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Dynamics of cell proliferation in the adult dentate gyrus of two inbred strains of mice  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The output potential of proliferating populations in either the developing or the adult nervous system is critically dependent on the length of the cell cycle (T(c)) and the size of the proliferating population. We developed a new approach for analyzing the cell cycle, the 'Saturate and Survive Method' (SSM), that also reveals the dynamic behaviors in the proliferative population and estimates of the size of the proliferating population. We used this method to analyze the proliferating population of the adult dentate gyrus in 60 day old mice of two inbred strains, C57BL/6J and BALB/cByJ. The results show that the number of cells labeled by exposure to BUdR changes dramatically with time as a function of the number of proliferating cells in the population, the length of the S-phase, cell division, the length of the cell cycle, dilution of the S-phase label, and cell death. The major difference between C57BL/6J and BALB/cByJ mice is the size of the proliferating population, which differs by a factor of two; the lengths of the cell cycle and the S-phase and the probability that a newly produced cell will die within the first 10 days do not differ in these two strains. This indicates that genetic regulation of the size of the proliferating population is independent of the genetic regulation of cell death among those newly produced cells. The dynamic changes in the number of labeled cells as revealed by the SSM protocol also indicate that neither single nor repeated daily injections of BUdR accurately measure 'proliferation.'.

Hayes, N. L.; Nowakowski, R. S.



Genetic variability in adult bone density among inbred strains of mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 70% of the variability in human bone density has been attributed to genetic factors as a result of studies with twins, osteoporotic families, and individuals with rare heritable bone disorders. We have applied the Stratec XCT 960M pQCT, specifically modified for small skeletal specimens, to analyses of bones from 11 inbred strains (AKR\\/J, BALB\\/ cByJ, C3H\\/HeJ, C57BL\\/6J, C57L\\/J,

W. G. Beamer; L. R. Donahue; C. J. Rosen; D. J. Baylink



Adult stem cells from bone marrow (MSCs) isolated from different strains of inbred mice vary in surface epitopes, rates of proliferation, and differentiation potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

For reasons that are not apparent, it has been difficult to isolate and expand the adult stem cells referred to as mesenchy- mal stem cells or marrow stromal cells (MSCs) from murine bone marrow. We developed a protocol that provides rap- idly expanding MSCs from 5 strains of inbred mice. The MSCs obtained from 5 different strains of mice were

Alexandra Peister; Jason A. Mellad; Benjamin L. Larson; Brett M. Hall; Laura F. Gibson; Darwin J. Prockop



Genealogies of mouse inbred strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mouse is a prime organism of choice for modelling human disease. Over 450 inbred strains of mice have been described, providing a wealth of different genotypes and phenotypes for genetic and other studies. As new strains are generated and others become extinct, it is useful to review periodically what strains are available and how they are related to each

Jon A. Beck; Sarah Lloyd; Majid Hafezparast; Moyha Lennon-Pierce; Janan T. Eppig; Michael F. W. Festing; Elizabeth M. C. Fisher



Gene Mapping with Recombinant Inbreds in Maize  

PubMed Central

Recombinant inbred lines of maize have been developed for the rapid mapping of molecular probes to chromosomal location. Two recombinant inbred families have been constructed from F(2) populations of T232 X CM37 and CO159 X Tx303. A genetic map based largely on isozymes and restriction fragment length polymorphisms has been produced that covers virtually the entire maize genome. In order to map a new gene, an investigator has only to determine its allelic distribution among the recombinant inbred lines and then compare it by computer with the distributions of all previously mapped loci. The availability of the recombinant inbreds and the associated data base constitute an efficient means of mapping new molecular markers in maize.

Burr, B.; Burr, F. A.; Thompson, K. H.; Albertson, M. C.; Stuber, C. W.



Quantitative genetic variation of metabolism in the nymphs of the sand cricket, Gryllus firmus, inferred from an analysis of inbred-lines.  


Compared with morphological and life history traits, quantitative genetic variation of metabolic and related traits in animals has been poorly studied. We used flow-through VCO(2) respirometry and simultaneous activity measurement on nymphs of the sand cricket (Gryllus firmus) from inbred lines to estimate broad-sense heritability of four metabolic variables. In addition, we measured a number of linear dimensions in the adults from the same inbred lines. There were significant multivariate effects of inbred lines for all traits and broad-sense heritability for physiological traits was 4.5%, 5.2%, 10.3% and 8.5% for average, resting, minimum and maximum CO(2) production in nymphs, respectively. Though the MANOVA indicated significant genetic variation among inbred lines in adult morphology, the broad-sense heritabilities were relatively low ranging from 0-18%. Our results indicate that the heritabilities of metabolic measures are large enough to potentially respond to selection. PMID:17657350

Nespolo, Roberto F; Castañeda, Luis E; Roff, Derek A



Phenogenetic analysis of testicular responsiveness to chorionic gonadotropin in inbred mouse strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic differences in the testicular hormonal responsiveness to in vivo administration of chorionic gonadotropin (CG) between\\u000a adult male mice of eight inbred strains (A\\/Sn, CBA\\/Lac, CC57Br, C57Bl\\/6J, DBA\\/2J, GR, PT, and YT) were determined. In addition,\\u000a the genetic variation of the body and testis weights was estimated as related to the responsiveness to stimulation of steroidogenesis\\u000a with CG. Adult males

E. A. Zarubina; L. V. Osadchuk



Uptake and distribution of cadmium in maize inbred lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genotypic variation in uptake and distribution of cadmium (Cd) was studied in 19 inbred lines of maize (Zea mays L.). The inbred lines were grown for 27 days on an in situ Cd-contaminated sandy soil or for 20 days on nutrient solution culture with 10 µg Cd L-1. The Cd concentrations in the shoots showed large genotypic variation, ranging from

P. J. Florijn; M. L. VAN BEUSICHEM



Voluntary ethanol consumption in 22 inbred mouse strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inbred strains are genetically stable across time and laboratories, allowing scientists to accumulate a record of phenotypes, including physiological characteristics and behaviors. To date, the C57\\/C58 family of inbred mouse strains has been identified as having the highest innate ethanol consumption, but some lineages have rarely or never been surveyed. Thus, the purpose of the present experiment was to measure

Naomi Yoneyama; John C. Crabbe; Matthew M. Ford; Andrea Murillo; Deborah A. Finn



Spontaneous Coagulopathy in Inbred WAG/RijYcb Rats  

PubMed Central

Here we describe a series of cases of spontaneous coagulopathy in a colony of inbred WAG/RijYcb (WAG/RijY) rats. This strain previously had been bred at our institution without symptomatology for several decades. The index case was a 10-wk-old male rat that developed a large hematoma at a subcutaneous injection site. Clinicopathologic findings included a decreased RBC count, decreased hematocrit, decreased hemoglobin concentration, normal PT, and prolonged (50% to 70%) aPTT (52 s; reference, 15 to 33 s). Examination of additional WAG/RijY rats that died unexpectedly or had clinical signs of bleeding in the absence of experimental manipulation also revealed normal PT and prolonged aPTT. Histologic examinations of tissues from all rats were unremarkable except for severe acute focally extensive hemorrhage corresponding to the macroscopic findings of acute hemorrhage. Furthermore the aPTT in 8 clinically normal adult rats and 8 clinically normal 4-wk-old WAG/RijY littermates of both sexes was prolonged. We conclude that these WAG/RijY rats have an inherited defect in the intrinsic coagulation pathway.

Booth, Carmen J; Brooks, Marjory B; Rockwell, Sara



Genotypic Variation for Glycinebetaine among Public Inbreds of Maize.  


Screening of a range of public maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines for glycinebetaine (betaine) content over two growing seasons (1987 and 1988), using fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry, has identified 19 public inbred lines which all exhibit low betaine levels (<100 nanomoles per gram fresh weight). These include common inbreds such as A188, A619, B37, H95, N6, and Oh43. Several inbreds exhibit high betaine levels (3000 to 10000 nanomoles per gram fresh weight); in these strongly betaine-positive inbreds, betaine levels tended to be, on average, 1.38-fold greater in the 1988 growing season presumably in part due to field water deficits experienced during the drought of 1988. Where several different sources of the same inbred line were available (including cytoplasmic male sterile and restored lines of A632, B37, B73, Oh43, and WF9), betaine levels were found to be similar when the inbreds were tested in the same environment. Because W22-R/r-X1 was found to be strongly betaine-positive, it should be possible to map the putative recessive gene(s) determining betaine deficiency to specific chromosome(s) from monosomics resulting from crosses between W22-R/r-X1 and betaine-deficient lines. PMID:16667121

Brunk, D G; Rich, P J; Rhodes, D



Cytoarchitecture and Transcriptional Profiles of Neocortical Malformations in Inbred Mice  

PubMed Central

Malformations of neocortical development are associated with cognitive dysfunction and increased susceptibility to epileptogenesis. Rodent models are widely used to study neocortical malformations and have revealed important genetic and environmental mechanisms that contribute to neocortical development. Interestingly, several inbred mice strains commonly used in behavioral, anatomical, and/or physiological studies display neocortical malformations. In the present report we examine the cytoarchitecture and myeloarchitecture of the neocortex of 11 inbred mouse strains and identified malformations of cortical development, including molecular layer heterotopia, in all but one strain. We used in silico methods to confirm our observations and determined the transcriptional profiles of cells found within heterotopia. These data indicate cellular and transcriptional diversity present in cells in malformations. Furthermore, the presence of dysplasia in nearly every inbred strain examined suggests that malformations of neocortical development are a common feature in the neocortex of inbred mice.

Ramos, Raddy L.; Smith, Phoebe T.; DeCola, Christopher; Tam, Danny; Corzo, Oscar



Gene expression variation between mouse inbred strains  

PubMed Central

Background In this study, we investigated the effect of genetic background on expression profiles. We analysed the transcriptome of mouse hindlimb muscle of five frequently used mouse inbred strains using spotted oligonucleotide microarrays. Results Through ANOVA analysis with a false discovery rate of 10%, we show that 1.4% of the analysed genes is significantly differentially expressed between these mouse strains. Differential expression of several of these genes has been confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR. The number of genes affected by genetic background is approximately ten-fold lower than the number of differentially expressed genes caused by a dystrophic genetic defect. Conclusions We conclude that evaluation of the effect of background on gene expression profiles in the tissue under study is an effective and sensible approach when comparing expression patterns in animal models with heterogeneous genetic backgrounds. Genes affected by the genetic background can be excluded in subsequent analyses of the disease-related changes in expression profiles. This is often a more effective strategy than backcrossing and inbreeding to obtain isogenic backgrounds.

Turk, Rolf; 't Hoen, Peter AC; Sterrenburg, Ellen; de Menezes, Renee X; de Meijer, Emile J; Boer, Judith M; van Ommen, Gert-Jan B; den Dunnen, Johan T



[Testicular function in mice of inbred strains BALB/cLac, PT, and CBA/Lac].  


The main features of male fertility: sperm production and abnormalities, testosterone serum concentration and its testicular content after hCG injections, weights of the testes and cauda epididymes, were studied in adult males of three inbred mice strains BALB/cLac, PT, and CBA/Lac. The CBA/Lac males were characterized by lower value of the epididymal sperm number, as well as lower weights of reproductive organs in comparison with males of other inbred strains. The lower number of sperm is accompanied in the CBA/Lac males with lower proportion of morphologically abnormal spermatozoa as compared to other strains that could compensate its decreased count and improve fertility. The baseline testosterone concentration and its testicular content did not differ among the three strains but the testosterone response to injection of 10 IU of hCG was weaker in the CBA/Lac males than in the others. The results indicate significant interstrain differences in testicular traits implicated in male fertility which may be correlated and compensate to each other. PMID:20432726

Osadchuk, L V



Genotypic Differences among Maize Inbred Lines in Phosphorus Fertilizer Responsiveness on Soils Differing in Acidity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maize inbred lines, essential for producing commercial hybrid seed, are vulnerable to nutrient deficiencies and imbalances, particularly on acidic soils where insufficient levels of plant?available phosphorus (P) exist. There is a need, therefore, to identify and develop maize inbred genotypes with a high P?utilization capacity. The objective of this study was to assess the genotypic variation among maize inbred lines

Domagoj Šimi?; Vlado Kova?evi?; Branimir Šimi?; Zed Rengel



Biochemical polymorphisms in feral and inbred mice ( Mus musculus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examination of the frequencies of several loci controlling isozymes in three geographically distinct feral populations of mice showed the average animal to be heterozygous at 10.3% of his loci. There was no evidence for interaction between loci, nor any evidence for inbreeding in the populations. Thirty-nine inbred strains, including four newly derived ones, were also characterized for their alleles for

Thomas H. Roderick; Frank H. Ruddle; Verne M. Chapman; Thomas B. Shows



Enzyme polymorphism in feral, outbred and inbred rats (Rattus norvegicus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polymorphism at 25 loci coding for liver enzymes was studied in two feral, three outbred and three inbred rat strains by starch gel electrophoresis. No variation was found at 14 loci, and a low degree of polymorphism was detected at three. Eight loci were polymorphic in more than one population. The average degree of heterozygosity per locus per individual feral

K Eriksson; O Halkka; J Lokki; A Saura



Genetic structure and diversity among maize inbred lines as inferred from DNA microsatellites.  

PubMed Central

Two hundred and sixty maize inbred lines, representative of the genetic diversity among essentially all public lines of importance to temperate breeding and many important tropical and subtropical lines, were assayed for polymorphism at 94 microsatellite loci. The 2039 alleles identified served as raw data for estimating genetic structure and diversity. A model-based clustering analysis placed the inbred lines in five clusters that correspond to major breeding groups plus a set of lines showing evidence of mixed origins. A "phylogenetic" tree was constructed to further assess the genetic structure of maize inbreds, showing good agreement with the pedigree information and the cluster analysis. Tropical and subtropical inbreds possess a greater number of alleles and greater gene diversity than their temperate counterparts. The temperate Stiff Stalk lines are on average the most divergent from all other inbred groups. Comparison of diversity in equivalent samples of inbreds and open-pollinated landraces revealed that maize inbreds capture <80% of the alleles in the landraces, suggesting that landraces can provide additional genetic diversity for maize breeding. The contributions of four different segments of the landrace gene pool to each inbred group's gene pool were estimated using a novel likelihood-based model. The estimates are largely consistent with known histories of the inbreds and indicate that tropical highland germplasm is poorly represented in maize inbreds. Core sets of inbreds that capture maximal allelic richness were defined. These or similar core sets can be used for a variety of genetic applications in maize.

Liu, Kejun; Goodman, Major; Muse, Spencer; Smith, J Stephen; Buckler, Ed; Doebley, John



Voluntary consumption of ethanol in 15 inbred mouse strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine genetic differences in ethanol consumption, 15 commonly used inbred strains of mice were given ad libitum two-bottle choice between ethanol, 0.2% saccharin, or ethanol plus saccharin in one bottle versus tap water in the other bottle. Three different concentrations of ethanol were used: 3%, 6% and 10% (v\\/v). Of the 15 strains, the C57BL\\/6J, C57BR\\/cdJ and C57L\\/J strains

J. K. Belknap; J. C. Crabbe; E. R. Young



Ethanol Teratogenesis in Five Inbred Strains of Mice  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies have demonstrated individual differences in susceptibility to the detrimental effects of prenatal ethanol exposure. Many factors, including genetic differences, have been shown to play a role in susceptibility and resistance, but few studies have investigated the range of genetic variation in rodent models. Methods We examined ethanol teratogenesis in five inbred strains of mice: C57BL/6J (B6), Inbred Short-Sleep, C3H/Ibg, A/Ibg and 129S6/SvEvTac (129). Pregnant dams were intubated with either 5.8 g/kg ethanol (E) or an isocaloric amount of maltose-dextrin (MD) on day 9 of pregnancy. Dams were sacrificed on day 18 and fetuses were weighed, sexed and examined for gross morphological malformations. Every other fetus within a litter was then either placed in Bouin’s fixative for subsequent soft-tissue analyses or eviscerated and placed in ethanol for subsequent skeletal analyses. Results B6 mice exposed to ethanol in utero had fetal weight deficits and digit, kidney, brain ventricle and vertebral malformations. In contrast, 129 mice showed no teratogenesis. The remaining strains showed varying degrees of teratogenesis. Conclusions Differences among inbred strains demonstrates genetic variation in the teratogenic effects of ethanol. Identifying susceptible and resistant strains allows future studies to elucidate the genetic architecture underlying prenatal alcohol phenotypes.

Downing, Chris; Balderrama-Durbin, Christina; Broncucia, Hali; Gilliam, David; Johnson, Thomas E.



Inheritance of Spatial Learning Ability in Inbred Mice: A Classical Genetic Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inheritance of spatial learning ability in inbred mice was examined by performance of a classical genetic cross between the 2 inbred strains C57BL\\/6lbg and DBA\\/2lsbg. The inbreds were crossed to produce the 1st filial generation (F1) hybrids. F1 mice were bred to each other and were backcrossed to the parental strains to produce 3 hybrid generations with recombinant genotypes.

Margaret Upchurch; Jeanne M. Wehner



Evolution of DNA Sequence Nonhomologies among Maize InbredsW?  

PubMed Central

Allelic chromosomal regions totaling more than 2.8 Mb and located on maize (Zea mays) chromosomes 1L, 2S, 7L, and 9S have been sequenced and compared over distances of 100 to 350 kb between the two maize inbred lines Mo17 and B73. The alleles contain extended regions of nonhomology. On average, more than 50% of the compared sequence is noncolinear, mainly because of the insertion of large numbers of long terminal repeat (LTR)-retrotransposons. Only 27 LTR-retroelements are shared between alleles, whereas 62 are allele specific. The insertion of LTR-retrotransposons into the maize genome is statistically more recent for nonshared than shared ones. Most surprisingly, more than one-third of the genes (27/72) are absent in one of the inbreds at the loci examined. Such nonshared genes usually appear to be truncated and form clusters in which they are oriented in the same direction. However, the nonshared genome segments are gene-poor, relative to regions shared by both inbreds, with up to 12-fold difference in gene density. By contrast, miniature inverted terminal repeats (MITEs) occur at a similar frequency in the shared and nonshared fractions. Many times, MITES are present in an identical position in both LTRs of a retroelement, indicating that their insertion occurred before the replication of the retroelement in question. Maize ESTs and/or maize massively parallel signature sequencing tags were identified for the majority of the nonshared genes or homologs of them. In contrast with shared genes, which are usually conserved in gene order and location relative to rice (Oryza sativa), nonshared genes violate the maize colinearity with rice. Based on this, insertion by a yet unknown mechanism, rather than deletion events, seems to be the origin of the nonshared genes. The intergenic space between conserved genes is enlarged up to sixfold in maize compared with rice. Frequently, retroelement insertions create a different sequence environment adjacent to conserved genes.

Brunner, Stephan; Fengler, Kevin; Morgante, Michele; Tingey, Scott; Rafalski, Antoni



Withdrawal severity after chronic intermittent ethanol in inbred mouse strains  

PubMed Central

Background To study withdrawal, ethanol is usually administered chronically without interruption. However, interest has recurred in models of episodic exposure. Increasing evidence suggests that chronic intermittent exposure to ethanol leads to a sensitization effect in both withdrawal severity and in ethanol consumption. The goal of the present study was to examine mouse inbred strain differences in withdrawal severity following chronic intermittent exposure using the handling induced convulsion as the behavioral endpoint. We also sought to compare the withdrawal responses of inbred strains across acute, chronic continuous, and chronic intermittent exposure regimens. Methods Male mice from 15 standard inbred strains were exposed to ethanol vapor for 16 hours each day for 3 days and removed to an air chamber during the intervening 8 hours. Mice in the control groups were handled the same, except that they were exposed only to air. Daily blood ethanol concentrations were averaged for each mouse to estimate total dose of ethanol experienced. Results Across strains, mice had an average daily blood ethanol concentration (BEC) of 1.45 ± 0.02 mg/ml and we restricted the range of this value to 1.00 to 2.00 mg/ml. To evaluate strain differences, we divided data into two dose groups based on BEC, Low Dose (1.29 ± 0.1 mg/ml) and High Dose (1.71 ± 0.02 mg/ml). After the third inhalation exposure, ethanol- and air-exposed groups were tested hourly for handling-induced convulsions for 10 hr and at hr 24 and 25. Strains differed markedly in the severity of withdrawal (after subtraction of air control values) in both dose groups. Conclusion The chronic intermittent exposure paradigm is sufficient to elicit differential withdrawal responses across nearly all strains. Data from the High Dose groups correlated well with withdrawal data derived from prior acute (single high dose) and chronic continuous (for 72 hrs) ethanol withdrawal studies, supporting the influence of common genes on all three responses.

Metten, Pamela; Sorensen, Michelle L.; Cameron, Andy Jade; Yu, Chia-Hua; Crabbe, John C.



Growth of pleomorphic Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense in irradiated inbred mice  

SciTech Connect

It was shown that irradiation (650 rad) of 7 inbred strains of mice did not block the ability of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense to transform from the long slender (LS) to the short stumpy (SS) form or alter the plateau in parasitemia. In addition, it was observed that significant differences in parasitemia levels, in the rate of transformation from the LS to the SS form, as well as in the survival times occurred between the irradiated C3HeB/FeJ and several of the other strains. These differences in the nonspecific ability to control parasitemia appeared to be characteristic for each inbred strain of mice. The resistant strains generally had lower parasitemia than the susceptible strains. However, it was also shown that there is not a one-to-one correlation between the innate ability of a mouse strain to control its initial parasitemia, and the strain's ability to clear the parasitemia or increase its survival time. It was therefore concluded that the hypothesis which states that the ability of an animal to increase nonspecifically the rate of transformation, and therefore to lower the parasitemia, allowing intact animals to respond immunologically and survive longer is either incorrect or incomplete. The results further show that the ability of mice to clear their initial parasitemia by an antibody response is not necessarily correlated with their survival time. Therefore, this study suggests that factors other than an antibody response and the nonspecific control of parasitemia are important in resistance.

Seed, J.R.; Sechelski, J.



Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) Detection in Multicross Inbred Designs  

PubMed Central

Mapping quantitative trait loci in plants is usually conducted using a population derived from a cross between two inbred lines. The power of such QTL detection and the parameter estimates depend largely on the choice of the two parental lines. Thus, the QTL detected in such populations represent only a small part of the genetic architecture of the trait. In addition, the effects of only two alleles are characterized, which is of limited interest to the breeder, while common pedigree breeding material remains unexploited for QTL mapping. In this study, we extend QTL mapping methodology to a generalized framework, based on a two-step IBD variance component approach, applicable to any type of breeding population obtained from inbred parents. We then investigate with simulated data mimicking conventional breeding programs the influence of different estimates of the IBD values on the power of QTL detection. The proposed method would provide an alternative to the development of specifically designed recombinant populations, by utilizing the genetic variation actually managed by plant breeders. The use of these detected QTL in assisting breeding would thus be facilitated.

Crepieux, Sebastien; Lebreton, Claude; Servin, Bertrand; Charmet, Gilles



Diagnostics of low-pressure discharges containing InBr studied for lighting applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The utilization of InBr in low-pressure rare-gas plasmas for lighting applications may serve as an efficient alternative to hazardous mercury, which is used in common fluorescent lamps as a radiator. In order to perform systematic investigations of these discharges, diagnostic methods are required to gain insight into the relevant plasma parameters. This goal can be achieved by using white light absorption and optical emission spectroscopy supported by an extended corona model of the indium atom and a simulation of the relative intensity of the InBr emission. The set of diagnostic methods is exemplarily applied to measurements on an inductively coupled argon discharge at 100 W power with varying InBr content. The plasma parameters are derived and the processes determining their changes with varying InBr density are identified. Increasing the InBr density results in a decrease in Te but an increase in ne, which can be explained by considering the ionization and power balance. The relevant population processes for the rovibrational states of InBr are inelastic collisions with heavy particles with an increasing importance of electron impact excitation at a higher InBr density. The radiated power is maximal at a cold spot temperature between 210 and 220 °C as reabsorption occurs at a high InBr density.

Briefi, S.; Fantz, U.



Dissociation of seizure traits in inbred strains of mice using the flurothyl kindling model of epileptogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous seizure models have demonstrated genetic differences in generalized seizure threshold (GST) in inbred mice, but the genetic control of epileptogenesis is relatively unexplored. The present study examined, through analysis of inbred strains of mice, whether the seizure characteristics observed in the flurothyl kindling model are under genetic control. Eight consecutive, daily generalized seizures were induced by flurothyl in mice

Dominick Papandrea; Tara M. Anderson; Bruce J. Herron; Russell J. Ferland



Identification of mouse inbred strains through mitochondrial DNA single-nucleotide extension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inbred mouse strains are used as model organisms for biomedical research in laboratories throughout the world. The most widely used of these strains had their genome sequenced recently, and phylogenetic studies have been performed, namely, based on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). This has allowed determining that few polymorphisms distinguish the mtDNAs of the common inbred strains, but a high number of

Ana Goios; L Gusmao; Ana Mafalda Rocha; Amélia Fonseca; Luísa Pereira; Molly Bogue; António Amorim



Mapping stripe rust resistance in a BrundageXCoda winter wheat recombinant inbred line population.  


A recombinant inbred line (RIL) mapping population developed from a cross between winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars Coda and Brundage was evaluated for reaction to stripe rust (caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici). Two hundred and sixty eight RIL from the population were evaluated in replicated field trials in a total of nine site-year locations in the U.S. Pacific Northwest. Seedling reaction to stripe rust races PST-100, PST-114 and PST-127 was also examined. A linkage map consisting of 2,391 polymorphic DNA markers was developed covering all chromosomes of wheat with the exception of 1D. Two QTL on chromosome 1B were associated with adult plant and seedling reaction and were the most significant QTL detected. Together these QTL reduced adult plant infection type from a score of seven to a score of two reduced disease severity by an average of 25% and provided protection against race PST-100, PST-114 and PST-127 in the seedling stage. The location of these QTL and the race specificity provided by them suggest that observed effects at this locus are due to a complementation of the previously known but defeated resistances of the cultivar Tres combining with that of Madsen (the two parent cultivars of Coda). Two additional QTL on chromosome 3B and one on 5B were associated with adult plant reaction only, and a single QTL on chromosome 5D was associated with seedling reaction to PST-114. Coda has been resistant to stripe rust since its release in 2000, indicating that combining multiple resistance genes for stripe rust provides durable resistance, especially when all-stage resistance genes are combined in a fashion to maximize the number of races they protect against. Identified molecular markers will allow for an efficient transfer of these genes into other cultivars, thereby continuing to provide excellent resistance to stripe rust. PMID:24642574

Case, Austin J; Naruoka, Yukiko; Chen, Xianming; Garland-Campbell, Kimberly A; Zemetra, Robert S; Carter, Arron H



Voluntary Ethanol Consumption in 22 Inbred Mouse Strains  

PubMed Central

Inbred strains are genetically stable across time and laboratories, allowing scientists to accumulate a record of phenotypes, including physiological characteristics and behaviors. To date, the C57/C58 family of inbred mouse strains has been identified as having the highest innate ethanol consumption, but some lineages have rarely or never been surveyed. Thus, the purpose of the present experiment was to measure ethanol preference and intake in 22 inbred mouse strains, some of which have never been tested for ethanol consumption. Male and female mice (A/J, BALB/cByJ, BTBR+Ttf/tf, BUB/BnJ, C57BL/6J, C57BLKS/J, C58/J, CZECH/Ei, DBA/2J, FVB/NJ, I/LnJ, LP/J, MA/MyJ, NOD/LtJ, NON/LtJ, NZB/B1NJ, NZW/LacJ, PERA/Ei, RIIIS/J, SEA/GnJ, SM/J, and 129S1/SvlmJ) were individually housed and given unlimited access in a two-bottle choice procedure to one bottle containing tap water and a second containing increasing concentrations of ethanol (3%, 6%, 10%), 0.2% saccharin, and then increasing concentrations of ethanol (3%, 6%, 10%) plus 0.2% saccharin. Mice were given access to each novel solution for a total of 4 days, with a bottle side change every other day. Consistent with previous studies, C57BL/6J (B6) mice consumed an ethanol dose of > 10g/kg/day while DBA/2J (D2) mice consumed < 2g/kg/day. No strain voluntarily consumed greater doses of ethanol than B6 mice. While the C58 and C57BLKS strains showed high ethanol consumption levels that were comparable to B6 mice, the BUB and BTBR strains exhibited low ethanol intakes similar to D2 mice. The addition of 0.2% saccharin to the ethanol solutions significantly increased ethanol intake by most strains and altered the strain distribution pattern. Strong positive correlations (rs ? 0.83) were determined between consumption of the unsweetened versus sweetened ethanol solutions. Consumption of saccharin alone was significantly positively correlated with the sweetened ethanol solutions (rs = 0.62 – 0.81), but the correlation with unsweetened ethanol solutions was considerably lower (rs = 0.37 – 0.45). These results add new strains to the strain mean database that will facilitate the identification of genetic relationships between voluntary ethanol consumption, saccharin preference, and other phenotypes.

Yoneyama, Naomi; Crabbe, John C.; Ford, Matthew M.; Murillo, Andrea; Finn, Deborah A.



Coreceptor affinity for MHC defines peptide specificity requirements for TCR interaction with coagonist peptide-MHC  

PubMed Central

Recent work has demonstrated that nonstimulatory endogenous peptides can enhance T cell recognition of antigen, but MHCI- and MHCII-restricted systems have generated very different results. MHCII-restricted TCRs need to interact with the nonstimulatory peptide–MHC (pMHC), showing peptide specificity for activation enhancers or coagonists. In contrast, the MHCI-restricted cells studied to date show no such peptide specificity for coagonists, suggesting that CD8 binding to noncognate MHCI is more important. Here we show how this dichotomy can be resolved by varying CD8 and TCR binding to agonist and coagonists coupled with computer simulations, and we identify two distinct mechanisms by which CD8 influences the peptide specificity of coagonism. Mechanism 1 identifies the requirement of CD8 binding to noncognate ligand and suggests a direct relationship between the magnitude of coagonism and CD8 affinity for coagonist pMHCI. Mechanism 2 describes how the affinity of CD8 for agonist pMHCI changes the requirement for specific coagonist peptides. MHCs that bind CD8 strongly were tolerant of all or most peptides as coagonists, but weaker CD8-binding MHCs required stronger TCR binding to coagonist, limiting the potential coagonist peptides. These findings in MHCI systems also explain peptide-specific coagonism in MHCII-restricted cells, as CD4–MHCII interaction is generally weaker than CD8–MHCI.

Hoerter, John A.H.; Brzostek, Joanna; Artyomov, Maxim N.; Abel, Steven M.; Casas, Javier; Rybakin, Vasily; Ampudia, Jeanette; Lotz, Carina; Connolly, Janet M.; Chakraborty, Arup K.; Gould, Keith G.



Brugia malayi: establishment in inbred and outbred strains of mice.  


Immunocompetent mouse model for human filarial parasite Brugia malayi is urgently required in view of the paucity of commercial reagents for other susceptible rodent viz. mastomys and gerbil. Genes within the major histocompatibility complex have been reported to influence the susceptibility of mouse to helminth parasites. Attempts have therefore been made in the present investigation to experimentally infect various inbred strains of mice viz. NZB/BINJ, BALB/c, AKR, C(3)H, and SJL/J with H-2 haplotype (H-2: d, d, k, k, s, respectively) and outbred strains of mice viz. Parks and Swiss. Findings indicate that susceptibility of mice to B. malayi is strain associated. This is the first report on the successful completion of full developmental cycle of subperiodic B. malayi in NZB/BINJ, an immunocompetent mouse strain. In some of the other strains, partial development or low degree of establishment of worms was observed. PMID:12810047

Gupta, Ruma; Tyagi, Kumkum; Jain, S K; Misra-Bhattacharya, Shailja



Distribution of parental genome blocks in recombinant inbred lines.  


We consider recombinant inbred lines obtained by crossing two given homozygous parents and then applying multiple generations of self-crossings or full-sib matings. The chromosomal content of any such line forms a mosaic of blocks, each alternatively inherited identically by descent from one of the parents. Quantifying the statistical properties of such mosaic genomes has remained an open challenge for many years. Here, we solve this problem by taking a continuous chromosome picture and assuming crossovers to be noninterfering. Using a continuous-time random walk framework and Markov chain theory, we determine the statistical properties of these identical-by-descent blocks. We find that successive block lengths are only very slightly correlated. Furthermore, the blocks on the ends of chromosomes are larger on average than the others, a feature understandable from the nonexponential distribution of block lengths. PMID:21840856

Martin, Olivier C; Hospital, Frédéric



Variation in actual relationship among descendants of inbred individuals.  


In previous analyses, the variation in actual, or realized, relationship has been derived as a function of map length of chromosomes and type of relationship, the variation being greater the shorter the total chromosome length and the coefficient of variation being greater the more distant the relationship. Here, the results are extended to allow for the relatives' ancestor being inbred. Inbreeding of a parent reduces variation in actual relationship among its offspring, by an amount that depends on the inbreeding level and the type of mating that led to that level. For descendants of full-sibs, the variation is reduced in later generations, but for descendants of half-sibs, it is increased. PMID:23298449

Hill, W G; Weir, B S



Autism-related behavioral phenotypes in an inbred rat substrain.  


Behavioral and genetic differences among Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats from different vendors and different breeders have long been observed, but generally overlooked. In our prior work, we found that two closely related WKY substrains, the WKY/NCrl and WKY/NHsd rats, differ in a small percentage of their genome which appeared to be highly enriched for autism risk genes. Although both substrains have been used widely in studies of hypertension, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and depression, they have not been tested for any autism-related behavioral phenotypes. Furthermore, these two substrains have often been used interchangeably in previous studies; no study has systematically examined the phenotypic differences that could be attributed by their small yet potentially meaningful genetic differences. In this paper we compared these two substrains on a battery of neurobehavioral tests. Although two substrains were similar in locomotor activity, WKY/NCrl rats were significantly different from WKY/NHsd rats in the elevated plus maze test, as well as measures of social interaction and ultrasonic vocalization. These strains were also compared with Sprague Dawley (SD) rats, a common outbred strain, and spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR), an inbred rat model for ADHD and hypertension, which were derived from the same ancestor strain as the WKY strains. Our behavioral findings suggest that WKY/NCrl rats may be useful as a model autism spectrum disorders due to their lower social interest, lower ultrasonic vocalization and higher anxiety levels when WKY/NHsd rats are used as the control strain. Given the small genetic difference between the two inbred substrains, future studies to identify the exact gene and sequence variants that differ between the two may be useful for identifying the genetic mechanisms underlying these behaviors. PMID:24780868

Zhang-James, Yanli; Yang, Li; Middleton, Frank A; Yang, Lina; Patak, Jameson; Faraone, Stephen V



Persistent ductus arteriosus in the Brown-Norway inbred rat strain.  


Persistent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a common cardiovascular anomaly in children caused by the pathologic persistence of the left sixth pharyngeal arch artery. The inbred Brown-Norway (BN) rat presents with increased vascular fragility due to an aortic elastin deficit resulting from decreased elastin synthesis. The strikingly high prevalence of PDA in BN rats in a pilot study led us to investigate this vascular anomaly in 12 adolescent BN rats. In all BN rats, a PDA was observed macroscopically, whereas a ligamentum arteriosum was found in adult controls. The macroscopic appearance of the PDA was tubular (n = 2), stenotic (n = 8), or diverticular (n = 2). The PDA had the structure of a muscular artery with intimal thickening. In the normal closing ductus of the neonatal controls, the media consisted of layers of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) intermingled with layers of elastin. The intima was thin and poor in elastin. By contrast, the media of PDA in BN rats elastin lamellae were absent and the intima contained many elastic fibers. The abnormal distribution of elastin in the PDA of BN rats suggests that impaired elastin metabolism is related to the persistence of the ductus and implicates a genetically determined factor that may link the PDA with aortic fragility. PMID:16940252

Bökenkamp, Regina; Gittenberger-De Groot, Adriana C; Van Munsteren, Conny J; Grauss, Robert W; Ottenkamp, Jaap; Deruiter, Marco C



NaCl Taste Thresholds in 13 Inbred Mouse Strains  

PubMed Central

Molecular mechanisms of salty taste in mammals are not completely understood. We use genetic approaches to study these mechanisms. Previously, we developed a high-throughput procedure to measure NaCl taste thresholds, which involves conditioning mice to avoid LiCl and then examining avoidance of NaCl solutions presented in 48-h 2-bottle preference tests. Using this procedure, we measured NaCl taste thresholds of mice from 13 genealogically divergent inbred stains: 129P3/J, A/J, BALB/cByJ, C3H/HeJ, C57BL/6ByJ, C57BL/6J, CBA/J, CE/J, DBA/2J, FVB/NJ, NZB/BlNJ, PWK/PhJ, and SJL/J. We found substantial strain variation in NaCl taste thresholds: mice from the A/J and 129P3/J strains had high thresholds (were less sensitive), whereas mice from the BALB/cByJ, C57BL/6J, C57BL/6ByJ, CE/J, DBA/2J, NZB/BINJ, and SJL/J had low thresholds (were more sensitive). NaCl taste thresholds measured in this study did not significantly correlate with NaCl preferences or amiloride sensitivity of chorda tympani nerve responses to NaCl determined in the same strains in other studies. To examine whether strain differences in NaCl taste thresholds could have been affected by variation in learning ability or sensitivity to toxic effects of LiCl, we used the same method to measure citric acid taste thresholds in 4 inbred strains with large differences in NaCl taste thresholds but similar acid sensitivity in preference tests (129P3/J, A/J, C57BL/6J, and DBA/2J). Citric acid taste thresholds were similar in these 4 strains. This suggests that our technique measures taste quality–specific thresholds that are likely to represent differences in peripheral taste responsiveness. The strain differences in NaCl taste sensitivity found in this study provide a basis for genetic analysis of this phenotype.

Ishiwatari, Yutaka



NaCl taste thresholds in 13 inbred mouse strains.  


Molecular mechanisms of salty taste in mammals are not completely understood. We use genetic approaches to study these mechanisms. Previously, we developed a high-throughput procedure to measure NaCl taste thresholds, which involves conditioning mice to avoid LiCl and then examining avoidance of NaCl solutions presented in 48-h 2-bottle preference tests. Using this procedure, we measured NaCl taste thresholds of mice from 13 genealogically divergent inbred stains: 129P3/J, A/J, BALB/cByJ, C3H/HeJ, C57BL/6ByJ, C57BL/6J, CBA/J, CE/J, DBA/2J, FVB/NJ, NZB/BlNJ, PWK/PhJ, and SJL/J. We found substantial strain variation in NaCl taste thresholds: mice from the A/J and 129P3/J strains had high thresholds (were less sensitive), whereas mice from the BALB/cByJ, C57BL/6J, C57BL/6ByJ, CE/J, DBA/2J, NZB/BINJ, and SJL/J had low thresholds (were more sensitive). NaCl taste thresholds measured in this study did not significantly correlate with NaCl preferences or amiloride sensitivity of chorda tympani nerve responses to NaCl determined in the same strains in other studies. To examine whether strain differences in NaCl taste thresholds could have been affected by variation in learning ability or sensitivity to toxic effects of LiCl, we used the same method to measure citric acid taste thresholds in 4 inbred strains with large differences in NaCl taste thresholds but similar acid sensitivity in preference tests (129P3/J, A/J, C57BL/6J, and DBA/2J). Citric acid taste thresholds were similar in these 4 strains. This suggests that our technique measures taste quality-specific thresholds that are likely to represent differences in peripheral taste responsiveness. The strain differences in NaCl taste sensitivity found in this study provide a basis for genetic analysis of this phenotype. PMID:22293936

Ishiwatari, Yutaka; Bachmanov, Alexander A



Characterization of Inbred Mouse Strains for Biochemical Parameters of Detoxification Mechanisms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Nonfasted female mice of the inbred mouse strains maintained at NCTR were assayed for hepatic glutathione concentration, serum gamma-glutamyl transferase activity and hepatic glutathione S-transferase activity (substrates: 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, 1,2...

G. Wolff



Strange Male Block to Pregnancy: its Absence in Inbred Mouse Strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

A SERIES of papers by Bruce and colleagues1-4 has described a pre-implantation block to pregnancy in non-inbred laboratory mice which is evoked by the presence of strange males of the same strain or of a different strain (`alien' males). This effect is olfactory-mediated. The phenomenon has also been reported in another species, non-inbred prairie deermice (Peromyscus maniculatus bairdii)5.

H. M. Marsden; F. H. Bronson



Emission and absorption spectra of InBr in low pressure discharges  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies heated inductively driven rf-discharges using emission and absorption spectroscopy. The dependence on parameters such as pressure, heating temperature and amount of InBr in different background gases has been investigated. The measured spectra are compared to simulations of the InBr emission based on molecular constants, Franck-Condon factors and transition probabilities, providing information about rotational, vibrational and electronic population

S. Briefi; U. Fantz



Computation of multilocus prior probability of autozygosity for complex inbred pedigrees.  


Homozygosity mapping is a very powerful method for mapping rare recessive diseases in humans. In many applications, it is often desirable to compute prior (or unconditional) multilocus probability of autozygosity for inbred pedigrees. This paper proposes a simple yet powerful method for computing the prior multilocus autozygosity probability for complex inbred pedigrees. The method has an added feature of providing explicit multilocus autozygosity probability in terms of recombination fractions, if desired. An example is presented to illustrate the method. PMID:9055058

Guo, S W



Response of inbred mice to aerosol challenge with Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  

PubMed Central

An autosomal dominant gene (Bcg), which maps to mouse chromosome 1, has been shown to confer on mice resistance to attenuated Mycobacterium bovis BCG Montreal, Salmonella typhimurium, and Leishmania donovani. Most animal models used for the study of the Bcg gene have involved intravenous injection of a large number of microorganisms (greater than 10(4) CFU). The present study examines the effect of the Bcg gene on the resistance of inbred mice to challenge via the respiratory route with 5 to 10 CFU of virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The number of tubercle bacilli recovered from the lung lobes indicates that the growth kinetics of the microorganism did not differ between BCG-resistant and BCG-susceptible strains of mice. The number of tubercle bacilli recovered from the spleen was also similar among strains. Although there were reproducible differences in the time of first recovery of bacilli from the spleen, these differences appeared to be unrelated to the expression of the Bcg gene. When mice were challenged with purified protein derivative, all strains responded similarly as observed by measurements of footpad swelling.

Musa, S A; Kim, Y; Hashim, R; Wang, G Z; Dimmer, C; Smith, D W



Immunogenetic aspects of intracerebral skin transplantation in inbred rats.  

PubMed Central

This study was undertaken to evaluate the ability of intracerebral skin grafts transplanted across different genetic disparities in the major histocompatibility complex (RT1) to elicit an immune response in inbred rats, as determined by histologic examination and by the ability of the grafts to sensitize the recipients to subsequent orthotopic skin grafts. The ability of intracerebral skin allografts to sensitize rats to transplantation antigens is related to the specific genetic disparity between the graft and the host: sensitization appears to occur more consistently across an A region barrier than across a B region barrier. Histologic changes of intracerebral graft rejection are more severe in rats with two intracerebral grafts than in those with one. The degree of histologic change attributable to intracerebral allograft rejection correlates with the ability of these grafts to sensitize the recipient. In certain strains intracerebral sensitization is accomplished with two grafts but not with one, indicating an antigenic dose requirement for intracerebral sensitization. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 2 Figure 4

Geyer, S. J.; Gill, T. J.



Copy number variants in a highly inbred Iberian porcine strain.  


We carried out a comprehensive genomic analysis of porcine copy number variants (CNVs) based on whole-genome SNP genotyping data and provided new measures of genomic diversity (number, length and distribution of CNV events) for a highly inbred strain (the Guadyerbas strain). This strain represents one of the most ancient surviving populations of the Iberian breed, and it is currently in serious danger of extinction. CNV detection was conducted on the complete Guadyerbas population, adjusted for genomic waves, and used strict quality criteria, pedigree information and the latest porcine genome annotation. The analysis led to the detection of 65 CNV regions (CNVRs). These regions cover 0.33% of the autosomal genome of this particular strain. Twenty-nine of these CNVRs were identified here for the first time. The relatively low number of detected CNVRs is in line with the low variability and high inbreeding estimated previously for this Iberian strain using pedigree, microsatellite or SNP data. A comparison across different porcine studies has revealed that more than half of these regions overlap with previously identified CNVRs or multicopy regions. Also, a preliminary analysis of CNV detection using whole-genome sequence data for four Guadyerbas pigs showed overlapping for 16 of the CNVRs, supporting their reliability. Some of the identified CNVRs contain relevant functional genes (e.g., the SCD and USP15 genes), which are worth being further investigated because of their importance in determining the quality of Iberian pig products. The CNVR data generated could be useful for improving the porcine genome annotation. PMID:24597621

Fernández, A I; Barragán, C; Fernández, A; Rodríguez, M C; Villanueva, B



Simulated childbirth injuries in an inbred rat strain  

PubMed Central

Vaginal distension (VD) in outbred rats has been shown to decrease urethral resistance, as well as increase the expression of the stem cell-homing chemokine, monocyte chemotactic factor 3 (MCP-3), but not stromal derived factor 1 (SDF-1). The aim of this study was to determine if similar responses are induced by VD in an inbred rat strain. Forty female Lewis rats underwent VD or sham VD followed by leak point pressure (LPP) testing 4 or 10 days later. Ten additional rats served as controls. The urethra and vagina were then dissected for histology. To examine chemokine expression, 8 additional rats underwent VD with organs harvested immediately or 1 day after the procedure for RT-PCR of MCP-3 and SDF-1. Four age-matched rats served as controls. Four days after VD, LPP was significantly lower in VD rats (14.3±1.6 cmH2O) than controls (18.7±1.3 cmH2O). Ten days after VD, LPP in both VD (19.7±2.6 cmH2O) and sham (18.4±1.3 cmH2O) groups was not significantly different from controls. Urethral histology demonstrated marked disruption and atrophy of smooth and striated muscle in VD rats compared to shams and controls. RT-PCR yielded a 25-fold significant increase in expression of urethral MCP-3 immediately following VD. SDF-1 was significantly decreased in the urethra and vagina immediately after VD and in the bladder 24 hours after VD. In conclusion, VD in Lewis rats produces functional, histological and molecular results similar to that of outbred rats. This model could be utilized in future studies investigating cellular transplant methods of improving urethral function.

Woo, Lynn L.; Hijaz, Adonis; Pan, Hui Q.; Kuang, Mei; Rackley, Raymond R.; Damaser, Margot S.



The ancestor of extant Japanese fancy mice contributed to the mosaic genomes of classical inbred strains  

PubMed Central

Commonly used classical inbred mouse strains have mosaic genomes with sequences from different subspecific origins. Their genomes are derived predominantly from the Western European subspecies Mus musculus domesticus, with the remaining sequences derived mostly from the Japanese subspecies Mus musculus molossinus. However, it remains unknown how this intersubspecific genome introgression occurred during the establishment of classical inbred strains. In this study, we resequenced the genomes of two M. m. molossinus–derived inbred strains, MSM/Ms and JF1/Ms. MSM/Ms originated from Japanese wild mice, and the ancestry of JF1/Ms was originally found in Europe and then transferred to Japan. We compared the characteristics of these sequences to those of the C57BL/6J reference sequence and the recent data sets from the resequencing of 17 inbred strains in the Mouse Genome Project (MGP), and the results unequivocally show that genome introgression from M. m. molossinus into M. m. domesticus provided the primary framework for the mosaic genomes of classical inbred strains. Furthermore, the genomes of C57BL/6J and other classical inbred strains have long consecutive segments with extremely high similarity (>99.998%) to the JF1/Ms strain. In the early 20th century, Japanese waltzing mice with a morphological phenotype resembling that of JF1/Ms mice were often crossed with European fancy mice for early studies of “Mendelism,” which suggests that the ancestor of the extant JF1/Ms strain provided the origin of the M. m. molossinus genome in classical inbred strains and largely contributed to its intersubspecific genome diversity.

Takada, Toyoyuki; Ebata, Toshinobu; Noguchi, Hideki; Keane, Thomas M.; Adams, David J.; Narita, Takanori; Shin-I, Tadasu; Fujisawa, Hironori; Toyoda, Atsushi; Abe, Kuniya; Obata, Yuichi; Sakaki, Yoshiyuki; Moriwaki, Kazuo; Fujiyama, Asao; Kohara, Yuji; Shiroishi, Toshihiko



Induction of tetraploid derivatives of maize inbred lines by nitrous oxide gas treatment.  


Maize (Zea mays L.) is a model organism for various genetic and physiological studies. Induction of autotetraploid lines from elite inbred lines is valuable for investigating gene dosage effects on the molecular level. We applied nitrous oxide gas at the time of fertilization (30-36 h after pollination) for 20 h on maize inbred line Oh43. The nitrous oxide gas treatment between pressures of 600-1000 kPa proved to be effective in inducing tetraploids. The treatment also significantly increased the rates of germless and shriveled kernels. Twelve inbred lines were treated with nitrous oxide gas for 20 h at either 800 or 900 kPa pressures, 30 or 36 h after pollination. Although tetraploid or tetraploid class aneuploid plants from 9 of 12 inbreds tested were successfully generated, only six genotypes produced progenies. The successful tetraploid inbred lines were from the A188, B73, H99, Oh43, Stock 6, and W22 genetic backgrounds. Aneuploids, plants with broken chromosomes and chimeras, were also found among the treated materials. PMID:16394254

Kato, Akio; Birchler, James A



Murine malaria: resistance of AXB/BXA recombinant inbred mice to Plasmodium chabaudi.  

PubMed Central

The level of resistance to infection with Plasmodium chabaudi is genetically controlled. We have previously reported that a single dominant gene is responsible for the variation in host resistance to malaria between susceptible A/J- and resistant C57BL-derived mice. In the present study, recombinant inbred strain analysis was performed with AXB/BXA recombinant inbred strains derived from A/J and C57BL/6 progenitors. Typing of 17 AXB/BXA recombinant inbred strains confirmed the unigenic control of inheritance in this particular strain combination and allowed us to demonstrate genetic linkage between the traits of resistance (defined as a prolonged survival and a low peak parasitemia) and the magnitude of splenomegaly. The influence of sex on the course of infection, which we previously reported in the examination of segregating populations (Stevenson et al., Infect. Immun. 38:80-88, 1982), was again demonstrated in the survey of RI strains.

Stevenson, M M; Skamene, E



Two- and three-locus tests for linkage analysis using recombinant inbred lines.  


We consider fixed recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived either by selfing or by full-sib mating; when applicable, we also consider intermated recombinant inbreds (IRIs). First, we show that the usual estimate of recombination fraction based on RIL data is biased, and we provide an estimate where the major part of that bias is removed. Second, we derive simple formulas to compute the frequencies of genotypes at three loci in RILs. We describe the nonindependence of multiple recombinations arising in RIL recombination data even though there may be no interference in each meiosis. Finally, we give formulas for interference tests, gene mapping, or QTL detection in RIL populations. PMID:16489236

Martin, Olivier C; Hospital, Frédéric



Phenotype and Genetics of Progressive Sensorineural Hearing Loss (Snhl1) in the LXS Set of Recombinant Inbred Strains of Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progressive sensorineural hearing loss is the most common form of acquired hearing impairment in the human population. It is also highly prevalent in inbred strains of mice, providing an experimental avenue to systematically map genetic risk factors and to dissect the molecular pathways that orchestrate hearing in peripheral sensory hair cells. Therefore, we ascertained hearing function in the inbred long

Konrad Noben-Trauth; Joseph R. Latoche; Harold R. Neely; Beth Bennett; Iris Schrijver



Characterization of conditionally expressed mutants affecting age-specific survival in inbred lines of Drosophila melanogaster: lethal conditions and temperature-sensitive periods.  

PubMed Central

The specific genetic basis of inbreeding depression is poorly understood. To address this question, two conditionally expressed lethal effects that were found to cause line-specific life span reductions in two separate inbred lines of Drosophila melanogaster were characterized phenotypically and genetically in terms of whether the accelerated mortality effects are dominant or recessive. The mortality effect in one line (I4) is potentially a temperature-sensitive semilethal that expresses in adult males only and is partially dominant. The other line (I10) responds as one would expect for a recessive lethal. It requires a cold shock for expression and is cold sensitive. Flies exhibiting this lethal condition responded as pupae and freshly eclosed imagoes. The effect is recessive in both males and females. The expression of the lethal effects in both lines is highly dependent upon environmental conditions. These results will serve as a basis for more detailed and mechanistic genetic research on inbreeding depression and are relevant to sex- and environment-specific effects on life span observed in quantitative trait loci studies using inbred lines.

