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Sample records for adult inbred mhc-defined

  1. Dynamics of cell proliferation in the adult dentate gyrus of two inbred strains of mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, N. L.; Nowakowski, R. S.

    2002-01-01

    The output potential of proliferating populations in either the developing or the adult nervous system is critically dependent on the length of the cell cycle (T(c)) and the size of the proliferating population. We developed a new approach for analyzing the cell cycle, the 'Saturate and Survive Method' (SSM), that also reveals the dynamic behaviors in the proliferative population and estimates of the size of the proliferating population. We used this method to analyze the proliferating population of the adult dentate gyrus in 60 day old mice of two inbred strains, C57BL/6J and BALB/cByJ. The results show that the number of cells labeled by exposure to BUdR changes dramatically with time as a function of the number of proliferating cells in the population, the length of the S-phase, cell division, the length of the cell cycle, dilution of the S-phase label, and cell death. The major difference between C57BL/6J and BALB/cByJ mice is the size of the proliferating population, which differs by a factor of two; the lengths of the cell cycle and the S-phase and the probability that a newly produced cell will die within the first 10 days do not differ in these two strains. This indicates that genetic regulation of the size of the proliferating population is independent of the genetic regulation of cell death among those newly produced cells. The dynamic changes in the number of labeled cells as revealed by the SSM protocol also indicate that neither single nor repeated daily injections of BUdR accurately measure 'proliferation.'.

  2. Communal Nesting Increases Pup Growth But Has Limited Effects on Adult Behavior and Neurophysiology in Inbred Mice

    PubMed Central

    Heiderstadt, Kathleen M; Vandenbergh, David J; Gyekis, Joseph P; Blizard, David A

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory mice preferentially rear their offspring in communal nests (CN), with all mothers contributing to maternal care and feeding of all the pups. Previous studies using primarily outbred mice have shown that offspring reared under CN conditions may display increased preweaning growth rates and differences in adult behavior and neurobiology compared with mice reared under single-nesting (SN; one dam with her litter) conditions. Here we compared pup mortality; weaning and adult body weights; adult behavior; and gene expression in the hippocampus and frontal cortex between C57BL/6J, DBA/2J and 129x1/SvJ mice reared by using CN (3 dams and their litters sharing a single nest) or SN. Male and female pups of all 3 strains reared in CN cages showed higher body weight at weaning than did SN pups of the same strain, with no significant difference in pup mortality between groups. Adult male offspring reared in CN showed no differences in any behavioral test when compared with SN offspring. Combining CN dams and litters after parturition revealed greater cortical brain-derived neurotropic factor expression in adult male C57BL/6J offspring and cortical glucocorticoid receptor expression in adult male C57BL/6J and 129x1/SvJ offspring as compared with SN offspring of the same strain. Communal rearing can enhance juvenile growth rates but does not change adult behavior in inbred mouse strains, although potential effects on adult neurophysiology are possible. PMID:24602541

  3. A pubertal immune challenge alters the antidepressant-like effects of chronic estradiol treatment in inbred and outbred adult female mice

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Nafissa; Kumlin, Ashley M.; Blaustein, Jeffrey D.

    2012-01-01

    Puberty is a period characterized by brain reorganization that contributes to the development of neural and behavioral responses to gonadal steroids. A single injection of the bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), during the pubertal period decreases sexual receptivity in response to ovarian hormones in adulthood. Because chronic estradiol treatment alleviates depression-like symptoms in ovariectomized adult mice, we investigated the effect of pubertal LPS treatment on estradiol’s antidepressant effects. We hypothesized that pubertal LPS treatment would decrease the antidepressant-like effect of estradiol in adult ovariectomized female mice, as it decreases other behavioral responses to ovarian hormones. As expected, chronic estradiol treatment decreased depression-like behavior, as measured by the duration of immobility, in saline-treated mice from two different strains, as well as in mice treated with LPS in adulthood. In contrast, in mice treated pubertally with LPS, estradiol strikingly increased the duration of immobility. No difference in body weight and in locomotion was found among the groups, suggesting that the differences in depression-like behavior were not due to differences in body weight or locomotor activity between LPS-treated and control mice. These results suggest that exposure to an immune challenge during the pubertal period alters the responsiveness of depression-like behavior to estradiol. PMID:23036617

  4. Registration of maize inbred line GT603

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    GT603 (Reg. No. xxxx, PI xxxxxx) is a yellow dent maize (Zea mays L.) inbred line developed and released by the USDA-ARS Crop Protection and Management Research Unit in cooperation with the University of Georgia Coastal Plain Experiment Station in 2010. GT603 was developed through seven generations ...

  5. Mouse inbred strain differences in ethanol drinking to intoxication

    E-print Network

    Saltzman, Wendy

    Mouse inbred strain differences in ethanol drinking to intoxication J. S. Rhodes*, , M. M. Ford , C for DID. Strain mean correlations with other traits in the Mouse Phenome Project database supported. Keywords: C57BL/6J, drinking pattern, drinking, ethanol, inbred mouse strains, intoxication, Mouse Phenome

  6. The use of recombinant inbreds in gene mapping in maize

    SciTech Connect

    Burr, B.; Burr, F.A.

    1988-01-01

    In this review we would like to describe the utility of using recombinant inbred strains for gene mapping in maize. These populations have unique properties which make them efficient tools for gene mapping that can be used by many research groups at the same time. We have also investigated the use of recombinant inbreds for mapping quantitative trait loci. 8 refs.

  7. Comprehensive genotyping of the USA national maize inbred seed bank

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The germplasm bank at the USDA-ARS North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station (NCRPIS) in Ames, Iowa, preserves maize inbred lines from breeding programs from all over the world, including some of the key lines from the breeding history of maize. We genotyped 2,815 maize inbred accessions, mo...

  8. USDA, ARS European long greenhouse cucumber inbred backcross line population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A series of 116 European Long Greenhouse market type inbred backcross lines (IBL) were released in January 2011 by the Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture. The IBL were developed by initially crossing an elite commercial European Long Greenhouse line and PI 432858...

  9. Sites of ozone sensitivity in diverse maize inbred lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) is an air pollutant that costs ~$14-26 billion in global crop losses and is projected to worsen in the future. Potential sites of O3 sensitivity in maize were tested by growing 200 inbred lines, including the nested association mapping population founder lines, under ambient...

  10. Condition, innate immunity and disease mortality of inbred crows

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Andrea K.; Clark, Anne B.; McGowan, Kevin J.; Miller, Andrew D.; Buckles, Elizabeth L.

    2010-01-01

    Cooperatively breeding American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) suffer a severe disease-mediated survival cost from inbreeding, but the proximate mechanisms linking inbreeding to disease are unknown. Here, we examine indices of nestling body condition and innate immunocompetence in relationship to inbreeding and disease mortality. Using an estimate of microsatellite heterozygosity that predicts inbreeding in this population, we show that inbred crows were in relatively poor condition as nestlings, and that body condition index measured in the first 2–33 days after hatching, in addition to inbreeding index, predicted disease probability in the first 34 months of life. Inbred nestlings also mounted a weaker response along one axis of innate immunity: the proportion of bacteria killed in a microbiocidal assay increased as heterozygosity index increased. Relatively poor body condition and low innate immunocompetence are two mechanisms that might predispose inbred crows to ultimate disease mortality. A better understanding of condition-mediated inbreeding depression can guide efforts to minimize disease costs of inbreeding in small populations. PMID:20444716

  11. Tympanometry Assessment of 61 Inbred Strains of Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Qing Yin; Tong, Yi-Cai Isaac; Alagramam, Kumar N.; Yu, Heping

    2007-01-01

    Otitis Media (OM) accounts for more than 20 million clinic visits in the United States every year. Resistance to antibiotics has hampered current management of the disease. Identification of genetic factors underlying susceptibility to OM is greatly needed in order to develop alternative treatment strategies. Genetically defined inbred mouse strains offer a powerful tool for dissecting genetic and environmental factors that may lead to OM in mice. Here we report a study of middle ear function of 61 genetically diverse inbred strains of mice using tympanometry. Of the 61 inbred strains tested, the 129P1/ReJ, 129P3/J, 129S1/SvImJ, 129X1/SvJ, A/HeJ, BALB/cJ, BUB/BnJ, C57L/J, EL/SuzSeyFrkJ, FVB/NJ, I/LnJ, LP/J, NZB/BlNJ, PL/J and YBR/Ei strains exhibited tympanograms that were statistically different from other healthy strains according to parameters including middle ear pressure, volume and compliance. These differences are most likely the result of genetic factors that, when understood, will facilitate prevention and treatment of otitis media in humans. In addition, a negative correlation between age and compliance of the tympanic membrane was discovered. This is the first report to successfully use tympanometry to measure mouse middle ear function, which has been a challenge for the hearing research field because of the mouse’s tiny ear size. PMID:17611057

  12. Molecular Characterization of Maize Inbreds with Expired U.S. Plant Variety Protection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize inbred lines with expired Plant Variety Protection Act (PVPA) certificates are publically available and potentially represent a new germplasm resource for many public and private breeding programs. However, accurate pedigree and genetic background information for ex-PVPA maize inbreds is nece...

  13. Of ``mice'' and mammals: utilizing classical inbred mice to study the genetic architecture of function and

    E-print Network

    Payseur, Bret

    Of ``mice'' and mammals: utilizing classical inbred mice to study the genetic architecture of function and performance in mammals Christopher J. Vinyard1, * and Bret A. Payseur *Department of Anatomy successful mammals and the premier research animal in mammalian biology. The classical inbred strains

  14. Physiological and biochemical bases of fall armyworm resistance in the seedlings of maize inbred lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four CIMMYT maize inbred lines (i.e., CML333, CML335, CML 336, and CML338), and a susceptible (i.e., AB24E) and resistant (i.e., Mp780) control were examined for the mechanisms of fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda (JE Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) resistance. The six inbred lines were ev...

  15. Registration of the TM-1/NM24016 Cotton Recombinant Inbred Mapping Population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The TM-1/NM24016 cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) mapping population consists of 95 F5:9 recombinant inbred lines. This cotton mapping population was constructed from a cross between inbred lines TM-1, the genetic standard for G. hirsutum, and NM24016, an advanced selection with stable expression of i...

  16. InbR, a TetR family regulator, binds with isoniazid and influences multidrug resistance in Mycobacterium bovis BCG

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Min; Gao, Chun-Hui; Hu, Jialing; Zhao, Lei; Huang, Qiaoyun; He, Zheng-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Isoniazid (INH), an anti-tuberculosis (TB) drug, has been widely used for nearly 60 years. However, the pathway through which Mycobacterium tuberculosis responds INH remain largely unclear. In this study, we characterized a novel transcriptional factor, InbR, which is encoded by Rv0275c and belongs to the TetR family, that is directly responsive to INH. Disrupting inbR made mycobacteria more sensitive to INH, whereas overexpressing inbR decreased bacterial susceptibility to the drug. InbR could bind specifically to the upstream region of its own operon at two inverted repeats and act as an auto-repressor. Furthermore, InbR directly bind with INH, and the binding reduced InbR’s DNA-binding ability. Interestingly, susceptibilities were also changed by InbR for other anti-TB drugs, such as rifampin, implying that InbR may play a role in multi-drug resistance. Additionally, microarray analyses revealed a portion genes of the inbR regulon have similar expression patterns in inbR-overexpressing strain and INH-treated wild type strain, suggesting that these genes, for example iniBAC, may be responsible to the drug resistance of inbR-overexpressing strain. The regulation of these genes by InbR were further assessed by ChIP-seq assay. InbR may regulate multiple drug resistance of mycobacteria through the regulation of these genes. PMID:26353937

  17. R/qtlDesign: inbred line cross experimental design

    PubMed Central

    Sen, ?aunak; Satagopan, Jaya M.; Broman, Karl W.; Churchill, Gary A.

    2008-01-01

    An investigator planning a QTL (quantitative trait locus) experiment has to choose which strains to cross, the type of cross, genotyping strategies, and the number of progeny to raise and phenotype. To help make such choices, we have developed an interactive program for power and sample size calculations for QTL experiments, R/qtlDesign. Our software includes support for selective genotyping strategies, variable marker spacing, and tools to optimize information content subject to cost constraints for backcross, intercross, and recombinant inbred lines from two parental strains. We review the impact of experimental design choices on the variance attributable to a segregating locus, the residual error variance, and the effective sample size. We give examples of software usage in real-life settings. The software is available at http://www.biostat.ucsf.edu/sen/software.html. PMID:17347894

  18. Rapid spread of immigrant genomes into inbred populations.

    PubMed Central

    Saccheri, Ilik J; Brakefield, Paul M

    2002-01-01

    When local populations are genetically differentiated from one another and partially inbred, as typically occurs in subdivided populations, immigrant genomes are predicted to be at a frequency-dependent fitness advantage due to heterosis (hybrid vigour) in their descendants. We tested this prediction with pedigreed laboratory populations of the butterfly Bicyclus anynana and report here on a rapid increase over five generations in the contribution of an initially rare immigrant genome to the local population gene pool. The replicated experimental design, including immigrant controls, demonstrates that the mechanism underlying immigrant genome spread is heterosis, and that the advantage to the immigrant genes is sustained over several generations. Our result suggests that effective migration rates may often be much higher than the numbers of individual migrants assumed by classical population genetics models, with implications for the persistence and evolution of metapopulations. PMID:12028766

  19. Variation in actual relationship among descendants of inbred individuals

    PubMed Central

    HILL, W. G.; WEIR, B. S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary In previous analyses, the variation in actual, or realized, relationship has been derived as a function of map length of chromosomes and type of relationship, the variation being greater the shorter the total chromosome length and the coefficient of variation being greater the more distant the relationship. Here, the results are extended to allow for the relatives' ancestor being inbred. Inbreeding of a parent reduces variation in actual relationship among its offspring, by an amount that depends on the inbreeding level and the type of mating that led to that level. For descendants of full-sibs, the variation is reduced in later generations, but for descendants of half-sibs, it is increased. PMID:23298449

  20. Coreceptor affinity for MHC defines peptide specificity requirements for TCR interaction with coagonist peptide-MHC

    E-print Network

    Hoerter, John A. H.

    Recent work has demonstrated that nonstimulatory endogenous peptides can enhance T cell recognition of antigen, but MHCI- and MHCII-restricted systems have generated very different results. MHCII-restricted TCRs need to ...

  1. NaCl Taste Thresholds in 13 Inbred Mouse Strains

    PubMed Central

    Ishiwatari, Yutaka

    2012-01-01

    Molecular mechanisms of salty taste in mammals are not completely understood. We use genetic approaches to study these mechanisms. Previously, we developed a high-throughput procedure to measure NaCl taste thresholds, which involves conditioning mice to avoid LiCl and then examining avoidance of NaCl solutions presented in 48-h 2-bottle preference tests. Using this procedure, we measured NaCl taste thresholds of mice from 13 genealogically divergent inbred stains: 129P3/J, A/J, BALB/cByJ, C3H/HeJ, C57BL/6ByJ, C57BL/6J, CBA/J, CE/J, DBA/2J, FVB/NJ, NZB/BlNJ, PWK/PhJ, and SJL/J. We found substantial strain variation in NaCl taste thresholds: mice from the A/J and 129P3/J strains had high thresholds (were less sensitive), whereas mice from the BALB/cByJ, C57BL/6J, C57BL/6ByJ, CE/J, DBA/2J, NZB/BINJ, and SJL/J had low thresholds (were more sensitive). NaCl taste thresholds measured in this study did not significantly correlate with NaCl preferences or amiloride sensitivity of chorda tympani nerve responses to NaCl determined in the same strains in other studies. To examine whether strain differences in NaCl taste thresholds could have been affected by variation in learning ability or sensitivity to toxic effects of LiCl, we used the same method to measure citric acid taste thresholds in 4 inbred strains with large differences in NaCl taste thresholds but similar acid sensitivity in preference tests (129P3/J, A/J, C57BL/6J, and DBA/2J). Citric acid taste thresholds were similar in these 4 strains. This suggests that our technique measures taste quality–specific thresholds that are likely to represent differences in peripheral taste responsiveness. The strain differences in NaCl taste sensitivity found in this study provide a basis for genetic analysis of this phenotype. PMID:22293936

  2. Variation in Taxonomic Composition of the Fecal Microbiota in an Inbred Mouse Strain across Individuals and Time

    PubMed Central

    Hoy, Yana Emmy; Bik, Elisabeth M.; Lawley, Trevor D.; Holmes, Susan P.; Monack, Denise M.

    2015-01-01

    Genetics, diet, and other environmental exposures are thought to be major factors in the development and composition of the intestinal microbiota of animals. However, the relative contributions of these factors in adult animals, as well as variation with time in a variety of important settings, are still not fully understood. We studied a population of inbred, female mice fed the same diet and housed under the same conditions. We collected fecal samples from 46 individual mice over two weeks, sampling four of these mice for periods as long as 236 days for a total of 190 samples, and determined the phylogenetic composition of their microbial communities after analyzing 1,849,990 high-quality pyrosequencing reads of the 16S rRNA gene V3 region. Even under these controlled conditions, we found significant inter-individual variation in community composition, as well as variation within an individual over time, including increases in alpha diversity during the first 2 months of co-habitation. Some variation was explained by mouse membership in different cage and vendor shipment groups. The differences among individual mice from the same shipment group and cage were still significant. Overall, we found that 23% of the variation in intestinal microbiota composition was explained by changes within the fecal microbiota of a mouse over time, 12% was explained by persistent differences among individual mice, 14% by cage, and 18% by shipment group. Our findings suggest that the microbiota of controlled populations of inbred laboratory animals may not be as uniform as previously thought, that animal rearing and handling may account for some variation, and that as yet unidentified factors may explain additional components of variation in the composition of the microbiota within populations and individuals over time. These findings have implications for the design and interpretation of experiments involving laboratory animals. PMID:26565698

  3. Intergenerational effects of inbreeding in Nicrophorus vespilloides: offspring suffer fitness costs when either they or their parents are inbred.

    PubMed

    Mattey, S N; Strutt, L; Smiseth, P T

    2013-04-01

    Inbreeding depression is the reduction in fitness caused by mating between related individuals. Inbreeding is expected to cause a reduction in offspring fitness when the offspring themselves are inbred, but outbred individuals may also suffer a reduction in fitness when they depend on care from inbred parents. At present, little is known about the significance of such intergenerational effects of inbreeding. Here, we report two experiments on the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides, an insect with elaborate parental care, in which we investigated inbreeding depression in offspring when either the offspring themselves or their parents were inbred. We found substantial inbreeding depression when offspring were inbred, including reductions in hatching success of inbred eggs and survival of inbred offspring. We also found substantial inbreeding depression when parents were inbred, including reductions in hatching success of eggs produced by inbred parents and survival of outbred offspring that received care from inbred parents. Our results suggest that intergenerational effects of inbreeding can have substantial fitness costs to offspring, and that future studies need to incorporate such costs to obtain accurate estimates of inbreeding depression. PMID:23442044

  4. Comparing the performace of f1 testers versus their inbred line parents in evaluating experimental sorghum b and r lines in testcrosses. 

    E-print Network

    Packer, Daniel Jacob

    2009-05-15

    An appropriate tester correctly identifies the relative performance of experimental lines while maximizing the differences between lines. Most sorghum breeding programs use elite inbred lines testers. Inbred line testers evaluate experimental lines...

  5. Determination of mechanisms of host plant resistance to the Banks grass mite Oligonychus pratensis (Banks) (Acari: Tetranychidae) in selected maize inbreds 

    E-print Network

    Krakowsky, Matthew David

    1999-01-01

    Maize lines selected for resistance to the Banks Grass Mite were tested to determine which mechanisms of resistance were being expressed: Antibiosis, Nonpreference, or Tolerance. Inbred 3 and, to a lesser degree Inbred 2, expressed antibiosis when...

  6. Registration of a rice gene mapping population of Lemont X Jasmine 85 recombinant inbred lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A mapping population developed from a cross of rice (Oryza sativa L.) tropical japonica cultivar ‘Lemont’ and indica cultivar ‘Jasmine 85’ was developed to facilitate genetic studies for important agronomic traits. The indica- and japonica-based rice recombinant inbred line (RIL) mapping population ...

  7. Molecular Characterization of the Recombinant Inbred Line Population of the Cross of Lemont with Jasmine 85

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations of rice are an essential genetic resource for the construction of molecular genetic linkage maps and map-based identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL). The RIL F5 population derived from a cross of the United Stated tropical japonica rice cultivar Le...

  8. Doubled haploid inbred lines USVL048 and USVL131 of heading broccoli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two inbred lines of heading broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica), designated USVL048 and USVL131, were released by the Agricultural Research Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture in 2012. Both of the released lines are doubled haploids originally derived from another culture. As do...

  9. Analysis of wild-species introgressions in tomato inbreds uncovers ancestral origins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Decades of intensive tomato breeding using wild germplasm has resulted in genomes of domesticated accessions (Solanum lycopersicum) to be intertwined with introgressions from their wild relatives. Here we present the first whole genome sequences of two tomato inbreds Gh13 and BTI87, both carrying a ...

  10. IMPACT OF EARLY SEED QUALITY SELECTION ON MAIZE INBREDS AND HYBRIDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed composition and genetic background influence seed quality. Plant breeders seldom select or evaluate their inbreds on the basis of seed quality characteristics that could prevent poor germination and field emergence. The standard germination test evaluates seed viability, but it often overesti...

  11. MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF RICE RECOMBINANT INBRED LINE POPULATION DERIVED FROM A JAPONICA-INDICA CROSS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations of rice represent a permanent genetic source usable for the construction of molecular genetic linkage maps and map-based identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL). The objective of this study was to characterize a population of 269 F10-11 RILs from a ...

  12. Whole mitochondrial genome sequence and mutations of the hypertension model inbred rat strain (Muridae; Rattus).

    PubMed

    Song, Wei; Gao, Lin-Lin; Zhen, Lin-Lin

    2016-03-01

    We reported the complete mitochondrial genome sequencing of a important hypertension model inbred rat strain for the first time. The total length of the mitogenome was 16,310?bp. It harbored 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and 1 non-coding control region. The mutation events contained in this strain were also reported. PMID:25391027

  13. Molecular mapping of QTLs for Karnal bunt resistance in two recombinant inbred populations of bread wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with resistance to Karnal bunt (Tilletia indica) were identified in two bread wheat recombinant inbred mapping populations derived from the crosses of WH542/HD29 (population-1) and WH542/W485 (population-2). These populations were evaluated for reaction to T...

  14. Development and phenotyping of recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations for peanut (Arachis hypogaea)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The identification of molecular markers for economically significant traits should greatly improve the speed and efficiency of all peanut(Arachis hypogaea L.) breeding programs. Development and phenotypic evaluation of recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations of peanut, along with molecular genotyp...

  15. Increased egg infertility associated with translocating inbred takahe (Porphyrio hochstetteri) to island refuges in New Zealand

    E-print Network

    Jamieson, Ian

    Increased egg infertility associated with translocating inbred takahe (Porphyrio hochstetteri infertility than birds that have remained within their natural habitat range. For takahe, whether breeders had success. The coecient of inbreeding was high for island takahe but high infertility and low juvenile

  16. COMPARISONS OF QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCUS MAPPING PROPERTIES BETWEEN TWO METHODS OF RECOMBINANT INBRED LINE DEVELOPMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The theoretical comparisons for QTL mapping properties were conducted between bulk-based recombinant inbred (RI) populations and single seed descent (SSD) RI populations by Monte Carlo simulations based on various population sizes, heritabilities, and QTL effects. The comparisons included estimatio...

  17. MAPPING RESISTANCE TO SOUTHERN CORN RUST IN A SEMI-TROPICAL RECOMBINANT INBRED TOPCROSS POPULATION.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recombinant inbred (RI) lines derived from a cross between NC300, an all-tropical, temperate-adapted line, and B104, a stiff-stalk line were genotyped at 113 loci spaced throughout the genome, and topcrossed to the sister-line tester FR615xFR697. The 143 topcrosses were evaluated for resistance to ...

  18. TESTCROSS PERFORMANCE OF SEMIEXOTIC INBRED LINES DERIVED FROM LATIN AMERICAN MAIZE ACCESSIONS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic diversity of commercial maize (Zea mays L.) in the United States is limited. Tropical maize represents the most diverse readily available source of germplasm with which to broaden the genetic base of temperate maize. One hundred sisty-four inbred lines were developed from crosses between t...

  19. Strain typing of U.S. scrapie strains using a panel of inbred mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prion strains may vary in their ability to transmit to humans and animals. Few experimental studies have been done to provide evidence of differences between U.S. strains of scrapie, which can be distinguished by incubation times in inbred mice, microscopic lesions, immunoreactivity to various anti...

  20. Characterization of the Recombinant Inbred Line Population Derived from the Cross of Nipponbare/9311

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a part of the project entitled “Understanding the rice epigenome: From genes to genomes” funded by the National Science Foundation, a mapping population of 480 F6-8 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross of Nipponbare with 9311 (Nip/9311) was developed. Phenotyping important agronom...

  1. Development of the recombinant inbred line population of tropical japonica Lemont crossed with indica Jasmine 85

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of rice is routinely used in studying agronomically important genes, and is particularly useful for analyzing quantitative trait loci (QTL) since phenotypes can be assessed over years. Jasmine 85, a midseason aromatic long-grain indica rice cultivar develo...

  2. Evaluation of maize inbred lines for resistance to Aspergillus and Fusarium ear rot and mycotoxin accumulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycotoxin contamination in corn grain is a worldwide threat to both human food safety and animal feed ingredients. A select group of inbred corn lines was evaluated in field trials for mycotoxin accumulation in grain and ear rot caused by Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium verticillioides. Our goal ...

  3. Profiling polyphenols of two diploid strawberry (Fragaria vesca) inbred lines using UHPLC-HRMSn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phenolic compounds in the fruits of two diploid strawberries (Fragaria vesca f. semperflorens) inbred lines-Ruegen F7-4 (a red fruited genotype) and YW5AF7 (a yellow fruited genotype) were characterized using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography in tandem with high resolution mass spectromet...

  4. Selective Advance for Accelerated Development of Recombinant Inbred QTL Mapping Populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recombinant inbred lines, conventionally used for QTL mapping in biparental populations of self-pollinating plant species, afford limited mapping resolution. Intercrossing during line development is sometimes used to counter this disadvantage, but is tedious. It is desirable to improve mapping resol...

  5. USDA 846-1 fractal melon and derived recombinant inbred lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture announces the release of a melon (Cucumis melo L.) breeding line with highly branched, fractal-type architectural growth habit and 81 derived recombinant inbred lines (RIL). The indeterminate, monoecious USDA 846-1 produces 2...

  6. The genetic rescue of two bottlenecked South Island robin populations using translocations of inbred donors.

    PubMed

    Heber, S; Varsani, A; Kuhn, S; Girg, A; Kempenaers, B; Briskie, J

    2013-02-01

    Populations forced through bottlenecks typically lose genetic variation and exhibit inbreeding depression. 'Genetic rescue' techniques that introduce individuals from outbred populations can be highly effective in reversing the deleterious effects of inbreeding, but have limited application for the majority of endangered species, which survive only in a few bottlenecked populations. We tested the effectiveness of using highly inbred populations as donors to rescue two isolated and bottlenecked populations of the South Island robin (Petroica australis). Reciprocal translocations significantly increased heterozygosity and allelic diversity. Increased genetic diversity was accompanied by increased juvenile survival and recruitment, sperm quality, and immunocompetence of hybrid individuals (crosses between the two populations) compared with inbred control individuals (crosses within each population). Our results confirm that the implementation of 'genetic rescue' using bottlenecked populations as donors provides a way of preserving endangered species and restoring their viability when outbred donor populations no longer exist. PMID:23235701

  7. Homozygosity mapping: a way to map human recessive traits with the DNA of inbred children

    SciTech Connect

    Lander, E.S.; Botstein, D.

    1987-06-19

    An efficient strategy for mapping human genes that cause recessive traits has been devised that uses mapped restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) and the DNA of affected children from consanguineous marriages. The method involves detection of the disease locus by virtue of the fact that the adjacent region will preferentially be homozygous by descent in such inbred children. A single affected child of a first-cousin marriage is shown to contain the same total information about linkage as a nuclear family with three affected children. Calculations show that it should be practical to map a recessive disease gene by studying DNA from fewer than a dozen unrelated, affected inbred children, given a complete RFLP linkage map. The method should make it possible to map many recessive diseases for which it is impractical or impossible to collect adequate numbers of families with multiple affected offspring.

  8. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence and mutations of the cardiac hypertrophy model inbred rat strain (Muridae; Rattus).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Rong; Meng, Zi-Li; Chen, Liang; Chen, Wei; Wang, Hong; Hong, Yong-Qing

    2016-03-01

    In the present work we undertook the complete mitochondrial genome sequencing of a important cardiac hypertrophy model inbred rat strain for the first time. The total length of the mitogenome was 16,308?bp. It harbored 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and 1 non-coding control region (D-loop region). The mutation events were also reported. PMID:25109625

  9. Whole mitochondrial genome sequence and mutations of the cervical carcinoma model inbred rat strain (Muridae; Rattus).

    PubMed

    Wan, Xiao-Hui; Mei, Long; Abudureyimu, Zainuer

    2016-03-01

    We reported the complete mitochondrial genome sequencing of an important cervical carcinoma model inbred rat strain for the first time. The total length of the mitogenome was 16,314?bp. It harbored 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and 1 non-coding control region. The mutation events contained in this strain were also reported. PMID:25187122

  10. Phenotypic Characterization of the KK/HlJ Inbred Mouse Strain

    PubMed Central

    Berndt, A.; Sundberg, B. A.; Silva, K. A.; Kennedy, V. E.; Richardson, M. A.; Li, Q.; Bronson, R. T.; Uitto, J.; Sundberg, J. P.

    2014-01-01

    Detailed histopathological diagnoses of inbred mouse strains are important for interpreting research results and defining novel models of human diseases. The aim of this study was to histologically detect lesions affecting the KK/HlJ inbred strain. Mice were examined at 6, 12, and 20 months of age and near natural death (ie, moribund mice). Histopathological lesions were quantified by percentage of affected mice per age group and sex. Predominant lesions were mineralization, hyperplasia, and fibro-osseous lesions. Mineralization was most frequently found in the connective tissue dermal sheath of vibrissae, the heart, and the lung. Mineralization was also found in many other organs but to a lesser degree. Hyperplasia was found most commonly in the pancreatic islets, and fibro-osseous lesions were observed in several bones. The percentage of lesions increased with age until 20 months. This study shows that KK/HlJ mice demonstrate systemic aberrant mineralization, with greatest frequency in aged mice. The detailed information about histopathological lesions in the inbred strain KK/HlJ can help investigators to choose the right model and correctly interpret the experimental results. PMID:24009271

  11. Interacting Hobo Transposons in an Inbred Strain and Interaction Regulation in Hybrids of Drosophila Melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Y. T.; Weber, S. M.; Lim, J. K.

    1993-01-01

    A transposable hobo element in the Notch locus of the Uc-1 X chromosome, which does not interfere with the normal expression of the locus, interacts with other hobo elements in the same X chromosome to produce Notch mutations. Almost all of these mutations are associated with deficiencies, inversions or other rearrangements, and hobo elements are present at each of the breakpoints. The Uc-1 X chromosome produces the Notch mutations at a rate of 4-8% in both sexes of flies in a strain that has been inbred for 96 generations. At least two-thirds of the mutations are produced in clusters suggesting that they have originated in mitotic (premeiotic) germ cells of the Uc-1 inbred strain. The interaction of hobo elements in the Uc-1 X chromosome can be repressed by at least two different mechanisms. One found in three inbred strains not related to the Uc-1 strain involves a maternal effect that is not attributable to the actions or products of hobo elements. Repression by this mechanism is manifested by a clear reciprocal cross effect so that the production of Notch mutations is repressed in the daughters of Uc-1 males, but not in the daughters of Uc-1 females. The other mechanism apparently requires genetic factors and/or hobo elements in a particular strain of Oregon-R; complete repression is present in both types of hybrids between Uc-1 and this strain. PMID:8394265

  12. The Mouse Genomes Project: a repository of inbred laboratory mouse strain genomes.

    PubMed

    Adams, David J; Doran, Anthony G; Lilue, Jingtao; Keane, Thomas M

    2015-10-01

    The Mouse Genomes Project was initiated in 2009 with the goal of using next-generation sequencing technologies to catalogue molecular variation in the common laboratory mouse strains, and a selected set of wild-derived inbred strains. The initial sequencing and survey of sequence variation in 17 inbred strains was completed in 2011 and included comprehensive catalogue of single nucleotide polymorphisms, short insertion/deletions, larger structural variants including their fine scale architecture and landscape of transposable element variation, and genomic sites subject to post-transcriptional alteration of RNA. From this beginning, the resource has expanded significantly to include 36 fully sequenced inbred laboratory mouse strains, a refined and updated data processing pipeline, and new variation querying and data visualisation tools which are available on the project's website ( http://www.sanger.ac.uk/resources/mouse/genomes/ ). The focus of the project is now the completion of de novo assembled chromosome sequences and strain-specific gene structures for the core strains. We discuss how the assembled chromosomes will power comparative analysis, data access tools and future directions of mouse genetics. PMID:26123534

  13. Expression of social behaviors of C57BL/6J versus BTBR inbred mouse strains in the visible burrow system

    PubMed Central

    Pobbe, Roger L. H.; Pearson, Brandon L.; Defensor, Erwin B.; Bolivar, Valerie J.; Blanchard, D. Caroline; Blanchard, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    The core symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) include deficits in social interaction, impaired communication, and repetitive behaviors with restricted interests. Mouse models with behavioral phenotypes relevant to these core symptoms offer an experimental approach to advance the investigation of genes associated with ASD. Previous findings demonstrate that BTBR T+ tf/J (BTBR) is an inbred mouse strain that shows robust behavioral phenotypes with analogies to all three of the diagnostic symptoms of ASD. In the present study, we investigated the expression of social behaviors in a semi-natural visible burrow system (VBS), during colony formation and maintenance in groups comprising three adult male mice of the same strain, either C57BL/6J (B6) or BTBR. For comparative purposes, an extensively investigated three-chambered test was subsequently used to assess social approach in both strains. The effects of strain on these two situations were consistent and highly significant. In the VBS, BTBR mice showed reductions in all interactive behaviors: approach (front and back), flight, chase/follow, allo-grooming and huddling, along with increases in self-grooming and alone, as compared to B6. These results were corroborated in the three-chambered test: in contrast to B6, male BTBR mice failed to spend more time in the side of the test box containing the unfamiliar CD-1 mouse. Overall, the present data indicates that the strain profile for BTBR mice, including consistent social deficits and high levels of repetitive self-grooming, models multiple components of the ASD phenotype. PMID:20600340

  14. Field screening of experimental corn hybrids and inbred lines for multiple ear-feeding insect resistance.

    PubMed

    Ni, Xinzhi; Xu, Wenwei; Krakowsky, Matthew D; Buntin, G David; Brown, Steve L; Lee, R Dewey; Coy, Anton E

    2007-10-01

    Identifying and using native insect resistance genes is the core of integrated pest management. In this study, 10 experimental corn, Zea mays L., hybrids and 10 inbred lines were screened for resistance to major ear-feeding insects in the southeastern Coastal Plain region of the United States during 2004 and 2005. Ear-feeding insect damage was assessed at harvest by visual damage rating for the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), and by the percentage of kernels damaged by the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, and stink bugs [combination of Euschistus servus (Say) and southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.)]. Among the eight inbred lines and two control populations examined, C3S1B73-5b was resistant to corn earworm, maize weevil, and stink bugs. In contrast, C3S1B73-4 was resistant to corn earworm and stink bugs, but not to maize weevil. In a similar manner, the corn hybrid S1W*CML343 was resistant to all three ear-feeding insects, whereas hybrid C3S1B73-3*Tx205 was resistant to corn earworm and maize weevil in both growing seasons, but susceptible to stink bugs in 2005. The silk-feeding bioassay showed that corn earworm developed better on corn silk than did fall armyworm. Among all phenotypic traits examined (i.e., corn ear size, husk extension, and husk tightness), only corn ear size was negatively correlated to corn earworm damage in the inbred lines examined, whereas only husk extension (i.e., coverage) was negatively correlated to both corn earworm and maize weevil damage on the experimental hybrids examined. Such information could be used to establish a baseline for developing agronomically elite corn germplasm that confers multiple ear-feeding insect resistance. PMID:17972651

  15. Mouse DNA 'fingerprints': analysis of chromosome localization and germ-line stability of hypervariable loci in recombinant inbred strains.

    PubMed Central

    Jeffreys, A J; Wilson, V; Kelly, R; Taylor, B A; Bulfield, G

    1987-01-01

    Human minisatellite probes cross-hybridize to mouse DNA and detect multiple variable loci. The resulting DNA "fingerprints" vary substantially between inbred strains but relatively little within an inbred strain. By studying the segregation of variable DNA fragments in BXD recombinant inbred strains of mice, at least 13 hypervariable loci were defined, 8 of which could be regionally assigned to mouse chromosomes. The assigned loci are autosomal, dispersed and not preferentially associated with centromeres or telomeres. One of these minisatellites is complex, with alleles 90 kb or more long and with internal restriction endonuclease cleavage sites which produce a minisatellite "haplotype" of multiple cosegregating fragments. In addition, one locus shows extreme germ-line instability and should provide a useful system for studying more directly the rates and processes of allelic variation of minisatellites. Images PMID:3562240

  16. Cross reactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes from MHC-defined birds against homologous and heterologous avian influenza subtypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous reports have implicated a role of the major-histocompatibility complex (MHC) in genetic resistance of chickens to bacterial infection and viral diseases. However, little is known about the role of MHC in generating protective immunity following avian influenza (AI) infection. Because vacc...

  17. Gastrointestinal microbiota of wild and inbred individuals of two house mouse subspecies assessed using high-throughput parallel pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Kreisinger, Jakub; Cížková, Dagmar; Vohánka, Jaroslav; Piálek, Jaroslav

    2014-10-01

    The effects of gastrointestinal tract microbiota (GTM) on host physiology and health have been the subject of considerable interest in recent years. While a variety of captive bred species have been used in experiments, the extent to which GTM of captive and/or inbred individuals resembles natural composition and variation in wild populations is poorly understood. Using 454 pyrosequencing, we performed 16S rDNA GTM barcoding for 30 wild house mice (Mus musculus) and wild-derived inbred strain mice belonging to two subspecies (M. m. musculus and M. m. domesticus). Sequenced individuals were selected according to a 2 × 2 experimental design: wild (14) vs. inbred origin (16) and M. m. musculus (15) vs. M. m. domesticus (15). We compared alpha diversity (i.e. number of operational taxonomic units - OTUs), beta diversity (i.e. interindividual variability) and microbiota composition across the four groups. We found no difference between M. m. musculus and M. m. domesticus subspecies, suggesting low effect of genetic differentiation between these two subspecies on GTM structure. Both inbred and wild populations showed the same level of microbial alpha and beta diversity; however, we found strong differentiation in microbiota composition between wild and inbred populations. Relative abundance of ~ 16% of OTUs differed significantly between wild and inbred individuals. As laboratory mice represent the most abundant model for studying the effects of gut microbiota on host metabolism, immunity and neurology, we suggest that the distinctness of laboratory-kept mouse microbiota, which differs from wild mouse microbiota, needs to be considered in future biomedical research. PMID:25204516

  18. Slc:Wistar outbred rats show close genetic similarity with F344 inbred rats

    PubMed Central

    Nakanishi, Satoshi; Serikawa, Tadao; Kuramoto, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Although Slc:Wistar rats are used widely in biomedical research as outbred rats, close similarities in growth curves, survival rates, and immunological and biochemical phenotypes have been reported between Slc:Wistar and F344 inbred rats. We reported previously that nine genetic variations that were fixed in Slc:Wistar rats had identical genotypes in F344 rats. Here, we examined the genetic characteristics of Slc:Wistar rats using 27 simple-sequence length polymorphism (SSLP) markers and compared them with other Wistar stocks available in Japan and with some F344 strains. Among 27 SSLP loci, 23 (85%) were fixed in the Slc:Wistar rats, which was the highest among the other Wistar stocks. The 23 fixed loci shared identical genotypes with corresponding loci in F344 rats. Further, the predominant allele types in the unfixed loci had allele frequencies as high as 80%, and these alleles were identical in the F344 rats. When the nine genetic variations reported previously are added, a total of 32 (89%) out of the 36 loci examined were fixed and identical in the Slc:Wistar and F344 rat genomes. These findings indicate the low genetic variation in Slc:Wistar rats and the high genetic similarity between the Slc:Wistar and F344 inbred rats. This study demonstrates the importance of characterizing outbred rats and the need to pay ample attention to the genetic characteristics the Slc:Wistar rats for their proper use. PMID:25195633

  19. Two genes conferring resistance to Pythium stalk rot in maize inbred line Qi319.

    PubMed

    Song, Feng-Jing; Xiao, Ming-Gang; Duan, Can-Xing; Li, Hong-Jie; Zhu, Zhen-Dong; Liu, Bao-Tao; Sun, Su-Li; Wu, Xiao-Fei; Wang, Xiao-Ming

    2015-08-01

    Stalk rots are destructive diseases in maize around the world, and are most often caused by the pathogen Pythium, Fusarium and other fungi. The most efficient management for controlling stalk rots is to breed resistant cultivars. Pythium stalk rot can cause serious yield loss on maize, and to find the resistance genes from the existing germplasm is the basis to develop Pythium-resistance hybrid lines. In this study, we investigated the genetic resistance to Pythium stalk rot in inbred line Qi319 using F2 and F2:3 population, and found that the resistance to Pythium inflatum in Qi319 was conferred by two independently inherited dominant genes, RpiQI319-1 and RpiQI319-2. Linkage analysis uncovered that the RpiQI319-1 co-segregated with markers bnlg1203, and bnlg2057 on chromosome 1, and that the RpiQI319-2 locus co-segregated with markers umc2069 and bnlg1716 on chromosome 10. The RpiQI319-1 locus was further mapped into a ~500-kb interval flanked by markers SSRZ33 and SSRZ47. These results will facilitate marker-assisted selection of Pythium stalk rot-resistant cultivars in maize breeding. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the resistance to P. inflatum in the inbred line Qi319, and is also the first description of two independently inherited dominant genes conferring the resistance of Pythium stalk rot in maize. PMID:25724693

  20. Inducible Monooxygenase Activities and 3-Methylcholanthrene-Initiated Tumorigenesis in Mouse Recombinant Inbred Sublines

    PubMed Central

    Atlas, Steven A.; Taylor, Benjamin A.; Diwan, Bhalchandra A.; Nebert, Daniel W.

