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1

Early environmental and social factors affecting adult aggressiveness in inbred mice  

E-print Network

EARLY ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL FACTORS AFFECTING ADULT AGGRESSIVENESS IN INBRED MICE A Thesis by MICHAEL LYNN ALLENDER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1971 Major Subject: Psychology EARLY ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL FACTORS AFFECTING ADULT AGGRESSIVENESS IN INBRED MICE A Thesis by MICHAEL LYNN ALLENDER Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Commi ee) (Member...

Allender, Michael Lynn

1971-01-01

2

Intentional genetic introgression influences survival of adults and subadults in a small, inbred felid population.  

PubMed

1. Inbreeding and low genetic diversity can cause reductions in individual fitness and increase extinction risk in animal populations. Intentional introgression, achieved by releasing genetically diverse individuals into inbred populations, has been used as a conservation tool to improve demographic performance in endangered populations. 2. By the 1980s, Florida panthers (Puma concolor coryi) had been reduced to a small, inbred population that appeared to be on the brink of extinction. In 1995, female pumas from Texas (P. c. stanleyana) were released in occupied panther range as part of an intentional introgression programme to restore genetic variability and improve demographic performance of panthers. 3. We used 25 years (1981-2006) of continuous radiotelemetry and genetic data to estimate and model subadult and adult panther survival and cause-specific mortality to provide rigorous sex and age class-specific survival estimates and evaluate the effect of the introgression programme on these parameters. 4. Genetic ancestry influenced annual survival of subadults and adults after introgression, as F(1) generation admixed panthers ( = 0·98) survived better than pre-introgression type panthers ( = 0·77) and other admixed individuals ( = 0·82). Furthermore, heterozygosity was higher for admixed panthers relative to pre-introgression type panthers and positively influenced survival. 5. Our results are consistent with hybrid vigour; however, extrinsic factors such as low density of males in some areas of panther range may also have contributed to higher survival of F(1) panthers. Regardless, improved survival of F(1) subadults and adults likely contributed to the numerical increase in panthers following introgression, and our results indicate that intentional admixture, achieved here by releasing individuals from another population, appears to have been successful in improving demographic performance in this highly endangered population. PMID:21338353

Benson, John F; Hostetler, Jeffrey A; Onorato, David P; Johnson, Warren E; Roelke, Melody E; O'Brien, Stephen J; Jansen, Deborah; Oli, Madan K

2011-09-01

3

Dynamics of cell proliferation in the adult dentate gyrus of two inbred strains of mice  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The output potential of proliferating populations in either the developing or the adult nervous system is critically dependent on the length of the cell cycle (T(c)) and the size of the proliferating population. We developed a new approach for analyzing the cell cycle, the 'Saturate and Survive Method' (SSM), that also reveals the dynamic behaviors in the proliferative population and estimates of the size of the proliferating population. We used this method to analyze the proliferating population of the adult dentate gyrus in 60 day old mice of two inbred strains, C57BL/6J and BALB/cByJ. The results show that the number of cells labeled by exposure to BUdR changes dramatically with time as a function of the number of proliferating cells in the population, the length of the S-phase, cell division, the length of the cell cycle, dilution of the S-phase label, and cell death. The major difference between C57BL/6J and BALB/cByJ mice is the size of the proliferating population, which differs by a factor of two; the lengths of the cell cycle and the S-phase and the probability that a newly produced cell will die within the first 10 days do not differ in these two strains. This indicates that genetic regulation of the size of the proliferating population is independent of the genetic regulation of cell death among those newly produced cells. The dynamic changes in the number of labeled cells as revealed by the SSM protocol also indicate that neither single nor repeated daily injections of BUdR accurately measure 'proliferation.'.

Hayes, N. L.; Nowakowski, R. S.

2002-01-01

4

Intentional genetic introgression influences survival of adults and subadults in a small, inbred felid population  

E-print Network

populations. 2. By the 1980s, Florida panthers (Puma concolor coryi) had been reduced to a small, inbred popu- lation that appeared to be on the brink of extinction. In 1995, female pumas from Texas (P. c. stanleyana

Oli, Madan K.

5

Communal Nesting Increases Pup Growth But Has Limited Effects on Adult Behavior and Neurophysiology in Inbred Mice  

PubMed Central

Laboratory mice preferentially rear their offspring in communal nests (CN), with all mothers contributing to maternal care and feeding of all the pups. Previous studies using primarily outbred mice have shown that offspring reared under CN conditions may display increased preweaning growth rates and differences in adult behavior and neurobiology compared with mice reared under single-nesting (SN; one dam with her litter) conditions. Here we compared pup mortality; weaning and adult body weights; adult behavior; and gene expression in the hippocampus and frontal cortex between C57BL/6J, DBA/2J and 129x1/SvJ mice reared by using CN (3 dams and their litters sharing a single nest) or SN. Male and female pups of all 3 strains reared in CN cages showed higher body weight at weaning than did SN pups of the same strain, with no significant difference in pup mortality between groups. Adult male offspring reared in CN showed no differences in any behavioral test when compared with SN offspring. Combining CN dams and litters after parturition revealed greater cortical brain-derived neurotropic factor expression in adult male C57BL/6J offspring and cortical glucocorticoid receptor expression in adult male C57BL/6J and 129x1/SvJ offspring as compared with SN offspring of the same strain. Communal rearing can enhance juvenile growth rates but does not change adult behavior in inbred mouse strains, although potential effects on adult neurophysiology are possible. PMID:24602541

Heiderstadt, Kathleen M; Vandenbergh, David J; Gyekis, Joseph P; Blizard, David A

2014-01-01

6

RI-INBRE: http://www.uri.edu/inbre College of Pharmacy: http://www.uri.edu/pharmacy Video Conferencing Tutorial  

E-print Network

RI-INBRE: http://www.uri.edu/inbre College of Pharmacy: http://www.uri.edu/pharmacy Video;RI-INBRE: http://www.uri.edu/inbre College of Pharmacy: http://www.uri.edu/pharmacy Moving the Cart the center of the cart. #12;RI-INBRE: http://www.uri.edu/inbre College of Pharmacy: http

Rhode Island, University of

7

Infection of inbred and nude (athymic) rats with Brugia spp.  

PubMed

Infective larvae of Brugia pahangi were injected subcutaneously into inbred PVG (-RTIc) rats, and 'nude' (PVG-rnu/rnu) (athymic) rats. Adult worms or circulating microfilariae were recovered from 20/34 (59%) of PVG-RTIc rats and from 30/30 (100%) of 'nude' rats. Fertile worms were regularly found in the lumbar lymphatics and hearts of both strains of rat. Blood eosinophilia first developed in PVG-RTIc rats about 17 days, and in all such animals by 6 weeks. High circulating eosinophil counts persisted only in patent animals, proving a useful hallmark for the presence of microfilariae. Nude rats despite patency, developed eosinophilia only latterly and then to a lesser extent. Specific anti-B. pahangi IgG antibody was first detected at 7 days in all infected PVG-RTIc rats, with levels rising until 8 weeks and remaining high only in microfilaraemic animals; total IgE showed a similar response. Specific IgE rose in all the eight patent rats inconsistently and only to low levels in eight non-patent infected rats. IgG and IgE were undetectable in nude rats. Other strains of inbred rats of different RTI haplotype were also successfully infected with B. pahangi and the human parasite B. malayi, a total of 10/23 (43%) and 5/15 (33%) becoming patent respectively. In the small numbers tested no major influence of RTI haplotype was detected. Infection by the intraperitoneal route did not result in the development of microfilariae. The difference in patency rates between 'nude' and normal PVG rats supports the contention that the development of filarial infections is T lymphocyte dependent. Inbred and 'nude' rats provide a valuable model of human filariasis, in which many features of filarial immunopathology can be studied. PMID:6606795

Cruickshank, J K; Price, K M; Mackenzie, C D; Spry, C J; Denham, D A

1983-11-01

8

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Inbred decorated crickets exhibit higher measures  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Inbred decorated crickets exhibit higher measures of macroparasitic immunity than consequences of inbreeding in decorated crickets, Gryllodes sigillatus, by comparing lytic activity, phenoloxidase (PO) activity, and encapsulation ability of crickets from eight inbred lines with that of crickets

Sakaluk, Scott

9

Identification of inbred strains of mice, Mus musculus . I. Genetic control of inbred strains of mice using starch gel electrophoresis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifteen biochemical markers were tested in 30 inbred strains of mice to control the genetic constitution of each strain. Discrepancies in pattern from “Standardized Nomenclature for Inbred Strains of Mice” are reported and discussed.

H.-H. Krog

1976-01-01

10

Registration of maize inbred line GT603  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

GT603 (Reg. No. xxxx, PI xxxxxx) is a yellow dent maize (Zea mays L.) inbred line developed and released by the USDA-ARS Crop Protection and Management Research Unit in cooperation with the University of Georgia Coastal Plain Experiment Station in 2010. GT603 was developed through seven generations ...

11

Regulation in the number of mdg-1 mobile elements in inbred Drosophila melanogaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

The copy number of the mdg-1 mobile element was determined by biotinylated-DNA hybridization, in salivary gland chromosomes of inbred Drosophila melanogaster larvae from sib progenies. It appears that the lower the egg-to-adult survival (viability), the higher the mdg-1 copy number in the surviving larvae. This suggests a common regulation of the mdg-1 copy number and the viability under inbreeding.

C. Biémont; C. Terzian

1986-01-01

12

Comprehensive genotyping of the USA national maize inbred seed bank  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The germplasm bank at the USDA-ARS North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station (NCRPIS) in Ames, Iowa, preserves maize inbred lines from breeding programs from all over the world, including some of the key lines from the breeding history of maize. We genotyped 2,815 maize inbred accessions, mo...

13

The use of recombinant inbreds in gene mapping in maize  

SciTech Connect

In this review we would like to describe the utility of using recombinant inbred strains for gene mapping in maize. These populations have unique properties which make them efficient tools for gene mapping that can be used by many research groups at the same time. We have also investigated the use of recombinant inbreds for mapping quantitative trait loci. 8 refs.

Burr, B.; Burr, F.A.

1988-01-01

14

Retrospective selection and sources of superior inbreds amongst pedigree inbred families of Nicotiana rustica  

Microsoft Academic Search

A single cycle of selection in the F2, F3, F4 and F7 generations using the overall means of the individual hierarchies as their predicted breeding values, has been applied retrospectively to seven metrical traits scored on 784 F7 inbreds extracted from the cross of varieties 2 and 12 of Nicotiana rustica by the method of pedigree inbreeding. The hierarchical structure

H S Pooni; J L Jinks

1985-01-01

15

Cytoarchitecture and Transcriptional Profiles of Neocortical Malformations in Inbred Mice  

PubMed Central

Malformations of neocortical development are associated with cognitive dysfunction and increased susceptibility to epileptogenesis. Rodent models are widely used to study neocortical malformations and have revealed important genetic and environmental mechanisms that contribute to neocortical development. Interestingly, several inbred mice strains commonly used in behavioral, anatomical, and/or physiological studies display neocortical malformations. In the present report we examine the cytoarchitecture and myeloarchitecture of the neocortex of 11 inbred mouse strains and identified malformations of cortical development, including molecular layer heterotopia, in all but one strain. We used in silico methods to confirm our observations and determined the transcriptional profiles of cells found within heterotopia. These data indicate cellular and transcriptional diversity present in cells in malformations. Furthermore, the presence of dysplasia in nearly every inbred strain examined suggests that malformations of neocortical development are a common feature in the neocortex of inbred mice. PMID:18308707

Ramos, Raddy L.; Smith, Phoebe T.; DeCola, Christopher; Tam, Danny; Corzo, Oscar

2008-01-01

16

Genetic variation in foraging traits among inbred lines of a predatory mite.  

PubMed

Response of predators to herbivore-induced plant volatiles can affect the length of time a predator spends in a prey patch and the probability of a predator finding a new prey patch. Variation in response to herbivore-induced plant volatiles may lead to different foraging decisions among individuals, thereby affecting both within-patch dynamics and between-patch dispersal. We found significant phenotypic and additive genetic variation in two behavioral assays of response to herbivore-induced plant volatiles among inbred isofemale lines of the predatory mite, Phytoseiulus persimilis. In wind-tunnel tests to measure patch residence time, adult female predators from certain lines left prey patches sooner than others when a distant source of herbivore-induced plant volatiles was presented; whereas such variation disappeared when no distant volatiles were presented. In a measure of patch location, certain lines were more likely than others to locate a prey-infested leaf disc; again there was no difference when uninfested leaf discs were used. Patch location was negatively correlated with patch residence. That is, lines that were more likely to leave a prey patch in the presence of distant volatiles were also more likely to find an odor source (ie, prey patch) from a distance of 20 cm. These two foraging-related behaviors are heritable. A continuous distribution of both behaviors indicated that several to many loci may be responsible for these behavioral traits. Our line-crossing experiments suggested that maternal influence could be excluded. Substantial phenotypic variation in two other foraging-related traits, consumption and oviposition, were also detected among inbred lines. Consumption and oviposition were positively correlated; however, the relationship (slope) varied among inbred lines, suggesting that predatory mites vary in food conversion efficiency. A relationship was detected between patch residence and consumption. Patch location, as one important foraging trait, appeared to be negatively related to consumption, suggesting a trade-off between searching for patches and reproduction. PMID:12399996

Jia, F; Margolies, D C; Boyer, J E; Charlton, R E

2002-11-01

17

Inbreeding depression and heterosis : Expected means and variances among inbred lines  

E-print Network

Inbreeding depression and heterosis : Expected means and variances among inbred lines depression are investigated from a theoretical point of view in an experiment involving several inbred lines depression phenomena ! Many experiments led to the definition of the relations hipbetweentheincrease

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

18

Enzyme polymorphism in feral, outbred and inbred rats (Rattus norvegicus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polymorphism at 25 loci coding for liver enzymes was studied in two feral, three outbred and three inbred rat strains by starch gel electrophoresis. No variation was found at 14 loci, and a low degree of polymorphism was detected at three. Eight loci were polymorphic in more than one population. The average degree of heterozygosity per locus per individual feral

K Eriksson; O Halkka; J Lokki; A Saura

1976-01-01

19

Sites of ozone sensitivity in diverse maize inbred lines  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tropospheric ozone (O3) is an air pollutant that costs ~$14-26 billion in global crop losses and is projected to worsen in the future. Potential sites of O3 sensitivity in maize were tested by growing 200 inbred lines, including the nested association mapping population founder lines, under ambient...

20

REPRODUCTION OF PARATRICHODORUS MINOR ON CORN HYBRIDS AND INBREDS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In the southeastern United States, stubby-root nematode (Paratrichodorus minor) causes more damage to corn (Zea mays) than any other plant-parasitic nematode. Currently, there is no known source of resistance in corn to this nematode. Our objective was to evaluate corn hybrids and inbreds for resi...

21

Biochemical polymorphisms in feral and inbred mice ( Mus musculus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examination of the frequencies of several loci controlling isozymes in three geographically distinct feral populations of mice showed the average animal to be heterozygous at 10.3% of his loci. There was no evidence for interaction between loci, nor any evidence for inbreeding in the populations. Thirty-nine inbred strains, including four newly derived ones, were also characterized for their alleles for

Thomas H. Roderick; Frank H. Ruddle; Verne M. Chapman; Thomas B. Shows

1971-01-01

22

Mouse inbred strain differences in ethanol drinking to intoxication  

E-print Network

to a blood ethanol concentration (BEC) above 1 mg/ml. The test consists of replacing the water with 20- posed strain, C57BL/6J, drink to a blood ethanol concentra- tion (BEC) above 1 mg/ml blood (Rhodes et alMouse inbred strain differences in ethanol drinking to intoxication J. S. Rhodes*, , M. M. Ford , C

Garland Jr., Theodore

23

Recombinant inbred lines for genetic mapping in tomato  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cross between the cultivated tomato Lycopersicon esculentum and a related wild species L. cheesmanii yielded 97 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) which were used to construct a genetic map consisting of 132 molecular markers. Significant deviation from the expected 1:1 ratio between the two homozygous classes was found in 73% of the markers. In 98% of the deviating markers, L.

I. Paran; I. Goldman; S. D. Tanksley; D. Zamir

1995-01-01

24

Resistance to Striga hermonthica in a maize inbred line derived from Zea diploperennis.  

