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1

Early environmental and social factors affecting adult aggressiveness in inbred mice  

E-print Network

of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1971 Major Subject: Psychology EARLY ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL FACTORS AFFECTING ADULT AGGRESSIVENESS IN INBRED MICE A Thesis by MICHAEL LYNN ALLENDER Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Commi ee) (Member... behavioral system which allows animals to adjust to situations involving physical conflict between members of the same species. In defining the limits of agonistic behavior, Scott lists behaioral patterns which are not so easily interpreted...

Allender, Michael Lynn

2012-06-07

2

Intentional genetic introgression influences survival of adults and subadults in a small, inbred felid population.  

PubMed

1. Inbreeding and low genetic diversity can cause reductions in individual fitness and increase extinction risk in animal populations. Intentional introgression, achieved by releasing genetically diverse individuals into inbred populations, has been used as a conservation tool to improve demographic performance in endangered populations. 2. By the 1980s, Florida panthers (Puma concolor coryi) had been reduced to a small, inbred population that appeared to be on the brink of extinction. In 1995, female pumas from Texas (P. c. stanleyana) were released in occupied panther range as part of an intentional introgression programme to restore genetic variability and improve demographic performance of panthers. 3. We used 25 years (1981-2006) of continuous radiotelemetry and genetic data to estimate and model subadult and adult panther survival and cause-specific mortality to provide rigorous sex and age class-specific survival estimates and evaluate the effect of the introgression programme on these parameters. 4. Genetic ancestry influenced annual survival of subadults and adults after introgression, as F(1) generation admixed panthers ( = 0·98) survived better than pre-introgression type panthers ( = 0·77) and other admixed individuals ( = 0·82). Furthermore, heterozygosity was higher for admixed panthers relative to pre-introgression type panthers and positively influenced survival. 5. Our results are consistent with hybrid vigour; however, extrinsic factors such as low density of males in some areas of panther range may also have contributed to higher survival of F(1) panthers. Regardless, improved survival of F(1) subadults and adults likely contributed to the numerical increase in panthers following introgression, and our results indicate that intentional admixture, achieved here by releasing individuals from another population, appears to have been successful in improving demographic performance in this highly endangered population. PMID:21338353

Benson, John F; Hostetler, Jeffrey A; Onorato, David P; Johnson, Warren E; Roelke, Melody E; O'Brien, Stephen J; Jansen, Deborah; Oli, Madan K

2011-09-01

3

Intentional genetic introgression influences survival of adults and subadults in a small, inbred felid population  

E-print Network

populations. 2. By the 1980s, Florida panthers (Puma concolor coryi) had been reduced to a small, inbred popu- lation that appeared to be on the brink of extinction. In 1995, female pumas from Texas (P. c. stanleyana

Oli, Madan K.

4

Communal nesting increases pup growth but has limited effects on adult behavior and neurophysiology in inbred mice.  

PubMed

Laboratory mice preferentially rear their offspring in communal nests (CN), with all mothers contributing to maternal care and feeding of all the pups. Previous studies using primarily outbred mice have shown that offspring reared under CN conditions may display increased preweaning growth rates and differences in adult behavior and neurobiology compared with mice reared under single-nesting (SN; one dam with her litter) conditions. Here we compared pup mortality; weaning and adult body weights; adult behavior; and gene expression in the hippocampus and frontal cortex between C57BL/6J, DBA/2J and 129x1/SvJ mice reared by using CN (3 dams and their litters sharing a single nest) or SN. Male and female pups of all 3 strains reared in CN cages showed higher body weight at weaning than did SN pups of the same strain, with no significant difference in pup mortality between groups. Adult male offspring reared in CN showed no differences in any behavioral test when compared with SN offspring. Combining CN dams and litters after parturition revealed greater cortical brain-derived neurotropic factor expression in adult male C57BL/6J offspring and cortical glucocorticoid receptor expression in adult male C57BL/6J and 129x1/SvJ offspring as compared with SN offspring of the same strain. Communal rearing can enhance juvenile growth rates but does not change adult behavior in inbred mouse strains, although potential effects on adult neurophysiology are possible. PMID:24602541

Heiderstadt, Kathleen M; Vandenbergh, David J; Gyekis, Joseph P; Blizard, David A

2014-03-01

5

A pubertal immune challenge alters the antidepressant-like effects of chronic estradiol treatment in inbred and outbred adult female mice.  

PubMed

Puberty is a period characterized by brain reorganization that contributes to the development of neural and behavioral responses to gonadal steroids. A single injection of the bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), during the pubertal period decreases sexual receptivity in response to ovarian hormones in adulthood. Because chronic estradiol treatment alleviates depression-like symptoms in ovariectomized adult mice, we investigated the effect of pubertal LPS treatment on estradiol's antidepressant effects. We hypothesized that pubertal LPS treatment would decrease the antidepressant-like effect of estradiol in adult ovariectomized female mice, as it decreases other behavioral responses to ovarian hormones. As expected, chronic estradiol treatment decreased depression-like behavior, as measured by the duration of immobility, in saline-treated mice from two different strains, as well as in mice treated with LPS in adulthood. In contrast, in mice treated pubertally with LPS, estradiol strikingly increased the duration of immobility. No difference in body weight and in locomotion was found among the groups, suggesting that the differences in depression-like behavior were not due to differences in body weight or locomotor activity between LPS-treated and control mice. These results suggest that exposure to an immune challenge during the pubertal period alters the responsiveness of depression-like behavior to estradiol. PMID:23036617

Ismail, N; Kumlin, A M; Blaustein, J D

2013-09-26

6

Genealogies of mouse inbred strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mouse is a prime organism of choice for modelling human disease. Over 450 inbred strains of mice have been described, providing a wealth of different genotypes and phenotypes for genetic and other studies. As new strains are generated and others become extinct, it is useful to review periodically what strains are available and how they are related to each

Jon A. Beck; Sarah Lloyd; Majid Hafezparast; Moyha Lennon-Pierce; Janan T. Eppig; Michael F. W. Festing; Elizabeth M. C. Fisher

2000-01-01

7

RI-INBRE: http://www.uri.edu/inbre College of Pharmacy: http://www.uri.edu/pharmacy Video Conferencing Tutorial  

E-print Network

RI-INBRE: http://www.uri.edu/inbre College of Pharmacy: http://www.uri.edu/pharmacy Video;RI-INBRE: http://www.uri.edu/inbre College of Pharmacy: http://www.uri.edu/pharmacy Moving the Cart the center of the cart. #12;RI-INBRE: http://www.uri.edu/inbre College of Pharmacy: http://www.uri.edu/pharmacy

Rhode Island, University of

8

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Inbred decorated crickets exhibit higher measures  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Inbred decorated crickets exhibit higher measures of macroparasitic immunity than consequences of inbreeding in decorated crickets, Gryllodes sigillatus, by comparing lytic activity, phenoloxidase (PO) activity, and encapsulation ability of crickets from eight inbred lines with that of crickets

Sakaluk, Scott

9

Genetic diversity for RFLPs in European maize inbreds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) have been proposed for the prediction of the yield potential of hybrids and the assignment of inbreds to heterotic groups. Such use was investigated in 66 diallel crosses among 6 flint and 6 dent inbreds from European maize (Zea mays L.) germ plasm. Inbreds and hybrids were evaluated for seven forage traits in four environments

A. E. Melchinger; J. Boppenmaier; B. S. Dhillon; W. G. Pollmer; R. G. Herrmann

1992-01-01

10

Identification of inbred strains of mice, Mus musculus . I. Genetic control of inbred strains of mice using starch gel electrophoresis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifteen biochemical markers were tested in 30 inbred strains of mice to control the genetic constitution of each strain. Discrepancies in pattern from “Standardized Nomenclature for Inbred Strains of Mice” are reported and discussed.

H.-H. Krog

1976-01-01

11

The Genomes of Recombinant Inbred Lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recombinant inbred lines (RILs) can serve as powerful tools for genetic mapping. Recently, members of the Complex Trait Consortium proposed the development of a large panel of eight-way RILs in the mouse, derived from eight genetically diverse parental strains. Such a panel would be a valuable community resource. The use of such eight-way RILs will require a detailed understanding of

Karl W Broman

2005-01-01

12

Gene expression variation between mouse inbred strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In this study, we investigated the effect of genetic background on expression profiles. We analysed the transcriptome of mouse hindlimb muscle of five frequently used mouse inbred strains using spotted oligonucleotide microarrays. RESULTS: Through ANOVA analysis with a false discovery rate of 10%, we show that 1.4% of the analysed genes is significantly differentially expressed between these mouse strains.

Rolf Turk; Peter AC't Hoen; Ellen Sterrenburg; Renée X de Menezes; Emile J de Meijer; Judith M Boer; Gert-Jan B van Ommen; Johan T den Dunnen

2004-01-01

13

Uptake and distribution of cadmium in maize inbred lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genotypic variation in uptake and distribution of cadmium (Cd) was studied in 19 inbred lines of maize (Zea mays L.). The inbred lines were grown for 27 days on an in situ Cd-contaminated sandy soil or for 20 days on nutrient solution culture with 10 µg Cd L-1. The Cd concentrations in the shoots showed large genotypic variation, ranging from

P. J. Florijn; M. L. VAN BEUSICHEM

1993-01-01

14

Spontaneous Coagulopathy in Inbred WAG/RijYcb Rats  

PubMed Central

Here we describe a series of cases of spontaneous coagulopathy in a colony of inbred WAG/RijYcb (WAG/RijY) rats. This strain previously had been bred at our institution without symptomatology for several decades. The index case was a 10-wk-old male rat that developed a large hematoma at a subcutaneous injection site. Clinicopathologic findings included a decreased RBC count, decreased hematocrit, decreased hemoglobin concentration, normal PT, and prolonged (50% to 70%) aPTT (52 s; reference, 15 to 33 s). Examination of additional WAG/RijY rats that died unexpectedly or had clinical signs of bleeding in the absence of experimental manipulation also revealed normal PT and prolonged aPTT. Histologic examinations of tissues from all rats were unremarkable except for severe acute focally extensive hemorrhage corresponding to the macroscopic findings of acute hemorrhage. Furthermore the aPTT in 8 clinically normal adult rats and 8 clinically normal 4-wk-old WAG/RijY littermates of both sexes was prolonged. We conclude that these WAG/RijY rats have an inherited defect in the intrinsic coagulation pathway. PMID:20158945

Booth, Carmen J; Brooks, Marjory B; Rockwell, Sara

2010-01-01

15

Genetic Architecture of Maize Kernel Composition in the Nested Association Mapping and Inbred  

E-print Network

of 25 recombinant inbred line families derived from diverse inbred lines. Joint-linkage mapping revealedGenetic Architecture of Maize Kernel Composition in the Nested Association Mapping and Inbred architecture of starch, protein, and oil content has been demonstrated in the inbred line (IL) long

Flint-Garcia, Sherry

16

Genetic architecture of adiposity in the cross of LG\\/J and SM\\/J inbred mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The genetic basis of variation in obesity in human populations is thought to be owing to many genes of relatively small effect\\u000a and their interactions. The LG\\/J by SM\\/J intercross of mouse inbred strains provides an excellent model system in which to\\u000a investigate multigenic obesity. We previously mapped a large number of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting adult body

James M. Cheverud; Ty T. Vaughn; L. Susan Pletscher; Andrea C. Peripato; Emily S. Adams; Christopher F. Erikson; Kelly J. King-Ellison

2001-01-01

17

A quantitative study of cerebrovascular variation in inbred mice.  

PubMed Central

The arteries of the base of the mouse brain were examined after perfusion with India ink. A qualitative difference exists between inbred mice of three strains (C57BL/6J, 129/J and BALB/cCF) on the one hand, and genetically defined heterogeneous mice on the other; the latter consistently show anomalies similar to those previously described in genetically undefined rodents, whereas inbred mice do not. A quantitative morphometric analysis of the Circle of Willis of inbred mice was undertaken. The results of this analysis are consistent with the notion that the differences in shape between the circles of Willis of different strains of inbred mice are due to additive genetic variation between these strains. PMID:2074233

Ward, R; Collins, R L; Tanguay, G; Miceli, D

1990-01-01

18

Inbreeding depression and heterosis : Expected means and variances among inbred lines  

E-print Network

Inbreeding depression and heterosis : Expected means and variances among inbred lines depression are investigated from a theoretical point of view in an experiment involving several inbred lines depression phenomena ! Many experiments led to the definition of the relations hipbetweentheincrease

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

19

Caenorhabditis briggsae Recombinant Inbred Line Genotypes Reveal Inter-Strain Incompatibility and the  

E-print Network

attributes. To produce a high-resolution C. briggsae recombination map, recombinant inbred lines wereCaenorhabditis briggsae Recombinant Inbred Line Genotypes Reveal Inter-Strain Incompatibility of recombinant inbred lines involving a third strain was also genotyped at lower resolution. The resulting

Haag, Eric S.

20

QTL fine-mapping with recombinant-inbred heterogeneous stocks and in vitro heterogeneous stocks  

E-print Network

QTL fine-mapping with recombinant-inbred heterogeneous stocks and in vitro heterogeneous stocks of about 100 Rec- ombinant Inbred Lines (RIL) derived from an HS, and which we called an RIHS, was ideally with an inbred line (IVHS). This method required some additional gen- otyping but avoided the breeding delays

Valdar, William

21

Biochemical polymorphisms in feral and inbred mice ( Mus musculus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examination of the frequencies of several loci controlling isozymes in three geographically distinct feral populations of mice showed the average animal to be heterozygous at 10.3% of his loci. There was no evidence for interaction between loci, nor any evidence for inbreeding in the populations. Thirty-nine inbred strains, including four newly derived ones, were also characterized for their alleles for

Thomas H. Roderick; Frank H. Ruddle; Verne M. Chapman; Thomas B. Shows

1971-01-01

22

Recombinant inbred lines for genetic mapping in tomato  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cross between the cultivated tomato Lycopersicon esculentum and a related wild species L. cheesmanii yielded 97 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) which were used to construct a genetic map consisting of 132 molecular markers. Significant deviation from the expected 1:1 ratio between the two homozygous classes was found in 73% of the markers. In 98% of the deviating markers, L.

I. Paran; I. Goldman; S. D. Tanksley; D. Zamir

1995-01-01

23

Multiple loci in silico mapping in inbred lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The in silico mapping (ISM) technique and its extension represent major advances for novel gene discovery in germplasm resources of inbred lines. However, the techniques suffer from a relatively high false-positive rate (FPR) and they do not consider the effect of linkage disequilibrium (LD) markers around the identified quantitative trait locus (QTL). In addition, it has not yet been established

H-Y Lü; M Li; G-J Li; L-L Yao; F Lin; Y-M Zhang

2009-01-01

24

Enzyme polymorphism in feral, outbred and inbred rats (Rattus norvegicus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polymorphism at 25 loci coding for liver enzymes was studied in two feral, three outbred and three inbred rat strains by starch gel electrophoresis. No variation was found at 14 loci, and a low degree of polymorphism was detected at three. Eight loci were polymorphic in more than one population. The average degree of heterozygosity per locus per individual feral

K Eriksson; O Halkka; J Lokki; A Saura

1976-01-01

25

Genetic Regulation of Mup Production in Recombinant Inbred Mice  

PubMed Central

Inbred strains of mice excrete all three major urinary proteins (mups) when induced by testosterone, but differ as to the relative proportions and total levels of each mup present. We have now determined the urinary mup phenotypes before and after testosterone treatment of seven recombinant inbred strains derived from progenitor strains exhibiting different mup phenotypes. The results confirm previous observations indicating that total control of mup protein production is a multigenic process. One locus, Mup-a on chromosome 4, determines the relative mup protein proportions after induction by testosterone. Mup-a, together with other genetic sites, determines the basal mup proportions. Genes other than Mup-a determine the kinetics of mup induction and total mup excretion. PMID:548348

Szoka, P. R.; Paigen, K.

1979-01-01

26

Condition, innate immunity and disease mortality of inbred crows.  

PubMed

Cooperatively breeding American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) suffer a severe disease-mediated survival cost from inbreeding, but the proximate mechanisms linking inbreeding to disease are unknown. Here, we examine indices of nestling body condition and innate immunocompetence in relationship to inbreeding and disease mortality. Using an estimate of microsatellite heterozygosity that predicts inbreeding in this population, we show that inbred crows were in relatively poor condition as nestlings, and that body condition index measured in the first 2-33 days after hatching, in addition to inbreeding index, predicted disease probability in the first 34 months of life. Inbred nestlings also mounted a weaker response along one axis of innate immunity: the proportion of bacteria killed in a microbiocidal assay increased as heterozygosity index increased. Relatively poor body condition and low innate immunocompetence are two mechanisms that might predispose inbred crows to ultimate disease mortality. A better understanding of condition-mediated inbreeding depression can guide efforts to minimize disease costs of inbreeding in small populations. PMID:20444716

Townsend, Andrea K; Clark, Anne B; McGowan, Kevin J; Miller, Andrew D; Buckles, Elizabeth L

2010-09-22

27

Condition, innate immunity and disease mortality of inbred crows  

PubMed Central

Cooperatively breeding American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) suffer a severe disease-mediated survival cost from inbreeding, but the proximate mechanisms linking inbreeding to disease are unknown. Here, we examine indices of nestling body condition and innate immunocompetence in relationship to inbreeding and disease mortality. Using an estimate of microsatellite heterozygosity that predicts inbreeding in this population, we show that inbred crows were in relatively poor condition as nestlings, and that body condition index measured in the first 2–33 days after hatching, in addition to inbreeding index, predicted disease probability in the first 34 months of life. Inbred nestlings also mounted a weaker response along one axis of innate immunity: the proportion of bacteria killed in a microbiocidal assay increased as heterozygosity index increased. Relatively poor body condition and low innate immunocompetence are two mechanisms that might predispose inbred crows to ultimate disease mortality. A better understanding of condition-mediated inbreeding depression can guide efforts to minimize disease costs of inbreeding in small populations. PMID:20444716

Townsend, Andrea K.; Clark, Anne B.; McGowan, Kevin J.; Miller, Andrew D.; Buckles, Elizabeth L.

2010-01-01

28

Tympanometry Assessment of 61 Inbred Strains of Mice  

PubMed Central

Otitis Media (OM) accounts for more than 20 million clinic visits in the United States every year. Resistance to antibiotics has hampered current management of the disease. Identification of genetic factors underlying susceptibility to OM is greatly needed in order to develop alternative treatment strategies. Genetically defined inbred mouse strains offer a powerful tool for dissecting genetic and environmental factors that may lead to OM in mice. Here we report a study of middle ear function of 61 genetically diverse inbred strains of mice using tympanometry. Of the 61 inbred strains tested, the 129P1/ReJ, 129P3/J, 129S1/SvImJ, 129X1/SvJ, A/HeJ, BALB/cJ, BUB/BnJ, C57L/J, EL/SuzSeyFrkJ, FVB/NJ, I/LnJ, LP/J, NZB/BlNJ, PL/J and YBR/Ei strains exhibited tympanograms that were statistically different from other healthy strains according to parameters including middle ear pressure, volume and compliance. These differences are most likely the result of genetic factors that, when understood, will facilitate prevention and treatment of otitis media in humans. In addition, a negative correlation between age and compliance of the tympanic membrane was discovered. This is the first report to successfully use tympanometry to measure mouse middle ear function, which has been a challenge for the hearing research field because of the mouse’s tiny ear size. PMID:17611057

Zheng, Qing Yin; Tong, Yi-Cai Isaac; Alagramam, Kumar N.; Yu, Heping

2007-01-01

29

Many maize inbreds lack an endosperm cytosolic phosphoglucomutase. [Zea mays L  

SciTech Connect

Starch gel electrophoresis of extracts from developing maize (Zea mays L.) endosperms 22 days postpollination reveals only a single zone of phosphoglucomutase activity in the majority of the inbreds tested. The other inbreds had the expected two zones of activity. The activity that is present in all inbreds is the amyloplast isozyme while the absent form is a cytosolic enzyme. The lack of the cytosolic isozyme has no discernible phenotypic consequences.

Pan, D.; Stelow, L.I.; Nelson, O.E. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (USA))

1990-08-01

30

Marker-assisted recurrent selection for cumulating additive and interactive QTLs in recombinant inbred lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computer program has been designed to manage marker information in recombinant inbred-line populations. The objective is\\u000a to select pairs of inbred lines (either recombinant-inbred or doubled-haploid) to be intercrossed, in order to accumulate\\u000a all or most favourable alleles, either with additive effects or with interactive effects. The population size required to\\u000a have a 95% chance of obtaining the best

G. Charmet; N. Robert; M. R. Perretant; G. Gay; P. Sourdille; C. Groos; S. Bernard; M. Bernard

1999-01-01

31

Bayesian QTL mapping for recombinant inbred lines derived from a four-way cross  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recombinant inbred lines (RILs) are created by a cross between inbred lines followed by repeated selfing or sib-mating, which\\u000a include many different types of new inbred lines with many recombination events on the genome. The phenotype of each RIL can\\u000a be assessed based on multiple individuals within the same line to reduce non-genetic variability. Therefore, RILs are useful\\u000a tools for

Takeshi Hayashi; Akio Ohyama; Hiroyoshi Iwata

32

Relationship between hybrid performance and AFLP based genetic distance in highland maize inbred lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to determine the crossing performance of highland maize inbred lines for grain yield, days\\u000a to silk and plant height; estimate genetic distance (GD) among the inbred lines and in association with tester parents, and\\u000a to investigate the relationship of GD with hybrid performance and midparent heterosis (MPH). A total of 26 inbred lines were

B. W. Legesse; A. A. Myburg; K. V. Pixley; S. Twumasi-Afriyie; A. M. Botha

2008-01-01

33

Trace metal interactions in corn inbreds differing in efficiency of Mg uptake  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mg?efficient corn (Zea mays L.) inbred B57 and the Mg?inefficient inbred Oh40B were grown in solution culture with moderate levels of some trace metals to test their relative interactions since previous studies had indicated that excess trace metals may be part of the Mg?inefficient syndrome. At the levels used only Co depressed yields and that for the Mg?inefficient inbred

A. Wallace; T. Kawasaki; E. M. Romney; R. B. Clark

1980-01-01

34

Analysis of microsatellite polymorphism in inbred knockout mice.  

PubMed

Previously, we found that the genotype of 42 out of 198 mouse microsatellite loci, which are distributed among all chromosomes except the Y chromosome, changed from monomorphism to polymorphism (CMP) in a genetically modified inbred mouse strain. In this study, we further examined whether CMP also relates to the homologous recombination in gene knockout (KO) mouse strains. The same 42 microsatellite loci were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 29 KO inbred mouse strains via short tandem sequence repeat (STR) scanning and direct sequence cloning to justify microsatellite polymorphisms. The C57BL/6J and 129 mouse strains, from which these 29 KO mice were derived, were chosen as the background controls. The results indicated that 10 out of 42 (23.8%) loci showed CMP in some of these mouse strains. Except for the trinucleotide repeat locus of D3Mit22, which had microsatellite CMP in strain number 9, the core sequences of the remaining 41 loci were dinucleotide repeats, and 9 out of 41 (21.95%) showed CMPs among detected mouse strains. However, 11 out of 29 (37.9%) KO mice strains were recognized as having CMPs. The popular dinucleotide motifs in CMP were (TG)(n) (50%, 2/4), followed by (GT)(n) (27.27%, 3/11) and (CA)(n) (23.08%, 3/13). The microsatellite CMP in (CT)(n) and (AG)(n) repeats were 20% (1/5). According to cloning sequencing results, 6 KO mouse strains showed insertions of nucleotides whereas 1 showed a deletion. Furthermore, 2 loci (D13Mit3 and D14Mit102) revealed CMP in 2 strains, and mouse strain number 9 showed CMPs in two loci (D3Mit22 and D13Mit3) simultaneously. Collectively, these results indicated that microsatellite polymorphisms were present in the examined inbred KO mice. PMID:22509320

Zuo, Baofen; Du, Xiaoyan; Zhao, Jing; Yang, Huixin; Wang, Chao; Wu, Yanhua; Lu, Jing; Wang, Ying; Chen, Zhenwen

2012-01-01

35

Bayesian multiple quantitative trait loci mapping for recombinant inbred intercrosses.  

PubMed

The Collaborative Cross (CC) is a renewable mouse resource that mimics the genetic diversity in humans. The recombinant inbred intercrosses (RIX) generated from CC recombinant inbred (RI) lines share similar genetic structures to those of F(2) individuals. In contrast to F(2) mice, genotypes of RIX can be inferred from the genotypes of their RI parents and can be produced repeatedly. Also, RIX mice do not typically share the same degree of relatedness. This unbalanced genetic relatedness requires careful statistical modeling to avoid a large number of false positive findings. For complex traits, mapping multiple genes simultaneously is arguably more powerful than mapping one gene at a time. In this article, we describe how we have developed a Bayesian quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping method that simultaneously deals with the special genetic architecture of RIX and maps multiple genes. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated by extensive simulations. In addition, for a given set of RI lines, there are numerous ways to generate RIX samples. To provide a general guideline on future RIX studies, we compare several RIX designs through simulations. PMID:21385723

Yuan, Zhongshang; Zou, Fei; Liu, Yanyan

2011-05-01

36

Inbred Line Evaluation and Breeding for Digestibility-Related Traits in Forage Maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

the development of hybrids, and enables one to evaluate a large number of potentially promising genotypes. Forage maize digestibility is now a major selection criterion in However, the relationship between digestibility of maize breeding programs, and in hybrid breeding it is useful to select at the inbreds and hybrids has been reported in only a few inbred level. This study

O. Argillier; V. Mechin; Y. Barriere

37

Increased band sharing in DNA fingerprints of an inbred human population  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have compared band sharing between the DNA fingerprints of members of an inbred human population with band sharing between members of an outbred population. It had not previously been determined whether the high rate of mutation at minisatellite loci is sufficient to prevent an increase in band sharing in moderately inbred populations. We have found that there is an

R. J. Bellamy; C. F. Inglehearn; I. K. Jalili; A. J. Jeffreys; S. S. Bhattacharya

1991-01-01

38

Genetic variation in activity of the enzymes of glycolysis and gluconeogenesis between inbred strains of mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variation in the activity of 21 liver and 15 erythrocyte enzymes between seven inbred strains of mice has been studied in a single area of metabolism, glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. Most of the variation between the strains is genetic. From the variation within and between inbred strains heritabilities (Hz) were determined. Out of 35, 26 showed significant values above 0.4. A

GRAHAME BULFIELD; ELIZABETH A. MOORE; HENRIK KACSER

1978-01-01

39

QTL Mapping in New Arabidopsis thaliana Advanced Intercross-Recombinant Inbred Lines  

E-print Network

QTL Mapping in New Arabidopsis thaliana Advanced Intercross-Recombinant Inbred Lines Sureshkumar Advanced Intercross- Recombinant Inbred Lines. PLoS ONE 4(2): e4318. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0004318 need to be identified by quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping. Unfortunately, QTL positions typically

Weigel, Detlef

40

Mapping QTL Using Naturally Occurring Genetic Variance among Commercial Inbred Lines of Maize (Zea mays L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract ,There are many commercial inbred lines available in crops. Large amount of genetic variation is preserved among,these lines. The genealogical history of the inbred lines is usually well documented. However, quantitative trait loci (QTL) responsible for the genetic variances among,the lines are largely unexplored due to lack of statistical methods. In this study, we show that the pedigree information

Yuan-Ming Zhang; Yongcai Mao; Chongqing Xie; Howie Smith; Lang Luo; Shizhong Xu

2005-01-01

41

Caenorhabditis briggsae Recombinant Inbred Line Genotypes Reveal Inter-Strain Incompatibility and the Evolution of Recombination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nematode Caenorhabditis briggsae is an emerging model organism that allows evolutionary comparisons with C. elegans and exploration of its own unique biological attributes. To produce a high-resolution C. briggsae recombination map, recombinant inbred lines were generated from reciprocal crosses between two strains and genotyped at over 1,000 loci. A second set of recombinant inbred lines involving a third strain

Joseph A. Ross; Daniel C. Koboldt; Julia E. Staisch; Helen M. Chamberlin; Bhagwati P. Gupta; Raymond D. Miller; Scott E. Baird; Eric S. Haag

2011-01-01

42

Efficient QTL detection for nonhost resistance in wild lettuce: backcross inbred lines versus F2  

Microsoft Academic Search

In plants, several population types [F2, recombinant inbred lines, backcross inbred lines (BILs), etc.] are used for quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses. However, dissection of the trait of interest and subsequent confirmation by introgression of QTLs for breeding purposes has not been as successful as that predicted from theoretical calculations. More practical knowledge of different QTL mapping approaches is needed.

M. J. W. Jeuken; K. T. B. Pelgrom; P. Stam; P. Lindhout

2008-01-01

43

A new test for family-based association mapping with inbred lines from plant breeding programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Association mapping holds great promise for the detection of quantitative trait loci (QTL) in plant breeding populations. The main objectives of this study were to (1) adapt the quantitative pedigree disequilibrium test to typical pedigrees of inbred lines produced in plant breeding programs, (2) compare the newly developed quantitative inbred pedigree disequilibrium test (QIPDT) with the commonly employed logistic regression

Benjamin Stich; Albrecht E. Melchinger; Hans-Peter Piepho; Martin Heckenberger; Hans P. Maurer; Jochen C. Reif

2006-01-01

44

Transformation of recalcitrant maize elite inbreds using in vitro shoot meristematic cultures induced from germinated seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new methods of transformation for recalcitrant maize elite inbreds (B73 and a Pioneer Hi-Bred inbred) were successfully developed using shoot meristematic cultures (SMCs) derived from germinated seedlings. One of the methods - the sector proliferation method - involved in vitro induction and proliferation of SMCs from transgenic sectors. These transgenic sectors derived from the bombardment of shoot apical meristems

S. Zhang; R. Williams-Carrier; P. G. Lemaux

2002-01-01

45

Coreceptor affinity for MHC defines peptide specificity requirements for TCR interaction with coagonist peptide-MHC  

E-print Network

Recent work has demonstrated that nonstimulatory endogenous peptides can enhance T cell recognition of antigen, but MHCI- and MHCII-restricted systems have generated very different results. MHCII-restricted TCRs need to ...

Hoerter, John A. H.

46

Genetic analysis of inbred lines and their crosses for resistance to head blight (Fusarium culmorum, F. graminearum) in winter rye  

Microsoft Academic Search

For genetic analysis of head blight in winter rye (Secale cereale) caused by Fusarium culmorum, six homozygous inbred lines from the Petkus gene pool were crossed in all combinations to obtain 15 diallel F1 crosses and the corresponding 15 F2 crosses. These materials and 10 additional inbreds were artificially inoculated in a 2-year field experiment. The inbreds were also tested

T. Miedaner; D. C. Borchardt; H. H. Geiger

1992-01-01

47

Mapping stripe rust resistance in a BrundageXCoda winter wheat recombinant inbred line population.  

PubMed

A recombinant inbred line (RIL) mapping population developed from a cross between winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars Coda and Brundage was evaluated for reaction to stripe rust (caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici). Two hundred and sixty eight RIL from the population were evaluated in replicated field trials in a total of nine site-year locations in the U.S. Pacific Northwest. Seedling reaction to stripe rust races PST-100, PST-114 and PST-127 was also examined. A linkage map consisting of 2,391 polymorphic DNA markers was developed covering all chromosomes of wheat with the exception of 1D. Two QTL on chromosome 1B were associated with adult plant and seedling reaction and were the most significant QTL detected. Together these QTL reduced adult plant infection type from a score of seven to a score of two reduced disease severity by an average of 25% and provided protection against race PST-100, PST-114 and PST-127 in the seedling stage. The location of these QTL and the race specificity provided by them suggest that observed effects at this locus are due to a complementation of the previously known but defeated resistances of the cultivar Tres combining with that of Madsen (the two parent cultivars of Coda). Two additional QTL on chromosome 3B and one on 5B were associated with adult plant reaction only, and a single QTL on chromosome 5D was associated with seedling reaction to PST-114. Coda has been resistant to stripe rust since its release in 2000, indicating that combining multiple resistance genes for stripe rust provides durable resistance, especially when all-stage resistance genes are combined in a fashion to maximize the number of races they protect against. Identified molecular markers will allow for an efficient transfer of these genes into other cultivars, thereby continuing to provide excellent resistance to stripe rust. PMID:24642574

Case, Austin J; Naruoka, Yukiko; Chen, Xianming; Garland-Campbell, Kimberly A; Zemetra, Robert S; Carter, Arron H

2014-01-01

48

Mapping Stripe Rust Resistance in a BrundageXCoda Winter Wheat Recombinant Inbred Line Population  

PubMed Central

A recombinant inbred line (RIL) mapping population developed from a cross between winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars Coda and Brundage was evaluated for reaction to stripe rust (caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici). Two hundred and sixty eight RIL from the population were evaluated in replicated field trials in a total of nine site-year locations in the U.S. Pacific Northwest. Seedling reaction to stripe rust races PST-100, PST-114 and PST-127 was also examined. A linkage map consisting of 2,391 polymorphic DNA markers was developed covering all chromosomes of wheat with the exception of 1D. Two QTL on chromosome 1B were associated with adult plant and seedling reaction and were the most significant QTL detected. Together these QTL reduced adult plant infection type from a score of seven to a score of two reduced disease severity by an average of 25% and provided protection against race PST-100, PST-114 and PST-127 in the seedling stage. The location of these QTL and the race specificity provided by them suggest that observed effects at this locus are due to a complementation of the previously known but defeated resistances of the cultivar Tres combining with that of Madsen (the two parent cultivars of Coda). Two additional QTL on chromosome 3B and one on 5B were associated with adult plant reaction only, and a single QTL on chromosome 5D was associated with seedling reaction to PST-114. Coda has been resistant to stripe rust since its release in 2000, indicating that combining multiple resistance genes for stripe rust provides durable resistance, especially when all-stage resistance genes are combined in a fashion to maximize the number of races they protect against. Identified molecular markers will allow for an efficient transfer of these genes into other cultivars, thereby continuing to provide excellent resistance to stripe rust. PMID:24642574

Case, Austin J.; Naruoka, Yukiko; Chen, Xianming; Garland-Campbell, Kimberly A.; Zemetra, Robert S.; Carter, Arron H.

2014-01-01

49

Variation in the cortical area map of C57BL/6J and DBA/2J inbred mice predicts strain identity  

PubMed Central

Background Recent discoveries suggest that arealization of the mammalian cortical sheet develops in a manner consonant with principles established for embryonic patterning of the body. Signaling centers release morphogens that determine regional growth and tissue identity by regulating regional expression of transcription factors. Research on mouse cortex has identified several candidate morphogens that affect anteroposterior or mediolateral cortical regionalization as well as mitogenesis. Inbred strains of laboratory mice can be exploited to study cortical area map formation if there are significant phenotypic differences with which to correlate gene polymorphism or expression data. Here we describe differences in the cortical area map of two commonly used inbred strains of laboratory mice, C57BL/6J and DBA/2J. Complete cortical hemispheres from adult mice were dissected and stained for the cytochrome oxidase enzyme in order to measure histochemically defined cortical areas. Results C57BL/6J has the larger neocortex, relatively larger primary visual cortex (V1), but relatively smaller posterior medial barrel subfield of the primary somatosensory cortex (PMBSF). The sample of C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice can be discriminated with 90% accuracy on the basis of these three size dimensions. Conclusion C57BL/6J and DBA/2J have markedly different cortical area maps, suggesting that inbred strains harbor enough phenotypic variation to encourage a forward genetic approach to understanding cortical development, complementing other approaches. PMID:15774010

Airey, David C; Robbins, Alicia I; Enzinger, Katherine M; Wu, Fangbai; Collins, Christine E

2005-01-01

50

Causes and Consequences of Chromatin Variation between Inbred Mice  

PubMed Central

Variation at regulatory elements, identified through hypersensitivity to digestion by DNase I, is believed to contribute to variation in complex traits, but the extent and consequences of this variation are poorly characterized. Analysis of terminally differentiated erythroblasts in eight inbred strains of mice identified reproducible variation at approximately 6% of DNase I hypersensitive sites (DHS). Only 30% of such variable DHS contain a sequence variant predictive of site variation. Nevertheless, sequence variants within variable DHS are more likely to be associated with complex traits than those in non-variant DHS, and variants associated with complex traits preferentially occur in variable DHS. Changes at a small proportion (less than 10%) of variable DHS are associated with changes in nearby transcriptional activity. Our results show that whilst DNA sequence variation is not the major determinant of variation in open chromatin, where such variants exist they are likely to be causal for complex traits. PMID:23785304

Hosseini, Mona; Goodstadt, Leo; Hughes, Jim R.; Kowalczyk, Monika S.; de Gobbi, Marco; Otto, Georg W.; Copley, Richard R.; Mott, Richard; Higgs, Douglas R.; Flint, Jonathan

2013-01-01

51

Dental fluorosis: variability among different inbred mouse strains.  

PubMed

Concurrent with the decline in dental caries has been an increase in the prevalence of dental fluorosis, a side-effect of exposure to greater than optimal levels of fluoride during amelogenesis. The mechanisms that underlie the pathogenesis of dental fluorosis are not known. We hypothesize that genetic determinants influence an individual's susceptibility or resistance to develop dental fluorosis. We tested this hypothesis using a mouse model system (continuous eruption of the incisors) where genotype, age, gender, food, housing, and drinking water fluoride level can be rigorously controlled. Examination of 12 inbred strains of mice showed differences in dental fluorosis susceptibility/resistance. The A/J mouse strain is highly susceptible, with a rapid onset and severe development of dental fluorosis compared with that in the other strains tested, whereas the 129P3/J mouse strain is least affected, with minimal dental fluorosis. These observations support the contribution of a genetic component in the pathogenesis of dental fluorosis. PMID:12407097

Everett, E T; McHenry, M A K; Reynolds, N; Eggertsson, H; Sullivan, J; Kantmann, C; Martinez-Mier, E A; Warrick, J M; Stookey, G K

2002-11-01

52

Comprehensive genotyping of the USA national maize inbred seed bank  

PubMed Central

Background Genotyping by sequencing, a new low-cost, high-throughput sequencing technology was used to genotype 2,815 maize inbred accessions, preserved mostly at the National Plant Germplasm System in the USA. The collection includes inbred lines from breeding programs all over the world. Results The method produced 681,257 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers distributed across the entire genome, with the ability to detect rare alleles at high confidence levels. More than half of the SNPs in the collection are rare. Although most rare alleles have been incorporated into public temperate breeding programs, only a modest amount of the available diversity is present in the commercial germplasm. Analysis of genetic distances shows population stratification, including a small number of large clusters centered on key lines. Nevertheless, an average fixation index of 0.06 indicates moderate differentiation between the three major maize subpopulations. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) decays very rapidly, but the extent of LD is highly dependent on the particular group of germplasm and region of the genome. The utility of these data for performing genome-wide association studies was tested with two simply inherited traits and one complex trait. We identified trait associations at SNPs very close to known candidate genes for kernel color, sweet corn, and flowering time; however, results suggest that more SNPs are needed to better explore the genetic architecture of complex traits. Conclusions The genotypic information described here allows this publicly available panel to be exploited by researchers facing the challenges of sustainable agriculture through better knowledge of the nature of genetic diversity. PMID:23759205

2013-01-01

53

Autism-related behavioral phenotypes in an inbred rat substrain.  

PubMed

Behavioral and genetic differences among Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats from different vendors and different breeders have long been observed, but generally overlooked. In our prior work, we found that two closely related WKY substrains, the WKY/NCrl and WKY/NHsd rats, differ in a small percentage of their genome which appeared to be highly enriched for autism risk genes. Although both substrains have been used widely in studies of hypertension, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and depression, they have not been tested for any autism-related behavioral phenotypes. Furthermore, these two substrains have often been used interchangeably in previous studies; no study has systematically examined the phenotypic differences that could be attributed by their small yet potentially meaningful genetic differences. In this paper we compared these two substrains on a battery of neurobehavioral tests. Although two substrains were similar in locomotor activity, WKY/NCrl rats were significantly different from WKY/NHsd rats in the elevated plus maze test, as well as measures of social interaction and ultrasonic vocalization. These strains were also compared with Sprague Dawley (SD) rats, a common outbred strain, and spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR), an inbred rat model for ADHD and hypertension, which were derived from the same ancestor strain as the WKY strains. Our behavioral findings suggest that WKY/NCrl rats may be useful as a model autism spectrum disorders due to their lower social interest, lower ultrasonic vocalization and higher anxiety levels when WKY/NHsd rats are used as the control strain. Given the small genetic difference between the two inbred substrains, future studies to identify the exact gene and sequence variants that differ between the two may be useful for identifying the genetic mechanisms underlying these behaviors. PMID:24780868

Zhang-James, Yanli; Yang, Li; Middleton, Frank A; Yang, Lina; Patak, Jameson; Faraone, Stephen V

2014-08-01

54

Phenotypic and genotypic evaluation of generations and recombinant inbred lines for response to aflatoxin  

E-print Network

between CML161 and B73o2 were evaluated in replicated trials in two environments for resistance to aflatoxin contamination. The families were genotyped using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. The mapping Recombinant Inbred Line population was used...

Bello, Halima Thelma

2009-05-15

55

NaCl Taste Thresholds in 13 Inbred Mouse Strains  

PubMed Central

Molecular mechanisms of salty taste in mammals are not completely understood. We use genetic approaches to study these mechanisms. Previously, we developed a high-throughput procedure to measure NaCl taste thresholds, which involves conditioning mice to avoid LiCl and then examining avoidance of NaCl solutions presented in 48-h 2-bottle preference tests. Using this procedure, we measured NaCl taste thresholds of mice from 13 genealogically divergent inbred stains: 129P3/J, A/J, BALB/cByJ, C3H/HeJ, C57BL/6ByJ, C57BL/6J, CBA/J, CE/J, DBA/2J, FVB/NJ, NZB/BlNJ, PWK/PhJ, and SJL/J. We found substantial strain variation in NaCl taste thresholds: mice from the A/J and 129P3/J strains had high thresholds (were less sensitive), whereas mice from the BALB/cByJ, C57BL/6J, C57BL/6ByJ, CE/J, DBA/2J, NZB/BINJ, and SJL/J had low thresholds (were more sensitive). NaCl taste thresholds measured in this study did not significantly correlate with NaCl preferences or amiloride sensitivity of chorda tympani nerve responses to NaCl determined in the same strains in other studies. To examine whether strain differences in NaCl taste thresholds could have been affected by variation in learning ability or sensitivity to toxic effects of LiCl, we used the same method to measure citric acid taste thresholds in 4 inbred strains with large differences in NaCl taste thresholds but similar acid sensitivity in preference tests (129P3/J, A/J, C57BL/6J, and DBA/2J). Citric acid taste thresholds were similar in these 4 strains. This suggests that our technique measures taste quality–specific thresholds that are likely to represent differences in peripheral taste responsiveness. The strain differences in NaCl taste sensitivity found in this study provide a basis for genetic analysis of this phenotype. PMID:22293936

Ishiwatari, Yutaka

2012-01-01

56

Bayesian analysis of genetic architecture of quantitative trait using data of crosses of multiple inbred lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the data of crosses of multiple of inbred lines for mapping QTL can increase QTL detecting power compared with only\\u000a cross of two inbred lines. Although many fixed-effect model methods have been proposed to analyze such data, they are largely\\u000a based on one-QTL model or main effect model, and the interaction effects between QTL are always neglected. However, effectively

Ming Fang; Dan Jiang; Xu Chen; Lijun Pu; Shengcai Liu

2008-01-01

57

Combined mapping of DALP and AFLP markers in cultivated sunflower using F9 recombinant inbred lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A genetic map was constructed with specific PCRs, DALPs and AFLPs using F8-generation sunflower recombinant inbred lines. RI lines generated from a F2 population of one cross between the two cultivated inbred lines HA89 (maintainer for Pet1 CMS) and LR4 (restorer for Pet1 CMS) were used. A total of 305 markers were located using seven sPCR, 64 DALP and 301

K. Langar; M. Lorieux; E. Desmarais; Y. Griveau; L. Gentzbittel; A. Bervillé

2003-01-01

58

Efficient QTL detection for nonhost resistance in wild lettuce: backcross inbred lines versus F 2 population  

Microsoft Academic Search

In plants, several population types [F2, recombinant inbred lines, backcross inbred lines (BILs), etc.] are used for quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses. However,\\u000a dissection of the trait of interest and subsequent confirmation by introgression of QTLs for breeding purposes has not been\\u000a as successful as that predicted from theoretical calculations. More practical knowledge of different QTL mapping approaches\\u000a is needed.

M. J. W. Jeuken; K. Pelgrom; P. Stam; P. Lindhout

2008-01-01

59

Population structure and linkage disequilibrium of a mini core set of maize inbred lines in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding genetic diversity, population structure, and the level and distribution of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in target\\u000a populations are of great importance and the prerequisite for association mapping. In the present study, 145 genome-wide SSR\\u000a markers were used to assess the genetic diversity, population structure, and LD of a set of 95 maize inbred lines which represented\\u000a the Chinese maize inbred

Ronghuan Wang; Yongtao Yu; Jiuran Zhao; Yunsu Shi; Yanchun Song; Tianyu Wang; Yu Li

2008-01-01

60

Cadmium distribution in maize inbred lines: Effects of pH and level of Cd supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to investigate the physiological basis of the differential Cd distribution and the degree of variation of this Cd\\u000a distribution among maize inbred lines, six inbreds designated earlier as ‘shoot Cd excluders’ (B73, H99, and H96) and ‘non-shoot\\u000a Cd excluders’ (B37, H98, and N28) were grown in nutrient solution culture at different external Cd levels or at different\\u000a pH.

P. J. Florijn; M. L. Van Beusichem

1993-01-01

61

MicroRNA Expression in the Livers of Inbred Mice  

PubMed Central

MicroRNAs are short, non-coding RNA sequences that regulate genes at the post-transcriptional level and have been shown to be important in development, tissue differentiation, and disease. Limited attention has been given to the natural variation in miRNA expression across genetically diverse populations even though it is well established that genetic polymorphisms can have a profound effect on mRNA levels. Expression level of 577 miRNAs in the livers of 70 strains of inbred mice was assessed, and we found that miRNA expression is highly stable across different strains. Globally, the expression of miRNA target transcripts does not correlate with miRNA expression, primarily due to the low variance of miRNA but high variance of mRNA expression across strains. Our results show that there is little genetic effect on the baseline miRNA levels in murine liver. The stability of mouse liver miRNA expression in a genetically diverse population suggests that treatment-induced disruptions in liver miRNA expression, a phenomenon established for a large number of toxicants, may indicate an important mechanism for the disturbance of normal liver function, and may prove to be a useful genetic background-independent biomarker of toxicant effect. PMID:21616085

Gatti, Daniel M.; Lu, Lu; Williams, Robert W.; Sun, Wei; Wright, Fred A.; Threadgill, David W.; Rusyn, Ivan

2011-01-01

62

Recombinant inbred systems can advance research in behavioral ecology  

PubMed Central

Recombinant inbred (RI) systems such as the BXD mouse family represent a population with defined genetic architecture and variation that approximates those of natural populations. With the development of novel RI lines and sophisticated methods that conjointly analyze phenotype, gene sequence, and expression data, RI systems such as BXD are a timely and powerful tool to advance the field of behavioral ecology. The latter traditionally focused on functional questions such as the adaptive value of behavior but largely ignored underlying genetics and mechanisms. In this perspective, we argue that using RI systems to address questions in behavioral ecology and evolutionary biology has great potential to advance research in these fields. We outline key questions and how they can be tackled using RI systems and BXD in particular. The unique opportunity to analyze genetic and phenotypic data from studies conducted in different laboratories and at different times is a key benefit of RI systems and may lead the way to a better understanding of how adaptive phenotypes arise from genetic and environmental factors. PMID:23060902

Gini, Beatrice; Hager, Reinmar

2012-01-01

63

Genetic characterization of a new set of recombinant inbred lines (LGXSM) formed from the intercross of SM/J and LG/J inbred  

E-print Network

advantage of RI strains is that genotypes generated by different research groups using a variety of methods inbred (RI) strains have been used to map a wide range of Mendelian loci and quantitative traits (Taylor for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for traits with lower heritabilities or that require complex

Hrbek, Tomas - Department of Biology, Universidad de Puerto Rico

64

Social Deficits, Stereotypy, and Early Emergence of Repetitive Behavior in the C58/J Inbred Mouse Strain  

PubMed Central

Mouse lines with behavioral phenotypes relevant to symptoms in neurodevelopmental disorders may provide models to test hypotheses about disease etiology and to evaluate potential treatments. The present studies were designed to confirm and expand earlier work on the intriguing behavioral profile of the C58/J inbred strain, including low social approach and aberrant repetitive movements. Additional tests were selected to reflect aspects of autism, a severe neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by emergence of symptoms early in life, higher prevalence in males, social deficits and abnormal repetitive behavior. Mice from the C57BL/6J inbred strain, which has a similar genetic lineage and physical appearance to C58/J, served as a comparison group. Our results revealed that C58/J mice display elevated activity levels by postnatal day 6, which persist into adulthood. Despite normal olfactory ability, young adult male C58/J mice showed deficits in social approach in the three-chambered choice assay and failed to demonstrate social transmission of food preference. In contrast, female C58/J mice performed similarly to female C57BL/6J mice in both social tests. C58/J mice of both sexes demonstrated abnormal repetitive behaviors, displaying excessive jumping and back flipping in both social and non-social situations. These stereotypies were clearly evident in C58/J pups by postnatal days 20–21, and were also observed in C58/J dams during a test for maternal behavior. Overall, the strain profile for C58/J, including spontaneously developing motor stereotypies emerging early in the developmental trajectory, and social deficits primarily in males, models multiple components of the autism phenotype. PMID:19941908

Ryan, Bryce C.; Young, Nancy B.; Crawley, Jacqueline N.; Bodfish, James W.; Moy, Sheryl S.