    1976-01-01

    The induction of a certain group of hepatic monooxygenase activities by polycyclic aromatic compounds is regulated by the same locus or gene cluster controlling the formation of cytochrome P1–450 (P–448) in mice. Certain inbred strains of mice are "responsive" (Ahb) to such induction, whereas others are "nonresponsive" (Ahd). A pair of closely related sublines that differ with respect to the Ah locus (for aromatic hydrocarbon responsiveness) were used to identify or confirm the pleiotropic effects of this gene. The lines were derived by sibling-mating without selection from (C57L/J x AKR/J)F 2 mice; the two sublines were separated at the F12 generation. Ten microsomal monooxygenase activities and one cytosol enzyme activity known to be associated with the Ah locus were similarly associated with cytochrome P1–450 formation in these recombinant inbred sublines as well. Nine additional hepatic monooxygenase activities studied were found not to be associated with the Ah locus; certain of these activities were increased slightly, following treatment of nonresponsive as well as responsive mice with polycyclic aromatic compounds. The Ahb-containing subline was highly susceptible to 3-methylcholanthrene-induced subcutaneous sarcomas, whereas the Ah-d-containing subline was relatively resistant. These results emphasize the potential importance of this particular enzyme for the study of coordinated regulation in mammals. PMID:955403

  1. Difference in susceptibility to activity-based anorexia in two inbred strains of mice.

    PubMed

    Gelegen, Cigdem; Collier, David A; Campbell, Iain C; Oppelaar, Hugo; van den Heuvel, José; Adan, Roger A H; Kas, Martien J H

    2007-02-01

    Food restricted rodents develop activity-based anorexia in the presence of a running wheel, characterised by increased physical activity, weight loss and decreased leptin levels. Here, we determined trait differences in the development of activity-based anorexia between C57BL/6J and DBA/2J inbred mouse lines previously reported as having low and high anxiety, respectively. C57BL/6J mice housed with running wheels and exposed to scheduled feeding reduced their wheel activity, in contrast to DBA/2J mice which exhibited increased behavioural activity under these conditions. Food restriction induced hypoleptinemia in both strains, but the decline in plasma leptin was stronger in DBA/2J mice and correlated with increased activity only in that strain. These data suggest that plasma leptin level dynamics rather than hypoleptinemia alone influences the development of activity-based anorexia and that recombinant inbred panels based on these progenitor lines offer opportunities for the identification of molecular determinants for anorexia nervosa related behavioural traits. PMID:16735105

  2. Macronutrient selection by seven inbred mouse strains and three taste-related knockout strains

    PubMed Central

    Tordoff, Michael G.; Downing, Arnelle; Voznesenskaya, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Many animals thrive when given a choice of separate sources of macronutrients. How they do this is unknown. Here, we report some studies comparing the spontaneous choices between carbohydrate-and fat-containing food sources of seven inbred mouse strains (B6, BTBR, CBA, JF1, NZW, PWD and PWK) and three mouse models with genetic ablation of taste transduction components (T1R3, ITPR3 and CALHM1). For 8 days, each mouse could choose between sources of carbohydrate (CHO-P; sucrose-corn-starch) and fat (Fat-P; vegetable shortening) with each source also containing protein (casein). We found that the B6 and PWK strains markedly preferred the CHO-P diet to the Fat-P diet, the BTBR and JF1 strains markedly preferred the Fat-P diet to the CHO-P diet, and the CBA, NZW and PWD strains showed equal intakes of the two diets (by weight). Relative to their WT littermates, ITPR3 and CALHM1 KO mice had elevated Fat-P preferences but T1R3 KO mice did not. There were differences among strains in adaption to the diet choice and there were differences in response between males and females on some days. These results demonstrate the diverse responses to macronutrients of inbred mice and they point to the involvement of chemosensory detectors (but not sweetness) as contributors to macronutrient selection. PMID:24912134

  3. High-Density Genotypes of Inbred Mouse Strains: Improved Power and Precision of Association Mapping.

    PubMed

    Rau, Christoph D; Parks, Brian; Wang, Yibin; Eskin, Eleazar; Simecek, Petr; Churchill, Gary A; Lusis, Aldons J

    2015-01-01

    Human genome-wide association studies have identified thousands of loci associated with disease phenotypes. Genome-wide association studies also have become feasible using rodent models and these have some important advantages over human studies, including controlled environment, access to tissues for molecular profiling, reproducible genotypes, and a wide array of techniques for experimental validation. Association mapping with common mouse inbred strains generally requires 100 or more strains to achieve sufficient power and mapping resolution; in contrast, sample sizes for human studies typically are one or more orders of magnitude greater than this. To enable well-powered studies in mice, we have generated high-density genotypes for ?175 inbred strains of mice using the Mouse Diversity Array. These new data increase marker density by 1.9-fold, have reduced missing data rates, and provide more accurate identification of heterozygous regions compared with previous genotype data. We report the discovery of new loci from previously reported association mapping studies using the new genotype data. The data are freely available for download, and Web-based tools provide easy access for association mapping and viewing of the underlying intensity data for individual loci. PMID:26224782

  4. High-Density Genotypes of Inbred Mouse Strains: Improved Power and Precision of Association Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Rau, Christoph D.; Parks, Brian; Wang, Yibin; Eskin, Eleazar; Simecek, Petr; Churchill, Gary A.; Lusis, Aldons J.

    2015-01-01

    Human genome-wide association studies have identified thousands of loci associated with disease phenotypes. Genome-wide association studies also have become feasible using rodent models and these have some important advantages over human studies, including controlled environment, access to tissues for molecular profiling, reproducible genotypes, and a wide array of techniques for experimental validation. Association mapping with common mouse inbred strains generally requires 100 or more strains to achieve sufficient power and mapping resolution; in contrast, sample sizes for human studies typically are one or more orders of magnitude greater than this. To enable well-powered studies in mice, we have generated high-density genotypes for ?175 inbred strains of mice using the Mouse Diversity Array. These new data increase marker density by 1.9-fold, have reduced missing data rates, and provide more accurate identification of heterozygous regions compared with previous genotype data. We report the discovery of new loci from previously reported association mapping studies using the new genotype data. The data are freely available for download, and Web-based tools provide easy access for association mapping and viewing of the underlying intensity data for individual loci. PMID:26224782

  5. Brachypodium sylvaticum, a Model for Perennial Grasses: Transformation and Inbred Line Development

    PubMed Central

    Steinwand, Michael A.; Young, Hugh A.; Bragg, Jennifer N.; Tobias, Christian M.; Vogel, John P.

    2013-01-01

    Perennial species offer significant advantages as crops including reduced soil erosion, lower energy inputs after the first year, deeper root systems that access more soil moisture, and decreased fertilizer inputs due to the remobilization of nutrients at the end of the growing season. These advantages are particularly relevant for emerging biomass crops and it is projected that perennial grasses will be among the most important dedicated biomass crops. The advantages offered by perennial crops could also prove favorable for incorporation into annual grain crops like wheat, rice, sorghum and barley, especially under the dryer and more variable climate conditions projected for many grain-producing regions. Thus, it would be useful to have a perennial model system to test biotechnological approaches to crop improvement and for fundamental research. The perennial grass Brachypodiumsylvaticum is a candidate for such a model because it is diploid, has a small genome, is self-fertile, has a modest stature, and short generation time. Its close relationship to the annual model Brachypodiumdistachyon will facilitate comparative studies and allow researchers to leverage the resources developed for B. distachyon. Here we report on the development of two keystone resources that are essential for a model plant: high-efficiency transformation and inbred lines. Using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation we achieved an average transformation efficiency of 67%. We also surveyed the genetic diversity of 19 accessions from the National Plant Germplasm System using SSR markers and created 15 inbred lines. PMID:24073248

  6. Hidden in plain sight: spike-wave discharges in mouse inbred strains.

    PubMed

    Letts, V A; Beyer, B J; Frankel, W N

    2014-07-01

    Twenty-seven inbred strains of mice were tested for spike-wave discharge (SWD) activity by video-electroencephalographic recordings over a 24-h recording period. Eight strains had reproducible, frequent SWDs, including five strains (C57BLKS/J, CBA/J, DBA/1J, NOR/LtJ, SM/J) previously undiagnosed for this distinctive phenotype. Eighteen other strains exhibited no such activity. Spike-wave discharges usually occurred while the subject was motionless, and in a significant number of annotated instances coincided with an arrest of the subject's relatively unrestrained locomotor activity, which resumed immediately after the discharge ended. In all five new strains, SWDs were suppressed by ethosuximide administration. From the genealogy of inbred strains, we suggest that two ancestors, A and DBA, transmitted genotypes required for SWD in all positive strains. Together these strains with SWDs provide new opportunities to understand the genetic core susceptibility of this distinctive electroencephalographic activity and to explore its relationship to absence epilepsy, a human disorder for which few genes are known. PMID:24861780

  7. In silico QTL mapping of basal liver iron levels in inbred mouse strains

    PubMed Central

    McLachlan, Stela; Lee, Seung-Min; Steele, Teresa M.; Hawthorne, Paula L.; Zapala, Matthew A.; Eskin, Eleazar; Schork, Nicholas J.; Anderson, Gregory J.

    2011-01-01

    Both iron deficiency and iron excess are detrimental in many organisms, and previous studies in both mice and humans suggest that genetic variation may influence iron status in mammals. However, these genetic factors are not well defined. To address this issue, we measured basal liver iron levels in 18 inbred strains of mice of both sexes on a defined iron diet and found ?4-fold variation in liver iron in males (lowest 153 ?g/g, highest 661 ?g/g) and ?3-fold variation in females (lowest 222 ?g/g, highest 658 ?g/g). We carried out a genome-wide association mapping to identify haplotypes underlying differences in liver iron and three other related traits (copper and zinc liver levels, and plasma diferric transferrin levels) in a subset of 14 inbred strains for which genotype information was available. We identified two putative quantitative trait loci (QTL) that contain genes with a known role in iron metabolism: Eif2ak1 and Igf2r. We also identified four putative QTL that reside in previously identified iron-related QTL and 22 novel putative QTL. The most promising putative QTL include a 0.22 Mb region on Chromosome 7 and a 0.32 Mb region on Chromosome 11 that both contain only one candidate gene, Adam12 and Gria1, respectively. Identified putative QTL are good candidates for further refinement and subsequent functional studies. PMID:21062905

  8. Proteomic Analysis of Silk Viability in Maize Inbred Lines and Their Corresponding Hybrids

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yafei; Zhao, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Fangfang; Tang, Jihua; Fu, Zhiyuan

    2015-01-01

    A long period of silk viability is critical for a good seed setting rate in maize (Zea mays L.), especially for inbred lines and hybrids with a long interval between anthesis and silking. To explore the molecular mechanism of silk viability and its heterosis, three inbred lines with different silk viability characteristics (Xun928, Lx9801, and Zong3) and their two hybrids (Xun928×Zong3 and Lx9801×Zong3) were analyzed at different developmental stages by a proteomic method. The differentially accumulated proteins were identified by mass spectrometry and classified into metabolism, protein biosynthesis and folding, signal transduction and hormone homeostasis, stress and defense responses, and cellular processes. Proteins involved in nutrient (methionine) and energy (ATP) supply, which support the pollen tube growth in the silk, were important for silk viability and its heterosis. The additive and dominant effects at a single locus, as well as complex epistatic interactions at two or more loci in metabolic pathways, were the primary contributors for mid-parent heterosis of silk viability. Additionally, the proteins involved in the metabolism of anthocyanins, which indirectly negatively regulate local hormone accumulation, were also important for the mid-parent heterosis of silk viability. These results also might imply the developmental dependence of heterosis, because many of the differentially accumulated proteins made distinct contributions to the heterosis of silk viability at specific developmental stages. PMID:26630375

  9. Learning Strategy Selection in the Water Maze and Hippocampal CREB Phosphorylation Differ in Two Inbred Strains of Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Jin-Young; Goo, June-Seo; Lee, Dong-Eun; Jin, Da-Qing; Bizon, Jennifer L.; Gallagher, Michela; Han, Jung-Soo

    2008-01-01

    Learning strategy selection was assessed in two different inbred strains of mice, C57BL/6 and DBA/2, which are used for developing genetically modified mouse models. Male mice received a training protocol in a water maze using alternating blocks of visible and hidden platform trials, during which mice escaped to a single location. After training,…

  10. Joint QTL analyses for partial resistance to Phytophthora sojae using six nested inbred populations with heterogeneous conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Partial resistance to Phytophthora sojae in soybean is controlled by multiple quantitative trait loci (QTL). With traditional QTL mapping approaches, power to detect these QTL, frequently of small effect, can be limited by population size. Joint linkage QTL analysis of nested recombinant inbred li...

  11. MAIN EFFECTS, EPISTASIS AND ENVIROMENTAL INTERACTIONS OF QTLS FOR FUSARIUM HEAD BLIGHT RESISTANCE IN A RECOMBINANT INBRED POPULATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chinese Spring-Sumai 3 chromosome 7A disomic substitution line (CS-SM3- 7 ADS) is highly resistant to Fusarium head blight (FHB), and an F7 population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from the cross CS-SM3-7ADS x Annong 8455 was evaluated for resistance to FHB to investigate main effects, ...

  12. Molecular mapping of four blast resistance genes using recombinant inbred lines of 93-11 and nipponbare

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Molecular mapping of new blast resistance genes is important for developing resistant rice cultivars using marker-assisted selection. In this study, 259 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) were developed from a cross between Nipponbare and 93-11, and were used to construct a 1165.8-cM linkage map with 1...

  13. ROOT TRAITS AND NODULATION OF RECOMBINANT INBRED BEAN LINES FROM A ‘JAMAPA × CALIMA’ POPULATION INOCULATED WITH TWO STRAINS OF RHIZOBIUM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bean cultivars of Andean and Middle American origin often have contrasting above-ground traits. Less is known, however, of possible differences in root traits of beans from different gene pools. Recombinant inbred lines (RIL) derived from a cross between the Andean cultivar ‘Calima’ and the Middle A...

  14. Mapping QTL controlling southern leaf blight resistance by combined analysis of three related recombinant inbred line populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance to southern leaf blight (SLB) disease caused by Cochliobolus heterostrophus race O were identified in three maize recombinant inbred populations assed in two environments. Each population derived from a cross between a temperate and a tropical maize li...

  15. Integration of TRAP markers onto a sunflower SSR marker linkage map constructed from 92 recombinant inbred lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The target region amplification polymorphism (TRAP) marker technique was employed to expand the published sunflower simple sequence repeat (SSR) linkage map constructed from a recombinant inbred population derived from the cross of RHA 280 x RHA 801. A previous report described the mapping of 183 TR...

  16. Genome-Wide Patterns of Polymorphism in an Inbred Line of the African Malaria Mosquito Anopheles gambiae

    PubMed Central

    Turissini, David A.; Gamez, Stephanie; White, Bradley J.

    2014-01-01

    Anopheles gambiae is a major mosquito vector of malaria in Africa. Although increased use of insecticide-based vector control tools has decreased malaria transmission, elimination is likely to require novel genetic control strategies. It can be argued that the absence of an A. gambiae inbred line has slowed progress toward genetic vector control. In order to empower genetic studies and enable precise and reproducible experimentation, we set out to create an inbred line of this species. We found that amenability to inbreeding varied between populations of A. gambiae. After full-sib inbreeding for ten generations, we genotyped 112 individuals—56 saved prior to inbreeding and 56 collected after inbreeding—at a genome-wide panel of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Although inbreeding dramatically reduced diversity across much of the genome, we discovered numerous, discrete genomic blocks that maintained high heterozygosity. For one large genomic region, we were able to definitively show that high diversity is due to the persistent polymorphism of a chromosomal inversion. Inbred lines in other eukaryotes often exhibit a qualitatively similar retention of polymorphism when typed at a small number of markers. Our whole-genome SNP data provide the first strong, empirical evidence supporting associative overdominance as the mechanism maintaining higher than expected diversity in inbred lines. Although creation of A. gambiae lines devoid of nearly all polymorphism may not be feasible, our results provide critical insights into how more fully isogenic lines can be created. PMID:25377942

  17. Evaluation of reproductive characteristics of 21 highly inbred lines of White Leghorns divergently selected for or segregating in tumor resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reproduction performance of 21 inbred experimental lines of White Leghorns were evaluated based on samples of reproduction records over a period of eight consecutive years. Two lines (63 and 72) have been extensively used in studies, especially in research seeking for genetic and epigenetic factors ...

  18. Genetic architecture of rind penetrometer resistance in two maize recombinant inbred line populations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Maize (Zea Mays L.) is one of the most important cereal crops worldwide and provides food for billions of people. Stalk lodging can greatly undermine the standability of maize plants and therefore decrease crop yields. Rind penetrometer resistance is an effective and reliable method for evaluating maize stalk strength, which is highly correlated with stalk lodging resistance. In this study, two recombinant inbred line populations were constructed from crosses between the H127R and Chang7-2 lines, and between the B73 and By804 lines. We genotyped these two populations and their parents using 3,072 single nucleotide polymorphism markers and performed phenotypic assessment of rind penetrometer resistance in multiple environments to dissect the genetic architecture of rind penetrometer resistance in maize. Results Based on two linkage maps of 1,397.1 and 1,600.4 cM with average interval of 1.7 and 2.1 cM between adjacent makers, respectively, seven quantitative trait loci (QTL) for rind penetrometer resistance were detected in the two recombinant inbred line populations. These QTL were distributed in seven genomic regions, and each accounted for 4.4–18.9% of the rind penetrometer resistance variation. The QTL with the largest effect on rind penetrometer resistance, qRPR3-1, was located on chromosome 3 with the flanking markers PZE-103123325 and SYN23245. This locus was further narrowed down to a 3.1-Mb interval by haplotype analysis using high-density markers in the target region. Within this interval, four genes associated with the biosynthesis of cell wall components were considered as potential candidate genes for the rind penetrometer resistance effect. Conclusions The inheritance of rind penetrometer resistance is rather complex. A few large-effect quantitative trait loci, together with a several minor-effect QTL, contributed to the phenotypic variation in rind penetrometer resistance in the two recombinant inbred line populations that were examined. A potential approach for improving stalk strength and crop yields in commercial maize lines may be to introgress favorable alleles of the locus that was found to have the largest effect on rind penetrometer resistance (qRPR3-1). PMID:24893717

  19. Are toxicological responses in laboratory (inbred) zebrafish representative of those in outbred (wild) populations? - A case study with an endocrine disrupting chemical.

    PubMed

    Brown, A Ross; Bickley, Lisa K; Le Page, Gareth; Hosken, David John; Paull, Gregory C; Hamilton, Patrick B; Owen, Stewart F; Robinson, Joanna; Sharpe, Alan D; Tyler, Charles R

    2011-05-01

    Laboratory animals tend to be more inbred and less genetically diverse than wild populations, and thus may differ in their susceptibility to chemical stressors. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the responses of related inbred (theoretical inbreeding F(IT) = n + 0.25) and outbred (F(IT) = n) zebrafish (Danio rerio) WIK/Wild family lines to an endocrine disrupting chemical, clotrimazole. Exposure of inbred and outbred zebrafish to 2.9 ?g clotrimazole/L had no effect on survival, growth, or gonadal development. Exposure of both lines to 43.7 ?g clotrimazole/L led to male-biased sex ratios compared with controls (87% versus 55% and 92% vs 64%, for inbred and outbred males, respectively), advanced germ cell development, and reduced plasma 11-ketotestosterone concentrations in males. However, outbred males (but not inbred males) developed testis that were more than twice the weight of controls, which corresponded with a proliferation of Leydig cells and maintenance of the expression (rather than down-regulation occurring in inbreds) of gonadal aromatase (cyp19a1a) and insulin-like growth factor (igf1). Our results illustrate that the effects of an endocrine disrupting chemical (clotrimazole) on some end points (here testis development) can differ between inbred and outbred zebrafish. This highlights the need for reporting pedigree/genetic information and consistency in the responses of laboratory animals (e.g., by using model compounds as positive controls). PMID:21469706

  20. The scent of inbreeding: a male sex pheromone betrays inbred males

    PubMed Central

    van Bergen, Erik; Brakefield, Paul M.; Heuskin, Stéphanie; Zwaan, Bas J.; Nieberding, Caroline M.

    2013-01-01

    Inbreeding depression results from mating among genetically related individuals and impairs reproductive success. The decrease in male mating success is usually attributed to an impact on multiple fitness-related traits that reduce the general condition of inbred males. Here, we find that the production of the male sex pheromone is reduced significantly by inbreeding in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana. Other traits indicative of the general condition, including flight performance, are also negatively affected in male butterflies by inbreeding. Yet, we unambiguously show that only the production of male pheromones affects mating success. Thus, this pheromone signal informs females about the inbreeding status of their mating partners. We also identify the specific chemical component (hexadecanal) probably responsible for the decrease in male mating success. Our results advocate giving increased attention to olfactory communication as a major causal factor of mate-choice decisions and sexual selection. PMID:23466986

  1. Quantitative trait locus analysis for kernel width using maize recombinant inbred lines.

    PubMed

    Hui, G Q; Wen, G Q; Liu, X H; Yang, H P; Luo, Q; Song, H X; Wen, L; Sun, Y; Zhang, H M

    2015-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) kernel width is one of the most important traits that is related to yield and appearance. To understand its genetic mechanisms more clearly, a recombinant inbred line (RIL) segregation population consisting of 239 RILs was used for quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping for kernel width. We found four QTLs on chromosomes 3 (one), 5 (two), and 10 (one). The QTLs were close to their adjacent markers, with a range of 0-23.8 cM, and explained 6.2-19.7% of the phenotypic variation. The three QTLs on chromosomes 3 and 5 had positive additive effects, and to a certain extent increased kernel width, whereas the one on chromosome 10 exhibited negative additive effects and decreased kernel width. These results can be used for gene cloning and marker-assisted selection in maize-breeding programs. PMID:26600508

  2. Epigenome-wide inheritance of cytosine methylation variants in a recombinant inbred population

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz, Robert J.; He, Yupeng; Valdés-López, Oswaldo; Khan, Saad M.; Joshi, Trupti; Urich, Mark A.; Nery, Joseph R.; Diers, Brian; Xu, Dong; Stacey, Gary; Ecker, Joseph R.

    2013-01-01

    Cytosine DNA methylation is one avenue for passing information through cell divisions. Here, we present epigenomic analyses of soybean recombinant inbred lines (RILs) and their parents. Identification of differentially methylated regions (DMRs) revealed that DMRs mostly cosegregated with the genotype from which they were derived, but examples of the uncoupling of genotype and epigenotype were identified. Linkage mapping of methylation states assessed from whole-genome bisulfite sequencing of 83 RILs uncovered widespread evidence for local methylQTL. This epigenomics approach provides a comprehensive study of the patterns and heritability of methylation variants in a complex genetic population over multiple generations, paving the way for understanding how methylation variants contribute to phenotypic variation. PMID:23739894

  3. Comparison of inbred mouse substrains reveals segregation of maladaptive fear phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Temme, Stephanie J.; Bell, Ryan Z.; Pahumi, Reciton; Murphy, Geoffrey G.

    2014-01-01

    Maladaptive fear, such as fear that is persistent or easily generalized to a nonthreatening stimuli, is associated with anxiety-related disorders in humans. In the laboratory, maladaptive fear can be modeled in rodents using Pavlovian fear conditioning. Recently, an inbred mouse strain known as 129S1/SvImJ, or 129S1 has been reported as exhibiting impairments in fear extinction and enhanced fear generalization. With a long-term goal of identifying segregating genetic markers of maladaptive fear, we used Pavlovian fear conditioning to characterize a closely related substrain designated as 129S6/SvEvTac, or 129S6. Here we report that, like 129S1 animals, 129S6 mice exhibit appropriate levels of fear upon conditioning, but are unable to extinguish fear memories once they are consolidated. Importantly, the maladaptive fear phenotype in this inbred stain can be segregated by sub-strain when probed using conditioning protocols designed to assess generalized fear. We find that unlike the 129S1 substrain, mice from the 129S6 sub-strain do not generalize conditioned fear to previously novel contexts and can learn to discriminate between two similar contexts when trained using a discrimination protocol. These results suggest that at least two forms of maladaptive fear (deficits in fear extinction and fear generalization) can be can be functionally segregated, further suggesting that the underlying neurobiology is heritable. Given the observation that two closely related sub-strains can exhibit different constellations of maladaptive fear suggests that these findings could be exploited to facilitate the identification of candidate genes for anxiety-related disorders. PMID:25191238

  4. Genetic analysis in a variant of limb girdle muscular dystrophy in an inbred aboriginal community

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, C.R.; Nylen, E.G.; Halliday, W.

    1994-09-01

    Limb girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) is a heterogeneous group of disorders with variable inheritance patterns, age-of-onset, rates of progression and patterns of muscle involvement. To date, 4 different chromosomal assignments have been described; LGMD1 to chromosome 5q, LGMD2 to chromosome 15q, SCARMD to chromosome 13q and a fourth locus on chromosome 2p. Because of this genetic heterogeneity, only large unambiguous multiplex families which are clearly linked to a particular locus can be utilized in a genetic analysis. We now report preliminary findings in a large highly inbred aboriginal kindred with 8 probands (5 females, 3 males) from 6 nuclear families with a progressive LMD. All presented in their mid- to late teens with gait disturbances. At time of presentation all except one had both proximal as well as distal muscle involvement, facial muscle sparing, CK levels 25 to 100 times normal (3762-20,400 U/l), dystrophic muscle biopsies and normal dystrophin and dystrophin-associated glycoprotein expression. We have studied the segregation of highly informative microsatellite markers for FBN1, D15S132 and the gene for thrombospondin on chromosome 15q and D2S134, D2S136, D2S147, and D2S166 on chromosome 2. Linkage to chromosome 15q has been excluded and two-point lod scores are not significant as yet to either confirm or exclude linkage to chromosome 2p. However, visual inspection reveals that affected individuals are not consistently homozygous for the chromosome 2p markers as would be predicted in such an inbred population. Clinically, SCARMD is unlikely and if the locus on chromosomes 2p and 5q can also be excluded, a genome-wide search using evenly spaced microsatellites will be initiated. A second geographically distinct aboriginal kindred with a similar clinical phenotype has now also been identified.

  5. Heterogeneity of respiratory dendritic cell subsets and lymphocyte populations in inbred mouse strains

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Inbred mouse strains are used in different models of respiratory diseases but the variation of critical respiratory leukocyte subpopulations across different strains is unknown. Methods By using multiparameter flow cytometry we have quantitated respiratory leukocyte subsets including dendritic cells subpopulations, macrophages, classical T and B cells, natural killer cells, ??TCR+ T cells and lineage-negative leukocytes in the five most common inbred mouse strains BALB/c, C57BL/6, DBA/2, 129SV and C3H. To minimize confounding environmental factors, age-matched animals were received from the same provider and were housed under identical specific-pathogen-free conditions. Results Results revealed significant strain differences with respect to respiratory neutrophils (p=0.005; up to 1.4 fold differences versus C57BL/6 mice), eosinophils (p=0.029; up to 2.7 fold), certain dendritic cell subsets (p?0.0003; up to 3.4 fold), T (p<0.001; up to 1.6 fold) and B lymphocyte subsets (p=0.005; up to 0.4 fold), ?? T lymphocytes (p=0.003; up to 1.6 fold), natural killer cells (p<0.0001; up to 0.6 fold) and lineage-negative innate leukocytes (p?0.007; up to 3.6 fold). In contrast, total respiratory leukocytes, macrophages, total dendritic cells and bronchoalveolar lavage leukocytes did not differ significantly. Stimulation of respiratory leukocytes via Toll-like receptor 4 and 9 as well as CD3/CD28 revealed significant strain differences of TNF-? and IL-10 production. Conclusion Our study demonstrates significant strain heterogeneity of respiratory leukocyte subsets that may impact respiratory immunity in different disease models. Additionally, the results may help identification of optimal strains for purification of rare respiratory leukocyte subsets for ex vivo analyses. PMID:23066782

  6. Caenorhabditis briggsae Recombinant Inbred Line Genotypes Reveal Inter-Strain Incompatibility and the Evolution of Recombination

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Joseph A.; Koboldt, Daniel C.; Staisch, Julia E.; Chamberlin, Helen M.; Gupta, Bhagwati P.; Baird, Scott E.; Haag, Eric S.

    2011-01-01

    The nematode Caenorhabditis briggsae is an emerging model organism that allows evolutionary comparisons with C. elegans and exploration of its own unique biological attributes. To produce a high-resolution C. briggsae recombination map, recombinant inbred lines were generated from reciprocal crosses between two strains and genotyped at over 1,000 loci. A second set of recombinant inbred lines involving a third strain was also genotyped at lower resolution. The resulting recombination maps exhibit discrete domains of high and low recombination, as in C. elegans, indicating these are a general feature of Caenorhabditis species. The proportion of a chromosome's physical size occupied by the central, low-recombination domain is highly correlated between species. However, the C. briggsae intra-species comparison reveals striking variation in the distribution of recombination between domains. Hybrid lines made with the more divergent pair of strains also exhibit pervasive marker transmission ratio distortion, evidence of selection acting on hybrid genotypes. The strongest effect, on chromosome III, is explained by a developmental delay phenotype exhibited by some hybrid F2 animals. In addition, on chromosomes IV and V, cross direction-specific biases towards one parental genotype suggest the existence of cytonuclear epistatic interactions. These interactions are discussed in relation to surprising mitochondrial genome polymorphism in C. briggsae, evidence that the two strains diverged in allopatry, the potential for local adaptation, and the evolution of Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities. The genetic and genomic resources resulting from this work will support future efforts to understand inter-strain divergence as well as facilitate studies of gene function, natural variation, and the evolution of recombination in Caenorhabditis nematodes. PMID:21779179

  7. CPR - adult

    MedlinePLUS

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation - adult; Rescue breathing and chest compressions - adult; Resuscitation - cardiopulmonary - adult ... substitute for CPR training. The newest techniques emphasize compression over rescue breathing and airway, reversing long-standing ...

  8. A Common Genetic Basis for Cross-Sensitivity to Mesotrione and Nicosulfuron in Sweet Corn Hybrid Cultivars and Inbreds Grown Throughout North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In previous research, the sweet corn inbred line Cr1 was observed to be sensitive to multiple postemergence herbicides, including four acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibiting herbicides, three 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD)-inhibiting herbicides, a growth regulator herbicide combination, ...

  9. Maize Dwarf Mosaic Virus: Effect of Strain A On Corn Inbreds, Single- and Double-Cross Hybrids. 

    E-print Network

    Toler, R.W.; Bockholt, A.J.; Alston, F.G.

    1982-01-01

    heights for the plots inoculated with MDMV and the uninoculated plots for the inbred test. Inbred Ear Height (Cm.)* Lines K 55 K 64 Tx 61M Tx 585 Tx 127C Tx 441 Tx 1730 Tx 203 Tx 303 Tx 325 Tx 508 Tx 601 Tx 602 Inoculated 32.28 1 38.71... 602 5.08 k * Duncan's Multiple Range Test - any two means same letters are not significant. Uninoculated 21.67 cd** 17.28 def** 31.83 a** 23.71 bcd 15.24 defg 12.87 fghij 24.04 bc** 13 .55 efghij 29.47 ab** 9.60 gh i j k 11.17 fghijk 12...

  10. New Arabidopsis Recombinant Inbred Line Populations Genotyped Using SNPWave and Their Use for Mapping Flowering-Time Quantitative Trait Loci

    PubMed Central

    El-Lithy, Mohamed E.; Bentsink, Leónie; Hanhart, Corrie J.; Ruys, Gerda J.; Rovito, Daniela; Broekhof, José L. M.; van der Poel, Hein J. A.; van Eijk, Michiel J. T.; Vreugdenhil, Dick; Koornneef, Maarten

    2006-01-01

    The SNPWave marker system, based on SNPs between the reference accessions Colombia-0 and Landsberg erecta (Ler), was used to distinguish a set of 92 Arabidopsis accessions from various parts of the world. In addition, we used these markers to genotype three new recombinant inbred line populations for Arabidopsis, having Ler as a common parent that was crossed with the accessions Antwerp-1, Kashmir-2, and Kondara. The benefit of using multiple populations that contain many similar markers and the fact that all markers are linked to the physical map of Arabidopsis facilitates the quantitative comparison of maps. Flowering-time variation was analyzed in the three recombinant inbred line populations. Per population, four to eight quantitative trait loci (QTL) were detected. The comparison of the QTL positions related to the physical map allowed the estimate of 12 different QTL segregating for flowering time for which Ler has an allele different from one, two, or three of the other accessions. PMID:16361234

  11. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence and mutations of the Lung cancer model inbred rat strain (Muridae; Rattus).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Da-Ming; Zhu, Dan-Dan; Lu, Qing-Feng; Qiao, Wen-Bo; Zhuang, Yong-Zhi

    2016-03-01

    We reported the complete mitochondrial genome sequencing of an important Lung cancer model inbred rat strain for the first time. The total length of the mitogenome was 16,312?bp. It harbored 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and 1 non-coding control region. The mutation sites were analyzed by comparing with the reference BN strain. PMID:25391029

  12. Dynamic QTL analysis of protein content and glutamine synthetase activity in recombinant inbred wheat lines.

    PubMed

    Li, H M; Liang, H; Li, Z; Tang, Z X; Fu, S L; Geng, Y Y; Yan, B J; Ren, Z L

    2015-01-01

    Protein content (PC) is a crucial factor that determines the end-use and nutritional quality of wheat (Triticum aestivum). Glutamine synthetase (GS), which is a major participant in nitrogen metabolism, can convert inorganic nitrogen into organic nitrogen. Although many studies have been conducted on PC and GS, a dynamic analysis of all of the filling stages has not been conducted. Therefore, 115 F9-10 recombinant inbred wheat lines of 'R131/R142' were used to analyze PC and GS activity during different developmental stages, using the conditional quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping method. Twenty-two and six conditional QTL were detected for PC and GS activily, respectively. More QTL in leaf PC were detected during the early filling stages than in the later filling stages. Grain PC QTL displayed different dynamic variations to leaf PC QTL during the entire grain-filling stages. All of the QTL were expressed differently over time, and nine conditional QTL were detected across two filling stages. QTL with similar functions may have tended to group in specific locales. This study provides dynamic genetic information on protein accumulation during grain-filling stages. PMID:26345802

  13. Genetic Analysis of Health-Related Secondary Metabolites in a Brassica rapa Recombinant Inbred Line Population

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri, Hedayat; El-Soda, Mohamed; Kim, Hye Kyong; Fritsche, Steffi; Jung, Christian; Aarts, Mark G. M.

    2013-01-01

    The genetic basis of the wide variation for nutritional traits in Brassica rapa is largely unknown. A new Recombinant Inbred Line (RIL) population was profiled using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) analysis to detect quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling seed tocopherol and seedling metabolite concentrations. RIL population parent L58 had a higher level of glucosinolates and phenylpropanoids, whereas levels of sucrose, glucose and glutamate were higher in the other RIL population parent, R-o-18. QTL related to seed tocopherol (?-, ?-, ?-, ?-, ?-/?- and total tocopherol) concentrations were detected on chromosomes A3, A6, A9 and A10, explaining 11%–35% of the respective variation. The locus on A3 co-locates with the BrVTE1gene, encoding tocopherol cyclase. NMR spectroscopy identified the presence of organic/amino acid, sugar/glucosinolate and aromatic compounds in seedlings. QTL positions were obtained for most of the identified compounds. Compared to previous studies, novel loci were found for glucosinolate concentrations. This work can be used to design markers for marker-assisted selection of nutritional compounds in B. rapa. PMID:23892600

  14. Inheritance of Nitrogen Use Efficiency in Inbred Progenies of Tropical Maize Based on Multivariate Diallel Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Guedes, Fernando Lisboa; Diniz, Rafael Parreira; Balestre, Marcio; Ribeiro, Camila Bastos; Camargos, Renato Barbosa; Souza, João Cândido

    2014-01-01

    The objective of our study was to characterize and determine the patterns of genetic control in relation to tolerance and efficiency of nitrogen use by means of a complete diallel cross involving contrasting inbred progenies of tropical maize based on a univariate approach within the perspective of a multivariate mixed model. Eleven progenies, previously classified regarding the tolerance and responsiveness to nitrogen, were crossed in a complete diallel cross. Fifty-five hybrids were obtained. The hybrids and the progenies were evaluated at two different nitrogen levels, in two locations. The grain yield was measured as well as its yield components. The heritability values between the higher and lower nitrogen input environment did not differ among themselves. It was observed that the general combining ability values were similar for both approaches univariate and multivariate, when it was analyzed within each location and nitrogen level. The estimate of variance of the specific combining ability was higher than general combining ability estimate and the ratio between them was 0.54. The univariate and multivariate approaches are equivalent in experiments with good precision and high heritability. The nonadditive genetic effects exhibit greater quantities than the additive genetic effects for the genetic control of nitrogen use efficiency. PMID:25587575

  15. Naturally arising tumors of the inbred WAB/Not rat strain. II. Immunogenicity of transplanted tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Middle, J.G.; Embleton, M.J.

    1981-09-01

    The immunogenicity of 28 transplanted naturally arising tumors of the inbred WAB/Not rat was investigated at early passages in strictly syngeneic, contemporary animals. Included were nephroblastomas, histologically benign and malignant mammary tumors, soft tissue and skin tumors, 1 lymphoid tumor, and 2 gastrointestinal lesions. In no case was evidence of immunogenicity observed when animals were treated with multiple grafts of irradiated (15,000 rad) tissue or by excision of a growing tumor. A few of these tumors were further investigated by other methods of immunization, including injection at various sites of irradiated cells followed by challenge at different sites and multiple injections of mitomycin C- or Formalin-treated cells. Again no evidence of immunogenicity was seen. Attempts to immunize with viable cells mixed with BCG or Corynebacterium parvum failed due to lack of tumor suppression by these agents. Limited concomitant immunity experiments yielded similarly negative results, except in one case of a fibrosarcoma for which a slight reduction in second tumor growth was observed when primary implants were very large. Some alterations in biologic properties during transplant passage and the incidence of postexcision recurrence and metastatic spread of some of the tumors are described.

  16. Pericarp anatomy and hormone profiles of cypselas in dormant and non-dormant inbred sunflower lines.

    PubMed

    Andrade, A; Riera, N; Lindstrom, L; Alemano, S; Alvarez, D; Abdala, G; Vigliocco, A

    2015-03-01

    The pericarp anatomy and the effects of storage after harvest, storage temperature and early cypsela imbibition on phytohormone profiles were studied in inbred sunflower lines B123 and B91. On day 0, germination of B123 cypselas was near 0%, indicating dormancy, whereas that of B91 cypselas was near 100%, indicating non-dormancy. The germination of B123 and B91 on day 33 at room temperature (25 °C) storage was similar. Cell wall thickness and sclerification of the pericarp were higher in B123 than B91, suggesting that structural characteristics may contribute to physical dormancy in B123. Jasmonates (JAs), salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA) were measured in dry and imbibed pericarps. SA content of dry pericarp was higher on day 33 than day 0. SA content during imbibition on day 33 was similar for room and low (-20 °C) storage temperatures. ABA content after 12 h imbibition was similar on days 0 and 33 at low temperature, but it increased on day 33 at room temperature for B123. 12-Oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) was maximal on day 0 for B123, but peaked at day 33 at low temperature for B91. JA was higher on days 0 and 33 at room temperature as compared with low temperature. Our findings indicate that pericarp hormone profiles are affected in the two lines with different dormancy degree depending on storage conditions and imbibition processes. PMID:25272333

  17. Comt1 Genotype and Expression Predicts Anxiety and Nociceptive Sensitivity in Inbred Strains of Mice

    PubMed Central

    Segall, SK; Nackley, AG; Diatchenko, L; Lariviere, WR; Lu, X; Marron, JS; Grabowski-Boase, L; Walker, JR; Slade, G; Gauthier, J; Bailey, JS; Steffy, BM; Maynard, TM; Tarantino, LM; Wiltshire, T

    2010-01-01

    Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is an ubiquitously expressed enzyme that maintains basic biologic functions by inactivating catechol substrates. In humans, polymorphic variance at the COMT locus has been associated with modulation of pain sensitivity (Andersen & Skorpen, 2009) and risk for developing psychiatric disorders (Harrison & Tunbridge, 2008). A functional haplotype associated with increased pain sensitivity was shown to result in decreased COMT activity by altering mRNA secondary structure-dependent protein translation (Nackley et al., 2006). However, the exact mechanisms whereby COMT modulates pain sensitivity and behavior remain unclear and can be further studied in animal models. We have assessed Comt1 gene expression levels in multiple brain regions in inbred strains of mice and have discovered that Comt1 is differentially expressed among the strains, and this differential expression is cis-regulated. A B2 Short Interspersed Element (SINE) was inserted in the 3?UTR of Comt1 in 14 strains generating a common haplotype that correlates with gene expression. Experiments using mammalian expression vectors of full-length cDNA clones with and without the SINE element demonstrate that strains with the SINE haplotype (+SINE) have greater Comt1 enzymatic activity. +SINE mice also exhibit behavioral differences in anxiety assays and decreased pain sensitivity. These results suggest that a haplotype, defined by a 3? UTR B2 SINE element, regulates Comt1 expression and some mouse behaviors. PMID:20659173

  18. Selection and phenotypic characterization of a core collection of Brachypodium distachyon inbred lines

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The model grass Brachypodium distachyon is increasingly used to study various aspects of grass biology. A large and genotypically diverse collection of B. distachyon germplasm has been assembled by the research community. The natural variation in this collection can serve as a powerful experimental tool for many areas of inquiry, including investigating biomass traits. Results We surveyed the phenotypic diversity in a large collection of inbred lines and then selected a core collection of lines for more detailed analysis with an emphasis on traits relevant to the use of grasses as biofuel and grain crops. Phenotypic characters examined included plant height, growth habit, stem density, flowering time, and seed weight. We also surveyed differences in cell wall composition using near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) and comprehensive microarray polymer profiling (CoMPP). In all cases, we observed extensive natural variation including a two-fold variation in stem density, four-fold variation in ferulic acid bound to hemicellulose, and 1.7-fold variation in seed mass. Conclusion These characterizations can provide the criteria for selecting diverse lines for future investigations of the genetic basis of the observed phenotypic variation. PMID:24423101

  19. Bayesian mapping of multiple quantitative trait loci from incomplete inbred line cross data.

    PubMed Central

    Sillanpää, M J; Arjas, E

    1998-01-01

    A novel fine structure mapping method for quantitative traits is presented. It is based on Bayesian modeling and inference, treating the number of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) as an unobserved random variable and using ideas similar to composite interval mapping to account for the effects of QTLs in other chromosomes. The method is introduced for inbred lines and it can be applied also in situations involving frequent missing genotypes. We propose that two new probabilistic measures be used to summarize the results from the statistical analysis: (1) the (posterior) QTL intensity, for estimating the number of QTLs in a chromosome and for localizing them into some particular chromosomal regions, and (2) the locationwise (posterior) distributions of the phenotypic effects of the QTLs. Both these measures will be viewed as functions of the putative QTL locus, over the marker range in the linkage group. The method is tested and compared with standard interval and composite interval mapping techniques by using simulated backcross progeny data. It is implemented as a software package. Its initial version is freely available for research purposes under the name Multimapper at URL http://www.rni.helsinki.fi/mjs. PMID:9539450

  20. Maize peroxidase Px5 has a highly conserved sequence in inbreds resistant to mycotoxin producing fungi which enhances fungal and insect resistance.

    PubMed

    Dowd, Patrick F; Johnson, Eric T

    2016-01-01

    Mycotoxin presence in maize causes health and economic issues for humans and animals. Although many studies have investigated expression differences of genes putatively governing resistance to producing fungi, few have confirmed a resistance role, or examined putative resistance gene structure in more than a couple of inbreds. The pericarp expression of maize Px5 has previously been associated with resistance to Aspergillus flavus growth and insects in a set of inbreds. Genes from 14 different inbreds that included ones with resistance and susceptibility to A. flavus, Fusarium proliferatum, F. verticillioides and F. graminearum and/or mycotoxin production were cloned using high fidelity enzymes, and sequenced. The sequence of Px5 from all resistant inbreds was identical, except for a single base change in two inbreds, only one of which affected the amino acid sequence. Conversely, the Px5 sequence from several susceptible inbreds had several base variations, some of which affected amino acid sequence that would potentially alter secondary structure, and thus enzyme function. The sequence of the maize peroxidase Px5 common to inbreds resistant to mycotoxigenic fungi was overexpressed in maize callus. Callus transformants overexpressing the gene caused significant reductions in growth for fall armyworms, corn earworms, and F. graminearum compared to transformant callus with a ?-glucuronidase gene. This study demonstrates rarer transcripts of potential resistance genes overlooked by expression screens can be identified by sequence comparisons. A role in pest resistance can be verified by callus expression of the candidate genes, which can thereby justify larger scale transformation and regeneration of transgenic plants expressing the resistance gene for further evaluation. PMID:26659597

  1. Adult Strabismus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... cause. Is eye straightening as an adult strictly cosmetic? No. Eye alignment surgery is performed in adults ... this surgery? Eye muscle surgery is reconstructive (not cosmetic). In most cases, insurance will cover strabismus surgery ...

  2. Functional Coding Variation in Recombinant Inbred Mouse Lines Reveals Novel Serotonin Transporter-Associated Phenotypes

    SciTech Connect

    Carneiro, Ana; Airey, David; Thompson, Brent; Zhu, C; Rinchik, Eugene M; Lu, Lu; Chesler, Elissa J; Erikson, Keith; Blakely, Randy

    2009-01-01

    The human serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) transporter (hSERT, SLC6A4) figures prominently in the etiology or treatment of many prevalent neurobehavioral disorders including anxiety, alcoholism, depression, autism and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Here we utilize naturally occurring polymorphisms in recombinant inbred (RI) lines to identify novel phenotypes associated with altered SERT function. The widely used mouse strain C57BL/6J, harbors a SERT haplotype defined by two nonsynonymous coding variants (Gly39 and Lys152 (GK)). At these positions, many other mouse lines, including DBA/2J, encode Glu39 and Arg152 (ER haplotype), assignments found also in hSERT. Synaptosomal 5-HT transport studies revealed reduced uptake associated with the GK variant. Heterologous expression studies confirmed a reduced SERT turnover rate for the GK variant. Experimental and in silico approaches using RI lines (C57Bl/6J X DBA/2J=BXD) identifies multiple anatomical, biochemical and behavioral phenotypes specifically impacted by GK/ER variation. Among our findings are multiple traits associated with anxiety and alcohol consumption, as well as of the control of dopamine (DA) signaling. Further bioinformatic analysis of BXD phenotypes, combined with biochemical evaluation of SERT knockout mice, nominates SERT-dependent 5-HT signaling as a major determinant of midbrain iron homeostasis that, in turn, dictates ironregulated DA phenotypes. Our studies provide a novel example of the power of coordinated in vitro, in vivo and in silico approaches using murine RI lines to elucidate and quantify the system-level impact of gene variation.

