeneration in the bone marrow, while little or no evidence of hemopoietic regeneration was seen in the control animals. Our results suggest that the marrow stroma grown in vitro contain cells with hemopoietic potential and are transplantable.

Islam, A.; Gong, J.K.; Henderson, E.S.



Mus spretus LINE-1s in the Mus musculus domesticus inbred strain C57BL/6J are from two different Mus spretus LINE-1 subfamilies  

SciTech Connect

A LINE-1 element, L1C105, was found in the Mus musculus domesticus inbred strain, C57BL/6J. Upon sequencing, this element was found to belong to a M. spretus LINE-1 subfamily originating within the last 0.2 million years. This is the second spretus-specific LINE-1 subfamily found to be represented in C57BL/6J. Although it is unclear how these M. spretus LINE-1s transferred from M. spretus to M. m. domesticus, it is now clear that at least two different spretus LINE-1 sequences have recently transferred. The limited divergence between the C57BL/6J spretus-like LINE-1s and their closest spretus ancestors suggests that the transfer did not involve an exceptionally long lineage of sequential transpositions. 54 refs., 6 figs.

Zhao, Yingping; Daggett, L.P.; Hardies, S.C. [Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX (United States)



Frequency of X-Y chromosome dissociation in mouse spermatocytes from interstrain crosses, recombinant inbred strains, and chimeras: possible involvement of paternal genome imprinting.  


The frequency of dissociation of the X-Y chromosome bivalent in diakinesis-metaphase I spermatocytes differs significantly between two inbred mouse strains, CBA (29%) and KE (7%), that were used to obtain reciprocal F1 hybrids, and to develop recombinant inbred (RI) strains. The level of X-Y dissociation was significantly higher in (KExCBA)F1 hybrids sired by the CBA males (24%) than in reciprocal F1 hybrids (12%), revealing the inheritance after the father. Among 14 RI strains, nine were concordant with KE, one with CBA, and four had intermediate phenotype, significantly different from both progenitor strains. This shows that at least two genes are involved, and their possible linkage with agouti and Trf loci is suggested. The linkage with agouti was confirmed by testing additional 10 CBXE incipient RI strains. There was no significant difference in the level of X-Y dissociation between EXCB RI strains derived from the original cross sired by the CBA males and CBXE RI strains derived from the reciprocal cross. The involvement of the Y chromosome-linked factors was unlikely because it was found earlier (Krzanowska, 1989: Gamete Res 23:357-365) that two congenic strains, KE and KE.CBA, differing with respect to the source of the Y chromosome, had the same level of X-Y dissociation. Thus, the difference obtained between reciprocal F1 hybrids is interpreted in terms of paternal genome imprinting imposed by CBA males and propagated only in the presence of some alleles derived from this strain.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7893483

Krzanowska, H; Wabik-Sliz, B



HIV Infection and Adult Vaccination  


... for Adults Share Compartir HIV Infection and Adult Vaccination Vaccines are especially critical for people with chronic ... percentage is less than 15%. Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Type 1 ...


Liver Disease and Adult Vaccination  


... for Adults Share Compartir Liver Disease and Adult Vaccination Vaccines are especially critical for people with health ... have immunity to this disease Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Type 1 ...


Renal Disease and Adult Vaccination  


... for Adults Share Compartir Renal Disease and Adult Vaccination Vaccines are especially critical for people with health ... have immunity to this disease Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Type 1 ...


CDC Vital Signs: Adult Obesity  


... About . Vital Signs Share Compartir Adult Obesity Obesity Rises Among Adults August 2010 72M+ More than ... eating and active living. Issue Details Problem Adult Obesity Obesity is a national epidemic, causing higher medical ...


Dementia: Unique to Older Adults  


... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Dementia Unique to Older Adults This section provides information ... Managing Additional Health Problems in Older Adults with Dementia Dementia is rare in adults younger than 60. ...


Depression in Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Depression is less prevalent among older adults than among younger adults but can have serious consequences. Over half of cases represent a first onset in later life. Although suicide rates in the elderly are declining, they are still higher than in younger adults and more closely associated with depression. Depressed older adults are less likely to endorse affective symptoms and more likely to display cognitive changes, somatic symptoms, and loss of interest than are younger adults. Risk factors leading to the development of late life depression likely comprise complex interactions among genetic vulnerabilities, cognitive diathesis, age-associated neurobiological changes, and stressful events. Insomnia is an often overlooked risk factor for late life depression. We suggest that a common pathway to depression in older adults, regardless of which predisposing risks are most prominent, may be curtailment of daily activities. Accompanying self-critical thinking may exacerbate and maintain a depressed state. Offsetting the increasing prevalence of certain risk factors in late life are age-related increases in psychological resilience. Other protective factors include higher education and socioeconomic status, engagement in valued activities, and religious or spiritual involvement. Treatments including behavioral therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, cognitive bibliotherapy, problem-solving therapy, brief psychodynamic therapy, and life review/reminiscence therapy are effective but too infrequently used with older adults. Preventive interventions including education for individuals with chronic illness, behavioral activation, cognitive restructuring, problem-solving skills training, group support, and life review have also received support. PMID:19327033

Fiske, Amy; Wetherell, Julie Loebach; Gatz, Margaret



Adult Day Care Centers and Adult Protective Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper looks at the extent adult day care services and adult protective services overlap in meeting the needs of chronically ill adults. Utilizing content analysis and a case study approach, the problems and progress of five patients admitted to an adult day care program in western Massachusetts are examined in relationship to admission criteria for both programs. Analysis reveals

Linner Ward Griffin



Motivation and Adult Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author reviews theories of human motivation: Lewin's force field analysis, Skinner's operant reinforcement theory, and Maslow's hierarchy of needs. He then extracts the implications of these theories for adult learning. SK)

Taylor, J. Rodney



Kidney Transplants (Adults)  


... covered? Search for covered items Kidney transplants (adults) How often is it covered? Medicare Part A (Hospital Insurance) covers these transplant services and pays part of the costs: Inpatient ...


Adults Learning Mathematics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Adults Learning Mathematics (ALM) organization is "an international research forum bringing together researchers and practitioners in adult mathematics/numeracy teaching and learning in order to promote the learning of mathematics by adults." The site contains sections such as "For teachers", "For PhD students", and "For policy makers". The "For teachers" area includes links to the ALM newsletters and their resources, which include downloadable posters and factsheets. Moving along, the "For PhD students" area includes information for those doctoral students that are seeking to incorporate pedagogical techniques for teaching math to adults in their research. Additionally, the "For policy makers" area includes helpful documents such as "High stakes assessment: Assessing numeracy for Nursing in two recent projects".


Older Adults and Alcohol  


... Get Help Heath and Aging Older Adults and Alcohol: You Can Get Help What's inside Worried about a drinking problem? Learn about the effects of alcohol on health and get needed support. Read this ...


Einstein Books for Adults  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This reference list has more than 15 books and articles on Einstein that are written for adults, including biographies and some of Einstein's own writings. For each title, the author's name, publisher, and publication date are included.


Mosquito, adult (image)  


This illustration shows an adult southern house mosquito. This mosquito feeds on blood and is the carrier of many diseases, such as encephalitis, West Nile, dengue fever, yellow fever, and others. ( ...


Adults Living with EGIDs  


... for a Grant Research Grants Hope on the Horizon APFED/ARTrust™ Pilot HOPE Pilot Grants Trainee Grants ... and socializing. This page is designed to provide information and strategies to help adults manage life with ...


Motivation and Adult Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper examines the role of adult education and the contribution it can make to the solution of current problems in developing countries, particularly the problems of economic under-development and over-population. (Author/AG)

Veeraraghavan, J.



Sexuality in Older Adults  


... time touching, kissing, and enjoying each other’s company. Practice safe sex. Older adults are still at risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Ask your partner about his or her sexual history, and share yours. Consider getting tested for ...


Characterization of Adult Transcriptomes from the Omnivorous Lady Beetle Coleomegilla maculata Fed Pollen or Insect Egg Diet  

PubMed Central

Diet, nutrition, and obesity are important topics of current research. While many insect genome and/or transcriptome models are based on dietary specialists, the lady beetle Coleomegilla maculata, a common New World species, is highly omnivorous. C. maculata feeds on plants, fungi, insects and other arthropods; its diet frequently includes conspecific cannibalism. This study reports and discusses the first nutritionally based C. maculata transcriptomes. These transcriptomes were prepared from highly inbred specimens provided limited diets, after adult eclosion, of either pollen only or eggs of a soft bodied hemipteran insect only. Selected sequences from the transcriptomes were compared to verify basic genetic similarity of the sampled individuals. Differentially expressed genes associated with these diets were identified to aid with studies of omnivore diet and nutrition. Selected transcriptome sequences described herein are filed with the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), GenBank Bioproject PRJNA236444.

Allen, Margaret Louise



Characterization of Adult Transcriptomes from the Omnivorous Lady Beetle Coleomegilla maculata Fed Pollen or Insect Egg Diet.  


Diet, nutrition, and obesity are important topics of current research. While many insect genome and/or transcriptome models are based on dietary specialists, the lady beetle Coleomegilla maculata, a common New World species, is highly omnivorous. C. maculata feeds on plants, fungi, insects and other arthropods; its diet frequently includes conspecific cannibalism. This study reports and discusses the first nutritionally based C. maculata transcriptomes. These transcriptomes were prepared from highly inbred specimens provided limited diets, after adult eclosion, of either pollen only or eggs of a soft bodied hemipteran insect only. Selected sequences from the transcriptomes were compared to verify basic genetic similarity of the sampled individuals. Differentially expressed genes associated with these diets were identified to aid with studies of omnivore diet and nutrition. Selected transcriptome sequences described herein are filed with the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), GenBank Bioproject PRJNA236444. PMID:25628762

Allen, Margaret Louise



Adult Education through World Collaboration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains the following papers about development/delivery of adult education through the efforts of multinational and bilateral government donors and the International Council for Adult Education (ICAE): "Preface" (Beverly Benner Cassara); "Introduction: Adult Education and Democracy" (Francisco Vio Grossi); "Adult Education and the…

Cassara, Beverly Benner, Ed.


Transposable element rbg induces the differential expression of opaque-2 mutant gene in two maize o2 NILs derived from the same inbred line.  


The recessive opaque-2 mutant gene (o2) reduces ?-zeins accumulation in maize endosperm, changes the amino acid composition of maize kernels, induces an opaque endosperm, and increases the lysine content of kernels. The quality protein maize (QPM) inbred line CA339 (o2o2) and an elite normal inbred line liao2345 (O2O2) were used to construct o2 near-isogenic lines (NILs) by marker-assisted selection (MAS) using the co-dominant SSR marker phi057. Two specific o2 NILs were constructed, named liao2345/o2-1 and liao2345/o2-2. However, the kernel phenotypes of the two o2 NILs were different from each other. liao2345/o2-1 had the wild-type vitreous endosperm, which is similar to its recurrent parent liao2345, while the endosperm of liao2345/o2-2 was opaque, identical to typical o2 mutant individuals. In comparison to their recurrent parent liao2345, the lysine concentration of liao2345/o2-1 was similar and the lysine concentration in liao2345/o2-2 was doubled. SDS-PAGE analysis indicated that liao2345/o2-1 had the same zeins ratio as liao2345, whereas the zeins concentration of liao2345/o2-2 was markedly lower. Sequence and transcript abundance analyses indicated that the CDS of two o2 NILs are derived from CA339, but they have different promoters. The O2 transcript of liao2345/o2-2 is largely inhibited because of an rbg transposable element inserted between the TATA box and initiator codon of liao2345/o2-2. We concluded that different crossing-over patterns during the process of o2 NIL construction resulted in the different kernel phenotypes of the two o2 NILs. We surmise that the reversion of liao2345/o2-1 to wild type was due to the recombination with the wild type liao2345 promoter during introgression and backcrossing. The o2 mutant gene of donor (CA339) is a null mutant because of low O2 expression. However, its CDS probably encodes a protein with normal function which can maintain the normal accumulation of zeins in maize endosperm. PMID:24416355

Chen, Yan; Zhou, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Gang; Li, Xinhai; Song, Liya; Yan, Na; Weng, Jianfeng; Hao, Zhuanfang; Zhang, Degui; Li, Mingshun; Zhang, Shihuang



Iso-lines and inbred-lines confirmed loci that underlie resistance from cultivar 'Hartwig' to three soybean cyst nematode populations.  


Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] cultivars varied in their resistance to different populations of the soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines, called HG Types. The rhg1 locus on linkage group G was necessary for resistance to all HG types. However, the loci for resistance to H. glycines HG Type 1.3- (race 14) and HG Type 1.2.5- (race 2) of the soybean cyst nematode have varied in their reported locations. The aims were to compare the inheritance of resistance to three nematode HG Types in a population segregating for resistance to SCN and to identify the underlying quantitative trait loci (QTL). 'Hartwig', a soybean cultivar resistant to most SCN HG Types, was crossed with the susceptible cultivar 'Flyer'. A total of 92 F5-derived recombinant inbred lines (RILs; or inbred lines) and 144 molecular markers were used for map development. The rhg1 associated QTL found in earlier studies were confirmed and shown to underlie resistance to all three HG Types in RILs (Satt309; HG Type 0, P = 0.0001 R (2) = 22%; Satt275; HG Type 1.3, P = 0.001, R (2) = 14%) and near isogeneic lines (NILs; or iso-lines; Satt309; HG Type 1.2.5-, P = 0.001 R (2) = 24%). A new QTL underlying resistance to HG Type 1.2.5- was detected on LG D2 (Satt574; P = 0.001, R (2) = 11%) among 14 RILs resistant to the other HG types. The locus was confirmed in a small NIL population consisting of 60 plants of ten genotypes (P = 0.04). This QTL (cqSCN-005) is located in an interval previously associated with resistance to both SDS leaf scorch from 'Pyramid' and 'Ripley' (cqSDS-001) and SCN HG Type 1.3- from Hartwig and Pyramid. The QTL detected will allow marker assisted selection for multigenic resistance to complex nematode populations in combination with sudden death syndrome resistance (SDS) and other agronomic traits. PMID:19856174

Kazi, Samreen; Shultz, J; Afzal, J; Hashmi, Rizwan; Jasim, Mohammed; Bond, Jason; Arelli, Prakash R; Lightfoot, David A



Tandem beta-enamino ester formation and cyclization with o-alkynyl anilines catalyzed by InBr3: efficient synthesis of beta-(N-indolyl)-alpha,beta-unsaturated esters.  


A tandem reaction providing beta-(N-indolyl)-alpha,beta-unsaturated esters from beta-keto esters and o-alkynyl anilines was developed. Z-Alkenes were selectively formed due to the stability of the beta-enamino ester as an intermediate of the reaction. This reaction includes the intermolecular beta-enamino ester formation and intramolecular cyclization catalyzed by InBr(3). PMID:19113947

Murai, Kenichi; Hayashi, Shoko; Takaichi, Nobuhiro; Kita, Yasuyuki; Fujioka, Hiromichi



Transcript co-variance with Nestin in two mouse genetic reference populations identifies Lef1 as a novel candidate regulator of neural precursor cell proliferation in the adult hippocampus  

PubMed Central

Adult neurogenesis, the lifelong production of new neurons in the adult brain, is under complex genetic control but many of the genes involved remain to be identified. In this study, we have integrated publicly available gene expression data from the BXD and CXB recombinant inbred mouse lines to discover genes co-expressed in the adult hippocampus with Nestin, a common marker of the neural precursor cell population. In addition, we incorporated spatial expression information to restrict candidates to genes with high differential gene expression in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Incorporating data from curated protein-protein interaction databases revealed interactions between our candidate genes and those already known to be involved in adult neurogenesis. Enrichment analysis suggested a link to the Wnt/?-catenin pathway, known to be involved in adult neurogenesis. In particular, our candidates were enriched in targets of Lef1, a modulator of the Wnt pathway. In conclusion, our combination of bioinformatics approaches identified six novel candidate genes involved in adult neurogenesis; Amer3, Eya3, Mtdh, Nr4a3, Polr2a, and Tbkbp1. Further, we propose a role for Lef1 transcriptional control in the regulation of adult hippocampal precursor cell proliferation.

Ashbrook, David G.; Delprato, Anna; Grellmann, Claudia; Klein, Marieke; Wetzel, Richard; Overall, Rupert W.; Badea, Alexandra



Several Classical Mouse Inbred Strains, Including DBA/2, NOD/Lt, FVB/N, and SJL/J, Carry a Putative Loss-of-Function Allele of Gpr84  

PubMed Central

G protein–coupled receptor 84 (GPR84) is a 7-transmembrane protein expressed on myeloid cells that can bind to medium-chain free fatty acids in vitro. Here, we report the discovery of a 2-bp frameshift deletion in the second exon of the Gpr84 gene in several classical mouse inbred strains. This deletion generates a premature stop codon predicted to result in a truncated protein lacking the transmembrane domains 4-7. We sequenced Gpr84 exon 2 from 58 strains representing different groups in the mouse family tree and found that 14 strains are homozygous for the deletion. Some of these strains are DBA/1J, DBA/2J, FVB/NJ, LG/J, MRL/MpJ, NOD/LtJ, and SJL/J. However, the deletion was not found in any of the wild-derived inbred strains analyzed. Haplotype analysis suggested that the deletion originates from a unique mutation event that occurred more than 100 years ago, preceding the development of the first inbred strain (DBA), from a Mus musculus domesticus source. As GPR84 ostensibly plays a role in the biology of myeloid cells, it could be relevant 1) to consider the existence of this Gpr84 nonsense mutation in several mouse strains when choosing a mouse model to study immune processes and 2) to consider reevaluating data obtained using such strains. PMID:23616478



A deleterious effect associated with UNH159 is attenuated in twin embryos of an inbred line of blue tilapia Oreochromis aureus.  


Offspring of a highly inbred gynogenetic line of Oreochromis aureus displayed 12-fold increase in twinning rate compared to the outbred population. Asymmetric conjoined twins, which consist of a normal embryo attached to a malformed-atrophic twin, were frequently encountered in both gynogenetic (90·7%) and outbred (38·2%) embryos. The monozygotic origin of these twins was determined using five microsatellite markers. Progeny of heterozygous parents for the microsatellite UNH159 were separated into sub-sets of twins and normal full-sibs. Consistent with previous reports, the normal embryo sub-set exhibited elimination of both types of homozygotes for the UNH159 genetic marker at 2-8 days after fertilization. Unexpectedly, this elimination was less frequent in twins. The UNH159 marker as well as RNA-binding motif protein, X-linked (rbmx), SRY-box containing gene 3 (sox3) and alpha-thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked (atrx) genes were mapped to linkage group 2. These gene orthologues are all located on the mammalian X chromosome and atrx is necessary for the X-chromosome inactivation. PMID:23331137

Shirak, A; Palti, Y; Bern, O; Kocher, T D; Gootwine, E; Seroussi, E; Hulata, G; Ron, M; Avtalion, R R



Immunological and nonimmunological control of severity of Trypanosoma musculi infections in C3H and C57BL/6 inbred mice  

SciTech Connect

Studies concerned with the mechanisms responsible for relative resistance or susceptibility of strains of inbred mice to Trypanosoma musculi infections are presented. Treatment with 400 rads of ionizing radiation, silica dust, or trypan blue (reticuloendothelial blocking agents) rendered C3H mice unable to control the initial maximum level of parasite growth, and the mice died of overwhelming infections. In contrast, similarly treated C57BL/6 (relatively resistant) mice controlled initial trypanosome growth as well as controls; however, the duration of infection, preceding eventual cure, was approximately doubled. Combined treatment with trypan blue and 400 rads of radiation resulted in much higher initial levels of infection in C57BL/6 mice, and about half of the mice died; the remaining mice eventually recovered after a prolonged course of infection. These results indicate that a nonimmunological mechanism, which controls initial infection, and an immunological mechanism cooperate to limit T. musculi infections in normal mice. We present results that suggest that both mechanisms are less effective in C3H than in C57BL/6 mice. The initial control of infection presumably reflects the activity of some type(s) of phagocytic effector cell; we show, however, that the initial control of infection is not an attribute of the liver Kupffer cells. Identification and characterization of the cells capable of controlling initial infection could lead to procedures for enhancing their function and, thus, to enhanced resistance to, and elimination of, trypanosome infections.