Vermeulen, C J; Bijlsma, R



Joint genotyping on the fly: identifying variation among a sequenced panel of inbred lines.  


High-throughput sequencing is enabling remarkably deep surveys of genomic variation. It is now possible to completely sequence multiple individuals from a single species, yet the identification of variation among them remains an evolving computational challenge. This challenge is compounded for experimental organisms when strains are studied instead of individuals. In response, we present the Joint Genotyper for Inbred Lines (JGIL) as a method for obtaining genotypes and identifying variation among a large panel of inbred strains or lines. JGIL inputs the sequence reads from each line after their alignment to a common reference. Its probabilistic model includes site-specific parameters common to all lines that describe the frequency of nucleotides segregating in the population from which the inbred panel was derived. The distribution of line genotypes is conditional on these parameters and reflects the experimental design. Site-specific error probabilities, also common to all lines, parameterize the distribution of reads conditional on line genotype and realized coverage. Both sets of parameters are estimated per site from the aggregate read data, and posterior probabilities are calculated to decode the genotype of each line. We present an application of JGIL to 162 inbred Drosophila melanogaster lines from the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel. We explore by simulation the effect of varying coverage, sequencing error, mapping error, and the number of lines. In doing so, we illustrate how JGIL is robust to moderate levels of error. Supported by these analyses, we advocate the importance of modeling the data and the experimental design when possible. PMID:22367192

Stone, Eric A



Hybrid vigor in Pacific oysters: an experimental approach using crosses among inbred lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two competing genetic hypotheses for heterosis, dominance and overdominance, have been championed to explain positive correlations between allozyme heterozygosity and fitness-related traits for bivalve molluscs. To begin to test these hypotheses, we made controlled crosses among inbred lines of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. In such mating experiments, heterosis (hp) can be defined and quantified through ANOVA as QL >

Dennis Hedgecock; Daniel J. McGoldrick; Brian L. Bayne



Congenital bone deformities and the inbred wolves ( Canis lupus) of Isle Royale  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wolf (Canis lupus) population on Isle Royale, a remote island in Lake Superior, North America, is extremely inbred. Nevertheless, the consequences of genetic deterioration have not been detected for this intensively studied population, until now. We found that 58% (n=36) of Isle Royale wolves exhibited some kind of congenital malformation in the lumbosacral region of the vertebral column and

Jannikke Räikkönen; John A. Vucetich; Rolf O. Peterson; Michael P. Nelson



Congenital defects in a highly inbred wild wolf population ( Canis lupus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In wild populations negative effects from inbreeding are usually difficult to assess. The contemporary Scandinavian wolf population (Canis lupus) was established in 1983. With only three founders this population, with approximately 100 individuals, exhibits lower genetic variability than the neighbouring eastern population. Congenital malformations of the backbone were found in this highly inbred population. This study assesses the frequency and

Jannikke Räikkönen; A. Bignert; P. Mortensen; B. Fernholm



Joint genotyping on the fly: Identifying variation among a sequenced panel of inbred lines  

PubMed Central

High-throughput sequencing is enabling remarkably deep surveys of genomic variation. It is now possible to completely sequence multiple individuals from a single species, yet the identification of variation among them remains an evolving computational challenge. This challenge is compounded for experimental organisms when strains are studied instead of individuals. In response, we present the Joint Genotyper for Inbred Lines (JGIL) as a method for obtaining genotypes and identifying variation among a large panel of inbred strains or lines. JGIL inputs the sequence reads from each line after their alignment to a common reference. Its probabilistic model includes site-specific parameters common to all lines that describe the frequency of nucleotides segregating in the population from which the inbred panel was derived. The distribution of line genotypes is conditional on these parameters and reflects the experimental design. Site-specific error probabilities, also common to all lines, parameterize the distribution of reads conditional on line genotype and realized coverage. Both sets of parameters are estimated per site from the aggregate read data, and posterior probabilities are calculated to decode the genotype of each line. We present an application of JGIL to 162 inbred Drosophila melanogaster lines from the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel. We explore by simulation the effect of varying coverage, sequencing error, mapping error, and the number of lines. In doing so, we illustrate how JGIL is robust to moderate levels of error. Supported by these analyses, we advocate the importance of modeling the data and the experimental design when possible.

Stone, Eric A.



Cytoplasmic-nucleargenic effects in the C121 (Athens) Zea mays L. inbred with three cytoplasms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seeds of the long-time maize (Zea mays L.) inbred CI 21 (Athens) were prepared with the following cytoplasms: GA 199 and GT 112. Each source of cytoplasm as the female parent was corssed to the CI 21 (A) as the pollen parent. The F1, as the female, was backcrossed successively to the CI 21 (A) genotype until the CI 21

Arelli P. Rao; A. A. Fleming



Variation in Anti-Predator Behavior Among Five Strains of Inbred Guppies, Poecilia reticulata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative genetic studies frequently utilize inbred strains of animals as tools for partitioning the direct and indirect effects of genes from environmental effects in generating an observed phenotype, however, this approach is rarely applied to behavioral studies. Guppies, Poecilia reticulata, perform a set of anti-predator behaviors that may provide an ideal system to study how complex behavioral traits are generated.

Bronwyn H. Bleakley; Christopher M. Martell; Edmund D. Brodie



Variability of chromosomal DNA contents in maize ( Zea mays L.) inbred and hybrid lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flow karyotypes of different maize (Zea mays L.) inbred and hybrid lines were analyzed. The accumulation and isolation of large quantities of high-quality metaphase chromosomes from root tips was achieved from many kinds of maize lines. The chromosome suspensions were prepared by a simple slicing method from synchronized maize root tips and analyzed by flow cytometry. Variations of experimental

Jai-Heon Lee; Kathiravetpilla Arumuganathan; Shawn M. Kaeppler; Seong-Whan Park; Kee-Young Kim; Young-Soo Chung; Doh-Hoon Kim; Kiichi Fukui



Proteomic profiling of two maize inbreds during early gibberella ear rot infection.  


Fusarium graminearum is the causal agent of gibberella ear rot in maize ears, resulting in yield losses due to mouldy and mycotoxin-contaminated grain. This study represents a global proteomic approach to document the early infection by F. graminearum of two maize inbreds, B73 and CO441, which differ in disease susceptibility. Mock- and F. graminearum-treated developing kernels were sampled 48?h post-inoculation over three field seasons. Infected B73 kernels consistently contained higher concentrations of the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol than the kernels of the more tolerant inbred CO441. A total of 2067 maize proteins were identified in the iTRAQ analysis of extracted kernel proteins at a 99% confidence level. A subset of 878 proteins was identified in at least two biological replicates and exhibited statistically significantly altered expression between treatments and/or the two inbred lines of which 96 proteins exhibited changes in abundance >1.5-fold in at least one of the treatments. Many proteins associated with the defense response were more abundant after infection, including PR-10 (PR, pathogenesis-related), chitinases, xylanase inhibitors, proteinase inhibitors, and a class III peroxidase. Kernels of the tolerant inbred CO441 contained higher levels of these defense-related proteins than B73 kernels even after mock treatment, suggesting that these proteins may provide a basal defense against Fusarium infection in CO441. PMID:21751381

Mohammadi, Mohsen; Anoop, Valar; Gleddie, Steve; Harris, Linda J



Behavioral Reactivity to Social and Nonsocial Stimulations: A Multivariate Analysis of Six Inbred Rat Strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male rats from six inbred rat strains (Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat, Wistar Kyoto, Brown Norway, Wistar Furth, Fischer 344, and Lewis) have been compared for their behavioral reactivity when placed in several nonsocial (elevated plus-maze, open field) and social (social interaction in aversive and neutral environment, resident–intruder test, chronic social stress) settings. In addition, a factorial analysis was performed to assess

Olivier Berton; André Ramos; Francis Chaouloff; Pierre Mormède



Spontaneous Alopecia Areata-Like Hair Loss in One Congenic and Seven Inbred Laboratory Mouse Strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alopecia areata (AA) research has been hampered by the lack of suitable animal models for use in experimental procedures. AA-like hair loss has been observed in several species, including dogs, cats, horses, cattle, and nonhuman primates; however, these examples are isolated cases in outbred species of large size, limiting their use in AA research. Inbred rodent strains are ideal research

Kevin J McElwee; Dawnalyn Boggess; James Miller; Lloyd E King; John P Sundberg



Inbred strains should replace outbred stocks in toxicology, safety testing, and drug development.  


Methods of toxicity testing, barely changed for several decades, need to be improved. One way forward would be to use a small battery of inbred strains instead of the single outbred stock currently used in toxicity screening. Inbred strains are more stable, more uniform, more repeatable, and better defined than outbred stocks. Genetic variation would be observed as the difference between strains. Safety could be based on the most susceptible strain. Sometimes it may be possible to identify the genes involved. Mechanisms could be explored using gene expression profiling of susceptible and resistant strains. Two committees of toxicologists have concluded that the use of inbred strains, by controlling interindividual variability, would reduce the number of animals needed in toxicity screening, although both "preferred" outbred stocks. This preference appears to have been based on intuition rather than scientific principles. Data from a previously published study on the response to chloramphenicol in an outbred stock and four inbred strains is used to explain the advantages of the multistrain design. Toxicologists, safety pharmacologists, regulatory authorities, and pharmaceutical companies should take a critical look at the types of animals they use if they want to reduce the attrition rate of new drugs. PMID:20562325

Festing, Michael F W



Homozygosity Mapping: A Way to Map Human Recessive Traits with the DNA of Inbred Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

An efficient strategy for mapping human genes that cause recessive traits has been devised that uses mapped restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) and the DNA of affected children from consanguineous marriages. The method involves detection of the disease locus by virtue of the fact that the adjacent region will preferentially be homozygous by descent in such inbred children. A single

Eric S. Lander; David Botstein



Genetic Variation in Coding Regions Between and Within Commonly Used Inbred Rat Strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most common genetic variation in mammalian populations. Their significance is illustrated by their potential contribution to common disease but also by their potential for use in genetic association and mapping experiments. We have examined the genetic variation between commonly used inbred rat strains by using an efficient SNP discovery and typing assay based on

Bart M. G. Smits; Bert F. M. van Zutphen; Ronald H. A. Plasterk; Edwin Cuppen



Development of new inbred transgenic strains of rats with LacZ or GFP  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ideal goal of regeneration medicine is to restore form and function to damaged tissues. While stem cell transplantation is considered a promising therapeutic approach, knowing the fate of transplanted cells using appropriate markers is essential. We developed new inbred transgenic rat strains with lacZ and GFP based on the transgenic (Tg) animal technique in rats. These Tg animals expressed

Hirokazu Inoue; Ichiro Ohsawa; Takashi Murakami; Atsushi Kimura; Yoji Hakamata; Yuki Sato; Takashi Kaneko; Masafumi Takahashi; Takashi Okada; Keiya Ozawa; Jeremy Francis; Paola Leone; Eiji Kobayashi



Genetic diversity for restriction fragment length polymorphisms and heterosis for two diallel sets of maize inbreds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes that may have occurred over the past 50 years of hybrid breeding in maize (Zea maize L.) with respect to heterosis for yield and heterozygosity at the molecular level are of interest to both maize breeders and quantitative geneticists. The objectives of this study were twofold: The first, to compare two diallels produced from six older maize inbreds released

A. E. Melchinger; M. Lee; K. R. Lamkey; A. R. Hallauer; W. L. Woodman



Quantitative trait locus analysis for ear height in maize based on a recombinant inbred line population.  


Maize (Zea mays L.) is among the crops with the greatest worldwide economic importance. Ear height is a very important trait that is considered necessary in maize and is related to morphology, lodging, and yield. To realize its genetic basis, an F9 recombinant inbred line population and a genetic map consisting of 101 simple sequence repeat markers were used to detect the quantitative trait locus (QTL) for ear height, and the result showed that one QTL on chromosome 1 was identified with a mapping interval of 5 cM to its linked marker Umc1358. The QTL from elite inbred line Mo17 could explain 9.55% of the phenotypic variance, and because of the additive effect, it could result in an ear height increase of 4.86 cm. This result was beneficial for understanding the genetic basis of ear height in maize. PMID:24535872

Li, Z Q; Zhang, H M; Wu, X P; Sun, Y; Liu, X H



Detecting the phase transition in thylakoid membranes of maize inbred lines by means of delayed fluorescence.  


In this paper the changes on growth, photosynthesis and water relations were tested by non-invasive fluorescence method. The applications of this method allow to determine some functional properties of prestigious maize inbred lines with erect top leaves. So the temperature dependency of delayed fluorescence intensity maximum of ZPPL 16 is observed at higher temperatures than for ZPPZ 62. This fact correlates with low values of phase transition of activation energy Ea in thylakoid membrane and accompanied by a decrease of the angle and area of the leaf, as well as with the content and the rate of water release from the seed. It seems reasonable to assume that, DF can be applied in breeding and maize hybrid seed production for the estimation of prestigious maize inbred lines and their resistance adaptability to increased and high temperatures, as well as, to drought. PMID:24836446

Radenovi?, C N; Maksimov, G V; Tyutyaev, E V; Stankovi?, G J; Jovanovi?, Z V; Beljanski, M V



Homozygosity mapping: a way to map human recessive traits with the DNA of inbred children  

SciTech Connect

An efficient strategy for mapping human genes that cause recessive traits has been devised that uses mapped restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) and the DNA of affected children from consanguineous marriages. The method involves detection of the disease locus by virtue of the fact that the adjacent region will preferentially be homozygous by descent in such inbred children. A single affected child of a first-cousin marriage is shown to contain the same total information about linkage as a nuclear family with three affected children. Calculations show that it should be practical to map a recessive disease gene by studying DNA from fewer than a dozen unrelated, affected inbred children, given a complete RFLP linkage map. The method should make it possible to map many recessive diseases for which it is impractical or impossible to collect adequate numbers of families with multiple affected offspring.

Lander, E.S.; Botstein, D.



Differentiation of Embryonic Stem Cell Lines Generated from Adult Somatic Cells by Nuclear Transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Embryonic stem (ES) cells are fully pluripotent in that they can differentiate into all cell types, including gametes. We have derived 35 ES cell lines via nuclear transfer (ntES cell lines) from adult mouse somatic cells of inbred, hybrid, and mutant strains. ntES cells contributed to an extensive variety of cell types, including dopaminergic and serotonergic neurons in vitro and

Teruhiko Wakayama; Viviane Tabar; Ivan Rodriguez; Anthony C. F. Perry; Lorenz Studer; Peter Mombaerts



Relationship between activities of key enzymes involved in starch synthesis and accumulation in maize inbred lines during grain filling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Time course of starch production and the key enzyme activities in the grains of four maize inbred lines (two high-starch and\\u000a two low-starch lines) were studied. Accumulation of grain starch and its components in four maize inbred lines rose continuously\\u000a after pollination and increased as a sigmoid curve during grain filling. The accumulation rates showed single-peak curves.\\u000a The accumulation rates

J. J. Zhang; Y. F. Hu; Y. B. Huang



Characterization of Photosynthetic Performance during Senescence in Stay-Green and Quick-Leaf-Senescence Zea mays L. Inbred Lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The net photosynthetic rate, chlorophyll content, chlorophyll fluorescence and 820 nm transmission were investigated to explore the behavior of the photosynthetic apparatus, including light absorption, energy transformation and the photoactivities of photosystem II (PSII) and photosystem I (PSI) during senescence in the stay-green inbred line of maize (Zea mays) Q319 and the quick-leaf-senescence inbred line of maize HZ4. The relationship

Zishan Zhang; Geng Li; Huiyuan Gao; Litao Zhang; Cheng Yang; Peng Liu; Qingwei Meng



Differential Effects of Prenatal Stress in Two Inbred Strains of Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

STÖHR, T., D. SCHULTE WERMELING, T. SZURAN, V. PLISKA, A. DOMENEY, H. WELZL, I. WEINERAND J. FELDON. Differential effects of prenatal stress in two inbred strains of rats. ?Default ¶ Font>PHARMACOL BIOCHEM BEHAV59(4) 799–805, 1998.—The long-term effects of prenatal stress (three times daily restraint stress during the last week of gestation) on the behavioral response to stress, as assessed by

T Stöhr; D. Schulte Wermeling; T Szuran; V Pliska; A Domeney; H Welzl; I Weiner; J Feldon



Inbred rat strain comparisons indicate different sites of action for cocaine and amphetamine locomotor stimulant effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cocaine and amphetamine produce several behavioral effects, most notably locomotor stimulation. Biochemically, evidence suggests specific involvement of dopaminergic systems, although not necessarily identical sites, in mediating cocaine- and amphetamine-induced locomotor stimulation. This study examined the effects of cocaine or amphetamine on locomotor activity in rats from the ACI, F344, LEW and NBR inbred strains. Dose-dependent increases in locomotor activity were

Frank R. George; Linda J. Porrino; Mary C. Ritz; Steven R. Goldberg



Sensitivity of Female Inbreds of Cucumis sativus to Sex Reversion by Gibberellin.  


Two female inbred cucumbers were developed by substituting gene Acr for acr in the genetic backgrounds of the monoecious races Marketer and Tokyo, which exhibit weak and strong male tendency respectively. Marketer females are resistant and Tokyo females are sensitive to sex reversion in response to treatments with gibberellin A(3). Resistance and sensitivity of this type appear to depend upon the genetic system which controls sex tendency. PMID:17807849

Shifriss, O; George, W L



Broad-ranging natural metabotype variation drives physiological plasticity in healthy control inbred rat strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maintaining homeostasis in higher organisms involves a complex interplay of multiple ubiquitous and organ-specific molecular mechanisms that can be characterized using functional genomics technologies such as transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabonomics and dissected out through genetic investigations in healthy and diseased individuals. We characterized the genomic, metabolic, and physiological divergence of several inbred rat strains--Brown Norway, Lewis, Wistar Kyoto, Fisher (F344)--frequently

C Pontoizeau; JF Fearnside; V Navratil; C Domange; JB Cazier; C Fernández-Santamaría; PJ Kaisaki; L Emsley; P Toulhoat; MT Bihoreau; JK Nicholson; D Gauguier; ME Dumas



FVB\\/N: An Inbred Mouse Strain Preferable for Transgenic Analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

FVB\\/N mice offer a system suitable for most transgenic experiments and subsequent genetic analyses. The inbred FVB\\/N strain is characterized by vigorous reproductive performance and consistently large litters. Moreover, fertilized FVB\\/N eggs contain large and prominent pronuclei, which facilitate microinjection of DNA. The phenotype of large pronuclei in the zygote is a dominant trait associated with the FVB\\/N oocyte but

Makoto Taketo; Allen C. Schroeder; Larry E. Mobraaten; Kerry B. Gunning; Gerri Hanten; Richard R. Fox; Thomas H. Roderick; Colin L. Stewart; Frank Lilly; Carl T. Hansen; Paul A. Overbeek



Genetic Variation for Starch Thermal and Functional Properties Among Nonmutant Maize Inbreds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 72(3):281-286 Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) has been used in previous < 0.01) inbred by year interaction was present for all DSC parameters studies to detect differences in thermal properties among starches of non- with the exception of AH. Differences were observed in starch viscosities mutant maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes. This study was conducted to and gel strengths



Novel restriction fragment length polymorphism of the growth hormone gene in inbred rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel restriction fragment length polymorphism in inbred rats was detected by Southern blot analysis with rat growth hormone cDNA as a probe. Four alleles, characterized byPstI fragments of 1.2, 1.1, 0.9, and 0.7 kb, respectively, were detected in 27 strains examined. The same distribution of polymorphisms was observed on digestion of DNAs of these strains with three other enzymes,PvuII,HindIII,

Tetsuo Kunieda; Hiroshi Ikadai; Minami Matsui; Nobuo Nomura; Tomonori Imamichi; Ryotaro Ishizaki



Genetic basis of resistance to trauma in inbred strains of mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study the resistance to mechanical, thermal, and radiation trauma in four inbred strains of mice (AKR, BALB\\/c, CBA, and C57Bl\\/6) was compared with the degree of genetic resemblance, by analyzing the allozyme variabilities of these strains. It was shown that the highest degree of genetic resemblance was among CBA and AKR strains, which correlated with a similar degree

C. Radojicic; B. Andric; M. Simovic; A. Dujic; D. Marinkovic



Genetic variation in bone-regenerative capacity among inbred strains of mice.  


Genetic variation in bone-regenerative capacity has not been studied in any animal model system. We developed a "drill-hole" model in the tail vertebra of inbred strains of mice that allows us to reproducibly introduce an injury with a defined boundary and quantify the rate of bone healing using the combination of high-resolution Faxitron X-ray imaging and the ChemiImager 4000 Low Light Imaging System. Using this model, we demonstrate that bone-regenerative capacity is a genetically controlled trait with an estimated heritability of 72%, and that it differs significantly among inbred strains of mice. Of the 12 inbred strains tested, Sencar/PtJ was identified as the most suitable model for the study of hard-tissue regeneration. This strain regained 73% of bone loss 30 days after injury, in contrast to the slow healer, CBA/J, which recovered only 25% of the bone loss during the same period. Bone-regenerative capacity was not correlated with soft-tissue-regenerative capacity, suggesting that different sets of genes may regulate soft- and hard-tissue regeneration. It was, however, significantly correlated with total bone mineral density (R = 0.49, p < 0.01), indicating that high bone density is associated not only with prevention of bone fracture, but also with promotion of bone regeneration. PMID:11502474

Li, X; Gu, W; Masinde, G; Hamilton-Ulland, M; Rundle, C H; Mohan, S; Baylink, D J



Ancestral bias in the Hras1 gene and distal Chromosome 7 among inbred mice  

PubMed Central

Inbred strains of mice vary in their frequency of liver tumors initiated by a mutation in the Hras1 (H-ras) proto-oncogene. We sequenced 4.5 kb of the Hras1 gene on distal Chr 7 in a diverse set of 12 commonly used laboratory inbred strains of mice and detected no sequence variation to account for strain-specific differences in Hras1 mutation prevalence. Furthermore, the Hras1 sequence is essentially monoallelic for an ancestral gene derived from the M. m. domesticus species. To determine if the monoallelism and associated low rate of polymorphism are unique to Hras1 or representative of the general chromosomal locale, we extended the sequence analysis to 12 genes in the final 8 Mb of distal Chr 7. A region of at least 2.5 Mb that encompasses several genes, including Hras1 and the H19/Igf2 loci, demonstrates virtually no sequence variation. The 12 inbred strains share one dominant haplotype derived from the M. m. domesticus allele. Chromosomal regions flanking the monoallelic segment exhibit a significantly higher rate of variation and multiple haplotypes, a majority of which are attributed to M. m. domesticus or M. m. musculus ancestry. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00335-007-9061-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Drew, Jennifer C.; Kastenmeier, Andrew S.



Mixed Effects Models for Quantitative Trait Loci Mapping With Inbred Strains  

PubMed Central

Fixed effects models have dominated the statistical analysis of genetic crosses between inbred strains. In spite of their popularity, the traditional models ignore polygenic background and must be tailored to each specific cross. We reexamine the role of random effect models in gene mapping with inbred strains. The biggest difficulty in implementing random effect models is the lack of a coherent way of calculating trait covariances between relatives. The standard model for outbred populations is based on premises of genetic equilibrium that simply do not apply to crosses between inbred strains since every animal in a strain is genetically identical and completely homozygous. We fill this theoretical gap by introducing novel combinatorial entities called strain coefficients. With an appropriate theory, it is possible to reformulate QTL mapping and QTL association analysis as an application of mixed models involving both fixed and random effects. After developing this theory, our first example compares the mixed effects model to a standard fixed effects model using simulated advanced intercross line (AIL) data. Our second example deals with hormone data. Here multivariate traits and parameter identifiability questions arise. Our final example involves random mating among eight strains and vividly demonstrates the versatility of our models.

Bauman, Lara E.; Sinsheimer, Janet S.; Sobel, Eric M.; Lange, Kenneth



Bayesian analysis of genetic architecture of quantitative trait using data of crosses of multiple inbred lines.  


Using the data of crosses of multiple of inbred lines for mapping QTL can increase QTL detecting power compared with only cross of two inbred lines. Although many fixed-effect model methods have been proposed to analyze such data, they are largely based on one-QTL model or main effect model, and the interaction effects between QTL are always neglected. However, effectively separating the interaction effects from the residual error can increase the statistical power. In this article, we both extended the novel Bayesian model selection method and Bayesian shrinkage estimation approaches to multiple inbred line crosses. With two extensions, interacting QTL are effectively detected with high solution; in addition, the posterior variances for both main effects and interaction effects are also subjected to full Bayesian estimate, which is more optimal than two step approach involved in maximum-likelihood. A series of simulation experiments have been conducted to demonstrate the performance of the methods. The computer program written in FORTRAN language is freely available on request. PMID:18278559

Fang, Ming; Jiang, Dan; Chen, Xu; Pu, Lijun; Liu, Shengcai



Two traditional maize inbred lines of contrasting technological abilities are discriminated by the seed flour proteome.  


The seed proteome of two traditional maize inbred lines (pb269 and pb369) contrasting in grain hardness and in preferable use for bread-making was evaluated. The pb269 seeds, of flint type (i.e., hard endosperm), are preferably used by manufacturers, while pb369 (dent, soft endosperm) is rejected. The hypothesis that the content and relative amounts of specific proteins in the maize flour are relevant for such discrimination of the inbred lines was tested. The flour proteins were sequentially extracted following the Osborne fractionation (selective solubilization), and the four Osborne fractions were submitted to two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE). The total amount of protein extracted from the seeds was not significantly different, but pb369 flour exhibited significantly higher proportions of salt-extracted proteins (globulins) and ethanol-extracted proteins (alcohol-soluble prolamins). The proteome analysis allowed discrimination between the two inbred lines, with pb269 demonstrating higher heterogeneity than pb369. From the 967 spots (358 common to both lines, 208 specific to pb269, and 401 specific to pb369), 588 were submitted to mass spectrometry (MS). Through the combined use of trypsin and chymotrypsin it was possible to identify proteins in 436 spots. The functional categorization in combination with multivariate analysis highlighted the most discriminant biological processes (carbohydrate metabolic process, response to stress, chitin catabolic process, oxidation-reduction process) and molecular function (nutrient reservoir activity). The inbred lines exhibited quantitative and qualitative differences in these categories. Differences were also revealed in the amounts, proportions, and distribution of several groups of storage proteins, which can have an impact on the organization of the protein body and endosperm hardness. For some proteins (granule-bound starch synthase-1, cyclophilin, zeamatin), a change in the protein solubility rather than in the total amount extracted was observed, which reveals distinct in vivo associations and/or changes in binding strength between the inbred lines. Our approach produced information that relates protein content, relative protein content, and specific protein types to endosperm hardness and to the preferable use for "broa" bread-making. PMID:23701026

Pinheiro, Carla; Sergeant, Kjell; Machado, Cátia M; Renaut, Jenny; Ricardo, Cândido P



Cardiac mitochondrial proteomic expression in inbred rat strains divergent in survival time after hemorrhage.  


We have previously identified inbred rat strains differing in survival time to a severe controlled hemorrhage (StaH). In efforts to identify cellular mechanisms and ultimately genes that are important contributors to enhanced STaH, we conducted a study to characterize potential differences in cardiac mitochondrial proteins in these rats. Inbred rats from three strains [Brown Norway/Medical College of Wisconsin (BN); Dark Agouti (DA), and Fawn Hooded Hypertensive (FHH)] with different StaH (DA = FHH > BN) were assigned to one of three treatment groups (n = 4/strain): nonoperated controls, surgically catheterized rats, or rats surgically catheterized and hemorrhaged 24 h postsurgery. Rats were euthanized 30 min after handling or 30 min after initiation of a 26 min hemorrhage. After euthanasia, hearts were removed and mitochondria isolated. Differential protein expression was determined using 2D DIGE-based Quantitative Intact Proteomics and proteins identified by MALDI/TOF mass spectrometry. Hundreds of proteins (791) differed among inbred rat strains (P ? 0.038), and of these 81 were identified. Thirty-eight were unique proteins and 43 were apparent isoforms. For DA rats (longest STaH), 36 proteins increased and 30 decreased compared with BN (shortest STaH). These 81 proteins were associated with lipid (e.g., acyl CoA dehydrogenase) and carbohydrate (e.g., fumarase) metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation (e.g., ubiquinol-cytochrome C reductase), ATP synthesis (F1 ATPase), and H2S synthesis (3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase). Although we cannot make associations between these identified mitochondrial proteins and StaH, our data do provide evidence for future candidate proteins with which to consider such associations. PMID:23386204

Klemcke, Harold G; DeKroon, Robert M; Mocanu, Mihaela; Robinette, Jennifer B; Alzate, Oscar



Efficient collection and cryopreservation of embryos in F344 strain inbred rats.  


In rats, it is now possible to produce genetically engineered strains, not only as transgenic animals but also using gene knockout techniques. Reproductive technologies have been used as indispensable tools to produce and maintain these novel valuable strains. Although studies for collecting and cryopreserving embryos have been reported using outbred rats, efficient methods have not been established in inbred strains. The F344 inbred strain is important in rat breeding and has been used for the production of transgenic/knockout strains and for genome sequencing. Here we studied the optimal conditions for oocyte collection by induction of superovulation, and the development of embryos after cryopreservation in F344 rats. The response to pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) was examined by injection of 150 IU/kg PMSG + 75 IU/kg hCG or 300 IU/kg PMSG + 300 IU/kg hCG. Superovulation was achieved at high efficiency by an injection of 150 IU/kg PMSG + 75 IU/kg hCG. Furthermore, superovulation in this strain showed similar high response as Wistar rats. Of 2-cell embryos cryopreserved by vitrification in a solution containing 10% propylene glycol, 30% ethylene glycol, 20% Percoll and 0.3 M sucrose, more than 90% survived after warming and 32% developed to offspring. However, the freezability of pronuclear stage embryos was extremely low. This study demonstrated that sufficient unfertilized oocytes and embryos can be collected from F344 rats by the induction of superovulation with 150 IU/kg PMSG + 75 IU/kg hCG. Furthermore, cryopreservation of 2-cell embryos using this vitrification protocol can now be applied to maintaining valuable rat strains derived from the F344 inbred strain as genetic resources. PMID:23928269

Taketsuru, Hiroaki; Kaneko, Takehito



Inbred Strain-Specific Effects of Exercise in Wild Type and Biglycan Deficient Mice  

PubMed Central

Biglycan (bgn)-deficient mice (KO) have defective osteoblasts which lead to changes in the amount and quality of bone. Altered tissue strength in C57BL6/129 (B6;129) KO mice, a property which is independent of tissue quantity, suggests that deficiencies in tissue quality are responsible. However, the response to bgn-deficiency is inbred strain-specific. Mechanical loading influences bone matrix quality in addition to any increase in bone mass or change in bone formation activity. Since many diseases influence the mechanical integrity of bone through altered tissue quality, loading may be a way to prevent and treat extracellular matrix deficiencies. C3H/He (C3H) mice consistently have a less vigorous response to mechanical loading vs. other inbred strains. It was therefore hypothesized that the bones from both wild type (WT) and KO B6;129 mice would be more responsive to exercise than the bones from C3H mice. To test these hypotheses at 11 weeks of age, following 21 consecutive days of exercise, we investigated cross-sectional geometry, mechanical properties, and tissue composition in the tibiae of male mice bred on B6;129 and C3H backgrounds. This study demonstrated inbred strain-specific compositional and mechanical changes following exercise in WT and KO mice, and showed evidence of genotype-specific changes in bone in response to loading in a gene disruption model. This study further shows that exercise can influence bone tissue composition and/or mechanical integrity without changes in bone geometry. Together, these data suggest that exercise may represent a possible means to alter tissue quality and mechanical deficiencies caused by many diseases of bone.

Wallace, Joseph M.; Golcuk, Kurtulus; Morris, Michael D.; Kohn, David H.



Hidden Markov Model Analysis of Maternal Behavior Patterns in Inbred and Reciprocal Hybrid Mice  

PubMed Central

Individual variation in maternal care in mammals shows a significant heritable component, with the maternal behavior of daughters resembling that of their mothers. In laboratory mice, genetically distinct inbred strains show stable differences in maternal care during the first postnatal week. Moreover, cross fostering and reciprocal breeding studies demonstrate that differences in maternal care between inbred strains persist in the absence of genetic differences, demonstrating a non-genetic or epigenetic contribution to maternal behavior. In this study we applied a mathematical tool, called hidden Markov model (HMM), to analyze the behavior of female mice in the presence of their young. The frequency of several maternal behaviors in mice has been previously described, including nursing/grooming pups and tending to the nest. However, the ordering, clustering, and transitions between these behaviors have not been systematically described and thus a global description of maternal behavior is lacking. Here we used HMM to describe maternal behavior patterns in two genetically distinct mouse strains, C57BL/6 and BALB/c, and their genetically identical reciprocal hybrid female offspring. HMM analysis is a powerful tool to identify patterns of events that cluster in time and to determine transitions between these clusters, or hidden states. For the HMM analysis we defined seven states: arched-backed nursing, blanket nursing, licking/grooming pups, grooming, activity, eating, and sleeping. By quantifying the frequency, duration, composition, and transition probabilities of these states we were able to describe the pattern of maternal behavior in mouse and identify aspects of these patterns that are under genetic and nongenetic inheritance. Differences in these patterns observed in the experimental groups (inbred and hybrid females) were detected only after the application of HMM analysis whereas classical statistical methods and analyses were not able to highlight them.

Carola, Valeria; Mirabeau, Olivier; Gross, Cornelius T.



Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci Using Naturally Occurring Genetic Variance Among Commercial Inbred Lines of Maize (Zea mays L.)  

PubMed Central

Many commercial inbred lines are available in crops. A large amount of genetic variation is preserved among these lines. The genealogical history of the inbred lines is usually well documented. However, quantitative trait loci (QTL) responsible for the genetic variances among the lines are largely unexplored due to lack of statistical methods. In this study, we show that the pedigree information of the lines along with the trait values and marker information can be used to map QTL without the need of further crossing experiments. We develop a Monte Carlo method to estimate locus-specific identity-by-descent (IBD) matrices. These IBD matrices are further incorporated into a mixed-model equation for variance component analysis. QTL variance is estimated and tested at every putative position of the genome. The actual QTL are detected by scanning the entire genome. Applying this new method to a well-documented pedigree of maize (Zea mays L.) that consists of 404 inbred lines, we mapped eight QTL for the maize male flowering trait, growing degree day heat units to pollen shedding (GDUSHD). These detected QTL contributed >80% of the variance observed among the inbred lines. The QTL were then used to evaluate all the inbred lines using the best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) technique. Superior lines were selected according to the estimated QTL allelic values, a technique called marker-assisted selection (MAS). The MAS procedure implemented via BLUP may be routinely used by breeders to select superior lines and line combinations for development of new cultivars.

Zhang, Yuan-Ming; Mao, Yongcai; Xie, Chongqing; Smith, Howie; Luo, Lang; Xu, Shizhong



Somaclonal-variation-induced aluminum-sensitive mutant from an aluminum-inbred maize tolerant line  

Microsoft Academic Search

Somaclonal-variation-induced multiple mutations were observed in a progeny of the S1587 plant, regenerated from type I calli\\u000a of the aluminum-tolerant inbred maize line Cat-100-6. After five generations of self-pollination, 14 progeny families of the\\u000a S1587 somaclone were found to show aluminum toxicity symptoms with altered root tip morphology and reduced primary root growth.\\u000a The most sensitive progeny, S1587-17, was crossed

D. H. Moon; L. M. M. Ottoboni; A. P. Souza; S. T. Sibov; M. Gaspar; P. Arruda



Mouse DNA 'fingerprints': analysis of chromosome localization and germ-line stability of hypervariable loci in recombinant inbred strains.  

PubMed Central

Human minisatellite probes cross-hybridize to mouse DNA and detect multiple variable loci. The resulting DNA "fingerprints" vary substantially between inbred strains but relatively little within an inbred strain. By studying the segregation of variable DNA fragments in BXD recombinant inbred strains of mice, at least 13 hypervariable loci were defined, 8 of which could be regionally assigned to mouse chromosomes. The assigned loci are autosomal, dispersed and not preferentially associated with centromeres or telomeres. One of these minisatellites is complex, with alleles 90 kb or more long and with internal restriction endonuclease cleavage sites which produce a minisatellite "haplotype" of multiple cosegregating fragments. In addition, one locus shows extreme germ-line instability and should provide a useful system for studying more directly the rates and processes of allelic variation of minisatellites. Images

Jeffreys, A J; Wilson, V; Kelly, R; Taylor, B A; Bulfield, G



Hybrid mouse diversity panel: a panel of inbred mouse strains suitable for analysis of complex genetic traits.  


We have developed an association-based approach using classical inbred strains of mice in which we correct for population structure, which is very extensive in mice, using an efficient mixed-model algorithm. Our approach includes inbred parental strains as well as recombinant inbred strains in order to capture loci with effect sizes typical of complex traits in mice (in the range of 5% of total trait variance). Over the last few years, we have typed the hybrid mouse diversity panel (HMDP) strains for a variety of clinical traits as well as intermediate phenotypes and have shown that the HMDP has sufficient power to map genes for highly complex traits with resolution that is in most cases less than a megabase. In this essay, we review our experience with the HMDP, describe various ongoing projects, and discuss how the HMDP may fit into the larger picture of common diseases and different approaches. PMID:22892838

Ghazalpour, Anatole; Rau, Christoph D; Farber, Charles R; Bennett, Brian J; Orozco, Luz D; van Nas, Atila; Pan, Calvin; Allayee, Hooman; Beaven, Simon W; Civelek, Mete; Davis, Richard C; Drake, Thomas A; Friedman, Rick A; Furlotte, Nick; Hui, Simon T; Jentsch, J David; Kostem, Emrah; Kang, Hyun Min; Kang, Eun Yong; Joo, Jong Wha; Korshunov, Vyacheslav A; Laughlin, Rick E; Martin, Lisa J; Ohmen, Jeffrey D; Parks, Brian W; Pellegrini, Matteo; Reue, Karen; Smith, Desmond J; Tetradis, Sotirios; Wang, Jessica; Wang, Yibin; Weiss, James N; Kirchgessner, Todd; Gargalovic, Peter S; Eskin, Eleazar; Lusis, Aldons J; LeBoeuf, Renée C



Hybrid mouse diversity panel: a panel of inbred mouse strains suitable for analysis of complex genetic traits  

PubMed Central

We have developed an association-based approach using classical inbred strains of mice in which we correct for population structure, which is very extensive in mice, using an efficient mixed-model algorithm. Our approach includes inbred parental strains as well as recombinant inbred strains in order to capture loci with effect sizes typical of complex traits in mice (in the range of 5 % of total trait variance). Over the last few years, we have typed the hybrid mouse diversity panel (HMDP) strains for a variety of clinical traits as well as intermediate phenotypes and have shown that the HMDP has sufficient power to map genes for highly complex traits with resolution that is in most cases less than a megabase. In this essay, we review our experience with the HMDP, describe various ongoing projects, and discuss how the HMDP may fit into the larger picture of common diseases and different approaches.

Ghazalpour, Anatole; Rau, Christoph D.; Farber, Charles R.; Bennett, Brian J.; Orozco, Luz D.; van Nas, Atila; Pan, Calvin; Allayee, Hooman; Beaven, Simon W.; Civelek, Mete; Davis, Richard C.; Drake, Thomas A.; Friedman, Rick A.; Furlotte, Nick; Hui, Simon T.; Jentsch, J. David; Kostem, Emrah; Kang, Hyun Min; Kang, Eun Yong; Joo, Jong Wha; Korshunov, Vyacheslav A.; Laughlin, Rick E.; Martin, Lisa J.; Ohmen, Jeffrey D.; Parks, Brian W.; Pellegrini, Matteo; Reue, Karen; Smith, Desmond J.; Tetradis, Sotirios; Wang, Jessica; Wang, Yibin; Weiss, James N.; Kirchgessner, Todd; Gargalovic, Peter S.; Eskin, Eleazar; Lusis, Aldons J.



Characterization of photosynthetic performance during senescence in stay-green and quick-leaf-senescence Zea mays L. inbred lines.  


The net photosynthetic rate, chlorophyll content, chlorophyll fluorescence and 820 nm transmission were investigated to explore the behavior of the photosynthetic apparatus, including light absorption, energy transformation and the photoactivities of photosystem II (PSII) and photosystem I (PSI) during senescence in the stay-green inbred line of maize (Zea mays) Q319 and the quick-leaf-senescence inbred line of maize HZ4. The relationship between the photosynthetic performance and the decrease in chlorophyll content in the two inbred lines was also studied. Both the field and laboratory data indicated that the chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate, and the photoactivities of PSII and PSI decreased later and slower in Q319 than in HZ4, indicating that Q319 is a functional stay-green inbred line. In order to avoid the influence of different development stages and environmental factors on senescence, age-matched detached leaf segments from the two inbred lines were treated with ethephon under controlled conditions to induce senescence. The net photosynthetic rate, light absorption, energy transformation, the activities of PSII acceptor side and donor side and the PSI activities decreased much slower in Q319 than in HZ4 during the ethephon-induced senescence. These results suggest that the retention of light absorption, energy transformation and activity of electron transfer contribute to the extended duration of active photosynthesis in Q319. Although the chlorophyll content decreased faster in HZ4, with decrease of chlorophyll content induced by ethephon, photosynthetic performance of Q319 deteriorated much more severely than that of HZ4, indicating that, compared with Q319, HZ4 has an advantage at maintaining higher photosynthetic activity with decrease of chlorophyll although HZ4 is a quick-leaf-senescence inbred line. We conclude that attention should be paid to two favorable characteristics in breeding long duration of active photosynthesis hybrids: 1) maintaining more chlorophyll content during senescence and 2) maintaining higher photosynthetic activity during the loss of chlorophyll. PMID:22900069

Zhang, Zishan; Li, Geng; Gao, Huiyuan; Zhang, Litao; Yang, Cheng; Liu, Peng; Meng, Qingwei



Efficient QTL detection for nonhost resistance in wild lettuce: backcross inbred lines versus F2 population  

PubMed Central

In plants, several population types [F2, recombinant inbred lines, backcross inbred lines (BILs), etc.] are used for quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses. However, dissection of the trait of interest and subsequent confirmation by introgression of QTLs for breeding purposes has not been as successful as that predicted from theoretical calculations. More practical knowledge of different QTL mapping approaches is needed. In this recent study, we describe the detection and mapping of quantitative resistances to downy mildew in a set of 29 BILs of cultivated lettuce (L. sativa) containing genome segments introgressed from wild lettuce (L. saligna). Introgression regions that are associated with quantitative resistance are considered to harbor a QTL. Furthermore, we compare this with results from an already existing F2 population derived from the same parents. We identified six QTLs in our BIL approach compared to only three in the F2 approach, while there were two QTLs in common. We performed a simulation study based on our actual data to help us interpret them. This revealed that two newly detected QTLs in the BILs had gone unnoticed in the F2, due to a combination of recessiveness of the trait and skewed segregation, causing a deficit of the wild species alleles. This study clearly illustrates the added value of extended genetic studies on two different population types (BILs and F2) to dissect complex genetic traits.

Pelgrom, K.; Stam, P.; Lindhout, P.



Genetic regulation of cold-induced albinism in the maize inbred line A661.  


In spite of multiple studies elucidating the regulatory pathways controlling chlorophyll biosynthesis and photosynthetic activity, little is known about the molecular mechanism regulating cold-induced chlorosis in higher plants. Herein the characterization of the maize inbred line A661 which shows a cold-induced albino phenotype is reported. The data show that exposure of seedlings to low temperatures during early leaf biogenesis led to chlorophyll losses in this inbred. A661 shows a high plasticity, recovering resting levels of photosynthesis activity when exposed to optimal temperatures. Biochemical and transcriptome data indicate that at suboptimal temperatures chlorophyll could not be fully accommodated in the photosynthetic antenna in A661, remaining free in the chloroplast. The accumulation of free chlorophyll activates the expression of an early light inducible protein (elip) gene which binds chlorophyll to avoid cross-reactions that could lead to the generation of harmful reactive oxygen species. Higher levels of the elip transcript were observed in plants showing a cold-induced albino phenotype. Forward genetic analysis reveals that a gene located on the short arm of chromosome 2 regulates this protective mechanism. PMID:23881393

Rodríguez, Víctor M; Velasco, Pablo; Garrido, José L; Revilla, Pedro; Ordás, Amando; Butrón, Ana



Inbred strains of zebrafish exhibit variation in growth performance and myostatin expression following fasting  

PubMed Central

Although the zebrafish (Danio rerio) has been widely utilized as a model organism for several decades, there is little information available on physiological variation underlying genetic variation among the most commonly used inbred strains. This study evaluated growth performance using physiological and molecular markers of growth in response to fasting in six commonly used zebrafish strains [AB, TU, TL, SJA, WIK, and petstore (PET) zebrafish]. Fasting resulted in a standard decrease in whole blood glucose levels, typical vertebrate glucose metabolism pattern, in AB, PET, TL, and TU zebrafish strains. Alternatively, fasting did not affect glucose levels in SJA and WIK zebrafish strains. Similarly, fasting had no effect on myostatin mRNA levels in AB, PET, TU, and WIK zebrafish strains, but decreased myostatin-1 and -2 mRNA levels in SJA zebrafish. Consistent with previous work, fasting increased myostatin-2 mRNA levels in TL zebrafish. These data demonstrate that variation is present in growth performance between commonly used inbred strains of zebrafish. These data can help future research endeavors by highlighting the attributes of each strain with regard to growth performance so that the most fitting strain may be utilized.

Meyer, Ben M.; Froehlich, Jacob M.; Galt, Nicholas J.; Biga, Peggy R.



Translocation and amplification of an X-chromosome DNA repeat in inbred strains of mice.  

PubMed Central

A 9-kb repetitive DNA fragment (70-38) located near the centromere of the mouse X chromosome is amplified and translocated to an autosome in different inbred strains of mice. In situ hybridization and hybrid cell studies showed that probe 70-38 is located only on the X chromosome in mouse strains A/J, AKR/J, BALB/cJ, CBA/J, C3H/HeJ, C57BL/6J, DBA/2J and SWR/J. However, in four other mouse strains the DNA sequence is found near the centromere of an autosome in addition to the X chromosome. This autosome differs among the mouse strains (chromosome 11 in C57BL/10J or ScSn, chromosome 13 in NZB/B1NJ and chromosome 17 in SJL/J and PO). In those strains where the repeated sequence is located on an autosome, it has been amplified to about 100 copies. Restriction enzyme digestion patterns suggest a common structure for 70-38 sequences in the different strains. The changes in copy number, restriction enzyme digestion patterns, and chromosomal location of 70-38 reflect a rapid genomic evolution inbred mouse strains. Images

Disteche, C M; Gandy, S L; Adler, D A



Systematic, standardized and comprehensive neurological phenotyping of inbred mice strains in the German Mouse Clinic.  


Neurological and psychiatric disorders are among the most common and most serious health problems in developed countries. Transgenic mouse models mimicking human neurological diseases have provided new insights into development and function of the nervous system. One of the prominent goals of the German National Genome Research Network is the understanding of the in vivo function of single genes and the pathophysiological and clinical consequences of respective mutations. The German Mouse Clinic (GMC) offers a high-throughput primary screen of genetically modified mouse models as well as an in-depth analysis in secondary and tertiary screens covering various fields of mouse physiology. Here we describe the phenotyping methods of the Neurological Screen in the GMC, exemplified in the four inbred mouse lines C57BL/6J, C3HeB/FeJ, BALB/cByJ, and 129S2/SvPas. For our primary screen, we generated "standard operating procedures" that were validated between different laboratories. The phenotyping of inbred strains already showed significant differences in various parameters, thus being a prerequisite for the examination of mutant mouse lines. PMID:16720049

Schneider, Ilka; Tirsch, Werner S; Faus-Kessler, Theresa; Becker, Lore; Kling, Eva; Busse, Rose-Leah Austin; Bender, Andreas; Feddersen, Berend; Tritschler, Johannes; Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valérie; Englmeier, Karl-Hans; de Angelis, Martin Hrabé; Klopstock, Thomas



In silico QTL mapping of basal liver iron levels in inbred mouse strains  

PubMed Central

Both iron deficiency and iron excess are detrimental in many organisms, and previous studies in both mice and humans suggest that genetic variation may influence iron status in mammals. However, these genetic factors are not well defined. To address this issue, we measured basal liver iron levels in 18 inbred strains of mice of both sexes on a defined iron diet and found ?4-fold variation in liver iron in males (lowest 153 ?g/g, highest 661 ?g/g) and ?3-fold variation in females (lowest 222 ?g/g, highest 658 ?g/g). We carried out a genome-wide association mapping to identify haplotypes underlying differences in liver iron and three other related traits (copper and zinc liver levels, and plasma diferric transferrin levels) in a subset of 14 inbred strains for which genotype information was available. We identified two putative quantitative trait loci (QTL) that contain genes with a known role in iron metabolism: Eif2ak1 and Igf2r. We also identified four putative QTL that reside in previously identified iron-related QTL and 22 novel putative QTL. The most promising putative QTL include a 0.22 Mb region on Chromosome 7 and a 0.32 Mb region on Chromosome 11 that both contain only one candidate gene, Adam12 and Gria1, respectively. Identified putative QTL are good candidates for further refinement and subsequent functional studies.

McLachlan, Stela; Lee, Seung-Min; Steele, Teresa M.; Hawthorne, Paula L.; Zapala, Matthew A.; Eskin, Eleazar; Schork, Nicholas J.; Anderson, Gregory J.



MS characterization of qualitative protein polymorphisms in the spinal cords of inbred mouse strains.  


The spinal cord proteomes of two inbred mouse strains with different susceptibility to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model of multiple sclerosis, were investigated by 2-DE and MALDI-MS. A proteome map comprising 304 different protein species was established. Using 2-D fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis, a comparison of the mouse strains revealed 26 qualitatively polymorphic proteins with altered electrophoretic mobility. MS analyses and DNA sequencing were applied to characterize their structural differences and 14 single amino acid substitutions were identified. Moreover, analysis of selectively enriched phosphopeptides from the neurofilament heavy polypeptide of both mouse strains revealed a high degree of diversity in the phosphorylated C-terminal domains of this protein. The described approach is capable to structurally characterize qualitative protein polymorphisms, whereas their functional significance remains to be elucidated. For some proteins formerly associated with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and/or multiple sclerosis structural polymorphisms are described here, which may be subjected to further investigations. In addition, this work should be of general interest for proteomic analysis of inbred strains, because it shows potentials and constraints in the use of 2-DE analysis and MALDI-MS to detect and characterize structural protein polymorphisms. PMID:20131325

Mikkat, Stefan; Lorenz, Peter; Scharf, Christian; Yu, Xinhua; Glocker, Michael O; Ibrahim, Saleh M



Efficacy of population structure analysis with breeding populations and inbred lines.  


The objective was to assess by simulation the efficacy of population structure analysis in plant breeding. Twelve populations and 300 inbred lines were simulated and genotyped using 100 microsatellite loci. The experimental material included populations with and without admixture, ancestry relationship and linkage disequilibrium, and with distinct levels of genetic differentiation and effective sizes. The analyses were performed using Structure software and employed all available models. For all the group number (K) tested, for both populations and inbred lines, the admixture model with correlated allelic frequencies provided the highest value for the logarithm of the marginal likelihood. Fitting appropriate model and using adequate sample size for individuals and markers, Structure was effective in identifying the correct population structure, migrants and individuals with genome from distinct populations. The linkage model did not result in an improvement in clustering relative to the admixture model with correlated allelic frequencies. The inclusion of prior information did not change the results; for some K values the analyses showed slight higher values of the marginal likelihood. The reduction in the number of individuals and markers negatively affected the results. There was a high variation in the most probable K value between the evaluated methods. PMID:24057807

Viana, José Marcelo Soriano; Valente, Mágno Sávio Ferreira; Fonseca E Silva, Fabyano; Mundim, Gabriel Borges; Paes, Geísa Pinheiro



Association study by genetic clustering detects multiple inflammatory response loci in non-inbred mice.  