  3. Differential miRNA expression in inherently high- and low-active inbred mice

    PubMed Central

    Dawes, Michelle; Kochan, Kelli J; Riggs, Penny K; Timothy Lightfoot, J

    2015-01-01

    Despite established health benefits of regular exercise, the majority of Americans do not meet the recommended levels of physical activity. While it is known that voluntary activity levels are largely heritable, the genetic mechanisms that regulate activity are not well understood. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that inhibit transcription by binding to a target gene, inhibiting protein production. The purpose of this study was to investigate differential miRNA expression between inherently high- (C57L/J) and low- (C3H/HeJ) active inbred mice in soleus, extensor digitorum longus (EDL), and nucleus accumbens tissues. Expression was initially determined by miRNA microarray analysis, and selected miRNAs were validated by qRT-PCR. Expression of 13 miRNAs varied between strains in the nucleus accumbens, 20 in soleus, and eight in EDL, by microarray analysis. Two miRNAs were validated by qRT-PCR in the nucleus accumbens; miR-466 was downregulated (?4 fold; P < 0.0004), and miR-342-5p was upregulated (?115 fold; P < 0.0001) in high-active mice. MiR-466 was downregulated (?5 fold; P < 0.0001) in the soleus of high-active mice as well. Interestingly, miR-466 is one of several miRNA families with sequence located in intron 10 of Sfmbt2; miRNAs at this locus are thought to drive imprinting of this gene. “Pathways in cancer” and “TGF? signaling” were the most significant pathways of putative target genes in both the soleus and nucleus accumbens. Our results are the first to consider differential miRNA expression between high- and low-active mice, and suggest that miRNAs may play a role in regulation of physical activity. PMID:26229004

  4. Display of individuality in avoidance behavior and risk assessment of inbred mice.

    PubMed

    Hager, Torben; Jansen, René F; Pieneman, Anton W; Manivannan, Suriya N; Golani, Ilan; van der Sluis, Sophie; Smit, August B; Verhage, Matthijs; Stiedl, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Factors determining individuality are still poorly understood. Rodents are excellent model organisms to study individuality, due to a rich behavioral repertoire and the availability of well-characterized isogenic populations. However, most current behavioral assays for rodents have short test duration in novel test environments and require human interference, which introduce coercion, thereby limiting the assessment of naturally occurring individuality. Thus, we developed an automated behavior system to longitudinally monitor conditioned fear for assessing PTSD-like behavior in individual mice. The system consists of a safe home compartment connected to a risk-prone test compartment (TC). Entry and exploration of the TC is solely based on deliberate choice determined by individual fear responsiveness and fear extinction. In this novel ethological assay, C57BL/6J mice show homogeneous responses after shock exposure (innate fear), but striking variation in long-lasting fear responses based on avoidance and risk assessment (learned fear), including automated stretch-attend posture quantification. TC entry (retention) latencies after foot shock differed >24 h and the re-explored TC area differed >50% among inbred mice. Next, we compared two closely related C57BL/6 substrains. Despite substantial individual differences, previously observed higher fear of C57BL/6N vs. C57BL/6J mice was reconfirmed, whereas fear extinction was fast and did not differ. The observed variation in fear expression in isogenic mice suggests individual differences in coping style with PTSD-like avoidance. Investigating the assumed epigenetic mechanisms, with reduced interpretational ambiguity and enhanced translational value in this assay, may help improve understanding of personality type-dependent susceptibility and resilience to neuropsychiatric disorders such as PTSD. PMID:25278853

  5. New Arabidopsis Advanced Intercross Recombinant Inbred Lines Reveal Female Control of Nonrandom Mating1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Fitz Gerald, Jonathan Nesbit; Carlson, Ann Louise; Smith, Evadne; Maloof, Julin N.; Weigel, Detlef; Chory, Joanne; Borevitz, Justin O.; Swanson, Robert John

    2014-01-01

    Female control of nonrandom mating has never been genetically established, despite being linked to inbreeding depression and sexual selection. In order to map the loci that control female-mediated nonrandom mating, we constructed a new advanced intercross recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from a cross between Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) accessions Vancouver (Van-0) and Columbia (Col-0) and mapped quantitative trait loci (QTLs) responsible for nonrandom mating and seed yield traits. We genotyped a population of 490 RILs. A subset of these lines was used to construct an expanded map of 1,061.4 centimorgans with an average interval of 6.7 ± 5.3 centimorgans between markers. QTLs were then mapped for female- and male-mediated nonrandom mating and seed yield traits. To map the genetic loci responsible for female-mediated nonrandom mating and seed yield, we performed mixed pollinations with genetically marked Col-0 pollen and Van-0 pollen on RIL pistils. To map the loci responsible for male-mediated nonrandom mating and seed yield, we performed mixed pollinations with genetically marked Col-0 and RIL pollen on Van-0 pistils. Composite interval mapping of these data identified four QTLs that control female-mediated nonrandom mating and five QTLs that control female-mediated seed yield. We also identified four QTLs that control male-mediated nonrandom mating and three QTLs that control male-mediated seed yield. Epistasis analysis indicates that several of these loci interact. To our knowledge, the results of these experiments represent the first time female-mediated nonrandom mating has been genetically defined. PMID:24623850

  6. Divergent physiological characteristics and responses to endurance training among inbred mouse strains.

    PubMed

    Kilikevicius, A; Venckunas, T; Zelniene, R; Carroll, A M; Lionikaite, S; Ratkevicius, A; Lionikas, A

    2013-10-01

    Both baseline values and adaptive changes in mice can vary depending on the genetic background. We aimed to assess variation in a battery of variables and their adaptations to endurance training in six inbred mouse strains. Males, n = 184, from A/J, BALB/cByJ, C3H/HeJ, C57BL/6J, DBA/2J, and PWD/PhJ strains were assigned to a control or an endurance group (5 weeks swimming exercise). Enzyme activity, histology of soleus (SOL) muscle, swimming endurance, cardiac ventricular and hind limb muscle weight, and femur length were examined. Endurance capacity, morphological and histological variables, and enzyme activity substantially differed among strains. For example, SOL weight was twofold higher and cross-sectional area (CSA) of fibers was ? 30% greater in C57BL/6J than in PWD/PhJ strain. The CSA of type 1 fibers were larger than type 2A in PWD/PhJ (P < 0.01); however, the reverse was true in DBA/2J and BALB/cByJ strains (P < 0.05). Swimming endurance in DBA/2J strain was ? 9 times better than in BALB/cByJ. Endurance training increased the activity of citrate synthase in gastrocnemius across strains (P < 0.01), however, changes in endurance were strain-specific; the C57BL/6J and DBA/2J strains improved substantially, whereas A/J and BALB/cByJ strains did not. In conclusion, genetic background is a potent determinant of the physiological characteristics and adaptations to training in mice. PMID:22414113

  7. Study of immune function in inbred miniature pigs vaccinated and challenged with suid herpesvirus 1.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, P P

    1995-01-01

    Specific immune responses of inbred miniature pigs following vaccination and challenge with suid herpesvirus 1 (SHV-1) were determined. Vaccination of swine with SHV-1 elicited both specific neutralizing antibody and lymphoproliferative responses. Moreover, pigs vaccinated with SHV-1 were fully protected against a lethal virus challenge. Pigs vaccinated with a recombinant (r) SHV-1 virus, followed by challenge with a virulent SHV-1, had lower percentages of circulating T- and B-lymphocytes, and showed a significant (P < or = 0.05) reduction in peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) antibody-dependent cell-cytotoxicity than control (noninfected, SHV-1 sero-negative) animals. From the 5th through the 8th week of postchallenge, rSHV-1 was isolated from 2 of 4 pigs. Presence of r-virus was indicative that PBMC were infectious in vivo. The rSHV-1, with beta-galactosidase activity, was only recovered from ConA- and IL-2-stimulated primary PBMC cocultivated with porcine kidney cells. Control pigs exposed to challenge SHV-1 elicited both specific neutralizing antibody and lympho-proliferative responses followed by subsequent infection. These infected pigs, compared to control pigs, had significantly (P < or = 0.05) lowered percentages of T- and B-lymphocytes, lowered T-cell mitogenic responses, variable PBMC counts, and lowered blood phagocytic cell function. When PBMC from control pigs were cultured and infected with SHV-1, the virus caused a significant (P < or = 0.05) suppression of T-cell proliferation and PBMC mitochondrial dehydrogenase and macrophage activities. PMID:8548690

  8. Genetic Relationships between Obesity and Osteoporosis in LGXSM Recombinant Inbred Mice

    PubMed Central

    Reich, Michael S.; Jarvis, Joseph P.; Silva, Matthew J.; Cheverud, James M.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Obesity and osteoporosis affect millions of Americans. While phenotypically, obesity is negatively correlated with fracture risk, research on a genetic basis for this relationship is lacking. We used males and females from 16 LGXSM recombinant inbred (RI) mouse strains to investigate the genetically-mediated relationship between obesity and osteoporosis-related traits. First, heritabilities were estimated for (1) bone morphological properties determined by microCT (femoral and radial diaphyseal bone cross-sectional area and moments of inertia, as well as proximal tibial trabecular bone volume, connectivity density, structure model index, trabecular number, trabecular thickness, and trabecular separation), (2) mechanical properties determined by bending tests (femoral and radial rigidity, yield moment, ultimate moment, fracture displacement, and post-yield displacement), and (3) effective material properties (femoral and radial modulus of elasticity and ultimate tensile strength). All femoral (H2: 43-74%) and tibial traits (H2: 31-56%) were heritable; as were eight of 10 radial traits (H2: 21-33%). Eighteen significant genetic correlations were discovered between obesity- and osteoporosis-related phenotypes. Genetic correlations indicate that gene effects associated with increased fat mass and leptin levels are also associated with larger, stronger femora. Gene effects associated with larger, stronger radii and with denser tibiae were also associated with increased fat mass but not with leptin levels. Furthermore, quantitative trait loci (QTLs) previously reported for obesity and leptin levels also had effects on bone morphology, mechanical, and material properties. Our results support the use of the LG/J x SM/J mouse intercross populations as models for normal, complex genetic variation in obesity, bone properties, and their interrelationship. PMID:19061533

  9. High-throughput behavioral phenotyping in the expanded panel of BXD recombinant inbred strains

    PubMed Central

    Philip, V M; Duvvuru, S; Gomero, B; Ansah, T A; Blaha, C D; Cook, M N; Hamre, K M; Lariviere, W R; Matthews, D B; Mittleman, G; Goldowitz, D; Chesler, E J

    2010-01-01

    Genetic reference populations, particularly the BXD recombinant inbred (BXD RI) strains derived from C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice, are a valuable resource for the discovery of the bio-molecular substrates and genetic drivers responsible for trait variation and covariation. This approach can be profitably applied in the analysis of susceptibility and mechanisms of drug and alcohol use disorders for which many predisposing behaviors may predict the occurrence and manifestation of increased preference for these substances. Many of these traits are modeled by common mouse behavioral assays, facilitating the detection of patterns and sources of genetic coregulation of predisposing phenotypes and substance consumption. Members of the Tennessee Mouse Genome Consortium (TMGC) have obtained phenotype data from over 250 measures related to multiple behavioral assays across several batteries: response to, and withdrawal from cocaine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine; “ecstasy” (MDMA), morphine and alcohol; novelty seeking; behavioral despair and related neurological phenomena; pain sensitivity; stress sensitivity; anxiety; hyperactivity and sleep/wake cycles. All traits have been measured in both sexes in approximately 70 strains of the recently expanded panel of BXD RI strains. Sex differences and heritability estimates were obtained for each trait, and a comparison of early (N = 32) and recent (N = 37) BXD RI lines was performed. Primary data are publicly available for heritability, sex difference and genetic analyses using the MouseTrack database, and are also available in GeneNetwork.org for quantitative trait locus (QTL) detection and genetic analysis of gene expression. Together with the results of related studies, these data form a public resource for integrative systems genetic analysis of neurobehavioral traits. PMID:19958391

  10. Histological and transcript analyses of intact somatic embryos in an elite maize (Zea mays L.) inbred line Y423.

    PubMed

    Liu, Beibei; Su, Shengzhong; Wu, Ying; Li, Ying; Shan, Xiaohui; Li, Shipeng; Liu, Hongkui; Dong, Haixiao; Ding, Meiqi; Han, Junyou; Yuan, Yaping

    2015-07-01

    Intact somatic embryos were obtained from an elite maize inbred line Y423, bred in our laboratory. Using 13-day immature embryos after self-pollination as explants, and after 4-5 times subculture, a large number of somatic embryos were detected on the surface of the embryonic calli on the medium. The intact somatic embryos were transferred into the differential medium, where the plantlets regenerated with shoots and roots forming simultaneously. Histological analysis and scanning electron micrographs confirmed the different developmental stages of somatic embryogenesis, including globular-shaped embryo, pear-shaped embryo, scutiform embryo, and mature embryo. cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) was used for comparative transcript profiling between embryogenic and non-embryogenic calli of a new elite maize inbred line Y423 during somatic embryogenesis. Differentially expressed genes were cloned and sequenced. Gene Ontology analysis of 117 candidate genes indicated their involvement in cellular component, biological process and molecular function. Nine of the candidate genes were selected. The changes in their expression levels during embryo induction and regeneration were analyzed in detail using quantitative real-time PCR. Two full-length cDNA sequences, encoding ZmSUF4 (suppressor of fir 4-like protein) and ZmDRP3A (dynamin-related protein), were cloned successfully from intact somatic embryos of the elite inbred maize line Y423. Here, a procedure for maize plant regeneration from somatic embryos is described. Additionally, the possible roles of some of these genes during the somatic embryogenesis has been discussed. This study is a systematic analysis of the cellular and molecular mechanism during the formation of intact somatic embryos in maize. PMID:25931320

  11. Growth and formation of the foreleg skeleton inbred mice and rats under conditions of hypo-, normo- and hyperdynamia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kogan, B. I.; Antipov, Y. S.

    1980-01-01

    Inbred 1 month old males of C57B 1/6, CBA, CC57Br/Mw interlinear hybrid mice of the first generation and rats of the August and Wistar lines were subjected to conditions of hypo-, normo- and hyperdynamia for 2 months. The statistically reliable dependence is shown between mechanical underloadings and overloadings and macro microscopic changes in the hind limb skeleton of animals. Genetic determination of growth and formation of the forelimb skeleton is established. Hereditary susceptibility and the phenomenon of heterosis are preserved under all motor conditions.

  12. Dissecting structural and nucleotide genome-wide variation in inbred Iberian pigs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In contrast to international pig breeds, the Iberian breed has not been admixed with Asian germplasm. This makes it an important model to study both domestication and relevance of Asian genes in the pig. Besides, Iberian pigs exhibit high meat quality as well as appetite and propensity to obesity. Here we provide a genome wide analysis of nucleotide and structural diversity in a reduced representation library from a pool (n=9 sows) and shotgun genomic sequence from a single sow of the highly inbred Guadyerbas strain. In the pool, we applied newly developed tools to account for the peculiarities of these data. Results A total of 254,106 SNPs in the pool (79.6 Mb covered) and 643,783 in the Guadyerbas sow (1.47 Gb covered) were called. The nucleotide diversity (1.31x10-3 per bp in autosomes) is very similar to that reported in wild boar. A much lower than expected diversity in the X chromosome was confirmed (1.79x10-4 per bp in the individual and 5.83x10-4 per bp in the pool). A strong (0.70) correlation between recombination and variability was observed, but not with gene density or GC content. Multicopy regions affected about 4% of annotated pig genes in their entirety, and 2% of the genes partially. Genes within the lowest variability windows comprised interferon genes and, in chromosome X, genes involved in behavior like HTR2C or MCEP2. A modified Hudson-Kreitman-Aguadé test for pools also indicated an accelerated evolution in genes involved in behavior, as well as in spermatogenesis and in lipid metabolism. Conclusions This work illustrates the strength of current sequencing technologies to picture a comprehensive landscape of variability in livestock species, and to pinpoint regions containing genes potentially under selection. Among those genes, we report genes involved in behavior, including feeding behavior, and lipid metabolism. The pig X chromosome is an outlier in terms of nucleotide diversity, which suggests selective constraints. Our data further confirm the importance of structural variation in the species, including Iberian pigs, and allowed us to identify new paralogs for known gene families. PMID:23497037

  13. Genetic Architecture of Atherosclerosis in Mice: A Systems Genetics Analysis of Common Inbred Strains

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Brian J.; Davis, Richard C.; Civelek, Mete; Orozco, Luz; Wu, Judy; Qi, Hannah; Pan, Calvin; Packard, René R. Sevag; Eskin, Eleazar; Yan, Mujing; Kirchgessner, Todd; Wang, Zeneng; Li, Xinmin; Gregory, Jill C.; Hazen, Stanley L.; Gargalovic, Peter S.; Lusis, Aldons J.

    2015-01-01

    Common forms of atherosclerosis involve multiple genetic and environmental factors. While human genome-wide association studies have identified numerous loci contributing to coronary artery disease and its risk factors, these studies are unable to control environmental factors or examine detailed molecular traits in relevant tissues. We now report a study of natural variations contributing to atherosclerosis and related traits in over 100 inbred strains of mice from the Hybrid Mouse Diversity Panel (HMDP). The mice were made hyperlipidemic by transgenic expression of human apolipoprotein E-Leiden (APOE-Leiden) and human cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP). The mice were examined for lesion size and morphology as well as plasma lipid, insulin and glucose levels, and blood cell profiles. A subset of mice was studied for plasma levels of metabolites and cytokines. We also measured global transcript levels in aorta and liver. Finally, the uptake of acetylated LDL by macrophages from HMDP mice was quantitatively examined. Loci contributing to the traits were mapped using association analysis, and relationships among traits were examined using correlation and statistical modeling. A number of conclusions emerged. First, relationships among atherosclerosis and the risk factors in mice resemble those found in humans. Second, a number of trait-loci were identified, including some overlapping with previous human and mouse studies. Third, gene expression data enabled enrichment analysis of pathways contributing to atherosclerosis and prioritization of candidate genes at associated loci in both mice and humans. Fourth, the data provided a number of mechanistic inferences; for example, we detected no association between macrophage uptake of acetylated LDL and atherosclerosis. Fifth, broad sense heritability for atherosclerosis was much larger than narrow sense heritability, indicating an important role for gene-by-gene interactions. Sixth, stepwise linear regression showed that the combined variations in plasma metabolites, including LDL/VLDL-cholesterol, trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), arginine, glucose and insulin, account for approximately 30 to 40% of the variation in atherosclerotic lesion area. Overall, our data provide a rich resource for studies of complex interactions underlying atherosclerosis. PMID:26694027

  14. Is the Alcohol Deprivation Effect Genetically Mediated? Studies with HXB/BXH Recombinant Inbred Rat Strains

    PubMed Central

    Vanderlinden, Lauren A.; Saba, Laura M.; Printz, Morton P.; Flodman, Pamela; Koob, George; Richardson, Heather N.; Hoffman, Paula L.; Tabakoff, Boris

    2014-01-01

    Background Two features of alcohol addiction that have been widely studied in animal models are relapse drinking following periods of alcohol abstinence, and the escalation of alcohol consumption after chronic continuous or intermittent alcohol exposure. The genetic contribution to these phenotypes has not been systematically investigated. Methods HXB/BXH recombinant inbred (RI) rat strains were given access to alcohol sequentially as follows: alcohol (10%) as the only fluid for one week; alcohol (10%) and water in a two-bottle choice paradigm for 7 weeks (“pre-alcohol deprivation effect (ADE) alcohol consumption”); two weeks of access to water only (alcohol deprivation); two weeks of re-access to 10% alcohol and water (“post-ADE alcohol consumption”). The periods of deprivation and re-access to alcohol were repeated three times. The ADE was defined as the amount of alcohol consumed in the first 24 hr after deprivation minus the average daily amount of alcohol consumed in the week prior to deprivation. Heritability of the phenotypes was determined by ANOVA, and QTLs were identified. Results All strains showed increased alcohol consumption, compared to the predeprivation period, in the first 24 hr after each deprivation (ADE). Broad sense heritability of the ADEs was low (ADE1, 9.1%; ADE2, 26.2%; ADE3, 16.3%). Alcohol consumption levels were relatively stable over weeks 2 to 7. Post-ADE alcohol consumption levels consistently increased in some strains, and were decreased or unchanged in others. Heritability of pre- and post-ADE alcohol consumption was high and increased over time (week 2, 38.5%; week7, 51.1%; week 11, 56.8%; week 15, 63.9%). QTLs for pre- and post-ADE alcohol consumption were similar, but the strength of the QTL association with the phenotype decreased over time. Conclusions In the HXB/BXH RI rat strains, genotypic variance does not account for a large proportion of phenotypic variance in the ADE phenotype (low heritability), suggesting a role of environmental factors. In contrast, a large proportion of the variance across the RI strains in pre- and post-ADE alcohol consumption is due to genetically determined variance (high heritability). PMID:24961585

  15. Mapping Isoflavone QTL with Main, Epistatic and QTL × Environment Effects in Recombinant Inbred Lines of Soybean

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Han, Yingpeng; Zhao, Xue; Li, Yongguang; Teng, Weili; Li, Dongmei; Zhan, Yong; Li, Wenbin

    2015-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) isoflavone is important for human health and plant defense system. To identify novel quantitative trait loci (QTL) and epistatic QTL underlying isoflavone content in soybean, F5:6, F5:7 and F5:8 populations of 130 recombinant inbred (RI) lines, derived from the cross of soybean cultivar ‘Zhong Dou 27? (high isoflavone) and ‘Jiu Nong 20? (low isoflavone), were analyzed with 95 new SSR markers. A new linkage map including 194 SSR markers and covering 2,312 cM with mean distance of about 12 cM between markers was constructed. Thirty four QTL for both individual and total seed isoflavone contents of soybean were identified. Six, seven, ten and eleven QTL were associated with daidzein (DZ), glycitein (GC), genistein (GT) and total isoflavone (TI), respectively. Of them 23 QTL were newly identified. The qTIF_1 between Satt423 and Satt569 shared the same marker Satt569 with qDZF_2, qGTF_1 and qTIF_2. The qGTD2_1 between Satt186 and Satt226 was detected in four environments and explained 3.41%-10.98% of the phenotypic variation. The qGTA2_1, overlapped with qGCA2_1 and detected in four environments, was close to the previously identified major QTL for GT, which were responsible for large a effects. QTL (qDZF_2, qGTF_1 and qTIF_2) between Satt144-Satt569 were either clustered or pleiotropic. The qGCM_1, qGTM_1 and qTIM_1 between Satt540-Sat_244 explained 2.02%–9.12% of the phenotypic variation over six environments. Moreover, the qGCE_1 overlapped with qGTE_1 and qTIE_1, the qTIH_2 overlapped with qGTH_1, qGCI_1 overlapped with qDZI_1, qTIL_1 overlapped with qGTL_1, and qTIO_1 overlapped with qGTO_1. In this study, some of unstable QTL were detected in different environments, which were due to weak expression of QTL, QTL by environment interaction in the opposite direction to a effects, and/or epistasis. The markers identified in multi-environments in this study could be applied in the selection of soybean cultivars for higher isoflavone content and in the map-based gene cloning. PMID:25738957

  16. Mouse Behavioral Tasks Relevant to Autism: Phenotypes of Ten Inbred Strains

    PubMed Central

    Moy, Sheryl S.; Nadler, Jessica J.; Young, Nancy B.; Perez, Antonio; Holloway, L. Paige; Barbaro, Ryan P.; Barbaro, Justin R.; West, Lindsay M.; Threadgill, David W.; Lauder, Jean M.; Magnuson, Terry R.; Crawley, Jacqueline N.

    2007-01-01

    Three defining clinical symptoms of autism are aberrant reciprocal social interactions, deficits in social communication, and repetitive behaviors, including motor stereotypies and insistence on sameness. We developed a set of behavioral tasks designed to model components of these core symptoms in mice. Male mice from ten inbred strains were characterized in assays for sociability, preference for social novelty, and reversal of the spatial location of the reinforcer in T-maze and Morris water maze tasks. Six strains, C57BL/6J, C57L/J, DBA/2J, FVB/NJ, C3H/HeJ, and AKR/J, showed significant levels of sociability, while A/J, BALB/cByJ, BTBR T+tf/J, and 129S1/SvImJ mice did not. C57BL/6J, C57L/J, DBA/2J, FVB/NJ, BALB/cByJ, and BTBR T+tf/J showed significant preference for social novelty, while C3H/HeJ, AKR/J, A/J, and 129S1/SvImJ did not. Normal scores on relevant control measures confirmed general health and physical abilities in all strains, ruling out artifactual explanations for social deficits. Elevated plus maze scores confirmed high anxiety-like behaviors in A/J, BALB/cByJ, and 129S1/SvImJ, which could underlie components of their low social approach. Strains that showed high levels of performance on acquisition of a T-maze task were also able to reach criterion for reversal learning. On the Morris water maze task, DBA/2J, AKR/J, BTBR T+tf/J, and 129S1/SvImJ failed to show significant quadrant preference during the reversal probe trial. These results highlight a dissociation between social task performance and reversal learning. BTBR T+tf/J is a particularly interesting strain, displaying both low social approach and resistance to change in routine on the water maze, consistent with an autism-like phenotype. Our multitask strategy for modeling symptoms of autism will be useful for investigating targeted and random gene mutations, QTLs, and microarray analyses. PMID:16971002

  17. Genetic Architecture of Atherosclerosis in Mice: A Systems Genetics Analysis of Common Inbred Strains.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Brian J; Davis, Richard C; Civelek, Mete; Orozco, Luz; Wu, Judy; Qi, Hannah; Pan, Calvin; Packard, René R Sevag; Eskin, Eleazar; Yan, Mujing; Kirchgessner, Todd; Wang, Zeneng; Li, Xinmin; Gregory, Jill C; Hazen, Stanley L; Gargalovic, Peter S; Lusis, Aldons J

    2015-12-01

    Common forms of atherosclerosis involve multiple genetic and environmental factors. While human genome-wide association studies have identified numerous loci contributing to coronary artery disease and its risk factors, these studies are unable to control environmental factors or examine detailed molecular traits in relevant tissues. We now report a study of natural variations contributing to atherosclerosis and related traits in over 100 inbred strains of mice from the Hybrid Mouse Diversity Panel (HMDP). The mice were made hyperlipidemic by transgenic expression of human apolipoprotein E-Leiden (APOE-Leiden) and human cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP). The mice were examined for lesion size and morphology as well as plasma lipid, insulin and glucose levels, and blood cell profiles. A subset of mice was studied for plasma levels of metabolites and cytokines. We also measured global transcript levels in aorta and liver. Finally, the uptake of acetylated LDL by macrophages from HMDP mice was quantitatively examined. Loci contributing to the traits were mapped using association analysis, and relationships among traits were examined using correlation and statistical modeling. A number of conclusions emerged. First, relationships among atherosclerosis and the risk factors in mice resemble those found in humans. Second, a number of trait-loci were identified, including some overlapping with previous human and mouse studies. Third, gene expression data enabled enrichment analysis of pathways contributing to atherosclerosis and prioritization of candidate genes at associated loci in both mice and humans. Fourth, the data provided a number of mechanistic inferences; for example, we detected no association between macrophage uptake of acetylated LDL and atherosclerosis. Fifth, broad sense heritability for atherosclerosis was much larger than narrow sense heritability, indicating an important role for gene-by-gene interactions. Sixth, stepwise linear regression showed that the combined variations in plasma metabolites, including LDL/VLDL-cholesterol, trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), arginine, glucose and insulin, account for approximately 30 to 40% of the variation in atherosclerotic lesion area. Overall, our data provide a rich resource for studies of complex interactions underlying atherosclerosis. PMID:26694027

  18. Transcriptional and Metabolic Changes Associated to the Infection by Fusarium verticillioides in Maize Inbreds with Contrasting Ear Rot Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Campos-Bermudez, Valeria A.; Fauguel, Carolina M.; Tronconi, Marcos A.; Casati, Paula; Presello, Daniel A.; Andreo, Carlos S.

    2013-01-01

    Fusarium verticillioides causes ear rot and grain mycotoxins in maize (Zea mays L.), which are harmful to human and animal health. Breeding and growing less susceptible plant genotypes is one alternative to reduce these detrimental effects. A better understanding of the resistance mechanisms would facilitate the implementation of strategic molecular agriculture to breeding of resistant germplasm. Our aim was to identify genes and metabolites that may be related to the Fusarium reaction in a resistant (L4637) and a susceptible (L4674) inbred. Gene expression data were obtained from microarray hybridizations in inoculated and non-inoculated kernels from both inbreds. Fungal inoculation did not produce considerable changes in gene expression and metabolites in L4637. Defense-related genes changed in L4674 kernels, responding specifically to the pathogen infection. These results indicate that L4637 resistance may be mainly due to constitutive defense mechanisms preventing fungal infection. These mechanisms seem to be poorly expressed in L4674; and despite the inoculation activate a defense response; this is not enough to prevent the disease progress in this susceptible line. Through this study, a global view of differential genes expressed and metabolites accumulated during resistance and susceptibility to F. verticillioides inoculation has been obtained, giving additional information about the mechanisms and pathways conferring resistance to this important disease in maize. PMID:23637860

  19. Genetic variation among species, races, forms and inbred lines of lac insects belonging to the genus Kerria (Homoptera, Tachardiidae).

    PubMed

    Ranjan, Sanjeev Kumar; Mallick, Chandana Basu; Saha, Dipnarayan; Vidyarthi, Ambarish S; Ramani, Ranganathan

    2011-07-01

    THE LAC INSECTS (HOMOPTERA: Tachardiidae), belonging to the genus Kerria, are commercially exploited for the production of lac. Kerria lacca is the most commonly used species in India. RAPD markers were used for assessing genetic variation in forty-eight lines of Kerria, especially among geographic races, infrasubspecific forms, cultivated lines, inbred lines, etc., of K. lacca. In the 48 lines studied, the 26 RAPD primers generated 173 loci, showing 97.7% polymorphism. By using neighbor-joining, the dendrogram generated from the similarity matrix resolved the lines into basically two clusters and outgroups. The major cluster, comprising 32 lines, included mainly cultivated lines of the rangeeni form, geographic races and inbred lines of K. lacca. The second cluster consisted of eight lines of K. lacca, seven of the kusmi form and one of the rangeeni from the southern state of Karnataka. The remaining eight lines formed a series of outgroups, this including a group of three yellow mutant lines of K. lacca and other species of the Kerria studied, among others. Color mutants always showed distinctive banding patterns compared to their wild-type counterparts from the same population. This study also adds support to the current status of kusmi and rangeeni, as infraspecific forms of K. lacca. PMID:21931527

  20. Nitrate induction triggers different transcriptional changes in a high and a low nitrogen use efficiency maize inbred line.

    PubMed

    Zamboni, Anita; Astolfi, Stefania; Zuchi, Sabrina; Pii, Youry; Guardini, Katia; Tononi, Paola; Varanini, Zeno

    2014-11-01

    In higher plants, NO3(-) can induce its own uptake and the magnitude of this induction is positively related to the external anion concentration. This phenomenon has been characterized in both herbaceous and woody plants. Here, different adaptation strategies of roots from two maize (Zea mays L., ZmAGOs) inbred lines differing in nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) and exhibiting different timing of induction were discussed by investigating NO3(-) -induced changes in their transcriptome. Lo5 line (high NUE) showing the maximum rate of NO3(-) uptake 4 h after the provision of 200 ?mol/L NO3(-) treatment modulated a higher number of transcripts relative to T250 (low NUE) that peaked after 12 h. The two inbred lines share only 368 transcripts that are modulated by the treatment with NO3(-) and behaved differently when transcripts involved in anion uptake and assimilation were analyzed. T250 line responded to the NO3(-) induction modulating this group of genes as reported for several plant species. On the contrary, the Lo5 line did not exhibit during the induction changes in this set of genes. Obtained data suggest the importance of exploring the physiological and molecular variations among different maize genotypes in response to environmental clues like NO3(-) provision, in order to understand mechanisms underlying NUE. PMID:24805158

  1. Quantitative trait loci analysis of fiber quality traits using a random-mated recombinant inbred population in Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using 11 diverse Upland cotton cultivars as parents, a random-mated recombinant inbred (RI) population consisting of 550 RI lines was developed after 6 cycles of random-mating and 6 generations of self-pollination. The 550 RILs were planted in triplicates for three years in Mississippi State, MS, US...

  2. Genetic mapping of QTLs associated with seed macronutrients accumulation in 'MD96-5722' by 'Spencer' recombinant inbred lines of soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research of genetic mapping of QTLs for macronutrient accumulation in soybean seed is limited. Therefore, the objective of this research was to identify QTLs related to macronutrients (N, C, S, P, K, Ca, and Mg) in seeds in 92 F5:7 recombinant inbred lines developed from a cross between MD 96-5722 (...

  3. LYMPHOID ORGAN SIZE VARIES AMONG INBRED LINES 63, 72 AND THEIR THIRTEEN RECOMBINANT CONGENIC STRAINS OF CHICKENS WITH THE SAME MHC

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to evaluate lymphoid organ size in chickens from a series of thirteen recombinant congenic strains (RCS) and their highly inbred parental lines (63 and 72). The parental line 63 was selected for resistance to tumors induced by Marek’s disease virus and avian leukosis viruses, where...

  4. Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci for Resistance to Southern Leaf Blight and Days to Anthesis in Two Maize Recombinant Inbred Line Populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two recombinant inbred line populations derived from crosses between maize lines H99 and B73 (HB population) and between B73 and B52 (BB population) were evaluated for resistance to southern leaf blight (SLB) disease caused by Cochliobolus heterostrophus race O and for days to anthesis (DTA) in tw...

  5. Towards achieving dense genetic maps and detecting disease resistance QTLs using a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dense genetic map constructed using recombinant inbred lines (RILs) have several applications in genetic and breeding approaches including the use in identification of consistent QTLs using multi-environment phenotyping data. Realizing the serious threat from Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and lea...

  6. Morpho-physiological characterization of cold-and pre-flowering drought tolerance in grain Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) inbreds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aim: The relationships between early-season cold temperature germination and preflowering drought stress in eight grain sorghum inbreds were assessed using morphophysiological traits. Study Design: Field was laid out in a randomized complete block design. Place and Duration: The experiment was condu...

  7. Natural variation and genetic covariance in adult hippocampal neurogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Kempermann, Gerd; Chesler, Elissa J; Lu, Lu; Williams, Robert; Gage, Fred

    2006-01-01

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is highly variable and heritable among laboratory strains of mice. Adult neurogenesis is also remarkably plastic and can be modulated by environment and activity. Here, we provide a systematic quantitative analysis of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in two large genetic reference panels of recombinant inbred strains (BXD and AXB?BXA, n ? 52 strains). We combined data on variation in neurogenesis with a new transcriptome database to extract a set of 190 genes with expression patterns that are also highly variable and that covary with rates of (i) cell proliferation, (ii) cell survival, or the numbers of surviving (iii) new neurons, and (iv) astrocytes. Expression of a subset of these neurogenesis-associated transcripts was controlled in cis across the BXD set. These self-modulating genes are particularly interesting candidates to control neurogenesis. Among these were musashi (Msi1h) and prominin1?CD133 (Prom1), both of which are linked to stem-cell maintenance and division. Twelve neurogenesis-associated transcripts had significant cis-acting quantitative trait loci, and, of these, six had plausible biological association with adult neurogenesis (Prom1, Ssbp2, Kcnq2, Ndufs2, Camk4, and Kcnj9). Only one cis- cting candidate was linked to both neurogenesis and gliogenesis, Rapgef6, a downstream target of ras signaling. The use of genetic reference panels coupled with phenotyping and global transcriptome profiling thus allowed insight into the complexity of the genetic control of adult neurogenesis.

  8. Identification of multiple ear-colonizing insect and disease resistance in CIMMYT maize inbred lines with varying levels of silk maysin.

    PubMed

    Ni, Xinzhi; Krakowsky, Matthew D; Buntin, G David; Rector, Brian G; Guo, Baozhu; Snook, Maurice E

    2008-08-01

    Ninety four corn inbred lines selected from International Center for the Improvement of Maize and Wheat (CIMMYT) in Mexico were evaluated for levels of silk maysin in 2001 and 2002. Damage by major ear-feeding insects [i.e., corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae); maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae); brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say); southern green stink bugs, Nezara viridula (L.) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae)], and common smut [Ustilago maydis DC (Corda)] infection on these inbred lines were evaluated in 2005 and 2006 under subtropical conditions at Tifton, GA. Ten inbred lines possessing good agronomic traits were also resistant to the corn earworm. The correlation between ear-feeding insect damage or smut infection and three phenotypic traits (silk maysin level, husk extension, and husk tightness of corn ears) was also examined. Corn earworm and stink bug damage was negatively correlated to husk extension, but not to either silk maysin levels or husk tightness. In combination with the best agronomic trait ratings that show the least corn earworm and stink bug damage, lowest smut infection rate, and good insect-resistant phenotypic traits (i.e., high maysin and good husk coverage and husk tightness), 10 best inbred lines (CML90, CML92, CML94, CML99, CML104, CML108, CML114, CML128, CML137, and CML373) were identified from the 94 lines examined. These selected inbred lines will be used for further examination of their resistance mechanisms and development of new corn germplasm that confers multiple ear-colonizing pest resistance. PMID:18767760

  9. Adult Intussusception

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Teng; Chng, Yi-mei

    2015-01-01

    Recurrent abdominal pain is a common and challenging presenting chief complaint in the Emergency Department. Intussusception in adults, although rare, is an important etiology to consider. The diagnosis can often be delayed because of the nonspecific and intermittent nature of symptoms in adults. This report presents the case of a 37-year-old man with multiple Emergency Department visits for abdominal pain and with negative results for prior imaging studies, who was eventually diagnosed with intussusception after 5 years of recurrent symptoms. The case study is followed by a review of the literature regarding the diagnosis and management of intussusception in adults. PMID:25663210

  10. An autosomal recessive nonsyndromic-hearing-loss locus identified by DNA pooling using two inbred Bedouin kindreds.

    PubMed Central

    Scott, D. A.; Carmi, R.; Elbedour, K.; Yosefsberg, S.; Stone, E. M.; Sheffield, V. C.

    1996-01-01

    Autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss (ARNSHL) is the most common form of severe inherited childhood deafness. We present the linkage analysis of two inbred Bedouin kindreds from Israel that are affected with ARNSHL. A rapid genomewide screen for markers linked to the disease was performed by using pooled DNA samples. This screen revealed evidence for linkage with markers D9S922 and D9S301 on chromosome 9q. Genotyping of individuals from both kindreds confirmed linkage to chromosome 9q and a maximum combined LOD score of 26.2 (recombination fraction [theta] .025) with marker D9S927. The disease locus was mapped to a 1.6-cM region of chromosome 9ql3-q2l, between markers D9S15 and D9S927. The disease segregates with a common haplotype in the two kindreds, at markers D9S927, D9S175, and D9S284 in the linked interval, supporting the hypothesis that both kindreds inherited the deafness gene from a common ancestor. Although this nonsyndromic-hearing-loss (NSHL) locus maps to the same cytogenetic interval as DFNB7, it does not overlap the currently defined DFNB7 interval and may represent (1) a novel form of NSHL in close proximity to DFNB7 or (2) a relocalization of the DFNB7 interval to a region telomeric to its reported location. This study further demonstrates that DNA pooling is an effective means of quickly identifying regions of linkage in inbred families with heterogeneous autosomal recessive disorders. PMID:8755925

  11. Evidence for Persistence of Ectromelia Virus in Inbred Mice, Recrudescence Following Immunosuppression and Transmission to Naïve Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sakala, Isaac G.; Chaudhri, Geeta; Scalzo, Anthony A.; Eldi, Preethi; Newsome, Timothy P.; Buller, Robert M.; Karupiah, Gunasegaran

    2015-01-01

    Orthopoxviruses (OPV), including variola, vaccinia, monkeypox, cowpox and ectromelia viruses cause acute infections in their hosts. With the exception of variola virus (VARV), the etiological agent of smallpox, other OPV have been reported to persist in a variety of animal species following natural or experimental infection. Despite the implications and significance for the ecology and epidemiology of diseases these viruses cause, those reports have never been thoroughly investigated. We used the mouse pathogen ectromelia virus (ECTV), the agent of mousepox and a close relative of VARV to investigate virus persistence in inbred mice. We provide evidence that ECTV causes a persistent infection in some susceptible strains of mice in which low levels of virus genomes were detected in various tissues late in infection. The bone marrow (BM) and blood appeared to be key sites of persistence. Contemporaneous with virus persistence, antiviral CD8 T cell responses were demonstrable over the entire 25-week study period, with a change in the immunodominance hierarchy evident during the first 3 weeks. Some virus-encoded host response modifiers were found to modulate virus persistence whereas host genes encoded by the NKC and MHC class I reduced the potential for persistence. When susceptible strains of mice that had apparently recovered from infection were subjected to sustained immunosuppression with cyclophosphamide (CTX), animals succumbed to mousepox with high titers of infectious virus in various organs. CTX treated index mice transmitted virus to, and caused disease in, co-housed naïve mice. The most surprising but significant finding was that immunosuppression of disease-resistant C57BL/6 mice several weeks after recovery from primary infection generated high titers of virus in multiple tissues. Resistant mice showed no evidence of a persistent infection. This is the strongest evidence that ECTV can persist in inbred mice, regardless of their resistance status. PMID:26700306

  12. High-throughput behavioral phenotyping of drug and alcohol susceptibility traits in the expanded panel of BXD recombinant inbred strains

    SciTech Connect

    Philip, Vivek M; Ansah, T; Blaha, C,; Cook, Melloni N.; Hamre, Kristin M.; Lariviere, William R; Matthews, Douglas B; Goldowitz, Daniel; Chesler, Elissa J

    2010-01-01

    Genetic reference populations, particularly the BXD recombinant inbred strains, are a valuable resource for the discovery of the bio-molecular substrates and genetic drivers responsible for trait variation and co- ariation. This approach can be profitably applied in the analysis of susceptibility and mechanisms of drug and alcohol use disorders for which many predisposing behaviors may predict occurrence and manifestation of increased preference for these substances. Many of these traits are modeled by common mouse behavioral assays, facilitating the detection of patterns and sources of genetic co-regulation of predisposing phenotypes and substance consumption. Members of the Tennessee Mouse Genome Consortium have obtained behavioral phenotype data from 260 measures related to multiple behavioral assays across several domains: self-administration, response to, and withdrawal from cocaine, MDMA, morphine and alcohol; novelty seeking; behavioral despair and related neurological phenomena; pain sensitivity; stress sensitivity; anxiety; hyperactivity; and sleep/wake cycles. All traits have been measured in both sexes and the recently expanded panel of 69 additional BXD recombinant inbred strains (N=69). Sex differences and heritability estimates were obtained for each trait, and a comparison of early (N = 32) and recent BXD RI lines was performed. Primary data is publicly available for heritability, sex difference and genetic analyses using www.GeneNetwork.org. These analyses include QTL detection and genetic analysis of gene expression. Stored results from these analyses are available at http://ontologicaldiscovery.org for comparison to other genomic analysis results. Together with the results of related studies, these data form a public resource for integrative systems genetic analysis of neurobehavioral traits.

  13. Adult Sinusitis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... week or two is usually due to a viral infection , also known as a viral upper respiratory infection , ... frequently, and healthy adults may get a few viral infections per year. People exposed to young children often ...

  14. Urinary tract infection - adults

    MedlinePLUS

    Bladder infection - adults; UTI - adults; Cystitis - bacterial - adults; Pyelonephritis - adults; Kidney infection - adults ... Most urinary tract infections are caused by bacteria that enter the urethra and then the bladder. The infection most commonly develops ...