Albright, J.W.; Albright, J.F.



Oleoyl-estrone metabolic effects in relation with caloric restriction in inbred Beta rats with spontaneous obesity and type 2 diabetes.  


Spontaneously hypertriacylglycerolemic obese and diabetic inbred IIM Beta rats were treated with oleoylestrone for 10 days. Pair-feeding was performed to determine some oleoyl-estrone effects dependent on the caloric restriction it promotes. Twenty-five 200 day-old Beta males receiving a daily gavage of 0.2 ml sunflower oil were divided into the following groups: 1) daily dose of 10 nmol/g oleoyl-estrone; 2) pair-fed; 3) control. The variables measured were: whole body protein, water and lipid; retroperitoneal and epididymal fat depot weights; plasma urea, glucose, insulin, triacylglycerols and cholesterol. Biomass and food intake were assessed daily. Oleoyl-estrone and pair-fed groups expressed similar variations in body composition and significant body weight losses due to reduction in food intake. Oleoyl-estrone and pair-fed treatments significantly reduced retroperitoneal fat depot weights, but not epididymal ones. In oleoyl-estrone and pair-fed groups hyperglycemia decreased and insulinemia lowered significantly. Plasma normal total cholesterolemia and hypertriacylglycerolemia values typical of Beta rats decreased strongly compared to controls, though attaining significantly different values between oleoyl-estrone and pair-fed groups. Plasma total cholesterol appeared as more sensitive to caloric restriction than triacylglycerols through a specific oleoyl-estrone-mediated effect. PMID:15338976

Posadas, Marta D; Olguín, María C; Zingale, María I; Revelant, Gilda; Labourdette, Verónica; Gayol, María del C; Calderari, Susana



BK virus-transformed inbred hamster brain cells. I. Status of the viral DNA and the association of BK virus early antigens with purified plasma membranes.  

PubMed Central

Inbred LSH hamster brain cells were transformed in vitro by the GS strain of BK virus (BKV), and transplantable tumors classified as undifferentiated glioblastomas were induced in the syngeneic host. The viral status in the transformed cells, designated LSH-BR-BK, was established. About 46 genome equivalents per cell of viral DNA was detected, with the majority of sequences in a free form. The transformed cells expressed large quantities of tumor (T) antigen as well as surface (S) antigen as demonstrated by indirect immunofluorescence. Sixty-three percent of tumor-bearing hamsters produced high-titer antibodies against T, whereas 3 of 14 (21%) hamsters also produced antibodies against the BKV-specific S antigen. Furthermore, the relatedness of BKV early gene products, including T, S, and tumor-specific transplantation antigen, was established by the production of a rabbit antiserum against highly purified plasma membranes of LSH-BR-BK cells and by the induction of a BKV-specific tumor-specific transplantation antigen response by these plasma membranes in the syngeneic host. Images PMID:6270380

Beth, E; Giraldo, G; Schmidt-Ullrich, R; Pater, M M; Pater, A; di Mayorca, G



Mus spretus LINE-1 sequences detected in the Mus musculus inbred strain C57BL/6J using LINE-1 DNA probes  

SciTech Connect

The inbred mouse strain, C57BL/6J, was derived from mice of the Mus musculus complex. C57BL/6J can be crossed in the laboratory with a closely related mouse species, M. spretus to produce fertile offspring; however there has been no previous evidence of gene flow between M. spretus and M. musculus in nature. Analysis of the repetitive sequence LINE-1, using both direct sequence analysis and genomic Southern blot hybridization to species-specific LINE-1 hybridization probes, demonstrates the presence of LINE-1 elements in C57BL/6J that were derived from the species of M. spretus. These spretus-like LINE-1 elements in C57BL/6J reveal a cross to M. spretus somewhere in the history of C57BL/6J. It is unclear if the spretus-like LINE-1 elements are still embedded in flanking DNA derived from M. spretus or if they have transposed to new sites. The number of spretus-like elements detected suggests a maximum of 6.5% of the C57BL/6J genome may be derived from M. spretus. 27 refs., 4 figs.

Rikke, B.A.; Zhao, Y.; Daggett, L.P.; Reyes, R.; Hardies, S.C. [Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX (United States)



Genetic and diet effects on Ppar-? and Ppar-? signaling pathways in the Berlin Fat Mouse Inbred line with genetic predisposition for obesity  

PubMed Central

Background The Berlin Fat Mouse Inbred (BFMI) line is a new mouse model for obesity, which was long-term selected for high fatness. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are involved in the control of energy homeostasis, nutrient metabolism and cell proliferation. Here, we studied the expression patterns of the different Ppar genes and the genes in the PPAR pathway in the BFMI line in comparison to physiological changes. Results At the age of 10 weeks, the BFMI mice exhibited marked obesity with enlarged adipocytes and high serum triglycerides concentrations in comparison to the often used mouse line C57BL/6 (B6). Between these two lines, gene expression analyses revealed differentially expressed genes belonging to the PPAR pathway, in particular genes of the lipogenesis and the fatty acid transport. Conclusion Surprisingly, the Ppar-? gene expression was up-regulated in liver and Ppar-? gene expression was down-regulated in the white adipose tissue, indicating the activation of a mechanism that counteracts the rise of obesity. PMID:20831792



Differential Expressions of the Alternatively Spliced Variant mRNAs of the µ Opioid Receptor Gene, OPRM1, in Brain Regions of Four Inbred Mouse Strains  

PubMed Central

The µ opioid receptor gene, OPRM1, undergoes extensive alternative pre-mRNA splicing in rodents and humans, with dozens of alternatively spliced variants of the OPRM1 gene. The present studies establish a SYBR green quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay to more accurately quantify mouse OPRM1 splice variant mRNAs. Using these qPCR assays, we examined the expression of OPRM1 splice variant mRNAs in selected brain regions of four inbred mouse strains displaying differences in µ opioid-induced tolerance and physical dependence: C56BL/6J, 129P3/J, SJL/J and SWR/J. The complete mRNA expression profiles of the OPRM1 splice variants reveal marked differences of the variant mRNA expression among the brain regions in each mouse strain, suggesting region-specific alternative splicing of the OPRM1 gene. The expression of many variants was also strain-specific, implying a genetic influence on OPRM1 alternative splicing. The expression levels of a number of the variant mRNAs in certain brain regions appear to correlate with strain sensitivities to morphine analgesia, tolerance and physical dependence in four mouse strains. PMID:25343478

Xu, Jin; Lu, Zhigang; Xu, Mingming; Rossi, Grace C.; Kest, Benjamin; Waxman, Amanda R.; Pasternak, Gavril W.; Pan, Ying-Xian



Comparative live bioluminescence imaging of monkeypox virus dissemination in a wild-derived inbred mouse (Mus musculus castaneus) and outbred African dormouse (Graphiurus kelleni).  


Monkeypox virus belongs to the orthopoxvirus genus, infects rodents and monkeys in Africa, produces a smallpox-like zoonotic disease in humans, and has the potential for global spread and exploitation for bioterrorism. Several small animal models for studying monkeypox virus pathogenesis have been investigated. The African dormouse is a candidate natural host but is outbred and no immunological reagents exist. Although not a natural host, the CAST/EiJ mouse is inbred and animals and reagents are commercially available. We compared the dissemination of monkeypox virus by bioluminescence imaging in CAST/EiJ mice and dormice. In CAST/EiJ mice, intense replication occurred at the intranasal site of inoculation and virus spread rapidly to lungs and abdominal organs, which had a lower virus burden. Compared to CAST/EiJ mice, dormice exhibited a greater variation of virus spread, a slower time course, less replication in the head and chest, and more replication in abdominal organs prior to death. PMID:25462355

Earl, Patricia L; Americo, Jeffrey L; Cotter, Catherine A; Moss, Bernard



Fixation, Segregation and Linkage of Allozyme Loci in Inbred Families of the Pacific Oyster Crassostrea Gigas (Thunberg): Implications for the Causes of Inbreeding Depression  

PubMed Central

The effect that inbreeding has on the fixation and segregation of genes has rarely been confirmed by direct observation. Here, fixation, segregation, and linkage of allozymes is investigated in the progeny of self-fertilized hermaphrodites of the normally outcrossing Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. The estimate of fixation pooled over loci, individuals, and families, F = 0.462, is significantly lower than the expected value of 0.5. Log-likelihood ratios reveal significant heterogeneity in fixation among individuals, among families, and among loci. In addition, the grand pooled segregation ratio, 127:243:54, deviates significantly from 1:2:1, with a bias against homozygotes for alleles of lesser frequency in the natural population. Segregation ratios for 11 of 14 loci are significantly heterogeneous among families, and exact tests for segregation within families reveal 16 significant results out of 51 tests. Thus, fixation and segregation of allozyme markers in inbred oyster families deviates from the expectations of neutral inbreeding theory. Di-genic disequilibria are significant for four of 74 di-locus pairs revealing two linkage groups. Strong viability selection is apparently conditional on the genotype of the hermaphrodite-founders and is largely focused on these two linkage groups. These genetic effects are explained by interaction between cis-linked factors and polymorphic regulatory backgrounds. PMID:9136021

McGoldrick, D. J.; Hedgecock, D.



Genetic mapping of quantitative trait loci governing longevity of Caenorhabditis elegans in recombinant-inbred progeny of a Bergerac-BO x RC301 interstrain cross.  

PubMed Central

Recombinant-inbred populations, generated from a cross between Caenorhabditis elegans strains Bergerac-BO and RC301, were used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting nematode longevity. Genotypes of young controls and longevity-selected worms (the last-surviving 1% from a synchronously aged population) were assessed at dimorphic transposon-specific markers by multiplex polymerase chain reaction. The power of genetic mapping was enhanced, in a novel experimental design, through map expansion by accrual of recombinations over several generations, internally controlled longevity selection from a genetically heterogeneous, homozygous population, and selective genotyping of extremely long-lived worms. Analysis of individual markers indicated seven life-span QTL, situated near markers on chromosomes I (tcbn2), III (stP127), IV (stP13), V (stP6, stP23, and stP128), and X (stP41). These loci were corroborated, and mapped with increased precision, by nonparametric interval mapping-which supported all loci implicated by single-marker analysis. In addition, a life-span QTL on chromosome II (stP100-stP196), was significant only by interval mapping. Congenic lines were constructed for the longevity QTL on chromosomes III and X, by backcrossing the Bergerac-BO QTL allele into an RC301 background with selection for flanking markers. Survival data for these lines demonstrated consistent and significant effects of each QTL on life span. PMID:11156986

Ayyadevara, S; Ayyadevara, R; Hou, S; Thaden, J J; Shmookler Reis, R J



Substance abuse among older adults.  


Although the myth that older adults do not use mood-altering substances persists, evidence suggests that substance use among older adults has been underidentified for decades. The baby boom generation is unique in its exposure to, attitudes toward, and prevalence of substance use-causing projected rates of substance use to increase over the next twenty years. Given their unique biological vulnerabilities and life stage, older adults who misuse substances require special attention. Prevalence rates of substance use and misuse among older adults, methods of screening and assessment unique to older adults, and treatment options for older adults are reviewed. PMID:25037298

Kuerbis, Alexis; Sacco, Paul; Blazer, Dan G; Moore, Alison A



Astronomy Books for Adults  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This reference list has more than 20 recommended astronomy books for older students and adults. For each title, the publisher and publication date is included, along with author name. The list is divided into three subcategories: General Astronomy and Astrophysics, Light and Telescopes, and Digital Imaging and the 3-D Universe.


Cancer in Older Adults  


... and handling), call 888-273-3508 or order materials online. Aging and Cancer This section provides an overview of cancer in older adults, including the role of aging in cancer and the unique challenges faced by older people with cancer. Español Care ...


Adult Day Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult day care is a developing concept in the United States. Many consider it a viable alternative to institutionalization for older Americans who are incapacitated. When considering the predicted number of Americans age 80 and over to be 8 million by the year 2000, provisions must be developed to cope with this group and their specific needs. The English experience

Linda Aaronson



Adult Day Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult day care (ADC) is increasingly acknowledged as a key component of community-based long-term care. However, there is a lack of consensus on how to classify ADCs and what constitutes a model of service delivery. Despite the growing importance of ADCs, development of and access to this service has been hindered by the absence of uniform funding and regulation and

Julia E. Bradsher; Carroll Estes; Margaret H. Stuart



Adult Learning Matters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Campaigning Alliance for Lifelong Learning is to lobby parliament for the restoration of the 1.5 million adult learning places lost over the past two years. The campaign has attracted supporters from an astonishingly wide range of backgrounds. In this article, Gordon Marsden, Caroline Biggins, Beth Walker, Mike Chaney, Peter Davies, Sian…

Adults Learning, 2009



Adult Basic Education Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet, aimed at adult basic education students, pinpoints and summarizes a few common spelling rules to help make spelling easier, and includes a component on using the dictionary. In the text, each rule is presented with many examples. Exercises follow each spelling rule, allowing students the opportunity to apply the rule to specific…

Massachusetts Career Development Inst., Springfield.


Adults with Autism  


... these goals. A nurturing environment at home, at school, and at work, helps a person with an ASD continue to learn and develop throughout their lives. Some adults with an ASD (especially those with high-functioning autism or Asperger syndrome) are able to ...


Learning Disabilities in Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines five factors which appear to contribute to learning disabilities among adult basic education (ABE) learners. While the research literature does not provide a comprehensive basis for describing how the disadvantaged learn, it does lead the authors to make eight helpful suggestions for the ABE teacher. (JDS)

Glass, J. Conrad, Jr.; Hoffman, Lee McGraw



Adults Living with OI  


Adults Living with OI Write to us with your suggestions for what we should include on this page; your input will help guide ... Doctor Talking with your Orthopedist Vertebral Compression Fractures OI and Osteoporosis Can't find the information you' ...


Adult Spelling Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this study was to investigate how adult English speakers, who are good readers, but who differ in spelling ability, remember word-specific spelling information. In the first experiment, participants learned the spellings of words they had previously misspelled, while "thinking out loud." The main strategies observed in order of…

Holmes, Virginia M.; Malone, Naomi



Dance for Older Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dance programs for older adults that encourage exercise and socializing are described in six articles. Program guidelines of the American Alliance Committee on Aging are explained, and other articles emphasize a movement education approach that may involve intergenerational contact. A dance program held in a worship setting is also discussed. (PP)

Pruett, Diane Milhan, Ed.; And Others



Cardiac fibroma in adults.  


We present the case of a 61-year-old woman with nonspecific symptoms who on investigation and treatment had a fibroma of the right ventricular free wall. She underwent surgical resection of the mass and is doing well. The literature pertaining to cardiac fibromas in adults is reviewed and discussed. PMID:20934889

Nwachukwu, Harriet; Li, Alice; Nair, Vidhya; Nguyen, Elsie; David, Tirone E; Butany, Jagdish



Pediatric and adult tracheobronchomalacia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve cases of tracheo- bronchomalacia (TBM) cases were reviewed: five were pediatric, and seven were adult, two of which were due to relapsing polychondritis (RPC). In pediatric TBM, the mala- cic segments were short. Resection of the malacic segment in one case and laryngotracheopl asty with autol- ogous costal cartilage in one case were unsuccessful. However, aortop- exy gained good

A. Masaoka; Y. Yamakawa; H. Niwa; E Hara; S. Kondo; I. Fukai; M. Kiriyama; Y. Yamakawa-H. Nlwa



Older Adult Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to improve the quality of life for area senior citizens, De Anza College has established an older adult education program which combines adaptive physical education with holistic health care principles to instruct students in relaxation, nutrition, and physical activity. Classes are held in convalescent hospitals, retirement homes,…

Forman, Jeffrey


Adult Education in Andalusia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While the overall illiteracy rate in Spain is an acceptable 6.6 percent, Andalusia is clearly above that average at 11.8 percent. Andalusia's program for eradicating adult illiteracy is discussed. Examined are program objectives and implementation, teachers, teaching methods, and the need for continuing literacy action. (RM)

Navarro, Manuel Gracia; Eisman, Juan Carlos Lopez



Math That Adults Need.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that the vast majority of adults have no use for the specialized mathematics taught in high schools and required by colleges--algebra, geometry, or calculus. Suggests that colleges should accept applicants who have studied percents, formulas, logic, computer commands, and basic statistics. (TE)

Burke, Paul



Managing Adult Literacy Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the factors which determine how well adult literacy campaigns succeed in developing countries. Political motivation, the scope of the program, organizational structure, educational resources, teacher characteristics, and the language of instruction are examined. Ten generalizations concerning the planning of effective literacy training…

Noor, Abdun



Adult Gray Jay Captures an Adult Black-capped Chickadee  

Microsoft Academic Search

We observed an adult Gray Jay (Perisoreus canadensis) that had captured an adult Black-capped Chickadee (Poecile atricapillus) in Al- gonquin Provincial Park, Ontario, Canada, during win- ter. Aerial pursuit of small, adult birds and an instance of capture and predation of a juvenile bird by a Gray Jay have been reported previously. Here, we present the first documented case of




Utah Adult Education Services. Adult Education Report 1968-69.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Major purposes for the preparation of this report on public school adult education in Utah were: to provide the public with a description of achievements, trends, and needs, and with meaningful cost accounting information; to make comparisons and analyses of adult education by program, school district, and year; and to provide the adult education…

Utah State Board of Education, Salt Lake City.


Adult Development. What do Teachers of Adults Need To Know?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first part of this two-part paper provides a general review of adult development and is premised on an understanding of andragogy. Andragogy is the art and science of helping adults learn. It is based on the following four assumptions about adults: (1) as people mature they become less dependent and more self-directed; (2) experiences serve as…

Whiting, Susan; And Others


Death of an Adult Child  


... as the adult child completes his or her education, establishes a career and develops adult relationships. By the time a child has reached adulthood, parents have made an immense emotional and financial investment in this person. When that ...


Finding Your Adult Vaccination Record  


... this? Submit Button CDC Features Is Your Adult Vaccination Record Up-To-Date? Language: English Español (Spanish) ... next medical appointment. Staying Up-to-date on Vaccination is Important Every year thousands of adults in ...


Adults with Congenital Heart Defects  


... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Web Booklet: Adults With Congenital Heart Defects Updated:Apr ... topic from the list below to learn more. Web Booklet: Adults With Congenital Heart Defects Introduction Introduction: ...


Philosophies of Adult Environmental Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article offers a typology of philosophical traditions in environmental education for adults, based on five philosophical perspectives of adult education described by Elias and Merriam. These five traditions are liberal, progressive, behaviorist, humanist, and radical adult environmental education, respectively. A summary of each philosophy's…

Walter, Pierre



Assessment Tools for Adult Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Assessment Tools for Adult Education project was designed to provide training and support to staff of the Pennsylvania Bureau of Adult Basic and Literacy Education (ABLE) funded programs to help them use assessment tools and procedures to document the learning gains of the adult students they serve. The following candidate assessment…

Shefrin, Carol; Shafer, Dehra; Forlizzi, Lori


Planning Instruction for Adult Learners.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide outlines a practical six-step procedure to plan education for adult learners. The first chapter outlines the instructional planning procedure, which integrates existing knowledge about how adults learn and the principles of designing instruction and examines the principles of adult learning. The next six chapters describe the following…

Cranton, Patricia


Adult Education and Development, 1994.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The publication is a half-yearly journal for adult education in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Issue 42 includes the following: "Adult Education for Self-Reliance in Community Health Education Programmes" (Kweka); "Promoting Good Nutrition" (Mangvwat); "Incorporating Health-Improvement Activities in Adult Education Programmes in Nigeria"…

Adult Education and Development, 1994



Lead encephalopathy in adults  

PubMed Central

Lead poisoning is a common occupational health hazard in developing countries. We report the varied clinical presentation, diagnostic and management issues in two adult patients with lead encephalopathy. Both patients worked in a battery manufacturing unit. Both patients presented with seizures and one patient also complained of abdominal colic and vomiting. Both were anemic and a lead line was present. Blood lead level in both the patients was greater than 25 µg/dl. Magnetic resonance imaging of brain revealed bilateral symmetric involvement of the thalamus, lentiform nucleus in both patients and also the external capsules, sub-cortical white matter in one patient. All these changes, seen as hyperintensities in T2-weighted images suggested demyelination. They were advised avoidance of further exposure to lead and were treated with anti-epileptics; one patient also received D-penicillamine. They improved well on follow-up. Lead encephalopathy is an uncommon but important manifestation of lead toxicity in adults. PMID:24966557

Rao, Janapareddy Vijaya Bhaskara; Vengamma, Bhuma; Naveen, Thota; Naveen, Vandanapu



An Undergraduate Course in Adult Development: When the Virtual Adult Is an Adult  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An aspect of an undergraduate psychology course on adult development was the preparation of case records on adults who consented to be studied. Participants (1) developed their abilities to observe and accurately record adult behavior across a variety of ages and contexts; (2) withheld judgments about behavior when evidence was lacking; (3)…

Williams, Robert B.