We tested the possibility to map loci affecting the acute inflammatory response (AIR) in an (AIRmax × AIRmin) F2 intercross mouse population derived from non-inbred parents, by association analysis in the absence of pedigree information. Using 1064 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we clustered the intercross population into 12 groups of genetically related individuals. Association analysis adjusted for genetic clusters allowed to identify two loci, inflammatory response modulator 1 (Irm1) on chromosome 7 previously detected by genetic linkage analysis in the F2 mice, and a new locus on chromosome 5 (Irm2), linked to the number of infiltrating cells in subcutaneous inflammatory exudates (Irm1: P=6.3 × 10(-7); Irm2: P=8.2 × 10(-5)) and interleukin 1 beta (IL-1?) production (Irm1: P=1.9 × 10(-16); Irm2: P=1.1 × 10(-6)). Use of a polygenic model based on additive effects of the rare alleles of 15 or 18 SNPs associated at suggestive genome-wide statistical threshold (P<3.4 × 10(-3)) with the number of infiltrating cells or IL-1? production, respectively, allowed prediction of the inflammatory response of progenitor AIR mice. Our findings suggest the usefulness of association analysis in combination with genetic clustering to map loci affecting complex phenotypes in non-inbred animal species. PMID:21346777

Galvan, A; Vorraro, F; Cabrera, W; Ribeiro, O G; Starobinas, N; Jensen, J R; dos Santos Carneiro, P; De Franco, M; Gao, X; Ibañez, O C M; Dragani, T A



Recovery of herpes simplex virus from ocular tissues of latently infected inbred mice.  


Evidence for latent infection of ocular tissues following topical corneal inoculation with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV) was sought in three strains of inbred mice that differ in susceptibility to HSV stromal keratitis. Corneas of BALB/c, C57BL/6, and DBA/2 mice were inoculated topically with HSV. At 6-8 weeks after inoculation, when no active ocular infection was present, minced whole eyes and trigeminal ganglia were assayed for latent virus. Virus was recovered by explantation from minced eyes of all three strains (DBA/2 = 20%; BALB/c = 17%; C57BL/6 = 7%). In order to determine which ocular structures harbored virus, corneas, retinas and choroid-sclera were cultivated separately. Virus was activated from corneas of DBA/2 and BALB/c mice, but not from corneas of C57BL/6 mice. These findings suggest that HSV is capable of establishing latent infection in ocular tissue of inbred mice and that the rate of establishment of latency is under host genetic control. Since neural cell bodies are not present in the cornea, the data suggest that latency is established in cells other than neurons. PMID:2828265

Abghari, S Z; Stulting, R D



Inbred mouse strains C57BL\\/6J and DBA\\/2J vary in sensitivity to a subset of bitter stimuli  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Common inbred mouse strains are genotypically diverse, but it is still poorly understood how this diversity relates to specific differences in behavior. To identify quantitative trait genes that influence taste behavior differences, it is critical to utilize assays that exclusively measure the contribution of orosensory cues. With a few exceptions, previous characterizations of behavioral taste sensitivity in inbred mouse

John D Boughter Jr; Sandeep Raghow; Theodore M Nelson; Steven D Munger



Genetic architecture of rind penetrometer resistance in two maize recombinant inbred line populations  

PubMed Central

Background Maize (Zea Mays L.) is one of the most important cereal crops worldwide and provides food for billions of people. Stalk lodging can greatly undermine the standability of maize plants and therefore decrease crop yields. Rind penetrometer resistance is an effective and reliable method for evaluating maize stalk strength, which is highly correlated with stalk lodging resistance. In this study, two recombinant inbred line populations were constructed from crosses between the H127R and Chang7-2 lines, and between the B73 and By804 lines. We genotyped these two populations and their parents using 3,072 single nucleotide polymorphism markers and performed phenotypic assessment of rind penetrometer resistance in multiple environments to dissect the genetic architecture of rind penetrometer resistance in maize. Results Based on two linkage maps of 1,397.1 and 1,600.4 cM with average interval of 1.7 and 2.1 cM between adjacent makers, respectively, seven quantitative trait loci (QTL) for rind penetrometer resistance were detected in the two recombinant inbred line populations. These QTL were distributed in seven genomic regions, and each accounted for 4.4–18.9% of the rind penetrometer resistance variation. The QTL with the largest effect on rind penetrometer resistance, qRPR3-1, was located on chromosome 3 with the flanking markers PZE-103123325 and SYN23245. This locus was further narrowed down to a 3.1-Mb interval by haplotype analysis using high-density markers in the target region. Within this interval, four genes associated with the biosynthesis of cell wall components were considered as potential candidate genes for the rind penetrometer resistance effect. Conclusions The inheritance of rind penetrometer resistance is rather complex. A few large-effect quantitative trait loci, together with a several minor-effect QTL, contributed to the phenotypic variation in rind penetrometer resistance in the two recombinant inbred line populations that were examined. A potential approach for improving stalk strength and crop yields in commercial maize lines may be to introgress favorable alleles of the locus that was found to have the largest effect on rind penetrometer resistance (qRPR3-1).



Polymorphisms of the tumor necrosis factor alpha locus among autoimmune disease susceptible and resistant inbred rat strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inbred rat strains manifest remarkable differences in susceptibility\\/severity to autoimmune disease. MHC alleles strongly influence the pathogenesis of autoimmune disease in rats, but the precise mechanism(s) remain inadequately defined. The TNF? gene is located in the class III region of the MHC. Polymorphisms, influencing either the structure or expression of the TNF protein, might contribute to differences in autoimmune disease

T Furuya; B Joe; JL Salstrom; A Hashiramoto; DE Dobbins; RL Wilder; EF Remmers



Susceptibility of the wild-derived inbred CAST/Ei mouse to infection by orthopoxviruses analyzed by live bioluminescence imaging.  


Classical inbred mice are extensively used for virus research. However, we recently found that some wild-derived inbred mouse strains are more susceptible than classical strains to monkeypox virus. Experiments described here indicated that the 50% lethal dose of vaccinia virus (VACV) and cowpox virus (CPXV) were two logs lower in wild-derived inbred CAST/Ei mice than classical inbred BALB/c mice, whereas there was little difference in the susceptibility of the mouse strains to herpes simplex virus. Live bioluminescence imaging was used to follow spread of pathogenic and attenuated VACV strains and CPXV virus from nasal passages to organs in the chest and abdomen of CAST/Ei mice. Luminescence increased first in the head and then simultaneously in the chest and abdomen in a dose-dependent manner. The spreading kinetics was more rapid with VACV than CPXV although the peak photon flux was similar. These data suggest advantages of CAST/Ei mice for orthopoxvirus studies. PMID:24418545

Americo, Jeffrey L; Sood, Cindy L; Cotter, Catherine A; Vogel, Jodi L; Kristie, Thomas M; Moss, Bernard; Earl, Patricia L



Recovery of maize (Zea mays L.) inbreds and hybrids from chilling stress of various duration: photosynthesis and antioxidant enzymes.  


The differences between two maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines and their F1 hybrids in their response to chilling periods of various duration (1, 2, 3 or 4 weeks) and subsequent return to optimum temperatures were analysed by the measurement of the photosystem (PS) 1 and 2 activity, the photosynthetic pigments' content and the activity of antioxidant enzymes. The PS2 activity and the chlorophyll content decreased in plants subjected to 3 or 4 weeks of chilling, but not in those subjected to 1 or 2 weeks of chilling. This decrease was more pronounced in inbreds compared to their hybrids. The activity of superoxide dismutase did not much change with the increasing length of chilling period in the inbreds but decreased in the hybrids, the glutathione reductase activity increased in both types of genotypes but more in the inbred lines, while for ascorbate peroxidase and catalase the changes in parents-hybrids relationship did not show any specific trend. The PS1 activity and the carotenoids' content was not much affected. PMID:16884820

Holá, Dana; Kocová, Marie; Rothová, Olga; Wilhelmová, Nad'a; Benesová, Monika



Genetic analysis of posterior medial barrel subfield (PMBSF) size in somatosensory cortex (SI) in recombinant inbred strains of mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping is an important tool for identifying potential candidate genes linked to complex traits. QTL mapping has been used to identify genes associated with cytoarchitecture, cell number, brain size, and brain volume. Previously, QTL mapping was utilized to examine variation of barrel field size in the somatosensory cortex in a limited number of recombinant inbred

Taha A Jan; Lu Lu; Cheng-Xiang Li; Robert W Williams



Genetic mapping and QTL analysis of horticultural traits in cucumber ( Cucumis sativus L.) using recombinant inbred lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of 171 recombinant inbred lines (RIL) were developed from a narrow cross in cucumber ( Cucumis sativus L.; 2n = 2 x = 14) using the determinate ( de), gynoecious ( F), standard-sized leaf line G421 and the indeterminate, monoecious, little-leaf ( ll) line H-19. A 131-point genetic map was constructed using these RILs and 216 F 2

G. Fazio; J. E. Staub; M. R. Stevens



Phenotypic and molecular characterization of selected tomato recombinant inbred lines derived from the cross Solanum lycopersicum x S. pimpinellifolium.  


An important trait defining fresh tomato marketability is fruit shelf life. Exotic germplasm of Solanum pimpinellifolium is able to prolong shelf life. Sixteen recombinant inbred lines with differing values of shelf life and fruit weight were derived by antagonistic-divergent selection from an interspecific cross involving Solanum pimpinellifolium. The objective of this study was to evaluate these recombinant inbred lines for many fruit quality traits such as diameter, height, size, acidity, colour, firmness, shelf life and weight, and to characterize them by amplified fragment length polymorphism markers. For most traits, a wide range of genetic variability was found and a wide range of molecular variation was also detected. Both sets of data allowed the identification of recombinant inbred lines by means of cluster analysis and principal component analysis. Genetic association among some amplified fragment length polymorphism markers and fruit quality traits, suggested by the principal component analysis, could be identified by single point analysis. Potential molecular markers underlying agronomical traits were detected in these recombinant inbred lines. PMID:21869471

Pratta, Guillermo R; Rodriguez, Gustavo R; Zorzoli, Roxana; Valle, Estela M; Picardi, Liliana A



The scent of inbreeding: a male sex pheromone betrays inbred males  

PubMed Central

Inbreeding depression results from mating among genetically related individuals and impairs reproductive success. The decrease in male mating success is usually attributed to an impact on multiple fitness-related traits that reduce the general condition of inbred males. Here, we find that the production of the male sex pheromone is reduced significantly by inbreeding in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana. Other traits indicative of the general condition, including flight performance, are also negatively affected in male butterflies by inbreeding. Yet, we unambiguously show that only the production of male pheromones affects mating success. Thus, this pheromone signal informs females about the inbreeding status of their mating partners. We also identify the specific chemical component (hexadecanal) probably responsible for the decrease in male mating success. Our results advocate giving increased attention to olfactory communication as a major causal factor of mate-choice decisions and sexual selection.

van Bergen, Erik; Brakefield, Paul M.; Heuskin, Stephanie; Zwaan, Bas J.; Nieberding, Caroline M.



Differentiating Inbred Mouse Strains from Each Other and Those with Single Gene Mutations Using Hair Proteomics  

PubMed Central

Mutant laboratory mice with distinctive hair phenotypes are useful for identifying genes responsible for hair diseases. The work presented here demonstrates that shotgun proteomic profiling can distinguish hair shafts from different inbred mouse strains. For this purpose, analyzing the total hair shaft provided better discrimination than analyzing the isolated solubilized and particulate (cross-linked) fractions. Over 100 proteins exhibited significant differences among the 11 strains and 5 mutant stocks across the wide spectrum of strains surveyed. Effects on the profile of single gene mutations causing hair shaft defects were profound. Since the hair shaft provides a discrete sampling of the species proteome, with constituents serving important functions in epidermal appendages and throughout the body, this work provides a foundation for non-invasive diagnosis of genetic diseases of hair and perhaps other tissues.

Rice, Robert H.; Bradshaw, Katie M.; Durbin-Johnson, Blythe P.; Rocke, David M.; Eigenheer, Richard A.; Phinney, Brett S.; Sundberg, John P.



Distinct, autosomal recessive form of spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia segregating in an inbred Pakistani kindred.  


We describe a large inbred kindred from a remote area of Pakistan, comprising eight generations, with a distinct form of spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia (SEMD). We evaluated 16 affected individuals: 11 males and 5 females. Analysis of the pedigree strongly suggests autosomal recessive inheritance, and consanguineous loops could account for all the affected individuals being homozygous for the abnormal allele. The clinical findings included short stature evident at birth, short bowed lower limbs, mild brachydactyly, kyphoscoliosis, an abnormal gait, enlarged knee joints, precocious osteoarthropathy, and normal intelligence. Radiographs demonstrated delayed epiphyseal ossification at the hips and knees, platyspondyly with irregular end plates and narrowed joint spaces, diffuse, early osteoarthritic changes, primarily in the spine and hands, and mild brachydactyly. Mild metaphyseal abnormalities were seen predominantly at hips and knees. This distinctive phenotype is distinct from other autosomal recessive forms of SEMD because of the mild degree of metaphyseal involvement, the type of brachydactyly, and the absence of loose joints or other clinical findings. PMID:9714015

Ahmad, M; Faiyaz Ul Haque, M; Ahmad, W; Abbas, H; Haque, S; Krakow, D; Rimoin, D L; Lachman, R S; Cohn, D H



Induction of glutathione S-transferases in genetically inbred male mice by dietary ethoxyquin hydrochloride.  


1. Constitutive and ethoxyquin hydrochloride (EQ-HCl)-induced hepatic glutathione (GSH) S-transferase, GSH reductase, and GSH peroxidase activities were determined in 5 strains of 8-10 week old inbred male mice. 2. The constitutive GSH S-transferase (GST) activity varied from 2.9 (SJL/JCR) to 8.9 (C57BL/6NCR) mumol product formed/min/mg protein and the corresponding values for the EQ-HCl-treated mice were in the range of 15.3-25.3 mumol product formed/min/mg protein. 3. EQ-HCl induced GST activity in all the strains examined and this contrasted to the induction activity of Aroclor 1254 which was strain-dependent. GST activity was induced 2.9-fold in Aroclor 1254-responsive (C57BL/6) and 2.8-fold in non-responsive (DBA/2) mice, respectively. PMID:2565179

Makary, M; Kim, H L; Safe, S; Womack, J; Ivie, G W



Assessing probability of ancestry using simple sequence repeat profiles: applications to maize hybrids and inbreds.  

PubMed Central

Determination of parentage is fundamental to the study of biology and to applications such as the identification of pedigrees. Limitations to studies of parentage have stemmed from the use of an insufficient number of hypervariable loci and mismatches of alleles that can be caused by mutation or by laboratory error and that can generate false exclusions. Furthermore, most studies of parentage have been limited to comparisons of small numbers of specific parent-progeny triplets thereby precluding large-scale surveys of candidates where there may be no prior knowledge of parentage. We present an algorithm that can determine probability of parentage in circumstances where there is no prior knowledge of pedigree and that is robust in the face of missing data or mistyped data. We present data from 54 maize hybrids and 586 maize inbreds that were profiled using 195 SSR loci including simulations of additional levels of missing and mistyped data to demonstrate the utility and flexibility of this algorithm.

Berry, Donald A; Seltzer, Jon D; Xie, Chongqing; Wright, Deanne L; Smith, J Stephen C



Selection for Heterozygosity Gives Hope to a Wild Population of Inbred Wolves  

PubMed Central

Recent analyses have questioned the usefulness of heterozygosity estimates as measures of the inbreeding coefficient (f), a finding that may have dramatic consequences for the management of endangered populations. We confirm that f and heterozygosity is poorly correlated in a wild and highly inbred wolf population. Yet, our data show that for each level of f, it was the most heterozygous wolves that established themselves as breeders, a selection process that seems to have decelerated the loss of heterozygosity in the population despite a steady increase of f. The markers contributing to the positive relationship between heterozygosity and breeding success were found to be located on different chromosomes, but there was a substantial amount of linkage disequilibrium in the population, indicating that the markers are reflecting heterozygosity over relatively wide genomic regions. Following our results we recommend that management programs of endangered populations include estimates of both f and heterozygosity, as they may contribute with complementary information about population viability.

Bensch, Staffan; Andren, Henrik; Hansson, Bengt; Pedersen, Hans Chr.; Sand, Hakan; Sejberg, Douglas; Wabakken, Petter; Akesson, Mikael; Liberg, Olof



Genetic basis of resistance to trauma in inbred strains of mice  

SciTech Connect

In this study the resistance to mechanical, thermal, and radiation trauma in four inbred strains of mice (AKR, BALB/c, CBA, and C57Bl/6) was compared with the degree of genetic resemblance, by analyzing the allozyme variabilities of these strains. It was shown that the highest degree of genetic resemblance was among CBA and AKR strains, which correlated with a similar degree of resistance to trauma. On the other hand, BALB/c and C57Bl/6 strains expressed significant differences, both genetically and with respect to the responses to trauma. The hypothesis is introduced that the genetic determination of the resistance to trauma is based on: (a) a polygenic control of general physiological homeostasis, with the possibility that (b) some specific genes or single loci may contribute more than others to such adaptations of the strains tested.

Radojicic, C.; Andric, B.; Simovic, M.; Dujic, A.; Marinkovic, D. (Institut of Experimental Medicine, Belgrade (Yugoslavia))



Epigenome-wide inheritance of cytosine methylation variants in a recombinant inbred population  

PubMed Central

Cytosine DNA methylation is one avenue for passing information through cell divisions. Here, we present epigenomic analyses of soybean recombinant inbred lines (RILs) and their parents. Identification of differentially methylated regions (DMRs) revealed that DMRs mostly cosegregated with the genotype from which they were derived, but examples of the uncoupling of genotype and epigenotype were identified. Linkage mapping of methylation states assessed from whole-genome bisulfite sequencing of 83 RILs uncovered widespread evidence for local methylQTL. This epigenomics approach provides a comprehensive study of the patterns and heritability of methylation variants in a complex genetic population over multiple generations, paving the way for understanding how methylation variants contribute to phenotypic variation.

Schmitz, Robert J.; He, Yupeng; Valdes-Lopez, Oswaldo; Khan, Saad M.; Joshi, Trupti; Urich, Mark A.; Nery, Joseph R.; Diers, Brian; Xu, Dong; Stacey, Gary; Ecker, Joseph R.



Structural variation of the pseudoautosomal region between and within inbred mouse strains.  

PubMed Central

The pseudoautosomal region (PAR) is a segment of shared homology between the sex chromosomes. Here we report additional probes for this region of the mouse genome. Genetic and fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses indicate that one probe, PAR-4, hybridizes to the pseudoautosomal telomere and a minor locus at the telomere of chromosome 9 and that a PCR assay based on the PAR-4 sequence amplifies only the pseudoautosomal locus (DXYHgu1). The region detected by PAR-4 is structurally unstable; it shows polymorphism both between mouse strains and between animals of the same inbred strain, which implies an unusually high mutation rate. Variation occurs in the region adjacent to a (TTAGGG)n array. Two pseudoautosomal probes can also hybridize to the distal telomeres of chromosomes 9 and 13, and all three telomeres contain DXYMov15. The similarity between these telomeres may reflect ancestral telomere-telomere exchange. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5

Kipling, D; Wilson, H E; Thomson, E J; Lee, M; Perry, J; Palmer, S; Ashworth, A; Cooke, H J



Genetic Dependence of Central Corneal Thickness among Inbred Strains of Mice  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Central corneal thickness (CCT) exhibits broad variability. For unknown reasons, CCT also associates with diseases not typically considered corneal, particularly glaucoma. The purpose of this study was to test the strain dependence of CCT variability among inbred mice and identify cellular and molecular factors associated with differing CCT. Methods. Methodology for measuring murine CCT with ultrasound pachymetry was developed and used to measure CCT among 17 strains of mice. Corneas from three strains with nonoverlapping differences in CCT (C57BLKS/J, C57BL/6J, and SJL/J) were compared by histology, transmission electron microscopy, and expression profiling with gene microarrays. Results. CCT in mice was highly strain dependent. CCT exhibited continuous variation from 89.2 ?m in C57BLKS/J to 123.8 ?m in SJL/J. Stromal thickness was the major determinant of the varying murine CCT, with epithelial thickness also contributing. Corneal expression levels of many genes differed between strains with differing CCT, but most of these changes did not correlate with the changes observed in previously studied corneal diseases nor did they correlate with genes encoding major structural proteins of the cornea. Conclusions. Murine CCT has been measured with a variety of different techniques, but only among a limited number of different strains. Here, pachymetry was established as an additional tool and used to conduct a broad survey of different strains of inbred mice. These results demonstrated that murine CCT was highly influenced by genetic background and established a baseline for future genetic approaches to further elucidate mechanisms regulating CCT and its disease associations.

Lively, Geoffrey D.; Jiang, Bing; Hedberg-Buenz, Adam; Chang, Bo; Petersen, Greg E.; Wang, Kai; Kuehn, Markus H.



Superovulatory response, oocyte spontaneous activation, and embryo development in WMN/Nrs inbred rats.  


WMN/Nrs inbred rats have been widely used in radiation biology for years. However, their reproductive profile has never been examined. We examined various reproductive characteristics of WMN/Nrs inbred rats such as superovulatory response, oocytes spontaneous activation (OSA), and embryo development in vitro and in vivo. Superovulation was induced in 3- to 9-week-old females by injection of 150 IU/kg PMSG and 150 IU/Kg hCG by 48 h apart. Only 8- and 9-week-old animals superovulated averaging 31.4 and 43.9 oocytes, respectively, and superovulation did not depend on estrous cycle. Animals 3-7 weeks of age did not superovulate. Because Wistar strains have been known to show a high incidence of OSA, factors expected to affect OSA in WMN/Nrs, including the time interval of various steps from euthanasia to oocyte recovery, incubation media, estrous cycle, and anesthetic treatments, were examined. The time from animal euthanasia to oviduct excision was the only factor shown to affect OSA. We also compared in vitro and in vivo embryo developmental competence between embryos obtained by natural ovulation and superovulation. Although percent in vitro development of 2-cell embryos to blastocysts was similar for embryos obtained by natural ovulation (63.7%) and superovulation (69.7%), fetus development after oviductal transfer of 2-cell embryos was significantly lower in embryos obtained by superovulation than in those obtained by natural ovulation (60.2% vs. 87.5%, P=0.02). Our results provide important normative data regarding future applications of rat assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) such as in vitro fertilization and cryopreservation in WMN/Nrs strain and may be applicable to other strains of laboratory rats. PMID:20224168

Kito, Seiji; Yano, Hiroko; Ohta, Yuki; Tsukamoto, Satoshi



Monoamines and glycogen levels in cerebral cortices of fast and slow methionine sulfoximine-inbred mice.  


The experimental model of seizures which depends upon methionine sulfoximine (MSO) simulates the most striking form of human epilepsy. MSO generates epileptiform seizures in a large variety of animals, increases brain glycogen content and induces brain monoamines modifications. We selected two inbred lines of mice based upon their latency toward MSO-dependent seizures, named as MSO-Fast (sensitive), having short latency toward MSO, and MSO-Slow (resistant) with a long latency. We determined 13 monoamines and glycogen contents in brain cortices of the MSO-Fast and slow lines in order to determine the relationships with MSO-dependent seizures. The present data show that using these MSO-Fast and MSO-Slow inbred lines it could be demonstrated that: (1) in basal conditions the neurotransmitter 5-HT is significantly higher in MSO-Fast mice than in MSO-Slow ones; (2) MSO in both lines induced a significant increase in brain content of DOPAC (3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid), HVA (homovanillic acid), MHPG (3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol), and 5-HT (serotonin); a significant decrease in MSO-Slow mice in brain content of NME (normetepinephrine), and 5-HIAA (5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid) and the variation of other monoamines were not significant; (3) the brain glycogen content is significantly higher in MSO-Fast mice than in MSO-Slow ones, both in basal conditions and after MSO administration. From our data, we propose that brain glycogen content may constitute a defense against epileptic attack, as glycogen may be degraded down to glucose-6-phosphate that can be used to either postpone the epileptic attack or to provide neurons with energy when they needed it. Brain glycogen might therefore be considered as a molecule that can contribute to struggle seizures, at least in MSO-dependent seizure. The 5-HT content may constitute a defense against MSO-dependent epilepsy. PMID:23352742

Boissonnet, Arnaud; Hévor, Tobias; Landemarre, Ludovic; Cloix, Jean-François



Interstrain Differences in the Liver Effects of Trichloroethylene in a Multistrain Panel of Inbred Mice  

PubMed Central

Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a widely used industrial chemical and a common environmental contaminant. It is a well-known carcinogen in rodents and a probable carcinogen in humans. Studies utilizing panels of mouse inbred strains afford a unique opportunity to understand both metabolic and genetic basis for differences in responses to TCE. We tested the hypothesis that strain- and liver-specific toxic effects of TCE are genetically controlled and that the mechanisms of toxicity and susceptibility can be uncovered by exploring responses to TCE using a diverse panel of inbred mouse strains. TCE (2100 mg/kg) or corn oil vehicle was administered by gavage to 6- to 8-week-old male mice of 15 mouse strains. Serum and liver were collected at 2, 8, and 24 h postdosing and were analyzed for TCE metabolites, hepatocellular injury, and gene expression of liver. TCE metabolism, as evident from the levels of individual oxidative and conjugative metabolites, varied considerably between strains. TCE treatment-specific effect on the liver transcriptome was strongly dependent on genetic background. Peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor–mediated molecular networks, consisting of the metabolism genes known to be induced by TCE, represent some of the most pronounced molecular effects of TCE treatment in mouse liver that are dependent on genetic background. Conversely, cell death, liver necrosis, and immune-mediated response pathways, which are altered by TCE treatment in liver, are largely genetic background independent. These studies provide better understanding of the mechanisms of TCE-induced toxicity anchored on metabolism and genotype-phenotype correlations that may define susceptibility or resistance.

Bradford, Blair U.; Lock, Eric F.; Kosyk, Oksana; Kim, Sungkyoon; Uehara, Takeki; Harbourt, David; DeSimone, Michelle; Threadgill, David W.; Tryndyak, Volodymyr; Pogribny, Igor P.; Bleyle, Lisa; Koop, Dennis R.; Rusyn, Ivan



Varying coefficient models for mapping quantitative trait loci using recombinant inbred intercrosses.  


There has been a great deal of interest in the development of methodologies to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) using experimental crosses in the last 2 decades. Experimental crosses in animal and plant sciences provide important data sources for mapping QTL through linkage analysis. The Collaborative Cross (CC) is a renewable mouse resource that is generated from eight genetically diverse founder strains to mimic the genetic diversity in humans. The recombinant inbred intercrosses (RIX) generated from CC recombinant inbred (RI) lines share similar genetic structures of F(2) individuals but with up to eight alleles segregating at any one locus. In contrast to F(2) mice, genotypes of RIX can be inferred from the genotypes of their RI parents and can be produced repeatedly. Also, RIX mice typically do not share the same degree of relatedness. This unbalanced genetic relatedness requires careful statistical modeling to avoid false-positive findings. Many quantitative traits are inherently complex with genetic effects varying with other covariates, such as age. For such complex traits, if phenotype data can be collected over a wide range of ages across study subjects, their dynamic genetic patterns can be investigated. Parametric functions, such as sigmoidal or logistic functions, have been used for such purpose. In this article, we propose a flexible nonparametric time-varying coefficient QTL mapping method for RIX data. Our method allows the QTL effects to evolve with time and naturally extends classical parametric QTL mapping methods. We model the varying genetic effects nonparametrically with the B-spline bases. Our model investigates gene-by-time interactions for RIX data in a very flexible nonparametric fashion. Simulation results indicate that the varying coefficient QTL mapping has higher power and mapping precision compared to parametric models when the assumption of constant genetic effects fails. We also apply a modified permutation procedure to control overall significance level. PMID:22345613

Gong, Yi; Zou, Fei



Maternal heterozygosity and progeny fitness association in an inbred Scots pine population.  


Associations between heterozygosity and fitness traits have typically been investigated in populations characterized by low levels of inbreeding. We investigated the associations between standardized multilocus heterozygosity (stMLH) in mother trees (obtained from12 nuclear microsatellite markers) and five fitness traits measured in progenies from an inbred Scots pine population. The traits studied were proportion of sound seed, mean seed weight, germination rate, mean family height of one-year old seedlings under greenhouse conditions (GH) and mean family height of three-year old seedlings under field conditions (FH). The relatively high average inbreeding coefficient (F) in the population under study corresponds to a mixture of trees with different levels of co-ancestry, potentially resulting from a recent bottleneck. We used both frequentist and Bayesian methods of polynomial regression to investigate the presence of linear and non-linear relations between stMLH and each of the fitness traits. No significant associations were found for any of the traits except for GH, which displayed negative linear effect with stMLH. Negative HFC for GH could potentially be explained by the effect of heterosis caused by mating of two inbred mother trees (Lippman and Zamir 2006), or outbreeding depression at the most heterozygote trees and its negative impact on the fitness of the progeny, while their simultaneous action is also possible (Lynch. 1991). However,since this effect wasn't detected for FH, we cannot either rule out that the greenhouse conditions introduce artificial effects that disappear under more realistic field conditions. PMID:23400838

Abrahamsson, S; Ahlinder, J; Waldmann, P; García-Gil, M R



Differences in Response Among Inbred Mouse Strains to Infection with Small Doses of Mycobacterium bovis BCG  

PubMed Central

Intravenous infection of six inbred mouse strains with small doses of dispersed cells of Mycobacterium bovis BCG (15.5 × 103 or 15.5 × 104 colony-forming units) separated them into resistant (C3H/HeCr, A/J, and DBA/2) and sensitive (B10.A, C57BL/6, and BALB/c) strains as assessed by the magnitude of bacterial multiplication in the spleens at 28 days. The two groups were more sharply separated after infection with the lower dose of BCG (15.5 × 103 colony-forming units), which allowed for true multiplication of the bacteria in the spleens of permissive hosts, expressed as the ratio of the number of BCG recovered from the spleens to the number of BCG injected. This coefficient of increase was less than 1 in resistant strains, whereas it was higher than 2.5 in sensitive strains. Significant splenomegaly developed only in mice of the sensitive strains infected with BCG when compared with uninfected controls. There was no correlation between the magnitude of the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) to BCG and susceptibility to infection: DTH was absent in both the sensitive and the resistant strains when the smaller dose of BCG was used for infection. Moreover, significant DTH was detected in animals of the most sensitive (BALB/c) as well as of the most resistant (C3H/HeCr) strain when the higher dose of BCG (15.5 × 104) was used for immunization. These results document significant genetic differences in the ability of inbred mice to inhibit bacterial multiplication after infection with small dispersed doses of BCG. Resistance to BCG multiplication, in this model, does not appear to be related to the establishment of DTH.

Forget, Adrien; Skamene, Emil; Gros, Philippe; Miailhe, Annie-Claude; Turcotte, Raymond



Spread of HSV and establishment of latency after corneal infection in inbred mice.  


The spread of herpes simplex virus (HSV) through neural tissues was studied in three inbred mouse strains that differ in susceptibility to HSV stromal keratitis. The left eyes of BALB/c, C57BL/6, and DBA/2 mice were inoculated topically with HSV type 1. The optic and trigeminal nerves, trigeminal ganglia, and eyes were assayed for infectious virus on days 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 9, 11 and 14 after inoculation. At 2-4 months post-inoculation, eyes and trigeminal ganglia were assayed for latent virus. Up to 7 days post-inoculation, infectious virus was present at a similar frequency in the inoculated eyes of mice from all three strains. The quantity of virus recovered, however, was mouse strain-dependent: DBA mice yielded the most virus; C57BL/6, the least. The frequency of virus recovery and the quantity of virus recovered from trigeminal nerves and ganglia also varied according to mouse strain. Infectious virus was recovered from the uninoculated right eye of some DBA and C57BL/6 mice 1 wk after inoculation. The overall incidence of latency differed among inbred mouse strains. However, in mice that developed ocular disease (blepharitis, dendritic keratitis, or stromal keratitis), there was no host strain-related difference in the incidence of latency. These results support the hypothesis that host genetic factors play a role in controlling HSV replication and the spread of virus to neural tissues after ocular HSV inoculation. This control may influence the development and severity of disease. However, once infection occurs, latency is established in both susceptible and resistant mouse strains. PMID:3000975

Abghari, S Z; Stulting, R D; Nigida, S M; Downer, D N; Nahmias, A J



Mapping quantitative trait loci using naturally occurring genetic variance among commercial inbred lines of maize (Zea mays L.).  


Many commercial inbred lines are available in crops. A large amount of genetic variation is preserved among these lines. The genealogical history of the inbred lines is usually well documented. However, quantitative trait loci (QTL) responsible for the genetic variances among the lines are largely unexplored due to lack of statistical methods. In this study, we show that the pedigree information of the lines along with the trait values and marker information can be used to map QTL without the need of further crossing experiments. We develop a Monte Carlo method to estimate locus-specific identity-by-descent (IBD) matrices. These IBD matrices are further incorporated into a mixed-model equation for variance component analysis. QTL variance is estimated and tested at every putative position of the genome. The actual QTL are detected by scanning the entire genome. Applying this new method to a well-documented pedigree of maize (Zea mays L.) that consists of 404 inbred lines, we mapped eight QTL for the maize male flowering trait, growing degree day heat units to pollen shedding (GDUSHD). These detected QTL contributed >80% of the variance observed among the inbred lines. The QTL were then used to evaluate all the inbred lines using the best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) technique. Superior lines were selected according to the estimated QTL allelic values, a technique called marker-assisted selection (MAS). The MAS procedure implemented via BLUP may be routinely used by breeders to select superior lines and line combinations for development of new cultivars. PMID:15716509

Zhang, Yuan-Ming; Mao, Yongcai; Xie, Chongqing; Smith, Howie; Luo, Lang; Xu, Shizhong



CPR - adult  


Cardiopulmonary resuscitation - adult; Rescue breathing and chest compressions - adult; Resuscitation - cardiopulmonary - adult ... training. The newest techniques emphasize compression over rescue breathing and airway, reversing long-standing practice. See www. ...


Temporal factors in the extinction of fear in inbred mouse strains differing in extinction efficacy  

PubMed Central

Background Various neuropsychiatric conditions, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), are characterized by deficient fear extinction, but individuals differ greatly in risk for these. While there is growing evidence that fear extinction is influenced by certain procedural variables, it is unclear how these influences might vary across individuals and subpopulations. To model individual differences in fear extinction, prior studies identified a strain of inbred mouse, 129S1/SvImJ (S1), which exhibits a profound deficit in fear extinction, as compared to other inbred strains, such as C57BL/6J (B6). Methods Here, we assessed the effects of procedural variables on the impaired extinction phenotype of the S1 strain and, by comparison, the extinction-intact B6 strain. The variables studied were 1) the interval between conditioning and extinction, 2) the interval between cues during extinction training, 3) single-cue exposure before extinction training, and 4) extinction of a second-order conditioned cue. Results Conducting extinction training soon after (‘immediately’) conditioning attenuated fear retrieval in S1 mice and impaired extinction in B6 mice. Spacing cue presentations with long inter-trial intervals during extinction training augmented fear in S1 and B6 mice. The effect of spacing was lost with one-trial fear conditioning in B6, but not S1 mice. A single exposure to a conditioned cue before extinction training did not alter extinction retrieval, either in B6 or S1 mice. Both the S1 and B6 strains exhibited robust second-order fear conditioning, in which a cue associated with footshock was sufficient to serve as a conditioned exciter to condition a fear association to a second cue. B6 mice extinguished the fear response to the second-order conditioned cue, but S1 mice failed to do so. Conclusions These data provide further evidence that fear extinction is strongly influenced by multiple procedural variables and is so in a highly strain-dependent manner. This suggests that the efficacy of extinction-based behavioral interventions, such as exposure therapy, for trauma-related anxiety disorders will be determined by the procedural parameters employed and the degree to which the patient can extinguish.



Comparing the van Oosterhout and Chybicki-Burczyk methods of estimating null allele frequencies for inbred populations.  


In spite of the usefulness of codominant markers in population genetics, the existence of null alleles raises challenging estimation issues in natural populations that are characterized by positive inbreeding coefficients (F > 0). Disregarding the possibility of F > 0 in a population will generally lead to overestimates of null allele frequencies. Conversely, estimates of inbreeding coefficients (F) may be strongly biased upwards (excess homozygotes), in the presence of nontrivial frequencies of null alleles. An algorithm has been presented for the estimation of null allele frequencies in inbred populations (van Oosterhout method), using external estimates of the F-statistics. The goal of this study is to introduce a modification of this method and to provide a formal comparison with an alternative likelihood-based method (Chybicki-Burczyk). Using simulated data, we illustrate the strengths and limitations of these competing methods. Under most circumstances, the likelihood method is preferable, but for highly inbred organisms, a modified van Oosterhout method offers some advantages. PMID:23227485

Campagne, P; Smouse, P E; Varouchas, G; Silvain, J-F; Leru, B



Basal and induced granulopoiesis in outbred, F1 hybrid and inbred mice: can inbreeding depression influence the experimental practice?  


In this study we examined differences in selected indices of granulopoiesis in outbred, F(1) hybrid and inbred mouse strains. Specifically, serum granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) levels, numbers of marrow granulocyte-macrophage progenitor cells and morphologically recognizable proliferative marrow granulocytic precursor cells were evaluated. These parameters were determined in untreated controls, and in mice exposed either to a non-specific stimulus (injection of saline) or to a granulopoiesis-enhancing stimulus (administration of a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, meloxicam). Lower levels of G-CSF were detectable in the outbred ICR mice, which also demonstrated an enhanced response to both types of the stimuli. Considering the fact that outbred mice are closer to natural mammalian populations, including human ones, the possibility of using outbred mice, instead of the often used inbred strains, for experiments evaluating the effects of pharmacological interventions on hematopoiesis should be investigated. PMID:20660092

Hofer, Michal; Pospísil, Milan; Dusek, Ladislav; Holá, Jirina; Hoferová, Zuzana; Weiterová, Lenka



Generating Embryonic Stem Cells from the Inbred Mouse Strain DBA/2J, a Model of Glaucoma and Other Complex Diseases  

PubMed Central

Mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells are derived from the inner cell mass of blastocyst stage embryos and are used primarily for the creation of genetically engineered strains through gene targeting. While some inbred strains of mice are permissive to the derivation of embryonic stem cell lines and are therefore easily engineered, others are nonpermissive or recalcitrant. Genetic engineering of recalcitrant strain backgrounds requires gene targeting in a permissive background followed by extensive backcrossing of the engineered allele into the desired strain background. The inbred mouse strain DBA/2J is a recalcitrant strain that is used as a model of many human diseases, including glaucoma, deafness and schizophrenia. Here, we describe the generation of germ-line competent ES cell lines derived from DBA/2J mice. We also demonstrate the utility of DBA/2J ES cells with the creation of conditional knockout allele for Endothelin-2 (Edn2) directly on the DBA/2J strain background.

Czechanski, Anne M.; Macalinao, Danilo G.; MacNicoll, Katharine H.; Lin, Chyuan-Sheng; Donahue, Leah Rae; John, Simon W. M.



Improved tissue culture response of an elite maize inbred through backcross breeding, and identification of chromosomal regions important for regeneration by RFLP analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The frequency of initiation of friable, embryogenic callus from immature embryos of the elite maize inbred line B73 was increased dramatically by introgression of chromosomal segments from the inbred line A188 through classical backcross breeding. Less than 0.2% of the immature B73 embryos tested (5 of 3,710) formed embryogenic callus. The breeding scheme consisted of six generations of backcrossing to

C. L. Armstrong; J. Romero-Severson; T. K. Hodges



The gluten protein and interactions between components determine mixograph properties in an F 6 recombinant inbred linepopulation in bread wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred and sixty-eight F6 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from Chinese wheat cultivars, PH82-2 and Neixiang188, were used to determine the cumulative effects of HMW-GS and LMW-GS composition and quantity of gluten protein fractions on dough mixograph properties. A wide range of variation for all parameters in the RILs was detected. Major gene loci of HMW-GS were associated with

Yong Zhang; Jianwei Tang; Jun Yan; Yelun Zhang; Yan Zhang; Xianchun Xia; Zhonghu He



Enhancer elements in the mouse CYP1A2 gene: A comparative sequencing among different inbred mouse strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

CYP1A2 expression is constitutively high in mouse liver and is well known for metabolizing several drugs and many procarcinogens to reactive intermediates that can cause toxicity or cancer. In the present study, the basal level of hepatic CYP1A2 activity was shown to vary among different inbred mouse strains. The highest methoxyresorufin-O-demethylase activity (261±52pmol\\/mgprotein\\/min) was registered in CC57BR and the lowest

Olga N. Mikhailova; Lyudmila F. Gulyaeva; Maxim L. Filipenko; Vasily I. Kaledin



SKHIN/Sprd, a new genetically defined inbred hairless mouse strain for UV-induced skin carcinogenesis studies.  


Strains of mice vary in their susceptibility to ultra-violet (UV) radiation-induced skin tumors. Some strains of hairless mice (homozygous for the spontaneous Hr(hr) mutation) are particularly susceptible to these tumors. The skin tumors that develop in hairless mice resemble, both at the morphologic and molecular levels, UV-induced squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) and their precursors in human. The most commonly employed hairless mice belong to the SKH1 stock. However, these mice are outbred and their genetic background is not characterized, which makes them a poor model for genetic studies. We have developed a new inbred strain from outbred SKH1 mice that we named SKHIN/Sprd (now at generation F31). In order to characterize the genetic background of this new strain, we genotyped a cohort of mice at F30 with 92 microsatellites and 140 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) evenly distributed throughout the mouse genome. We also exposed SKHIN/Sprd mice to chronic UV irradiation and showed that they are as susceptible to UV-induced skin carcinogenesis as outbred SKH1 mice. In addition, we proved that, albeit with low efficiency, inbred SKHIN/Sprd mice are suitable for transgenic production by classical pronuclear microinjection. This new inbred strain will be useful for the development of transgenic and congenic strains on a hairless inbred background as well as the establishment of syngeneic tumor cell lines. These new tools can potentially help elucidate a number of features of the cutaneous response to UV irradiation in humans, including the effect of genetic background and modifier genes. PMID:22379968

Perez, Carlos; Parker-Thornburg, Jan; Mikulec, Carol; Kusewitt, Donna F; Fischer, Susan M; Digiovanni, John; Conti, Claudio J; Benavides, Fernando



SKHIN/Sprd, a new genetically defined inbred hairless mouse strain for UV-induced skin carcinogenesis studies  

PubMed Central

Strains of mice vary in their susceptibility to ultra-violet (UV) radiation-induced skin tumors. Some strains of hairless mice (homozygous for the spontaneous Hrhr mutation) are particularly susceptible to these tumors. The skin tumors that develop in hairless mice resemble, both at the morphologic and molecular levels, UV-induced squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) and their precursors in human. The most commonly employed hairless mice belong to the SKH1 stock. However, these mice are outbred and their genetic background is not characterized, which makes them a poor model for genetic studies. We have developed a new inbred strain from outbred SKH1 mice that we named SKHIN/Sprd (now at generation F31). In order to characterize the genetic background of this new strain, we genotyped a cohort of mice at F30 with 92 microsatellites and 140 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) evenly distributed throughout the mouse genome. We also exposed SKHIN/Sprd mice to chronic UV irradiation and showed that they are as susceptible to UV-induced skin carcinogenesis as outbred SKH1 mice. In addition, we proved that, albeit with low efficiency, inbred SKHIN/Sprd mice are suitable for transgenic production by classical pronuclear microinjection. This new inbred strain will be useful for the development of transgenic and congenic strains on a hairless inbred background as well as the establishment of syngeneic tumor cell lines. These new tools can potentially help elucidate a number of features of the cutaneous response to UV irradiation in humans, including the effect of genetic background and modifier genes.

Perez, Carlos; Parker-Thornburg, Jan; Mikulec, Carol; Kusewitt, Donna F.; Fischer, Susan M.; DiGiovanni, John; Conti, Claudio J.; Benavides, Fernando



Heterogeneity in the plasma levels of two acute-phase proteins in mice from inbred strains infected with Trypanosoma cruzi  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyzed the variations observed in the plasma levels of both alpha-macroglobulins (AM) and serum amyloid P (SAP) in mice from three different inbred strains (C3H, Balb\\/C and C57black\\/6) acutely infected withTrypanosoma cruzi. SAP levels increased in C57black\\/6 and Balb\\/C mice but not C3H mice. AM levels increased in all C3H mice but not in C57black\\/6 mice and rose slightly

Mauricio R. M. P. Luz; Fred van Leuven; Tania C. Araújo-Jorge



The mouse as a model for understanding chronic diseases of aging: the histopathologic basis of aging in inbred mice  

PubMed Central

Inbred mice provide a unique tool to study aging populations because of the genetic homogeneity within an inbred strain, their short life span, and the tools for analysis which are available. A large-scale longitudinal and cross-sectional aging study was conducted on 30 inbred strains to determine, using histopathology, the type and diversity of diseases mice develop as they age. These data provide tools that when linked with modern in silico genetic mapping tools, can begin to unravel the complex genetics of many of the common chronic diseases associated with aging in humans and other mammals. In addition, novel disease models were discovered in some strains, such as rhabdomyosarcoma in old A/J mice, to diseases affecting many but not all strains including pseudoxanthoma elasticum, pulmonary adenoma, alopecia areata, and many others. This extensive data set is now available online and provides a useful tool to help better understand strain-specific background diseases that can complicate interpretation of genetically engineered mice and other manipulatable mouse studies that utilize these strains.

Sundberg, John P.; Berndt, Annerose; Sundberg, Beth A.; Silva, Kathleen A.; Kennedy, Victoria; Bronson, Roderick; Yuan, Rong; Paigen, Beverly; Harrison, David; Schofield, Paul N.



Genetic Architecture of Maize Kernel Composition in the Nested Association Mapping and Inbred Association Panels1[W  

PubMed Central

The maize (Zea mays) kernel plays a critical role in feeding humans and livestock around the world and in a wide array of industrial applications. An understanding of the regulation of kernel starch, protein, and oil is needed in order to manipulate composition to meet future needs. We conducted joint-linkage quantitative trait locus mapping and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for kernel starch, protein, and oil in the maize nested association mapping population, composed of 25 recombinant inbred line families derived from diverse inbred lines. Joint-linkage mapping revealed that the genetic architecture of kernel composition traits is controlled by 21–26 quantitative trait loci. Numerous GWAS associations were detected, including several oil and starch associations in acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase1-2, a gene that regulates oil composition and quantity. Results from nested association mapping were verified in a 282 inbred association panel using both GWAS and candidate gene association approaches. We identified many beneficial alleles that will be useful for improving kernel starch, protein, and oil content.

Cook, Jason P.; McMullen, Michael D.; Holland, James B.; Tian, Feng; Bradbury, Peter; Ross-Ibarra, Jeffrey; Buckler, Edward S.; Flint-Garcia, Sherry A.



Endogenous viral genes in thirteen highly inbred chicken lines and in lines selected for immune response traits.  


Thirteen highly inbred lines of chickens of Leghorn, Spanish, and Egyptian Fayoumi origin, four partly inbred Leghorn lines selected for MHC alleles and immune response to GAT (Ir-GAT), and two replicated, noninbred Leghorn lines divergently selected for multiple immune response traits were subjected to molecular genotyping for endogenous viral (ev) gene sequences. In all highly inbred lines of Leghorn origin, ev1 alone or both ev1 and ev2 were observed. The Spanish and Fayoumi lines had three and five ev genes, respectively, most of which were not readily identifiable with standard Leghorn ev gene loci. The Leghorn lines selected for MHC and Ir-GAT had ev1 fixed in the population. Differences in ev3 and ev5 gene frequency were associated with Ir-GAT in the B1 haplotype, but not in the B19 haplotype. In the noninbred lines, which were divergently selected for multiple traits of immune responsiveness, ev6 and ev9 differed in frequency between lines, and both were in lower frequency in the lines selected for high immunoresponsiveness. These two ev genes are the only ones known in White Leghorns that have the gs-chf+ phenotype [expressing chicken helper factor (chf) but not expressing group-specific antigen (gs)]. PMID:1561219

Lamont, S J; Chen, Y; Aarts, H J; van der Hulst-van Arkel, M C; Beuving, G; Leenstra, F R



Functional consequences of perceived interleukin deficiencies? Analysis employing NZB x C58 recombinant inbred mice.  

PubMed Central

NZB mice have previously been shown to be deficient in the production of interleukins 1 and 2 (IL-1, IL-2) during the development of autoimmune disease. One or both of these defects have been inherited in certain of the NZB X C58 recombinant inbred strains (N X 8 RI). Certain of these strains have been selected to examine further the effect of decreased production of IL-1 and/or IL-2. The interleukin deficiencies found in vitro were not due to the presence of an inhibitor/suppressor nor was any activity found intracellularly upon water lysis of stimulated cells. Despite profound IL-1 and/or IL-2 deficiencies measured in vitro, all of the N X 8 RI lines examined were found to be capable of producing IL-1 in vivo as shown by their serum amyloid A response to endotoxin injection. We conclude from these studies that defects in IL-1 production measured in vitro do not reflect inability to produce this lymphokine in vivo. Young, IL-1 deficient NZB mice generated CTL to TNP-self but old, IL-2 deficient NZB mice did not. Since all other strains were found to generate cytotoxic T cells to TNP-self regardless of interleukin defects, we also conclude that the cytotoxic T cell defect in NZB mice is due to some presently unknown factor in addition to IL-2 deficiency. The relationship of decreased production of interleukins to the development of autoimmunity remains undefined.

Bocchieri, M H; Smith, J B; Smith, J B; Staruch, M J; Wood, D D



QTL mapping of seed-quality traits in sunflower recombinant inbred lines under different water regimes.  


The objectives of the present research were to determine the effects of water stress on seed-quality traits and to map QTLs controlling the studied traits under two different water treatments in a population of sunflower recombinant inbred lines (RILs). Two experiments were conducted in greenhouse and field conditions, each with well-watered and water-stressed treatments. The experiments consisted of a split-plot design (water treatment and RIL) with three blocks. Analyses of variance showed significant variation among genotypes, and a water treatment x genotype interaction was also observed for most of the traits. Two to 15 QTLs were found, depending on trait and growth conditions, and the percentage of phenotypic variance explained by the QTLs ranged from 5% to 31%. Several QTLs for oil content overlapped with QTLs for palmitic and stearic acid contents in all four conditions. An overlapping region on linkage group 3 (QTLs 2.OC.3.1 and 4.SA.3.1) was linked to an SSR marker (ORS657). A principal component analysis was performed on four fatty acid traits. Two principal components, P1 and P2, were used for QTL analysis. This method improved the ability to identify chromosomal regions affecting the fatty acids. We also detected the principal-component QTLs that did not overlap with the fatty acid QTLs. The results highlight genomic regions of interest in marker-based breeding programmes for increasing oil content in sunflower. PMID:18650950

Ebrahimi, A; Maury, P; Berger, M; Kiani, S Poormohammad; Nabipour, A; Shariati, F; Grieu, P; Sarrafi, A



Imputation of Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Inbred Mice Using Local Phylogeny  

PubMed Central

We present full-genome genotype imputations for 100 classical laboratory mouse strains, using a novel method. Using genotypes at 549,683 SNP loci obtained with the Mouse Diversity Array, we partitioned the genome of 100 mouse strains into 40,647 intervals that exhibit no evidence of historical recombination. For each of these intervals we inferred a local phylogenetic tree. We combined these data with 12 million loci with sequence variations recently discovered by whole-genome sequencing in a common subset of 12 classical laboratory strains. For each phylogenetic tree we identified strains sharing a leaf node with one or more of the sequenced strains. We then imputed high- and medium-confidence genotypes for each of 88 nonsequenced genomes. Among inbred strains, we imputed 92% of SNPs genome-wide, with 71% in high-confidence regions. Our method produced 977 million new genotypes with an estimated per-SNP error rate of 0.083% in high-confidence regions and 0.37% genome-wide. Our analysis identified which of the 88 nonsequenced strains would be the most informative for improving full-genome imputation, as well as which additional strain sequences will reveal more new genetic variants. Imputed sequences and quality scores can be downloaded and visualized online.