2010-01-01

65

Susceptibility of AKXD recombinant inbred mouse strains to lymphomas.  

PubMed Central

We analyzed the susceptibility of 10 AKXD recombinant inbred (RI) mouse strains to lymphomas. These strains were derived from crosses of AKR/J, a highly lymphomatous strain, and DBA/2J, a weakly lymphomatous strain. Of the 10 strains analyzed, nine showed a high incidence of lymphoma development. As with the other 13 AKXD strains analyzed previously (M. L. Mucenski, B. A. Taylor, N. A. Jenkins, and N. G. Copeland, Mol. Cell. Biol. 6:4236-4243, 1986), the mean age at onset of lymphomas and lymphoma types varied among the strains. Whereas some strains were susceptible to T-cell lymphomas, as was the AKR/J parent, other strains were susceptible to B-cell lymphomas or to a combination of T- and B-cell lymphomas. Somatic mink cell focus-forming proviruses appeared causally associated with T-cell lymphomas, whereas somatic ecotropic proviruses appeared causally associated with B-cell lymphomas. Mice with T-cell lymphomas died significantly earlier than mice with other lymphoma types (stem, pre-B, or B cell and myeloid). The numbers of effective loci influencing the mean age at onset of lymphomas, the presence or absence of mink cell focus-forming viruses in tumors, and the frequency of T-cell lymphomas were estimated to be 3.9, 1.8, and 2.7, respectively. Tests of association with marker loci already typed in the AKXD RI strains suggested that two loci, Rmcf and Pmv-25 (or a locus linked to Pmv-25), influence all three trait variables. Finally, D21S16h, a marker locus on distal chromosome 16, showed 50% probability of linkage to a locus that influences the mean age at onset of lymphomas. Additional studies in combination with classical genetic crosses should be helpful in confirming these linkages and in identifying other loci influencing tumor susceptibility in AKXD RI strains. PMID:8383230

Gilbert, D J; Neumann, P E; Taylor, B A; Jenkins, N A; Copeland, N G

1993-01-01

66

Resolution of genetic map expansion caused by excess heterozygosity in plant recombinant inbred populations.  

PubMed

Recombinant inbred populations of many plant species exhibit more heterozygosity than expected under the Mendelian model of segregation. This segregation distortion causes the overestimation of recombination frequencies and consequent genetic map expansion. Here we build upon existing genetic models of differential zygotic viability to model a heterozygote fitness term and calculate expected genotypic proportions in recombinant inbred populations propagated by selfing. We implement this model using the existing open-source genetic map construction code base for R/qtl to estimate recombination fractions. Finally, we show that accounting for excess heterozygosity in a sorghum recombinant inbred mapping population shrinks the genetic map by 213 cM (a 13% decrease corresponding to 4.26 fewer recombinations per meiosis). More accurate estimates of linkage benefit linkage-based analyses used in the identification and utilization of causal genetic variation. PMID:25128435

Truong, Sandra K; McCormick, Ryan F; Morishige, Daryl T; Mullet, John E

2014-01-01

67

Resolution of Genetic Map Expansion Caused by Excess Heterozygosity in Plant Recombinant Inbred Populations  

PubMed Central

Recombinant inbred populations of many plant species exhibit more heterozygosity than expected under the Mendelian model of segregation. This segregation distortion causes the overestimation of recombination frequencies and consequent genetic map expansion. Here we build upon existing genetic models of differential zygotic viability to model a heterozygote fitness term and calculate expected genotypic proportions in recombinant inbred populations propagated by selfing. We implement this model using the existing open-source genetic map construction code base for R/qtl to estimate recombination fractions. Finally, we show that accounting for excess heterozygosity in a sorghum recombinant inbred mapping population shrinks the genetic map by 213 cM (a 13% decrease corresponding to 4.26 fewer recombinations per meiosis). More accurate estimates of linkage benefit linkage-based analyses used in the identification and utilization of causal genetic variation. PMID:25128435

Truong, Sandra K.; McCormick, Ryan F.; Morishige, Daryl T.; Mullet, John E.

2014-01-01

68

The influence of testers and fertility levels in the evaluation of inbred lines of corn  

E-print Network

of gean uares 2 uares 12205 F 22 Replications (within fertility levels) Fertility levels Inbred lines Bources of lines Between Fflugsr lines Between Burton Lines (9) 1 401, 85 1298e48 1298e42? (2025. 53) (225. 06) 229. 36 229. 35?? 258 66 6... of gean uares 2 uares 12205 F 22 Replications (within fertility levels) Fertility levels Inbred lines Bources of lines Between Fflugsr lines Between Burton Lines (9) 1 401, 85 1298e48 1298e42? (2025. 53) (225. 06) 229. 36 229. 35?? 258 66 6...

Collier, Jesse W

2012-06-07

69

A study on the mapping of quantitative trait loci in advanced populations derived from two inbred lines  

E-print Network

A study on the mapping of quantitative trait loci in advanced populations derived from two inbred lines CHEN-HUNG KAO* A N D MIAO-HUI ZENG Institute of Statistical Science, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529. These advanced populations include recombinant inbred populations, advanced intercrossed populations, intermated

Huang, Su-Yun

70

Supplementary materials for "A study on Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci in the Advanced Populations Derived from Two Inbred Lines"  

E-print Network

Derived from Two Inbred Lines" Derivation of Genotypic Distribution for Three Genes under Self and Random population descended from two inbred lines. For three ordered loci, A, B and C, each with two alleles ( ASupplementary materials for "A study on Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci in the Advanced Populations

Huang, Su-Yun

71

Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci Using Naturally Occurring Genetic Variance Among Commercial Inbred Lines of Maize (Zea mays L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many commercial inbred lines are available in crops. A large amount of genetic variation is preserved among these lines. The genealogical history of the inbred lines is usually well documented. However, quantitative trait loci (QTL) responsible for the genetic variances among the lines are largely unexplored due to lack of statistical methods. In this study, we show that the pedigree

Yuan-Ming Zhang; Yongcai Mao; Chongqing Xie; Howie Smith; Lang Luo; Shizhong Xu

2005-01-01

72

What the Inbred Scandinavian Wolf Population Tells Us about the Nature of Conservation  

E-print Network

anomalies for 171 Scandinavian wolves, including the immigrant founder female, born during a 32-year periodWhat the Inbred Scandinavian Wolf Population Tells Us about the Nature of Conservation Jannikke Ra difficult to assess. Of concern has been the genetic constitution of Scandinavian wolves (Canis lupus

73

Homozygosity Mapping: A Way to Map Human Recessive Traits with the DNA of Inbred Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

An efficient strategy for mapping human genes that cause recessive traits has been devised that uses mapped restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) and the DNA of affected children from consanguineous marriages. The method involves detection of the disease locus by virtue of the fact that the adjacent region will preferentially be homozygous by descent in such inbred children. A single

Eric S. Lander; David Botstein

1987-01-01

74

Detection of linkage between quantitative trait loci and restriction fragment length polymorphisms using inbred lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

In segregating populations, large numbers of individuals are needed to detect linkage between markers, such as restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs), and quantitative trait loci (QTL), limiting the potential use of such markers for detecting linkage. Fewer individuals from inbred lines are needed to detect linkage. Simulation data were used to test the utility of two methods to detect linkage:

S. P. Simpson

1989-01-01

75

SNP frequency, haplotype structure and linkage disequilibrium in elite maize inbred lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Recent studies of ancestral maize populations indicate that linkage disequilibrium tends to dissipate rapidly, sometimes within 100 bp. We set out to examine the linkage disequilibrium and diversity in maize elite inbred lines, which have been subject to population bottlenecks and intense selection by breeders. Such population events are expected to increase the amount of linkage disequilibrium, but reduce

Ada Ching; Katherine S Caldwell; Mark Jung; Maurine Dolan; Scott Tingey; Michele Morgante; Antoni J Rafalski

2002-01-01

76

A reference map of Cucumis melo based on two recombinant inbred line populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A composite genetic melon map was generated based on two recombinant inbred line (RI) populations. By analyzing the segregation of 346 AFLPs, 113 IMAs and phenotypic characters on a RI population of 163 individuals derived from the cross Védrantais 2 PI 161375, a first map was constructed. About 20% of the molecular markers were skewed, and the residual heterozygosity was

C. Périn; L. Hagen; V. De Conto; N. Katzir; Y. Danin-Poleg; V. Portnoy; S. Baudracco-Arnas; J. Chadoeuf; C. Dogimont; M. Pitrat

2002-01-01

77

A restriction fragment length polymorphism based linkage map of a diploid Avena recombinant inbred line population  

Microsoft Academic Search

A population of 100 F6-derived recombinant inbred lines was developed from the cross of two diploid (2n = 14) Avena accessions, CI3815 (A. strigosa) and CI1994 (A. wiestii). Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) probes previously mapped in other grass species were used to develop a framework linkage map suitable for compara- tive genetics. Nine linkage groups were identified among the

C. A. Kremer; M. Lee; J. B. Holland

2001-01-01

78

Diversity, Structure, and Marker-Trait Association Analysis of the Maize Recombinant Inbred Line Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Association mapping has emerged as a new tool to elucidate complex quantitative trait loci in maize, but there are few reports about systematic association analysis for the specific SSR markers with agronomic traits of interest in China. We investigated the morphological and genetic diversity and population structure for 76 maize recombinant inbred lines, and then association analysis were further performed

Jing-tang CHEN; Li-zong HU; Li-ying ZHU; Jin-jie GUO; Yong-feng ZHAO; Ya-qun HUANG

2011-01-01

79

The expected distribution of marker-linked quantitative effects in crosses between inbred lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The a priori theoretical distribution of marker-linked quantitative effects in crosses involving inbred lines, and the number of quantitative loci contributing to such effects was obtained by numerical analysis, and examined as a function of the number and effects of the quantitative loci differentiating the lines, the location of the marker relative to the chromosome ends, and the mapping function.

M Soller; T Brody; A Genizi

1979-01-01

80

QTL analysis of seed dormancy in Arabidopsis using recombinant inbred lines and MQM mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic differences for seed germination between two commonly used Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes Ler and Col, both showing a low level of seed dormancy, were investigated. The analysis was performed with 98 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from the cross between the two ecotypes, and these lines had previously been analysed for molecular marker composition. The analysis of germination was

Wybe van der Schaar; Carlos Alonso-Blanco; Karen M. Léon-Kloosterziel; Ritsert C. Jansen; Johan W. van Ooijen; Maarten Koornneef

1997-01-01

81

QTL analysis of seed dormancy in Arabidopsis using recombinant inbred lines and MQM mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic differences for seed germination between two commonly used Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes Ler and Col, both showing a low level of seed dormancy, were investigated. The analysis was performed with 98 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from the cross between the two ecotypes, and these lines had previously been analysed for molecular marker composition by Lister and Dean (Norwich,

Wybe van der Schaar; Carlos Alonso-Blanco; Karen M Léon-Kloosterziel; Ritsert C Jansen; Johan W van Ooijen; Maarten Koornneef

1997-01-01

82

Effects of competition between alfalfa (Medi-cago sativa L.) hybrid and inbred plants on their  

E-print Network

Effects of competition between alfalfa (Medi- cago sativa L.) hybrid and inbred plants on their seed and forage yield (1) Fabio VERONESI, Francesco DAMIANI Stefania GRANDO Franco LORENZETTI Plant Breeding Institute of University of Perugia, 1 06100 Perugia, Italy (*) Forage Plant Breeding Centre

Boyer, Edmond

83

Increased egg infertility associated with translocating inbred takahe (Porphyrio hochstetteri) to island refuges in New Zealand  

E-print Network

Increased egg infertility associated with translocating inbred takahe (Porphyrio hochstetteri infertility than birds that have remained within their natural habitat range. For takahe, whether breeders had success. The coecient of inbreeding was high for island takahe but high infertility and low juvenile

Jamieson, Ian

84

Ellis-van Creveld syndrome: report of 15 cases in an inbred kindred  

Microsoft Academic Search

An inbred kindred with 15 cases of the autosomal recessive Ellis-van Creveld syndrome is reported. The ages of the 12 living affected varied between 3 and 82 years. The main characteristics include polydactyly of the hands and feet and several other skeletal anomalies, oral manifestations, and malformations of the heart in 50% of the living affected.

E O da Silva; D Janovitz; S C de Albuquerque

1980-01-01

85

Performances of inbred and outbred laboratory mice in putative tests of aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of situations commonly used to assess aggression in laboratory rodents was studied in two outbred varieties and six inbred strains of mice. The situations investigated included attacks on anosmic TO-line standard opponents by males from individual housing, from pairings with females, or after exposure to electroshock. Lactating females were studied in similar tests. Locust killing (predatory aggression) and

Sandra E. Jones; Paul F. Brain

1987-01-01

86

PLANT DEFENSE THEORY PROVIDES INSIGHT INTO INTERACTIONS INVOLVING INBRED PLANTS AND INSECT HERBIVORES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inbreeding in the form of self-fertilization is widespread among plants and typically results in broad, detrimental changes in plant morphology and physiology. Phe- notypic changes associated with inbreeding are likely to alter interactions between inbred plants and other organisms, but few studies have investigated this potential. We found that inbreeding in the entire-leaf morning glory, Ipomoea hederaceavar. integriuscula, altered this

Helen M. Hull-Sanders; Micky D. Eubanks

2005-01-01

87

The inheritance and chromosomal localization of AFLP markers in a non-inbred potato offspring  

Microsoft Academic Search

AFLPTM is a new technique to generate large numbers of molecular markers for genetic mapping. The method involves the selective amplification of a limited number of DNA restriction fragments out of complex plant genomic DNA digests using PCR. With six primer combinations 264 segregating AFLP amplification products were identified in a diploid backcross population from non-inbred potato parents. The identity

Herman J. van Eck; Jeroen Rouppe van der Voort; Jan Draaistra; Peter van Zandvoort; Ellen van Enckevort; Bart Segers; Johan Peleman; Evert Jacobsen; Johannes Helder; Jaap Bakker

1995-01-01

88

Purging deleterious mutations in conservation programmes: combining optimal contributions with inbred matings  

PubMed Central

Conservation programmes aim at minimising the loss of genetic diversity, which allows populations to adapt to potential environmental changes. This can be achieved by calculating how many offspring every individual should contribute to the next generation to minimise global coancestry. However, an undesired consequence of this strategy is that it maintains deleterious mutations, compromising the viability of the population. In order to avoid this, optimal contributions could be combined with inbred matings, to expose and eliminate recessive deleterious mutations by natural selection in a process known as purging. Although some populations that have undergone purging experienced reduced inbreeding depression, this effect is not consistent across species. Whether purging by inbred matings is efficient in conservation programmes depends on the balance between the loss of diversity, the initial decrease in fitness and the reduction in mutational load. Here we perform computer simulations to determine whether managing a population by combining optimal contributions with inbred matings improves its long-term viability while keeping reasonable levels of diversity. We compare the management based on genealogical information with management based on molecular data to calculate coancestries. In the scenarios analysed, inbred matings never led to higher fitness and usually maintained lower diversity than random or minimum coancestry matings. Replacing genealogical with molecular coancestry can maintain a larger genetic diversity but can also lead to a lower fitness. Our results are strongly dependent on the mutational model assumed for the trait under selection, the population size during management and the reproductive rate. PMID:23321706

de Cara, M A R; Villanueva, B; Toro, M A; Fernandez, J

2013-01-01

89

Hybrid vigor in Pacific oysters: an experimental approach using crosses among inbred lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two competing genetic hypotheses for heterosis, dominance and overdominance, have been championed to explain positive correlations between allozyme heterozygosity and fitness-related traits for bivalve molluscs. To begin to test these hypotheses, we made controlled crosses among inbred lines of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. In such mating experiments, heterosis (hp) can be defined and quantified through ANOVA as QL >

Dennis Hedgecock; Daniel J. McGoldrick; Brian L. Bayne

1995-01-01

90

Selecting animal models of human aging: inbred strains often exhibit less biological uniformity than F1 hybrids.  

PubMed

Most gerontological research is conducted using inbred strains of animals in an attempt to maximize phenotypic uniformity within experiments and thus increase the experimenter's statistical power to detect treatment effects. However, for a wide range of phenotypic traits, F1 hybrids between inbred strains are considerably less variable than the parental inbred strains themselves. Therefore, the use of F1 hybrids is preferable for many research applications. In this article, we discuss the sources of phenotypic variability and explain why F1 hybrids are often less variable than inbred strains; we review the empirical literature illustrating the large range of species and traits for which this is true; and finally we suggest how this finding suggests that F1 hybrids may often be superior animal models for studying the aging process and how to manipulate it. PMID:8282970

Phelan, J P; Austad, S N

1994-01-01

91

Genetic Analysis of Bread Making Quality Stability in Wheat using a Halberd X Len Recombinant Inbred Line Population  

E-print Network

of this study were to 1) analyze the different wheat quality parameters in Recombinant Inbred Lines (RILs) grown under different environments, and 2) to identify Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs) associated with quality stability in RILs grown under different...

Poudel, Ashima

2012-07-16

92

The genetic rescue of two bottlenecked South Island robin populations using translocations of inbred donors  

PubMed Central

Populations forced through bottlenecks typically lose genetic variation and exhibit inbreeding depression. ‘Genetic rescue’ techniques that introduce individuals from outbred populations can be highly effective in reversing the deleterious effects of inbreeding, but have limited application for the majority of endangered species, which survive only in a few bottlenecked populations. We tested the effectiveness of using highly inbred populations as donors to rescue two isolated and bottlenecked populations of the South Island robin (Petroica australis). Reciprocal translocations significantly increased heterozygosity and allelic diversity. Increased genetic diversity was accompanied by increased juvenile survival and recruitment, sperm quality, and immunocompetence of hybrid individuals (crosses between the two populations) compared with inbred control individuals (crosses within each population). Our results confirm that the implementation of ‘genetic rescue’ using bottlenecked populations as donors provides a way of preserving endangered species and restoring their viability when outbred donor populations no longer exist. PMID:23235701

Heber, S.; Varsani, A.; Kuhn, S.; Girg, A.; Kempenaers, B.; Briskie, J.

2013-01-01

93

Detecting the phase transition in thylakoid membranes of maize inbred lines by means of delayed fluorescence.  

PubMed

In this paper the changes on growth, photosynthesis and water relations were tested by non-invasive fluorescence method. The applications of this method allow to determine some functional properties of prestigious maize inbred lines with erect top leaves. So the temperature dependency of delayed fluorescence intensity maximum of ZPPL 16 is observed at higher temperatures than for ZPPZ 62. This fact correlates with low values of phase transition of activation energy Ea in thylakoid membrane and accompanied by a decrease of the angle and area of the leaf, as well as with the content and the rate of water release from the seed. It seems reasonable to assume that, DF can be applied in breeding and maize hybrid seed production for the estimation of prestigious maize inbred lines and their resistance adaptability to increased and high temperatures, as well as, to drought. PMID:24836446

Radenovi?, C N; Maksimov, G V; Tyutyaev, E V; Stankovi?, G J; Jovanovi?, Z V; Beljanski, M V

2014-08-01

94

Molecular mapping of grain physico-chemical and cooking quality traits using recombinant inbred lines in rice ( Oryza sativa L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from the cross between Pusa1266 (a new plant type) with Jaya (a popular\\u000a indica rice variety) was used for mapping QTL associated with grain physico-chemical and cooking quality traits in rice. A total\\u000a of 310 recombinant inbred lines were evaluated for nine grain physico-chemical and cooking quality traits at two locations\\u000a in India,

S. Guleria; V. Sharma; B. Marathi; S. Anand; N. K. Singh; T. Mohapatra; S. Gopala Krishnan; K. V. Prabhu; A. K. Singh

95

Alcohol preference in AXB\\/BXA recombinant inbred mice: gender differences and gender-specific quantitative trait loci  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The purpose of the present study was to characterize the C57BL\\/6J, A\\/J, and AXB\\/BXA Recombinant Inbred (RI) strains of mice\\u000a for voluntary alcohol consumption. Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) analysis was used to provide provisional location of QTLs\\u000a for alcohol consumption. The inbred strains were screened for levels of alcohol intake (calculated as alcohol preference and\\u000a absolute alcohol consumption) by

Kathryn Gill; Nicolas Desaulniers; Paule Desjardins; Kristine Lake

1998-01-01

96

Differentiation of Embryonic Stem Cell Lines Generated from Adult Somatic Cells by Nuclear Transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Embryonic stem (ES) cells are fully pluripotent in that they can differentiate into all cell types, including gametes. We have derived 35 ES cell lines via nuclear transfer (ntES cell lines) from adult mouse somatic cells of inbred, hybrid, and mutant strains. ntES cells contributed to an extensive variety of cell types, including dopaminergic and serotonergic neurons in vitro and

Teruhiko Wakayama; Viviane Tabar; Ivan Rodriguez; Anthony C. F. Perry; Lorenz Studer; Peter Mombaerts

2001-01-01

97

Behavioral phenotypes of inbred mouse strains: implications and recommendations for molecular studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Choosing the best genetic strains of mice for developing a new knockout or transgenic mouse requires extensive knowledge\\u000a of the endogenous traits of inbred strains. Background genes from the parental strains may interact with the mutated gene,\\u000a in a manner which could severely compromise the interpretation of the mutant phenotype. The present overview summarizes the\\u000a literature on a wide variety

J. N. Crawley; John K. Belknap; Allan Collins; John C. Crabbe; Wayne Frankel; Norman Henderson; Robert J. Hitzemann; Stephen C. Maxson; Lucinda L. Miner; Alcino J. Silva; Jeanne M. Wehner; Anthony Wynshaw-Boris; R. Paylor

1997-01-01

98

Characteristics of Sleep and Wakefulness inWild-Derived Inbred Mice  

PubMed Central

Genetic variations in the wild-derived inbred mouse strains are more diverse than that of classical laboratory inbred mouse strains, including C57BL/6J (B6). The sleep/wake and monoamine properties of six wild-derived inbred mouse strains (PGN2, NJL, BLG2, KJR, MSM, HMI) were characterized and compared with those of B6 mice. All examined mice were nocturnal and had a polyphasic sleep pattern with a “main sleep period” identified during the light period. However, there were three sleep/wake phenotypic differences between the wild-derived mouse strains and B6 strain. First, the amount of sleep during the dark phase was comparable with that of B6 mice. However, the amount of sleep during the light phase was more varied among strains, in particular, NJL and HMI had significantly less sleep compared with that of B6 mice. Second, PGN2, NJL, BLG2, and KJR mice showed a “highly awake period” (in which the hourly total sleep time was <10%) immediately after the onset of the dark period, which was not seen in B6 mice. Third, relative to that of B6 mice, PGN2 and KJR mice showed longer duration of wakefulness episodes during the 12-h dark phase. Differences in whole brain noradrenaline, dopamine, and 5-hydroxy-tryptamine contents between the wild-derived mouse strains and B6 strain were also found. These identified phenotypes might be potentially under strong genetic control. Hence, wild-derived inbred mice could be useful for identifying the genetic factors underlying the regulation of sleep and wakefulness. PMID:24770646

HIYOSHI, Hideyuki; TERAO, Akira; OKAMATSU-OGURA, Yuko; KIMURA, Kazuhiro

2014-01-01

99

Acoustic startle and prepulse inhibition in 40 inbred strains of mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-throughput phenotype screening protocol was used to measure the acoustic startle response (ASR) and prepulse inhibition (PPI) in mice. ASRs were evoked by noise bursts; prepulses for PPI were 70 dB sound pressure level tones of 4, 12, and 20 kHz. Forty inbred strains of mice were tested (in most cases using 10 males and 10 females of each

James F. Willott; Lisa Tanner; Jennifer OSteen; Kenneth R. Johnson; Molly A. Bogue; Leona Gagnon

2003-01-01

100

Functional coding variation in recombinant inbred mouse lines reveals multiple serotonin transporter-associated phenotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) transporter (hSERT, SLC6A4) figures prominently in the etiology and treatment of many prevalent neurobehavioral disorders including anxiety, alcoholism, depression, autism, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Here, we use naturally occurring polymorphisms in recombinant inbred (RI) lines to identify multiple phenotypes associated with altered SERT function. The widely used mouse strain C57BL\\/6J, harbors a SERT haplotype defined

Ana M. D. Carneiro; David C. Airey; Brent Thompson; Chong-Bin Zhu; L Lu; E J Chesler; K M Erikson; R. D. Blakely

2009-01-01

101

Circadian Timekeeping in BALB\\/c and C57BL\\/6 Inbred Mouse Strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Circadian rhythms of locomotion (wheel-running activity) in 12 inbred mouse strains were recorded for interstrain dif- ferences in 7DD, the endogenous (free-running) period of the circadian pacemaker measured in constant environmental darkness. The results indicate that 1 or more genetic loci influence the value of Tag, and a large (50 min) difference in mean rDD between 2 of the strains,

William J. Schwartz; Pamela Zimmerman

1990-01-01

102

Strain Differences in Sleep Patterns of Healthy and Influenza-Infected Inbred Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Influenza-infected C57BL\\/6J and BALB\\/cByJ mice respectively develop increased slow-wave sleep (SWS) during the dark phase and reduced SWS during the light phase of the 24 hour circadian cycle. To determine whether similar or alternative variations in SWS develop after influenza infection in other inbred strains of mice, we characterized the sleep patterns of additional strains both before and after influenza

L. A. Toth; S. J. Verhulst

2003-01-01

103

Biotransformation of a /sup 14/C-hydrogenated phenazepam analog in inbred mice in vivo  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this investigation was to study excretion of a carbon 14-hydrogenated analog of phenazam (5-0-chlorophenyl-7-bromo-1,3,4,5-tetrahydro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one), synthesized by the authors, which was found, when compared with phenazepam itself, to induce a much weaker degree of muscle relaxation and ataxia and excretion of its metabolites. Inbred lines of mice were used with different oxidation phenotypes.

Sozinov, V.A.; Seredenin, S.B.; Golovenko, N.Ya.

1987-10-01

104

PCR-analyzed microsatellites: Data concerning laboratory and wild-derived mouse inbred strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated 67 primers designed by Dr. J. Todd and co-workers to amplify microsatellites sequences in the mouse. We report on additional polymorphisms concerning seven laboratory inbred strains, complementary to those already published. We include the survey of three independently derived strains of Mus spretus: SPE\\/Pas, SEG\\/Pas and SPR\\/Smh. SPE\\/Pas and SEG\\/Pas are very close (3% polymorphism), whereas the

Xavier Montagutelli; Tadao Serikawa; Jean-Louis Guénet

1991-01-01

105

Efficient production and characterization for maize inbred lines with low-phosphorus tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Embryogenic calli derived from the young embryo of maize inbred line Qi-319, were subcultured for half a year and screened continuously on the medium without phosphate. Low-P tolerant cell lines were obtained and the regenerated plants (R0) were self-pollinated to harvest seeds. The progeny (R1) of 21% regenerated plants showed low-P tolerance traits. Low-P tolerant R1 plants and their progeny

Kunpeng Li; Zhongping Xu; Kewei Zhang; Aifang Yang; Juren Zhang

2007-01-01

106

Wheat Polyphenol Oxidase: Distribution and Genetic Mapping in Three Inbred Line Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

strates for PPO, are endogenous to the wheat plant and grain (Hatcher and Kruger, 1997). PPO is believed to be The enzyme polyphenol oxidase (PPO) has been implicated in involved in oxidation of such phenolic acids to quinones, discoloration of Asian noodles. The recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations, M6\\/'Opata 85', NY18\\/CC, and ND2603\\/'Butte 86' were and the quinones in turn

Tigst Demeke; Craig F. Morris; Kimberly G. Campbell; Garrison E. King; James A. Anderson; Hak-Gil Chang

107

Genetic Dissection of Intermated Recombinant Inbred Lines Using a New Genetic Map of Maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new genetic map of maize, ISU-IBM Map4, that integrates 2029 existing markers with 1329 new indel polymorphism (IDP) markers has been developed using intermated recombinant inbred lines (IRILs) from the intermated B73 3 Mo17 (IBM) population. The website http:\\/ \\/magi.plantgenomics.iastate.edu pro- vides access to IDP primer sequences, sequences from which IDP primers were designed, optimized marker- specific PCR conditions,

Yan Fu; Tsui-Jung Wen; Yefim I. Ronin; Hsin D. Chen; Ling Guo; David I. Mester; Yongjie Yang; Michael Lee; Abraham B. Korol; Daniel A. Ashlock; Patrick S. Schnable

2006-01-01

108

Registration of Steele-ND\\/ND 735 Wheat Recombinant Inbred Lines Mapping Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steele-ND\\/ND 735 (Reg. No. MP-1, NSL 462030), a hard red spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) (HRSW) recombinant inbred lines (RILs) population, was developed and released by the North Dakota State University (NDSU), Fargo, ND, in 2008. This mapping population is composed of 129 F2:9 RILs. The Steele-ND\\/ND 735 RILs population has been used extensively to study the genetics of resistance

Mohamed Mergoum; Pawan K. Singh; Richard C. Frohberg; Shahryar F. Kianian; Farhad Ghavami; Khwaja Hossain; Tika B. Adhikari; Vibin E. Harilal; Senay Simsek

2009-01-01

109

Characteristics of sleep and wakefulness in wild-derived inbred mice.  

PubMed

Genetic variations in the wild-derived inbred mouse strains are more diverse than that of classical laboratory inbred mouse strains, including C57BL/6J (B6). The sleep/wake and monoamine properties of six wild-derived inbred mouse strains (PGN2, NJL, BLG2, KJR, MSM, HMI) were characterized and compared with those of B6 mice. All examined mice were nocturnal and had a polyphasic sleep pattern with a "main sleep period" identified during the light period. However, there were three sleep/wake phenotypic differences between the wild-derived mouse strains and B6 strain. First, the amount of sleep during the dark phase was comparable with that of B6 mice. However, the amount of sleep during the light phase was more varied among strains, in particular, NJL and HMI had significantly less sleep compared with that of B6 mice. Second, PGN2, NJL, BLG2, and KJR mice showed a "highly awake period" (in which the hourly total sleep time was <10%) immediately after the onset of the dark period, which was not seen in B6 mice. Third, relative to that of B6 mice, PGN2 and KJR mice showed longer duration of wakefulness episodes during the 12-h dark phase. Differences in whole brain noradrenaline, dopamine, and 5-hydroxy-tryptamine contents between the wild-derived mouse strains and B6 strain were also found. These identified phenotypes might be potentially under strong genetic control. Hence, wild-derived inbred mice could be useful for identifying the genetic factors underlying the regulation of sleep and wakefulness. PMID:24770646

Hiyoshi, Hideyuki; Terao, Akira; Okamatsu-Ogura, Yuko; Kimura, Kazuhiro

2014-01-01

110

Genetic variation in bone-regenerative capacity among inbred strains of mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic variation in bone-regenerative capacity has not been studied in any animal model system. We developed a “drill-hole” model in the tail vertebra of inbred strains of mice that allows us to reproducibly introduce an injury with a defined boundary and quantify the rate of bone healing using the combination of high-resolution Faxitron X-ray imaging and the ChemiImager 4000 Low

X Li; W Gu; G Masinde; M Hamilton-Ulland; C. H Rundle; S Mohan; D. J Baylink

2001-01-01

111

Ablation of T cell immunity differentially influences tumor risk in inbred BD rat strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inbred rat strains BDIX and BDIV are constitutionally susceptible and resistant, respectively, to the development of malignant\\u000a peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) induced by neonatal exposure to N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (EtNU). They represent a model system for analysis of molecular and cellular processes underlying differential\\u000a cancer susceptibility. A point mutation in the Neu\\/ErbB-2 gene is an early marker of Schwann precursor cells

Judith A. M. Marx; Ansgar J. Röhrborn; Bernd U. Koelsch; Christine Fischer; Thomas Herrmann; Torsten Pietsch; Manfred F. Rajewsky; Andrea Kindler-Röhrborn

2009-01-01

112

Determination of heterotic patterns of quality protein maize (QPM) inbred lines  

E-print Network

in loving memory of Mrs. Leah Wangari Kirubi. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I wish to express my sincere gratitude and appreciation to Dr. Anton J. Bockholt, Chairman of my advisory committee for his generous support, guidance, and encouragement throughout... combining ability of parental lines. The ideas of combining ability were first suggested by Sprague and Tatum (64) in the evaluation of inbred lines of maize. They defined the term general combining ability (GCA) to designate the average performance...

Kirubi, Duncan Thungu

2012-06-07

113

Genetic Variation for Starch Thermal and Functional Properties Among Nonmutant Maize Inbreds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 72(3):281-286 Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) has been used in previous < 0.01) inbred by year interaction was present for all DSC parameters studies to detect differences in thermal properties among starches of non- with the exception of AH. Differences were observed in starch viscosities mutant maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes. This study was conducted to and gel strengths

M. R. CAMPBELL; L. M. POLLAK; P. J. WHITE

114

Genetic variation in bone-regenerative capacity among inbred strains of mice.  

PubMed

Genetic variation in bone-regenerative capacity has not been studied in any animal model system. We developed a "drill-hole" model in the tail vertebra of inbred strains of mice that allows us to reproducibly introduce an injury with a defined boundary and quantify the rate of bone healing using the combination of high-resolution Faxitron X-ray imaging and the ChemiImager 4000 Low Light Imaging System. Using this model, we demonstrate that bone-regenerative capacity is a genetically controlled trait with an estimated heritability of 72%, and that it differs significantly among inbred strains of mice. Of the 12 inbred strains tested, Sencar/PtJ was identified as the most suitable model for the study of hard-tissue regeneration. This strain regained 73% of bone loss 30 days after injury, in contrast to the slow healer, CBA/J, which recovered only 25% of the bone loss during the same period. Bone-regenerative capacity was not correlated with soft-tissue-regenerative capacity, suggesting that different sets of genes may regulate soft- and hard-tissue regeneration. It was, however, significantly correlated with total bone mineral density (R = 0.49, p < 0.01), indicating that high bone density is associated not only with prevention of bone fracture, but also with promotion of bone regeneration. PMID:11502474

Li, X; Gu, W; Masinde, G; Hamilton-Ulland, M; Rundle, C H; Mohan, S; Baylink, D J

2001-08-01

115

Digit Ratio (2D:4D) Differences between 20 Strains of Inbred Mice  

PubMed Central

The second to fourth digit ratio (2D?4D) is sexually differentiated in a variety of species, including humans, rats, birds, and lizards. In humans, this ratio tends to be lower in males than in females. Lower digit ratios are believed to indicate increased prenatal testosterone exposure, and are associated with more masculinized behavior across a range of traits. The story seems more complicated in laboratory mice. We have previously shown that there is no sex difference in the digit ratios of inbred mice, but found behavioral evidence to suggest that higher 2D?4D is associated with more masculinized behaviors. Work examining intrauterine position effects show that neighbouring males raise pup digit ratio, suggesting again that higher digit ratios are associated with increased developmental androgens. Other work has suggested that masculinization is associated with lower digit ratios in lab mice. Here, we examine the fore- and hindlimb digit ratios of 20 inbred mouse strains. We find large inter-strain differences, but no sexual dimorphism. Digit ratios also did not correlate with mice behavioral traits. This result calls into question the use of this trait as a broadly applicable indicator for prenatal androgen exposure. We suggest that the inbred mice model presents an opportunity for researchers to investigate the genetic, and gene-environmental influence on the development of digit ratios. PMID:19495421

Yan, Reginia H. Y.; Bunning, Mark; Wahlsten, Douglas; Hurd, Peter L.

2009-01-01

116

Two traditional maize inbred lines of contrasting technological abilities are discriminated by the seed flour proteome.  

PubMed

The seed proteome of two traditional maize inbred lines (pb269 and pb369) contrasting in grain hardness and in preferable use for bread-making was evaluated. The pb269 seeds, of flint type (i.e., hard endosperm), are preferably used by manufacturers, while pb369 (dent, soft endosperm) is rejected. The hypothesis that the content and relative amounts of specific proteins in the maize flour are relevant for such discrimination of the inbred lines was tested. The flour proteins were sequentially extracted following the Osborne fractionation (selective solubilization), and the four Osborne fractions were submitted to two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE). The total amount of protein extracted from the seeds was not significantly different, but pb369 flour exhibited significantly higher proportions of salt-extracted proteins (globulins) and ethanol-extracted proteins (alcohol-soluble prolamins). The proteome analysis allowed discrimination between the two inbred lines, with pb269 demonstrating higher heterogeneity than pb369. From the 967 spots (358 common to both lines, 208 specific to pb269, and 401 specific to pb369), 588 were submitted to mass spectrometry (MS). Through the combined use of trypsin and chymotrypsin it was possible to identify proteins in 436 spots. The functional categorization in combination with multivariate analysis highlighted the most discriminant biological processes (carbohydrate metabolic process, response to stress, chitin catabolic process, oxidation-reduction process) and molecular function (nutrient reservoir activity). The inbred lines exhibited quantitative and qualitative differences in these categories. Differences were also revealed in the amounts, proportions, and distribution of several groups of storage proteins, which can have an impact on the organization of the protein body and endosperm hardness. For some proteins (granule-bound starch synthase-1, cyclophilin, zeamatin), a change in the protein solubility rather than in the total amount extracted was observed, which reveals distinct in vivo associations and/or changes in binding strength between the inbred lines. Our approach produced information that relates protein content, relative protein content, and specific protein types to endosperm hardness and to the preferable use for "broa" bread-making. PMID:23701026

Pinheiro, Carla; Sergeant, Kjell; Machado, Cátia M; Renaut, Jenny; Ricardo, Cândido P

2013-07-01

117

Differences in caffeine 3-demethylation activity among inbred mouse strains: a comparison of hepatic Cyp1a2 gene expression between two inbred strains.  

PubMed

The 3-demethylation of caffeine can be used as an index of cytochrome P450 CYP1A2 activity in vivo. We compared the plasma levels of caffeine and the 3-demethylated metabolite. 1,7-dimethylxanthine, in six common inbred strains (A/J, P/J, BALB/cJ, C3H/HeJ, AKR/J, and SWR/J) and one inbred strain (APN) derived in our laboratory from outbred Swiss-Webster mice on the basis of its relative susceptibility to acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity. We found significant variations between a number of the common strains, all of which produced significantly higher caffeine 3-demethylation indices than our APN strain. In three of the six common strains, there was a significant difference between males and females, with the females having consistently lower 1,7-xanthine/caffeine ratios. Hepatic Cyp1a2 expression was compared between APN and C3H/HeJ males. Microsomal methoxyresorufin O-demethylation, acetanilide 4-hydroxylation, and CYP1A2 immunoreactive protein levels were significantly higher in C3H/HeJ relative to APN mice, as were hepatic CYP1A2 mRNA levels. These results indicate the importance of strain and gender to the outcome of pharmacological or toxicological studies involving CYP1A2-mediated metabolism, as well as the suitability of the plasma 1,7-dimethylxanthine/caffeine ratio as a marker of CYP1A2 activity in the mouse. The striking differences observed between the APN and C3H/HeJ mice suggest that these strains may be suitable for a genetic analysis of the regulation of the basal expression of CYP1A2, a key enzyme in procarcinogen activation. PMID:9441719

Casley, W L; Menzies, J A; Girard, M; Larocque, L; Mousseau, N; Whitehouse, L W; Moon, T W

1997-12-01

118

Efficient collection and cryopreservation of embryos in F344 strain inbred rats.  

PubMed

In rats, it is now possible to produce genetically engineered strains, not only as transgenic animals but also using gene knockout techniques. Reproductive technologies have been used as indispensable tools to produce and maintain these novel valuable strains. Although studies for collecting and cryopreserving embryos have been reported using outbred rats, efficient methods have not been established in inbred strains. The F344 inbred strain is important in rat breeding and has been used for the production of transgenic/knockout strains and for genome sequencing. Here we studied the optimal conditions for oocyte collection by induction of superovulation, and the development of embryos after cryopreservation in F344 rats. The response to pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) was examined by injection of 150 IU/kg PMSG + 75 IU/kg hCG or 300 IU/kg PMSG + 300 IU/kg hCG. Superovulation was achieved at high efficiency by an injection of 150 IU/kg PMSG + 75 IU/kg hCG. Furthermore, superovulation in this strain showed similar high response as Wistar rats. Of 2-cell embryos cryopreserved by vitrification in a solution containing 10% propylene glycol, 30% ethylene glycol, 20% Percoll and 0.3 M sucrose, more than 90% survived after warming and 32% developed to offspring. However, the freezability of pronuclear stage embryos was extremely low. This study demonstrated that sufficient unfertilized oocytes and embryos can be collected from F344 rats by the induction of superovulation with 150 IU/kg PMSG + 75 IU/kg hCG. Furthermore, cryopreservation of 2-cell embryos using this vitrification protocol can now be applied to maintaining valuable rat strains derived from the F344 inbred strain as genetic resources. PMID:23928269

Taketsuru, Hiroaki; Kaneko, Takehito

2013-10-01

119

Habituation of Activity in an Open Field: A Survey of Inbred Strains and F1 Hybrids  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine if there is genetic variability in habituation of activity in an open field, we examined a number of inbred strains and F1 hybrids. Using 5-min exposures to a dark open field, we measured changes in exploratory behavior over 3 consecutive days in 129S3\\/SvImJ, A\\/J, BALB\\/ cByJ, C3H\\/HeJ, C57BL\\/6J, CBA\\/J, DBA\\/2J, FVB\\/NJ, (B6 × 129)F1\\/J, and (B6 × C3H)

Valerie J. Bolivar; Barbara J. Caldarone; Andrew A. Reilly; Lorraine Flaherty

2000-01-01

120

InBr3: a versatile catalyst for the different types of Friedel-Crafts reactions.  

PubMed

Mild and efficient InBr(3)-catalyzed Friedel-Crafts alkylation of heteroaromatic or electron-rich aromatic compounds with alpha-amido sulfones at room temperature in CH(2)Cl(2) has been developed. The products undergo further Friedel-Crafts alkylation with heteroaromatic or electron-rich aromatic compounds leading to unsymmetrical or bis-symmetrical triaryl methanes in good yield. Alpha-amido sulfones are employed for the synthesis of the unsymmetrical and bis-symmetrical triaryl methanes. The use of mild reaction condition, low catalytic loading, and high yield are the advantages of the present procedures. PMID:19813765

Thirupathi, Ponnaboina; Kim, Sung Soo

2009-10-16

121

Hybrid mouse diversity panel: a panel of inbred mouse strains suitable for analysis of complex genetic traits.  

PubMed

We have developed an association-based approach using classical inbred strains of mice in which we correct for population structure, which is very extensive in mice, using an efficient mixed-model algorithm. Our approach includes inbred parental strains as well as recombinant inbred strains in order to capture loci with effect sizes typical of complex traits in mice (in the range of 5% of total trait variance). Over the last few years, we have typed the hybrid mouse diversity panel (HMDP) strains for a variety of clinical traits as well as intermediate phenotypes and have shown that the HMDP has sufficient power to map genes for highly complex traits with resolution that is in most cases less than a megabase. In this essay, we review our experience with the HMDP, describe various ongoing projects, and discuss how the HMDP may fit into the larger picture of common diseases and different approaches. PMID:22892838

Ghazalpour, Anatole; Rau, Christoph D; Farber, Charles R; Bennett, Brian J; Orozco, Luz D; van Nas, Atila; Pan, Calvin; Allayee, Hooman; Beaven, Simon W; Civelek, Mete; Davis, Richard C; Drake, Thomas A; Friedman, Rick A; Furlotte, Nick; Hui, Simon T; Jentsch, J David; Kostem, Emrah; Kang, Hyun Min; Kang, Eun Yong; Joo, Jong Wha; Korshunov, Vyacheslav A; Laughlin, Rick E; Martin, Lisa J; Ohmen, Jeffrey D; Parks, Brian W; Pellegrini, Matteo; Reue, Karen; Smith, Desmond J; Tetradis, Sotirios; Wang, Jessica; Wang, Yibin; Weiss, James N; Kirchgessner, Todd; Gargalovic, Peter S; Eskin, Eleazar; Lusis, Aldons J; LeBoeuf, Renée C

2012-10-01

122

Gastrointestinal microbiota of wild and inbred individuals of two house mouse subspecies assessed using high-throughput parallel pyrosequencing.  

PubMed

The effects of gastrointestinal tract microbiota (GTM) on host physiology and health have been the subject of considerable interest in recent years. While a variety of captive bred species have been used in experiments, the extent to which GTM of captive and/or inbred individuals resembles natural composition and variation in wild populations is poorly understood. Using 454 pyrosequencing, we performed 16S rDNA GTM barcoding for 30 wild house mice (Mus musculus) and wild-derived inbred strain mice belonging to two subspecies (M. m. musculus and M. m. domesticus). Sequenced individuals were selected according to a 2 × 2 experimental design: wild (14) vs. inbred origin (16) and M. m. musculus (15) vs. M. m. domesticus (15). We compared alpha diversity (i.e. number of operational taxonomic units - OTUs), beta diversity (i.e. interindividual variability) and microbiota composition across the four groups. We found no difference between M. m. musculus and M. m. domesticus subspecies, suggesting low effect of genetic differentiation between these two subspecies on GTM structure. Both inbred and wild populations showed the same level of microbial alpha and beta diversity; however, we found strong differentiation in microbiota composition between wild and inbred populations. Relative abundance of ~ 16% of OTUs differed significantly between wild and inbred individuals. As laboratory mice represent the most abundant model for studying the effects of gut microbiota on host metabolism, immunity and neurology, we suggest that the distinctness of laboratory-kept mouse microbiota, which differs from wild mouse microbiota, needs to be considered in future biomedical research. PMID:25204516

Kreisinger, Jakub; Cížková, Dagmar; Vohánka, Jaroslav; Piálek, Jaroslav

2014-10-01

123

Brachypodium sylvaticum, a Model for Perennial Grasses: Transformation and Inbred Line Development  

PubMed Central

Perennial species offer significant advantages as crops including reduced soil erosion, lower energy inputs after the first year, deeper root systems that access more soil moisture, and decreased fertilizer inputs due to the remobilization of nutrients at the end of the growing season. These advantages are particularly relevant for emerging biomass crops and it is projected that perennial grasses will be among the most important dedicated biomass crops. The advantages offered by perennial crops could also prove favorable for incorporation into annual grain crops like wheat, rice, sorghum and barley, especially under the dryer and more variable climate conditions projected for many grain-producing regions. Thus, it would be useful to have a perennial model system to test biotechnological approaches to crop improvement and for fundamental research. The perennial grass Brachypodiumsylvaticum is a candidate for such a model because it is diploid, has a small genome, is self-fertile, has a modest stature, and short generation time. Its close relationship to the annual model Brachypodiumdistachyon will facilitate comparative studies and allow researchers to leverage the resources developed for B. distachyon. Here we report on the development of two keystone resources that are essential for a model plant: high-efficiency transformation and inbred lines. Using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation we achieved an average transformation efficiency of 67%. We also surveyed the genetic diversity of 19 accessions from the National Plant Germplasm System using SSR markers and created 15 inbred lines. PMID:24073248

Steinwand, Michael A.; Young, Hugh A.; Bragg, Jennifer N.; Tobias, Christian M.; Vogel, John P.

2013-01-01

124

Hidden in plain sight: spike-wave discharges in mouse inbred strains.  

PubMed

Twenty-seven inbred strains of mice were tested for spike-wave discharge (SWD) activity by video-electroencephalographic recordings over a 24-h recording period. Eight strains had reproducible, frequent SWDs, including five strains (C57BLKS/J, CBA/J, DBA/1J, NOR/LtJ, SM/J) previously undiagnosed for this distinctive phenotype. Eighteen other strains exhibited no such activity. Spike-wave discharges usually occurred while the subject was motionless, and in a significant number of annotated instances coincided with an arrest of the subject's relatively unrestrained locomotor activity, which resumed immediately after the discharge ended. In all five new strains, SWDs were suppressed by ethosuximide administration. From the genealogy of inbred strains, we suggest that two ancestors, A and DBA, transmitted genotypes required for SWD in all positive strains. Together these strains with SWDs provide new opportunities to understand the genetic core susceptibility of this distinctive electroencephalographic activity and to explore its relationship to absence epilepsy, a human disorder for which few genes are known. PMID:24861780

Letts, V A; Beyer, B J; Frankel, W N

2014-07-01

125

High-throughput phenotypic assessment of cardiac physiology in four commonly used inbred mouse strains.  

PubMed

Mice with genetic alterations are used in heart research as model systems of human diseases. In the last decade there was a marked increase in the recognition of genetic diversity within inbred mouse strains. Increasing numbers of inbred mouse strains and substrains and analytical variation of cardiac phenotyping methods require reproducible, high-throughput methods to standardize murine cardiovascular physiology. We describe methods for non-invasive, reliable, easy and fast to perform echocardiography and electrocardiography on awake mice. This method can be used for primary screening of the murine cardiovascular system in large-scale analysis. We provide insights into the physiological divergence of C57BL/6N, C57BL/6J, C3HeB/FeJ and 129P2/OlaHsd mouse hearts and define the expected normal values. Our report highlights that compared to the other three strains tested C57BL/6N hearts reveal features of heart failure such as hypertrophy and reduced contractile function. We found several features of the mouse ECG to be under genetic control and obtained several strain-specific differences in cardiac structure and function. PMID:24788387

Moreth, Kristin; Fischer, Ralf; Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valérie; Wurst, Wolfgang; Katus, Hugo A; Bekeredjian, Raffi; Hrab? de Angelis, Martin

2014-08-01

126

Genotype Probabilities at Intermediate Generations in the Construction of Recombinant Inbred Lines  

PubMed Central

The mouse Collaborative Cross (CC) is a panel of eight-way recombinant inbred lines: eight diverse parental strains are intermated, followed by repeated sibling mating, many times in parallel, to create a new set of inbred lines whose genomes are random mosaics of the genomes of the original eight strains. Many generations are required to reach inbreeding, and so a number of investigators have sought to make use of phenotype and genotype data on mice from intermediate generations during the formation of the CC lines (so-called pre-CC mice). The development of a hidden Markov model for genotype reconstruction in such pre-CC mice, on the basis of incompletely informative genetic markers (such as single-nucleotide polymorphisms), formally requires the two-locus genotype probabilities at an arbitrary generation along the path to inbreeding. In this article, I describe my efforts to calculate such probabilities. While closed-form solutions for the two-locus genotype probabilities could not be derived, I provide a prescription for calculating such probabilities numerically. In addition, I present a number of useful quantities, including single-locus genotype probabilities, two-locus haplotype probabilities, and the fixation probability and map expansion at each generation along the course to inbreeding. PMID:22345609

Broman, Karl W.