Diarrhoea in adults (acute)  

PubMed Central

Introduction An estimated 4.6 billion cases of diarrhoea occurred worldwide in 2004, resulting in 2.2 million deaths. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments for acute diarrhoea in adults living in resource-rich countries? What are the effects of treatments for acute mild-to-moderate diarrhoea in adults from resource-rich countries travelling to resource-poor countries? What are the effects of treatments for acute mild-to-moderate diarrhoea in adults living in resource-poor countries? What are the effects of treatments for acute severe diarrhoea in adults living in resource-poor countries? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to January 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 72 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: antibiotics, antimotility agents, antisecretory agents, bismuth subsalicylate, diet, intravenous rehydration, nasogastric tube rehydration, oral rehydration solutions (amino acid oral rehydration solution, bicarbonate oral rehydration solution, reduced osmolarity oral rehydration solution, rice-based oral rehydration solution, standard oral rehydration solution), vitamin A supplementation, and zinc supplementation. PMID:21718555



Diarrhoea in adults (acute)  

PubMed Central

Introduction An estimated 4000 million cases of diarrhoea occurred worldwide in 1996, resulting in 2.5 million deaths. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments for acute diarrhoea in adults living in resource-rich countries? What are the effects of treatments for acute mild-to-moderate diarrhoea in adults from resource-rich countries traveling to resource-poor countries? What are the effects of treatments for acute mild-to-moderate diarrhoea in adults living in resource-poor countries? What are the effects of treatments for acute severe diarrhoea in adults living in resource-poor countries? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to January 2007 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 71 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: antibiotics, antimotility agents, antisecretory agents, bismuth subsalicylate, diet, intravenous rehydration, nasogastric tube rehydration, and oral rehydration solutions (amino acid oral rehydration solution, bicarbonate oral rehydration solution, reduced osmolarity oral rehydration solution, rice-based oral rehydration solution, standard oral rehydration solution). PMID:19450323



Whooping cough in adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the 1970s whooping cough returned in Sweden after an absence of more than 10 years and is now seen in all age groups, During a three-year period 174 adults with culture-verified whooping cough were identified in Gothenburg. Most of the patients had typical symptoms with whooping attacks and often vomiting. The disease was long lasting but complications were rare.

B Trollfors; E Rabo



Protein expression changes in the nucleus accumbens and amygdala of inbred alcohol-preferring rats given either continuous or scheduled access to ethanol.  


Chronic ethanol (EtOH) drinking produces neuronal alterations within the limbic system. To investigate changes in protein expression levels associated with EtOH drinking, inbred alcohol-preferring (iP) rats were given one of three EtOH access conditions in their home-cages: continuous ethanol (CE: 24h/day, 7days/week access to EtOH), multiple scheduled access (MSA: four 1-h sessions during the dark cycle/day, 5 days/week) to EtOH, or remained EtOH-naïve. Both MSA and CE groups consumed between 6 and 6.5g of EtOH/kg/day after the 3rd week of access. On the first day of EtOH access for the seventh week, access was terminated at the end of the fourth MSA session for MSA rats and the corresponding time point (2300h) for CE rats. Ten h later, the rats were decapitated, brains extracted, the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and amygdala (AMYG) microdissected, and protein isolated for 2-dimensional gel electrophoretic analyses. In the NAcc, MSA altered expression levels for 12 of the 14 identified proteins, compared with controls, with six of these proteins altered by CE access, as well. In the AMYG, CE access changed expression levels for 22 of the 27 identified proteins, compared with controls, with 8 of these proteins altered by MSA, as well. The proteins could be grouped into functional categories of chaperones, cytoskeleton, intracellular communication, membrane transport, metabolism, energy production, or neurotransmission. Overall, it appears that EtOH drinking and the conditions under which EtOH is consumed, differentially affect protein expression levels between the NAcc and AMYG. This may reflect differences in neuroanatomical and/or functional characteristics associated with EtOH self-administration and possibly withdrawal, between these two brain structures. PMID:17157716

Bell, R L; Kimpel, M W; Rodd, Z A; Strother, W N; Bai, F; Peper, C L; Mayfield, R D; Lumeng, L; Crabb, D W; McBride, W J; Witzmann, F A



Quantitative trait loci for obesity- and diabetes-related traits and their dietary responses to high-fat feeding in LGXSM recombinant inbred mouse strains.  


Genetic variation in response to high-fat diets is important in understanding the recent secular trends that have led to increases in obesity and type 2 diabetes. The examination of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for both obesity- and diabetes-related traits and their responses to a high-fat diet can be effectively addressed in mouse model systems, including LGXSM recombinant inbred (RI) mouse strains. A wide range of obesity- and diabetes-related traits were measured in animals from 16 RI strains with 8 animals of each sex fed a high- or low-fat diet from each strain. Marker associations were measured at 506 microsatellite markers spread throughout the mouse genome using a nested ANOVA. Locations with significant effects on the traits themselves and/or trait dietary responses were identified after correction for multiple comparisons by limiting the false detection rate. Nonsyntenic associations of marker genotypes were common at QTL locations so that the significant results were limited to loci still significant in multiple QTL models. We discovered 91 QTLs at 39 locations. Many of these locations (n = 31) also showed genetic effects on dietary response, typically because the loci produced significantly larger effects on the high-fat diet. Fat depot weights, leptin levels, and body weight at necropsy tended to map to the same locations and were responsible for a majority of the dietary response QTLs. Basal glucose levels and the response to glucose challenge mapped together in locations distinct from those affecting obesity. These QTL locations form a panel for further research and fine mapping of loci affecting obesity- and diabetes-related traits and their responses to high-fat feeding. PMID:15561968

Cheverud, James M; Ehrich, Thomas H; Hrbek, Tomas; Kenney, Jane P; Pletscher, L Susan; Semenkovich, Clay F



A B2 SINE insertion in the Comt1 gene (Comt1B2i) results in an overexpressing, behavior modifying allele present in classical inbred mouse strains  

PubMed Central

Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is a key enzyme for dopamine catabolism and COMT is a candidate gene for human psychiatric disorders. In mouse it is located on chromosome 16 in a large genomic region of extremely low variation among the classical inbred strains, with no confirmed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) between strains C57BL/6J and DBA/2J within a 600-kB window. We found a B2 SINE in the 3? untranslated region (UTR) of Comt1 which is present in C57BL/6J (Comt1B2i) and other strains including 129 (multiple sublines), but is not found in DBA/2J (Comt1+) and many other strains including wild-derived Mus domesticus, M. musculus, M. molossinus, M.castaneus and M. spretus. Comt1B2i is absent in strains closely related to C57BL/6, such as C57L and C57BR, indicating that it was polymorphic in the cross that gave rise to these strains. The strain distribution of Comt1B2i indicates a likely origin of the allele in the parental Lathrop stock. A stringent association test, using 670 highly outbred mice (Boulder Heterogeneous Stock), indicates that this insertion allele may be responsible for a difference in behavior related to exploration. Gene expression differences at the mRNA and enzyme activity level (1.7-fold relative to wild type) indicate a mechanism for this behavioral effect. Taken together, these findings show that Comt1B2i (a B2 SINE insertion) results in a relatively modest difference in Comt1 expression and enzyme activity (comparable to the human Val-Met polymorphism) which has a demonstrable behavioral phenotype across a variety of outbred genetic backgrounds. PMID:20618449

Kember, R L; Fernandes, C; Tunbridge, E M; Liu, L; Payá-Cano, J L; Parsons, M J; Schalkwyk, L C



Genetic Determinants for Enzymatic Digestion of Lignocellulosic Biomass Are Independent of Those for Lignin Abundance in a Maize Recombinant Inbred Population1[W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

Biotechnological approaches to reduce or modify lignin in biomass crops are predicated on the assumption that it is the principal determinant of the recalcitrance of biomass to enzymatic digestion for biofuels production. We defined quantitative trait loci (QTL) in the Intermated B73 × Mo17 recombinant inbred maize (Zea mays) population using pyrolysis molecular-beam mass spectrometry to establish stem lignin content and an enzymatic hydrolysis assay to measure glucose and xylose yield. Among five multiyear QTL for lignin abundance, two for 4-vinylphenol abundance, and four for glucose and/or xylose yield, not a single QTL for aromatic abundance and sugar yield was shared. A genome-wide association study for lignin abundance and sugar yield of the 282-member maize association panel provided candidate genes in the 11 QTL of the B73 and Mo17 parents but showed that many other alleles impacting these traits exist among this broader pool of maize genetic diversity. B73 and Mo17 genotypes exhibited large differences in gene expression in developing stem tissues independent of allelic variation. Combining these complementary genetic approaches provides a narrowed list of candidate genes. A cluster of SCARECROW-LIKE9 and SCARECROW-LIKE14 transcription factor genes provides exceptionally strong candidate genes emerging from the genome-wide association study. In addition to these and genes associated with cell wall metabolism, candidates include several other transcription factors associated with vascularization and fiber formation and components of cellular signaling pathways. These results provide new insights and strategies beyond the modification of lignin to enhance yields of biofuels from genetically modified biomass. PMID:24972714

Penning, Bryan W.; Sykes, Robert W.; Babcock, Nicholas C.; Dugard, Christopher K.; Held, Michael A.; Klimek, John F.; Shreve, Jacob T.; Fowler, Matthew; Ziebell, Angela; Davis, Mark F.; Decker, Stephen R.; Turner, Geoffrey B.; Mosier, Nathan S.; Springer, Nathan M.; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Weil, Clifford F.; McCann, Maureen C.; Carpita, Nicholas C.



Effect of acute swim stress on plasma corticosterone and brain monoamine levels in bidirectionally selected DxH recombinant inbred mouse strains differing in fear recall and extinction.  


Stress-induced changes in plasma corticosterone and central monoamine levels were examined in mouse strains that differ in fear-related behaviors. Two DxH recombinant inbred mouse strains with a DBA/2J background, which were originally bred for a high (H-FSS) and low fear-sensitized acoustic startle reflex (L-FSS), were used. Levels of noradrenaline, dopamine, and serotonin and their metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenyacetic acid (DOPAC), homovanillic acid (HVA), and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) were studied in the amygdala, hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex, striatum, hypothalamus and brainstem. H-FSS mice exhibited increased fear levels and a deficit in fear extinction (within-session) in the auditory fear-conditioning test, and depressive-like behavior in the acute forced swim stress test. They had higher tissue noradrenaline and serotonin levels and lower dopamine and serotonin turnover under basal conditions, although they were largely insensitive to stress-induced changes in neurotransmitter metabolism. In contrast, acute swim stress increased monoamine levels but decreased turnover in the less fearful L-FSS mice. L-FSS mice also showed a trend toward higher basal and stress-induced corticosterone levels and an increase in noradrenaline and serotonin in the hypothalamus and brainstem 30?min after stress compared to H-FSS mice. Moreover, the dopaminergic system was activated differentially in the medial prefrontal cortex and striatum of the two strains by acute stress. Thus, H-FSS mice showed increased basal noradrenaline tissue levels compatible with a fear phenotype or chronic stressed condition. Low corticosterone levels and the poor monoamine response to stress in H-FSS mice may point to mechanisms similar to those found in principal fear disorders or post-traumatic stress disorder. PMID:25117886

Browne, Caroline A; Hanke, Joachim; Rose, Claudia; Walsh, Irene; Foley, Tara; Clarke, Gerard; Schwegler, Herbert; Cryan, John F; Yilmazer-Hanke, Deniz



Genetic factors responsible for eating and cooking qualities of rice grains in a recombinant inbred population of an inter-subspecific cross.  


The eating and cooking qualities of rice grains are the major determinants of consumer preference and, consequently, the economic value of a specific rice variety. These two qualities are largely determined by the physicochemical properties of the starch, i.e. the starch composition, of the rice grain. In our study, we determined the genetic factors responsible for the physicochemical properties of starch in recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of japonica cv. Tainung 78 × indica cv. Taichung Sen 17 (TCS 17) cultivated over two crop seasons by examining palatability characteristics and several Rapid Viscosity Analyzer (RVA) parameters. Thirty-four quantitative trait loci (QTLs), each explaining between 1.2 and 78.1 % phenotypic variation, were mapped in clusters on eight chromosomes in 190 RILs genotyped with 139 markers. Ten pairs of QTLs were detected in the two environments, of which seven were in agreement with previous findings, suggesting that these QTLs may express stable experimental populations across various environments. Waxy (Wx), which controls amylose synthesis, was determined to be a primary gene regulating the physicochemical properties of cooked rice grains, as indicated by the presence of a major QTL cluster on chromosome 6 and by marker regression analysis. Six starch synthesis-related genes (SSRGs) which were located in the QTL intervals significantly differed in terms of gene expression between the two parents during grain-filling and were important genetic factors affecting physicochemical properties. The expression of four genes, PUL, ISA2, GBSSI, and SSII-3, was significantly upregulated in TCS 17, and this expression was positively correlated with six traits. The effects of the six SSRGs and gene interaction depended on genetic background and environment; grain quality may be fine tuned by selecting for SBE4 for japonica and PUL for indica. We provide valuable information for application in the breeding of new rice varieties as daily staple food and for use in industrial manufacturing by marker-assisted selection. PMID:25076839

Hsu, Yu-Chia; Tseng, Meng-Chun; Wu, Yong-Pei; Lin, Meng-Ying; Wei, Fu-Jin; Hwu, Kae-Kang; Hsing, Yue-Ie; Lin, Yann-Rong



ATR-FTIR spectroscopy reveals genomic loci regulating the tissue response in high fat diet fed BXD recombinant inbred mouse strains  

PubMed Central

Background Obesity-associated organ-specific pathological states can be ensued from the dysregulation of the functions of the adipose tissues, liver and muscle. However, the influence of genetic differences underlying gross-compositional differences in these tissues is largely unknown. In the present study, the analytical method of ATR-FTIR spectroscopy has been combined with a genetic approach to identify genetic differences responsible for phenotypic alterations in adipose, liver and muscle tissues. Results Mice from 29 BXD recombinant inbred mouse strains were put on high fat diet and gross-compositional changes in adipose, liver and muscle tissues were measured by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. The analysis of genotype-phenotype correlations revealed significant quantitative trait loci (QTL) on chromosome 12 for the content of fat and collagen, collagen integrity, and the lipid to protein ratio in adipose tissue and on chromosome 17 for lipid to protein ratio in liver. Using gene expression and sequence information, we suggest Rsad2 (viperin) and Colec11 (collectin-11) on chromosome 12 as potential quantitative trait candidate genes. Rsad2 may act as a modulator of lipid droplet contents and lipid biosynthesis; Colec11 might play a role in apoptopic cell clearance and maintenance of adipose tissue. An increased level of Rsad2 transcripts in adipose tissue of DBA/2J compared to C57BL/6J mice suggests a cis-acting genetic variant leading to differential gene activation. Conclusion The results demonstrate that the analytical method of ATR-FTIR spectroscopy effectively contributed to decompose the macromolecular composition of tissues that accumulate fat and to link this information with genetic determinants. The candidate genes in the QTL regions may contribute to obesity-related diseases in humans, in particular if the results can be verified in a bigger BXD cohort. PMID:23758785



Divergent compensatory responses to high-fat diet between C57BL6/J and C57BLKS/J inbred mouse strains  

PubMed Central

Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) are polygenic disorders with complex pathophysiologies; recapitulating them with mouse models is challenging. Despite 70% genetic homology, C57BL/6J (BL6) and C57BLKS/J (BLKS) inbred mouse strains differ in response to diet- and genetic-induced obesity. We hypothesized these differences would yield insight into IGT and T2DM susceptibility and response to pharmacological therapies. To this end, male 8-wk-old BL6 and BLKS mice were fed normal chow (18% kcal from fat), high-fat diet (HFD; 42% kcal from fat), or HFD supplemented with the PPAR? agonist pioglitazone (PIO; 140 mg PIO/kg diet) for 16 wk. Assessments of body composition, glucose homeostasis, insulin production, and energy metabolism, as well as histological analyses of pancreata were undertaken. BL6 mice gained weight and adiposity in response to HFD, leading to peripheral insulin resistance that was met with increased ?-cell proliferation and insulin production. By contrast, BLKS mice responded to HFD by restricting food intake and increasing activity. These behavioral responses limited weight gain and protected against HFD-induced glucose intolerance, which in this strain was primarily due to ?-cell dysfunction. PIO treatment did not affect HFD-induced weight gain in BL6 mice, and decreased visceral fat mass, whereas in BLKS mice PIO increased total fat mass without improving visceral fat mass. Differences in these responses to HFD and effects of PIO reflect divergent human responses to a Western lifestyle and underscore the careful consideration needed when choosing mouse models of diet-induced obesity and diabetes treatment. PMID:24169046

Sims, Emily K.; Hatanaka, Masayuki; Morris, David L.; Tersey, Sarah A.; Kono, Tatsuyoshi; Chaudry, Zunaira Z.; Day, Kathleen H.; Moss, Dan R.; Stull, Natalie D.; Mirmira, Raghavendra G.



Prediction of cis-QTLs in a pair of inbred mouse strains with the use of expression and haplotype data from public databases.  


Cis-QTLs are important candidates for any other trait that maps to the same locus. In this article we have used publicly available databases and a small microarray data set to "map" cis-QTLs in the ILS and ISS inbred mouse strains without the need to generate microarray data from an ILSXISS segregating population. Expression data were obtained from brains of C57BL/6, DBA/2, ILS, and ISS. Cis-QTLs were mapped for the 760 transcripts found to be differentially expressed between the C57BL/6 and DBA/2 using expression data previously obtained from the BXD RIs. The 469 detected cis-QTLs were then examined for SNP haplotypes and expression patterns that could relate the ILS and ISS to the C57BL/6 and DBA/2. Of the 338 cis-QTL transcripts that had informative haplotypes, 189 were significantly different between the ILS and ISS with 184 showing segregation of haplotype with expression. These were considered to be probable cis-QTLs in the ILS and ISS. There were almost certainly additional ILS/ISS cis-QTLs among the other transcripts with informative haplotypes, but in the absence of an ILS/ISS expression difference, the level of confidence was reduced. Several of the putative ILS/ISS cis-QTLs are considered important candidate genes because they are linked to ILS/ISS behavioral QTLs. A potential ascertainment bias related to strain-dependent target sequences was observed suggesting that as much as 35% of the cis-QTLs were hybridization artifacts. Nonetheless, the results suggest that this approach is an economical and widely applicable method for mapping cis-QTLs in a strain pair of interest. PMID:16783643

Radcliffe, Richard A; Lee, Michael J; Williams, Robert W



Natural herbicide resistance (HR) to broad-spectrum herbicide, glyphosate among traditional and inbred-cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties in Sri Lanka.  