Wang, Jeremy R.; de Villena, Fernando Pardo-Manuel; Lawson, Heather A.; Cheverud, James M.; Churchill, Gary A.; McMillan, Leonard



Characterization of phenylpropanoid pathway genes within European maize (Zea mays L.) inbreds  

PubMed Central

Background Forage quality of maize is influenced by both the content and structure of lignins in the cell wall. Biosynthesis of monolignols, constituting the complex structure of lignins, is catalyzed by enzymes in the phenylpropanoid pathway. Results In the present study we have amplified partial genomic fragments of six putative phenylpropanoid pathway genes in a panel of elite European inbred lines of maize (Zea mays L.) contrasting in forage quality traits. Six loci, encoding C4H, 4CL1, 4CL2, C3H, F5H, and CAD, displayed different levels of nucleotide diversity and linkage disequilibrium (LD) possibly reflecting different levels of selection. Associations with forage quality traits were identified for several individual polymorphisms within the 4CL1, C3H, and F5H genomic fragments when controlling for both overall population structure and relative kinship. A 1-bp indel in 4CL1 was associated with in vitro digestibility of organic matter (IVDOM), a non-synonymous SNP in C3H was associated with IVDOM, and an intron SNP in F5H was associated with neutral detergent fiber. However, the C3H and F5H associations did not remain significant when controlling for multiple testing. Conclusion While the number of lines included in this study limit the power of the association analysis, our results imply that genetic variation for forage quality traits can be mined in phenylpropanoid pathway genes of elite breeding lines of maize.

Andersen, Jeppe Reitan; Zein, Imad; Wenzel, Gerhard; Darnhofer, Birte; Eder, Joachim; Ouzunova, Milena; Lubberstedt, Thomas



Host-Specific Pathogenicity and Genome Differences between Inbred Strains of Meloidogyne hapla.  


Five isolates of M. hapla originating from the Netherlands and California were inbred by sequential transfer of single egg masses to produce six strains. Cytological examination showed that oocytes of these strains underwent meiosis and had n = 16 chromosomes. Strains were tested for ability to infect and to develop on several hosts by in vitro assays. The two strains from California infected tomato roots at a higher rate than those from the Netherlands, but no difference among strains was seen for ability to develop on tomato with or without the resistance gene Mi-1. All strains developed on the common bean cultivar Kentucky Wonder, but strains differed in ability to develop on the nematode-resistant cultivar NemaSnap. Strain-specific differences were also seen in ability to infect and to develop on Solanum bulbocastanum clone SB-22. Strain VW13, derived from nematodes treated with the mutagen EMS, was defective in ability to infect tomato and potato roots in vitro. Comparison of DNA using AFLP markers showed an average of 4% of the bands were polymorphic across the six strains, but no correlation was observed between the geographical origin or virulence and DNA polymorphism pattern. PMID:19259441

Liu, Q L; Williamson, V M



Evaluation of heritable determinants of blood and brain serotonin homeostasis using recombinant inbred mice.  


The biogenic amine serotonin (5-HT, 5-hydroxytryptamine) exerts powerful, modulatory control over multiple physiological functions in the brain and periphery, ranging from mood and appetite to vasoconstriction and gastrointestinal motility. In order to gain insight into shared and distinct molecular and phenotypic networks linked to variations in 5-HT homeostasis, we capitalized on the stable genetic variation present in recombinant inbred mouse strains. This family of strains, all derived from crosses between C57BL/6J and DBA/2J (BXD) parents, represents a unique, community resource with approximately 40?years of assembled phenotype data that can be exploited to explore and test causal relationships in silico. We determined levels of 5-HT and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid from whole blood, midbrain and thalamus/hypothalamus (diencephalon) of 38 BXD lines and both sexes. All 5-HT measures proved highly heritable in each region, although both gender and region significantly impacted between-strain correlations. Our studies identified both expected and novel biochemical, anatomical and behavioral phenotypes linked to 5-HT traits, as well as distinct quantitative trait loci. Analyses of these loci nominate a group of genes likely to contribute to gender- and region-specific capacities for 5-HT signaling. Analysis of midbrain mRNA variations across strains revealed overlapping gene expression networks linked to 5-HT synthesis and metabolism. Altogether, our studies provide a rich profile of genomic, molecular and phenotypic networks that can be queried for novel relationships contributing risk for disorders linked to perturbed 5-HT signaling. PMID:24102824

Ye, R; Carneiro, A M D; Airey, D; Sanders-Bush, E; Williams, R W; Lu, L; Wang, J; Zhang, B; Blakely, R D



Phase Transitions in (CH3NH3)4InBr7  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of the dielectric constant, the DTA signal and the linear thermal expansion, optical observation of domain structure and X-ray examination of (CH3NH3)4InBr7 have been carried out over a temperature range from 25°C to 180°C. It is found that the crystal undergoes phase transitions at 171°C (T1) and 141°C (T2), and is ferroelastic below T1. The crystal at room temperature belongs to monoclinic P2/n with lattice parameters: a{=}16.854(6) Å, b{=}7.731(6) Å, c{=}16.756(9) Å and ?{=}103.22(2)°. When the symmetry is approximated as to be pseudo-orthorhombic by taking a'{=}a+c, b'{=}b and c'{=}c-a (?'{=}90.34(11)°), the domain structure observed below T1 is deduced from the strain-compatibility relations for the domain boundaries by taking account of the symmetry change from mmm to 2/m at T1. At T2 no change of domain configuration has been detected.

Miyazaki, Akio; Irokawa, Katsumi; Komukae, Masaru; Osaka, Toshio; Makita, Yasuharu




PubMed Central

Previous research using outbred rats indicates that individual differences in activity in a novel environment predict sensitivity to the reinforcing effect of psychostimulant drugs. The current study examined if the link between responses related to novelty and amphetamine self-administration is heritable. Twelve inbred rat strains were assessed for locomotor activity in a novel environment, preference for a novel environment, and intravenous amphetamine self-administration (acquisition, extinction and amphetamine-induced reinstatement). Strain differences were observed in activity in a novel environment, novelty preference and amphetamine self-administration, indicating a genetic influence for each of these behaviors. While there was no relation between activity in an inescapable novel environment and amphetamine self-administration, strain-dependent differences in novelty preference were positively correlated with the amount of amphetamine self-administered. There was also a positive correlation between the dose-dependent rate of amphetamine self-administration and magnitude of reinstatement. These results demonstrate that activity in an inescapable novel environment and preference for a novel environment are different genetically, and thus likely to reflect different behavioral constructs. Moreover, these results implicate a genetic influence on the relation between novelty seeking and stimulant self-administration, as well as on the relation between stimulant reward and reinstatement.

Meyer, AC; Rahman, S; Charnigo, RJ; Dwoskin, LP; Crabbe, JC; Bardo, MT



Kallikrein-like prorenin-converting enzymes in inbred hypertensive mice.  


Kallikreins are a group of serine proteases and are distinguished by having serine residue at their active site. Their general function is to convert inactive pro-peptide into its biologically active form. In recent years, emerging evidence indicates that some kallikrein-kinin enzymes also play a role in the modulation of renin-angiotensin system. These kallikrein-like prorenin converting enzymes act on renin-angiotensin by converting prorenin into biologically active renin. In this investigation, kallikrein-like prorenin converting enzyme (PRCE C) (mK9) is isolated from genetically inbred high blood pressure (BPH) and their normal counterparts (BPN) mice, and its protein levels are quantitated. Levels of mRNA expression are also compared. Additionally, localization of the enzyme is visualized by in situ hybridization histochemistry. Results indicated higher levels of PRCE C (mK9) enzyme in BPH mice in comparison to their normal counterparts. mRNA expression was also higher in BPH mice. In situ hybridization histochemistry results localized PRCE C (mK9) in the striated duct cells of submandibular gland. PMID:12727215

Uddin, Mukarram; Polley-Mandal, M; Beg, O U



AKXD recombinant inbred strains: models for studying the molecular genetic basis of murine lymphomas.  

PubMed Central

We analyzed the lymphoma susceptibility of 13 AKXD recombinant inbred mouse strains derived from AKR/J, a highly lymphomatous strain, and DBA/2J, a weakly lymphomatous strain. Of the 13 strains used, 12 showed a high incidence of lymphoma development. However, the average age at onset of lymphoma varied considerably among the different AKXD strains, suggesting that they have segregated several loci that affect lymphoma susceptibility. A relatively unambiguous classification of lymphomas was made possible by using histopathology in addition to detailed molecular characterization of rearrangements in immunoglobulin heavy and kappa light genes and in T-cell receptor beta-chain genes. Among the 12 highly lymphomatous strains, only 2 were identified that, like the parental AKR/J strain, died primarily of T-cell lymphomas. Three strains died primarily of B-cell lymphomas, and one strain primarily of myeloid lymphomas. Six strains were susceptible to both T-cell and B-cell lymphomas. Thus, these strains have segregated genes that affect both lymphoma susceptibility and lymphoma type and should prove to be useful models for studying the molecular genetic basis of murine lymphomas. Images

Mucenski, M L; Taylor, B A; Jenkins, N A; Copeland, N G



Cardiovascular Response to Beta-Adrenergic Blockade or Activation in 23 Inbred Mouse Strains  

PubMed Central

We report the characterisation of 27 cardiovascular-related traits in 23 inbred mouse strains. Mice were phenotyped either in response to chronic administration of a single dose of the ?-adrenergic receptor blocker atenolol or under a low and a high dose of the ?-agonist isoproterenol and compared to baseline condition. The robustness of our data is supported by high trait heritabilities (typically H2>0.7) and significant correlations of trait values measured in baseline condition with independent multistrain datasets of the Mouse Phenome Database. We then focused on the drug-, dose-, and strain-specific responses to ?-stimulation and ?-blockade of a selection of traits including heart rate, systolic blood pressure, cardiac weight indices, ECG parameters and body weight. Because of the wealth of data accumulated, we applied integrative analyses such as comprehensive bi-clustering to investigate the structure of the response across the different phenotypes, strains and experimental conditions. Information extracted from these analyses is discussed in terms of novelty and biological implications. For example, we observe that traits related to ventricular weight in most strains respond only to the high dose of isoproterenol, while heart rate and atrial weight are already affected by the low dose. Finally, we observe little concordance between strain similarity based on the phenotypes and genotypic relatedness computed from genomic SNP profiles. This indicates that cardiovascular phenotypes are unlikely to segregate according to global phylogeny, but rather be governed by smaller, local differences in the genetic architecture of the various strains.

Schupfer, Fanny; Hayoz, Pamela; Kutalik, Zoltan; Abriel, Hugues; Pedrazzini, Thierry; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Bergmann, Sven; Maurer, Fabienne



Markers for Heightened Monitoring, Imminent Death, and Euthanasia in Aged Inbred Mice  

PubMed Central

The goal of this study was to identify objective criteria that would reliably predict spontaneous death in aged inbred mice. We evaluated male and female AKR/J mice, which die at a relatively young age due to the development of lymphoma, as well as male C57BL/6J and BALB/cByJ mice. Mice were implanted subcutaneously with an identification chip that also allowed remote measurement of body temperature. Temperatures and body weights were measured weekly until spontaneous death occurred or until euthanasia was performed for humane reasons. In AKR/J mice, hypothermia and weight loss began about 4 wk prior to death and increased gradually during that antemortem interval. In C57BL/6J and BALB/cByJ mice, these declines began earlier and were more prolonged prior to death. However, C57BL/6J and BALB/cByJ mice developed a relatively precipitous hypothermia during the 2 wk prior to death. For all 3 strains, the derived composite score of temperature × weight, expressed as a percentage of stable values for each mouse, was similarly informative. These changes in individual and composite measures can signal the need for closer observation or euthanasia of individual mice. Validated markers of clinical decline or imminent death can allow the use of endpoints that reduce terminal distress, do not significantly affect longevity or survival data, and permit timely collection of biologic samples.

Trammell, Rita A; Cox, Lisa; Toth, Linda A



Inbred mouse strains reveal biomarkers that are pro-longevity, antilongevity or role switching.  


Traditionally, biomarkers of aging are classified as either pro-longevity or antilongevity. Using longitudinal data sets from the large-scale inbred mouse strain study at the Jackson Laboratory Nathan Shock Center, we describe a protocol to identify two kinds of biomarkers: those with prognostic implication for lifespan and those with longitudinal evidence. Our protocol also identifies biomarkers for which, at first sight, there is conflicting evidence. Conflict resolution is possible by postulating a role switch. In these cases, high biomarker values are, for example, antilongevity in early life and pro-longevity in later life. Role-switching biomarkers correspond to features that must, for example, be minimized early, but maximized later, for optimal longevity. The clear-cut pro-longevity biomarkers we found reflect anti-inflammatory, anti-immunosenescent or anti-anaemic mechanisms, whereas clear-cut antilongevity biomarkers reflect inflammatory mechanisms. Many highly significant blood biomarkers relate to immune system features, indicating a shift from adaptive to innate processes, whereas most role-switching biomarkers relate to blood serum features and whole-body phenotypes. Our biomarker classification approach is applicable to any combination of longitudinal studies with life expectancy data, and it provides insights beyond a simplified scheme of biomarkers for long or short lifespan. PMID:24862908

Moeller, Mark; Hirose, Misa; Mueller, Sarah; Roolf, Catrin; Baltrusch, Simone; Ibrahim, Saleh; Junghanss, Christian; Wolkenhauer, Olaf; Jaster, Robert; Köhling, Rüdiger; Kunz, Manfred; Tiedge, Markus; Schofield, Paul N; Fuellen, Georg



Comt1 Genotype and Expression Predicts Anxiety and Nociceptive Sensitivity in Inbred Strains of Mice  

PubMed Central

Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is an ubiquitously expressed enzyme that maintains basic biologic functions by inactivating catechol substrates. In humans, polymorphic variance at the COMT locus has been associated with modulation of pain sensitivity (Andersen & Skorpen, 2009) and risk for developing psychiatric disorders (Harrison & Tunbridge, 2008). A functional haplotype associated with increased pain sensitivity was shown to result in decreased COMT activity by altering mRNA secondary structure-dependent protein translation (Nackley et al., 2006). However, the exact mechanisms whereby COMT modulates pain sensitivity and behavior remain unclear and can be further studied in animal models. We have assessed Comt1 gene expression levels in multiple brain regions in inbred strains of mice and have discovered that Comt1 is differentially expressed among the strains, and this differential expression is cis-regulated. A B2 Short Interspersed Element (SINE) was inserted in the 3?UTR of Comt1 in 14 strains generating a common haplotype that correlates with gene expression. Experiments using mammalian expression vectors of full-length cDNA clones with and without the SINE element demonstrate that strains with the SINE haplotype (+SINE) have greater Comt1 enzymatic activity. +SINE mice also exhibit behavioral differences in anxiety assays and decreased pain sensitivity. These results suggest that a haplotype, defined by a 3? UTR B2 SINE element, regulates Comt1 expression and some mouse behaviors.

Segall, SK; Nackley, AG; Diatchenko, L; Lariviere, WR; Lu, X; Marron, JS; Grabowski-Boase, L; Walker, JR; Slade, G; Gauthier, J; Bailey, JS; Steffy, BM; Maynard, TM; Tarantino, LM; Wiltshire, T



Stability of inbred mouse strain differences in behavior and brain size between laboratories and across decades  

PubMed Central

If we conduct the same experiment in two laboratories or repeat a classical study many years later, will we obtain the same results? Recent research with mice in neural and behavioral genetics yielded different results in different laboratories for certain phenotypes, and these findings suggested to some researchers that behavior may be too unstable for fine-scale genetic analysis. Here we expand the range of data on this question to additional laboratories and phenotypes, and, for the first time in this field, we formally compare recent data with experiments conducted 30–50 years ago. For ethanol preference and locomotor activity, strain differences have been highly stable over a period of 40–50 years, and most strain correlations are in the range of r = 0.85–0.98, as high as or higher than for brain weight. For anxiety-related behavior on the elevated plus maze, on the other hand, strain means often differ dramatically across laboratories or even when the same laboratory is moved to another site within a university. When a wide range of phenotypes is considered, no inbred strain appears to be exceptionally stable or labile across laboratories in any general sense, and there is no tendency to observe higher correlations among studies done more recently. Phenotypic drift over decades for most of the behaviors examined appears to be minimal.

Wahlsten, Douglas; Bachmanov, Alexander; Finn, Deborah A.; Crabbe, John C.



Genetic Analysis of Health-Related Secondary Metabolites in a Brassica rapa Recombinant Inbred Line Population  

PubMed Central

The genetic basis of the wide variation for nutritional traits in Brassica rapa is largely unknown. A new Recombinant Inbred Line (RIL) population was profiled using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) analysis to detect quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling seed tocopherol and seedling metabolite concentrations. RIL population parent L58 had a higher level of glucosinolates and phenylpropanoids, whereas levels of sucrose, glucose and glutamate were higher in the other RIL population parent, R-o-18. QTL related to seed tocopherol (?-, ?-, ?-, ?-, ?-/?- and total tocopherol) concentrations were detected on chromosomes A3, A6, A9 and A10, explaining 11%–35% of the respective variation. The locus on A3 co-locates with the BrVTE1gene, encoding tocopherol cyclase. NMR spectroscopy identified the presence of organic/amino acid, sugar/glucosinolate and aromatic compounds in seedlings. QTL positions were obtained for most of the identified compounds. Compared to previous studies, novel loci were found for glucosinolate concentrations. This work can be used to design markers for marker-assisted selection of nutritional compounds in B. rapa.

Bagheri, Hedayat; El-Soda, Mohamed; Kim, Hye Kyong; Fritsche, Steffi; Jung, Christian; Aarts, Mark G. M.



Inbred mouse strain resistance to Mycobacterium lepraemurium follows the Ity/Lsh pattern.  

PubMed Central

Inbred mouse strains and their F1 hybrids infected intravenously with Mycobacterium lepraemurium showed different mean survival times (MST). BALB/c and C57BL mice were particularly susceptible, whereas C3H, CBA and DBA/2 mice were relatively resistant. Resistance as judged by MST was dominant in the F1 hybrids. A similar ranking order was obtained by comparing the doubling time of the bacillus in the bone marrow, the increase in spleen weight between 4 and 12 weeks after infection, and the pathology of the liver during infection. The general pattern suggests that mouse resistance to M. lepraemurium is, at least in part, controlled by a gene with the same strain distribution as the genes for resistance to Salmonella typhimurium (Ity') and Leishmania donovani (Lsh') and the gene controlling resistance to Mycobacterium bovis BCG (Bcg). Ity, Lsh and Bcg are all known to be on chromosome 1, suggesting a centre controlling reactions to intracellular infections. Images Figure 1 Figure 2

Brown, I N; Glynn, A A; Plant, J



Susceptibility of inbred mice to rickettsiae of the spotted fever group.  

PubMed Central

A mouse strain susceptible to lethal infection with Rickettsia conorii was required for testing vaccine efficacy and for studying the immunology and pathogenesis of infection. Among 20 strains of inbred mice inoculated intraperitoneally with the Malish strain of R. conorii, the C3H/HeJ mouse strain was the most susceptible, with a 50% lethal dose of approximately 10 PFU. Infection of all mouse strains resulted in a measurable antibody response; the highest titers correlated with the greatest degree of rickettsial replication as measured by plaque assay of infected spleen homogenates. Inoculation of C3H/HeJ mice with 5.0 log10 organisms of strain Malish by the subcutaneous route did not result in lethal infection. The Casablanca and Moroccan strains of R. conorii were not lethal for C3H/HeJ mice and, in addition, produced plaques in L-929 cells morphologically distinct from those produced by the Malish strain. The only other spotted fever group rickettsia tested which produced a lethal infection in C3H/HeJ mice was Rickettsia sibirica. Sublethal infection with any of the spotted fever rickettsiae tested protected against lethal infection with R. conorii. These data established a lethal challenge system for examining the protective efficacy of spotted fever immunogens and presented evidence of biological variation among strains of R. conorii. Images

Eisemann, C S; Nypaver, M J; Osterman, J V



Neoplastic and nonneoplastic lesions in aging mice of unique and common inbred strains contribution to modeling of human neoplastic diseases.  


The evaluation of spontaneous lesions in classical inbred strains of mice has become increasingly important because genetically engineered mice (GEMs) are created on these backgrounds. Novel inbred strains-genetically diverse from classic strains-are valuable both as a new background for GEM mice and to increase the genetic variation found in laboratory mice. Newly arising spontaneous genetic alterations in commonly used strains may also lead to new and valuable mouse models of disease. This report evaluates gross and histological lesions in relatively new, classic, and rarely explored mouse inbred strains. Pathological lesions of 1273 mice from 12 inbred strains (129S1/SvW, A.CA-H2(f) /W, AKR/W, BALB/cW, BN/aW, C57BL/6 W, C57BL/10 W, C3H/W, C3H (wad) /W, CBA/W, DBA/2 W, and WOM/W) are reported. BN/aW, WOM/W, and C3H (wad) /W are novel inbred strains produced and maintained in the Department of Genetics and Laboratory Animal Breeding at the Center of Oncology, Warsaw, Poland. Both neoplastic and nonneoplastic lesions were examined. The prevalence of lung neoplasms was significantly higher in A.CA-H2(f) /W (33.3%) and BALB/cW (33.8%) mice (P < .01). The prevalence of liver neoplasms was significantly higher in the CBA/W strain (P < .01). Mammary gland neoplasms arose at a greater frequency in C3H/W mice (P < .01). The occurrence of uterine neoplasms was higher in DBA/W and 129S1/SvW mice. AKR/W and WOM/W mice developed T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma with high frequency (110/121 [90.9%] and 159/175 [90.9%], respectively) before 1 year of age. The occurrence of nonneoplastic lesions in the kidneys of BN/aW mice was increased (P < .01). PMID:24019352

Szymanska, H; Lechowska-Piskorowska, J; Krysiak, E; Strzalkowska, A; Unrug-Bielawska, K; Grygalewicz, B; Skurzak, H M; Pienkowska-Grela, B; Gajewska, M



Mapping Genetic Variants Associated with Beta-Adrenergic Responses in Inbred Mice  

PubMed Central

?-blockers and ?-agonists are primarily used to treat cardiovascular diseases. Inter-individual variability in response to both drug classes is well recognized, yet the identity and relative contribution of the genetic players involved are poorly understood. This work is the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) addressing the values and susceptibility of cardiovascular-related traits to a selective ?1-blocker, Atenolol (ate), and a ?-agonist, Isoproterenol (iso). The phenotypic dataset consisted of 27 highly heritable traits, each measured across 22 inbred mouse strains and four pharmacological conditions. The genotypic panel comprised 79922 informative SNPs of the mouse HapMap resource. Associations were mapped by Efficient Mixed Model Association (EMMA), a method that corrects for the population structure and genetic relatedness of the various strains. A total of 205 separate genome-wide scans were analyzed. The most significant hits include three candidate loci related to cardiac and body weight, three loci for electrocardiographic (ECG) values, two loci for the susceptibility of atrial weight index to iso, four loci for the susceptibility of systolic blood pressure (SBP) to perturbations of the ?-adrenergic system, and one locus for the responsiveness of QTc (p<10?8). An additional 60 loci were suggestive for one or the other of the 27 traits, while 46 others were suggestive for one or the other drug effects (p<10?6). Most hits tagged unexpected regions, yet at least two loci for the susceptibility of SBP to ?-adrenergic drugs pointed at members of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. Loci for cardiac-related traits were preferentially enriched in genes expressed in the heart, while 23% of the testable loci were replicated with datasets of the Mouse Phenome Database (MPD). Altogether these data and validation tests indicate that the mapped loci are relevant to the traits and responses studied.

Hersch, Micha; Peter, Bastian; Kang, Hyun Min; Schupfer, Fanny; Abriel, Hugues; Pedrazzini, Thierry; Eskin, Eleazar; Beckmann, Jacques S.



The genetic structure of recombinant inbred mice: high-resolution consensus maps for complex trait analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Recombinant inbred (RI) strains of mice are an important resource used to map and analyze complex traits. They have proved particularly effective in multidisciplinary genetic studies. Widespread use of RI strains has been hampered by their modest numbers and by the difficulty of combining results derived from different RI sets. Results We have increased the density of typed microsatellite markers two- to five-fold in each of several major RI sets that share C57BL/6 as a parental strain (AXB, BXA, BXD, BXH and CXB). A common set of 490 markers was genotyped in just over 100 RI strains. Genotypes of around 1,100 additional microsatellites in one or more RI sets were generated, collected and checked for errors. Consensus RI maps that integrate genotypes of approximately 1,600 microsatellite loci were assembled. The genomes of individual strains typically incorporate 45-55 recombination breakpoints. The collected RI set - termed the BXN set - contains approximately 5,000 breakpoints. The distribution of recombinations approximates a Poisson distribution and distances between breakpoints average about 0.5 centimorgans (cM). Locations of most breakpoints have been defined with a precision of < 2 cM. Genotypes deviate from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in only a small number of intervals. Conclusions Consensus maps derived from RI strains conform almost exactly to theoretical expectation and are close to the length predicted by the Haldane-Waddington equation (x3.6 for a 2-3 cM interval between markers). Non-syntenic associations between different chromosomes introduce predictable distortions in quantitative trait locus (QTL) datasets that can be partly corrected using two-locus correlation matrices.

Williams, Robert W; Gu, Jing; Qi, Shuhua; Lu, Lu



Enhanced alcohol self-administration and reinstatement in a highly impulsive, inattentive recombinant inbred mouse strain  

PubMed Central

Deficits in executive control have frequently been associated with alcohol use disorder. Here we investigated to what extent pre-existing genetically encoded levels of impulsive/inattentive behavior associate with motivation to take alcohol and vulnerability to cue-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking in an operant self-administration paradigm. We took advantage of BXD16, a recombinant inbred strain previously shown to have enhanced impulsivity and poor attentional control. We compared BXD16 with C57BL/6J mice in a simple choice reaction time task (SCRTT) and confirmed its impulsive/inattentive phenotype. BXD16 mice were less active in a novel open field (OF), and were equally active in an automated home cage environment, showing that increased impulsive responding of BXD16 mice could not be explained by enhanced general activity compared to C57BL/6J mice. After training in a sucrose/alcohol fading self-administration procedure, BXD16 showed increased motivation to earn 10% alcohol solution, both under fixed ratio (FR1) and progressive ratio (PR2) schedules of reinforcement. Responding on the active lever readily decreased during extinction training with no apparent differences between strains. However, upon re-exposure to alcohol-associated cues, alcohol seeking was reinstated to a larger extent in BXD16 than in C57BL/6J mice. Although further studies are needed to determine whether impulsivity/inattention and alcohol seeking depend on common or separate genetic loci, these data show that in mice enhanced impulsivity coincides with increased motivation to take alcohol, as well as relapse vulnerability.

Loos, Maarten; Staal, Jorn; Smit, August B.; De Vries, Taco J.; Spijker, Sabine



QTL mapping for Mediterranean corn borer resistance in European flint germplasm using recombinant inbred lines  

PubMed Central

Background Ostrinia nubilalis (ECB) and Sesamia nonagrioides (MCB) are two maize stem borers which cause important losses in temperate maize production, but QTL analyses for corn borer resistance were mostly restricted to ECB resistance and maize materials genetically related (mapping populations derived from B73). Therefore, the objective of this work was to identify and characterize QTLs for MCB resistance and agronomic traits in a RILs population derived from European flint inbreds. Results Three QTLs were detected for stalk tunnel length at bins 1.02, 3.05 and 8.05 which explained 7.5% of the RILs genotypic variance. The QTL at bin 3.05 was co-located to a QTL related to plant height and grain humidity and the QTL at bin 8.05 was located near a QTL related to yield. Conclusions Our results, when compared with results from other authors, suggest the presence of genes involved in cell wall biosynthesis or fortification with effects on resistance to different corn borer species and digestibility for dairy cattle. Particularly, we proposed five candidate genes related to cell wall characteristics which could explain the QTL for stalk tunnelling in the region 3.05. However, the small proportion of genotypic variance explained by the QTLs suggest that there are also many other genes of small effect regulating MCB resistance and we conclude that MAS seems not promising for this trait. Two QTLs detected for stalk tunnelling overlap with QTLs for agronomic traits, indicating the presence of pleitropism or linkage between genes affecting resistance and agronomic traits.



Mapping genetic variants associated with beta-adrenergic responses in inbred mice.  


?-blockers and ?-agonists are primarily used to treat cardiovascular diseases. Inter-individual variability in response to both drug classes is well recognized, yet the identity and relative contribution of the genetic players involved are poorly understood. This work is the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) addressing the values and susceptibility of cardiovascular-related traits to a selective ?(1)-blocker, Atenolol (ate), and a ?-agonist, Isoproterenol (iso). The phenotypic dataset consisted of 27 highly heritable traits, each measured across 22 inbred mouse strains and four pharmacological conditions. The genotypic panel comprised 79922 informative SNPs of the mouse HapMap resource. Associations were mapped by Efficient Mixed Model Association (EMMA), a method that corrects for the population structure and genetic relatedness of the various strains. A total of 205 separate genome-wide scans were analyzed. The most significant hits include three candidate loci related to cardiac and body weight, three loci for electrocardiographic (ECG) values, two loci for the susceptibility of atrial weight index to iso, four loci for the susceptibility of systolic blood pressure (SBP) to perturbations of the ?-adrenergic system, and one locus for the responsiveness of QTc (p<10(-8)). An additional 60 loci were suggestive for one or the other of the 27 traits, while 46 others were suggestive for one or the other drug effects (p<10(-6)). Most hits tagged unexpected regions, yet at least two loci for the susceptibility of SBP to ?-adrenergic drugs pointed at members of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. Loci for cardiac-related traits were preferentially enriched in genes expressed in the heart, while 23% of the testable loci were replicated with datasets of the Mouse Phenome Database (MPD). Altogether these data and validation tests indicate that the mapped loci are relevant to the traits and responses studied. PMID:22859963

Hersch, Micha; Peter, Bastian; Kang, Hyun Min; Schüpfer, Fanny; Abriel, Hugues; Pedrazzini, Thierry; Eskin, Eleazar; Beckmann, Jacques S; Bergmann, Sven; Maurer, Fabienne



New Arabidopsis Advanced Intercross Recombinant Inbred Lines Reveal Female Control of Nonrandom Mating1[OPEN  

PubMed Central

Female control of nonrandom mating has never been genetically established, despite being linked to inbreeding depression and sexual selection. In order to map the loci that control female-mediated nonrandom mating, we constructed a new advanced intercross recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from a cross between Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) accessions Vancouver (Van-0) and Columbia (Col-0) and mapped quantitative trait loci (QTLs) responsible for nonrandom mating and seed yield traits. We genotyped a population of 490 RILs. A subset of these lines was used to construct an expanded map of 1,061.4 centimorgans with an average interval of 6.7 ± 5.3 centimorgans between markers. QTLs were then mapped for female- and male-mediated nonrandom mating and seed yield traits. To map the genetic loci responsible for female-mediated nonrandom mating and seed yield, we performed mixed pollinations with genetically marked Col-0 pollen and Van-0 pollen on RIL pistils. To map the loci responsible for male-mediated nonrandom mating and seed yield, we performed mixed pollinations with genetically marked Col-0 and RIL pollen on Van-0 pistils. Composite interval mapping of these data identified four QTLs that control female-mediated nonrandom mating and five QTLs that control female-mediated seed yield. We also identified four QTLs that control male-mediated nonrandom mating and three QTLs that control male-mediated seed yield. Epistasis analysis indicates that several of these loci interact. To our knowledge, the results of these experiments represent the first time female-mediated nonrandom mating has been genetically defined.

Fitz Gerald, Jonathan Nesbit; Carlson, Ann Louise; Smith, Evadne; Maloof, Julin N.; Weigel, Detlef; Chory, Joanne; Borevitz, Justin O.; Swanson, Robert John



Complex Genetic Architecture of Cardiac Disease in a Wild Type Inbred Strain of Drosophila melanogaster  

PubMed Central

Natural populations of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, segregate genetic variation that leads to cardiac disease phenotypes. One nearly isogenic line from a North Carolina peach orchard, WE70, is shown to harbor two genetically distinct heart phenotypes: elevated incidence of arrhythmias, and a dramatically constricted heart diameter in both diastole and systole, with resemblance to restrictive cardiomyopathy in humans. Assuming the source to be rare variants of large effect, we performed Bulked Segregant Analysis using genomic DNA hybridization to Affymetrix chips to detect single feature polymorphisms, but found that the mutant phenotypes are more likely to have a polygenic basis. Further mapping efforts revealed a complex architecture wherein the constricted cardiomyopathy phenotype was observed in individual whole chromosome substitution lines, implying that variants on both major autosomes are sufficient to produce the phenotype. A panel of 170 Recombinant Inbred Lines (RIL) was generated, and a small subset of mutant lines selected, but these each complemented both whole chromosome substitutions, implying a non-additive (epistatic) contribution to the “disease” phenotype. Low coverage whole genome sequencing was also used to attempt to map chromosomal regions contributing to both the cardiomyopathy and arrhythmia, but a polygenic architecture had to be again inferred to be most likely. These results show that an apparently simple rare phenotype can have a complex genetic basis that would be refractory to mapping by deep sequencing in pedigrees. We present this as a cautionary tale regarding assumptions related to attempts to map new disease mutations on the assumption that probands carry a single causal mutation.

Zhang, Zhi; Hsieh, Benjamin; Poe, Amy; Anderson, Julie; Ocorr, Karen; Gibson, Greg; Bodmer, Rolf



New Arabidopsis advanced intercross recombinant inbred lines reveal female control of nonrandom mating.  


Female control of nonrandom mating has never been genetically established, despite being linked to inbreeding depression and sexual selection. In order to map the loci that control female-mediated nonrandom mating, we constructed a new advanced intercross recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from a cross between Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) accessions Vancouver (Van-0) and Columbia (Col-0) and mapped quantitative trait loci (QTLs) responsible for nonrandom mating and seed yield traits. We genotyped a population of 490 RILs. A subset of these lines was used to construct an expanded map of 1,061.4 centimorgans with an average interval of 6.7 ± 5.3 centimorgans between markers. QTLs were then mapped for female- and male-mediated nonrandom mating and seed yield traits. To map the genetic loci responsible for female-mediated nonrandom mating and seed yield, we performed mixed pollinations with genetically marked Col-0 pollen and Van-0 pollen on RIL pistils. To map the loci responsible for male-mediated nonrandom mating and seed yield, we performed mixed pollinations with genetically marked Col-0 and RIL pollen on Van-0 pistils. Composite interval mapping of these data identified four QTLs that control female-mediated nonrandom mating and five QTLs that control female-mediated seed yield. We also identified four QTLs that control male-mediated nonrandom mating and three QTLs that control male-mediated seed yield. Epistasis analysis indicates that several of these loci interact. To our knowledge, the results of these experiments represent the first time female-mediated nonrandom mating has been genetically defined. PMID:24623850

Fitz Gerald, Jonathan Nesbit; Carlson, Ann Louise; Smith, Evadne; Maloof, Julin N; Weigel, Detlef; Chory, Joanne; Borevitz, Justin O; Swanson, Robert John



Lz-0 × Berkeley: a new Arabidopsis recombinant inbred line population for the mapping of complex traits.  


This study describes the generation and test of a genetic resource suited to identify determinants of cell biological traits in plants. The use of quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping for a better genetic understanding of cell biological traits is still at an early stage, even for biotechnologically important cell properties, such as the dimensions of fiber cells. A common strategy, the mapping of QTLs in recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations, is limited by the fact that the existing RIL populations exploit only a small fraction of the existing natural variation. Here, we report the mapping of QTLs impacting on the length of fiber cells in Arabidopsis inflorescence stems in a newly generated RIL population derived from a cross between the accessions Berkeley and the little known Lz-0. Through inbreeding of individual F2 plants, a total of 159 new F8 lines were produced and genotyped with a set of 49 single nucleotide polymorphism markers. The population was successfully used not only for the mapping of three QTLs controlling fiber length, but also to map five QTL controlling flowering time under short and long-day conditions. Our study demonstrates the usefulness of this new genetic resource by mapping in it QTLs underlying a poorly explored cellular trait as well as an already better explored regulatory pathway. The new RIL population and an online platform for the continuous supplementation of genetic markers will be generally available to substantially broaden the genetic diversity through which loci with impact on plant quantitative traits can be identified. PMID:24532030

Capron, Arnaud; Chang, Xue Feng; Shi, Chun; Beatson, Rodger; Berleth, Thomas



Quantitative trait loci for cold tolerance of rice recombinant inbred lines in low temperature environments.  


Low temperature is one of the major environmental stresses in rice cultivation in high-altitude and high-latitude regions. In this study, we cultivated a set of recombinant inbred lines (RIL) derived from Dasanbyeo (indica) / TR22183 (japonica) crosses in Yanji (high-latitude area), Kunming (high-altitude area), Chuncheon (cold water irrigation) and Suwon (normal) to evaluate the main effects of quantitative trait loci (QTL) and epistatic QTL (E-QTL) with regard to their interactions with environments for cold-related traits. Six QTLs for spikelet fertility (SF) were identified in three cold treatment locations. Among them, four QTLs on chromosomes 2, 7, 8, and 10 were validated by several near isogenic lines (NILs) under cold treatment in Chuncheon. A total of 57 QTLs and 76 E-QTLs for nine cold-related traits were identified as distributing on all 12 chromosomes; among them, 19 QTLs and E-QTLs showed significant interactions of QTLs and environments (QEIs). The total phenotypic variation explained by each trait ranged from 13.2 to 29.1% in QTLs, 10.6 to 29.0% in EQTLs, 2.2 to 8.8% in QEIs and 1.0% to 7.7% in E-QTL × environment interactions (E-QEIs). These results demonstrate that epistatic effects and QEIs are important properties of QTL parameters for cold tolerance at the reproductive stage. In order to develop cold tolerant varieties adaptable to wide-ranges of cold stress, a strategy facilitating marker-assisted selection (MAS) is being adopted to accumulate QTLs identified from different environments. PMID:22080374

Jiang, Wenzhu; Jin, Yong-Mei; Lee, Joohyun; Lee, Kang-Ie; Piao, Rihua; Han, Longzhi; Shin, Jin-Chul; Jin, Rong-De; Cao, Tiehua; Pan, Hong-Yu; Du, Xinglin; Koh, Hee-Jong



Heterogeneous inbred populations are useful as sources of near-isogenic lines for RAPD marker localization.  


The development and use of RAPD markers for applications in crop improvement has recently generated considerable interest within the plant breeding community. One potential application of RAPDs is their use for "tagging" simply-inherited (monogenic) pest-resistance genes and enabling more efficient identification and selection of genotypes carrying specific combinations of resistance genes. In this report, we propose and describe the use of heterogeneous inbred populations as sources of near-isogenic lines (NILs) for targeting RAPD markers linked to major pest resistance genes. The development of these NILs for RAPD marker analyses involved a sequence of line and mass selection during successive generations of inbreeding. DNA bulks derived from the NILs were used to identify a RAPD marker (designated OK14620, generated by 5'-CCCGCTACAC-3' decamer) that was tightly linked (2.23±1.33 centiMorgans) to an important rust [Uromyces appendiculatus (Pers.) Unger var. appendiculatus] resistance gene (Ur-3) in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). The efficiency of this approach was demonstrated by a low rate of false-positives identified, the tightness of the linkage identified, and the ability to detect polymorphism between genomic regions that are representative of the same gene pool of common bean. This method of deriving NILs should find application by researchers interested in utilizing marker-assisted selection for one or more major pest resistance genes. The identification of OK14620 should help to facilitate continued use of the Ur-3 resistance source and will now enable marker-assisted pyramiding of three different bean rust resistance sources (two previously tagged) to provide effective and stable resistance to this important pathogen. PMID:24186016

Haley, S D; Afanador, L K; Miklas, P N; Stavely, J R; Kelly, J D



Linkage analysis of molecular markers and quantitative trait loci in populations of inbred backcross lines of Brassica napus L.  


Backcross populations are often used to study quantitative trait loci (QTL) after they are initially discovered in balanced populations, such as F(2), BC(1), or recombinant inbreds. While the latter are more powerful for mapping marker loci, the former have the reduced background genetic variation necessary for more precise estimation of QTL effects. Many populations of inbred backcross lines (IBLs) have been developed in plant and animal systems to permit simultaneous study and dissection of quantitative genetic variation introgressed from one source to another. Such populations have a genetic structure that can be used for linkage estimation and discovery of QTL. In this study, four populations of IBLs of oilseed Brassica napus were developed and analyzed to map genomic regions from the donor parent (a winter-type cultivar) that affect agronomic traits in spring-type inbreds and hybrids. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) identified among the IBLs were used to calculate two-point recombination fractions and LOD scores through grid searches. This information allowed the enrichment of a composite genetic map of B. napus with 72 new RFLP loci. The selfed and hybrid progenies of the IBLs were evaluated during two growing seasons for several agronomic traits. Both pedigree structure and map information were incorporated into the QTL analysis by using a regression approach. The number of QTL detected for each trait and the number of effective factors calculated by using biometrical methods were of similar magnitude. Populations of IBLs were shown to be valuable for both marker mapping and QTL analysis. PMID:10511570

Butruille, D V; Guries, R P; Osborn, T C



Characterization of miRNAs in response to short-term waterlogging in three inbred lines of Zea mays.  


Waterlogging of plants leads to low oxygen levels (hypoxia) in the roots and causes a metabolic switch from aerobic respiration to anaerobic fermentation that results in rapid changes in gene transcription and protein synthesis. Our research seeks to characterize the microRNA-mediated gene regulatory networks associated with short-term waterlogging. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate many genes involved in growth, development and various biotic and abiotic stress responses. To characterize the involvement of miRNAs and their targets in response to short-term hypoxia conditions, a quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) assay was used to quantify the expression of the 24 candidate mature miRNA signatures (22 known and 2 novel mature miRNAs, representing 66 miRNA loci) and their 92 predicted targets in three inbred Zea mays lines (waterlogging tolerant Hz32, mid-tolerant B73, and sensitive Mo17). Based on our studies, miR159, miR164, miR167, miR393, miR408 and miR528, which are mainly involved in root development and stress responses, were found to be key regulators in the post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms under short-term waterlogging conditions in three inbred lines. Further, computational approaches were used to predict the stress and development related cis-regulatory elements on the promoters of these miRNAs; and a probable miRNA-mediated gene regulatory network in response to short-term waterlogging stress was constructed. The differential expression patterns of miRNAs and their targets in these three inbred lines suggest that the miRNAs are active participants in the signal transduction at the early stage of hypoxia conditions via a gene regulatory network; and crosstalk occurs between different biochemical pathways. PMID:22768123

Liu, Zhijie; Kumari, Sunita; Zhang, Lifang; Zheng, Yonglian; Ware, Doreen



Growth and formation of the foreleg skeleton inbred mice and rats under conditions of hypo-, normo- and hyperdynamia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Inbred 1 month old males of C57B 1/6, CBA, CC57Br/Mw interlinear hybrid mice of the first generation and rats of the August and Wistar lines were subjected to conditions of hypo-, normo- and hyperdynamia for 2 months. The statistically reliable dependence is shown between mechanical underloadings and overloadings and macro microscopic changes in the hind limb skeleton of animals. Genetic determination of growth and formation of the forelimb skeleton is established. Hereditary susceptibility and the phenomenon of heterosis are preserved under all motor conditions.

Kogan, B. I.; Antipov, Y. S.



Genetic and sex-linked factors influencing HBs antigen clearance. I. Nonimmune clearance in inbred strains of mice.  


Differences in the clearance values of polyvinylpyrrolidone (KPVP) and HBs antigen (KHBs) were seen in several strains of inbred mice. In addition, in all strains studied KHBs was greater in females than in males, while KPVP was not significantly different in the two sexes. In the strain with the lowest KHBs values, the incidence of HBs antibody formation was lower than in the other strains. These data indicate that genetic and sex-linked factors influence nonimmune clearance of HBs antigen in mice. If similar factors exist in man they may explain some of the variation in clinical manifestation of HBV infection. PMID:7069407

Craxi, A; Montáno, L; Goodall, A; Thomas, H C



Genotype is an important determinant factor of host susceptibility to periodontitis in the Collaborative Cross and inbred mouse populations  

PubMed Central

Background Periodontal infection (Periodontitis) is a chronic inflammatory disease, which results in the breakdown of the supporting tissues of the teeth. Previous epidemiological studies have suggested that resistance to chronic periodontitis is controlled to some extent by genetic factors of the host. The aim of this study was to determine the phenotypic response of inbred and Collaborative Cross (CC) mouse populations to periodontal bacterial challenge, using an experimental periodontitis model. In this model, mice are co-infected with Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum, bacterial strains associated with human periodontal disease. Six weeks following the infection, the maxillary jaws were harvested and analyzed for alveolar bone loss relative to uninfected controls, using computerized microtomography (microCT). Initially, four commercial inbred mouse strains were examined to calibrate the procedure and test for gender effects. Subsequently, we applied the same protocol to 23 lines (at inbreeding generations 10–18) from the newly developed mouse genetic reference population, the Collaborative Cross (CC) to determine heritability and genetic variation of control bone volume prior to infection (CBV, naïve bone volume around the teeth of uninfected mice), and residual bone volume (RBV, bone volume after infection) and loss of bone volume (LBV, the difference between CBV and RBV) following infection. Results BALB/CJ mice were highly susceptible (P<0.05) whereas DBA/2J, C57BL/6J and A/J mice were resistant. Six lines of the tested CC population were susceptible, whereas the remaining lines were resistant to alveolar bone loss. Gender effects on bone volume were tested across the four inbred and 23 CC lines, and found not to be significant. Based on ANOVA analyses, broad-sense heritabilities were statistically significant and equal to 0.4 for CBV and 0.2 for LBV. Conclusions The moderate heritability values indicate that the variation in host susceptibility to the disease is controlled to an appreciable extent by genetic factors. These results strongly support the possibility of using the Collaborative Cross, as well as developing dedicated F2 (resistant x susceptible inbred strains) resource populations, for future dissection of genetic factors in periodontitis.



Dissecting structural and nucleotide genome-wide variation in inbred Iberian pigs  

PubMed Central

Background In contrast to international pig breeds, the Iberian breed has not been admixed with Asian germplasm. This makes it an important model to study both domestication and relevance of Asian genes in the pig. Besides, Iberian pigs exhibit high meat quality as well as appetite and propensity to obesity. Here we provide a genome wide analysis of nucleotide and structural diversity in a reduced representation library from a pool (n=9 sows) and shotgun genomic sequence from a single sow of the highly inbred Guadyerbas strain. In the pool, we applied newly developed tools to account for the peculiarities of these data. Results A total of 254,106 SNPs in the pool (79.6 Mb covered) and 643,783 in the Guadyerbas sow (1.47 Gb covered) were called. The nucleotide diversity (1.31x10-3 per bp in autosomes) is very similar to that reported in wild boar. A much lower than expected diversity in the X chromosome was confirmed (1.79x10-4 per bp in the individual and 5.83x10-4 per bp in the pool). A strong (0.70) correlation between recombination and variability was observed, but not with gene density or GC content. Multicopy regions affected about 4% of annotated pig genes in their entirety, and 2% of the genes partially. Genes within the lowest variability windows comprised interferon genes and, in chromosome X, genes involved in behavior like HTR2C or MCEP2. A modified Hudson-Kreitman-Aguadé test for pools also indicated an accelerated evolution in genes involved in behavior, as well as in spermatogenesis and in lipid metabolism. Conclusions This work illustrates the strength of current sequencing technologies to picture a comprehensive landscape of variability in livestock species, and to pinpoint regions containing genes potentially under selection. Among those genes, we report genes involved in behavior, including feeding behavior, and lipid metabolism. The pig X chromosome is an outlier in terms of nucleotide diversity, which suggests selective constraints. Our data further confirm the importance of structural variation in the species, including Iberian pigs, and allowed us to identify new paralogs for known gene families.



The relationship between PROP and ethanol preferences: an evaluation of 4 inbred mouse strains.  


Ethanol's taste attributes undoubtedly contribute to the development of drug preference. Ethanol's taste is both sweet and bitter. Taster status for bitter 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) has been proposed as a genetic marker for alcoholism; however, human results are conflicting. We collected preference scores for both tastants in 4 mouse strains selected on the basis of previously reported taste preference, with the generally accepted idea that inbred mice show minimal within-strain variation. Eighty-eight male mice (22 per strain) participated. The strains were as follows: C57BL/6J, ethanol preferring; BALB/cJ, ethanol avoiding; SWR/J, PROP avoiding; and C3HeB/FeJ, PROP neutral. Using a brief-access (1-min trials) 2-bottle preference test, we assessed the taste response of each strain to PROP and ethanol on separate days. Although PROP avoiding versus neutral mice could be segregated into significantly different populations, this was not the case for ethanol avoiding versus preferring mice, and all strains showed high variability. On average, only BALB/cJ, SWR/J, and C3HeB/FeJ mice conformed to their literature-reported preferences; nonetheless, there were a substantial number of discordant animals. C57BL/6J did not conform to previous results, indicating that they are ethanol preferring. Finally, we did not observe a significant relationship between PROP and ethanol preferences across strains. The high variability per strain and the number of animals in disagreement with their respective literature-reported preference raise concerns regarding their utility for investigations underlying mechanisms of taste-mediated ingestive responses. Absent postingestive consequences, the brief-access results suggest a possible degree of previously masked polymorphisms in taste preferences or a more recent drift in underlying genetic factors. The absence of a relationship between PROP and ethanol indicates that the bitter quality in ethanol may be more highly related to other bitter compounds that are mediated by different genetic influences. PMID:17693415

White, Theresa L; Dishaw, Laura V; Sheehe, Paul R; Youngentob, Steven L



Gene expression profiling in the striatum of inbred mouse strains with distinct opioid-related phenotypes  

PubMed Central

Background Mouse strains with a contrasting response to morphine provide a unique model for studying the genetically determined diversity of sensitivity to opioid reward, tolerance and dependence. Four inbred strains selected for this study exhibit the most distinct opioid-related phenotypes. C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice show remarkable differences in morphine-induced antinociception, self-administration and locomotor activity. 129P3/J mice display low morphine tolerance and dependence in contrast to high sensitivity to precipitated withdrawal observed in SWR/J and C57BL/6J strains. In this study, we attempted to investigate the relationships between genetic background and basal gene expression profile in the striatum, a brain region involved in the mechanism of opioid action. Results Gene expression was studied by Affymetrix Mouse Genome 430v2.0 arrays with probes for over 39.000 transcripts. Analysis of variance with the control for false discovery rate (q < 0.01) revealed inter-strain variation in the expression of ~3% of the analyzed transcripts. A combination of three methods of array pre-processing was used to compile a list of ranked transcripts covered by 1528 probe-sets significantly different between the mouse strains under comparison. Using Gene Ontology analysis, over-represented patterns of genes associated with cytoskeleton and involved in synaptic transmission were identified. Differential expression of several genes with relevant neurobiological function (e.g. GABA-A receptor alpha subunits) was validated by quantitative RT-PCR. Analysis of correlations between gene expression and behavioural data revealed connection between the level of mRNA for K homology domain containing, RNA binding, signal transduction associated 1 (Khdrbs1) and ATPase Na+/K+ alpha2 subunit (Atp1a2) with morphine self-administration and analgesic effects, respectively. Finally, the examination of transcript structure demonstrated a possible inter-strain variability of expressed mRNA forms as for example the catechol-O-methyltransferase (Comt) gene. Conclusion The presented study led to the recognition of differences in the gene expression that may account for distinct phenotypes. Moreover, results indicate strong contribution of genetic background to differences in gene transcription in the mouse striatum. The genes identified in this work constitute promising candidates for further animal studies and for translational genetic studies in the field of addictive and analgesic properties of opioids.

Korostynski, Michal; Kaminska-Chowaniec, Dorota; Piechota, Marcin; Przewlocki, Ryszard



Host defenses in experimental scrub typhus: delayed-type hypersensitivity responses of inbred mice.  