2012-01-01

127

Profiling polyphenols of two diploid strawberry (Fragaria vesca) inbred lines using UHPLC-HRMS(n.).  

PubMed

Phenolic compounds in the fruits of two diploid strawberries (Fragaria vesca f. semperflorens) inbred lines-Ruegen F7-4 (a red-fruited genotype) and YW5AF7 (a yellow-fruited genotype) were characterised using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS(n)). The changes of anthocyanin composition during fruit development and between Ruegen F7-4 and YW5AF7 were studied. About 67 phenolic compounds, including taxifolin 3-O-arabinoside, glycosides of quercetin, kaempferol, cyanidin, pelargonidin, peonidin, ellagic acid derivatives, and other flavonols were identified in these two inbred lines. Compared to the regular octoploid strawberry, unique phenolic compounds were found in F. vesca fruits, such as taxifolin 3-O-arabinoside (both) and peonidin 3-O-malonylglucoside (Ruegen F7-4). The results provide the basis for comparative analysis of polyphenolic compounds in yellow and red diploid strawberries, as well as with the cultivated octoploid strawberries. PMID:24176345

Sun, Jianghao; Liu, Xianjin; Yang, Tianbao; Slovin, Janet; Chen, Pei

2014-03-01

128

Genetic Analysis of Vertebral Regionalization and Number in Medaka (Oryzias latipes) Inbred Lines  

PubMed Central

Vertebral number is the most variable trait among vertebrates. In addition to the vertebral number, the ratio of abdominal to caudal vertebrae is a variable trait. The vertebral number and the ratio of abdominal to caudal vertebrae contribute to vertebrate diversity. It is very interesting to know how to determine the vertebral number and the ratio of abdominal to caudal vertebrae. In this study, we identify differences in the vertebral number and the ratio of abdominal vertebrae to vertebral number between two inbred lines of medaka, namely, Hd-rRII1 and Kaga. To identify the genetic factor of those differences, we performed quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis for vertebral number and the ratio of abdominal vertebrae to vertebral number using 200 F2 fish. Our results show a suggestive QTL of the ratio of abdominal vertebrae to vertebral number on chromosome 15, and five QTL of vertebral number on chromosomes 1, 10, 11, 17, and 23. The QTL on chromosome 15 contains hoxDb cluster genes. The QTL of vertebral number include some genes related to the segmentation clock and axial elongation. In addition, we show that the difference in vertebral number between two inbred lines is derived from differences in the anteroposterior length of somites. Our results emphasize that the developmental process should be considered in genetic analyses for vertebral number. PMID:23173083

Kimura, Tetsuaki; Shinya, Minori; Naruse, Kiyosi

2012-01-01

129

Genetic regulation of cold-induced albinism in the maize inbred line A661  

PubMed Central

In spite of multiple studies elucidating the regulatory pathways controlling chlorophyll biosynthesis and photosynthetic activity, little is known about the molecular mechanism regulating cold-induced chlorosis in higher plants. Herein the characterization of the maize inbred line A661 which shows a cold-induced albino phenotype is reported. The data show that exposure of seedlings to low temperatures during early leaf biogenesis led to chlorophyll losses in this inbred. A661 shows a high plasticity, recovering resting levels of photosynthesis activity when exposed to optimal temperatures. Biochemical and transcriptome data indicate that at suboptimal temperatures chlorophyll could not be fully accommodated in the photosynthetic antenna in A661, remaining free in the chloroplast. The accumulation of free chlorophyll activates the expression of an early light inducible protein (elip) gene which binds chlorophyll to avoid cross-reactions that could lead to the generation of harmful reactive oxygen species. Higher levels of the elip transcript were observed in plants showing a cold-induced albino phenotype. Forward genetic analysis reveals that a gene located on the short arm of chromosome 2 regulates this protective mechanism. PMID:23881393

Rodriguez, Victor M.

2013-01-01

130

A novel active endogenous retrovirus family contributes to genome variability in rat inbred strains.  

PubMed

Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) contribute to a range of germline, as well as somatic mutations in mammals. However, autonomous retrotransposition of potentially active elements has not been demonstrated in the rat genome. We cloned an insertion that disrupted the normal splicing of the Cntrob gene that was subsequently identified as a nonautonomous, novel endogenous retrovirus of the RnERV-K8e family. The RnERV-K8e family is closely related to the recently reported MmERV-K10c elements, but differs from the autonomous mouse MusD or IAP families. In addition, we identified a novel, unexpectedly close relative of RnERV-K8e in the mouse, suggesting ERV-K cross-species transmission between mice and rats. We cloned a potentially autonomous RnERV-K8e element identified by in silico analysis and, using an in vitro retrotransposition assay, demonstrated that it is capable of retrotransposition. This particular element (named Rat-rho, pronounced "retro") encodes a retroviral envelope gene (env); however, env is not required for de novo retrotransposition events. Significant levels of RnERV-K8e-associated genetic polymorphisms were detected among inbred rat strains, suggesting ongoing retrotransposition in the rat genome. This study identifies an ERV-K-type family in rats that shows obvious signs of recent activity. Ongoing retrotranspositional activity may significantly add to genomic variability among inbred rat strains. PMID:19887576

Wang, Yongming; Liska, Frantisek; Gosele, Claudia; Sedová, Lucie; Kren, Vladimír; Krenová, Drahomíra; Ivics, Zoltán; Hubner, Norbert; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna

2010-01-01

131

A General Bayesian Approach to Analyzing Diallel Crosses of Inbred Strains  

PubMed Central

The classic diallel takes a set of parents and produces offspring from all possible mating pairs. Phenotype values among the offspring can then be related back to their respective parentage. When the parents are diploid, sexed, and inbred, the diallel can characterize aggregate effects of genetic background on a phenotype, revealing effects of strain dosage, heterosis, parent of origin, epistasis, and sex-specific versions thereof. However, its analysis is traditionally intricate, unforgiving of unplanned missing information, and highly sensitive to imbalance, making the diallel unapproachable to many geneticists. Nonetheless, imbalanced and incomplete diallels arise frequently, albeit unintentionally, as by-products of larger-scale experiments that collect F1 data, for example, pilot studies or multiparent breeding efforts such as the Collaborative Cross or the Arabidopsis MAGIC lines. We present a general Bayesian model for analyzing diallel data on dioecious diploid inbred strains that cleanly decomposes the observed patterns of variation into biologically intuitive components, simultaneously models and accommodates outliers, and provides shrinkage estimates of effects that automatically incorporate uncertainty due to imbalance, missing data, and small sample size. We further present a model selection procedure for weighing evidence for or against the inclusion of those components in a predictive model. We evaluate our method through simulation and apply it to incomplete diallel data on the founders and F1's of the Collaborative Cross, robustly characterizing the genetic architecture of 48 phenotypes. PMID:22345610

Lenarcic, Alan B.; Svenson, Karen L.; Churchill, Gary A.; Valdar, William

2012-01-01

132

Genetic regulation of cold-induced albinism in the maize inbred line A661.  

PubMed

In spite of multiple studies elucidating the regulatory pathways controlling chlorophyll biosynthesis and photosynthetic activity, little is known about the molecular mechanism regulating cold-induced chlorosis in higher plants. Herein the characterization of the maize inbred line A661 which shows a cold-induced albino phenotype is reported. The data show that exposure of seedlings to low temperatures during early leaf biogenesis led to chlorophyll losses in this inbred. A661 shows a high plasticity, recovering resting levels of photosynthesis activity when exposed to optimal temperatures. Biochemical and transcriptome data indicate that at suboptimal temperatures chlorophyll could not be fully accommodated in the photosynthetic antenna in A661, remaining free in the chloroplast. The accumulation of free chlorophyll activates the expression of an early light inducible protein (elip) gene which binds chlorophyll to avoid cross-reactions that could lead to the generation of harmful reactive oxygen species. Higher levels of the elip transcript were observed in plants showing a cold-induced albino phenotype. Forward genetic analysis reveals that a gene located on the short arm of chromosome 2 regulates this protective mechanism. PMID:23881393

Rodríguez, Víctor M; Velasco, Pablo; Garrido, José L; Revilla, Pedro; Ordás, Amando; Butrón, Ana

2013-09-01

133

Genetics of body weight in the LXS recombinant inbred mouse strains  

SciTech Connect

This is the first phenotypic analysis of 75 new recombinant inbred (RI) strains derived from ILS and ISS progenitors. We analyzed body weight in two independent cohorts of female mice at various ages and in males at 60 days. Body weight is a complex trait which has been mapped in numerous crosses in rodents. The LXS RI strains displayed a large range of weights, transgressing those of the inbred progenitors, supporting the utility of this large panel for mapping traits not selected in the progenitors. Numerous QTLs for body weight mapped in singleand multilocus scans. We assessed replication between these and previously reported QTLs based on overlapping confidence intervals of published QTLs for body weight at 60 days and used meta-analyses to determine combined p values for three QTL regions located on Chromosomes 4, 5, and 11. Strain distribution patterns of microsatellite marker genotypes, weight, and other phenotypes are available on Web- QTL (http://www.webqtl.org/search.html) and allow genetic mapping of any heritable quantitative phenotype measured in these strains. We report one such analysis, correlating brain and body weights. Large reference panels of RI strains, such as the LXS, are invaluable for identifying genetic correlations, GXE (Gene X Environment) interactions, and replicating previously identified QTLs.

Bennett, Beth [University of Colorado, Boulder; Carosone-Line, Phyllis [University of Colorado, Boulder; Lu, Lu [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Chesler, Elissa J [ORNL; Johnson, Thomas [University of Colorado, Boulder

2005-01-01

134

Inbred mouse strains C57BL\\/6J and DBA\\/2J vary in sensitivity to a subset of bitter stimuli  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Common inbred mouse strains are genotypically diverse, but it is still poorly understood how this diversity relates to specific differences in behavior. To identify quantitative trait genes that influence taste behavior differences, it is critical to utilize assays that exclusively measure the contribution of orosensory cues. With a few exceptions, previous characterizations of behavioral taste sensitivity in inbred mouse

John D Boughter Jr; Sandeep Raghow; Theodore M Nelson; Steven D Munger

2005-01-01

135

Detection of QTLs Linked to Leaf and Smoke Properties in Nicotiana tabacum Based on a Study of 114 Recombinant Inbred Lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were investigated in a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population descended from a cross between two flue-cured Nicotiana tabacum L. inbred lines with unrelated breeding origins. A total of 59 traits, related to diverse agronomic, leaf quality, chemical composition and smoke properties were assessed. Chemical traits and smoke mutagenicity were estimated by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) analyses

E. Julio; B. Denoyes-Rothan; J.-L. Verrier

2006-01-01

136

Genetic architecture of rind penetrometer resistance in two maize recombinant inbred line populations  

PubMed Central

Background Maize (Zea Mays L.) is one of the most important cereal crops worldwide and provides food for billions of people. Stalk lodging can greatly undermine the standability of maize plants and therefore decrease crop yields. Rind penetrometer resistance is an effective and reliable method for evaluating maize stalk strength, which is highly correlated with stalk lodging resistance. In this study, two recombinant inbred line populations were constructed from crosses between the H127R and Chang7-2 lines, and between the B73 and By804 lines. We genotyped these two populations and their parents using 3,072 single nucleotide polymorphism markers and performed phenotypic assessment of rind penetrometer resistance in multiple environments to dissect the genetic architecture of rind penetrometer resistance in maize. Results Based on two linkage maps of 1,397.1 and 1,600.4 cM with average interval of 1.7 and 2.1 cM between adjacent makers, respectively, seven quantitative trait loci (QTL) for rind penetrometer resistance were detected in the two recombinant inbred line populations. These QTL were distributed in seven genomic regions, and each accounted for 4.4–18.9% of the rind penetrometer resistance variation. The QTL with the largest effect on rind penetrometer resistance, qRPR3-1, was located on chromosome 3 with the flanking markers PZE-103123325 and SYN23245. This locus was further narrowed down to a 3.1-Mb interval by haplotype analysis using high-density markers in the target region. Within this interval, four genes associated with the biosynthesis of cell wall components were considered as potential candidate genes for the rind penetrometer resistance effect. Conclusions The inheritance of rind penetrometer resistance is rather complex. A few large-effect quantitative trait loci, together with a several minor-effect QTL, contributed to the phenotypic variation in rind penetrometer resistance in the two recombinant inbred line populations that were examined. A potential approach for improving stalk strength and crop yields in commercial maize lines may be to introgress favorable alleles of the locus that was found to have the largest effect on rind penetrometer resistance (qRPR3-1). PMID:24893717

2014-01-01

137

QTLs conferring cold tolerance at the booting stage of rice using recombinant inbred lines from a japonica × indica cross  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low temperature stress is common for rice grown in temperate regions and at high elevations in the tropics. The most senstive stage to this stress is booting, about 11 days before heading. Japonica cultivars are known to be more tolerant than indicas. We constructed a genetic map using 191 recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross between a temperate japonica,

V. C. Andaya; D. J. Mackill

2003-01-01

138

A general mixture model approach for mapping quantitative trait loci from diverse cross designs involving multiple inbred lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

this paper, we outline a general approach of mixturemodel analyses that are applicable to various crossesfrom two or multiple inbred lines. We first focus on agroup of F # populations from a diallel design of Llines as an example. In simulation studies, we showhow the methods can be used for di#erent kinds ofcombinations of crosses. The methods are su#cientlyflexible to

YUEFU LIU; ZHAO-BANG ZENG

2000-01-01

139

New Arabidopsis recombinant inbred line populations genotyped using SNPWave and their use for mapping flowering-time quantitative trait loci  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SNPWave marker system, based on SNPs between the reference accessions Colombia-0 and Landsberg erecta (Ler), was used to distinguish a set of 92 Arabidopsis accessions from various parts of the world. In addition, we used these markers to genotype three new recombinant inbred line populations for Arabidopsis, having Ler as a common parent that was crossed with the accessions

Mohamed E. El-Lithy; Leonie Bentsink; Corrie J. Hanhart; Gerda J. Ruys; Daniela Rovito; J. L. M. Broekhof; Poel van der H. J; Michiel J. T. van Eijk; Dick Vreugdenhil; Maarten Koornneef

2006-01-01

140

Mapping Fiber and Yield QTLs with Main, Epistatic, and QTL × Environment Interaction Effects in Recombinant Inbred Lines of Upland Cotton  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most agronomic traits of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) are quan- titatively inherited and affected by environment. The importance of epistasis as the genetic basis for complex traits has been reported in many crops. In this study, a linkage map was constructed by means of a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from 72353TM-1. Main effects, epistatic effects, and environmental interaction

Xinlian Shen; Tianzhen Zhang; Wangzhen Guo; Xiefei Zhu; Xiaoyang Zhang

2006-01-01

141

The development of lettuce backcross inbred lines (BILs) for exploitation of the Lactuca saligna (wild lettuce) germplasm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Backcross inbred lines (BILs) were developed in which chromosome segments of Lactuca saligna (wild lettuce) were introgressed into L. sativa (lettuce). These lines were developed by four to five backcrosses and one generation of selfing. The first three generations of backcrossing were random. Marker-assisted selection began in the BC 4 generation and continued until the final set of BILs was

M. J. W. Jeuken; P. Lindhout

2004-01-01

142

Combining data from multiple inbred line crosses improves the power and resolution of quantitative trait Loci mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rodent inbred line crosses are widely used to map genetic loci associated with complex traits. This approach has proven to be powerful for detecting quantitative trait loci (QTL); however, the resolution of QTL locations, typically approximately 20 cM, means that hundreds of genes are implicated as potential candidates. We describe analytical methods based on linear models to combine information available

Renhua Li; Malcolm A. Lyons; Henning Wittenburg; Beverly Paigen

2005-01-01

143

Genetic mapping and QTL analysis of horticultural traits in cucumber ( Cucumis sativus L.) using recombinant inbred lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of 171 recombinant inbred lines (RIL) were developed from a narrow cross in cucumber ( Cucumis sativus L.; 2n = 2 x = 14) using the determinate ( de), gynoecious ( F), standard-sized leaf line G421 and the indeterminate, monoecious, little-leaf ( ll) line H-19. A 131-point genetic map was constructed using these RILs and 216 F 2

G. Fazio; J. E. Staub; M. R. Stevens

2003-01-01

144

Something Old and Something New: Wedding Recombinant Inbred Lines with Traditional Line Cross Analysis Increases Power to Describe Gene Interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a novel approach to quantifying genetic architecture that combines recombinant inbred lines (RIL) with line cross analysis (LCA). LCA is a method of quantifying directional genetic effects (i.e. summed effects of all loci) that differentiate two parental lines. Directional genetic effects are thought to be critical components of genetic architecture for the long term response

Tarek W. Elnaccash; Stephen J. Tonsor; Pieter H. Reitsma

2010-01-01

145

Quantitative trait locus analysis of a recombinant inbred line population derived from a Lycopersicon esculentum x Lycopersicon cheesmanii cross  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative trait loci influencing fruit traits were identified by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis in a population of recombinant inbred lines (RIL) derived from a cross of the cultivated tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum with a related wild species Lycopersicon cheesmanii. One hundred thirty-two polymorphic RFLP loci spaced throughout the tomato genome were scored for 97 F8 RIL families. Fruit weight

I. L. Goldman; I. Paran; D. Zamir

1995-01-01

146

Bay0 × Shahdara recombinant inbred line population: a powerful tool for the genetic dissection of complex traits in Arabidopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural genetic variation in Arabidopsis is considerable, but has not yet been used extensively as a source of variants to identify new genes of interest. From the cross between two genetically distant ecotypes, Bay-0 and Shahdara, we generated a Recombinant Inbred Line (RIL) population dedicated to Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) mapping. A set of 38 physically anchored microsatellite markers was

O. Loudet; S. Chaillou; C. Camilleri; D. Bouchez; F. Daniel-Vedele

2002-01-01

147

Global and Local Genome Mapping in Arabidopsis thaliana by Using Recombinant Inbred Lines and Random Amplified Polymorphic DNAs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A population of Arabidopsis thaliana recombinant inbred lines was constructed and used to develop a high-density genetic linkage map containing 252 random amplified polymorphic DNA markers and 60 previously mapped restriction fragment length polymorphisms. Linkage groups were correlated to the classical genetic map by inclusion of nine phenotypic markers in the mapping cross. We also applied a technique for local

Robert S. Reiter; John G. K. Williams; Kenneth A. Feldmann; J. Antoni Rafalski; Scott V. Tingey; Pablo A. Scolnik

1992-01-01

148

Genetic structure of the LXS panel of recombinant inbred mouse strains: a powerful resource for complex trait analysis.  

PubMed

The set of LXS recombinant inbred (RI) strains is a new and exceptionally large mapping panel that is suitable for the analysis of complex traits with comparatively high power. This panel consists of 77 strains-more than twice the size of other RI sets--and will typically provide sufficient statistical power (beta = 0.8) to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that account for approximately 25% of genetic variance with a genomewide p < 0.05. To characterize the genetic architecture of this new set of RI strains, we genotyped 330 MIT microsatellite markers distributed on all autosomes and the X Chromosome and assembled error-checked meiotic recombination maps that have an average F2-adjusted marker spacing of approximately 4 cM. The LXS panel has a genetic structure consistent with random segregation and subsequent fixation of alleles, the expected 3-4 x map expansion, a low level of nonsyntenic association among loci, and complete independence among all 77 strains. Although the parental inbred strains-Inbred Long-Sleep (ILS) and Inbred Short-Sleep (ISS)--were derived originally by selection from an 8-way heterogeneous stock selected for differential sensitivity to sedative effects of ethanol, the LXS panel is also segregating for many other traits. Thus, the LXS panel provides a powerful new resource for mapping complex traits across many systems and disciplines and should prove to be of great utility in modeling the genetics of complex diseases in human populations. PMID:15457343

Williams, Robert W; Bennett, Beth; Lu, Lu; Gu, Jing; DeFries, John C; Carosone-Link, Phyllis J; Rikke, Brad A; Belknap, John K; Johnson, Thomas E

2004-08-01

149

Recovery of maize (Zea mays L.) inbreds and hybrids from chilling stress of various duration: photosynthesis and antioxidant enzymes.  

PubMed

The differences between two maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines and their F1 hybrids in their response to chilling periods of various duration (1, 2, 3 or 4 weeks) and subsequent return to optimum temperatures were analysed by the measurement of the photosystem (PS) 1 and 2 activity, the photosynthetic pigments' content and the activity of antioxidant enzymes. The PS2 activity and the chlorophyll content decreased in plants subjected to 3 or 4 weeks of chilling, but not in those subjected to 1 or 2 weeks of chilling. This decrease was more pronounced in inbreds compared to their hybrids. The activity of superoxide dismutase did not much change with the increasing length of chilling period in the inbreds but decreased in the hybrids, the glutathione reductase activity increased in both types of genotypes but more in the inbred lines, while for ascorbate peroxidase and catalase the changes in parents-hybrids relationship did not show any specific trend. The PS1 activity and the carotenoids' content was not much affected. PMID:16884820

Holá, Dana; Kocová, Marie; Rothová, Olga; Wilhelmová, Nad'a; Benesová, Monika

2007-07-01

150

Descriptive statistics and correlation analysis of agronomic traits in a maize recombinant inbred line population.  

PubMed

Maize (Zea mays L.) is one of the most important crops in the world. In this study, 13 agronomic traits of a recombinant inbred line population that was derived from the cross between Mo17 and Huangzao4 were investigated in maize: ear diameter, ear length, ear axis diameter, ear weight, plant height, ear height, days to pollen shed (DPS), days to silking (DS), the interval between DPS and DS, 100-kernel weight, kernel test weight, ear kernel weight, and kernel rate. Furthermore, the descriptive statistics and correlation analysis of the 13 traits were performed using the SPSS 11.5 software. The results providing the phenotypic data here are needed for the quantitative trait locus mapping of these agronomic traits. PMID:24535873

Zhang, H M; Hui, G Q; Luo, Q; Sun, Y; Liu, X H

2014-01-01

151

The scent of inbreeding: a male sex pheromone betrays inbred males  

PubMed Central

Inbreeding depression results from mating among genetically related individuals and impairs reproductive success. The decrease in male mating success is usually attributed to an impact on multiple fitness-related traits that reduce the general condition of inbred males. Here, we find that the production of the male sex pheromone is reduced significantly by inbreeding in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana. Other traits indicative of the general condition, including flight performance, are also negatively affected in male butterflies by inbreeding. Yet, we unambiguously show that only the production of male pheromones affects mating success. Thus, this pheromone signal informs females about the inbreeding status of their mating partners. We also identify the specific chemical component (hexadecanal) probably responsible for the decrease in male mating success. Our results advocate giving increased attention to olfactory communication as a major causal factor of mate-choice decisions and sexual selection. PMID:23466986

van Bergen, Erik; Brakefield, Paul M.; Heuskin, Stephanie; Zwaan, Bas J.; Nieberding, Caroline M.

2013-01-01

152

Epigenome-wide inheritance of cytosine methylation variants in a recombinant inbred population  

PubMed Central

Cytosine DNA methylation is one avenue for passing information through cell divisions. Here, we present epigenomic analyses of soybean recombinant inbred lines (RILs) and their parents. Identification of differentially methylated regions (DMRs) revealed that DMRs mostly cosegregated with the genotype from which they were derived, but examples of the uncoupling of genotype and epigenotype were identified. Linkage mapping of methylation states assessed from whole-genome bisulfite sequencing of 83 RILs uncovered widespread evidence for local methylQTL. This epigenomics approach provides a comprehensive study of the patterns and heritability of methylation variants in a complex genetic population over multiple generations, paving the way for understanding how methylation variants contribute to phenotypic variation. PMID:23739894

Schmitz, Robert J.; He, Yupeng; Valdes-Lopez, Oswaldo; Khan, Saad M.; Joshi, Trupti; Urich, Mark A.; Nery, Joseph R.; Diers, Brian; Xu, Dong; Stacey, Gary; Ecker, Joseph R.

2013-01-01

153

Correlation of Female Indices From Virulence Assays on Inbred Lines and Field Populations of Heterodera glycines.  

PubMed

A lack of diversity and durability of resistant soybean varieties complicates management of the soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines, exemplified by the current overdependence on the PI 88788 source of resistance. Of interest is the effect of adaptation of a SCN population to a source of resistance on its subsequent ability to develop on others. Female indices (FI) from virulence assays (race, HG Type and SCN Type tests) for SCN field populations and inbred lines were analyzed. Female indices on PI 88788, PI 209332 and PI 548316 were highly correlated, as were those of PI 548402, PI 90763, PI 89772 and PI 438489B. Previous studies on resistant SCN-infected soybean roots indicated that the cellular resistance response was similar within these two groups of soybean genotypes. In field populations, highly significant correlations were also found between FI on PI 88788 and PI 548402 and those on PI 89772 and PI 437654. In inbred lines, FI on PI 437654 were correlated with PI 90763 and PI 438489B. To avoid further adaptation, rotation of cultivars with resistance from these groups should be carefully monitored, including those from the most promising source of resistance, PI 437654, such as CystX. In a separate test, 10 soybean varieties developed from CystX were tested against HG Type 0, HG Type 2.5.7 and HG Type 1-7. Female development occurred in all tests but one. Although identification and deployment of unique resistance is needed, management strategies to prevent and detect adaptation should be emphasized. PMID:19259518

Colgrove, A L; Niblack, T L

2008-03-01

154

Comparison of inbred mouse substrains reveals segregation of maladaptive fear phenotypes  

PubMed Central

Maladaptive fear, such as fear that is persistent or easily generalized to a nonthreatening stimuli, is associated with anxiety-related disorders in humans. In the laboratory, maladaptive fear can be modeled in rodents using Pavlovian fear conditioning. Recently, an inbred mouse strain known as 129S1/SvImJ, or 129S1 has been reported as exhibiting impairments in fear extinction and enhanced fear generalization. With a long-term goal of identifying segregating genetic markers of maladaptive fear, we used Pavlovian fear conditioning to characterize a closely related substrain designated as 129S6/SvEvTac, or 129S6. Here we report that, like 129S1 animals, 129S6 mice exhibit appropriate levels of fear upon conditioning, but are unable to extinguish fear memories once they are consolidated. Importantly, the maladaptive fear phenotype in this inbred stain can be segregated by sub-strain when probed using conditioning protocols designed to assess generalized fear. We find that unlike the 129S1 substrain, mice from the 129S6 sub-strain do not generalize conditioned fear to previously novel contexts and can learn to discriminate between two similar contexts when trained using a discrimination protocol. These results suggest that at least two forms of maladaptive fear (deficits in fear extinction and fear generalization) can be can be functionally segregated, further suggesting that the underlying neurobiology is heritable. Given the observation that two closely related sub-strains can exhibit different constellations of maladaptive fear suggests that these findings could be exploited to facilitate the identification of candidate genes for anxiety-related disorders. PMID:25191238

Temme, Stephanie J.; Bell, Ryan Z.; Pahumi, Reciton; Murphy, Geoffrey G.

2014-01-01

155

Caenorhabditis briggsae Recombinant Inbred Line Genotypes Reveal Inter-Strain Incompatibility and the Evolution of Recombination  

PubMed Central

The nematode Caenorhabditis briggsae is an emerging model organism that allows evolutionary comparisons with C. elegans and exploration of its own unique biological attributes. To produce a high-resolution C. briggsae recombination map, recombinant inbred lines were generated from reciprocal crosses between two strains and genotyped at over 1,000 loci. A second set of recombinant inbred lines involving a third strain was also genotyped at lower resolution. The resulting recombination maps exhibit discrete domains of high and low recombination, as in C. elegans, indicating these are a general feature of Caenorhabditis species. The proportion of a chromosome's physical size occupied by the central, low-recombination domain is highly correlated between species. However, the C. briggsae intra-species comparison reveals striking variation in the distribution of recombination between domains. Hybrid lines made with the more divergent pair of strains also exhibit pervasive marker transmission ratio distortion, evidence of selection acting on hybrid genotypes. The strongest effect, on chromosome III, is explained by a developmental delay phenotype exhibited by some hybrid F2 animals. In addition, on chromosomes IV and V, cross direction-specific biases towards one parental genotype suggest the existence of cytonuclear epistatic interactions. These interactions are discussed in relation to surprising mitochondrial genome polymorphism in C. briggsae, evidence that the two strains diverged in allopatry, the potential for local adaptation, and the evolution of Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities. The genetic and genomic resources resulting from this work will support future efforts to understand inter-strain divergence as well as facilitate studies of gene function, natural variation, and the evolution of recombination in Caenorhabditis nematodes. PMID:21779179

Ross, Joseph A.; Koboldt, Daniel C.; Staisch, Julia E.; Chamberlin, Helen M.; Gupta, Bhagwati P.; Baird, Scott E.; Haag, Eric S.

2011-01-01

156

Variation and Genetic Control of Gene Expression in Primary Immunocytes across Inbred Mouse Strains.  

PubMed

To determine the breadth and underpinning of changes in immunocyte gene expression due to genetic variation in mice, we performed, as part of the Immunological Genome Project, gene expression profiling for CD4(+) T cells and neutrophils purified from 39 inbred strains of the Mouse Phenome Database. Considering both cell types, a large number of transcripts showed significant variation across the inbred strains, with 22% of the transcriptome varying by 2-fold or more. These included 119 loci with apparent complete loss of function, where the corresponding transcript was not expressed in some of the strains, representing a useful resource of "natural knockouts." We identified 1222 cis-expression quantitative trait loci (cis-eQTL) that control some of this variation. Most (60%) cis-eQTLs were shared between T cells and neutrophils, but a significant portion uniquely impacted one of the cell types, suggesting cell type-specific regulatory mechanisms. Using a conditional regression algorithm, we predicted regulatory interactions between transcription factors and potential targets, and we demonstrated that these predictions overlap with regulatory interactions inferred from transcriptional changes during immunocyte differentiation. Finally, comparison of these and parallel data from CD4(+) T cells of healthy humans demonstrated intriguing similarities in variability of a gene's expression: the most variable genes tended to be the same in both species, and there was an overlap in genes subject to strong cis-acting genetic variants. We speculate that this "conservation of variation" reflects a differential constraint on intraspecies variation in expression levels of different genes, either through lower pressure for some genes, or by favoring variability for others. PMID:25267973

Mostafavi, Sara; Ortiz-Lopez, Adriana; Bogue, Molly A; Hattori, Kimie; Pop, Cristina; Koller, Daphne; Mathis, Diane; Benoist, Christophe; Blair, David A; Dustin, Michael L; Shinton, Susan A; Hardy, Richard R; Shay, Tal; Regev, Aviv; Cohen, Nadia; Brennan, Patrick; Brenner, Michael; Kim, Francis; Rao, Tata Nageswara; Wagers, Amy; Heng, Tracy; Ericson, Jeffrey; Rothamel, Katherine; Ortiz-Lopez, Adriana; Mathis, Diane; Benoist, Christophe; Kreslavsky, Taras; Fletcher, Anne; Elpek, Kutlu; Bellemare-Pelletier, Angelique; Malhotra, Deepali; Turley, Shannon; Miller, Jennifer; Brown, Brian; Merad, Miriam; Gautier, Emmanuel L; Jakubzick, Claudia; Randolph, Gwendalyn J; Monach, Paul; Best, Adam J; Knell, Jamie; Goldrath, Ananda; Jojic, Vladimir; Koller, Daphne; Laidlaw, David; Collins, Jim; Gazit, Roi; Rossi, Derrick J; Malhotra, Nidhi; Sylvia, Katelyn; Kang, Joonsoo; Bezman, Natalie A; Sun, Joseph C; Min-Oo, Gundula; Kim, Charlie C; Lanier, Lewis L

2014-11-01

157

Development of a murine model for aerosolized ebolavirus infection using a panel of recombinant inbred mice.  

PubMed

Countering aerosolized filovirus infection is a major priority of biodefense research.  Aerosol models of filovirus infection have been developed in knock-out mice, guinea pigs and non-human primates; however, filovirus infection of immunocompetent mice by the aerosol route has not been reported.  A murine model of aerosolized filovirus infection in mice should be useful for screening vaccine candidates and therapies.  In this study, various strains of wild-type and immunocompromised mice were exposed to aerosolized wild-type (WT) or mouse-adapted (MA) Ebola virus (EBOV).  Upon exposure to aerosolized WT-EBOV, BALB/c, C57BL/6 (B6), and DBA/2 (D2) mice were unaffected, but 100% of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) and 90% of signal transducers and activators of transcription (Stat1) knock-out (KO) mice became moribund between 7–9 days post-exposure (dpe).  Exposure to MA-EBOV caused 15% body weight loss in BALB/c, but all mice recovered.  In contrast, 10–30% lethality was observed in B6 and D2 mice exposed to aerosolized MA-EBOV, and 100% of SCID, Stat1 KO, interferon (IFN)-? KO and Perforin KO mice became moribund between 7–14 dpe. In order to identify wild-type, inbred, mouse strains in which exposure to aerosolized MA-EBOV is uniformly lethal, 60 BXD (C57BL/6 crossed with DBA/2) recombinant inbred (RI) and advanced RI (ARI) mouse strains were exposed to aerosolized MA-EBOV, and monitored for disease severity. A complete spectrum of disease severity was observed. All BXD strains lost weight but many recovered. However, infection was uniformly lethal within 7 to 12 days post-exposure in five BXD strains.  Aerosol exposure of these five BXD strains to 10-fold less MA-EBOV resulted in lethality ranging from 0% in two strains to 90–100% lethality in two strains.  Analysis of post-mortem tissue from BXD strains that became moribund and were euthanized at the lower dose of MA-EBOV, showed liver damage in all mice as well as lung lesions in two of the three strains.  The two BXD strains that exhibited 90–100% mortality, even at a low dose of airborne MA-EBOV will be useful mouse models for testing vaccines and therapies. Additionally, since disease susceptibility is affected by complex genetic traits, a systems genetics approach was used to identify preliminary gene loci modulating disease severity among the panel BXD strains. Preliminary quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were identified that are likely to harbor genes involved in modulating differential susceptibility to Ebola infection. PMID:23207275

Zumbrun, Elizabeth E; Abdeltawab, Nourtan F; Bloomfield, Holly A; Chance, Taylor B; Nichols, Donald K; Harrison, Paige E; Kotb, Malak; Nalca, Aysegul

2012-12-01

158

Development of a Murine Model for Aerosolized Ebolavirus Infection Using a Panel of Recombinant Inbred Mice  

PubMed Central

Countering aerosolized filovirus infection is a major priority of biodefense research. Aerosol models of filovirus infection have been developed in knock-out mice, guinea pigs and non-human primates; however, filovirus infection of immunocompetent mice by the aerosol route has not been reported. A murine model of aerosolized filovirus infection in mice should be useful for screening vaccine candidates and therapies. In this study, various strains of wild-type and immunocompromised mice were exposed to aerosolized wild-type (WT) or mouse-adapted (MA) Ebola virus (EBOV). Upon exposure to aerosolized WT-EBOV, BALB/c, C57BL/6 (B6), and DBA/2 (D2) mice were unaffected, but 100% of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) and 90% of signal transducers and activators of transcription (Stat1) knock-out (KO) mice became moribund between 7–9 days post-exposure (dpe). Exposure to MA-EBOV caused 15% body weight loss in BALB/c, but all mice recovered. In contrast, 10–30% lethality was observed in B6 and D2 mice exposed to aerosolized MA-EBOV, and 100% of SCID, Stat1 KO, interferon (IFN)-? KO and Perforin KO mice became moribund between 7–14 dpe. In order to identify wild-type, inbred, mouse strains in which exposure to aerosolized MA-EBOV is uniformly lethal, 60 BXD (C57BL/6 crossed with DBA/2) recombinant inbred (RI) and advanced RI (ARI) mouse strains were exposed to aerosolized MA-EBOV, and monitored for disease severity. A complete spectrum of disease severity was observed. All BXD strains lost weight but many recovered. However, infection was uniformly lethal within 7 to 12 days post-exposure in five BXD strains. Aerosol exposure of these five BXD strains to 10-fold less MA-EBOV resulted in lethality ranging from 0% in two strains to 90–100% lethality in two strains. Analysis of post-mortem tissue from BXD strains that became moribund and were euthanized at the lower dose of MA-EBOV, showed liver damage in all mice as well as lung lesions in two of the three strains. The two BXD strains that exhibited 90–100% mortality, even at a low dose of airborne MA-EBOV will be useful mouse models for testing vaccines and therapies. Additionally, since disease susceptibility is affected by complex genetic traits, a systems genetics approach was used to identify preliminary gene loci modulating disease severity among the panel BXD strains. Preliminary quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were identified that are likely to harbor genes involved in modulating differential susceptibility to Ebola infection. PMID:23207275

Zumbrun, Elizabeth E.; Abdeltawab, Nourtan F.; Bloomfield, Holly A.; Chance, Taylor B.; Nichols, Donald K.; Harrison, Paige E.; Kotb, Malak; Nalca, Aysegul

2012-01-01

159

Generating Embryonic Stem Cells from the Inbred Mouse Strain DBA/2J, a Model of Glaucoma and Other Complex Diseases  

PubMed Central

Mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells are derived from the inner cell mass of blastocyst stage embryos and are used primarily for the creation of genetically engineered strains through gene targeting. While some inbred strains of mice are permissive to the derivation of embryonic stem cell lines and are therefore easily engineered, others are nonpermissive or recalcitrant. Genetic engineering of recalcitrant strain backgrounds requires gene targeting in a permissive background followed by extensive backcrossing of the engineered allele into the desired strain background. The inbred mouse strain DBA/2J is a recalcitrant strain that is used as a model of many human diseases, including glaucoma, deafness and schizophrenia. Here, we describe the generation of germ-line competent ES cell lines derived from DBA/2J mice. We also demonstrate the utility of DBA/2J ES cells with the creation of conditional knockout allele for Endothelin-2 (Edn2) directly on the DBA/2J strain background. PMID:23209647

Czechanski, Anne M.; Macalinao, Danilo G.; MacNicoll, Katharine H.; Lin, Chyuan-Sheng; Donahue, Leah Rae; John, Simon W. M.

2012-01-01

160

Basal and induced granulopoiesis in outbred, F1 hybrid and inbred mice: can inbreeding depression influence the experimental practice?  

PubMed

In this study we examined differences in selected indices of granulopoiesis in outbred, F(1) hybrid and inbred mouse strains. Specifically, serum granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) levels, numbers of marrow granulocyte-macrophage progenitor cells and morphologically recognizable proliferative marrow granulocytic precursor cells were evaluated. These parameters were determined in untreated controls, and in mice exposed either to a non-specific stimulus (injection of saline) or to a granulopoiesis-enhancing stimulus (administration of a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, meloxicam). Lower levels of G-CSF were detectable in the outbred ICR mice, which also demonstrated an enhanced response to both types of the stimuli. Considering the fact that outbred mice are closer to natural mammalian populations, including human ones, the possibility of using outbred mice, instead of the often used inbred strains, for experiments evaluating the effects of pharmacological interventions on hematopoiesis should be investigated. PMID:20660092

Hofer, Michal; Pospísil, Milan; Dusek, Ladislav; Holá, Jirina; Hoferová, Zuzana; Weiterová, Lenka

2010-08-01

161

RFLP studies of genetic relationships among inbred lines of the cultivated sunflower, Helianthus annuus L.: evidence for distinct restorer and maintainer germplasm pools  

Microsoft Academic Search

One-hundred-and-eighty-one nuclear DNA probes were used to examine restriction-fragment length polymorphism in inbred lines of the cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). The probes were from six libraries: two genomic libraries — one made with PstI and the other with HindIII, and four cDNA libraries — from etiolated plantlets, green leaves, ovaries, petals and anthers. Total DNA from 17 inbred lines

L. Gentzbittel; Y.-X. Zhang; F. Vear; B. Griveau; P. Nicolas

1994-01-01

162

Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci for Resistance to Southern Leaf Blight and Days to Anthesis in a Maize Recombinant Inbred Line Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Balint-Kurti, P. J., Krakowsky, M. D., Jines, M. P., Robertson, L. A., Molnár, T. L., Goodman, M. M., and Holland, J. B. 2006. Identification of quantitative trait loci for resistance to southern leaf blight and days to anthesis in a maize recombinant inbred line population. Phytopathology 96:1067-1071. A recombinant inbred line population derived from a cross between the maize lines

P. J. Balint-Kurti; M. D. Krakowsky; M. P. Jines; L. A. Robertson; T. L. Molnár; M. M. Goodman; J. B. Holland

2006-01-01

163

Determination of mechanisms of host plant resistance to the Banks grass mite Oligonychus pratensis (Banks) (Acari: Tetranychidae) in selected maize inbreds  

E-print Network

DETERMINATION OF MECHANISMS OF HOST PLANT RESISTANCE TO THE BANKS GRASS MITE OLIGONYCHUS PE4 TEWSIS (BANKS) (ACARI: TETRANYCHIDAE) IN SELECTED MAIZE INBREDS A Thesis by MATTHEW DAVID KRAKOWSKY Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies...) (ACARI: TETRANYCHIDAE) IN SELECTED MAIZE INBREDS A Thesis by MATTHEW DAVID KRAKOWSKY Submitted to the OQice of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved...

Krakowsky, Matthew David

2012-06-07

164

Short photoperiod inhibition of growth in body mass and reproduction in ACI, BUF, and PVG inbred rats.  

PubMed

Laboratory rats have been generally considered non-photoresponsive, but strains of laboratory rats have been found to be variable for this trait. Young males of both the Fischer (F344) and Brown Norway strains (BN) suppress reproductive development, food intake and body mass in short winter photoperiod (short days (SD); 8 h light:16 h darkness), and food restriction interacts with SD to enhance the effect of SD alone. Conversely, young male Harlan Sprague Dawley outbred rats, along with other outbred laboratory rats tested, have little or no response to SD except when unmasked by food restriction or other treatments, and have generally been considered nonphotoperiodic. In order to assess how widespread this trait might be among rat strains, and to test for uncoupling of reproductive and nonreproductive responses, we tested 3 additional inbred strains, including ACI, PVG and BUF rats, for photoresponsiveness and for unmasking of photoperiodic responses by food restriction. Young males of all three inbred strains exhibited photoresponsiveness in testis mass (5-20% lower in SD), seminal vesicle mass (20-50% lower in SD), and body mass (5-10% lower in SD). Food restriction also suppressed reproduction, but there was little or no interaction with the effects of photoperiod. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that laboratory rats are genetically variable for photoperiodism, and that photoresponsiveness may be widespread among inbred rat strains, as all five inbred strains tested have shown photoperiodic responses. The results are particularly important because standard research protocols may unknowingly manipulate this pathway in rats, causing unsuspected variability among or within studies. PMID:15579603

Francisco, Nicole R; Raymond, Christen M; Heideman, Paul D

2004-12-01

165

Identification of genetically homozygous rapid and slow acetylators of drugs and environmental carcinogens among established inbred rabbit strains  

SciTech Connect

Liver and gut mucosa N-acetyltransferase (NAT) cytosol (105,000 x g) was prepared from selected lines of New Zealand White rapid and slow acetylator rabbits bred and housed at the University of Michigan, and from inbred and partially inbred rabbits obtained from The Jackson Laboratory. Liver NAT activity was determined with p-aminobenzoic acid, p-aminosalicylic acid, procainamide, sulfamethazine, isoniazid and 2-aminofluorene as substrates. Gut mucosal NAT activity was determined with 2-aminofluorene. A gene dose-response relationship was observed for both liver NAT and gut mucosa NAT with all substrates tested. Highest levels were always observed in homozygous rapid acetylator inbred strains (B/J, III/J, IIIC/J, III/DwJ, IIIEP/J and IIIVO/J), lower levels in obligate heterozygous rapid acetylator rabbits and lowest levels in homozygous slow acetylator inbred (ACEP/J, III/cdJ, IIIVO/ahJ, and IIIVO/vptJ) and outbred rabbits. The differences in magnitude of liver NAT activity level between acetylator genotypes was dependent on the substrate employed, progressively increasing in the following order: p-aminobenzoic acid, p-aminosalicyclic acid, procainamide, sulfamethazine, isoniazid, 2-aminofluorene. The determination of kinetic constants for liver p-aminosalicyclic acid NAT activity indicated a 2-fold difference in apparent Vmax between rapid acetylator genotypes and a 30-fold difference between rapid and slow acetylator phenotypes. In addition, the apparent Km for p-aminosalicyclic acid was significantly lower in the slow acetylators than in the rapid acetylators.

Hein, D.W.; Smolen, T.N.; Fox, R.R.; Weber, W.W.

1982-10-01

166

Genetic mapping of new cotton fiber loci using EST-derived microsatellites in an interspecific recombinant inbred line cotton population  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an immediate need for a high-density genetic map of cotton anchored with fiber genes to facilitate marker-assisted\\u000a selection (MAS) for improved fiber traits. With this goal in mind, genetic mapping with a new set of microsatellite markers\\u000a [comprising both simple (SSR) and complex (CSR) sequence repeat markers] was performed on 183 recombinant inbred lines (RILs)\\u000a developed from the

Young-Hoon Park; Magdy S. Alabady; Mauricio Ulloa; Brad Sickler; Thea A. Wilkins; John Yu; David M. Stelly; Russell J. Kohel; Osama M. El-Shihy; Roy G. Cantrell

2005-01-01

167

Comparison of RFLP and morphological distances between maize Zea mays L. inbred lines. Consequences for germplasm protection purposes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 145 maize inbred lines, representative of material released in France, were differentiated using RFLP markers\\u000a and a set of discriminant morphological traits in order to evaluate the use of molecular markers for large-scale germplasm\\u000a diversity analysis and determination of distinctness. Several criteria are proposed with respect to choice of probes, which\\u000a should give reliable results for routine

C. Dillmann; A. Bar-Hen; D. Guérin; A. Charcosset; A. Murigneux

1997-01-01

168

Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for seedling-vigor using recombinant inbred lines of rice ( Oryza sativa L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seedling-vigor is important for optimum stand establishment and increasing weed competitive ability in rice cropping systems. In the current study, three seedling-vigor-related traits, seed germination rate, seedling shoot length and dry matter weight, were investigated by the paper-roll tests with rice recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross between Lemont (japonica) and Teqing (indica). The phenotype data, together with a

Zhi-Hong Zhang; Si-Bin Yu; Ting Yu; Zheng Huang; Ying-Guo Zhu

2005-01-01

169

AFLP mapping of QTLs for in vitro organogenesis traits using recombinant inbred lines in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic control for two in vitro organogenesis traits, the number of shoots per explant plated (S\\/E) and the number of shoots\\u000a per regenerating explant (S\\/RE), was investigated in 75 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of sunflower and their two parents\\u000a (PAC-2 and RHA-266). Genetic variability was observed among the 75 RILs for the organogenesis traits studied. Some RILs presented\\u000a significant differences

E. Flores Berrios; L. Gentzbittel; H. Kayyal; G. Alibert; A. Sarrafi

2000-01-01

170

A genetic linkage map of lentil (Lens sp.) based on RAPD and AFLP markers using recombinant inbred lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A genetic linkage map of Lens sp. was constructed with 177 markers (89 RAPD, 79 AFLP, six RFLP and three morphological markers) using 86 recombinant inbred\\u000a lines (F6:8) obtained from a partially interspecific cross. The map covered 1073?cM of the lentil genome with an average distance of\\u000a 6.0?cM between adjacent markers. Previously mapped RFLP markers were used as anchor probes.