Weeds along with insect pests and plant diseases are sources of biotic stress in crop systems. Weeds are responsible for serious problems in rice worldwide affecting growth and causing a considerable reduction in quality and quantity in yield. High concentrations of pre-emergent-broad-spectrum systemic herbicide, Glyphosate is prevalently applied to control rice weeds which intern causes severe damages to cultivated rice varieties, susceptible to Glyphosate. However, there may be rice varieties with natural Herbicide Resistance (HR) which are so far, has not been evaluated. In this study Six traditional and eighteen developed-cultivated rice varieties (Bg, Bw, At and Ld series developed by Rice Research Development Institute, Sri Lanka) were used to screen their natural HR. RCBD with five replicates and three blocks in each treatment-combination was used as the experimental design. As observations, time taken-to seed germination, time taken to flowering; plant height and number of leaves at 12-weeks after sawing, leaf-length, breadth, panicle-length, number of seeds/panicle of resistant plants and controls were recorded. Plants with > or = 40% resistance were considered as resistant to Glyphosate. Ten inbred-cultivated rice varieties (Bg250, Bg94-1, Bg304, Bg359, Bg406, Bg379-2, Bg366, Bg300, Bw364, At362) and three traditional rice varieties ("Kalu Heenati", "Sudu Heenati", "Pachchaperumal") were naturally resistant to 0.25 g L(-1) Glyphosate concentration and when increased the concentration (0.5 g L(-1)) resistance was reduced. This study showed the usefulness of modern statistical method, classification and regression tree analysis (CART) in exploring and visualizing the patterns reflected by a large number of rice varieties (larger experimental database) on herbicide resistance in future. PMID:24498832

Weerakoon, S R; Somaratne, S; Wijeratne, R G D; Ekanyaka, E M S I



Private Selective Sweeps Identified from Next-Generation Pool-Sequencing Reveal Convergent Pathways under Selection in Two Inbred Schistosoma mansoni Strains  

PubMed Central

Background The trematode flatworms of the genus Schistosoma, the causative agents of schistosomiasis, are among the most prevalent parasites in humans, affecting more than 200 million people worldwide. In this study, we focused on two well-characterized strains of S. mansoni, to explore signatures of selection. Both strains are highly inbred and exhibit differences in life history traits, in particular in their compatibility with the intermediate host Biomphalaria glabrata. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed high throughput sequencing of DNA from pools of individuals of each strain using Illumina technology and identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and copy number variations (CNV). In total, 708,898 SNPs were identified and roughly 2,000 CNVs. The SNPs revealed low nucleotide diversity (??=?2×10?4) within each strain and a high differentiation level (Fst?=?0.73) between them. Based on a recently developed in-silico approach, we further detected 12 and 19 private (i.e. specific non-overlapping) selective sweeps among the 121 and 151 sweeps found in total for each strain. Conclusions/Significance Functional annotation of transcripts lying in the private selective sweeps revealed specific selection for functions related to parasitic interaction (e.g. cell-cell adhesion or redox reactions). Despite high differentiation between strains, we identified evolutionary convergence of genes related to proteolysis, known as a key virulence factor and a potential target of drug and vaccine development. Our data show that pool-sequencing can be used for the detection of selective sweeps in parasite populations and enables one to identify biological functions under selection. PMID:24349597

Clément, Julie A. J.; Toulza, Eve; Gautier, Mathieu; Parrinello, Hugues; Roquis, David; Boissier, Jérôme; Rognon, Anne; Moné, Hélène; Mouahid, Gabriel; Buard, Jérôme; Mitta, Guillaume; Grunau, Christoph



Identification and validation of quantitative trait loci for seed yield, oil and protein contents in two recombinant inbred line populations of soybean.  


Soybean seeds contain high levels of oil and protein, and are the important sources of vegetable oil and plant protein for human consumption and livestock feed. Increased seed yield, oil and protein contents are the main objectives of soybean breeding. The objectives of this study were to identify and validate quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with seed yield, oil and protein contents in two recombinant inbred line populations, and to evaluate the consistency of QTLs across different environments, studies and genetic backgrounds. Both the mapping population (SD02-4-59 × A02-381100) and validation population (SD02-911 × SD00-1501) were phenotyped for the three traits in multiple environments. Genetic analysis indicated that oil and protein contents showed high heritabilities while yield exhibited a lower heritability in both populations. Based on a linkage map constructed previously with the mapping population and using composite interval mapping and/or interval mapping analysis, 12 QTLs for seed yield, 16 QTLs for oil content and 11 QTLs for protein content were consistently detected in multiple environments and/or the average data over all environments. Of the QTLs detected in the mapping population, five QTLs for seed yield, eight QTLs for oil content and five QTLs for protein content were confirmed in the validation population by single marker analysis in at least one environment and the average data and by ANOVA over all environments. Eight of these validated QTLs were newly identified. Compared with the other studies, seven QTLs for seed yield, eight QTLs for oil content and nine QTLs for protein content further verified the previously reported QTLs. These QTLs will be useful for breeding higher yield and better quality cultivars, and help effectively and efficiently improve yield potential and nutritional quality in soybean. PMID:24861102

Wang, Xianzhi; Jiang, Guo-Liang; Green, Marci; Scott, Roy A; Song, Qijian; Hyten, David L; Cregan, Perry B



Complementary DNA cloning, sequence analysis, and tissue transcription profile of a novel U2AF2 gene from the Chinese Banna mini-pig inbred line.  


U2 small nuclear RNA auxiliary factor 2 (U2AF2) is an important gene for pre-messenger RNA splicing in higher eukaryotes. In this study, the Banna mini-pig inbred line (BMI) U2AF2 coding sequence (CDS) was cloned, sequenced, and characterized. The U2AF2 complete CDS was amplified using the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique based on the conserved sequence information of cattle and known highly homologous swine expressed sequence tags. This novel gene was deposited into the National Center for Biotechnology Information database (Accession No. JQ839267). Sequence analysis revealed that the BMI U2AF2 coding sequence consisted of 1416 bp and encoded 471 amino acids with a molecular weight of 53.12 kDa. The protein sequence has high sequence homology with U2AF65 of 6 species - Homo sapiens (100%), Equus caballus (100%), Canis lupus (100%), Macaca mulatta (99.8%), Bos taurus (74.4%), and Mus musculus (74.4%). The phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that BMI U2AF65 has a closer genetic relationship with B. taurus U2AF65 than with U2AF65 of E. caballus, C. lupus, M. mulatta, H. sapiens, and M. musculus. RT-PCR analysis showed that BMI U2AF2 was most highly expressed in the brain; moderately expressed in the spleen, lung, muscle, and skin; and weakly expressed in the liver, kidney, and ovary. Its expression was nearly silent in the spinal cord, nerve fiber, heart, stomach, pancreas, and intestine. Three microRNA target sites were predicted in the CDS of BMI U2AF2 messenger RNA. Our results establish a foundation for further insight into this swine gene. PMID:23613239

Wang, S Y; Huo, J L; Miao, Y W; Cheng, W M; Zeng, Y Z



Genetic Determinants for Enzymatic Digestion of Lignocellulosic Biomass Are Independent of Those for Lignin Abundance in a Maize Recombinant Inbred Population.  


Biotechnological approaches to reduce or modify lignin in biomass crops are predicated on the assumption that it is the principal determinant of the recalcitrance of biomass to enzymatic digestion for biofuels production. We defined quantitative trait loci (QTL) in the Intermated B73 × Mo17 recombinant inbred maize (Zea mays) population using pyrolysis molecular-beam mass spectrometry to establish stem lignin content and an enzymatic hydrolysis assay to measure glucose and xylose yield. Among five multiyear QTL for lignin abundance, two for 4-vinylphenol abundance, and four for glucose and/or xylose yield, not a single QTL for aromatic abundance and sugar yield was shared. A genome-wide association study for lignin abundance and sugar yield of the 282-member maize association panel provided candidate genes in the 11 QTL of the B73 and Mo17 parents but showed that many other alleles impacting these traits exist among this broader pool of maize genetic diversity. B73 and Mo17 genotypes exhibited large differences in gene expression in developing stem tissues independent of allelic variation. Combining these complementary genetic approaches provides a narrowed list of candidate genes. A cluster of SCARECROW-LIKE9 and SCARECROW-LIKE14 transcription factor genes provides exceptionally strong candidate genes emerging from the genome-wide association study. In addition to these and genes associated with cell wall metabolism, candidates include several other transcription factors associated with vascularization and fiber formation and components of cellular signaling pathways. These results provide new insights and strategies beyond the modification of lignin to enhance yields of biofuels from genetically modified biomass. PMID:24972714

Penning, Bryan W; Sykes, Robert W; Babcock, Nicholas C; Dugard, Christopher K; Held, Michael A; Klimek, John F; Shreve, Jacob T; Fowler, Matthew; Ziebell, Angela; Davis, Mark F; Decker, Stephen R; Turner, Geoffrey B; Mosier, Nathan S; Springer, Nathan M; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Weil, Clifford F; McCann, Maureen C; Carpita, Nicholas C



Lack of Structural Variation but Extensive Length Polymorphisms and Heteroplasmic Length Variations in the Mitochondrial DNA Control Region of Highly Inbred Crested Ibis, Nipponia nippon  

PubMed Central

The animal mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) length polymorphism and heteroplasmy are accepted to be universal. Here we report the lack of structural variation but the presence of length polymorphism as well as heteroplasmy in mtDNA control region of an endangered avian species – the Crested Ibis (Nipponia nippon). The complete control region was directly sequenced while the distribution pattern and inheritance of the length variations were examined using both direct sequencing and genotyping of the PCR fragments from captive birds with pedigrees, wild birds and a historical specimen. Our results demonstrated that there was no structural variation in the control region, however, different numbers of short tandem repeats with an identical motif of CA3CA2CA3 at the 3?-end of the control region determined the length polymorphisms among and heteroplasmy within individual birds. There were one to three predominant fragments in every bird; nevertheless multiple minor fragments coexist in all birds. These extremely high polymorphisms were suggested to have derived from the ‘replication slippage’ of a perfect microsatellite evolution following the step-wise mutational model. The patterns of heteroplasmy were found to be shifted between generations and among siblings but rather stable between blood and feather samples. This study provides the first evidence of a very extensive mtDNA length polymorphism and heteroplasmy in the highly inbred Crested Ibis which carries an mtDNA genome lack of structural genetic diversity. The analysis of pedigreed samples also sheds light on the transmission of mtDNA length heteroplasmy in birds following the genetic bottleneck theory. Further research focusing on the generation and transmission of particular mtDNA heteroplasmy patterns in single germ line of Crested Ibis is encouraged by this study. PMID:23805212

He, Xue-Lian; Ding, Chang-Qing; Han, Jian-Lin



Immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region and major histocompatibility region genes are linked to induced graves' disease in females from two very large families of recombinant inbred mice.  


Graves' hyperthyroidism is caused by antibodies to the TSH receptor (TSHR) that mimic thyroid stimulation by TSH. Stimulating TSHR antibodies and hyperthyroidism can be induced by immunizing mice with adenovirus expressing the human TSHR A-subunit. Prior analysis of induced Graves' disease in small families of recombinant inbred (RI) female mice demonstrated strong genetic control but did not resolve trait loci for TSHR antibodies or elevated serum T4. We investigated the genetic basis for induced Graves' disease in female mice of two large RI families and combined data with earlier findings to provide phenotypes for 178 genotypes. TSHR antibodies measured by inhibition of TSH binding to its receptor were highly significantly linked in the BXD set to the major histocompatibility region (chromosome 17), consistent with observations in 3 other RI families. In the LXS family, we detected linkage between T4 levels after TSHR-adenovirus immunization and the Ig heavy chain variable region (Igvh, chromosome 12). This observation is a key finding because components of the antigen binding region of Igs determine antibody specificity and have been previously linked to induced thyroid-stimulating antibodies. Data from the LXS family provide the first evidence in mice of a direct link between induced hyperthyroidism and Igvh genes. A role for major histocompatibility genes has now been established for genetic susceptibility to Graves' disease in both humans and mice. Future studies using arrays incorporating variation in the complex human Ig gene locus will be necessary to determine whether Igvh genes are also linked to Graves' disease in humans. PMID:25051451

McLachlan, Sandra M; Aliesky, Holly; Banuelos, Bianca; Magana, Jessica; Williams, Robert W; Rapoport, Basil



Phenocopies for deafness and goiter development in a large inbred Brazilian kindred with Pendred's syndrome associated with a novel mutation in the PDS gene.  


Pendred's syndrome is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by goiter, impaired iodide organification, and congenital sensorineural deafness. The gene mutated in Pendred's syndrome, PDS (Pendred's syndrome gene), was cloned very recently and encodes the putative sulfate transporter pendrin. Pendred's syndrome may account for up to 10% of the cases with hereditary hearing loss, and pendrin mutations have also been found in a kindred with non-syndromic deafness. In this study, 41 individuals from a large, highly inbred pedigree from Northeastern Brazil were examined for features of Pendred's syndrome. Linkage studies and sequence analysis of the coding region of the PDS gene were performed with DNA from 36 individuals. The index patient, with the classical triad of deafness, positive perchlorate test, and goiter, was found to be homozygous for a deletion of thymidine 279 in exon 3, resulting in a frameshift and a premature stop codon at amino acid 96. This alteration resulted in truncation of the protein in the first transmembrane domain. Two other patients with deafness were found to be homozygous for this mutation; 19 were heterozygous and 14 were homozygous for the wild type allele. Surprisingly, 6 deaf individuals in this kindred were not homozygous for the PDS gene mutation; 3 were heterozygous and 3 were homozygous for the wild type allele, suggesting a probable distinct genetic cause for their deafness. All 3 homozygous individuals for the PDS mutation had goiters. However, goiters were also found in 10 heterozygous individuals and in 6 individuals without the PDS mutation and are most likely caused by iodine deficiency. In conclusion, we identified a novel mutation in the PDS gene causing Pendred's syndrome. The comparison of phenotype and genotype reveals, however, that phenocopies generated by distinct environmental and/or genetic causes are present in this kindred and that the diagnosis of Pendred's syndrome may be difficult without molecular analysis. PMID:9920104

Kopp, P; Arseven, O K; Sabacan, L; Kotlar, T; Dupuis, J; Cavaliere, H; Santos, C L; Jameson, J L; Medeiros-Neto, G



Reading Comprehension Strategies for Adult Literacy Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because an adult's literacy is measured on different dimensions from a child's or youth's, several competency-based, standardized tests of literacy are commonly accepted as reasonable proxies for the global construct of adult literacy. Tests such as The Adult Basic Learning Examination (ABLE), Comprehension Adult Student Assessment System (CASAS), Test of Adult Basic Education (TABE), National Assessment of Adult Literacy (NAALS),

Mike Hock; Daryl Mellard



Intestinal lymphangiectasia in adults  

PubMed Central

Intestinal lymphangiectasia in the adult may be characterized as a disorder with dilated intestinal lacteals causing loss of lymph into the lumen of the small intestine and resultant hypoproteinemia, hypogammaglobulinemia, hypoalbuminemia and reduced number of circulating lymphocytes or lymphopenia. Most often, intestinal lymphangiectasia has been recorded in children, often in neonates, usually with other congenital abnormalities but initial definition in adults including the elderly has become increasingly more common. Shared clinical features with the pediatric population such as bilateral lower limb edema, sometimes with lymphedema, pleural effusion and chylous ascites may occur but these reflect the severe end of the clinical spectrum. In some, diarrhea occurs with steatorrhea along with increased fecal loss of protein, reflected in increased fecal alpha-1-antitrypsin levels, while others may present with iron deficiency anemia, sometimes associated with occult small intestinal bleeding. Most lymphangiectasia in adults detected in recent years, however, appears to have few or no clinical features of malabsorption. Diagnosis remains dependent on endoscopic changes confirmed by small bowel biopsy showing histological evidence of intestinal lymphangiectasia. In some, video capsule endoscopy and enteroscopy have revealed more extensive changes along the length of the small intestine. A critical diagnostic element in adults with lymphangiectasia is the exclusion of entities (e.g. malignancies including lymphoma) that might lead to obstruction of the lymphatic system and “secondary” changes in the small bowel biopsy. In addition, occult infectious (e.g. Whipple’s disease from Tropheryma whipplei) or inflammatory disorders (e.g. Crohn’s disease) may also present with profound changes in intestinal permeability and protein-losing enteropathy that also require exclusion. Conversely, rare B-cell type lymphomas have also been described even decades following initial diagnosis of intestinal lymphangiectasia. Treatment has been historically defined to include a low fat diet with medium-chain triglyceride supplementation that leads to portal venous rather than lacteal uptake. A number of other pharmacological measures have been reported or proposed but these are largely anecdotal. Finally, rare reports of localized surgical resection of involved areas of small intestine have been described but follow-up in these cases is often limited. PMID:21364842

Freeman, Hugh James; Nimmo, Michael



Intestinal lymphangiectasia in adults.  


Intestinal lymphangiectasia in the adult may be characterized as a disorder with dilated intestinal lacteals causing loss of lymph into the lumen of the small intestine and resultant hypoproteinemia, hypogammaglobulinemia, hypoalbuminemia and reduced number of circulating lymphocytes or lymphopenia. Most often, intestinal lymphangiectasia has been recorded in children, often in neonates, usually with other congenital abnormalities but initial definition in adults including the elderly has become increasingly more common. Shared clinical features with the pediatric population such as bilateral lower limb edema, sometimes with lymphedema, pleural effusion and chylous ascites may occur but these reflect the severe end of the clinical spectrum. In some, diarrhea occurs with steatorrhea along with increased fecal loss of protein, reflected in increased fecal alpha-1-antitrypsin levels, while others may present with iron deficiency anemia, sometimes associated with occult small intestinal bleeding. Most lymphangiectasia in adults detected in recent years, however, appears to have few or no clinical features of malabsorption. Diagnosis remains dependent on endoscopic changes confirmed by small bowel biopsy showing histological evidence of intestinal lymphangiectasia. In some, video capsule endoscopy and enteroscopy have revealed more extensive changes along the length of the small intestine. A critical diagnostic element in adults with lymphangiectasia is the exclusion of entities (e.g. malignancies including lymphoma) that might lead to obstruction of the lymphatic system and "secondary" changes in the small bowel biopsy. In addition, occult infectious (e.g. Whipple's disease from Tropheryma whipplei) or inflammatory disorders (e.g. Crohn's disease) may also present with profound changes in intestinal permeability and protein-losing enteropathy that also require exclusion. Conversely, rare B-cell type lymphomas have also been described even decades following initial diagnosis of intestinal lymphangiectasia. Treatment has been historically defined to include a low fat diet with medium-chain triglyceride supplementation that leads to portal venous rather than lacteal uptake. A number of other pharmacological measures have been reported or proposed but these are largely anecdotal. Finally, rare reports of localized surgical resection of involved areas of small intestine have been described but follow-up in these cases is often limited. PMID:21364842

Freeman, Hugh James; Nimmo, Michael



Human Metapneumovirus in Adults  

PubMed Central

Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a relative newly described virus. It was first isolated in 2001 and currently appears to be one of the most significant and common human viral infections. Retrospective serologic studies demonstrated the presence of HMPV antibodies in humans more than 50 years earlier. Although the virus was primarily known as causative agent of respiratory tract infections in children, HMPV is an important cause of respiratory infections in adults as well. Almost all children are infected by HMPV below the age of five; the repeated infections throughout life indicate transient immunity. HMPV infections usually are mild and self-limiting, but in the frail elderly and the immunocompromised patients, the clinical course can be complicated. Since culturing the virus is relatively difficult, diagnosis is mostly based on a nucleic acid amplification test, such as reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. To date, no vaccine is available and treatment is supportive. However, ongoing research shows encouraging results. The aim of this paper is to review the current literature concerning HMPV infections in adults, and discuss recent development in treatment and vaccination. PMID:23299785

Haas, Lenneke E. M.; Thijsen, Steven F. T.; van Elden, Leontine; Heemstra, Karen A.