PubMed

Breeding for resistance to Striga in maize (Zea mays), with paucity of donor source and known mechanisms of resistance, has been challenging. Here, post-attachment development of S. hermonthica was monitored on two maize inbreds selected for field resistance and susceptibility reactions to Striga at the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture. Haustorial invasion of the parasite into roots of these inbreds was examined histologically. Morphological differences were observed between roots of the susceptible and the resistant inbreds. The resistant maize had fewer Striga attachments, delayed parasitic development and higher mortality of attached parasites compared with the susceptible inbred. Striga on the susceptible inbred usually penetrated the xylem and showed substantial internal haustorial development. Haustorial ingress on the resistant inbred was often stopped at the endodermis. Parasites able to reach resistant host xylem vessels showed diminished haustorial development relative to those invading susceptible roots. These results suggest that the resistant inbred expresses a developmental barrier and incompatible response against Striga parasitism. PMID:18208472

Amusan, Idris O; Rich, Patrick J; Menkir, Abebe; Housley, Thomas; Ejeta, Gebisa

2008-01-01

25

Successful Agrobacterium -Mediated Genetic Transformation of Maize Elite Inbred lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

An efficient transformation system was developed for maize (Zea mays L.) elite inbred lines using Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer by identifying important factors that affected transformation efficiency. The hypervirulent Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 proved to be better than octopine LBA4404 and nopaline GV3101. Improved transformation efficiencies were obtained when immature embryos were inocubated with Agrobacterium suspension cells (A600 = 0.8) for 20 min in

Xueqing Huang; Zhiming Wei

2005-01-01

26

Voluntary consumption of ethanol in 15 inbred mouse strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine genetic differences in ethanol consumption, 15 commonly used inbred strains of mice were given ad libitum two-bottle choice between ethanol, 0.2% saccharin, or ethanol plus saccharin in one bottle versus tap water in the other bottle. Three different concentrations of ethanol were used: 3%, 6% and 10% (v\\/v). Of the 15 strains, the C57BL\\/6J, C57BR\\/cdJ and C57L\\/J strains

J. K. Belknap; J. C. Crabbe; E. R. Young

1993-01-01

27

Condition, innate immunity and disease mortality of inbred crows.  

PubMed

Cooperatively breeding American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) suffer a severe disease-mediated survival cost from inbreeding, but the proximate mechanisms linking inbreeding to disease are unknown. Here, we examine indices of nestling body condition and innate immunocompetence in relationship to inbreeding and disease mortality. Using an estimate of microsatellite heterozygosity that predicts inbreeding in this population, we show that inbred crows were in relatively poor condition as nestlings, and that body condition index measured in the first 2-33 days after hatching, in addition to inbreeding index, predicted disease probability in the first 34 months of life. Inbred nestlings also mounted a weaker response along one axis of innate immunity: the proportion of bacteria killed in a microbiocidal assay increased as heterozygosity index increased. Relatively poor body condition and low innate immunocompetence are two mechanisms that might predispose inbred crows to ultimate disease mortality. A better understanding of condition-mediated inbreeding depression can guide efforts to minimize disease costs of inbreeding in small populations. PMID:20444716

Townsend, Andrea K; Clark, Anne B; McGowan, Kevin J; Miller, Andrew D; Buckles, Elizabeth L

2010-09-22

28

Condition, innate immunity and disease mortality of inbred crows  

PubMed Central

Cooperatively breeding American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) suffer a severe disease-mediated survival cost from inbreeding, but the proximate mechanisms linking inbreeding to disease are unknown. Here, we examine indices of nestling body condition and innate immunocompetence in relationship to inbreeding and disease mortality. Using an estimate of microsatellite heterozygosity that predicts inbreeding in this population, we show that inbred crows were in relatively poor condition as nestlings, and that body condition index measured in the first 2–33 days after hatching, in addition to inbreeding index, predicted disease probability in the first 34 months of life. Inbred nestlings also mounted a weaker response along one axis of innate immunity: the proportion of bacteria killed in a microbiocidal assay increased as heterozygosity index increased. Relatively poor body condition and low innate immunocompetence are two mechanisms that might predispose inbred crows to ultimate disease mortality. A better understanding of condition-mediated inbreeding depression can guide efforts to minimize disease costs of inbreeding in small populations. PMID:20444716

Townsend, Andrea K.; Clark, Anne B.; McGowan, Kevin J.; Miller, Andrew D.; Buckles, Elizabeth L.

2010-01-01

29

Physiological and biochemical bases of fall armyworm resistance in the seedlings of maize inbred lines  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Four CIMMYT maize inbred lines (i.e., CML333, CML335, CML 336, and CML338), and a susceptible (i.e., AB24E) and resistant (i.e., Mp780) control were examined for the mechanisms of fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda (JE Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) resistance. The six inbred lines were ev...

30

Multiple trait measurements in 43 inbred mouse strains capture the phenotypic diversity characteristic of human populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The breadth of genetic and phenotypic variation among inbred strains is often underappreciated because assessments include only a limited number of strains. Evaluation of a larger collection of inbred strains provides not only a greater understanding of this variation but collectively mimics much of the variation observed in human populations. We used a high-throughput phenotyping protocol to measure females and

K. L. Svenson; Smith R Von; P. A. Magnani; H. R. Suetin; B. Paigen; J. K. Naggert; R. Li; G. A. Churchill; L. L. Peters

2007-01-01

31

Registration of the TM-1/NM24016 Cotton Recombinant Inbred Mapping Population  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The TM-1/NM24016 cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) mapping population consists of 95 F5:9 recombinant inbred lines. This cotton mapping population was constructed from a cross between inbred lines TM-1, the genetic standard for G. hirsutum, and NM24016, an advanced selection with stable expression of i...

32

Nonhistone chromosomal protein patterns in leucocytes of inbred chicken and their crosses  

E-print Network

Nonhistone chromosomal protein patterns in leucocytes of inbred chicken and their crosses Sylvia proteins (NHCP) soluble in 0.3 M NaCI of pure inbred chicken lines and their crosses have been analyzed of the analysis of NHCP patterns in animal production are discussed. Key words :Nonhistones, chicken, leucocytes

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

33

Mixed Effects Models for Quantitative Trait Loci Mapping With Inbred Strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fixed effects models have dominated the statistical analysis of genetic crosses between inbred strains. In spite of their popularity, the traditional models ignore polygenic background and must be tailored to each specific cross. We reexamine the role of random effect models in gene mapping with inbred strains. The biggest difficulty in implementing random effect models is the lack of a

Lara E. Bauman; Janet S. Sinsheimer; Eric M. Sobel; Kenneth Lange

2008-01-01

34

Registration of the Ki14 × B73 recombinant inbred mapping population of maize  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center released Ki14 × B73 (KB) maize (Zea mays L.) mapping population, a set of 119 recombinant inbred lines (RILs), in March 2007. The mapping population was derived from a biparental cross between inbreds Ki14 (NCRPIS accession Ames 27259) and B73 (...

35

Genetic Epilepsy Model Derived from Common Inbred Mouse Strains  

PubMed Central

The recombinant inbred mouse strain, SWXL-4, exhibits tonic-clonic and generalized seizures similar to the commonest epilepsies in humans. In SWXL-4 animals, seizures are observed following routine handling at about 80 days of age and may be induced as early as 55 days by rhythmic gentle tossing. Seizures are accompanied by rapid, bilateral high frequency spike cortical discharges and followed by a quiescent post-ictal phase. Immunohistochemistry of the immediate early gene products c-Fos and c-Jun revealed abnormal activation within cortical and limbic structures. The seizure phenotype of SWXL-4 can be explained and replicated fully by the inheritance of susceptibility alleles from its progenitor strains, SWR/J and C57L/J. Outcrosses of SWXL-4 with most other common inbred strains result in F(1) hybrids that have seizures at least as frequently as SWXL-4 itself. Quantitative trait locus mapping reveals a seizure frequency determinant, Szf1, near the pink-eyed dilution locus on chromosome 7, accounting for up to 32% of the genetic variance in an F(2) intercross between SWXL-4 and the linkage testing strain ABP/Le. These studies demonstrate that common strains of mice such as SWR and C57L contain latent epilepsy susceptibility alleles. Although the inheritance of susceptibility may be complex, these results imply that a number of potentially important and practical, noninvasive models for this disorder can be constructred and studied in crosses between common mouse strains. PMID:7828829

Frankel, W. N.; Taylor, B. A.; Noebels, J. L.; Lutz, C. M.

1994-01-01

36

Mapping Stripe Rust Resistance in a BrundageXCoda Winter Wheat Recombinant Inbred Line Population  

PubMed Central

A recombinant inbred line (RIL) mapping population developed from a cross between winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars Coda and Brundage was evaluated for reaction to stripe rust (caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici). Two hundred and sixty eight RIL from the population were evaluated in replicated field trials in a total of nine site-year locations in the U.S. Pacific Northwest. Seedling reaction to stripe rust races PST-100, PST-114 and PST-127 was also examined. A linkage map consisting of 2,391 polymorphic DNA markers was developed covering all chromosomes of wheat with the exception of 1D. Two QTL on chromosome 1B were associated with adult plant and seedling reaction and were the most significant QTL detected. Together these QTL reduced adult plant infection type from a score of seven to a score of two reduced disease severity by an average of 25% and provided protection against race PST-100, PST-114 and PST-127 in the seedling stage. The location of these QTL and the race specificity provided by them suggest that observed effects at this locus are due to a complementation of the previously known but defeated resistances of the cultivar Tres combining with that of Madsen (the two parent cultivars of Coda). Two additional QTL on chromosome 3B and one on 5B were associated with adult plant reaction only, and a single QTL on chromosome 5D was associated with seedling reaction to PST-114. Coda has been resistant to stripe rust since its release in 2000, indicating that combining multiple resistance genes for stripe rust provides durable resistance, especially when all-stage resistance genes are combined in a fashion to maximize the number of races they protect against. Identified molecular markers will allow for an efficient transfer of these genes into other cultivars, thereby continuing to provide excellent resistance to stripe rust. PMID:24642574

Case, Austin J.; Naruoka, Yukiko; Chen, Xianming; Garland-Campbell, Kimberly A.; Zemetra, Robert S.; Carter, Arron H.

2014-01-01

37

Sensitivity of inbred Fayoumi chicks to seasonal variations F. H. ABDOU, M. SOLTAN, M. ABD ELLATIF H. AYOUB  

E-print Network

Sensitivity of inbred Fayoumi chicks to seasonal variations F. H. ABDOU, M. SOLTAN, M. ABD ELLATIF of Fayoumi chicks to seasonal variations. The results indicate that the inbred lines were more sensitive that sensitivity of inbred lines decreased as chicks advanced in age. Therefore, these findings are important

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

38

Coreceptor affinity for MHC defines peptide specificity requirements for TCR interaction with coagonist peptide–MHC  

PubMed Central

Recent work has demonstrated that nonstimulatory endogenous peptides can enhance T cell recognition of antigen, but MHCI- and MHCII-restricted systems have generated very different results. MHCII-restricted TCRs need to interact with the nonstimulatory peptide–MHC (pMHC), showing peptide specificity for activation enhancers or coagonists. In contrast, the MHCI-restricted cells studied to date show no such peptide specificity for coagonists, suggesting that CD8 binding to noncognate MHCI is more important. Here we show how this dichotomy can be resolved by varying CD8 and TCR binding to agonist and coagonists coupled with computer simulations, and we identify two distinct mechanisms by which CD8 influences the peptide specificity of coagonism. Mechanism 1 identifies the requirement of CD8 binding to noncognate ligand and suggests a direct relationship between the magnitude of coagonism and CD8 affinity for coagonist pMHCI. Mechanism 2 describes how the affinity of CD8 for agonist pMHCI changes the requirement for specific coagonist peptides. MHCs that bind CD8 strongly were tolerant of all or most peptides as coagonists, but weaker CD8-binding MHCs required stronger TCR binding to coagonist, limiting the potential coagonist peptides. These findings in MHCI systems also explain peptide-specific coagonism in MHCII-restricted cells, as CD4–MHCII interaction is generally weaker than CD8–MHCI. PMID:23940257

Hoerter, John A.H.; Brzostek, Joanna; Artyomov, Maxim N.; Abel, Steven M.; Casas, Javier; Rybakin, Vasily; Ampudia, Jeanette; Lotz, Carina; Connolly, Janet M.; Chakraborty, Arup K.; Gould, Keith G.

2013-01-01

39

Coreceptor affinity for MHC defines peptide specificity requirements for TCR interaction with coagonist peptide-MHC  

E-print Network

Recent work has demonstrated that nonstimulatory endogenous peptides can enhance T cell recognition of antigen, but MHCI- and MHCII-restricted systems have generated very different results. MHCII-restricted TCRs need to ...

Hoerter, John A. H.

40

Recombinant inbred lines for genetic mapping in tomato.  

PubMed

A cross between the cultivated tomato Lycopersicon esculentum and a related wild species L. cheesmanii yielded 97 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) which were used to construct a genetic map consisting of 132 molecular markers. Significant deviation from the expected 1:1 ratio between the two homozygous classes was found in 73% of the markers. In 98% of the deviating markers, L. esculentum alleles were present in greater frequency than the L. cheesmanii alleles. For most of the markers with skewed segregation, the direction of the deviation was maintained from F2 to F7 generations. The average heterozygosity in the population was 15%. This value is significantly greater than the 1.5% heterozygosity expected for RILs in the F7 generation. On average, recombination between linked markers was twice as high in the RILs than in the F2 population used to derive them. The utility of RILs for the mapping of qualitative and quantitative traits is discussed. PMID:24173949

Paran, I; Goldman, I; Tanksley, S D; Zamir, D

1995-03-01

41

Distribution of Parental Genome Blocks in Recombinant Inbred Lines  

PubMed Central

We consider recombinant inbred lines obtained by crossing two given homozygous parents and then applying multiple generations of self-crossings or full-sib matings. The chromosomal content of any such line forms a mosaic of blocks, each alternatively inherited identically by descent from one of the parents. Quantifying the statistical properties of such mosaic genomes has remained an open challenge for many years. Here, we solve this problem by taking a continuous chromosome picture and assuming crossovers to be noninterfering. Using a continuous-time random walk framework and Markov chain theory, we determine the statistical properties of these identical-by-descent blocks. We find that successive block lengths are only very slightly correlated. Furthermore, the blocks on the ends of chromosomes are larger on average than the others, a feature understandable from the nonexponential distribution of block lengths. PMID:21840856

Martin, Olivier C.; Hospital, Frédéric

2011-01-01

42

Comprehensive genotyping of the USA national maize inbred seed bank  

PubMed Central

Background Genotyping by sequencing, a new low-cost, high-throughput sequencing technology was used to genotype 2,815 maize inbred accessions, preserved mostly at the National Plant Germplasm System in the USA. The collection includes inbred lines from breeding programs all over the world. Results The method produced 681,257 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers distributed across the entire genome, with the ability to detect rare alleles at high confidence levels. More than half of the SNPs in the collection are rare. Although most rare alleles have been incorporated into public temperate breeding programs, only a modest amount of the available diversity is present in the commercial germplasm. Analysis of genetic distances shows population stratification, including a small number of large clusters centered on key lines. Nevertheless, an average fixation index of 0.06 indicates moderate differentiation between the three major maize subpopulations. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) decays very rapidly, but the extent of LD is highly dependent on the particular group of germplasm and region of the genome. The utility of these data for performing genome-wide association studies was tested with two simply inherited traits and one complex trait. We identified trait associations at SNPs very close to known candidate genes for kernel color, sweet corn, and flowering time; however, results suggest that more SNPs are needed to better explore the genetic architecture of complex traits. Conclusions The genotypic information described here allows this publicly available panel to be exploited by researchers facing the challenges of sustainable agriculture through better knowledge of the nature of genetic diversity. PMID:23759205

2013-01-01

43

Cadmium distribution in maize inbred lines: Effects of pH and level of Cd supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to investigate the physiological basis of the differential Cd distribution and the degree of variation of this Cd\\u000a distribution among maize inbred lines, six inbreds designated earlier as ‘shoot Cd excluders’ (B73, H99, and H96) and ‘non-shoot\\u000a Cd excluders’ (B37, H98, and N28) were grown in nutrient solution culture at different external Cd levels or at different\\u000a pH.