I. Eujayl; M. Baum; W. Powell; W. Erskine; E. Pehu

1998-01-01

171

Inbred lines of mice derived from long-term growth selected lines: unique resources for mapping growth genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Lines of mice selected for many generations for high or low growth in several laboratories around the world have been collected,\\u000a and from these, inbred lines are being developed by recurrent full-sib mating in Edinburgh. There are seven high selected\\u000a lines and four low lines (each low line is from the same base population as one of the high

Lutz Bünger; Anita Laidlaw; Grahame Bulfield; Eugene J. Eisen; Juan F. Medrano; G. Eric Bradford; Franz Pirchner; Ulla Renne; Werner Schlote; William G. Hill

2001-01-01

172

Relationships among maize inbred lines and populations from European and North-American origins as estimated using RFLP markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

RFLP markers have proven to be a reliable and highly informative tool for characterizing genetic diversity in maize. Joint\\u000a analysis of inbred lines and populations should provide valuable information with respect to (1) a better understanding of\\u000a the genetic basis of present elite germplasm and (2) the identification of populations that may prove to be useful sources\\u000a of genetic diversity

P. Dubreuil; A. Charcosset

1999-01-01

173

Genetic mapping and QTL analysis of fruit and flower related traits in cucumber ( Cucumis sativus L.) using recombinant inbred lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of 224 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a narrow cross between two fresh eaten types (S94 (Northern China\\u000a type) × S06 (Northern European type)) (Cucumis sativus L.) was used to construct a genetic linkage map. With the RILs a 257-point genetic map was constructed including 206 SRAPs,\\u000a 22 SSRs, 25 SCARs, 1 STS, and three economically important morphological markers

X. J. Yuan; J. S. Pan; R. Cai; Y. Guan; L. Z. Liu; W. W. Zhang; Z. Li; H. L. He; C. Zhang; L. T. Si; L. H. Zhu

2008-01-01

174

A gene for resistance to the maize streak virus in the African CIMMYT maize inbred line CML202  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resistance to maize streak virus (MSV) is an essential trait of improved maize varieties in sub-Saharan Africa. We mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance to MSV in a population of 196 F2:3 lines derived from a cross between the maize inbred lines CML202 (resistant) from CIMMYT-Zimbabwe and Lo951 (susceptible) from Italy. Field tests were planted at two locations in

H. G. Welz; A. Schechert; A. Pernet; K. V. Pixley; H. H. Geiger

1998-01-01

175

Mapping quantitative trait loci controlling seed dormancy and heading date in rice, Oryza sativa L., using backcross inbred lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

To detect quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling seed dormancy, 98 BC1F5 lines (backcross inbred lines) derived from a backcross of Nipponbare (japonica)\\/Kasalath (indica)\\/\\/Nipponbare were analyzed genetically. We used 245 RFLP markers to construct a framework linkage map. Five putative QTLs\\u000a affecting seed dormancy were detected on chromosomes 3, 5, 7 (two regions) and 8, respectively. Phenotypic variations explained\\u000a by each

S. Y. Lin; T. Sasaki; M. Yano

1998-01-01

176

The SMXA: a new set of recombinant inbred strain of mice consisting of 26 substrains and their genetic profile  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new set of recombinant inbred (RI) strain SMXA consisting of 26 substrains was established between SM\\/J and A\\/J. The history of the SMXA RI strains and their genetic prolife covering 158 genetic marker loci are reported. From the strain distribution pattern among SMXA RI strains, the chromosomal location of salivary and tear protein genes Spel-r, Spel-s, Spe2, and Tpe1

M. Nishimura; N. Hirayama; T. Serikawa; K. Kanehira; Y. Matsushima; H. Katoh; S. Wakana; A. Kojima; H. Hiai

1995-01-01

177

Quantitative trait loci that determine lipoprotein cholesterol levels in DBA\\/2J and CAST\\/Ei inbred mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate genetic contributions to individual variations of lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations, we performed quantitative trait locus\\/loci (QTL) analyses of an intercross of CAST\\/Ei and DBA\\/2J inbred mouse strains after feeding a high-cholesterol cholic acid diet for 10 weeks. In total, we identified four QTL for HDL cholesterol. Three of these were novel and were named Hdlq10 [20 centimorgans (cM), chromosome

Malcolm A. Lyons; Henning Wittenburg; Renhua Li; Kenneth A. Walsh; Martin C. Carey; Beverly Paigen

2003-01-01

178

Gene actions of QTLs affecting several agronomic traits resolved in a recombinant inbred rice population and two backcross populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand the types of gene action controlling seven quantitative traits in rice, we carried out quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping in order to distinguish between the main-effect QTLs (M-QTLs) and digenic epistatic QTLs (E-QTLs) responsible for the trait performance of 254 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from rice varieties Lemont\\/ Teqing and two backcross hybrid (BCF 1) populations derived from

H. W. Mei; Z. K. Li; Q. Y. Shu; L. B. Guo; Y. P. Wang; X. Q. Yu; C. S. Ying; L. J. Luo

2005-01-01

179

Susceptibility of inbred mice to rickettsiae of the spotted fever group.  

PubMed Central

A mouse strain susceptible to lethal infection with Rickettsia conorii was required for testing vaccine efficacy and for studying the immunology and pathogenesis of infection. Among 20 strains of inbred mice inoculated intraperitoneally with the Malish strain of R. conorii, the C3H/HeJ mouse strain was the most susceptible, with a 50% lethal dose of approximately 10 PFU. Infection of all mouse strains resulted in a measurable antibody response; the highest titers correlated with the greatest degree of rickettsial replication as measured by plaque assay of infected spleen homogenates. Inoculation of C3H/HeJ mice with 5.0 log10 organisms of strain Malish by the subcutaneous route did not result in lethal infection. The Casablanca and Moroccan strains of R. conorii were not lethal for C3H/HeJ mice and, in addition, produced plaques in L-929 cells morphologically distinct from those produced by the Malish strain. The only other spotted fever group rickettsia tested which produced a lethal infection in C3H/HeJ mice was Rickettsia sibirica. Sublethal infection with any of the spotted fever rickettsiae tested protected against lethal infection with R. conorii. These data established a lethal challenge system for examining the protective efficacy of spotted fever immunogens and presented evidence of biological variation among strains of R. conorii. Images PMID:6418657

Eisemann, C S; Nypaver, M J; Osterman, J V

1984-01-01

180

Variation of High-Molecular-Weight Secalin Subunit Composition in Rye (Secale cereale L.) Inbred Lines.  

PubMed

In this study, identification and characterization of the rye HMW secalin subunit (HMW-SS) composition in 68 inbred rye (Secale cereale L.) lines was performed by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE). The HMW-SS were separated in an uncoated fused-silica capillary using an isoelectric iminodiacetic buffer in combination with poly(ethylene oxide), lauryl sulfobetaine, and acetonitrile as the separation buffer. The separations of the nonalkylated HMW-SS provided very good resolution and high reproducibility. Generally, the x-type rye HMW-SS were more abundant and have longer migration times than the y-type subunits. Both types of rye HMW-SS were separated into the major protein peak and one or two minor peaks. In total, seven x-type HMW-SS, five of which were newly identified subunits, and six y-type subunits, four of which were new, were distinguished on the basis of their CZE migration times. The migration order of the rye HMW-SS using CZE differed considerably from the relative electrophoretic mobilities in the SDS-PAGE gels. PMID:25307487

Salmanowicz, Boles?aw P; Langner, Monika; Kubicka-Matusiewicz, Helena

2014-10-29

181

Endothelial dysfunction and blood pressure variability in selected inbred mouse strains.  

PubMed

The genetic regulation of blood pressure (BP) and endothelial function is likely to be polygenic. Because there is considerable variability in basal BP among inbred mouse strains, the purpose of this study was to determine whether a similar variability in vascular function exists among 7 "normotensive" strains. We tested the hypothesis that compared with mice with higher BPs, mice with lower BPs would have greater aortic endothelial responses to acetylcholine (ACh). Mean BP ranged from 117 to 145 mm Hg among the 7 strains. The responses of aortic rings to ACh, sodium nitroprusside, and papaverine were assessed after submaximal precontraction with prostaglandin F(2alpha). The aortas from all strains relaxed in a concentration-dependent manner to sodium nitroprusside and papaverine, but responses to ACh were markedly impaired in the aortas, but not carotid arteries, from 129P3/J and 129X1/SvJ mice. Aortas from the other strains relaxed normally to ACh. Furthermore, the endothelium-dependent dilators ADP and A23187 caused similar relaxation in 129P3/J, 129X1/SvJ, and C57BL/6J mice. Although the data do not support the initial hypothesis, the impaired aortic response to ACh in the 129 strains is a novel finding and illustrates the potential impact that genetic background can have on vascular responsiveness. PMID:11788459

Ryan, Michael J; Didion, Sean P; Davis, Deborah R; Faraci, Frank M; Sigmund, Curt D

2002-01-01

182

Differences in the susceptibility to iodine¹³¹-induced thyroid tumours amongst inbred mouse strains.  

PubMed

Genetic factors can modify susceptibility to the carcinogenic effect of ionising radiation. To establish if radioiodine-induced thyroid cancer is similarly genetically influenced, we studied F1 hybrid crosses between inbred mouse strains. Mice were perinatally exposed to iodine-131 and thyroid tissues examined after 18 months. Differences in the incidence and distribution of histological subtypes were quantified in relation to genetic background. As expected, the occurrence of thyroid lesions was significantly higher in irradiated mouse hybrids than in unirradiated controls. The most frequent alterations were the simple and the complex hyperplasias, followed by follicular adenoma and, less frequently, follicular carcinoma. Both the incidence and distribution of the histiotype were different between the hybrid mouse crosses. Crosses using JF1 mice (M. m. molossinus) produced F1 offspring that were more resistant to radiation-induced thyroid lesions. Sequence analysis of Braf, Ret, Hras, Kras, Kit and Trp53, all genes that are commonly mutated in human thyroid cancers, did not show any evidence of mutation in the tumours. However, microsatellite analysis of genomic DNA revealed frequent allelic imbalances in complex hyperplasia and follicular adenoma. We conclude that genetic background, in particular the JF1 genotype, confer differences in susceptibility to the carcinogenic effects of radioiodine on the thyroid. PMID:22739003

Dalke, Claudia; Hölzlwimmer, Gabriele; Calzada-Wack, Julia; Quintanilla-Martinez, Leticia; Atkinson, Michael J; Rosemann, Michael

2012-01-01

183

[Construction of a genetic map of sunflower using a population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs)].  

PubMed

A genetic linkage map of sunflower was constructed by combined applying the SSR and AFLP markers using 187 F5:6 individuals of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) which derived from the cross between Helianthus annuus K55 and Helianthus annuus K58 through single-seed descent (SSD). Using 78 pairs of SSR primers and 48 pairs of AFLP primer, 341 and 1119 bands were amplified, respectively. Among these 1460 bands, 557 bands (39.52%) were polymorphic, including 184 bands by SSR markers and 393 bands by AFLP markers. In the group of these polymorphic bands, 84 bands from SSR markers and 108 bands from AFLP markers showed the genetic distortion (P = 0.05). A total of 192 segregation distortion markers were obtained in this study. By using the JoinMap 4.0 software to do the linkage analysis, a genetic linkage map was established with length of 2759.4 cM, consisted of 17 linkage groups, and comprised of 495 polymorphic molecular markers including 170 segregation distortion markers. The mean marker interval distance is 5.57 cM between markers. In addition, the number of markers in the linkage groups varied from 5 to 72, and the length of linkage groups were from 68.88 cM to 250.17 cM. The genetic map developed in the present study could be used for QTL mapping and gene cloning of sunflower important genes. PMID:25406252

Zhang, Yonghu; Yu, Haifeng; Hou, Jianhua; Li, Suping; Lv, Pin; Yu, Zhixian

2014-10-01

184

Selection and phenotypic characterization of a core collection of Brachypodium distachyon inbred lines  

PubMed Central

Background The model grass Brachypodium distachyon is increasingly used to study various aspects of grass biology. A large and genotypically diverse collection of B. distachyon germplasm has been assembled by the research community. The natural variation in this collection can serve as a powerful experimental tool for many areas of inquiry, including investigating biomass traits. Results We surveyed the phenotypic diversity in a large collection of inbred lines and then selected a core collection of lines for more detailed analysis with an emphasis on traits relevant to the use of grasses as biofuel and grain crops. Phenotypic characters examined included plant height, growth habit, stem density, flowering time, and seed weight. We also surveyed differences in cell wall composition using near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) and comprehensive microarray polymer profiling (CoMPP). In all cases, we observed extensive natural variation including a two-fold variation in stem density, four-fold variation in ferulic acid bound to hemicellulose, and 1.7-fold variation in seed mass. Conclusion These characterizations can provide the criteria for selecting diverse lines for future investigations of the genetic basis of the observed phenotypic variation. PMID:24423101

2014-01-01

185

Adult Strabismus  

MedlinePLUS

... reason. Is eye straightening as an adult strictly cosmetic? No. Eye alignment surgery is performed in adults for several reasons. Adults ... this surgery? Eye muscle surgery is reconstructive (not cosmetic). In ... will cover strabismus surgery in adults, however, one should check with their ...

186

Karyotype variability in tropical maize sister inbred lines and hybrids compared with KYS standard line  

PubMed Central

Maize karyotype variability has been extensively investigated. The identification of maize somatic and pachytene chromosomes has improved with the development of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using tandemly repeated DNA sequences as probes. We identified the somatic chromosomes of sister inbred lines that were derived from a tropical flint maize population (Jac Duro [JD]), and hybrids between them, using FISH probes for the 180-bp knob repeat, centromeric satellite (CentC), centromeric satellite 4 (Cent4), subtelomeric clone 4-12-1, 5S ribosomal DNA and nucleolus organizing region DNA sequences. The observations were integrated with data based on C-banded mitotic metaphases and conventional analysis of pachytene chromosomes. Heterochromatic knobs visible at pachynema were coincident with C-bands and 180-bp FISH signals on somatic chromosomes, and most of them were large. Variation in the presence of some knobs was observed among lines. Small 180-bp knob signals were invariant on the short arms of chromosomes 1, 6, and 9. The subtelomeric 4-12-1 signal was also invariant and useful for identifying some chromosomes. The centromere location of chromosomes 2 and 4 differed from previous reports on standard maize lines. Somatic chromosomes of a JD line and the commonly used KYS line were compared by FISH in a hybrid of these lines. The pairing behavior of chromosomes 2 and 4 at pachytene stage in this hybrid was investigated using FISH with chromosome-specific probes. The homologues were fully synapsed, including the 5S rDNA and CentC sites on chromosome 2, and Cent4 and subtelomeric 4-12-1 sites on chromosome 4. This suggests that homologous chromosomes could pair through differential degrees of chromatin packaging in homologous arms differing in size. The results contribute to current knowledge of maize global diversity and also raise questions concerning the meiotic pairing of homologous chromosomes possibly differing in their amounts of repetitive DNA. PMID:25352856

Mondin, Mateus; Santos-Serejo, Janay A.; Bertao, Monica R.; Laborda, Prianda; Pizzaia, Daniel; Aguiar-Perecin, Margarida L. R.

2014-01-01

187

Display of individuality in avoidance behavior and risk assessment of inbred mice  

PubMed Central

Factors determining individuality are still poorly understood. Rodents are excellent model organisms to study individuality, due to a rich behavioral repertoire and the availability of well-characterized isogenic populations. However, most current behavioral assays for rodents have short test duration in novel test environments and require human interference, which introduce coercion, thereby limiting the assessment of naturally occurring individuality. Thus, we developed an automated behavior system to longitudinally monitor conditioned fear for assessing PTSD-like behavior in individual mice. The system consists of a safe home compartment connected to a risk-prone test compartment (TC). Entry and exploration of the TC is solely based on deliberate choice determined by individual fear responsiveness and fear extinction. In this novel ethological assay, C57BL/6J mice show homogeneous responses after shock exposure (innate fear), but striking variation in long-lasting fear responses based on avoidance and risk assessment (learned fear), including automated stretch-attend posture quantification. TC entry (retention) latencies after foot shock differed >24 h and the re-explored TC area differed >50% among inbred mice. Next, we compared two closely related C57BL/6 substrains. Despite substantial individual differences, previously observed higher fear of C57BL/6N vs. C57BL/6J mice was reconfirmed, whereas fear extinction was fast and did not differ. The observed variation in fear expression in isogenic mice suggests individual differences in coping style with PTSD-like avoidance. Investigating the assumed epigenetic mechanisms, with reduced interpretational ambiguity and enhanced translational value in this assay, may help improve understanding of personality type-dependent susceptibility and resilience to neuropsychiatric disorders such as PTSD.

Hager, Torben; Jansen, Rene F.; Pieneman, Anton W.; Manivannan, Suriya N.; Golani, Ilan; van der Sluis, Sophie; Smit, August B.; Verhage, Matthijs; Stiedl, Oliver

2014-01-01

188

New Arabidopsis Advanced Intercross Recombinant Inbred Lines Reveal Female Control of Nonrandom Mating1[OPEN  

PubMed Central

Female control of nonrandom mating has never been genetically established, despite being linked to inbreeding depression and sexual selection. In order to map the loci that control female-mediated nonrandom mating, we constructed a new advanced intercross recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from a cross between Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) accessions Vancouver (Van-0) and Columbia (Col-0) and mapped quantitative trait loci (QTLs) responsible for nonrandom mating and seed yield traits. We genotyped a population of 490 RILs. A subset of these lines was used to construct an expanded map of 1,061.4 centimorgans with an average interval of 6.7 ± 5.3 centimorgans between markers. QTLs were then mapped for female- and male-mediated nonrandom mating and seed yield traits. To map the genetic loci responsible for female-mediated nonrandom mating and seed yield, we performed mixed pollinations with genetically marked Col-0 pollen and Van-0 pollen on RIL pistils. To map the loci responsible for male-mediated nonrandom mating and seed yield, we performed mixed pollinations with genetically marked Col-0 and RIL pollen on Van-0 pistils. Composite interval mapping of these data identified four QTLs that control female-mediated nonrandom mating and five QTLs that control female-mediated seed yield. We also identified four QTLs that control male-mediated nonrandom mating and three QTLs that control male-mediated seed yield. Epistasis analysis indicates that several of these loci interact. To our knowledge, the results of these experiments represent the first time female-mediated nonrandom mating has been genetically defined. PMID:24623850

Fitz Gerald, Jonathan Nesbit; Carlson, Ann Louise; Smith, Evadne; Maloof, Julin N.; Weigel, Detlef; Chory, Joanne; Borevitz, Justin O.; Swanson, Robert John

2014-01-01

189

Genetic Analysis of Recombinant Inbred Lines for Sorghum bicolor × Sorghum propinquum  

PubMed Central

We describe a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of 161 F5 genotypes for the widest euploid cross that can be made to cultivated sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) using conventional techniques, S. bicolor × Sorghum propinquum, that segregates for many traits related to plant architecture, growth and development, reproduction, and life history. The genetic map of the S. bicolor × S. propinquum RILs contains 141 loci on 10 linkage groups collectively spanning 773.1 cM. Although the genetic map has DNA marker density well-suited to quantitative trait loci mapping and samples most of the genome, our previous observations that sorghum pericentromeric heterochromatin is recalcitrant to recombination is highlighted by the finding that the vast majority of recombination in sorghum is concentrated in small regions of euchromatin that are distal to most chromosomes. The advancement of the RIL population in an environment to which the S. bicolor parent was well adapted (indeed bred for) but the S. propinquum parent was not largely eliminated an allele for short-day flowering that confounded many other traits, for example, permitting us to map new quantitative trait loci for flowering that previously eluded detection. Additional recombination that has accrued in the development of this RIL population also may have improved resolution of apices of heterozygote excess, accounting for their greater abundance in the F5 than the F2 generation. The S. bicolor × S. propinquum RIL population offers advantages over early-generation populations that will shed new light on genetic, environmental, and physiological/biochemical factors that regulate plant growth and development. PMID:23316442

Kong, Wenqian; Jin, Huizhe; Franks, Cleve D.; Kim, Changsoo; Bandopadhyay, Rajib; Rana, Mukesh K.; Auckland, Susan A.; Goff, Valorie H.; Rainville, Lisa K.; Burow, Gloria B.; Woodfin, Charles; Burke, John J.; Paterson, Andrew H.

2013-01-01

190

Transpositional reactivation of two LTR retrotransposons in rice-Zizania recombinant inbred lines (RILs).  

PubMed

Hybridization is prevalent in plants, which plays important roles in genome evolution. Apart from direct transfer and recombinatory generation of genetic variations by hybridization, de novo genetic instabilities can be induced by the process per se. One mechanism by which such de novo genetic variability can be generated by interspecific hybridization is transpositional reactivation of quiescent parental transposable elements (TEs) in the nascent hybrids. We have reported previously that introgressive hybridization between rice (Oryza sativa L.) and Zizania latifolia Griseb had induced rampant mobilization of three TEs, a copia-like LTR retrotransposon Tos17, a MITE mPing and a class II TE belonging to the hAT superfamily, Dart/nDart. In this study, we further found that two additional LTR retrotransposons, a gypsy-like (named RIRE2) and a copia-like (named Copia076), were also transpositionally reactivated in three recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from introgressive hybridization between rice and Z. latifolia. Novel bands of these two retroelements appeared in the RILs relative to their rice parental line (cv. Matsumae) in Southern blot, suggestive of retrotransposition, which was substantiated by transposon display (TD) and locus-specific PCR amplification for insertion sites. Both elements were found to be transcribed but at variable levels in the leaf tissue of the parental line and the RILs, suggesting that transcriptional control was probably not a mechanism for their transpositional activity in the RILs. Expression analysis of four genes adjacent to de novo insertions by Copia076 revealed marked difference in the transcript abundance for each of the genes between the RILs and their rice parental line, but the alterations in expression appeared unrelated with the retroelement insertions. PMID:21166796

Wang, Hong-Yan; Tian, Qin; Ma, Yi-Qiao; Wu, Ying; Miao, Gao-Jian; Ma, Yan; Cao, Dong-Hui; Wang, Xiao-Li; Lin, Chunjing; Pang, Jingsong; Liu, Bao

2010-12-01

191

New Arabidopsis advanced intercross recombinant inbred lines reveal female control of nonrandom mating.  

PubMed

Female control of nonrandom mating has never been genetically established, despite being linked to inbreeding depression and sexual selection. In order to map the loci that control female-mediated nonrandom mating, we constructed a new advanced intercross recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from a cross between Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) accessions Vancouver (Van-0) and Columbia (Col-0) and mapped quantitative trait loci (QTLs) responsible for nonrandom mating and seed yield traits. We genotyped a population of 490 RILs. A subset of these lines was used to construct an expanded map of 1,061.4 centimorgans with an average interval of 6.7±5.3 centimorgans between markers. QTLs were then mapped for female- and male-mediated nonrandom mating and seed yield traits. To map the genetic loci responsible for female-mediated nonrandom mating and seed yield, we performed mixed pollinations with genetically marked Col-0 pollen and Van-0 pollen on RIL pistils. To map the loci responsible for male-mediated nonrandom mating and seed yield, we performed mixed pollinations with genetically marked Col-0 and RIL pollen on Van-0 pistils. Composite interval mapping of these data identified four QTLs that control female-mediated nonrandom mating and five QTLs that control female-mediated seed yield. We also identified four QTLs that control male-mediated nonrandom mating and three QTLs that control male-mediated seed yield. Epistasis analysis indicates that several of these loci interact. To our knowledge, the results of these experiments represent the first time female-mediated nonrandom mating has been genetically defined. PMID:24623850

Fitz Gerald, Jonathan Nesbit; Carlson, Ann Louise; Smith, Evadne; Maloof, Julin N; Weigel, Detlef; Chory, Joanne; Borevitz, Justin O; Swanson, Robert John

2014-05-01

192

Lz-0 × Berkeley: a new Arabidopsis recombinant inbred line population for the mapping of complex traits.  

PubMed

This study describes the generation and test of a genetic resource suited to identify determinants of cell biological traits in plants. The use of quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping for a better genetic understanding of cell biological traits is still at an early stage, even for biotechnologically important cell properties, such as the dimensions of fiber cells. A common strategy, the mapping of QTLs in recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations, is limited by the fact that the existing RIL populations exploit only a small fraction of the existing natural variation. Here, we report the mapping of QTLs impacting on the length of fiber cells in Arabidopsis inflorescence stems in a newly generated RIL population derived from a cross between the accessions Berkeley and the little known Lz-0. Through inbreeding of individual F(2) plants, a total of 159 new F8 lines were produced and genotyped with a set of 49 single nucleotide polymorphism markers. The population was successfully used not only for the mapping of three QTLs controlling fiber length, but also to map five QTL controlling flowering time under short and long-day conditions. Our study demonstrates the usefulness of this new genetic resource by mapping in it QTLs underlying a poorly explored cellular trait as well as an already better explored regulatory pathway. The new RIL population and an online platform for the continuous supplementation of genetic markers will be generally available to substantially broaden the genetic diversity through which loci with impact on plant quantitative traits can be identified. PMID:24532030

Capron, Arnaud; Chang, Xue Feng; Shi, Chun; Beatson, Rodger; Berleth, Thomas

2014-06-01

193

Identifying genetic loci and spleen gene coexpression networks underlying immunophenotypes in BXD recombinant inbred mice  

PubMed Central

The immune system plays a pivotal role in the susceptibility to and progression of a variety of diseases. Due to a strong genetic basis, heritable differences in immune function may contribute to differential disease susceptibility between individuals. Genetic reference populations, such as the BXD (C57BL/6J × DBA/2J) panel of recombinant inbred (RI) mouse strains, provide unique models through which to integrate baseline phenotypes in healthy individuals with heritable risk for disease because of the ability to combine data collected from these populations across both multiple studies and time. We performed basic immunophenotyping (e.g., percentage of circulating B and T lymphocytes and CD4+ and CD8+ T cell subpopulations) in peripheral blood of healthy mice from 41 BXD RI strains to define the immunophenotypic variation in this strain panel and to characterize the genetic architecture that underlies these traits. Significant QTL models that explained the majority (50–77%) of phenotypic variance were derived for each trait and for the T:B cell and CD4+:CD8+ ratios. Combining QTL mapping with spleen gene expression data uncovered two quantitative trait transcripts, Ptprk and Acp1, as candidates for heritable differences in the relative abundance of helper and cytotoxic T cells. These data will be valuable in extracting genetic correlates of the immune system in the BXD panel. In addition, they will be a useful resource for prospective, phenotype-driven model selection to test hypotheses about differential disease or environmental susceptibility between individuals with baseline differences in the composition of the immune system. PMID:20179155

Lynch, Rachel M.; Naswa, Sudhir; Rogers, Gary L.; Kania, Stephen A.; Das, Suchita; Chesler, Elissa J.; Saxton, Arnold M.; Langston, Michael A.

2010-01-01

194

The natural abundance of lambda2-light chains in inbred mice  

PubMed Central

The amino acid sequence of the constant (C) domain of the light chain of the mouse myeloma protein M315 has not been identified so far in any other myeloma protein. In this study, serological analysis with antiserum to the C-domain of this light chain (L315) showed that approximately equal to 1% of Igs in normal mouse serum have L chains of the L315 type (called lambda2). Corroborative evidence was obtained by analysis of the carboxyterminal amino acid removed from normal light chains by carboxypeptidase A. A survey of 35 inbred mouse strains showed that all had lambda2; the serum level of Igs with lambda2-chains ranged from approximately equal to 140 microgram/ml in AL/N mice to approximately equal to 25 microgram/ml in SJL, BSVS, and eight other strains. In accord with the anti-Dnp activity of M315, sera from mice immunized with Dnp-KLH had three- to fivefold more lambda2 than sera from control mice immunized with KLH. It was also possible to measure serum immunoglobulin molecules bearing the lambda2 variable region of M315 (VL315). In BALB/c sera, the concentration of VL315 was about sixfold lower than that measured for lambda2. Thus, lambda2-chains are divided into at least two subsets: those whose V domain is indistinguishable from VL315 and those whose VL differs from VL315. A 10-fold increase in VL315 was obtained by immunizing BALB/c mice with Dnp-KLH. The relationship of the VL domains of normal immunoglobulin lambda2-chains to the embryonic Vlambda gene recently sequenced by Tonegawa et al., is discussed. PMID:102727

1978-01-01

195

Functional Coding Variation in Recombinant Inbred Mouse Lines Reveals Novel Serotonin Transporter-Associated Phenotypes  

SciTech Connect

The human serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) transporter (hSERT, SLC6A4) figures prominently in the etiology or treatment of many prevalent neurobehavioral disorders including anxiety, alcoholism, depression, autism and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Here we utilize naturally occurring polymorphisms in recombinant inbred (RI) lines to identify novel phenotypes associated with altered SERT function. The widely used mouse strain C57BL/6J, harbors a SERT haplotype defined by two nonsynonymous coding variants (Gly39 and Lys152 (GK)). At these positions, many other mouse lines, including DBA/2J, encode Glu39 and Arg152 (ER haplotype), assignments found also in hSERT. Synaptosomal 5-HT transport studies revealed reduced uptake associated with the GK variant. Heterologous expression studies confirmed a reduced SERT turnover rate for the GK variant. Experimental and in silico approaches using RI lines (C57Bl/6J X DBA/2J=BXD) identifies multiple anatomical, biochemical and behavioral phenotypes specifically impacted by GK/ER variation. Among our findings are multiple traits associated with anxiety and alcohol consumption, as well as of the control of dopamine (DA) signaling. Further bioinformatic analysis of BXD phenotypes, combined with biochemical evaluation of SERT knockout mice, nominates SERT-dependent 5-HT signaling as a major determinant of midbrain iron homeostasis that, in turn, dictates ironregulated DA phenotypes. Our studies provide a novel example of the power of coordinated in vitro, in vivo and in silico approaches using murine RI lines to elucidate and quantify the system-level impact of gene variation.

Carneiro, Ana [Vanderbilt University; Airey, David [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Thompson, Brent [Vanderbilt University; Zhu, C [Vanderbilt University; Rinchik, Eugene M [ORNL; Lu, Lu [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Chesler, Elissa J [ORNL; Erikson, Keith [University of North Carolina; Blakely, Randy [Vanderbilt University

2009-01-01

196

Characterization of miRNAs in Response to Short-Term Waterlogging in Three Inbred Lines of Zea mays  

PubMed Central

Waterlogging of plants leads to low oxygen levels (hypoxia) in the roots and causes a metabolic switch from aerobic respiration to anaerobic fermentation that results in rapid changes in gene transcription and protein synthesis. Our research seeks to characterize the microRNA-mediated gene regulatory networks associated with short-term waterlogging. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate many genes involved in growth, development and various biotic and abiotic stress responses. To characterize the involvement of miRNAs and their targets in response to short-term hypoxia conditions, a quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) assay was used to quantify the expression of the 24 candidate mature miRNA signatures (22 known and 2 novel mature miRNAs, representing 66 miRNA loci) and their 92 predicted targets in three inbred Zea mays lines (waterlogging tolerant Hz32, mid-tolerant B73, and sensitive Mo17). Based on our studies, miR159, miR164, miR167, miR393, miR408 and miR528, which are mainly involved in root development and stress responses, were found to be key regulators in the post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms under short-term waterlogging conditions in three inbred lines. Further, computational approaches were used to predict the stress and development related cis-regulatory elements on the promoters of these miRNAs; and a probable miRNA-mediated gene regulatory network in response to short-term waterlogging stress was constructed. The differential expression patterns of miRNAs and their targets in these three inbred lines suggest that the miRNAs are active participants in the signal transduction at the early stage of hypoxia conditions via a gene regulatory network; and crosstalk occurs between different biochemical pathways. PMID:22768123

Liu, Zhijie; Kumari, Sunita; Zhang, Lifang; Zheng, Yonglian; Ware, Doreen

2012-01-01

197

Marker-trait association analysis of functional gene markers for provitamin A levels across diverse tropical yellow maize inbred lines  

PubMed Central

Background Biofortification of staple crops is a cost effective and sustainable approach that can help combat vitamin A and other micronutrient deficiencies in developing countries. PCR -based DNA markers distinguishing alleles of three key genes of maize endosperm carotenoid biosynthesis (PSY1, lcyE and crtRB1) have been developed to facilitate maize provitamin A biofortification via marker assisted selection. Previous studies of these functional DNA markers revealed inconsistent effects. The germplasm previously employed for discovering and validating these functional markers was mainly of temperate origin containing low frequencies of the favourable allele of the most significant polymorphism, crtRB1-5?TE. Here, we investigate the vitamin A biofortification potential of these DNA markers in a germplasm panel of diverse tropical yellow maize inbred lines, with mixed genetic backgrounds of temperate and tropical germplasm to identify the most effective diagnostic markers for vitamin A biofortification. Results The functional DNA markers crtRB1-5?TE and crtRB1-3?TE were consistently and strongly associated with provitamin A content across the tropical maize inbred lines tested. The alleles detected by these two functional markers were in high linkage disequilibrium (R2?=?0.75) and occurred in relatively high frequency (18%). Genotypes combining the favourable alleles at the two loci (N?=?20) displayed a 3.22 fold average increase in ?-carotene content compared to those genotypes lacking the favourable alleles (N?=?106). The PSY1 markers were monomorphic across all of the inbred lines. The functional DNA markers for lcyE were associated with lutein, and with the ratio of carotenoids in the alpha and beta branches, but not with provitamin A levels. However, the combined effects of the two genes were stronger than their individual effects on all carotenoids. Conclusions Tropical maize inbred lines harbouring the favourable alleles of the crtRB1-5?TE and 3?TE functional markers produce higher levels of provitamin A. Such maize lines can be used as donor parents to speed up the development of provitamin A biofortified tropical maize varieties adapted to growing conditions and consumer preferences, providing a route towards mitigation of vitamin A malnutrition in Sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:24373137

2013-01-01

198

Growth and formation of the foreleg skeleton inbred mice and rats under conditions of hypo-, normo- and hyperdynamia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Inbred 1 month old males of C57B 1/6, CBA, CC57Br/Mw interlinear hybrid mice of the first generation and rats of the August and Wistar lines were subjected to conditions of hypo-, normo- and hyperdynamia for 2 months. The statistically reliable dependence is shown between mechanical underloadings and overloadings and macro microscopic changes in the hind limb skeleton of animals. Genetic determination of growth and formation of the forelimb skeleton is established. Hereditary susceptibility and the phenomenon of heterosis are preserved under all motor conditions.

Kogan, B. I.; Antipov, Y. S.

1980-01-01

199

Lymphangiogenesis and angiogenesis: concurrence and/or dependence? Studies in inbred mouse strains  

PubMed Central

Genetic background significantly affects angiogenesis in mice. However, lymphangiogenic response to growth factors (GFs) in different strains has not been studied. We report constitutive expression of corneal lymphatics that extends beyond the limits of normal limbal vessels. In untreated corneas, the total number (P=0.006), the number above blood vessels (P=10?8), and the area of preexisting lymphatics (P=0.007) were significantly higher in C57BL/6 than in BALB/c mice. Normal corneas of three other strains, the nu/nu, 129E, and Black Swiss mice, showed in most parameters intermediate phenotypes. FGF-2?/? mice showed significantly less preexisting lymphatics than control (P=0.009), which suggests a role for this GF in lymphatic development. VEGF-A-induced corneal lymphangiogenic response was significantly higher in BALB/c mice (P=0.03), but it did not differ significantly in C57BL/6 mice, when compared to PBS-implanted control. FGFR-3 expression was higher in C57BL/6 than BALB/c mice, which suggests GF-receptor heterogeneity as a possible explanation for strain-dependent differences. The heterogeneity of preexisting lymphatic vessels in the limbal area significantly correlated with the extent of corneal lymphangiogenesis (VEGF-A: r=0.7, P=0.01; FGF-2: r=0.96, P=10?5) in BALB/c but not in C57BL/6 mice. Removal of conjunctival lymphatics did not affect GF-induced lymphangiogenesis. This work introduces physiological expression of lymphatics without blood vessels, which indicates that angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis, even though intricately related, may occur independently. Furthermore, we show strain-dependence of normal and GF-induced lymphangiogenesis. These differences may affect disease development in various strains.—Nakao, S., Maruyama, K., Zandi, S., Melhorn, M. I., Taher, M., Noda, K., Nusayr, E., Doetschman, T., Hafezi-Moghadam, A. Lymphangiogenesis and angiogenesis: concurrence and/or dependence? Studies in inbred mouse strains. PMID:19858096

Nakao, Shintaro; Maruyama, Kazuichi; Zandi, Souska; Melhorn, Mark I.; Taher, Mahdi; Noda, Kousuke; Nusayr, Eyad; Doetschman, Tom; Hafezi-Moghadam, Ali

2010-01-01

200

Altered CD8+ T cell immunodominance after vaccinia virus infection and the na?ve repertoire in inbred and F1 mice1  

PubMed Central

Previous studies of CD8+ T cell immunodominance after primary virus infection of F1 mice compared with their inbred parents have generally concluded that no dramatic changes occur. Here we re-visit this issue using vaccinia virus (VACV), which has a large genome, a recently defined immunodominance hierarchy in mice and is a candidate vector for vaccines. We found that immunogenicity of VACV peptides defined using inbred mice was highly variable in F1 progeny: some peptides were equally immunogenic in F1 and inbred, while others elicited responses that were reduced by more than 90% in F1 mice. Further, the dominance of a peptide in the relevant inbred parent did not predict whether or not it would be poorly immunogenic in F1 mice. This result held using F1 hybrids of MHC-congenic mice, suggesting that MHC differences alone were responsible. It was also extended to foreign epitopes expressed by a recombinant VACV vaccine. F1 mice were less able to mount responses to the poorly immunogenic peptides when used as a sole immunogen, ruling out immunodomination. In addition, conserved TCR V? usage between inbred and F1 mice did not always correlate with strong responses in F1 mice. However direct estimation of naïve precursor numbers showed that these were reduced in F1 compared with inbred mice for specificities that were poorly immunogenic in the hybrids. These data have implications for our understanding of the extent to which MHC diversity alters the range of epitopes that are immunogenic in outbred populations. PMID:19949110

Flesch, Inge E.A.; Woo, Wai-Ping; Wang, Yang; Panchanathan, Vijay; Wong, Yik-Chun; La Gruta, Nicole L.; Cukalac, Tania; Tscharke, David C.

2010-01-01

201

Genetic basis of transcriptome differences between the founder strains of the rat HXB/BXH recombinant inbred panel  

PubMed Central

Background With the advent of next generation sequencing it has become possible to detect genomic variation on a large scale. However, predicting which genomic variants are damaging to gene function remains a challenge, as knowledge of the effects of genomic variation on gene expression is still limited. Recombinant inbred panels are powerful tools to study the cis and trans effects of genetic variation on molecular phenotypes such as gene expression. Results We generated a comprehensive inventory of genomic differences between the two founder strains of the rat HXB/BXH recombinant inbred panel: SHR/OlaIpcv and BN-Lx/Cub. We identified 3.2 million single nucleotide variants, 425,924 small insertions and deletions, 907 copy number changes and 1,094 large structural genetic variants. RNA-sequencing analyses on liver tissue of the two strains identified 532 differentially expressed genes and 40 alterations in transcript structure. We identified both coding and non-coding variants that correlate with differential expression and alternative splicing. Furthermore, structural variants, in particular gene duplications, show a strong correlation with transcriptome alterations. Conclusions We show that the panel is a good model for assessing the genetic basis of phenotypic heterogeneity and for providing insights into possible underlying molecular mechanisms. Our results reveal a high diversity and complexity underlying quantitative and qualitative transcriptional differences. PMID:22541052

2012-01-01

202

Dissecting yield-associated loci in super hybrid rice by resequencing recombinant inbred lines and improving parental genome sequences.  

PubMed

The growing world population and shrinkage of arable land demand yield improvement of rice, one of the most important staple crops. To elucidate the genetic basis of yield and uncover its associated loci in rice, we resequenced the core recombinant inbred lines of Liang-You-Pei-Jiu, the widely cultivated super hybrid rice, and constructed a high-resolution linkage map. We detected 43 yield-associated quantitative trait loci, of which 20 are unique. Based on the high-density physical map, the genome sequences of paternal variety 93-11 and maternal cultivar PA64s of Liang-You-Pei-Jiu were significantly improved. The large recombinant inbred line population combined with plentiful high-quality single nucleotide polymorphisms and insertions/deletions between parental genomes allowed us to fine-map two quantitative trait loci, qSN8 and qSPB1, and to identify days to heading8 and lax panicle1 as candidate genes, respectively. The quantitative trait locus qSN8 was further confirmed to be days to heading8 by a complementation test. Our study provided an ideal platform for molecular breeding by targeting and dissecting yield-associated loci in rice. PMID:23940322

Gao, Zhen-Yu; Zhao, Shan-Cen; He, Wei-Ming; Guo, Long-Biao; Peng, You-Lin; Wang, Jin-Jin; Guo, Xiao-Sen; Zhang, Xue-Mei; Rao, Yu-Chun; Zhang, Chi; Dong, Guo-Jun; Zheng, Feng-Ya; Lu, Chang-Xin; Hu, Jiang; Zhou, Qing; Liu, Hui-Juan; Wu, Hai-Yang; Xu, Jie; Ni, Pei-Xiang; Zeng, Da-Li; Liu, Deng-Hui; Tian, Peng; Gong, Li-Hui; Ye, Chen; Zhang, Guang-Heng; Wang, Jian; Tian, Fu-Kuan; Xue, Da-Wei; Liao, Yi; Zhu, Li; Chen, Ming-Sheng; Li, Jia-Yang; Cheng, Shi-Hua; Zhang, Geng-Yun; Wang, Jun; Qian, Qian

2013-08-27

203

A study of heterosis and recombination loss in crosses of inbred Leghorn lines derived from a common base population.  

PubMed

This study was designed to estimate heterosis and recombination loss of feed efficiency at peak egg production using six inbred White Leghorn lines and their crosses. Percent hen day egg production was highest in three-line crosses with 94.6%, 93.5% for two-line crosses and 91.0% for inbred lines, respectively. Feed efficiency of three-line crosses was superior to that of two-line crosses, primarily because of low feed consumption. Heterosis effects for body and egg weights were observed in all mating combinations. The value of heterosis for egg number and feed efficiency were dependent upon parental line. Egg number and egg weight showed small average recombination losses, depending on lines involved. Small but consistent recombination loss for body weight was observed. The recombination loss for feed efficiency was large and negative; the highest three-line cross value for this trait was about 16% above that of the mean of the corresponding two-line crosses. PMID:6709564

Abplanalp, H; Okamoto, S; Napolitano, D; Len, R E

1984-02-01

204

Can we improve heterosis for root growth of maize by selecting parental inbred lines with different temperature behaviour?  

PubMed Central

Tolerance to high and low temperature is an important breeding aim for Central and Northern Europe, where temperature fluctuations are predicted to increase. However, the extent to which genotypes differ in their response to the whole range of possible temperatures is not well understood. We tested the hypothesis that the combination of maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines with differing temperature optima for root growth would lead to superior hybrids. This hypothesis is based on the concept of ‘marginal overdominance’ in which the hybrid expresses higher relative fitness than its parents, summed over all situations. The elongation rates of axile and lateral roots of the reciprocal cross between two flint and two dent inbred lines were assessed at temperatures between 15°C and 40°C. Indeed, the cross between UH005 and UH250 with lateral root growth temperature optima at 34°C and 28°C, respectively, resulted in intermediate hybrids. At temperatures below and above 31°C, the hybrids' root growth was comparable to the better parent, respectively, thereby increasing temperature tolerance of the hybrid compared with its parents. The implications of and reasons for this heterosis effect are discussed in the context of breeding for abiotic stress tolerance and of putatively underlying molecular mechanisms. This finding paves the way for more detailed investigations of this phenomenon in future studies. PMID:22527401

Hund, Andreas; Reimer, Regina; Stamp, Peter; Walter, Achim

2012-01-01

205

Nitrate induction triggers different transcriptional changes in a high and a low nitrogen use efficiency maize inbred line.  

PubMed

In higher plants, NO3 (-) can induce its own uptake and the magnitude of this induction is positively related to the external anion concentration. This phenomenon has been characterized in both herbaceous and woody plants. Here, different adaptation strategies of roots from two maize (Zea mays L., ZmAGOs) inbred lines differing in nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) and exhibiting different timing of induction were discussed by investigating NO3 (-) -induced changes in their transcriptome. Lo5 line (high NUE) showing the maximum rate of NO3 (-) uptake 4?h after the provision of 200??mol/L NO3 (-) treatment modulated a higher number of transcripts relative to T250 (low NUE) that peaked after 12?h. The two inbred lines share only 368 transcripts that are modulated by the treatment with NO3 (-) and behaved differently when transcripts involved in anion uptake and assimilation were analyzed. T250 line responded to the NO3 (-) induction modulating this group of genes as reported for several plant species. On the contrary, the Lo5 line did not exhibit during the induction changes in this set of genes. Obtained data suggest the importance of exploring the physiological and molecular variations among different maize genotypes in response to environmental clues like NO3 (-) provision, in order to understand mechanisms underlying NUE. PMID:24805158

Zamboni, Anita; Astolfi, Stefania; Zuchi, Sabrina; Pii, Youry; Guardini, Katia; Tononi, Paola; Varanini, Zeno

2014-11-01

206

Transcriptional and Metabolic Changes Associated to the Infection by Fusarium verticillioides in Maize Inbreds with Contrasting Ear Rot Resistance  

PubMed Central

Fusarium verticillioides causes ear rot and grain mycotoxins in maize (Zea mays L.), which are harmful to human and animal health. Breeding and growing less susceptible plant genotypes is one alternative to reduce these detrimental effects. A better understanding of the resistance mechanisms would facilitate the implementation of strategic molecular agriculture to breeding of resistant germplasm. Our aim was to identify genes and metabolites that may be related to the Fusarium reaction in a resistant (L4637) and a susceptible (L4674) inbred. Gene expression data were obtained from microarray hybridizations in inoculated and non-inoculated kernels from both inbreds. Fungal inoculation did not produce considerable changes in gene expression and metabolites in L4637. Defense-related genes changed in L4674 kernels, responding specifically to the pathogen infection. These results indicate that L4637 resistance may be mainly due to constitutive defense mechanisms preventing fungal infection. These mechanisms seem to be poorly expressed in L4674; and despite the inoculation activate a defense response; this is not enough to prevent the disease progress in this susceptible line. Through this study, a global view of differential genes expressed and metabolites accumulated during resistance and susceptibility to F. verticillioides inoculation has been obtained, giving additional information about the mechanisms and pathways conferring resistance to this important disease in maize. PMID:23637860

Campos-Bermudez, Valeria A.; Fauguel, Carolina M.; Tronconi, Marcos A.; Casati, Paula; Presello, Daniel A.; Andreo, Carlos S.

2013-01-01

207

Comparative and Developmental Study of the Immune System in Jacques Robert1,* and Yuko Ohta2  

E-print Network

studies of immunity, and invaluable research tools including MHC-defined clones, inbred strains, cell lines, and monoclonal antibodies are available for these studies. Recent efforts to use Silurana mapping and mutagenesis studies will provide a new dimension to the study of immunity. Here we review what

Gray, Matthew

208

Protection conferred by a fully recombinant sub-unit vaccine against Yersinia pestis in male and female mice of four inbred strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe for the first time the use of a fully recombinant sub-unit vaccine for plague. We have compared the protection afforded by the recombinant vaccine against Yersinia pestis in male and female mice of four inbred strains. We also determined the in vivo cellular memory and antibody response after one year. The recombinant vaccine was capable

S. M Jones; F Day; A. J Stagg; E. D Williamson

2000-01-01

209

Differential Acquisition of Lever Pressing in Inbred and Outbred Mice: Comparison of One-Lever and Two-Lever Procedures and Correlation with Differences in Locomotor Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent progress in mouse genetics has led to an increased interest in developing procedures for assessing mouse behavior, but relatively few of the behavioral procedures developed involve positively reinforced operant behavior. When operant methods are used, nose poking, not lever pressing, is the target response. In the current study differential acquisition of milk-reinforced lever pressing was observed in five inbred

TODD L. MCKERCHAR; T ROY J. ZARCONE; STEPHEN C. FOWLER

2005-01-01

210

Direct mapping of density response in a population of B73 × Mo17 recombinant inbred lines of maize (Zea Mays L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maize yield per unit area has dramatically increased over time as have plant population densities, but the genetic basis for plant response to density is unknown as is its stability over environments. To elucidate the genetic basis of plant response to density in maize, we mapped QTL for plant density-related traits in a population of 186 recombinant inbred lines (RILs)

M Gonzalo; J B Holland; T J Vyn; L M McIntyre

2010-01-01

211

Quantitative Trait Loci Mapping in Five New Large Recombinant Inbred Line Populations of Arabidopsis thaliana Genotyped With Consensus Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism Markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative approaches conducted in a single mapping population are limited by the extent of genetic variation distinguishing the parental genotypes. To overcome this limitation and allow a more complete dissection of the genetic architecture of complex traits, we built an integrated set of 15 new large Arabidopsis thaliana recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations optimized for quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping,

Matthieu Simon; Olivier Loudet; Stephanie Durand; Aurelie Berard; Dominique Brunel; F.-X. Sennesal; M. Durand-Tardif; G. Pelletier; C. Camilleri

2008-01-01

212

QTLs for agronomic traits in the Mediterranean environment identified in recombinant inbred lines of the cross 'Arta' × H. spontaneum 41-1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A genetic linkage map has been developed for recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of the cross 'Arta' × Hordeum spontaneum 41-1. One hundred and ninety four RILs, randomly chosen from a population of 494 RILs, were mapped with 189 markers including one morphological trait ( btr = brittle rachis locus). The linkage map extended to 890 cM. Agronomic traits such as grain

M. Baum; S. Grando; G. Backes; A. Jahoor; A. Sabbagh; S. Ceccarelli

2003-01-01

213

Development of a near-isogenic line population of Arabidopsis thaliana and comparison of mapping power with a recombinant inbred line population  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Arabidopsis recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations are widely used for quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses. However, mapping analyses with this type of population can be limited because of the masking effects of major QTL and epistatic interactions of multiple QTL. An alternative type of immortal experimental population commonly used in plant species are sets of introgression lines. Here we

Joost J. B. Keurentjes; Leonie Bentsink; Carlos Alonso-Blanco; M. H. C. Blankestijn-de Vries; S. Effgen; D. Vreugdenhil; M. Koornneef

2007-01-01

214

Analysis of natural allelic variation of Arabidopsis seed germination and seed longevity traits between the accessions Landberg erecta and Shakdara, using a new recombinant inbred line population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping was used to identify loci controlling various aspects of seed longevity during storage and germination. Similar locations for QTLs controlling different traits might be an indication for a common genetic control of such traits. For this analysis we used a new recombinant inbred line population derived from a cross between the accessions Landsberg erecta (Ler)

Emile J. M. Clerkx; Mohamed E. El-Lithy; E. Vierling; G. J. Ruijs; Vries de M. H. C; S. P. C. Groot; D. Vreugdenhil; M. Koornneef

2004-01-01

215

Analysis of Natural Allelic Variation of Arabidopsis Seed Germination and Seed Longevity Traits between the Accessions Landsberg erecta and Shakdara, Using a New Recombinant Inbred Line Population1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping was used to identify loci controlling various aspects of seed longevity during storage and germination. Similar locations for QTLs controlling different traits might be an indication for a common genetic control of such traits. For this analysis we used a new recombinant inbred line population derived from a cross between the accessions Landsberg erecta (Ler)

Emile J. M. Clerkx; Mohamed E. El-Lithy; Elizabeth Vierling; Gerda J. Ruys; Hetty Blankestijn-De; Steven P. C. Groot; Dick Vreugdenhil; Maarten Koornneef

216

Mapping QTLs influencing rice floral morphology using recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross between Oryza sativa L. and Oryza rufipogon Griff  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand the genetic basis of floral traits associated with the mating system in rice, we analyzed pistil, stamen and glume traits using a recombinant inbred line population, derived from a cross between an Asian cultivated rice ( Oryza sativa L.), Pei-kuh, and a wild rice ( Oryza rufipogon Griff.), W1944. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting floral morphology were detected

Y. Uga; Y. Fukuta; H. W. Cai; H. Iwata; R. Ohsawa; H. Morishima; T. Fujimura

2003-01-01

217

Metabolic and cardiovascular disorders in highly inbred lines for intensive pig farming: how animal welfare evaluation could improve the basic knowledge of human obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. - Intensive pig farming is currently performed with highly inbred lines of animals characterised not only by fast growing and low proportion of back-fat tissue, but also by an impaired development of muscular mass and cardiocirculatory system, and higher susceptibility to oxidative stress. This picture of genetically- determined metabolic alterations suggests the use of these lines as a nice

Gianfranco BRAMBILLA; Alfredo CANTAFORA; Medicina Molecolare

2004-01-01

218

Increased atmospheric humidity post pollination: A possible aid to the production of inbred line seed from mature flowers in the Brussels sprout ( Brassica oleracea var. Gemmifera )  

Microsoft Academic Search

In two highly self incompatible inbred lines of Brussels sprouts the effect of increased atmospheric humidity post pollination was examined immediately following 1) hand pollination of green buds and open flowers, and 2) blowfly pollination of open flowers. Data were obtained for mean number of seeds set per pollination, mean number of fruits setting seed, and mean number of seeds

A. L. Carter; T. McNeilly

1976-01-01

219

On the power of experimental designs for the detection of linkage between marker loci and quantitative loci in crosses between inbred lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The power of experiments aimed at detecting linkage between a quantitative locus and a marker locus, both segregating in the backross or F2 generation of a cross between two inbred lines, is examined. Given that the two lines are close to fixation for alternative alleles of both marker locus and quantitative locus, it is concluded that experiments involving a few

M. Soller; T. Brody; A. Genizi

1976-01-01

220

Helicobacter bilis sp. nov., a novel Helicobacter species isolated from bile, livers, and intestines of aged, inbred mice.  