Sexting among young adults  

PubMed Central

Purpose Sexting has stirred debate over its legality and safety, but few researchers have documented the relationship between sexting and health. We describe the sexting behavior of young adults in the United States, and examine its association with sexual behavior and psychological well-being. Methods Using an adapted web version of Respondent-Driven Sampling (webRDS) we recruited a sample of U.S. young adults (ages 18 to 24; N=3447). We examined participant sexting behavior using 4 categories of sexting: 1) Non-Sexters, 2) Receivers, 3) Senders, and 4) Two-way Sexters. We then assessed the relationships between sexting categories and sociodemographic characteristics, sexual behavior and psychological well-being. Results Over half (57%) of respondents were Non-Sexters, 28.2% of the sample were Two-way Sexters, 12.6% were Receivers, and 2% were Senders. Males were more likely to be Receivers than females. Sexually active respondents were more likely to be Two-way Sexters than non-sexually active respondents. Among participants who were sexually active in the past 30 days, we found no differences across sexting groups in number of sexual partners, or number of unprotected sex partners in the past 30 days. We also found no relationship between sexting and psychological well-being. Conclusions Our results suggest that sexting is not related to sexual risk behavior or psychological well-being. We discuss the findings of this study and propose directions for further research on sexting. PMID:23299018

Gordon-Messer, Deborah; Bauermeister, Jose Arturo; Grodzinski, Alison; Zimmerman, Marc



Adult Learners' Week in Russia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Russia International Adult Learners Week highlights the democratization process the country is undergoing. Government attention to rural development and training and agrarian policy is needed. (SK)

Litvinova, Nina



QTL analysis of novel genomic regions associated with yield and yield related traits in new plant type based recombinant inbred lines of rice (Oryza sativa L.)  

PubMed Central

Background Rice is staple food for more than half of the world’s population including two billion Asians, who obtain 60-70% of their energy intake from rice and its derivatives. To meet the growing demand from human population, rice varieties with higher yield potential and greater yield stability need to be developed. The favourable alleles for yield and yield contributing traits are distributed among two subspecies i.e., indica and japonica of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.). Identification of novel favourable alleles in indica/japonica will pave way to marker-assisted mobilization of these alleles in to a genetic background to break genetic barriers to yield. Results A new plant type (NPT) based mapping population of 310 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) was used to map novel genomic regions and QTL hotspots influencing yield and eleven yield component traits. We identified major quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for days to 50% flowering (R2?=?25%, LOD?=?14.3), panicles per plant (R2?=?19%, LOD?=?9.74), flag leaf length (R2?=?22%, LOD?=?3.05), flag leaf width (R2?=?53%, LOD?=?46.5), spikelets per panicle (R2?=?16%, LOD?=?13.8), filled grains per panicle (R2?=?22%, LOD?=?15.3), percent spikelet sterility (R2?=?18%, LOD?=?14.24), thousand grain weight (R2?=?25%, LOD?=?12.9) and spikelet setting density (R2?=?23%, LOD?=?15) expressing over two or more locations by using composite interval mapping. The phenotypic variation (R2) ranged from 8 to 53% for eleven QTLs expressing across all three locations. 19 novel QTLs were contributed by the NPT parent, Pusa1266. 15 QTL hotpots on eight chromosomes were identified for the correlated traits. Six epistatic QTLs effecting five traits at two locations were identified. A marker interval (RM3276-RM5709) on chromosome 4 harboring major QTLs for four traits was identified. Conclusions The present study reveals that favourable alleles for yield and yield contributing traits were distributed among two subspecies of rice and QTLs were co-localized in different genomic regions. QTL hotspots will be useful for understanding the common genetic control mechanism of the co-localized traits and selection for beneficial allele at these loci will result in a cumulative increase in yield due to the integrative positive effect of various QTLs. The information generated in the present study will be useful to fine map and to identify the genes underlying major robust QTLs and to transfer all favourable QTLs to one genetic background to break genetic barriers to yield for sustained food security. PMID:22876968



Effects of Chronic Alcohol and Repeated Deprivations on Dopamine D1 and D2 Receptor Levels in the Extended Amygdala of Inbred Alcohol-Preferring Rats  

PubMed Central

Background Dopaminergic (DA) activity in the extended amygdala (EA) has been known to play a pivotal role in mediating drug and alcohol addiction. Alterations of DA activity within the EA after chronic exposure to alcohol or substances of abuse are considered a major mechanism for the development of alcoholism and addiction. To date, it is not clear how different patterns of chronic alcohol drinking affect DA receptor levels. Therefore, the current studies investigated the effects of chronic ethanol consumption, with or without deprivations, on D1 and D2 receptor densities within the EA. Methods Inbred alcohol-preferring (iP) rats were divided into 3 groups with the following treatments: (1) water for 14 weeks; (2) continuous alcohol (C-Alc) for 14 weeks [24-hour concurrent access to 15 and 30% (v/v) ethanol]; or (3) repeatedly deprived of alcohol (RD-Alc) (24-hour concurrent access to 15 and 30% ethanol for 6 weeks, followed by 2 cycles of 2 weeks of deprivation of and 2 weeks of reexposure to ethanol access). At the end of 14 weeks, the rats were killed for autoradiographic labeling of D1 and D2 receptors. Results Compared with the water control group, both the C-Alc and the RD-Alc groups displayed increases in D1 receptor binding density in the anterior region of the Acb core, whereas the RD-Alc group displayed additional increases in D1 receptor binding density in anterior regions of the lateral and intercalated nuclei of the amygdala. Additionally, both C-Alc and RD-Alc rats displayed increases in D2 receptor binding density in anterior regions of the Acb shell and core, whereas RDAlc rats displayed additional increases in D2 receptor binding density in the dorsal striatum. Conclusion The results of this study indicate that 14-week extended alcohol drinking with continuous chronic or repeated deprivations increase binding sites of D1 and D2 receptors in specific regions of the EA with greater sensitivity in the anterior regions. The repeated deprivation has greater effect on altering D1 and D2 receptor binding sites in the Acb, dorsal striatum, and subamygdala regions. The current result indicates that the two drinking paradigms may have common as well as differential mechanisms on alteration of dopamine receptor–binding sites in specific regions of the EA. PMID:16433731

Sari, Youssef; Bell, Richard L.; Zhou, Feng C.



Genetic differences in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and food restriction-induced hyperactivity in three inbred strains of rats.  


We used three inbred rat strains known for significant differences in the activity and reactivity of their hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis to stress [Fischer 344 (F344), Brown Norway (BN) and Lewis (Lew) rats] to search for a strain difference in the paradoxical increase in running activity induced by food restriction and to explore the role of the HPA axis in this behaviour. Rats were randomly assigned to either an ad lib sedentary group (AL), a control wheel activity group (ACT), a food restriction-induced hyperactivity group (FR-ACT) group (1.5 h/day ad lib food, 22.5 h/day ad lib wheel access) or a pair-fed group (FR). The BN and Lew rats reached the 25% body weight-loss criterion of FR-ACT (strain effect: F(2,132) = 45.58, P < 10-6) faster than the F344 strain due to higher food restriction-induced running activity (strain effect: F(2,65) = 17.43, P = 0.00001). FR and FR-ACT decreased thymus weight (marker of integrated HPA axis activation) in all strains. In Lew and BN strains, FR-ACT induced a further decrement on thymus weight compared to their FR group. Prefeeding corticosterone levels (15.00 h) increased during the study in BN and Lew FR-ACT rats, but not in F344. Total wheel turns were correlated to both final adipose weight (r = -0.49, P = 0.002) and thymus weight decrement (r = 0.59, P = 0.0001), emphasizing the relationship between fat mass and HPA axis activation in excessive running activity. Increased running in conditions of food restriction and HPA axis activation may be linked at the level of the central nervous system. However, the involvement of corticotrophin-releasing hormone, agouti-related peptide or cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript in behavioural disturbances of FR-ACT rats was excluded (in situ hybridization). We propose that corticosterone may be the link between initial low levels of fat mass and/or rate of fat mass loss (peripheral energy stores) and increased wheel activity, favouring fueling through lipolysis and proteolysis and reinforcing the self starvation via reward mechanisms, thus establishing a deleterious vicious cycle. PMID:16219003

Duclos, M; Bouchet, M; Vettier, A; Richard, D



Reversed light-dark cycle and cage enrichment effects on ethanol-induced deficits in motor coordination assessed in inbred mouse strains with a compact battery of refined tests  

PubMed Central

The laboratory environment existing outside the test situation itself can have a substantial influence on results of some behavioral tests with mice, and the extent of these influences sometimes depends on genotype. For alcohol research, the principal issue is whether genotype-related ethanol effects will themselves be altered by common variations in the lab environment or instead will be essentially the same across a wide range of lab environments. Data from 20 inbred strains were used to reduce an original battery of seven tests of alcohol intoxication to a compact battery of four tests: the balance beam and grip strength with a 1.25 g/kg ethanol dose and the accelerating rotarod and open-field activation tests with 1.75 g/kg. The abbreviated battery was then used to study eight inbred strains housed under a normal or reversed light-dark cycle, or a standard or enriched home cage environment. The light-dark cycle had no discernable effects on any measure of behavior or response to alcohol. Cage enrichment markedly improved motor coordination in most strains. Ethanol-induced motor coordination deficits were robust; the well documented strain-dependent effects of ethanol were not altered by cage enrichment. PMID:21664382

Munn, Elizabeth; Bunning, Mark; Prada, Sofia; Bohlen, Martin; Crabbe, John C.; Wahlsten, Douglas



Basic Readings in Australian Adult Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of readings was compiled to provide background information on adult education in Australia, as well as to indicate future aims. The papers discuss goals in adult education; the government's part in adult education; and institutionalizing adult education in universities and in other bodies. Institutions that offer adult education…

Wesson, Alfred, Ed.


Day Centers for Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a relatively new service concept which addresses the care of the frail older adult, Day Centers offer a rare opportunity for the partnership of local parishes and service agencies. In typical local parishes, there is a vast increase in the number of frail older adults as- well as the number of their care-giving families. Day Centers offer an opportunity

Joanne Negstad; Roger Arnholt




Microsoft Academic Search

The purposes of this study were (1) to determine annual adult survival rates from banding data for each sex of the Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater), Common Grackle (Quiscalus quiscula), Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus), and Starling (Sturnus vulgaris), and (2) to compare survival rates calculated from band returns with survival rates calculated from band recoveries. Others have studied annual adult survival



Senior Adult Consumer Advisory Manual,  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is intended for use by senior adult peer advisors (age 60 and over) engaged in helping relationships in providing consumer education to other senior adults. The advisory procedures are based on a problem solving approach which incorporates the development of a self-help concept. Chapter 1 provides information on consumer advising. It…

Ater, E. Carolyn, Ed.


Adult Literacy: The Next Generation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on developments in the field of adult literacy in the 1990s and outlines seven areas related to key topics in the field. Provides a brief analysis of major research findings in each of these areas and offers a prognosis of the next generation of adult literacy work in the United States. (SLD)

Wagner, Daniel A.; Venezky, Richard L.



Adult Education in India & Abroad.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey is made of various aspects of adult education in India since 1947, together with comparative accounts of the origin, development, and notable features of adult education in Denmark, Great Britain, the Soviet Union, and the United States. Needs and objectives in India, largely in the eradication of illiteracy, are set forth, and pertinent…

Roy, Nikhil Ranjan


Cultural Influences on Adult Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five projects are reported that examined factors related to adult learning in nontraditional environments. "Conrad, Montana: A Community of Memories" (Janice Counter, Lynn Paul, and Gary Conti) reports on a group of adults who for over 40 years have been active in building a better community for friends, relatives, and themselves. A 17-item…

Conti, Gary J., Ed.; Fellenz, Robert A., Ed.


Adult Basic Education Pilot Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The adult basic education program of the Texas Extension Division of Texas University was organized to provide educational opportunities for at least 200 undereducated adults, evaluate materials and teaching techniques in actual classroom use, develop a student record and progress chart for reporting and evaluation in local projects, explore…

Texas Univ., Austin. Extension Teaching and Field Service Bureau.


Predictive Modeling in Adult Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current economic crisis, a growing workforce, the increasing lifespan of workers, and demanding, complex jobs have made organizations highly selective in employee recruitment and retention. It is therefore important, to the adult educator, to develop models of learning that better prepare adult learners for the workplace. The purpose of…

Lindner, Charles L.



Neuropsychological Assessment of Adult Offenders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report is primarily concerned with reporting on the normative results obtained on a large sample of serious adult offenders. An expanded Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery was administered to 584 adult offenders (OF), 132 normal controls (NC), and 494 acute psychiatric patients (PP). Subjects were between 18 and 44 years of age.…

Marceau, Roger; Meghani, Rehana; Reddon, John R.



Journey to International Adult Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author describes her journey to international adult education and shares some lessons learned from her journey. The author developed her interest in international adult education through the Scientific Research Institute of International and Comparative Education (SRIICE) at Beijing Normal University and discovered its…

Sun, Qi



Travel and Adult Transformative Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This phenomenological research study examines the lived experience of individual adult transformation in the context of travel. Adults throughout history have experienced profound personal and perception changes as a result of significant travel events. Transformative learning occurs through experience, crisis, and reflection, all of which are…

Lindstrom, Steven K.



Centiles for adult head circumference  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reference range for head circumference on the Tanner charts do not go beyond age 16. In this study the head circumference and heights of 354 adults in two British centres were measured. The centile charts constructed from these measurements show that adult head circumference is related to height. The mean head circumference of a male of average height is above

K M Bushby; T Cole; J N Matthews; J A Goodship



Adult Learners in the Academy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adult learners comprise almost 50 percent of all students enrolled in higher Education. Some argue they are pioneering change in today's higher educational landscape. This book is designed to assist faculty members and administrators who want to understand how the impact of adult learning programs has and is helping to transform the academy and…

Bash, Lee



Adult Learners in the Academy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adult learning programs are becoming increasingly important. This book is designed to serve as a wake-up call for members of the academy who prefer to work with traditional students. It provides practical advice for adult learning programs with insights drawn from case studies and the author's experience. Part 1, "Context and Overview," contains:…

Bash, Lee


Native American Adult Reader I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aspects of Native American history and culture as well as issues and concerns of American Indians are presented in the twelve short articles in this reader for adults. Intended for use in an adult basic education/GED program, the reader features simply written stories (for grades 0-3), illustrations, vocabulary lists and student study questions.…

King, Lovern Root, Ed.


Childhood Tomboyism and Adult Androgyny.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Female college students (n=194) completed the Bem Sex Role Inventory and a 12-item index of tomboyism. The hypothesis that childhood tomboyism would be positively related to adult androgyny was not supported, but the hypothesis that tomboyism would be related to adult masculinity was. (SLD)

Burn, Shawn Meghan; And Others



Leadership Characteristics of Adult Educators  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to assess self-perceived leadership behaviors and related leadership styles practiced in a sample of adult educators. Adopting transformational leadership theory embodied in the Full Range of Leadership Model the leadership characteristics of adult educators were examined using the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire Form 5x (Bass & Avolio, 2000). The possibility of significant differences between respondent

Frederick P. Bartling; Kenneth R. Bartlett


Adult Transition Program without Walls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Best practices in adult transition special education for moderate to severe students suggest student-centered planning that maximizes independence in adult life. Based on the above sources, school districts and governing boards would best serve moderate to severe transition special education students with increasing integration into the community…

Moberg, Eric



Adult Education; Theory and Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A course organized by the United Kingdom and the University of Liverpool aimed at reviewing research undertaken in European countries, and examining its significance for the practice of adult education in different countries and the possibilities of cooperative action. The three main areas of research identified were: the approach to adult

Council for Cultural Cooperation, Strasbourg (France).


Cytomegalovirus disease in immunocompetent adults.  


Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a highly prevalent and globally distributed virus. CMV infection in healthy adults is usually asymptomatic or causes a mild mononucleosis-like syndrome. CMV disease causes significant morbidity and mortality in neonates and severely immunocompromised adults. CMV disease can present with a wide range of manifestations, with colitis being the most common. The incidence of severe CMV disease in immunocompetent adults appears to be greater than previously thought, which may be partly due to immune dysfunction related to comorbidities such as kidney disease or diabetes mellitus. CMV disease can mimic an array of alternative diagnoses and pose a significant diagnostic challenge, especially in immunocompetent adults, leading to delayed diagnosis, adverse health outcomes and unnecessary financial expense. Non-invasive testing for CMV is widely available and can facilitate early diagnosis if used appropriately. Although limited, current evidence suggests that targeted antiviral therapy with ganciclovir or valganciclovir is appropriate for severe CMV disease in immunocompetent adults. PMID:25390262

Lancini, Daniel; Faddy, Helen M; Flower, Robert; Hogan, Chris



Just How Adult Is This Young Adult Book: Young Adult Books for the Junior High Readers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses young adult novels and presents a bibliography to acquaint librarians with titles and authors that are suitable for emerging young adult readers in grades five through nine. Subject categories include realistic fiction, in the news, historical fiction, short stories, legendary characters, mysteries, science fiction/fantasy/horror, and…

Decker, Charlotte



Clueless? Adult Mysteries with Young Adult Appeal 2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the fourth annual annotated bibliography of adult mysteries to recommend to teen readers. Includes titles under the headings of private eyes, reference sources, amateur sleuths, historical sleuths, suspense and thrillers, police procedurals, and anthologies. (LRW)

Charles, John; Morrison, Joanna



Clueless: Adult Mysteries with Young Adult Appeal 2002.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This annotated bibliography includes adult mysteries that appeal to teen readers under the categories of Sherlock Holmes; reference sources; private investigators; amateur sleuths; historical sleuths; suspense and thrillers; police procedurals; mystery blends; and anthologies. (LRW)

Charles, John; Morrison, Joanna



Constipation in adults  

PubMed Central

Introduction Although there are defined criteria for the diagnosis of constipation, in practice, diagnostic criteria are less rigid, and in part depend on the perception of normal bowel habit. Constipation is highly prevalent, with approximately 12 million general practitioner prescriptions for laxatives in England in 2001. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of non-drug interventions, and of other interventions, in adults with idiopathic chronic constipation? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to October 2006 (BMJ Clinical evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 42 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: arachis oil, biofeedback, bisacodyl, cascara, docusate, exercise, glycerine suppositories, glycerol, high-fibre diet, increasing fluids, ispaghula husk, lactitol, lactulose, macrogols (polyethylene glycols), magnesium salts, methylcellulose, paraffin, phosphate enemas, seed oils, senna, sodium citrate enemas, sterculia. PMID:19454117



Constipation in adults  

PubMed Central

Introduction Although there are defined criteria for the diagnosis of constipation, in practice, diagnostic criteria are less rigid, and depend in part on the perception of normal bowel habit. Constipation is highly prevalent, with approximately 12 million general practitioner prescriptions for laxatives in England in 2001. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of non-drug interventions, bulk-forming laxatives, faecal softeners, stimulant laxatives, osmotic laxatives, prostaglandin derivatives, and 5-HT4 agonists in adults with idiopathic chronic constipation? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to October 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 51systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: arachis oil, biofeedback, bisacodyl, cascara, docusate, exercise, glycerol/glycerine suppositories, high-fibre diet, increasing fluids, ispaghula husk, lactitol, lactulose, lubiprostone, macrogols (polyethylene glycols), magnesium salts, methylcellulose, paraffin, phosphate enemas, seed oils, senna, sodium citrate enemas, prucalopride, and sterculia. PMID:21418672



Vitalistic thinking in adults.  


Vitalistic thinking has traditionally been associated with reasoning about biological phenomena. The current research aimed to investigate a broader range of vitalistic thinking than previously studied. Esoteric notions of 'energy' are frequently used by individuals when making causal attributions for strange occurrences, and previous literature has linked such thinking with paranormal, magical, and superstitious beliefs. Two experiments are described that aim to investigate whether adults are vitalistic when asked to make causal judgments, and whether this can be predicted by thinking styles and prior paranormal belief. Experiment 1 asked participants to rate three causal options (one of which was vitalistic) for six vignettes. Scores on one dimension of paranormal belief (New Age Philosophy) and analytical thinking significantly predicted vitalism, but scores on intuitive thinking and Traditional Paranormal Beliefs did not. Experiment 2 extended the findings by asking participants to generate their own causal responses. Again, paranormal belief was found to be the best predictor of vitalism, but this time Traditional Paranormal Beliefs were associated with vitalistic responses whilst both intuitive and analytical thinking were unable to significantly predict classification. Results challenge previous findings, suggesting that vitalistic thinking may operate differently when applied to everyday causal reasoning. PMID:24094281

Wilson, Stuart



What Does It Take to Be an Adult in Austria? Views of Adulthood in Austrian Adolescents, Emerging Adults, and Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined the defining features of emerging adulthood, subjects' conceptions of the transition to adulthood, and the perceived adult status in Austria. The sample consisted of 775 subjects (226 adolescents, 317 emerging adults, 232 adults). Results showed that most Austrian emerging adults feel themselves to be between adolescence…

Sirsch, Ulrike; Dreher, Eva; Mayr, Eva; Willinger, Ulrike



Older Adults and Mental Health  


... is a normal consequence of these problems — an attitude often shared by patients themselves. These factors together ... also carry an increased risk for suicide . Share Science News About Older Adults NIMH Hosts Twitter Chat ...