P. J. Florijn; M. L. Van Beusichem

1993-01-01

44

Whole-Genome Sequence of the C57L/J Mouse Inbred Strain  

PubMed Central

We sequenced the complete genome of the widely used C57L/J mouse inbred strain. With 40× average coverage, we compared the C57L/J sequence with that of the C57BL/6J and identified many known as well as novel private variants. This genome sequence adds another strain to the growing number of mouse inbred strains with complete genome sequences and is a valuable resource to the scientific community. PMID:25053706

Ananda, Guruprasad; Takemon, Yuka; Hinerfeld, Douglas; Korstanje, Ron

2014-01-01

45

Whole-genome sequence of the C57L/J mouse inbred strain.  

PubMed

We sequenced the complete genome of the widely used C57L/J mouse inbred strain. With 40× average coverage, we compared the C57L/J sequence with that of the C57BL/6J and identified many known as well as novel private variants. This genome sequence adds another strain to the growing number of mouse inbred strains with complete genome sequences and is a valuable resource to the scientific community. PMID:25053706

Ananda, Guruprasad; Takemon, Yuka; Hinerfeld, Douglas; Korstanje, Ron

2014-09-01

46

The ancestor of extant Japanese fancy mice contributed to the mosaic genomes of classical inbred strains  

PubMed Central

Commonly used classical inbred mouse strains have mosaic genomes with sequences from different subspecific origins. Their genomes are derived predominantly from the Western European subspecies Mus musculus domesticus, with the remaining sequences derived mostly from the Japanese subspecies Mus musculus molossinus. However, it remains unknown how this intersubspecific genome introgression occurred during the establishment of classical inbred strains. In this study, we resequenced the genomes of two M. m. molossinus–derived inbred strains, MSM/Ms and JF1/Ms. MSM/Ms originated from Japanese wild mice, and the ancestry of JF1/Ms was originally found in Europe and then transferred to Japan. We compared the characteristics of these sequences to those of the C57BL/6J reference sequence and the recent data sets from the resequencing of 17 inbred strains in the Mouse Genome Project (MGP), and the results unequivocally show that genome introgression from M. m. molossinus into M. m. domesticus provided the primary framework for the mosaic genomes of classical inbred strains. Furthermore, the genomes of C57BL/6J and other classical inbred strains have long consecutive segments with extremely high similarity (>99.998%) to the JF1/Ms strain. In the early 20th century, Japanese waltzing mice with a morphological phenotype resembling that of JF1/Ms mice were often crossed with European fancy mice for early studies of “Mendelism,” which suggests that the ancestor of the extant JF1/Ms strain provided the origin of the M. m. molossinus genome in classical inbred strains and largely contributed to its intersubspecific genome diversity. PMID:23604024

Takada, Toyoyuki; Ebata, Toshinobu; Noguchi, Hideki; Keane, Thomas M.; Adams, David J.; Narita, Takanori; Shin-I, Tadasu; Fujisawa, Hironori; Toyoda, Atsushi; Abe, Kuniya; Obata, Yuichi; Sakaki, Yoshiyuki; Moriwaki, Kazuo; Fujiyama, Asao; Kohara, Yuji; Shiroishi, Toshihiko

2013-01-01

47

Copy number variants in a highly inbred Iberian porcine strain.  

PubMed

We carried out a comprehensive genomic analysis of porcine copy number variants (CNVs) based on whole-genome SNP genotyping data and provided new measures of genomic diversity (number, length and distribution of CNV events) for a highly inbred strain (the Guadyerbas strain). This strain represents one of the most ancient surviving populations of the Iberian breed, and it is currently in serious danger of extinction. CNV detection was conducted on the complete Guadyerbas population, adjusted for genomic waves, and used strict quality criteria, pedigree information and the latest porcine genome annotation. The analysis led to the detection of 65 CNV regions (CNVRs). These regions cover 0.33% of the autosomal genome of this particular strain. Twenty-nine of these CNVRs were identified here for the first time. The relatively low number of detected CNVRs is in line with the low variability and high inbreeding estimated previously for this Iberian strain using pedigree, microsatellite or SNP data. A comparison across different porcine studies has revealed that more than half of these regions overlap with previously identified CNVRs or multicopy regions. Also, a preliminary analysis of CNV detection using whole-genome sequence data for four Guadyerbas pigs showed overlapping for 16 of the CNVRs, supporting their reliability. Some of the identified CNVRs contain relevant functional genes (e.g., the SCD and USP15 genes), which are worth being further investigated because of their importance in determining the quality of Iberian pig products. The CNVR data generated could be useful for improving the porcine genome annotation. PMID:24597621

Fernández, A I; Barragán, C; Fernández, A; Rodríguez, M C; Villanueva, B

2014-06-01

48

Resolution of genetic map expansion caused by excess heterozygosity in plant recombinant inbred populations.  

PubMed

Recombinant inbred populations of many plant species exhibit more heterozygosity than expected under the Mendelian model of segregation. This segregation distortion causes the overestimation of recombination frequencies and consequent genetic map expansion. Here we build upon existing genetic models of differential zygotic viability to model a heterozygote fitness term and calculate expected genotypic proportions in recombinant inbred populations propagated by selfing. We implement this model using the existing open-source genetic map construction code base for R/qtl to estimate recombination fractions. Finally, we show that accounting for excess heterozygosity in a sorghum recombinant inbred mapping population shrinks the genetic map by 213 cM (a 13% decrease corresponding to 4.26 fewer recombinations per meiosis). More accurate estimates of linkage benefit linkage-based analyses used in the identification and utilization of causal genetic variation. PMID:25128435

Truong, Sandra K; McCormick, Ryan F; Morishige, Daryl T; Mullet, John E

2014-10-01

49

Use of simple sequence length polymorphisms for genetic characterization of rat inbred strains.  

PubMed

Genetic monitoring is an essential component of colony management and for the rat has been accomplished primarily by using immunological and biochemical markers. Here, we report that simple sequence length polymorphisms (SSLPs) are a faster and more economical way of monitoring inbred strains of rats. We characterized 61 inbred strains of rats, using primer pairs for 37 SSLPs. Each of these loci appeared to be highly polymorphic, with the number of alleles per locus ranging between 3 and 14 and, as a result, all the 61 inbred strains tested in this study could be provided with a unique strain profile. These strain profiles are also used for estimating the degree of similarity between strains. This information may provide the rationale in selecting strains for genetic crosses or for other specific purposes. PMID:8535065

Otsen, M; Den Bieman, M; Winer, E S; Jacob, H J; Szpirer, J; Szpirer, C; Bender, K; Van Zutphen, L F

1995-09-01

50

Resolution of Genetic Map Expansion Caused by Excess Heterozygosity in Plant Recombinant Inbred Populations  

PubMed Central

Recombinant inbred populations of many plant species exhibit more heterozygosity than expected under the Mendelian model of segregation. This segregation distortion causes the overestimation of recombination frequencies and consequent genetic map expansion. Here we build upon existing genetic models of differential zygotic viability to model a heterozygote fitness term and calculate expected genotypic proportions in recombinant inbred populations propagated by selfing. We implement this model using the existing open-source genetic map construction code base for R/qtl to estimate recombination fractions. Finally, we show that accounting for excess heterozygosity in a sorghum recombinant inbred mapping population shrinks the genetic map by 213 cM (a 13% decrease corresponding to 4.26 fewer recombinations per meiosis). More accurate estimates of linkage benefit linkage-based analyses used in the identification and utilization of causal genetic variation. PMID:25128435

Truong, Sandra K.; McCormick, Ryan F.; Morishige, Daryl T.; Mullet, John E.

2014-01-01

51

Effects of inbreeding and genetic modification on Aedes aegypti larval competition and adult energy reserves  

PubMed Central

Background Genetic modification of mosquitoes offers a promising strategy for the prevention and control of mosquito-borne diseases. For such a strategy to be effective, it is critically important that engineered strains are competitive enough to serve their intended function in population replacement or reduction of wild mosquitoes in nature. Thus far, fitness evaluations of genetically modified strains have not addressed the effects of competition among the aquatic stages and its consequences for adult fitness. We therefore tested the competitive success of combinations of wild, inbred and transgenic (created in the inbred background) immature stages of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti in the presence of optimal and sub-optimal larval diets. Results The wild strain of Ae. aegypti demonstrated greater performance (based on a composite index of survival, development rate and size) than the inbred strain, which in turn demonstrated greater performance than the genetically modified strain. Moreover, increasing competition through lowering the amount of diet available per larva affected fitness disproportionately: transgenic larvae had a reduced index of performance (95-119%) compared to inbred (50-88%) and wild type larvae (38-54%). In terms of teneral energy reserves (glycogen, lipid and sugar), adult wild type mosquitoes had more reserves directly available for flight, dispersal and basic metabolic functions than transgenic and inbred mosquitoes. Conclusions Our study provides a detailed assessment of inter- and intra-strain competition across aquatic stages of wild type, inbred, and transgenic mosquitoes and the impact of these conditions on adult energy reserves. Although it is not clear what competitive level is adequate for success of transgenic strains in nature, strong gene drive mechanisms are likely to be necessary in order to overcome competitive disadvantages in the larval stage that carryover to affect adult fitness. PMID:20925917

2010-01-01

52

Analysis of the mouse Amy locus in recombinant inbred mouse strains.  

PubMed

Pancreatic and salivary amylase cDNA probes have been used to search for new DNA fragment length variation among a total of 43 inbred mouse strains. Fragment length differences found with three restriction endonucleases grouped the strains into two major classes. The segregation of these variant fragments has been analyzed among several sets of recombinant inbred strains and is presented here. Previously reported differences for strains YBR and CE have been confirmed. New segregation data for carbonic anhydrase, a locus near the proximal end of mouse chromosome 3, are presented. PMID:2451911

Paul, P R; Elliott, R W

1987-08-01

53

Differentiation of Embryonic Stem Cell Lines Generated from Adult Somatic Cells by Nuclear Transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Embryonic stem (ES) cells are fully pluripotent in that they can differentiate into all cell types, including gametes. We have derived 35 ES cell lines via nuclear transfer (ntES cell lines) from adult mouse somatic cells of inbred, hybrid, and mutant strains. ntES cells contributed to an extensive variety of cell types, including dopaminergic and serotonergic neurons in vitro and

Teruhiko Wakayama; Viviane Tabar; Ivan Rodriguez; Anthony C. F. Perry; Lorenz Studer; Peter Mombaerts

2001-01-01

54

Selective Advance for Accelerated Development of Recombinant Inbred QTL Mapping Populations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Recombinant inbred lines, conventionally used for QTL mapping in biparental populations of self-pollinating plant species, afford limited mapping resolution. Intercrossing during line development is sometimes used to counter this disadvantage, but is tedious. It is desirable to improve mapping resol...

55

Resistance to Beet Armyworm in a Chickpea Recombinant Inbred Line Population  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cicer reticulatum Ladzinsky, a good source of insect resistance, was used to develop a chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) recombinant inbred line population (CRIL-7) using FLIP 84-92C (kabuli chickpea) and PI 599072, a resistant C. reticulatum accession, as parents. CRIL-7 lines, parents, and checks wer...

56

Evaluation of maize inbred Iines for resistance to sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV)  

E-print Network

Evaluation of maize inbred Iines for resistance to sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) and maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV) L Kuntze E Fuchs M GrĂĽntzig B Schulz U Henning F Hohmann AE Melchinger 1 Institut fĂĽr mosaic virus (SCMV) and maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV). Plants were mechanically inoculated twice

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

57

Subclinical infection with Salmonella in chickens differentially affects behaviour and welfare in three inbred strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Much evidence exists detailing how animals respond to pathogen challenge, yet information explaining how the various behavioural, immunological, and physiological systems in chickens interplay during such challenges remains limited.2. To gain an understanding of this interplay while controlling for genetic variation, the current study collected a variety of behavioural, physiological and immunological measures from three inbred lines (P, O

M. J. Toscano; L. Sait; F. Jřrgensen; C. J. Nicol; C. Powers; A. L. Smith; M. Bailey; T. J. Humphrey

2010-01-01

58

MHC diversity in two Acrocephalus species: the outbred Great reed warbler and the inbred Seychelles warbler  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Great reed warbler (GRW) and the Seychelles warbler (SW) are congeners with markedly different demographic histories. The GRW is a normal outbred bird species while the SW population remains isolated and inbred after undergoing a severe population bottleneck. We examined variation at Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) class I exon 3 using restriction fragment length polymorphism, denaturing gradient gel electro-

DAVID. S. Richardson; Helena Westerdahl

2003-01-01

59

QTL mapping for genetic determinants of lipoprotein cholesterol levels in combined crosses of inbred  

E-print Network

chromosomal regions that were associated with lipo- protein levels in human studies. We detected significant levels in combined crosses of inbred mouse strains. J. Lipid Res. 2006. 47: 1780­1790. Supplementary key . Abcg8 Increased serum LDL cholesterol and decreased HDL cholesterol levels are established risk factors

60

PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY OF DOPAMINE: THE CONTRIBUTION OF COMPARATIVE STUDIES IN INBRED STRAINS OF MICE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparative studies of behavioral responses to centrally acting drugs in inbred strains of mice which show differences in brain neurotransmitter activity represent a major strategy in the investigation of the neurochemical bases underlying behavioral expression. Moreover, these studies represent a preliminary stage in behavioral genetic research since they allow quantitative scales to be established and suggest correlations to be tested

STEFANO PUGLISI-ALLEGRA; SIMONA CABIB

1997-01-01

61

Use of recombinant inbred strains to identify quantitative trait loci in psychopharmacology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unlike simple Mendelian characteristics, individual differences in complex quantitative phenotypes studied in psychopharmacology are generally distributed continuously and are likely to be influenced by many genes. Recombinant inbred (RI) strains are valuable not only for their traditional use of detecting major gene segregation and linkage but also for identifying associations between quantitative traits and quantitative trait loci (QTL) that account

Grazyna Gora-Maslak; Gerald E. McClearn; John C. Crabbe; Tamara J. Phillips; John K. Belknap; Robert Plomin

1991-01-01

62

Evaluation of elite corn inbred lines and hybrids for multiple ear-colonizing insect resistance  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Multiple ear-colonizing insects and diseases are critical impediments for corn production in the southern US states. These pests reduce yield and impose health threats by aflatoxin and fumonisin contaminations in the grain. Insect damage on corn ears was evaluated in 20 elite inbred lines and 20 h...

63

Profiling polyphenols of two diploid strawberry (Fragaria vesca) inbred lines using UHPLC-HRMSn  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Phenolic compounds in the fruits of two diploid strawberries (Fragaria vesca f. semperflorens) inbred lines-Ruegen F7-4 (a red fruited genotype) and YW5AF7 (a yellow fruited genotype) were characterized using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography in tandem with high resolution mass spectromet...

64

Biodiversity and Biogeography of an Important Inbred Pest of Coffee, Coffee Berry Borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)  

E-print Network

GENETICS Biodiversity and Biogeography of an Important Inbred Pest of Coffee, Coffee Berry Borer of coffee, Coffea arabica L., the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari). H. hampei samples (n in the tropics. Unfortunately, a small scolytid, the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari

Romero-Severson, Jeanne

65

Doubled haploid inbred lines USVL048 and USVL131 of heading broccoli  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two inbred lines of heading broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica), designated USVL048 and USVL131, were released by the Agricultural Research Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture in 2012. Both of the released lines are doubled haploids originally derived from another culture. As do...

66

Evaluation of maize inbred lines for resistance to Aspergillus and Fusarium ear rot and mycotoxin accumulation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mycotoxin contamination in corn grain is a worldwide threat to both human food safety and animal feed ingredients. A select group of inbred corn lines was evaluated in field trials for mycotoxin accumulation in grain and ear rot caused by Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium verticillioides. Our goal ...

67

Hybrid vigor in Pacific oysters: an experimental approach using crosses among inbred lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two competing genetic hypotheses for heterosis, dominance and overdominance, have been championed to explain positive correlations between allozyme heterozygosity and fitness-related traits for bivalve molluscs. To begin to test these hypotheses, we made controlled crosses among inbred lines of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. In such mating experiments, heterosis (hp) can be defined and quantified through ANOVA as QL >

Dennis Hedgecock; Daniel J. McGoldrick; Brian L. Bayne

1995-01-01

68

Genetic relationships between obesity and osteoporosis in LGXSM recombinant inbred mice  

E-print Network

Genetic relationships between obesity and osteoporosis in LGXSM recombinant inbred mice MICHAEL S and osteoporosis affect millions of Americans. While phenotypically, obesity is negatively correlated with fracture obesity and osteoporosis-related traits. First, heritabilities were estimated for (1) bone morphology

Cheverud, James M.