PubMed Central

A fusiform bacterium with 3 to 14 multiple bipolar sheathed flagella and periplasmic fibers wrapped around the cell was isolated from the liver, bile, and lower intestine of aged, inbred mice. The bacteria grew at 37 and 42 degrees C under microaerophilic conditions, rapidly hydrolyzed urea, were catalase and oxidase positive, reduced nitrate to nitrite, did not hydrolyze indoxyl acetate or hippurate, and were resistant to both cephalothin and nalidixic acid but sensitive to metronidazole. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the organism was classified as a novel helicobacter, Helicobacter bilis. This new helicobacter, like Helicobacter hepaticus, colonizes the bile, liver, and intestine of mice. Although the organism is associated with multifocal chronic hepatitis, further studies are required to ascertain whether H. bilis is responsible for causing chronic hepatitis and/or hepatocellular tumors in mice. PMID:7536217

Fox, J G; Yan, L L; Dewhirst, F E; Paster, B J; Shames, B; Murphy, J C; Hayward, A; Belcher, J C; Mendes, E N

1995-01-01

221

Maize Dwarf Mosaic Virus: Effect of Strain A On Corn Inbreds, Single- and Double-Cross Hybrids.  

E-print Network

.71 kl 57.48 gh 62.59 de 51.08 i j 60.50 fgh 60.73 fgf 56.39 ghi 57.56 gh 42.32 kl 56.95 gh 81.03 b 95.89 a Uni{IOCU 1 ated 42.95 k** 48.54 j** 65.74 ef** 65.61 ef 48.54 j 72 .64 cd** 61.98 fg 59.11 gh 74.40 c** 57.51 gh** 55.70 hi... 84 .68 b 97.03 a * Duncan's Multiple Range Test - any two means having anyone of the same letters are not significant. ** Indicates significance between the inoculated and uninoculated treatments of the inbred lines. 19 Table 7. Summary of mean...

Toler, R.W.; Bockholt, A.J.; Alston, F.G.

1982-01-01

222

In vitro fertilization in inbred BALB/c mice II: effects of lactate, osmolarity and calcium on in vitro capacitation.  

PubMed

To elucidate requirements for in vitro sperm capacitation in inbred BALB/c mice, osmolarity, calcium and lactate were optimized using modified simplex optimization medium (mKSOM). Modified human tubal fluid (mHTF), a capacitation-supporting medium, was used as a control. In the first series of experiments, the effects of calcium and osmolarity were studied in the presence of lactate. Although preincubation with >or=5 mM CaCl2 improved fertilization after insemination significantly, it was still significantly lower than incubation with mHTF. To obtain fertilization at the equivalent levels to that of mHTF, isotonic osmolarity (305 mOsmol) was required. Trehalose, an osmotic reagent, could substitute for NaCl partially. In the second series of experiments, the effects of lactate were examined using a concentration of 5 mM calcium and isotonic osmolarity. Preincubation with 75%), as well as the percentages of B (capacitated) pattern sperm (>or=40%) in chlortetracycline (CTC) staining, as compared with incubation in mHTF (46% and 28%, respectively; p<0.05). In the third series of experiments, the effects of osmolarity and calcium in the absence of lactate were examined. An increase in osmolarity during sperm preincubation increased both fertilization and B-pattern sperm significantly in a dose-dependent manner. Trehalose, sucrose and choline chloride could substitute for NaCl. An increase in CaCl2 concentration during preincubation had no effect on fertilization, but this increase reduced the percentages of B-pattern sperm. In vitro capacitation of inbred BALB/c mice is sensitive to lactate and osmolarity, but that sensitivity for calcium varies depending on the presence or absence of lactate. PMID:18578945

Kito, Seiji; Ohta, Yuki

2008-08-01

223

Distinct Genetic Signatures for Variability in Total and Free Serum Thyroxine Levels in Four Sets of Recombinant Inbred Mice  

PubMed Central

C3H/He and BALB/c mice have elevated serum thyroxine levels associated with low deiodinase type-1 activity whereas C57BL/6 (B6) mice have low thyroxine levels and elevated deiodinase type-1 activity. High-resolution genetic maps are available for four sets of recombinant inbred (RI) mice derived from B6 parents bred to C3H/He, BALB/c, DBA/2, or A strains. Total and free T4 (T-T4 and F-T4) levels in females from these RI sets (BXH, CXB, BXD, and AXBXA) were analyzed to test two hypotheses: first, serum T4 variability is linked to the deiodinase type-1 gene; second, because of their shared B6 parent, the RI sets will share linkages responsible for T-T4 or F-T4 variability. A number of chromosomes (Chr) and loci were linked to T-T4 (Chr 1, 4, 13, 11) or F-T4 (Chr 1, 6, 13, 18, 19). Linkage between T-T4 and Chr 4 was limited to CXB and BXH strains, but the locus was distinct from the deiodinase type-1 gene. Surprisingly, many linkages were unique providing “genetic signatures” for T-T4 or F-T4 in each set of RI mice. Indeed, the strongest linkage between T-T4 (or F-T4) and a Chr 2 locus (logarithm of the odds scores >4.4) was only observed in AXBXA strains. Some loci corresponded to genes/Chr associated in humans with variable TSH or T-T4 levels. Unlike inbred mice, human populations are extremely diverse. Consequently, our data suggest that the contributions of unique chromosomes/loci controlling T-T4 and F-T4 in distinct human subgroups are likely to be “buried” in genetic analyses of heterogeneous human populations. PMID:21209025

Lu, Lu; Aliesky, Holly A.; Williams, Robert W.; Rapoport, Basil

2011-01-01

224

Differential Performance and Parasitism of Caterpillars on Maize Inbred Lines with Distinctly Different Herbivore-Induced Volatile Emissions  

PubMed Central

Plant volatiles induced by insect feeding are known to attract natural enemies of the herbivores. Six maize inbred lines that showed distinctly different patterns of volatile emission in laboratory assays were planted in randomized plots in the Central Mexican Highlands to test their ability to recruit parasitic wasps under field conditions. The plants were artificially infested with neonate larvae of the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda, and two of its main endoparasitoids, Campoletis sonorensis and Cotesia marginiventris, were released in the plots. Volatiles were collected from equally treated reference plants in the neighbourhood of the experimental field. The cumulative amount of 36 quantified volatile compounds determined for each line was in good accordance with findings from the laboratory; there was an almost 15-fold difference in total emission between the two extreme lines. We found significant differences among the lines with respect to the numbers of armyworms recovered from the plants, their average weight gain and parasitism rates. Average weight of the caterpillars was negatively correlated with the average total amount of volatiles released by the six inbred lines. However, neither total volatile emission nor any specific single compound within the blend could explain the differential parasitism rates among the lines, with the possible exception of (E)-2-hexenal for Campoletis sonorensis and methyl salicylate for Cotesia marginiventris. Herbivore-induced plant volatiles and/or correlates thereof contribute to reducing insect damage of maize plants through direct plant defence and enhanced attraction of parasitoids, alleged indirect defence. The potential to exploit these volatiles for pest control deserves to be further evaluated. PMID:23112820

Degen, Thomas; Bakalovic, Nenad; Bergvinson, David; Turlings, Ted C. J.

2012-01-01

225

Basal levels of glutathione peroxidase correlate with onset of radiation induced lung disease in inbred mouse strains.  

PubMed

Biomarkers predicting for the radiation-induced lung responses of pneumonitis or fibrosis are largely unknown. Herein we investigated whether markers of oxidative stress and intracellular antioxidants, measured within days of radiation exposure, are correlated with the lung tissue injury response occurring weeks later. Mice of the eight inbred strains differing in their susceptibility to radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis, and in the duration of asymptomatic survival, received 18 Gy whole thorax irradiation and were killed 6 h, 24 h, or 7 days later. Control mice were not irradiated. Lung levels of antioxidants superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione, and of oxidative damage [reactive oxygen species (ROS) and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG)], were biochemically determined. GPx was additionally measured through gene expression and immunohistochemical assessment of lung tissue, and activity in serum. ROS and 8-OHdG were increased postirradiation and exhibited significant strain and time-dependent variability, but were not strongly predictive of radiation-induced lung diseases. Antioxidant measures were not dramatically changed postirradiation and varied significantly among the strains. Basal GPx activity (r = 0.73, P = 0.04) in the lung and the pulmonary expression of GPx2 (r = 0.94, P = 0.0003) correlated with postirradiation asymptomatic survival, whereas serum GPx activity was inversely correlated (r = -0.80, P = 0.01) with fibrosis development. In conclusion, pulmonary oxidative stress and antioxidant markers were more affected by inbred strain than radiation over 7 days posttreatment. Lung GPx activity, and GPx2 expression, predicted for survival from lethal pneumonitis, and serum GPx for fibrosis, in this panel of mice. PMID:25150064

Kunwar, Amit; Haston, Christina K

2014-10-15

226

Adult frog  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The adult frog now lives on land and has nostrils and lungs to breathe air. It also has front and hind legs to hop around on. This frog can start the life cycle over again by laying eggs and reproducing.

Harmen Piekema (None;)

2005-05-28

227

Natural variation and genetic covariance in adult hippocampal neurogenesis  

SciTech Connect

Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is highly variable and heritable among laboratory strains of mice. Adult neurogenesis is also remarkably plastic and can be modulated by environment and activity. Here, we provide a systematic quantitative analysis of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in two large genetic reference panels of recombinant inbred strains (BXD and AXB?BXA, n ? 52 strains). We combined data on variation in neurogenesis with a new transcriptome database to extract a set of 190 genes with expression patterns that are also highly variable and that covary with rates of (i) cell proliferation, (ii) cell survival, or the numbers of surviving (iii) new neurons, and (iv) astrocytes. Expression of a subset of these neurogenesis-associated transcripts was controlled in cis across the BXD set. These self-modulating genes are particularly interesting candidates to control neurogenesis. Among these were musashi (Msi1h) and prominin1?CD133 (Prom1), both of which are linked to stem-cell maintenance and division. Twelve neurogenesis-associated transcripts had significant cis-acting quantitative trait loci, and, of these, six had plausible biological association with adult neurogenesis (Prom1, Ssbp2, Kcnq2, Ndufs2, Camk4, and Kcnj9). Only one cis- cting candidate was linked to both neurogenesis and gliogenesis, Rapgef6, a downstream target of ras signaling. The use of genetic reference panels coupled with phenotyping and global transcriptome profiling thus allowed insight into the complexity of the genetic control of adult neurogenesis.

Kempermann, Gerd [Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin, Germany; Chesler, Elissa J [ORNL; Lu, Lu [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Williams, Robert [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Gage, Fred [Salk Institute for Biological Studies, The, San Diego, CA

2006-01-01

228

Modulation of high alcohol drinking in the inbred Fawn-Hooded (FH/Wjd) rat strain: implications for treatment.  

PubMed

The Fawn-Hooded rat (FH/Wjd) is an inbred alcohol-preferring rat strain, unlike most of the other strains that were selectively bred for high alcohol intake and preference. It was chosen for study some 16 years ago because of a reported mutation that disrupted platelet serotonin function. Although the FH/Wjd rat has high alcohol intake (>5 g/kg/day) and preference (>65%), interbreeding with an alcohol-non-preferring inbred strain suggested that these measures are unrelated to the serotonin abnormality. Similarly, the exaggerated immobility of the FH/Wjd rats in the forced swim test did not correlate with the high alcohol intake. Many compounds have been tested in the FH/Wjd rats after both acute and chronic treatment and a substantial number of them have proved effective. However, as the case with opiate antagonists, tolerance to the effects of the drug can develop. An up-regulation of opioid receptors accompanied the chronic treatment and this mechanism may account for the development of tolerance. Tolerance to opiate antagonists has also been demonstrated in two of the selectively bred alcohol-preferring rat lines, but it is unknown whether this process may contribute to the relapses seen in individuals being treated with naltrexone. Other drugs that reliably decrease alcohol intake in the FH/Wjd rats include the 5-hydroxytryptamine-2A receptor antagonist, amperozide, the mGlu5 receptor antagonist 3-[(2-methyl-1,3-thiazol-4-yl)ethynyl]pyridine (MTEP) and herbal derivatives such as ibogaine, St. John's wort and kudzu extract. Thus, studies in the FH/Wjd rat have led to the discovery of a wide variety of targets for the development of novel agents to treat alcoholism. The fact that several of these drugs were shown to reduce alcohol intake in some of the selectively bred alcohol-preferring rat lines and/or alcohol-preferring vervet monkeys increases our confidence that they are good candidates for further development. PMID:16961764

Overstreet, David H; Rezvani, Amir H; Cowen, Michael; Chen, Feng; Lawrence, Andrew J

2006-09-01

229

An inbred line of the diploid strawberry Fragaria vesca f. semperflorens for genomic and molecular genetic studies in the Rosaceae  

PubMed Central

Background The diploid woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca) is an attractive system for functional genomics studies. Its small stature, fast regeneration time, efficient transformability and small genome size, together with substantial EST and genomic sequence resources make it an ideal reference plant for Fragaria and other herbaceous perennials. Most importantly, this species shares gene sequence similarity and genomic microcolinearity with other members of the Rosaceae family, including large-statured tree crops (such as apple, peach and cherry), and brambles and roses as well as with the cultivated octoploid strawberry, F. ×ananassa. F. vesca may be used to quickly address questions of gene function relevant to these valuable crop species. Although some F. vesca lines have been shown to be substantially homozygous, in our hands plants in purportedly homozygous populations exhibited a range of morphological and physiological variation, confounding phenotypic analyses. We also found the genotype of a named variety, thought to be well-characterized and even sold commercially, to be in question. An easy to grow, standardized, inbred diploid Fragaria line with documented genotype that is available to all members of the research community will facilitate comparison of results among laboratories and provide the research community with a necessary tool for functionally testing the large amount of sequence data that will soon be available for peach, apple, and strawberry. Results A highly inbred line, YW5AF7, of a diploid strawberry Fragaria vesca f. semperflorens line called "Yellow Wonder" (Y2) was developed and examined. Botanical descriptors were assessed for morphological characterization of this genotype. The plant line was found to be rapidly transformable using established techniques and media formulations. Conclusion The development of the documented YW5AF7 line provides an important tool for Rosaceae functional genomic analyses. These day-neutral plants have a small genome, a seed to seed cycle of 3.0 - 3.5 months, and produce fruit in 7.5 cm pots in a growth chamber. YW5AF7 is runnerless and therefore easy to maintain in the greenhouse, forms abundant branch crowns for vegetative propagation, and produces highly aromatic yellow fruit throughout the year in the greenhouse. F. vesca can be transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens, making these plants suitable for insertional mutagenesis, RNAi and overexpression studies that can be compared against a stable baseline of phenotypic descriptors and can be readily genetically substantiated. PMID:19878589

2009-01-01

230

On the Relationships of High-Frequency Hearing Loss and Cochlear Pathology to the Acoustic Startle Response (ASR) and Prepulse Inhibition of the ASR in the BXD Recombinant Inbred Series  

Microsoft Academic Search

The measurement of the acoustic startle response (ASR) and prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the ASR in many inbred strains of mice, including C57BL\\/6 and DBA\\/2, may be complicated by age-related high-frequency hearing loss (HFHL) and the associated cochlear pathology. Willott and Erway (1998) have recently reported on the age-related changes of the acoustic brain response in the BXD recombinant inbred

James McCaughran; James Bell; Robert Hitzemann

1999-01-01

231

Effect of Crude Fat and Crude Protein on Reproduction and Weanling Growth in Four Strains of Inbred Mice1-2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diets made from natural ingredients were fed to four inbred strains of mice (BALB\\/cAnN, C3H\\/HeN, C57BL\\/6N and DBA\\/2N) to study the effects of different concentrations of dietary crude protein, 18% and 24% with crude fat concentrations of 4%, 8%, and 12% on reproduction and weanling growth. The parameters measured included the number of litters and pups born, the number of

JOSEPH J. KNAPKA; KITTY P. SMITH

232

Development of Co-Dominant Amplified Polymorphic Sequence Markers in Rice that Flank the Magnaporthe grisea Resistance Gene Pi7(t) in Recombinant Inbred Line 29  

Microsoft Academic Search

Campbell, M. A., Chen, D., and Ronald, P. C. 2004. Development of co- dominant amplified polymorphic sequence markers in rice that flank the Magnaporthe grisea resistance gene Pi7(t) in recombinant inbred line 29. Phytopathology 94:302-307. Pi7(t), a dominant blast resistance gene derived from the rice cultivar Moroberekan, confers complete resistance against the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe grisea. Pi7(t) previously was positioned

M. A. Campbell; D. Chen; P. C. Ronald

2004-01-01

233

Mapping quantitative trait loci for milling quality, protein content and color characteristics of rice using a recombinant inbred line population derived from an elite rice hybrid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Milling properties, protein content, and flour color are important factors in rice. A marker-based genetic analysis of these\\u000a traits was carried out in this study using recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from an elite hybrid cross ’Shanyou 63’,\\u000a the most-widely grown rice hybrid in production in China. Correlation analysis shows that the traits were inter-correlated,\\u000a though the coefficients were generally

Y. F. Tan; M. Sun; Y. Z. Xing; J. P. Hua; X. L. Sun; Q. F. Zhang; H. Corke

2001-01-01

234

Fine mapping of the FT1 locus for soybean flowering time using a residual heterozygous line derived from a recombinant inbred line  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fine-mapping of loci related to complex quantitative traits is essential for map-based cloning. A residual heterozygous line (RHL) of soybean ( Glycine max) derived from a recombinant inbred line (RIL) was used for fine-mapping FT1, which is a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) responsible for soybean flowering time. The residual heterozygous line RHL1-156 was selected from the RILs that were

Naoki Yamanaka; Satoshi Watanabe; Kyoko Toda; Masaki Hayashi; Hiroki Fuchigami; Ryoji Takahashi; Kyuya Harada

2005-01-01

235

Genotypic variation and chromosomal location of QTLs for somatic embryogenesis revealed by epidermal layers culture of recombinant inbred lines in the sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was conducted to identify the genetic factors controlling somatic embryogenesis in the sunflower. Two traits,\\u000a the number of embryogenic explants per 40 explants plated (EE\\/40 E) and the number of embryos per 40 explants (E\\/40 E), were\\u000a scored in 74 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from a cross between ’PAC-2’ and ’RHA-266’. The experiment was designed as a

E. Flores Berrios; A. Sarrafi; F. Fabre; G. Alibert; L. Gentzbittel

2000-01-01

236

Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies Candidate Genes That Affect Plant Height in Chinese Elite Maize (Zea mays L.) Inbred Lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe harvest index for many crops can be improved through introduction of dwarf stature to increase lodging resistance, combined with early maturity. The inbred line Shen5003 has been widely used in maize breeding in China as a key donor line for the dwarf trait. Also, one major quantitative trait locus (QTL) controlling plant height has been identified in bin 5.05–5.06,

Jianfeng Weng; Chuanxiao Xie; Zhuanfang Hao; Jianjun Wang; Changlin Liu; Mingshun Li; Degui Zhang; Li Bai; Shihuang Zhang; Xinhai Li

2011-01-01

237

Use of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) to identify, locate and map major genes and quantitative trait loci involved with in vitro regeneration ability in Arabidopsis thaliana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Landsberg erecta× Columbia recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of Arabidopsis have been used in order to identify and localize chromosome regions involved in the genetic control of the in vitro regeneration\\u000a ability. Callus morphology (CM) and shoot regeneration (SR) traits have been considered for both leaf and root explants. The\\u000a MAPMAKER analysis of leaf culture data has revealed at least

E. Schiantarelli; A. De la Peña; M. Candela

2001-01-01

238

Mapping Resistance Quantitative Trait Loci for Three Foliar Diseases in a Maize Recombinant Inbred Line Population—Evidence for Multiple Disease Resistance?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zwonitzer, J. C., Coles, N. D., Krakowsky, M. D., Arellano, C., Holland, J. B., McMullen, M. D., Pratt, R. C., and Balint-Kurti, P. J. 2010. Mapping resistance quantitative trait loci for three foliar diseases in a maize recombinant inbred line population—evidence for multiple disease resistance? Phytopathology 100:72-79. Southern leaf blight (SLB), gray leaf spot (GLS), and northern leaf blight (NLB)

John C. Zwonitzer; Nathan D. Coles; Matthew D. Krakowsky; Consuelo Arellano; James B. Holland; Michael D. McMullen; Richard C. Pratt; Peter J. Balint-Kurti

2010-01-01

239

Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci for Resistance to Southern Leaf Blight and Days to Anthesis in Two Maize Recombinant Inbred Line Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Balint-Kurti, P. J., Zwonitzer, J. C., Pè, M. E., Pea, G., Lee, M., and Cardinal, A. J. 2008. Identification of quantitative trait loci for resistance to southern leaf blight and days to anthesis in two maize recombinant inbred line populations. Phytopathology 98:315-320. The genetic architecture underlying resistance in maize to southern leaf blight (SLB) caused by Cochliobolus heterostrophus race O

P. J. Balint-Kurti; J. C. Zwonitzer; M. E. Pè; G. Pea; M. Lee; A. J. Cardinal

2008-01-01

240

Lithium superionic conductors Li 3InBr 6 and LiInBr 4 studied by 7Li, 115In NMR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Li3InBr6 undergoes a phase transition to a superionic phase at 314 K associated with a steep increase of the conductivity (?=4×10? 3 Scm?1 at 330 K). This superionic phase is isomorphous with Li3InCl6 in which a positional disorder at the In3+ site is introduced. A pseudo cubic-close-packing of the bromide ions is formed in this phase. On the other hand, a new superionic phase

Koji Yamada; Keiji Kumano; Tsutomu Okuda

2006-01-01

241

Gene expression profiling in C57BL\\/6J and A\\/J mouse inbred strains reveals gene networks specific for brain regions independent of genetic background  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: We performed gene expression profiling of the amygdala and hippocampus taken from inbred mouse strains C57BL\\/6J and A\\/J. The selected brain areas are implicated in neurobehavioral traits while these mouse strains are known to differ widely in behavior. Consequently, we hypothesized that comparing gene expression profiles for specific brain regions in these strains might provide insight into the molecular

Simone de Jong; Tova F Fuller; Esther Janson; Eric Strengman; Steve Horvath; Martien JH Kas; Roel A Ophoff

2010-01-01

242

Comparative expression profiling in meristems of inbred-hybrid triplets of maize based on morphological investigations of heterosis for plant height  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heterosis, the superior performance of hybrids as compared to their parental mean is an agronomically important phenomenon well-described morphologically. However, little is known about its molecular basis. We investigated four genetically unrelated maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines and their F1 crosses both at the phenotype and transcriptome level, focusing on plant height (PHT) component traits. Substantial mid-parent heterosis (MPH)

Anna U?arowska; Barbara Keller; Hans-Peter Piepho; Gerhard Schwarz; Christina Ingvardsen; Gerhard Wenzel; Thomas Lübberstedt

2007-01-01

243

Adult Questionnnaire  

Cancer.gov

­ OMB No. 0925-0583 Expiration Date: 12/31/2010 ­Questionnaire on­Adult­Care Physi?ian­Survey­ of­Pra?ti?es­on­Diet,­ Physi?al­A?tivity,­ and­Weight­Control Condu?ted­by: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) National Institutes

244

Genetics of symbiosis in Lotus japonicus: recombinant inbred lines, comparative genetic maps, and map position of 35 symbiotic loci.  

PubMed

Development of molecular tools for the analysis of the plant genetic contribution to rhizobial and mycorrhizal symbiosis has provided major advances in our understanding of plant-microbe interactions, and several key symbiotic genes have been identified and characterized. In order to increase the efficiency of genetic analysis in the model legume Lotus japonicus, we present here a selection of improved genetic tools. The two genetic linkage maps previously developed from an interspecific cross between L. japonicus Gifu and L. filicaulis, and an intraspecific cross between the two ecotypes L. japonicus Gifu and L. japonicus MG-20, were aligned through a set of anchor markers. Regions of linkage groups, where genetic resolution is obtained preferentially using one or the other parental combination, are highlighted. Additional genetic resolution and stabilized mapping populations were obtained in recombinant inbred lines derived by a single seed descent from the two populations. For faster mapping of new loci, a selection of reliable markers spread over the chromosome arms provides a common framework for more efficient identification of new alleles and new symbiotic loci among uncharacterized mutant lines. Combining resources from the Lotus community, map positions of a large collection of symbiotic loci are provided together with alleles and closely linked molecular markers. Altogether, this establishes a common genetic resource for Lotus spp. A web-based version will enable this resource to be curated and updated regularly. PMID:16404956

Sandal, Niels; Petersen, Thomas Rørby; Murray, Jeremy; Umehara, Yosuke; Karas, Bogumil; Yano, Koji; Kumagai, Hirotaka; Yoshikawa, Makoto; Saito, Katsuharu; Hayashi, Masaki; Murakami, Yasuhiro; Wang, Xinwang; Hakoyama, Tsuneo; Imaizumi-Anraku, Haruko; Sato, Shusei; Kato, Tomohiko; Chen, Wenli; Hossain, Md Shakhawat; Shibata, Satoshi; Wang, Trevor L; Yokota, Keisuke; Larsen, Knud; Kanamori, Norihito; Madsen, Esben; Radutoiu, Simona; Madsen, Lene H; Radu, Talida Gratiela; Krusell, Lene; Ooki, Yasuhiro; Banba, Mari; Betti, Marco; Rispail, Nicolas; Skøt, Leif; Tuck, Elaine; Perry, Jillian; Yoshida, Satoko; Vickers, Kate; Pike, Jodie; Mulder, Lonneke; Charpentier, Myriam; Müller, Judith; Ohtomo, Ryo; Kojima, Tomoko; Ando, Shotaro; Marquez, Antonio J; Gresshoff, Peter M; Harada, Kyuya; Webb, Judith; Hata, Shingo; Suganuma, Norio; Kouchi, Hiroshi; Kawasaki, Shinji; Tabata, Satoshi; Hayashi, Makoto; Parniske, Martin; Szczyglowski, Krzysztof; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi; Stougaard, Jens

2006-01-01

245

Genetic analysis of morphological traits in a new, versatile, rapid-cycling Brassica rapa recombinant inbred line population  

PubMed Central

A recombinant inbred line (RIL) population was produced based on a wide cross between the rapid-cycling and self-compatible genotypes L58, a Caixin vegetable type, and R-o-18, a yellow sarson oil type. A linkage map based on 160 F7 lines was constructed using 100 Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 130 AFLP®, 27 InDel, and 13 publicly available SSR markers. The map covers a total length of 1150 centiMorgan (cM) with an average resolution of 4.3 cM/marker. To demonstrate the versatility of this new population, 17 traits, related to plant architecture and seed characteristics, were subjected to quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis. A total of 47 QTLs were detected, each explaining between 6 and 54% of the total phenotypic variance for the concerned trait. The genetic analysis shows that this population is a useful new tool for analyzing genetic variation for interesting traits in B. rapa, and for further exploitation of the recent availability of the B. rapa whole genome sequence for gene cloning and gene function analysis. PMID:22912644

Bagheri, Hedayat; El-Soda, Mohamed; van Oorschot, Inge; Hanhart, Corrie; Bonnema, Guusje; Jansen-van den Bosch, Tanja; Mank, Rolf; Keurentjes, Joost J. B.; Meng, Lin; Wu, Jian; Koornneef, Maarten; Aarts, Mark G. M.

2012-01-01

246

Selective breeding for desiccation tolerance in liquid culture provides genetically stable inbred lines of the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora.  

PubMed

The entomopathogenic nematode (EPN) Heterorhabditis bacteriophora is used in biological plant protection to control pest insects. In the past, several attempts targeted at an enhancement of the desiccation tolerance of EPN by genetic selection in order to improve their storage stability. The subsequent loss of improved beneficial traits after release of selection pressure has often been reported. In order to stabilize progress of selective breeding, selection during liquid culturing was tested against propagation in host insects. After release of the selection pressure, the tolerance was monitored over additional reproductive cycles in vivo and in vitro to compare the stability of the trait. Furthermore, it was tested whether the virulence of the selected strains would be impaired. Exposure to desiccation stress prior to propagation, in vivo or in vitro, both resulted in increasing desiccation tolerance. When selection pressure was released, the gained tolerance was lost again during in vivo production, whereas the tolerance was maintained at a high level when EPNs were cultured in liquid culture. In Heterorhabditis sp., liquid culture conditions produce highly homozygous, genetically stable inbred lines. The investigation provides easily applicable methods to improve and stabilize beneficial traits of heterorhabditid EPNs through selective breeding in liquid culture. Compared to nematodes from in vivo propagation, production in liquid media yielded EPN of higher virulence. PMID:22729232

Anbesse, Samuel; Sumaya, Nanette Hope; Dörfler, Anna Verena; Strauch, Olaf; Ehlers, Ralf-Udo

2013-01-01

247

Genomic DNA sequence comparison between two inbred soybean cyst nematode biotypes facilitated by massively parallel 454 micro-bead sequencing.  

PubMed

Heterodera glycines, the soybean cyst nematode (SCN), is a damaging agricultural pest that could be effectively managed if critical phenotypes, such as virulence and host range could be understood. While SCN is amenable to genetic analysis, lack of DNA sequence data prevents the use of such methods to study this pathogen. Fortunately, new methods of DNA sequencing that produced large amounts of data and permit whole genome comparative analyses have become available. In this study, 400 million bases of genomic DNA sequence were collected from two inbred biotypes of SCN using 454 micro-bead DNA sequencing. Comparisons to a BAC, sequenced by Sanger sequencing, showed that the micro-bead sequences could identify low and high copy number regions within the BAC. Potential single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) between the two SCN biotypes were identified by comparing the two sets of sequences. Selected resequencing revealed that up to 84% of the SNPs were correct. We conclude that the quality of the micro-bead sequence data was sufficient for de novo SNP identification and should be applicable to organisms with similar genome sizes and complexities. The SNPs identified will be an important starting point in associating phenotypes with specific regions of the SCN genome. PMID:18324416

Bekal, Sadia; Craig, J P; Hudson, M E; Niblack, T L; Domier, L L; Lambert, K N

2008-05-01

248

The Nxsm Recombinant Inbred Strains of Mice: Genetic Profile for 58 Loci Including the Mtv Proviral Loci  

PubMed Central

We report the construction of 17 recombinant inbred (RI) strains of mice derived from the progenitor strains NZB/BINRe and SM/J and the typing of this RI strain set, designated NXSM, for 58 loci distributed on 16 autosomes and the X chromosome. Two backcrosses involving NZB/BINJ and SM/J were constructed to confirm chromosomal assignments and determine gene orders suggested from NXSM RI strain data. From these results we recommend that chromosomal assignments and gene orders suggested from analyses of RI strain sets be confirmed using data obtained by other means. We also typed NZB/BINJ and SM/J for mammary tumor proviral (Mtv) loci. Both strains share three previously described Mtv loci: Mtv-7, Mtv-14 and Mtv-17. In addition, NZB/BINJ contains the previously described Mtv-3 and Mtv-9 loci and two new Mtv proviral loci: Mtv-27 located on chromosome (Chr) 1 and Mtv-28 located on the X chromosome. SM/J contains the previously described loci Mtv-6 and Mtv-8. Four LTR, mink cell focus-forming murine leukemia viral loci were identified and mapped: Ltrm-1 on Chr 12, Ltrm-2 on Chr 16, Ltrm-3 on Chr 5, and Ltrm-4 on Chr 13. The Tgn locus was positioned proximal to the Ly-6 locus on Chr 15. PMID:2165966

Eicher, E. M.; Lee, B. K.

1990-01-01

249

Quantitative trait loci for seed isoflavone contents in 'MD96-5722' by 'Spencer' recombinant inbred lines of soybean.  

PubMed

Isoflavones from soybeans [ Glycine max (L.) Merr.] have a significant impact on human health to reduce the risk of several major diseases. Breeding soybean for high isoflavone content in the seed is possible through marker-assisted selection (MAS) which can be based on quantitative trait loci (QTL). The objective of this study was to identify QTL controlling isoflavone content in a set of 'MD96-5722' by 'Spencer' recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations of soybean. Wide variations were found for seed concentrations of daidzein, glycitein, genistein, and total isoflavones among the RIL populations. Three QTL were identified on three different linkage groups (LG) represented by three different chromosomes (Chr). One QTL that controlled daidzein content was identified on LG A1 (Chr 5), and two QTL that underlay glycitein content were identified on LG K (Chr 9) and LG B2 (Chr 14). Identified QTL could be functional in developing soybean with preferable isoflavone concentrations in the seeds through MAS. PMID:24499298

Akond, Masum; Liu, Shiming; Kantartzi, Stella K; Meksem, Khalid; Bellaloui, Nacer; Lightfoot, David A; Yuan, Jiazheng; Wang, Dechun; Kassem, My Abdelmajid

2014-02-19

250

Metastable Differentially Methylated Regions within Arabidopsis Inbred Populations Are Associated with Modified Expression of Non-Coding Transcripts  

PubMed Central

Individual plants within a population may vary at both genetic and epigenetic levels. The rate of genetic divergence and its underlying mechanisms is well understood. Less is known about the factors contributing to epigenetic divergence among isogenic populations except that, despite the presence of mechanisms that faithfully maintain epigenetic marks, epigenetic differences are more frequent than genetic variation. Epigenetically divergent stretches of isogenic DNA sequence are called epialleles. Currently, it is not clear why certain regions exhibit variable epigenetic status. We identified and characterised two long RNA transcripts with altered expression and DNA methylation in an ago5 mutant. However, further investigation revealed that these changes were not dependent upon AGO5. Rather, the variable transcription of these loci in Arabidopsis mutant and wild-type populations corresponds to spontaneous differential methylated regions (DMRs) or epialleles. These two DMRs are delineated by RNAs which are highly expressed when the DMR is hypomethylated. Furthermore, they control the expression of 5? transcriptional start site mRNA variants of nearby protein coding genes. Our data support the recent observations that meiotically stable DMRs exist within inbred populations. We further demonstrate that DMR boundaries can be defined by putative non-coding promoter-associated transcripts. PMID:23028873

Fedito, Paola; Hardcastle, Thomas J.; Baulcombe, David C.

2012-01-01

251

Abiotic stress growth conditions induce different responses in kernel iron concentration across genotypically distinct maize inbred varieties  

PubMed Central

The improvement of grain nutrient profiles for essential minerals and vitamins through breeding strategies is a target important for agricultural regions where nutrient poor crops like maize contribute a large proportion of the daily caloric intake. Kernel iron concentration in maize exhibits a broad range. However, the magnitude of genotype by environment (GxE) effects on this trait reduces the efficacy and predictability of selection programs, particularly when challenged with abiotic stress such as water and nitrogen limitations. Selection has also been limited by an inverse correlation between kernel iron concentration and the yield component of kernel size in target environments. Using 25 maize inbred lines for which extensive genome sequence data is publicly available, we evaluated the response of kernel iron density and kernel mass to water and nitrogen limitation in a managed field stress experiment using a factorial design. To further understand GxE interactions we used partition analysis to characterize response of kernel iron and weight to abiotic stressors among all genotypes, and observed two patterns: one characterized by higher kernel iron concentrations in control over stress conditions, and another with higher kernel iron concentration under drought and combined stress conditions. Breeding efforts for this nutritional trait could exploit these complementary responses through combinations of favorable allelic variation from these already well-characterized genetic stocks. PMID:24363659

Kandianis, Catherine B.; Michenfelder, Abigail S.; Simmons, Susan J.; Grusak, Michael A.; Stapleton, Ann E.

2013-01-01

252

A rating scale for wildness and ease of handling laboratory mice: results for 21 inbred strains tested in two laboratories.  

PubMed

Rating scales for difficulty in capturing and holding mice were devised that proved to be easy to use and highly sensitive to differences among mouse strains on the A and B priority lists of the Mouse Phenome Project. The simplicity of the scales makes it feasible to rate wildness during behavioral test sessions without adding much to testing time or distracting the technician from the principal task at hand. Overall wildness and placidity ratings obtained by combining capture and hold ratings provide a good impression of the difficulties encountered while working with lab mice in the course of complex experiments. Ratings of 21 inbred strains during the course of 15 behavioral tests in two laboratories demonstrated that the SPRET/Ei, PERA/Ei, CAST/Ei and SWR/J strains were particularly difficult to handle. The NOD/LtJ strain posed no special challenge in the Edmonton laboratory but was very difficult to handle in the Portland lab. The rating scales should be useful for judging the difficulties in working with novel targeted or induced mutations in mice as well as effects of a variety of environmental treatments or drugs. PMID:12884964

Wahlsten, D; Metten, P; Crabbe, J C

2003-04-01

253

Fur mites induce dermatitis associated with IgE hyperproduction in an inbred strain of mice, NC/Kuj.  

PubMed

An inbred strain of mice, NC, has been introduced as an animal model for atopic dermatitis because the mice develop dermatitis associated with severe scratch preceded by elevated serum IgE level when kept in conventional conditions. Although hypersensitivity to some environmental factors is suggested to cause dermatitis, the precise factor remains unclear. As the mice maintained under conventional conditions were often infected with fur mites, we investigated whether an infection of fur mites induces skin lesions in NC. Infection with the fur mites induced NC to develop skin lesions associated with highly elevated serum IgE, whereas no obvious skin lesions were observed in BALB/c and C57BL/6, and the elevation of serum IgE level was minimal in these two strains of mice. The role of the fur mites in the manifestation of skin lesions and IgE hyperproduction was confirmed by eliminating the fur mites by treatment with ivermectin. In addition, the existence of specific IgE antibody to Myocoptes musculinus antigen in the sera of mite-infested NC was detected by the antigen-induced histamine release from bone marrow-derived cultured mast cells after sensitization with the serum. These results suggest that continuous exposure to fur mite antigen is a potential factor in the development of dermatitis in NC. We provide a new model system of antigen-induced dermatitis for investigating the role of IgE in eliciting dermatitis. PMID:9890373

Morita, E; Kaneko, S; Hiragun, T; Shindo, H; Tanaka, T; Furukawa, T; Nobukiyo, A; Yamamoto, S

1999-01-01

254

Construction of integrated linkage map of a recombinant inbred line population of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.)  

PubMed Central

We report the development of a Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) marker panel and its utilisation in the development of an integrated genetic linkage map of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) using an F8 recombinant inbred line population derived from Kiev Mutant/P27174. One hundred and thirty-six DArT markers were merged into the first genetic linkage map composed of 220 amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) and 105 genic markers. The integrated map consists of 38 linkage groups of 441 markers and spans a total length of 2,169 cM, with an average interval size of 4.6 cM. The DArT markers exhibited good genome coverage and were associated with previously identified genic and AFLP markers linked with quantitative trait loci for anthracnose resistance, flowering time and alkaloid content. The improved genetic linkage map of white lupin will aid in the identification of markers for traits of interest and future syntenic studies. PMID:24273424

Vipin, Cina Ann; Luckett, David J.; Harper, John D.I.; Ash, Gavin J.; Kilian, Andrzej; Ellwood, Simon R.; Phan, Huyen T.T.; Raman, Harsh

2013-01-01

255

A Set of Lotus japonicus Gifu x Lotus burttii Recombinant Inbred Lines Facilitates Map-based Cloning and QTL Mapping  

PubMed Central

Model legumes such as Lotus japonicus have contributed significantly to the understanding of symbiotic nitrogen fixation. This insight is mainly a result of forward genetic screens followed by map-based cloning to identify causal alleles. The L. japonicus ecotype ‘Gifu’ was used as a common parent for inter-accession crosses to produce F2 mapping populations either with other L. japonicus ecotypes, MG-20 and Funakura, or with the related species L. filicaulis. These populations have all been used for genetic studies but segregation distortion, suppression of recombination, low polymorphism levels, and poor viability have also been observed. More recently, the diploid species L. burttii has been identified as a fertile crossing partner of L. japonicus. To assess its qualities in genetic linkage analysis and to enable quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping for a wider range of traits in Lotus species, we have generated and genotyped a set of 163 Gifu × L. burttii recombinant inbred lines (RILs). By direct comparisons of RIL and F2 population data, we show that L. burttii is a valid alternative to MG-20 as a Gifu mapping partner. In addition, we demonstrate the utility of the Gifu × L. burttii RILs in QTL mapping by identifying an Nfr1-linked QTL for Sinorhizobium fredii nodulation. PMID:22619310

Sandal, Niels; Jin, Haojie; Rodriguez-Navarro, Dulce Nombre; Temprano, Francisco; Cvitanich, Cristina; Brachmann, Andreas; Sato, Shusei; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi; Tabata, Satoshi; Parniske, Martin; Ruiz-Sainz, Jose E.; Andersen, Stig U.; Stougaard, Jens

2012-01-01

256

Ataxia telangiectasia and lymphoma: an indication for individualized chemotherapy dosing--report of treatment in a highly inbred Arab family.  

PubMed

Ten of 18 children in a highly inbred Arab kindred suffered from either ataxia telangiectasia (AT) or a variant syndrome consisting of ataxia, microcephaly, and congenital cataract (AMC). Four of the nine afflicted children were treated in our unit when they developed lymphomas (both Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's including Burkitt's). They were given chemotherapy (either standard COMP or low-dose ABV/CVPP). The children with non-Hodgkin's lymphomas died of sepsis after receiving full-dose COMP. Low-dose ABV/CVPP brought about a 20-month remission in one child with nodular sclerosing Hodgkin's lymphoma and both AT and AMC, but she developed a preleukemic syndrome and her parents refused further treatment; she too died. A fourth child, also with nodular sclerosing Hodgkin's lymphoma, is currently in complete remission after ABV/CVPP. Treatment of lymphomas in patients with AT is extraordinarily difficult and has potential side effects so grave as to necessitate careful monitoring and individualized protocols. PMID:7626385

Weyl Ben Arush, M; Rosenthal, J; Dale, J; Horovitch, Y; Herzl, G; Ben Arie, J; Ziv, Y; Shiloh, Y

1995-01-01

257

[Transposition of mobile dispersed genes (MDG) after substitution of various chromosome pairs in inbred Drosophila melanogaster strains].  

PubMed

Transpositions of MDG-1, MDG-3 and copia were detected as a result of crosses of the inbred maladaptive LA stock with laboratory stocks, in order to construct the genomes carrying different combinations of the LA or non-La chromosomal pairs. Changes of the mobile gene distributions were revealed in chromosomes of hybrid genotypes, as compared to parental chromosomal pairs. A trivial source of variability of chromosomal molecular structure ensured by crossing over was excluded by inversions which serve as suppressors of crossing over in corresponding crosses. Multiple transpositions of mobile genes in definite chromosomal sites were detected in genotypes carrying chromosomal pair 2 originated from the LA stock. No such transpositions were observed, when the pair 2 was substituted by the chromosome 2 originated from the Swedish-b line or in control crosses, where the LA stock was not involved. Both LA chromosomes 2 and 3 were shown to be the targets of transpositions. Comparison of hot spot transposition sites of MDG-1, as a result of crosses, with the earlier described rare events of spontaneous transpositions in the LA stock, coupled with its fitness increase, revealed that the hot spot sites were shared in both series of experiments. The data obtained show that transpositions of mobile genetic elements may change the genetic and molecular structure of the chromosome involved in crosses, in spite of suppression of crossing over by inversions usually suggested as a tool for keeping chromosomal genetic structure intact. PMID:3034722

Pasiukova, E G; Beliaeva, E S; Il'inskaia, L E; Gvozdev, V A

1987-04-01

258

Adaptive value and costs of physiological plasticity to soil moisture limitation in recombinant inbred lines of Avena barbata.  

PubMed

Costs are hypothesized to constrain the evolution of adaptive phenotypic plasticity, but they have been difficult to quantify because strong selection should eliminate costly genotypes from natural populations. However, recent studies suggest that crosses between natural populations can recover these genotypes. We determined the adaptive value and costs of, as well as the genetic variation for, physiological and morphological plasticity to soil water limitation in Avena barbata recombinant inbred lines (RILs) created by crossing mesic and xeric ecotypes. All traits were plastic, and plasticity in stomatal limitation of photosynthesis and photosynthetic rate before and at reproduction was adaptive. However, we detected a significant cost of plasticity only for stomatal conductance at reproduction, and the mean cost for all traits of A. barbata RILs was at least 50% smaller than costs previously estimated using RILs. In addition, heritabilities for plasticity were <0.1 and were significant only for photosynthesis at reproduction and leaf mass per unit area. Our results suggest that costs are less likely to constrain the evolution of adaptive plasticity in A. barbata than genetic variation for plasticity. PMID:20039799

Maherali, Hafiz; Caruso, Christina M; Sherrard, Mark E; Latta, Robert G

2010-02-01

259

WNIN/GR-Ob - An insulin-resistant obese rat model from inbred WNIN strain  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: WNIN/GR-Ob is a mutant obese rat strain with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) developed at the National Institute of Nutrition (NIN), Hyderabad, India, from the existing 80 year old Wistar rat (WNIN) stock colony. The data presented here pertain to its obese nature along with IGT trait as evidenced by physical, physiological and biochemical parameters. The study also explains its existence, in three phenotypes: homozygous lean (+/+), heterozygous carrier (+/-) and homozygous obese (-/-). Methods: Thirty animals (15 males and 15 females) from each phenotype (+/+, +/-, -/-) and 24 lean and obese (6 males and 6 females) rats were taken for growth and food intake studies respectively. Twelve adult rats from each phenotype were taken for body composition measurement by total body electrical conductivity (TOBEC); 12 rats of both genders from each phenotype at different ages were taken for clinical chemistry parameters. Physiological indices of insulin resistance were calculated according to the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and also by studying U14C 2-deoxy glucose uptake (2DG). Results: WNINGR-Ob mutants had high growth, hyperphagia, polydipsia, polyurea, glycosuria, and significantly lower lean body mass, higher fat mass as compared with carrier and lean rats. These mutants, at 50 days of age displayed abnormal response to glucose load (IGT), hyperinsulinaemia, hypertriglyceridaemia, hypercholesterolaemia and hyperleptinaemia. Basal and insulin-stimulated glucose uptakes by diaphragm were significantly decreased in obese rats as compared with lean rats. Interpretation & conclusions: Obese rats of the designated WNIN/GR-Ob strain showed obesity with IGT, as adjudged by physical, physiological and biochemical indices. These indices varied among the three phenotypes, being lowest in lean, highest in obese and intermediate in carrier phenotypes thereby suggesting that obesity is inherited as autosomal incomplete dominant trait in this strain. This mutant obese rat model is easy to propagate, and can easily be transformed to frank diabetes model by dietary manipulation and thus can be used for screening anti-diabetic drugs. PMID:21985815

Harishankar, N.; Vajreswari, A.; Giridharan, N. V.