Delayed-type hypersensitivity responses of inbred mice during the course of lethal and chronic infections with strains of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi were evaluated by using the influx of radiolabeled cells into antigen-injected ears. Congenic strains of C3H mice, which previously have been shown to be resistant (C3H/RV) or sensitive (C3H/HeDub) to lethal intraperitoneal infection with the Gilliam strain of rickettsiae, both expressed delayed-type hypersensitivity early in the course of infection (5 to 7 days). The sensitive C3H/HeDub mice, however, exhibited a marked decline in reactivity just before death. In contrast, reactivity of C3H/RV mice remained high through day 9 and declined slowly through day 15 after infection. Similar results were obtained when BALB/c mice were infected with either the Karp or the Gilliam strain of rickettsiae, which produce a lethal or nonlethal infection, respectively, in this strain of mice. Rechallenge of C3H/RV mice elicited a rapid increase in reactivity, suggesting a secondary memory response. To analyze delayed-type hypersensitivity during chronic infection, C3H/HeDub mice were immunized by subcutaneous infection with the Gilliam strain of R. tsutsugamushi, and both delayed-type hypersensitivity reactivity and resistance to intraperitoneal challenge were examined. Delayed-type hypersensitivity reactivity developed slowly and peaked at 21 days postimmunization, which correlated with resistance to intraperitoneal challenge. Delayed-type hypersensitivity reactivity declined thereafter, but resistance to intraperitoneal challenge remained through 28 days postimmunization. Delayed-type hypersensitivity reactivity increased after secondary challenge at 28 days, again suggesting antigen memory generated by primary immunization. Transfer of delayed-type hypersensitivity reactivity was accomplished by using immune thymus-derived splenic lymphocytes isolated with nylon-wool columns. Abrogation of the ability of immune spleen cells to transfer delayed-type hypersensitivity reactivity after treatment with anti-Thy 1.2 alloantiserum and complement further supported the view that delayed-type hypersensitivity responses to scrub typhus rickettsiae were mediated by thymus-derived lymphocytes. PMID:6797944

Jerrells, T R; Osterman, J V



Host Defenses in Experimental Scrub Typhus: Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity Responses of Inbred Mice  

PubMed Central

Delayed-type hypersensitivity responses of inbred mice during the course of lethal and chronic infections with strains of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi were evaluated by using the influx of radiolabeled cells into antigen-injected ears. Congenic strains of C3H mice, which previously have been shown to be resistant (C3H/RV) or sensitive (C3H/HeDub) to lethal intraperitoneal infection with the Gilliam strain of rickettsiae, both expressed delayed-type hypersensitivity early in the course of infection (5 to 7 days). The sensitive C3H/HeDub mice, however, exhibited a marked decline in reactivity just before death. In contrast, reactivity of C3H/RV mice remained high through day 9 and declined slowly through day 15 after infection. Similar results were obtained when BALB/c mice were infected with either the Karp or the Gilliam strain of rickettsiae, which produce a lethal or nonlethal infection, respectively, in this strain of mice. Rechallenge of C3H/RV mice elicited a rapid increase in reactivity, suggesting a secondary memory response. To analyze delayed-type hypersensitivity during chronic infection, C3H/HeDub mice were immunized by subcutaneous infection with the Gilliam strain of R. tsutsugamushi, and both delayed-type hypersensitivity reactivity and resistance to intraperitoneal challenge were examined. Delayed-type hypersensitivity reactivity developed slowly and peaked at 21 days postimmunization, which correlated with resistance to intraperitoneal challenge. Delayed-type hypersensitivity reactivity declined thereafter, but resistance to intraperitoneal challenge remained through 28 days postimmunization. Delayed-type hypersensitivity reactivity increased after secondary challenge at 28 days, again suggesting antigen memory generated by primary immunization. Transfer of delayed-type hypersensitivity reactivity was accomplished by using immune thymus-derived splenic lymphocytes isolated with nylon-wool columns. Abrogation of the ability of immune spleen cells to transfer delayed-type hypersensitivity reactivity after treatment with anti-Thy 1.2 alloantiserum and complement further supported the view that delayed-type hypersensitivity responses to scrub typhus rickettsiae were mediated by thymus-derived lymphocytes.

Jerrells, Thomas R.; Osterman, Joseph V.



Can we improve heterosis for root growth of maize by selecting parental inbred lines with different temperature behaviour?  

PubMed Central

Tolerance to high and low temperature is an important breeding aim for Central and Northern Europe, where temperature fluctuations are predicted to increase. However, the extent to which genotypes differ in their response to the whole range of possible temperatures is not well understood. We tested the hypothesis that the combination of maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines with differing temperature optima for root growth would lead to superior hybrids. This hypothesis is based on the concept of ‘marginal overdominance’ in which the hybrid expresses higher relative fitness than its parents, summed over all situations. The elongation rates of axile and lateral roots of the reciprocal cross between two flint and two dent inbred lines were assessed at temperatures between 15°C and 40°C. Indeed, the cross between UH005 and UH250 with lateral root growth temperature optima at 34°C and 28°C, respectively, resulted in intermediate hybrids. At temperatures below and above 31°C, the hybrids' root growth was comparable to the better parent, respectively, thereby increasing temperature tolerance of the hybrid compared with its parents. The implications of and reasons for this heterosis effect are discussed in the context of breeding for abiotic stress tolerance and of putatively underlying molecular mechanisms. This finding paves the way for more detailed investigations of this phenomenon in future studies.

Hund, Andreas; Reimer, Regina; Stamp, Peter; Walter, Achim



Genetic variation among species, races, forms and inbred lines of lac insects belonging to the genus Kerria (Homoptera, Tachardiidae)  

PubMed Central

The lac insects (Homoptera: Tachardiidae), belonging to the genus Kerria, are commercially exploited for the production of lac. Kerria lacca is the most commonly used species in India. RAPD markers were used for assessing genetic variation in forty-eight lines of Kerria, especially among geographic races, infrasubspecific forms, cultivated lines, inbred lines, etc., of K. lacca. In the 48 lines studied, the 26 RAPD primers generated 173 loci, showing 97.7% polymorphism. By using neighbor-joining, the dendrogram generated from the similarity matrix resolved the lines into basically two clusters and outgroups. The major cluster, comprising 32 lines, included mainly cultivated lines of the rangeeni form, geographic races and inbred lines of K. lacca. The second cluster consisted of eight lines of K. lacca, seven of the kusmi form and one of the rangeeni from the southern state of Karnataka. The remaining eight lines formed a series of outgroups, this including a group of three yellow mutant lines of K. lacca and other species of the Kerria studied, among others. Color mutants always showed distinctive banding patterns compared to their wild-type counterparts from the same population. This study also adds support to the current status of kusmi and rangeeni, as infraspecific forms of K. lacca.

Ranjan, Sanjeev Kumar; Mallick, Chandana Basu; Saha, Dipnarayan; Vidyarthi, Ambarish S; Ramani, Ranganathan



Genetic analysis of cerebellar folial pattern in crosses of C57BL/6J and DBA/2J inbred mice.  


Variation in the cerebellar folial pattern of mice is influenced by genetic elements [Inouye, M. and Oda, S., J. Comp. Neurol., 190 (1980) 357-362]. In crosses of C57BL/6J and DBA/2J inbred mice, the presence or absence of a specific fissure, the intraculminate fissure, is largely determined by a single genetic locus (Cfp-1), which is located on distal Chromosome 4 [Neumann et al., Brain Res., 524 (1990) 85-89]. In the present study, the mid-sagittal cerebellar folial pattern has been examined in crosses of C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice and in BXD recombinant inbred strains. At least three loci, including Cfp-1, are involved in variation in vermian pattern formation. Genetic variation in thyroid hormone function may be involved in the inheritance of folial pattern. A locus (Cfp-2) that appears to be partially responsible for this negative genetic correlation in mice may be linked to Afp on Chromosome 5. This hypothesis was suggested by the negative correlation between neonatal serum T4 level and the number of folia in rats given neonatal injections of thyroxine or propylthiouracil [Lauder, J.M. et al., Brain Res., 76 (1974) 33-40]. PMID:8374795

Neumann, P E; Garretson, J D; Skabardonis, G P; Mueller, G G



Genetic basis of transcriptome differences between the founder strains of the rat HXB/BXH recombinant inbred panel  

PubMed Central

Background With the advent of next generation sequencing it has become possible to detect genomic variation on a large scale. However, predicting which genomic variants are damaging to gene function remains a challenge, as knowledge of the effects of genomic variation on gene expression is still limited. Recombinant inbred panels are powerful tools to study the cis and trans effects of genetic variation on molecular phenotypes such as gene expression. Results We generated a comprehensive inventory of genomic differences between the two founder strains of the rat HXB/BXH recombinant inbred panel: SHR/OlaIpcv and BN-Lx/Cub. We identified 3.2 million single nucleotide variants, 425,924 small insertions and deletions, 907 copy number changes and 1,094 large structural genetic variants. RNA-sequencing analyses on liver tissue of the two strains identified 532 differentially expressed genes and 40 alterations in transcript structure. We identified both coding and non-coding variants that correlate with differential expression and alternative splicing. Furthermore, structural variants, in particular gene duplications, show a strong correlation with transcriptome alterations. Conclusions We show that the panel is a good model for assessing the genetic basis of phenotypic heterogeneity and for providing insights into possible underlying molecular mechanisms. Our results reveal a high diversity and complexity underlying quantitative and qualitative transcriptional differences.



Severe inbreeding depression and no evidence of purging in an extremely inbred wild species--the Chatham Island black robin.  


Although evidence of inbreeding depression in wild populations is well established, the impact of genetic purging in the wild remains controversial. The contrasting effects of inbreeding depression, fixation of deleterious alleles by genetic drift, and the purging of deleterious alleles via natural selection mean that predicting fitness outcomes in populations subjected to prolonged bottlenecks is not straightforward. We report results from a long-term pedigree study of arguably the world's most inbred wild species of bird: the Chatham Island black robin Petroica traversi, in which conditions were ideal for purging to occur. Contrary to expectations, black robins showed a strong, negative relationship between inbreeding and juvenile survival, yielding lethal equivalents (2B) of 6.85. We also determined that the negative relationship between inbreeding and survival did not appear to be mediated by levels of ancestral inbreeding and may be attributed in part to unpurged lethal recessives. Although the black robin demographic history provided ideal conditions for genetic purging, our results show no clear evidence of purging in the major life-history trait of juvenile survival. Our results also show no evidence of fixation of deleterious alleles in juvenile survival, but do confirm that continued high levels of contemporary inbreeding in a historically inbred population could lead to additional severe inbreeding depression. PMID:24303793

Kennedy, Euan S; Grueber, Catherine E; Duncan, Richard P; Jamieson, Ian G



Low-nitrogen stress tolerance and nitrogen agronomic efficiency among maize inbreds: comparison of multiple indices and evaluation of genetic variation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Limited information is available on genetic variation in low-nitrogen (low-N) stress tolerance and N-use efficiency (NUE)\\u000a among maize inbreds. To unveil this information, a panel of 189 diverse maize inbred lines was evaluated under contrasting\\u000a levels of N availability over 2 years. Low-N agronomic efficiency (LNAE), absolute grain yield (GY) at low-N conditions, and\\u000a the ratio between GY at low-N and

Yongshen WuWenguo; Wenguo Liu; Xinhai Li; Mingshun Li; Degui Zhang; Zhuanfang Hao; Jianfeng Weng; Yunbi Xu; Li Bai; Shihuang Zhang; Chuanxiao Xie



Young Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Articles in this theme issue focus on young adults and genealogy, music videos, public access microcomputer software selection, literature for and about Black adolescents, library services to reluctant readers, booktalks, historical fiction, the role of young adult services librarians, and the need for adolescents to find their roots through…

Dequin, Henry C.; And Others



Adult Sinusitis  


Adult Sinusitis Berrylin J. Ferguson, MD Sarah K. Wise, MD INTRODUCTION “Sinusitis” and “sinus infection” are terms that are commonly used by patients, healthcare providers, and the media. However, ...


Adult Scoliosis  


... Manual Idiopathic Scoliosis (PDF) Brace Biomechanics Brace Wear Compliance (PDF) Milwaukee Brace (PDF) Boston Brace (PDF) Wilmington ... Members About Us Board of Directors Contact Us Corporate Supporters HOME > Patient and Family > Adult Idiopathic Scoliosis ...


Coupling estimated effects of QTLs for physiological traits to a crop growth model: predicting yield variation among recombinant inbred lines in barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in the use of molecular markers to elucidate the inheritance of quantitative traits enable the integration of genetic information on physiological traits into crop growth models. The objective of this study was to assess the ability of a crop growth model with QTL-based estimates of physiological input parameters to predict the yield of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of barley.

Xinyou Yin; Scott D. Chasalow; C. Johan Dourleijn; Piet Stam; Martin J. Kropff



Isolation of simian virus 40-transformed inbred hamster cell lines heterogeneous for virus induction by chemicals or radiation. [UV and gamma radiation, BUDR, mitomycin C  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cloned cell lines have been isolated after simian virus 40 (SV40) transformation of kidney cells of an inbred hamster strain. Considerable heterogeneity for the induction of infectious virus was observed between the lines, ranging from the spontaneous production of infectious virus to nonproducer characteristics. In spite of their differences in virus inducibility, all the clones were found to contain equivalent

J. C. Kaplan; S. M. Wilbert; J. J. Collins; T. Rakusanova; G. B. Zamansky; P. H. Black



Differential Acquisition of Lever Pressing in Inbred and Outbred Mice: Comparison of One-Lever and Two-Lever Procedures and Correlation with Differences in Locomotor Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent progress in mouse genetics has led to an increased interest in developing procedures for assessing mouse behavior, but relatively few of the behavioral procedures developed involve positively reinforced operant behavior. When operant methods are used, nose poking, not lever pressing, is the target response. In the current study differential acquisition of milk-reinforced lever pressing was observed in five inbred




Construction of a combined sorghum linkage map from two recombinant inbred populations using AFLP, SSR, RFLP, and RAPD markers, and comparison with other sorghum maps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is an important crop in the semi-arid tropics that also receives growing attention in genetic research. A comprehensive reference map of the sorghum genome would be an essential research tool. Here, a combined sorghum linkage map from two recombinant inbred populations was constructed using AFLP, SSR, RFLP and RAPD markers. The map was aligned with

B. I. G. Haussmann; D. E. Hess; N. Seetharama; H. G. Welz; H. H. Geiger



Genetic correlations among ethanol-related behaviors and neurotensin receptors in Long Sleep (LS) × Short Sleep (SS) recombinant inbred strains of mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies were designed to examine the hypothesis that genetic based differences in sensitivity to several behavioral effects of ethanol are mediated, in part, by shared genes and that some of ethanol's actions are mediated by brain neurotensinergic processes. In these studies we have used recombinant inbred (RI) strains of mice derived from Long Sleep (LS\\/Ibg) and Short Sleep (SS\\/Ibg) lines

V. Gene Erwin; Byron C. Jones



Analysis of nonadditive protein accumulation in young primary roots of a maize (Zea mays L.) F(1)-hybrid compared to its parental inbred lines.  


Heterosis describes the superior performance of heterozygous F(1)-hybrids compared to their homozygous parental inbred lines. Heterosis is already manifested during early maize (Zea mays L.) primary root development. In this study, the most abundant soluble proteins have been investigated before the phenotypic manifestation of heterosis in 3.5-day-old primary roots in the flint inbred line UH002, the dent inbred line UH301 and the corresponding hybrid UH301 x UH002. In CBB-stained 2-DE gels, 150 of 304 detected proteins (49%) were accumulated in a nonadditive fashion in the hybrid compared to the average of their parental inbred lines (Student's t-test: p < 0.05). Remarkably, expression of 51% (76/150) of the nonadditively accumulated proteins exceeded the high parent or was below the low parent. ESI-MS/MS identified 75 of the 76 proteins that belonged to these expression classes. The most abundant functional classes among the 75 proteins that were encoded by 60 different genes were metabolism (58%) and disease and defense (19%). Nonadditive protein accumulation in primary roots of maize hybrids might be associated with heterosis manifestation. Identification of these proteins could therefore contribute to the better understanding of the molecular basis of heterosis. PMID:18704907

Hoecker, Nadine; Lamkemeyer, Tobias; Sarholz, Barbara; Paschold, Anja; Fladerer, Claudia; Madlung, Johannes; Wurster, Karl; Stahl, Mark; Piepho, Hans-Peter; Nordheim, Alfred; Hochholdinger, Frank



Metabolic and cardiovascular disorders in highly inbred lines for intensive pig farming: how animal welfare evaluation could improve the basic knowledge of human obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. - Intensive pig farming is currently performed with highly inbred lines of animals characterised not only by fast growing and low proportion of back-fat tissue, but also by an impaired development of muscular mass and cardiocirculatory system, and higher susceptibility to oxidative stress. This picture of genetically- determined metabolic alterations suggests the use of these lines as a nice

Gianfranco BRAMBILLA; Alfredo CANTAFORA; Medicina Molecolare



Similarities among a group of elite maize inbreds as measured by pedigree, F 1 grain yield, grain yield, heterosis, and RFLPs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic distances were calculated among 37 inbred lines representing a wide range of related and unrelated elite Corn Belt germ plasm of maize (Zea Mays L.), using 257 probe restriction enzyme combinations. Genetic distances based on RFLP data were highly correlated with coefficients of parentage among pairs of lines. The RFLP-based distance had a higher correlation with single-cross grain yield

O. S. Smith; J. S. C. Smith; S. L. Bowen; R. A. Tenborg; S. J. Wall



Immunological and nonimmunological control of severity of Trypanosoma musculi infections in C3H and C57BL\\/6 inbred mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies concerned with the mechanisms responsible for relative resistance or susceptibility of strains of inbred mice to Trypanosoma musculi infections are presented. Treatment with 400 rads of ionizing radiation, silica dust, or trypan blue (reticuloendothelial blocking agents) rendered C3H mice unable to control the initial maximum level of parasite growth, and the mice died of overwhelming infections. In contrast, similarly

J. W. Albright; J. F. Albright



QTLs for agronomic traits in the Mediterranean environment identified in recombinant inbred lines of the cross 'Arta' × H. spontaneum 41-1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A genetic linkage map has been developed for recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of the cross 'Arta' × Hordeum spontaneum 41-1. One hundred and ninety four RILs, randomly chosen from a population of 494 RILs, were mapped with 189 markers including one morphological trait ( btr = brittle rachis locus). The linkage map extended to 890 cM. Agronomic traits such as grain

M. Baum; S. Grando; G. Backes; A. Jahoor; A. Sabbagh; S. Ceccarelli



Helicobacter bilis sp. nov., a novel Helicobacter species isolated from bile, livers, and intestines of aged, inbred mice.  

PubMed Central

A fusiform bacterium with 3 to 14 multiple bipolar sheathed flagella and periplasmic fibers wrapped around the cell was isolated from the liver, bile, and lower intestine of aged, inbred mice. The bacteria grew at 37 and 42 degrees C under microaerophilic conditions, rapidly hydrolyzed urea, were catalase and oxidase positive, reduced nitrate to nitrite, did not hydrolyze indoxyl acetate or hippurate, and were resistant to both cephalothin and nalidixic acid but sensitive to metronidazole. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the organism was classified as a novel helicobacter, Helicobacter bilis. This new helicobacter, like Helicobacter hepaticus, colonizes the bile, liver, and intestine of mice. Although the organism is associated with multifocal chronic hepatitis, further studies are required to ascertain whether H. bilis is responsible for causing chronic hepatitis and/or hepatocellular tumors in mice.

Fox, J G; Yan, L L; Dewhirst, F E; Paster, B J; Shames, B; Murphy, J C; Hayward, A; Belcher, J C; Mendes, E N



How similar are inbred rats? The influence of anatomical variations, shipment and sampling time on experimental surgery.  


Variations among inbred rats in terms of anatomy and routine laboratory values can potentially blur surgical experimental results. Therefore, a retrospective analysis aiming at investigating hepatic and perihepatic anatomical variations, liver weight, body weight, liver weight/body weight ratio (LBWR), variations in routine laboratory values, and the influence of shipment and repeated sampling was performed. In our study, liver weight of rats seemed to be strain-specific. LBWR was weakly and negatively correlated with body weight in rats. A statistically significant difference in routine blood tests was found among normal rats grouped by different body weight or shipment. Weekly repeated sampling from the same rats revealed a statistically significant difference in a blood test. In conclusion, the fact that variation among rats or their environment can blur the results of a surgical experimental study should be kept in mind. PMID:22813726

Jin, H; Huang, H; Zhang, J; Dirsch, O; Dahmen, U



Something old and something new: wedding recombinant inbred lines with traditional line cross analysis increases power to describe gene interactions.  


In this paper we present a novel approach to quantifying genetic architecture that combines recombinant inbred lines (RIL) with line cross analysis (LCA). LCA is a method of quantifying directional genetic effects (i.e. summed effects of all loci) that differentiate two parental lines. Directional genetic effects are thought to be critical components of genetic architecture for the long term response to selection and as a cause of inbreeding depression. LCA typically begins with two inbred parental lines that are crossed to produce several generations such as F1, F2, and backcrosses to each parent. When a RIL population (founded from the same P1 and P2 as was used to found the line cross population) is added to the LCA, the sampling variance of several nonadditive genetic effect estimates is greatly reduced. Specifically, estimates of directional dominance, additive x additive, and dominance x dominance epistatic effects are reduced by 92%, 94%, and 56% respectively. The RIL population can be simultaneously used for QTL identification, thus uncovering the effects of specific loci or genomic regions as elements of genetic architecture. LCA and QTL mapping with RIL provide two qualitatively different measures of genetic architecture with the potential to overcome weaknesses of each approach alone. This approach provides cross-validation of the estimates of additive and additive x additive effects, much smaller confidence intervals on dominance, additive x additive and dominance x dominance estimates, qualitatively different measures of genetic architecture, and the potential when used together to balance the weaknesses of LCA or RIL QTL analyses when used alone. PMID:20419131

Elnaccash, Tarek W; Tonsor, Stephen J



Genetic relationship between ethanol-induced conditioned place preference and other ethanol phenotypes in 15 inbred mouse strains.  


The genetic relationships between different behaviors used to index the rewarding or reinforcing effects of alcohol are poorly understood. To address this issue, ethanol-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) was tested in a genetically diverse panel of inbred mouse strains, and strain means from this study and other inbred strain studies were used to examine the genetic correlation between CPP and several ethanol-related phenotypes, including activity measures recorded during CPP training and testing. Mice from each strain were exposed to a well-characterized unbiased place conditioning procedure using ethanol doses of 2 or 4 g/kg; an additional group from each strain was exposed to saline alone on all trials. Genotype had a significant effect on CPP, basal locomotor activity, ethanol-stimulated activity, and the effect of repeated ethanol exposure on activity. Correlational analyses showed significant negative genetic correlations between CPP and sweetened ethanol intake and between CPP and test session activity, as well as a significant positive genetic correlation between CPP and chronic ethanol withdrawal severity. Moreover, there was a trend toward a positive genetic correlation between CPP and ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion. These genetic correlations suggest overlap in the genetic mechanisms underlying CPP and each of these traits. The patterns of genetic relationships suggest a greater impact of ethanol's aversive effects on drinking and a greater impact of ethanol's rewarding effects on CPP. Overall, these data support the idea that genotype influences ethanol's rewarding effect, a factor that may contribute importantly to addictive vulnerability. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24841742

Cunningham, Christopher L



Identification of five novel modifier loci of ApcMin harbored in the BXH14 recombinant inbred strain  

PubMed Central

Every year thousands of people in the USA are diagnosed with small intestine and colorectal cancers (CRC). Although environmental factors affect disease etiology, uncovering underlying genetic factors is imperative for risk assessment and developing preventative therapies. Familial adenomatous polyposis is a heritable genetic disorder in which individuals carry germ-line mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene that predisposes them to CRC. The Apc Min mouse model carries a point mutation in the Apc gene and develops polyps along the intestinal tract. Inbred strain background influences polyp phenotypes in Apc Min mice. Several Modifier of Min (Mom) loci that alter tumor phenotypes associated with the Apc Min mutation have been identified to date. We screened BXH recombinant inbred (RI) strains by crossing BXH RI females with C57BL/6J (B6) Apc Min males and quantitating tumor phenotypes in backcross progeny. We found that the BXH14 RI strain harbors five modifier loci that decrease polyp multiplicity. Furthermore, we show that resistance is determined by varying combinations of these modifier loci. Gene interaction network analysis shows that there are multiple networks with proven gene–gene interactions, which contain genes from all five modifier loci. We discuss the implications of this result for studies that define susceptibility loci, namely that multiple networks may be acting concurrently to alter tumor phenotypes. Thus, the significance of this work resides not only with the modifier loci we identified but also with the combinations of loci needed to get maximal protection against polyposis and the impact of this finding on human disease studies. Abbreviations:APCadenomatous polyposis coliGWASgenome-wide association studiesQTLquantitative trait lociSNPsingle-nucleotide polymorphism.

Siracusa, Linda D.



Ecotropic murine leukemia virus DNA content of normal and lymphomatous tissues of BXH-2 recombinant inbred mice.  

PubMed Central

BXH-2 recombinant inbred mice spontaneously produce a B-tropic murine leukemia virus (MuLV) beginning early in life and have a high incidence of non-T-cell lymphomas. These traits are not characteristic of the progenitor strains (C57BL/6J and C3H/HeJ) or of 11 other BXH recombinant inbred strains. Since B-tropic virus expression may be causally related to the high incidence of lymphoma in this strain, we have analyzed the ecotropic MuLV DNA content of both normal and lymphomatous tissues of BXH-2 mice. Southern analysis and hybridization with an ecotropic MuLV DNA-specific probe showed that DNA of normal BXH-2 tissues contained both parental N-tropic MuLV proviruses but lacked endogenous B-tropic MuLV DNA sequences. In addition, none of 116 F1 hybrid mice derived from male BXH-2 mice spontaneously produced ecotropic MuLV early in life. These results suggest that the B-tropic virus is horizontally transmitted in BXH-2 mice. Southern analysis of DNA from tumor tissues of 12 BXH-2 mice showed that amplification of ecotropic-specific DNA sequences had occurred in lymphomatous tissues of 3 mice and suggested that these tumors were monoclonal. The number of newly acquired proviruses, which appeared to be structurally nondefective and integrated at different sites, varied from one to three copies. Since lymphomatous tissues from only 3 of 12 mice examined carried additional detectable ecotropic proviruses, these results suggest that amplification of ecotropic MuLV DNA sequences is not required for maintenance of transformation in BXH-2 lymphomas. Images

Jenkins, N A; Copeland, N G; Taylor, B A; Bedigian, H G; Lee, B K



Identification of wild-derived inbred mouse strains highly susceptible to monkeypox virus infection for use as small animal models.  


Infection with monkeypox virus (MPXV) causes disease manifestations in humans that are similar, although usually less severe, than those of smallpox. Since routine vaccination for smallpox ceased more than 30 years ago, there is concern that MPXV could be used for bioterrorism. Thus, there is a need to develop animal models to study MPXV infection. Accordingly, we screened 38 inbred mouse strains for susceptibility to MPXV. Three highly susceptible wild-derived inbred strains were identified, of which CAST/EiJ was further developed as a model. Using an intranasal route of infection with an isolate of the Congo Basin clade of MPXV, CAST/EiJ mice exhibited weight loss, morbidity, and death in a dose-dependent manner with a calculated 50% lethal dose (LD(50)) of 680 PFU, whereas there were no deaths of BALB/c mice at a 10,000-fold higher dose. CAST/EiJ mice exhibited greater MPXV sensitivity when infected via the intraperitoneal route, with an LD(50) of 14 PFU. Both routes resulted in MPXV replication in the lung, spleen, and liver. Intranasal infection with an isolate of the less-pathogenic West African clade yielded an LD(50) of 7,600 PFU. The immune competence of CAST/EiJ mice was established by immunization with vaccinia virus, which induced antigen-specific T- and B-lymphocyte responses and fully protected mice from lethal doses of MPXV. The new mouse model has the following advantages for studying pathogenesis of MPXV, as well as for evaluation of potential vaccines and therapeutics: relative sensitivity to MPXV through multiple routes, genetic homogeneity, available immunological reagents, and commercial production. PMID:20519404

Americo, Jeffrey L; Moss, Bernard; Earl, Patricia L



Sequence and Ionomic Analysis of Divergent Strains of Maize Inbred Line B73 with an Altered Growth Phenotype  

PubMed Central

Maize (Zea mays) is the most widely grown crop species in the world and a classical model organism for plant research. The completion of a high-quality reference genome sequence and the advent of high-throughput sequencing have greatly empowered re-sequencing studies in maize. In this study, plants of maize inbred line B73 descended from two different sets of seed material grown for several generations either in the field or in the greenhouse were found to show a different growth phenotype and ionome under phosphate starvation conditions and moreover a different responsiveness towards mycorrhizal fungi of the species Glomus intraradices (syn: Rhizophagus irregularis). Whole genome re-sequencing of individuals from both sets and comparison to the B73 reference sequence revealed three cryptic introgressions on chromosomes 1, 5 and 10 in the line grown in the greenhouse summing up to a total of 5,257 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Transcriptome sequencing of three individuals from each set lent further support to the location of the introgression intervals and confirmed them to be fixed in all sequenced individuals. Moreover, we identified >120 genes differentially expressed between the two B73 lines. We thus have found a nearly-isogenic line (NIL) of maize inbred line B73 that is characterized by an altered growth phenotype under phosphate starvation conditions and an improved responsiveness towards symbiosis with mycorrhizal fungi. Through next-generation sequencing of the genomes and transcriptomes we were able to delineate exact introgression intervals. Putative de novo mutations appeared approximately uniformly distributed along the ten maize chromosomes mainly representing G:C -> A:T transitions. The plant material described in this study will be a valuable tool both for functional studies of genes differentially expressed in both B73 lines and for research on growth behavior especially in response to symbiosis between maize and mycorrhizal fungi.

Gahrtz, Manfred; Bucher, Marcel; Scholz, Uwe; Dresselhaus, Thomas



Differential Performance and Parasitism of Caterpillars on Maize Inbred Lines with Distinctly Different Herbivore-Induced Volatile Emissions  

PubMed Central

Plant volatiles induced by insect feeding are known to attract natural enemies of the herbivores. Six maize inbred lines that showed distinctly different patterns of volatile emission in laboratory assays were planted in randomized plots in the Central Mexican Highlands to test their ability to recruit parasitic wasps under field conditions. The plants were artificially infested with neonate larvae of the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda, and two of its main endoparasitoids, Campoletis sonorensis and Cotesia marginiventris, were released in the plots. Volatiles were collected from equally treated reference plants in the neighbourhood of the experimental field. The cumulative amount of 36 quantified volatile compounds determined for each line was in good accordance with findings from the laboratory; there was an almost 15-fold difference in total emission between the two extreme lines. We found significant differences among the lines with respect to the numbers of armyworms recovered from the plants, their average weight gain and parasitism rates. Average weight of the caterpillars was negatively correlated with the average total amount of volatiles released by the six inbred lines. However, neither total volatile emission nor any specific single compound within the blend could explain the differential parasitism rates among the lines, with the possible exception of (E)-2-hexenal for Campoletis sonorensis and methyl salicylate for Cotesia marginiventris. Herbivore-induced plant volatiles and/or correlates thereof contribute to reducing insect damage of maize plants through direct plant defence and enhanced attraction of parasitoids, alleged indirect defence. The potential to exploit these volatiles for pest control deserves to be further evaluated.

Degen, Thomas; Bakalovic, Nenad; Bergvinson, David; Turlings, Ted C. J.



Adult Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume comprehensively reviews the research on the psychology of the middle aged (ages 40-65). Topics include the concept of maturity and maturation models, the measurement and influences of adult self image; marriage and sexual patterns; intergenerational relationships between and children; vocations and avocations (work, retirement, play,…

Bischof, Ledford J.


Adult Questionnnaire

­ OMB No. 0925-0583 Expiration Date: 12/31/2010 ­Questionnaire on­Adult­Care Physi?ian­Survey­ of­Pra?ti?es­on­Diet,­ Physi?al­A?tivity,­ and­Weight­Control Condu?ted­by: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) National Institutes



ERIC Educational Resources Information Center




Adult circumcision.  


Adult circumcision can be performed under local or regional anesthesia. Medical indications for this procedure include phimosis, paraphimosis, recurrent balanitis and posthitis (inflammation of the prepuce). Nonmedical reasons may be social, cultural, personal or religious. The procedure is commonly performed using either the dorsal slit or the sleeve technique. The dorsal slit is especially useful in patients who have phimosis. The sleeve technique may provide better control of bleeding in patients with large subcutaneous veins. A dorsal penile nerve block, with or without a circumferential penile block, provides adequate anesthesia. Informed consent must be obtained. Possible complications of adult circumcision include infection, bleeding, poor cosmetic results and a change in sensation during intercourse. PMID:10193593

Holman, J R; Stuessi, K A



On the Relationships of High-Frequency Hearing Loss and Cochlear Pathology to the Acoustic Startle Response (ASR) and Prepulse Inhibition of the ASR in the BXD Recombinant Inbred Series  

Microsoft Academic Search

The measurement of the acoustic startle response (ASR) and prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the ASR in many inbred strains of mice, including C57BL\\/6 and DBA\\/2, may be complicated by age-related high-frequency hearing loss (HFHL) and the associated cochlear pathology. Willott and Erway (1998) have recently reported on the age-related changes of the acoustic brain response in the BXD recombinant inbred

James McCaughran; James Bell; Robert Hitzemann



Genetic variability of soluble proteins studied by two-dimensional electrophoresis on different inbred mouse strains and on different mouse organs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The soluble proteins of four organs (liver, kidney, brain and muscle) of mice from four inbred strains (C57BL\\/6J, DBA\\/2J, AKR\\/J and BALB\\/cHan) and offspring from cross-breedings therefrom are investigated for genetic variants. The female mice from each strain are divided into different groups according to age (12–14 and 24–26 weeks) and generation (P and F1). The proteins are separated

J. Klose



Mapping Resistance Quantitative Trait Loci for Three Foliar Diseases in a Maize Recombinant Inbred Line Population—Evidence for Multiple Disease Resistance?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zwonitzer, J. C., Coles, N. D., Krakowsky, M. D., Arellano, C., Holland, J. B., McMullen, M. D., Pratt, R. C., and Balint-Kurti, P. J. 2010. Mapping resistance quantitative trait loci for three foliar diseases in a maize recombinant inbred line population—evidence for multiple disease resistance? Phytopathology 100:72-79. Southern leaf blight (SLB), gray leaf spot (GLS), and northern leaf blight (NLB)

John C. Zwonitzer; Nathan D. Coles; Matthew D. Krakowsky; Consuelo Arellano; James B. Holland; Michael D. McMullen; Richard C. Pratt; Peter J. Balint-Kurti



Genetic dissection of tocopherol and phytosterol in recombinant inbred lines of sunflower through quantitative trait locus analysis and the candidate gene approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) contains tocopherol, a non-enzymatic antioxidant known as lipid-soluble vitamin E, and phytosterol, with interesting\\u000a properties, which can result in decreased risk of chronic diseases in humans and with several beneficial effects in plants.\\u000a The genetic control of tocopherol and phytosterol content in a population of 123 recombinant inbred lines of sunflower was\\u000a studied through quantitative trait

P. Haddadi; A. Ebrahimi; N. B. Langlade; B. Yazdi-samadi; M. Berger; A. Calmon; M. R. Naghavi; P. Vincourt; A. Sarrafi


A QTL analysis of sunflower partial resistance to downy mildew ( Plasmopara halstedii ) and black stem ( Phoma macdonaldii ) by the use of recombinant inbred lines (RILs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Partial resistance to downy mildew (Plasmopara halstedii) and to black stem (Phoma macdonaldii) in sunflower were investigated under natural field infection and a controlled growth chamber respectively. Genetic control\\u000a for resistance to the diseases was determined in recombinant inbred lines (RILs) and their two parents, ’PAC-2’ and ’RHA-266.’\\u000a The experiments were undertaken in a randomized complete block design with two

G. Rachid Al-Chaarani; A. Roustaee; L. Gentzbittel; L. Mokrani; G. Barrault; G. Dechamp-Guillaume; A. Sarrafi



WNIN/GR-Ob - An insulin-resistant obese rat model from inbred WNIN strain  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: WNIN/GR-Ob is a mutant obese rat strain with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) developed at the National Institute of Nutrition (NIN), Hyderabad, India, from the existing 80 year old Wistar rat (WNIN) stock colony. The data presented here pertain to its obese nature along with IGT trait as evidenced by physical, physiological and biochemical parameters. The study also explains its existence, in three phenotypes: homozygous lean (+/+), heterozygous carrier (+/-) and homozygous obese (-/-). Methods: Thirty animals (15 males and 15 females) from each phenotype (+/+, +/-, -/-) and 24 lean and obese (6 males and 6 females) rats were taken for growth and food intake studies respectively. Twelve adult rats from each phenotype were taken for body composition measurement by total body electrical conductivity (TOBEC); 12 rats of both genders from each phenotype at different ages were taken for clinical chemistry parameters. Physiological indices of insulin resistance were calculated according to the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and also by studying U14C 2-deoxy glucose uptake (2DG). Results: WNINGR-Ob mutants had high growth, hyperphagia, polydipsia, polyurea, glycosuria, and significantly lower lean body mass, higher fat mass as compared with carrier and lean rats. These mutants, at 50 days of age displayed abnormal response to glucose load (IGT), hyperinsulinaemia, hypertriglyceridaemia, hypercholesterolaemia and hyperleptinaemia. Basal and insulin-stimulated glucose uptakes by diaphragm were significantly decreased in obese rats as compared with lean rats. Interpretation & conclusions: Obese rats of the designated WNIN/GR-Ob strain showed obesity with IGT, as adjudged by physical, physiological and biochemical indices. These indices varied among the three phenotypes, being lowest in lean, highest in obese and intermediate in carrier phenotypes thereby suggesting that obesity is inherited as autosomal incomplete dominant trait in this strain. This mutant obese rat model is easy to propagate, and can easily be transformed to frank diabetes model by dietary manipulation and thus can be used for screening anti-diabetic drugs.

Harishankar, N.; Vajreswari, A.; Giridharan, N. V.



Genetics of the. cap alpha. 1,6-dextran response: expression of the QUPC52 idiotype in different inbred and congenic strains of mice  

SciTech Connect

Antibodies to dextran B512 were raised in various strains of mice and were assayed by a radioimunoassay procedure. Idiotypic antibodies to the IgA(k) dextran B512 binding myeloma proteins QUOC52 and W3129 of BALB/c origin were prepred in rabbits. After adsorption, each antiserum was specific for the immunizing myeloma protein and did not react with hundreds of other myeloma proteins; nonetheless, antibodies to dextran B512 from various strains of mice cross-reacted in these test systems. Of the 2 idiotypes tested, the W3129 idiotype was more universally expressed in different strains of mice. The QUPC52 idiotype was the predominant idiotype in BALB/c anti-dextran B512 antibodies and was found in only a few other inbred strains. Using a battery of congenic and inbred strains, it was shown that the QUPC52 idiotype was controlled by genes linked to the Igh complex locus (chromosome 12) and to the Ig k complex locus (chromosome 6). The W3129 idiotype was found in a number of stocks of mice in the genus Mus recently isolated from the wild. The QUPC52 idiotype thus far was found only in inbred mice.

D'Hoostelaere, L. (Litton Bionetics, Kensington, MD); Potter, M.



Variation for resistance to aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) among tomato inbred backcross lines derived from wild Lycopersicon species.  


Two tomato inbred backcross line (IBL) populations, derived from crosses between aphid-susceptible Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. 'Peto 95-43' X resistant wild L. pennellii Corr (D'arcy) accession LA716, and Peto 95-43 X resistant wild L. hirsutum f. glabratum Mull accession LA407, were evaluated in replicated field experiments for resistance to potato aphid, Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas), and green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer). Aphid infestation scores for each IBL and control (LA716, LA407, Peto 95-43, and susceptible 'Alta') plot were recorded weekly for 5 and 9 wk during the summers of 2000 and 2001, respectively. Aphid infestation scores from leaflets were used to calculate area under the infestation pressure curve (AUIPC), a measure of aphid infestation throughout the growing season, for each IBL and control. Score AUIPC was highly correlated with actual aphid count AUIPC, indicating that scores accurately reflected aphid infestation. Score AUIPC was also highly correlated across both years (2000 and 2001) and locations. Low score AUIPC was significantly correlated with larger plant size and sprawling, indeterminate plant growth habit. Seven IBLs, LA716, and LA407 were significantly more resistant to aphids (lower score AUIPC) than susceptible parent Peto 95-43 in both years. Two IBLs, 1034 and 1051, were not significantly different from resistant LA407 for score AUIPC in both years. The seven aphid-resistant IBLs identified here can be useful as donor parent material for resistance breeding efforts in cultivated tomato. PMID:16022331

Kohler, Glenn R; St Clair, Dina A



A Set of Lotus japonicus Gifu x Lotus burttii Recombinant Inbred Lines Facilitates Map-based Cloning and QTL Mapping  

PubMed Central

Model legumes such as Lotus japonicus have contributed significantly to the understanding of symbiotic nitrogen fixation. This insight is mainly a result of forward genetic screens followed by map-based cloning to identify causal alleles. The L. japonicus ecotype ‘Gifu’ was used as a common parent for inter-accession crosses to produce F2 mapping populations either with other L. japonicus ecotypes, MG-20 and Funakura, or with the related species L. filicaulis. These populations have all been used for genetic studies but segregation distortion, suppression of recombination, low polymorphism levels, and poor viability have also been observed. More recently, the diploid species L. burttii has been identified as a fertile crossing partner of L. japonicus. To assess its qualities in genetic linkage analysis and to enable quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping for a wider range of traits in Lotus species, we have generated and genotyped a set of 163 Gifu × L. burttii recombinant inbred lines (RILs). By direct comparisons of RIL and F2 population data, we show that L. burttii is a valid alternative to MG-20 as a Gifu mapping partner. In addition, we demonstrate the utility of the Gifu × L. burttii RILs in QTL mapping by identifying an Nfr1-linked QTL for Sinorhizobium fredii nodulation.

Sandal, Niels; Jin, Haojie; Rodriguez-Navarro, Dulce Nombre; Temprano, Francisco; Cvitanich, Cristina; Brachmann, Andreas; Sato, Shusei; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi; Tabata, Satoshi; Parniske, Martin; Ruiz-Sainz, Jose E.; Andersen, Stig U.; Stougaard, Jens



Genetic analysis of morphological traits in a new, versatile, rapid-cycling Brassica rapa recombinant inbred line population  

PubMed Central

A recombinant inbred line (RIL) population was produced based on a wide cross between the rapid-cycling and self-compatible genotypes L58, a Caixin vegetable type, and R-o-18, a yellow sarson oil type. A linkage map based on 160 F7 lines was constructed using 100 Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 130 AFLP®, 27 InDel, and 13 publicly available SSR markers. The map covers a total length of 1150 centiMorgan (cM) with an average resolution of 4.3 cM/marker. To demonstrate the versatility of this new population, 17 traits, related to plant architecture and seed characteristics, were subjected to quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis. A total of 47 QTLs were detected, each explaining between 6 and 54% of the total phenotypic variance for the concerned trait. The genetic analysis shows that this population is a useful new tool for analyzing genetic variation for interesting traits in B. rapa, and for further exploitation of the recent availability of the B. rapa whole genome sequence for gene cloning and gene function analysis.

Bagheri, Hedayat; El-Soda, Mohamed; van Oorschot, Inge; Hanhart, Corrie; Bonnema, Guusje; Jansen-van den Bosch, Tanja; Mank, Rolf; Keurentjes, Joost J. B.; Meng, Lin; Wu, Jian; Koornneef, Maarten; Aarts, Mark G. M.



Adoptive transfer of immunity to Treponema pallidum Nichols infection in inbred strain 2 and C4D guinea pigs.  

PubMed Central

T lymphocytes purified from lymph nodes and spleens of chancre-immune, inbred strain 2 guinea pigs, when infused into syngeneic guinea pigs, conferred protection against challenge with Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum Nichols. No protection was conferred by similar injections of cell suspensions from normal guinea pigs or guinea pigs immunized with T. phagedenis biotype Reiter or T. pallidum-free testis supernatants from infected rabbits. Similar results were obtained with homozygous C4D guinea pigs. After several months of infection, 2 of 11 strain 2 and 1 of 8 strain C4D recipients of T. pallidum-immune cells developed an erythematous reaction of short duration at the injection site; 2 of these recipients were positive for T. pallidum. Throughout the experimental period the humoral response to treponemal antigens was substantially lower in the adoptively immune guinea pigs than in various unprotected control groups. Passive immunity to infection with T. pallidum, however, seems to be dose related, since asymptomatic infection persisted for as long as 3 months after challenge in strain 2 guinea pigs transfused with 10(8) T. pallidum-immune lymphocytes, but not in C4D recipients of twice as many immune cells. Images

Wicher, V; Wicher, K; Jakubowski, A; Nakeeb, S M



Construction of integrated linkage map of a recombinant inbred line population of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.).  


We report the development of a Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) marker panel and its utilisation in the development of an integrated genetic linkage map of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) using an F8 recombinant inbred line population derived from Kiev Mutant/P27174. One hundred and thirty-six DArT markers were merged into the first genetic linkage map composed of 220 amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) and 105 genic markers. The integrated map consists of 38 linkage groups of 441 markers and spans a total length of 2,169 cM, with an average interval size of 4.6 cM. The DArT markers exhibited good genome coverage and were associated with previously identified genic and AFLP markers linked with quantitative trait loci for anthracnose resistance, flowering time and alkaloid content. The improved genetic linkage map of white lupin will aid in the identification of markers for traits of interest and future syntenic studies. PMID:24273424

Vipin, Cina Ann; Luckett, David J; Harper, John D I; Ash, Gavin J; Kilian, Andrzej; Ellwood, Simon R; Phan, Huyen T T; Raman, Harsh



High Genetic Variability of Herbivore-Induced Volatile Emission within a Broad Range of Maize Inbred Lines1  

PubMed Central

Maize plants (Zea mays) attacked by caterpillars release a mixture of odorous compounds that attract parasitic wasps, natural enemies of the herbivores. We assessed the genetic variability of these induced volatile emissions among 31 maize inbred lines representing a broad range of genetic diversity used by breeders in Europe and North America. Odors were collected from young plants that had been induced by injecting them with caterpillar regurgitant. Significant variation among lines was found for all 23 volatile compounds included in the analysis: the lines differed enormously in the total amount of volatiles emitted and showed highly variable odor profiles distinctive of each genotype. Principal component analysis performed on the relative quantities of particular compounds within the blend revealed clusters of highly correlated volatiles, which may share common metabolic pathways. European and American lines belonging to established heterotic groups were loosely separated from each other, with the most clear-cut difference in the typical release of (E)-?-caryophyllene by European lines. There was no correlation between the distances among the lines based on their odor profiles and their respective genetic distances previously assessed by neutral RFLP markers. This most comprehensive study to date on intraspecific variation in induced odor emission by maize plants provides a further example of the remarkably high genetic diversity conserved within this important crop plant. A better understanding of the genetic control of induced odor emissions may help in the development of maize varieties particularly attractive to parasitoids and other biological control agents and perhaps more repellent for herbivores.

Degen, Thomas; Dillmann, Christine; Marion-Poll, Frederic; Turlings, Ted C.J.



Quantitative trait loci for seed isoflavone contents in 'MD96-5722' by 'Spencer' recombinant inbred lines of soybean.  


Isoflavones from soybeans [ Glycine max (L.) Merr.] have a significant impact on human health to reduce the risk of several major diseases. Breeding soybean for high isoflavone content in the seed is possible through marker-assisted selection (MAS) which can be based on quantitative trait loci (QTL). The objective of this study was to identify QTL controlling isoflavone content in a set of 'MD96-5722' by 'Spencer' recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations of soybean. Wide variations were found for seed concentrations of daidzein, glycitein, genistein, and total isoflavones among the RIL populations. Three QTL were identified on three different linkage groups (LG) represented by three different chromosomes (Chr). One QTL that controlled daidzein content was identified on LG A1 (Chr 5), and two QTL that underlay glycitein content were identified on LG K (Chr 9) and LG B2 (Chr 14). Identified QTL could be functional in developing soybean with preferable isoflavone concentrations in the seeds through MAS. PMID:24499298

Akond, Masum; Liu, Shiming; Kantartzi, Stella K; Meksem, Khalid; Bellaloui, Nacer; Lightfoot, David A; Yuan, Jiazheng; Wang, Dechun; Kassem, My Abdelmajid



Association mapping for chilling tolerance in elite flint and dent maize inbred lines evaluated in growth chamber and field experiments.  


Chilling sensitivity of maize is a strong limitation for its cultivation in the cooler areas of the northern and southern hemisphere because reduced growth in early stages impairs on later biomass accumulation. Efficient breeding for chilling tolerance is hampered by both the complex physiological response of maize to chilling temperatures and the difficulty to accurately measure chilling tolerance in the field under fluctuating climatic conditions. For this research, we used genome-wide association (GWA) mapping to identify genes underlying chilling tolerance under both controlled and field conditions in a broad germplasm collection of 375 maize inbred lines genotyped with 56?110 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). We identified 19 highly significant association signals explaining between 5.7 and 52.5% of the phenotypic variance observed for early growth and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters. The allelic effect of several SNPs identified for early growth was associated with temperature and incident radiation. Candidate genes involved in ethylene signalling, brassinolide, and lignin biosynthesis were found in their vicinity. The frequent involvement of candidate genes into signalling or gene expression regulation underlines the complex response of photosynthetic performance and early growth to climatic conditions, and supports pleiotropism as a major cause of co-locations of quantitative trait loci for these highly polygenic traits. PMID:23488576

Strigens, Alexander; Freitag, Niclas M; Gilbert, Xavier; Grieder, Christoph; Riedelsheimer, Christian; Schrag, Tobias A; Messmer, Rainer; Melchinger, Albrecht E




PubMed Central

Graves’ hyperthyroidism is an autoimmune disease occurring spontaneously in humans caused by autoantibodies that stimulate the thyrotropin-receptor. In mice, inducing Graves’-like hyperthyroidism requires in vivo expression of the thyrotropin-receptor using plasmid or adenovirus vectors. However, mice with different genetic backgrounds vary markedly in their susceptibility to induced hyperthyroidism. Further, in some strains major disparities exist between the induction of hyperthyroidism and detection of thyroid-stimulating antibodies. To break tolerance, all Graves’ mouse models involve immunization with human thyrotropin-receptor DNA and the standard thyroid-stimulating antibodies bioassay utilizes cells expressing the human thyrotropin-receptor. We hypothesized, and now report, that disparities between hyperthyroidism and thyroid-stimulating antibody bioactivity are explained, at least in part, by differential antibody recognition of the human versus the mouse thyrotropin-receptor. The genetic basis for these species differences was explored using genotyped, recombinant-inbred mouse strains. We report that loci in the immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region as well as in the MHC region contribute in a strain-specific manner to the development of antibodies specific for the human or the mouse thyrotropin-receptor. The novel finding of a role for immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region gene involvement in thyroid-stimulating antibody epitopic specificity provides potential insight into genetic susceptibility in human Graves’ disease.

Rapoport, Basil; Williams, Robert W.; Chen, Chun-Rong; McLachlan, Sandra M.



Effect of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius leaf extract on the blood glucose and insulin levels of inbred type 2 diabetic mice.  


The effects of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius (CA) leaf extract and chlorpropamide on blood glucose and insulin levels in the inbred type 2 diabetic mice are reported. After treatment with CA, the glucose levels were measured at 0 and 2-hour intervals in experimental groups and controls. Group I received no treatment and served as control; Group II was the reference and it received chlorpropamide; Groups I-III were moderately diabetic, 100-300 mg/dL blood glucose levels while Group IV were severely diabetic (> 300 mg/dL). Groups III and IV received CA and served as test groups. There was no significant difference between the blood glucose levels at 0 and 2 hours for the control group, (P>0.23) but there were statistically significant differences for Group II (P<0.0002); Group III (P<0.002) and Group IV (P<0.0001). For moderately diabetic mice, CA and chlorpropamide decreased the glucose levels by 25.6% and 16.3% respectively while for the severely diabetic mice CA decreased the blood glucose by 43.7%. It is proposed that CA has an insulinogenic property that possibly stimulated dormant beta-cells to secrete insulin. The histopathology of several organs in the treated animals was found to differ from the expected. The islets of Langerhans for example were found to be preserved in the time frame examined. Also the liver and kidney were found to display milder pathology in the treated groups. PMID:17531147

Oladeinde, F O; Kinyua, A M; Laditan, A A; Michelin, R; Bryant, J L; Denaro, F; Makinde, J M; Williams, A L; Kennedy, A P; Bronner, Y



Limitation of Number of Strains and Persistence of False Positive Loci in QTL Mapping Using Recombinant Inbred Strains.  