69

Genetic Analysis of Recombinant Inbred Lines For Sorghum Bicolor x Perennial S. Propinquum.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

From an annual S. bicolor x perennial S. propinquum F2 population used in early-generation genetic analysis, we have produced and describe here a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of 161 F5 genotypes that segregates for rhizomatousness and many other traits. The genetic map of the recombinant...

70

Effects of competition between alfalfa (Medi-cago sativa L.) hybrid and inbred plants on their  

E-print Network

Effects of competition between alfalfa (Medi- cago sativa L.) hybrid and inbred plants on their seed and forage yield (1) Fabio VERONESI, Francesco DAMIANI Stefania GRANDO Franco LORENZETTI Plant Breeding Institute of University of Perugia, 1 06100 Perugia, Italy (*) Forage Plant Breeding Centre

Boyer, Edmond

71

Genetic diversity and relationships among 177 public sunflower inbred lines assessed by TRAP markers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

One hundred and seventy-seven public sunflower inbred lines released by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)-Agricultural Research Services (ARS) from the 1970s to 2005, were investigated for genetic diversity using the target region amplification polymorphism (TRAP) marker technique. A total ...

72

Registration of a rice gene mapping population of Lemont X Jasmine 85 recombinant inbred lines  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A mapping population developed from a cross of rice (Oryza sativa L.) tropical japonica cultivar ‘Lemont’ and indica cultivar ‘Jasmine 85’ was developed to facilitate genetic studies for important agronomic traits. The indica- and japonica-based rice recombinant inbred line (RIL) mapping population ...

73

Genome diversity in Brachypodium distachyon: deep sequencing of highly diverse inbred lines  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Natural variation provides a powerful opportunity to study the genetic basis of biological traits. Brachypodium distachyon is a broadly distributed diploid model grass with a small genome and a large collection of diverse inbred lines. As a step towards understanding the genetic basis of the natura...

74

Joint genotyping on the fly: identifying variation among a sequenced panel of inbred lines.  

PubMed

High-throughput sequencing is enabling remarkably deep surveys of genomic variation. It is now possible to completely sequence multiple individuals from a single species, yet the identification of variation among them remains an evolving computational challenge. This challenge is compounded for experimental organisms when strains are studied instead of individuals. In response, we present the Joint Genotyper for Inbred Lines (JGIL) as a method for obtaining genotypes and identifying variation among a large panel of inbred strains or lines. JGIL inputs the sequence reads from each line after their alignment to a common reference. Its probabilistic model includes site-specific parameters common to all lines that describe the frequency of nucleotides segregating in the population from which the inbred panel was derived. The distribution of line genotypes is conditional on these parameters and reflects the experimental design. Site-specific error probabilities, also common to all lines, parameterize the distribution of reads conditional on line genotype and realized coverage. Both sets of parameters are estimated per site from the aggregate read data, and posterior probabilities are calculated to decode the genotype of each line. We present an application of JGIL to 162 inbred Drosophila melanogaster lines from the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel. We explore by simulation the effect of varying coverage, sequencing error, mapping error, and the number of lines. In doing so, we illustrate how JGIL is robust to moderate levels of error. Supported by these analyses, we advocate the importance of modeling the data and the experimental design when possible. PMID:22367192

Stone, Eric A

2012-05-01

75

COMPARISONS OF QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCUS MAPPING PROPERTIES BETWEEN TWO METHODS OF RECOMBINANT INBRED LINE DEVELOPMENT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The theoretical comparisons for QTL mapping properties were conducted between bulk-based recombinant inbred (RI) populations and single seed descent (SSD) RI populations by Monte Carlo simulations based on various population sizes, heritabilities, and QTL effects. The comparisons included estimatio...

76

Registration of USG 3209/Jaypee Wheat Recombinant Inbred Line Mapping Population  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘USG 3209’/‘Jaypee’ (Reg. No. MP-3, NSL 465777 MAP), is a soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) recombinant inbred line (RIL) population developed by Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University and submitted to the USDA–ARS National Small Grains Germplasm Research Facility in Aberdeen...

77

Genetic Variation in Coding Regions Between and Within Commonly Used Inbred Rat Strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most common genetic variation in mammalian populations. Their significance is illustrated by their potential contribution to common disease but also by their potential for use in genetic association and mapping experiments. We have examined the genetic variation between commonly used inbred rat strains by using an efficient SNP discovery and typing assay based on

Bart M. G. Smits; Bert F. M. van Zutphen; Ronald H. A. Plasterk; Edwin Cuppen

2004-01-01

78

Joint Analysis of Near Isogenic and Recombinant Inbred Line Populations Yields Precise Positional Estimates for QTL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Near isogenic lines (NILs) are typically constructed to fine-map quantitative trait loci (QTL). The data generated for the initial QTL mapping are usually ignored for fine-mapping purposes. However, combining already-available data from initial recombinant inbred line (RIL) studies with new data fro...

79

Influence of chronic oestrogen treatment on severity of hydronephrosis in inbred DDD mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary It has been reported that mice treated chronically with oestrogen (oestradiol propionate) increase their bladder urine volume. Since inbred DOD mice, particularly male DOD mice, lack a protective mechanism against vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), chronic oestrogen treatment may increase the pressure in the renal pelvis and lead to severe hydronephrosis. The present studies were carried out to confirm this hypothesis.

H. Mannen; S. Tsuji; N. Goto

1993-01-01

80

Development of the recombinant inbred line population of tropical japonica Lemont crossed with indica Jasmine 85  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of rice is routinely used in studying agronomically important genes, and is particularly useful for analyzing quantitative trait loci (QTL) since phenotypes can be assessed over years. Jasmine 85, a midseason aromatic long-grain indica rice cultivar develo...

81

Genetic Architecture of Maize Kernel Composition in the Nested Association Mapping and Inbred  

E-print Network

Genetic Architecture of Maize Kernel Composition in the Nested Association Mapping and Inbred University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (J.B.H.); Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Cornell that the genetic architecture of kernel composition traits is controlled by 21­26 quantitative trait loci. Numerous

Flint-Garcia, Sherry

82

Initial characterization of a Stoneville 474 X Phytogen 72 recombinant inbred population  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study represents the initial characterization of a F7 recombinant inbred population developed to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with the inheritance of flower shape (open versus cupped petals), abiotic stress tolerance of mature cotton [Gossypium hirsutum (L.)] pollen, and fiber ...

83

Development of a Recombinant Inbred Line (RIL) Population in Soft White Winter Wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations are very useful to develop molecular markers in wheat. One market class that has been under-represented in RIL populations has been soft white winter wheat. A RIL population of 314 individuals was developed using a cross between Brundage and Coda. Brundage is an awnless, common, soft white winter wheat. Coda is an awned, club, soft

Arron Carter; Jenny Hansen; Thomas Koehler; Xianming M. Chen; Robert Zemetra

84

Use of Recombinant Inbred Strains to Assess Vulnerability to Drug Abuse at the Genetic Level  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of Recombinant Inbred mouse Strains (RIS) to derive information about the complexity of the genetic architecture underlying various traits is increasing in popularity. Behaviors measured to index sensitivity to drug effects and vulnerability to drug abuse are considered here. Potential uses of RIS are identification of major gene effects, mapping of traits to particular chromosomal sites, determining genetic

Tamara J. Phillips; John K. Belknap; John C. Crabbe

1991-01-01

85

IMPACT OF EARLY SEED QUALITY SELECTION ON MAIZE INBREDS AND HYBRIDS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Seed composition and genetic background influence seed quality. Plant breeders seldom select or evaluate their inbreds on the basis of seed quality characteristics that could prevent poor germination and field emergence. The standard germination test evaluates seed viability, but it often overesti...

86

TESTCROSS PERFORMANCE OF SEMIEXOTIC INBRED LINES DERIVED FROM LATIN AMERICAN MAIZE ACCESSIONS.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Genetic diversity of commercial maize (Zea mays L.) in the United States is limited. Tropical maize represents the most diverse readily available source of germplasm with which to broaden the genetic base of temperate maize. One hundred sisty-four inbred lines were developed from crosses between t...

87

Homozygosity Mapping: A Way to Map Human Recessive Traits with the DNA of Inbred Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

An efficient strategy for mapping human genes that cause recessive traits has been devised that uses mapped restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) and the DNA of affected children from consanguineous marriages. The method involves detection of the disease locus by virtue of the fact that the adjacent region will preferentially be homozygous by descent in such inbred children. A single

Eric S. Lander; David Botstein

1987-01-01

88

Analysis of wild-species introgressions in tomato inbreds uncovers ancestral origins  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Decades of intensive tomato breeding using wild germplasm has resulted in genomes of domesticated accessions (Solanum lycopersicum) to be intertwined with introgressions from their wild relatives. Here we present the first whole genome sequences of two tomato inbreds Gh13 and BTI87, both carrying a ...

89

Characterization of the Recombinant Inbred Line Population Derived from the Cross of Nipponbare/9311  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

As a part of the project entitled “Understanding the rice epigenome: From genes to genomes” funded by the National Science Foundation, a mapping population of 480 F6-8 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross of Nipponbare with 9311 (Nip/9311) was developed. Phenotyping important agronom...

90

Comparative Performance of Hybrid and Elite Inbred Rice Varieties with respect to Their Source-Sink Relationship.  

PubMed

Hybrid rice varieties have higher yield potential over inbred varieties. This improvement is not always translated to the grain yield and its physiological causes are still unclear. In order to clarify it, two field experiments were conducted including two popular indica hybrids (BRRI hybrid dhan2 and Heera2) and one elite inbred (BRRI dhan45) rice varieties. Leaf area index, chlorophyll status, and photosynthetic rate of flag leaf, postheading crop growth rate, shoot reserve translocation, source-sink relation and yield, and its attributes of each variety were comprehensively analyzed. Both hybrid varieties outyielded the inbred. However, the hybrids and inbred varieties exhibited statistically identical yield in late planting. Both hybrids accumulated higher amount of biomass before heading and exhibited greater remobilization of assimilates to the grain in early plantings compared to the inbred variety. Filled grain (%) declined significantly at delayed planting in the hybrids compared to elite inbred due to increased temperature impaired-inefficient transport of assimilates. Flag leaf photosynthesis parameters were higher in the hybrid varieties than those of the inbred variety. Results suggest that greater remobilization of shoot reserves to the grain rendered higher yield of hybrid rice varieties. PMID:25705712

Haque, Md Moinul; Pramanik, Habibur Rahman; Biswas, Jiban Krishna; Iftekharuddaula, K M; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza

2015-01-01

91

Comparative Performance of Hybrid and Elite Inbred Rice Varieties with respect to Their Source-Sink Relationship  

PubMed Central

Hybrid rice varieties have higher yield potential over inbred varieties. This improvement is not always translated to the grain yield and its physiological causes are still unclear. In order to clarify it, two field experiments were conducted including two popular indica hybrids (BRRI hybrid dhan2 and Heera2) and one elite inbred (BRRI dhan45) rice varieties. Leaf area index, chlorophyll status, and photosynthetic rate of flag leaf, postheading crop growth rate, shoot reserve translocation, source-sink relation and yield, and its attributes of each variety were comprehensively analyzed. Both hybrid varieties outyielded the inbred. However, the hybrids and inbred varieties exhibited statistically identical yield in late planting. Both hybrids accumulated higher amount of biomass before heading and exhibited greater remobilization of assimilates to the grain in early plantings compared to the inbred variety. Filled grain (%) declined significantly at delayed planting in the hybrids compared to elite inbred due to increased temperature impaired-inefficient transport of assimilates. Flag leaf photosynthesis parameters were higher in the hybrid varieties than those of the inbred variety. Results suggest that greater remobilization of shoot reserves to the grain rendered higher yield of hybrid rice varieties. PMID:25705712

Haque, Md Moinul; Pramanik, Habibur Rahman; Biswas, Jiban Krishna; Iftekharuddaula, K. M.; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza

2015-01-01

92

Phenotypic integration of skeletal traits during growth buffers genetic variants affecting the slenderness of femora in inbred mouse strains  

PubMed Central

Compensatory interactions among adult skeletal traits are critical for establishing strength but complicate the search for fracture susceptibility genes by allowing many genetic variants to exist in a population without loss of function. A better understanding of how these interactions arise during growth will provide new insight into genotype-phenotype relationships and the biological controls that establish skeletal strength. We tested the hypothesis that genetic variants affecting growth in width relative to growth in length (slenderness) are coordinated with movement of the inner bone surface and matrix mineralization to match stiffness with weight-bearing loads during postnatal growth. Midshaft femoral morphology and tissue-mineral density were quantified at ages of 1 day and at 4, 8, and 16 weeks for a panel of 20 female AXB/BXA recombinant inbred mouse strains. Path Analyses revealed significant compensatory interactions among outer-surface expansion rate, inner-surface expansion rate, and tissue-mineral density during postnatal growth, indicating that genetic variants affecting bone slenderness were buffered mechanically by the precise regulation of bone surface movements and matrix mineralization. Importantly, the covariation between morphology and mineralization resulted from a heritable constraint limiting the amount of tissue that could be used to construct a functional femur. The functional interactions during growth explained 56-99% of the variability in adult traits and mechanical properties. These functional interactions provide quantitative expectations of how genetic or environmental variants affecting one trait should be compensated by changes in other traits. Variants that impair this process or that cannot be fully compensated are expected to alter skeletal growth leading to underdesigned (weak) or overdesigned (bulky) structures. PMID:19082857

Jepsen, Karl J.; Hu, Bin; Tommasini, Steven M.; Courtland, Hayden-William; Price, Christopher; Cordova, Matthew; Nadeau, Joseph H.

2009-01-01

93

Phenotypic integration of skeletal traits during growth buffers genetic variants affecting the slenderness of femora in inbred mouse strains.  

PubMed

Compensatory interactions among adult skeletal traits are critical for establishing strength but complicate the search for fracture susceptibility genes by allowing many genetic variants to exist in a population without loss of function. A better understanding of how these interactions arise during growth will provide new insight into genotype-phenotype relationships and the biological controls that establish skeletal strength. We tested the hypothesis that genetic variants affecting growth in width relative to growth in length (slenderness) are coordinated with movement of the inner bone surface and matrix mineralization to match stiffness with weight-bearing loads during postnatal growth. Midshaft femoral morphology and tissue-mineral density were quantified at ages of 1 day and at 4, 8, and 16 weeks for a panel of 20 female AXB/BXA recombinant inbred mouse strains. Path Analyses revealed significant compensatory interactions among outer-surface expansion rate, inner-surface expansion rate, and tissue-mineral density during postnatal growth, indicating that genetic variants affecting bone slenderness were buffered mechanically by the precise regulation of bone surface movements and matrix mineralization. Importantly, the covariation between morphology and mineralization resulted from a heritable constraint limiting the amount of tissue that could be used to construct a functional femur. The functional interactions during growth explained 56-99% of the variability in adult traits and mechanical properties. These functional interactions provide quantitative expectations of how genetic or environmental variants affecting one trait should be compensated by changes in other traits. Variants that impair this process or that cannot be fully compensated are expected to alter skeletal growth leading to underdesigned (weak) or overdesigned (bulky) structures. PMID:19082857

Jepsen, Karl J; Hu, Bin; Tommasini, Steven M; Courtland, Hayden-William; Price, Christopher; Cordova, Matthew; Nadeau, Joseph H

2009-01-01

94

Association of arylhydroxamic acid N,O-acyltransferase and genetically polymorphic N-acetyltransferase in established inbred rabbit strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Partially purified liver preparations from 17 inbred and partially inbred rabbit strains were assayed for polymorphic N-acetyltransferase (NAT) and arylhydroxamic acid N,O-acyltransferase (AHAT) activities. The AC\\/J, AX\\/J, B\\/J, WH\\/J, X\\/J, Y-l\\/J, III\\/J, IIIC\\/J, III\\/DwJ, IIIEP\\/J and IIIVO\\/J inbred strains were identified as rapid acetylators and had high AHAT activity. The ACEP\\/J, AXBU\\/J, OS\\/J, III\\/cdJ, IIIVO\\/ahJ and IIIVO\\/vptJ strains were identified

W W Weber; D W Hein; I B Glowinski; C M King; R R Fox

1982-01-01

95

Identification of genetically homozygous rapid and slow acetylators of drugs and environmental carcinogens among established inbred rabbit strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liver and gut mucosa N-acetyltransferase (NAT) cytosol (105,000 x g) was prepared from selected lines of New Zealand White rapid and slow acetylator rabbits bred and housed at the University of Michigan, and from inbred and partially inbred rabbits obtained from The Jackson Laboratory. Liver NAT activity was determined with p-aminobenzoic acid, p-aminosalicyclic acid, procainamide, sulfamethazine, isoniazid and 2-aminofluorene as

D. W. Hein; T. N. Smolen; R. R. Fox; W. W. Weber

1982-01-01

96

The genetic rescue of two bottlenecked South Island robin populations using translocations of inbred donors  

PubMed Central

Populations forced through bottlenecks typically lose genetic variation and exhibit inbreeding depression. ‘Genetic rescue’ techniques that introduce individuals from outbred populations can be highly effective in reversing the deleterious effects of inbreeding, but have limited application for the majority of endangered species, which survive only in a few bottlenecked populations. We tested the effectiveness of using highly inbred populations as donors to rescue two isolated and bottlenecked populations of the South Island robin (Petroica australis). Reciprocal translocations significantly increased heterozygosity and allelic diversity. Increased genetic diversity was accompanied by increased juvenile survival and recruitment, sperm quality, and immunocompetence of hybrid individuals (crosses between the two populations) compared with inbred control individuals (crosses within each population). Our results confirm that the implementation of ‘genetic rescue’ using bottlenecked populations as donors provides a way of preserving endangered species and restoring their viability when outbred donor populations no longer exist. PMID:23235701

Heber, S.; Varsani, A.; Kuhn, S.; Girg, A.; Kempenaers, B.; Briskie, J.