2011-01-01

260

ADULT EDUCATION OF MIGRANT ADULTS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

UNITS ON MIGRANT ADULT EDUCATION, AND A UNIT ON ORGANIZING INFORMAL GROUPS OF MIGRANT WOMEN TO DISCUSS MAINTAINING AND IMPROVING THEIR TEMPORARY HOMES, ARE PRESENTED. THE GOALS OF THE UNIT ON EDUCATION FOR MIGRANT MEN ARE ECONOMIC INDEPENDENCE, BETTER HEALTH AND WELL-BEING, AND BETTER HANDLING OF RESPONSIBILITIES. THE MAIN DIVISIONS OF THE…

BEAL, CATHERINE; AND OTHERS

261

Brain tumor - primary - adults  

MedlinePLUS

... adults; Vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma) - adults; Meningioma - adults; Cancer - brain tumor (adults) ... play a role: Radiation therapy used to treat brain cancers increases the risk of brain tumors up to ...

262

Early Regression of Spermatogenesis in Boars of an Inbred Duroc Strain Caused by Incident Orchitis/Epididymo-orchitis  

PubMed Central

Abstract In the process of establishment of an inbred Duroc pig strain, males with size asymmetry of the testes were frequently observed. To clarify the possible causes of this asymmetry, we examined the testes and epididymides of 67 males of the F4-F7 generations at 35–100 weeks of age. Testicular weights showed a wide variation (120–610 g). When the weights of the testes were compared bilaterally, 35 of the 67 males showed more than a 10% difference. Histological examination of testes from this asymmetry group revealed a range of seminiferous tubule disruption including disappearance of all germ cells, but not Sertoli cells, in the epithelium. Focal lesions associated with the degenerated tubules were observed. Trends of incident fibrosis or hyalinization of these lesions were seen in aged males of the asymmetry group. Besides this abnormality of spermatogenesis, infiltration of mononuclear inflammatory cells around the tubule was frequently observed in the asymmetry group (32.9%, compared with 1.6% in males showing testis symmetry). In severe cases, the inflammatory cells were concentrated in the intertubular region instead of Leydig cells. Cellular infiltration was also observed around the epididymal duct and blood vessels, but its incidence did not differ between the symmetry and asymmetry groups. Testicular testosterone levels were significantly increased in the asymmetry group, but those of E2 and inhibin did not differ between the two groups. These histopathological features indicate that disruption of spermatogenesis after orchitis/epididymo-orchitis could induce testicular atrophy. Genetic predispositions for this trait may cause prevalent retrograde infections, resulting in orchitis/epididymo-orchitis. PMID:23428633

NOGUCHI, Junko; NAKAI, Michiko; KIKUCHI, Kazuhiro; KANEKO, Hiroyuki; IMAEDA, Noriaki

2013-01-01

263

Joint linkage QTL analyses for partial resistance to Phytophthora sojae in soybean using six nested inbred populations with heterogeneous conditions.  

PubMed

Partial resistance to Phytophthora sojae in soybean is controlled by multiple quantitative trait loci (QTL). With traditional QTL mapping approaches, power to detect such QTL, frequently of small effect, can be limited by population size. Joint linkage QTL analysis of nested recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations provides improved power to detect QTL through increased population size, recombination, and allelic diversity. However, uniform development and phenotyping of multiple RIL populations can prove difficult. In this study, the effectiveness of joint linkage QTL analysis was evaluated on combinations of two to six nested RIL populations differing in inbreeding generation, phenotypic assay method, and/or marker set used in genotyping. In comparison to linkage analysis in a single population, identification of QTL by joint linkage analysis was only minimally affected by different phenotypic methods used among populations once phenotypic data were standardized. In contrast, genotyping of populations with only partially overlapping sets of markers had a marked negative effect on QTL detection by joint linkage analysis. In total, 16 genetic regions with QTL for partial resistance against P. sojae were identified, including four novel QTL on chromosomes 4, 9, 12, and 16, as well as significant genotype-by-isolate interactions. Resistance alleles from PI 427106 or PI 427105B contributed to a major QTL on chromosome 18, explaining 10-45% of the phenotypic variance. This case study provides guidance on the application of joint linkage QTL analysis of data collected from populations with heterogeneous assay conditions and a genetic framework for partial resistance to P. sojae. PMID:24247235

Lee, Sungwoo; Mian, M A Rouf; Sneller, Clay H; Wang, Hehe; Dorrance, Anne E; McHale, Leah K

2014-02-01

264

A-to-I pre-mRNA editing of the serotonin 2C receptor: comparisons among inbred mouse strains.  

PubMed

The serotonin receptor 5HT2CR pre-mRNA is subject to adenosine deamination (RNA editing) at five residues located within a 15 nucleotide stretch of the coding region. Such changes of adenosine to inosine (A-to-I) can produce 32 mRNA variants, encoding 24 different protein isoforms, some of which vary in biochemical and pharmacological properties. Because serotonin mediates diverse neurological processes relevant to behavior and because inbred mouse strains vary in their responses to tests of learning and behavior, we have examined the A-to-I editing patterns of the 5HT2CR mRNA in whole brains from eight mouse strains. By sequencing approximately 100 clones from individual mice, we generated detailed information on levels of editing at each site and patterns of editing that identify a total of 28 mRNA and 20 protein isoforms. Significant differences between individuals from different strains were found in total editing frequency, in the proportion of transcripts with 1 and 4 edited sites, in editing frequency at the A, B, E and D sites, in amino acid frequencies at positions 157 and 161, and in subsets of major protein isoforms. Primer extension assays were used to show that individuals within strains (six C3H.B-+rd1 and four 129SvImrJ) displayed no significant differences in any feature. These findings suggest that genetic background contributes to subtle variation in 5HT2CR mRNA editing patterns which may have consequences for pharmacological treatments and behavioral testing. PMID:16904273

Du, Yunzhi; Davisson, Muriel T; Kafadar, Karen; Gardiner, Katheleen

2006-11-01

265

Sheltering Behavior and Locomotor Activity in 11 Genetically Diverse Common Inbred Mouse Strains Using Home-Cage Monitoring  

PubMed Central

Functional genetic analyses in mice rely on efficient and in-depth characterization of the behavioral spectrum. Automated home-cage observation can provide a systematic and efficient screening method to detect unexplored, novel behavioral phenotypes. Here, we analyzed high-throughput automated home-cage data using existing and novel concepts, to detect a plethora of genetic differences in spontaneous behavior in a panel of commonly used inbred strains (129S1/SvImJ, A/J, C3H/HeJ, C57BL/6J, BALB/cJ, DBA/2J, NOD/LtJ, FVB/NJ, WSB/EiJ, PWK/PhJ and CAST/EiJ). Continuous video-tracking observations of sheltering behavior and locomotor activity were segmented into distinguishable behavioral elements, and studied at different time scales, yielding a set of 115 behavioral parameters of which 105 showed highly significant strain differences. This set of 115 parameters was highly dimensional; principal component analysis identified 26 orthogonal components with eigenvalues above one. Especially novel parameters of sheltering behavior and parameters describing aspects of motion of the mouse in the home-cage showed high genetic effect sizes. Multi-day habituation curves and patterns of behavior surrounding dark/light phase transitions showed striking strain differences, albeit with lower genetic effect sizes. This spontaneous home-cage behavior study demonstrates high dimensionality, with a strong genetic contribution to specific sets of behavioral measures. Importantly, spontaneous home-cage behavior analysis detects genetic effects that cannot be studied in conventional behavioral tests, showing that the inclusion of a few days of undisturbed, labor extensive home-cage assessment may greatly aid gene function analyses and drug target discovery. PMID:25264768

Aarts, Emmeke; Maroteaux, Gregoire; van der Sluis, Sophie

2014-01-01

266

Lichen striatus in Adults or ‘Adult Blaschkitis’?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Lichen striatus (LS) is a well-known acquired linear inflammatory dermatosis. In 1990, Grosshans and Marot introduced the term ‘adult blaschkitis’ (AB), describing an eruption similar to LS occurring in an adult (adult LS). Does there really exist a new entity or a need for a new naming? Objective and Methods: Two new cases of adult LS are described and

Thomas Hofer

2003-01-01

267

Adult Neurogenesis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

BioEd Online is an âÂÂeducational resource for educators, students, and parentsâ from the Baylor College of Medicine. This is an excellent place to find educational materials and current information in the field of biology. The âÂÂHot Topicsâ section of this site focus on current events and issues in biology that are âÂÂreceiving national attention.â This site, created by Tadzia GrandPré, PhD, contains a brief discussion of Adult Neurogenesis or the ability for new neurons to develop in the brain. The article includes background information on the field of neuroscience, as well as information about how neurons work. The site includes links to references and further reading. In addition, a related slide set, "Adult Neurogenesis," is available for viewing along with links to several related news articles. Both the slide set and the news articles could be easily used in the classroom along with the other resources provided in this âÂÂHot Topicâ from BioEd Online.

Grandprãâ©, Tadzia

2007-03-21

268

Epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of vinclozolin induced mouse adult onset disease and associated sperm epigenome biomarkers.  

PubMed

The endocrine disruptor vinclozolin has previously been shown to promote epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset disease in the rat. The current study was designed to investigate the transgenerational actions of vinclozolin on the mouse. Transient exposure of the F0 generation gestating female during gonadal sex determination promoted transgenerational adult onset disease in F3 generation male and female mice, including spermatogenic cell defects, testicular abnormalities, prostate abnormalities, kidney abnormalities and polycystic ovarian disease. Pathology analysis demonstrated 75% of the vinclozolin lineage animals developed disease with 34% having two or more different disease states. Interestingly, the vinclozolin induced transgenerational disease was observed in the outbred CD-1 strain, but not the inbred 129 mouse strain. Analysis of the F3 generation sperm epigenome identified differential DNA methylation regions that can potentially be utilized as epigenetic biomarkers for transgenerational exposure and disease. PMID:23041264

Guerrero-Bosagna, Carlos; Covert, Trevor R; Haque, Md M; Settles, Matthew; Nilsson, Eric E; Anway, Matthew D; Skinner, Michael K

2012-12-01

269

Ups and downs of a transcriptional landscape shape iron deficiency associated chlorosis of the maize inbreds B73 and Mo17  

PubMed Central

Background Improving nutrient homeostasis is a major challenge of a sustainable maize cultivation, and cornerstone to ensure food supply for a growing world population. Although, iron constitutes an important nutrient, iron availability is limited. In this respect, iron deficiency associated chlorosis causes severe yield losses every year. Natural variation of the latter trait has yet not been addressed in maize and was therefore studied in the present analysis. Results In this study, we i) report about the contrasting chlorosis phenotypes of the inbreds B73 and Mo17 at 10 and 300 ?M iron regime, ii) identified over 400 significantly regulated transcripts (FDR?inbreds at these growth conditions by deep RNA-Sequencing, iii) linked the gained knowledge with QTL information about iron deficiency related traits within the maize intermated B73 by Mo17 (IBM) population, and iv) highlighted contributing molecular pathways. In this respect, several genes within methionine salvage pathway and phytosiderophore synthesis were found to present constitutively high expression in Mo17, even under sufficient iron supply. Moreover, the same expression pattern could be observed for two putative bHLH transcription factors. In addition, a number of differentially expressed genes showed a co-localisation with QTL confidence intervals for iron deficiency related traits within the IBM population. Conclusions Our study highlights differential iron deficiency associated chlorosis between B73 and Mo17 and represents a valuable resource for differentially expressed genes upon iron limitation and chlorosis response. Besides identifying two putative bHLH transcription factors, we propose that methionine salvage pathway and sterol metabolism amongst others; underlie the contrasting iron deficiency related chlorosis phenotype of both inbreds. Altogether, this study emphasizes a contribution of selected genes and pathways on natural trait variation within the IBM population. PMID:24330725

2013-01-01

270

Evolutionary conservation of the mouse apolipoprotein e-c1-c2 gene cluster: Structure and genetic variability in inbred mice  

SciTech Connect

The human apolipoprotein E (APOE), APOC1, pseudo APOC1 (APOC1[prime]), and APOC2 genes are clustered within 48 kb on the long arm of chromosome 19. A mouse Apoe cDNA probe was used to isolate overlapping cosmid clones from a cosmid library of the C57BL/Rij inbred mouse strain. These clones were investigated for the presence of the Apocl and Apoc2 genes by heterologous hybridization. Our results show that the Apoe-cl-c2 gene cluster is conserved in the mouse. In line with evolutionary data, the mouse lacks the equivalent of APOC1[prime]. These data were confirmed using a mouse Apoc2 cDNA clone, and surprisingly the CDNA clone isolated here was 965 bp in size, which is on average 450 bp longer than other APOC2 cDNAs described so far. Correspondingly, the Apoc2 gene occupies an unusually large genomic region, due to an extended 5[prime] end. Interestingly, a variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) in the third intron of the human APOC2 gene shows a high sequence homology and is located at the identical position in the mouse gene. Despite the high copy number of this VNTR (27 or 34 copies) only two variants were found among 11 different inbred strains. With the aid of six restriction fragment length variations in this gene cluster only two different haplotypes could be deduced, indicating that the Apoe-cl-c2 gene cluster is highly conserved in the inbred strains that were studied. 32 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Hoffer, M.J.V.; Hofker, M.H.; Eck, M.M. van; Frants, R.R. (Leiden Univ. (Netherlands)); Havekes, L.M. (IVVO-TNO, Leiden (Netherlands))

1993-01-01

271

Genome-wide transcriptomic analysis of response to low temperature reveals candidate genes determining divergent cold-sensitivity of maize inbred lines.  

PubMed

Maize, despite being thermophyllic due to its tropical origin, demonstrates high intraspecific diversity in cold-tolerance. To search for molecular mechanisms of this diversity, transcriptomic response to cold was studied in two inbred lines of contrasting cold-tolerance. Microarray analysis was followed by extensive statistical elaboration of data, literature data mining, and gene ontology-based classification. The lines used had been bred earlier specifically for determination of QTLs for cold-performance of photosynthesis. This allowed direct comparison of present transcriptomic data with the earlier QTL mapping results. Cold-treated (14 h at 8/6 °C) maize seedlings of cold-tolerant ETH-DH7 and cold-sensitive ETH-DL3 lines at V3 stage showed strong, consistent response of the third leaf transcriptome: several thousand probes showed similar, statistically significant change in both lines, while only tens responded differently in the two lines. The most striking difference between the responses of the two lines to cold was the induction of expression of ca. twenty genes encoding membrane/cell wall proteins exclusively in the cold-tolerant ETH-DH7 line. The common response comprised mainly repression of numerous genes related to photosynthesis and induction of genes related to basic biological activity: transcription, regulation of gene expression, protein phosphorylation, cell wall organization. Among the genes showing differential response, several were close to the QTL regions identified in earlier studies with the same inbred lines and associated with biometrical, physiological or biochemical parameters. These transcripts, including two apparently non-protein-coding ones, are particularly attractive candidates for future studies on mechanisms determining divergent cold-tolerance of inbred maize lines. PMID:24623520

Sobkowiak, Alicja; Jo?czyk, Maciej; Jarochowska, Emilia; Biecek, Przemys?aw; Trzcinska-Danielewicz, Joanna; Leipner, Jörg; Fronk, Jan; Sowi?ski, Pawe?

2014-06-01

272

Identification and characterization of a repertoire of genes differentially expressed in developing top ear shoots between a superior hybrid and its parental inbreds in Zea mays L.  

PubMed

Heterosis has been widely used in crop breeding and production; however, little is known about the genes controlling trait heterosis. The shortage of genes known to function in heterosis significantly limits our understanding of the molecular basis underlying heterosis. Here, we report 748 genes differentially expressed (DG) in the developing top ear shoots between a maize heterotic F1 hybrid (Mo17 × B73) and its parental inbreds identified using maize microarrays containing 28,608 unigene features. Of the 748 DG, over 600 were new for the inbred and hybrid combination. The DG were enriched for 35 of the total 213 maize gene ontology (GO) terms, including those describing photosynthesis, respiration, DNA replication, metabolism, and hormone biosynthesis. From the DG, we identified six genes involved in glycolysis, three genes in the citrate cycle, and four genes in the C4-dicarboxylic acid cycle. We mapped 533 of the 748 DG to the maize B73 genome, 298 (55.9 %) of which mapped to the QTL intervals of 11 maize ear traits. Moreover, we compared the repertoire of the DG with that of 14-day seedlings of the same inbred and hybrid combination. Only approximately 5 % of the DG was shared between the two organs and developmental stages. Furthermore, we mapped 417 (55.7 %) of the 748 maize DG to the QTL intervals of 26 rice yield-related traits. Therefore, this study provides a repertoire of genes useful for identification of genes involved in maize ear trait heterosis and information for a better understanding of the molecular basis underlying heterosis in maize. PMID:24146224

Qin, Jun; Scheuring, Chantel F; Wei, Gang; Zhi, Hui; Zhang, Meiping; Huang, James J; Zhou, Xin; Galbraith, David W; Zhang, Hong-Bin

2013-12-01

273

Depression in Older Adults  

MedlinePLUS

... You are here Home » Depression In Older Adults Depression In Older Adults Depression affects more than 19 ... combination of both. [8] Older Adult Attitudes Toward Depression: According to a Mental Health America survey [9] ...

274

Adult Protective Services  

MedlinePLUS

... to, receiving reports of adult abuse, exploitation or neglect, investigating these reports, case planning, monitoring and evaluation. ... are the first responders to reports of abuse, neglect, and exploitation of vulnerable adults. A vulnerable adult ...

275

Adult Day Centers  

MedlinePLUS

... programs and discussion groups. Why use an adult day center One reason to use an adult day ... your needs for future care. Evaluating an adult day center Consider the following when you evaluate an ...

276

Genetically inbred Balb/C mice are more sensitive to an effect of flurazepam and more resistant to an effect of stress than a genetically outbred mouse strain.  

PubMed

The inbred Balb/c mouse strain was more sensitive than the outbred NIH Swiss mouse to flurazepam's ability to antagonize electrically precipitated seizures. In prior work, a reduction in flurazepam's antiseizure efficacy was not observed 24h after forcing Balb/c mice to swim for up to 10 min in ambient temperature water. Thus, we wondered if a stress-induced reduction would be observed after forcing mice to swim for up to 10 min in cold (6 degrees C) water, a more severe stress. The current data show that 24 h after exposure to this stress, the ability of flurazepam to raise the threshold voltage for the elicitation of tonic hindlimb extension in the Balb/c mouse strain was reduced. The genetically inbred Balb/c mouse strain is emerging as an interesting animal model in which to study interactions of stress and genetic factors that affect endogenous neurotransmission mediated by l-glutamate and GABA at the NMDA and GABA(A) receptor complexes, respectively. PMID:19762285

Burket, Jessica A; Mastropaolo, John; Rosse, Richard B; Deutsch, Stephen I

2009-11-01

277

Identification of quantitative trait Loci for resistance to southern leaf blight and days to anthesis in two maize recombinant inbred line populations.  

PubMed

The genetic architecture underlying resistance in maize to southern leaf blight (SLB) caused by Cochliobolus heterostrophus race O is not well understood. The objective of this study was to identify loci contributing to SLB resistance in two recombinant inbred line populations and to compare these to SLB resistance loci in other populations. The two populations used were derived from crosses between maize inbred lines H99 and B73 (HB population-142 lines) and between B73 and B52 (BB population-186 lines). They were evaluated for SLB resistance and for days from planting to anthesis (DTA) in 2005 and 2006. Two replications arranged as randomized complete blocks were assessed in each year for each population. Entry mean heritabilities for disease resistance were high for both populations (0.876 and 0.761, respectively). Quantitative trait loci (QTL) for SLB resistance were identified in bins 3.04 (two QTL), 6.01, and 8.05 in the HB population and in bin 2.07 in the BB population. No overlap of DTA and SLB resistance QTL was observed, nor was there any phenotypic correlation between the traits. A comparison of the results of all published SLB resistance QTL studies suggested that bins 3.04 and 6.01 are 'hotspots' for SLB resistance QTL. PMID:18944082

Balint-Kurti, P J; Zwonitzer, J C; Pè, M E; Pea, G; Lee, M; Cardinal, A J

2008-03-01

278

Expression Analysis of Stress-Related Genes in Kernels of Different Maize (Zea mays L.) Inbred Lines with Different Resistance to Aflatoxin Contamination  

PubMed Central

This research examined the expression patterns of 94 stress-related genes in seven maize inbred lines with differential expressions of resistance to aflatoxin contamination. The objective was to develop a set of genes/probes associated with resistance to A. flavus and/or aflatoxin contamination. Ninety four genes were selected from previous gene expression studies with abiotic stress to test the differential expression in maize lines, A638, B73, Lo964, Lo1016, Mo17, Mp313E, and Tex6, using real-time RT-PCR. Based on the relative-expression levels, the seven maize inbred lines clustered into two different groups. One group included B73, Lo1016 and Mo17, which had higher levels of aflatoxin contamination and lower levels of overall gene expression. The second group which included Tex6, Mp313E, Lo964 and A638 had lower levels of aflatoxin contamination and higher overall levels of gene expressions. A total of six “cross-talking” genes were identified between the two groups, which are highly expressed in the resistant Group 2 but down-regulated in susceptible Group 1. When further subjected to drought stress, Tex6 expressed more genes up-regulated and B73 has fewer genes up-regulated. The transcript patterns and interactions measured in these experiments indicate that the resistant mechanism is an interconnected process involving many gene products and transcriptional regulators, as well as various host interactions with environmental factors, particularly, drought and high temperature. PMID:22069724

Jiang, Tingbo; Zhou, Boru; Luo, Meng; Abbas, Hamed K.; Kemerait, Robert; Lee, Robert Dewey; Scully, Brian T.; Guo, Baozhu

2011-01-01

279

[Testicular testosterone production in male mice of inbred strains PT and CBA/Lac after a long-term period of stable social hierarchy].  

PubMed

Social dominance can alter testicular testosterone production, although there is pronounced variability in the relationship between social status and pattern of the testosterone response. The study designed to investigate how a long-term period of stable social hierarchy effects on testicular testosterone production in male mice of inbred strains PT and CBA/Lac. Paired males of different genotypes were housed together for 32 days beginning 38 day of age. Dyadic interactions of males generated dominance-subordination relationships during the first day after a social group has been produced and the social rank of each opponent was assessed by asymmetry in agonistic behaviour. Serum level of testosterone and its testicular content were evaluated in male mice of both inbred strains at 70 day of age after pair housing. Control animals were age- and genotype-matched single males that were housed in conventional cages. After a long-term period of pair housing, the serum testosterone level and its testicular content in males of both PT and CBA/Lac strains were not significantly different from the control. There were no significant differences in androgenic parameters between social ranks in male mice of both strains. The results indicate that in laboratory mice the pattern of testicular testosterone response to social hierarchy determined by a social situation, for example, a stability of social interactions, when the importance of aggressive competition for rank is minimal. PMID:25272457

Osadchuk, L V; Gutorova, N V; Kleshchev, M A

2014-04-01

280

Panic Disorder among Adults  

MedlinePLUS

... Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among ...

281

Specific Phobia Among Adults  

MedlinePLUS

... Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among ...

282

Bipolar Disorder Among Adults  

MedlinePLUS

... Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among ...

283

A linkage map of the chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) genome based on recombinant inbred lines from a C. arietinum×C. reticulatum cross: localization of resistance genes for fusarium wilt races 4 and 5  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrated molecular marker map of the chickpea genome was established using 130 recombinant inbred lines from a wide cross\\u000a between a cultivar resistant to fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. emend. Snyd. &. Hans f. sp. ciceri (Padwick) Snyd & Hans, and an accession of Cicer reticulatum (PI 489777), the wild progenitor of chickpea. A total of 354

P. Winter; A.-M. Benko-Iseppon; B. Hüttel; M. Ratnaparkhe; A. Tullu; G. Sonnante; T. Pfaff; M. Tekeoglu; D. Santra; V. J. Sant; P. N. Rajesh; G. Kahl; F. J. Muehlbauer

2000-01-01

284

Variation of DNA fingerprints among accessions within maize inbred lines and implications for identification of essentially derived varieties: II. Genetic and technical sources of variation in AFLP data and comparison with SSR data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accuracy and reproducibility of genetic distances (GDs) based on molecular markers are crucial issues for identification of essentially derived varieties (EDVs). Our objectives were to investigate (1) the amount of variation for amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers found among different accessions within maize inbreds and doubled haploid (DH) lines, (2) the proportion attributable to genetic and technical components and

Martin Heckenberger; Jeroen Rouppe van der Voort; Johan Peleman; Martin Bohn

2003-01-01

285

Radial maze learning in two inbred mouse strains and their reciprocal congenics for the non-pseudoautosomal region of the Y chromosome 1 Published on the World Wide Web on 1 April 1999. 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the non-pseudoautosomal region of the Y chromosome on spatial learning in a radial maze task was examined in two inbred mouse strains, NZB and CBA\\/H, and their respective congenics for the YNPAR. Seven variables reflecting learning performance, learning strategy and lateralisation were measured. We found no substantial effect of the YNPAR on radial maze learning, but modest

Frans Sluyter; Charlotte C. M. Marican; Pierre L. Roubertoux; W. E. Crusio

1999-01-01

286

Mus spretus LINE-1s in the Mus musculus domesticus inbred strain C57BL/6J are from two different Mus spretus LINE-1 subfamilies  

SciTech Connect

A LINE-1 element, L1C105, was found in the Mus musculus domesticus inbred strain, C57BL/6J. Upon sequencing, this element was found to belong to a M. spretus LINE-1 subfamily originating within the last 0.2 million years. This is the second spretus-specific LINE-1 subfamily found to be represented in C57BL/6J. Although it is unclear how these M. spretus LINE-1s transferred from M. spretus to M. m. domesticus, it is now clear that at least two different spretus LINE-1 sequences have recently transferred. The limited divergence between the C57BL/6J spretus-like LINE-1s and their closest spretus ancestors suggests that the transfer did not involve an exceptionally long lineage of sequential transpositions. 54 refs., 6 figs.

Zhao, Yingping; Daggett, L.P.; Hardies, S.C. [Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX (United States)

1996-02-01

287

Direct evidence for a stem cell common to hematopoiesis and its in vitro microenvironment: studies on syngeneic (inbred) Wistar Furth rats  

SciTech Connect

When injected into a group of lethally irradiated syngeneic (inbred) Wistar Furth (WF) rats, suspensions of stromal cells grown in monolayer culture from the marrow of WF rats produced hemopoietic colonies in the spleen and rescued 50% of the rats, while 90% of the non-injected (control) rats died within 30 days and had no hemopoietic colonies in the spleens. Fifty percent of the injected (test) rats which died between days 6 and 22 showed hemopoietic regeneration in the bone marrow, while little or no evidence of hemopoietic regeneration was seen in the control animals. Our results suggest that the marrow stroma grown in vitro contain cells with hemopoietic potential and are transplantable.

Islam, A.; Gong, J.K.; Henderson, E.S.

1988-01-01

288

Flies who cannot take the heat: genome-wide gene expression analysis of temperature-sensitive lethality in an inbred line of Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed

Fitness decreases associated with inbreeding depression often become more pronounced in a stressful environment. The functional genomic causes of these inbreeding-by-environment (I × E) interactions, and of inbreeding depression in general, are poorly known. To further our understanding of I × E interactions, we performed a genome-wide gene expression study of a single inbred line that suffers from temperature-sensitive lethality. We confirmed that increased differential expression between the thermosensitive line and the control line occurs at the restrictive temperature. This demonstrates that I × E interactions in survival are reflected in similar I × E interactions at the gene expression level. To make an impression of the cellular response associated with the lethal effect, we analysed all functional annotation terms that were overrepresented among the differentially expressed genes. Some sets of differentially expressed genes function in the general stress response, and these are more likely to also be differentially expressed in other studies of inbreeding, inbreeding depression, immunity and heat stress. Other sets of differentially expressed genes are shared with studies of gene expression in inbred lines, but not studies of the response to extrinsic stress, and represent a general transcriptomic signature of inbreeding. Finally, some sets of genes have an annotation that is not reported in other studies. These we consider to be candidates for the genes harbouring the mutations responsible for the thermosensitive phenotype, as these mutations are expected to be unique to this line. These genes may also serve as candidate QTL in studies of thermal tolerance and heat resistance. PMID:25233925

Vermeulen, C J; Sørensen, P; Gagalova, K K; Loeschcke, V

2014-10-01

289

A high-resolution, intraspecific linkage map of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) and selection of reduced recombinant inbred line subsets for fast mapping.  

PubMed

A high-resolution, intraspecific linkage map of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) was constructed from a population of 297 recombinant inbred lines. The parents were the large-fruited inbred cultivar 'Yolo Wonder' and the hot pepper line 'Criollo de Morelos 334', which is heavily used as a source of resistance to a number of diseases. A set of 587 markers (507 amplified fragment length polymorphisms, 40 simple sequence repeats, 19 restriction fragment length polymorphisms, 17 sequence-specific amplified polymorphisms, and 4 sequence tagged sites) were used to generate the map; of these, 489 were assembled into 49 linkage groups (LGs), including 14 LGs with 10 to 60 markers per LG and 35 with 2 to 9 markers per LG. The framework map covered 1857 cM with an average intermarker distance of 5.71 cM. Twenty-three LGs, composed of 69% of the markers and covering 1553 cM, were assigned to 1 of the 12 haploid pepper chromosomes, leaving 26 LGs (304 cM) unassigned. The chromosome framework map built with 250 markers led to a high level of mapping confidence and an average intermarker distance of 6.54 cM. By applying MapPop software, it was possible to select smaller subsets of 141 or 93 most informative individuals with a view to reducing the time and cost of further mapping and phenotyping. To define the smallest number of individuals sufficient for assigning any new marker to a chromosome, subsets from 12 to 45 individuals and a set of 13 markers distributed over all 12 chromosomes were screened. In most cases, the markers were correctly assigned to their expected chromosome, but the accuracy of the map position decreased as the number of individuals was reduced. PMID:17546071

Barchi, Lorenzo; Bonnet, Julien; Boudet, Christine; Signoret, Patrick; Nagy, István; Lanteri, Sergio; Palloix, Alain; Lefebvre, Véronique

2007-01-01

290

Young Adult Literature for Young Adult Males.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that young adult literature can play a significant role in the emotional and mental health of an adolescent as well as help young males become more literate. Offers a 19-item annotated list of young adult novels with male protagonists, sorted by themes: nature and adventure stories, sports stories, genre stories, historical stories, and…

Gill, Sam D.

1999-01-01

291

Disability and Functioning (Adults)  

MedlinePLUS

... table 49 [PDF - 9.8 MB] Noninstitutionalized adults 65 years and older: Need help with personal care ... 2012, table 5 [PDF - 1 MB] Noninstitutionalized adults 65 years and older: Basic or complex activity limitations ...

292

Counselling the Adult Learner.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the characteristics of adult learners, their needs and problems, the ways in which counseling can assist them, and the counseling skills that can encourage the growth and development of the adult learner. (Author/BL)

Banmen, John

1986-01-01

293

Adult Learning Theory and the Pursuit of Adult Degrees  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter describes a four-lens model for understanding adult learning theories and provides adult educators and administrators with a useful conceptual framework for working with adult learners in adult degree programs.

Kiely, Richard; Sandmann, Lorilee R.; Truluck, Janet

2004-01-01

294

Adolescents and Young Adults  

Cancer.gov

Kent EE, Wilder Smith A, Keegan THM, Lynch CF, Kato I, Wu X, Schwartz S, Hamilton A. (in press). Social information needs of adolescent and young adults with cancer in the Adolescent and Young Adult Health Outcomes and Patient Experiences (AYA-HOPE) Study. Jounral of Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology.

295

Adult Education in Greece  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The central aim of this article is to analyse the current situation of adult education in Greece. The article focuses on the following points: (a) the degree of participation in programmes of continuing professional training and general adult education courses, (b) the quality and the outcomes of the adult education provision in Greece, and (c)…

Kokkos, Alexios

2008-01-01

296

Adult Learning Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This note summarizes several modern theories of adult learning, including the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, neurolinguistic programming, and the theories of Malcolm Knowles, David Kolb, and Gib Akin. The note can be used as an introduction to adult learning in a doctoral seminar on pedagogy, and invites readers to be aware of adult learning styles in preparing for and teaching their

James Clawson

297

Adult Education in Turkey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the situation and practices of adult education in Turkey in terms of (a) participants, (b) providers, and (c) program areas. The data were derived from published statistical data and one-to-one interaction with adult education providers when such data are unavailable. Turkey has a long tradition of adult education with…

Miser, Rifat; Ural, Ozana; Ünlühisarýklý, Özlem

2013-01-01

298

Aspects of Adult Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents an overview of and prescription for adult education in India. Following an introduction to the problem of illiteracy in India, the book's 14 chapters cover a broad spectrum of adult education issues. Topics discussed include adult education and national development; roles of voluntary organizations, universities, colleges, and…

Chandrasekhar, Rajkumari

299

Comparing Adult Education Worldwide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comparative international adult education, defined as that field in which adult educators from various countries compare their own institutions and practices with those of their counterparts in other nations, is examined. Provided is an account of adult education in nine European socialist countries (including the Soviet Union), as well as…

Charters, Alexander N.; And Others

300

Adult Survival Skills Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this instrument is to supplement data from the Adult Basic Learning Examination in assessing the functional level of adults in daily situations. It may also be used as a teaching tool for adults requesting tutoring in specific concepts and skills presented in the instrument. This instrument is an informal assessment instrument and…

Walsko, Gregory M.

301

Adult Learners in Universities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Theories on adult development and learning and some of the Ontario universities' programs and services for the adult learner are examined, and Athabasca University, Alberta's answer to the British Open University, is described. Peter O'Donnell discusses adult learners' needs and explains how Athabasca University serves this specific type of…

Baker, Janette, Ed.

1981-01-01

302

Adults Learning. Fourth Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aimed at anyone who wants to know how to teach adults, this guide aims to build confidence, offer practical advice, and give the real-life flavor of helping fellow adults develop. Chapter 1 addresses adult learners: mindsets, motivation, and learning (learning cycle, learning styles, relevance, reinforcement and practice, experience, learning to…

Rogers, Jenny

303

Purpose of Adult Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this conceptual paper was to propose an ultimate goal and purpose for the field and practice of adult education. A literature search was conducted to delineate historical philosophies of education that inform the current state of education, including adult education. Furthermore, building upon the rudiments of adult education extant…

Moon, Paul J.

2006-01-01

304

Adult Day Services  

MedlinePLUS

... 3 $35-45 $60-70 $130-140 Adult Day Services $75,000 $50,000 $25,000 $0 Adult Day Services At-a-Glance • Families share in the ... as many locations 5 • More funding for adult day services decreases Medicaid costs by reducing full-time ...

305

Identification of a Chr 11 quantitative trait locus that modulates proliferation in the rostral migratory stream of the adult mouse brain  

PubMed Central

Neuron production takes place continuously in the rostral migratory stream (RMS) of the adult mammalian brain. The molecular mechanisms that regulate progenitor cell division and differentiation in the RMS remain largely unknown. Here, we surveyed the mouse genome in an unbiased manner to identify candidate gene loci that regulate proliferation in the adult RMS. We quantified neurogenesis in adult C57BL/6J and A/J mice and 27 recombinant inbred lines derived from those parental strains. We showed that the A/J RMS had greater numbers of bromodeoxyuridine-labeled cells than that of C57BL/6J mice with similar cell cycle parameters, indicating that the differences in the number of bromodeoxyuridine-positive cells reflected the number of proliferating cells between the strains. AXB and BXA recombinant inbred strains demonstrated even greater variation in the numbers of proliferating cells. Genome-wide mapping of this trait revealed that chromosome 11 harbors a significant quantitative trait locus at 116.75 ± 0.75Mb that affects cell proliferation in the adult RMS. The genomic regions that influence RMS proliferation did not overlap with genomic regions regulating proliferation in the adult subgraular zone of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. On the contrary, a different, suggestive locus that modulate cell proliferation in the subgranular zone was mapped to chromosome 3 at 102 ± 7 Mb. A subset of genes in the chromosome 11 quantitative trait locus region is associated with neurogenesis and cell proliferation. Our findings provide new insights into the genetic control of neural proliferation and an excellent starting point to identify genes critical to this process. PMID:20718853

Poon, Anna; Li, Zhiyou; Wolfe, Gregory W.; Lu, Lu; Williams, Robert W.; Hayes, Nancy L.; Nowakowski, Richard S.; Goldowitz, Daniel

2010-01-01

306

Outbred ICR/CD1 mice display more severe neuroinflammation mediated by microglial TLR4/CD14 activation than inbred C57Bl/6 mice.  

PubMed

Neuroinflammation mediated by microglia is a pathological hallmark of many CNS disorders. Cell lines derived from inbred C57Bl/6 and outbred ICR/CD1 mice (BV-2 and N9 respectively), are often used to study microglial inflammatory activities. Although many studies demonstrate different responses of these cell lines to the same stimulus, no comparisons have been done in vivo. Because inbreeding reduces resistance to pathogens and parasites, we hypothesized that microglia from outbred ICR/CD1 mice would have a stronger response to centrally administered LPS than microglia from inbred C57Bl/6 mice. The evaluation of gene expression in freshly isolated CD11b+ cells from brain revealed that microglia from ICR/CD1 mice were more pro-inflammatory than those from C57Bl/6 mice, although these differences did not appear to result from alterations in the expression levels of the LPS receptors TLR4 or CD14. Notably, the timing of inflammatory gene expression did not correlate with CD11b+ cell proliferation/infiltration. The highest expression of TNF?, IL-6 and iNOS occurred 3 h after LPS injection when the number of CD11b+ cells was not changed. Whereas the expression of these pro-inflammatory genes had returned to basal by 48 h when the highest number of CD11b+ cells in the brain was found, the expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was still significantly up-regulated. This is important because the increased presence of CD11b+ cells in the CNS is often used as an indicator of neuroinflammation. While LPS did not affect the expression of the growth factors VEGF or BDNF, we observed that mechanical injury (caused by intraparenchymal injection) induced distinct patterns of microglial activation characterized by increased expression of VEGF and down-regulation of BDNF. It remains to be determined which type of microglia is more beneficial/detrimental to the CNS, but our data suggest that genetic traits determining microglial properties may have profound effect on many CNS pathologies. PMID:21683771

Nikodemova, M; Watters, J J

2011-09-01

307

Improved Derivation Efficiency and Pluripotency of Stem Cells from the Refractory Inbred C57BL/6 Mouse Strain by Small Molecules  

PubMed Central

The ability of small molecules to maintain self-renewal and to inhibit differentiation of pluripotent stem cells has been well-demonstrated. Two widely used molecules are PD 98059 (PD), an inhibitor of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK), and SC1 (Pluripotin), which inhibits the RasGAP and ERK pathways. However, no studies have been conducted to compare their effects on the pluripotency and derivation of embryonic stem (ES) cells from inbred mice C57BL/6, an important mouse strain frequently used to model behavior, cognitive functions, immune system, and metabolic disorders in humans and also the first mouse strain chosen to be sequenced for its entire genome. We found significantly increased derivation efficiency of ES cells from in vivo fertilized embryos (fES) of C57BL/6 with the use of PD (71.4% over the control of 35.3%). Because fES and ES from cloned embryos (ntES) are not distinguishable in transcription or translation profiles, we used ntES cells to compare the effect of small molecules on their in vitro characteristics, in vitro differentiation ability, and the ability to generate full-term ntES-4N pups by tetraploid complementation. NtES cells exhibited typical ES characteristics and up-regulated Sox2 expression in media with either small-molecule. Higher rates of full term ntES-4N pup were generated by the supplementation of PD or SC1. We obtained the highest efficiency of ntES-4N pup generation ever reported from this strain by supplementing ES medium with SC1. Lastly, we compared the pluripotency of fES, ntES and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells of C57BL/6 background using the tetraploid complementation assay. A significant increase in implantation sites and the number of full-term pups were obtained when fES, ntES, and iPS cells were cultured with SC1 compared to the control ES medium. In conclusion, supplementing ES cell culture medium with PD and SC1 increases the derivation efficiency and pluripotency, respectively, of stem cells derived from the refractory inbred C57BL/6 strain. PMID:25211343

Lin, Chih-Jen; Amano, Tomokazu; Tang, Yong; Tian, Xiuchun

2014-01-01

308

Iso-lines and inbred-lines confirmed loci that underlie resistance from cultivar 'Hartwig' to three soybean cyst nematode populations.  

PubMed

Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] cultivars varied in their resistance to different populations of the soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines, called HG Types. The rhg1 locus on linkage group G was necessary for resistance to all HG types. However, the loci for resistance to H. glycines HG Type 1.3- (race 14) and HG Type 1.2.5- (race 2) of the soybean cyst nematode have varied in their reported locations. The aims were to compare the inheritance of resistance to three nematode HG Types in a population segregating for resistance to SCN and to identify the underlying quantitative trait loci (QTL). 'Hartwig', a soybean cultivar resistant to most SCN HG Types, was crossed with the susceptible cultivar 'Flyer'. A total of 92 F5-derived recombinant inbred lines (RILs; or inbred lines) and 144 molecular markers were used for map development. The rhg1 associated QTL found in earlier studies were confirmed and shown to underlie resistance to all three HG Types in RILs (Satt309; HG Type 0, P = 0.0001 R (2) = 22%; Satt275; HG Type 1.3, P = 0.001, R (2) = 14%) and near isogeneic lines (NILs; or iso-lines; Satt309; HG Type 1.2.5-, P = 0.001 R (2) = 24%). A new QTL underlying resistance to HG Type 1.2.5- was detected on LG D2 (Satt574; P = 0.001, R (2) = 11%) among 14 RILs resistant to the other HG types. The locus was confirmed in a small NIL population consisting of 60 plants of ten genotypes (P = 0.04). This QTL (cqSCN-005) is located in an interval previously associated with resistance to both SDS leaf scorch from 'Pyramid' and 'Ripley' (cqSDS-001) and SCN HG Type 1.3- from Hartwig and Pyramid. The QTL detected will allow marker assisted selection for multigenic resistance to complex nematode populations in combination with sudden death syndrome resistance (SDS) and other agronomic traits. PMID:19856174

Kazi, Samreen; Shultz, J; Afzal, J; Hashmi, Rizwan; Jasim, Mohammed; Bond, Jason; Arelli, Prakash R; Lightfoot, David A

2010-02-01

309

Genetic variation in hippocampal microRNA expression differences in C57BL/6 J X DBA/2 J (BXD) recombinant inbred mouse strains  

PubMed Central

Background miRNAs are short single-stranded non-coding RNAs involved in post-transcriptional gene regulation that play a major role in normal biological functions and diseases. Little is currently known about how expression of miRNAs is regulated. We surveyed variation in miRNA abundance in the hippocampus of mouse inbred strains, allowing us to take a genetic approach to the study of miRNA regulation, which is novel for miRNAs. The BXD recombinant inbred panel is a very well characterized genetic reference panel which allows quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of miRNA abundance and detection of correlates in a large store of brain and behavioural phenotypes. Results We found five suggestive trans QTLs for the regulation of miRNAs investigated. Further analysis of these QTLs revealed two genes, Tnik and Phf17, under the miR-212 regulatory QTLs, whose expression levels were significantly correlated with miR-212 expression. We found that miR-212 expression is correlated with cocaine-related behaviour, consistent with a reported role for this miRNA in the control of cocaine consumption. miR-31 is correlated with anxiety and alcohol related behaviours. KEGG pathway analysis of each miRNA’s expression correlates revealed enrichment of pathways including MAP kinase, cancer, long-term potentiation, axonal guidance and WNT signalling. Conclusions The BXD reference panel allowed us to establish genetic regulation and characterize biological function of specific miRNAs. QTL analysis enabled detection of genetic loci that regulate the expression of these miRNAs. eQTLs that regulate miRNA abundance are a new mechanism by which genetic variation influences brain and behaviour. Analysis of one of these QTLs revealed a gene, Tnik, which may regulate the expression of a miRNA, a molecular pathway and a behavioural phenotype. Evidence of genetic covariation of miR-212 abundance and cocaine related behaviours is strongly supported by previous functional studies, demonstrating the value of this approach for discovery of new functional roles and downstream processes regulated by miRNA. PMID:22974136

2012-01-01

310

Transposable Element rbg Induces the Differential Expression of opaque-2 Mutant Gene in Two Maize o2 NILs Derived from the Same Inbred Line  

PubMed Central

The recessive opaque-2 mutant gene (o2) reduces ?-zeins accumulation in maize endosperm, changes the amino acid composition of maize kernels, induces an opaque endosperm, and increases the lysine content of kernels. The quality protein maize (QPM) inbred line CA339 (o2o2) and an elite normal inbred line liao2345 (O2O2) were used to construct o2 near-isogenic lines (NILs) by marker-assisted selection (MAS) using the co-dominant SSR marker phi057. Two specific o2 NILs were constructed, named liao2345/o2-1 and liao2345/o2-2. However, the kernel phenotypes of the two o2 NILs were different from each other. liao2345/o2-1 had the wild-type vitreous endosperm, which is similar to its recurrent parent liao2345, while the endosperm of liao2345/o2-2 was opaque, identical to typical o2 mutant individuals. In comparison to their recurrent parent liao2345, the lysine concentration of liao2345/o2-1 was similar and the lysine concentration in liao2345/o2-2 was doubled. SDS-PAGE analysis indicated that liao2345/o2-1 had the same zeins ratio as liao2345, whereas the zeins concentration of liao2345/o2-2 was markedly lower. Sequence and transcript abundance analyses indicated that the CDS of two o2 NILs are derived from CA339, but they have different promoters. The O2 transcript of liao2345/o2-2 is largely inhibited because of an rbg transposable element inserted between the TATA box and initiator codon of liao2345/o2-2. We concluded that different crossing-over patterns during the process of o2 NIL construction resulted in the different kernel phenotypes of the two o2 NILs. We surmise that the reversion of liao2345/o2-1 to wild type was due to the recombination with the wild type liao2345 promoter during introgression and backcrossing. The o2 mutant gene of donor (CA339) is a null mutant because of low O2 expression. However, its CDS probably encodes a protein with normal function which can maintain the normal accumulation of zeins in maize endosperm. PMID:24416355

Zhao, Gang; Li, Xinhai; Song, Liya; Yan, Na; Weng, Jianfeng; Hao, Zhuanfang; Zhang, Degui; Li, Mingshun; Zhang, Shihuang

2014-01-01

311

A non-synonymous SNP within the isopentenyl transferase 2 locus is associated with kernel weight in Chinese maize inbreds (Zea mays L.)  

PubMed Central

Background Kernel weight, controlled by quantitative trait loci (QTL), is an important component of grain yield in maize. Cytokinins (CKs) participate in determining grain morphology and final grain yield in crops. ZmIPT2, which is expressed mainly in the basal transfer cell layer, endosperm, and embryo during maize kernel development, encodes an isopentenyl transferase (IPT) that is involved in CK biosynthesis. Results The coding region of ZmIPT2 was sequenced across a panel of 175 maize inbred lines that are currently used in Chinese maize breeding programs. Only 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and seven haplotypes were detected among these inbred lines. Nucleotide diversity (?) within the ZmIPT2 window and coding region were 0.347 and 0.0047, respectively, and they were significantly lower than the mean nucleotide diversity value of 0.372 for maize Chromosome 2 (P?

2013-01-01

312

Genetic dissection of rice grain shape using a recombinant inbred line population derived from two contrasting parents and fine mapping a pleiotropic quantitative trait locus qGL7  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The three-dimensional shape of grain, measured as grain length, width, and thickness (GL, GW, and GT), is one of the most important components of grain appearance in rice. Determining the genetic basis of variations in grain shape could facilitate efficient improvements in grain appearance. In this study, an F7:8 recombinant inbred line population (RIL) derived from a cross between

Xufeng Bai; Lijun Luo; Wenhao Yan; Mallikarjuna Rao Kovi; Wei Zhan; Yongzhong Xing

2010-01-01

313

Genetic control in the susceptibility of germfree inbred mice to infection by Escherichia coli O115a,c:K(B).  

PubMed Central

We studied the susceptibility of five germfree inbred strains of mice to oral infection by murine pathogenic Escherichia coli O115a,c:K(B) (MPEC), the causative agent of mouse megaenteron. Although MPEC colonized all strains of mice at 10(9)/g of feces, the mouse strains could be divided into three groups according to their intestinal lesions. In CF1 and C3H/He mice, intestinal lesions were produced in the cecum and colon with hyperplasia of epithelial cells accompanied by severe inflammatory reactions and erosion. The lesions in NC and C57BL/6 mice were restricted to the tip of the cecum, and hyperplasia of epithelial cells was more severe in these mice than in CF1 or C3H/He mice. BALB/c mice had no lesions. Analysis of F1 hybrids of CF1, NC, and BALB/c mice and offsprings from backcrosses of F1 mice to parental strains showed that susceptibility to MPEC seemed to be controlled genetically by a single locus which may be related to the receptors on epithelial cells for MPEC adherence. However, the differences in lesions between CF1 and NC mice suggest that a combination of this locus and another locus to which it may be related regulates the hyperplasia of intestinal epithelial cells. Images PMID:3278987

Itoh, K; Matsui, T; Tsuji, K; Mitsuoka, T; Ueda, K

1988-01-01

314

Mixed Bartter-Gitelman syndrome: an inbred family with a heterogeneous phenotype expression of a novel variant in the CLCNKB gene.  