Thrush (Oral Candidiasis) in Adults  


newsletter | contact Share | Thrush (Oral Candidiasis) Information for adults A A A White, slightly elevated lesions on the tongue and lips are typical of oral candidiasis. Overview Thrush (oral candidiasis), also known as ...


Growth Hormone Deficiency in Adults  


... surgery in the pituitary region, have several other pituitary hormone deficiencies, or if you have proven genetic causes ... the pituitary or brain a lack of other pituitary hormones a head injury Adults who do not have ...


Near Vision Test for Adults  


Near vision test for adults This test will check your close-up vision in each eye. Before you take this test, ... This test requires you to print the Near Vision Chart. The appearance of your printed chart may ...


Computer acceptance of older adults.  


Even though computers play a massive role in everyday life of modern societies, older adults, and especially older women, are less likely to use a computer, and they perform fewer activities on it than younger adults. To get a better understanding of the factors affecting older adults' intention towards and usage of computers, the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Usage of Technology (UTAUT) was applied as part of a more extensive study with 52 users and non-users of computers, ranging in age from 50 to 90 years. The model covers various aspects of computer usage in old age via four key constructs, namely performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influences, and facilitating conditions, as well as the variables gender, age, experience, and voluntariness it. Interestingly, next to performance expectancy, facilitating conditions showed the strongest correlation with use as well as with intention. Effort expectancy showed no significant correlation with the intention of older adults to use a computer. PMID:22317258

Nägle, Sibylle; Schmidt, Ludger



Facts about Mumps for Adults  


... vaccine, called the MMR vaccine that protects against measles, mumps, and rubella. Which adults should get vaccinated ... the vaccine. However, the potential risks associated with measles, mumps, and rubella are much greater than the ...


Epilepsy in Adults with TSC  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... physician whom they would recommend for your ongoing care as an adult. Some TSC Clinics follow both ... that there is a good transition of medical care for individuals with TSC when they turn 18. ...


Adult Learners' Week in Australia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Promotional materials and activities for Australia's Adult Learners Week, which are shaped by a variety of stakeholders , include media strategies and a website. Activities are evaluated using a market research company and website and telephone hotline statistics. (SK)

Cross, John



Recommended Immunizations for Adults 50+  


... page please turn Javascript on. Health Screenings and Immunizations Recommended Immunizations For Adults 50+ The content in this section ... out more, visit How Vaccines Prevent Disease . Vaccines, Vaccinations, and Immunizations Understanding the difference between vaccines, vaccinations, ...


Hip Fractures among Older Adults  


... Fractures among Older Adults Falls in Nursing Homes Data & Statistics Cost of Fall Injuries Publications & Resources Preventing Falls: What Works. A CDC Compendium of Effective Community–based Interventions ...


Vaccinations for Adults with Diabetes  


Vaccinations for Adults with Diabetes The table below shows which vaccinations you should have to protect your health if ... sure you and your healthcare provider keep your vaccinations up to date. Vaccine Do you need it? ...


Multitasking in adults with ADHD.  


Adults with ADHD have problems in everyday multitasking situations presumably because of deficits in executive functions. The present study aims to find out (a) whether adults with ADHD show deficient multitasking performance in a standardized task, (b) how they perceive the multitasking situation, and (c) which task structure might be beneficial for them as compared with adults without ADHD. Therefore, we experimentally compared task performance, mood, and motivation in a group of 45 men with ADHD (M-age = 34.47, SD = 9.95) with a comparison group of 42 men without ADHD (M-age = 31.12, SD = 10.59) in three conditions: (a) a multitasking paradigm, (b) an interleaving condition in which tasks had to be performed without planning or monitoring, and (c) a non-interleaving condition. Our results showed no impaired multitasking performance in adults with ADHD. However, they showed better mood and more motivation in the non-interleaving condition. PMID:21461781

Gawrilow, Caterina; Merkt, Julia; Goossens-Merkt, Heinrich; Bodenburg, Sebastian; Wendt, Mike



Young Adults and Colon Cancer  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... the decline in older Americans, but a new study finds incidence of the disease in younger adults may be on the rise. Researchers analyzed more than 230,000 cases of colon cancer covering a period of more ...


Prosthetic aspects in adult osteopetrosis.  


Osteopetrosis (OP) is a rare condition characterized by skeletal sclerosis caused by dysfunctional osteoclasts. Though many reports have described severe infantile-malignant autosomal recessive OP, few have described the prosthetic management of adult OP. This report discusses the prosthetic treatment of adult OP. Although prosthodontists should try to reconstruct occlusal function as much as possible, a conservative prosthodontic approach may be a reasonable and recommended treatment option for minimizing the risk of further osteomyelitis and osteonecrosis. PMID:24819526

Ogino, Yoichiro; Ayukawa, Yasunori; Tomita, Yoko; Koyano, Kiyoshi



Tethered cord syndrome in adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

RE: Gupta SK, Khosla VK, Sharma BS, Mathuria SN, Pathak A, Tewari MK. Tethered cord syndrome in adults. Surg Neurol 1999;52:362–70.The authors present a series of 18 adult patients with tethered cord syndrome who were evaluated with MRI. The most frequent MRI finding was a low-lying cord with an intradural and\\/or extradural lipoma; MRI findings correlated well with operative findings.

F. B Maroun; J. C Jacob; G. P Murray



“Sexting” and adult romantic attachment  

Microsoft Academic Search

“Sexting” refers to sending and receiving sexually suggestive images, videos, or texts on cell phones. As a means for maintaining or initiating a relationship, sexting behavior and attitudes may be understood through adult attachment theory. One hundred and twenty-eight participants (M=22 and F=106), aged 18–30years, completed an online questionnaire about their adult attachment styles and sexting behavior and attitudes. Attachment

Robert S. Weisskirch; Raquel Delevi



Adult Stem and Progenitor Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The discovery of adult stem cells in most adult tissues is the basis of a number of clinical studies that are carried out, with therapeutic use of hematopoietic stem cells as a prime example. Intense scientific debate is still ongoing as to whether adult stem cells may have a greater plasticity than previously thought. Although cells with some features of embryonic stem cells that, among others, express Oct4, Nanog and SSEA1 are isolated from fresh tissue, it is not clear if the greater differentiation potential is acquired during cell culture. Moreover, adult more pluripotent cells do not have all pluripotent characteristics typical for embryonic stem cells. Recently, some elegant studies were published in which adult cells could be completely reprogrammed to embryonic stem cell-like cells by overexpression of some key transcription factors for pluripotency (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc). It will be interesting for the future to investigate the exact mechanisms underlying this reprogramming and whether similar transcription factor pathways are present and/or can be activated in adult more pluripotent stem cells.

Geraerts, Martine; Verfaillie, Catherine M.


Adult Education and Development, No. 47.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This serial issue contains a total of 26 articles grouped under five headings: "Adult Learning: A Key for the Twenty-First Century (Fifth International Conference on Adult Education (Confintea V))"; "Trends in Adult Education Policy" (Belanger); "Adult Education in Modern Times" (Geissler); "From Criticism to Constructiveness" (Torres); "An…

Adult Education and Development, 1996



Metacognition, comprehension monitoring, and the adult reader  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides an overview and synthesis of the current literature on metacognition and comprehension monitoring among adult readers. It is organized around three major research questions: (1) How do adults conceptualize their own comprehension-fostering and comprehension-monitoring activities? (2) How effectively do adults evaluate and regulate their ongoing efforts to understand? (3) How successfully do adults assess the final products

Linda Baker



Adult Education in Israel, II-III.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the second booklet in English that deals with adult education in Israel. The following papers are included: "Editors' Notes" (Paul Kirmayer, Noy Pinnes); "Introduction" (Meir Peretz); "Defining 'Adult Education'" (Yehezkel Cohen); "Planning Study Programs for Adults" (Rachel Tokatli); "The Role of Adult Education: Changing the Individual…

Kirmayer, Paul, Ed.; Pinnes, Noy, Ed.


Public Continuing and Adult Education 1973 Almanac.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This almanac of adult and continuing education covers the following topics: (1) information concerning NAPCAE, National Association for Public Continuing and Adult Education; (2) statistics--adult education legislative summary, State support for adult education, educational attainment, work experience patterns; enrollment data; expenditures;…

Samet, Margaret, Ed.


Dealing with Disruptive Behavior of Adult Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The adult education literature on disruptive behavior of adult learners was reviewed and a survey on disruptive behavior of adult learners was conducted with adult educators. The findings are synthesized in a conceptual framework for understanding the types and causes of disruptive behavior, which fall into the categories of inattention,…

Dobmeier, Robert; Moran, Joseph



Quantitative trait locus for body weight identified on rat chromosome 4 in inbred alcohol-preferring and -nonpreferring rats: potential implications for neuropeptide Y and corticotrophin releasing hormone 2.  


The alcohol-preferring (P) and -nonpreferring (NP) rat lines were developed using bidirectional selective breeding for alcohol consumption (g/kg/day) and alcohol preference (water:ethanol ratio). During a preliminary study, we detected a difference in body weight between inbred P (iP) and inbred NP (iNP) rats that appeared to be associated with the transfer of the Chromosome 4 quantitative trait locus (QTL) seen in the P.NP and NP.P congenic strains. After the initial confirmation that iP rats displayed lower body weight when compared to iNP rats (data not shown), body weight and growth rates of each chromosome 4 reciprocal congenic rat strain (P.NP and NP.P) were measured, and their body weight was consistent with their respective donor strain phenotype, confirming that a quantitative trait locus for body weight mapped to the chromosome 4 interval. Utilizing the newly developed interval-specific congenic strains (ISCS-A and ISCS-B), the QTL interval was further narrowed identifying the following candidate genes of interest: neuropeptide Y (Npy), juxtaposed with another zinc finger gene 1 (Jazf1), corticotrophin releasing factor receptor 2 (Crfr2) and LanC lantibiotic synthetase component C-like 2 (Lancl2). These findings indicate that a biologically active variant(s) regulates body weight on rat chromosome 4 in iP and iNP rats. This QTL for body weight was successfully captured in the P.NP and NP.P congenic strains, and interval-specific congenic strains (ISCSs) were subsequently employed to fine-map the QTL interval identifying the following candidate genes of interest: Npy, Jazf1, Crfr2 and Lancl2. Both Npy and Crfr2 have been previously identified as candidate genes of interest underlying the chromosome 4 QTL for alcohol consumption in iP and iNP rats. PMID:23312492

Spence, John Paul; Lai, Dongbing; Shekhar, Anantha; Carr, Lucinda G; Foroud, Tatiana; Liang, Tiebing




E-print Network

courses including online courses in the nature of adult and higher education, adult learning, a programASSISTANT PROFESSOR IN ADULT AND HIGHER EDUCATION ­ ADULT EDUCATION ANTICIPATED POSITION Department of Counseling, Adult and Higher Education Northern Illinois University ANTICIPATED POSITION: Assistant Professor

Karonis, Nicholas T.


Acute Psychiatric Hospital Admissions of Adults and Elderly Adults with Mental Retardation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examination of the records of 240 inpatients with mental retardation and 7 with autism discharged from a university hospital indicated that elderly adults had more medical problems than did adults, more elderly adults were transferred to a state hospital, and the most common diagnosis in both adults and elderly adults was chronic schizophrenia,…

Pary, Robert J.



Young adults’ experiences with cancer  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To examine the experiences with cancer of adults diagnosed when between 20 and 35 years old. DESIGN Qualitative study using semistructured interviews. SETTING Largest health care region in the province of New Brunswick. PARTICIPANTS Six men and 9 women cancer patients and survivors. METHOD Fifteen adults interviewed when between the ages of 20 and 43 representing a variety of cancers and stages of disease were recruited for this study. Interviews were guided by a set of open-ended questions and explored participants’ experiences with cancer from initial presentation of symptoms through to survivorship issues. MAIN FINDINGS The most important clinical issue that emerged from the analysis was that participants’ youth appeared to contribute to delays in diagnosis of cancer. These delays were attributed to either patients’ or physicians’ inaction. Some patients attributed their initial cancer symptoms to the adverse effects of alcohol or excessive partying; others feared a bad diagnosis and delayed seeking help. Family physicians frequently interpreted nonspecific symptoms as resulting from patients’ lifestyle choices and were reluctant to consider a diagnosis of cancer. Several family physicians reportedly believed that persistent symptoms could not be the result of cancer because patients were too young. CONCLUSION Although cancer is relatively rare in young adults, family physicians need to include it in differential diagnoses. Both patients and physicians tend to minimize cancer symptoms in young adults. Delays in diagnosis might not affect health outcomes, but can cause distress to young adults with cancer. PMID:17279205

Miedema, Baukje (Bo); Easley, Julie; Hamilton, Ryan



[Etiology of adult insomnia].  


In the article, the author develops an analysis of external and intrapsychic factors related to adults' insomnia. First she undertakes a literature review to describe semiological, evolutive and etiological levels of insomnia. From a semiological point of view, it is usual to differenciate initial insomnia (associated to the first phase of sleeping), intermittent insomnia (related to frequent awakenings) and final insomnia (related to early morning awakenings). From an evolutive point of view, we can identify transitory insomnia (characterized by frequent awakenings) and chronic insomnia. On the other hand, we are allowed to distinguish organic insomnia (disorder where an organic cerebral injury is demonstrated or suspected) from insomnias related to psychiatric or somatic disease or idiopathic one. Then, the author makes a literary review to identify various insomnia causes and points out. Social factors: insomnia rates are higher by divorced, separated or widowed people. Percentages are higher when scholastic level is weak, domestic income is less then 915 O a month, or by unemployed people. Besides, sleep quality is deteriorated by ageing. Sleeping and waking rhythm is able to loose its synchronization. Complaints about insomnia occur far frequently from women than men. Environmental factors: working constraints increase sleep disorders. It is possible to make the same conclusion when we have to face overcharge of external events, deep intrapsychic conflicts (related to grief, unemployment, damage or hospitalization) or interpersonal conflicts' situations where we are confronted to stress related to socio-affective environment, lack of social support or conjugal difficulties. Medical and physiologic causes: legs impatience syndrome, recurrent limbs shakings syndrome, breathe stop during sleep, narcolepsy, excessive medicine or hypnotic drugs use, some central nervous system injuries, every nocturnal awakening (related to aches.), surgical operation. Chronobiological factors: night working or day-night shift produce insomnia by desynchronization. It is the same for time lag related to jet-lag flights. Significant gaps between the internal biological clock and environmental synchronizators, such as phase delay sleep, phase advance sleep, sleep-waking cycle longer than 24 (25) hours, or variations in sleep-awakening cycle, are of less importance. Toxic factors are numerous: amphetamines, antidepressors, medication against anorexia and tubercular disease, caffeine and alcohol excessive use, chronic alcoholism. Behavioral factors: enduring insomnias are related to poor nightroutines (to go to sleep too early, to read or to look at T.V. when going to bed). The same effect is produced by regular intellectual activities close to bedtime or by a late meal in the evening, by an noisy or unhealthy environment, by physical hyperactivity or sleeping after each lunch. Psychiatric factors: insomnia often appears with psychiatric disorders such as a major depressive episode, an anxiety disorder or schizophrenia. Insomnia also is able to open a delirious disorganization or a manic access. Psychological factors: overstimulation of waking system (related to stress overdose or intellectual hyperactivity), conditioning phenomena, fear of not falling asleep, intrapsychic and interpersonal conflicts. Third, the author put hypothesis about psychodynamic etiology of chronic insomnia. Following a first assumption, insomnia should be a result of anguish excess related to intrapsychic (and not interpersonal) conflicts which can't lead to a mental elaboration. These conflicts run over dream protective function, generating a breakdown of dream symbolization function. At a clinical level, we are in some cases in front of people enduring sleeping insomnia but more often, we are confronted with an intermittent or early waking insomnia sometimes associated with nightmares. Following a second assumption, insomnia should be a result of psychic functioning invalidation. Here, failure of dream protective and symbolization function is related to anguish ex

Dollander, M



Prayer practices among young adults.  


Prayer is the most common complementary and alternative intervention used by most Americans. Yet, little is known about the prayer practices of young adults. In this exploratory study, 4 types of prayer practices of 62 young adults (21-30 years old) are described. The 4 different categories of prayer were: contemplative-meditative, ritualistic, petitionary, and colloquial. Participants most often used colloquial prayer practice, that is, asking God to provide guidance or talking to God in their own words. Recommendations for future research are included. PMID:21037458

Nance, Jennifer G; Quinn Griffin, Mary T; McNulty, Sister Rita; Fitzpatrick, Joyce J



Adult Wilms tumor: Case report.  


Wilms tumor (WT) occurs infrequently in adults. Even rarer is adult WT with extension by direct intravascular spread into the right side of the heart. The present report describes a WT with intracaval and intracardiac extension in a 38-year-young man. In addition, thrombus extension above the infrahepatic IVC represents a major technical topic for surgeons because of the possible occurrence of uncontrollable hemorrhages and tumor fragmentation. We report the results of a surgical approach to caval thrombosis including the isolation of the IVC from the liver as routinely performed during liver harvesting. The morphologic and immune-histochemical findings confirmed the diagnosis. PMID:25553532

Morabito, V; Guglielmo, N; Melandro, F; Mazzesi, G; Alesini, F; Bosco, S; Berloco, P B



Estrogenic exposure alters the spermatogonial stem cells in the developing testis, permanently reducing crossover levels in the adult.  


Bisphenol A (BPA) and other endocrine disrupting chemicals have been reported to induce negative effects on a wide range of physiological processes, including reproduction. In the female, BPA exposure increases meiotic errors, resulting in the production of chromosomally abnormal eggs. Although numerous studies have reported that estrogenic exposures negatively impact spermatogenesis, a direct link between exposures and meiotic errors in males has not been evaluated. To test the effect of estrogenic chemicals on meiotic chromosome dynamics, we exposed male mice to either BPA or to the strong synthetic estrogen, ethinyl estradiol during neonatal development when the first cells initiate meiosis. Although chromosome pairing and synapsis were unperturbed, exposed outbred CD-1 and inbred C3H/HeJ males had significantly reduced levels of crossovers, or meiotic recombination (as defined by the number of MLH1 foci in pachytene cells) by comparison with placebo. Unexpectedly, the effect was not limited to cells exposed at the time of meiotic entry but was evident in all subsequent waves of meiosis. To determine if the meiotic effects induced by estrogen result from changes to the soma or germline of the testis, we transplanted spermatogonial stem cells from exposed males into the testes of unexposed males. Reduced recombination was evident in meiocytes derived from colonies of transplanted cells. Taken together, our results suggest that brief exogenous estrogenic exposure causes subtle changes to the stem cell pool that result in permanent alterations in spermatogenesis (i.e., reduced recombination in descendent meiocytes) in the adult male. PMID:25615633

Vrooman, Lisa A; Oatley, Jon M; Griswold, Jodi E; Hassold, Terry J; Hunt, Patricia A



Estrogenic Exposure Alters the Spermatogonial Stem Cells in the Developing Testis, Permanently Reducing Crossover Levels in the Adult  

PubMed Central

Bisphenol A (BPA) and other endocrine disrupting chemicals have been reported to induce negative effects on a wide range of physiological processes, including reproduction. In the female, BPA exposure increases meiotic errors, resulting in the production of chromosomally abnormal eggs. Although numerous studies have reported that estrogenic exposures negatively impact spermatogenesis, a direct link between exposures and meiotic errors in males has not been evaluated. To test the effect of estrogenic chemicals on meiotic chromosome dynamics, we exposed male mice to either BPA or to the strong synthetic estrogen, ethinyl estradiol during neonatal development when the first cells initiate meiosis. Although chromosome pairing and synapsis were unperturbed, exposed outbred CD-1 and inbred C3H/HeJ males had significantly reduced levels of crossovers, or meiotic recombination (as defined by the number of MLH1 foci in pachytene cells) by comparison with placebo. Unexpectedly, the effect was not limited to cells exposed at the time of meiotic entry but was evident in all subsequent waves of meiosis. To determine if the meiotic effects induced by estrogen result from changes to the soma or germline of the testis, we transplanted spermatogonial stem cells from exposed males into the testes of unexposed males. Reduced recombination was evident in meiocytes derived from colonies of transplanted cells. Taken together, our results suggest that brief exogenous estrogenic exposure causes subtle changes to the stem cell pool that result in permanent alterations in spermatogenesis (i.e., reduced recombination in descendent meiocytes) in the adult male. PMID:25615633

Vrooman, Lisa A.; Oatley, Jon M.; Griswold, Jodi E.; Hassold, Terry J.; Hunt, Patricia A.