2013-01-01

97

Homozygosity mapping: a way to map human recessive traits with the DNA of inbred children  

SciTech Connect

An efficient strategy for mapping human genes that cause recessive traits has been devised that uses mapped restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) and the DNA of affected children from consanguineous marriages. The method involves detection of the disease locus by virtue of the fact that the adjacent region will preferentially be homozygous by descent in such inbred children. A single affected child of a first-cousin marriage is shown to contain the same total information about linkage as a nuclear family with three affected children. Calculations show that it should be practical to map a recessive disease gene by studying DNA from fewer than a dozen unrelated, affected inbred children, given a complete RFLP linkage map. The method should make it possible to map many recessive diseases for which it is impractical or impossible to collect adequate numbers of families with multiple affected offspring.

Lander, E.S.; Botstein, D.

1987-06-19

98

Association of arylhydroxamic acid N,O-acyltransferase and genetically polymorphic N-acetyltransferase in established inbred rabbit strains.  

PubMed

Partially purified liver preparations from 17 inbred and partially inbred rabbit strains were assayed for polymorphic N-acetyltransferase (NAT) and arylhydroxamic acid N,O-acyltransferase (AHAT) activities. The AC/J, AX/J, B/J, WH/J, X/J, Y-l/J, III/J, IIIC/J, III/DwJ, IIIEP/J and IIIVO/J inbred strains were identified as rapid acetylators and had high AHAT activity. The ACEP/J, AXBU/J, OS/J, III/cdJ, IIIVO/ahJ and IIIVO/vptJ strains were identified as slow acetylators and had low AHAT activity. These findings provide added evidence for the hypothesis that polymorphic NAT and AHAT activities are properties of the same enzyme. Additional studies in five of the rapid acetylator strains showed that they had significantly higher levels of liver NAT activity towards other arylamine acetylator predictor drugs and carcinogens than did obligate heterozygous (Rr) rapid acetylators from our rabbit colony. This indicates that the inbred animals are homozygous (RR) rapid acetylators and that there is a gene-dose response difference between the two rapid acetylator genotypes. Availability of established inbred and partially inbred strains shown to possess both acetylator phenotypes enhances the opportunity for using the rabbit as a genetic model for evaluating the role of the isoniazid acetylator polymorphism as a host factor in arylamine-related carcinogenesis. PMID:7152617

Weber, W W; Hein, D W; Glowinski, I B; King, C M; Fox, R R

1982-01-01

99

Behavioral phenotypes of inbred mouse strains: implications and recommendations for molecular studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Choosing the best genetic strains of mice for developing a new knockout or transgenic mouse requires extensive knowledge\\u000a of the endogenous traits of inbred strains. Background genes from the parental strains may interact with the mutated gene,\\u000a in a manner which could severely compromise the interpretation of the mutant phenotype. The present overview summarizes the\\u000a literature on a wide variety

J. N. Crawley; John K. Belknap; Allan Collins; John C. Crabbe; Wayne Frankel; Norman Henderson; Robert J. Hitzemann; Stephen C. Maxson; Lucinda L. Miner; Alcino J. Silva; Jeanne M. Wehner; Anthony Wynshaw-Boris; R. Paylor

1997-01-01

100

In vitro brain acetylcholinesterase response among three inbred strains of mice to monocrotophos  

Microsoft Academic Search

The strain differences in the neurotoxic potential of monocrotophos (HCP) were assessed by determining the inhibition of brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in BALB\\/cAnN, DBA\\/2J and C57BL\\/6J in vitro. MCP being a competitive inhibitor for AChE, alters the Km values widely among these inbred strains. Comparatively least alterations in Km were found in BALB\\/cAnN and maximum in DBA\\/2J. Based on the Ki

J. V. Rao; A. N. Swamy; S. Yamin

1991-01-01

101

PCR-analyzed microsatellites: Data concerning laboratory and wild-derived mouse inbred strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated 67 primers designed by Dr. J. Todd and co-workers to amplify microsatellites sequences in the mouse. We report on additional polymorphisms concerning seven laboratory inbred strains, complementary to those already published. We include the survey of three independently derived strains of Mus spretus: SPE\\/Pas, SEG\\/Pas and SPR\\/Smh. SPE\\/Pas and SEG\\/Pas are very close (3% polymorphism), whereas the

Xavier Montagutelli; Tadao Serikawa; Jean-Louis Guénet

1991-01-01

102

Enzyme markers in inbred rat strains: Genetics of new markers and strain profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-six inbred strains of the laboratory rat (Rattus norvegicus) were examined for electrophoretic variation at an estimated 97 genetic loci. In addition to previously documented markers, variation was observed for the enzymes aconitase, aldehyde dehydrogenase, and alkaline phosphatase. The genetic basis of these markers (Acon-1, Ahd-2, and Akp-1) was confirmed. Linkage analysis between 35 pairwise comparisons revealed that the markers

Mark Adams; Peter R. Baverstock; Christopher H. S. Watts; George A. Gutman

1984-01-01

103

FVB\\/N: An Inbred Mouse Strain Preferable for Transgenic Analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

FVB\\/N mice offer a system suitable for most transgenic experiments and subsequent genetic analyses. The inbred FVB\\/N strain is characterized by vigorous reproductive performance and consistently large litters. Moreover, fertilized FVB\\/N eggs contain large and prominent pronuclei, which facilitate microinjection of DNA. The phenotype of large pronuclei in the zygote is a dominant trait associated with the FVB\\/N oocyte but

Makoto Taketo; Allen C. Schroeder; Larry E. Mobraaten; Kerry B. Gunning; Gerri Hanten; Richard R. Fox; Thomas H. Roderick; Colin L. Stewart; Frank Lilly; Carl T. Hansen; Paul A. Overbeek

1991-01-01

104

Unique Genetic Variation Revealed by a Microsatellite Polymorphism Survey in Ten Wild-Derived Inbred Strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we report on a genome polymorphism survey using 254 microsatellite markers in ten recently wild-derived inbred strains. Allele size analysis showed that the rate of polymorphism of these wild-derived mouse strains when compared with any of the common laboratory strains is on average 79.8%. We found 632 wild-derived alleles that were not present in the common laboratory strains, representing

Susana Campino; Catja Behrschmidt; Sébastien Bagot; Jean-Louis Guénet; Pierre-André Cazenave; Dan Holmberg; Carlos Penha-Gonçalves

2002-01-01

105

Molecular characterization of the recombinant inbred line population derived from a japonica-indica rice cross  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations of rice are useful genetic sources for map-based cloning of agronomically important\\u000a genes. Zhe733 is a high-yielding indica cultivar from China conferring resistance to rice blast (RB), rice water weevil (RWW) and straighthead; whereas Kaybonnet\\u000a low-phytic acid 1-1 (KBNTlpa) is a mutant of a tropical japonica cultivar from the US containing low-phytic acid with average

Guangjie Liu; John L. Bernhardt; Melissa H. Jia; Yeshi A. Wamishe; Yulin Jia

2008-01-01

106

Ablation of T cell immunity differentially influences tumor risk in inbred BD rat strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inbred rat strains BDIX and BDIV are constitutionally susceptible and resistant, respectively, to the development of malignant\\u000a peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) induced by neonatal exposure to N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (EtNU). They represent a model system for analysis of molecular and cellular processes underlying differential\\u000a cancer susceptibility. A point mutation in the Neu\\/ErbB-2 gene is an early marker of Schwann precursor cells

Judith A. M. Marx; Ansgar J. Röhrborn; Bernd U. Koelsch; Christine Fischer; Thomas Herrmann; Torsten Pietsch; Manfred F. Rajewsky; Andrea Kindler-Röhrborn

2009-01-01

107

Whole mitochondrial genome sequence and mutations of the hypertension model inbred rat strain (Muridae; Rattus).  

PubMed

Abstract We reported the complete mitochondrial genome sequencing of a important hypertension model inbred rat strain for the first time. The total length of the mitogenome was 16,310?bp. It harbored 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and 1 non-coding control region. The mutation events contained in this strain were also reported. PMID:25391027

Song, Wei; Gao, Lin-Lin; Zhen, Lin-Lin

2014-11-12

108

Highly Efficient Generation of GGTA1 Biallelic Knockout Inbred Mini-Pigs with TALENs  

PubMed Central

Inbred mini-pigs are ideal organ donors for future human xenotransplantations because of their clear genetic background, high homozygosity, and high inbreeding endurance. In this study, we chose fibroblast cells from a highly inbred pig line called Banna mini-pig inbred line (BMI) as donor nuclei for nuclear transfer, combining with transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and successfully generated ?-1,3-galactosyltransferase (GGTA1) gene biallelic knockout (KO) pigs. To validate the efficiency of TALEN vectors, in vitro-transcribed TALEN mRNAs were microinjected into one-cell stage parthenogenetically activated porcine embryos. The efficiency of indel mutations at the GGTA1-targeting loci was as high as 73.1% (19/26) among the parthenogenetic blastocysts. TALENs were co-transfected into porcine fetal fibroblasts of BMI with a plasmid containing neomycin gene. The targeting efficiency reached 89.5% (187/209) among the survived cell clones after a 10 d selection. More remarkably 27.8% (58/209) of colonies were biallelic KO. Five fibroblast cell lines with biallelic KO were chosen as nuclear donors for somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Three miniature piglets with biallelic mutations of the GGTA1 gene were achieved. Gal epitopes on the surface of cells from all the three biallelic KO piglets were completely absent. The fibroblasts from the GGTA1 null piglets were more resistant to lysis by pooled complement-preserved normal human serum than those from wild-type pigs. These results indicate that a combination of TALENs technology with SCNT can generate biallelic KO pigs directly with high efficiency. The GGTA1 null piglets with inbred features created in this study can provide a new organ source for xenotransplantation research. PMID:24358349

Xin, Jige; Yang, Huaqiang; Fan, Nana; Zhao, Bentian; Ouyang, Zhen; Liu, Zhaoming; Zhao, Yu; Li, Xiaoping; Song, Jun; Yang, Yi; Zou, Qingjian; Yan, Quanmei; Zeng, Yangzhi; Lai, Liangxue

2013-01-01

109

Identification of exercise capacity QTL using association mapping in inbred mice  

PubMed Central

There are large interindividual differences in exercise capacity. It is well established that there is a genetic basis for these differences. However, the genetic factors underlying this variation are undefined. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify novel putative quantitative trait loci (QTL) for exercise capacity by measuring exercise capacity in inbred mice and performing genome-wide association mapping. Exercise capacity, defined as run time and work, was assessed in male mice (n = 6) from 34 strains of classical and wild-derived inbred mice performing a graded treadmill test. Genome-wide association mapping was performed with an efficient mixed-model association (EMMA) algorithm to identify QTL. Exercise capacity was significantly different across strains. Run time varied by 2.7-fold between the highest running strain (C58/J) and the lowest running strain (A/J). These same strains showed a 16.5-fold difference in work. Significant associations were identified for exercise time on chromosomes 1, 2, 7, 11, and 13. The QTL interval on chromosome 2 (?168 Mb) contains one gene, Nfatc2, and overlaps with a suggestive QTL for training responsiveness in humans. These results provide phenotype data on the widest range of inbred strains tested thus far and indicate that genetic background significantly influences exercise capacity. Furthermore, the novel QTLs identified in the current study provide new targets for investigating the underlying mechanisms for variation in exercise capacity. PMID:22911454

Courtney, Sean M.

2012-01-01

110

Establishment of transplantable porcine tumor cell lines derived from MHC- inbred miniature swine  

PubMed Central

The lack of transplantable tumors has limited assessment of graft-versus-tumor effects following hematopoietic cell transplantation in clinically relevant large-animal models. We describe the derivation and characterization of porcine tumor cell lines with initial efforts of tumor transplantation using immunocompromised mice and highly inbred sublines of Massachusetts General Hospital major histocompatibility complex (MHC)–inbred miniature swine. Autopsies were performed routinely on swine that died unexpectedly or had suspicion of malignancy based on clinical symptoms or peripheral blood analysis. Tissue samples were obtained for pathology, phenotyped by flow cytometry, and placed in culture. Based on growth, lines were selected for passage into nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient (NOD/SCID) mice and miniature swine. Porcine tumor recipients were preconditioned with total body irradiation from 0 to 500 cGy or with a 30-day course of oral cyclosporine. We identified 19 cases of hematologic tumors. Nine distinct tumor cell lines were established from 8 of these cases, including 3 derived from highly inbred sublines. In vivo tumor growth and serial transfer were observed in immunocompromised mice for one tumor cell line and in miniature swine for 1 of 2 tumor cell lines expanded for this purpose. These results suggest the possibility of developing a transplantable tumor model in this large-animal system. PMID:17702898

Cho, Patricia S.; Lo, Diana P.; Wikiel, Krzysztof J.; Rowland, Haley C.; Coburn, Rebecca C.; McMorrow, Isabel M.; Goodrich, Jennifer G.; Arn, J. Scott; Billiter, Robert A.; Houser, Stuart L.; Shimizu, Akira; Yang, Yong-Guang; Sachs, David H.

2007-01-01

111

Accelerating the Inbreeding of Multi-Parental Recombinant Inbred Lines Generated By Sibling Matings  

PubMed Central

Inbred model organisms are powerful tools for genetic studies because they provide reproducible genomes for use in mapping and genetic manipulation. Generating inbred lines via sibling matings, however, is a costly undertaking that requires many successive generations of breeding, during which time many lines fail. We evaluated several approaches for accelerating inbreeding, including the systematic use of back-crosses and marker-assisted breeder selection, which we contrasted with randomized sib-matings. Using simulations, we explored several alternative breeder-selection methods and monitored the gain and loss of genetic diversity, measured by the number of recombination-induced founder intervals, as a function of generation. For each approach we simulated 100,000 independent lines to estimate distributions of generations to achieve full-fixation as well as to achieve a mean heterozygosity level equal to 20 generations of randomized sib-mating. Our analyses suggest that the number of generations to fully inbred status can be substantially reduced with minimal impact on genetic diversity through combinations of parental backcrossing and marker-assisted inbreeding. Although simulations do not consider all confounding factors underlying the inbreeding process, such as a loss of fecundity, our models suggest many viable alternatives for accelerating the inbreeding process. PMID:22384397

Welsh, Catherine E.; McMillan, Leonard

2012-01-01

112

Evidence should trump intuition by preferring inbred strains to outbred stocks in preclinical research.  