While the identification of causal genes of quantitative trait loci (QTL) remains a difficult problem in the post-genome era, the number of QTL continues to accumulate, mainly identified using the recombinant inbred (RI) strains. Over the last decade, hundreds of publications have reported nearly a thousand QTL identified from RI strains. We hypothesized that the inaccuracy of most of these QTL makes it difficult to identify causal genes. Using data from RI strains derived from C57BL/6J (B6) X DBA/2J (D2), we tested the possibility of detection of reliable QTL with different numbers of strains in the same trait in five different traits. Our results indicated that studies using RI strains of less than 30 in general have a higher probability of failing to detect reliable QTL. Errors in many studies could include false positive loci, switches between QTL with small and major effects, and missing the real major loci. The similar data was obtained from a RI strain population derived from a different pair of parents and a RI strain population of rat. Thus, thousands of reported QTL from studies of RI strains may need to be double-checked for accuracy before proceeding to causal gene identification. PMID:25032693

Wang, Lishi; Jiao, Yan; Cao, Yanhong; Liu, Gaifen; Wang, Yongjun; Gu, Weikuan



Differential gene expression between inbred Roman high- (RHA-I) and low- (RLA-I) avoidance rats.  


Microarray technology was used to explore differences in brain gene expression under basal conditions in two strains of psychogenetically selected rats which differ in anxiety/stress responses, the inbred Roman High-(RHA-I) and Roman Low-(RLA-I) Avoidance rats. Microarray analysis detected 14 up-regulated and 24 down-regulated genes in RLA-I vs. RHA-I rats functionally related to neurobiological processes. The differentially expressed genes CAMKK2, CRHBP, EPHX2, HOMER3, NDN, PRL and RPL6 were selected for microarray validation using qRT-PCR. EPHX2, CAMKK2 (both up-regulated in RLA-I vs. RHA-I rats) and HOMER3 (down-regulated in RLA-I vs. RHA-I rats) showed a similar tendency and fold-change both in microarray and RT-PCR analyses; PRL (up-regulated in RLA-I vs. RHA-I rats), CRHBP and RPL6 (both down-regulated in RLA-I vs. RHA-I animals) showed a similar tendency but a different order of magnitude of change among experiments; finally, NDN was validated neither in tendency nor in magnitude of change. PMID:21967962

Sabariego, Marta; Gómez, M José; Morón, Ignacio; Torres, Carmen; Fernández-Teruel, Alberto; Tobeña, Adolfo; Cañete, Toni; Martínez-Conejero, José A; Horcajadas, José A; Esteban, Francisco J



QTL mapping of fruit rot resistance to the plant pathogen Phytophthora capsici in a recombinant inbred line Capsicum annuum population.  


Phytophthora capsici is an important pepper (Capsicum annuum) pathogen causing fruit and root rot, and foliar blight in field and greenhouse production. Previously, an F6 recombinant inbred line population was evaluated for fruit rot susceptibility. Continuous variation among lines and partial and isolate-specific resistance were found. In this study, Phytophthora fruit rot resistance was mapped in the same F6 population between Criollo del Morelos 334 (CM334), a landrace from Mexico, and 'Early Jalapeno' using a high-density genetic map. Isolate-specific resistance was mapped independently in 63 of the lines evaluated and the two parents. Heritability of the resistance for each isolate at 3 and 5 days postinoculation (dpi) was high (h(2) = 0.63 to 0.68 and 0.74 to 0.83, respectively). Significant additive and epistatic quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified for resistance to isolates OP97 and 13709 (3 and 5 dpi) and 12889 (3 dpi only). Mapping of fruit traits showed potential linkage with few disease resistance QTL. The partial fruit rot resistance from CM334 suggests that this may not be an ideal source for fruit rot resistance in pepper. PMID:24168044

Naegele, R P; Ashrafi, H; Hill, T A; Chin-Wo, S Reyes; Van Deynze, A E; Hausbeck, M K



Limitation of Number of Strains and Persistence of False Positive Loci in QTL Mapping Using Recombinant Inbred Strains  

PubMed Central

While the identification of causal genes of quantitative trait loci (QTL) remains a difficult problem in the post-genome era, the number of QTL continues to accumulate, mainly identified using the recombinant inbred (RI) strains. Over the last decade, hundreds of publications have reported nearly a thousand QTL identified from RI strains. We hypothesized that the inaccuracy of most of these QTL makes it difficult to identify causal genes. Using data from RI strains derived from C57BL/6J (B6) X DBA/2J (D2), we tested the possibility of detection of reliable QTL with different numbers of strains in the same trait in five different traits. Our results indicated that studies using RI strains of less than 30 in general have a higher probability of failing to detect reliable QTL. Errors in many studies could include false positive loci, switches between QTL with small and major effects, and missing the real major loci. The similar data was obtained from a RI strain population derived from a different pair of parents and a RI strain population of rat. Thus, thousands of reported QTL from studies of RI strains may need to be double-checked for accuracy before proceeding to causal gene identification.

Wang, Lishi; Jiao, Yan; Cao, Yanhong; Liu, Gaifen; Wang, Yongjun; Gu, Weikuan



Identification of quantitative trait loci influencing traits related to energy balance in selection and inbred lines of mice.  

PubMed Central

Energy balance is a complex trait with relevance to the study of human obesity and maintenance energy requirements of livestock. The objective of this study was to identify, using unique mouse models, quantitative trait loci (QTL) influencing traits that contribute to variation in energy balance. Two F2 resource populations were created from lines of mice differing in heat loss measured by direct calorimetry as an indicator of energy expenditure. The HB F2 resource population originated from a cross between a noninbred line selected for high heat loss and an inbred line with low heat loss. Evidence for significant QTL influencing heat loss was found on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, and 7. Significant QTL influencing body weight and percentage gonadal fat, brown fat, liver, and heart were also identified. The LH F2 resource population originated from noninbred lines of mice that had undergone divergent selection for heat loss. Chromosomes 1 and 3 were evaluated. The QTL for heat loss identified on chromosome 1 in the HB population was confirmed in the LH population, although the effect was smaller. The presence of a QTL influencing 6-wk weight was also confirmed. Suggestive evidence for additional QTL influencing heat loss, percentage subcutaneous fat, and percentage heart was found for chromosome 1.

Moody, D E; Pomp, D; Nielsen, M K; Van Vleck, L D



Aging in inbred strains of mice: study design and interim report on median lifespans and circulating IGF1 levels  

PubMed Central

Summary To better characterize aging in mice, the Jackson Aging Center carried out a lifespan study of 31 genetically-diverse inbred mouse strains housed in a specific pathogen-free facility. We carried out clinical assessments every 6 months, measuring multiple age-related phenotypes including neuromuscular, kidney and heart function, body composition, bone density, hematology, hormonal levels, and immune system parameters. In a concurrent cross-sectional study of the same 31 strains at 6, 12, and 20 months, we carried out more invasive measurements followed by necropsy to assess apoptosis, DNA repair, chromosome fragility, and histopathology. In this report, which is the initial paper of a series, we describe the study design, median lifespans, and circulating IGF1 levels at 6, 12 and 18 months for the first cohort of 32 females and 32 males of each strain. Survival curves varied dramatically among strains with median lifespans ranging from 251 to 964 days. Plasma IGF1 levels, which also varied considerably at each time point, showed an inverse correlation with median lifespan at 6 months (R=?0.33, P=0.01). This correlation became stronger if the short-lived strains with a median lifespan<600 days were removed from the analysis (R=?0.53, P<0.01). These results support the hypothesis that the IGF1 pathway plays a key role in regulating longevity in mice and indicates that common genetic mechanisms may exist for regulating IGF1 levels and lifespan.

Yuan, Rong; Tsaih, Shirng-Wern; Petkova, Stefka B.; de Evsikova, Caralina Marin; Xing, Shuqin; Marion, Michael A.; Bogue, Molly A.; Mills, Kevin D.; Peters, Luanne L.; Bult, Carol J.; Rosen, Clifford J.; Sundberg, John P.; Harrison, David E.; Churchill, Gary A.; Paigen, Beverly



Constitutive and Aroclor 1254-induced hepatic glutathione S-transferase, peroxidase and reductase activities in genetically inbred mice.  


1. Constitutive and Aroclor 1254-induced hepatic glutathione (GSH) S-transferases, GSH peroxidase and GSH reductase activities were determined in 12 strains of 8-10 week-old inbred male mice. 2. The constitutive GSH S-transferase activity varied from 2.5 (SJL/JCR) to 8.9 (C57BL/6N) mumol/min/mg protein and the corresponding values for the Aroclor 1254-treated mice were in the range of 7.1-23.0 mumol/min/mg protein. Aroclor 1254 significantly induced GSH S-transferase activity in all mice, however, significant interstrain differences were found in inducibility. 3. Aroclor 1254-treatment caused a 4.2-fold induction of GSH S-transferase in NFS/NCR but only a 1.4-fold increase in AKR/NCR mice. Aroclor 1254 significantly induced GSH reductase in all strains studied while GSH peroxidase activity decreased in these mice. 4. The range of hepatic GSH levels in control and Aroclor 1254-treated mice was relatively narrow for both groups (6.59-11.25 microM/g wet tissue). PMID:2905958

Makary, M; Kim, H L; Safe, S; Womack, J; Ivie, G W



Behavioural testing of standard inbred and 5HT(1B) knockout mice: implications of absent corpus callosum.  


Rapid advances in biotechnology have created new demands for tests of mouse behaviour having both high reliability and high throughput for mass screening. This paper discusses several statistical and psychological factors pertinent to replication of results in different laboratories, and it considers the question of which inbred strains are best for test standardization. In this context, the problem of absent corpus callosum in the 129 strains is addressed with data from a recent study of six diverse tests of behaviour, and it is shown that effects of absent corpus callosum are usually nonsignificant and/or very small. Whether any 129 substrain is to be included in the list of standard strains depends on the goal of the standardization--collecting diverse phenotypic data on most available strains by a few expert investigators (the gold standard) or refining behavioural tests in order to establish a normal range of behaviour that can be used to judge a wider range of strains or even an individual mouse. PMID:11682089

Wahlsten, D; Crabbe, J C; Dudek, B C



Metastable Differentially Methylated Regions within Arabidopsis Inbred Populations Are Associated with Modified Expression of Non-Coding Transcripts  

PubMed Central

Individual plants within a population may vary at both genetic and epigenetic levels. The rate of genetic divergence and its underlying mechanisms is well understood. Less is known about the factors contributing to epigenetic divergence among isogenic populations except that, despite the presence of mechanisms that faithfully maintain epigenetic marks, epigenetic differences are more frequent than genetic variation. Epigenetically divergent stretches of isogenic DNA sequence are called epialleles. Currently, it is not clear why certain regions exhibit variable epigenetic status. We identified and characterised two long RNA transcripts with altered expression and DNA methylation in an ago5 mutant. However, further investigation revealed that these changes were not dependent upon AGO5. Rather, the variable transcription of these loci in Arabidopsis mutant and wild-type populations corresponds to spontaneous differential methylated regions (DMRs) or epialleles. These two DMRs are delineated by RNAs which are highly expressed when the DMR is hypomethylated. Furthermore, they control the expression of 5? transcriptional start site mRNA variants of nearby protein coding genes. Our data support the recent observations that meiotically stable DMRs exist within inbred populations. We further demonstrate that DMR boundaries can be defined by putative non-coding promoter-associated transcripts.

Fedito, Paola; Hardcastle, Thomas J.; Baulcombe, David C.



Strain-Dependent Differences in Susceptibility to Lung Cancer in Inbred Mice Exposed to Mainstream Cigarette Smoke  

PubMed Central

It is becoming increasingly clear that genetic susceptibility is an important host factor determining the effects of exposure to a number of airborne particles and gases. Although numerous studies have identified a genetic component for spontaneous pulmonary tumor development and for chemically-induced lung cancer (e.g., urethane) in mice, a systematic examination of murine interstrain differences in response to cigarette smoke inhalation has not been conducted. We addressed this research gap by examining the strain distribution pattern of lung cancer in 9 inbred strains of mice exposed to 258 mg/m3 mainstream cigarette smoke for 5 months followed by 4 months of rest. Lung tumors were enumerated on fixed-lungs visualized at low magnification and on serial step sections examined microscopically. With the low magnification examination, we observed statistically significant increases in the number of lung tumors in cigarette smoke-exposed A/J and the genetically-related A/HeJ mice (p < 0.05). While fewer tumors were identified by the microscopic enumeration method, it confirmed that significant increases in lung tumors occurred only in A/J and A/HeJ mice exposed to cigarette smoke (p<0.05). Thus, as predicted by epidemiologic studies and animal experiments using chemically-induced lung cancer models, these findings suggest that genetic host factors play a significant role in the pulmonary tumorigenic response of mice to mainstream cigarette smoke.

Gordon, Terry; Bosland, Maarten



Selective breeding for desiccation tolerance in liquid culture provides genetically stable inbred lines of the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora.  


The entomopathogenic nematode (EPN) Heterorhabditis bacteriophora is used in biological plant protection to control pest insects. In the past, several attempts targeted at an enhancement of the desiccation tolerance of EPN by genetic selection in order to improve their storage stability. The subsequent loss of improved beneficial traits after release of selection pressure has often been reported. In order to stabilize progress of selective breeding, selection during liquid culturing was tested against propagation in host insects. After release of the selection pressure, the tolerance was monitored over additional reproductive cycles in vivo and in vitro to compare the stability of the trait. Furthermore, it was tested whether the virulence of the selected strains would be impaired. Exposure to desiccation stress prior to propagation, in vivo or in vitro, both resulted in increasing desiccation tolerance. When selection pressure was released, the gained tolerance was lost again during in vivo production, whereas the tolerance was maintained at a high level when EPNs were cultured in liquid culture. In Heterorhabditis sp., liquid culture conditions produce highly homozygous, genetically stable inbred lines. The investigation provides easily applicable methods to improve and stabilize beneficial traits of heterorhabditid EPNs through selective breeding in liquid culture. Compared to nematodes from in vivo propagation, production in liquid media yielded EPN of higher virulence. PMID:22729232

Anbesse, Samuel; Sumaya, Nanette Hope; Dörfler, Anna Verena; Strauch, Olaf; Ehlers, Ralf-Udo



Adult Neurogenesis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

BioEd Online is an âÂÂeducational resource for educators, students, and parentsâ from the Baylor College of Medicine. This is an excellent place to find educational materials and current information in the field of biology. The âÂÂHot Topicsâ section of this site focus on current events and issues in biology that are âÂÂreceiving national attention.â This site, created by Tadzia GrandPré, PhD, contains a brief discussion of Adult Neurogenesis or the ability for new neurons to develop in the brain. The article includes background information on the field of neuroscience, as well as information about how neurons work. The site includes links to references and further reading. In addition, a related slide set, "Adult Neurogenesis," is available for viewing along with links to several related news articles. Both the slide set and the news articles could be easily used in the classroom along with the other resources provided in this âÂÂHot Topicâ from BioEd Online.

Grandprãâ©, Tadzia



Inbreeding depression increases susceptibility to bovine tuberculosis in lions: an experimental test using an inbred-outbred contrast through translocation.  


Disease can dramatically influence the dynamics of endangered wildlife populations, especially when they are small and isolated, with increased risk of inbreeding. In Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park (HiP), a small, enclosed reserve in South Africa, a large lion (Panthera leo) population arose from a small founder group in the 1960s and started showing conspicuous signs of inbreeding. To restore the health status of the HiP lion population, outbred lions were translocated into the existing population. In this study, we determined the susceptibility to bovine tuberculosis (bTB), and the prevalence of antibody to feline viruses of native lions, and compared the findings with those from translocated outbred lions and their offspring. Antibodies to feline herpesvirus, feline calicivirus, feline parvovirus, and feline coronavirus were present in the lion population, but there was no significant difference in antibody prevalence between native and translocated lions and their offspring, and these feline viruses did not appear to have an effect on the clinical health of HiP lions. However, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), which was previously absent from HiP, appears to have been introduced into the lion population through translocation. Within 7 yr, the prevalence of antibody to FIV increased up to 42%. Bovine tuberculosis posed a major threat to the inbred native lion population, but not to translocated lions and their offspring. More than 30% of the native lion population died from bTB or malnutrition compared with <2% of the translocated lions and their offspring. We have demonstrated that management of population genetics through supplementation can successfully combat a disease that threatens population persistence. However, great care must be taken not to introduce new diseases into populations through translocation. PMID:21719814

Trinkel, Martina; Cooper, Dave; Packer, Craig; Slotow, Rob



Identification of a novel gene, H34, in wheat using recombinant inbred lines and single nucleotide polymorphism markers.  


Hessian fly (HF), Mayetiola destructor, is an important pest of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) worldwide. Because it has multiple biotypes that are virulent to different wheat HF resistance genes, pyramiding multiple resistance genes in a cultivar can improve resistance durability, and finding DNA markers tightly linked to these genes is essential to this process. This study identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for Hessian fly resistance (HFR) in the wheat cultivar 'Clark' and tightly linked DNA markers for the QTLs. A linkage map was constructed with single nucleotide polymorphism and simple sequence repeat markers using a population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from the cross 'Ning7840' × 'Clark' by single-seed descent. Two QTLs associated with resistance to fly biotype GP were identified on chromosomes 6B and 1A, with the resistance alleles contributed from 'Clark'. The QTL on 6B flanked by loci Xsnp921 and Xsnp2745 explained about 37.2 % of the phenotypic variation, and the QTL on 1A was flanked by Xgwm33 and Xsnp5150 and accounted for 13.3 % of phenotypic variation for HFR. The QTL on 6B has not been reported before and represents a novel wheat gene with resistance to HF, thus, it is designated H34. A significant positive epistasis was detected between the two QTLs that accounted for about 9.5 % of the mean phenotypic variation and increased HFR by 0.16. Our results indicated that different QTLs may contribute different degrees of resistance in a cultivar and that epistasis may play an important role in HFR. PMID:23689741

Li, Chunlian; Chen, Mingshun; Chao, Shiaoman; Yu, Jianming; Bai, Guihua



A Novel Statistical Approach for Jointly Analyzing RNA-Seq Data from F1 Reciprocal Crosses and Inbred Lines.  


RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) not only measures total gene expression but may also measure allele-specific gene expression in diploid individuals. RNA-seq data collected from F1 reciprocal crosses in mice can powerfully dissect strain and parent-of-origin effects on allelic imbalance of gene expression. In this article, we develop a novel statistical approach to analyze RNA-seq data from F1 and inbred strains. Method development was motivated by a study of F1 reciprocal crosses derived from highly divergent mouse strains, to which we apply the proposed method. Our method jointly models the total number of reads and the number of allele-specific reads of each gene, which significantly boosts power for detecting strain and particularly parent-of-origin effects. The method deals with the overdispersion problem commonly observed in read counts and can flexibly adjust for the effects of covariates such as sex and read depth. The X chromosome in mouse presents particular challenges. As in other mammals, X chromosome inactivation silences one of the two X chromosomes in each female cell, although the choice of which chromosome to be silenced can be highly skewed by alleles at the X-linked X-controlling element (Xce) and stochastic effects. Our model accounts for these chromosome-wide effects on an individual level, allowing proper analysis of chromosome X expression. Furthermore, we propose a genomic control procedure to properly control type I error for RNA-seq studies. A number of these methodological improvements can also be applied to RNA-seq data from other species as well as other types of next-generation sequencing data sets. Finally, we show through simulations that increasing the number of samples is more beneficial than increasing the library size for mapping both the strain and parent-of-origin effects. Unless sample recruiting is too expensive to conduct, we recommend sequencing more samples with lower coverage. PMID:24561482

Zou, Fei; Sun, Wei; Crowley, James J; Zhabotynsky, Vasyl; Sullivan, Patrick F; Pardo-Manuel de Villena, Fernando



In vivo and in vitro glycogenic effects of methionine sulfoximine are different in two inbred strains of mice.  


We investigated the relationship between brain glycogen anabolism and methionine sulfoximine (MSO)-induced seizures in two inbred mouse strains that presented differential susceptibility to the convulsant. CBA/J was considered a MSO-high-reactive strain and C57BL/6J a MSO-low-reactive strain. Accordingly, the dose of MSO needed to induce seizures in CBA/J mice is lower than that in C57BL/6J mice, and CBA/J mice which had seizures, died during the first convulsion. In addition, the time--course of the MSO effect is faster in CBA/J mice than that in C57BL/6J mice. Analyses were performed in C57BL/6J and CBA/J mice after administration of 75 (subconvulsive dose) and 40 mg/kg of MSO (subconvulsive dose, not lethal dose), respectively. In the preconvulsive period, MSO induced an increase in the brain glycogen content of C57BL/6J mice only. Twenty-four hours after MSO administration, the brain glycogen content increased in both strains. The activity and expression of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, the last key enzyme of the gluconeogenic pathway, were increased in MSO-treated C57BL/6J mice as compared to control mice, at all experimental time points, whereas they were increased in CBA/J mice only 24 h after MSO administration. These latter results correspond to CBA/J mice that did not have seizures. Interestingly, the differences observed in vivo were consistent with results in primary cultured astrocytes from the two strains. This data suggests that the metabolism impairment, which was not a consequence of seizures, could be related to the difference in seizure susceptibility between the two strains, depending on their genetic background. PMID:11864619

Bernard-Hélary, Katy; Ardourel, Marie-Yvonne; Hévor, Tobias; Cloix, Jean-François



Early Regression of Spermatogenesis in Boars of an Inbred Duroc Strain Caused by Incident Orchitis/Epididymo-orchitis  

PubMed Central

Abstract In the process of establishment of an inbred Duroc pig strain, males with size asymmetry of the testes were frequently observed. To clarify the possible causes of this asymmetry, we examined the testes and epididymides of 67 males of the F4-F7 generations at 35–100 weeks of age. Testicular weights showed a wide variation (120–610 g). When the weights of the testes were compared bilaterally, 35 of the 67 males showed more than a 10% difference. Histological examination of testes from this asymmetry group revealed a range of seminiferous tubule disruption including disappearance of all germ cells, but not Sertoli cells, in the epithelium. Focal lesions associated with the degenerated tubules were observed. Trends of incident fibrosis or hyalinization of these lesions were seen in aged males of the asymmetry group. Besides this abnormality of spermatogenesis, infiltration of mononuclear inflammatory cells around the tubule was frequently observed in the asymmetry group (32.9%, compared with 1.6% in males showing testis symmetry). In severe cases, the inflammatory cells were concentrated in the intertubular region instead of Leydig cells. Cellular infiltration was also observed around the epididymal duct and blood vessels, but its incidence did not differ between the symmetry and asymmetry groups. Testicular testosterone levels were significantly increased in the asymmetry group, but those of E2 and inhibin did not differ between the two groups. These histopathological features indicate that disruption of spermatogenesis after orchitis/epididymo-orchitis could induce testicular atrophy. Genetic predispositions for this trait may cause prevalent retrograde infections, resulting in orchitis/epididymo-orchitis.

NOGUCHI, Junko; NAKAI, Michiko; KIKUCHI, Kazuhiro; KANEKO, Hiroyuki; IMAEDA, Noriaki



Differences between three inbred rat strains in number of K+ channel-immunoreactive neurons in the medullary raphé nucleus.  


Ventilatory sensitivity to hypercapnia is greater in Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rats than in Fawn Hooded hypertensive (FHH) and Brown Norway (BN) inbred rats. Since pH-sensitive potassium ion (K(+)) channels are postulated to contribute to the sensing and signaling of changes in CO(2)-H(+) in chemosensitive neurons, we tested the hypothesis that there are more pH-sensitive K(+) channel-immunoreactive (ir) neurons within the medullary raphé nuclei of the highly chemosensitive SS rats than in the other two strains. Medullary tissues from male and female BN, FHH, and SS rats were stained with cresyl violet or with antibodies targeting TASK-1, K(v)1.4, and Kir2.3 channels. K(+) channel-ir neurons were quantified and compared with the total neurons in the region. The total number of neurons in the medullary raphé 1) was greater in male FHH than the other male rats, 2) did not differ among the female rats, and 3) did not differ between sexes. The average number of K(+) channel-ir neurons per section was 30-60 neurons higher in the male SS than in the other rat strains. In contrast, for the females, the number of K(+) channel-ir neurons was greatest in the BN. We also found significant differences in the number of K(+) channel-ir neurons between sexes in SS (males > females) and BN (females > males) rats, but not the FHH strain. Our findings support the hypothesis for males but not for females, suggesting that both genetic background and sex are determinants of K(+) channel immunoreactivity of medullary raphé neurons, and that the expression of pH-sensitive K(+) channels in the medullary raphé does not correlate with the ventilatory sensitivity to hypercapnia. PMID:19926827

Riley, D; Dwinell, M; Qian, B; Krause, K L; Bonis, J M; Neumueller, S; Marshall, B D; Hodges, M R; Forster, H V



Differences between three inbred rat strains in number of K+ channel-immunoreactive neurons in the medullary raph? nucleus  

PubMed Central

Ventilatory sensitivity to hypercapnia is greater in Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rats than in Fawn Hooded hypertensive (FHH) and Brown Norway (BN) inbred rats. Since pH-sensitive potassium ion (K+) channels are postulated to contribute to the sensing and signaling of changes in CO2-H+ in chemosensitive neurons, we tested the hypothesis that there are more pH-sensitive K+ channel-immunoreactive (ir) neurons within the medullary raphé nuclei of the highly chemosensitive SS rats than in the other two strains. Medullary tissues from male and female BN, FHH, and SS rats were stained with cresyl violet or with antibodies targeting TASK-1, Kv1.4, and Kir2.3 channels. K+ channel-ir neurons were quantified and compared with the total neurons in the region. The total number of neurons in the medullary raphé 1) was greater in male FHH than the other male rats, 2) did not differ among the female rats, and 3) did not differ between sexes. The average number of K+ channel-ir neurons per section was 30–60 neurons higher in the male SS than in the other rat strains. In contrast, for the females, the number of K+ channel-ir neurons was greatest in the BN. We also found significant differences in the number of K+ channel-ir neurons between sexes in SS (males > females) and BN (females > males) rats, but not the FHH strain. Our findings support the hypothesis for males but not for females, suggesting that both genetic background and sex are determinants of K+ channel immunoreactivity of medullary raphé neurons, and that the expression of pH-sensitive K+ channels in the medullary raphé does not correlate with the ventilatory sensitivity to hypercapnia.

Riley, D.; Dwinell, M.; Qian, B.; Krause, K. L.; Bonis, J. M.; Neumueller, S.; Marshall, B. D.; Hodges, M. R.



Learning strategy selection in the water maze and hippocampal CREB phosphorylation differ in two inbred strains of mice  

PubMed Central

Learning strategy selection was assessed in two different inbred strains of mice, C57BL/6 and DBA/2, which are used for developing genetically modified mouse models. Male mice received a training protocol in a water maze using alternating blocks of visible and hidden platform trials, during which mice escaped to a single location. After training, mice were required to choose between the spatial location where the platform had been during training (a place strategy) and a visible platform presented in a new location (a cued/response strategy). Both strains of mice had similar escape performance on the visible and hidden platform trials during training. However, in the strategy preference test, C57BL/6 mice selected a place strategy significantly more often than DBA/2 mice. Because much evidence implicates the hippocampus and striatum as important neural substrates for spatial/place and cued/response learning, respectively, the engagement of the hippocampus was then assessed after either place or cue training by determining levels of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and phosphorylated CREB (pCREB) in these two mouse strains. Results revealed that hippocampal CREB levels in both strains of mice were significantly increased after place in comparison to cued training. However, the relation of hippocampal pCREB levels to training was strain dependent; pCREB was significantly higher in C57BL/6 mice than in DBA/2 mice after place training, while hippocampal pCREB levels did not differ between strains after cued training. These findings indicate that pCREB, specifically associated with place/spatial training, is closely tied to differences in spatial/place strategy preference between C57BL/6 and DBA/2 mice.

Sung, Jin-Young; Goo, June-Seo; Lee, Dong-Eun; Jin, Da-Qing; Bizon, Jennifer L.; Gallagher, Michela; Han, Jung-Soo



Learning strategy selection in the water maze and hippocampal CREB phosphorylation differ in two inbred strains of mice.  


Learning strategy selection was assessed in two different inbred strains of mice, C57BL/6 and DBA/2, which are used for developing genetically modified mouse models. Male mice received a training protocol in a water maze using alternating blocks of visible and hidden platform trials, during which mice escaped to a single location. After training, mice were required to choose between the spatial location where the platform had been during training (a place strategy) and a visible platform presented in a new location (a cued/response strategy). Both strains of mice had similar escape performance on the visible and hidden platform trials during training. However, in the strategy preference test, C57BL/6 mice selected a place strategy significantly more often than DBA/2 mice. Because much evidence implicates the hippocampus and striatum as important neural substrates for spatial/place and cued/response learning, respectively, the engagement of the hippocampus was then assessed after either place or cue training by determining levels of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and phosphorylated CREB (pCREB) in these two mouse strains. Results revealed that hippocampal CREB levels in both strains of mice were significantly increased after place in comparison to cued training. However, the relation of hippocampal pCREB levels to training was strain dependent; pCREB was significantly higher in C57BL/6 mice than in DBA/2 mice after place training, while hippocampal pCREB levels did not differ between strains after cued training. These findings indicate that pCREB, specifically associated with place/spatial training, is closely tied to differences in spatial/place strategy preference between C57BL/6 and DBA/2 mice. PMID:18353993

Sung, Jin-Young; Goo, June-Seo; Lee, Dong-Eun; Jin, Da-Qing; Bizon, Jennifer L; Gallagher, Michela; Han, Jung-Soo



Preparing Educators of Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Model programs are described for two areas of adult education--the preparation of adult educators and the training conducted by adult educators. In Chapter One, Phyllis Caldwell reviews the literature concerning the preservice training of adult educators, concentrating on the competencies of adult education administrators and teachers. In Chapter…

Grabowski, Stanley M.; And Others


Ups and downs of a transcriptional landscape shape iron deficiency associated chlorosis of the maize inbreds B73 and Mo17  

PubMed Central

Background Improving nutrient homeostasis is a major challenge of a sustainable maize cultivation, and cornerstone to ensure food supply for a growing world population. Although, iron constitutes an important nutrient, iron availability is limited. In this respect, iron deficiency associated chlorosis causes severe yield losses every year. Natural variation of the latter trait has yet not been addressed in maize and was therefore studied in the present analysis. Results In this study, we i) report about the contrasting chlorosis phenotypes of the inbreds B73 and Mo17 at 10 and 300 ?M iron regime, ii) identified over 400 significantly regulated transcripts (FDR?inbreds at these growth conditions by deep RNA-Sequencing, iii) linked the gained knowledge with QTL information about iron deficiency related traits within the maize intermated B73 by Mo17 (IBM) population, and iv) highlighted contributing molecular pathways. In this respect, several genes within methionine salvage pathway and phytosiderophore synthesis were found to present constitutively high expression in Mo17, even under sufficient iron supply. Moreover, the same expression pattern could be observed for two putative bHLH transcription factors. In addition, a number of differentially expressed genes showed a co-localisation with QTL confidence intervals for iron deficiency related traits within the IBM population. Conclusions Our study highlights differential iron deficiency associated chlorosis between B73 and Mo17 and represents a valuable resource for differentially expressed genes upon iron limitation and chlorosis response. Besides identifying two putative bHLH transcription factors, we propose that methionine salvage pathway and sterol metabolism amongst others; underlie the contrasting iron deficiency related chlorosis phenotype of both inbreds. Altogether, this study emphasizes a contribution of selected genes and pathways on natural trait variation within the IBM population.



Genetic Linkages for Thyroxine Released in Response to Thyrotropin Stimulation in Three Sets of Recombinant Inbred Mice Provide Evidence for Shared and Novel Genes Controlling Thyroid Function  

PubMed Central

Background Graves' hyperthyroidism is induced by immunizing mice with adenovirus expressing the human thyrotropin (TSH)-receptor. Using families of recombinant-inbred mice, we previously discovered that genetic susceptibility to induced thyroid-stimulating antibodies and hyperthyroidism are linked to loci on different chromosomes, indicating a fundamental genetic difference in thyroid sensitivity to ligand stimulation. An approach to assess thyroid sensitivity involves challenging genetically diverse lines of mice with TSH and measuring the genotype/strain-specific increase in serum thyroxine (T4). Methods We investigated genetic susceptibility and genetic control of T4 stimulation by 10?mU bovine TSH in female mice of the CXB, BXH, and AXB/BXA strain families, all previously studied for induced Graves' hyperthyroidism. Results Before TSH injection, T4 levels must be suppressed by inhibiting endogenous TSH secretion. Three daily intraperitoneal L-triiodothyronine injections efficiently suppressed serum T4 in females of 50 of 51 recombinant inbred strains. T4 stimulation by TSH was more strongly linked in CXB and BXH sets, derived from parental strains with divergent T4 stimulation, than in AXB/BXA strains generated from parents with similar TSH-induced responses. Genetic loci linked to the acute TSH-induced T4 response (hours) were not the same as those linked to induced hyperthyroidism (which develops over months). Conclusions Genetic susceptibility for thyroid sensitivity to TSH stimulation was distinct for three families of inbred mouse lines. These observations parallel the human situation with multiple genetic loci contributing to the same trait and different loci associated with the same trait in different ethnic groups. Of the genetic loci highlighted in mice, three overlap with, or are located up or downstream, of human TSH-controlling genes. Other studies show that human disease genes can be identified through cross-species gene mapping of evolutionary conserved processes. Consequently, our findings suggest that novel thyroid function genes may yet be revealed in humans.

Hamidi, Sepehr; Aliesky, Holly A.; Williams, Robert W.; Rapoport, Basil



Genome-wide transcriptomic analysis of response to low temperature reveals candidate genes determining divergent cold-sensitivity of maize inbred lines.  


Maize, despite being thermophyllic due to its tropical origin, demonstrates high intraspecific diversity in cold-tolerance. To search for molecular mechanisms of this diversity, transcriptomic response to cold was studied in two inbred lines of contrasting cold-tolerance. Microarray analysis was followed by extensive statistical elaboration of data, literature data mining, and gene ontology-based classification. The lines used had been bred earlier specifically for determination of QTLs for cold-performance of photosynthesis. This allowed direct comparison of present transcriptomic data with the earlier QTL mapping results. Cold-treated (14 h at 8/6 °C) maize seedlings of cold-tolerant ETH-DH7 and cold-sensitive ETH-DL3 lines at V3 stage showed strong, consistent response of the third leaf transcriptome: several thousand probes showed similar, statistically significant change in both lines, while only tens responded differently in the two lines. The most striking difference between the responses of the two lines to cold was the induction of expression of ca. twenty genes encoding membrane/cell wall proteins exclusively in the cold-tolerant ETH-DH7 line. The common response comprised mainly repression of numerous genes related to photosynthesis and induction of genes related to basic biological activity: transcription, regulation of gene expression, protein phosphorylation, cell wall organization. Among the genes showing differential response, several were close to the QTL regions identified in earlier studies with the same inbred lines and associated with biometrical, physiological or biochemical parameters. These transcripts, including two apparently non-protein-coding ones, are particularly attractive candidates for future studies on mechanisms determining divergent cold-tolerance of inbred maize lines. PMID:24623520

Sobkowiak, Alicja; Jo?czyk, Maciej; Jarochowska, Emilia; Biecek, Przemys?aw; Trzcinska-Danielewicz, Joanna; Leipner, Jörg; Fronk, Jan; Sowi?ski, Pawe?



Identification and characterization of a repertoire of genes differentially expressed in developing top ear shoots between a superior hybrid and its parental inbreds in Zea mays L.  


Heterosis has been widely used in crop breeding and production; however, little is known about the genes controlling trait heterosis. The shortage of genes known to function in heterosis significantly limits our understanding of the molecular basis underlying heterosis. Here, we report 748 genes differentially expressed (DG) in the developing top ear shoots between a maize heterotic F1 hybrid (Mo17 × B73) and its parental inbreds identified using maize microarrays containing 28,608 unigene features. Of the 748 DG, over 600 were new for the inbred and hybrid combination. The DG were enriched for 35 of the total 213 maize gene ontology (GO) terms, including those describing photosynthesis, respiration, DNA replication, metabolism, and hormone biosynthesis. From the DG, we identified six genes involved in glycolysis, three genes in the citrate cycle, and four genes in the C4-dicarboxylic acid cycle. We mapped 533 of the 748 DG to the maize B73 genome, 298 (55.9 %) of which mapped to the QTL intervals of 11 maize ear traits. Moreover, we compared the repertoire of the DG with that of 14-day seedlings of the same inbred and hybrid combination. Only approximately 5 % of the DG was shared between the two organs and developmental stages. Furthermore, we mapped 417 (55.7 %) of the 748 maize DG to the QTL intervals of 26 rice yield-related traits. Therefore, this study provides a repertoire of genes useful for identification of genes involved in maize ear trait heterosis and information for a better understanding of the molecular basis underlying heterosis in maize. PMID:24146224

Qin, Jun; Scheuring, Chantel F; Wei, Gang; Zhi, Hui; Zhang, Meiping; Huang, James J; Zhou, Xin; Galbraith, David W; Zhang, Hong-Bin



Note: implementation of a cold spot setup for controlled variation of vapor pressures and its application to an InBr containing discharge lamp.  


In order to allow for a systematic investigation of the plasma properties of discharges containing indium halides, which are proposed as an efficient alternative for mercury based low pressure discharge lamps, a controlled variation of the indium halide density is mandatory. This can be achieved by applying a newly designed setup in which a well-defined cold spot location is implemented and the cold spot temperature can be adjusted between 50 and 350 °C without influencing the gas temperature. The performance of the setup has been proved by comparing the calculated evaporated InBr density (using the vapor pressure curve) with the one measured via white light absorption spectroscopy. PMID:23464268

Briefi, S



Sealed adult mice: new model for enterotoxin evaluation.  

PubMed Central

Outbred, inbred, and congenic strains of conventional mice which were ano-rectally occluded with cyanoacrylate ester glue and converted to sealed adult mice (SAM) were given, per os, crude cholera enterotoxin (CT) in 10% NaHCO3. At 6 h when the response was maximal, mice were killed, the small intestines were removed, and gut weight/body weight ratios were calculated. Experimental mice gave a linear response after receiving 1.5 to 60 micrograms of CT. Purified heat-stable enterotoxin from Escherichia coli and purified heat-labile enterotoxins from E. coli, Vibrio cholerae, and Clostridium difficile all elicited vigorous fluid outpouring as did culture filtrates from Vibrio fluvialis with cytotoxic activity. Active and passive immunization with crude CT completely or partially neutralized fluid secretion due to CT. Monospecific anti-CT incubated with CT before feeding also eliminated the response. Mice pretreated with penicillin, held in barrier cages, converted to SAM, and fed live vibrios, showed fluid responses similar to those seen with low doses of CT. Each of six different strains of inbred mice fed a half-maximal fluid accumulation response dose of CT gave fluid accumulation ratios which varied fourfold. There was no correlation of fluid accumulation with body weight, gut length, age, or sex. All poor responders were of H-2k haplotype and all good responders were H-2b. BALB congenic mice which differed only in H-2 haplotypes showed the same correlations, and body weights and gut lengths of all haplotypes were not significantly different. Images

Richardson, S H; Giles, J C; Kruger, K S



Mapping complex traits using families of recombinant inbred strains: an overview and example of mapping susceptibility to Candida albicans induced illness phenotypes.  


This overview and data-based example indicate how large families of recombinant inbred (RI) strains can be used to identify genetic loci and genes that underlie complex phenotypic differences among inbred mice. The RI approach requires no a priori expectations or assumptions about mechanisms that influence the phenotype, other than that variability is partly heritable. RI strains, which are produced by inbreeding the F2 progeny of two parental strains for at least 20 generations, have two major advantages. First, numerous subjects with identical genotypes can be analyzed to determine the average phenotype associated with that genotype, and second, it becomes practical to systematically accumulate large genome and phenome data sets for entire RI families, including sequence data, transcriptomes for many organs, and cell types and extensive data on gene-by-pathogen interactions. This enables the construction of far more sophisticated models of disease cause and progression. To illustrate the use of the systems genetics approach to infectious disease, we designed a simple study using three complementary families of RI strains (CXB, BXD, and AXB/BXA) that are differentially susceptible to intravenous challenge with the yeast Candida albicans. PMID:24535895

Toth, Linda A; Trammell, Rita A; Williams, Robert W



Increased immunity to cottontail rabbit papillomavirus infection in EIII/JC inbred rabbits after vaccination with a mutant E6 that correlates with spontaneous regression.  


Our previous studies showed that a progressive cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV) strain containing a single amino acid change in E6 (E6G252E) induced papilloma regression in EIII/JC inbred rabbits. This finding implied that the point mutation might cause an increase in the antigenicity of the mutant versus the wild-type E6. To test this hypothesis, groups of four EIII/JC inbred rabbits were immunized with wild-type CRPVE6, CRPVE6G252E, CRPV E5, or with vector alone. A gene gun delivery system was used to deliver the DNA vaccines. Two of four rabbits from both E6G252E- and wild-type E6-vaccinated groups were free of papillomas at week 12 after viral challenge. Significantly smaller papillomas were found on E6G252E-vaccinated rabbits than on E6-, E5-, and control vector-vaccinated rabbits (p = 0.01, unpaired Student t test) and these small papillomas regressed at week 20 after viral challenge. E5 vaccination failed to provide protection against viral challenge, and the mean papilloma size was also comparable to that of the control vector-vaccinated rabbits (p > 0.05, unpaired Student t test). We conclude that a single amino acid change in the CRPV E6 protein (G252E) increased protection against wild-type infectious CRPV. PMID:17603848

Hu, Jiafen; Cladel, Nancy M; Christensen, Neil D



Adult Children of Alcoholics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports the results of research designed to identify personality characteristics and psychopathology of adult children of alcoholics (ACOA profile), using the Clinical Analysis Questionnaire. Subjects were divided into four groups based on whether they were alcoholic adults who were not ACOAs (n = 73, alcoholic adults who were ACOAs (n = 91), adults who were not alcoholics but

Dennis R. Carpenter



Litter Size Predicts Adult Stereotypic Behavior in Female Laboratory Mice  

PubMed Central

Stereotypic behaviors are repetitive invariant behaviors that are common in many captive species and potentially indicate compromised welfare and suitability as research subjects. Adult laboratory mice commonly perform stereotypic bar-gnawing, route-tracing, and back-flipping, although great individual variation in frequency occurs. Early life factors (for example, level of maternal care received) have lasting effects on CNS functioning and abilities to cope with stress and therefore may also affect stereotypic behavior in offspring. Access to maternal resources and care are influenced by the number of pups in a litter; therefore, we examined both litter size and its potential correlate, weight at weaning, as early environmental predictors of adult stereotypic behavior in laboratory mice. Further, we assessed the effects on offspring stereotypic behavior of delaying the separation of mother and pups (weaning) beyond the standard 21 d of age. Analyzing stereotypic behavior in 3 different mouse colonies composed of 2 inbred strains (C57BL/6N and C57BL/6J) and an outbred stock (CD1[ICR]) revealed significant positive correlation between litter size and stereotypic behavior in female, but not male, mice. Weight and age at weaning did not significantly affect levels of stereotypy in either sex. Litter size therefore may be a useful indicator of individual predisposition to stereotypic behavior in female laboratory mice.

Bechard, Allison; Nicholson, Anthony; Mason, Georgia



Genetic influence on phenotypic differentiation in adult hippocampal neurogenesis.  


Regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis has different regulatory levels, including cell proliferation, survival and differentiation. Cell proliferation and survival are differentially influenced by inheritable traits and the genetic background determines which regulatory levels of adult hippocampal neurogenesis are preferentially involved in a neurogenic response to environmental stimuli. We here compared baseline adult neurogenesis in wild-derived strain Mus spretus and three inbred laboratory strains: A/J, C3H/HeJ and DBA/2J. Proliferation of was similar in the four strains, with the extremes being A/J, which had about 2100+/-570 (mean+/-S.D.) labeled newborn cells per dentate gyrus (after 6 days of bromodeoxyuridine injections), and DBA/2J, which had approximately 1400+/-260. C3H/HeJ had approximately 1500+/-600 and M. spretus had 1550+/-270. Survival of new cells after 4 weeks was 19% in A/J and DBA/2J, and 21% in M. spretus, but 37% in C3H/HeJ. Survival in C3H/HeJ was significantly different from DBA/2. Phenotypic analysis revealed that DBA/2J produced significantly fewer new neurons than A/J and C3H/HeJ (47% vs. 63% and 67%) but significantly more new astrocytes than A/J and C3H/HeJ (28% vs. 9% and 11%). In absolute terms there were 370+/-120 new neurons in C3H/HeJ, 250+/-60 in A/J, 130+/-50 in DBA/2J, and 190+/-130 in M. spretus. Our results indicate that regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis affects the level of phenotypic differentiation. At the present time it cannot be determined whether this regulation occurs by influencing cell fate decisions or by promoting selective survival. PMID:11947932

Kempermann, Gerd; Gage, Fred H



Quantitative genetic variation in the hematopoietic stem cell and progenitor cell compartment and in lifespan are closely linked at multiple loci in BXD recombinant inbred mice.  


The number of bone marrow hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells as defined by the lineage(-), Sca1(++), c-kit(+) (LSK) phenotype and their proliferative capacity in vitro are subject to quantitative genetic variation, and several quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been identified in young mice. Because some traits affecting hematopoiesis also change with age in a mouse strain-dependent fashion, we performed quantitative trait analysis in aged BXD recombinant inbred (RI) mice for the number and frequency of LSK cells, and for their proliferative capacity in vitro. Several novel QTL were identified. The number and frequency of LSK cells in old mice correlated inversely with lifespan. Furthermore, 4 of 7 lifespan QTL overlap with QTL contributing to the number, frequency, or proliferative capacity of LSK cells in young or old mice. Taken together, these data establish a close genetic, and perhaps functional, link between genetic variation in lifespan and characteristics of stem and progenitor cells. PMID:14988159

Henckaerts, Els; Langer, Jessica C; Snoeck, Hans-Willem



Formation of glucuronide, sulphate and glutathione conjugates of benzo(a)pyrene metabolites in hepatocytes isolated from inbred strains of mice  

SciTech Connect

Metabolism of benzo(a)pyrene (BP) was studied in mouse hepatocytes isolated from uninduced animals of C57BL/6 Jacobs (B6) and C/sub 3/Hf/HeHa (C3) inbred strains. Conjugates with sulfhate, glucuronate and glutathione were the major products of BP biotransformation in the intact cells. Their formation was measured by determining the radioactivity incorporated from (/sub 3/H)BP into the appropriate metabolite, after separation on silica gel TLC plates. The conjugates were identified by their susceptibility to the action of specific degrading enzymes, arylsulphatase, beta-glucuronidase and gamma-glutamyltransferase. Effects of inhibitors of conjugation galactosamine, diethyl maleate, salicylamide were also examined. Despite quantitative differences between B6 and C3 strains of mice in BP metabolism, the same degree of covalent binding of BP metabolites to cellular DNA, was observed. The results indicate a relatively high capacity of hepatocytes from uninduced mice for conjugation of BP metabolites.

Zaleski, J.; Bansal, S.K.; Gessner, T.



Adult congenital heart disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children call adults ‘grown-up’. Adults may call teenagers, but not mature men and women grown-up. As many people with repaired congenital heart disease (CHD) live a full life, the appropriate perspective is adult CHD superceding the term grown-up congenital heart disease (GUCH). Population-based data now show some adults with corrected cardiac defects revert to normal life expectancy. Maternal and fetal

Elliot A. Shinebourne; Michael A. Gatzoulis




Microsoft Academic Search

Four aspects of adult reading habits are reviewed and identified: 1. the nature and extent of adult reading habits as a field of inquiry from 1900?1975;2. key findings on adult reading habits are related to amount and motivation in purposes for reading;3. correlation between adult reading habits, education, employment, and socioeconomic status;4. problem and direction theory and research should take

Martin Kling



Genetic diversity analysis of elite European maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines using AFLP, SSR, and SNP markers reveals ascertainment bias for a subset of SNPs.  


Recent advances in high-throughput sequencing technologies have triggered a shift toward single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. A systematic bias can be introduced if SNPs are ascertained in a small panel of genotypes and then used for characterizing a larger population (ascertainment bias). With the objective of evaluating a potential ascertainment bias of the Illumina MaizeSNP50 array with respect to elite European maize dent and flint inbred lines, we compared the genetic diversity among these materials based on 731 amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs), 186 simple sequence repeats (SSRs), 41,434 SNPs of the MaizeSNP50 array (SNP-A), and two subsets of it, i.e., 30,068 Panzea (SNP-P) and 11,366 Syngenta markers (SNP-S). We evaluated the bias effects on major allele frequency, allele number, gene diversity, modified Roger's distance (MRD), and on molecular variance (AMOVA). We revealed ascertainment bias in SNP-A, compared to AFLPs and SSRs. It affected especially European flint lines analyzed with markers (SNP-S) specifically developed to maximize differences among North American dent germplasm. The bias affected all genetic parameters, but did not substantially alter the relative distances between inbred lines within groups. For these reasons, we conclude that the SNP markers of the MaizeSNP50 array can be employed for breeding purposes in the investigated material. However, attention should be paid in case of comparisons between genotypes belonging to different heterotic groups. In this case, it is advisable to prefer a marker subset with potentially low ascertainment bias, like in our case the SNP-P marker set. PMID:22945268

Frascaroli, Elisabetta; Schrag, Tobias A; Melchinger, Albrecht E



Y chromosome of the inbred mouse KK/Ta strain is associated with reduced body size in Y-consomic strains  

PubMed Central

Background We have established 17 Y chromosome consomic (Y-consomic) mouse strains in an inbred DH/Sgn strain. In this study, based on investigations in four different genetic backgrounds, we proved that the Y chromosome of the inbred mouse KK/Ta strain is associated with reduced body size. Findings In the DH-Chr Y-+/+ background, Y chromosome substitution significantly decreased the body weight in DH-Chr YKK-+/+ and DH-Chr YSJL-+/+ strains, and the DH-Chr YKK-+/+ strain was the lightest among the 17 Y-consomic strains. In the DH-Chr Y-Dh/+ background (Dh/+ mice have skeletal malformations and are usually lighter than +/+ mice), although Y chromosome substitution did not significantly alter the body weight, the DH-Chr YKK-Dh/+ strain was the lightest among the 17 Y-consomic-Dh/+ strains. In the (B6.Cg-Ay?×?DH-Chr Y) F1-+/+ background, Y chromosome substitution significantly decreased the body weight and length in the (B6.Cg-Ay?×?DH-Chr YKK) F1 hybrids. In the (B6.Cg-Ay?×?DH-Chr Y) F1-Ay/+ background (Ay causes obesity and promotes linear growth), Y chromosome substitution significantly decreased body weight and length in the (B6.Cg-Ay?×?DH-Chr YKK) F1-Ay/+ hybrids. Conclusion A body-size-reducing effect of the Y chromosome of the KK/Ta mouse strain was observed irrespective of genetic background. The effect was observed in the presence of Dh and Ay, the autosomal dominant mutations, both of which are known to have substantial effects on body size. These results suggest that there are Y-linked genes that control the body size in mice.



Adult Education in Hungary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Beginning with a brief survey of the national system, this work covers provisions since 1945 for adult education in Hungary. Educational objectives and other theoretical aspects of adult education in Hungarian society are described, together with the eight year elementary program, technical and vocational adult schools, general and professional…

Csoma, Gyula; And Others


Adolescents and Young Adults

Kent EE, Wilder Smith A, Keegan THM, Lynch CF, Kato I, Wu X, Schwartz S, Hamilton A. (in press). Social information needs of adolescent and young adults with cancer in the Adolescent and Young Adult Health Outcomes and Patient Experiences (AYA-HOPE) Study. Jounral of Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology.