PubMed

Patients with renal diseases associated with salt-losing tubulopathies categorized as Gitelman and classic form of Bartter syndrome have undergone genetic screening for possible mutation capture in two different genes: SLC12A3 and CLCNKB. Clinical symptoms of these two diseases may overlap. Bartter syndrome and Gitelman syndrome are autosomal recessive salt-losing tubulopathies with hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, hyperreninemia, hyperplasia of the juxtaglomerular apparatus, hyperaldosteronism, and, in some patients, hypomagnesemia. Here we describe four patients from an inbred family with a novel missense variant in the CLCNKB gene. All of patients are asymptomatic; yet they have the typical metabolic abnormality of salt losing tubulopathies. One of those patients had hypomagnesaemia while others not. Clinical and laboratory data of all patients was described. All 4 patients have a homozygous c.490G?>?T missense variant in exon 5 of the CLCNKB gene. This variant alters a glycine into a cysteine on amino acid position 164 of the resulting protein (p.Gly164Cys). The c.490G?>?T variant is a novel variant not previously described in other patients nor controls. Polyphen analysis predicts the variation to be possibly damaging. Analysis of SLC12A3 was normal. Here in we are describing a novel homozygous c.490G?>?T missense variation was identified in exon 5 of the CLCNKB gene was identified in an Emirati patients with a mild manifestation of Bartter - Gitelman syndrome. PMID:24711981

Al-Shibli, Amar; Yusuf, Madinah; Abounajab, Issam; Willems, Patrick J

2014-01-01

315

Mus spretus LINE-1 sequences detected in the Mus musculus inbred strain C57BL/6J using LINE-1 DNA probes  

SciTech Connect

The inbred mouse strain, C57BL/6J, was derived from mice of the Mus musculus complex. C57BL/6J can be crossed in the laboratory with a closely related mouse species, M. spretus to produce fertile offspring; however there has been no previous evidence of gene flow between M. spretus and M. musculus in nature. Analysis of the repetitive sequence LINE-1, using both direct sequence analysis and genomic Southern blot hybridization to species-specific LINE-1 hybridization probes, demonstrates the presence of LINE-1 elements in C57BL/6J that were derived from the species of M. spretus. These spretus-like LINE-1 elements in C57BL/6J reveal a cross to M. spretus somewhere in the history of C57BL/6J. It is unclear if the spretus-like LINE-1 elements are still embedded in flanking DNA derived from M. spretus or if they have transposed to new sites. The number of spretus-like elements detected suggests a maximum of 6.5% of the C57BL/6J genome may be derived from M. spretus. 27 refs., 4 figs.

Rikke, B.A.; Zhao, Y.; Daggett, L.P.; Reyes, R.; Hardies, S.C. [Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX (United States)

1995-02-01

316

Fixation, Segregation and Linkage of Allozyme Loci in Inbred Families of the Pacific Oyster Crassostrea Gigas (Thunberg): Implications for the Causes of Inbreeding Depression  

PubMed Central

The effect that inbreeding has on the fixation and segregation of genes has rarely been confirmed by direct observation. Here, fixation, segregation, and linkage of allozymes is investigated in the progeny of self-fertilized hermaphrodites of the normally outcrossing Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. The estimate of fixation pooled over loci, individuals, and families, F = 0.462, is significantly lower than the expected value of 0.5. Log-likelihood ratios reveal significant heterogeneity in fixation among individuals, among families, and among loci. In addition, the grand pooled segregation ratio, 127:243:54, deviates significantly from 1:2:1, with a bias against homozygotes for alleles of lesser frequency in the natural population. Segregation ratios for 11 of 14 loci are significantly heterogeneous among families, and exact tests for segregation within families reveal 16 significant results out of 51 tests. Thus, fixation and segregation of allozyme markers in inbred oyster families deviates from the expectations of neutral inbreeding theory. Di-genic disequilibria are significant for four of 74 di-locus pairs revealing two linkage groups. Strong viability selection is apparently conditional on the genotype of the hermaphrodite-founders and is largely focused on these two linkage groups. These genetic effects are explained by interaction between cis-linked factors and polymorphic regulatory backgrounds. PMID:9136021

McGoldrick, D. J.; Hedgecock, D.

1997-01-01

317

Fixation, segregation and linkage of allozyme loci in inbred families of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg): implications for the causes of inbreeding depression.  

PubMed

The effect that inbreeding has on the fixation and segregation of genes has rarely been confirmed by direct observation. Here, fixation, segregation, and linkage of allozymes is investigated in the progeny of self-fertilized hermaphrodites of the normally outcrossing Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. The estimate of fixation pooled over loci, individuals, and families, F = 0.462, is significantly lower than the expected value of 0.5. Log-likelihood ratios reveal significant heterogeneity in fixation among individuals, among families, and among loci. In addition, the grand pooled segregation ratio, 127:243:54, deviates significantly from 1:2:1, with a bias against homozygotes for alleles of lesser frequency in the natural population. Segregation ratios for 11 of 14 loci are significantly heterogeneous among families, and exact tests for segregation within families reveal 16 significant results out of 51 tests. Thus, fixation and segregation of allozyme markers in inbred oyster families deviates from the expectations of neutral inbreeding theory. Di-genic disequilibria are significant for four of 74 di-locus pairs revealing two linkage groups. Strong viability selection is apparently conditional on the genotype of the hermaphrodite-founders and is largely focused on these two linkage groups. These genetic effects are explained by interaction between cis-linked factors and polymorphic regulatory backgrounds. PMID:9136021

McGoldrick, D J; Hedgecock, D

1997-05-01

318

Genetic and diet effects on Ppar-? and Ppar-? signaling pathways in the Berlin Fat Mouse Inbred line with genetic predisposition for obesity  

PubMed Central

Background The Berlin Fat Mouse Inbred (BFMI) line is a new mouse model for obesity, which was long-term selected for high fatness. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are involved in the control of energy homeostasis, nutrient metabolism and cell proliferation. Here, we studied the expression patterns of the different Ppar genes and the genes in the PPAR pathway in the BFMI line in comparison to physiological changes. Results At the age of 10 weeks, the BFMI mice exhibited marked obesity with enlarged adipocytes and high serum triglycerides concentrations in comparison to the often used mouse line C57BL/6 (B6). Between these two lines, gene expression analyses revealed differentially expressed genes belonging to the PPAR pathway, in particular genes of the lipogenesis and the fatty acid transport. Conclusion Surprisingly, the Ppar-? gene expression was up-regulated in liver and Ppar-? gene expression was down-regulated in the white adipose tissue, indicating the activation of a mechanism that counteracts the rise of obesity. PMID:20831792

2010-01-01

319

Differential Expressions of the Alternatively Spliced Variant mRNAs of the u Opioid Receptor Gene, OPRM1, in Brain Regions of Four Inbred Mouse Strains  

PubMed Central

The µ opioid receptor gene, OPRM1, undergoes extensive alternative pre-mRNA splicing in rodents and humans, with dozens of alternatively spliced variants of the OPRM1 gene. The present studies establish a SYBR green quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay to more accurately quantify mouse OPRM1 splice variant mRNAs. Using these qPCR assays, we examined the expression of OPRM1 splice variant mRNAs in selected brain regions of four inbred mouse strains displaying differences in µ opioid-induced tolerance and physical dependence: C56BL/6J, 129P3/J, SJL/J and SWR/J. The complete mRNA expression profiles of the OPRM1 splice variants reveal marked differences of the variant mRNA expression among the brain regions in each mouse strain, suggesting region-specific alternative splicing of the OPRM1 gene. The expression of many variants was also strain-specific, implying a genetic influence on OPRM1 alternative splicing. The expression levels of a number of the variant mRNAs in certain brain regions appear to correlate with strain sensitivities to morphine analgesia, tolerance and physical dependence in four mouse strains. PMID:25343478

Xu, Jin; Lu, Zhigang; Xu, Mingming; Rossi, Grace C.; Kest, Benjamin; Waxman, Amanda R.; Pasternak, Gavril W.; Pan, Ying-Xian

2014-01-01

320

Adult Learning Matters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adult Learners' Week--which is supported by the Department for Innovation, Universities and Skills and the European Social Fund, amongst a raft of other organisations--is all about raising demand for learning. At its core, the campaign is about encouraging under-represented groups--including low-skilled, unemployed and low-paid adults and those…

Thomson, Rachel

2009-01-01

321

Adult Learning: An Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult learning is frequently spoken of by adult educators as if it were a discretely separate domain, having little connection to learning in childhood or adolescence. This chapter will examine critically this claim by exploring four major research areas (self-directed learning, critical reflection, experiential learning and learning to learn) each of which have been proposed as representing unique and exclusive

Stephen Brookfield

1995-01-01

322

Adult Adoption: A \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Comment explores the current statutory framework for adult adoption, the parameters of the legal relationship created, and the scope of the right to privacy issues involved in the exercise of this statutory right. In addition, possible motives individuals may have for utilizing adult adoption, the need for attorneys to identify potential problem areas for their clients, and the potential

Peter N. Fowler

2010-01-01

323

Adult Education and Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains 19 papers on adult education and development worldwide. The following papers are included: "Editorial" (Heribert Hinzen); "Lifelong Learning in Europe: Moving towards EFA (Dakar Framework for Action on Education for All) Goals and the CONFINTEA V Agenda" (Sofia Conference on Adult Education); "Poverty and Schooling in the…

Hinzen, Heribert, Ed.

2002-01-01

324

Teaching Mathematics to Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored the teaching processes in mathematics education for adults and how they are shaped by certain social and institutional forces. The study addressed three broad questions: (1) What happens in adult mathematics classrooms? (2) What do these phenomena mean for those involved as teachers or learners? and (3) In what ways do "frame…

Nesbit, Tom

325

Adult interdisciplinary therapy  

PubMed Central

Adult patients have many preexisting conditions like tooth loss, severe skeletal dysplasia, periodontal disease, and various temporomandibular dysfunctions. In such adult patients, an interdisciplinary treatment approach is followed by customizing orthodontic treatment for the individual patient. This article shows a case that is managed in an interdisciplinary method of treatment approach. PMID:23066268

Rajkumar, Bala Krishnan; Janarthanam, Padmanaban

2012-01-01

326

Adult Interests and Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To the adult educator it is basic to know what are adult interests, how do they affect participation and learning, and how may they be aroused or changed. Strong pioneered in the formulation of an interest inventory for the study of vocational interests and Super extended the use of Strong's test to the study of leisure interests to determine the…

Kirchner, Corinne

327

The adult scoliosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult scoliosis is defined as a spinal deformity in a skeletally mature patient with a Cobb angle of more than 10° in the coronal plain. Adult scoliosis can be separated into four major groups: Type 1: Primary degenerative scoliosis, mostly on the basis of a disc and\\/or facet joint arthritis, affecting those structures asymmetrically with predominantly back pain symptoms, often

Max Aebi

2005-01-01

328

Adult Tech Prep.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For over 2 years, Blak Hawk College (Illinois) has provided high school equivalency (GED) candidates and recipients, older returning students, and underprepared high school graduates with a Tech Prep curriculum to give them the skills to make the transition from adult basic education to college or work. The Adult Tech Prep (ATP) core curriculum…

Schaad, Donna

329

Adult Learners on Campus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 3-year study described older-than-average full-time students at the University of North Dakota and compared them to traditional-age students on that campus and to their older-than-average counterparts nationally. From a sample of 100 students in each of 6 categories (young adult, adult, undergraduate, graduate, and professional), 69% responded.…

Slotnick, H. B.; And Others

330

National Adult Day Services Association  

MedlinePLUS

THE NATIONAL VOICE FOR THE ADULT DAY SERVICE COMMUNITY NADSA advances the national development, recognition and use of adult day services. ... Day Services Tweets by @NADSA2 NADSA Video THE VOICES of Adult Day Services MEMBERS You've arrived ...

331

CDC Vital Signs: Adult Obesity  

MedlinePLUS

... About CDC.gov . Vital Signs Share Compartir Adult Obesity Obesity Rises Among Adults August 2010 72M+ More than ... eating and active living. Issue Details Problem Adult Obesity Obesity is a national epidemic, causing higher medical ...

332

LEADING ADULT SQUAWFISH (Ptychocheilus oregonensis)  

E-print Network

LEADING ADULT SQUAWFISH (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) WITHIN AN ELECTRIC FIELD Marine Biological, Arnie J. Suomela, Commissioner LEADING ADULT SQUAWFISH ( PTYCHOCHEILUS OREGONENSIS ) WITHIN AN ELECTRIC: Maxfield, Galen H Leading adult squawfish {Ptychocheilus oregonensis) Avithin an electric field, by Galen H

333

Increased basal expression of hepatic Cyp1a1 and Cyp1a2 genes in inbred mice selected for susceptibility to acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity.  

PubMed

Susceptibility to acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity was found to vary widely in an outbred colony of Swiss Webster mice. Some acetaminophen-treated male mice showed a significant elevation in serum levels of the hepatic enzyme alanine aminotransferase at a normally non-hepatotoxic oral dose. A selective breeding program over 17 generations produced inbred mice which were either susceptible or nonsusceptible to the hepatotoxic effects of acetaminophen. Liver microsomes from the susceptible group showed a statistically significant increase in the ability to metabolize acetaminophen to a reactive intermediate which covalently binds N-acetylcysteine. Microsomal cytochrome P450 activities associated with CYP1A2 (acetanilide 4-hydroxylation and methoxyresorufin O-demethylase) were significantly increased in the susceptible group. Ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity, associated with both CYP1A1 and CYP1A2, was also significantly elevated in this group. Further examination of both CYP1A isoforms revealed that hepatic CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 mRNA and protein levels were significantly elevated in animals from the susceptible group. In vivo caffeine 3-demethylation, which is associated with CYP1A2 activity, co-segregated with acetaminophen susceptibility and showed a significant positive correlation (r = 0.626, p < 0.005) with CYP1A2 mRNA expression in animals from both the susceptible and nonsusceptible groups. The co-segregation of elevated basal Cyp1a1 and CYP1a2 gene expression levels in animals selected for susceptibility to acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity suggested a common heritable basis for regulation of basal expression of both of these CYP1A isoforms. This was supported by the correlated expression of both CYP1A mRNAs within individual mice (r = 0.644, p < 0.02). PMID:9295056

Casley, W L; Menzies, J A; Mousseau, N; Girard, M; Moon, T W; Whitehouse, L W

1997-08-01

334

Genetic Determinants for Enzymatic Digestion of Lignocellulosic Biomass Are Independent of Those for Lignin Abundance in a Maize Recombinant Inbred Population1[W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

Biotechnological approaches to reduce or modify lignin in biomass crops are predicated on the assumption that it is the principal determinant of the recalcitrance of biomass to enzymatic digestion for biofuels production. We defined quantitative trait loci (QTL) in the Intermated B73 × Mo17 recombinant inbred maize (Zea mays) population using pyrolysis molecular-beam mass spectrometry to establish stem lignin content and an enzymatic hydrolysis assay to measure glucose and xylose yield. Among five multiyear QTL for lignin abundance, two for 4-vinylphenol abundance, and four for glucose and/or xylose yield, not a single QTL for aromatic abundance and sugar yield was shared. A genome-wide association study for lignin abundance and sugar yield of the 282-member maize association panel provided candidate genes in the 11 QTL of the B73 and Mo17 parents but showed that many other alleles impacting these traits exist among this broader pool of maize genetic diversity. B73 and Mo17 genotypes exhibited large differences in gene expression in developing stem tissues independent of allelic variation. Combining these complementary genetic approaches provides a narrowed list of candidate genes. A cluster of SCARECROW-LIKE9 and SCARECROW-LIKE14 transcription factor genes provides exceptionally strong candidate genes emerging from the genome-wide association study. In addition to these and genes associated with cell wall metabolism, candidates include several other transcription factors associated with vascularization and fiber formation and components of cellular signaling pathways. These results provide new insights and strategies beyond the modification of lignin to enhance yields of biofuels from genetically modified biomass. PMID:24972714

Penning, Bryan W.; Sykes, Robert W.; Babcock, Nicholas C.; Dugard, Christopher K.; Held, Michael A.; Klimek, John F.; Shreve, Jacob T.; Fowler, Matthew; Ziebell, Angela; Davis, Mark F.; Decker, Stephen R.; Turner, Geoffrey B.; Mosier, Nathan S.; Springer, Nathan M.; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Weil, Clifford F.; McCann, Maureen C.; Carpita, Nicholas C.

2014-01-01

335

ATR-FTIR spectroscopy reveals genomic loci regulating the tissue response in high fat diet fed BXD recombinant inbred mouse strains  

PubMed Central

Background Obesity-associated organ-specific pathological states can be ensued from the dysregulation of the functions of the adipose tissues, liver and muscle. However, the influence of genetic differences underlying gross-compositional differences in these tissues is largely unknown. In the present study, the analytical method of ATR-FTIR spectroscopy has been combined with a genetic approach to identify genetic differences responsible for phenotypic alterations in adipose, liver and muscle tissues. Results Mice from 29 BXD recombinant inbred mouse strains were put on high fat diet and gross-compositional changes in adipose, liver and muscle tissues were measured by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. The analysis of genotype-phenotype correlations revealed significant quantitative trait loci (QTL) on chromosome 12 for the content of fat and collagen, collagen integrity, and the lipid to protein ratio in adipose tissue and on chromosome 17 for lipid to protein ratio in liver. Using gene expression and sequence information, we suggest Rsad2 (viperin) and Colec11 (collectin-11) on chromosome 12 as potential quantitative trait candidate genes. Rsad2 may act as a modulator of lipid droplet contents and lipid biosynthesis; Colec11 might play a role in apoptopic cell clearance and maintenance of adipose tissue. An increased level of Rsad2 transcripts in adipose tissue of DBA/2J compared to C57BL/6J mice suggests a cis-acting genetic variant leading to differential gene activation. Conclusion The results demonstrate that the analytical method of ATR-FTIR spectroscopy effectively contributed to decompose the macromolecular composition of tissues that accumulate fat and to link this information with genetic determinants. The candidate genes in the QTL regions may contribute to obesity-related diseases in humans, in particular if the results can be verified in a bigger BXD cohort. PMID:23758785

2013-01-01

336

Divergent compensatory responses to high-fat diet between C57BL6/J and C57BLKS/J inbred mouse strains.  

PubMed

Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) are polygenic disorders with complex pathophysiologies; recapitulating them with mouse models is challenging. Despite 70% genetic homology, C57BL/6J (BL6) and C57BLKS/J (BLKS) inbred mouse strains differ in response to diet- and genetic-induced obesity. We hypothesized these differences would yield insight into IGT and T2DM susceptibility and response to pharmacological therapies. To this end, male 8-wk-old BL6 and BLKS mice were fed normal chow (18% kcal from fat), high-fat diet (HFD; 42% kcal from fat), or HFD supplemented with the PPAR? agonist pioglitazone (PIO; 140 mg PIO/kg diet) for 16 wk. Assessments of body composition, glucose homeostasis, insulin production, and energy metabolism, as well as histological analyses of pancreata were undertaken. BL6 mice gained weight and adiposity in response to HFD, leading to peripheral insulin resistance that was met with increased ?-cell proliferation and insulin production. By contrast, BLKS mice responded to HFD by restricting food intake and increasing activity. These behavioral responses limited weight gain and protected against HFD-induced glucose intolerance, which in this strain was primarily due to ?-cell dysfunction. PIO treatment did not affect HFD-induced weight gain in BL6 mice, and decreased visceral fat mass, whereas in BLKS mice PIO increased total fat mass without improving visceral fat mass. Differences in these responses to HFD and effects of PIO reflect divergent human responses to a Western lifestyle and underscore the careful consideration needed when choosing mouse models of diet-induced obesity and diabetes treatment. PMID:24169046

Sims, Emily K; Hatanaka, Masayuki; Morris, David L; Tersey, Sarah A; Kono, Tatsuyoshi; Chaudry, Zunaira Z; Day, Kathleen H; Moss, Dan R; Stull, Natalie D; Mirmira, Raghavendra G; Evans-Molina, Carmella

2013-12-01

337

An expression quantitative trait loci-guided co-expression analysis for constructing regulatory network using a rice recombinant inbred line population  

PubMed Central

The ability to reveal the regulatory architecture of genes at the whole-genome level by constructing a regulatory network is critical for understanding the biological processes and developmental programmes of organisms. Here, we conducted an eQTL-guided function-related co-expression analysis to identify the putative regulators and construct gene regulatory network. We performed an eQTL analysis of 210 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between two indica rice lines, Zhenshan 97 and Minghui 63, the parents of an elite hybrid, using data obtained by hybridizing RNA samples of flag leaves at the heading stage with Affymetrix whole-genome arrays. Making use of an ultrahigh-density single-nucleotide polymorphism bin map constructed by population sequencing, 13 647 eQTLs for 10 725 e-traits were detected, comprising 5079 cis-eQTLs (37.2%) and 8568 trans-eQTLs (62.8%). The analysis revealed 138 trans-eQTLs hotspots, each of which apparently regulates the expression variations of many genes. Co-expression analysis of functionally related genes within the framework of regulator–target relationships outlined by the eQTLs led to the identification of putative regulators in the system. The usefulness of the strategy was demonstrated with the genes known to be involved in flowering. We also applied this strategy to the analysis of QTLs for yield traits, which also suggested likely candidate genes. eQTL-guided co-expression analysis may provide a promising solution for outlining a framework for the complex regulatory network of an organism. PMID:24420573

Zhang, Qifa

2014-01-01

338

Identification and validation of quantitative trait loci for seed yield, oil and protein contents in two recombinant inbred line populations of soybean.  

PubMed

Soybean seeds contain high levels of oil and protein, and are the important sources of vegetable oil and plant protein for human consumption and livestock feed. Increased seed yield, oil and protein contents are the main objectives of soybean breeding. The objectives of this study were to identify and validate quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with seed yield, oil and protein contents in two recombinant inbred line populations, and to evaluate the consistency of QTLs across different environments, studies and genetic backgrounds. Both the mapping population (SD02-4-59 × A02-381100) and validation population (SD02-911 × SD00-1501) were phenotyped for the three traits in multiple environments. Genetic analysis indicated that oil and protein contents showed high heritabilities while yield exhibited a lower heritability in both populations. Based on a linkage map constructed previously with the mapping population and using composite interval mapping and/or interval mapping analysis, 12 QTLs for seed yield, 16 QTLs for oil content and 11 QTLs for protein content were consistently detected in multiple environments and/or the average data over all environments. Of the QTLs detected in the mapping population, five QTLs for seed yield, eight QTLs for oil content and five QTLs for protein content were confirmed in the validation population by single marker analysis in at least one environment and the average data and by ANOVA over all environments. Eight of these validated QTLs were newly identified. Compared with the other studies, seven QTLs for seed yield, eight QTLs for oil content and nine QTLs for protein content further verified the previously reported QTLs. These QTLs will be useful for breeding higher yield and better quality cultivars, and help effectively and efficiently improve yield potential and nutritional quality in soybean. PMID:24861102

Wang, Xianzhi; Jiang, Guo-Liang; Green, Marci; Scott, Roy A; Song, Qijian; Hyten, David L; Cregan, Perry B

2014-10-01

339

An expression quantitative trait loci-guided co-expression analysis for constructing regulatory network using a rice recombinant inbred line population.  

PubMed

The ability to reveal the regulatory architecture of genes at the whole-genome level by constructing a regulatory network is critical for understanding the biological processes and developmental programmes of organisms. Here, we conducted an eQTL-guided function-related co-expression analysis to identify the putative regulators and construct gene regulatory network. We performed an eQTL analysis of 210 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between two indica rice lines, Zhenshan 97 and Minghui 63, the parents of an elite hybrid, using data obtained by hybridizing RNA samples of flag leaves at the heading stage with Affymetrix whole-genome arrays. Making use of an ultrahigh-density single-nucleotide polymorphism bin map constructed by population sequencing, 13 647 eQTLs for 10 725 e-traits were detected, comprising 5079 cis-eQTLs (37.2%) and 8568 trans-eQTLs (62.8%). The analysis revealed 138 trans-eQTLs hotspots, each of which apparently regulates the expression variations of many genes. Co-expression analysis of functionally related genes within the framework of regulator-target relationships outlined by the eQTLs led to the identification of putative regulators in the system. The usefulness of the strategy was demonstrated with the genes known to be involved in flowering. We also applied this strategy to the analysis of QTLs for yield traits, which also suggested likely candidate genes. eQTL-guided co-expression analysis may provide a promising solution for outlining a framework for the complex regulatory network of an organism. PMID:24420573

Wang, Jia; Yu, Huihui; Weng, Xiaoyu; Xie, Weibo; Xu, Caiguo; Li, Xianghua; Xiao, Jinghua; Zhang, Qifa

2014-03-01

340

Lack of Structural Variation but Extensive Length Polymorphisms and Heteroplasmic Length Variations in the Mitochondrial DNA Control Region of Highly Inbred Crested Ibis, Nipponia nippon  

PubMed Central

The animal mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) length polymorphism and heteroplasmy are accepted to be universal. Here we report the lack of structural variation but the presence of length polymorphism as well as heteroplasmy in mtDNA control region of an endangered avian species – the Crested Ibis (Nipponia nippon). The complete control region was directly sequenced while the distribution pattern and inheritance of the length variations were examined using both direct sequencing and genotyping of the PCR fragments from captive birds with pedigrees, wild birds and a historical specimen. Our results demonstrated that there was no structural variation in the control region, however, different numbers of short tandem repeats with an identical motif of CA3CA2CA3 at the 3?-end of the control region determined the length polymorphisms among and heteroplasmy within individual birds. There were one to three predominant fragments in every bird; nevertheless multiple minor fragments coexist in all birds. These extremely high polymorphisms were suggested to have derived from the ‘replication slippage’ of a perfect microsatellite evolution following the step-wise mutational model. The patterns of heteroplasmy were found to be shifted between generations and among siblings but rather stable between blood and feather samples. This study provides the first evidence of a very extensive mtDNA length polymorphism and heteroplasmy in the highly inbred Crested Ibis which carries an mtDNA genome lack of structural genetic diversity. The analysis of pedigreed samples also sheds light on the transmission of mtDNA length heteroplasmy in birds following the genetic bottleneck theory. Further research focusing on the generation and transmission of particular mtDNA heteroplasmy patterns in single germ line of Crested Ibis is encouraged by this study. PMID:23805212

He, Xue-Lian; Ding, Chang-Qing; Han, Jian-Lin

2013-01-01

341

Complementary DNA cloning, sequence analysis, and tissue transcription profile of a novel U2AF2 gene from the Chinese Banna mini-pig inbred line.  

PubMed

U2 small nuclear RNA auxiliary factor 2 (U2AF2) is an important gene for pre-messenger RNA splicing in higher eukaryotes. In this study, the Banna mini-pig inbred line (BMI) U2AF2 coding sequence (CDS) was cloned, sequenced, and characterized. The U2AF2 complete CDS was amplified using the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique based on the conserved sequence information of cattle and known highly homologous swine expressed sequence tags. This novel gene was deposited into the National Center for Biotechnology Information database (Accession No. JQ839267). Sequence analysis revealed that the BMI U2AF2 coding sequence consisted of 1416 bp and encoded 471 amino acids with a molecular weight of 53.12 kDa. The protein sequence has high sequence homology with U2AF65 of 6 species - Homo sapiens (100%), Equus caballus (100%), Canis lupus (100%), Macaca mulatta (99.8%), Bos taurus (74.4%), and Mus musculus (74.4%). The phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that BMI U2AF65 has a closer genetic relationship with B. taurus U2AF65 than with U2AF65 of E. caballus, C. lupus, M. mulatta, H. sapiens, and M. musculus. RT-PCR analysis showed that BMI U2AF2 was most highly expressed in the brain; moderately expressed in the spleen, lung, muscle, and skin; and weakly expressed in the liver, kidney, and ovary. Its expression was nearly silent in the spinal cord, nerve fiber, heart, stomach, pancreas, and intestine. Three microRNA target sites were predicted in the CDS of BMI U2AF2 messenger RNA. Our results establish a foundation for further insight into this swine gene. PMID:23613239

Wang, S Y; Huo, J L; Miao, Y W; Cheng, W M; Zeng, Y Z

2013-01-01

342

Relationships of non-structural carbohydrates accumulation and translocation with yield formation in rice recombinant inbred lines under two nitrogen levels.  

PubMed

Stem non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) and its relationship with yield formation was investigated under low nitrogen (LN) and normal nitrogen (NN) treatments, using 46 recombinant inbred lines from Zhenshan 97 × Minghui 63 (Oryza sativa). Apparent contribution of transferred NSC to grain yield (AC(NSC) ) ranged from approximately 1 to 28% under LN and from 1 to 15% under NN. Concentration and total mass of NSC in stem (TM(NSC) ) at heading, apparent transferred mass of NSC (ATM(NSC) ) and AC(NSC) were larger under LN compared with NN. However, there was no significant difference in the apparent ratio of transferred NSC from stems to grain (AR(NSC) ). ATM(NSC) was positively correlated with grain yield, 1000-grain weight and AC(NSC) under both nitrogen levels, whereas AR(NSC) was highly correlated with harvest index and AC(NSC) . Leaf area contributed more strongly to grain yield compared with ATM(NSC) under both LN and NN. ATM(NSC) showed larger direct effects on grain yield under LN compared with NN. TM(NSC) at heading, small vascular bundles (SVBs) and spikelets per m(2) under LN had positive direct effects on ATM(NSC) . SVB and spikelets per m(2) under LN had larger and positive direct effects, and large vascular bundles had negative direct effects on AR(NSC) . TM(NSC) at heading and SVB under LN had positive direct effects on AC(NSC) . In brief, LN supply increased stem NSC accumulation and translocation to developing grain. Components of the source-sink-flow system showed different effects on NSC translocation and contribution to yield formation, depending on genotype and nitrogen level. PMID:21175644

Pan, Junfeng; Cui, Kehui; Wei, Dong; Huang, Jianliang; Xiang, Jing; Nie, Lixiao

2011-04-01

343

Ataxia-telangiectasia: linkage analysis in highly inbred Arab and Druze families and differentiation from an ataxia-microcephaly-cataract syndrome.  

PubMed

Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is a progressive autosomal recessive disease featuring neurodegeneration, immunodeficiency, chromosomal instability, radiation sensitivity and a highly increased proneness to cancer. A-T is ethnically widespread and genetically heterogeneous, as indicated by the existence of four complementation groups in this disease. Several "A-T-like" genetic diseases share various clinical and cellular characteristics with A-T. By using linkage analysis to study North American and Turkish A-T families, the ATA (A-T, complementation group A) gene has been mapped to chromosome 11q23. A number of Israeli Arab A-T patients coming from large, highly inbred families were assigned to group A. In one of these families, an additional autosomal recessive disease was identified, characterized by ataxia, hypotonia, microcephaly and bilateral congenital cataracts. In two patients with this syndrome, normal levels of serum immunoglobulins and alpha-fetoprotein, chromosomal stability in peripheral blood lymphocytes and skin fibroblasts, and normal cellular response to treatments with X-rays and the radiomimetic drug neocarzinostatin indicated that this disease does not share, with A-T, any additional features other than ataxia. These tests also showed that another patient in this family, who is also mentally retarded, is affected with both disorders. This conclusion was further supported by linkage analysis with 11q23 markers. Lod scores between A-T and these markers, cumulated over three large Arab families, were significant and confirmed the localization of the ATA gene to 11q23. However, another Druze family unassigned to a specific complementation group, showed several recombinants between A-T and the same markers, leaving the localization of the A-T gene in this family open. PMID:1551665

Ziv, Y; Frydman, M; Lange, E; Zelnik, N; Rotman, G; Julier, C; Jaspers, N G; Dagan, Y; Abeliovicz, D; Dar, H; Borochowitz, Z; Lathrop, M; Gatti, R A; Shiloh, Y

1992-03-01

344

Immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region and major histocompatibility region genes are linked to induced graves' disease in females from two very large families of recombinant inbred mice.  

PubMed

Graves' hyperthyroidism is caused by antibodies to the TSH receptor (TSHR) that mimic thyroid stimulation by TSH. Stimulating TSHR antibodies and hyperthyroidism can be induced by immunizing mice with adenovirus expressing the human TSHR A-subunit. Prior analysis of induced Graves' disease in small families of recombinant inbred (RI) female mice demonstrated strong genetic control but did not resolve trait loci for TSHR antibodies or elevated serum T4. We investigated the genetic basis for induced Graves' disease in female mice of two large RI families and combined data with earlier findings to provide phenotypes for 178 genotypes. TSHR antibodies measured by inhibition of TSH binding to its receptor were highly significantly linked in the BXD set to the major histocompatibility region (chromosome 17), consistent with observations in 3 other RI families. In the LXS family, we detected linkage between T4 levels after TSHR-adenovirus immunization and the Ig heavy chain variable region (Igvh, chromosome 12). This observation is a key finding because components of the antigen binding region of Igs determine antibody specificity and have been previously linked to induced thyroid-stimulating antibodies. Data from the LXS family provide the first evidence in mice of a direct link between induced hyperthyroidism and Igvh genes. A role for major histocompatibility genes has now been established for genetic susceptibility to Graves' disease in both humans and mice. Future studies using arrays incorporating variation in the complex human Ig gene locus will be necessary to determine whether Igvh genes are also linked to Graves' disease in humans. PMID:25051451

McLachlan, Sandra M; Aliesky, Holly; Banuelos, Bianca; Magana, Jessica; Williams, Robert W; Rapoport, Basil

2014-10-01

345

Different responsiveness to a high-fat/cholesterol diet in two inbred mice and underlying genetic factors: a whole genome microarray analysis  

PubMed Central

Background To investigate different responses to a high-fat/cholesterol diet and uncover their underlying genetic factors between C57BL/6J (B6) and DBA/2J (D2) inbred mice. Methods B6 and D2 mice were fed a high-fat/cholesterol diet for a series of time-points. Serum and bile lipid profiles, bile acid yields, hepatic apoptosis, gallstones and atherosclerosis formation were measured. Furthermore, a whole genome microarray was performed to screen hepatic genes expression profile. Quantitative real-time PCR, western blot and TUNEL assay were conducted to validate microarray data. Results After fed the high-fat/cholesterol diet, serum and bile total cholesterol, serum cholesterol esters, HDL cholesterol and Non-HDL cholesterol levels were altered in B6 but not significantly changed in D2; meanwhile, biliary bile acid was decreased in B6 but increased in D2. At the same time, hepatic apoptosis, gallstones and atherosclerotic lesions occurred in B6 but not in D2. The hepatic microarray analysis revealed distinctly different genes expression patterns between B6 and D2 mice. Their functional pathway groups included lipid metabolism, oxidative stress, immune/inflammation response and apoptosis. Quantitative real time PCR, TUNEL assay and western-blot results were consistent with microarray analysis. Conclusion Different genes expression patterns between B6 and D2 mice might provide a genetic basis for their distinctive responses to a high-fat/cholesterol diet, and give us an opportunity to identify novel pharmaceutical targets in related diseases in the future. PMID:19835623

Zhu, Mingzhe; Ji, Guozhen; Jin, Gang; Yuan, Zuobiao

2009-01-01

346

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder among Adults  

MedlinePLUS

... Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among ...

347

Imaging of adult leukodystrophies.  

PubMed

Leukodystrophies are genetically determined white matter disorders. Even though leukodystrophies essentially affect children in early infancy and childhood, these disorders may affect adults. In adults, leukodystrophies may present a distinct clinical and imaging presentation other than those found in childhood. Clinical awareness of late-onset leukodystrophies should be increased as new therapies emerge. MRI is a useful tool to evaluate white matter disorders and some characteristics findings can help the diagnosis of leukodystrophies. This review article briefly describes the imaging characteristics of the most common adult leukodystrophies. PMID:25098479

Leite, Claudia Costa; Lucato, Leandro Tavares; Santos, Germana Titoneli; Kok, Fernando; Brandão, Anderson Rodrigues; Castillo, Mauricio

2014-08-01

348

Smoking and Older Adults  

MedlinePLUS

... ENews Home > Stop Smoking > About Smoking > Facts & Figures Smoking and Older Adults Older smokers are at greater ... of age currently smoked. 3 Health Effects of Smoking An estimated 438,000 Americans die each year ...

349

America's Young Adults  

MedlinePLUS

... Young Adult Figures America's Children at a Glance Forum Agencies List of Tables Data Source Descriptions Press ... of 2014 Reports Health and Safety Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics | Privacy Policy | Contact ...

350

Adults Learning Mathematics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Adults Learning Mathematics (ALM) organization is "an international research forum bringing together researchers and practitioners in adult mathematics/numeracy teaching and learning in order to promote the learning of mathematics by adults." The site contains sections such as "For teachers", "For PhD students", and "For policy makers". The "For teachers" area includes links to the ALM newsletters and their resources, which include downloadable posters and factsheets. Moving along, the "For PhD students" area includes information for those doctoral students that are seeking to incorporate pedagogical techniques for teaching math to adults in their research. Additionally, the "For policy makers" area includes helpful documents such as "High stakes assessment: Assessing numeracy for Nursing in two recent projects".

351

Older Adults and Alcohol  

MedlinePLUS

... and other unintentional injuries that may result from drinking. Increased Health Problems Certain health problems are common in older adults. Heavy drinking can make these problems worse, including: Diabetes High ...

352

Einstein Books for Adults  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This reference list has more than 15 books and articles on Einstein that are written for adults, including biographies and some of Einstein's own writings. For each title, the author's name, publisher, and publication date are included.

353

Mosquito, adult (image)  

MedlinePLUS

This illustration shows an adult southern house mosquito. This mosquito feeds on blood and is the carrier of many diseases, such as encephalitis, West Nile, dengue fever, yellow fever, and others. ( ...

354

Immunization Schedules for Adults  

MedlinePLUS

... were not available when some adults were children Immunity can begin to fade over time As we age, we become more susceptible to serious disease caused by common infections (such as flu and pneumococcus) Learn about serious diseases that can ...

355

Adults with Autism  

MedlinePLUS

... 950-NAMI; info@nami.org ©2014 Adults With Autism Individuals with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) exhibit common problems with communication ... with an ASD (especially those with high-functioning autism or Asperger syndrome) are able to work successfully ...

356

Older Adults and Alcohol  

MedlinePLUS

... Get Help Heath and Aging Older Adults and Alcohol: You Can Get Help What's inside Worried about a drinking problem? Learn about the effects of alcohol on health and get needed support. Read this ...

357

be active adults 10 tips to help adults include  

E-print Network

2 9 105 4 3 6 7 8 1 be active adults 10 tips to help adults include physical activity into their lifestyle Being physically active is important for your health. Adults who are physically active are less likely to develop some chronic diseases than adults who are inactive. Physical activity is any form

Gruner, Daniel S.

358

Sarcoidosis: Child vs adult  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To compare the features of sarcoidosis in children to those of adults. In spite of the fact that sarcoidosis is\\u000a a disease frequently seen in adults of 30–40 years, pediatric cases have rarely been reported.Methods: The authors evaluated 17 (3.3%, 12 females, 5 males) of the 516 patients of sarcoidosis, aged 16 yr and diagnosed within\\u000a a 36-year period.Results:

Halil Yanarda?; Ömer Nuri Pamuk; Sedat Uygun; Sabriye Demirci; Tuncer Karayel

2006-01-01

359

Riddell Revolution Speed Adult Large  

E-print Network

Available: Adult Football Helmet Detailed Ratings May 2012 Riddell 360 Sample 1 2 3 Size Adult Large Adult.237 0.239 Overall STAR 0.239 Best Available: A total of 15 adult football helmet models that have been values. Based on this, the best overall rating of 5 Stars has the lowest STAR value. Group rankings

Lu, Chang

360

The ABC's of Adult Ed  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to the 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy, it is estimated that 93 million adults in the United States have basic or below basic literacy skills. Those individuals found most lacking in literacy skills were adults living in poverty, adults lacking a high school diploma, seniors and the elderly aged 65 and older, the more than one…

Roehrig, Lucy

2010-01-01

361

A QTL on mouse chromosome 12 for the genetic variance in free-running circadian period between inbred strains of mice  

PubMed Central

Background Many genes control circadian period in mice. Prior studies suggested a quantitative trait locus (QTL) on proximal mouse chromosome 12 for interstrain differences in circadian period. Since the B6.D2NAhrd/J strain has DBA/2 alleles for a portion of proximal chromosome 12 introgressed onto its C57BL/6J background, we hypothesized that these mice would have a shorter circadian period than C57BL/6J mice. Methods We compared circadian phenotypes of B6.D2NAhrd/J and C57BL/6 mice: period of general locomotor activity in constant dark and rest/activity pattern in alternating light and dark. We genotyped the B6.D2NAhrd/J mice to characterize the size of the genomic insert. To aid in identifying candidate quantitative trait genes we queried databases about the resident SNPs, whole brain gene expression in C57BL/6J versus DBA/2J mice, and circadian patterns of gene expression. Results The B6.D2NAhrd/J inbred mice have a shorter circadian period of locomotor activity than the C57BL/6J strain. Furthermore, the genomic insert is associated with another phenotype: the mean phase of activity minimum in the dark part of a light-dark lighting cycle. It was one hour later than in the background strain. The B6.D2NAhrd/J mice have a DBA/2J genomic insert spanning 35.4 to 41.0 megabase pairs on Chromosome 12. The insert contains 15 genes and 12 predicted genes. In this region Ahr (arylhydrocarbon receptor) and Zfp277 (zinc finger protein 277) both contain non-synonymous SNPs. Zfp277 also showed differential expression in whole brain and was cis-regulated. Three genes and one predicted gene showed a circadian pattern of expression in liver, including Zfp277. Conclusion We not only fine-mapped the QTL for circadian period on chromosome 12 but found a new QTL there as well: an association with the timing of the nocturnal activity-minimum. Candidate quantitative trait genes in this QTL are zinc finger protein 277 and arylhydrocarbon receptor. Arylhydrocarbon receptor is structurally related to Bmal1, a canonical clock gene. PMID:17974007

Hofstetter, John R; Svihla-Jones, Doreen A; Mayeda, Aimee R

2007-01-01

362

Genetic differences in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and food restriction-induced hyperactivity in three inbred strains of rats.  

PubMed

We used three inbred rat strains known for significant differences in the activity and reactivity of their hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis to stress [Fischer 344 (F344), Brown Norway (BN) and Lewis (Lew) rats] to search for a strain difference in the paradoxical increase in running activity induced by food restriction and to explore the role of the HPA axis in this behaviour. Rats were randomly assigned to either an ad lib sedentary group (AL), a control wheel activity group (ACT), a food restriction-induced hyperactivity group (FR-ACT) group (1.5 h/day ad lib food, 22.5 h/day ad lib wheel access) or a pair-fed group (FR). The BN and Lew rats reached the 25% body weight-loss criterion of FR-ACT (strain effect: F(2,132) = 45.58, P < 10-6) faster than the F344 strain due to higher food restriction-induced running activity (strain effect: F(2,65) = 17.43, P = 0.00001). FR and FR-ACT decreased thymus weight (marker of integrated HPA axis activation) in all strains. In Lew and BN strains, FR-ACT induced a further decrement on thymus weight compared to their FR group. Prefeeding corticosterone levels (15.00 h) increased during the study in BN and Lew FR-ACT rats, but not in F344. Total wheel turns were correlated to both final adipose weight (r = -0.49, P = 0.002) and thymus weight decrement (r = 0.59, P = 0.0001), emphasizing the relationship between fat mass and HPA axis activation in excessive running activity. Increased running in conditions of food restriction and HPA axis activation may be linked at the level of the central nervous system. However, the involvement of corticotrophin-releasing hormone, agouti-related peptide or cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript in behavioural disturbances of FR-ACT rats was excluded (in situ hybridization). We propose that corticosterone may be the link between initial low levels of fat mass and/or rate of fat mass loss (peripheral energy stores) and increased wheel activity, favouring fueling through lipolysis and proteolysis and reinforcing the self starvation via reward mechanisms, thus establishing a deleterious vicious cycle. PMID:16219003

Duclos, M; Bouchet, M; Vettier, A; Richard, D

2005-11-01

363

Detection of QTL for yield-related traits using recombinant inbred lines derived from exotic and elite US Western Shipping melon germplasm.  

PubMed

The inheritance of yield-related traits in melon (Cucumis melo L.; 2n = 2x = 24) is poorly understood, and the mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for such traits has not been reported. Therefore, a set of 81 recombinant inbred lines (RIL) was developed from a cross between the monoecious, highly branched line USDA 846-1 and a standard vining, andromonoecious cultivar, 'Top Mark'. The RIL, parental lines, and three control cultivars ('Esteem', 'Sol Dorado', and 'Hales Best Jumbo') were grown at Hancock, WI and El Centro, CA in 2002, and evaluated for primary branch number (PB), fruit number per plant (FN), fruit weight per plant (FW), average weight per fruit (AWF), and percentage of mature fruit per plot (PMF). A 190-point genetic map was constructed using 114 RAPD, 43 SSR, 32 AFLP markers, and one phenotypic trait. Fifteen linkage groups spanned 1,116 cM with a mean marker interval of 5.9 cM. A total of 37 QTL were detected in both locations (PB = 6, FN = 9, FW = 12, AWF = 5, and PMF = 5). QTL analyses revealed four location-independent factors for PB (pb1.1, pb1.2, pb2.3, and pb10.5), five for FN (fn1.1, fn1.2, fn1.3, fn2.4, and fn8.8), four for FW (fw5.8, fw6.10, fw8.11, and fw8.12), two for AWF (awf1.3 and awf8.5), and one for PMF (pmf10.4). The significant (P

Zalapa, J E; Staub, J E; McCreight, J D; Chung, S M; Cuevas, H

2007-05-01

364

Adult Brainstem Gliomas  

PubMed Central

Brainstem gliomas are uncommon in adults and account for only 1%–2% of intracranial gliomas. They represent a heterogeneous group of tumors that differ from those found in their pediatric counterparts. In adults, a low-grade phenotype predominates, which is a feature that likely explains their better prognosis compared to that in children. Because biopsies are rarely performed, classifications based on the radiological aspect of magnetic resonance imaging results have been proposed to establish treatment strategies and to determine outcomes: (a) diffuse intrinsic low-grade, (b) enhancing malignant glioma, (c) focal tectal gliomas, and (d) exophytic gliomas. Despite significant advances in neuroradiology techniques, a purely radiological classification remains imperfect in the absence of a histological diagnosis. Whereas a biopsy may often be reasonably avoided in the diffuse nonenhancing forms, obtaining histological proof seems necessary in many contrast-enhanced brainstem lesions because of the wide variety of differential diagnoses in adults. Conventional radiotherapy is the standard treatment for diffuse intrinsic low-grade brainstem gliomas in adults (the median survival is 5 years). In malignant brainstem gliomas, radiotherapy is the standard treatment. However, the possible benefit of combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy (temozolomide or other agents) has not been thoroughly evaluated in adults. The role of anti-angiogenic therapies in brainstem gliomas remains to be defined. A better understanding of the biology of these tumors is of primary importance for identifying homogeneous subgroups and for improving therapy options and outcomes. PMID:22382458

Reyes-Botero, German; Mokhtari, Karima; Martin-Duverneuil, Nadine; Delattre, Jean-Yves

2012-01-01

365

Shaken Adult Syndrome  

PubMed Central

IMPORTANCE To establish that the intracranial and ophthalmologic findings present in victims of abusive head trauma can also be seen in shaken adults. OBSERVATIONS We report 2 cases of shaken adults with intracranial and ophthalmologic findings that resulted from repetitive acceleration-deceleration injury. These findings included intracranial hemorrhages, hemorrhages involving the optic nerve sheath, intraretinal and subretinal hemorrhages, and macular folds. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE The intracranial and ophthalmologic findings that are characteristic of abusive head trauma—subdural hemorrhages, optic nerve sheath hemorrhages, and retinal hemorrhages—are generally thought to be limited to young children and infants. Adults may also be victims of shaking abuse, and an ophthalmic examination may be beneficial when shaking is suspected. PMID:24077385

Azari, Amir A.; Kanavi, Mozhgan R.; Saipe, Noah B.; Potter, Heather D.; Albert, Daniel M.; Stier, Michael A.

2014-01-01

366

The adult galactosemic phenotype  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Classic galactosemia is an autosomal recessive disorder due to galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) deficiency.\\u000a Newborn screening and early treatment do not completely prevent tremor, speech deficits, and diminished IQ in both sexes and\\u000a premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) in women. Data on how individuals with galactosemia fare as adults will improve our\\u000a ability to predict disease progression.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Thirty-three adults (mean age?=?32.6?±?11.7 years;

Susan E. Waisbren; Nancy L. Potter; Catherine M. Gordon; Robert C. Green; Patricia Greenstein; Cynthia S. Gubbels; Estela Rubio-Gozalbo; Donald Schomer; Corrine Welt; Vera Anastasoaie; Kali D’Anna; Jennifer Gentile; Chao-Yu Guo; Leah Hecht; Roberta Jackson; Bernadette M. Jansma; Yijun Li; Va Lip; David T. Miller; Michael Murray; Leslie Power; Nicolle Quinn; Frances Rohr; Yiping Shen; Amy Skinder-Meredith; Inge Timmers; Rachel Tunick; Ann Wessel; Bai-Lin Wu; Harvey Levy; Louis Elsas; Gerard T. Berry

367

Reversed light-dark cycle and cage enrichment effects on ethanol-induced deficits in motor coordination assessed in inbred mouse strains with a compact battery of refined tests  

PubMed Central

The laboratory environment existing outside the test situation itself can have a substantial influence on results of some behavioral tests with mice, and the extent of these influences sometimes depends on genotype. For alcohol research, the principal issue is whether genotype-related ethanol effects will themselves be altered by common variations in the lab environment or instead will be essentially the same across a wide range of lab environments. Data from 20 inbred strains were used to reduce an original battery of seven tests of alcohol intoxication to a compact battery of four tests: the balance beam and grip strength with a 1.25 g/kg ethanol dose and the accelerating rotarod and open-field activation tests with 1.75 g/kg. The abbreviated battery was then used to study eight inbred strains housed under a normal or reversed light-dark cycle, or a standard or enriched home cage environment. The light-dark cycle had no discernable effects on any measure of behavior or response to alcohol. Cage enrichment markedly improved motor coordination in most strains. Ethanol-induced motor coordination deficits were robust; the well documented strain-dependent effects of ethanol were not altered by cage enrichment. PMID:21664382

Munn, Elizabeth; Bunning, Mark; Prada, Sofia; Bohlen, Martin; Crabbe, John C.; Wahlsten, Douglas

2011-01-01

368

Studies on the genetic and cellular control of sensitivity to enterotoxins in the sealed adult mouse model.  