PubMed

Inbred strains of mice such as C57BL and BALB/c are more widely used in published work than outbred stocks of mice such as ICR and CD-1. In contrast, outbred stocks of rats such as Wistar and Sprague-Dawley are more widely used than inbred strains such as F344 and LEW. The properties of inbred and outbred mice and rats are briefly reviewed, and it is concluded that, with some exceptions, there is a strong case for using inbred strains in most controlled experiments. This is because they are usually more uniform, so that fewer animals are usually needed to detect a specified response and they are more repeatable, because they are genetically defined (i.e., the strain can be identified using genetic markers) and less liable to genetic change. Yet many scientists continue to use outbred animals. In Daniel Kahneman's book "Thinking Fast and Slow" he explains that we can answer questions in 2 ways: "fast" by intuition or "slow" by analytical reasoning. The former method is instantaneous, requires no thought but is not evidence based. Analytical reasoning is evidence based but requires hard work, which we all avoid. He has found that "… when faced with a difficult question, we often answer an easier one instead, usually without noticing the substitution." The target question of whether to choose outbred or inbred strains in controlled experiments is a difficult one requiring knowledge of the characteristics of these strains and the principles of experimental design. A substitute question, "are humans and outbred stocks both genetically heterogeneous," is easily answered in the affirmative. It is likely that many scientists are intuitively answering the substitute question and are assuming that they have answered the target question. If so they may be using the wrong animals in their research. Nor is the fact that humans and outbred stocks are alike in being genetically heterogeneous a reason for using them. The whole concept of a "model" is that it is similar to the target in some respects but different in others. Rats and mice differ from humans in that we can control their genotype. This is a positive attribute that enormously increases their value in research. Funding organizations should support research in comparing the 2 types in real experiments. PMID:25541542

Festing, Michael F W

2014-01-01

113

Cross reactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes from MHC-defined birds against homologous and heterologous avian influenza subtypes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Numerous reports have implicated a role of the major-histocompatibility complex (MHC) in genetic resistance of chickens to bacterial infection and viral diseases. However, little is known about the role of MHC in generating protective immunity following avian influenza (AI) infection. Because vacc...

114

Localisation polymorphism of mdg-1, copia, I and P mobile elements in genomes of Drosophila melanogaster, from data of inbred lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using data from in situ hybridisation of the giant chromosomes from salivary glands, mdg-1, I, copia, and P mobile element polymorphism was studied in 17 highly-inbred lines of Drosophila melanogaster and in the expected hybrids obtained from the theoretically-crossed inbred lines. The mean copy numbers of each element on the inbred lines were close and equal to 16·8 for mdg-1,

C Biémont; C Gautier

1988-01-01

115

Detection and integration of quantitative trait loci for grain yield components and oil content in two connected recombinant inbred line populations of high-oil maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improvement in grain yield is an important objective in high-oil maize breeding. In this study, one high-oil maize inbred\\u000a was crossed with two normal maize inbreds to produce two connected recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations with 282 and\\u000a 263 F7:8 families, respectively. The field experiments were conducted under four environments, and eight grain yield components and\\u000a grain oil content were

Guohu Yang; Yuling Li; Qilei Wang; Yuguang Zhou; Qiang Zhou; Bingtao Shen; Feifei Zhang; Xiaojie Liang

116

Transcriptome Analysis of Nodes and Buds from High and Low Tillering Switchgrass Inbred Lines  

PubMed Central

In the last two decades switchgrass has received increasing attention as a promising bioenergy feedstock. Biomass is the principal trait for improvement in switchgrass breeding programs and tillering is an important component of biomass yield. Switchgrass inbred lines derived from a single parent showing vast variation in tiller number trait was used in this study. Axillary buds, which can develop into tillers, and node tissues, which give rise to axillary buds, were collected from high and low tillering inbred lines growing in field conditions. RNA from buds and nodes from the contrasting inbred lines were used for transcriptome profiling with switchgrass Affymetrix genechips. Nearly 7% of the probesets on the genechip exhibited significant differential expression in these lines. Real-time PCR analysis of 30 genes confirmed the differential expression patterns observed with genechips. Cluster analysis aided in identifying probesets unique to high or low tillering lines as well as those specific to buds or nodes of high tillering lines. Rice orthologs of the switchgrass genes were used for gene ontology (GO) analysis with AgriGO. Enrichment of genes associated with amino acid biosynthesis, lipid transport and vesicular transport were observed in low tillering lines. Enrichment of GOs for translation, RNA binding and gene expression in high tillering lines were indicative of active metabolism associated with rapid growth and development. Identification of different classes of transcription factor genes suggests that regulation of many genes determines the complex process of axillary bud initiation and development. Genes identified in this study will complement the current ongoing efforts in quantitative trait loci mapping of tillering in switchgrass. PMID:24386276

Wang, Yixing; Zeng, Xin; Peal, Lila; Tang, Yuhong; Wu, Yanqi; Mahalingam, Ramamurthy

2013-01-01

117

Identification of genetic determinants of IGF-1 levels and longevity among mouse inbred strains  

PubMed Central

Summary The IGF-1 signaling pathway plays an important role in regulating longevity. To identify the genetic loci and genes that regulate plasma IGF-1 levels, we intercrossed MRL/MpJ and SM/J, inbred mouse strains that differ in IGF-1 levels. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis of IGF-1 levels of these F2 mice detected four QTL on chromosomes (Chrs) 9 (48 Mb), 10 (86 Mb), 15 (18 Mb) and 17 (85 Mb). Haplotype association mapping of IGF-1 levels in 28 domesticated inbred strains identified three suggestive loci in females on Chrs 2 (13 Mb), 10 (88 Mb) and 17 (28 Mb) and in males on Chrs 1 (159 Mb), 3 (52 and 58 Mb) and 16 (74 Mb). Except for the QTL on Chr 9 and 16, all loci co-localized with IGF-1 QTL previously identified in other mouse crosses. The most significant locus was the QTL on Chr 10, which contains the Igf1 gene and which had a LOD score of 31.8. Haplotype analysis among 28 domesticated inbred strains revealed a major QTL on Chr 10 overlapping with the QTL identified in the F2 mice. This locus showed three major haplotypes; strains with haplotype 1 had significantly lower plasma IGF-1 and extended longevity (P < 0.05) than strains with haplotype 2 or 3. Bioinformatic analysis, combined with sequencing and expression studies, showed that Igf1 is the most likely QTL gene, but that other genes may also play a role in this strong QTL. PMID:20735370

Leduc, Magalie S.; Hageman, Rachael S.; Meng, Qingying; Verdugo, Ricardo A.; Tsaih, Shirng-Wern; Churchill, Gary A.; Paigen, Beverly; Yuan, Rong

2011-01-01

118

Field screening of experimental corn hybrids and inbred lines for multiple ear-feeding insect resistance.  

PubMed

Identifying and using native insect resistance genes is the core of integrated pest management. In this study, 10 experimental corn, Zea mays L., hybrids and 10 inbred lines were screened for resistance to major ear-feeding insects in the southeastern Coastal Plain region of the United States during 2004 and 2005. Ear-feeding insect damage was assessed at harvest by visual damage rating for the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), and by the percentage of kernels damaged by the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, and stink bugs [combination of Euschistus servus (Say) and southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.)]. Among the eight inbred lines and two control populations examined, C3S1B73-5b was resistant to corn earworm, maize weevil, and stink bugs. In contrast, C3S1B73-4 was resistant to corn earworm and stink bugs, but not to maize weevil. In a similar manner, the corn hybrid S1W*CML343 was resistant to all three ear-feeding insects, whereas hybrid C3S1B73-3*Tx205 was resistant to corn earworm and maize weevil in both growing seasons, but susceptible to stink bugs in 2005. The silk-feeding bioassay showed that corn earworm developed better on corn silk than did fall armyworm. Among all phenotypic traits examined (i.e., corn ear size, husk extension, and husk tightness), only corn ear size was negatively correlated to corn earworm damage in the inbred lines examined, whereas only husk extension (i.e., coverage) was negatively correlated to both corn earworm and maize weevil damage on the experimental hybrids examined. Such information could be used to establish a baseline for developing agronomically elite corn germplasm that confers multiple ear-feeding insect resistance. PMID:17972651

Ni, Xinzhi; Xu, Wenwei; Krakowsky, Matthew D; Buntin, G David; Brown, Steve L; Lee, R Dewey; Coy, Anton E

2007-10-01

119

Efficient collection and cryopreservation of embryos in F344 strain inbred rats.  

PubMed

In rats, it is now possible to produce genetically engineered strains, not only as transgenic animals but also using gene knockout techniques. Reproductive technologies have been used as indispensable tools to produce and maintain these novel valuable strains. Although studies for collecting and cryopreserving embryos have been reported using outbred rats, efficient methods have not been established in inbred strains. The F344 inbred strain is important in rat breeding and has been used for the production of transgenic/knockout strains and for genome sequencing. Here we studied the optimal conditions for oocyte collection by induction of superovulation, and the development of embryos after cryopreservation in F344 rats. The response to pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) was examined by injection of 150 IU/kg PMSG + 75 IU/kg hCG or 300 IU/kg PMSG + 300 IU/kg hCG. Superovulation was achieved at high efficiency by an injection of 150 IU/kg PMSG + 75 IU/kg hCG. Furthermore, superovulation in this strain showed similar high response as Wistar rats. Of 2-cell embryos cryopreserved by vitrification in a solution containing 10% propylene glycol, 30% ethylene glycol, 20% Percoll and 0.3 M sucrose, more than 90% survived after warming and 32% developed to offspring. However, the freezability of pronuclear stage embryos was extremely low. This study demonstrated that sufficient unfertilized oocytes and embryos can be collected from F344 rats by the induction of superovulation with 150 IU/kg PMSG + 75 IU/kg hCG. Furthermore, cryopreservation of 2-cell embryos using this vitrification protocol can now be applied to maintaining valuable rat strains derived from the F344 inbred strain as genetic resources. PMID:23928269

Taketsuru, Hiroaki; Kaneko, Takehito

2013-10-01

120

Mouse DNA 'fingerprints': analysis of chromosome localization and germ-line stability of hypervariable loci in recombinant inbred strains.  

PubMed Central

Human minisatellite probes cross-hybridize to mouse DNA and detect multiple variable loci. The resulting DNA "fingerprints" vary substantially between inbred strains but relatively little within an inbred strain. By studying the segregation of variable DNA fragments in BXD recombinant inbred strains of mice, at least 13 hypervariable loci were defined, 8 of which could be regionally assigned to mouse chromosomes. The assigned loci are autosomal, dispersed and not preferentially associated with centromeres or telomeres. One of these minisatellites is complex, with alleles 90 kb or more long and with internal restriction endonuclease cleavage sites which produce a minisatellite "haplotype" of multiple cosegregating fragments. In addition, one locus shows extreme germ-line instability and should provide a useful system for studying more directly the rates and processes of allelic variation of minisatellites. Images PMID:3562240

Jeffreys, A J; Wilson, V; Kelly, R; Taylor, B A; Bulfield, G

1987-01-01

121

Gastrointestinal microbiota of wild and inbred individuals of two house mouse subspecies assessed using high-throughput parallel pyrosequencing.  

PubMed

The effects of gastrointestinal tract microbiota (GTM) on host physiology and health have been the subject of considerable interest in recent years. While a variety of captive bred species have been used in experiments, the extent to which GTM of captive and/or inbred individuals resembles natural composition and variation in wild populations is poorly understood. Using 454 pyrosequencing, we performed 16S rDNA GTM barcoding for 30 wild house mice (Mus musculus) and wild-derived inbred strain mice belonging to two subspecies (M. m. musculus and M. m. domesticus). Sequenced individuals were selected according to a 2 × 2 experimental design: wild (14) vs. inbred origin (16) and M. m. musculus (15) vs. M. m. domesticus (15). We compared alpha diversity (i.e. number of operational taxonomic units - OTUs), beta diversity (i.e. interindividual variability) and microbiota composition across the four groups. We found no difference between M. m. musculus and M. m. domesticus subspecies, suggesting low effect of genetic differentiation between these two subspecies on GTM structure. Both inbred and wild populations showed the same level of microbial alpha and beta diversity; however, we found strong differentiation in microbiota composition between wild and inbred populations. Relative abundance of ~ 16% of OTUs differed significantly between wild and inbred individuals. As laboratory mice represent the most abundant model for studying the effects of gut microbiota on host metabolism, immunity and neurology, we suggest that the distinctness of laboratory-kept mouse microbiota, which differs from wild mouse microbiota, needs to be considered in future biomedical research. PMID:25204516

Kreisinger, Jakub; Cížková, Dagmar; Vohánka, Jaroslav; Piálek, Jaroslav

2014-10-01

122

Genetics of spike-wave discharges in the electroencephalogram (EEG) of the WAG\\/Rij inbred rat strain: A classical mendelian crossbreeding study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The WAG inbred strain might be an animal model for human absence epilepsy. To study the inheritance pattern of absence epilepsy, WAG rats were crossbred, in a classical Mendelian way, with inbred ACI rats which show no signs of epilepsy. In the parental strains, reciprocal F1 hybrids, F2, B1, and B2 generations, the number and duration of spikewave discharges were

B. W. M. M. Peeters; J. M. L. Kerbusch; A. M. L. Coenen; J. M. H. Vossen; E. L. J. M. van Luijtelaar

1992-01-01

123

Maize Dwarf Mosaic Virus: Effect of Strain A On Corn Inbreds, Single- and Double-Cross Hybrids.  

E-print Network

lDOC Z TA245.7 8873 NQ.1423 Texas ....... 8-1423 Novem ber 1982 Maize Dwarf Mosaic Virus: - Effect of Strain A on Corn Inbreds, Single- and Double-Cross Hybrids ~. _ . . . - (Blank Page in OriglDat BuUetinl ., -.-. k. .~ :, .;, r.... '. .,~. k ? -. MAIZE DWARF MOSAIC VIRUS: EFFECT OF STRAIN A ON CORN INBREDS, SINGLE- AND DOUBLE-CROSS HYBRIDS R. W. Toler, A.J. Bockholt and F. G. Alston* *Respectively, Professor, Department of Plant Sciences, Associate Professor, and Graduate...

Toler, R.W.; Bockholt, A.J.; Alston, F.G.

1982-01-01

124

Profiling polyphenols of two diploid strawberry (Fragaria vesca) inbred lines using UHPLC-HRMS(n.).  

PubMed

Phenolic compounds in the fruits of two diploid strawberries (Fragaria vesca f. semperflorens) inbred lines-Ruegen F7-4 (a red-fruited genotype) and YW5AF7 (a yellow-fruited genotype) were characterised using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS(n)). The changes of anthocyanin composition during fruit development and between Ruegen F7-4 and YW5AF7 were studied. About 67 phenolic compounds, including taxifolin 3-O-arabinoside, glycosides of quercetin, kaempferol, cyanidin, pelargonidin, peonidin, ellagic acid derivatives, and other flavonols were identified in these two inbred lines. Compared to the regular octoploid strawberry, unique phenolic compounds were found in F. vesca fruits, such as taxifolin 3-O-arabinoside (both) and peonidin 3-O-malonylglucoside (Ruegen F7-4). The results provide the basis for comparative analysis of polyphenolic compounds in yellow and red diploid strawberries, as well as with the cultivated octoploid strawberries. PMID:24176345

Sun, Jianghao; Liu, Xianjin; Yang, Tianbao; Slovin, Janet; Chen, Pei

2014-03-01

125

Substrains of Inbred Mice Differ in Their Physical Activity as a Behavior  

PubMed Central

Recent studies strengthen the belief that physical activity as a behavior has a genetic basis. Screening wheel-running behavior in inbred mouse strains highlighted differences among strains, showing that even very limited genetic differences deeply affect mouse behavior. We extended this observation to substrains of the same inbred mouse strain, that is, BALB/c mice. We found that only a minority of the population of one of these substrains, the BALB/c J, performs spontaneous physical activity. In addition, the runners of this substrain cover a significantly smaller distance than the average runners of two other substrains, namely, the BALB/c ByJ and the BALB/c AnNCrl. The latter shows a striking level of voluntary activity, with the average distance run/day reaching up to about 12 kilometers. These runners are not outstanders, but they represent the majority of the population, with important scientific and economic fallouts to be taken into account during experimental planning. Spontaneous activity persists in pathological conditions, such as cancer-associated cachexia. This important amount of physical activity results in a minor muscle adaptation to endurance exercise over a three-week period; indeed, only a nonsignificant increase in NADH transferase+ fibers occurs in this time frame. PMID:23533342

Coletti, Dario; Berardi, Emanuele; Aulino, Paola; Rossi, Eleonora; Moresi, Viviana; Li, Zhenlin; Adamo, Sergio

2013-01-01

126

Genetics of body weight in the LXS recombinant inbred mouse strains  

SciTech Connect

This is the first phenotypic analysis of 75 new recombinant inbred (RI) strains derived from ILS and ISS progenitors. We analyzed body weight in two independent cohorts of female mice at various ages and in males at 60 days. Body weight is a complex trait which has been mapped in numerous crosses in rodents. The LXS RI strains displayed a large range of weights, transgressing those of the inbred progenitors, supporting the utility of this large panel for mapping traits not selected in the progenitors. Numerous QTLs for body weight mapped in singleand multilocus scans. We assessed replication between these and previously reported QTLs based on overlapping confidence intervals of published QTLs for body weight at 60 days and used meta-analyses to determine combined p values for three QTL regions located on Chromosomes 4, 5, and 11. Strain distribution patterns of microsatellite marker genotypes, weight, and other phenotypes are available on Web- QTL (http://www.webqtl.org/search.html) and allow genetic mapping of any heritable quantitative phenotype measured in these strains. We report one such analysis, correlating brain and body weights. Large reference panels of RI strains, such as the LXS, are invaluable for identifying genetic correlations, GXE (Gene X Environment) interactions, and replicating previously identified QTLs.