  15. Adult Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bischof, Ledford J.

    This volume comprehensively reviews the research on the psychology of the middle aged (ages 40-65). Topics include the concept of maturity and maturation models, the measurement and influences of adult self image; marriage and sexual patterns; intergenerational relationships between and children; vocations and avocations (work, retirement, play,…

  16. Adult Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Billie H.

    This document contains a brief bibliography of peer-reviewed literature, with abstracts, on adult children. It is one of 12 bibliographies on aging prepared by the National Agricultural Library for its "Pathfinders" series of publications. Topics covered by the other 11 bibliographies include aging parents, dementia and Alzheimer's disease in the…

  17. Adult Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, J. T.

    1974-01-01

    Success in the specialized form of teaching reading to adults is conditional upon teachers understanding the relationship between language and the physical world. A lot can be learned from the Direct Method techniques used by those who teach foreign languages. Suitable reading materials are at last becoming available for beginners. (Author/AJ)

  18. Additive effects of two quantitative trait loci that confer Rhopalosiphum maidis (corn leaf aphid) resistance in maize inbred line Mo17

    PubMed Central

    Betsiashvili, Mariam; Ahern, Kevin R.; Jander, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Plants show considerable within-species variation in their resistance to insect herbivores. In the case of Zea mays (cultivated maize), Rhopalosiphum maidis (corn leaf aphids) produce approximately twenty times more progeny on inbred line B73 than on inbred line Mo17. Genetic mapping of this difference in maize aphid resistance identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) on chromosomes 4 and 6, with the Mo17 allele reducing aphid reproduction in each case. The chromosome 4 QTL mapping interval includes several genes involved in the biosynthesis of DIMBOA (2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one), a maize defensive metabolite that also is required for callose accumulation in response to aphid feeding. Consistent with the known association of callose with plant defence against aphids, R. maidis reproduction on B73×Mo17 recombinant inbred lines was negatively correlated with both DIMBOA content and callose formation. Further genetic mapping, as well as experiments with near-isogenic lines, confirmed that the Mo17 allele causes increased DIMBOA accumulation relative to the B73 allele. The chromosome 6 aphid resistance QTL functions independently of DIMBOA accumulation and has an effect that is additive to that of the chromosome 4 QTL. Thus, at least two separate defence mechanisms account for the higher level of R. maidis resistance in Mo17 compared with B73. PMID:25249072

  19. ADULT EDUCATION OF MIGRANT ADULTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BEAL, CATHERINE; AND OTHERS

    UNITS ON MIGRANT ADULT EDUCATION, AND A UNIT ON ORGANIZING INFORMAL GROUPS OF MIGRANT WOMEN TO DISCUSS MAINTAINING AND IMPROVING THEIR TEMPORARY HOMES, ARE PRESENTED. THE GOALS OF THE UNIT ON EDUCATION FOR MIGRANT MEN ARE ECONOMIC INDEPENDENCE, BETTER HEALTH AND WELL-BEING, AND BETTER HANDLING OF RESPONSIBILITIES. THE MAIN DIVISIONS OF THE…

  20. Cell proliferation and growth of gastric carcinoma induced in inbred Wistar rats by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine

    SciTech Connect

    Hattori, T.; Helpap, B.; Gedigk, P.

    1984-11-01

    Gastric carcinoma was induced in inbred Wistar rats by p.o. administration of N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine for 25 weeks, and cell proliferation and growth of the gastric carcinoma in an incipient stage were studied. A microscopic cancer was found by 24 weeks, and macroscopic cancers were found after 27 weeks. All the cancers were a single lesion located at the midpoint of the lesser curvature of the stomach. Histologically, they were tubular adenocarcinomas. The mucosal changes predisposing to the development of carcinomas were focal erosions and dysplasias confined to the midpoint of the lesser curvature. The malignant transformation appeared to occur in the dysplastic cells of the eroded mucosa by 17 to 18 weeks after N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine treatment. Following the malignant change, the labeling indices of the tissues with (/sup 3/H)thymidine decreased, suggesting an elongation of cell cycle time. By repeated injections of (/sup 3/H)thymidine, a time required for all the cancer cells to enter S phase (reflecting the maximum cell cycle time) was estimated to be about 3.5 days. This gave a theoretical doubling time for the gastric cancers. On the other hand, from the temporal observations of tumor volumes, it was shown that the gastric cancers in an incipient stage underwent exponential growth with a doubling time of 14 days. The difference between the theoretical and actual doubling time might reflect a cell loss rate in the cancer tissue.

  1. Construction of integrated linkage map of a recombinant inbred line population of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.).

    PubMed

    Vipin, Cina Ann; Luckett, David J; Harper, John D I; Ash, Gavin J; Kilian, Andrzej; Ellwood, Simon R; Phan, Huyen T T; Raman, Harsh

    2013-09-01

    We report the development of a Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) marker panel and its utilisation in the development of an integrated genetic linkage map of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) using an F8 recombinant inbred line population derived from Kiev Mutant/P27174. One hundred and thirty-six DArT markers were merged into the first genetic linkage map composed of 220 amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) and 105 genic markers. The integrated map consists of 38 linkage groups of 441 markers and spans a total length of 2,169 cM, with an average interval size of 4.6 cM. The DArT markers exhibited good genome coverage and were associated with previously identified genic and AFLP markers linked with quantitative trait loci for anthracnose resistance, flowering time and alkaloid content. The improved genetic linkage map of white lupin will aid in the identification of markers for traits of interest and future syntenic studies. PMID:24273424

  2. Effect of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius leaf extract on the blood glucose and insulin levels of inbred type 2 diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Oladeinde, F O; Kinyua, A M; Laditan, A A; Michelin, R; Bryant, J L; Denaro, F; Makinde, J M; Williams, A L; Kennedy, A P; Bronner, Y

    2007-01-01

    The effects of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius (CA) leaf extract and chlorpropamide on blood glucose and insulin levels in the inbred type 2 diabetic mice are reported. After treatment with CA, the glucose levels were measured at 0 and 2-hour intervals in experimental groups and controls. Group I received no treatment and served as control; Group II was the reference and it received chlorpropamide; Groups I-III were moderately diabetic, 100-300 mg/dL blood glucose levels while Group IV were severely diabetic (> 300 mg/dL). Groups III and IV received CA and served as test groups. There was no significant difference between the blood glucose levels at 0 and 2 hours for the control group, (P>0.23) but there were statistically significant differences for Group II (P<0.0002); Group III (P<0.002) and Group IV (P<0.0001). For moderately diabetic mice, CA and chlorpropamide decreased the glucose levels by 25.6% and 16.3% respectively while for the severely diabetic mice CA decreased the blood glucose by 43.7%. It is proposed that CA has an insulinogenic property that possibly stimulated dormant beta-cells to secrete insulin. The histopathology of several organs in the treated animals was found to differ from the expected. The islets of Langerhans for example were found to be preserved in the time frame examined. Also the liver and kidney were found to display milder pathology in the treated groups. PMID:17531147

  3. Dopaminergic and brain-derived neurotrophic factor signalling in inbred mice exposed to a restricted feeding schedule.

    PubMed

    Gelegen, C; van den Heuvel, J; Collier, D A; Campbell, I C; Oppelaar, H; Hessel, E; Kas, M J H

    2008-07-01

    Increased physical activity and decreased motivation to eat are common features in anorexia nervosa. We investigated the development of these features and the potential implication of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and dopaminergic signalling in their development in C57BL/6J and A/J inbred mice, using the 'activity-based anorexia' model. In this model, mice on a restricted-feeding schedule are given unlimited access to running wheels. We measured dopamine receptor D2 and BDNF expression levels in the caudate putamen and the hippocampus, respectively, using in situ hybridization. We found that in response to scheduled feeding, C57BL/6J mice reduced their running wheel activity and displayed food anticipatory activity prior to food intake from day 2 of scheduled feeding as an indication of motivation to eat. In contrast, A/J mice increased running wheel activity during scheduled feeding and lacked food anticipatory activity. These were accompanied by increased dopamine receptor D2 expression in the caudate putamen and reduced BDNF expression in the hippocampus. Consistent with human linkage and association studies on BDNF and dopamine receptor D2 in anorexia nervosa, our study shows that dopaminergic and BDNF signalling are altered as a function of susceptibility to activity-based anorexia. Differences in gene expression and behaviour between A/J and C57BL/6J mice indicate that mouse genetic mapping populations based on these progenitor lines are valuable for identifying molecular determinants of anorexia-related traits. PMID:18363853

  4. Metastable Differentially Methylated Regions within Arabidopsis Inbred Populations Are Associated with Modified Expression of Non-Coding Transcripts

    PubMed Central

    Fedito, Paola; Hardcastle, Thomas J.; Baulcombe, David C.

    2012-01-01

    Individual plants within a population may vary at both genetic and epigenetic levels. The rate of genetic divergence and its underlying mechanisms is well understood. Less is known about the factors contributing to epigenetic divergence among isogenic populations except that, despite the presence of mechanisms that faithfully maintain epigenetic marks, epigenetic differences are more frequent than genetic variation. Epigenetically divergent stretches of isogenic DNA sequence are called epialleles. Currently, it is not clear why certain regions exhibit variable epigenetic status. We identified and characterised two long RNA transcripts with altered expression and DNA methylation in an ago5 mutant. However, further investigation revealed that these changes were not dependent upon AGO5. Rather, the variable transcription of these loci in Arabidopsis mutant and wild-type populations corresponds to spontaneous differential methylated regions (DMRs) or epialleles. These two DMRs are delineated by RNAs which are highly expressed when the DMR is hypomethylated. Furthermore, they control the expression of 5? transcriptional start site mRNA variants of nearby protein coding genes. Our data support the recent observations that meiotically stable DMRs exist within inbred populations. We further demonstrate that DMR boundaries can be defined by putative non-coding promoter-associated transcripts. PMID:23028873

  5. Construction of integrated linkage map of a recombinant inbred line population of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Vipin, Cina Ann; Luckett, David J.; Harper, John D.I.; Ash, Gavin J.; Kilian, Andrzej; Ellwood, Simon R.; Phan, Huyen T.T.; Raman, Harsh

    2013-01-01

    We report the development of a Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) marker panel and its utilisation in the development of an integrated genetic linkage map of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) using an F8 recombinant inbred line population derived from Kiev Mutant/P27174. One hundred and thirty-six DArT markers were merged into the first genetic linkage map composed of 220 amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) and 105 genic markers. The integrated map consists of 38 linkage groups of 441 markers and spans a total length of 2,169 cM, with an average interval size of 4.6 cM. The DArT markers exhibited good genome coverage and were associated with previously identified genic and AFLP markers linked with quantitative trait loci for anthracnose resistance, flowering time and alkaloid content. The improved genetic linkage map of white lupin will aid in the identification of markers for traits of interest and future syntenic studies. PMID:24273424

  6. The Nxsm Recombinant Inbred Strains of Mice: Genetic Profile for 58 Loci Including the Mtv Proviral Loci

    PubMed Central

    Eicher, E. M.; Lee, B. K.

    1990-01-01

    We report the construction of 17 recombinant inbred (RI) strains of mice derived from the progenitor strains NZB/BINRe and SM/J and the typing of this RI strain set, designated NXSM, for 58 loci distributed on 16 autosomes and the X chromosome. Two backcrosses involving NZB/BINJ and SM/J were constructed to confirm chromosomal assignments and determine gene orders suggested from NXSM RI strain data. From these results we recommend that chromosomal assignments and gene orders suggested from analyses of RI strain sets be confirmed using data obtained by other means. We also typed NZB/BINJ and SM/J for mammary tumor proviral (Mtv) loci. Both strains share three previously described Mtv loci: Mtv-7, Mtv-14 and Mtv-17. In addition, NZB/BINJ contains the previously described Mtv-3 and Mtv-9 loci and two new Mtv proviral loci: Mtv-27 located on chromosome (Chr) 1 and Mtv-28 located on the X chromosome. SM/J contains the previously described loci Mtv-6 and Mtv-8. Four LTR, mink cell focus-forming murine leukemia viral loci were identified and mapped: Ltrm-1 on Chr 12, Ltrm-2 on Chr 16, Ltrm-3 on Chr 5, and Ltrm-4 on Chr 13. The Tgn locus was positioned proximal to the Ly-6 locus on Chr 15. PMID:2165966

  7. RNA-Seq Transcriptome Analysis of Maize Inbred Carrying Nicosulfuron-Tolerant and Nicosulfuron-Susceptible Alleles

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaomin; Xu, Xian; Li, Binghua; Wang, Xueqing; Wang, Guiqi; Li, Moran

    2015-01-01

    Postemergence applications of nicosulfuron can cause great damage to certain maize inbred lines and hybrids. Variation among different responses to nicosulfuron may be attributed to differential rates of herbicide metabolism. We employed RNA-Seq analysis to compare transcriptome responses between nicosulfuron-treated and untreated in both tolerant and susceptible maize plants. A total of 71.8 million paired end Illumina RNA-Seq reads were generated, representing the transcription of around 40,441 unique reads. About 345,171 gene ontology (GO) term assignments were conducted for the annotation in terms of biological process, cellular component and molecular function categories, and 6413 sequences with 108 enzyme commission numbers were assigned to 134 predicted Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) metabolic pathways. Digital gene expression profile (DGE) analysis using Solexa sequencing was performed within the susceptible and tolerant maize between the nicosulfuron-treated and untreated conditions, 13 genes were selected as the candidates most likely involved in herbicide metabolism, and quantitative RT-PCR validated the RNA-Seq results for eight genes. This transcriptome data may provide opportunities for the study of sulfonylurea herbicides susceptibility emergence of Zea mays. PMID:25782159

  8. Epigenetic Transgenerational Inheritance of Vinclozolin Induced Mouse Adult Onset Disease and Associated Sperm Epigenome Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero-Bosagna, Carlos; Covert, Trevor R.; Haque, Md. M.; Settles, Matthew; Nilsson, Eric E.; Anway, Matthew D.; Skinner, Michael K.

    2012-01-01

    The endocrine disruptor vinclozolin has previously been shown to promote epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset disease in the rat. The current study was designed to investigate the transgenerational actions of vinclozolin on the mouse. Transient exposure of the F0 generation gestating female during gonadal sex determination promoted transgenerational adult onset disease in F3 generation male and female mice, including spermatogenic cell defects, testicular abnormalities, prostate abnormalities, kidney abnormalities and polycystic ovarian disease. Pathology analysis demonstrated 75% of the vinclozolin lineage animals developed disease with 34% having two or more different disease states. Interestingly, the vinclozolin induced transgenerational disease was observed in the outbred CD-1 strain, but not the inbred 129 mouse strain. Analysis of the F3 generation sperm epigenome identified differential DNA methylation regions that can potentially be utilized as epigenetic biomarkers for transgenerational exposure and disease. PMID:23041264

  9. Adult Development and Learning of Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberson, Donald N., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    This summary of adult development covers a wide range of authors. Adult development is one way of understanding how the internal and external changes in our lives have an impact on learning. Of particular importance in this work are the developmental issues of older adults. I present various theories of adult development such as linear and…

  10. QTL mapping of agronomic waterlogging tolerance using recombinant inbred lines derived from tropical maize (Zea mays L) germplasm.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, Pervez Haider; Rashid, Zerka; Vinayan, Madhumal Thayil; Almeida, Gustavo Dias; Phagna, Ramesh Kumar; Babu, Raman

    2015-01-01

    Waterlogging is an important abiotic stress constraint that causes significant yield losses in maize grown throughout south and south-east Asia due to erratic rainfall patterns. The most economic option to offset the damage caused by waterlogging is to genetically incorporate tolerance in cultivars that are grown widely in the target agro-ecologies. We assessed the genetic variation in a population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from crossing a waterlogging tolerant line (CAWL-46-3-1) to an elite but sensitive line (CML311-2-1-3) and observed significant range of variation for grain yield (GY) under waterlogging stress along with a number of other secondary traits such as brace roots (BR), chlorophyll content (SPAD), % stem and root lodging (S&RL) among the RILs. Significant positive correlation of GY with BR and SPAD and negative correlation with S&RL indicated the potential use of these secondary traits in selection indices under waterlogged conditions. RILs were genotyped with 331 polymorphic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers using KASP (Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR) Platform. QTL mapping revealed five QTL on chromosomes 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10, which together explained approximately 30% of phenotypic variance for GY based on evaluation of RIL families under waterlogged conditions, with effects ranging from 520 to 640 kg/ha for individual genomic regions. 13 QTL were identified for various secondary traits associated with waterlogging tolerance, each individually explaining from 3 to 14% of phenotypic variance. Of the 22 candidate genes with known functional domains identified within the physical intervals delimited by the flanking markers of the QTL influencing GY and other secondary traits, six have previously been demonstrated to be associated with anaerobic responses in either maize or other model species. A pair of flanking SNP markers has been identified for each of the QTL and high throughput marker assays were developed to facilitate rapid introgression of waterlogging tolerance in tropical maize breeding programs. PMID:25884393

  11. QTL Mapping of Agronomic Waterlogging Tolerance Using Recombinant Inbred Lines Derived from Tropical Maize (Zea mays L) Germplasm

    PubMed Central

    Zaidi, Pervez Haider; Rashid, Zerka; Vinayan, Madhumal Thayil; Almeida, Gustavo Dias; Phagna, Ramesh Kumar; Babu, Raman

    2015-01-01

    Waterlogging is an important abiotic stress constraint that causes significant yield losses in maize grown throughout south and south-east Asia due to erratic rainfall patterns. The most economic option to offset the damage caused by waterlogging is to genetically incorporate tolerance in cultivars that are grown widely in the target agro-ecologies. We assessed the genetic variation in a population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from crossing a waterlogging tolerant line (CAWL-46-3-1) to an elite but sensitive line (CML311-2-1-3) and observed significant range of variation for grain yield (GY) under waterlogging stress along with a number of other secondary traits such as brace roots (BR), chlorophyll content (SPAD), % stem and root lodging (S&RL) among the RILs. Significant positive correlation of GY with BR and SPAD and negative correlation with S&RL indicated the potential use of these secondary traits in selection indices under waterlogged conditions. RILs were genotyped with 331 polymorphic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers using KASP (Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR) Platform. QTL mapping revealed five QTL on chromosomes 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10, which together explained approximately 30% of phenotypic variance for GY based on evaluation of RIL families under waterlogged conditions, with effects ranging from 520 to 640 kg/ha for individual genomic regions. 13 QTL were identified for various secondary traits associated with waterlogging tolerance, each individually explaining from 3 to 14% of phenotypic variance. Of the 22 candidate genes with known functional domains identified within the physical intervals delimited by the flanking markers of the QTL influencing GY and other secondary traits, six have previously been demonstrated to be associated with anaerobic responses in either maize or other model species. A pair of flanking SNP markers has been identified for each of the QTL and high throughput marker assays were developed to facilitate rapid introgression of waterlogging tolerance in tropical maize breeding programs. PMID:25884393

  12. A Novel Statistical Approach for Jointly Analyzing RNA-Seq Data from F1 Reciprocal Crosses and Inbred Lines

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Fei; Sun, Wei; Crowley, James J.; Zhabotynsky, Vasyl; Sullivan, Patrick F.; Pardo-Manuel de Villena, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) not only measures total gene expression but may also measure allele-specific gene expression in diploid individuals. RNA-seq data collected from F1 reciprocal crosses in mice can powerfully dissect strain and parent-of-origin effects on allelic imbalance of gene expression. In this article, we develop a novel statistical approach to analyze RNA-seq data from F1 and inbred strains. Method development was motivated by a study of F1 reciprocal crosses derived from highly divergent mouse strains, to which we apply the proposed method. Our method jointly models the total number of reads and the number of allele-specific reads of each gene, which significantly boosts power for detecting strain and particularly parent-of-origin effects. The method deals with the overdispersion problem commonly observed in read counts and can flexibly adjust for the effects of covariates such as sex and read depth. The X chromosome in mouse presents particular challenges. As in other mammals, X chromosome inactivation silences one of the two X chromosomes in each female cell, although the choice of which chromosome to be silenced can be highly skewed by alleles at the X-linked X-controlling element (Xce) and stochastic effects. Our model accounts for these chromosome-wide effects on an individual level, allowing proper analysis of chromosome X expression. Furthermore, we propose a genomic control procedure to properly control type I error for RNA-seq studies. A number of these methodological improvements can also be applied to RNA-seq data from other species as well as other types of next-generation sequencing data sets. Finally, we show through simulations that increasing the number of samples is more beneficial than increasing the library size for mapping both the strain and parent-of-origin effects. Unless sample recruiting is too expensive to conduct, we recommend sequencing more samples with lower coverage. PMID:24561482

  13. Early Regression of Spermatogenesis in Boars of an Inbred Duroc Strain Caused by Incident Orchitis/Epididymo-orchitis

    PubMed Central

    NOGUCHI, Junko; NAKAI, Michiko; KIKUCHI, Kazuhiro; KANEKO, Hiroyuki; IMAEDA, Noriaki

    2013-01-01

    Abstract In the process of establishment of an inbred Duroc pig strain, males with size asymmetry of the testes were frequently observed. To clarify the possible causes of this asymmetry, we examined the testes and epididymides of 67 males of the F4-F7 generations at 35–100 weeks of age. Testicular weights showed a wide variation (120–610 g). When the weights of the testes were compared bilaterally, 35 of the 67 males showed more than a 10% difference. Histological examination of testes from this asymmetry group revealed a range of seminiferous tubule disruption including disappearance of all germ cells, but not Sertoli cells, in the epithelium. Focal lesions associated with the degenerated tubules were observed. Trends of incident fibrosis or hyalinization of these lesions were seen in aged males of the asymmetry group. Besides this abnormality of spermatogenesis, infiltration of mononuclear inflammatory cells around the tubule was frequently observed in the asymmetry group (32.9%, compared with 1.6% in males showing testis symmetry). In severe cases, the inflammatory cells were concentrated in the intertubular region instead of Leydig cells. Cellular infiltration was also observed around the epididymal duct and blood vessels, but its incidence did not differ between the symmetry and asymmetry groups. Testicular testosterone levels were significantly increased in the asymmetry group, but those of E2 and inhibin did not differ between the two groups. These histopathological features indicate that disruption of spermatogenesis after orchitis/epididymo-orchitis could induce testicular atrophy. Genetic predispositions for this trait may cause prevalent retrograde infections, resulting in orchitis/epididymo-orchitis. PMID:23428633

  14. Preparing Educators of Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabowski, Stanley M.; And Others

    Model programs are described for two areas of adult education--the preparation of adult educators and the training conducted by adult educators. In Chapter One, Phyllis Caldwell reviews the literature concerning the preservice training of adult educators, concentrating on the competencies of adult education administrators and teachers. In Chapter…

  15. Ups and downs of a transcriptional landscape shape iron deficiency associated chlorosis of the maize inbreds B73 and Mo17

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Improving nutrient homeostasis is a major challenge of a sustainable maize cultivation, and cornerstone to ensure food supply for a growing world population. Although, iron constitutes an important nutrient, iron availability is limited. In this respect, iron deficiency associated chlorosis causes severe yield losses every year. Natural variation of the latter trait has yet not been addressed in maize and was therefore studied in the present analysis. Results In this study, we i) report about the contrasting chlorosis phenotypes of the inbreds B73 and Mo17 at 10 and 300 ?M iron regime, ii) identified over 400 significantly regulated transcripts (FDR?inbreds at these growth conditions by deep RNA-Sequencing, iii) linked the gained knowledge with QTL information about iron deficiency related traits within the maize intermated B73 by Mo17 (IBM) population, and iv) highlighted contributing molecular pathways. In this respect, several genes within methionine salvage pathway and phytosiderophore synthesis were found to present constitutively high expression in Mo17, even under sufficient iron supply. Moreover, the same expression pattern could be observed for two putative bHLH transcription factors. In addition, a number of differentially expressed genes showed a co-localisation with QTL confidence intervals for iron deficiency related traits within the IBM population. Conclusions Our study highlights differential iron deficiency associated chlorosis between B73 and Mo17 and represents a valuable resource for differentially expressed genes upon iron limitation and chlorosis response. Besides identifying two putative bHLH transcription factors, we propose that methionine salvage pathway and sterol metabolism amongst others; underlie the contrasting iron deficiency related chlorosis phenotype of both inbreds. Altogether, this study emphasizes a contribution of selected genes and pathways on natural trait variation within the IBM population. PMID:24330725

  16. Different attentional abilities among inbred mice strains using virtual object recognition task (VORT): SNAP25(+/-) mice as a model of attentional deficit.

    PubMed

    Braida, Daniela; Ponzoni, Luisa; Matteoli, Michela; Sala M, Mariaelvina

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), schizophrenia, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease are characterized by attentional deficits. In the present study we first applied the virtual object recognition test (VORT), where 3D objects were replaced with highly discriminated geometrical shapes and presented on two 3.5-inch widescreen displays, in different inbred mice strains (C57BL/6N, DBA/2J, BALB/cJ), in comparison with the standard object recognition test (NOR). In both NOR and VORT, there was a progressive decay of performance in terms of reduced discrimination index from 5min to 72h of inter-trial delay in all strains. However, BALB/cJ inbred mice showed a better long lasting performance than C57BL/6N and DBA/2J, when tested in NOR. In VORT, BALB/cJ showed the best performance. Total exploration time was always higher in BALB/cJ than C57BL/6N and DBA/2J mice. C57BL/6N were less explorative strain than DBA/2J and BALB/cJ mice. When VORT was applied to SNAP-25(+/-) mice, an impairment in both NOR and VORT was shown. However, when moving shapes were applied, these heterozygous mice improved their performance, suggesting that the introduction of motion is a strong cue that makes the task more valuable to study attention deficits. Taken together, these data indicate that VORT provides a useful and rapid tool to identify the attentional deficit in different inbred strains and genetically modified mice, enhancing the value of psychiatric mouse models. PMID:26300453

  17. Characterization of mature maize (Zea mays L.) root system architecture and complexity in a diverse set of Ex-PVP inbreds and hybrids.

    PubMed

    Hauck, Andrew L; Novais, Joana; Grift, Tony E; Bohn, Martin O

    2015-01-01

    The mature root system is a vital plant organ, which is critical to plant performance. Commercial maize (Zea mays L.) breeding has resulted in a steady increase in plant performance over time, along with noticeable changes in above ground vegetative traits, but the corresponding changes in the root system are not presently known. In this study, roughly 2500 core root systems from field trials of a set of 10 diverse elite inbreds formerly protected by Plant Variety Protection plus B73 and Mo17 and the 66 diallel intercrosses among them were evaluated for root traits using high throughput image-based phenotyping. Overall root architecture was modeled by root angle (RA) and stem diameter (SD), while root complexity, the amount of root branching, was quantified using fractal analysis to obtain values for fractal dimension (FD) and fractal abundance (FA). For each trait, per se line effects were highly significant and the most important contributor to trait performance. Mid-parent heterosis and specific combining ability was also highly significant for FD, FA, and RA, while none of the traits showed significant general combining ability. The interaction between the environment and the additive line effect was also significant for all traits. Within the inbred and hybrid generations, FD and FA were highly correlated (rp ? 0.74), SD was moderately correlated to FD and FA (0.69 ? rp ? 0.48), while the correlation between RA and other traits was low (0.13 ? rp ? -0.40). Inbreds with contrasting effects on complexity and architecture traits were observed, suggesting that root complexity and architecture traits are inherited independently. A more comprehensive understanding of the maize root system and the way it interacts with the environment will be useful for defining adaptation to nutrient acquisition and tolerance to stress from drought and high plant densities, critical factors in the yield gains of modern hybrids. PMID:26290803

  18. Bipolar Disorder Among Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among ...

  19. Panic Disorder among Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among ...

  20. Expression Analysis of Stress-Related Genes in Kernels of Different Maize (Zea mays L.) Inbred Lines with Different Resistance to Aflatoxin Contamination

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Tingbo; Zhou, Boru; Luo, Meng; Abbas, Hamed K.; Kemerait, Robert; Lee, Robert Dewey; Scully, Brian T.; Guo, Baozhu

    2011-01-01

    This research examined the expression patterns of 94 stress-related genes in seven maize inbred lines with differential expressions of resistance to aflatoxin contamination. The objective was to develop a set of genes/probes associated with resistance to A. flavus and/or aflatoxin contamination. Ninety four genes were selected from previous gene expression studies with abiotic stress to test the differential expression in maize lines, A638, B73, Lo964, Lo1016, Mo17, Mp313E, and Tex6, using real-time RT-PCR. Based on the relative-expression levels, the seven maize inbred lines clustered into two different groups. One group included B73, Lo1016 and Mo17, which had higher levels of aflatoxin contamination and lower levels of overall gene expression. The second group which included Tex6, Mp313E, Lo964 and A638 had lower levels of aflatoxin contamination and higher overall levels of gene expressions. A total of six “cross-talking” genes were identified between the two groups, which are highly expressed in the resistant Group 2 but down-regulated in susceptible Group 1. When further subjected to drought stress, Tex6 expressed more genes up-regulated and B73 has fewer genes up-regulated. The transcript patterns and interactions measured in these experiments indicate that the resistant mechanism is an interconnected process involving many gene products and transcriptional regulators, as well as various host interactions with environmental factors, particularly, drought and high temperature. PMID:22069724

  1. Adult Education as a Whole.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yrjola, Pentti

    1981-01-01

    Examines working forms of the adult education system in Finland, including municipal adult education, boarding schools, national education organizations, distance studies and educational services, administration of adult education, university teaching and research of adult education, and adult education organizations. (CT)

  2. Adult Stem Cells & Homeostasis

    E-print Network

    Tian, Weidong

    (connective tissue, capillary) Matrix (produces cells forming the hair fibermelanocytes) Inner Root Sheath · Tissue models for studying adult stem cells · Experimental assays · Adult stem cell & Cancer · Adult stem in many organs/tissues · Adult stem cells self-renew and differentiate to maintain tissue homeostasis #12

  3. Determination of resistance spectra of the Pi-ta and Pi-k genes to US races of Magnaporthe oryzae causing rice blast in a recombinant inbred line population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resistance (R) genes to ten common races of Magnaporthe oryzae were mapped using an F10 recombinant inbred line population of a cross of a tropical japonica cultivar Katy with a breeding line RU9101001. Katy was found to confer resistance to all common races IA-45, IB-1, IB-45, IB-49, IB-54, IC-17,...

  4. AN ADULT APPROACH TO ADULT EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HUBBARD, JOHN M.

    COLLEGE OF SAN MATEO HAS NOTED THAT ADULTS RETURNING TO THE CAMPUS ARE DOING SO WITH FAR MORE SERIOUS PURPOSE THAN THEY WERE A FEW YEARS AGO. THE TREND IS AWAY FROM AVOCATIONAL COURSES TO ONES OF OCCUPATIONAL OR CULTURAL CONTENT AND TO CREDIT COURSES RATHER THAN NON-CREDIT. THIS CHANGE TO MORE ADULT OFFERINGS HAS ALSO STIMULATED ENROLLMENT--FROM…

  5. A high-resolution, intraspecific linkage map of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) and selection of reduced recombinant inbred line subsets for fast mapping.

    PubMed

    Barchi, Lorenzo; Bonnet, Julien; Boudet, Christine; Signoret, Patrick; Nagy, István; Lanteri, Sergio; Palloix, Alain; Lefebvre, Véronique

    2007-01-01

    A high-resolution, intraspecific linkage map of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) was constructed from a population of 297 recombinant inbred lines. The parents were the large-fruited inbred cultivar 'Yolo Wonder' and the hot pepper line 'Criollo de Morelos 334', which is heavily used as a source of resistance to a number of diseases. A set of 587 markers (507 amplified fragment length polymorphisms, 40 simple sequence repeats, 19 restriction fragment length polymorphisms, 17 sequence-specific amplified polymorphisms, and 4 sequence tagged sites) were used to generate the map; of these, 489 were assembled into 49 linkage groups (LGs), including 14 LGs with 10 to 60 markers per LG and 35 with 2 to 9 markers per LG. The framework map covered 1857 cM with an average intermarker distance of 5.71 cM. Twenty-three LGs, composed of 69% of the markers and covering 1553 cM, were assigned to 1 of the 12 haploid pepper chromosomes, leaving 26 LGs (304 cM) unassigned. The chromosome framework map built with 250 markers led to a high level of mapping confidence and an average intermarker distance of 6.54 cM. By applying MapPop software, it was possible to select smaller subsets of 141 or 93 most informative individuals with a view to reducing the time and cost of further mapping and phenotyping. To define the smallest number of individuals sufficient for assigning any new marker to a chromosome, subsets from 12 to 45 individuals and a set of 13 markers distributed over all 12 chromosomes were screened. In most cases, the markers were correctly assigned to their expected chromosome, but the accuracy of the map position decreased as the number of individuals was reduced. PMID:17546071

  6. Depression in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stickle, Fred; Onedera, Jill D.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to address selected aspects of depression in older adults. Specifically, symptoms, risk factors, diagnosis, and interventions for depression in older adults are reviewed.

  7. About BMI for Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and Obesity Healthy Weight Assessing Your Weight Body Mass Index (BMI) About Adult BMI Adult BMI Calculator ... either high body fat or high lean body mass (muscle and bone). A trained healthcare provider should ...

  8. Older Adults and Alcohol

    MedlinePLUS

    ... adults who drink, including: Increased Sensitivity to Alcohol Aging can lower the body’s tolerance for alcohol. Older adults generally experience the effects of alcohol more quickly than when they were ...

  9. Older Adults and Depression

    MedlinePLUS

    ... on Older Adults and Depression Older Adults and Depression Order a free hardcopy En Español Introduction Do ... If so, you may have depression. What is depression? Everyone feels down or sad sometimes, but these ...

  10. Immunization Schedules for Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... submit" name="commit" type="submit" value="Submit" /> Immunization Schedules for Adults in Easy-to-read Formats ... previous immunizations. View or Print a Schedule Recommended Immunizations for Adults (19 Years and Older) by Age ...

  11. Neural stem/progenitor cells transplanted to the hypoglossal nucleus integrates with the host CNS in adult rats and promotes motor neuron survival.

    PubMed

    Fagerlund, Michael; Pérez Estrada, Cynthia; Jaff, Nasren; Svensson, Mikael; Brundin, Lou

    2012-01-01

    Transplantation of neural stem cells and the mobilization of endogenous neuronal precursors in the adult brain have been proposed as therapeutic strategies for central nervous system disorders and injuries. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible survival and integration of grafted neural progenitor cells (NPCs) from the subventricular zone (SVZ) in a hypoglossal nerve avulsion model with substantial neuronal loss. Adult neural progenitor cells (NPCs) from the subventricular zone (SVZ) were cultured from inbred transgenic eGFP Lewis rats and transplanted to the hypoglossal nucleus of inbred Lewis rat from the same family but that were not carrying the eGFP strain after avulsion of the hypoglossal nerve. Grafted cells survived in the host more than 3 months and differentiated into neurons [?III tubulin (Tuj-1 staining)] with fine axon- and dendrite-like processes as well as astrocytes (GFAP) and oligodendrocytes (O4) with typical morphology. Staining for synaptic structures (synaptophysin and bassoon) indicated integration of differentiated cells from the graft with the host CNS. Furthermore, transplantation of NPCs increased the number of surviving motoneurons in the hypoglossal nucleus after nerve avulsion that, if untreated, result in substantial neuronal death. The NPCs used in this study expressed VEGF in vitro as well as in vivo following transplantation that may mediate the rescue effect of the axotomized motoneurons. PMID:22182695

  12. Spirituality and Adult Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tisdell, Elizabeth J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to consider the important influence that spirituality has in adult learning and how discussions of it are affecting the field of adult education. In so doing, the author begins by attempting to define spirituality and then considers the nature of spiritual experience and its relationship to adult development.…

  13. Adult Learning Assumptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baskas, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine Knowles' theory of andragogy and his six assumptions of how adults learn while providing evidence to support two of his assumptions based on the theory of andragogy. As no single theory explains how adults learn, it can best be assumed that adults learn through the accumulation of formal and informal…

  14. Adult Education in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miser, Rifat; Ural, Ozana; Ünlühisarýklý, Özlem

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the situation and practices of adult education in Turkey in terms of (a) participants, (b) providers, and (c) program areas. The data were derived from published statistical data and one-to-one interaction with adult education providers when such data are unavailable. Turkey has a long tradition of adult education with…

  15. Adults Role in Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notar, Charles E.; Padgett, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Do adults play a role in bullying? Do parents, teachers, school staff, and community adult leaders influence bullying behavior in children and teenagers? This article will focus on research regarding all adults who have almost daily contact with children and teens and their part in how bullying is identified, addressed, and prevented. This article…

  16. Purpose of Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Paul J.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this conceptual paper was to propose an ultimate goal and purpose for the field and practice of adult education. A literature search was conducted to delineate historical philosophies of education that inform the current state of education, including adult education. Furthermore, building upon the rudiments of adult education extant…

  17. The Adult Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belsky, Janet

    The 14 chapters of this textbook chronicle adult development from youth through old age, emphasizing both research and interviews with adults at various stages in their lives. Topics covered include the following: (1) the academic field of adult development; (2) theories and research methods; (3) aging and disease prevention; (4) sexuality and…

  18. Adult Learners in Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Janette, Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Theories on adult development and learning and some of the Ontario universities' programs and services for the adult learner are examined, and Athabasca University, Alberta's answer to the British Open University, is described. Peter O'Donnell discusses adult learners' needs and explains how Athabasca University serves this specific type of…

  19. Multifocal adult rhabdomyoma.

    PubMed

    Gardner, D G; Corio, R L

    1983-07-01

    It is not well recognized that a small but significant proportion of extracardiac adult rhabdomyomas have occurred multifocally. The present example of a 60-year-old man with adult rhabdomyomas of the larynx and submandibular region is the seventh multifocal case out of approximately sixty adult rhabdomyomas reported in the literature. Previously published cases are summarized in this article. PMID:6576314

  20. Urbanization and Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, W. Fisher

    1974-01-01

    The impact of urbanization, the main tasks facing the adult educator in an urban context, identifying the casualties of urbanization, recognizing and dealing with social deprivation, and the various agencies involved in adult education are relevant considerations for adult educators. (MW)

  1. Adult Education in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokkos, Alexios

    2008-01-01

    The central aim of this article is to analyse the current situation of adult education in Greece. The article focuses on the following points: (a) the degree of participation in programmes of continuing professional training and general adult education courses, (b) the quality and the outcomes of the adult education provision in Greece, and (c)…

  2. Dimensions of Adult Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Griff, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    This broad introduction to adult and postcompulsory education offers an overview of the field for students, adult educators and workplace trainers. The book establishes an analytical framework to emphasize the nature of learning and agency of learners; examines the core knowledge and skills that adult educators need; discusses policy, research and…

  3. Kids Who Outwit Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seita, John R.; Brendtro, Larry K.

    Kids who distrust adults are highly skilled at hiding their real nature and resisting change. Most adults shun such youths or get mired in conflict with them. Punitive get tough practices as well as traditional flaw-fixing treatment are reactive strategies that often drive these youths further from adult bonds and reinforce oppositional and…

  4. Adult Stem Cells & Homeostasis

    E-print Network

    Tian, Weidong

    ;The ISC Lineage Tracing #12;Does Cancer Originate in Stem Cells? (Barker et al, Nature, 2009 Lgr5-Cre Intestine Stem Cell #12;Bmi1+ Cells Can be Cancer Origin Bmi1-CreER, b-cat Exon3fl/+ Activate Wnt signalingAdult Stem Cells & Homeostasis Developmental Biology 2012-5-7 #12;Adult Stem Cells Adult stem

  5. Young Adult Library Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The Bookmark, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Eight articles in this Spring 1985 issue of The Bookmark focus on young adult library services. In addition to these thematic articles, an introduction and three reports are presented. The issue contains: (1) "In Perspective" (E. J. Josey); (2) "Young Adult Literature in the 1980's--Awesome!" (Ellin Chu); (3) "Young Adult Services' Public…

  6. In vitro and in vivo effects of kinin B1 and B2 receptor agonists and antagonists in inbred control and cardiomyopathic hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Hallé, S; Gobeil, F; Ouellette, J; Lambert, C; Regoli, D

    2000-01-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the possible alterations occurring in the effects of kinins on isolated aortae of inbred control (CHF 148) and cardiomyopathic (CHF 146) hamsters of 150–175 and 350–375 days of age.Bradykinin (BK) and desArg9BK contracted isolated aortae (with or without endothelium) of hamsters of both strains and ages. After tissue equilibration (90?min), responses elicited by both kinin agonists were stable over the time of experiments. The patterns of isometric contractions of BK and desArg9BK were however found to be different; desArg9BK had a slower onset and a longer duration of action than BK.Potencies (pEC50 values) of BK in all groups of hamsters were significantly increased by preincubating the tissues with captopril (10?5?M).No differences in the pEC50 values and the Emax values for BK or desArg9BK were seen between isolated vessels from inbred control and cardiomyopathic hamsters.The myotropic effect of BK was inhibited by the selective non peptide antagonist, FR 173657 (pIC50 7.25±0.12 at the bradykinin B2 receptor subtype (B2 receptor)). Those of desArg9BK, at the bradykinin B1 receptor subtype (B1 receptor) were abolished by either R 715 (pIC50 of 7.55±0.05; ?E=0), Lys[Leu8]desArg9BK (pIC50 of 7.21±0.01; ?E=0.22) or [Leu8]desArg9BK (pIC50 of 7.25±0.02; ?E=0.18).FR 173657 had no agonistic activity, exerted a non competitive type of antagonism and was poorly reversible (lasting more than 5?h) from B2 receptor. In vivo, FR 173657 (given per os at 1 and 5?mg?kg?1, 1?h before the experiment) antagonized the acute hypotensive effect of BK in anaesthetized hamsters.It is concluded that aging and/or the presence of a congenital cardiovascular disorder in hamsters are not associated with changes in the in vitro aortic responses to either BK or desArg9BK. PMID:10780969

  7. BALB/c and SWR inbred mice differ in post-oral fructose appetition as revealed by sugar versus non-nutritive sweetener tests.

    PubMed

    Kraft, Tamar T; Huang, Donald; Lolier, Melanie; Warshaw, Deena; LaMagna, Sam; Natanova, Elona; Sclafani, Anthony; Bodnar, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that C57BL/6J (B6) and FVB inbred mouse strains differ in post-oral fructose conditioning. This was demonstrated by their differential flavor conditioning response to intragastric fructose and their preference for fructose versus a non-nutritive sweetener. The present study extended this analysis to SWR and BALB/c inbred strains which are of interest because they both show robust flavor conditioning responses to fructose. In the first experiment, ad-libitum fed mice were given a series of 2-day, two-bottle preference tests between 8% fructose and a more preferred, but non-nutritive 0.1% sucralose +0.1% saccharin (S+S) solution (tests 1 & 4), and fructose or S+S versus water (tests 2 and 3). In test 1, SWR mice preferred S+S to fructose, and in tests 2 and 3, they preferred both sweeteners to water. In test 4, SWR mice switched their preference and consumed more fructose than S+S. In contrast, ad-libitum fed BALB/c mice strongly preferred S+S to fructose in both tests 1 and 4, although they preferred both sweeteners to water in tests 2 and 3. Food-restricted BALB/c mice also preferred the non-nutritive S+S to fructose in tests 1 and 4. The experience-induced fructose preference reversal observed in SWR, but not BALB/c mice indicates that fructose has a post-oral reinforcing effect in SWR mice as in FVB mice. Because B6 and FVB mice prefer glucose to fructose based on the post-oral actions of the two sugars, the second experiment compared the preferences of SWR and BALB/c mice for 8% glucose and fructose solutions. Ad-libitum fed and food-restricted SWR mice strongly preferred glucose to fructose. In contrast, ad-libitum fed BALB/c mice were indifferent to the sugars, perhaps because of their overall low intakes. Food-restricted BALB/c mice, however, strongly preferred glucose. These findings indicate that SWR and BALB/c mice differ in their preference response to the post-oral actions of fructose. PMID:26485292

  8. Characterization of Adult Transcriptomes from the Omnivorous Lady Beetle Coleomegilla maculata Fed Pollen or Insect Egg Diet

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Margaret Louise

    2015-01-01

    Diet, nutrition, and obesity are important topics of current research. While many insect genome and/or transcriptome models are based on dietary specialists, the lady beetle Coleomegilla maculata, a common New World species, is highly omnivorous. C. maculata feeds on plants, fungi, insects and other arthropods; its diet frequently includes conspecific cannibalism. This study reports and discusses the first nutritionally based C. maculata transcriptomes. These transcriptomes were prepared from highly inbred specimens provided limited diets, after adult eclosion, of either pollen only or eggs of a soft bodied hemipteran insect only. Selected sequences from the transcriptomes were compared to verify basic genetic similarity of the sampled individuals. Differentially expressed genes associated with these diets were identified to aid with studies of omnivore diet and nutrition. Selected transcriptome sequences described herein are filed with the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), GenBank Bioproject PRJNA236444. PMID:25628762

  9. Laboratory Performance Predicts the Success of Field Releases in Inbred Lines of the Egg Parasitoid Trichogramma pretiosum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).