Teaching Languages to Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A collection of six essays focuses on second language instruction for adult learners. In "Modern Languages and the Adult Student" (David Smith), the motivations of adults taking evening classes are examined and the ways in which language teachers need to adjust to this population are discussed. "Language Learning Theories and Their Implications…

Sidwell, Duncan, Ed.


Adult Learning Assumptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to examine Knowles' theory of andragogy and his six assumptions of how adults learn while providing evidence to support two of his assumptions based on the theory of andragogy. As no single theory explains how adults learn, it can best be assumed that adults learn through the accumulation of formal and informal…

Baskas, Richard S.



Young Adult Library Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eight articles in this Spring 1985 issue of The Bookmark focus on young adult library services. In addition to these thematic articles, an introduction and three reports are presented. The issue contains: (1) "In Perspective" (E. J. Josey); (2) "Young Adult Literature in the 1980's--Awesome!" (Ellin Chu); (3) "Young Adult Services' Public…

The Bookmark, 1985



Adults and GNVQs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is intended for further education colleges in the United Kingdom wishing to extend their General National Vocational Qualification (GNVQ) provision to adults, extend their adult students' options for accreditation, or review the suitability of different qualification routes for adults. It presents information about the development of…

Pettitt, Aidan



Dimensions of Adult Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This broad introduction to adult and postcompulsory education offers an overview of the field for students, adult educators and workplace trainers. The book establishes an analytical framework to emphasize the nature of learning and agency of learners; examines the core knowledge and skills that adult educators need; discusses policy, research and…

Foley, Griff, Ed.



Adult Education in Israel.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume contains 13 articles that reflect the development of adult education in Israel during recent years. The material relates to the principal areas with which the Division of Adult Education deals: formal and nonformal education for adults, language and cultural absorption of new immigrants, and training of facilitators for parental…

Kirmayer, Paul, Ed.; And Others


Adult Survival Skills Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this instrument is to supplement data from the Adult Basic Learning Examination in assessing the functional level of adults in daily situations. It may also be used as a teaching tool for adults requesting tutoring in specific concepts and skills presented in the instrument. This instrument is an informal assessment instrument and…

Walsko, Gregory M.


Neural stem/progenitor cells transplanted to the hypoglossal nucleus integrates with the host CNS in adult rats and promotes motor neuron survival.  


Transplantation of neural stem cells and the mobilization of endogenous neuronal precursors in the adult brain have been proposed as therapeutic strategies for central nervous system disorders and injuries. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible survival and integration of grafted neural progenitor cells (NPCs) from the subventricular zone (SVZ) in a hypoglossal nerve avulsion model with substantial neuronal loss. Adult neural progenitor cells (NPCs) from the subventricular zone (SVZ) were cultured from inbred transgenic eGFP Lewis rats and transplanted to the hypoglossal nucleus of inbred Lewis rat from the same family but that were not carrying the eGFP strain after avulsion of the hypoglossal nerve. Grafted cells survived in the host more than 3 months and differentiated into neurons [?III tubulin (Tuj-1 staining)] with fine axon- and dendrite-like processes as well as astrocytes (GFAP) and oligodendrocytes (O4) with typical morphology. Staining for synaptic structures (synaptophysin and bassoon) indicated integration of differentiated cells from the graft with the host CNS. Furthermore, transplantation of NPCs increased the number of surviving motoneurons in the hypoglossal nucleus after nerve avulsion that, if untreated, result in substantial neuronal death. The NPCs used in this study expressed VEGF in vitro as well as in vivo following transplantation that may mediate the rescue effect of the axotomized motoneurons. PMID:22182695

Fagerlund, Michael; Pérez Estrada, Cynthia; Jaff, Nasren; Svensson, Mikael; Brundin, Lou



Genotypic differences in brain dopamine receptor function in the DBA/2J and C57BL/6J inbred mouse strains.  


The propensity for high ethanol preference and high ethanol consumption (herein referred to as ethanol abuse) may be a consequence of a congenital deficit in central dopaminergic activity. This hypothesis was examined in the ethanol-avoiding DBA/2J (DBA) and ethanol-preferring C57BL/6J (C57) inbred mouse strains. Endogenous dopamine D1 and D2 receptor functions differed between strains in the nigrostriatal/mesolimbic dopamine system. At the level of the forebrain, the C57 mouse exhibited higher dopamine D1 and D2 receptor mRNA abundance and elevated dopamine D1 and D2 receptor densities in the striatum compared to DBA mouse. A likely explanation for these observations might be that higher dopamine receptor gene expression could be a consequence of low synaptic dopamine activity. Accordingly, we found higher striatal dopamine-sensitive adenylyl cyclase activity in the C57 mouse. The C57 mouse exhibited an enhanced dopamine D1-D2 receptor link as suggested by an enhanced up-regulation of striatal dopamine D2 receptor mRNA following dopamine D1 receptor blockade with SCH-23390 compared to DBA mouse. At the level of the mesencephalon and hind brain, the C57 mouse had lower dopamine D2 receptor mRNA in the medulla pons, and correspondingly lower midbrain and medulla pons dopamine D2 receptor densities. Adenylyl cyclase activities in these regions were similar to the DBA mouse suggesting that the coupling of these dopamine D2 receptors could be a factor regulating their function. Strain differences in dopamine D2 receptor function were also observed in the diencephalic dopamine system. The C57 mouse exhibited lower dopamine D2 receptor density in the hippocampus and lower dopamine D2 receptor mRNA abundance and lower adenylyl cyclase activity in the hypothalamus. Changes in brain dopamine receptor gene expression following ethanol intake inferred an increase in the activities of central dopamine pathways in both the DBA and C57 mouse supporting an association between dopamine receptor function and ethanol drinking. These lines of evidence provide a basis for the hypothesis that a genetically determined brain dopaminergic deficit mediated by dopamine D1-D2 receptor mechanisms may be involved in at least a part of the risk for ethanol abuse in the C57 inbred mouse strain. PMID:7895774

Ng, G Y; O'Dowd, B F; George, S R



Iso-lines and inbred-lines confirmed loci that underlie resistance from cultivar 'Hartwig' to three soybean cyst nematode populations.  


Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] cultivars varied in their resistance to different populations of the soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines, called HG Types. The rhg1 locus on linkage group G was necessary for resistance to all HG types. However, the loci for resistance to H. glycines HG Type 1.3- (race 14) and HG Type 1.2.5- (race 2) of the soybean cyst nematode have varied in their reported locations. The aims were to compare the inheritance of resistance to three nematode HG Types in a population segregating for resistance to SCN and to identify the underlying quantitative trait loci (QTL). 'Hartwig', a soybean cultivar resistant to most SCN HG Types, was crossed with the susceptible cultivar 'Flyer'. A total of 92 F5-derived recombinant inbred lines (RILs; or inbred lines) and 144 molecular markers were used for map development. The rhg1 associated QTL found in earlier studies were confirmed and shown to underlie resistance to all three HG Types in RILs (Satt309; HG Type 0, P = 0.0001 R (2) = 22%; Satt275; HG Type 1.3, P = 0.001, R (2) = 14%) and near isogeneic lines (NILs; or iso-lines; Satt309; HG Type 1.2.5-, P = 0.001 R (2) = 24%). A new QTL underlying resistance to HG Type 1.2.5- was detected on LG D2 (Satt574; P = 0.001, R (2) = 11%) among 14 RILs resistant to the other HG types. The locus was confirmed in a small NIL population consisting of 60 plants of ten genotypes (P = 0.04). This QTL (cqSCN-005) is located in an interval previously associated with resistance to both SDS leaf scorch from 'Pyramid' and 'Ripley' (cqSDS-001) and SCN HG Type 1.3- from Hartwig and Pyramid. The QTL detected will allow marker assisted selection for multigenic resistance to complex nematode populations in combination with sudden death syndrome resistance (SDS) and other agronomic traits. PMID:19856174

Kazi, Samreen; Shultz, J; Afzal, J; Hashmi, Rizwan; Jasim, Mohammed; Bond, Jason; Arelli, Prakash R; Lightfoot, David A



Imprinting of R-r, paramutation of B-I and Pl, and epigenetic silencing of MuDR/Mu transposons in Zea mays L. are coordinately affected by inbred background.  


The extent of imprinting at R-r, frequency of paramutation at B-Intense and Pl, and epigenetic silencing of Mu transposons were evaluated in the W23 and A188 inbred lines of maize. All types of epigenetic phenomena affecting these loci of the anthocyanin pathway occurred more frequently in the W23 inbred line. Absence of down-regulation was dominant in F1 hybrid progeny. Identical alleles programme lower anthocyanin accumulation in A188 than in W23, and A188 plants develop more rapidly than W23. The possibilities that specific genetic factors, intrinsic gene expression levels and/or the rapidity of the life cycle modulate epigenetic gene controls are discussed. PMID:11486505

Walbot, V



Adult Education in Croatian Society.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains eight papers on adult education in Croatian society. "Basic Characteristics of Croatian Adult Education up to These Days" (Silvije Pongrac, Ilija Lavrnja) highlights key trends in the development of Croatian adult education. "Adult Education in Croatia Based on Social Changes" (Anita Klapan) discusses Croatian adult

Pongrac, Silvije, Ed.


Adult Education and Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains 19 papers on adult education and development worldwide. The following papers are included: "Editorial" (Heribert Hinzen); "Lifelong Learning in Europe: Moving towards EFA (Dakar Framework for Action on Education for All) Goals and the CONFINTEA V Agenda" (Sofia Conference on Adult Education); "Poverty and Schooling in the…

Hinzen, Heribert, Ed.



Education for Senior Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The major objectives of the Education for Senior Adults Leadership Development Institute were: (1) to give a deeper understanding of the characteristics of senior adults; (2) to give a sense of the richness and variety of activities that could be built into a program for the aging; (3) to provide help in problems of organizing and administering…

Hendrickson, Andrew; Aker, George F.


California Adult Education Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook provides descriptions of standard practices in adult education administration as well as the policies, regulations, and statutes guiding the practices. It is a useful resource in day-to-day decision making in program administration or a basic guide for adult education program development. Section 000 provides the general requisites…

Bauer, Thomas J.


Today's Adult Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Who are the adult students in career and technical education (CTE) today? There is not one simple answer to that question. Some are young with little life experience, while others are returning to the workforce and learning new skills to reinvent themselves. Whatever the case, educating adult students is an integral part of ACTE's mission, and the…

Reese, Susan




ERIC Educational Resources Information Center




Recruiting Adult Education Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is the first nationwide compilation of successful recruiting techniques for students in adult basic education, literacy, General Educational Development classes, and adult high school degree programs. Information for the publication was gathered from a literature search and other sources, especially "Reaching the Least Educated," a…

Learning Resources Network, Manhattan, KS.


Adult Learning Matters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adult Learners' Week--which is supported by the Department for Innovation, Universities and Skills and the European Social Fund, amongst a raft of other organisations--is all about raising demand for learning. At its core, the campaign is about encouraging under-represented groups--including low-skilled, unemployed and low-paid adults and those…

Thomson, Rachel



Libraries and Adult Learners.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Of the 13 essays presented in this special issue on libraries and adult education, 8 focus on programs and services from the public library for adult learners. These essays provide information on: (1) an Education Information Centers Program (EIC) designed to complement employment skills training provided under the Comprehensive Employment and…

Josey, E. J., Ed.



Financing of Adult Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 2008 EFA Global Monitoring Report recognises adult literacy as the most neglected of the EFA goals. It is neglected most obviously in respect of the financial allocations made by governments and donors. This shortage of financing creates a dangerous situation in which adult educators seek to convince politicians to invest, based on false…

Archer, David



Counseling Adult Adoptees  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review presents various resources about working with adult adoptees in order to inform counselors in their practice. Topics covered include basics of adoption, including types of adoption and adoption statistics; possible issues adult adoptees may face; and suggestions and implications for counselors. The article addresses some of the serious…

Corder, Kate



Adult interdisciplinary therapy  

PubMed Central

Adult patients have many preexisting conditions like tooth loss, severe skeletal dysplasia, periodontal disease, and various temporomandibular dysfunctions. In such adult patients, an interdisciplinary treatment approach is followed by customizing orthodontic treatment for the individual patient. This article shows a case that is managed in an interdisciplinary method of treatment approach.

Rajkumar, Bala Krishnan; Janarthanam, Padmanaban



Adult Learning and Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As individuals and societies try to respond to fundamental economic and social transformation, the field of adult learning and education is rapidly getting increased attention and new topics for research on adult learning have emerged. This collection of articles from the International Encyclopedia of Education 3e offers practitioners and…

Rubenson, Kjell, Ed.



Adult Education in Finland  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ever since the first ideas of national independence appeared in Finland, adult education has played an essential role in shaping the destiny of the Finns. With a history of almost 130 years, during which it has continuously increased in quality and quantity, the Finnish adult education system has ensured that Finland stays among the most…

Szekely, Radu



Adult Vocational Trajectory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes a "spatial-temporal" model conceiving adult vocational development as a complex and constant readjustment in always changing perception of personal space-time, based on interviews of 786 adults. Presents two propositions of this model: the continuous alternation between states of instability and interaction of influences. (Author/ABL)

Riverin-Simard, Danielle



The adult scoliosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult scoliosis is defined as a spinal deformity in a skeletally mature patient with a Cobb angle of more than 10° in the coronal plain. Adult scoliosis can be separated into four major groups: Type 1: Primary degenerative scoliosis, mostly on the basis of a disc and\\/or facet joint arthritis, affecting those structures asymmetrically with predominantly back pain symptoms, often

Max Aebi



Several Classical Mouse Inbred Strains, Including DBA/2, NOD/Lt, FVB/N, and SJL/J, Carry a Putative Loss-of-Function Allele of Gpr84  

PubMed Central

G protein–coupled receptor 84 (GPR84) is a 7-transmembrane protein expressed on myeloid cells that can bind to medium-chain free fatty acids in vitro. Here, we report the discovery of a 2-bp frameshift deletion in the second exon of the Gpr84 gene in several classical mouse inbred strains. This deletion generates a premature stop codon predicted to result in a truncated protein lacking the transmembrane domains 4-7. We sequenced Gpr84 exon 2 from 58 strains representing different groups in the mouse family tree and found that 14 strains are homozygous for the deletion. Some of these strains are DBA/1J, DBA/2J, FVB/NJ, LG/J, MRL/MpJ, NOD/LtJ, and SJL/J. However, the deletion was not found in any of the wild-derived inbred strains analyzed. Haplotype analysis suggested that the deletion originates from a unique mutation event that occurred more than 100 years ago, preceding the development of the first inbred strain (DBA), from a Mus musculus domesticus source. As GPR84 ostensibly plays a role in the biology of myeloid cells, it could be relevant 1) to consider the existence of this Gpr84 nonsense mutation in several mouse strains when choosing a mouse model to study immune processes and 2) to consider reevaluating data obtained using such strains.



Several classical mouse inbred strains, including DBA/2, NOD/Lt, FVB/N, and SJL/J, carry a putative loss-of-function allele of Gpr84.  


G protein-coupled receptor 84 (GPR84) is a 7-transmembrane protein expressed on myeloid cells that can bind to medium-chain free fatty acids in vitro. Here, we report the discovery of a 2-bp frameshift deletion in the second exon of the Gpr84 gene in several classical mouse inbred strains. This deletion generates a premature stop codon predicted to result in a truncated protein lacking the transmembrane domains 4-7. We sequenced Gpr84 exon 2 from 58 strains representing different groups in the mouse family tree and found that 14 strains are homozygous for the deletion. Some of these strains are DBA/1J, DBA/2J, FVB/NJ, LG/J, MRL/MpJ, NOD/LtJ, and SJL/J. However, the deletion was not found in any of the wild-derived inbred strains analyzed. Haplotype analysis suggested that the deletion originates from a unique mutation event that occurred more than 100 years ago, preceding the development of the first inbred strain (DBA), from a Mus musculus domesticus source. As GPR84 ostensibly plays a role in the biology of myeloid cells, it could be relevant 1) to consider the existence of this Gpr84 nonsense mutation in several mouse strains when choosing a mouse model to study immune processes and 2) to consider reevaluating data obtained using such strains. PMID:23616478

Perez, Carlos J; Dumas, Aline; Vallières, Luc; Guénet, Jean-Louis; Benavides, Fernando



Genetic control in the susceptibility of germfree inbred mice to infection by Escherichia coli O115a,c:K(B).  

PubMed Central

We studied the susceptibility of five germfree inbred strains of mice to oral infection by murine pathogenic Escherichia coli O115a,c:K(B) (MPEC), the causative agent of mouse megaenteron. Although MPEC colonized all strains of mice at 10(9)/g of feces, the mouse strains could be divided into three groups according to their intestinal lesions. In CF1 and C3H/He mice, intestinal lesions were produced in the cecum and colon with hyperplasia of epithelial cells accompanied by severe inflammatory reactions and erosion. The lesions in NC and C57BL/6 mice were restricted to the tip of the cecum, and hyperplasia of epithelial cells was more severe in these mice than in CF1 or C3H/He mice. BALB/c mice had no lesions. Analysis of F1 hybrids of CF1, NC, and BALB/c mice and offsprings from backcrosses of F1 mice to parental strains showed that susceptibility to MPEC seemed to be controlled genetically by a single locus which may be related to the receptors on epithelial cells for MPEC adherence. However, the differences in lesions between CF1 and NC mice suggest that a combination of this locus and another locus to which it may be related regulates the hyperplasia of intestinal epithelial cells. Images

Itoh, K; Matsui, T; Tsuji, K; Mitsuoka, T; Ueda, K



Fixation, Segregation and Linkage of Allozyme Loci in Inbred Families of the Pacific Oyster Crassostrea Gigas (Thunberg): Implications for the Causes of Inbreeding Depression  

PubMed Central

The effect that inbreeding has on the fixation and segregation of genes has rarely been confirmed by direct observation. Here, fixation, segregation, and linkage of allozymes is investigated in the progeny of self-fertilized hermaphrodites of the normally outcrossing Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. The estimate of fixation pooled over loci, individuals, and families, F = 0.462, is significantly lower than the expected value of 0.5. Log-likelihood ratios reveal significant heterogeneity in fixation among individuals, among families, and among loci. In addition, the grand pooled segregation ratio, 127:243:54, deviates significantly from 1:2:1, with a bias against homozygotes for alleles of lesser frequency in the natural population. Segregation ratios for 11 of 14 loci are significantly heterogeneous among families, and exact tests for segregation within families reveal 16 significant results out of 51 tests. Thus, fixation and segregation of allozyme markers in inbred oyster families deviates from the expectations of neutral inbreeding theory. Di-genic disequilibria are significant for four of 74 di-locus pairs revealing two linkage groups. Strong viability selection is apparently conditional on the genotype of the hermaphrodite-founders and is largely focused on these two linkage groups. These genetic effects are explained by interaction between cis-linked factors and polymorphic regulatory backgrounds.

McGoldrick, D. J.; Hedgecock, D.



Breeding Value and Variance Component Estimation from Data Containing Inbred Individuals: Application to Gynogenetic Families in Common Carp (Cyprinus Carpio L.)  

PubMed Central

Under gynogenetic reproduction, offspring receive genes only from their dams and completely homozygous offspring are produced within one generation. When gynogenetic reproduction is applied to fully inbred individuals, homozygous clone lines are produced. A mixed model method was developed for breeding value and variance component estimation in gynogenetic families, which requires the inverse of the numerator relationship matrix. A general method for creating the inverse for a population with unusual relationships between animals is presented, which reduces to simple rules as is illustrated for gynogenetic populations. The presence of clones in gynogenetic populations causes singularity of the numerator relationship matrix. However, clones can be regarded as repeated observations of the same genotype, which can be accommodated by modifying the incidence matrix, and by considering only unique genotypes in the estimation procedure. Optimum gynogenetic sib family sizes for estimating heritabilities and estimates of their accuracy were derived and compared to those for conventional full-sib designs. This was done by means of a deterministic derivation and by stochastic simulation using Gibbs sampling. Optimum family sizes were smallest for gynogenetic families. Only for low heritabilities, there was a small advantage in accuracy under the gynogenetic design.

Bijma, P.; Van-Arendonk, JAM.; Bovenhuis, H.



Complex genetics controls natural variation among seed quality phenotypes in a recombinant inbred population of an interspecific cross between Solanum lycopersicum × Solanum pimpinellifolium.  


Seed quality in tomato is associated with many complex physiological and genetic traits. While plant processes are frequently controlled by the action of small- to large-effect genes that follow classic Mendelian inheritance, our study suggests that seed quality is primarily quantitative and genetically complex. Using a recombinant inbred line population of Solanum lycopersicum?×?Solanum pimpinellifolium, we identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs) influencing seed quality phenotypes under non-stress, as well as salt, osmotic, cold, high-temperature and oxidative stress conditions. In total, 42 seed quality traits were analysed and 120 QTLs were identified for germination traits under different conditions. Significant phenotypic correlations were observed between germination traits under optimal conditions, as well as under different stress conditions. In conclusion, one or more QTLs were identified for each trait with some of these QTLs co-locating. Co-location of QTLs for different traits can be an indication that a locus has pleiotropic effects on multiple traits due to a common mechanistic basis. However, several QTLs also dissected seed quality in its separate components, suggesting different physiological mechanisms and signalling pathways for different seed quality attributes. PMID:22074055

Kazmi, Rashid H; Khan, Noorullah; Willems, Leo A J; VAN Heusden, Adriaan W; Ligterink, Wilco; Hilhorst, Henk W M



Genetic Control of the Innate Immune Response to Borrelia hermsii Influences the Course of Relapsing Fever in Inbred Strains of Mice ?  

PubMed Central

Host susceptibility to infection is controlled in large measure by the genetic makeup of the host. Spirochetes of the genus Borrelia include nearly 40 species of vector-borne spirochetes that are capable of infecting a wide range of mammalian hosts, causing Lyme disease and relapsing fever. Relapsing fever is associated with high-level bacteremia, as well as hematologic manifestations, such as thrombocytopenia (i.e., low platelet numbers) and anemia. To facilitate studies of genetic control of susceptibility to Borrelia hermsii infection, we performed a systematic analysis of the course of infection using immunocompetent and immunocompromised inbred strains of mice. Our analysis revealed that sensitivity to B. hermsii infections is genetically controlled. In addition, whereas the role of adaptive immunity to relapsing fever-causing spirochetes is well documented, we found that innate immunity contributes significantly to the reduction of bacterial burden. Similar to human infection, the progression of the disease in mice was associated with thrombocytopenia and anemia. Histological and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis of infected tissues indicated that red blood cells (RBCs) were removed by tissue-resident macrophages, a process that could lead to anemia. Spirochetes in the spleen and liver were often visualized associated with RBCs, lending support to the hypothesis that direct interaction of B. hermsii spirochetes with RBCs leads to clearance of bacteria from the bloodstream by tissue phagocytes.

Benoit, Vivian M.; Petrich, Annett; Alugupalli, Kishore R.; Marty-Roix, Robin; Moter, Annette; Leong, John M.; Boyartchuk, Victor L.



The genetic architecture of constitutive and induced trichome density in two new recombinant inbred line populations of Arabidopsis thaliana: phenotypic plasticity, epistasis, and bidirectional leaf damage response  

PubMed Central

Background Herbivory imposes an important selective pressure on plants. In Arabidopsis thaliana leaf trichomes provide a key defense against insect herbivory; however, trichome production incurs a fitness cost in the absence of herbivory. Previous work on A. thaliana has shown an increase in trichome density in response to leaf damage, suggesting a mechanism by which the cost associated with constitutively high trichome density might be mitigated; however, the genetic basis of trichome density induction has not been studied. Results Here, we describe the mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for constitutive and damage induced trichome density in two new recombinant inbred line populations of A. thaliana; mapping for constitutive and induced trichome density also allowed for the investigation of damage response (plasticity) QTL. Both novel and previously identified QTL for constitutive trichome density and the first QTL for induced trichome density and response are identified. Interestingly, two of the four parental accessions and multiple RILs in each population exhibited lower trichome density following leaf damage, a response not previously described in A. thaliana. Importantly, a single QTL was mapped for the response phenotype and allelic variation at this locus appears to determine response trajectory in RILs. The data also show that epistatic interactions are a significant component of the genetic architecture of trichome density. Conclusions Together, our results provide further insights into the genetic architecture of constitutive trichome density and new insights into induced trichome density in A. thaliana specifically and to our understanding of the genetic underpinnings of natural variation generally.



Overexpression of Banna mini-pig inbred line fatty acid binding protein 3 promotes adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes.  


Fatty acid binding protein 3 (H-FABP, FABP3) has been significantly associated with intramuscular fat (IMF) content in pigs, which is positively correlated with palatability of pork. However, its underlying function is not fully elucidated. We have investigated the effects of overexpression of the FABP3 gene on differentiation and adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes in the fat Banna mini-pig inbred line (fBMIL). Eukaryotic vectors that expressed the FABP3 protein were constructed, and stably established in the 3T3-L1 preadipocytes cell line. Cells were induced in a standard differentiation cocktail. Morphological changes and the degree of adipogenesis were measured by Oil Red O staining assay and triacylglycerol content measurement, respectively. mRNA expression levels of triacylglycerol metabolism-related genes were measured by qPCR. FABP3 significantly promoted differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells and enhanced triacylglycerol levels (P?

Yi, Bao; Wang, Jigui; Wang, Shuang; Yuan, Daoli; Sun, Jiazeng; Li, Zhili; Mao, Yaping; Hou, Qiang; Liu, Weiquan



Chromosomal regions associated with segregation distortion of molecular markers in F2, backcross, doubled haploid, and recombinant inbred populations in rice (Oryza sativa L.).  


Chromosomal regions associated with marker segregation distortion in rice were compared based on six molecular linkage maps. Mapping populations were derived from one interspecific backcross and five inter-subspecific (indica/japonica) crosses, including two F2 populations, two doubled haploid (DH) populations, and one recombinant inbred (RI) population. Mapping data for each population consisted of 129-629 markers. Segregation distortion was determined based on chi-square analysis (P < 0.01) and was observed at 6.8-31.8%, of the mapped marker loci. Marker loci associated with skewed allele frequencies were distributed on all 12 chromosomes. Distortion in eight chromosomal regions bracketed previously identified gametophyte (ga) or sterility genes (S). Distortion in three other chromosomal regions was found only in DH populations, where japonica alleles were over-represented, suggesting that loci in these regions may be associated with preferential regeneration of japonica genotypes during anther culture. Three additional clusters of skewed markers were observed in more than one population in regions where no gametophytic or sterility loci have previously been reported. A total of 17 segregation distortion loci may be postulated based on this study and their locations in the rice genome were estimated. PMID:9065686

Xu, Y; Zhu, L; Xiao, J; Huang, N; McCouch, S R



Rapidly progressive renal disease as part of Wolfram syndrome in a large inbred Turkish family due to a novel WFS1 mutation (p.Leu511Pro).  


Wolfram syndrome, also named "DIDMOAD" (diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, and deafness), is an inherited association of juvenile-onset diabetes mellitus and optic atrophy as key diagnostic criteria. Renal tract abnormalities and neurodegenerative disorder may occur in the third and fourth decade. The wolframin gene, WFS1, associated with this syndrome, is located on chromosome 4p16.1. Many mutations have been described since the identification of WFS1 as the cause of Wolfram syndrome. We identified a new homozygous WFS1 mutation (c.1532T>C; p.Leu511Pro) causing Wolfram syndrome in a large inbred Turkish family. The patients showed early onset of IDDM, diabetes insipidus, optic atrophy, sensorineural hearing impairment and very rapid progression to renal failure before age 12 in three females. Ectopic expression of the wolframin mutant in HEK cells results in greatly reduced levels of protein expression compared to wild-type wolframin, strongly supporting that this mutation is disease-causing. The mutation showed perfect segregation with disease in the family, characterized by early and severe clinical manifestations. PMID:21968327

Yuca, Sevil Ari; Rendtorff, Nanna Dahl; Boulahbel, Houda; Lodahl, Marianne; Tranebjærg, Lisbeth; Cesur, Yasar; Dogan, Murat; Yilmaz, Cahide; Akgun, Cihangir; Acikgoz, Mehmet



Similarities among a group of elite maize inbreds as measured by pedigree, F1 grain yield, grain yield, heterosis, and RFLPs.  


Genetic distances were calculated among 37 inbred lines representing a wide range of related and unrelated elite Corn Belt germ plasm of maize (Zea Mays L.), using 257 probe restriction enzyme combinations. Genetic distances based on RFLP data were highly correlated with coefficients of parentage among pairs of lines. The RFLP-based distance had a higher correlation with single-cross grain yield performance and grain yield heterosis than any of the other measures of similarity we calculated using these same lines. The coefficients of determination (r (2)) from regressing the coefficient of parentage, grain yield, and grain yield heterosis on Nei's measure of genetic similarity based on RFLP data were 0.81, 0.87 and 0.77, respectively. A cluster diagram based upon the RFLP data grouped the lines into families consistent with the breeding history and heterotic response of these lines. We believe that measures of similarity calculated from RFLP data, coupled with pedigree knowledge and using molecular markers to locate quantitative trait loci (QTL), could allow maize breeders to predict combinations of lines that result in high-yielding, single-cross hybrids. PMID:24221118

Smith, O S; Smith, J S; Bowen, S L; Tenborg, R A; Wall, S J



A novel mutation in the SLC17A5 gene causing both severe and mild phenotypes of free sialic acid storage disease in one inbred Bedouin kindred.  


Four members of an extended consanguineous Bedouin family presented with different phenotypic variants of an autosomal recessive lysosomal free sialic acid storage disease. One affected individual had congenital ascites followed by rapid clinical deterioration and death, a presentation concordant with the clinical course of infantile free sialic acid storage disorder. His three first cousins had a more slowly progressive neurodegenerative disease, in line with the clinical phenotype of the milder form (Salla type) of this lysosomal disorder. Diagnosis of free sialic acid storage disease was based on clinical findings, histology, and biochemical assays of sialic acid. Molecular studies showed that all four affected individuals were homozygous for the same novel 983G > A mutation in exon 8 of the SLC17A5 gene, replacing glycine with glutamic acid at position 328 of the sialin protein. This family demonstrates the significant phenotypic variability of the disease in affected members of a single inbred kindred with precisely the same mutation, suggesting a role for modifier genes or environmental factors. It also highlights the need to consider this rare disorder in the differential diagnosis of congenital ascites and of unexplained psychomotor retardation, ataxia, and hypomyelination in infancy. PMID:15172005

Landau, D; Cohen, D; Shalev, H; Pinsk, V; Yerushalmi, B; Zeigler, M; Birk, O S



Role for Neutrophils in Host Immune Responses and Genetic Factors That Modulate Resistance to Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium in the Inbred Mouse Strain SPRET/Ei ?  

PubMed Central

Infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a complex disease in which the host-bacterium interactions are strongly influenced by genetic factors of the host. We demonstrate that SPRET/Ei, an inbred mouse strain derived from Mus spretus, is resistant to S. Typhimurium infections. The kinetics of bacterial proliferation, as well as histological examinations of tissue sections, suggest that SPRET/Ei mice can control bacterial multiplication and spreading despite significant attenuation of the cytokine response. The resistance of SPRET/Ei mice to S. Typhimurium infection is associated with increased leukocyte counts in the circulation and enhanced neutrophil influx into the peritoneum during the course of infection. A critical role of neutrophils was confirmed by neutrophil depletion: neutropenic SPRET/Ei mice were sensitive to infection with S. Typhimurium and showed much higher bacterial loads. To identify genes that modulate the natural resistance of SPRET/Ei mice to S. Typhimurium infection, we performed a genome-wide study using an interspecific backcross between C3H/HeN and SPRET/Ei mice. The results of this analysis demonstrate that at least two loci, located on chromosomes 6 and 11, affect survival following lethal infection with S. Typhimurium. These two loci contain several interesting candidate genes which may have important implications for the search for genetic factors controlling Salmonella infections in humans and for our understanding of complex host-pathogen interactions in general.

Dejager, Lien; Pinheiro, Iris; Bogaert, Pieter; Huys, Liesbeth; Libert, Claude



Identification of quantitative trait loci associated with rice eating quality traits using a population of recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross between two temperate japonica cultivars.  


Improved eating quality is a major breeding target in japonica rice due to market demand. In this study, we performed genetic analysis to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that control rice eating quality traits using 192 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between two japonica cultivars, 'Suweon365' and 'Chucheongbyeo'. We evaluated the stickiness (ST) and overall evaluation (OE) of cooked rice using a sensory test, the glossiness of cooked rice (GCR) using a Toyo-taste meter, and measured the amylose content (AC), protein content (PC), alkali digestion value (ADV), and days to heading (DH) of the RILs in the years 2006 and 2007. Our analysis revealed 21 QTLs on chromosomes 1, 4, 6, 7, 8, and 11. QTLs on chromosomes 6, 7, and 8 were detected for three traits related to eating quality in both years. QTLs for ST and OE were identified by a sensory test in the same region of the QTLs for AC, PC, ADV, GCR and DH on chromosome 8. QTL effects on the GCR were verified using QTL-NILs (near-isogenic lines) of BC(3)F(4-6) in the Suweon365 background, a low eating quality variety, and some BC(1)F(3) lines. Chucheongbyeo alleles at QTLs on chromosomes 7 and 8 increased the GCR in the NILs and backcrossed lines. The QTLs identified by our analysis will be applicable to future marker-assisted selection (MAS) strategies for improving the eating quality of japonica rice. PMID:21360198

Kwon, Soon-Wook; Cho, Young-Chan; Lee, Jeong-Heui; Suh, Jung-Pil; Kim, Jeong-Ju; Kim, Myeong-Ki; Choi, Im-Soo; Hwang, Hung-Goo; Koh, Hee-Jong; Kim, Yeon-Gyu



Detection and verification of QTLs associated with heat-induced quality decline of rice (Oryza sativa L.) using recombinant inbred lines and near-isogenic lines.  


Decline in the apparent quality of rice (Oryza sativa L.) grain due to high temperatures during ripening recently became a major concern in many areas in Japan. The occurrence of white-back kernels (WBK) is one of the main problems of heat-induced quality decline. We identified QTLs associated with the occurrence of WBK using recombinant inbred lines (RILs) and verified their effects using near-isogenic lines (NILs). The QTL analysis used F7 and F8 RILs derived from 'Hana-echizen' (HE), which is tolerant to high temperature, × 'Niigata-wase' (NW), which is sensitive to high temperature. Four QTLs were identified on chromosomes 3, 4, 6, and 9 (qWB3, qWB4, qWB6 and qWB9). To verify the effects of qWB6 and qWB9, we developed two NILs in which qWB6 or both were introduced from HE into the NW background. The HE allele at qWB6 significantly decreased WBK under multiple environments. The combination of qWB6 and qWB9 in an F2 population derived from a cross between a NIL and NW showed that the NW allele at qWB9 significantly decreased WBK if the qWB6 allele was HE. These results will be of value in marker-assisted selection for the breeding of rice with tolerance to heat-induced quality decline. PMID:24273430

Kobayashi, Asako; Sonoda, Junya; Sugimoto, Kazuhiko; Kondo, Motohiko; Iwasawa, Norio; Hayashi, Takeshi; Tomita, Katsura; Yano, Masahiro; Shimizu, Toyohiro



Genetic mapping of quantitative trait loci governing longevity of Caenorhabditis elegans in recombinant-inbred progeny of a Bergerac-BO x RC301 interstrain cross.  

PubMed Central

Recombinant-inbred populations, generated from a cross between Caenorhabditis elegans strains Bergerac-BO and RC301, were used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting nematode longevity. Genotypes of young controls and longevity-selected worms (the last-surviving 1% from a synchronously aged population) were assessed at dimorphic transposon-specific markers by multiplex polymerase chain reaction. The power of genetic mapping was enhanced, in a novel experimental design, through map expansion by accrual of recombinations over several generations, internally controlled longevity selection from a genetically heterogeneous, homozygous population, and selective genotyping of extremely long-lived worms. Analysis of individual markers indicated seven life-span QTL, situated near markers on chromosomes I (tcbn2), III (stP127), IV (stP13), V (stP6, stP23, and stP128), and X (stP41). These loci were corroborated, and mapped with increased precision, by nonparametric interval mapping-which supported all loci implicated by single-marker analysis. In addition, a life-span QTL on chromosome II (stP100-stP196), was significant only by interval mapping. Congenic lines were constructed for the longevity QTL on chromosomes III and X, by backcrossing the Bergerac-BO QTL allele into an RC301 background with selection for flanking markers. Survival data for these lines demonstrated consistent and significant effects of each QTL on life span.

Ayyadevara, S; Ayyadevara, R; Hou, S; Thaden, J J; Shmookler Reis, R J



Renal Disease and Adult Vaccination  


... for Adults Share Compartir Renal Disease and Adult Vaccination Vaccines are especially critical for people with health ... have immunity to this disease Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Type 1 ...


HIV Infection and Adult Vaccination  


... for Adults Share Compartir HIV Infection and Adult Vaccination Vaccines are especially critical for people with chronic ... percentage is less than 15%. Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Type 1 ...


Liver Disease and Adult Vaccination  


... for Adults Share Compartir Liver Disease and Adult Vaccination Vaccines are especially critical for people with health ... have immunity to this disease Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Type 1 ...


Young Adult Smoking Behavior  

PubMed Central

Background Young adults have the highest smoking rate of any age group in the U.S., and new strategies to decrease young adult smoking are needed. The objective of the current study was to identify psychographic and demographic factors associated with current smoking and quitting behaviors among young adults. Methods Attitudes, social groups, and self-descriptors, including supporting action against the tobacco industry, advertising receptivity, depression, alcohol use, and other factors associated with smoking were tested for associations with smoking behaviors in a 2005 cross-sectional survey of 1528 young adults (aged 18–25 years) from a web-enabled panel. Analyses were conducted in 2007. Results Being older was associated with current smoking, whereas having some higher education and being African American or Hispanic were negatively associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was negatively associated with smoking (AOR=0.34 [95% CI=0.22, 0.52]). Perceived usefulness of smoking, exposure to smokers, increased perceived smoking prevalence, receptivity to tobacco advertising, binge drinking, and exposure to tobacco advertising in bars and clubs were associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was associated with intentions to quit smoking (AOR= 4.43 [95% CI=2.18, 8.60]). Conclusions Young adults are vulnerable to tobacco-industry advertising. Media campaigns that denormalize the tobacco industry and appeal to young adults appear to be a powerful intervention to decrease young adult smoking.

Ling, Pamela M.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Glantz, Stanton A.



Mosquito, adult (image)  


This illustration shows an adult southern house mosquito. This mosquito feeds on blood and is the carrier of many diseases, such as encephalitis, West Nile, dengue fever, yellow fever, and others. ( ...


Older Adults and Depression  


... treatment. If left untreated, depression can lead to suicide. Depression is a common problem among older adults, ... not wanting to eat at all Thoughts of suicide, suicide attempts Aches or pains, headaches, cramps, or ...


Motivation and Adult Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper examines the role of adult education and the contribution it can make to the solution of current problems in developing countries, particularly the problems of economic under-development and over-population. (Author/AG)

Veeraraghavan, J.



Adult fragile X syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fragile X syndrome [fra (X)] is currently accepted as the second most frequent chromosomal disorder associated with developmental disability. Although next to Down syndrome in frequency, no postmortem studies of confirmed adult cases had been reported.

R. D. Rudelli; W. T. Brown; K. Wisniewski; E. C. Jenkins; M. Laure-Kamionowska; F. Connell; H. M. Wisniewski



Adults Learning Mathematics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Adults Learning Mathematics (ALM) organization is "an international research forum bringing together researchers and practitioners in adult mathematics/numeracy teaching and learning in order to promote the learning of mathematics by adults." The site contains sections such as "For teachers", "For PhD students", and "For policy makers". The "For teachers" area includes links to the ALM newsletters and their resources, which include downloadable posters and factsheets. Moving along, the "For PhD students" area includes information for those doctoral students that are seeking to incorporate pedagogical techniques for teaching math to adults in their research. Additionally, the "For policy makers" area includes helpful documents such as "High stakes assessment: Assessing numeracy for Nursing in two recent projects".


Older Adults and Alcohol  


... What Is A Standard Drink? Moderate & Binge Drinking Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorders Genetics of ... tolerance for alcohol. Older adults generally experience the effects of alcohol more quickly than when they were younger. This ...


Specific Phobia Among Adults  


... NIMH News About Us Home > Health & Education Specific Phobia Among Adults Specific phobia involves marked and persistent fear and avoidance of a specific object or situation. This type of phobia includes, but is not limited to, the fear ...


Immunization Schedules for Adults  


... Immunization Schedule. 2014 version expected February 28, 2014. Spanish Version (en español) Recommended Immunizations for Adults (19 ... the CDC Also available in multiple languages including Spanish Technical content reviewed by the CDC Related Pages ...


Einstein Books for Adults  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This reference list has more than 15 books and articles on Einstein that are written for adults, including biographies and some of Einstein's own writings. For each title, the author's name, publisher, and publication date are included.


Motivation and Adult Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author reviews theories of human motivation: Lewin's force field analysis, Skinner's operant reinforcement theory, and Maslow's hierarchy of needs. He then extracts the implications of these theories for adult learning. SK)

Taylor, J. Rodney



The Adult Asthmatic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asthma in the adult patient is a complex clinical syndrome. Multiple patient phenotypes and subphenotypes exist that contribute\\u000a to disease heterogeneity. Whether adult asthma begins in utero, develops in childhood, or manifests for the first time in\\u000a adulthood is not completely understood, nor are the mechanisms fully delineated. In this chapter, we update definitions that\\u000a apply to this group, emphasize

Amir A. Zeki; Nicholas J. Kenyon; Ken Yoneda; Samuel Louie


Cyclic electron flow around PSI monitored by afterglow luminescence in leaves of maize inbred lines (Zea mays L.): correlation with chilling tolerance.  


Maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines of contrasting chilling sensitivity (three tolerant, three sensitive lines) were acclimated to 280 mumol photons m(-2) s(-1) white light at a 17 degrees C sub-optimal temperature. They showed no symptoms of photoinhibition, despite slight changes in photosystem II (PSII) fluorescence and thermoluminescence properties in two tolerant lines. A luminescence "afterglow" emission [Bertsch and Azzi (1965) Biochim Biophys Acta 94:15-26], inducible by a far-red (FR) illumination of unfrozen leaf discs, was detected either as a bounce in decay kinetics at constant temperatures or as a sharp thermoluminescence afterglow band at about 45 degrees C, in dark-adapted leaves. This band reflects the induction by warming of an electron pathway from stromal reductants to plastoquinones and to the Q(B) secondary acceptor of PSII, resulting in a luminescence-emitting charge recombination in the fraction of centres that were initially in the S(2/3)Q(B) non-luminescent state. A 5-h exposure of plants to growth chamber light shifted this luminescence emission towards shorter times and lower temperatures for several hours in the three chilling-tolerant lines. This downshift was not observed, or only transiently, in the three sensitive lines. In darkness, the downshifted afterglow band relaxed within hours to resume its dark-adapted location, similar for all maize lines. A faster dark re-reduction of P700(+) oxidized by FR light (monitored by 820-nm absorbance) and an increase of photochemical energy storage under FR excitation (determined by photoacoustic spectroscopy) confirmed that a cyclic pathway induced by white actinic light remained activated for several hours in the tolerant maize lines. PMID:15688225

Ducruet, Jean-Marc; Roman, Miruna; Havaux, Michel; Janda, Tibor; Gallais, André



The consequences of consanguinity on the rates of malformations and major medical conditions at birth and in early childhood in inbred populations.  


The rate of malformations and major medical conditions in early childhood was analyzed in a single village according to the degree of relationship between the parents. In the village, 70-80% of the marriages are between descendants of the founders and therefore consanguineous. In the period 1992-2003, in 99 of 2,610 children, a major malformation was diagnosed at birth and seven additional fetuses were aborted because of a severe malformation. A significant medical condition was diagnosed in 38 additional children in early childhood. The total of 144 cases with malformations or a major medical condition represented 5.52% (95% CI: 4.64-6.4) of the live births. Three malformations/disorders were relatively frequent: Down syndrome, esophageal atresia, and profound deafness. The rate of malformations and significant medical conditions was 7.77% (95 CI: 5.68-9.86) when the parents were first cousins and 3.63% (95% CI: 2.11-5.15) when they were not related (P = 0.002, Fisher's exact test). Offspring of parents that were second cousins or closer but less than first cousin had a risk that was similar to the one of offspring of couples that were more distantly related. We propose therefore, that in inbred populations, all the couples that are not related as first cousins but in which the spouses are both descendants of the founders should be considered as related. The high prevalence of profound deafness in the village is due to mutations in the Connexin 26 gene, while the relatively high frequency of Down syndrome is not explained by maternal age only. PMID:20635393

Zlotogora, Joël; Shalev, Stavit A



Natural herbicide resistance (HR) to broad-spectrum herbicide, glyphosate among traditional and inbred-cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties in Sri Lanka.  


Weeds along with insect pests and plant diseases are sources of biotic stress in crop systems. Weeds are responsible for serious problems in rice worldwide affecting growth and causing a considerable reduction in quality and quantity in yield. High concentrations of pre-emergent-broad-spectrum systemic herbicide, Glyphosate is prevalently applied to control rice weeds which intern causes severe damages to cultivated rice varieties, susceptible to Glyphosate. However, there may be rice varieties with natural Herbicide Resistance (HR) which are so far, has not been evaluated. In this study Six traditional and eighteen developed-cultivated rice varieties (Bg, Bw, At and Ld series developed by Rice Research Development Institute, Sri Lanka) were used to screen their natural HR. RCBD with five replicates and three blocks in each treatment-combination was used as the experimental design. As observations, time taken-to seed germination, time taken to flowering; plant height and number of leaves at 12-weeks after sawing, leaf-length, breadth, panicle-length, number of seeds/panicle of resistant plants and controls were recorded. Plants with > or = 40% resistance were considered as resistant to Glyphosate. Ten inbred-cultivated rice varieties (Bg250, Bg94-1, Bg304, Bg359, Bg406, Bg379-2, Bg366, Bg300, Bw364, At362) and three traditional rice varieties ("Kalu Heenati", "Sudu Heenati", "Pachchaperumal") were naturally resistant to 0.25 g L(-1) Glyphosate concentration and when increased the concentration (0.5 g L(-1)) resistance was reduced. This study showed the usefulness of modern statistical method, classification and regression tree analysis (CART) in exploring and visualizing the patterns reflected by a large number of rice varieties (larger experimental database) on herbicide resistance in future. PMID:24498832

Weerakoon, S R; Somaratne, S; Wijeratne, R G D; Ekanyaka, E M S I



Detection of Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs) for Resistances to Small Brown Planthopper and Rice Stripe Virus in Rice Using Recombinant Inbred Lines  

PubMed Central

Small brown planthopper (SBPH) and rice stripe virus (RSV) disease transmitted by SBPH cause serious damage to rice (Oryza sativa L.) in China. In the present study, we screened 312 rice accessions for resistance to SBPH. The indica variety, N22, is highly resistant to SBPH. One hundred and eighty two recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross of N22 and the highly susceptible variety, USSR5, were used for quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of resistances to SBPH and RSV. In a modified seedbox screening test, three QTLs for SBPH resistance, qSBPH2, qSBPH3 and qSBPH7.1, were mapped on chromosomes 2, 3 and 7, a total explaining 35.1% of the phenotypic variance. qSBPH7.2 and qSBPH11.2, conferring antibiosis against SBPH, were detected on chromosomes 7 and 11 and accounted for 20.7% of the total phenotypic variance. In addition, qSBPH5 and qSBPH7.3, expressing antixenosis to SBPH, were detected on chromosomes 5 and 7, explaining 23.9% of the phenotypic variance. qSBPH7.1, qSBPH7.2 and qSBPH7.3, located in the same region between RM234 and RM429 on chromosome 7, using three different phenotyping methods indicate that the locus or region plays a major role in conferring resistance to SBPH in N22. Moreover, three QTLs, qSTV4, qSTV11.1 and qSTV11.2, for RSV resistance were detected on chromosomes 4 and 11. qSTV11.1 and qSTV11.2 are located in the same region between RM287 and RM209 on chromosome 11. Molecular markers spanning these QTLs should be useful in the development of varieties with resistance to SBPH and RSV.

Wang, Qi; Liu, Yuqiang; Hu, Jinlong; Zhang, Yingxin; Xie, Kun; Wang, Baoxiang; Tuyen, Le Quang; Song, Zhaoqiang; Wu, Han; Liu, Yanling; Jiang, Ling; Liu, Shijia; Cheng, Xianian; Wang, Chunming; Zhai, Huqu; Wan, Jianmin



Infection of inbred BALB/c and C57BL/6 and outbred Institute of Cancer Research mice with the emerging H7N9 avian influenza virus  

PubMed Central

A new avian-origin influenza virus A (H7N9) recently crossed the species barrier and infected humans; therefore, there is an urgent need to establish mammalian animal models for studying the pathogenic mechanism of this strain and the immunological response. In this study, we attempted to develop mouse models of H7N9 infection because mice are traditionally the most convenient models for studying influenza viruses. We showed that the novel A (H7N9) virus isolated from a patient could infect inbred BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice as well as outbred Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice. The amount of bodyweight lost showed differences at 7 days post infection (d.p.i.) (BALB/c mice 30%, C57BL/6 and ICR mice approximately 20%), and the lung indexes were increased both at 3 d.p.i. and at 7 d.p.i.. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated the existence of the H7N9 viruses in the lungs of the infected mice, and these findings were verified by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50) detection at 3 d.p.i. and 7 d.p.i.. Histopathological changes occurred in the infected lungs, including pulmonary interstitial inflammatory lesions, pulmonary oedema and haemorrhages. Furthermore, because the most clinically severe cases were in elderly patients, we analysed the H7N9 infections in both young and old ICR mice. The old ICR mice showed more severe infections with more bodyweight lost and a higher lung index than the young ICR mice. Compared with the young ICR mice, the old mice showed a delayed clearance of the H7N9 virus and higher inflammation in the lungs. Thus, old ICR mice could partially mimic the more severe illness in elderly patients.

Zhu, Zhaoqin; Yang, Yuqin; Feng, Yanling; Shi, Bisheng; Chen, Lixiang; Zheng, Ye; Tian, Di; Song, Zhigang; Xu, Chunhua; Qin, Boyin; Zhang, Xiaonan; Guan, Wencai; Liu, Fang; Yang, Tao; Yang, Hua; Zeng, Dong; Zhou, Wenjiang; Hu, Yunwen; Zhou, Xiaohui



Genetic studies of flavivirus resistance in inbred strains derived from wild mice: evidence for a new resistance allele at the flavivirus resistance locus (Flv).  

PubMed Central

Studies of genetic resistance to flavivirus infection in laboratory mice have led to the development of a single model in which resistance is conferred by an autosomal dominant gene designated Flvr. Because of evidence suggesting that wild mice carry virus resistance genes which are not present in laboratory mice, we compared flavivirus resistance in the inbred strains CASA/Rk, CAST/Ei, and MOLD/Rk, which are derived directly from wild mice, and the congenic strains C3H/RV (Flvr/Flvr) and C3H/HeJ (Flvs/Flvs). Resistance to the Murray Valley encephalitis virus strain OR2 and the 17D vaccine strain of yellow fever virus was assessed by determining the lethality of intracerebral infection and by measuring virus replication in the brain. The resistance of the CASA/Rk and CAST/Ei strains resembled the resistance of C3H/RV mice, whereas the resistance of the MOLD/Rk strain was intermediate between those of C3H/RV and C3H/HeJ mice. Genetic analyses showed that resistance in both the CASA/Rk and MOLD/Rk strains is conferred by single autosomal dominant alleles at the Flv locus. Our data indicate that flavivirus resistance in the CASA/Rk strain is due to a gene which is similar or identical to Flvr, whereas resistance in the MOLD/Rk strain is due to a previously undescribed gene which we designate Flvmr to indicate minor resistance to flavivirus infection. Since genetic resistance to flaviviruses is rare in laboratory mice, the CASA/Rk and MOLD/Rk strains will be valuable for further investigation of this phenomenon.