Adult Basic Education: Aligning Adult Basic Education and Postsecondary Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2007, the 80th Texas Legislature included a rider to the General Appropriations Act for the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board. The rider directed the agency to coordinate with the Texas Education Agency to develop and implement plans to align adult basic education with postsecondary education. The Coordinating Board, in collaboration…

Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2008



Clofarabine in Adult Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors

Solid Tumors; Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Acute, Pediatric; Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Acute, Adult; Leukemia, Myelocytic, Acute, Pediatric; Leukemia, Myelocytic, Acute, Adult; Myelodysplastic Syndromes, Adult



Adult Basic Education; Operations Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is an administrative guide for Missouri school administrators and local adult basic education supervisors. First, general information is given as to legislative authority, standards for approval, procedures for implementation, expenditures and reimbursement, teacher qualifications, program administration, student eligibility and…

Missouri State Dept. of Education, Jefferson City.


Adult Children and Aging Parents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book was developed to assist counselors and other caregivers in working with adult children and their aging parents. The first chapter addresses normative developmental issues in later life. This includes the demography of aging, theories of aging, and attitudes toward older persons, along with suggestions for identifying at-risk populations,…

Myers, Jane E.


Mirror Image Confusability in Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several studies have indicated that children have difficulty differentiating mirror-image stimuli. In the present study adults were required to classify pairs of horseshoe stimuli as same or different. Response times were compared for stimulus pairs that varied in orientation (left-right vs up-down) and spatial plane of the pair (horizontal vs.…

Wolff, Peter


Is Adult Learning Demanding Enough?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a fascinating time for adult learning in the UK. With a plethora of reviews reaching report stage alongside ongoing discussion about funding, qualifications and quality and the review of post-16 planning and funding in Wales, there is a real sense that things are about to change after a decade of well-meant but often misfocused reform.…

Hughes, David



Handbook of Australian Adult Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Australian handbook describes 20 national adult education bodies, followed by eight colleges and other organizations in the Capital Territory, 21 in New South Wales, 11 in Queensland, 14 in South Australia, nine in Tasmania, 14 in Victoria, and ten in Western Australia. The Australian Institutes of Management and of Political Science,…

Wilson, J.L.J., Ed.


Adult Education and the Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Due to the effects of global warming, writes Field, everyone now lives in times of plague, floods, and famine. While the UK government's track record on green issues is not all bad, still it is vulnerable to criticism. In this article, the author discusses what adult education has to offer to the environmental movement, despite existing…

Field, John



Algebraic Thinking in Adult Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In adult education, algebraic thinking can be a sense-making tool that introduces coherence among mathematical concepts for those who previously have had trouble learning math. Further, a modeling approach to algebra connects mathematics and the real world, demonstrating the usefulness of math to those who have seen it as just an academic…

Manly, Myrna; Ginsburg, Lynda



The Economics of Adult Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the "Hamburg Declaration" makes clear, adult education (AE) is a key component of development strategies that seek to ensure the long-term well-being of nations. Yet, with few exceptions most countries systematically underinvest in AE. Of course, it is no easy task to achieve adequate investment levels that reflect an appropriate balance…

Desjardins, Richard



Adult Education and Development, 1993.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These two issues of a half-yearly journal for adult education cover Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Number 40 consists of 35 articles on 4 themes: Multicultural dimensions; environmental learning; cooperation and partnership with Eastern Europe; and women and training. Articles include: "It Is Time to Understand that the World Belongs to All of…

Hinzen, Heribert, Ed.



Visuomotor Binding in Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Action integration is the process through which actions performed on a stimulus and perceptual aspects of the stimulus become bound as a unitary object. This process appears to be controlled by the dopaminergic system in the prefrontal cortex, an area that is known to decrease in volume and dopamine functioning in older adults. Although the…

Bloesch, Emily K.; Abrams, Richard A.



Films/Videos for Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews six films designed for adults released between 1988 and 1992, most of which focus on the challenges that children face, including (1) See What I'm Saying; (2) Something Magical; (3) We Have Something to Say: Children, Computers, and Special Education; (4) Shortchanging Girls, Shortchanging America; (5) Take Me to Your Leaders; and (6) The…

Stanford, Beverly Hardcastle



Where Now for Adult Learning?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With 6 billion British pounds of public spending reductions already on the table, and far deeper cuts inevitable, what are the prospects for adult learning in the new Parliament? Some of the regular contributors of this journal were asked what they expected and what they would like to see. Ewart Keep warns that the coalition parties' commitments…

Keep, Ewart; Rogers, David; Hunt, Sally; Walden, Christopher; Fryer, Bob; Gorard, Stephen; Williams, Ceri; Jones, Wendy; Hartley, Ralph



Beverage consumption of Canadian adults.  


According to results from the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey-Nutrition, total beverage consumption among adults declined steadily with age. This reflects drops in the percentage of adults consuming most beverages and in the amounts consumed. While water was the beverage consumed most frequently and in the greatest quantity by adults, for many of them, coffee ranked second. Largely as a result of drinking coffee, more than 20% of men and 15% of women aged 31 to 70 exceeded the recommended maximum of 400 milligrams of caffeine per day. About 20% of men aged 19 to 70 consumed more than two alcoholic drinks a day. Owing to declines in the consumption of soft drinks and alcohol, the contribution of beverages to adults' total calorie intake falls at older ages. Regardless of age, men were generally more likely than women to report drinking most beverages, and those who did, drank more. There were, however, a few exceptions, with higher percentages of women than men reporting that they drank water and tea. PMID:19226924

Garriguet, Didier



Energy Balance Survey: Adult Questionnaire

The Physician Survey of Practices on Diet, Physical Activity, and Weight Control -- Adult Questionnaire is sponsored by the National Cancer Institute in collaboration with the Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research, the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.


Adult Height and Childhood Disease  

PubMed Central

Taller populations are typically richer populations, and taller individuals live longer and earn more. In consequence, adult height has recently become a focus in understanding the relationship between health and wealth. We investigate the childhood determinants of population adult height, focusing on the respective roles of income and of disease. Across a range of European countries and the United States, we find a strong inverse relationship between postneonatal (ages 1 month to 1 year) mortality, interpreted as a measure of the disease and nutritional burden in childhood, and the mean height of those children as adults. Consistent with these findings, we develop a model of selection and stunting in which the early-life burden of undernutrition and disease not only is responsible for mortality in childhood but also leaves a residue of long-term health risks for survivors, risks that express themselves in adult height and in late-life disease. The model predicts that at sufficiently high mortality levels, selection can dominate scarring, leaving a taller population of survivors. We find evidence of this effect in the poorest and highest-mortality countries of the world, supplementing recent findings on the effects of the Great Chinese Famine. PMID:20084823





ERIC Educational Resources Information Center




Overcoming Exclusion through Adult Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Strategies for overcoming exclusion through adult learning were identified through case studies of 19 initiatives in the following countries: Belgium; Mexico; the Netherlands; Norway; Portugal; and the United Kingdom. The study programs involved a diverse array of formal, nonformal, and informal public sector, community, and enterprise-based…

Nash, Ian; Walshe, John


Adult Vaccination--A Commentary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditionally, vaccines have been associated with childhood. Historically, many of the most-feared communicable diseases attacked infants and toddlers, and those who survived were generally protected from those diseases as adults. During the past century tremendous advances in vaccination spared millions the morbidity and mortality associated with…

Logan, Jennifer



Child effects on adult behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conducted a study in which child personality characteristics were treated as independent variables, and adult nurturant or nonnurturant responses as dependent variables. In a nursery school setting, 2 female caretakers were trained to play either a high- or a low-nurturant role with small groups of boys and girls (n = 118). Each child was to receive equal treatment from the

Marian R. Yarrow; Carolyn Z. Waxler; Phyllis M. Scott



New Directions in Adult Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How are educators moving museums' interpretive goals beyond exhibition galleries? How are programs creating new relationships between a museum and its adult audiences? As plans for physical transformation at the Chicago History Museum took form, the education department launched a parallel process of planning to redefine the "look and feel" for…

McRainey, D. Lynn



Management of ALL in Adults

Management of ALL in Adolescents and Young Adults: What have we learned and what are our challenges? Wendy Stock, MD University of Chicago 0 Survival 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 5-Year Survival Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia 1975-1998 20 40 60 80 Age


Neurobiological Learning and Adult Literacy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document, which is designed for adult literacy practitioners, differentiates between the different types of literacy, explains the principles of neurobiological learning and their relationship to the development of literacy and numeracy skills, and presents a neurobiology-based technique of literacy instruction. The differences between…

Winters, Clyde A.


Adult Use of Tobacco, 1975.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1964, 1966, and 1970, studies were conducted among the adult (21 and over) population of the United States in order to determine attitudes, knowledge, and behavior related to the use of tobacco--especially cigarette smoking. With a lapse of five years since the last national study, it was necessary to determine what changes in behavior and…



Arts & Humanities in Adult Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of a quarterly newsletter on lifelong learning focuses on the theme of the arts and humanities in adult literacy education. The following articles are included: (1) "In Defense of a Practical Education" (Earl Shorris); (2) "From the Program Director" (Elizabeth Bryant McCrary); (3) "Vermont Council on the Humanities: Book Discussion…

Word's Worth: A Quarterly Newsletter of the Lifelong Learning Network, 1998



Adult Braille Instruction in Finland.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A program of the Finnish Central Federation of the Visually Handicapped is described. The program's aim is to provide and develop teaching materials and instructional methods to help persons who lost their eyesight as adults to learn braille. Discussed are personal tutoring, correspondence studying, regional courses, and program plans. (Author/JDD)

Heikkila, M.



Young Adults' Choices for 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents annotations of 30 works of adolescent literature (published in 1999) chosen as the result of voting by students in five different regions of the United States. Notes that the goals of the project are to encourage young people to read and to make teens, teachers, librarians, and parents aware of new literature for young adults. (SG)

Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 2001



Adult Education and Worldview Construction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book frames the higher purposes of adult education in terms of worldview construction. Building on the work of Martin Heidegger, the first of the book's eight chapters defines worldview in two ways: as a vantage point in time and culture that conditions a person's experience of the world and as a person's understanding of the world. Chapter 2…

McKenzie, Leon


Adult Education in Saudi Arabia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Religion pervades all aspects of Saudi Arabia, the conservative home of Islam, where the constitution is the Quran and law is interpreted by religious scholars. A formal adult basic education program was initiated in 1960. As part of the country's modernization since the early 1970s, the Saudi government has begun an enormous nation-building plan…

Griffin, Tim D.; Algren, Mark S.


Counseling Adults for Life Transitions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adult counseling is assuming increasing importance in counselor education and training. Most important is the developmental aspect of growth all through life, since adulthood is not a static period but can be as fraught with conflict and choice as childhood or adolescence. Outlines describe some important differences between young people and…

Walz, Garry R.; Benjamin, Libby


Parents as Developing Adult Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing largely on the literature from adult learning and development, this article presents parents as continuous learners whose critical reflections on their experiences with parenting can be rich fodder for their growth and development. Theories and models are highlighted that may suggest a wider repertoire of approaches for helping…

Marienau, Catherine; Segal, Joy



Adult hippocampal neurogenesis in depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of new treatments for depression is predicated upon identification of neural substrates and mechanisms that underlie its etiology and pathophysiology. The heterogeneity of depression indicates that its origin may lie in dysfunction of multiple brain regions. Here we evaluate adult hippocampal neurogenesis as a candidate mechanism for the etiology of depression and as a substrate for antidepressant action.

Amar Sahay; Rene Hen



Benign aqueduct stenosis in adults  

PubMed Central

A series of 55 cases is described in which hydrocephalus associated with non-neoplastic narrowing of the Sylvian aqueduct produced symptoms for the first time in adult life. The clinical features of the patients and their investigation are described and discussed. PMID:4548717

Harrison, M. J. G.; Robert, C. M.; Uttley, D.



Young Adults' Implicit and Explicit Attitudes towards the Sexuality of Older Adults.  


ABSTRACT Sexual interest and capacity can extend far into later life and result in many positive health outcomes. Yet there is little support for sexual expression in later life, particularly among young adults. This study assessed and compared young adults' explicit and implicit attitudes towards older adult sexuality. A sample of 120 participants (18-24 years; 58% female) completed a self-report (explicit) measure and a series of Implicit Association Tests capturing attitudes towards sexuality among older adults. Despite reporting positive explicit attitudes, young people revealed an implicit bias against the sexual lives of older adults. In particular, young adults demonstrated implicit biases favouring general, as compared to sexual, activities and young adults as compared to older adults. Moreover, the bias favouring general activities was amplified with regard to older adults as compared to younger adults. Our findings challenge the validity of research relying on self-reports of attitudes about older adult sexuality. PMID:25050559

Thompson, Ashley E; O'Sullivan, Lucia F; Byers, E Sandra; Shaughnessy, Krystelle



Cochlear Implantation in Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Cochlear implants allow individuals with severe-to-profound hearing loss access to sound and spoken language. The number of older adults in the United States who are potential candidates for cochlear implantation is approximately 150,000 and will continue to increase with the aging of the population. Should cochlear implantation (CI) be routinely recommended for these older adults, and do these individuals benefit from CI? We reviewed our 12 year experience with cochlear implantation in adults ?60 years (n = 445) at Johns Hopkins to investigate the impact of CI on speech understanding and to identify factors associated with speech performance. Complete data on speech outcomes at baseline and 1 year post-CI were available for 83 individuals. Our results demonstrate that cochlear implantation in adults ?60 years consistently improved speech understanding scores with a mean increase of 60. 0% (S. D. 24. 1) on HINT sentences in quiet . The magnitude of the gain in speech scores was negatively associated with age at implantation such that for every increasing year of age at CI the gain in speech scores was 1. 3 percentage points less (95% CI: 0. 6 – 1. 9) after adjusting for age at hearing loss onset. Conversely, individuals with higher pre-CI speech scores (HINT scores between 40–60%) had significantly greater post-CI speech scores by a mean of 10. 0 percentage points (95% CI: 0. 4 – 19. 6) than those with lower pre-CI speech scores (HINT <40%) after adjusting for age at CI and age at hearing loss onset. These results suggest that older adult CI candidates who are younger at implantation and with higher preoperative speech scores obtain the highest speech understanding scores after cochlear implantation with possible implications for current Medicare policy. Finally, we provide an extended discussion of the epidemiology and impact of hearing loss in older adults. Future research of CI in older adults should expand beyond simple speech outcomes to take into account the broad cognitive, social, and physical functioning outcomes that are likely detrimentally impacted by hearing loss and may be mitigated by cochlear implantation. PMID:22932787

Lin, Frank R.; Chien, Wade W.; Li, Lingsheng; Niparko, John K.; Francis, Howard W.



Psychometric Analyses of the Adult Manifest Anxiety Scale-Adult Version among Young and Middle-Aged Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Responses of 871 adults to the Adult Manifest Anxiety Scale-Adult version (AMAS-A) were factor analyzed using the method of principal axis factoring with promax rotation. Factor analysis yielded a four-factor solution: three anxiety factors (Worry/Oversensitivity, Stress, and Physiological Anxiety) and a Lie factor. The AMAS-A's three-factor…

Lowe, Patricia A.; Reynolds, Cecil R.



Idiopathic adult growth hormone deficiency.  


GH secretion is controlled by hypothalamic as well as intrapituitary and peripheral signals, all of which converge upon the somatotroph, resulting in integrated GH synthesis and secretion. Enabling an accurate diagnosis of idiopathic adult GH deficiency (IAGHD) is challenged by the pulsatility of GH secretion, provocative test result variability, and suboptimal GH assay standardization. The spectrum between attenuated GH secretion associated with the normal aging process and with obesity and truly well-defined IAGHD is not distinct and may mislead the diagnosis. Adult-onset GHD is mainly caused by an acquired pituitary deficiency, commonly including prior head/neck irradiation, or an expanding pituitary mass causing functional somatotroph compression. To what extent rare cryptic causes account for those patients seemingly classified as IAGHD is unclear. About 15% of patients with adult GHD and receiving GH replacement in open-label surveillance studies are reported as being due to an idiopathic cause. These patients may also reflect a pool of subjects with an as yet to be determined occult defect, or those with unclear or incomplete medical histories (including forgotten past sports head injury or motor vehicle accident). Therefore, submaximal diagnostic evaluation likely leads to an inadvertent diagnosis of IAGHD. In these latter cases, adherence to rigorous biochemical diagnostic criteria and etiology exclusion may result in reclassification of a subset of these patients to a distinct known acquired etiology, or as GH-replete. Accordingly, rigorously verified IAGHD likely comprises less than 10% of adult GHD patients, an already rare disorder. Regardless of etiology, patients with adult GHD, including those with IAGHD, exhibit a well-defined clinical phenotype including increased fat mass, loss of lean muscle mass, decreased bone mass, and enhanced cardiac morbidity. Definition of unique efficacy and dosing parameters for GH replacement and resultant therapeutic efficacy markers in true IAGHD requires prospective study. PMID:23539718

Melmed, Shlomo



The Spiritual Dimension of Adult Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes psychological perspectives on spiritual development within cultural contexts. Recommends that adult educators acknowledge the search for meaning, recognize adult learning is intended to nurture the soul, and become aware of how humans construct knowledge through images and symbols. (SK)

Tisdell, Elizabeth J.



Weakened Immune System and Adult Vaccination  


... Conditions Share Compartir Weakened Immune System and Adult Vaccination Vaccines are especially critical for people with health ... up to age 26 years Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Type 1 ...


Lung Disease Including Asthma and Adult Vaccination  


... Share Compartir Lung Disease including Asthma and Adult Vaccination Vaccines are especially critical for people with chronic ... have immunity to this disease Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Type 1 ...


Senior Health: Older Adults and Newer Technology  


... Medical Director Senior Health: Older Adults and Newer Technology Volume 15 · Issue 6 · November/December 2005 Text ... adults who struggle to stand and walk. New technology includes knee units, shock-absorbing pylons, and other ...


CDC Vital Signs: Adults with Disabilities  


... health behavior to help avoid these chronic diseases. 82% Adults with disabilities were 82% more likely to be physically active if their ... get physical activity. Yet adults with disabilities were 82% more likely to be physically active if their ...


General Information about Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia  


... Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a type of cancer in which the ... to radiation may increase the risk of developing ALL. Anything that increases your risk of getting a ...


The day of your surgery - adult  


Same day surgery - adult; Surgical procedure - adult ... Learn about what to expect on the day of surgery. You will feel better if you are prepared. The doctor’s office will let you know what time you should arrive on ...


Recent progress of adult orthodontic treatment.  