Bennett, Beth [University of Colorado, Boulder; Carosone-Line, Phyllis [University of Colorado, Boulder; Lu, Lu [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Chesler, Elissa J [ORNL; Johnson, Thomas [University of Colorado, Boulder

2005-01-01

127

Sustained heterozygosity across a self-incompatibility locus in an inbred ascidian.  

PubMed

Because self-incompatibility loci are maintained heterozygous and recombination within self-incompatibility loci would be disadvantageous, self-incompatibility loci are thought to contribute to structural and functional differentiation of chromosomes. Although the hermaphrodite chordate, Ciona intestinalis, has two self-incompatibility genes, this incompatibility system is incomplete and self-fertilization occurs under laboratory conditions. Here, we established an inbred strain of C. intestinalis by repeated self-fertilization. Decoding genome sequences of sibling animals of this strain identified a 2.4-Mbheterozygous region on chromosome 7. A self-incompatibility gene, Themis-B, was encoded within this region. This observation implied that this self-incompatibility locus and the linkage disequilibrium of its flanking region contribute to the formation of the 2.4-Mb heterozygous region, probably through recombination suppression. We showed that different individuals in natural populations had different numbers and different combinations of Themis-B variants, and that the rate of self-fertilization varied among these animals. Our result explains why self-fertilization occurs under laboratory conditions. It also supports the concept that the Themis-B locus is preferentially retained heterozygous in the inbred line and contributes to the formation of the 2.4-Mb heterozygous region. High structural variations might suppress recombination, and this long heterozygous region might represent a preliminary stage of structural differentiation of chromosomes. PMID:25234703

Satou, Yutaka; Hirayama, Kazuko; Mita, Kaoru; Fujie, Manabu; Chiba, Shota; Yoshida, Reiko; Endo, Toshinori; Sasakura, Yasunori; Inaba, Kazuo; Satoh, Nori

2015-01-01

128

Development of SNP markers for C57BL/6N-derived mouse inbred strains  

PubMed Central

C57BL/6N inbred mice are used as the genetic background for producing knockout mice in large-scale projects worldwide; however, the genetic divergence among C57BL/6N-derived substrains has not been verified. Here, we identified novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) specific to the C57BL/6NJ strain and selected useful SNPs for the genetic monitoring of C57BL/6N-derived substrains. Informative SNPs were selected from the public SNP database at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute by comparing sequence data from C57BL/6NJ and C57BL/6J mice. A total of 1,361 candidate SNPs from the SNP database could distinguish the C57BL/6NJ strain from 12 other inbred strains. We confirmed 277 C57BL/6NJ-specific SNPs including 10 nonsynonymous SNPs by direct sequencing, and selected 100 useful SNPs that cover all of the chromosomes except Y. Genotyping of 11 C57BL/6N-derived substrains at these 100 SNP loci demonstrated genetic differences among the substrains. This information will be useful for accurate genetic monitoring of mouse strains with a C57BL/6N-derived background. PMID:25341966

Mekada, Kazuyuki; Hirose, Mayu; Murakami, Ayumi; Yoshiki, Atsushi

2014-01-01

129

Inbred strains of zebrafish exhibit variation in growth performance and myostatin expression following fasting  

PubMed Central

Although the zebrafish (Danio rerio) has been widely utilized as a model organism for several decades, there is little information available on physiological variation underlying genetic variation among the most commonly used inbred strains. This study evaluated growth performance using physiological and molecular markers of growth in response to fasting in six commonly used zebrafish strains [AB, TU, TL, SJA, WIK, and petstore (PET) zebrafish]. Fasting resulted in a standard decrease in whole blood glucose levels, typical vertebrate glucose metabolism pattern, in AB, PET, TL, and TU zebrafish strains. Alternatively, fasting did not affect glucose levels in SJA and WIK zebrafish strains. Similarly, fasting had no effect on myostatin mRNA levels in AB, PET, TU, and WIK zebrafish strains, but decreased myostatin-1 and -2 mRNA levels in SJA zebrafish. Consistent with previous work, fasting increased myostatin-2 mRNA levels in TL zebrafish. These data demonstrate that variation is present in growth performance between commonly used inbred strains of zebrafish. These data can help future research endeavors by highlighting the attributes of each strain with regard to growth performance so that the most fitting strain may be utilized. PMID:23047051

Meyer, Ben M.; Froehlich, Jacob M.; Galt, Nicholas J.; Biga, Peggy R.

2012-01-01

130

Macronutrient selection by seven inbred mouse strains and three taste-related knockout strains.  

PubMed

Many animals thrive when given a choice of separate sources of macronutrients. How they do this is unknown. Here, we report some studies comparing the spontaneous choices between carbohydrate- and fat-containing food sources of seven inbred mouse strains (B6, BTBR, CBA, JF1, NZW, PWD and PWK) and three mouse models with genetic ablation of taste transduction components (T1R3, ITPR3 and CALHM1). For 8days, each mouse could choose between sources of carbohydrate (CHO-P; sucrose-cornstarch) and fat (Fat-P; vegetable shortening) with each source also containing protein (casein). We found that the B6 and PWK strains markedly preferred the CHO-P diet to the Fat-P diet, the BTBR and JF1 strains markedly preferred the Fat-P diet to the CHO-P diet, and the CBA, NZW and PWD strains showed equal intakes of the two diets (by weight). Relative to their WT littermates, ITPR3 and CALHM1 KO mice had elevated Fat-P preferences but T1R3 KO mice did not. There were differences among strains in adaption to the diet choice and there were differences in response between males and females on some days. These results demonstrate the diverse responses to macronutrients of inbred mice and they point to the involvement of chemosensory detectors (but not sweetness) as contributors to macronutrient selection. PMID:24912134

Tordoff, Michael G; Downing, Arnelle; Voznesenskaya, Anna

2014-08-01

131

Genotype Probabilities at Intermediate Generations in the Construction of Recombinant Inbred Lines  

PubMed Central

The mouse Collaborative Cross (CC) is a panel of eight-way recombinant inbred lines: eight diverse parental strains are intermated, followed by repeated sibling mating, many times in parallel, to create a new set of inbred lines whose genomes are random mosaics of the genomes of the original eight strains. Many generations are required to reach inbreeding, and so a number of investigators have sought to make use of phenotype and genotype data on mice from intermediate generations during the formation of the CC lines (so-called pre-CC mice). The development of a hidden Markov model for genotype reconstruction in such pre-CC mice, on the basis of incompletely informative genetic markers (such as single-nucleotide polymorphisms), formally requires the two-locus genotype probabilities at an arbitrary generation along the path to inbreeding. In this article, I describe my efforts to calculate such probabilities. While closed-form solutions for the two-locus genotype probabilities could not be derived, I provide a prescription for calculating such probabilities numerically. In addition, I present a number of useful quantities, including single-locus genotype probabilities, two-locus haplotype probabilities, and the fixation probability and map expansion at each generation along the course to inbreeding. PMID:22345609

Broman, Karl W.

2012-01-01

132

Hidden in plain sight: spike-wave discharges in mouse inbred strains.  

PubMed

Twenty-seven inbred strains of mice were tested for spike-wave discharge (SWD) activity by video-electroencephalographic recordings over a 24-h recording period. Eight strains had reproducible, frequent SWDs, including five strains (C57BLKS/J, CBA/J, DBA/1J, NOR/LtJ, SM/J) previously undiagnosed for this distinctive phenotype. Eighteen other strains exhibited no such activity. Spike-wave discharges usually occurred while the subject was motionless, and in a significant number of annotated instances coincided with an arrest of the subject's relatively unrestrained locomotor activity, which resumed immediately after the discharge ended. In all five new strains, SWDs were suppressed by ethosuximide administration. From the genealogy of inbred strains, we suggest that two ancestors, A and DBA, transmitted genotypes required for SWD in all positive strains. Together these strains with SWDs provide new opportunities to understand the genetic core susceptibility of this distinctive electroencephalographic activity and to explore its relationship to absence epilepsy, a human disorder for which few genes are known. PMID:24861780

Letts, V A; Beyer, B J; Frankel, W N

2014-07-01

133

Experimenter effects on behavioral test scores of eight inbred mouse strains under the influence of ethanol.  

PubMed

Eight standard inbred mouse strains were evaluated for ethanol effects on a refined battery of behavioral tests in a study that was originally designed to assess the influence of rat odors in the colony on mouse behaviors. As part of the design of the study, two experimenters conducted the tests, and the study was carefully balanced so that equal numbers of mice in all groups and times of day were tested by each experimenter. A defect in airflow in the facility compromised the odor manipulation, and in fact the different odor exposure groups did not differ in their behaviors. The two experimenters, however, obtained markedly different results for three of the tests. Certain of the experimenter effects arose from the way they judged behaviors that were not automated and had to be rated by the experimenter, such as slips on the balance beam. Others were not evident prior to ethanol injection but had a major influence after the injection. For several measures, the experimenter effects were notably different for different inbred strains. Methods to evaluate and reduce the impact of experimenter effects in future research are discussed. PMID:24933191

Bohlen, Martin; Hayes, Erika R; Bohlen, Benjamin; Bailoo, Jeremy D; Crabbe, John C; Wahlsten, Douglas

2014-10-01

134

Profiling polyphenols of two diploid strawberry (Fragaria vesca) inbred lines using UHPLC-HRMSn  

PubMed Central

Phenolic compounds in the fruits of two diploid strawberries (Fragaria vesca f. semperflorens) inbred lines-Ruegen F7-4 (a red-fruited genotype) and YW5AF7 (a yellow-fruited genotype) were characterised using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMSn). The changes of anthocyanin composition during fruit development and between Ruegen F7-4 and YW5AF7 were studied. About 67 phenolic compounds, including taxifolin 3-O-arabinoside, glycosides of quercetin, kaempferol, cyanidin, pelargonidin, peonidin, ellagic acid derivatives, and other flavonols were identified in these two inbred lines. Compared to the regular octoploid strawberry, unique phenolic compounds were found in F. vesca fruits, such as taxifolin 3-O-arabinoside (both) and peonidin 3-O-malonylglucoside (Ruegen F7-4). The results provide the basis for comparative analysis of polyphenolic compounds in yellow and red diploid strawberries, as well as with the cultivated octoploid strawberries. PMID:24176345

Sun, Jianghao; Liu, Xianjin; Yang, Tianbao; Slovin, Janet; Chen, Pei

2013-01-01

135

Effect of adult experience on oviposition choice and short-distance attraction in Drosophila buzzatii  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a series of experiments, no consistent effect of adult experience, i.e., exposure to the naturally occurring yeasts, Candida sonorensisand Clavispora opuntiae,on oviposition choice or short-distance attraction in inbred lines of Drosophila buzzatiiwas found. The lack of consistent effect on oviposition choice was also found in one experiment in which the flies were starved and in another experiment in which

Philip W. Hedrick; J. S. F. Barker; T. Armstrong

1990-01-01

136

Molecular mapping of four blast resistance genes using recombinant inbred lines of 93-11 and nipponbare  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Molecular mapping of new blast resistance genes is important for developing resistant rice cultivars using marker-assisted selection. In this study, 259 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) were developed from a cross between Nipponbare and 93-11, and were used to construct a 1165.8-cM linkage map with 1...

137

Genome-Wide Patterns of Polymorphism in an Inbred Line of the African Malaria Mosquito Anopheles gambiae  

PubMed Central

Anopheles gambiae is a major mosquito vector of malaria in Africa. Although increased use of insecticide-based vector control tools has decreased malaria transmission, elimination is likely to require novel genetic control strategies. It can be argued that the absence of an A. gambiae inbred line has slowed progress toward genetic vector control. In order to empower genetic studies and enable precise and reproducible experimentation, we set out to create an inbred line of this species. We found that amenability to inbreeding varied between populations of A. gambiae. After full-sib inbreeding for ten generations, we genotyped 112 individuals—56 saved prior to inbreeding and 56 collected after inbreeding—at a genome-wide panel of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Although inbreeding dramatically reduced diversity across much of the genome, we discovered numerous, discrete genomic blocks that maintained high heterozygosity. For one large genomic region, we were able to definitively show that high diversity is due to the persistent polymorphism of a chromosomal inversion. Inbred lines in other eukaryotes often exhibit a qualitatively similar retention of polymorphism when typed at a small number of markers. Our whole-genome SNP data provide the first strong, empirical evidence supporting associative overdominance as the mechanism maintaining higher than expected diversity in inbred lines. Although creation of A. gambiae lines devoid of nearly all polymorphism may not be feasible, our results provide critical insights into how more fully isogenic lines can be created. PMID:25377942

Turissini, David A.; Gamez, Stephanie; White, Bradley J.

2014-01-01

138

ROOT TRAITS AND NODULATION OF RECOMBINANT INBRED BEAN LINES FROM A ‘JAMAPA × CALIMA’ POPULATION INOCULATED WITH TWO STRAINS OF RHIZOBIUM  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bean cultivars of Andean and Middle American origin often have contrasting above-ground traits. Less is known, however, of possible differences in root traits of beans from different gene pools. Recombinant inbred lines (RIL) derived from a cross between the Andean cultivar ‘Calima’ and the Middle A...

139

Effects of hygromycin B feeding on the growing and laying performance of a commercial inbred cross laying stock  

E-print Network

suppienen cation. ":peri cent ~ I Gtat1stical A@a)isis of i~ EGG 4"oinctd. cm of OccBPIsvciai . inbred CI'0$8 IdjfiBg utock $$ Inflnsncsd by ityfgmyein & u~c1coentation iCepsrillslnt ~. I u'ocroo of ':artation u 2 ~ Treat x, 'cricket 44 11~61. 46...

Llorico, Bayani Francisco

1961-01-01

140

Low-Temperature Response to Major Agronomic Traits by Using Recombinant Inbred Line (RIL) Populations Derived from Towada × Kunmingxiaobaigu  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of the recombinant inbred line populations (RILs) is important basis to detect QTLs for cold tolerance at booting stage in rice. A set of 230 RILs derived from the cross of Towada and Kunmingxiaobaigu were used for evaluation of low-temperature response on major agronomic traits of plant height (PH), panicle length (PL), panicle exsertion (PE), spikelet fertility (SF), specific

Fu-rong XU; Teng-qiong YU; Cui-feng TANG; Xin-xiang A; Chuan-zhang FAN; Yi-liang HU; Dun-yu ZHANG; Chao DONG; Lu-yuan DAI

2009-01-01

141

Bay0 × Shahdara recombinant inbred line population: a powerful tool for the genetic dissection of complex traits in Arabidopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural genetic variation in Arabidopsis is considerable, but has not yet been used extensively as a source of variants to identify new genes of interest. From the cross between two genetically distant ecotypes, Bay-0 and Shahdara, we generated a Recombinant Inbred Line (RIL) population dedicated to Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) mapping. A set of 38 physically anchored microsatellite markers was

O. Loudet; S. Chaillou; C. Camilleri; D. Bouchez; F. Daniel-Vedele

2002-01-01

142

Genetic relationship between grain yield and the contents of protein and fat in a recombinant inbred population of rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study the genetic relationship between grain yield and the nutrient contents in rice, 209 recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross between indica rice Xieqingzao B and Milyang 46 were used to determine quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting the yields and contents of the two major nutritional components in brown rice. Seven traits were analyzed, including brown rice recovery

Yong-Hong Yu; Gang Li; Ye-Yang Fan; Ke-Qin Zhang; Jie Min; Zhi-Wei Zhu; Jie-Yun Zhuang

2009-01-01

143

Registration of the IS3620C/BTx623 recombinant inbred mapping population of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. [Moench.])  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The BTx623 x IS3620C sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.] mapping population (Reg. No. _______, NSL ____, [represented as BTx623/IS3620C]), is a set of 430 F7 to F9 recombinant inbred lines [RILs](USDA-ARS Germplasm Information Network (GRIN) PI 658758 through PI 659060 and PI 659144 through PI 65...