    PubMed

    Coelho, Aloisio; Rugman-Jones, Paul F; Reigada, Carolina; Stouthamer, Richard; Parra, José R P

    2016-01-01

    In this study we assessed the relationship between the laboratory and field performance of different isofemale lines of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley. In comparative assays, we used three rare mitochondrial haplotypes as genetic markers of the isofemale lines, and by introgressing these mitochondrial haplotypes into each of 15 genetically different nuclear lines, also tested the assumption that mitochondria are neutral markers. In a laboratory trial, 45 isofemale lines (15 nuclear genotypes x three mitochondrial haplotypes) were ranked in three categories (best, intermediate and worst) according to the mean offspring production and the proportion of female offspring. Subsequently, lines from each of the three categories were selected for field releases to quantify field parasitism on Ephestia kuehniella. Temporally separate releases were done in a transgenic Bt cornfield, with four plots, each with 50 points of recapture. The points of recapture consisted of trap cards with eggs of E. kuehniella collected daily. The trap cards were maintained in the laboratory at 25°C until the adult wasps emerged, and the maternal identity of the wasps was determined using qPCR and high-resolution melt curve analysis to determine the mitochondrial haplotype. The results showed that these measures of laboratory performance (fecundity and offspring sex ratio) were good predictors of field success in T. pretiosum. We also report strong evidence discrediting the assumption that mitochondria are neutral, in view of the correlation between performance and mitochondrial haplotype. PMID:26730735

  10. UVB dose-toxicity thresholds and steady-state DNA-photoproduct levels during chronic irradiation of inbred Xenopus laevis tadpoles.

    PubMed

    Pandelova, Iovanna; Hewitt, Stephen R; Rollins-Smith, Louise A; Hays, John B

    2006-01-01

    Environmental stressors that severely impact some species more than others can alter ecosystems and threaten biodiversity. Genotoxic stress, such as solar UV-B irradiance, may induce levels of DNA damage at rates that exceed repair capacities in some species but remain below repair capacities in other species. Repair rates would seem to establish toxicity thresholds. We used inbred Xenopus laevis tadpoles in the laboratory to test the hypothesis that balances between rates of induction of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs; the major UV-B photoproduct in DNA) and rates of CPD removal (repair) can determine UV-B toxicity thresholds. As rates of chronic UV-B irradiance were progressively increased by decreased shielding of lamps, survival decreased sharply over a relatively narrow range of dose rates. Apparent toxicity thresholds were associated with large increases in steady-state CPD levels. Induction at twice the measured removal (repair) rate produced sustained high CPDs and 100% mortality. Induction at one-half the removal rate resulted in negligible CPD levels and low mortality. Increased intensity of visible radiation available to drive CPD photoreactivation, mimicking interspecies variation in DNA repair capacity, reduced steady-state CPD levels and increased survival at UV-B dose rates that were previously toxic, resulting in increased thresholds of apparent toxicity. We suggest that threshold effects due to DNA repair should generally be considered in assessments of effects of genotoxic agents on species-specific population decreases and human health risks. PMID:17205633

  11. Compositional assessments of key maize populations: B73 hybrids of the Nested Association Mapping founder lines and diverse landrace inbred lines.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, Tyamagondlu V; Harrigan, George G; Perez, Tim; Flint-Garcia, Sherry

    2015-06-01

    The present study provides an assessment of the compositional diversity in maize B73 hybrids derived both from the Nested Association Mapping (NAM) founder lines and from a diverse collection of landrace accessions from North and South America. The NAM founders represent a key population of publicly available lines that are used extensively in the maize community to investigate the genetic basis of complex traits. Landraces are also of interest to the maize community as they offer the potential to discover new alleles that could be incorporated into modern maize lines. The compositional analysis of B73 hybrids from the 25 NAM founders and 24 inbred lines derived from landraces included measurements of proximates (protein, fat, ash, and starch), fibers, minerals, amino acids, fatty acids, tocopherols (?-, ?-, and ?-), ?-carotene, phytic acid, and raffinose. Grain was harvested from a replicated trial in New York, USA. For each data set (NAM and landrace) canonical discriminant analysis allowed separation of distinct breeding groups (tropical, temperate, flint, mixed/intermediate) within each data set. Overall, results highlighted extensive variation in all composition components assessed for both sets of hybrids. The variation observed for some components within the landraces may therefore be of value for increasing their levels in modern maize lines. The study described here provided significant information on contributions of conventional breeding to crop compositional variation, as well as valuable information on key genetic resources for the maize community in the development of new improved lines. PMID:25966324

  12. Patterns of longevity and fecundity at two temperatures in a set of heat-selected recombinant inbred lines of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Sambucetti, P; Loeschcke, V; Norry, F M

    2015-12-01

    Quantitative trait loci (QTL) were mapped for longevity and fecundity at two temperatures, 20 and 30 °C, in two sets of recombinant inbred lines (RIL) highly differing in thermotolerance. Early fecundity (EF) and longevity showed a negative association between temperatures. For instance, longevity was higher and fecundity was lower in the RIL panel showing higher life span at 30 °C. One X-linked QTL (7B3-12E) co-localized for longevity and EF at 20 °C, with one QTL allele showing a positive additive effect on longevity and a negative effect on EF. The across-RIL genetic correlation between longevity and EF was not significant within each temperature, and most QTL that affect life span have no effect on EF at each temperature. EF and longevity can mostly be genetically uncoupled in the thermotolerance-divergent RIL within each temperature as opposed to between temperatures. QTL were mostly temperature specific, although some trait-specific QTL showed possible antagonistic effects between temperatures. PMID:26404666

  13. Immunological and nonimmunological control of severity of Trypanosoma musculi infections in C3H and C57BL/6 inbred mice

    SciTech Connect

    Albright, J.W.; Albright, J.F.

    1989-06-01

    Studies concerned with the mechanisms responsible for relative resistance or susceptibility of strains of inbred mice to Trypanosoma musculi infections are presented. Treatment with 400 rads of ionizing radiation, silica dust, or trypan blue (reticuloendothelial blocking agents) rendered C3H mice unable to control the initial maximum level of parasite growth, and the mice died of overwhelming infections. In contrast, similarly treated C57BL/6 (relatively resistant) mice controlled initial trypanosome growth as well as controls; however, the duration of infection, preceding eventual cure, was approximately doubled. Combined treatment with trypan blue and 400 rads of radiation resulted in much higher initial levels of infection in C57BL/6 mice, and about half of the mice died; the remaining mice eventually recovered after a prolonged course of infection. These results indicate that a nonimmunological mechanism, which controls initial infection, and an immunological mechanism cooperate to limit T. musculi infections in normal mice. We present results that suggest that both mechanisms are less effective in C3H than in C57BL/6 mice. The initial control of infection presumably reflects the activity of some type(s) of phagocytic effector cell; we show, however, that the initial control of infection is not an attribute of the liver Kupffer cells. Identification and characterization of the cells capable of controlling initial infection could lead to procedures for enhancing their function and, thus, to enhanced resistance to, and elimination of, trypanosome infections.

  14. Differential Expressions of the Alternatively Spliced Variant mRNAs of the µ Opioid Receptor Gene, OPRM1, in Brain Regions of Four Inbred Mouse Strains

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jin; Lu, Zhigang; Xu, Mingming; Rossi, Grace C.; Kest, Benjamin; Waxman, Amanda R.; Pasternak, Gavril W.; Pan, Ying-Xian

    2014-01-01

    The µ opioid receptor gene, OPRM1, undergoes extensive alternative pre-mRNA splicing in rodents and humans, with dozens of alternatively spliced variants of the OPRM1 gene. The present studies establish a SYBR green quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay to more accurately quantify mouse OPRM1 splice variant mRNAs. Using these qPCR assays, we examined the expression of OPRM1 splice variant mRNAs in selected brain regions of four inbred mouse strains displaying differences in µ opioid-induced tolerance and physical dependence: C56BL/6J, 129P3/J, SJL/J and SWR/J. The complete mRNA expression profiles of the OPRM1 splice variants reveal marked differences of the variant mRNA expression among the brain regions in each mouse strain, suggesting region-specific alternative splicing of the OPRM1 gene. The expression of many variants was also strain-specific, implying a genetic influence on OPRM1 alternative splicing. The expression levels of a number of the variant mRNAs in certain brain regions appear to correlate with strain sensitivities to morphine analgesia, tolerance and physical dependence in four mouse strains. PMID:25343478

  15. Fixation, Segregation and Linkage of Allozyme Loci in Inbred Families of the Pacific Oyster Crassostrea Gigas (Thunberg): Implications for the Causes of Inbreeding Depression

    PubMed Central

    McGoldrick, D. J.; Hedgecock, D.

    1997-01-01

    The effect that inbreeding has on the fixation and segregation of genes has rarely been confirmed by direct observation. Here, fixation, segregation, and linkage of allozymes is investigated in the progeny of self-fertilized hermaphrodites of the normally outcrossing Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. The estimate of fixation pooled over loci, individuals, and families, F = 0.462, is significantly lower than the expected value of 0.5. Log-likelihood ratios reveal significant heterogeneity in fixation among individuals, among families, and among loci. In addition, the grand pooled segregation ratio, 127:243:54, deviates significantly from 1:2:1, with a bias against homozygotes for alleles of lesser frequency in the natural population. Segregation ratios for 11 of 14 loci are significantly heterogeneous among families, and exact tests for segregation within families reveal 16 significant results out of 51 tests. Thus, fixation and segregation of allozyme markers in inbred oyster families deviates from the expectations of neutral inbreeding theory. Di-genic disequilibria are significant for four of 74 di-locus pairs revealing two linkage groups. Strong viability selection is apparently conditional on the genotype of the hermaphrodite-founders and is largely focused on these two linkage groups. These genetic effects are explained by interaction between cis-linked factors and polymorphic regulatory backgrounds. PMID:9136021

  16. Genetic Determinants of the Network of Primary Metabolism and Their Relationships to Plant Performance in a Maize Recombinant Inbred Line Population[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Weiwei; Li, Kun; Alseekh, Saleh; Omranian, Nooshin; Zhao, Lijun; Zhou, Yang; Xiao, Yingjie; Jin, Min; Yang, Ning; Liu, Haijun; Florian, Alexandra; Li, Wenqiang; Pan, Qingchun; Nikoloski, Zoran; Yan, Jianbing; Fernie, Alisdair R.

    2015-01-01

    Deciphering the influence of genetics on primary metabolism in plants will provide insights useful for genetic improvement and enhance our fundamental understanding of plant growth and development. Although maize (Zea mays) is a major crop for food and feed worldwide, the genetic architecture of its primary metabolism is largely unknown. Here, we use high-density linkage mapping to dissect large-scale metabolic traits measured in three different tissues (leaf at seedling stage, leaf at reproductive stage, and kernel at 15 d after pollination [DAP]) of a maize recombinant inbred line population. We identify 297 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) with moderate (86.2% of the mapped QTL, R2 = 2.4 to 15%) to major effects (13.8% of the mapped QTL, R2 >15%) for 79 primary metabolites across three tissues. Pairwise epistatic interactions between these identified loci are detected for more than 25.9% metabolites explaining 6.6% of the phenotypic variance on average (ranging between 1.7 and 16.6%), which implies that epistasis may play an important role for some metabolites. Key candidate genes are highlighted and mapped to carbohydrate metabolism, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and several important amino acid biosynthetic and catabolic pathways, with two of them being further validated using candidate gene association and expression profiling analysis. Our results reveal a metabolite-metabolite-agronomic trait network that, together with the genetic determinants of maize primary metabolism identified herein, promotes efficient utilization of metabolites in maize improvement. PMID:26187921

  17. Maximizing the Reliability of Genomic Selection by Optimizing the Calibration Set of Reference Individuals: Comparison of Methods in Two Diverse Groups of Maize Inbreds (Zea mays L.)

    PubMed Central

    Rincent, R.; Laloë, D.; Nicolas, S.; Altmann, T.; Brunel, D.; Revilla, P.; Rodríguez, V.M.; Moreno-Gonzalez, J.; Melchinger, A.; Bauer, E.; Schoen, C-C.; Meyer, N.; Giauffret, C.; Bauland, C.; Jamin, P.; Laborde, J.; Monod, H.; Flament, P.; Charcosset, A.; Moreau, L.

    2012-01-01

    Genomic selection refers to the use of genotypic information for predicting breeding values of selection candidates. A prediction formula is calibrated with the genotypes and phenotypes of reference individuals constituting the calibration set. The size and the composition of this set are essential parameters affecting the prediction reliabilities. The objective of this study was to maximize reliabilities by optimizing the calibration set. Different criteria based on the diversity or on the prediction error variance (PEV) derived from the realized additive relationship matrix–best linear unbiased predictions model (RA–BLUP) were used to select the reference individuals. For the latter, we considered the mean of the PEV of the contrasts between each selection candidate and the mean of the population (PEVmean) and the mean of the expected reliabilities of the same contrasts (CDmean). These criteria were tested with phenotypic data collected on two diversity panels of maize (Zea mays L.) genotyped with a 50k SNPs array. In the two panels, samples chosen based on CDmean gave higher reliabilities than random samples for various calibration set sizes. CDmean also appeared superior to PEVmean, which can be explained by the fact that it takes into account the reduction of variance due to the relatedness between individuals. Selected samples were close to optimality for a wide range of trait heritabilities, which suggests that the strategy presented here can efficiently sample subsets in panels of inbred lines. A script to optimize reference samples based on CDmean is available on request. PMID:22865733

  18. Adult Learning Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    Adult Learners' Week--which is supported by the Department for Innovation, Universities and Skills and the European Social Fund, amongst a raft of other organisations--is all about raising demand for learning. At its core, the campaign is about encouraging under-represented groups--including low-skilled, unemployed and low-paid adults and those…

  19. Adult Literacy in Zanzibar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saadat, Ahmed H.

    The philosophy behind adult literacy in Zanzibar is that adult literacy is a process whereby the illiterate is empowered to become aware of his or her potential. Literacy activities emphasize a relation to work, sometimes known as functional literacy. Specific objectives of literacy programs are to improve living conditions, impart self-reliant…

  20. Adult Tech Prep.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaad, Donna

    For over 2 years, Blak Hawk College (Illinois) has provided high school equivalency (GED) candidates and recipients, older returning students, and underprepared high school graduates with a Tech Prep curriculum to give them the skills to make the transition from adult basic education to college or work. The Adult Tech Prep (ATP) core curriculum…

  1. Adult Day Services

    MedlinePLUS

    A Smart Choice Adult Day Services Comparison At-a-Glance 1 Adult Day Services Assisted Living Home Care Nursing Homes Live at home with family ... supervision Nursing care available as needed during the day Flexibility to receive care only on days when ...

  2. Adult Education Regional Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Community Colleges, Chancellor's Office, 2015

    2015-01-01

    For more than one hundred and fifty years, until 2008, California was an undisputed national leader in its commitment to adult education. The state's investment in adult learners topped $750 million, a sum greater than the combined total of every other state in the nation. However, for the past several years recession and fiscal crisis have left…

  3. Adult Learning and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubenson, Kjell, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    As individuals and societies try to respond to fundamental economic and social transformation, the field of adult learning and education is rapidly getting increased attention and new topics for research on adult learning have emerged. This collection of articles from the International Encyclopedia of Education 3e offers practitioners and…

  4. Adult Vocational Trajectory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riverin-Simard, Danielle

    1990-01-01

    Proposes a "spatial-temporal" model conceiving adult vocational development as a complex and constant readjustment in always changing perception of personal space-time, based on interviews of 786 adults. Presents two propositions of this model: the continuous alternation between states of instability and interaction of influences. (Author/ABL)

  5. Counseling Adult Adoptees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corder, Kate

    2012-01-01

    This review presents various resources about working with adult adoptees in order to inform counselors in their practice. Topics covered include basics of adoption, including types of adoption and adoption statistics; possible issues adult adoptees may face; and suggestions and implications for counselors. The article addresses some of the serious…

  6. Today's Adult Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Who are the adult students in career and technical education (CTE) today? There is not one simple answer to that question. Some are young with little life experience, while others are returning to the workforce and learning new skills to reinvent themselves. Whatever the case, educating adult students is an integral part of ACTE's mission, and the…

  7. Adult Education and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinzen, Heribert, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This document contains 19 papers on adult education and development worldwide. The following papers are included: "Editorial" (Heribert Hinzen); "Lifelong Learning in Europe: Moving towards EFA (Dakar Framework for Action on Education for All) Goals and the CONFINTEA V Agenda" (Sofia Conference on Adult Education); "Poverty and Schooling in the…

  8. National Adult Day Services Association

    MedlinePLUS

    ... near you THE NATIONAL VOICE FOR THE ADULT DAY SERVICE COMMUNITY The National Adult Day Services Association is seeking an Executive Director. Click ... the national development, recognition and use of adult day services. They provide a coordinated program of professional ...

  9. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder among Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among ...

  10. Whooping cough in adults.

    PubMed Central

    Trollfors, B; Rabo, E

    1981-01-01

    During the 1970s whooping cough returned in Sweden after an absence of more than 10 years and is now seen in all age groups, During a three-year period 174 adults with culture-verified whooping cough were identified in Gothenburg. Most of the patients had typical symptoms with whooping attacks and often vomiting. The disease was long lasting but complications were rare. Physicians should be aware that whooping cough may occur in adults, since adults may be an important source of infection for infants and erythromycin given in the catarrhal phase may modify the clinical course. PMID:6793129

  11. Adult male mice conceived by in vitro fertilization exhibit increased glucocorticoid receptor expression in fat tissue.

    PubMed

    Simbulan, R K; Liu, X; Feuer, S K; Maltepe, E; Donjacour, A; Rinaudo, P

    2016-02-01

    Prenatal development is highly plastic and readily influenced by the environment. Adverse conditions have been shown to alter organ development and predispose offspring to chronic diseases, including diabetes and hypertension. Notably, it appears that the changes in glucocorticoid hormones or glucocorticoid receptor (GR) levels in peripheral tissues could play a role in the development of chronic diseases. We have previously demonstrated that in vitro fertilization (IVF) and preimplantation embryo culture is associated with growth alterations and glucose intolerance in mice. However, it is unknown if GR signaling is affected in adult IVF offspring. Here we show that GR expression is increased in inbred (C57Bl6/J) and outbred (CF-1× B6D2F1/J) blastocysts following in vitro culture and elevated levels are also present in the adipose tissue of adult male mice. Importantly, genes involved in lipolysis and triglyceride synthesis and responsive to GR were also increased in adipose tissue, indicating that increased GR activates downstream gene pathways. The promoter region of GR, previously reported to be epigenetically modified by perinatal manipulation, showed no changes in DNA methylation status. Our findings demonstrate that IVF results in a long-term change in GR gene expression in a sex- and tissue-specific manner. These changes in adipose tissues may well contribute to the metabolic phenotype in mice conceived by IVF. PMID:26511158

  12. Motivation and Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veeraraghavan, J.

    1974-01-01

    The paper examines the role of adult education and the contribution it can make to the solution of current problems in developing countries, particularly the problems of economic under-development and over-population. (Author/AG)

  13. Troubleshooting Adult ECMO

    PubMed Central

    Sidebotham, David

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: The following scenarios explore some of the common problems encountered during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in adults. In each scenario, the circuit is comprised of a centrifugal pump and a polymethylpentene oxygenator. PMID:21449237

  14. Motivation and Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, J. Rodney

    1982-01-01

    The author reviews theories of human motivation: Lewin's force field analysis, Skinner's operant reinforcement theory, and Maslow's hierarchy of needs. He then extracts the implications of these theories for adult learning. SK)

  15. Thrush - children and adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... live in our bodies. This includes bacteria and fungi. While most germs are harmless, some can cause ... children and adults when too much of a fungus called Candida grows in your mouth. A small ...

  16. Pneumonia - adults - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    ... out. Keep the phone number of your oxygen supplier with you at all times. Learn how to ... America/American Thoracic Society consensus guidelines on the management of community-acquired pneumonia in adults. Clin Infect ...

  17. Adult soft tissue sarcoma

    MedlinePLUS

    Soft tissue sarcoma is cancer that forms in the soft tissue of the body. Soft tissue connects, supports, or surrounds other body parts. In adults, soft tissue sarcoma is rare. There are many different types of ...

  18. Yoga and Older Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... My Go4Life Get Free Stuff Be a Partner Yoga and Older Adults Yoga is a mind and body practice that typically ... breathing exercises, and relaxation. Researchers are studying how yoga may help improve health and to learn more ...

  19. Mosquito, adult (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    This illustration shows an adult southern house mosquito. This mosquito feeds on blood and is the carrier of many diseases, such as encephalitis, West Nile, dengue fever, yellow fever, and others. ( ...

  20. Lack of Structural Variation but Extensive Length Polymorphisms and Heteroplasmic Length Variations in the Mitochondrial DNA Control Region of Highly Inbred Crested Ibis, Nipponia nippon

    PubMed Central

    He, Xue-Lian; Ding, Chang-Qing; Han, Jian-Lin

    2013-01-01

    The animal mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) length polymorphism and heteroplasmy are accepted to be universal. Here we report the lack of structural variation but the presence of length polymorphism as well as heteroplasmy in mtDNA control region of an endangered avian species – the Crested Ibis (Nipponia nippon). The complete control region was directly sequenced while the distribution pattern and inheritance of the length variations were examined using both direct sequencing and genotyping of the PCR fragments from captive birds with pedigrees, wild birds and a historical specimen. Our results demonstrated that there was no structural variation in the control region, however, different numbers of short tandem repeats with an identical motif of CA3CA2CA3 at the 3?-end of the control region determined the length polymorphisms among and heteroplasmy within individual birds. There were one to three predominant fragments in every bird; nevertheless multiple minor fragments coexist in all birds. These extremely high polymorphisms were suggested to have derived from the ‘replication slippage’ of a perfect microsatellite evolution following the step-wise mutational model. The patterns of heteroplasmy were found to be shifted between generations and among siblings but rather stable between blood and feather samples. This study provides the first evidence of a very extensive mtDNA length polymorphism and heteroplasmy in the highly inbred Crested Ibis which carries an mtDNA genome lack of structural genetic diversity. The analysis of pedigreed samples also sheds light on the transmission of mtDNA length heteroplasmy in birds following the genetic bottleneck theory. Further research focusing on the generation and transmission of particular mtDNA heteroplasmy patterns in single germ line of Crested Ibis is encouraged by this study. PMID:23805212

  1. Private Selective Sweeps Identified from Next-Generation Pool-Sequencing Reveal Convergent Pathways under Selection in Two Inbred Schistosoma mansoni Strains

    PubMed Central

    Clément, Julie A. J.; Toulza, Eve; Gautier, Mathieu; Parrinello, Hugues; Roquis, David; Boissier, Jérôme; Rognon, Anne; Moné, Hélène; Mouahid, Gabriel; Buard, Jérôme; Mitta, Guillaume; Grunau, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Background The trematode flatworms of the genus Schistosoma, the causative agents of schistosomiasis, are among the most prevalent parasites in humans, affecting more than 200 million people worldwide. In this study, we focused on two well-characterized strains of S. mansoni, to explore signatures of selection. Both strains are highly inbred and exhibit differences in life history traits, in particular in their compatibility with the intermediate host Biomphalaria glabrata. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed high throughput sequencing of DNA from pools of individuals of each strain using Illumina technology and identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and copy number variations (CNV). In total, 708,898 SNPs were identified and roughly 2,000 CNVs. The SNPs revealed low nucleotide diversity (??=?2×10?4) within each strain and a high differentiation level (Fst?=?0.73) between them. Based on a recently developed in-silico approach, we further detected 12 and 19 private (i.e. specific non-overlapping) selective sweeps among the 121 and 151 sweeps found in total for each strain. Conclusions/Significance Functional annotation of transcripts lying in the private selective sweeps revealed specific selection for functions related to parasitic interaction (e.g. cell-cell adhesion or redox reactions). Despite high differentiation between strains, we identified evolutionary convergence of genes related to proteolysis, known as a key virulence factor and a potential target of drug and vaccine development. Our data show that pool-sequencing can be used for the detection of selective sweeps in parasite populations and enables one to identify biological functions under selection. PMID:24349597

  2. ATR-FTIR spectroscopy reveals genomic loci regulating the tissue response in high fat diet fed BXD recombinant inbred mouse strains

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity-associated organ-specific pathological states can be ensued from the dysregulation of the functions of the adipose tissues, liver and muscle. However, the influence of genetic differences underlying gross-compositional differences in these tissues is largely unknown. In the present study, the analytical method of ATR-FTIR spectroscopy has been combined with a genetic approach to identify genetic differences responsible for phenotypic alterations in adipose, liver and muscle tissues. Results Mice from 29 BXD recombinant inbred mouse strains were put on high fat diet and gross-compositional changes in adipose, liver and muscle tissues were measured by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. The analysis of genotype-phenotype correlations revealed significant quantitative trait loci (QTL) on chromosome 12 for the content of fat and collagen, collagen integrity, and the lipid to protein ratio in adipose tissue and on chromosome 17 for lipid to protein ratio in liver. Using gene expression and sequence information, we suggest Rsad2 (viperin) and Colec11 (collectin-11) on chromosome 12 as potential quantitative trait candidate genes. Rsad2 may act as a modulator of lipid droplet contents and lipid biosynthesis; Colec11 might play a role in apoptopic cell clearance and maintenance of adipose tissue. An increased level of Rsad2 transcripts in adipose tissue of DBA/2J compared to C57BL/6J mice suggests a cis-acting genetic variant leading to differential gene activation. Conclusion The results demonstrate that the analytical method of ATR-FTIR spectroscopy effectively contributed to decompose the macromolecular composition of tissues that accumulate fat and to link this information with genetic determinants. The candidate genes in the QTL regions may contribute to obesity-related diseases in humans, in particular if the results can be verified in a bigger BXD cohort. PMID:23758785

  3. [Effects of low temperature on formation of spikelets and grain filling of indica inbred rice during panicle initiation in early-season].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yan-hua; Zhang, Yu-ping; Xiang, Jing; Wang, Ya-liang; Chen, Hui-zhe; Zhu, De-feng

    2015-07-01

    A pot experiment in phytotron with controlled temperature was conducted to examine the effects of low temperature (LT) on differentiation and retrogression of branches and spikelets and grain filling of rice during panicle initiation (PI). In this study, indica inbred rice called Zhong-jiazaol7 was planted and treated at 17 and 20 °C of LT during primary branches anlage differentiation (II) and pollen mother cell meiosis stage (VI) of PI. The results showed that the numbers of differentiated and survived branches per panicle were significantly reduced under LT treatment compared with control, and the number of survived spikelets was significantly decreased by 7.2% - 12.4%, but the numbers of retrograded branches and spikelets were increased. Moreover, LT affected significantly the development of floral organ such as pollen activity and anther dehiscence, and caused harmful grain filling, particularly at 17 °C. The numbers of total differentiated and survived branches and spikelets were lower during VI (PI) than during II (PI) under LT stress, but more retrograded secondary branches and spikelets (increased by 11.6%) were found during V (PI) compared with II (PI). Meanwhile, in contrast to II (PI), the seed setting rate was significantly lowered by 3.7% during VI (PI), which was attributed to reductions in pollen activity, pollen grains on stigma, anther dehiscence coefficient and grain filling rate. LT stress impact on rice panicles was higher at 17 °C than at 20 °C during II and VI (PI). The cultivation measure could be correspondingly strengthened and improved in practice. PMID:26710626

  4. Genetic Determinants for Enzymatic Digestion of Lignocellulosic Biomass Are Independent of Those for Lignin Abundance in a Maize Recombinant Inbred Population1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Penning, Bryan W.; Sykes, Robert W.; Babcock, Nicholas C.; Dugard, Christopher K.; Held, Michael A.; Klimek, John F.; Shreve, Jacob T.; Fowler, Matthew; Ziebell, Angela; Davis, Mark F.; Decker, Stephen R.; Turner, Geoffrey B.; Mosier, Nathan S.; Springer, Nathan M.; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Weil, Clifford F.; McCann, Maureen C.; Carpita, Nicholas C.

    2014-01-01

    Biotechnological approaches to reduce or modify lignin in biomass crops are predicated on the assumption that it is the principal determinant of the recalcitrance of biomass to enzymatic digestion for biofuels production. We defined quantitative trait loci (QTL) in the Intermated B73 × Mo17 recombinant inbred maize (Zea mays) population using pyrolysis molecular-beam mass spectrometry to establish stem lignin content and an enzymatic hydrolysis assay to measure glucose and xylose yield. Among five multiyear QTL for lignin abundance, two for 4-vinylphenol abundance, and four for glucose and/or xylose yield, not a single QTL for aromatic abundance and sugar yield was shared. A genome-wide association study for lignin abundance and sugar yield of the 282-member maize association panel provided candidate genes in the 11 QTL of the B73 and Mo17 parents but showed that many other alleles impacting these traits exist among this broader pool of maize genetic diversity. B73 and Mo17 genotypes exhibited large differences in gene expression in developing stem tissues independent of allelic variation. Combining these complementary genetic approaches provides a narrowed list of candidate genes. A cluster of SCARECROW-LIKE9 and SCARECROW-LIKE14 transcription factor genes provides exceptionally strong candidate genes emerging from the genome-wide association study. In addition to these and genes associated with cell wall metabolism, candidates include several other transcription factors associated with vascularization and fiber formation and components of cellular signaling pathways. These results provide new insights and strategies beyond the modification of lignin to enhance yields of biofuels from genetically modified biomass. PMID:24972714

  5. Effect of acute swim stress on plasma corticosterone and brain monoamine levels in bidirectionally selected DxH recombinant inbred mouse strains differing in fear recall and extinction.

    PubMed

    Browne, Caroline A; Hanke, Joachim; Rose, Claudia; Walsh, Irene; Foley, Tara; Clarke, Gerard; Schwegler, Herbert; Cryan, John F; Yilmazer-Hanke, Deniz

    2014-12-01

    Stress-induced changes in plasma corticosterone and central monoamine levels were examined in mouse strains that differ in fear-related behaviors. Two DxH recombinant inbred mouse strains with a DBA/2J background, which were originally bred for a high (H-FSS) and low fear-sensitized acoustic startle reflex (L-FSS), were used. Levels of noradrenaline, dopamine, and serotonin and their metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenyacetic acid (DOPAC), homovanillic acid (HVA), and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) were studied in the amygdala, hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex, striatum, hypothalamus and brainstem. H-FSS mice exhibited increased fear levels and a deficit in fear extinction (within-session) in the auditory fear-conditioning test, and depressive-like behavior in the acute forced swim stress test. They had higher tissue noradrenaline and serotonin levels and lower dopamine and serotonin turnover under basal conditions, although they were largely insensitive to stress-induced changes in neurotransmitter metabolism. In contrast, acute swim stress increased monoamine levels but decreased turnover in the less fearful L-FSS mice. L-FSS mice also showed a trend toward higher basal and stress-induced corticosterone levels and an increase in noradrenaline and serotonin in the hypothalamus and brainstem 30?min after stress compared to H-FSS mice. Moreover, the dopaminergic system was activated differentially in the medial prefrontal cortex and striatum of the two strains by acute stress. Thus, H-FSS mice showed increased basal noradrenaline tissue levels compatible with a fear phenotype or chronic stressed condition. Low corticosterone levels and the poor monoamine response to stress in H-FSS mice may point to mechanisms similar to those found in principal fear disorders or post-traumatic stress disorder. PMID:25117886

  6. Lack of Structural Variation but Extensive Length Polymorphisms and Heteroplasmic Length Variations in the Mitochondrial DNA Control Region of Highly Inbred Crested Ibis, Nipponia nippon.

    PubMed

    He, Xue-Lian; Ding, Chang-Qing; Han, Jian-Lin

    2013-01-01

    The animal mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) length polymorphism and heteroplasmy are accepted to be universal. Here we report the lack of structural variation but the presence of length polymorphism as well as heteroplasmy in mtDNA control region of an endangered avian species - the Crested Ibis (Nipponia nippon). The complete control region was directly sequenced while the distribution pattern and inheritance of the length variations were examined using both direct sequencing and genotyping of the PCR fragments from captive birds with pedigrees, wild birds and a historical specimen. Our results demonstrated that there was no structural variation in the control region, however, different numbers of short tandem repeats with an identical motif of CA3CA2CA3 at the 3'-end of the control region determined the length polymorphisms among and heteroplasmy within individual birds. There were one to three predominant fragments in every bird; nevertheless multiple minor fragments coexist in all birds. These extremely high polymorphisms were suggested to have derived from the 'replication slippage' of a perfect microsatellite evolution following the step-wise mutational model. The patterns of heteroplasmy were found to be shifted between generations and among siblings but rather stable between blood and feather samples. This study provides the first evidence of a very extensive mtDNA length polymorphism and heteroplasmy in the highly inbred Crested Ibis which carries an mtDNA genome lack of structural genetic diversity. The analysis of pedigreed samples also sheds light on the transmission of mtDNA length heteroplasmy in birds following the genetic bottleneck theory. Further research focusing on the generation and transmission of particular mtDNA heteroplasmy patterns in single germ line of Crested Ibis is encouraged by this study. PMID:23805212

  7. Natural herbicide resistance (HR) to broad-spectrum herbicide, glyphosate among traditional and inbred-cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Weerakoon, S R; Somaratne, S; Wijeratne, R G D; Ekanyaka, E M S I

    2013-08-15

    Weeds along with insect pests and plant diseases are sources of biotic stress in crop systems. Weeds are responsible for serious problems in rice worldwide affecting growth and causing a considerable reduction in quality and quantity in yield. High concentrations of pre-emergent-broad-spectrum systemic herbicide, Glyphosate is prevalently applied to control rice weeds which intern causes severe damages to cultivated rice varieties, susceptible to Glyphosate. However, there may be rice varieties with natural Herbicide Resistance (HR) which are so far, has not been evaluated. In this study Six traditional and eighteen developed-cultivated rice varieties (Bg, Bw, At and Ld series developed by Rice Research Development Institute, Sri Lanka) were used to screen their natural HR. RCBD with five replicates and three blocks in each treatment-combination was used as the experimental design. As observations, time taken-to seed germination, time taken to flowering; plant height and number of leaves at 12-weeks after sawing, leaf-length, breadth, panicle-length, number of seeds/panicle of resistant plants and controls were recorded. Plants with > or = 40% resistance were considered as resistant to Glyphosate. Ten inbred-cultivated rice varieties (Bg250, Bg94-1, Bg304, Bg359, Bg406, Bg379-2, Bg366, Bg300, Bw364, At362) and three traditional rice varieties ("Kalu Heenati", "Sudu Heenati", "Pachchaperumal") were naturally resistant to 0.25 g L(-1) Glyphosate concentration and when increased the concentration (0.5 g L(-1)) resistance was reduced. This study showed the usefulness of modern statistical method, classification and regression tree analysis (CART) in exploring and visualizing the patterns reflected by a large number of rice varieties (larger experimental database) on herbicide resistance in future. PMID:24498832

  8. Effect of Acute Swim Stress on Plasma Corticosterone and Brain Monoamine Levels in Bidirectionally Selected DxH Recombinant Inbred Mouse Strains Differing in Fear Recall and Extinction

    PubMed Central

    Browne, Caroline A.; Hanke, Joachim; Rose, Claudia; Walsh, Irene; Foley, Tara; Clarke, Gerard; Schwegler, Herbert; Cryan, John F.; Yilmazer-Hanke, Deniz

    2015-01-01

    Stress-induced changes in plasma corticosterone and central monoamine levels were examined in mouse strains that differ in fear-related behaviors. Two DxH recombinant inbred mouse strains with a DBA/2J background, which were originally bred for a high (H-FSS) and low fear-sensitized acoustic startle reflex (L-FSS), were used. Levels of noradrenaline, dopamine, and serotonin and their metabolites (DOPAC), homovanillic acid (HVA), and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) were studied in the amygdala, hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex, striatum, hypothalamus, and brainstem. H-FSS mice exhibited increased fear levels and a deficit in fear extinction (within-session) in the auditory fear-conditioning test, and depressive-like behavior in the acute forced swim stress test. They had higher tissue noradrenaline and serotonin levels and lower dopamine and serotonin turnover under basal conditions, although they were largely insensitive to stress-induced changes in neurotransmitter metabolism. In contrast, acute swim stress increased monoamine levels but decreased turnover in the less fearful L-FSS mice. L-FSS mice also showed a trend toward higher basal and stress-induced corticosterone levels and an increase in noradrenaline and serotonin in the hypothalamus and brainstem 30 minutes after stress compared to H-FSS mice. Moreover, the dopaminergic system was activated differentially in the medial prefrontal cortex and striatum of the two strains by acute stress. Thus, H-FSS mice showed increased basal noradrenaline tissue levels compatible with a fear phenotype or chronic stressed condition. Low corticosterone levels and the poor monoamine response to stress in H-FSS mice may point to mechanisms similar to those found in principal fear disorders or posttraumatic stress disorder. PMID:25117886

  9. Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Variable Region and Major Histocompatibility Region Genes Are Linked to Induced Graves' Disease in Females From Two Very Large Families of Recombinant Inbred Mice

    PubMed Central

    Aliesky, Holly; Banuelos, Bianca; Magana, Jessica; Williams, Robert W.; Rapoport, Basil

    2014-01-01

    Graves' hyperthyroidism is caused by antibodies to the TSH receptor (TSHR) that mimic thyroid stimulation by TSH. Stimulating TSHR antibodies and hyperthyroidism can be induced by immunizing mice with adenovirus expressing the human TSHR A-subunit. Prior analysis of induced Graves' disease in small families of recombinant inbred (RI) female mice demonstrated strong genetic control but did not resolve trait loci for TSHR antibodies or elevated serum T4. We investigated the genetic basis for induced Graves' disease in female mice of two large RI families and combined data with earlier findings to provide phenotypes for 178 genotypes. TSHR antibodies measured by inhibition of TSH binding to its receptor were highly significantly linked in the BXD set to the major histocompatibility region (chromosome 17), consistent with observations in 3 other RI families. In the LXS family, we detected linkage between T4 levels after TSHR-adenovirus immunization and the Ig heavy chain variable region (Igvh, chromosome 12). This observation is a key finding because components of the antigen binding region of Igs determine antibody specificity and have been previously linked to induced thyroid-stimulating antibodies. Data from the LXS family provide the first evidence in mice of a direct link between induced hyperthyroidism and Igvh genes. A role for major histocompatibility genes has now been established for genetic susceptibility to Graves' disease in both humans and mice. Future studies using arrays incorporating variation in the complex human Ig gene locus will be necessary to determine whether Igvh genes are also linked to Graves' disease in humans. PMID:25051451

  10. Pancreatoblastoma in an adult.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Di; Tang, Na; Liu, Yang; Wang, En-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatoblastoma is a malignant pancreatic tumor that rarely occurs in adults. We report a case of an adult female with pancreatoblastoma. A mass was detected in the pancreatic head using computed tomography and ultrasonography. The clinical diagnosis was a solid-pseudopapillary neoplasm of the pancreas. However, after the operation, the final diagnosis was pancreatoblastoma, which showed two lines of differentiation: Acinar differentiation and squamoid corpuscles. The patient is currently in good condition. PMID:25673604

  11. [Orthodontic treatment for adults].

    PubMed

    Kuitert, R B

    2000-04-01

    The number of adults undergoing orthodontic treatment has increased strongly and the average age that adult patients undergo orthodontic treatment increased steadily although 3/4 is still younger than 27 years. In adults the facial skeletal pattern can only be changed in a very confined way, consequently in case of an abnormal skeletal pattern one has to choose between a combined orthodontic-surgical approach (which is the case in 18% of the patients) and a compromised orthodontic treatment, if necessary combined with other disciplines. It is still controversial whether tooth movement in adults is slower and more difficult than in adolescents. The same holds true for the risk for loss of periodontal support, for root resorption, for gnathologic problems and for relapse. As related to these variables there appears to be a large individual variation. Many adults show one or more problems in their dentition that may influence their orthodontic treatment. About 60% of the adult patients need a multidisciplinary approach. The development of implantology and of bone regeneration and bone grafting has lead to more combined treatments. The risks of such complex treatment plans are generally larger than those for more simple kinds of treatment. A very careful treatment planning and good communication between the different specialists is essential. Moreover the treatment plan with all its (dis)advantages has to be extensively discussed with the patient. PMID:11382973

  12. Rich Environments for Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentham, Renee

    2008-01-01

    Unaware of the messages a bare adult learning environment sends and its effect on adult learners, a trainer attends an intensive Reggio Emilia course and learns that the physical environment is the "third teacher"--for adults as well as for children. Using principles of Reggio, she offers suggestions for enhancing adult learning spaces and…

  13. Adult Education through World Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassara, Beverly Benner, Ed.

    This book contains the following papers about development/delivery of adult education through the efforts of multinational and bilateral government donors and the International Council for Adult Education (ICAE): "Preface" (Beverly Benner Cassara); "Introduction: Adult Education and Democracy" (Francisco Vio Grossi); "Adult Education and the…

  14. The Adult Learner: Four Aspects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, John A., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Topics concerning the adult learner that are relevant to institutional researchers are addressed in four articles: marketing, predicting success for adult students, enrollment projection, and follow-up studies of adult learners. In "Institutional Research in Support of Marketing the Adult Student," Lydia Jurand notes the importance of identifying…

  15. Cognition and the Adult Learner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fellenz, Robert A., Ed.

    This report contains six research papers and a summary of a panel discussion on the topic of cognition and the adult learner. The papers are as follows: "Psychology and Adult Cognition" (Wilbert J. McKeachie); "Biology and Adult Cognition" (Frank Farley); "Technology and Adult Cognition" (Barbara Grabowski); "Enhancing Cognitive Skills" (Richard…

  16. The ABC's of Adult Ed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roehrig, Lucy

    2010-01-01

    According to the 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy, it is estimated that 93 million adults in the United States have basic or below basic literacy skills. Those individuals found most lacking in literacy skills were adults living in poverty, adults lacking a high school diploma, seniors and the elderly aged 65 and older, the more than one…

  17. Cell wall composition in juvenile and adult leaves of maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Abedon, Bruce G; Hatfield, Ronald D; Tracy, William F

    2006-05-31

    Many leaf characteristics vary with position along the culm in maize (Zea mays L.) due to the existence of vegetative phase change and heteroblasty. The objective of this work was to determine if differences in cell wall composition exist among developmental phases and between Cg1, a developmental mutant, and wild-type maize. In one experiment, the middle third of fully elongated leaf blades from lower and upper regions of the shoot was harvested (midribs removed) and analyzed for several cell wall components. Averaged over five inbreds (De811, Ia5125, Mo17, P39, and Wh8584), lower leaf blades had higher levels of xylose and lower levels of total uronosyls, glucose, arabinose, and galactose (P < 0.05) than did upper leaf blades. With the exception of glucose, upper and lower leaves of Cg1 plants varied in the same manner as their near-isogenic siblings, except cell walls of Cg1 plants were more "juvenile" than cell walls of wild-type siblings at the same leaf stage. These data support the hypothesis that Cg1 delays but does not eliminate the transition from juvenile-vegetative to adult-vegetative phase. In a second experiment, juvenile (leaves 3 and 5), transition (leaf 7), and adult (leaves 9 and 11) leaves from inbreds B73 and De811 were harvested and analyzed as in the first experiment. As leaf number rose, total cell wall content of sample dry matter, total neutral sugars, glucose, xylose, and ester-linked monomers of p-coumaric acid and total ferulates including ferulate dimers increased linearly while total uronosyls acids, arabinose, and galactose declined linearly (P < 0.05). Glucose and xylose are major cell wall components released from cellulose and xylans after acid hydrolysis. Pectin, a minor component of grass cell walls, is composed of galacturonosyls, arabinose, and galactose. Secondary cell wall deposition increased between leaves 3 and 11 in a heteroblastic series, due to either increased cell wall content concomitant with decreased cell lumen size, changes in proportion of cell types (i.e., sclerenchyma), or a combination of these factors. PMID:16719512

  18. Adult Seborrheic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis is a common chronic-recurrent inflammatory disorder that most commonly affects adults; however, a more transient infantile form also occurs. The definitive cause of seborrheic dermatitis is unknown. However, proliferation of Malassezia species has been described as a contributing factor. The adult form of seborrheic dermatitis affects up to approximately five percent of the general population. The disorder commonly affects the scalp, face, and periauricular region, with the central chest, axillae, and genital region also involved in some cases. Pruritus is not always present and is relatively common, especially with scalp disease. A variety of treatments are available including topical corticosteroids, topical antifungal agents, topical calcineurin inhibitors, and more recently, a nonsteroidal “device ”cream. This article reviews the practical topical management of seborrheic dermatitis in the United States, focusing on the adult population. PMID:21607192

  19. Genetic differences in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and food restriction-induced hyperactivity in three inbred strains of rats.