With the improvement of living standards and oral health awareness in people and with the development of the techniques in orthodontic therapy,the number of adult patients in orthodontics is gradually increasing. Due to adults' social occupations,psychological factors,complicated intraoral status,these factors make adult patients differences from adolescents. In this paper,the problems related with adult orthodontic treatment were reviewed. PMID:25556745

Li, Sheng-Nan; Zhang, Ding



Health disparities among adults with developmental disabilities, adults with other disabilities, and adults not reporting disability in North Carolina.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: The purposes of this study were (1) to identify disparities between adults with developmental disabilities and non-disabled adults in health and medical care, and (2) to compare this pattern of disparities to the pattern of disparities between adults with other disabilities and adults without disabilities. METHODS: The authors compared data on health status, health risk behaviors, chronic health conditions, and utilization of medical care across three groups of adults: No Disability, Disability, and Developmental Disability. Data sources were the 2001 North Carolina Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and the North Carolina National Core Indicators survey. RESULTS: Adults with developmental disabilities were more likely to lead sedentary lifestyles and seven times as likely to report inadequate emotional support, compared with adults without disabilities. Adults with disabilities and developmental disabilities were significantly more likely to report being in fair or poor health than adults without disabilities. Similar rates of tobacco use and overweight/obesity were reported. Adults with developmental disabilities had a similar or greater risk of having four of five chronic health conditions compared with non-disabled adults. Significant medical care utilization disparities were found for breast and cervical cancer screening as well as for oral health care. Adults with developmental disabilities presented a unique risk for inadequate emotional support and low utilization of breast and cervical cancer screenings. CONCLUSIONS: Significant disparities in health and medical care utilization were found for adults with developmental disabilities relative to non-disabled adults. The National Core Indicators protocol offers a sound methodology to gather much-needed surveillance information on the health status, health risk behaviors, and medical care utilization of adults with developmental disabilities. Health promotion efforts must be specifically designed for this population. PMID:15219799

Havercamp, Susan M.; Scandlin, Donna; Roth, Marcia



Prenatal stress and adult drug-seeking behavior: interactions with genes and relation to nondrug-related behavior.  


Addiction inflicts large personal, social, and economic burdens, yet its etiology is poorly defined and effective treatments are lacking. As with other neuropsychiatric disorders, addiction is characterized by a core set of symptoms and behaviors that are believed to be influenced by complex gene-environment interactions. Our group focuses on the interaction between early stress and genetic background in determining addiction vulnerability. Prior work by our group and others has indicated that a history of prenatal stress (PNS) in rodents elevates adult drug seeking in a number of behavioral paradigms. The focus of the present chapter is to summarize work in the area of PNS and addiction models as well as our recent studies of PNS on drug seeking in different strains of mice as a strategy to dissect gene-environment interactions underlying cocaine addiction vulnerability. These studies indicate that ability of PNS to elevate adult cocaine seeking is strain dependent. Further, PNS also alters other nondrug behaviors in a fashion that is dependent on different strains and independent from the strain dependence of drug seeking. Thus, it appears that the ability of PNS to alter behavior related to different psychiatric conditions is orthogonal, with similar nonspecific susceptibility to prenatal stress across genetic backgrounds but with the genetic background determining the specific nature of the PNS effects. Finally, the advent of recombinant inbred mouse strains is allowing us to determine the genetic bases of these gene-environment interactions. Understanding these effects will have broad implications to determining the nature of vulnerability to addiction and perhaps other disorders. PMID:25287537

Kippin, Tod E; Campbell, Jaonnalee C; Ploense, Kyle; Knight, Chris P; Bagley, Jared



Museums: Adult Education as Cultural Politics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The sites of adult education practice are multiple, and museums feature regularly among these sites (Chadwick and Stannett, 1995, 2000). This chapter explores the potential of museums as sites for critical "public pedagogy." It foregrounds the role of adult educators as co-interrogators with adult learners of what is generally perceived as…

Borg, Carmel; Mayo, Peter



Adult Partial Hospitalization JOHN DEMPSEY HOSPITAL  

E-print Network

." The Adult Partial Hospitalization Program is a day treatment program specifically designed for the diagnosisAdult Partial Hospitalization Program JOHN DEMPSEY HOSPITAL CONTACT US For further The Adult Partial Hospitalization Program is available Monday through Friday from 9 a.m. to 2:05 p.m. OUR

Oliver, Douglas L.


Competency-Based Adult Education: Florida Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This compilation of program materials serves as an introduction to Florida's Brevard Community College's (BCC's) Competency-Based Adult High School Completion Project, a multi-year project designed to teach adult administrators, counselors, and teachers how to organize and implement a competency-based adult education (CBAE) program; to critique…

Singer, Elizabeth


Adult-Literacy Education in Jamaica.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some 42% of Jamaica's adult population was not functionally literate in 1962--figures that precipitated expansion in adult literacy and Basic Education programs as described in this survey report. Following a seven-page introductory historical profile, the authors note attempts made to assess adult illiteracy, such as the 1975 survey that found…

Miller, Harry; And Others


Identifying Metacognitive Social Skills in Young Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper examines research on social skills instruction for learning disabled young adults. It is suggested that learning disabled young adults must develop methods of analyzing their social inadequacies. Such analyses may come from the young adults, when they are able to apply metacognition skills to social situations. Parents, teachers, and/or…

Clary, Linda M.


HIV Education for Adult Literacy Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This staff development package is designed to inform adult literacy practitioners about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome/Human Immunodeficiency Virus (AIDS/HIV) and to facilitate implementation of HIV education in adult literacy programs. It is intended to teach them to plan and implement HIV education for their adult literacy students and to…

Smith, Barbara E.


Audiovocal Integration in Adults Who Stutter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Altered auditory feedback can facilitate speech fluency in adults who stutter. However, other findings suggest that adults who stutter show anomalies in "audiovocal integration", such as longer phonation reaction times to auditory stimuli and less effective pitch tracking. Aims: To study audiovocal integration in adults who stutter…

Loucks, Torrey; Chon, HeeCheong; Han, Woojae



Older Adults and Gambling: A Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper uses the social cognitive theory model to review the literature on older adult gambling, and related personal and environment characteristics. Results show that lottery is the kind of gambling most frequently played by older adults, followed by casino games. Older adults take trips to casinos to socialize, find excitement, and win…

Ariyabuddhiphongs, Vanchai



Adult Education School to Work. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A project identified and established components related to adult basic education's role in school-to-work (STW) transition. It focused on developing a cognitive framework for competency-based adult employability classes, integrating adult basic and literacy education (ABLE)-funded programs into the Erie Area STW partnership, and establishing a…

Bean, Molly


Teaching Adult Students Mathematical Investigations-6.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teaching Adult Students Mathematical Investigation is based on the continuing research work carried out for the last ten years of teaching on the Foundation Course in Mathematics at Goldsmiths, University of London. Teaching Mathematical Investigation to adult students is a very challenging and often rewarding experience for adult educators as…

Angiama, R. O.


Juveniles' Competence to Stand Trial as Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary During the 1990s, nationwide legal reforms lowered the age at which youths could be tried in adult criminal court and expanded the range of young offenders subject to adult adjudication and punishment. The present study asked whether, to what extent, and at what ages juveniles may be more at risk than adults for incompetence as legal defendants in criminal

Laurence Steinberg; Thomas Grisso; Jennifer Woolard; Elizabeth Cauffman; Elizabeth Scott; Sandra Graham; Fran Lexcen; N. Dickon Reppucci; Robert Schwartz



Adult Language Learners: Context and Innovation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Adult Language Learners: Context and Innovation" presents instructional practices that are particularly successful with adults. Adult language learners are goal oriented and direct their learning to fulfill particular needs or demands: to advance their studies, to progress up the career ladder, to follow business opportunities, to pass a driving…

Smith, Ann F. V., Ed.; Strong, Gregory, Ed.



Critical Discourse Analysis, Adult Education and "Fitba"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article I will use an example of current adult education practice, the Glory and Dismay Football Literacies Programme (GDFLP) to appraise the value of critical discourse analysis (CDA) for adult learners, both individually and collectively, and for adult education practitioners with an interest in developing critical literacy skills. The…

Player, John



Raising "Hot Topics" through Young Adult Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While young adult literature increases adolescents' motivation to read, and adolescents choose to read young adult novels over more canonical works when given opportunities to choose, the authors present yet another reason for teaching young adult literature in the middle school classroom: it provides a medium through which adolescents and their…

Groenke, Susan; Maples, Joellen; Henderson, Jill



Enrollment and Retention Barriers Adult Students Encounter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By estimate, more than 47% of enrollees in U.S. higher education institutions can be classified as adult learners (Creighton & Hudson, 2002). Adults pursue higher education for various reasons including personal enrichment, change of career, or a requirement for promotion. The majority of adult students enroll in community colleges to fulfill…

Spellman, Natasha



Physical Criteria for Adult Learning Environments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development of learning environments especially for adults has been neglected and research in planning such environments is fragmented and minimal. There is general agreement that facilities for adults should have an aura of adulthood to contribute to an adult's feeling of ease, confidence, and capability; that they should be flexible in room…

White, Sally


Nutrition Goals for Older Adults: A Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses specific goals of nutrition education for older adults and high-risk groups within the elderly population through review of three crucial areas: current knowledge of eating patterns, nutrient intake, and supplement use of older adults; existing information on multiple influences on eating habits of older adults; and potential benefits…

Horwath, Caroline C.



Barriers to Adult Learning: Bridging the Gap  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A fundamental aspect of adult education is engaging adults in becoming lifelong learners. More often than not, this requires removing barriers to learning, especially those relating to the actual organisational or institutional learning process. This article explores some of the main barriers to adult learning discussed in the literature and…

Falasca, Marina



Adult Education as Vocation: A Critical Role for the Adult Educator.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fixation on technique, erosion of autonomous and community interests, and efforts to increase professionalization of adult education (which tends to emphasize the differences between adult educators and adult learners rather than their common interests) have created a crisis in adult education. Contemporary practice and research on self-directed…

Collins, Michael


Widespread Pain in Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The differential diagnosis of widespread pain in older adults is broad, with fibromyaglia syndrome (FMS) leading the list.\\u000a While the exact pathogenesis of FMS is not clear, recent studies suggest that abnormal pain processing and central sensitization\\u000a contribute to the development of chronic muscle pain and tender points. Precise diagnosis of FMS requires a targeted history\\u000a and physical examination. A

Cheryl D. Bernstein; Jordan F. Karp; Debra K. Weiner


Older Adults and Food Safety  


... Administrative Forms Standard Forms Skip Navigation Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H1 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... / Topics / ... Safety / Older Adults and Food Safety Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H3 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Z7_ ...


Tectal plate cyst in adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Tectal plate cysts are very rare. We report two adult patients with benign tectal plate cyst and secondary hydrocephalus.\\u000a The first patient had an unusual eye movement disorder with bilateral upper eyelid retraction (Collier’s sign), limited upgaze,\\u000a severe upgaze evoked nystagmus and retraction nystagmus. The second patient presented with ataxia and failure of upward gaze.\\u000a Endoscopic fenestration of the tectal

V. Kumar; E. W. K. Peng; M. O. Fitzpatrick; I. R. Whittle



Management of adult choledochal cysts.  

PubMed Central

A review of the English literature reveals a total of 1,337 patients with choledochal cysts. Improved diagnostic techniques to visualize the biliary system are demonstrating an increasing number of unsuspected choledochal cysts in adult patients. Either choledochal cysts remain clinically silent until adulthood or may develop in later life. Experience is reported with adult patients having type I, II, III, and IV choledochal cysts. Type I cysts are preferably managed by excision but cyst anatomy may necessitate choledochoenteric drainage. Type II cysts are treated by excision except for those located within the pancreatic portion of the common bile duct. These are best managed by transduodenal cystoduodenostomy. The type III cyst (choledochocele) should be excised carefully, identifying and preserving the common bile and pancreatic ducts. Type IV cysts include a combination of any one of the first three types of cyst plus the presence of intrahepatic cyst or cysts. Treatment of these cysts is dictated by the type and location of the extrahepatic cyst. Since choledochal cysts are being recognized with increased frequency in adults, surgeons need to be aware of the diagnostic and treatment modalities available for each type of biliary cyst. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. PMID:7235770

Powell, C S; Sawyers, J L; Reynolds, V H



HIV & AIDS in older adults.  


Many Americans mistakenly believe that older adults are not at risk for HIV/AIDS. Older people do not perceive themselves to be at risk for HIV infection, either. In reality, approximately 10% of AIDS cases are among people older than 50. Many health care providers lack an awareness of the risk of HIV/AIDS in the elderly population, and as a result, many older people with these conditions are misdiagnosed with other ailments. Major manifestations of HIV/AIDS in elderly adults include Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, herpes zoster, tuberculosis, cytomegalovirus, oral thrush, Mycobacterium avium complex, and HIV dementia. Elderly HIV-positive women have special health concerns, such as cervical cancer. Nurses and nurse practitioners can heighten their colleagues' awareness of the existence of HIV/AIDS in the elderly population and educate their older patients on HIV/AIDS. Furthermore, information about sexuality and sexual practices of older adults should be incorporated into all health science curricula. Additional research is needed to determine the extent of the problem and how health care providers can best serve their older patients' needs. PMID:10703354

Wooten-Bielski, K



Illusory recollection in older adults and younger adults under divided attention.  


The authors investigated the effect of divided attention, study-list repetition, and age on recollection and familiarity. Older and younger adults under full attention and younger adults under divided attention at study viewed word lists highly associated with a single unstudied word (critical lure) once or three times, and subsequently performed a remember-know recognition test. Younger adults made fewer false remember responses to critical lures from repeated study lists, whereas younger adults under divided attention and older adults both showed an increase with repetition. Findings suggest older adults' susceptibility to illusory memories is related to a deficit in available attention during encoding. PMID:19290753

Skinner, Erin I; Fernandes, Myra A



Drosophila adult olfactory shock learning.  


Drosophila have been used in classical conditioning experiments for over 40 years, thus greatly facilitating our understanding of memory, including the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms involved in cognitive diseases. Learning and memory can be assayed in larvae to study the effect of neurodevelopmental genes and in flies to measure the contribution of adult plasticity genes. Furthermore, the short lifespan of Drosophila facilitates the analysis of genes mediating age-related memory impairment. The availability of many inducible promoters that subdivide the Drosophila nervous system makes it possible to determine when and where a gene of interest is required for normal memory as well as relay of different aspects of the reinforcement signal. Studying memory in adult Drosophila allows for a detailed analysis of the behavior and circuitry involved and a measurement of long-term memory. The length of the adult stage accommodates longer-term genetic, behavioral, dietary and pharmacological manipulations of memory, in addition to determining the effect of aging and neurodegenerative disease on memory. Classical conditioning is induced by the simultaneous presentation of a neutral odor cue (conditioned stimulus, CS(+)) and a reinforcement stimulus, e.g., an electric shock or sucrose, (unconditioned stimulus, US), that become associated with one another by the animal. A second conditioned stimulus (CS(-)) is subsequently presented without the US. During the testing phase, Drosophila are simultaneously presented with CS+ and CS- odors. After the Drosophila are provided time to choose between the odors, the distribution of the animals is recorded. This procedure allows associative aversive or appetitive conditioning to be reliably measured without a bias introduced by the innate preference for either of the conditioned stimuli. Various control experiments are also performed to test whether all genotypes respond normally to odor and reinforcement alone. PMID:25145496

Malik, Bilal R; Hodge, James J L



Adult skeletal muscle stem cells.  


Skeletal muscles in vertebrates have a phenomenal regenerative capacity. A muscle that has been crushed can regenerate fully both structurally and functionally within a month. Remarkably, efficient regeneration continues to occur following repeated injuries. Thousands of muscle precursor cells are needed to accomplish regeneration following acute injury. The differentiated muscle cells, the multinucleated contractile myofibers, are terminally withdrawn from mitosis. The source of the regenerative precursors is the skeletal muscle stem cells-the mononucleated cells closely associated with myofibers, which are known as satellite cells. Satellite cells are mitotically quiescent or slow-cycling, committed to myogenesis, but undifferentiated. Disruption of the niche after muscle damage results in their exit from quiescence and progression towards commitment. They eventually arrest proliferation, differentiate, and fuse to damaged myofibers or make de novo myofibers. Satellite cells are one of the well-studied adult tissue-specific stem cells and have served as an excellent model for investigating adult stem cells. They have also emerged as an important standard in the field of ageing and stem cells. Several recent reviews have highlighted the importance of these cells as a model to understand stem cell biology. This chapter begins with the discovery of satellite cells as skeletal muscle stem cells and their developmental origin. We discuss transcription factors and signalling cues governing stem cell function of satellite cells and heterogeneity in the satellite cell pool. Apart from satellite cells, a number of other stem cells have been shown to make muscle and are being considered as candidate stem cells for amelioration of muscle degenerative diseases. We discuss these "offbeat" muscle stem cells and their status as adult skeletal muscle stem cells vis-a-vis satellite cells. The ageing context is highlighted in the concluding section. PMID:25344672

Sambasivan, Ramkumar; Tajbakhsh, Shahragim



Perimenstrual Flare of Adult Acne  

PubMed Central

Background: Acne is typically regarded as an adolescent disease. A significant body of literature suggests a post-adolescent or adult form of acne. Female patients are known to experience perimenstrual acne flares, the exact prevalence of which is unknown. Objective: To establish a pattern of perimenstrual acne flare in adult women in order to better characterize the disorder. Methods: Subjects aged 18 and over were recruited during previously scheduled visits with their dermatologist at Mount Sinai Hospital in New York. An anonymous survey was distributed to women who reported their first menses at least six months earlier and had a complaint of acne within the last 30 days. Women <18 years of age and postmenopausal women were excluded from the study population. Results: Participants included women 18- to 29-years old (67%) and women 30- to 49-years old (33%). The ethnicity of respondents was Caucasian (50%), African American (20%), Latino (19%), Asian (5%), and Other (6%). The majority of participants with perimenstrual acne reported the onset of acne between the ages of 12 and 18 years. Sixty-five percent of participants reported that their acne symptoms were worse with their menses. Of those who reported perimenstrual acne symptoms, 56 percent reported worsening symptoms in the week preceding their menses, 17 percent reported worsening symptoms during their menses, three percent reported worsening symptoms after their menses, and 24 percent reported worsening symptoms throughout their cycle. Thirty-five percent of patients with perimenstrual acne reported oral contraceptive pill use. Conclusion: A significant number of adult women have perimenstrual acne symptoms. This study has proven to be useful in characterizing perimenstrual acne flare and is one of the first qualitative documentations of the presence and degree of this disorder. PMID:25161758

Geller, Lauren; Rosen, Jamie; Frankel, Amylynne; Goldenberg, Gary



Distinctive features of adult ocular dominance plasticity  

PubMed Central

Sensory experience profoundly shapes neural circuitry of juvenile brain. Although the visual cortex of adult rodents retains a capacity for plasticity in response to monocular visual deprivation, the nature of this plasticity and the neural circuit changes that accompany it remain enigmatic. Here we investigate differences between adult and juvenile ocular dominance plasticity using Fourier optical imaging of intrinsic signals in mouse visual cortex. This comparison reveals that adult plasticity takes longer than in the juvenile mouse, is of smaller magnitude, has a greater contribution from the increase in response to the open eye, and has less effect on the hemisphere ipsilateral to the deprived eye. Binocular deprivation also causes different changes in the adult. Adult plasticity is similar to juvenile plasticity in its dependence on signaling through NMDA receptors. We propose that adult ocular dominance plasticity arises from compensatory mechanisms that counterbalance the loss of afferent activity caused by visual deprivation. PMID:18842887

Sato, Masaaki; Stryker, Michael P.



Adult immunization priorities in the United States.  


Pneumonia and influenza (P&I) are the sixth leading cause of death in the United States. Despite universal coverage under Medicare, one-half to three-quarters of elderly adults fail to get vaccinated against P&I disease. Hepatitis B vaccine is also widely underutilized by adults. Although more than 100 times as many adults as children die from vaccine-preventable disease, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) currently allocates the vast majority of federal immunization funds to childhood programs. Top CDC officials say this is in accordance with the will of the Congress and the President. However, analysis of legislative documents shows that there is no legal bar or restriction to the use of federal funds to support adult immunization. CDC has the authority to use federal immunization funds to enhance adult immunization services, but the agency has yet to make adult immunization a priority. A commentary follows. PMID:8632737

Lee, J S