PubMed Central

A sealed adult mouse (SAM) model was developed for studies on the effects of cholera enterotoxin (CT). With this system, 38 strains of outbred, inbred, congenic, recombinant, and mutant mice were starved for 24 h, anorectally occluded with cyanoacrylamide ester glue, given CT per os, and sacrificed at 6 h. Fluid accumulation (FA) values were calculated as gut weight to body weight ratios. At a saturating dose of CT (24 micrograms per mouse), FA responses were found to be independent of body weight and gut length. It was found, using recombinant and congenic mice, that mice which possess the H-2k haplotype (homozygous or heterozygous) are 2.5 to 3 times less responsive to CT than animals with the H-2b haplotype. The allele(s) responsible for this affect is located near the K end of the H-2 complex. Inbred and congenic mice given CT intravenously exhibited the same (b = responder, k = nonresponder) pattern in terms of weight loss and death, thus indicating that the H-2 effect is not limited just to the small intestinal epithelium. Mice given sublethal doses of CT intravenously and challenged after conversion to SAM 14 days later showed an immune response inversely related to weight loss (i.e., b haplotypes lost 10 to 15% body weight, recovered, but were not protected against challenge; k haplotypes lost little or no weight but were protected). To examine the possibility of a cellular basis for control of innate responses to CT, responder C57BL/10 (B10) mice were irradiated with 950 rads and immediately reconstituted with bone marrow from (B10 X B10.BR)F1 (nonresponder) mice. The chimeras became nonresponsive to CT when challenged 5 weeks after reconstitution. Reconstituted B10 controls responded normally. Outbred and inbred nude athymic mice also were nonresponsive when compared with normal responder controls. These data demonstrate a genetic basis for resistance to CT and that response and nonresponse is mediated, at least in part, by cells derived from bone marrow. PMID:3533783

Richardson, S H; Kuhn, R E

1986-01-01

369

[Cystic fibrosis in adults].  

PubMed

In the last two decades the life expectancy of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) has improved enormously: it is now estimated at around 30 years, but some patients reach an older age and one third of all patients with CF currently reach adulthood. Once considered a pediatric disease, CF now is a disease of adults too. As a consequence, internists must be highly knowledgeable about all the clinical patterns of this multifarious disease, must be better qualified to recognize its complications and must be highly trained to treat them. This review is dedicated to internists and general practitioners and not to the specialists in the research and clinical field of CF, until now only pediatricians; it briefly summarizes the medical history of CF and the current knowledge at the molecular, genetic and clinical levels about this disease; it reports up-to-date epidemiological data and it illustrates the clinical patterns which are more frequently encountered in adult patients. The true target of this review is to stimulate a greater interest and participation in this clinical field by adult caregivers, as a development of a medical care system for adults with CF is now crucial. Therefore, a growing number of internists will be increasingly involved in providing care for patients with this disorder. PMID:12532561

Monti, Maria Alice; Pizzamiglio, Giovanna; Gervasini, Natale; Secchi, Gian Carlo

2002-01-01

370

Older Adult Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to improve the quality of life for area senior citizens, De Anza College has established an older adult education program which combines adaptive physical education with holistic health care principles to instruct students in relaxation, nutrition, and physical activity. Classes are held in convalescent hospitals, retirement homes,…

Forman, Jeffrey

371

Spatial Reasoning and Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph contains two studies in which the notion of intelligence as one general basic ability is rejected and in its place is posited the existence of a specific type of mental ability described as "spatial intelligence.""Spatial Reasoning and Its Measurement" investigates the process of spatial reasoning in the adult through an analysis of…

La Pierre, Sharon D.; Fellenz, Robert A.

372

Immigration and Adult Transitions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Almost 30 percent of the more than 68 million young adults aged eighteen to thirty-four in the United States today are either foreign born or of foreign parentage. As these newcomers make their transitions to adulthood, say Ruben Rumbaut and Golnaz Komaie, they differ significantly not only from one another but also from their native-parentage…

Rumbaut, Ruben G.; Komaie, Golnaz

2010-01-01

373

Adult Learning and Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These eight conference papers discuss adult learning, instructional theory, and related issues in research and practice. Focusing on processes of educational change, the first paper considers how experienced teachers, educational theorists, and researchers possessing empirically tested knowledge can cooperate in program planning. The next paper…

Grabowski, Stanley M., Ed.

374

How Do Adults Learn?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dialog between Alan Rogers and Knud Illeris debates arguments Rogers made in a previous article about the differences between adult and child learning. Rogers emphasizes differences in teacher-learner relationships. Illeris believes the differences result from different motivations for learning. (SK)

Rogers, Alan; Illeris, Knud

2003-01-01

375

Astronomy Books for Adults  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This reference list has more than 20 recommended astronomy books for older students and adults. For each title, the publisher and publication date is included, along with author name. The list is divided into three subcategories: General Astronomy and Astrophysics, Light and Telescopes, and Digital Imaging and the 3-D Universe.

376

Adult at 18.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational institutions, particularly colleges and universities, will be affected by the change in status of 18 to 21 year olds legally. In Federal elections nationwide they have been given the right to vote. In about one-half of the states in the nation they have been enfranchised as legal adults. The full implications of this change of status…

Ross, Robert W.

377

SELECTING THE ADULT EDUCATOR.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

RESEARCH SOUGHT TO (1) IDENTIFY CRITERIA USED BY DIRECTORS OF PUBLIC SCHOOL ADULT EDUCATION PROGRAMS IN SELECTING THEIR TEACHERS FOR INSTRUCTION IN VOCATIONAL, AVOCATIONAL, CULTURAL, AND ACADEMIC SUBJECTS, (2) VALIDATE SPECIFIC CRITERIA OF SELECTION AND (3) TEST THE CRITERIA. A QUESTIONNAIRE TECHNIQUE IDENTIFIED NINE VALID TEACHER SELECTION…

HEALY, DANIEL J.

378

No Adult Left Behind  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Left out of the conversation for education reform, at least on the level of grade school, secondary school, and college are the adult education programs provided across the country. These programs receive a fraction of the funds and respect as mainstream programs do. However, they are sorely needed in Northwest Indiana. The region's early 21st…

Arndt, Jason

2010-01-01

379

Certificates in Adult Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Certificates are awarded to adult candidates who satisfy the examiners that their standard of ability in everyday English is adequate for them to express themselves in writing and to take an active part in conversations about everyday topics. The examination, which makes use of the techniques of objective testing, is set by a central Examining…

Deutscher Volkshochschul-Verband, Frankfurt (West Germany).

380

Pneumonia - adults - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

... Thoracic Society consensus guidelines on the management of community-acquired pneumonia in adults. Clin Infect Dis . 2007;44:S27-S72. Wunderink RG, Waterer GW. Clinical practice. Community-acquired pneumonia. N Engl J Med . 2014;370:543-551.

381

Adult Psychopathology Psychology 620  

E-print Network

Adult Psychopathology Psychology 620 Professor: Gordon C. Nagayama Hall, Ph.D. Office: 355 Straub Purpose: Psychopathology is central to clinical science and affects the lives of millions of people on psychopathology. We will study psychopathology from conceptual and empirical perspectives. Issues

Lockery, Shawn

382

Adult Psychopathology Psychology 620  

E-print Network

will be evaluated, followed by a consideration of etiological models. Sociocultural contexts of psychopathologyAdult Psychopathology Psychology 620 Professor: Gordon C. Nagayama Hall, Ph.D. Office: 355 Straub: Psychopathology is central to clinical science and affects the lives of millions of people and their families

Lockery, Shawn

383

Adult Psychopathology Psychology 620  

E-print Network

by a consideration of etiological models. Sociocultural contexts of psychopathology will then be studied, includingAdult Psychopathology Psychology 620 Professor: Gordon C. Nagayama Hall, Ph.D. Office: 355 Straub: Psychopathology is central to clinical science. The purpose of this course is to familiarize students

Lockery, Shawn

384

Dance for Older Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dance programs for older adults that encourage exercise and socializing are described in six articles. Program guidelines of the American Alliance Committee on Aging are explained, and other articles emphasize a movement education approach that may involve intergenerational contact. A dance program held in a worship setting is also discussed. (PP)

Pruett, Diane Milhan, Ed.; And Others

1983-01-01

385

Adult Literacy Perspectives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book, intended to serve as a professional reference work, proposes to define the field of Adult Basic Education in its evolution, its contribution to professional education, and the principal problems and issues. The volume contains the following treatises: "Definitions and Evolution of the Concepts" (Thomas); "Selected Chronology of Literacy…

Taylor, Maurice C., Ed.; Draper, James A., Ed.

386

Adult Undergraduates in the Adult Education Literature: Mainstream or Marginal?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted a content analysis of articles published from 1990-2005 in the Adult Education Quarterly, Adult Learning, and The Journal of Continuing Higher Education to determine the frequency with which adult undergraduate students were the focus of the articles. Topics of these articles, as well as their type and scope, were also identified. Results of the present study were compared

Joe F. Donaldson; Allison L. Rentfro

387

Utah Adult Education Services. Adult Education Report 1968-69.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Major purposes for the preparation of this report on public school adult education in Utah were: to provide the public with a description of achievements, trends, and needs, and with meaningful cost accounting information; to make comparisons and analyses of adult education by program, school district, and year; and to provide the adult education…

Utah State Board of Education, Salt Lake City.

388

Adult Education. Annual Report, National Advisory Council on Adult Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recommendations of the President's National Advisory Council on Adult Education are the subject of this first annual report. The activities of the Council during its first year are listed. Recommendations for Action are: (1) a higher budget priority for adult education in Fiscal Year 1973, and the development of a Comprehensive Adult Education…

National Advisory Council on Adult Education, Washington, DC.

389

Adult Gray Jay Captures an Adult Black-capped Chickadee  

Microsoft Academic Search

We observed an adult Gray Jay (Perisoreus canadensis) that had captured an adult Black-capped Chickadee (Poecile atricapillus) in Al- gonquin Provincial Park, Ontario, Canada, during win- ter. Aerial pursuit of small, adult birds and an instance of capture and predation of a juvenile bird by a Gray Jay have been reported previously. Here, we present the first documented case of

DOUGLAS C. TOZER; MARTHA L. ALLEN

2004-01-01

390

General Information about Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia  

MedlinePLUS

Search Español Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®) Last Modified: 06/06/2014 General Information About Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a ...

391

A Conception of Adult Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents concepts of life course, life cycle, life structure, and the adult development of the life structure in early and middle adulthood. Discusses six major issues that must be dealt with by every structural approach to adult development. (PS)

Levinson, Daniel J.

1986-01-01

392

Young Adults' Choices for 1999.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides brief annotations of the 1999 Young Adults Choices List for 1999: 30 trade books for young adults published in 1997 that were chosen by secondary school students in 5 different regions in the United States as their favorites. (SR)

Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 1999

1999-01-01

393

An Adult Reads Chris Crutcher.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers a close look at two novels by Chris Crutcher (whose work is classified as Young Adult literature), revealing complex teenage and adult characters in stories in which love, loyalty, and risk triumph over brutality and weakness. (SR)

Sheffer, Susannah

1997-01-01

394

Alcohol Use and Older Adults  

MedlinePLUS

... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Alcohol Use and Older Adults Alcohol and Aging Adults of any age can have ... sec Click to watch this video What is Alcohol? Alcohol is a chemical found in beverages like ...

395

Act To Promote Adult Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An act of the German Lower Saxony Parliament to promote adult education is presented. It has 24 general provisions relating to the following: purpose of adult education, principle for promotion, conditions for promotions of establishments, independence of adult education, prerequisites and form of acknowledgement of entitlement to promotion,…

1970

396

Adult Learning Center Curriculum Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These curriculum materials were collected from teachers in the Lehman College Adult Learning Center (New York). They include various activities and resources, such as a series of questions about the aims of teaching adults, a list of sources for adult basic education (ABE) materials, poems, and autobiographical materials. Teaching suggestions and…

City Univ. of New York, Bronx. Herbert H. Lehman Coll. Inst. for Literacy Studies.

397

Retention of Adult College Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a review of the literature, some of the reasons traditional college-age students withdraw are applied to adults. Conclusions regarding adults who persist versus those who drop out are offered and suggestions for increasing the retention of adult students are presented. (Author/MLW)

Swift, John Stewart, Jr.

1987-01-01

398

Philosophies of Adult Environmental Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article offers a typology of philosophical traditions in environmental education for adults, based on five philosophical perspectives of adult education described by Elias and Merriam. These five traditions are liberal, progressive, behaviorist, humanist, and radical adult environmental education, respectively. A summary of each philosophy's…

Walter, Pierre

2009-01-01

399

The Future of Adult Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is an interesting assignment to think about the future of adult education. In fact, it is an assignment the author has the graduate students in his "Introduction to Adult Education" class at East Carolina University consider during one of their course units. As a member of the Board of Directors for the American Association for Adult and…

Schmidt, Steven W.

2013-01-01

400

A Conception of Adult Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult development is becoming an important field of study for psychology and other disciplines. Little has been done, however, to conceptualize the nature of adult development and to define the major issues in this field. The author summarizes his own formulations of life course, life cycle, life structure, and the adult development of the life structure in early and middle

Daniel J. Levinson

1986-01-01

401

Benchmarking Adult Mental Health Organizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This paper describes the adult mental health forums that were conducted as part of the National Mental Health Benchmarking Project (NMHBP).Method: Eight adult mental health forums were attended by staff from eight adult mental health services from around the country. The forums provided an avenue for these participants to document their organizations’ performances against previously agreed key performance indicators

Tim Coombs; Tania Geyer; Jane Pirkis

2011-01-01

402

Lead encephalopathy in adults.  

PubMed

Lead poisoning is a common occupational health hazard in developing countries. We report the varied clinical presentation, diagnostic and management issues in two adult patients with lead encephalopathy. Both patients worked in a battery manufacturing unit. Both patients presented with seizures and one patient also complained of abdominal colic and vomiting. Both were anemic and a lead line was present. Blood lead level in both the patients was greater than 25 µg/dl. Magnetic resonance imaging of brain revealed bilateral symmetric involvement of the thalamus, lentiform nucleus in both patients and also the external capsules, sub-cortical white matter in one patient. All these changes, seen as hyperintensities in T2-weighted images suggested demyelination. They were advised avoidance of further exposure to lead and were treated with anti-epileptics; one patient also received D-penicillamine. They improved well on follow-up. Lead encephalopathy is an uncommon but important manifestation of lead toxicity in adults. PMID:24966557

Rao, Janapareddy Vijaya Bhaskara; Vengamma, Bhuma; Naveen, Thota; Naveen, Vandanapu

2014-04-01

403

A Quantitative Analysis of Previously Launched Adults  

E-print Network

Young adults are moving back into their family homes and are now living with their parents. Common terms for the adult children include "previously launched adult" and "incompletely launched adult." I used data from Wave 3 (2001 to 2003...

Farris, Demetrea Nicole

2012-02-14

404

among Chinese adults  

E-print Network

Objectives: To study the dietary behavior and knowledge about dental erosion and self-reported symptoms that can be related to dental erosion among Chinese adults in Hong Kong. Methods: Chinese adults aged 25-45 years were randomly selected from a list of registered telephone numbers generated by computer. A telephone survey was administered to obtain information on demographic characteristics, dietary habits, dental visits, and knowledge of and presence of self-reported symptoms that can be related to dental erosion. Results: A total of 520 participants were interviewed (response rate, 75%; sampling error, ± 4.4%) and their mean age was 37. Most respondents (79%) had ever had caries, and about two thirds (64%) attended dental check-ups at least once a year. Respondents had a mean of 5.4 meals per day and 36 % had at least 6 meals per day. Fruit (89%) and lemon tea/water (41%) were the most commonly consumed acidic food and beverage. When asked if they ever noticed changes in their teeth, most respondents (92%) said they had experienced change that can be related to erosion. However, many (71%) had never heard about dental erosion and 53 % mixed up dental erosion with dental caries. Conclusion: Hong Kong Chinese adults have frequent intake of food and many have experienced symptoms that can be related to dental erosion. Their level of awareness of and knowledge about dental erosion is generally low, despite

Ch Chu; Karie Kl Pang; Edward Cm Lo

405

ENSAYO DE DOS MÉTODOS DE EXTRACCIÓN DE ADN DE RATÓN PARA SER USADO EN EL CONTROL GENÉTICO DE RATONES CONSANGUÍNEOS MEDIANTE LA REACCIÓN EN CADENA DE LA POLIMERASA (PCR) Assay of Two Extraction Methods of DNA of Mouse by Using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) For to Make Monitoring Genetic Inbred Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microsatellite genetic markers are an important tool for the screening of genetic purity in inbred strains of mice.The first step to carry out this study is to obtain DNA samples of a quality and quantity that make analysis with molecular biology methods pos- sible. In this investigation we assayed two methods of DNA ex- traction: one of them using samples

Rosa De Jesús; Nancy Moreno; José A. Martínez

2005-01-01

406

Visuomotor Binding in Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Action integration is the process through which actions performed on a stimulus and perceptual aspects of the stimulus become bound as a unitary object. This process appears to be controlled by the dopaminergic system in the prefrontal cortex, an area that is known to decrease in volume and dopamine functioning in older adults. Although the decline should lead to reduced action integration in older adults, we found equivalent integration in both young and older adults. This indicates that older adults may be able to compensate for their dopaminergic deficiencies by activating additional neural networks that are not used by young adults. PMID:20810199

Bloesch, Emily K.; Abrams, Richard A.

2010-01-01

407

Intestinal lymphangiectasia in adults  

PubMed Central

Intestinal lymphangiectasia in the adult may be characterized as a disorder with dilated intestinal lacteals causing loss of lymph into the lumen of the small intestine and resultant hypoproteinemia, hypogammaglobulinemia, hypoalbuminemia and reduced number of circulating lymphocytes or lymphopenia. Most often, intestinal lymphangiectasia has been recorded in children, often in neonates, usually with other congenital abnormalities but initial definition in adults including the elderly has become increasingly more common. Shared clinical features with the pediatric population such as bilateral lower limb edema, sometimes with lymphedema, pleural effusion and chylous ascites may occur but these reflect the severe end of the clinical spectrum. In some, diarrhea occurs with steatorrhea along with increased fecal loss of protein, reflected in increased fecal alpha-1-antitrypsin levels, while others may present with iron deficiency anemia, sometimes associated with occult small intestinal bleeding. Most lymphangiectasia in adults detected in recent years, however, appears to have few or no clinical features of malabsorption. Diagnosis remains dependent on endoscopic changes confirmed by small bowel biopsy showing histological evidence of intestinal lymphangiectasia. In some, video capsule endoscopy and enteroscopy have revealed more extensive changes along the length of the small intestine. A critical diagnostic element in adults with lymphangiectasia is the exclusion of entities (e.g. malignancies including lymphoma) that might lead to obstruction of the lymphatic system and “secondary” changes in the small bowel biopsy. In addition, occult infectious (e.g. Whipple’s disease from Tropheryma whipplei) or inflammatory disorders (e.g. Crohn’s disease) may also present with profound changes in intestinal permeability and protein-losing enteropathy that also require exclusion. Conversely, rare B-cell type lymphomas have also been described even decades following initial diagnosis of intestinal lymphangiectasia. Treatment has been historically defined to include a low fat diet with medium-chain triglyceride supplementation that leads to portal venous rather than lacteal uptake. A number of other pharmacological measures have been reported or proposed but these are largely anecdotal. Finally, rare reports of localized surgical resection of involved areas of small intestine have been described but follow-up in these cases is often limited. PMID:21364842

Freeman, Hugh James; Nimmo, Michael

2011-01-01

408

Human Metapneumovirus in Adults  

PubMed Central

Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a relative newly described virus. It was first isolated in 2001 and currently appears to be one of the most significant and common human viral infections. Retrospective serologic studies demonstrated the presence of HMPV antibodies in humans more than 50 years earlier. Although the virus was primarily known as causative agent of respiratory tract infections in children, HMPV is an important cause of respiratory infections in adults as well. Almost all children are infected by HMPV below the age of five; the repeated infections throughout life indicate transient immunity. HMPV infections usually are mild and self-limiting, but in the frail elderly and the immunocompromised patients, the clinical course can be complicated. Since culturing the virus is relatively difficult, diagnosis is mostly based on a nucleic acid amplification test, such as reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. To date, no vaccine is available and treatment is supportive. However, ongoing research shows encouraging results. The aim of this paper is to review the current literature concerning HMPV infections in adults, and discuss recent development in treatment and vaccination. PMID:23299785

Haas, Lenneke E. M.; Thijsen, Steven F. T.; van Elden, Leontine; Heemstra, Karen A.

2013-01-01

409

A conception of adult development  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: Adult development is becoming,an important field of study for psychology,and other disciplines. Little has been done, however, to conceptualize the nature of adult development,and to define the major,issues in this field. The author summarizes,his own formulations,of life course, life cycle, life structure, and the adult development of the life structure in early and middle,adulthood. He then discusses six major,issues

Daniel J. Levinson

1986-01-01

410

Effects of child and adult sexual abuse on adult sexuality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The differential effects of child and adult sexual abuse on adult sexual functioning were examined. The Golombok Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction (GRISS) and a sexual experiences questionnaire were administered to 201 psychology students at the University of South Florida, 175 of whom were retained in the study. GRISS variables that were analyzed consisted of anorgasmia, sexual avoidance, sexual dissatisfaction,

Marla Green Bartoi; Bill N. Kinder

1998-01-01

411

The Adults' Perspective within Adult-Child Relationship in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the assumption that childhood is a social construct, this qualitative study explores how children across ages, are perceived by adults. Using modified grounded theory approach, seven adults, teachers by profession, were informally interviewed over several sessions, supplemented by TAT-like picture cards. Theoretical coding led to the extraction of the following key themes. To begin with, participants divided childhood

Rachita Bisht

412

Adults with Disabilities in Adult Basic Education Centers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Usable responses from 54% of adult-basic-education providers (n=555) in nine states identified how they determine whether adult clients have disabilities, the number with disabilities, and the total with disabilities in the region. Inner city/urban and smaller programs reported significantly more clients with disabilities. (SK)

White, Warren J.; Polson, Cheryl J.

1999-01-01

413

Adult medulloblastoma: multiagent chemotherapy.  

PubMed

In this study, the records of 17 adult patients with medulloblastoma treated with craniospinal radiation and 1 of 2 multiagent chemotherapy protocols were reviewed for progression-free survival, overall survival, and toxicity, and the patients were compared with each other and with similarly treated children and adults. Records of patients treated at 3 institutions were reviewed. Seventeen medulloblastoma patients (11 female, 6 male) with a median age of 23 years (range, 18-47 years) were treated with surgery, craniospinal radiation (CSRT) plus local boost, and 1 of 2 adjuvant chemotherapy regimens. All tumors were infratentorial (10 in 4th ventricle and 7 in left or right hemisphere). Ten patients presented with hydrocephalus, and 7 of them were shunted. Eight patients had gross total resection, 7 had subtotal resection (>50% removed), and 2 had partial resection (<50% removed). Postoperatively, 3 patients had positive cytology and 3 had positive spinal MRI. Five patients were classified as good risk and 12 were classified as poor risk (Chang staging system). Ten patients were treated with the "Packer protocol," consisting of CSRT plus weekly vincristine followed by 8 cycles of cisplatin, lomustine, and vincristine. Seven patients were treated with the Pediatric Oncology Group (POG) protocol, consisting of alternating courses of cisplatin/etoposide and cyclophosphamide/vincristine, followed by CSRT. Eight of 17 patients relapsed, with all 8 relapsing at the primary site. Other relapse sites included the leptomeninges (5), bone (1), and brain (1). The estimated median relapse-free survival (Kaplan-Meier) for all patients was 48 months (95% confidence interval, >26 months to infinity). Median relapse-free survival for patients on the Packer protocol was 26 months, and for those on the POG regimen was 48 months (P = 0.410). Five of 10 on the Packer protocol were relapse-free, while 4 of 7 were relapse-free on the POG regimen. Two patients relapsed during chemotherapy and 6 relapsed after completing all therapy at 18, 18, 26, 30, 40, and 48 months. The estimated median survival of all patients was 56 months (95% confidence interval, 27 to infinity) with 11 patients alive; for the Packer protocol, median survival was 36 months, and for the POG protocol, it was 57 months (P = 0.058). The hazard ratio was 0 (95% confidence interval, 0 to infinity). Toxicity during the Packer protocol was moderately severe, with only 1 of 10 patients able to complete all therapy. Two patients had severe abdominal pain during CSRT + vincristine, and 5 had peripheral neuropathy during vincristine therapy. Hearing loss (>20 dB) occurred in 7, neutropenia (<500 microl) in 6, thrombocytopenia (<50,000 microl) in 6, nephrotoxicity (>25% decrease by creatinine clearance) in 2, and decreased pulmonary function (diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide decrease >40%) in 1. On the POG protocol, only 1 patient had persistent nausea and vomiting, 2 had peripheral neuropathy, and 3 had hearing deficit (>20 dB) or tinnitus. The POG and Packer protocols did not have a statistically significant difference in relapse-free or overall survival because of the small sample size. The POG protocol seemed to have less nonhematologic toxicity. Adults on the Packer protocol appeared to have shorter median survival and greater toxicity than did children. To know whether adding adjuvant chemotherapy to craniospinal radiation in adult therapy increases relapse-free and overall survival, we must await the results of a larger randomized controlled clinical trial. PMID:11305414

Greenberg, H S; Chamberlain, M C; Glantz, M J; Wang, S

2001-01-01

414

Adult feminine hygiene practices.  

PubMed

Adult feminine hygiene practices are the focus of this exploratory descriptive study. In a sample of 193 women, the typical respondent lived in the Southeast and was a single student who was 23 years of age, and White. Body cleansing, feminine hygiene, and menses management practices were examined. It was found that handwashing varied according to bodily involvement or specific feminine hygiene practices. Assorted menses management products were used for menses management and were used when the woman was not menstruating. The results of this study suggest that it might be possible for health care providers to teach women safe and economical health care practices, such as not douching and handwashing before and after use of menses management products to prevent infections. PMID:8771856

Czerwinski, B S

1996-08-01

415

SUICIDE and OLDER ADULTS  

E-print Network

The highest rate of suicide in the nation is among persons 65 years of age and older. Of those suicides, 85 percent were males. In fact, the rate of suicides in late life is 7.7 times greater among males than females. Elderly white men are at the highest risk of suicide. The rate for Illinois is comparable to the national rate. In comparison to age groups, persons 70 years of age or older have the highest suicide rate (12 per 100,000), which is 2.0 times the rate for the 15 to 19 year age group. Older adults are disproportionately impacted by suicide. Nationally, they account for 15.9 percent of suicides; however, they only make

unknown authors

416

Adult autoimmune enteropathy  

PubMed Central

Recent reports have suggested that autoimmune enteropathy involving the small bowel may occur in adults as well as in children. Apparently, the endoscopic and histological changes are similar to celiac disease before treatment, but these are not altered by any form of dietary restriction, including a gluten-free diet. As in celiac disease, histologic changes in gastric and colonic biopsies have also been recorded. Anti-enterocyte antibodies detected with immunofluorescent methods have been reported by a few laboratories, but these antibodies appear not to be specific and may simply represent epiphenomena. A widely available, reproducible and quantitative anti-enterocyte antibody assay is needed that could be applied in small bowel disorders that have the histological appearance of celiac disease, but fail to respond to a gluten-free diet. PMID:18300339

Freeman, Hugh James

2008-01-01

417

Adult Learning and Theory Building: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The one factor that all adult education agencies, programs, and professionals have in common is that all deal with adults in learning situations. Perhaps that is why there has been more theory building in adult learning than in other areas of adult education. It is the adult learner, after all, which distinguishes this field from other areas of education. This

Sharan B. Merriam

1987-01-01

418

READING INTERESTS OF OLDER ADULTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a paucity of research concerning the reading interests of older adults. However, what exists tends to support the conclusion that these adults do not enjoy science fiction books, depressing books, books that are frank about sex or contain violence, or books that have confusing plots or many characters. They have less need for vocational or professional reading materials

Rhonda L. Harvey; Donnie Dutton

1979-01-01

419

Death of an Adult Child  

MedlinePLUS

... or her education, establishes a career and develops adult relationships. By the time a child has reached adulthood, ... experience guilt for having outlived their child. When adult children die as the result of suicide, drug use, driving drunk, AIDS, or other causes ...

420

Predictive Modeling in Adult Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current economic crisis, a growing workforce, the increasing lifespan of workers, and demanding, complex jobs have made organizations highly selective in employee recruitment and retention. It is therefore important, to the adult educator, to develop models of learning that better prepare adult learners for the workplace. The purpose of…

Lindner, Charles L.

2011-01-01

421

Creating Adult Basic Education Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adult basic education programs must teach the "social living skills" disadvantaged adults need, as well as basic literacy skills. In creating an ABE program, one must first assess the needs of the target population--through surveys, group meetings, an advisory council of members of the target population, demographic studies, and consideration of…

Harris, Dolores M.

422

Segmenting the Adult Education Market.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes market segmentation and how the principles of segmentation can be applied to the adult education market. Indicates that applying segmentation techniques to adult education programs results in programs that are educationally and financially satisfying and serve an appropriate population. (JOW)

Aurand, Tim

1994-01-01

423

Technology-Assisted Adult Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Alliance for Research and Development in Applied Learning Technology, an effort of the University of Minnesota and the Wilson Learning Corporation to promote cooperation in research, training, and development. The alliance sponsors projects that address questions on adult learning and technological applications facilitating adult

Carrier, Carol A.

1987-01-01

424

Travel and Adult Transformative Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This phenomenological research study examines the lived experience of individual adult transformation in the context of travel. Adults throughout history have experienced profound personal and perception changes as a result of significant travel events. Transformative learning occurs through experience, crisis, and reflection, all of which are…

Lindstrom, Steven K.

2011-01-01

425

Children's and Young Adult Librarians  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Yolith Omnibus Bill passed during he WHLIS in July 1991, includes oprovisions for six separate grants for children's, school, and young adult services in libraries. Funding cuts have made developing alternate sources of revenue vital for the survival of existing librarv services and the develooment of new ones. Are children's and young adult librarians trained in writing grant proposals?

Patricia J. Davis

1994-01-01

426

INDIVIDUAL MODELS OF ADULT LEARNING  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter introduces the use of Dynamic Concept Analysis, DCA, developed by the author (Chapter 1), in building conceptual models of adult-learning pro- cesses. The same learning situation may be experienced differently by different individuals. The aim of the paper is to show that not only is there a need to find general models of adult learning, there is also

Seppo Kontiainen

427

Adult Transition Program without Walls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Best practices in adult transition special education for moderate to severe students suggest student-centered planning that maximizes independence in adult life. Based on the above sources, school districts and governing boards would best serve moderate to severe transition special education students with increasing integration into the community…

Moberg, Eric

2010-01-01

428

ANNUAL ADULT SURVIVAL RATES OF  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purposes of this study were (1) to determine annual adult survival rates from banding data for each sex of the Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater), Common Grackle (Quiscalus quiscula), Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus), and Starling (Sturnus vulgaris), and (2) to compare survival rates calculated from band returns with survival rates calculated from band recoveries. Others have studied annual adult survival

DON P. FANKHAIJSER

429

Gangsta Rap and Adult Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adult education instructors and administrators, who typically are not members of the hip-hop generation, have little or no background, sensitivity, or understanding of the influence and significance of black popular culture and music for young African American and white adult learners. (Contains 1 note.)

Guy, Talmadge C.

2004-01-01

430

The Emerging Adult Learner: 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Perspectives on the adult nontraditional student are offered. Nontraditional students usually have multiple commitments, are not campus focused, and participate in informal learning. Needs of the nontraditional/adult learner concern the following areas: service and support, personal/social development, academic preparation, academic…

Lightner, Ardyce S.

431

Adult Acne: Effective Treatment Available  

MedlinePLUS

... can minimize hormonal fluctuations in women include some oral contraceptive pills , spironolactone , and hormone replacement therapy . These therapies are not appropriate for every woman and should never be taken during pregnancy. ... skills. An oral antibiotic also may be part of an adult’s ...

432

Journey to International Adult Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author describes her journey to international adult education and shares some lessons learned from her journey. The author developed her interest in international adult education through the Scientific Research Institute of International and Comparative Education (SRIICE) at Beijing Normal University and discovered its…

Sun, Qi

2005-01-01

433

Prescribing Exercise for Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

To inform the development of educational programming designed to teach providers appropriate methods of exercise prescription for older adults, the authors conducted a survey of 177 physicians, physician assistants, and nurse practitioners (39% response rate). The survey was designed to better understand the prevalence of exercise prescriptions, attitudes, barriers, and educational needs of primary care practitioners toward older adults. Forty-seven

Jason A. Dauenhauer; Carol A. Podgorski; Jurgis Karuza

2006-01-01

434

Re-thinking Adult Literacy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to examine the literature on literacy and adult basic education and to identify various issues, trends, problems, possible solutions, and basic principles that might guide programs and policies in adult literacy and basic education in Canada. More than 120 documents were examined, raising such issues as what is literacy and…

Draper, James A.

435

Perceived Stress among Deaf Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Present Article describes the effectiveness of stress management classes in decreasing perceived stress among Deaf adults. Deaf adults may experience unique stressors, in addition to circumstances associated with increased stress in the general population. The Perceived Stress Scale (S. Cohen, Kamarck, & Mermelstein, 1983) was used as a…

Jones, Elaine G.; Ouellette, Sue E.; Kang, Youngmi

2006-01-01

436

Perceived Stress Among Deaf Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

HE PRESENT ARTICLE describes the effectiveness of stress management classes in decreasing perceived stress among Deaf adults. Deaf adults may experience unique stressors, in addition to circumstances associated with increased stress in the general population. The Perceived Stress Scale (S. Cohen, Kamarck, & Mermelstein, 1983) was used as a pretest and posttest measure for participants in a study of the

Sue E. Ouellette; Youngmi Kang

2006-01-01

437

Service Learning and Older Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Service learning has focused on elementary-secondary and higher education, but not older adults due to a lack of adult education program experience, resources, or interest. Programs such as Elderhostel, Senior Service Corps, Institutes for Learning in Retirement, and Life Options Centers show how elders can benefit from service learning. (Contains…

Lewis, Melinda

2002-01-01

438

Books for Adult New Readers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is an annotated bibliography of recommended print materials for English-speaking adults reading at the seventh grade level or below. (Sixty percent of the titles are at fifth grade level or below). The titles were selected for their broad appeal to the average adult new reader. In the selection, special consideration was given to…

O'Brien, Roberta Luther, Comp.

439

Adult Academy Tutor Training Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook is for volunteer tutors, student interns, and VISTA volunteers working with adult basic education (ABE) and English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) learners. The community-based handbook contains information about adult literacy and tutoring--what tutors do, who the learners are, and how the literacy learning process works. Introductory…

Isserlis, Janet; And Others

440

Tough Times for Adult Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The key message of NIACE's 2011 survey of adult participation in learning is that recession is bad for lifelong learning for anyone over the age of 25. The survey highlights the central importance of workplaces as sites of adult learning--and the challenges posed to a learning society when opportunities to learn reduce. It shows that the gap…

Tuckett, Alan; Aldridge, Fiona

2011-01-01

441

Cytomegalovirus disease in immunocompetent adults.  

PubMed

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a highly prevalent and globally distributed virus. CMV infection in healthy adults is usually asymptomatic or causes a mild mononucleosis-like syndrome. CMV disease causes significant morbidity and mortality in neonates and severely immunocompromised adults. CMV disease can present with a wide range of manifestations, with colitis being the most common. The incidence of severe CMV disease in immunocompetent adults appears to be greater than previously thought, which may be partly due to immune dysfunction related to comorbidities such as kidney disease or diabetes mellitus. CMV disease can mimic an array of alternative diagnoses and pose a significant diagnostic challenge, especially in immunocompetent adults, leading to delayed diagnosis, adverse health outcomes and unnecessary financial expense. Non-invasive testing for CMV is widely available and can facilitate early diagnosis if used appropriately. Although limited, current evidence suggests that targeted antiviral therapy with ganciclovir or valganciclovir is appropriate for severe CMV disease in immunocompetent adults. PMID:25390262

Lancini, Daniel; Faddy, Helen M; Flower, Robert; Hogan, Chris

2014-11-17

442

Childhood Intelligence and Adult Obesity  

E-print Network

Objective: Recent studies conclude childhood intelligence has no direct effect on adult obesity net of education, but evolutionary psychological theories suggest otherwise. Design and Methods: A population (n 17,419) of British babies has been followed since birth in 1958 in a prospectively longitudinal study. Childhood general intelligence is measured at 7, 11, and 16, and adult BMI and obesity are measured at 51. Results: Childhood general intelligence has a direct effect on adult BMI, obesity, and weight gain, net of education, earnings, mother’s BMI, father’s BMI, childhood social class, and sex. More intelligent children grow up to eat more healthy foods and exercise more frequently as adults. Conclusion: Childhood intelligence has a direct effect on adult obesity unmediated by education or earnings. General intelligence decreases BMI only in adulthood when individuals have complete control over what they eat.

Satoshi Kanazawa

443

Older adults challenged financially when adult children move home.  

PubMed

This policy brief looks at the financial burdens imposed on older Californians when adult children return home, often due to a crisis not of their own making, to live with their parents. The findings show that on average in California, the amount of money that older adults need in order to maintain a minimally decent standard of living while supporting one adult child in their home increases their expenses by a minimum of 50 percent. Low-income older adults are usually on fixed incomes, so helping an adult child can provide the child with a critical safety net but at the cost of the parents' own financial well-being. Policy approaches to assisting this vulnerable population of older adults include implementing reforms to increase Supplemental Security Income (SSI), improving the availability of affordable housing, assuring that all eligible nonelderly adults obtain health insurance through health care reform's expansion of Medi-Cal and subsidies, and increasing food assistance through SNAP and senior meal programs. PMID:24804354

Wallace, Steven P; Padilla-Frausto, D Imelda

2014-02-01

444

Stumbling over obstacles in older adults compared to young adults.  

PubMed

Falls are a major problem in older adults. Many falls occur because of stumbling. The aim of the present study is to investigate stumbling reactions of older adults and to compare them with young adults. While subjects walked on a treadmill, a rigid obstacle unexpectedly obstructed the forward sway of the foot. In general, older adults used the same movement strategies as young adults ("elevating" and "lowering"). The electromyographic responses were categorized according to latencies: short-latency (about 45 ms, RP1), medium-latency (about 80 ms, RP2), and long-latency responses (about 110 ms, RP3; about 160 ms, RP4). Latencies of RP1 responses increased by about 6 ms and of RP2 by 10-19 ms in older adults compared with the young. Amplitudes of RP1 were similar for both age groups, whereas amplitudes of RP2-RP4 could differ. In the early-swing elevating strategy (perturbed foot directly lifted over the obstacle) older adults showed smaller responses in ipsilateral upper-leg muscles (biceps femoris and rectus femoris). This was related to shorter swing durations, more shortened step distances, and more failures in clearing the obstacle. In parallel, RP4 activity in the contralateral biceps femoris was enhanced, possibly pointing to a higher demand for trunk stabilization. In the late-swing lowering strategy (foot placed on the treadmill before clearing the obstacle) older adults showed lower RP2-RP3 responses in most muscles measured. However, kinematic responses were similar to those of the young. It is concluded that the changes in muscular responses in older adults induce a greater risk of falling after tripping, especially in early swing. PMID:15615837

Schillings, A M; Mulder, Th; Duysens, J

2005-08-01

445

Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Cancers In Young People Diagnosis ... Dictionary Search for Clinical Trials NCI Publications Español Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer: Cancers Affecting Young ...

446

Vitalistic thinking in adults.  

PubMed

Vitalistic thinking has traditionally been associated with reasoning about biological phenomena. The current research aimed to investigate a broader range of vitalistic thinking than previously studied. Esoteric notions of 'energy' are frequently used by individuals when making causal attributions for strange occurrences, and previous literature has linked such thinking with paranormal, magical, and superstitious beliefs. Two experiments are described that aim to investigate whether adults are vitalistic when asked to make causal judgments, and whether this can be predicted by thinking styles and prior paranormal belief. Experiment 1 asked participants to rate three causal options (one of which was vitalistic) for six vignettes. Scores on one dimension of paranormal belief (New Age Philosophy) and analytical thinking significantly predicted vitalism, but scores on intuitive thinking and Traditional Paranormal Beliefs did not. Experiment 2 extended the findings by asking participants to generate their own causal responses. Again, paranormal belief was found to be the best predictor of vitalism, but this time Traditional Paranormal Beliefs were associated with vitalistic responses whilst both intuitive and analytical thinking were unable to significantly predict classification. Results challenge previous findings, suggesting that vitalistic thinking may operate differently when applied to everyday causal reasoning. PMID:24094281

Wilson, Stuart

2013-11-01

447

Disseminated encephalomyelitis in adults.  

PubMed

Disseminated encephalomyelitis (DEM) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease that is common in children, but also appears in adults. It is often misdiagnosed as multiple sclerosis (MS) from which it differs in its clinical presentation, course of disease and prognosis. Some aspects of DEM overlap with neuromyelitis optica (NMO), another demyelination disease of CNS that was for a long time regarded as part of the MS spectrum, until discovery of the aquaporin-4 antibodies, claimed to be specific for NMO. The clinical symptoms of both may be similar, and their clinical courses may be monophasic or multiphasic, mild but also very aggressive. Neuroimaging in both diseases is characterized by large demyelinating lesions in the spinal cord extending over several segments, and/or in the brain often involving the locations of astrocytes water channels. Our cases of monophasic, multiphasic and recurrent DEM, invoking possible causative triggers, point to the conclusion that DEM has to be regarded as a separate disease; its similarities with NMO raise the expectations that other specific autoantibodies will be identified to explain DEM and its variations. PMID:18703274

Brinar, Vesna V; Poser, Charles M

2008-11-01

448

Pineoblastoma in adults.  

PubMed

This is the first report of a series of adults (> 16 years of age) with pineoblastomas who had their entire neuraxis staged at the time of diagnosis. Between 1975 and 1992, seven men and four women with histologically proven pineoblastomas were evaluated at the University of California, San Francisco. The median age at diagnosis was 36 years (range, 17-59 yr). All patients presented with symptomatic hydrocephalus. One patient had a complete surgical resection, eight had subtotal resections, and two had biopsies only. One patient refused any treatment or follow-up review and died 6 months after diagnosis. The five patients with positively staged disease had progression either focally or in the spine 8 to 49 months (median, 10 mo) after initial diagnosis and died 1 to 20 months after recurrence; the median overall survival time from the date of surgery was 30 months. In contrast, all five patients with negatively staged disease were alive without disease progression after a median of 26 months of follow-up. Our retrospective review shows that the extent of disease at diagnosis seems to be an important prognostic factor for pineoblastomas, as is true for medulloblastomas and other primitive neuroectodermal tumors. Initial staging should include examination of the cerebrospinal fluid and magnetic resonance imaging of the spine. Although patients with pineoblastomas are often treated with adjuvant systemic chemotherapy after craniospinal irradiation, the benefits of this approach are unclear. PMID:7501100

Chang, S M; Lillis-Hearne, P K; Larson, D A; Wara, W M; Bollen, A W; Prados, M D

1995-09-01

449

Adult Hirschprung disease: radiographic findings.  

PubMed

Hirschprung disease is usually diagnosed in infancy. Occasionally patients reach adulthood without diagnosis or treatment. Four cases of adult Hirschprung disease are described. The principal radiographic findings are a markedly dilated, feces-filled colon above the zone of transition; a narrowed rectum; a cone- or funnel-shaped zone of transition; and a mosaic colonic pattern caused by collapsed redundant mucosa after colonic cleansing. In an adult, identification on a barium enema examination of an abrupt, smooth transition zone in the rectum with proximal colonic dilatation, in conjunction with an appropriate clinical history, should suggest the diagnosis of adult Hirschprung disease. PMID:3737900

Mindelzun, R E; Hicks, S M

1986-09-01

450

Cancer: Unique to Older Adults  

MedlinePLUS

... cope with the diagnosis of cancer. When older adults with cancer are depressed, they often report more problems with their symptoms, relationships, and general outlook. They are more likely to ...

451

Reaching the Least Educated Adult.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stating that the poorest and least educated adults participate the least in educational programs, the author considers lessons learned through large-scale demonstration projects that use innovative recruitment and programing techniques. (SK)

Irish, Gladys H.

1980-01-01

452

Young Adults, Mortality, and Employment  

PubMed Central

Objective This study assessed the relationship between employment status and mortality over a two-year period among a nationally representative sample of young adults aged 18–24 years (n=121,478, representing over 21 million US young adults). Methods Using data from the 1986–2000 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) and its public-use mortality follow-up through 2002, mortality after two- year follow-up (for each individual) was regressed on employment status at baseline, controlling for gender, race, education, season, and survey design. Results Having been employed was associated with significantly lower risks of all-cause, homicide, and “other-cause” mortality (adjusted odds ratios range:0.51–0.60). Conclusion Working appears to be a factor that may prevent premature mortality among young adults; increasing unemployment may result in increased mortality risks among young adults in the future. PMID:20431416

Davila, EP; Christ, SL; Caban Martinez, A; Lee, DJ; Arheart, KA; LeBlanc, WG; McCollister, KE; Clarke, T; Zimmerman, FJ; Goodman, E; Muntaner, C; Fleming, LE

2014-01-01

453

Adult Learners' Week in Australia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Promotional materials and activities for Australia's Adult Learners Week, which are shaped by a variety of stakeholders , include media strategies and a website. Activities are evaluated using a market research company and website and telephone hotline statistics. (SK)

Cross, John

2002-01-01

454

Collaborative Writing for Young Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a dialogue between the authors on what it is like to collaborate in writing young adult fiction. Discusses their writing processes, how they come up with ideas for their books, and how they get the books published. (RS)

Hadley, Lee; Irwin, Annabelle

1992-01-01

455

Understanding Adult Overweight and Obesity  

MedlinePLUS

... free Adobe Acrobat Reader Understanding Adult Overweight and Obesity How can I tell if I am at ... Program. ? Back to Top How are overweight and obesity treated? The best way to control your weight ...

456

Renal Disease and Adult Vaccination  

MedlinePLUS

... and have not gotten this vaccine or have immunity to these diseases Varicella vaccine to protect against ... gotten two doses of this vaccine or have immunity to this disease Learn about adult vaccination and ...

457

Liver Disease and Adult Vaccination  

MedlinePLUS

... and have not gotten this vaccine or have immunity to these diseases Varicella vaccine to protect against ... gotten two doses of this vaccine or have immunity to this disease Learn about adult vaccination and ...

458

New Literacy Tools for Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an Australian national study of technologies used for adult literacy: traditional technologies (print, radio, television, audio and videotape, teleconferencing, and computers) and new generation technologies (laser discs, CD-ROM, videodiscs, and hypermedia). (SK)

Anderson, Jonathan

1990-01-01

459

Dementia: Unique to Older Adults  

MedlinePLUS

... Tips Latest Research Getting More Help Related Topics Advance Directives Anxiety Choosing Wisely Choosing Wisely 2 Delirium Depression Diabetes Fecal Incontinence High Blood ... are physicians who have advanced training in the care of older adults, including ...

460

Multitasking in adults with ADHD.  

PubMed

Adults with ADHD have problems in everyday multitasking situations presumably because of deficits in executive functions. The present study aims to find out (a) whether adults with ADHD show deficient multitasking performance in a standardized task, (b) how they perceive the multitasking situation, and (c) which task structure might be beneficial for them as compared with adults without ADHD. Therefore, we experimentally compared task performance, mood, and motivation in a group of 45 men with ADHD (M-age = 34.47, SD = 9.95) with a comparison group of 42 men without ADHD (M-age = 31.12, SD = 10.59) in three conditions: (a) a multitasking paradigm, (b) an interleaving condition in which tasks had to be performed without planning or monitoring, and (c) a non-interleaving condition. Our results showed no impaired multitasking performance in adults with ADHD. However, they showed better mood and more motivation in the non-interleaving condition. PMID:21461781

Gawrilow, Caterina; Merkt, Julia; Goossens-Merkt, Heinrich; Bodenburg, Sebastian; Wendt, Mike

2011-09-01

461

Walking Tips for Older Adults  

MedlinePLUS

... A Print Share Glossary previous page Related Topics Balance Problems Falls Prevention Foot Problems Related Documents PDF Walking Tips for Older Adults Download Join our e-newsletter! Resources Walking Tips ...

462

Hostile attributional bias in adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tested the validity of hostile attributional bias as a cognitive correlate of anger\\/aggression in adults. Findings\\u000a generalized hostile attributional bias into adult populations in ambiguous situations, and extended the construct into benign\\u000a and hostile situations. Support was seen for the notion that hostile attributional bias is a separate functional entity from\\u000a simple attribution of intentionality in negative social

James Epps; Philip C. Kendall

1995-01-01

463

Adult Learning Program Service (ALPS).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Adult Learning Program Service (ALPS) aims to reach eight and a half million adults between ages 25 and 44 and teach them reading and math skills they can use at home and on the job. ALPS proposes to reach those who have never finished high school but do have at least a sixth-grade reading level. They could use their new skills to prepare for…

Carlisle, Robert

464

Research Methods in Adult Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The study of adult development is grounded in the principles of scientific inquiry. Information concerning aging is gathered\\u000a in the same ways as in other sciences, such as biology, psychology, sociology, anthropology, and the medical and allied health\\u000a fields. Adult developmentalists have the same problems as other scientists: finding appropriate control or comparison groups,\\u000a limiting generalizations to the types of

JOHN C. CAVANAUGHAND; Susan Krauss Whitbourne