    PubMed

    Duclos, M; Bouchet, M; Vettier, A; Richard, D

    2005-11-01

    We used three inbred rat strains known for significant differences in the activity and reactivity of their hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis to stress [Fischer 344 (F344), Brown Norway (BN) and Lewis (Lew) rats] to search for a strain difference in the paradoxical increase in running activity induced by food restriction and to explore the role of the HPA axis in this behaviour. Rats were randomly assigned to either an ad lib sedentary group (AL), a control wheel activity group (ACT), a food restriction-induced hyperactivity group (FR-ACT) group (1.5 h/day ad lib food, 22.5 h/day ad lib wheel access) or a pair-fed group (FR). The BN and Lew rats reached the 25% body weight-loss criterion of FR-ACT (strain effect: F(2,132) = 45.58, P < 10-6) faster than the F344 strain due to higher food restriction-induced running activity (strain effect: F(2,65) = 17.43, P = 0.00001). FR and FR-ACT decreased thymus weight (marker of integrated HPA axis activation) in all strains. In Lew and BN strains, FR-ACT induced a further decrement on thymus weight compared to their FR group. Prefeeding corticosterone levels (15.00 h) increased during the study in BN and Lew FR-ACT rats, but not in F344. Total wheel turns were correlated to both final adipose weight (r = -0.49, P = 0.002) and thymus weight decrement (r = 0.59, P = 0.0001), emphasizing the relationship between fat mass and HPA axis activation in excessive running activity. Increased running in conditions of food restriction and HPA axis activation may be linked at the level of the central nervous system. However, the involvement of corticotrophin-releasing hormone, agouti-related peptide or cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript in behavioural disturbances of FR-ACT rats was excluded (in situ hybridization). We propose that corticosterone may be the link between initial low levels of fat mass and/or rate of fat mass loss (peripheral energy stores) and increased wheel activity, favouring fueling through lipolysis and proteolysis and reinforcing the self starvation via reward mechanisms, thus establishing a deleterious vicious cycle. PMID:16219003

  20. TRENDS IN ADULT READING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MILLER, JUSTIN H.

    TRENDS EVIDENT IN ADULT READING DURING THE 1960'S IN THE AREAS OF ADMINISTRATION, PROGRAMS, TEACHING, TECHNIQUES, RESEARCH PROJECTS, AND METHODS OF PROMOTION OF READING PROGRAMS ARE DISCUSSED. TWO INSTANCES OF COMMERCIAL EXPLOITATION BASED ON INTENSE AND OFTEN FALLACIOUS ADVERTISING AND ON PUBLIC IGNORANCE ARE CITED. A POSITIVE TREND IN THE AREA…

  1. Hearing Loss in Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, John W.

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses hearing loss in adults. It begins with an explanation of the anatomy of the ear and then explains the three types of hearing loss: conductive hearing loss, sensorineural hearing loss, and mixed conductive-sensorineural hearing loss. Tinnitus, hearing aids, and cochlear implants are also addressed. (CR)

  2. Adult Literacy Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Maurice C., Ed.; Draper, James A., Ed.

    This book, intended to serve as a professional reference work, proposes to define the field of Adult Basic Education in its evolution, its contribution to professional education, and the principal problems and issues. The volume contains the following treatises: "Definitions and Evolution of the Concepts" (Thomas); "Selected Chronology of Literacy…

  3. SELECTING THE ADULT EDUCATOR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HEALY, DANIEL J.

    RESEARCH SOUGHT TO (1) IDENTIFY CRITERIA USED BY DIRECTORS OF PUBLIC SCHOOL ADULT EDUCATION PROGRAMS IN SELECTING THEIR TEACHERS FOR INSTRUCTION IN VOCATIONAL, AVOCATIONAL, CULTURAL, AND ACADEMIC SUBJECTS, (2) VALIDATE SPECIFIC CRITERIA OF SELECTION AND (3) TEST THE CRITERIA. A QUESTIONNAIRE TECHNIQUE IDENTIFIED NINE VALID TEACHER SELECTION…

  4. Goddard's Adult Degree Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Richard

    1973-01-01

    The adult degree program (ADP) at Goddard College in Vermont is a nontraditional program for students over 26 who once started but never completed work toward their BA degree. Goddard offers parttime study, with no grades, required courses, texts, lecture halls, or residency requirements. (Author/PG)

  5. Adult Learning Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adults Learning, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Campaigning Alliance for Lifelong Learning is to lobby parliament for the restoration of the 1.5 million adult learning places lost over the past two years. The campaign has attracted supporters from an astonishingly wide range of backgrounds. In this article, Gordon Marsden, Caroline Biggins, Beth Walker, Mike Chaney, Peter Davies, Sian…

  6. Adult Education Participation Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabowski, Stanley M.

    1972-01-01

    Summarizes several studies over the past 7 years of the deliberate learning efforts made by men and women. Reports on what and why adults learn, how they learn, what help they obtain, and how much time they spend learning. (Author/LF)

  7. Adult Learning and Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabowski, Stanley M., Ed.

    These eight conference papers discuss adult learning, instructional theory, and related issues in research and practice. Focusing on processes of educational change, the first paper considers how experienced teachers, educational theorists, and researchers possessing empirically tested knowledge can cooperate in program planning. The next paper…

  8. Adult Religious Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elias, John L.

    2012-01-01

    Most religious organizations exert their greatest effort in the religious education of children. This makes sense in terms of handing on the faith to the next generation. Historically, however, religious education of adults is the first endeavor of religious groups. Conducting education of children requires the previous religious education of…

  9. Older Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forman, Jeffrey

    In an effort to improve the quality of life for area senior citizens, De Anza College has established an older adult education program which combines adaptive physical education with holistic health care principles to instruct students in relaxation, nutrition, and physical activity. Classes are held in convalescent hospitals, retirement homes,…

  10. How Do Adults Learn?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Alan; Illeris, Knud

    2003-01-01

    This dialog between Alan Rogers and Knud Illeris debates arguments Rogers made in a previous article about the differences between adult and child learning. Rogers emphasizes differences in teacher-learner relationships. Illeris believes the differences result from different motivations for learning. (SK)

  11. Migration and Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gois, William

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to highlight the role of adult education as a tool in addressing labour migration issues, specifically those concerning the protection of migrant workers' rights and the transformation of the impact of migration into positive holistic developmental gains. The view of labour migration as a means to forge the economic…

  12. Burkitt lymphoma in adults.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Archibald S; Friedberg, Jonathan W

    2008-01-01

    This review will begin with a detail of the revision of the WHO classification, and pathological definitions of Burkitt lymphoma. Over the past several years, molecular understanding of Burkitt lymphoma has improved significantly. Using gene expression profiling, a genomic "signature" of Burkitt lymphoma may be identified, that has fidelity beyond c-myc expression, and the presence of the classical t(8;14). Then, evaluation and therapy of the adult patient with Burkitt lymphoma will be reviewed. Relatively few data exist on optimal therapy of the adult patient with Burkitt lymphoma. Principles of therapy should include high doses of alkylating agents, frequent administration of chemotherapy, and attention to central nervous system (CNS) prophylaxis with high doses of systemic chemotherapy, intrathecal therapy, or both. The outcome of adult patients with Burkitt lymphoma, particularly those over 40 years of age, is inferior to the outcome of younger patients, but may be improving over the past few years. Results from an international collaborative effort, which are helpful in evaluating results of Burkitt lymphoma therapy in adults, will be presented. HIV-associated Burkitt lymphoma, and elderly patients with Burkitt lymphoma, comprise special clinical situations that will be also covered in this review. PMID:19074108

  13. ADHD in Adults. [DVD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkley, Russell A.

    2006-01-01

    From leading ADHD authority Dr. Russell A. Barkley, this instructive program integrates information about ADHD with the experiences of adults from different walks of life who suffer from the disorder. Including interviews with these individuals, their family members, and the clinicians who treat them, the program addresses such important topics as…

  14. Adult Development. What do Teachers of Adults Need To Know?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiting, Susan; And Others

    The first part of this two-part paper provides a general review of adult development and is premised on an understanding of andragogy. Andragogy is the art and science of helping adults learn. It is based on the following four assumptions about adults: (1) as people mature they become less dependent and more self-directed; (2) experiences serve as…

  15. Teaching Nontraditional Adult Students: Adult Learning Theories in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Joseph C.

    2014-01-01

    As the USA experiences rapid growth of nontraditional adult students in higher education, educators and institutions will increasingly need to look beyond the traditional youth-centric educational models to better address adult learning needs. To date, no research has been conducted examining the learning experiences of adult students enrolled in…

  16. Liver Disease and Adult Vaccination

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Resources for Healthcare Professionals Liver Disease and Adult Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Vaccines are ... have immunity to this disease Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Type 1 ...

  17. Renal Disease and Adult Vaccination

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Resources for Healthcare Professionals Renal Disease and Adult Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Vaccines are ... have immunity to this disease Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Type 1 ...

  18. Finding Your Adult Vaccination Record

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Button Past Emails CDC Features Is Your Adult Vaccination Record Up-To-Date? Language: English Español (Spanish) ... next medical appointment. Staying Up-to-date on Vaccination is Important Every year thousands of adults in ...

  19. Vaccinations for Adults with Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... t had this vaccine previously. Tetanus, diphtheria, and whooping cough (pertussis) (Tdap, Td) Yes! All adults need to get Tdap vaccine (the adult whooping cough vaccine) and women need to get a dose ...

  20. Adults with Congenital Heart Defects

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Web Booklet: Adults With Congenital Heart Defects Updated:Apr ... topic from the list below to learn more. Web Booklet: Adults With Congenital Heart Defects Introduction Introduction: ...

  1. Alcohol Use and Older Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Alcohol Use and Older Adults Alcohol and Aging Adults of any age can have ... Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) What Is Alcohol? Alcohol, also known as ethanol, is a chemical ...

  2. Older Adults and Mental Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... mental illnesses also carry an increased risk for suicide . Share Science News About Older Adults Antipsychotics Use Goes Up Among Elderly October 21, 2015 NIMH Hosts Twitter Chat on Depression and Older Adults December 11, ...

  3. ERIC: Educational Counseling for Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabowski, Stanley M.

    1972-01-01

    A brief description of adult educational counseling, noting adult needs and anxieties, as well as problems arising from counselor attitudes. Several references and supplementary documents, dealing with both general and specific counseling situations, are listed. (JB)

  4. Internet Resources for Adult Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kevin

    This document contains brief summaries of websites likely to be of interest to adult educators, as well as summaries of Internet listservs that adult educators may wish to join. The publication organizes the websites into the following 12 broad categories: (1) general adult literacy; (2) English as a second language; (3) workplace education and…

  5. Adult Multiple Intelligences and Math.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costanzo, Meg Ryback

    In the Adult Multiple Intelligences (AMI) study, 10 teachers of adults from the northeastern region of the United States explored for 18 months the ways that multiple intelligences (MI) theory could support instruction and assessment in various adult learning contexts. The results of this research were published in a book by Julie Viens called MI…

  6. Tribal People and Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redbird-Selam, Helen Marie, Ed.

    Authored by four American Indians, this handbook is concerned with topics directly related to the retention of Indian adult learners in the adult educational process. The topics are aimed at improved understanding of the tribal learner and improved adult educational programs. Topics include: (1) religion (approached from an educational viewpoint…

  7. Policy Issues in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Leonard P.

    1983-01-01

    States that adult educators in the United States, unlike their counterparts abroad, have not been key actors in influencing policy with adult education overtones at the national, state, or local levels. Discusses how adult educators can become more influential by applying concepts used by Warren Bennis to describe organizational health: sense of…

  8. The Future of Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Steven W.

    2013-01-01

    It is an interesting assignment to think about the future of adult education. In fact, it is an assignment the author has the graduate students in his "Introduction to Adult Education" class at East Carolina University consider during one of their course units. As a member of the Board of Directors for the American Association for Adult and…

  9. Adult Development and the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heffernan, James M.

    Little attention has been given to how adults develop through their lifetimes and what roles their workplace environments play in that development. Research and theory regarding adult psychosocial development have confirmed the developmental life-cycle phases of adulthood. These are: leaving the family (ages 16-22), getting into the adult world…

  10. AIDS and the Older Adult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allers, Christopher T.

    1990-01-01

    Older adults are finding themselves the neighbors of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) patients as well as the primary caregivers of infected adult children. Focuses on roles, issues, and conflicts older adults face in dealing with relatives or neighbors with AIDS. Case management and educational intervention strategies are also offered.…

  11. An Undergraduate Course in Adult Development: When the Virtual Adult Is an Adult

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Robert B.

    2014-01-01

    An aspect of an undergraduate psychology course on adult development was the preparation of case records on adults who consented to be studied. Participants (1) developed their abilities to observe and accurately record adult behavior across a variety of ages and contexts; (2) withheld judgments about behavior when evidence was lacking; (3)…

  12. Epilepsy and Adult Neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Jessberger, Sebastian; Parent, Jack M

    2015-01-01

    Seizure activity in the hippocampal region strongly affects stem cell-associated plasticity in the adult dentate gyrus. Here, we describe how seizures in rodent models of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) affect multiple steps in the developmental course from the dividing neural stem cell to the migrating and integrating newborn neuron. Furthermore, we discuss recent evidence indicating either that seizure-induced aberrant neurogenesis may contribute to the epileptic disease process or that altered neurogenesis after seizures may represent an attempt of the injured brain to repair itself. Last, we describe how dysfunction of adult neurogenesis caused by chronic seizures may play an important role in the cognitive comorbidities associated with mTLE. PMID:26552418

  13. Ciprofibrate--racemate and enantiomers: effects of a four-week treatment on male inbred Fischer rats. A biochemical and morphological study.

    PubMed

    Klinger, W; Lupp, A; Karge, E; Oelschläger, H; Rothley, D; Danz, M; Linss, W; Löbel, S; Deufel, T; Müller, M; Klinger, M; Kühnel, W

    1998-09-01

    Ciprofibrates (racemate and both enantiomers, Raccip, R- and Scip) were administered orally in doses of 1 and 10 mg/kg once daily over 28 days to male inbred Fischer 344 rats, age 90-110 days at the beginning of the experiment. Body mass gain was observed in all groups. The 1 mg groups showed almost no difference to the control group. The 10 mg groups exhibited less body mass gain, most pronounced in the Scip group. Liver masses were increased in a dose dependent manner up to more than 200%, only the 10 mg Scip group was not significantly different from the 1 mg group which exhibited an increase in liver weight to about 175%. Also the kidney weights increased to 130%, whereas thymus and spleen weights were decreased in the high dose groups. Liver microsomal cytochromes P450 (P450) concentrations were not altered in the 1 mg groups and distinctly lowered in the 10 mg groups. Ethoxyresorufin and ethoxycoumarin O-deethylations were lowered in all experimental groups in a dose dependent manner, after administration of the high doses down to 30% of the control levels or less. Pentoxyresorufin O-depentylation, however, was increased in all 1 mg groups. In the high dose groups it was not altered. Ethylmorphine N-demethylation was decreased after administration of the high doses by about 50%, but only Scip decreased this reaction also after administration of the low dose. NADPH/Fe2+-stimulated microsomal luminol and lucigenin amplified chemiluminescence was increased, whereas hydrogen peroxide formation was depressed even by the low doses to 50% of the normal values, to about 25% by the high doses. Microsomal lipid peroxidation, however, was only slightly or not influenced. Glutathion concentrations (in the reduced and the oxidized form) were increased in a dose dependent manner by about 20 to 30%, the concentration of lipid peroxides was not significantly influenced. Thus, the effects of the enantiomers were not different and were similar to those of the racemate. In serum, cholesterol and triglycerides were only moderately lowered. Albumin concentrations were significantly enhanced in all groups, total proteins after 1 mg/kg Raccip only. Serum bilirubins were not altered, and among the indicator enzymes for liver damage only ALAT, alkaline phosphatase and the dehydrogenases were increased, in no case higher than twofold. Histologically distinct effects were seen after administration of both doses, more pronounced after 10 mg/kg, but with no differences between the enantiomers and Raccip: marked hypertrophy of the hepatocytes, reduced staining of the nuclei, strongly acidophilic granulated cytoplama, no basophilia of the cell bodies, loss of glycogen. These changes were most pronounced around the central veins. Hepatocyte apoptoses also were observed. By immunohistochemistry an increased staining was seen for all P450 isoforms tested (1A1, 2B1, 2E1, 3A2 and 4A1), predominantly perivenously and most pronounced after administration of the high doses without differences between Rcip, Scip or Raccip (preliminary results). By electron microscopy a moderate proliferation of peroxisomes after treatment with 1 mg/kg Cips with a ratio between mitochondria and peroxisomes of about 1:1 (controls: 10:1) was observed, and the peroxisomes were a more heterogeneous population. The relative portions of glycogen and both forms of the ER decreased. Treatment with 10 mg/kg Rcip, Scip or Raccip led to a strong increase in the number of peroxisomes, in some hepatocytes the ratio between mitochondria and peroxisomes was 1:3 with an increased heterogeneity among the peroxisomes evidenced by a broad range of electron densities. Most peroxisomes lacked a nucleoid. Thus, the biochemical effects differed only slightly and the morphological effects of the enantiomers were not different and were similar to those of the racemate. PMID:9784002

  14. Pertussis in German adults.

    PubMed

    Schmitt-Grohé, S; Cherry, J D; Heininger, U; Uberall, M A; Pineda, E; Stehr, K

    1995-10-01

    In a large pertussis vaccine efficacy trial in Germany, vaccinees and/or their family members were seen if a cough illness of >14 days was reported. Evidence of recent Bordetella pertussis infection included a positive culture and/or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and/or significant antibody values in agglutination and/or ELISA assay. From July 1991 through February 1994, 246 adults were evaluated and 64 had evidence of B. pertussis infection; of these, 38% had whooping, 26% had a history of previous pertussis, and 48% were the primary cases in a family. The 64 adult cases suggest an adult attack rate in this population of 133 per 100,000 population per year. Since pertussis has been endemic and epidemic in Germany during the last 2 decades, it would seem likely that few persons would escape B. pertussis infections during childhood. In this regard, none of the serological controls lacked antibody to all four B. pertussis antigens (lymphocytosis-promoting factor, filamentous hemagglutinin, pertactin, and fimbriae-2). Thus, serological evidence of past infection may not indicate protection, and the widely held belief that individuals who have had infections with B. pertussis have lifelong clinical immunity to this disease is probably wrong. PMID:8645831

  15. Sorbitol intolerance in adults.

    PubMed

    Jain, N K; Rosenberg, D B; Ulahannan, M J; Glasser, M J; Pitchumoni, C S

    1985-09-01

    Sorbitol is a commonly used sugar substitute in "sugar-free" food products. Although sorbitol intolerance manifested by abdominal pain, bloating, and diarrhea has been observed in children, it has not been well documented in adults. Forty-two healthy adults (23 whites, 19 nonwhites) participated in this study. After ingestion of 10 g of sorbitol solution, end expiratory breath samples were collected at 15-min intervals for 4 h and analyzed for H2 concentration. Clinical sorbitol intolerance was detected in 43% of the whites and 55% of the nonwhites, the difference not being statistically significant. However, severe clinical sorbitol intolerance was significantly more prevalent in nonwhites (32%) as compared to whites (4%). There was a good correlation between the severity of symptoms and the amount of hydrogen exhaled. Dietetic foods, many of them containing sorbitol, are very popular with diabetics and "weight watchers." Based on our observations, we believe that a large number of adults could be suffering from sorbitol-induced nonspecific abdominal symptoms and diarrhea. These symptoms could lead to an extensive diagnostic work-up and lifelong diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome. PMID:4036946

  16. Resequencing at ?40-Fold Depth of the Parental Genomes of a Solanum lycopersicum × S. pimpinellifolium Recombinant Inbred Line Population and Characterization of Frame-Shift InDels That Are Highly Likely to Perturb Protein Function

    PubMed Central

    Kevei, Zoltan; King, Robert C.; Mohareb, Fady; Sergeant, Martin J.; Awan, Sajjad Z.; Thompson, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    A recombinant in-bred line population derived from a cross between Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme (E9) and S. pimpinellifolium (L5) has been used extensively to discover quantitative trait loci (QTL), including those that act via rootstock genotype, however, high-resolution single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping data for this population are not yet publically available. Next-generation resequencing of parental lines allows the vast majority of polymorphisms to be characterized and used to progress from QTL to causative gene. We sequenced E9 and L5 genomes to 40- and 44-fold depth, respectively, and reads were mapped to the reference Heinz 1706 genome. In L5 there were three clear regions on chromosome 1, chromosome 4, and chromosome 8 with increased rates of polymorphism. Two other regions were highly polymorphic when we compared Heinz 1706 with both E9 and L5 on chromosome 1 and chromosome 10, suggesting that the reference sequence contains a divergent introgression in these locations. We also identified a region on chromosome 4 consistent with an introgression from S. pimpinellifolium into Heinz 1706. A large dataset of polymorphisms for the use in fine-mapping QTL in a specific tomato recombinant in-bred line population was created, including a high density of InDels validated as simple size-based polymerase chain reaction markers. By careful filtering and interpreting the SnpEff prediction tool, we have created a list of genes that are predicted to have highly perturbed protein functions in the E9 and L5 parental lines. PMID:25809074

  17. Resequencing at ?40-Fold Depth of the Parental Genomes of a Solanum lycopersicum × S. pimpinellifolium Recombinant Inbred Line Population and Characterization of Frame-Shift InDels That Are Highly Likely to Perturb Protein Function.

    PubMed

    Kevei, Zoltan; King, Robert C; Mohareb, Fady; Sergeant, Martin J; Awan, Sajjad Z; Thompson, Andrew J

    2015-05-01

    A recombinant in-bred line population derived from a cross between Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme (E9) and S. pimpinellifolium (L5) has been used extensively to discover quantitative trait loci (QTL), including those that act via rootstock genotype, however, high-resolution single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping data for this population are not yet publically available. Next-generation resequencing of parental lines allows the vast majority of polymorphisms to be characterized and used to progress from QTL to causative gene. We sequenced E9 and L5 genomes to 40- and 44-fold depth, respectively, and reads were mapped to the reference Heinz 1706 genome. In L5 there were three clear regions on chromosome 1, chromosome 4, and chromosome 8 with increased rates of polymorphism. Two other regions were highly polymorphic when we compared Heinz 1706 with both E9 and L5 on chromosome 1 and chromosome 10, suggesting that the reference sequence contains a divergent introgression in these locations. We also identified a region on chromosome 4 consistent with an introgression from S. pimpinellifolium into Heinz 1706. A large dataset of polymorphisms for the use in fine-mapping QTL in a specific tomato recombinant in-bred line population was created, including a high density of InDels validated as simple size-based polymerase chain reaction markers. By careful filtering and interpreting the SnpEff prediction tool, we have created a list of genes that are predicted to have highly perturbed protein functions in the E9 and L5 parental lines. PMID:25809074

  18. Dehydration in the Older Adult.

    PubMed

    Miller, Hayley J

    2015-09-01

    Dehydration affects 20% to 30% of older adults. It has a greater negative outcome in this population than in younger adults and increases mortality, morbidity, and disability. Dehydration is often caused by water deprivation in older adults, although excess water loss may also be a cause. Traditional markers for dehydration do not take into consideration many of the physiological differences present in older adults. Clinical assessment of dehydration in older adults poses different findings, yet is not always diagnostic. Treatment of dehydration should focus on prevention and early diagnosis before it negatively effects health and gives rise to comorbidities. The current article discusses what has most thoroughly been studied; the best strategies and assessment tools for evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of dehydration in older adults; and what needs to be researched further. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 41(9), 8-13.]. PMID:26375144

  19. Adult Learners' Week in Russia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litvinova, Nina

    2002-01-01

    In Russia International Adult Learners Week highlights the democratization process the country is undergoing. Government attention to rural development and training and agrarian policy is needed. (SK)

  20. Sexting among young adults

    PubMed Central

    Gordon-Messer, Deborah; Bauermeister, Jose Arturo; Grodzinski, Alison; Zimmerman, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Sexting has stirred debate over its legality and safety, but few researchers have documented the relationship between sexting and health. We describe the sexting behavior of young adults in the United States, and examine its association with sexual behavior and psychological well-being. Methods Using an adapted web version of Respondent-Driven Sampling (webRDS) we recruited a sample of U.S. young adults (ages 18 to 24; N=3447). We examined participant sexting behavior using 4 categories of sexting: 1) Non-Sexters, 2) Receivers, 3) Senders, and 4) Two-way Sexters. We then assessed the relationships between sexting categories and sociodemographic characteristics, sexual behavior and psychological well-being. Results Over half (57%) of respondents were Non-Sexters, 28.2% of the sample were Two-way Sexters, 12.6% were Receivers, and 2% were Senders. Males were more likely to be Receivers than females. Sexually active respondents were more likely to be Two-way Sexters than non-sexually active respondents. Among participants who were sexually active in the past 30 days, we found no differences across sexting groups in number of sexual partners, or number of unprotected sex partners in the past 30 days. We also found no relationship between sexting and psychological well-being. Conclusions Our results suggest that sexting is not related to sexual risk behavior or psychological well-being. We discuss the findings of this study and propose directions for further research on sexting. PMID:23299018

  1. Atomoxetine Treatment for ADHD: Younger Adults Compared with Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durell, Todd; Adler, Lenard; Wilens, Timothy; Paczkowski, Martin; Schuh, Kory

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Atomoxetine is a nonstimulant medication for treating child, adolescent, and adult ADHD. This meta-analysis compared the effects in younger and older adults. Method: A post hoc analysis was conducted using data from two double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials. Data from patients aged 18-25 years were compared with data from…

  2. Adult Education in Australia: The Council of Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randell, Shirley

    Liberal adult education in Victoria, Australia, takes its ideals, if not its form, from the pre-war university and Workers Education Association (WEA) partnerships: the university providing tutors and content, the WEA providing contact with unions and workers. Unique to Victoria is the level to which community-based adult education has been…

  3. The Varieties of Adult Civic Engagement in Adult Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Linda; Wrigley, Heide Spruck

    2012-01-01

    Civic engagement, or the practice of democratic deliberation in adult education and learning, asks that adults use their experiences to cooperatively build solutions to the difficult social, economic, and political problems that affect their lives and communities now and into the future. The articles presented in this issue look at the…

  4. Adults Studying Pure Mathematics in Adult Tertiary Preparation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennison, Anne

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the experiences of a group of adults enrolled in the Pure Mathematics module of the Certificate IV in Adult Tertiary Preparation in 2000 at one of the Institutes of TAFE in Brisbane, Australia. Classroom learning experiences, exposure to technology, and the impact of returning to study on other facets of students' lives were…

  5. Adult Literacy and Numeracy: Assessing Change. Adult Literacy Research Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumming, J. Joy, Ed.; van Kraayenoord, Christina E., Ed.

    This document contains eight papers from an action research program to foster good practice in adult literacy provision and policy. "Introduction" (J. Joy Cumming, Christina E. van Kraayenoord) presents an overview of the action research project and individual reports. "Assessment: Making a Difference in Adult Literacy and Numeracy Learning" (J.…

  6. Screening for Suicide Risk in Adolescents, Adults, and Older Adults in Primary Care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Task Force Recommendations Screening for Suicide Risk in Adolescents, Adults, and Older Adults in Primary Care The ... recommendation statement on Screening for Suicide Risk in Adolescents, Adults, and Older Adults in Primary Care. This ...

  7. Research Perspectives in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, D. Randy, Ed.

    This book focuses on understanding the epistemological foundation of adult education, the research process, policy issues, and directions for the future. "An Epistemological Overview of the Field" (Garrison) provides an overview of adult education research: the historical development, issues, the scope of the knowledge base, and approaches to…

  8. The History of Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, J. W.

    Beginning with such movements as the eighteenth century moral reformation societies and Welsh Sunday schools, and the first adult schools for both men and women in the early 1800's, this historical review traces British adult education up to 1850. Emphasis is on the extensive and widespread programs of the Mechanics' (workingmen's) Institutes and…

  9. Clinical Interviewing with Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohlman, Jan; Sirota, Karen Gainer; Papp, Laszlo A.; Staples, Alison M.; King, Arlene; Gorenstein, Ethan E.

    2012-01-01

    Over the next few decades the older adult population will increase dramatically, and prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders are also expected to increase in the elderly cohort. These demographic projections highlight the need for diagnostic instruments and methods that are specifically tailored to older adults. The current paper discusses the…

  10. Examining Controversies in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreitlow, Burton W.; And Others

    Controversies over adult education purposes, methods, audiences, and procedures are examined. After outlining a procedure for reviewing competing positions on controversial topics, the book pairs the contrasting views of two authors on each of 10 key issues facing adult education. Chapters cover: philosophies at issue (David L. Boggs); identifying…

  11. Travel and Adult Transformative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindstrom, Steven K.

    2011-01-01

    This phenomenological research study examines the lived experience of individual adult transformation in the context of travel. Adults throughout history have experienced profound personal and perception changes as a result of significant travel events. Transformative learning occurs through experience, crisis, and reflection, all of which are…

  12. Senior Adult Consumer Advisory Manual,

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ater, E. Carolyn, Ed.

    This manual is intended for use by senior adult peer advisors (age 60 and over) engaged in helping relationships in providing consumer education to other senior adults. The advisory procedures are based on a problem solving approach which incorporates the development of a self-help concept. Chapter 1 provides information on consumer advising. It…

  13. Small bowel intussusception in adults.

    PubMed

    Potts, J; Al Samaraee, A; El-Hakeem, A

    2014-01-01

    Intussusception is the telescoping of a proximal segment of the gastrointestinal tract into an adjacent distal segment. This rare form of bowel obstruction occurs infrequently in adults. We report a case of small bowel intussusception in an adult male patient. We have also performed a literature review of this rare condition. PMID:24417823

  14. Predictive Modeling in Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindner, Charles L.

    2011-01-01

    The current economic crisis, a growing workforce, the increasing lifespan of workers, and demanding, complex jobs have made organizations highly selective in employee recruitment and retention. It is therefore important, to the adult educator, to develop models of learning that better prepare adult learners for the workplace. The purpose of…

  15. Neuropsychological Assessment of Adult Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marceau, Roger; Meghani, Rehana; Reddon, John R.

    2008-01-01

    This report is primarily concerned with reporting on the normative results obtained on a large sample of serious adult offenders. An expanded Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery was administered to 584 adult offenders (OF), 132 normal controls (NC), and 494 acute psychiatric patients (PP). Subjects were between 18 and 44 years of age.…

  16. Native American Adult Reader I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Lovern Root, Ed.

    Aspects of Native American history and culture as well as issues and concerns of American Indians are presented in the twelve short articles in this reader for adults. Intended for use in an adult basic education/GED program, the reader features simply written stories (for grades 0-3), illustrations, vocabulary lists and student study questions.…

  17. Adult Transition Program without Walls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moberg, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Best practices in adult transition special education for moderate to severe students suggest student-centered planning that maximizes independence in adult life. Based on the above sources, school districts and governing boards would best serve moderate to severe transition special education students with increasing integration into the community…

  18. Adult Learning Opportunities in Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regmi, Krishna; Regmi, Sharada

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the initial findings from a study of education system in Nepal. This paper examines the adult learning opportunities within the educational and cultural contexts by reviewing available literature relevant to Nepal. Findings show that there are wider opportunities for adult learning than those considered from education and…

  19. Adult Students' Pace Toward Graduation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishler, Carol; And Others

    1982-01-01

    A study of transcripts of adult students and younger counterparts to examine patterns of credit load, stopping out, and the flow from special student status to matriculant is presented. Results support earlier findings about academic achievement, and presents new evidence that adult students' pace is generally brisker than previously assumed. (MSE)

  20. Three Models of Adult Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levenson, Michael R.; Crumpler, Cheryl A.

    1996-01-01

    Compares ontogenetic models, which stress development through a series of stages; sociogenic models, which stress the influence of social context on adult behavior; and liberative models. Liberative models do not treat adult development as entirely dependent on biological or social determinism, and do stress individuals' conscious efforts at…

  1. Economic Essays on Adult Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shetty, Sandeep

    2013-01-01

    Adult students are an important component of the current U.S education landscape. They account for over 40% of the degree-seeking fresh enrollees in the U.S. colleges and according to the U.S. Department of Education, their growth will soon outpace that of traditional students. Adult students have also received considerable attention in higher…

  2. Perceived Stress among Deaf Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Elaine G.; Ouellette, Sue E.; Kang, Youngmi

    2006-01-01

    The Present Article describes the effectiveness of stress management classes in decreasing perceived stress among Deaf adults. Deaf adults may experience unique stressors, in addition to circumstances associated with increased stress in the general population. The Perceived Stress Scale (S. Cohen, Kamarck, & Mermelstein, 1983) was used as a…

  3. Older adults challenged financially when adult children move home.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Steven P; Padilla-Frausto, D Imelda

    2014-02-01

    This policy brief looks at the financial burdens imposed on older Californians when adult children return home, often due to a crisis not of their own making, to live with their parents. The findings show that on average in California, the amount of money that older adults need in order to maintain a minimally decent standard of living while supporting one adult child in their home increases their expenses by a minimum of 50 percent. Low-income older adults are usually on fixed incomes, so helping an adult child can provide the child with a critical safety net but at the cost of the parents' own financial well-being. Policy approaches to assisting this vulnerable population of older adults include implementing reforms to increase Supplemental Security Income (SSI), improving the availability of affordable housing, assuring that all eligible nonelderly adults obtain health insurance through health care reform's expansion of Medi-Cal and subsidies, and increasing food assistance through SNAP and senior meal programs. PMID:24804354

  4. Genetics Home Reference: Adult polyglucosan body disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Adult polyglucosan body disease On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance ... definitions Reviewed February 2013 What is adult polyglucosan body disease? Adult polyglucosan body disease is a condition ...

  5. Reading Comprehension Strategies for Adult Literacy Outcomes

    E-print Network

    Hock, Mike; Mellard, Daryl F.

    2005-11-01

    comprehension strategies most important to adults' success on adult literacy outcome measures and aligning them with previously researched interventions. According to an analysis of key adult literacy outcome measures (i.e., competency-based, standardized tests...

  6. Clueless: Adult Mysteries with Young Adult Appeal 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles, John; Morrison, Joanna

    2002-01-01

    This annotated bibliography includes adult mysteries that appeal to teen readers under the categories of Sherlock Holmes; reference sources; private investigators; amateur sleuths; historical sleuths; suspense and thrillers; police procedurals; mystery blends; and anthologies. (LRW)

  7. Computational models of adult neurogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecchi, Guillermo A.; Magnasco, Marcelo O.

    2005-10-01

    Experimental results in recent years have shown that adult neurogenesis is a significant phenomenon in the mammalian brain. Little is known, however, about the functional role played by the generation and destruction of neurons in the context of an adult brain. Here, we propose two models where new projection neurons are incorporated. We show that in both models, using incorporation and removal of neurons as a computational tool, it is possible to achieve a higher computational efficiency that in purely static, synapse-learning-driven networks. We also discuss the implication for understanding the role of adult neurogenesis in specific brain areas like the olfactory bulb and the dentate gyrus.

  8. Vitalistic thinking in adults.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Stuart

    2013-11-01

    Vitalistic thinking has traditionally been associated with reasoning about biological phenomena. The current research aimed to investigate a broader range of vitalistic thinking than previously studied. Esoteric notions of 'energy' are frequently used by individuals when making causal attributions for strange occurrences, and previous literature has linked such thinking with paranormal, magical, and superstitious beliefs. Two experiments are described that aim to investigate whether adults are vitalistic when asked to make causal judgments, and whether this can be predicted by thinking styles and prior paranormal belief. Experiment 1 asked participants to rate three causal options (one of which was vitalistic) for six vignettes. Scores on one dimension of paranormal belief (New Age Philosophy) and analytical thinking significantly predicted vitalism, but scores on intuitive thinking and Traditional Paranormal Beliefs did not. Experiment 2 extended the findings by asking participants to generate their own causal responses. Again, paranormal belief was found to be the best predictor of vitalism, but this time Traditional Paranormal Beliefs were associated with vitalistic responses whilst both intuitive and analytical thinking were unable to significantly predict classification. Results challenge previous findings, suggesting that vitalistic thinking may operate differently when applied to everyday causal reasoning. PMID:24094281

  9. Estrogenic Exposure Alters the Spermatogonial Stem Cells in the Developing Testis, Permanently Reducing Crossover Levels in the Adult

    PubMed Central

    Vrooman, Lisa A.; Oatley, Jon M.; Griswold, Jodi E.; Hassold, Terry J.; Hunt, Patricia A.

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) and other endocrine disrupting chemicals have been reported to induce negative effects on a wide range of physiological processes, including reproduction. In the female, BPA exposure increases meiotic errors, resulting in the production of chromosomally abnormal eggs. Although numerous studies have reported that estrogenic exposures negatively impact spermatogenesis, a direct link between exposures and meiotic errors in males has not been evaluated. To test the effect of estrogenic chemicals on meiotic chromosome dynamics, we exposed male mice to either BPA or to the strong synthetic estrogen, ethinyl estradiol during neonatal development when the first cells initiate meiosis. Although chromosome pairing and synapsis were unperturbed, exposed outbred CD-1 and inbred C3H/HeJ males had significantly reduced levels of crossovers, or meiotic recombination (as defined by the number of MLH1 foci in pachytene cells) by comparison with placebo. Unexpectedly, the effect was not limited to cells exposed at the time of meiotic entry but was evident in all subsequent waves of meiosis. To determine if the meiotic effects induced by estrogen result from changes to the soma or germline of the testis, we transplanted spermatogonial stem cells from exposed males into the testes of unexposed males. Reduced recombination was evident in meiocytes derived from colonies of transplanted cells. Taken together, our results suggest that brief exogenous estrogenic exposure causes subtle changes to the stem cell pool that result in permanent alterations in spermatogenesis (i.e., reduced recombination in descendent meiocytes) in the adult male. PMID:25615633

  10. What Does It Take to Be an Adult in Austria? Views of Adulthood in Austrian Adolescents, Emerging Adults, and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirsch, Ulrike; Dreher, Eva; Mayr, Eva; Willinger, Ulrike

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the defining features of emerging adulthood, subjects' conceptions of the transition to adulthood, and the perceived adult status in Austria. The sample consisted of 775 subjects (226 adolescents, 317 emerging adults, 232 adults). Results showed that most Austrian emerging adults feel themselves to be between adolescence…

  11. COPD: Unique to Older Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z COPD Unique to Older Adults This section provides information ... improve or maintain quality of life. Depression and COPD When your COPD symptoms eventually become severe enough ...

  12. Adult Learners' Week in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, John

    2002-01-01

    Promotional materials and activities for Australia's Adult Learners Week, which are shaped by a variety of stakeholders , include media strategies and a website. Activities are evaluated using a market research company and website and telephone hotline statistics. (SK)

  13. Recommended Immunizations for Adults 50+

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Health Screenings and Immunizations Recommended Immunizations For Adults 50+ The content in this section ... find out more, visit How Vaccines Prevent Disease . Vaccines, Vaccinations, and Immunizations Understanding the difference between vaccines, ...

  14. Nutrition: Unique to Older Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... each of the topics below to read more. Malnutrition and Dental Health in Older Adults : Trying to ... a heart disease risk factor, at healthy levels. Malnutrition, inability to absorb nutrients well, certain medications, kidney ...

  15. Osteoporosis: Unique to Older Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... fractures if needed annual flu shots. Protein-Calorie Malnutrition Many older adults living at home eat poorly. ... serious that a condition known as protein-calorie malnutrition (PCM) develops. Sometimes, PCM occurs after a long ...

  16. Off-Farm Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulsa, Paul

    1974-01-01

    Many Ohio adult education enrollees have been upgraded in production agriculture; however, since off-farm jobs far exceed those in production agriculture, concern is expressed about providing continuing education for nonproduction fields. (EA)

  17. National Adult Protective Services Association

    MedlinePLUS

    ... keep you abreast of the latest in practice methods and policy developments. Join NAPSA today! What’s New with NAPSA? New resources from NAPSA and the NCEA on adult protective services. Check them out here and here . New Research ...

  18. Facts about Measles for Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Vaccines at a Glance Adolescent Vaccination Recommendation: MMR Facts about Measles for Adults What is measles? Measles ... are pregnant or severely immunosuppressed. Disease and vaccine facts FACT: Measles can be prevented with a safe ...

  19. Facts about Mumps for Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Recommendation: MMR About Mumps Measles, Mumps, Rubella (MMR) Facts about Mumps for Adults What is Mumps? Mumps ... are pregnant or severely immunosuppressed. Disease and vaccine facts FACT: Mumps can be prevented with a safe ...

  20. Facts about Rubella for Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... About Rubella (German Measles) Measles, Mumps, Rubella (MMR) Facts about Rubella for Adults What is rubella? Rubella, ... are pregnant or severely immunosuppressed. Disease and vaccine facts FACT: Rubella can be prevented with a safe ...

  1. Root Caries in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Dick; Hyde, Susan

    2015-08-01

    Older adults are retaining an increasing number of natural teeth, and nearly half of all individuals aged 75 and older have experienced root caries. Root caries is a major cause of tooth loss in older adults, and tooth loss is the most significant negative impact on oral health-related quality of life for the elderly. The need for improved preventive efforts and treatment strategies for this population is acute. PMID:26357814

  2. Asthma in adults (acute)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction About 10% of adults have suffered an attack of asthma, and up to 5% of these have severe disease that responds poorly to treatment. Patients with severe disease have an increased risk of death, but patients with mild to moderate disease are also at risk of exacerbations. Most guidelines about the management of asthma follow stepwise protocols. This review does not endorse or follow any particular protocol, but presents the evidence about specific interventions. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for acute asthma? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to April 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 100 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: beta2 agonists (plus ipratropium bromide, pressured metered-dose inhalers, short-acting continuous nebulised, short-acting intermittent nebulised, short-acting iv, and inhaled formoterol); corticosteroids (inhaled); corticosteroids (single oral, combined inhaled, and short courses); education about acute asthma; generalist care; helium–oxygen mixture (heliox); magnesium sulphate (iv and adding isotonic nebulised magnesium to inhaled beta2 agonists); mechanical ventilation; oxygen supplementation (controlled 28% oxygen and controlled 100% oxygen); and specialist care. PMID:21463536

  3. Adult Stem and Progenitor Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geraerts, Martine; Verfaillie, Catherine M.

    The discovery of adult stem cells in most adult tissues is the basis of a number of clinical studies that are carried out, with therapeutic use of hematopoietic stem cells as a prime example. Intense scientific debate is still ongoing as to whether adult stem cells may have a greater plasticity than previously thought. Although cells with some features of embryonic stem cells that, among others, express Oct4, Nanog and SSEA1 are isolated from fresh tissue, it is not clear if the greater differentiation potential is acquired during cell culture. Moreover, adult more pluripotent cells do not have all pluripotent characteristics typical for embryonic stem cells. Recently, some elegant studies were published in which adult cells could be completely reprogrammed to embryonic stem cell-like cells by overexpression of some key transcription factors for pluripotency (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc). It will be interesting for the future to investigate the exact mechanisms underlying this reprogramming and whether similar transcription factor pathways are present and/or can be activated in adult more pluripotent stem cells.

  4. 38 CFR 18.438 - Adult education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adult education. 18.438 Section 18.438 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED... Adult Education § 18.438 Adult education. A recipient that provides adult education may not, on...

  5. 38 CFR 18.438 - Adult education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adult education. 18.438 Section 18.438 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED... Adult Education § 18.438 Adult education. A recipient that provides adult education may not, on...

  6. 38 CFR 18.438 - Adult education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adult education. 18.438 Section 18.438 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED... Adult Education § 18.438 Adult education. A recipient that provides adult education may not, on...

  7. 38 CFR 18.438 - Adult education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adult education. 18.438 Section 18.438 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED... Adult Education § 18.438 Adult education. A recipient that provides adult education may not, on...