Sangster, M Y; Heliams, D B; MacKenzie, J S; Shellam, G R



Adult Education in Israel V.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This fifth journal edition focuses on the didactics of adult education in Israel. Following a "Preface" (Meir Peretz) discussing the didactics of adult education, three major fields are examined: Learning for Adults; Hebrew Language and Culture for Immigrants; and Special Populations (adults with learning disabilities, senior citizens, and…

Kirmayer, Paul, Ed.; Michaelson, Serena T., Ed.


Cognition and the Adult Learner.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report contains six research papers and a summary of a panel discussion on the topic of cognition and the adult learner. The papers are as follows: "Psychology and Adult Cognition" (Wilbert J. McKeachie); "Biology and Adult Cognition" (Frank Farley); "Technology and Adult Cognition" (Barbara Grabowski); "Enhancing Cognitive Skills" (Richard…

Fellenz, Robert A., Ed.


Designing an Adult Education Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended for planners of adult education curriculums, this literature review explains the concepts involved in designing an adult education program, provides information about the roles of the people involved in the adult education process, cites some program planning models, and applies the program planning principles to an Adult Basic Education…

Rand, Margaret


Adult Education through World Collaboration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains the following papers about development/delivery of adult education through the efforts of multinational and bilateral government donors and the International Council for Adult Education (ICAE): "Preface" (Beverly Benner Cassara); "Introduction: Adult Education and Democracy" (Francisco Vio Grossi); "Adult Education and the…

Cassara, Beverly Benner, Ed.


Rich Environments for Adult Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Unaware of the messages a bare adult learning environment sends and its effect on adult learners, a trainer attends an intensive Reggio Emilia course and learns that the physical environment is the "third teacher"--for adults as well as for children. Using principles of Reggio, she offers suggestions for enhancing adult learning spaces and…

Bentham, Renee



Shaken Adult Syndrome  

PubMed Central

IMPORTANCE To establish that the intracranial and ophthalmologic findings present in victims of abusive head trauma can also be seen in shaken adults. OBSERVATIONS We report 2 cases of shaken adults with intracranial and ophthalmologic findings that resulted from repetitive acceleration-deceleration injury. These findings included intracranial hemorrhages, hemorrhages involving the optic nerve sheath, intraretinal and subretinal hemorrhages, and macular folds. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE The intracranial and ophthalmologic findings that are characteristic of abusive head trauma—subdural hemorrhages, optic nerve sheath hemorrhages, and retinal hemorrhages—are generally thought to be limited to young children and infants. Adults may also be victims of shaking abuse, and an ophthalmic examination may be beneficial when shaking is suspected.

Azari, Amir A.; Kanavi, Mozhgan R.; Saipe, Noah B.; Potter, Heather D.; Albert, Daniel M.; Stier, Michael A.



Adult Seborrheic Dermatitis  

PubMed Central

Seborrheic dermatitis is a common chronic-recurrent inflammatory disorder that most commonly affects adults; however, a more transient infantile form also occurs. The definitive cause of seborrheic dermatitis is unknown. However, proliferation of Malassezia species has been described as a contributing factor. The adult form of seborrheic dermatitis affects up to approximately five percent of the general population. The disorder commonly affects the scalp, face, and periauricular region, with the central chest, axillae, and genital region also involved in some cases. Pruritus is not always present and is relatively common, especially with scalp disease. A variety of treatments are available including topical corticosteroids, topical antifungal agents, topical calcineurin inhibitors, and more recently, a nonsteroidal “device ”cream. This article reviews the practical topical management of seborrheic dermatitis in the United States, focusing on the adult population.



Pharmacotherapy for adult ADHD.  


The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved 3 medications, atomoxetine and the extended-release formulations of amphetamine salts and dexmethylphenidate, for the treatment of adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Different formulations of the same drugs, as well as other agents and cognitive-behavioral therapy, have been tested to determine efficacy in ADHD alone and in ADHD with comorbid substance use disorders, mood disorders, and anxiety disorders. A deficit in research exists in regard to these comorbidities in adults with ADHD. PMID:19552859

Adler, Lenard A



Lichen striatus on adult.  


Lichen Striatus is an uncommon inflammatory skin eruption of unknown etiology. It rarely affects adults, and it is characterized by abrupt onset of coalescent papules, in a linear disposition, usually on the extremities. Histopathology shows lichenoid reaction involving follicles and glands. Occasionally, there is overlap with linear lichen planus and "blaschkitis", the main differential diagnoses. It is reported here the case of an adult woman with erythematous violaceous papules on the right side of the neck and face, diagnosed with lichen striatus by clinical and histopathological correlation. The atypical findings and the diagnostic difficulty are discussed. PMID:21437538

Fogagnolo, Leticia; Barreto, Jaison Antônio; Soares, Cleverson Teixeira; Marinho, Fernanda Chagas Alencar; Nassif, Priscila Wolf



Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Mapping of Resistance to Two Races of Pyrenophora tritici-repentis in Adult and Seedling Wheat.  


ABSTRACT Resistance to the chlorosis factor of tan spot of wheat, caused by the ascomycete Pyrenophora tritici-repentis, has been reported to be quantitative and a single quantitative trait loci (QTL), QTsc.ndsu-1A, explained 35% of the variation for resistance to a single isolate in seedlings of recombinant inbred (RI) lines derived from the cross W-7984/Opata 85. The objectives of this study were to determine the number and locations of genes conditioning resistance to the same isolate in adult plants of this population and three isolates in seedlings of wheat RI lines derived from the cross W-7976/Trenton. An extensive restriction fragment length polymorphism map exists for the W-7984/Opata 85 population, and markers significantly associated (P < 0.01) with resistance to tan spot were selected to analyze the W-7976/Trenton population. A multiple regression model accounted for 49% of the variation for resistance in adult plants with QTsc.ndsu-1A, explaining 26% of the variation. QTsc.ndsu-1A explained 47, 58, and 64% of the variation for resistance in seedlings to isolates Pti2, 78-62, and D308, respectively. These results showed that the QTL for tan spot resistance on chromosome 1AS was effective in both seedlings and adult plants and against isolates from different races of P. tritici-repentis. PMID:18943946

Effertz, R J; Anderson, J A; Francl, L J



Genetic Variance Contributes to Dopamine and Opioid Receptor Antagonist-Induced Inhibition of Intralipid (Fat) Intake in Inbred and Outbred Mouse Strains  

PubMed Central

Preference for and intake of solid and emulsified fat (Intralipid) solutions vary across different mouse strains. Fat intake in rodents is inhibited by dopamine and opioid receptor antagonists, but any variation in these responses as a function of genetic background is unknown. Therefore, the present study compared the ability of dopamine D1-like (SCH23390) and general opioid (naltrexone) receptor antagonism to alter intake of fat emulsions (Intralipid) in mice. Two-h intakes of 5% Intralipid were measured (5–120 min) in seven inbred (BALB/c, C57BL/6, C57BL/10, DBA/2, SJL, SWR, 129P3) and one outbred (CD-1) mouse strains following treatment with vehicle, SCH23390 (50–1600 nmol/kg, ip) and naltrexone (0.001–5 mg/kg, sc). SCH23390 significantly, dose-dependently and differentially reduced Intralipid intake at all five (DBA/2, SWR, CD-1), four (SJL, C57BL/6), three (129P3) and one (C57BL/10) of the doses tested, but failed to affect Intralipid intake in BALB/c mice. Naltrexone significantly, dose-dependently and differentially reduced Intralipid intake at all four (DBA/2), three (SWR, SJL), two (CD-1, C57BL/10) and one (C57BL/6, 129P3) of the doses tested, and also failed to affect Intralipid intake in BALB/cJ mice. SCH23390 and naltrexone were respectively 13.3-fold and 9.3-fold more potent in inhibiting Intralipid intake in the most sensitive (DBA/2) relative to the least sensitive (BALB/c) mouse strains. A strong positive relationship (r=0.91) was observed for the abilities of SCH23390 and naltrexone to inhibit Intralipid intake across strains. These findings indicate that dopaminergic and opioid signaling mechanisms differentially control Intralipid intake across different mouse strains, suggesting important genetic and pharmacological interactions in the short-term control of rewarding and post-ingestive consequences of fat intake.

Dym, Cheryl T.; Bae, Veronica; Kraft, Tamar; Yakubov, Yakov; Winn, Amanda; Sclafani, Anthony; Bodnar, Richard J.



QTL analysis of novel genomic regions associated with yield and yield related traits in new plant type based recombinant inbred lines of rice (Oryza sativa L.)  

PubMed Central

Background Rice is staple food for more than half of the world’s population including two billion Asians, who obtain 60-70% of their energy intake from rice and its derivatives. To meet the growing demand from human population, rice varieties with higher yield potential and greater yield stability need to be developed. The favourable alleles for yield and yield contributing traits are distributed among two subspecies i.e., indica and japonica of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.). Identification of novel favourable alleles in indica/japonica will pave way to marker-assisted mobilization of these alleles in to a genetic background to break genetic barriers to yield. Results A new plant type (NPT) based mapping population of 310 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) was used to map novel genomic regions and QTL hotspots influencing yield and eleven yield component traits. We identified major quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for days to 50% flowering (R2?=?25%, LOD?=?14.3), panicles per plant (R2?=?19%, LOD?=?9.74), flag leaf length (R2?=?22%, LOD?=?3.05), flag leaf width (R2?=?53%, LOD?=?46.5), spikelets per panicle (R2?=?16%, LOD?=?13.8), filled grains per panicle (R2?=?22%, LOD?=?15.3), percent spikelet sterility (R2?=?18%, LOD?=?14.24), thousand grain weight (R2?=?25%, LOD?=?12.9) and spikelet setting density (R2?=?23%, LOD?=?15) expressing over two or more locations by using composite interval mapping. The phenotypic variation (R2) ranged from 8 to 53% for eleven QTLs expressing across all three locations. 19 novel QTLs were contributed by the NPT parent, Pusa1266. 15 QTL hotpots on eight chromosomes were identified for the correlated traits. Six epistatic QTLs effecting five traits at two locations were identified. A marker interval (RM3276-RM5709) on chromosome 4 harboring major QTLs for four traits was identified. Conclusions The present study reveals that favourable alleles for yield and yield contributing traits were distributed among two subspecies of rice and QTLs were co-localized in different genomic regions. QTL hotspots will be useful for understanding the common genetic control mechanism of the co-localized traits and selection for beneficial allele at these loci will result in a cumulative increase in yield due to the integrative positive effect of various QTLs. The information generated in the present study will be useful to fine map and to identify the genes underlying major robust QTLs and to transfer all favourable QTLs to one genetic background to break genetic barriers to yield for sustained food security.



Two inbred strains of rats, Fischer 344 and Lewis, showed differential behavior and brain expression of corticosterone receptor mRNA induced by methamphetamine.  


Recently, a role of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis in facilitating the behavioral and neurochemical effects of psychostimulants has been proposed. Two inbred strains of rats, Fischer 344/N (F344) and Lewis/N (LEW), have markedly different HPA axes as well as behavioral responses to psychostimulants: F344 rats show hyperresponsive HPA axis and no significant sensitization to cocaine, whereas LEW rats display blunted response in HPA axis and develop cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization. Corticosterone exerts its biological effects via intracellular receptors, termed type I (mineralocorticoid receptor: MR) and type II (glucocorticoid receptor: GR). The present study examines the development of stereotypy sensitization and the brain expression of mRNAs for MR, GR, and heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) in methamphetamine (MAP)-treated F344 and LEW rats. Animals received i.p. injections with chronic saline (SAL: once daily for 21 days), chronic saline and acute MAP (AM: saline for 20 days and 4 mg/kg MAP on the 21st day), or chronic MAP (CM: 4 mg/kg MAP for 21 days) and were sacrificed three hours after the last injections. Striatum, hippocampus, and cerebellum were quickly dissected on ice and total RNA was isolated for northern analyses. LEW rats developed stereotypy sensitization significantly earlier than F344 rats. AM significantly decreased GR and MR mRNA expression in hippocampus of LEW, compared to SAL. CM significantly increased GR and MR mRNA expression in striatum of F344 compared to SAL and AM, while it decreased GR mRNA in striatum of LEW and MR mRNA in hippocampus, compared to SAL. AM significantly increased HSP90 mRNA in all brain regions examined, without the hippocampus in LEW. CM significantly increased the expression of HSP90 mRNA in the striatum and cerebellum of F344, but significantly decreased in the striatum and hippocampus of LEW. These contrasting differences between F344 and LEW, in their susceptibility to stereotypy sensitization and striatal expression of GR mRNA by chronic MAP, suggest that some striatal genes, whose transcription is regulated by GR, play a crucial role in the development of MAP-induced behavioral sensitization. PMID:11085306

Numachi, Y; Yoshida, S; Toda, S; Matsuoka, H; Sato, M



Adult Literacy Perspectives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book, intended to serve as a professional reference work, proposes to define the field of Adult Basic Education in its evolution, its contribution to professional education, and the principal problems and issues. The volume contains the following treatises: "Definitions and Evolution of the Concepts" (Thomas); "Selected Chronology of Literacy…

Taylor, Maurice C., Ed.; Draper, James A., Ed.


Reaching the Disadvantaged Adult  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An area vocational school teacher responsible for working one-third time with disadvantaged and handicapped adults describes techniques and procedures used in assessing needs of the mountain people in a rural area of northern Georgia and in marshalling resources of various state and community agencies to develop an appropriate program in consumer…

Cagle, Eliza



The Adult Student Population.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is concerned with the following topics on adult student attendance at Harrisburg Area Community College (HACC) during the 1969-70 academic year: student background, reason for attendance, enrollment in programs or courses, academic success, evidence of personal and occupational development. The report is based on the useable…

Snyder, Fred A.; Blocker, Clyde E.


Parainfluenza Pneumonia in Adults.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Parainfluenza virus, frequently a cause of respiratory disease in children, is uncommonly associated with illness in adults. A study sample of 160 incoming Marine Corps recruits showed that 25% to 48% had no detectable complement-fixing antibody to one or...

R. P. Wenzel D. P. McCormick W. E. Beam



Adults Living with OI  


Adults Living with OI Write to us with your suggestions for what we should include on this page; your input will help guide ... Doctor Talking with your Orthopedist Vertebral Compression Fractures OI and Osteoporosis Can't find the information you' ...


Adult Education in Sweden.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The forms of adult education in Sweden discussed in this review include the courses provided by the Labour Market Board, the folk high schools, the national and local educational schemes, the Commission for TV and Radio in Education (TRU), and the training courses arranged by the employee organizations. Brief mention is also made of the courses…

Ministry of Education and Cultural Affairs, Stockholm (Sweden).


Adult Children of Alcoholics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents analysis of adult children of alcoholics, their experience and adjustment in relation to the severity and type of alcoholism, age considerations and perceptions as a child, and existence and nature of significant others. Discusses alcoholics' and others' family issues, focusing on roles taken, and personality characteristics. Emphasizes…

Goodman, Ronald W.



Adult Children of Alcoholics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult children of alcoholics constitute the largest number of people affected by the disease of alcoholism. As a result of their childhood experiences they are high risk candidates not only for alcoholism in particular, but for a dysfunctional life style in general. This article discusses some of the characteristics that result from this environment, what the implications are in the

Janet Geringer Woititz



Adult Children of Alcoholics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to develop the Mucowski Typology inventory, to test the hypothetical constructs regarding adult children from alcoholic families (ACOAs) prouosed by Claudia Black. This was done in order to discriminate them from others who were not raised in families in which there was alcoholism present. The subjects used in this study included entering freshmen college

Richard J. Mucowksi; Robert Hayden



Hearing Loss in Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses hearing loss in adults. It begins with an explanation of the anatomy of the ear and then explains the three types of hearing loss: conductive hearing loss, sensorineural hearing loss, and mixed conductive-sensorineural hearing loss. Tinnitus, hearing aids, and cochlear implants are also addressed. (CR)

House, John W.



Adult Education on Prescription.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A joint venture between an adult education service and a health promotion team in Kent, England, enables doctors to refer patients to health and fitness courses. More than 49% of participants are over age 60. A wide range of offerings, personal counseling, health diaries, and 50% fee reduction encourage participation. (SK)

Challis, Juliet




ERIC Educational Resources Information Center




Adult Still's disease  


... illness that causes high fevers, rash, and joint pain. It may lead to long-term (chronic) arthritis. Still's disease is a severe version of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), which occurs in children. Adults can have the same condition. The disease ...


Migration and Adult Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this paper is to highlight the role of adult education as a tool in addressing labour migration issues, specifically those concerning the protection of migrant workers' rights and the transformation of the impact of migration into positive holistic developmental gains. The view of labour migration as a means to forge the economic…

Gois, William



Older Adult Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to improve the quality of life for area senior citizens, De Anza College has established an older adult education program which combines adaptive physical education with holistic health care principles to instruct students in relaxation, nutrition, and physical activity. Classes are held in convalescent hospitals, retirement homes,…

Forman, Jeffrey


Bipolar Disorder Among Adults  


... at NIMH News About Us Home > Health & Education Bipolar Disorder Among Adults Bipolar disorder, sometimes referred to as manic-depressive disorder, ... that are experienced by everyone. Additional information about bipolar disorder can be found on NIMH’s bipolar disorder ...


Adult Nasolacrimal Sac Mucocele  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult nasolacrimal sac mucocele is an uncommon mass arising in the medial canthal region of the orbit. Twenty-one cases with lacrimal sac mucocele were reviewed retrospectively. We gathered information about the clinical characteristics, natural history, mechanism for mucocele formation and optimal management of this disorder. The results show that the medial canthal mass was confirmed to be dacryocystocele-associated with distal

M. Y. Xiao; L. S. Tang; H. Zhu; Y. J. Li; H. L. Li; X. R. Wu



Adult Education Participation Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes several studies over the past 7 years of the deliberate learning efforts made by men and women. Reports on what and why adults learn, how they learn, what help they obtain, and how much time they spend learning. (Author/LF)

Grabowski, Stanley M.



Adult Learning and Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These eight conference papers discuss adult learning, instructional theory, and related issues in research and practice. Focusing on processes of educational change, the first paper considers how experienced teachers, educational theorists, and researchers possessing empirically tested knowledge can cooperate in program planning. The next paper…

Grabowski, Stanley M., Ed.


Profiles of Adult Learners.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since January 1986, when the Illinois Secretary of State Literacy Grant Program began funding a wide variety of adult literacy programs, more than 30,000 students have sought help with reading. They have been matched with 25,000 tutors who have provided more than 2 million hours of volunteer instruction. The profiles in this booklet are stories of…

Illinois State Library, Springfield.


Adult cardiac anaesthesia.  


The widespread increase in adult cardiac surgery over the last decade has meant that many more junior anaesthetists have become involved in the management of anaesthesia for cardiac surgery before they have taken the final part of the FRCA examination. Although cardiac anaesthesia is still a specialized area, FRCA candidates are expected to have a working knowledge of the principles involved. PMID:8826042

Freeman, J M; Clutton-Brock, T H


Astronomy Books for Adults  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This reference list has more than 20 recommended astronomy books for older students and adults. For each title, the publisher and publication date is included, along with author name. The list is divided into three subcategories: General Astronomy and Astrophysics, Light and Telescopes, and Digital Imaging and the 3-D Universe.


Immigration and Adult Transitions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Almost 30 percent of the more than 68 million young adults aged eighteen to thirty-four in the United States today are either foreign born or of foreign parentage. As these newcomers make their transitions to adulthood, say Ruben Rumbaut and Golnaz Komaie, they differ significantly not only from one another but also from their native-parentage…

Rumbaut, Ruben G.; Komaie, Golnaz



Police and Adult Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The literature on adult education for police is reviewed and criticized. Among the publications that have been influential in debating the need for police education are Charles B. Saunder's "The Challenge of Crime in a Free Society" (1976), which endorses the Presidential Commission on Law Enforcement's recommendations regarding the vital…

Sims, Vic


Teaching Nontraditional Adult Students: Adult Learning Theories in Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the USA experiences rapid growth of nontraditional adult students in higher education, educators and institutions will increasingly need to look beyond the traditional youth-centric educational models to better address adult learning needs. To date, no research has been conducted examining the learning experiences of adult students enrolled in…

Chen, Joseph C.



Utah Adult Education Services. Adult Education Report 1968-69.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Major purposes for the preparation of this report on public school adult education in Utah were: to provide the public with a description of achievements, trends, and needs, and with meaningful cost accounting information; to make comparisons and analyses of adult education by program, school district, and year; and to provide the adult education…

Utah State Board of Education, Salt Lake City.


Diabetes Resources for Older Adults  


... Older Adults Text Size: S M L | About Diabetes Resources for Older Adults Diabetes occurs in people of ... issues that affect this population. Help me find resources for: Managing My Diabetes Preventing Type 2 Diabetes ...


National Adult Day Services Association  


THE NATIONAL VOICE FOR THE ADULT DAY SERVICE COMMUNITY NADSA advances the national development, recognition and use of adult day services. They provide a coordinated program of professional and compassionate supervised services ...


ERIC: Educational Counseling for Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A brief description of adult educational counseling, noting adult needs and anxieties, as well as problems arising from counselor attitudes. Several references and supplementary documents, dealing with both general and specific counseling situations, are listed. (JB)

Grabowski, Stanley M.



Cell wall composition in juvenile and adult leaves of maize (Zea mays L.).  


Many leaf characteristics vary with position along the culm in maize (Zea mays L.) due to the existence of vegetative phase change and heteroblasty. The objective of this work was to determine if differences in cell wall composition exist among developmental phases and between Cg1, a developmental mutant, and wild-type maize. In one experiment, the middle third of fully elongated leaf blades from lower and upper regions of the shoot was harvested (midribs removed) and analyzed for several cell wall components. Averaged over five inbreds (De811, Ia5125, Mo17, P39, and Wh8584), lower leaf blades had higher levels of xylose and lower levels of total uronosyls, glucose, arabinose, and galactose (P < 0.05) than did upper leaf blades. With the exception of glucose, upper and lower leaves of Cg1 plants varied in the same manner as their near-isogenic siblings, except cell walls of Cg1 plants were more "juvenile" than cell walls of wild-type siblings at the same leaf stage. These data support the hypothesis that Cg1 delays but does not eliminate the transition from juvenile-vegetative to adult-vegetative phase. In a second experiment, juvenile (leaves 3 and 5), transition (leaf 7), and adult (leaves 9 and 11) leaves from inbreds B73 and De811 were harvested and analyzed as in the first experiment. As leaf number rose, total cell wall content of sample dry matter, total neutral sugars, glucose, xylose, and ester-linked monomers of p-coumaric acid and total ferulates including ferulate dimers increased linearly while total uronosyls acids, arabinose, and galactose declined linearly (P < 0.05). Glucose and xylose are major cell wall components released from cellulose and xylans after acid hydrolysis. Pectin, a minor component of grass cell walls, is composed of galacturonosyls, arabinose, and galactose. Secondary cell wall deposition increased between leaves 3 and 11 in a heteroblastic series, due to either increased cell wall content concomitant with decreased cell lumen size, changes in proportion of cell types (i.e., sclerenchyma), or a combination of these factors. PMID:16719512

Abedon, Bruce G; Hatfield, Ronald D; Tracy, William F



Reversed light-dark cycle and cage enrichment effects on ethanol-induced deficits in motor coordination assessed in inbred mouse strains with a compact battery of refined tests  

PubMed Central

The laboratory environment existing outside the test situation itself can have a substantial influence on results of some behavioral tests with mice, and the extent of these influences sometimes depends on genotype. For alcohol research, the principal issue is whether genotype-related ethanol effects will themselves be altered by common variations in the lab environment or instead will be essentially the same across a wide range of lab environments. Data from 20 inbred strains were used to reduce an original battery of seven tests of alcohol intoxication to a compact battery of four tests: the balance beam and grip strength with a 1.25 g/kg ethanol dose and the accelerating rotarod and open-field activation tests with 1.75 g/kg. The abbreviated battery was then used to study eight inbred strains housed under a normal or reversed light-dark cycle, or a standard or enriched home cage environment. The light-dark cycle had no discernable effects on any measure of behavior or response to alcohol. Cage enrichment markedly improved motor coordination in most strains. Ethanol-induced motor coordination deficits were robust; the well documented strain-dependent effects of ethanol were not altered by cage enrichment.

Munn, Elizabeth; Bunning, Mark; Prada, Sofia; Bohlen, Martin; Crabbe, John C.; Wahlsten, Douglas



Adult Education and Development, 1994.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The publication is a half-yearly journal for adult education in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Issue 42 includes the following: "Adult Education for Self-Reliance in Community Health Education Programmes" (Kweka); "Promoting Good Nutrition" (Mangvwat); "Incorporating Health-Improvement Activities in Adult Education Programmes in Nigeria"…

Adult Education and Development, 1994



On Teaching Adults: An Anthology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The bulk of this anthology treats adults as different from adolescents, in learning and in other respects, and the resultant demands which these differences make upon flexible, conscientious teachers of adults. Three essays deal with an overall view of adult education, its challenges, problems, and rewards. Other essays are concerned with the…

Miller, Marilyn V., Ed.


Older-Adults and Asthma  


... blood). What Are Some Treatment Problems Among Older Adults? Treatment of asthma in older adults can be complicated by the ... pressure. Talk With Your Doctor As with any asthma patient, treatment for older adults should be a joint decision between patient and ...


Adult Learning and Numeracy: Introduction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article was to explore the marginalization of adult mathematics learning within education. The problem is adult education subsumes adult mathematics learning under the umbrella of literacy. Literacy and numeracy compared in terms of their quantities of funding, directed projects, ERIC submissions, and published dissertations.…

Kantner, M. Joanne



Rural Adult Education: Current Status  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Context". The word pervades the literature on adult and continuing education. For adult education practitioners and researchers alike, understanding the beliefs and actions of their educational place continues to be of significant concern, and rightfully so. That adults wish to have their histories, experiences, and abilities appreciated and…

Ritchey, Jeffrey A.



Adult Education in Rural Pennsylvania  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this research was to describe the status of and factors that influence adult learning and to provide information to help policymakers foster adult learning programs in rural Pennsylvania face a unique set of challenges and obstacles. These include serving a diverse group of rural adults who need a variety of services, a changing job…

Yan, Wenfan



Philosophies of Adult Environmental Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article offers a typology of philosophical traditions in environmental education for adults, based on five philosophical perspectives of adult education described by Elias and Merriam. These five traditions are liberal, progressive, behaviorist, humanist, and radical adult environmental education, respectively. A summary of each philosophy's…

Walter, Pierre



Adult Learning and HRD. Symposium.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This symposium on adult learning and human resource development consists of three presentations. "Adult Learning Principles and Concepts in the Workplace: Implications for Training in HRD" (Margot B. Weinstein) reports on findings from interviews with restaurant employees who reported that training practices using adult learning principles…



Older Adult Alcohol Admissions: 2003.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Among older adult admissions to substance abuse treatment, about half (48 percent) were admitted for abuse of alcohol only. Older adult alcohol-only admissions were less likely than other older adult admissions to be self/individual referrals (37 vs. 45 p...



Adult Education in British Columbia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The report of adult education in British Columbia is a preliminary survey of a sample of educational programs for adults in the Province. The report discusses three varieties of adult self-education (casual contacts, structured events, and self-directed learning) and concludes that the hidden costs and deficiencies of such learning are enormous…

British Columbia Univ., Vancouver. Adult Education Research Centre.


Tribal People and Adult Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Authored by four American Indians, this handbook is concerned with topics directly related to the retention of Indian adult learners in the adult educational process. The topics are aimed at improved understanding of the tribal learner and improved adult educational programs. Topics include: (1) religion (approached from an educational viewpoint…

Redbird-Selam, Helen Marie, Ed.


Screening for Suicide Risk in Adolescents, Adults, and Older Adults in Primary Care  


... Risk in Adolescents, Adults, and Older Adults in Primary Care The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) ... Risk in Adolescents, Adults, and Older Adults in Primary Care. This final recommendation statement applies to teens, adults, ...


Reduced body mass, food intake, and testis size in response to short photoperiod in adult F344 rats  

PubMed Central

Background Although laboratory rats are often considered classic nonseasonal breeders, peripubertal rats of two inbred strains, F344 and BN, have both reproductive and nonreproductive responses to short photoperiods. Unmanipulated adult rats have not been reported to have robust responses to short photoperiod alone, although several treatments can induce photoperiodic responses in adults. In this study, we tested the hypotheses that unmanipulated F344 rats retain responses to short photoperiod as adults and that they have the necessary elements for an endogenous circannual rhythm of sensitivity to short photoperiod. Results Relative to rats kept in long photoperiods (L16:D8), adult F344 rats transferred at 4.5 months of age to short photoperiods (L8:D16) had significantly lower testis size, food intake, and body weight. In a second experiment, newly weaned F344 rats underwent an initial period of inhibition of reproductive maturation, lower food intake, and lower body weight in short photoperiod or intermediate photoperiod (L12:D12) relative to rats in long photoperiod. By 18 weeks of treatment, rats in the two inhibitory photoperiods no longer differed from long photoperiod controls. In short photoperiod, rats underwent a second period of slight reproductive inhibition between weeks 35 and 48, but there was an effect on body weight and slight inhibition of food intake only in an intermediate photoperiod. Conclusion Male F344 rats retain photoresponsiveness as adults, with less reproductive inhibition but equivalent nonreproductive responses. There was only weak evidence for an endogenous timer controlling a circannual cycle of sensitivity to short photoperiod.

Shoemaker, M Benjamin; Heideman, Paul D



Autoimmune neutropenia in adults.  


Autoimmune neutropenias (AIN) in adults are a heterogeneous group of diseases with clinical manifestations varying from being asymptomatic to having infectious complications with considerable morbidity and mortality. They are characterized by autoantibodies directed against neutrophils, resulting in destruction of neutrophils. AIN can be divided into two forms. In primary AIN, neutropenia is usually the sole hematologic abnormality and it is more common in children. Secondary AIN, which is more prevalent in adults, is associated with underlying autoimmune diseases, malignancies, infections, particularly viral, neurological diseases or drug exposure. This article is an overview of these conditions with emphasis on secondary AIN; it also discusses the available serological methods for antibody detection and recent therapeutic developments including colony stimulating factors, rituximab and Campath-1H. PMID:19293004

Akhtari, Mojtaba; Curtis, Brian; Waller, Edmund K



CDC Vital Signs: Adults with Disabilities  


... gov . Vital Signs Share Compartir Adults with Disabilities Physical activity is for everybody May 2014 3x Adults with ... Problem More adults with disabilities need to get physical activity. Adults with disabilities who get no physical activity ...


Rhinitis in Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Rhinitis symptoms of rhinorrhea, congestion, sneezing, nasal/ocular pruritis, and postnasal drainage can significantly affect the quality of life for older adults. As the US population ages, it will be increasingly important for healthcare providers to effectively diagnose and manage rhinitis. Rhinitis is categorized broadly into allergic rhinitis and non-allergic rhinitis. Environmental changes and avoidance measures are a primary means of intervention. In addition, there are several topical therapies (nasal sprays) that can be effective for symptom control.

Nyenhuis, Sharmilee; Mathur, Sameer K.



Diarrhoea in adults (acute)  

PubMed Central

Introduction An estimated 4000 million cases of diarrhoea occurred worldwide in 1996, resulting in 2.5 million deaths. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments for acute diarrhoea in adults living in resource-rich countries? What are the effects of treatments for acute mild-to-moderate diarrhoea in adults from resource-rich countries traveling to resource-poor countries? What are the effects of treatments for acute mild-to-moderate diarrhoea in adults living in resource-poor countries? What are the effects of treatments for acute severe diarrhoea in adults living in resource-poor countries? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to January 2007 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 71 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: antibiotics, antimotility agents, antisecretory agents, bismuth subsalicylate, diet, intravenous rehydration, nasogastric tube rehydration, and oral rehydration solutions (amino acid oral rehydration solution, bicarbonate oral rehydration solution, reduced osmolarity oral rehydration solution, rice-based oral rehydration solution, standard oral rehydration solution).



Diarrhoea in adults (acute)  

PubMed Central

Introduction An estimated 4.6 billion cases of diarrhoea occurred worldwide in 2004, resulting in 2.2 million deaths. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments for acute diarrhoea in adults living in resource-rich countries? What are the effects of treatments for acute mild-to-moderate diarrhoea in adults from resource-rich countries travelling to resource-poor countries? What are the effects of treatments for acute mild-to-moderate diarrhoea in adults living in resource-poor countries? What are the effects of treatments for acute severe diarrhoea in adults living in resource-poor countries? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to January 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 72 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: antibiotics, antimotility agents, antisecretory agents, bismuth subsalicylate, diet, intravenous rehydration, nasogastric tube rehydration, oral rehydration solutions (amino acid oral rehydration solution, bicarbonate oral rehydration solution, reduced osmolarity oral rehydration solution, rice-based oral rehydration solution, standard oral rehydration solution), vitamin A supplementation, and zinc supplementation.



Adult urinary bladder rhabdomyosarcoma.  


Rhabdomyosarcomas, malignant neoplasms exhibiting skeletal muscle differentiation, are the most common childhood sarcomas and most commonly arise in the head-and-neck region. Embryonal rhabdomyosarcomas of the genitourinary tract also occur in children, but are distinctly uncommon in adults. We report a case of embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma arising in the bladder of a 39-year-old woman who presented with urgency, frequency, and gross hematuria. PMID:18400279

Childs, Lane; Hull, David; Bostwick, David G



Idiopathic adult intussusception  

PubMed Central

Intussusception is an uncommon cause of abdominal pain in adults and poses diagnostic challenges for emergency physicians, due to its varied presenting symptoms and time course. Diagnosis is thus often delayed and results in surgical intervention due to the development of bowel ischaemia. We report on a young patient who presented with an ileo-ileal intussusception in whom there were no underlying lesions identified as a causal factor.



Delayed and transient increase of adult hippocampal neurogenesis by physical exercise in DBA/2 mice.  


This study builds on the findings that physical activity, such as wheel running in mice, enhances cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus of the common mouse strain C57BL/6, and that the baseline level of neurogenesis varies by strain, being considerably lower in DBA/2. Because C57BL/6 and DBA/2 are important as the parental strains of the BXD recombinant inbred cross which allows the detection of genetic loci regulating phenotypes such as adult neurogenesis, we performed the current study to investigate the gene x environment interactions regulating neurogenesis. At equal distances and times run DBA/2J mice lacked the acute increase in precursor cell proliferation known from C57BL/6. In DBA/2J proliferation even negatively correlated with the distance run. This was neither due to a stress response (to running itself or single housing) nor differences in estrous cycle. DBA/2 animals exhibited a delayed and weaker pro-neurogenic response with a significant increase in numbers of proliferating cells first detectable after more than a week of wheel running. The proliferative response to running was transient in both strains, the effect being undetectable by 6 weeks. There was also a small transient increase in the production of new neurons in DBA/2J, although these extra cells did not survive. These findings indicate that the comparison between C57BL/6 and DBA/2, and by extension the BXD genetic reference population derived from these strains, should provide a powerful tool for uncovering the complex network of modifier genes affecting the activity-dependent regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. More generally, our findings also describe how the external physical environment interacts with the internal genetic environment to produce different responses to the same behavioral stimuli. PMID:24376750

Overall, Rupert W; Walker, Tara L; Leiter, Odette; Lenke, Sina; Ruhwald, Susann; Kempermann, Gerd



Adult nasolacrimal sac mucocele.  


Adult nasolacrimal sac mucocele is an uncommon mass arising in the medial canthal region of the orbit. Twenty-one cases with lacrimal sac mucocele were reviewed retrospectively. We gathered information about the clinical characteristics, natural history, mechanism for mucocele formation and optimal management of this disorder. The results show that the medial canthal mass was confirmed to be dacryo-cystocele-associated with distal nasolacrimal duct obstruction and proximal obstruction at the junction of the common canaliculus and sac. The interventional procedure of polyurethane stent placement is a practicable and simplified treatment for lacrimal sac mucocele. PMID:18097176

Xiao, M Y; Tang, L S; Zhu, H; Li, Y J; Li, H L; Wu, X R



Intestinal lymphangiectasia in adults  

PubMed Central

Intestinal lymphangiectasia in the adult may be characterized as a disorder with dilated intestinal lacteals causing loss of lymph into the lumen of the small intestine and resultant hypoproteinemia, hypogammaglobulinemia, hypoalbuminemia and reduced number of circulating lymphocytes or lymphopenia. Most often, intestinal lymphangiectasia has been recorded in children, often in neonates, usually with other congenital abnormalities but initial definition in adults including the elderly has become increasingly more common. Shared clinical features with the pediatric population such as bilateral lower limb edema, sometimes with lymphedema, pleural effusion and chylous ascites may occur but these reflect the severe end of the clinical spectrum. In some, diarrhea occurs with steatorrhea along with increased fecal loss of protein, reflected in increased fecal alpha-1-antitrypsin levels, while others may present with iron deficiency anemia, sometimes associated with occult small intestinal bleeding. Most lymphangiectasia in adults detected in recent years, however, appears to have few or no clinical features of malabsorption. Diagnosis remains dependent on endoscopic changes confirmed by small bowel biopsy showing histological evidence of intestinal lymphangiectasia. In some, video capsule endoscopy and enteroscopy have revealed more extensive changes along the length of the small intestine. A critical diagnostic element in adults with lymphangiectasia is the exclusion of entities (e.g. malignancies including lymphoma) that might lead to obstruction of the lymphatic system and “secondary” changes in the small bowel biopsy. In addition, occult infectious (e.g. Whipple’s disease from Tropheryma whipplei) or inflammatory disorders (e.g. Crohn’s disease) may also present with profound changes in intestinal permeability and protein-losing enteropathy that also require exclusion. Conversely, rare B-cell type lymphomas have also been described even decades following initial diagnosis of intestinal lymphangiectasia. Treatment has been historically defined to include a low fat diet with medium-chain triglyceride supplementation that leads to portal venous rather than lacteal uptake. A number of other pharmacological measures have been reported or proposed but these are largely anecdotal. Finally, rare reports of localized surgical resection of involved areas of small intestine have been described but follow-up in these cases is often limited.

Freeman, Hugh James; Nimmo, Michael



Human Metapneumovirus in Adults  

PubMed Central

Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a relative newly described virus. It was first isolated in 2001 and currently appears to be one of the most significant and common human viral infections. Retrospective serologic studies demonstrated the presence of HMPV antibodies in humans more than 50 years earlier. Although the virus was primarily known as causative agent of respiratory tract infections in children, HMPV is an important cause of respiratory infections in adults as well. Almost all children are infected by HMPV below the age of five; the repeated infections throughout life indicate transient immunity. HMPV infections usually are mild and self-limiting, but in the frail elderly and the immunocompromised patients, the clinical course can be complicated. Since culturing the virus is relatively difficult, diagnosis is mostly based on a nucleic acid amplification test, such as reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. To date, no vaccine is available and treatment is supportive. However, ongoing research shows encouraging results. The aim of this paper is to review the current literature concerning HMPV infections in adults, and discuss recent development in treatment and vaccination.

Haas, Lenneke E. M.; Thijsen, Steven F. T.; van Elden, Leontine; Heemstra, Karen A.



Coeliac disease in adults.  


Coeliac disease is a chronic disease characterized by small bowel villous atrophy which impairs nutrient absorption and improves on withdrawal of wheat gliadins and barley, rye and oat prolamins from the diet. Knowledge of the adult form of coeliac disease has greatly improved in recent years. Although this knowledge is not yet sufficiently widespread among referring clinicians, it has, over the past few years, allowed an increasing number of patients to be diagnosed with subclinical forms characterized by minor, transient or apparently unrelated symptoms. As a consequence, our views on the clinical and epidemiological aspects of this condition, the prevalence of which in the general population is believed to be close to 1 in 300, have changed and are still changing. Since it has been demonstrated that a strict gluten-free diet is protective against the complications of adult coeliac disease, it is important that even subclinical and silent forms are diagnosed and treated as early as possible. Non-invasive screening tests, such as anti-gliadin and anti-endomysium antibody estimation, should therefore be used systematically in groups considered to be at risk of coeliac disease. These include first-degree relatives of coeliac patients and patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, iron-deficiency anaemia, epilepsy with cerebral calcification, recurrent aphthous stomatitis and dental enamel hypoplasia. Other conditions will probably be identified in the near future. PMID:7549030

Corazza, G R; Gasbarrini, G



Sexting among young adults  

PubMed Central

Purpose Sexting has stirred debate over its legality and safety, but few researchers have documented the relationship between sexting and health. We describe the sexting behavior of young adults in the United States, and examine its association with sexual behavior and psychological well-being. Methods Using an adapted web version of Respondent-Driven Sampling (webRDS) we recruited a sample of U.S. young adults (ages 18 to 24; N=3447). We examined participant sexting behavior using 4 categories of sexting: 1) Non-Sexters, 2) Receivers, 3) Senders, and 4) Two-way Sexters. We then assessed the relationships between sexting categories and sociodemographic characteristics, sexual behavior and psychological well-being. Results Over half (57%) of respondents were Non-Sexters, 28.2% of the sample were Two-way Sexters, 12.6% were Receivers, and 2% were Senders. Males were more likely to be Receivers than females. Sexually active respondents were more likely to be Two-way Sexters than non-sexually active respondents. Among participants who were sexually active in the past 30 days, we found no differences across sexting groups in number of sexual partners, or number of unprotected sex partners in the past 30 days. We also found no relationship between sexting and psychological well-being. Conclusions Our results suggest that sexting is not related to sexual risk behavior or psychological well-being. We discuss the findings of this study and propose directions for further research on sexting.

Gordon-Messer, Deborah; Bauermeister, Jose Arturo; Grodzinski, Alison; Zimmerman, Marc



Quantitative trait locus for body weight identified on rat chromosome 4 in inbred alcohol-preferring and -nonpreferring rats: potential implications for neuropeptide Y and corticotrophin releasing hormone 2.  


The alcohol-preferring (P) and -nonpreferring (NP) rat lines were developed using bidirectional selective breeding for alcohol consumption (g/kg/day) and alcohol preference (water:ethanol ratio). During a preliminary study, we detected a difference in body weight between inbred P (iP) and inbred NP (iNP) rats that appeared to be associated with the transfer of the Chromosome 4 quantitative trait locus (QTL) seen in the P.NP and NP.P congenic strains. After the initial confirmation that iP rats displayed lower body weight when compared to iNP rats (data not shown), body weight and growth rates of each chromosome 4 reciprocal congenic rat strain (P.NP and NP.P) were measured, and their body weight was consistent with their respective donor strain phenotype, confirming that a quantitative trait locus for body weight mapped to the chromosome 4 interval. Utilizing the newly developed interval-specific congenic strains (ISCS-A and ISCS-B), the QTL interval was further narrowed identifying the following candidate genes of interest: neuropeptide Y (Npy), juxtaposed with another zinc finger gene 1 (Jazf1), corticotrophin releasing factor receptor 2 (Crfr2) and LanC lantibiotic synthetase component C-like 2 (Lancl2). These findings indicate that a biologically active variant(s) regulates body weight on rat chromosome 4 in iP and iNP rats. This QTL for body weight was successfully captured in the P.NP and NP.P congenic strains, and interval-specific congenic strains (ISCSs) were subsequently employed to fine-map the QTL interval identifying the following candidate genes of interest: Npy, Jazf1, Crfr2 and Lancl2. Both Npy and Crfr2 have been previously identified as candidate genes of interest underlying the chromosome 4 QTL for alcohol consumption in iP and iNP rats. PMID:23312492

Spence, John Paul; Lai, Dongbing; Shekhar, Anantha; Carr, Lucinda G; Foroud, Tatiana; Liang, Tiebing



Building Resilience: Helping Young Adults in the Adult Education Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because of changes in welfare eligibility, the education system, and employment and training opportunities, it has become more likely that young people who have had difficulty with the mainstream schooling system and who face a lack of employment options will end up in adult education. Educators in the adult education classroom have an opportunity…

Robinson, Elly



Evaluation of Adult Education Programs. California Adult Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To assist adult educators in finding meaningful ways to measure the effectiveness of instruction, this monograph provides selected illustrations of specific methods used by adult education instructors to verify student learning. Obtained from teachers in the field, the examples are from programs in (1) dental assisting, (2) instrument pilot ground…

California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.


Adult Partners and Adult Contexts of "Teenage Sex."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studied the individual and social connections between teenage and adult sexual outcomes over time, by race and locale, and by individual liaison using data from 28 counties in California. Results show that teenagers display behaviors virtually identical to those of adults of the same backgrounds and socioeconomic status. Implications for…

Males, Mike



[Intussusception in adults].  


The authors report eight cases of intussusception of small and large intestine in adults during five years. 3 of the intussusception caused by simple tumors in five cases by malignant. In three cases were chronic presented long term signs and symptoms. Ileo-ileal invagination was diagnostised at 3 patients, ileo-caecal in one case and ileocolic intussusception also in one case. In 2 cases developed caeco-colic, in one case colo-colic invagination. Resection was strongly indicated in seven cases and wedge resection was done at the last patient. One patient has died of cerebral multiple embilization. They review the etiology and pathology, the signs and symptoms as well as the difficulties during diagnosis and treatment of the intussusceptions according to their own experience and literary datas. The authors draw the attention to the importance of the modern iconographic, tools, particularly the ultrasonography in the diagnosis of intussusception. PMID:11300067

Szabolcsi, T; Szántó, L; Kelle, M; Barton, A; Halmos, F; Magyaródi, Z



Orbital xanthogranuloma in adults.  

PubMed Central

The onset of periorbital xanthogranuloma in adults is rare and may be accompanied by haematological abnormalities and malignancy. The appearance of the eyelid lesions is virtually diagnostic, producing readily recognisable diffuse, yellow plaques, and affected patients should be investigated and reviewed regularly for systemic disease. Three cases are described, in which periorbital cutaneous plaques were associated with abnormal tissues in the superior part of the orbit; these abnormal tissues caused displacement or restricted movement of the globe or upper eyelid. The possibility that two cases represent a necrobiotic type of xanthogranuloma is presented. Nine years after the onset of xanthogranuloma one patient developed non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. A multiple-drug regimen of systemic chemotherapy, given for lymphoma, caused a marked clinical reduction in the periorbital xanthogranuloma. Images

Rose, G. E.; Patel, B. C.; Garner, A.; Wright, J. E.



Autoimmune chorea in adults  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To determine the characteristics of adult-onset autoimmune chorea, and compare paraneoplastic and idiopathic subgroups. Methods: Thirty-six adults with autoimmune chorea were identified at Mayo Clinic (Rochester, MN) from 1997 to 2012. Medical record and laboratory data were recorded. Nonparaneoplastic (n = 22) and paraneoplastic cases (n = 14) were compared. Results: Women accounted for 21 patients (58%). Median age at symptom onset was 67 years (range 18–87 years). We estimated the incidence for Olmsted County was 1.5 per million person-years. Symptom onset was subacute in all. Chorea was focal (20 patients) or generalized (16 patients). Although chorea predominated, other neurologic disorders frequently coexisted (29 patients); abnormal eye movements were uncommon (4 patients). No patient had NMDA receptor antibody or any immunoglobulin (Ig)G yielding a detectable immunofluorescence binding pattern restricted to basal ganglia. Two had synaptic IgG antibodies novel to the context of chorea (GAD65, 1; CASPR2, 1). In the paraneoplastic group, 14 patients had evidence of cancer. Of 13 with a histopathologically confirmed neoplasm, small-cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma were most common; 6 patients had a cancer-predictive paraneoplastic autoantibody, with CRMP-5–IgG and ANNA-1 being most common. In the idiopathic group, 19 of the 22 patients had a coexisting autoimmune disorder (most frequently systemic lupus erythematosus and antiphospholipid syndrome); autoantibodies were detected in 21 patients, most frequently lupus and phospholipid specificities (19 patients). The paraneoplastic group was older (p = 0.001), more frequently male (p = 0.006), had more frequent weight loss (p = 0.02), and frequently had peripheral neuropathy (p = 0.008). Conclusions: Autoimmune chorea is a rare disorder with rapid onset. Male sex, older age, severe chorea, coexisting peripheral neuropathy, and weight loss increase the likelihood of cancer.

O'Toole, Orna; Lennon, Vanda A.; Ahlskog, J. Eric; Matsumoto, Joseph Y.; Pittock, Sean J.; Bower, James; Fealey, Robert; Lachance, Daniel H.



Principles of Adult Learning Scale.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Principles of Adult Learning Scale (PALS) was developed and validated for measuring congruency between adult education practitioners' actual observable classroom behavior and their expressed belief in the collaborative teaching-learning mode. This model is a learner-centered instruction method in which learner and practitioner share authority…

Conti, Gary J.


Cultural Influences on Adult Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five projects are reported that examined factors related to adult learning in nontraditional environments. "Conrad, Montana: A Community of Memories" (Janice Counter, Lynn Paul, and Gary Conti) reports on a group of adults who for over 40 years have been active in building a better community for friends, relatives, and themselves. A 17-item…

Conti, Gary J., Ed.; Fellenz, Robert A., Ed.


Tough Times for Adult Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The key message of NIACE's 2011 survey of adult participation in learning is that recession is bad for lifelong learning for anyone over the age of 25. The survey highlights the central importance of workplaces as sites of adult learning--and the challenges posed to a learning society when opportunities to learn reduce. It shows that the gap…

Tuckett, Alan; Aldridge, Fiona



Today's Challenge: Adults in College.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a study which examined attitudes and perceptions of adult students regarding their experiences at Eastern Illinois University. Results indicated that adult students desired (1) more information about university programs and services, and (2) a place for commuters to stay overnight when road conditions were hazardous. (CT)

Rawlins, Melanie; Davies, Kathy



Travel and Adult Transformative Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This phenomenological research study examines the lived experience of individual adult transformation in the context of travel. Adults throughout history have experienced profound personal and perception changes as a result of significant travel events. Transformative learning occurs through experience, crisis, and reflection, all of which are…

Lindstrom, Steven K.



Clinical Interviewing with Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the next few decades the older adult population will increase dramatically, and prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders are also expected to increase in the elderly cohort. These demographic projections highlight the need for diagnostic instruments and methods that are specifically tailored to older adults. The current paper discusses the…

Mohlman, Jan; Sirota, Karen Gainer; Papp, Laszlo A.; Staples, Alison M.; King, Arlene; Gorenstein, Ethan E.



Childhood Tomboyism and Adult Androgyny.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Female college students (n=194) completed the Bem Sex Role Inventory and a 12-item index of tomboyism. The hypothesis that childhood tomboyism would be positively related to adult androgyny was not supported, but the hypothesis that tomboyism would be related to adult masculinity was. (SLD)

Burn, Shawn Meghan; And Others



Understanding Adult Education and Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book introduces readers to issues, debates and literatures related to a number of central areas of practice in adult education and training, especially in Australia. It is intended as a first attempt to define the field of adult education in Australia in an analytical and theoretical, as opposed to a theoretical and practical sense. Written…

Foley, Griff, Ed.


Fire Risks for Older Adults.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is one in a series of four that discuss the increased fire risks for four groups of the general population: older adults; the mobility impaired; the deaf or hard of hearing; and the blind or visually impaired. Older adults those over 65 years ...



Professionalization of Adult Basic Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adult basic education is critical to the future of the state of Mississippi. However, the state contributes only 8.5 percent of funding for adult education (the remaining 91.5 percent comes from federal sources) to serve less than 2.3 percent of the eligible population. Furthermore, Mississippi loses up to one-third of its potential high school…

Pierce, W. Lee; And Others


Neuropsychological Assessment of Adult Offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report is primarily concerned with reporting on the normative results obtained on a large sample of serious adult offenders. An expanded Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery was administered to 584 adult offenders (OF), 132 normal controls (NC), and 494 acute psychiatric patients (PP). Subjects were between 18 and 44 years of age. Descriptive statistics for all neuropsychological measures are reported.




Sleep Changes in Older Adults  


... adults need? Most adults need 7 or 8 hours of sleep each night to feel fully alert during the ... watch TV in bed. Use your bedroom for sleep and other rooms for other activities. Avoid caffeine about 8 hours before bedtime. Avoid nicotine and alcohol in the ...