  8. Literacy Programs for Adults with Developmental Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giordano, Gerard

    This book is a systematic exploration of literacy programs for adults with developmental disabilities. The following are among the topics discussed: issues in adult literacy (multicultural issues, combining literacy instruction with transition, and assessment of adult literacy); the developmental basis for adult literacy education (postformal…

  9. Computerphobia in Adult Learners Michael Fisher

    E-print Network

    Fisher, Michael

    the education of adults and the education of chil­ dren, but educational theorists such as Malcolm Knowles have'. Thus, the reduction of computerphobia in adults can be seen as a specific kind of adult education. Further, curing their anxiety is often seen by the adults themselves as a form of education. They seek

  10. 38 CFR 18.438 - Adult education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adult education. 18.438 Section 18.438 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED... Adult Education § 18.438 Adult education. A recipient that provides adult education may not, on...

  11. Syngeneic Schwann cells derived from adult nerves seeded in semipermeable guidance channels enhance peripheral nerve regeneration.

    PubMed

    Guénard, V; Kleitman, N; Morrissey, T K; Bunge, R P; Aebischer, P

    1992-09-01

    At present, clinical strategies to repair injured peripheral nerve concentrate on efforts to attain primary suture of the cut nerve ends. If this is not possible, autografts are used to unite the separated nerve segments. Both strategies are based on the recognition that the Schwann cells resident in the peripheral nerve trunk play a crucial role in the regenerative process. Neither strategy may be feasible, however, in extensive or multiple injuries because the amount of autograft material is limited, and allografts are subject to immune rejection. Artificially produced nerve bridges constructed of autologous Schwann cells seeded in guidance channels could be used to overcome these limitations. In the present experiments, the potential of Schwann cells derived from adult nerves and seeded in permselective guidance channels to promote neurite regeneration across an 8 mm nerve gap was evaluated in transected rat sciatic nerves. Immunological sequalae were evaluated by comparing Schwann cells from syngeneic and heterologous rat strains. Schwann cells from either adult outbred (Sprague-Dawley, CD) rats or inbred (Fisher, F) rats were suspended in a Matrigel solution at a density of 80 x 10(6) cells/ml (CD) or 40, 80, or 120 x 10(6) cells/ml (F-40, F-80, and F-120 channels, respectively). Channels containing Schwann cells were compared to sciatic nerve autografts, empty channels, or channels filled with Matrigel alone. One day after seeding permselective synthetic guidance channels with a Schwann cell suspension, a central cable of Schwann cells oriented along the axis of the tube was formed due to syneresis of the hydrogel. By 3 weeks postimplantation, regenerating axons had grown into all channels and autografts. Sciatic nerve autografts supported extensive regeneration, containing 4-5 x 10(4) myelinated axons at the graft midpoint. The ability of channels containing syngeneic Schwann cells to foster regeneration was dependent on the Schwann cell seeding density. At the channel's midpoint, the myelinated axon population in F-120 tubes was intermediate between that in sciatic nerve autografts and F-80 channels, and was significantly higher than in F-40 or control channels. The nerve cable in Schwann cell-containing tubes consisted of larger, more organotypic fascicles than acellular control channels. In contrast, heterologous (CD) Schwann cells elicited a strong immune reaction that impeded nerve regeneration. The present study shows that cultured adult syngeneic Schwann cells seeded in permselective synthetic guidance channels support extensive peripheral nerve regeneration.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1527582

  12. Neonatal handling decreases unconditioned anxiety, conditioned fear, and improves two-way avoidance acquisition: a study with the inbred Roman high (RHA-I)- and low-avoidance (RLA-I) rats of both sexes

    PubMed Central

    Río-?lamos, Cristóbal; Oliveras, Ignasi; Cañete, Toni; Blázquez, Gloria; Martínez-Membrives, Esther; Tobeña, Adolf; Fernández-Teruel, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluated the long-lasting effects of neonatal handling (NH; administered during the first 21 days of life) on unlearned and learned anxiety-related responses in inbred Roman High- (RHA-I) and Low-avoidance (RLA-I) rats. To this aim, untreated and neonatally-handled RHA-I and RLA-I rats of both sexes were tested in the following tests/tasks: a novel object exploration (NOE) test, the elevated zero maze (ZM) test, a “baseline acoustic startle” (BAS) test, a “context-conditioned fear” (CCF) test and the acquisition of two-way active—shuttle box—avoidance (SHAV). RLA-I rats showed higher unconditioned (novel object exploration test -“NOE”-, elevated zero maze test -“ZM”-, BAS), and conditioned (CCF, SHAV) anxiety. NH increased exploration of the novel object in the NOE test as well as exploration of the open sections of the ZM test in both rat strains and sexes, although the effects were relatively more marked in the (high anxious) RLA-I strain and in females. NH did not affect BAS, but reduced CCF in both strains and sexes, and improved shuttle box avoidance acquisition especially in RLA-I (and particularly in females) and in female RHA-I rats. These are completely novel findings, which indicate that even some genetically-based anxiety/fear-related phenotypes can be significantly modulated by previous environmental experiences such as the NH manipulation. PMID:26217201

  13. Relevance of Adult Development and Aging Textbooks' Contents to Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, M Cecil; Gallagher, Peggy A.

    2002-01-01

    Content analysis of 11 adult development textbooks examined coverage of 5 adult education topics. There was extensive discussion of adult intelligence across most of the textbooks, but little information about the roles and functions of adult education in promoting adult development. Textbooks need to link developmental research and theory to…

  14. Policy Review on Adult Learning: The Adult Non-Formal Education Policy of Mali, West Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadio, Moussa

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the issue of policy development for adult learning in Mali, West Africa. On January 2007, the Malian government adopted the "Adult Non-formal Education Policy Document," which was intended to regulate the adult learning sector and federate the actions of policy makers, adult education providers, and adult learners. The…

  15. Weight Management in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Gill, Lydia E; Bartels, Stephen J; Batsis, John A

    2015-09-01

    As the number of older adults increases rapidly, the national epidemic of obesity is also affecting our aging population. This is particularly concerning given the numerous health risks and increased costs associated with this condition. Weight management is extremely important for older adults given the risks associated with abdominal adiposity, which is a typical fat redistribution during aging, and the prevalence of comorbid conditions in this age group. However, approaches to weight loss must be considered critically given the dangers of sarcopenia (a condition that occurs when muscle mass and quality are lost), the increased risk of hip fracture with weight loss, and the association between reduced mortality and increased BMI in older adults. This overview highlights the challenges and implications of measuring adiposity in older adults and the dangers and benefits of weight loss in this population and provides an overview of the new Medicare Obesity Benefit. In addition, we provide a summary of outcomes from successful weight loss interventions for older adults and discuss implications for advancing clinical practice. PMID:26627496

  16. Older Adults Make Less Advantageous Decisions than Younger Adults: Cognitive and Psychological Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Fein, George; McGillivray, Shannon; Finn, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This study tested the hypotheses that older adults make less advantageous decisions than younger adults on the Iowa gambling task (IGT). Less advantageous decisions, as measured by the IGT, are characterized by choices that favor larger versus smaller immediate rewards, even though such choices may result in long-term negative consequences. The IGT, and measures of neuropsychological function, personality, and psychopathology were administered to 164 healthy adults 18–85 years of age. Older adults performed less advantageously on the IGT compared with younger adults. Additionally, a greater number of older adult’s IGT performances were classified as ‘impaired’ when compared to younger adults. Less advantageous decisions were associated with obsessive symptoms in older adults and with antisocial symptoms in younger adults. Performance on the IGT was positively associated with auditory working memory and psychomotor function in young adults, and in immediate memory in older adults. PMID:17445297

  17. Telescoping intestine in an adult.

    PubMed

    Shaheen, Khaldoon; Eisa, Naseem; Alraiyes, Abdul Hamid; Alraies, M Chadi; Merugu, Srinivas

    2013-01-01

    Protrusion of a bowel segment into another (intussusception) produces severe abdominal pain and culminates in intestinal obstruction. In adults, intestinal obstruction due to intussusception is relatively rare phenomenon, as it accounts for minority of intestinal obstructions in this population demographic. Organic lesion is usually identifiable as the cause of adult intussusceptions, neoplasms account for the majority. Therefore, surgical resection without reduction is almost always necessary and is advocated as the best treatment of adult intussusception. Here, we describe a rare case of a 44-year-old male with a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma involving the terminal ileum, which had caused ileocolic intussusception and subsequently developed intestinal obstruction requiring surgical intervention. This case emphasizes the importance of recognizing intussusception as the initial presentation for bowel malignancy. PMID:23983706

  18. Adult Neurogenesis and Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Schoenfeld, Timothy J; Cameron, Heather A

    2015-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that adult neurogenesis, the production of new neurons in adulthood, may play a role in psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety, and schizophrenia. Medications and other treatments for mental disorders often promote the proliferation of new neurons; the time course for maturation and integration of new neurons in circuitry parallels the delayed efficacy of psychiatric therapies; adverse and beneficial experiences similarly affect development of mental illness and neurogenesis; and ablation of new neurons in adulthood alters the behavioral impact of drugs in animal models. At present, the links between adult neurogenesis and depression seem stronger than those suggesting a relationship between new neurons and anxiety or schizophrenia. Yet, even in the case of depression there is currently no direct evidence for a causative role. This article reviews the data relating adult neurogenesis to mental illness and discusses where research needs to head in the future. PMID:25178407

  19. Prenatal Famine and Adult Health

    PubMed Central

    Lumey, L.H.; Stein, Aryeh D.; Susser, Ezra

    2013-01-01

    We review human studies on the relation between acute exposures to prenatal famine and adult physical and mental health. These studies are observational and include exposures to a famine environment by natural or man-made causes or, more commonly, from the interplay between natural and human factors. These natural experiments provide an opportunity to examine long-term outcomes after famine exposures by comparing exposed and nonexposed individuals. The studies show consistent associations between prenatal famine and adult body size, diabetes, and schizophrenia. For other measures of adult health, findings are less robust. A relation between prenatal famine and some reported epigenetic changes may provide a potential mechanism to explain specific associations. Much progress can be made if current separate studies are further analyzed with comparable definitions of exposures and outcomes and using common analytic strategies. PMID:21219171

  20. The Future of Adult Education in the Military

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zacharakis, Jeffrey; Van Der Werff, Jay A.

    2012-01-01

    The future of adult education in the military is in many ways tied to the future of adult education. If adult educators limit their vision of what adult education is to adult learning principles, to facilitated learning, to adult basic education, and to training and education, they limit the potential of what they can do and how they do it. Adult

  1. Becoming adults: Challenges in the transition to adult roles.

    PubMed

    Furstenberg, Frank F

    2015-09-01

    This article summarizes the reasons for the slower passage to adult status (at least measured by demographic markers) and discusses some of the important implications of what today's pattern of becoming an adult means for young people, their families, and the larger society. By no means should this article be considered a review of the growing body of evidence on the changing pattern of adult transition. Indeed, there are many reviews of the literature on this topic, including books by Richard Settersten and Barbara Ray (2010) and Jeffrey Arnett (2015). The authors intention, rather, is to provide a short overview of the topic and to identify public policies needed to make social institutions capable of adapting successfully to this later regime for entering adulthood. Indeed, entering adulthood still involves school completion, home leaving, and entering a job that is full-time. For many young adults, it also includes forming a partnership and having children, though, as discussed later, these expectations are no longer universal in American society. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26460710

  2. Clofarabine in Adult Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-02-04

    Solid Tumors; Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Acute, Pediatric; Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Acute, Adult; Leukemia, Myelocytic, Acute, Pediatric; Leukemia, Myelocytic, Acute, Adult; Myelodysplastic Syndromes, Adult

  3. Reading Activities of American Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharon, Amiel T.

    A reading activities survey as part of the Targeted Research and Development Reading Program was done by interviewing 3,504 adults, aged 16 years or older, selected by area probability sampling. Among the preliminary findings was that the most frequent type of reading is newspaper reading. Seven out of 10 people read or look at a newspaper during…

  4. Death of an Adult Child

    MedlinePLUS

    ... iGive.com Purchase Through AmazonSmile Contact Us Donate Death of an Adult Child The death of any child, regardless of cause or age, ... the situations that may have caused their child’s death. Judgmental statements from others indicating that the child ...

  5. The Craft of Teaching Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barer-Stein, Thelma, Ed.; Draper, James A., Ed.

    The chapters and authors in this volume are as follows: "The New World of Continuing Education" (Thomas); "Compared to What? Comparison Studies as an Added Dimension for Adult Learning" (Kidd); "Culture in the Classroom" (Barer-Stein); "Planning for Learning: A Model for Creative Decision Making" (Herman); "Application of Learning Theory to the…

  6. Sexual Assault of Adult Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stermac, Lana; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examines the circumstances and characteristics of sexual assaults against adult males presenting to a crisis unit in a large metropolitan area. Most victims were young gay men, many of whom had physical or cognitive disabilities making them particularly vulnerable. Results suggest a need for increased awareness of acquaintance sexual assault in…

  7. An Experiment in Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Tom

    2009-01-01

    The Swarthmore Educational Settlement was founded in Leeds in 1909. Since then thousands of adult learners have benefited from its combinations of liberal, vocational and creative arts programmes, homely atmosphere and commitment to fellowship in learning. It has remained an independent centre, running its own affairs through its own council and…

  8. Advising Adults: Telling or Coaching?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bland, Sharon Morris

    2003-01-01

    Whether academic advisors teach or advise students--and some would say advisors are teaching--they have a responsibility to enhance students' collegiate learning experiences by understanding who they are and what needs they have. The adult learner is not an exception to this assumption. While much variation exists in defining and categorizing the…

  9. Adult Education for Parliamentary Democracy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adiseshiah, Malcolm S.

    The inaugural address to the National Seminar of the Indian Adult Education Association, held at Pondicherry, India, December 26, 1968, examines the implications of the mass man, the challenge of violence to democratic living, and the role of education in parliamentary democracy. There is no simple, automatic correlation between education and…

  10. The Economics of Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desjardins, Richard

    2013-01-01

    As the "Hamburg Declaration" makes clear, adult education (AE) is a key component of development strategies that seek to ensure the long-term well-being of nations. Yet, with few exceptions most countries systematically underinvest in AE. Of course, it is no easy task to achieve adequate investment levels that reflect an appropriate balance…

  11. Algebraic Thinking in Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manly, Myrna; Ginsburg, Lynda

    2010-01-01

    In adult education, algebraic thinking can be a sense-making tool that introduces coherence among mathematical concepts for those who previously have had trouble learning math. Further, a modeling approach to algebra connects mathematics and the real world, demonstrating the usefulness of math to those who have seen it as just an academic…

  12. Morphological Processing in Adult Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leikin, Mark; Hagit, Even Zur

    2006-01-01

    This study employed the masked-priming paradigm [Forster and Davis (J Exp Psychol bearn Mem Cogn 10: 680-698, 1984).], along with traditional methods of evaluation of morphological awareness and phonological processing, to obtain a finer-grained picture of the relationship between morphological abilities and reading in adult dyslexic readers.…

  13. Is Adult Learning Demanding Enough?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, David

    2012-01-01

    This is a fascinating time for adult learning in the UK. With a plethora of reviews reaching report stage alongside ongoing discussion about funding, qualifications and quality and the review of post-16 planning and funding in Wales, there is a real sense that things are about to change after a decade of well-meant but often misfocused reform.…

  14. Management of ALL in Adults

    Cancer.gov

    Management of ALL in Adolescents and Young Adults: What have we learned and what are our challenges? Wendy Stock, MD University of Chicago 0 Survival 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 5-Year Survival Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia 1975-1998 20 40 60 80 Age

  15. CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR DEAF ADULTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    STRENG, ALICE H.

    A THREE-YEAR EDUCATION PROGRAM FOR DEAF ADULTS IN WISCONSIN, BEGUN IN 1966 AND FUNDED IN PART UNDER THE HIGHER EDUCATION ACT OF 1965, HAD TWO GOALS--TO PROVIDE EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES TO THE DEAF AND TO ENABLE TEACHERS TO GAIN INSIGHTS INTO THE EDUCATIONAL AND SOCIAL PROBLEMS CREATED BY DEAFNESS. NON-CREDIT CLASSES WERE OFFERED IN LANGUAGE,…

  16. Visuomotor Binding in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloesch, Emily K.; Abrams, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    Action integration is the process through which actions performed on a stimulus and perceptual aspects of the stimulus become bound as a unitary object. This process appears to be controlled by the dopaminergic system in the prefrontal cortex, an area that is known to decrease in volume and dopamine functioning in older adults. Although the…

  17. Counseling the Young Adult Lesbian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Rhoda

    1980-01-01

    Focuses on problems faced by young adult lesbians. Suggests counselors should: (1) encourage the counselee to "dump"; (2) guide her in a decision on coming out; (3) explain the legal rights and restrictions; (4) provide ongoing support for those who socialize openly; and (5) publicly promote gay rights. (Author)

  18. Adult Education and National Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Harry G.

    1982-01-01

    The author discusses characteristics that the poorest developing countries share; causes of poverty (private and public services, land status, capital accumulation and availability, technology, human resources, structural development, environmental issues); the role of adult education in these countries; and the need for technological development.…

  19. Essential English for Micronesian Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, Jo Ann; Reinecke, Hank

    This student workbook is designed to help Micronesian adults learn everyday English. Its ten chapters move from simple one-word picture labeling to more abstract ideas in a spiraled fashion, reiterating the essential elements of the English language in different, more complicated ways. Subjects covered include names for everyday objects and…

  20. Adult Vaccination--A Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Traditionally, vaccines have been associated with childhood. Historically, many of the most-feared communicable diseases attacked infants and toddlers, and those who survived were generally protected from those diseases as adults. During the past century tremendous advances in vaccination spared millions the morbidity and mortality associated with…

  1. Adult Education and the Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, John

    2008-01-01

    Due to the effects of global warming, writes Field, everyone now lives in times of plague, floods, and famine. While the UK government's track record on green issues is not all bad, still it is vulnerable to criticism. In this article, the author discusses what adult education has to offer to the environmental movement, despite existing…

  2. Neurogenesis in the Adult Hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Kempermann, Gerd; Song, Hongjun; Gage, Fred H

    2015-09-01

    Of the neurogenic zones in the adult brain, adult hippocampal neurogenesis attracts the most attention, because it is involved in higher cognitive function, most notably memory processes, and certain affective behaviors. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is also found in humans at a considerable level and appears to contribute significantly to hippocampal plasticity across the life span, because it is regulated by activity. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis generates new excitatory granule cells in the dentate gyrus, whose axons form the mossy fiber tract that links the dentate gyrus to CA3. It originates from a population of radial glia-like precursor cells (type 1 cells) that have astrocytic properties, express markers of neural stem cells and divide rarely. They give rise to intermediate progenitor cells with first glial (type 2a) and then neuronal (type 2b) phenotype. Through a migratory neuroblast-like stage (type 3), the newborn, lineage-committed cells exit the cell cycle and enter a maturation stage, during which they extend their dendrites into a the molecular layer and their axon to CA3. They go through a period of several weeks, during which they show increased synaptic plasticity, before finally becoming indistinguishable from the older granule cells. PMID:26330519

  3. Neurogenesis in the Adult Hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Kempermann, Gerd; Song, Hongjun; Gage, Fred H

    2015-07-01

    Of the neurogenic zones in the adult brain, adult hippocampal neurogenesis attracts the most attention, because it is involved in higher cognitive function, most notably memory processes, and certain affective behaviors. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is also found in humans at a considerable level and appears to contribute significantly to hippocampal plasticity across the life span, because it is regulated by activity. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis generates new excitatory granule cells in the dentate gyrus, whose axons form the mossy fiber tract that links the dentate gyrus to CA3. It originates from a population of radial glia-like precursor cells (type 1 cells) that have astrocytic properties, express markers of neural stem cells and divide rarely. They give rise to intermediate progenitor cells with first glial (type 2a) and then neuronal (type 2b) phenotype. Through a migratory neuroblast-like stage (type 3), the newborn, lineage-committed cells exit the cell cycle and enter a maturation stage, during which they extend their dendrites into a the molecular layer and their axon to CA3. They go through a period of several weeks, during which they show increased synaptic plasticity, before finally becoming indistinguishable from the older granule cells. PMID:26351719

  4. Adult Educators and Career Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabowski, Stanley M.

    1974-01-01

    Adult educators must remain steadfast in their demand for education to develop the whole person, and in attempting to develop self-directed individuals, should use the resources of the total community in an effort to coordinate and give direction to the current emphasis in career education. (Author/AJ)

  5. Innovation Dissemination in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabowski, Stanley M.

    While recognizing the constraints of time and money, there is a distinct need for faster and greater dissemination of research results, especially for innovations in adult education. A study of typical dissemination methods, including project publications, conversation presentations, workshops, commercial publications, and inservice teacher…

  6. Adult Literacy Assessment Tool Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knell, Suzanne; Scogins, Janet

    Field-tested in libraries nationwide, the 13 strategies in this hands-on book are designed to help librarians create effective and accountable adult literacy programs. These step-by-step assessment tools will help in: identifying and evaluating the skill levels of learners; making program changes based on users' aptitudes; writing thorough and…

  7. Basic Principles for Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Vocational and Adult Education, Washington, DC. Div. of Adult Education.

    A basic set of principles for adult education reflects what should be found in each state and local program. First, basic skills should be mastered by all students. Second, course content should be directly related to learner, labor market, and community needs. Third, partnership efforts should be expanded and strengthened. Fourth, programs must…

  8. Adult Height and Childhood Disease

    PubMed Central

    BOZZOLI, CARLOS; DEATON, ANGUS; QUINTANA-DOMEQUE, CLIMENT

    2009-01-01

    Taller populations are typically richer populations, and taller individuals live longer and earn more. In consequence, adult height has recently become a focus in understanding the relationship between health and wealth. We investigate the childhood determinants of population adult height, focusing on the respective roles of income and of disease. Across a range of European countries and the United States, we find a strong inverse relationship between postneonatal (ages 1 month to 1 year) mortality, interpreted as a measure of the disease and nutritional burden in childhood, and the mean height of those children as adults. Consistent with these findings, we develop a model of selection and stunting in which the early-life burden of undernutrition and disease not only is responsible for mortality in childhood but also leaves a residue of long-term health risks for survivors, risks that express themselves in adult height and in late-life disease. The model predicts that at sufficiently high mortality levels, selection can dominate scarring, leaving a taller population of survivors. We find evidence of this effect in the poorest and highest-mortality countries of the world, supplementing recent findings on the effects of the Great Chinese Famine. PMID:20084823

  9. Degree Attainment among Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Conor, Maureen A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to expand understanding and discover knowledge about degree attainment among adult learners. This qualitative inquiry explores what recent non-traditional-age bachelor's degree recipients report contributes to attaining the degree. Professional research and expert material on demographics, motivation, challenges and…

  10. Adult Education in Saudi Arabia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Tim D.; Algren, Mark S.

    Religion pervades all aspects of Saudi Arabia, the conservative home of Islam, where the constitution is the Quran and law is interpreted by religious scholars. A formal adult basic education program was initiated in 1960. As part of the country's modernization since the early 1970s, the Saudi government has begun an enormous nation-building plan…

  11. [Growth hormone deficiency in adults].

    PubMed

    Krysiak, Robert; Okopie?, Bogus?aw

    2007-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) deficiency in adults has only recently been recognised as a clinically important syndrome which is associated with increased morbidity and probably also with increased mortality. Its presence leads to many unfavourable changes in body composition (increased fat mass and decreased lean mass), lipid metabolism, bone mass and may worsen quality of life. In many patients the disease may be either asymptomatic or present with relatively moderate subjective symptoms. The signs and symptoms, if evident, however, are often too common to have a diagnostic value without a suggestive clinical context. Diagnosis of GH deficiency in adults is more difficult than in children. It should be always confirmed by the results of biochemical, especially provocative, tests, among which the insulin tolerance test is considered the test of choice. Long-term recombinant GH administration in GH-deficient adults improves body composition, muscle strength, quality of life, bone mass and density, and lipoprotein pattern. In this review article we discuss the causes, clinical picture, diagnosis and treatment of GH in adults and provide the reader with some practical guidance concerning dealing with a patient suffering from this disorder. PMID:18510080

  12. Cancer Screening in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Wingfield, Sarah A; Heflin, Mitchell T

    2016-02-01

    Cancer screening is an important tool for reducing morbidity and mortality in the elderly. In this article, performance characteristics of commonly used screening tests for colorectal, lung, prostate, breast, and cervical cancers are discussed. Guidelines are emphasized and key issues to consider in screening older adults are highlighted. PMID:26614858

  13. De novo inbred heterozygous Zeb2/Sip1 mutant mice uniquely generated by germ-line conditional knockout exhibit craniofacial, callosal and behavioral defects associated with Mowat-Wilson syndrome.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Tsuyoshi; Nishizaki, Yuriko; Matsui, Fumiko; Wakamatsu, Nobuaki; Higashi, Yujiro

    2015-11-15

    Mowat-Wilson syndrome (MOWS) is caused by de novo heterozygous mutation at ZEB2 (SIP1, ZFHX1B) gene, and exhibit moderate to severe intellectual disability (ID), a characteristic facial appearance, epilepsy and other congenital anomalies. Establishing a murine MOWS model is important, not only for investigating the pathogenesis of this disease, but also for identifying compounds that may improve the symptoms. However, because the heterozygous Zeb2 knockout mouse could not be maintained as a mouse line with the inbred C57BL/6 background, it was difficult to use those mice for the study of MOWS. Here, we systematically generated de novo Zeb2 ?ex7/+ mice by inducing the Zeb2 mutation in the germ cells using conditional recombination system. The de novo Zeb2 ?ex7/+ mice with C57BL/6 background developed multiple defects relevant to MOWS, including craniofacial abnormalities, defective corpus callosum formation and the decreased number of parvalbumin interneurons in the cortex. In behavioral analyses, these mice showed reduced motor activity, increased anxiety and impaired sociability. Notably, during the Barnes maze test, immobile Zeb2 mutant mice were observed over repeated trials. In contrast, neither the mouse line nor the de novo Zeb2 ?ex7/+ mice with the closed colony ICR background showed cranial abnormalities or reduced motor activities. These results demonstrate the advantages of using de novo Zeb2 ?ex7/+ mice with the C57BL/6 background as the MOWS model. To our knowledge, this is the first time an inducible de novo mutation system has been applied to murine germline cells to produce an animal model of a human congenital disease. PMID:26319231

  14. Prepulse inhibition predicts spatial working memory performance in the inbred Roman high- and low-avoidance rats and in genetically heterogeneous NIH-HS rats: relevance for studying pre-attentive and cognitive anomalies in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Oliveras, Ignasi; Río-Álamos, Cristóbal; Cañete, Toni; Blázquez, Gloria; Martínez-Membrives, Esther; Giorgi, Osvaldo; Corda, Maria G.; Tobeña, Adolf; Fernández-Teruel, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Animal models of schizophrenia-relevant symptoms are increasingly important for progress in our understanding of the neurobiological basis of the disorder and for discovering novel and more specific treatments. Prepulse inhibition (PPI) and working memory, which are impaired in schizophrenic patients, are among the symptoms/processes modeled in those animal analogs. We have evaluated whether a genetically-selected rat model, the Roman high-avoidance inbred strain (RHA-I), displays PPI deficits as compared with its Roman low-avoidance (RLA-I) counterpart and the genetically heterogeneous NIH-HS rat stock. We have investigated whether PPI deficits predict spatial working memory impairments (in the Morris water maze; MWM) in these three rat types (Experiment 1), as well as in a separate sample of NIH-HS rats stratified according to their extreme (High, Medium, Low) PPI scores (Experiment 2). The results from Experiment 1 show that RHA-I rats display PPI and spatial working memory deficits compared to both RLA-I and NIH-HS rats. Likewise, in Experiment 2, “Low-PPI” NIH-HS rats present significantly impaired working memory with respect to “Medium-PPI” and “High-PPI” NIH-HS subgroups. Further support to these results comes from correlational, factorial, and multiple regression analyses, which reveal that PPI is positively associated with spatial working memory performance. Conversely, cued learning in the MWM was not associated with PPI. Thus, using genetically-selected and genetically heterogeneous rats, the present study shows, for the first time, that PPI is a positive predictor of performance in a spatial working memory task. These results may have translational value for schizophrenia symptom research in humans, as they suggest that either by psychogenetic selection or by focusing on extreme PPI scores from a genetically heterogeneous rat stock, it is possible to detect a useful (perhaps “at risk”) phenotype to study cognitive anomalies linked to schizophrenia. PMID:26347624

  15. Antioxidant enzymatic activities and gene expression associated with heat tolerance in the stems and roots of two cucurbit species ("Cucurbita maxima" and "Cucurbita moschata") and their interspecific inbred line "Maxchata".

    PubMed

    Ara, Neelam; Nakkanong, Korakot; Lv, Wenhui; Yang, Jinghua; Hu, Zhongyuan; Zhang, Mingfang

    2013-01-01

    The elucidation of heat tolerance mechanisms is required to combat the challenges of global warming. This study aimed to determine the antioxidant enzyme responses to heat stress, at the enzymatic activity and gene expression levels, and to investigate the antioxidative alterations associated with heat tolerance in the stems and roots of squashes using three genotypes differing in heat tolerance. Plants of heat-tolerant "C. moschata", thermolabile "C. maxima" and moderately heat-tolerant interspecific inbred line "Maxchata" genotypes were exposed to moderate (37 °C) and severe (42 °C) heat shocks. "C. moschata" exhibited comparatively little oxidative damage, with the lowest hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), superoxide (O2(-)) and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in the roots compared to stems, followed by "Maxchata". The enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) were found to be increased with heat stress in tolerant genotypes. The significant inductions of FeSOD, MnSOD, APX2, CAT1 and CAT3 isoforms in tolerant genotypes suggested their participation in heat tolerance. The differential isoform patterns of SOD, APX and CAT between stems and roots also indicated their tissue specificity. Furthermore, despite the sequence similarity of the studied antioxidant genes among "C. maxima" and "Maxchata", most of these genes were highly induced under heat stress in "Maxchata", which contributed to its heat tolerance. This phenomenon also indicated the involvement of other unknown genetic and/or epigenetic factors in controlling the expression of these antioxidant genes in squashes, which demands further exploration. PMID:24336062

  16. Lung Disease Including Asthma and Adult Vaccination

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Healthcare Professionals Lung Disease including Asthma and Adult Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Vaccines are ... have immunity to this disease Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Type 1 ...

  17. Weakened Immune System and Adult Vaccination

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for Healthcare Professionals Weakened Immune System and Adult Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Vaccines are ... up to age 26 years Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Type 1 ...

  18. Vaccinations for Adults with HIV Infection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... passed since your previous dose. Tetanus, diph theria, whooping cough (pertussis) (Tdap, Td) Yes! All adults need to ... 1-time dose of Tdap vaccine (the adult whooping cough vaccine) and women need to get a dose ...

  19. Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors in Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors in Adults Download Printable ... the topics below to get started. What Is Brain/CNS Tumors In Adults? What is cancer? What ...

  20. Type 2 Diabetes Widespread in Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Type 2 Diabetes Widespread in Adults Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table ... survey data, researchers found that the prevalence of diabetes in U.S. adults is continuing to rise. And ...

  1. Adventure Programming for the Older Adult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewert, Alan

    1983-01-01

    Outdoor adventure education programs generally have not met the demands of older adults. Ways to attract older adults to these programs and to tailor activities to allay their fears and maximize their enjoyment are discussed. (PP)

  2. Percentage of Adults with a Healthy Weight

    MedlinePLUS

    ... with a Healthy Weight Percentage of Adults with a Healthy Weight Obesity contributes to leading causes of ... Examination Survey. Age Group Percentage of Adults with a Healthy Weight by Age Group 4sk4-exit Download ...

  3. Understanding Consulting as an Adult Education Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookfield, Stephen D.

    1993-01-01

    Interprets the process of consulting as an adult education process. Identifies four core adult education activities: encouraging self-directedness; honoring and analyzing experience; engaging in critical conversation; fostering critical reflection. (Author)

  4. Falls Among Older Adults: An Overview

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Important Facts about Falls Costs of Falls Hip Fractures Among Older Adults Older Adult Falls Programs Compendium ... often because of a head injury or hip fracture. 3 Each year at least 250,000 older ...

  5. CDC Vital Signs: Adults with Disabilities

    MedlinePLUS

    ... half of all adults with disabilities get no aerobic physical activity, an important health behavior to help ... activity, yet nearly half of them get no aerobic physical activity. Physical activity benefits all adults, whether ...

  6. Facts about Meningococcal Disease for Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Meningococcal Disease Facts about Meningococcal Disease for Adults Facts about Meningococcal Disease for Adults What is meningococcal ... risks associated with the vaccines. Disease and vaccine facts FACT: Quadrivalent meningococcal vaccine (A, C, W, and ...

  7. Recent progress of adult orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Li, Sheng-Nan; Zhang, Ding

    2014-12-01

    With the improvement of living standards and oral health awareness in people and with the development of the techniques in orthodontic therapy,the number of adult patients in orthodontics is gradually increasing. Due to adults' social occupations,psychological factors,complicated intraoral status,these factors make adult patients differences from adolescents. In this paper,the problems related with adult orthodontic treatment were reviewed. PMID:25556745

  8. Knowledge and Action in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cogito, 1971

    1971-01-01

    Papers relating to using both knowledge and action in adult education programs are presented. The titles and authors of the papers are as follows: "Toward a Theory of Practice in Adult Education" by Jack Mezirow; "Action Seminars" by Alan Knox; The Case-Study Approach--Alternation between Knowledge and Action in Adult Education: (a) "Prepare Case…

  9. Raising "Hot Topics" through Young Adult Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groenke, Susan; Maples, Joellen; Henderson, Jill

    2010-01-01

    While young adult literature increases adolescents' motivation to read, and adolescents choose to read young adult novels over more canonical works when given opportunities to choose, the authors present yet another reason for teaching young adult literature in the middle school classroom: it provides a medium through which adolescents and their…

  10. Beyond 2000: Future Directions for Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sticht, Thomas G.

    This paper provides adult educators with information they can use to produce perspectives for the future of adult education (AE). Part 1 provides a perspective on the past and present of AE that falls under the aegis of the Federal Adult Education Act of 1966 and subsequent amendments. It paints a picture of AE from the mid-1960s to the present…

  11. The Effectiveness of Storytelling on Adult Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caminotti, Enzo; Gray, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: As two doctoral students and adult learners, the authors strongly believe that story telling can be a great tool for educators working with adult learners. The purpose of this paper is to increase awareness of how effective storytelling can be for adult learners. Design/methodology/approach: The approach of this paper is one of gathering…

  12. Participation in Adult Education. Final Report, 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okes, Imogene E.; And Others

    This report of a 1972 study designed to provide insights about people and activities in the changing areas of adult education is the second in a series of reports on participation in adult education. (Information for this report, developed in the Adult and Vocational Education Surveys Branch of the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES),…

  13. Educational Opportunities for Adults in California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Cos, Patricia L.

    2004-01-01

    Assembly member Carol Liu, Chair of the Assembly Select Committee on Adult Education, requested that the California Research Bureau prepare a report on adult education. The legislative request specified that the following topics be covered: (1) a definition of adult education; (2) recent information on student enrollment, funding sources and…

  14. Adult Language Learners: Context and Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ann F. V., Ed.; Strong, Gregory, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    "Adult Language Learners: Context and Innovation" presents instructional practices that are particularly successful with adults. Adult language learners are goal oriented and direct their learning to fulfill particular needs or demands: to advance their studies, to progress up the career ladder, to follow business opportunities, to pass a driving…

  15. Older Adults and Gambling: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ariyabuddhiphongs, Vanchai

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses the social cognitive theory model to review the literature on older adult gambling, and related personal and environment characteristics. Results show that lottery is the kind of gambling most frequently played by older adults, followed by casino games. Older adults take trips to casinos to socialize, find excitement, and win…

  16. Maine Adult Education Director's Handbook, 2004.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The Maine Adult Education Directors' Handbook offers a basic overview of the Adult and Community Education system in Maine. The information is general and intended to provide a background to the person initially becoming involved in adult education--director, teacher, school board member, advisory council member or superintendent. The Handbook is…

  17. The Directory of Adult Education Organizations 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syracuse Univ., NY. Library of Continuing Education.

    This 1970 directory of adult education organizations lists those which participated in the Galaxy conference and provides information on their services and publications; lists other agencies concerned with adult education throughout the United States and Canada; tells about some of the international adult education organizations; and gives the…

  18. Helping Older Adults Adjust to Automation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sink, Clay V.; D'Abrosca, Louis A.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses some of the fears and anxieties of automation held by older adults. Teaching techniques that aid the older adult learning process are suggested. The article also contains an interview with Anna M. Tucker, director of the Rhode Island Department of Elderly Affairs, concerning the elder adult's fear of automation. (CT)

  19. The Adult Learner: Some Things We Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogarty, Robin J.; Pete, Brian M.

    2007-01-01

    This book addresses the "warrior" who rises to the challenge of teaching the adult learner. The discussion is designed as a catalyst for dialogue about the adult learner and to uncover the complexities of teaching this rare and riveting species. This book is organized around three interlocking themes: some things we know about the adult learner;…

  20. Adult Students in the College Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Thomas S.; Sturdivant, V. Ann; Smith, Howard W., Jr.

    This paper examines what is known (and not known) about adult college students. It reports on a study which compared different age groups in different types of institutions and reviews the research about how adults learn and methodologies for teaching adults. The study compared age distributions at four Texas institutions: the University of North…

  1. Making a Difference: Innovations in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mauch, Werner, Ed.; Papen, Uta, Ed.

    This book highlights examples of innovative educational practices in the field of organized adult learning. Fifteen chapters present outcomes of collective research in the Innovations in Nonformal and Adult Education (INNAE) project. "Common Learning--Collective Research: Innovating Adult Education" (Werner Mauch, Uta Papen) describes the…

  2. Leading Online Learning Initiatives in Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olesen-Tracey, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    Adult learners often face barriers to participation in traditional classroom instruction. As technology access grows and adults naturally incorporate technology into their daily lives, adult education programs are finding innovative ways to blend technology with instruction through quality online learning opportunities. This article highlights the…

  3. Vocational and Adult Education in Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Wieringen, Fons, Ed.; Attwell, Graham, Ed.

    This book contains 25 papers on vocational and adult education in Europe and the United States. The following papers are included: "Vocational and Adult Education in Europe: Introduction to the Volume" (Fons van Wieringen, Graham Attwell); "Introduction to Section 1: Markets and Institutions in Vocational and Adult Education" (Fons van Wieringen);…

  4. Adult-Literacy Education in Jamaica.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Harry; And Others

    Some 42% of Jamaica's adult population was not functionally literate in 1962--figures that precipitated expansion in adult literacy and Basic Education programs as described in this survey report. Following a seven-page introductory historical profile, the authors note attempts made to assess adult illiteracy, such as the 1975 survey that found…

  5. Competency-Based Adult Education: Florida Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Elizabeth

    This compilation of program materials serves as an introduction to Florida's Brevard Community College's (BCC's) Competency-Based Adult High School Completion Project, a multi-year project designed to teach adult administrators, counselors, and teachers how to organize and implement a competency-based adult education (CBAE) program; to critique…

  6. Adults in Programs for the "Academically Underprepared"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isserlis, Janet

    2008-01-01

    Adult basic education represents a marginalized field that addresses the needs of a largely marginalized population: adults who are viewed through a deficit lens labeling them as being underprepared. This article examines particular challenges and strengths of adult learners in basic education programs (including literacy, English language, and…

  7. Racializing the Discourse of Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookfield, Stephen D.

    2003-01-01

    Suggests that unproblematized Eurocentrism characterizes adult education; explores the works of Cornel West and Lucius Outlaw, who racialize adult education discourse. Considers implications of their perspectives on critical thinking and offers recommendations for challenging the myth of neutral nonimpositional adult education. (Contains 74…

  8. Participation in Adult Education: Attitudes and Barriers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeren, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we control the intention theory of Fishbein and Ajzen (1980) for the participation in an adult education course. Based on the Flemish Eurostat Adult Education Survey, we reveal that participants in adult education have a more positive attitude towards learning and that within the group of non-participants, those who formulate an…

  9. Canadian Adult Education: Still a Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesbit, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Writing recently in this journal, two of Canada's veteran adult educators contemplated the "death" of the Canadian adult education movement. I disagree and argue that adult education in Canada is as vital an activity as ever and one that still fully justifies being called a movement. Specifically, Selman and Selman (2009) list five trends that…

  10. Adult Education School to Work. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bean, Molly

    A project identified and established components related to adult basic education's role in school-to-work (STW) transition. It focused on developing a cognitive framework for competency-based adult employability classes, integrating adult basic and literacy education (ABLE)-funded programs into the Erie Area STW partnership, and establishing a…

  11. A European Vision for Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waddington, Sue; Tuckett, Alan; Boucher, Fiona

    2012-01-01

    The National Institute of Adult Continuing Education (NIACE) is the UK national coordinator for the European Agenda for Adult Learning, with the challenge of creating a coherent message across the four countries to inform European cooperation on adult learning. To start the debate, the journal staff asked Sue Waddington, Alan Tuckett, and Fiona…

  12. Critical Discourse Analysis, Adult Education and "Fitba"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Player, John

    2013-01-01

    In this article I will use an example of current adult education practice, the Glory and Dismay Football Literacies Programme (GDFLP) to appraise the value of critical discourse analysis (CDA) for adult learners, both individually and collectively, and for adult education practitioners with an interest in developing critical literacy skills. The…

  13. Nutrition Goals for Older Adults: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horwath, Caroline C.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses specific goals of nutrition education for older adults and high-risk groups within the elderly population through review of three crucial areas: current knowledge of eating patterns, nutrient intake, and supplement use of older adults; existing information on multiple influences on eating habits of older adults; and potential benefits…

  14. Mentoring during Adolescence and Adult Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakacki, Pola Christina

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a significant relationship between mentoring and adult resilience, specifically adults that were mentored as adolescents. The study sample comprised of 657 adults from various locations across the country. For this quantitative study, they completed a two-part questionnaire made up of the…

  15. Museums: Adult Education as Cultural Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borg, Carmel; Mayo, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The sites of adult education practice are multiple, and museums feature regularly among these sites (Chadwick and Stannett, 1995, 2000). This chapter explores the potential of museums as sites for critical "public pedagogy." It foregrounds the role of adult educators as co-interrogators with adult learners of what is generally perceived as…

  16. The Adult Illiterate in the Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kedney, R. J., Ed.

    This collection of papers is intended to provide adult educators and administrators information that will assist in making decisions about, initiating, financing, and evaluating adult literacy programs in England. Papers in the first part of the book focus on definitions of adult literacy, examining the dimensions of the problem, the potential…

  17. Audiovocal Integration in Adults Who Stutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loucks, Torrey; Chon, HeeCheong; Han, Woojae

    2012-01-01

    Background: Altered auditory feedback can facilitate speech fluency in adults who stutter. However, other findings suggest that adults who stutter show anomalies in "audiovocal integration", such as longer phonation reaction times to auditory stimuli and less effective pitch tracking. Aims: To study audiovocal integration in adults who stutter…

  18. Philosophical Foundations of Adult Education. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elias, John L.; Merriam, Sharan B.

    This book examines the philosophical foundations of adult education (AE). The following topics are discussed: philosophy of AE (philosophy and action in theory and practice and philosophy for adult educators); liberal AE (historical development, liberal education and the educated person, broad scope, process, liberal education of adults, Great…

  19. Educational Counseling of Adults: Where It's At.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabowski, Stanley M.

    "Counseling adults is the most impoverished, depressed, but developing area in the entire area of adult education." This is due to: (1) a lack of serious commitment by the educational community, (2) a lack of adequate literature, and (3) a lack of clear-cut role distinctions. The limited number of research studies on counseling adults conclude…

  20. Informal Adult Learning and Everyday Literacy Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Maurice C.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the types of informal learning activities that adults with low literacy skills engage in outside of formal literacy programs and how these activities relate to their literacy practices. Key informants for the study included 10 adults identified at International Adult Literacy Survey levels 1 and 2. Using ethnographic…

  1. Learning Havens for Stressed Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seay, Sandra E.

    2005-01-01

    Having stressful workdays is not the sole prerogative of adult students enrolled in educational leadership programs. According to a report released by the American Institute of Stress in 2002, 80% of adult workers felt stress in the workplace. From this it can be assumed that a certain amount of stress accompanies every adult who enters an evening…

  2. Transitioning Adult Education Students into Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humpherys, Bryce Ralph

    2012-01-01

    At both a national and state level there is a growing need for skilled workers in the labor force. Educating low skilled adults is one way to address this need. Adult education programs teach low skilled adults basic academic skills to prepare them for work and life in U.S. society. Until recently little attention was paid to transitioning…

  3. Strengths and Satisfaction across the Adult Lifespan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaacowitz, Derek M.; Vaillant, George E.; Seligman, Martin E. P.

    2003-01-01

    Positive psychology has recently developed a classification of human strengths (Peterson & Seligman, in press). We aimed to evaluate these strengths by investigating the strengths and life satisfaction in three adult samples recruited from the community (young adult, middle-aged, and older adult), as well as in the surviving men of the Grant study…

  4. 78 FR 32116 - TRICARE Young Adult

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ...Docket ID: DOD-2011-HA-0029] TRICARE Young Adult AGENCY: Office of the Secretary...for FY11). It establishes the TRICARE Young Adult (TYA) program to provide an extended...purchase worldwide. TYA is similar to young adult coverage under the Patient...

  5. The Craft of Teaching Adults. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barer-Stein, Thelma, Ed.; Kompf, Michael, Ed.

    This book, which is intended as a text for future and experienced adult educators, examines current theories and best practices in adult education. The book consists of 20 chapters written by prominent practitioners in the field of adult education. The chapter titles and authors are as follows: "Teachers Sharing Experiences" (James A. Draper);…

  6. Adult Partial Hospitalization JOHN DEMPSEY HOSPITAL

    E-print Network

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    Adult Partial Hospitalization Program JOHN DEMPSEY HOSPITAL CONTACT US For further information.uchc.edu. The Adult Partial Hospitalization Program is available Monday through Friday from 9 a.m. to 2:05 p.m. OUR LOCATION AND DIRECTIONS The Adult Partial Hospitalization Program is located on the 5th floor of the John

  7. Globalisation, Transnational Policies and Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milana, Marcella

    2012-01-01

    Globalisation, transnational policies and adult education--This paper examines policy documents produced by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the European Union (EU) in the field of adult education and learning. Both these entities address adult education as an explicit object of policy. This paper…

  8. Safeguarding Children and Vulnerable Adults 1. Introduction

    E-print Network

    Molinari, Marc

    1 Safeguarding Children and Vulnerable Adults 1. Introduction 2. Definition & Legislation 3. Scope are likely to be a) vulnerable adults or b) children. The welfare and protection from abuse of vulnerable adults and children is paramount and central to this policy. A multi-agency approach is recommended

  9. Teaching Adult Students Mathematical Investigations-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angiama, R. O.

    Teaching Adult Students Mathematical Investigation is based on the continuing research work carried out for the last ten years of teaching on the Foundation Course in Mathematics at Goldsmiths, University of London. Teaching Mathematical Investigation to adult students is a very challenging and often rewarding experience for adult educators as…

  10. Wesleyan Adult Fitness Program Participant Feedback Form

    E-print Network

    Royer, Dana

    Wesleyan Adult Fitness Program Participant Feedback Form By responding to the following questions involvement in the Wesleyan Adult Fitness Program. We appreciate your assistance. General Participant been participating in Wesleyan Adult Fitness programming? This is my first year 2 years 3 - 5 years 5

  11. Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Adult Development: Implications for Adult Education in Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckloff, Randy

    2008-01-01

    Adult education efforts in Africa are dominated by Western models. One aspect of this domination is a presumption that Western models of adult development can be applied to African contexts. As perspectives on adult development affect adult education programmes, this presumption may negatively impact these programmes in Africa. This manuscript…

  12. The Role of the Elderly Adult in Recent Young Adult Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutherford, Janette

    Selected recent adolescent novels which center on a young adult's relationship with an older adult are analyzed. In these novels which feature older adults and young adults as main characters, the older character has qualities that the teenager examines, then accepts or rejects. In today's nuclear family, teenagers sometimes have very little…

  13. Adult Education at the Crossroads: Learning Our Way Out. Global Perspectives on Adult Education and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finger, Matthias; Asun, Jose Manuel

    This book assesses the current state of adult education, including the traditions out of which adult education comes, its current problems, and its possible futures. It begins with an overview of Ivan Illich's theory and explains its significance for adult education. Part 1 examines the main historical traditions in adult education, including the…

  14. Structures and stability of molecular InBr3Py(x) (x = 1-3) complexes: unexpected solid state stabilization of dimeric In2Br6Py4 as compared to valence-isoelectronic group 15 and 17 halogen bridging dimers.

    PubMed

    Kazakov, Igor V; Bodensteiner, Michael; Lisovenko, Anna S; Suvorov, Andrew V; Scheer, Manfred; Balázs, Gábor; Timoshkin, Alexey Y

    2013-11-18

    Molecular structures of series of InBr3Py(x) complexes (x = 1-3) in the solid state have been determined by single crystal structure analysis. For x = 2, an unexpected dimeric In2Br6Py4 structure, which features a nearly planar In2Br6 unit, has been established. This structure completes the series of known valence-isoelectronic dimeric molecules of group 17 (I2Cl6) and group 15 elements (As2Cl6·2PMe3). Theoretical studies at the B3LYP/def2-TZVP level of theory reveal that all gaseous M2X6Py4 dimers (M = Al, Ga, In, Tl; X = Cl, Br) are energetically unstable with respect to dissociation into MX3Py2 monomers. This finding is in stark contrast to the valence-isoelectronic group 17 and 15 analogs, which are predicted to be energetically stable with respect to dissociation. Thus, additional interactions in the solid state play a crucial role in stabilization of the experimentally observed dimeric In2Br6Py4. Thermal stability and volatility of InBr3Py(x) complexes have been studied by tensimetry and mass spectrometry methods. Mass spectrometry data indicate that, in contrast to the lighter group 13 element halides, species with two In atoms, such as In2Br6Py2, are present in the gas phase. Thermodynamic characteristics for the heterogeneous dissociation processes of InBr3Py(x) (x = 2, 3) complexes with Py evolution have been determined. PMID:24199750

  15. Strategies Used by Adults to Reduce Their Prescription Drug Costs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Strategies Used by Adults to Reduce Their Prescription Drug Costs On This Page Key findings Adults used ... medication Adults used several strategies to reduce prescription drug costs. Figure 1. Percentages of adults who used ...

  16. Older Adults and Food Safety

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Administrative Forms Standard Forms Skip Navigation Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H1 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... / Topics / ... Safety / Older Adults and Food Safety Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H3 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Z7_ ...

  17. Management of adult choledochal cysts.

    PubMed Central

    Powell, C S; Sawyers, J L; Reynolds, V H

    1981-01-01

    A review of the English literature reveals a total of 1,337 patients with choledochal cysts. Improved diagnostic techniques to visualize the biliary system are demonstrating an increasing number of unsuspected choledochal cysts in adult patients. Either choledochal cysts remain clinically silent until adulthood or may develop in later life. Experience is reported with adult patients having type I, II, III, and IV choledochal cysts. Type I cysts are preferably managed by excision but cyst anatomy may necessitate choledochoenteric drainage. Type II cysts are treated by excision except for those located within the pancreatic portion of the common bile duct. These are best managed by transduodenal cystoduodenostomy. The type III cyst (choledochocele) should be excised carefully, identifying and preserving the common bile and pancreatic ducts. Type IV cysts include a combination of any one of the first three types of cyst plus the presence of intrahepatic cyst or cysts. Treatment of these cysts is dictated by the type and location of the extrahepatic cyst. Since choledochal cysts are being recognized with increased frequency in adults, surgeons need to be aware of the diagnostic and treatment modalities available for each type of biliary cyst. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. PMID:7235770

  18. [Adult-onset rare diseases].

    PubMed

    Pfliegler, György; Kovács, Erzsébet; Kovács, György; Urbán, Krisztián; Nagy, Valéria; Brúgós, Boglárka

    2014-03-01

    The present paper is focusing on rare diseases manifesting in late childhood or adulthood. A part of these syndromes are not of genetic origin, such as relatively or absolutely rare infections, autoimmune diseases, tumours, or diseases due to rare environmental toxic agents. In addition, even a large proportion of genetic disorders may develop in adulthood or may have adult forms as well, affecting are almost each medical specialization. Examples are storage disorders (e.g. adult form of Tay-Sachs disease, Gaucher-disease), enzyme deficiencies (e.g. ornithin-transcarbamylase deficiency of the urea cycle disorders), rare thrombophilias (e.g. homozygous factor V. Leiden mutation, antithrombin deficiency), or some rare monogenic disorders such as Huntington-chorea and many others. It is now generally accepted that at least half of the 6-8000 "rare diseases" belong either to the scope of adult-care (e.g. internal medicine, neurology), or to "age-neutral" specialities such as ophtalmology, dermatology etc.). PMID:24566697

  19. A Comparison of Correctional Adult Educators and Formal Adult Educators in Terms of Their Expressed Beliefs in the Collaborative Teaching Mode. Theory and Methods of Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sua, Dangbe Wuo

    A study compared correctional adult educators and formal adult educators in terms of their expressed beliefs in the collaborative teaching mode as measured by the Principles of Adult Learning Scale. The sample consisted of 8 correctional adult educators from the Lake Correctional Institution and 10 adult education teachers from the Manatee Area…

  20. In The Best Interest Of The (Adult) Child: Ideas About Kinship Care Of Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, Tezra; Perry, Tam E.; Valeriani, Julia

    2014-01-01

    This article uses a qualitative, ethnographic approach to examine the experiences older adults and their kin, as the older adult engages in relocation. Studies looking at caregiving by kin for older adults highlight burdens for the adult child. This study offers a life course perspective on kinship care, analyzing older adults' decisions' to move. It was found that many older adults are strongly influenced by the desire to not be cared for by their kin as well as to select housing near their existing social network, which might exclude kin. In conclusion, policy implications are discussed. PMID:25278741

  1. Hematopoietic bone marrow cells participate in endothelial, but not epithelial or mesenchymal cell renewal in adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Odörfer, Kathrin I; Egerbacher, Monika; Unger, Nina J; Weber, Karin; Jamnig, Angelika; Lepperdinger, Günter; Kleiter, Miriam; Sandgren, Eric P; Erben, Reinhold G

    2011-01-01

    The extent to which bone marrow (BM) contributes to physiological cell renewal is still controversial. Using the marker human placental alkaline phosphatase (ALPP) which can readily be detected in paraffin and plastic sections by histochemistry or immunohistochemistry, and in ultrathin sections by electron microscopy after pre-embedding staining, we examined the role of endogenous BM in physiological cell renewal by analysing tissues from lethally irradiated wild-type inbred Fischer 344 (F344) rats transplanted (BMT) with unfractionated BM from ALPP-transgenic F344 rats ubiquitously expressing the marker. Histochemical, immunohistochemical and immunoelectron microscopic analysis showed that the proportion of ALPP+ capillary endothelial cells (EC) profoundly increased from 1 until 6 months after BMT in all organs except brain and adrenal medulla. In contrast, pericytes and EC in large blood vessels were ALPP–. Epithelial cells in kidney, liver, pancreas, intestine and brain were recipient-derived at all time-points. Similarly, osteoblasts, chondrocytes, striated muscle and smooth muscle cells were exclusively of recipient origin. The lack of mesenchymal BM-derived cells in peripheral tissues prompted us to examine whether BMT resulted in engraftment of mesenchymal precursors. Four weeks after BMT, all haematopoietic BM cells were of donor origin by flow cytometric analysis, whereas isolation of BM mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) failed to show engraftment of donor MSC. In conclusion, our data show that BM is an important source of physiological renewal of EC in adult rats, but raise doubt whether reconstituted irradiated rats are an apt model for BM-derived regeneration of mesenchymal cells in peripheral tissues. PMID:21091631

  2. Adult skeletal muscle stem cells.

    PubMed

    Sambasivan, Ramkumar; Tajbakhsh, Shahragim

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscles in vertebrates have a phenomenal regenerative capacity. A muscle that has been crushed can regenerate fully both structurally and functionally within a month. Remarkably, efficient regeneration continues to occur following repeated injuries. Thousands of muscle precursor cells are needed to accomplish regeneration following acute injury. The differentiated muscle cells, the multinucleated contractile myofibers, are terminally withdrawn from mitosis. The source of the regenerative precursors is the skeletal muscle stem cells-the mononucleated cells closely associated with myofibers, which are known as satellite cells. Satellite cells are mitotically quiescent or slow-cycling, committed to myogenesis, but undifferentiated. Disruption of the niche after muscle damage results in their exit from quiescence and progression towards commitment. They eventually arrest proliferation, differentiate, and fuse to damaged myofibers or make de novo myofibers. Satellite cells are one of the well-studied adult tissue-specific stem cells and have served as an excellent model for investigating adult stem cells. They have also emerged as an important standard in the field of ageing and stem cells. Several recent reviews have highlighted the importance of these cells as a model to understand stem cell biology. This chapter begins with the discovery of satellite cells as skeletal muscle stem cells and their developmental origin. We discuss transcription factors and signalling cues governing stem cell function of satellite cells and heterogeneity in the satellite cell pool. Apart from satellite cells, a number of other stem cells have been shown to make muscle and are being considered as candidate stem cells for amelioration of muscle degenerative diseases. We discuss these "offbeat" muscle stem cells and their status as adult skeletal muscle stem cells vis-a-vis satellite cells. The ageing context is highlighted in the concluding section. PMID:25344672

  3. Perimenstrual Flare of Adult Acne

    PubMed Central

    Geller, Lauren; Rosen, Jamie; Frankel, Amylynne; Goldenberg, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Background: Acne is typically regarded as an adolescent disease. A significant body of literature suggests a post-adolescent or adult form of acne. Female patients are known to experience perimenstrual acne flares, the exact prevalence of which is unknown. Objective: To establish a pattern of perimenstrual acne flare in adult women in order to better characterize the disorder. Methods: Subjects aged 18 and over were recruited during previously scheduled visits with their dermatologist at Mount Sinai Hospital in New York. An anonymous survey was distributed to women who reported their first menses at least six months earlier and had a complaint of acne within the last 30 days. Women <18 years of age and postmenopausal women were excluded from the study population. Results: Participants included women 18- to 29-years old (67%) and women 30- to 49-years old (33%). The ethnicity of respondents was Caucasian (50%), African American (20%), Latino (19%), Asian (5%), and Other (6%). The majority of participants with perimenstrual acne reported the onset of acne between the ages of 12 and 18 years. Sixty-five percent of participants reported that their acne symptoms were worse with their menses. Of those who reported perimenstrual acne symptoms, 56 percent reported worsening symptoms in the week preceding their menses, 17 percent reported worsening symptoms during their menses, three percent reported worsening symptoms after their menses, and 24 percent reported worsening symptoms throughout their cycle. Thirty-five percent of patients with perimenstrual acne reported oral contraceptive pill use. Conclusion: A significant number of adult women have perimenstrual acne symptoms. This study has proven to be useful in characterizing perimenstrual acne flare and is one of the first qualitative documentations of the presence and degree of this disorder. PMID:25161758

  4. Lead toxicity in older adults.

    PubMed

    Vig, E K; Hu, H

    2000-11-01

    Recent studies have shown that lead, even at relatively low levels of exposure, has the potential to harm not only the young and the occupationally-exposed, but also older people. Because they have been alive for a longer period of time, older adults have had more potential exposures to lead. They may have been exposed to lead while working in unregulated occupations, or they may have encountered more lead in the environment on a daily basis. Several large epidemiological studies have found that older people have higher blood and bone lead levels than younger adults. Additionally, sporadic clusters of acute lead exposure among older adults as a result of activities such as ceramic glaze hobby work and consumption of moonshine whiskey continue to be reported. After lead enters the body, it circulates in the blood reaching the soft tissues and bone. Researchers have learned that lead can hibernate within bone for decades. Although lead within bone is of uncertain toxicity to bone tissue, conditions of bone resorption, such as osteoporosis, can cause bone lead to reenter the bloodstream where it can then re-expose the soft tissue, and, potentially, exert delayed deleterious effects. Evidence is emerging that blood and bone lead levels, reflecting relatively modest exposures, are associated with hypertension, renal insufficiency, and cognitive impairment. Medical treatments that now exist to slow the rate of bone resorption may maintain lead within bones. On-going studies evaluating the relationship between body lead stores and both cognitive and renal impairment, as well as the potential modifying effect of bone resorption, will help determine whether bone resorption should be retarded specifically to preserve organ function. Physicians should be aware of potential past and present lead exposures among their older patients. Ongoing lead exposure should be prevented. In the future, treatment of osteoporosis may be undertaken not only to improve bone health but also to prevent mobilization of bone lead stores and subsequent toxicity. PMID:11083332

  5. Drosophila adult olfactory shock learning.

    PubMed

    Malik, Bilal R; Hodge, James J L

    2014-01-01

    Drosophila have been used in classical conditioning experiments for over 40 years, thus greatly facilitating our understanding of memory, including the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms involved in cognitive diseases. Learning and memory can be assayed in larvae to study the effect of neurodevelopmental genes and in flies to measure the contribution of adult plasticity genes. Furthermore, the short lifespan of Drosophila facilitates the analysis of genes mediating age-related memory impairment. The availability of many inducible promoters that subdivide the Drosophila nervous system makes it possible to determine when and where a gene of interest is required for normal memory as well as relay of different aspects of the reinforcement signal. Studying memory in adult Drosophila allows for a detailed analysis of the behavior and circuitry involved and a measurement of long-term memory. The length of the adult stage accommodates longer-term genetic, behavioral, dietary and pharmacological manipulations of memory, in addition to determining the effect of aging and neurodegenerative disease on memory. Classical conditioning is induced by the simultaneous presentation of a neutral odor cue (conditioned stimulus, CS(+)) and a reinforcement stimulus, e.g., an electric shock or sucrose, (unconditioned stimulus, US), that become associated with one another by the animal. A second conditioned stimulus (CS(-)) is subsequently presented without the US. During the testing phase, Drosophila are simultaneously presented with CS+ and CS- odors. After the Drosophila are provided time to choose between the odors, the distribution of the animals is recorded. This procedure allows associative aversive or appetitive conditioning to be reliably measured without a bias introduced by the innate preference for either of the conditioned stimuli. Various control experiments are also performed to test whether all genotypes respond normally to odor and reinforcement alone. PMID:25145496

  6. Underactive Bladder in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Yao-Chi; Plata, Mauricio; Lamb, Laura E; Chancellor, Michael B

    2015-11-01

    Overactive bladder is one of the most common bladder problems, but an estimated 20 million Americans have underactive bladder (UAB), which makes going to the bathroom difficult, increases the risk of urinary tract infections, and even leads to institutionalization. This article provides an overview of UAB in older adults, and discusses the prevalence, predisposing factors, cause, clinical investigations, and treatments. At present, there is no effective therapy for UAB. A great deal of work still needs to be done on understanding the pathogenesis and the development of effective therapies. PMID:26476113

  7. Adults' understanding of child development.

    PubMed

    Furnham, Adrian

    2008-10-01

    230 adults estimated the ages at which children and adolescents ages 1 to 16 years could perform certain tasks like, "Say the months of the year backwards" and "Ride a bicycle". Nearly two-thirds of the participants consistently underestimated the age at which young people could perform. A total "correct" score, computed for each participant, formed a normal distribution. This score was used as a criterion measure for a series of multiple regressions. The strongest predictor was the extent to which people had regular contact with children, indicating the role of experience. PMID:19102491

  8. Adult Personality Development: Dynamics and Processes

    PubMed Central

    Diehl, Manfred; Hooker, Karen

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this special issue of Research in Human Development is on adult personality and how personality may contribute to and be involved in adult development. Specifically, the contributions in this issue focus on the links between personality structures (e.g., traits) and personality processes (e.g., goal pursuit, self--regulation) and emphasize the contributions that intensive repeated measurement approaches can make to the understanding of personality and development across the adult life span. PMID:24068889

  9. Robotic Assistance During Ambulation by Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Judith; Engberg, Sandra; Montemerlo, Michael; Pineau, Joelle; Roy, Nicholas; Rogers, Joan; Thrun, Sebastian

    2002-01-01

    Some older adults require assistance with ambulation due to physical mobility limitations. Others lack the cognitive ability, either alone or in combination with physical impairment, to get where they need to go. Investigation of older adults' gait speed, social interaction, and responsiveness to a robot during ambulation is part of the Nursebot Project, a unique collaboration of health care professionals and technologists focused on developing a personal robotic assistant for frail elderly adults at home.

  10. RENAL TRANSPLANTATION IN THE INBRED RAT

    PubMed Central

    Guttmann, R. D.; Carpenter, C. B.; Lindquist, R. R.; Merrill, J. P.

    1967-01-01

    Heterologous rabbit anti-rat thymocyte sera, its immunoglobulin G fraction, and the bivalent and univalent antibody fragments obtained by pepsin digestion are potent immunosuppressive reagents when tested in a system of renal allotransplantation between the LBN F1 hybrid and Lewis rat strains. The AT F(ab')2 is not lymphocytotoxic in vitro but has agglutinating ability, while the AT Fab' neither agglutinates nor is cytotoxic to rat lymphocytes, but will inhibit the in vitro reaction. The AT IgG and the F(ab')2 are more immunogenic in their host than normal rabbit IgG and F(ab')2, probably due to increased delivery of the antibody to the immune system. Donor pretreatment studies demonstrate that a cross-reacting, highly immunogenic antibody with anti-lymphocyte specificity may bind to renal sites and be transferred to the new host after transplantation. In addition, the crude unabsorbed anti-thymocyte antisera may induce a nephritis characteristic of immune complex disease which can be eliminated by complete absorption with serum proteins. Further in vivo and in vitro evidence is presented that the AT IgG contains small amounts of antibody to glomerular basement membrane antigens and may induce an autologous phase-nephrotoxic nephritis. The amount of in vivo binding by AT IgG to GBM was reduced by subcutaneous rather than intravenous administration. Most of the rabbit antisera tested contain antibody in low titer to sheep erythrocytes and in vivo experiments indicate that the nature of the immunodepressive effect of AT globulin to sheep erythrocytes is due in part to the passive transfer of antibody and is not necessarily due to a specific anti-lymphocyte effect. PMID:4168367

  11. Literacy Activities for Developmentally Delayed Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giordano, Gerard; D'Alonzo, Bruno J.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews six models of prereading programs for developmentally delayed adults: readinglike behavior, picture reading, global features of books, print in the environment, labeling, and rebus symbols. (SK)

  12. Osteoporosis in unstable adult scoliosis

    SciTech Connect

    Velis, K.P.; Healey, J.H.; Schneider, R.

    1988-12-01

    New noninvasive techniques as well as conventional methods were used to evaluate skeletal mass in the following three populations of adult white women as follows: (1) 79 subjects with preexisting idiopathic scoliosis designated as unstable (US) because of the associated presence in the lumbar spine of lateral spondylolisthesis with segmental instability; (2) 67 subjects with preexisting idiopathic scoliosis without lateral spondylolisthesis designated as stable (SS); and (3) 248 age-matched nonscoliotic controls. Ages in all three groups were categorized into premenopausal (25-44 years), perimenopausal (45-54 years), and postmenopausal (55-84 years). The results showed higher scoliosis morbidity in the US compared to the SS populations. The prevalence and severity of osteoporosis were markedly increased in US versus SS populations. Femoral neck density determined by dual-photon absorptiometry techniques averaged 26% to 48% lower in all age categories of US patients compared to controls. These changes were found in the youngest age groups, indicating reductions in bone mineral content earlier in the adult life of white women with a specific type of high-morbidity US characterized by the marker of lateral spondylolisthesis.

  13. Intralobar sequestration in adult patients.

    PubMed

    Berna, Pascal; Cazes, Aurélie; Bagan, Patrick; Riquet, Marc

    2011-06-01

    We examined retrospectively the characteristics and the outcomes of intralobar sequestrations (ILS). We reviewed data we obtained from the medical records of patients with ILS who underwent surgery at Laennec, Georges Pompidou European, and Amiens South Hospital. From 1985 to 2010, 26 consecutive adults patients underwent surgery for ILS. There were 14 males and 12 females. The average age was 37.3 years. The ILS was right-sided in 11 patients (42.3%) and left-sided in 15 patients (57.7%). A systemic artery supply was found during the preoperative period in 11. Surgery consisted of lobectomy (n=20), bilobectomy (n=1), segmentectomy (n=4), and pneumonectomy (n=1). There were no postoperative deaths, and the postoperative course was uneventful in 20 patients. All patients were alive and faring well at long-term follow-up (mean follow-up 36.5 ± 7.2 months). Surgery consisted of lobectomy in most cases. The arterial supply came from the descending thoracic and abdominal aorta. Hemoptysis and/or recurrent infections were present in 14/26 (54%) of patients. These are the same symptoms as those leading to the diagnosis of bronchectasis. This suggests, for similar reasons, that ILS in adults should be nosologically very similar to acquired lesions, such as bronchectasis. PMID:21362733

  14. Everyday uses of adult orthodontics.

    PubMed

    Whitehouse, Joseph A

    2004-09-01

    Adults are now much more in favor of receiving orthodontic treatment than in the past. The baby boomer generation has a deep desire to keep their "youngness" and is willing to invest in such. Along with this attitude has come the ability to treat malocclusions and other clinical deficiencies with new products that decrease the treatment time. Nickel titanium wire has revolutionized the mechanics of treatment, so that often only one wire need be used throughout treatment, and the time of care has been reduced. Invisalign has resulted in higher acceptance rates for treatment that was passed up before. Although Invisalign has its limitations, for most basic alignment, it can provide a nice result. Patients who might come to an office for Invisalign can be open to braces if Invisalign will not correct their problem. In this article, several uses of adult orthodontics have been shown. It behooves the general practitioner to refer those cases that can benefit from the multiple uses of orthodontics. Should the GP desire to learn to perform any or all of the tooth movements necessary to create a more desired outcome, there are several marketed orthodontic courses that will provide the knowledge necessary. Finally, I encourage those who would enjoy treating patients with orthodontic needs. I have found it to be very rewarding to work toward a shared outcome that is often a less invasive treatment. Patients really enjoy the results. PMID:15495456

  15. Current Trends in Adult Degree Programs: How Public Universities Respond to the Needs of Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gast, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Although many adult students turn to online degree programs due to their flexibility and convenience, a majority of prospective adult learners prefer to take classes on traditional brick-and-mortar campuses. This chapter examines how public research universities create pathways to degree attainment and boost degree completion rates among adult

  16. An Autoethnographic Exchange: Exploring the Dynamics of Selves as Adult Learners and Adult Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plakhotnik, Maria S.; Delgado, Antonio; Seepersad, Rehana

    2015-01-01

    This article explores four former doctoral students' perceptions about their selves as adult learners and adult educators through the use of autoethnography and reflective dialogue. The dynamics between the two selves were explored to identify emerging themes and implications for practice in adult education. The duality of their roles as learners…

  17. ADULT LEARNING, ADULT BASIC EDUCATION PRE-INSTITUTE SEMINAR (WAYNE STATE UNIVERSITY, MAY 1967).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Division of Adult Educational Programs, BAVT.

    A PREINSTITUTE SEMINAR, FINANCED BY A GRANT FROM THE ADULT EDUCATION DIVISION OF THE OFFICE OF EDUCATION TO THE NATIONAL UNIVERSITY EXTENSION ASSOCIATION AND HELD AT WAYNE STATE UNIVERSITY IN MAY 1967, FOCUSED ON PLANS FOR THE 20 ADULT BASIC EDUCATION TEACHER TRAINING INSTITUTES HELD DURING THE SUMMER OF 1967. LEADERS IN ADULT BASIC EDUCATION AND…

  18. Remaking Adult Learning: Essays on Adult Education in Honour of Alan Tuckett

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derrick, Jay, Ed.; Howard, Ursula, Ed.; Field, John, Ed.; Lavender, Peter, Ed.; Meyer, Sue, Ed.; von Rein, Ekkehard Nuissl, Ed.; Schuller, Tom, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    Remaking Adult Learning provides an exciting and innovative addition to the literature on adult learning. Charting challenges and successes in the sector, it illustrates how taking part in well-thought-out programmes can have a positive and sometimes life-saving impact on people's lives. While grounded in adult learning practice, the book draws…

  19. Social Change and Adult Education Research. Adult Education Research in Nordic Countries 1992/93.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tampere Univ., Hameelinna (Finland). Dept. of Education.

    This yearbook contains 18 papers reflecting the major trends in adult education research in the Nordic countries in 1992-93. The following papers are included: "Popular Adult Education and Social Mobilization: Reflections in Connection with the Swedish Committee on Power" (Rubenson); "Direction of Finnish Adult Education Policies within the…

  20. Adults' Participation in Informal Learning Activities: Key Findings from the Adult Education Participation Survey in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Horng-Ji; Wu, Ming-Lieh; Li, Ai-Tzu

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the informal learning experiences expressed by Taiwanese adults (aged from 16 to 97) and examined their involvement related to selected socio-demographic characteristics. Data of the 2008 Adult Education Participation Survey in Taiwan and Fujian Area were used to look at different variables of adults' demographic…

  1. A REVIEW OF PRESENT EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS AVAILABLE TO OLDER ADULTS IN CALIFORNIA'S PUBLIC ADULT EDUCATION PROGRAM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DEGABRIELE, EUGENE H.

    ADMINISTRATORS OF ADULT EDUCATION PROGRAMS IN ADULT SCHOOLS AND JUNIOR COLLEGES IN CALIFORNIA WERE SURVEYED IN MAY 1967 AS TO WAYS IN WHICH THEIR PROGRAMS WERE SERVING THE EDUCATIONAL NEEDS OF ADULTS AGED 50 AND OVER. FINE ARTS, CRAFTS, HOMEMAKING, BUSINESS EDUCATION, AMERICANIZATION, CIVIC EDUCATION AND SPECIAL FIELDS, VOCATIONAL AND INDUSTRIAL…

  2. Differential Outcomes of Adult Education on Adult Learners' Increase in Social Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Greef, Maurice; Verté, Dominique; Segers, Mien

    2015-01-01

    To date a significant share of the European population can be considered at risk of social exclusion. It has been argued that adult education programmes are a powerful tool to support vulnerable adults increasing their social inclusion. This study aims to answer the question if and which subgroups of vulnerable adults experience an increase in…

  3. Survey of Adult Literacy in Ontario = Enquete sur l'alphabetisation des adultes en Ontario.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Stan

    This report is designed to present data pertaining to Ontario from the Statistics Canada "Survey of Literacy Skills Used in Daily Activities" in which 9,500 adult Canadians were interviewed and tested. (In Ontario, 2,201 adults were interviewed and tested.) It is the first comprehensive report on the state of everyday reading skills of adults in…

  4. Shopping [for] Power: How Adult Literacy Learners Negotiate the Marketplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozanne, Julie L.; Adkins, Natalie Ross; Sandlin, Jennifer A.

    2005-01-01

    Little empirical evidence exists on how adult literacy learners act as consumers. Yet, adult literacy programs often employ a "functional" approach to consumer education and assume that adult learners are deficient in consumer skills. Data from a qualitative study of the consumer behaviors of adult literacy learners are used to explore how adult

  5. Approaches to a Successful Adult Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petty, Tanjula; Thomas, Christine C.

    2014-01-01

    An estimated 40 million Americans adults live their lives deprived of prosperity, pleasures, and the rewards of lifelong learning (Comings & Cuban, 2007). With the economic, social, and technical changes in society, there are shifts in the labor market (Champagne, 1987). Many adults are having to set their sights on obtaining sufficient skills…

  6. Gender Dynamics in Stepfamilies: Adult Stepchildren's Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmeeckle, Maria

    2007-01-01

    This project explores gender relations in stepfamilies from the vantage point of adult stepchildren who acquired stepparents during childhood. Drawing from 2 rounds of interviews with 15 adult stepchildren systematically selected from the 1997 wave of the University of Southern California Longitudinal Study of Generations, 5 themes of gender…

  7. Reading Difficulties in Spanish Adults with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suárez-Coalla, Paz; Cuetos, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies show that dyslexia persists into adulthood, even in highly educated and well-read people. The main characteristic that adults with dyslexia present is a low speed when reading. In Spanish, a shallow orthographic system, no studies about adults with dyslexia are available; and it is possible that the consistency of the orthographic…

  8. Self-Esteem among Adult Literacy Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipnevich, Anastasiya; Beder, Hal

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate adult literacy education learners' self-esteem and to examine the relationship between self-esteem and measures of achievement in reading and math. The rationale for the present study stemmed from the lack of research into adult literacy students' self-esteem levels. More than 200 learners enrolled in…

  9. Paulo Freire's Legacy for Adults Learning Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coben, Diana

    The death of Paulo Freire in May 1997 was a momentous event for educators everywhere, especially adult educators, and a sad one for those who knew and loved him. The author has been thinking and writing about Freire's work for many years, exploring his contribution to a radical politics of adult education. While Freire's work features strongly in…

  10. Connections. A Journal of Adult Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connections: A Journal of Adult Literacy, 1985

    1985-01-01

    These nine articles reflect the diversity of activities taking place in adult education and adult literacy in the Boston area. An introduction briefly describes each article; notes on the authors follow. In "A Different Third 'R'--Radical Math," Marilyn Frankenstein describes a mathematics course that, through content and method, both broadens…

  11. Coronary Artery Disease in Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Alkhawam, Hassan; Zaiem, Feras; Sogomonian, Robert; El-Hunjul, Mohammed; Al-Kateb, Mohamad; Bakhsh, M Umair; Madanieh, Raef

    2015-12-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) sustains a significant negative impact on hospital admissions and deaths worldwide. The prevalence of CHD in young adults is difficult to establish accurately, as these asymptomatic patients typically do not undergo diagnostic studies. In this article, the authors will focus on young adults with CHD emphasizing common and uncommon risk factors, current management and review of previous studies. PMID:26445306

  12. Osteoporosis in adults with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, Kevin J

    2009-10-01

    Life expectancy for the 400 000 adults with cerebral palsy (CP) in the USA is increasing. Although there is a perception of increased fractured rate in the adult with CP, it has not been well studied. Low bone mineral density is found in more than 50% of adults with a variety of disabilities, including CP. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning is commonly used to assess bone mineral density, but is limited by positioning and other artifacts in adults with CP. Novel scanning regions of interest, such as the distal femur, are not yet standardized in adults. Nutritional assessment and physical activity, the basis of most fracture prevention programs, are difficult to do in the adult with CP. A better understanding of the 'muscle-bone unit' physiology and its exploitation may lead to better treatment modifications. Clinical research trials with bisphosphonates (e.g. pamidronate), estrogen, selective estrogen receptor modulators, parathyroid hormone analogs, and growth hormone need to be targeted to the adult with CP. Longitudinal studies of fracture risk factors, genetic research in bone and neuromuscular biology, and the development of treatment surrogates for physical activity are additional areas of needed expertise. This could be facilitated by an adult CP registry and the centralization of clinical research efforts. PMID:19740209

  13. Guidelines for Psychological Practice With Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Presents the American Psychological Association Guidelines for psychological practice with older adults. The present document is intended to assist psychologists in evaluating their own readiness for working clinically with older adults and in seeking and using appropriate education and training to increase their knowledge, skills, and experience…

  14. Identification of Adults with Developmental Language Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidler, Lesley J.; Plante, Elena; Vance, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the utility of a wide range of language measures (phonology, morphology, syntax, and semantics) for the identification of adults with developmental language impairment. Method: Measures were administered to 3 groups of adults, each representing a population expected to demonstrate high levels of language impairment, and to…

  15. Africa Adult Education. Chronologies in Commonwealth Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draper, James A., Ed.

    In this document, leading educators from 12 African Commonwealth countries trace the development of adult education in Africa and show how providers of adult education outside the formal education system (including government and nongovernment organizations, trade unions, women's groups, and religious organizations) have met the needs of their…

  16. A Grounded Theory of Adult Student Persistence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capps, Rosemary

    2010-01-01

    This grounded theory study investigates adult student persistence at a community college. Student persistence in college is a prerequisite for degree achievement, which correlates with higher earnings and overall better quality of life. Persistence rates remain low for adult students, who combine their college endeavors with responsibilities to…

  17. Health Literacy Education within Adult Literacy Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diehl, Sandra J.

    2011-01-01

    Building health literacy skills among adult learners has the potential to contribute to efforts to eliminate health disparities and improve health outcomes. Adults with limited literacy skills are more likely to be underserved by health services and at risk for poorer health. Recognition of the need for stronger health literacy skills and a desire…

  18. THE TRIACYLGLYCEROL COMPOSITION OF SILVERLEAF WHITEFLY ADULTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bemisia argentifolii Bellows and Perring (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) adults were collected from a whitefly colony maintained on hibiscus plants, weighed and stored at -80 C. Groups of adults (30-50 mg) were placed into a 20-ml glass vial containing 8-10 ml of CHCl3/methanol (2:1) and covered with a Te...

  19. Policy, Legislation and Financing for Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belanger, Paul; Duke, Chris; Hinzen, Heribert

    2007-01-01

    Adult learning is now widely seen as a basic human right (the right to learn) and lifelong learning is similarly recognised. Adult learning within a lifelong learning concept has an agenda far wider than just employability skills. Yet educational inequalities between and within nations remain stark, as does the gap between rhetoric and practice in…

  20. Evaluation of Verbal Behavior in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Amy C.; Fuqua, Wayne; Merritt, Todd A.

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 5% of older adults have a dementia diagnosis, and language deterioration is commonly associated with this disorder (Kempler, 2005). Several instruments have been developed to diagnose dementia and assess language capabilities of elderly adults. However, none of these instruments take a functional approach to language assessment as…

  1. Adult English Language Learners with Limited Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigelow, Martha; Schwarz, Robin Lovrien

    2010-01-01

    Adult English language learners who lack print literacy or experience with formal education encounter a unique set of challenges in their lives and their efforts to learn English. Educators and policymakers are similarly challenged by how best to help these adults acquire English literacy. This paper reviews a variety of research, including that…

  2. Adult Education in a World "on Speed."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plumb, Donovan

    1999-01-01

    Emancipatory adult education resisted dominant forces by contesting their control of space and time. New technologies of speed enable dominant forces to control workers and consumers at a distance. Adult education must shift its understanding of the world from modern to postmodern categories to confront these new forms of dominance. (SK)

  3. Decision Making in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montyla, Timo; Still, Johanna; Gullberg, Stina; Del Missier, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined decision-making competence in ADHD by using multiple decision tasks with varying demands on analytic versus affective processes. Methods: Adults with ADHD and healthy controls completed two tasks of analytic decision making, as measured by the Adult Decision-Making Competence (A-DMC) battery, and two affective…

  4. An Introduction to Adults Count Too.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benn, Roseanne

    This paper provides an overview of a book entitled "Adults Count Too: Mathematics for Empowerment". The introduction to the book details why the author spent three years writing about adults learning mathematics, and outlines the shape and structure of the book. A chapter from the book, entitled "A Matrix of Factors," is presented as an example of…

  5. Exploring Older Adults' Health Information Seeking Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manafo, Elizabeth; Wong, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore older adults' (55-70 years) health information-seeking behaviors. Methods: Using a qualitative methodology, based on grounded theory, data were collected using in-depth interviews. Participants were community-living, older adults in Toronto, Canada who independently seek nutrition and health information. Interview transcripts…

  6. EAHY 1975--The Adult Education Dimension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Alan

    1976-01-01

    The European Architectural Heritage Year, designated as 1975, sought to undertake programs that would arouse public concern towards the environment. The disappointing impact of EAHY on adult education is discussed in terms of actual programs and experimental courses conducted. Investigation of our environmental heritage offers many adult education…

  7. Adult Learning, Critical Intelligence and Social Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayo, Marjorie, Ed.; Thompson, Jane, Ed.

    This collection of 21 essays reviews the context of developments in adult education in the last 15 years. "Adult Education for Change in the Nineties and Beyond" (Marjorie Mayo) is a critical review of the context for these changes and of the theoretical debates that attempt to analyze and explain them. "Challenging the Postmodern Condition"…

  8. Seeding Literacy: Adult Educators Research Their Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Janelle; Searle, Jean

    This publication presents five reports that represent research conducted by adult educators. "Supporting Adult Educators in Researching Their Practice" (Janelle Davis, Jean Searle) presents results of four action research projects related to developing literacies for disadvantaged groups or groups with special needs. "Towards Mutual Benefits:…

  9. Predictors of Transience among Homeless Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Kristin M.; Bender, Kimberly; Thompson, Sanna J.

    2014-01-01

    This study identified predictors of transience among homeless emerging adults in three cities. A total of 601 homeless emerging adults from Los Angeles, Austin, and Denver were recruited using purposive sampling. Ordinary least squares regression results revealed that significant predictors of greater transience include White ethnicity, high…

  10. Phonological Priming in Adults Who Stutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Irena; Grela, Bernard G.; Gilbert, Harvey R.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the speed of phonological encoding between adults who stutter (AWS) and adults who do not stutter (ANS). Fifteen male AWS and 15 age- and gender-matched ANS participated in the study. Speech onset latency was obtained for both groups and stuttering frequency was calculated for AWS during three phonological…

  11. Textile Recycling, Convenience, and the Older Adult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domina, Tanya; Koch, Kathryn

    2001-01-01

    Results of a study to examine the recycling practices and needs of older adults (n=217) indicated that older adults do recycle traditional materials, but need accommodations for physical limitations. They report textile recycling as time consuming and difficult and used donations to religious organizations as their principal means of textile…

  12. The Fiscal Consequences of Adult Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khatiwada, Ishwar; McLaughlin, Joseph; Sum, Andrew; Palma, Sheila

    2007-01-01

    This research monograph prepared for the National Commission on Adult Literacy is primarily designed to describe and analyze the net annual fiscal contributions (tax payments minus cash and in-kind transfers and institutionalization costs) of U.S. adults (ages 16-64) by their educational attainment in recent years. The report begins with an…

  13. Case Studies in Australian Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Ralph J., Ed.; Rooth, S. John, Ed.

    This publication contains the following 24 case studies of adult education in Australia: "NSW Department of Agriculture Home Study Programme" (O'Neill); "Self-Help Adult Education: The University of the Third Age at the Brisbane CAE" (Swindell); "Marriage Enrichment Programme" (D. Kerr, C. Kerr); "Carringbush Library: A Place to Be" (Letcher);…

  14. Anxiety and the Newly Returned Adult Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleary, Michelle Navarre

    2012-01-01

    Based on interviews with students who had recently returned to school, this essay demonstrates the need for, challenges of, and ways to respond to the writing anxiety many adults bring with them back to school. Jessica and Sam were two of twenty-five newly returned adult students whom the author spent over sixty hours interviewing in the fall of…

  15. Arnold Hely and Australian Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Arnold Hely (1907-1967) was a most significant figure in the history of adult education in New Zealand, in Australia and internationally. Arnold Hely, a New Zealander, Director of Tutorial Classes (later Adult Education) at the University of Adelaide from 1957 to 1965, was the prime mover in the establishment in 1964 of the Asian South Pacific…

  16. Career Education for Adults: Consumer Economics Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auburn Univ., AL. Dept. of Vocational and Adult Education.

    An outgrowth of State-sponsored institutes conducted by Auburn University, Alabama, to produce career education teaching modules for adults, the consumer economics module is one of five field-tested curriculum guides adopted from findings of the nationally oriented Adult Performance Level Study conducted at the University of Texas. The primary…

  17. Adult hydrocoele complicating a lumboperitoneal shunt.

    PubMed

    Pollak, T A; Marcus, H J; James, G; Dorward, N; Thorne, L

    2011-10-01

    We report an adult patient who developed a right-sided hydrocoele following a lumboperitoneal shunt. While hydrocoeles have been described as a rare complication following ventriculo- and lumboperitoneal shunts in children, we are unaware of any previously reported cases of hydrocoeles resulting from such shunts in adults. PMID:21344965

  18. Adult Learning, Education, and the Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clover, Darlene E.; Hill, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The environment is now a common theme in adult education. However, conversations that swirled around the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20) in June 2012 suggested major environmental challenges persist, demanding that education, learning, advocacy and activism be augmented to ensure the survival of the planet. In adult

  19. Adult Dyslexia and the "Conundrum of Failure"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    While there is a wealth of literature about childhood dyslexia, adult dyslexia remains relatively undocumented, particularly from a lived perspective. This paper focuses on the "deficit perspective of failure", as highlighted in current literature, which addresses issues confronting adults with dyslexia. Within this theme of failure a number of…

  20. Good Ideas for Teaching Daily Adult Living.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leigh, Robert K.

    Intended for practicing Adult Basic Education teachers, this handbook provides materials for teaching specific coping skills in the area of daily adult living. Three areas of study are explored: (1) community, which includes organizations, health, nutrition, safety, money management, and media; (2) government and law, which includes citizenship,…