144

Novel Germplasm with High Oil Content and Resistance to Aspergillus flavus and Bacterial Wilt Developed from Peanut Recombinant Inbred Lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enhancement of resistances to aflatoxin contamination and bacterial wilt is one of the major objectives in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) breeding for high oil content. In this study, 117 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) were developed through crossing peanut varieties Yuanza 9102 and Zhonghua 5. Genetic analysis revealed that aflatoxin resistance was controlled by 2 major genes plus additive polygenes

Bo-Shou LIAO; Yong LEI; Dong Li; Sheng-Yu WANG; Jia-Quan HUANG; Xiao-Ping REN; Hui-Fang JIANG; Li-Ying YAN

2010-01-01

145

Learning Strategy Selection in the Water Maze and Hippocampal CREB Phosphorylation Differ in Two Inbred Strains of Mice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning strategy selection was assessed in two different inbred strains of mice, C57BL/6 and DBA/2, which are used for developing genetically modified mouse models. Male mice received a training protocol in a water maze using alternating blocks of visible and hidden platform trials, during which mice escaped to a single location. After training,…

Sung, Jin-Young; Goo, June-Seo; Lee, Dong-Eun; Jin, Da-Qing; Bizon, Jennifer L.; Gallagher, Michela; Han, Jung-Soo

2008-01-01

146

Mapping QTL controlling southern leaf blight resistance by combined analysis of three related recombinant inbred line populations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance to southern leaf blight (SLB) disease caused by Cochliobolus heterostrophus race O were identified in three maize recombinant inbred populations assed in two environments. Each population derived from a cross between a temperate and a tropical maize li...

147

MAIN EFFECTS, EPISTASIS AND ENVIROMENTAL INTERACTIONS OF QTLS FOR FUSARIUM HEAD BLIGHT RESISTANCE IN A RECOMBINANT INBRED POPULATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Chinese Spring-Sumai 3 chromosome 7A disomic substitution line (CS-SM3- 7 ADS) is highly resistant to Fusarium head blight (FHB), and an F7 population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from the cross CS-SM3-7ADS x Annong 8455 was evaluated for resistance to FHB to investigate main effects, ...

148

A deleterious effect associated with UNH159 is attenuated in twin embryos of an inbred line of tilapia (Oreochromis aureus)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Offspring of a highly inbred gynogenetic line of Oreochromis aureus displayed 12-fold increase in twinning rate compared to the outbred population. Asymmetric conjoined twins which consist of a normal embryo attached to a malformed-atrophic twin were frequently encountered in both gynogenetic (90.7%...

149

Genetic architecture of rind penetrometer resistance in two maize recombinant inbred line populations  

PubMed Central

Background Maize (Zea Mays L.) is one of the most important cereal crops worldwide and provides food for billions of people. Stalk lodging can greatly undermine the standability of maize plants and therefore decrease crop yields. Rind penetrometer resistance is an effective and reliable method for evaluating maize stalk strength, which is highly correlated with stalk lodging resistance. In this study, two recombinant inbred line populations were constructed from crosses between the H127R and Chang7-2 lines, and between the B73 and By804 lines. We genotyped these two populations and their parents using 3,072 single nucleotide polymorphism markers and performed phenotypic assessment of rind penetrometer resistance in multiple environments to dissect the genetic architecture of rind penetrometer resistance in maize. Results Based on two linkage maps of 1,397.1 and 1,600.4 cM with average interval of 1.7 and 2.1 cM between adjacent makers, respectively, seven quantitative trait loci (QTL) for rind penetrometer resistance were detected in the two recombinant inbred line populations. These QTL were distributed in seven genomic regions, and each accounted for 4.4–18.9% of the rind penetrometer resistance variation. The QTL with the largest effect on rind penetrometer resistance, qRPR3-1, was located on chromosome 3 with the flanking markers PZE-103123325 and SYN23245. This locus was further narrowed down to a 3.1-Mb interval by haplotype analysis using high-density markers in the target region. Within this interval, four genes associated with the biosynthesis of cell wall components were considered as potential candidate genes for the rind penetrometer resistance effect. Conclusions The inheritance of rind penetrometer resistance is rather complex. A few large-effect quantitative trait loci, together with a several minor-effect QTL, contributed to the phenotypic variation in rind penetrometer resistance in the two recombinant inbred line populations that were examined. A potential approach for improving stalk strength and crop yields in commercial maize lines may be to introgress favorable alleles of the locus that was found to have the largest effect on rind penetrometer resistance (qRPR3-1). PMID:24893717

2014-01-01

150

Epigenome-wide inheritance of cytosine methylation variants in a recombinant inbred population  

PubMed Central

Cytosine DNA methylation is one avenue for passing information through cell divisions. Here, we present epigenomic analyses of soybean recombinant inbred lines (RILs) and their parents. Identification of differentially methylated regions (DMRs) revealed that DMRs mostly cosegregated with the genotype from which they were derived, but examples of the uncoupling of genotype and epigenotype were identified. Linkage mapping of methylation states assessed from whole-genome bisulfite sequencing of 83 RILs uncovered widespread evidence for local methylQTL. This epigenomics approach provides a comprehensive study of the patterns and heritability of methylation variants in a complex genetic population over multiple generations, paving the way for understanding how methylation variants contribute to phenotypic variation. PMID:23739894

Schmitz, Robert J.; He, Yupeng; Valdés-López, Oswaldo; Khan, Saad M.; Joshi, Trupti; Urich, Mark A.; Nery, Joseph R.; Diers, Brian; Xu, Dong; Stacey, Gary; Ecker, Joseph R.

2013-01-01

151

Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity in the inbred Brown Norway and Fischer 344 rat strains.  

PubMed

We have examined the basal and the stress-induced secretion of corticosterone in relation to the expression of adrenal steroid receptors in the pituitary, hypothalamus and hippocampus of the inbred Brown Norway and Fischer 344 rat strains. Our data indicated that plasma transcortin and integrated plasma corticosterone levels were significantly higher in Fischer 344 compared to Brown Norway rats. Fischer 344 hypersecrete corticosterone during the dark phase of the diurnal cycle and during the phase of recovery following a 20 min period of restraint stress compared to Brown Norway rats. This hypersecretion of corticosterone was negatively correlated with the size of the adrenal gland but might be related to the higher density of mineralocorticoid receptors in the hippocampus of Fischer 344 rats. PMID:9585169

Sarrieau, A; Mormčde, P

1998-01-01

152

The scent of inbreeding: a male sex pheromone betrays inbred males  

PubMed Central

Inbreeding depression results from mating among genetically related individuals and impairs reproductive success. The decrease in male mating success is usually attributed to an impact on multiple fitness-related traits that reduce the general condition of inbred males. Here, we find that the production of the male sex pheromone is reduced significantly by inbreeding in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana. Other traits indicative of the general condition, including flight performance, are also negatively affected in male butterflies by inbreeding. Yet, we unambiguously show that only the production of male pheromones affects mating success. Thus, this pheromone signal informs females about the inbreeding status of their mating partners. We also identify the specific chemical component (hexadecanal) probably responsible for the decrease in male mating success. Our results advocate giving increased attention to olfactory communication as a major causal factor of mate-choice decisions and sexual selection. PMID:23466986

van Bergen, Erik; Brakefield, Paul M.; Heuskin, Stéphanie; Zwaan, Bas J.; Nieberding, Caroline M.

2013-01-01

153

Genetic Influences on Hippocampal Structure and Function in Recombinant Inbred Mice  

PubMed Central

Previously, we identified separate genetic influences on ventral versus dorsal hippocampal volume in BXD recombinant inbred mice [27]. Based on genotype at genetic markers associated with ventral hippocampal volume, we evaluated BXD mouse strains with relatively small versus large ventral hippocampal volumes using numerous behavioral paradigms known to rely upon hippocampal function and several other tasks that tap into behaviors analogous to those often impaired in schizophrenia. We observed a relationship between genotype at markers known to influence ventral hippocampal volume and working memory at an intermediate memory load. There was no association between genotype at markers known to influence ventral hippocampal volume and spatial reference memory, prepulse inhibition, or elevated plus maze performance. The relevance of these findings for understanding the pathophysiology of schizophrenia are discussed, including the possibility that genetic predisposition toward anterior hippocampal volume reductions and working memory deficits in schizophrenia may be related through a shared genetic locus. PMID:18721828

Martin, Maureen V.; Churchill, James D.; Dong, Hongxin; Wozniak, David F.; Cheverud, James M.; Csernansky, John G.

2009-01-01

154

Epigenome-wide inheritance of cytosine methylation variants in a recombinant inbred population.  

PubMed

Cytosine DNA methylation is one avenue for passing information through cell divisions. Here, we present epigenomic analyses of soybean recombinant inbred lines (RILs) and their parents. Identification of differentially methylated regions (DMRs) revealed that DMRs mostly cosegregated with the genotype from which they were derived, but examples of the uncoupling of genotype and epigenotype were identified. Linkage mapping of methylation states assessed from whole-genome bisulfite sequencing of 83 RILs uncovered widespread evidence for local methylQTL. This epigenomics approach provides a comprehensive study of the patterns and heritability of methylation variants in a complex genetic population over multiple generations, paving the way for understanding how methylation variants contribute to phenotypic variation. PMID:23739894

Schmitz, Robert J; He, Yupeng; Valdés-López, Oswaldo; Khan, Saad M; Joshi, Trupti; Urich, Mark A; Nery, Joseph R; Diers, Brian; Xu, Dong; Stacey, Gary; Ecker, Joseph R

2013-10-01

155

Selection for Heterozygosity Gives Hope to a Wild Population of Inbred Wolves  

PubMed Central

Recent analyses have questioned the usefulness of heterozygosity estimates as measures of the inbreeding coefficient (f), a finding that may have dramatic consequences for the management of endangered populations. We confirm that f and heterozygosity is poorly correlated in a wild and highly inbred wolf population. Yet, our data show that for each level of f, it was the most heterozygous wolves that established themselves as breeders, a selection process that seems to have decelerated the loss of heterozygosity in the population despite a steady increase of f. The markers contributing to the positive relationship between heterozygosity and breeding success were found to be located on different chromosomes, but there was a substantial amount of linkage disequilibrium in the population, indicating that the markers are reflecting heterozygosity over relatively wide genomic regions. Following our results we recommend that management programs of endangered populations include estimates of both f and heterozygosity, as they may contribute with complementary information about population viability. PMID:17183704

Bensch, Staffan; Andrén, Henrik; Hansson, Bengt; Pedersen, Hans Chr.; Sand, Hĺkan; Sejberg, Douglas; Wabakken, Petter; Ĺkesson, Mikael; Liberg, Olof

2006-01-01

156

Varying coefficient models for mapping quantitative trait loci using recombinant inbred intercrosses.  

PubMed

There has been a great deal of interest in the development of methodologies to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) using experimental crosses in the last 2 decades. Experimental crosses in animal and plant sciences provide important data sources for mapping QTL through linkage analysis. The Collaborative Cross (CC) is a renewable mouse resource that is generated from eight genetically diverse founder strains to mimic the genetic diversity in humans. The recombinant inbred intercrosses (RIX) generated from CC recombinant inbred (RI) lines share similar genetic structures of F(2) individuals but with up to eight alleles segregating at any one locus. In contrast to F(2) mice, genotypes of RIX can be inferred from the genotypes of their RI parents and can be produced repeatedly. Also, RIX mice typically do not share the same degree of relatedness. This unbalanced genetic relatedness requires careful statistical modeling to avoid false-positive findings. Many quantitative traits are inherently complex with genetic effects varying with other covariates, such as age. For such complex traits, if phenotype data can be collected over a wide range of ages across study subjects, their dynamic genetic patterns can be investigated. Parametric functions, such as sigmoidal or logistic functions, have been used for such purpose. In this article, we propose a flexible nonparametric time-varying coefficient QTL mapping method for RIX data. Our method allows the QTL effects to evolve with time and naturally extends classical parametric QTL mapping methods. We model the varying genetic effects nonparametrically with the B-spline bases. Our model investigates gene-by-time interactions for RIX data in a very flexible nonparametric fashion. Simulation results indicate that the varying coefficient QTL mapping has higher power and mapping precision compared to parametric models when the assumption of constant genetic effects fails. We also apply a modified permutation procedure to control overall significance level. PMID:22345613

Gong, Yi; Zou, Fei

2012-02-01

157

Variation and genetic control of gene expression in primary immunocytes across inbred mouse strains.  

PubMed

To determine the breadth and underpinning of changes in immunocyte gene expression due to genetic variation in mice, we performed, as part of the Immunological Genome Project, gene expression profiling for CD4(+) T cells and neutrophils purified from 39 inbred strains of the Mouse Phenome Database. Considering both cell types, a large number of transcripts showed significant variation across the inbred strains, with 22% of the transcriptome varying by 2-fold or more. These included 119 loci with apparent complete loss of function, where the corresponding transcript was not expressed in some of the strains, representing a useful resource of "natural knockouts." We identified 1222 cis-expression quantitative trait loci (cis-eQTL) that control some of this variation. Most (60%) cis-eQTLs were shared between T cells and neutrophils, but a significant portion uniquely impacted one of the cell types, suggesting cell type-specific regulatory mechanisms. Using a conditional regression algorithm, we predicted regulatory interactions between transcription factors and potential targets, and we demonstrated that these predictions overlap with regulatory interactions inferred from transcriptional changes during immunocyte differentiation. Finally, comparison of these and parallel data from CD4(+) T cells of healthy humans demonstrated intriguing similarities in variability of a gene's expression: the most variable genes tended to be the same in both species, and there was an overlap in genes subject to strong cis-acting genetic variants. We speculate that this "conservation of variation" reflects a differential constraint on intraspecies variation in expression levels of different genes, either through lower pressure for some genes, or by favoring variability for others. PMID:25267973

Mostafavi, Sara; Ortiz-Lopez, Adriana; Bogue, Molly A; Hattori, Kimie; Pop, Cristina; Koller, Daphne; Mathis, Diane; Benoist, Christophe

2014-11-01

158

Autotomy behavior correlates with the DRG and spinal expression of sodium channels in inbred mouse strains.  

PubMed

Patients who have suffered nerve injury show profound inter-individual variability in neuropathic pain even when the precipitating injury is nearly identical. Variability in pain behavior is also observed across inbred strains of mice where it has been attributed to genetic polymorphisms. Identification of cellular correlates of pain variability across strains can advance the understanding of underlying pain mechanisms. Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) play a major role in the generation and propagation of action potentials in the primary afferents and are therefore of obvious importance for pain phenotype. Here, we examined the mRNA expression levels of the VGSC alpha-subunits Na(v)1.3, Na(v)1.5, Na(v)1.6, and Na(v)1.7, as well as the auxiliary VGSC-related molecule, Contactin. Dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and spinal cords from 5 inbred mouse strains with contrasting pain phenotype (AKR/J, C3H/HeJ, C57BL/6J, C58/J and CBA/J) were analyzed 7 days following sciatic and saphenous nerve transection. In the DRG, Na(v)1.6, Na(v)1.7 and Contactin were abundantly expressed in control animals. Following nerve injury, the residual mRNA levels of Na(v)1.6 (downregulated in two of the strains) correlated tightly to the extent of autotomy behavior. A suggestive correlation was also seen for the post-injury mRNA levels of Contactin (downregulated in all strains) with autotomy. Thus, our results suggest a contribution by DRG Na(v)1.6, and possibly Contactin to neuropathic pain in the neuroma model in mice. PMID:19524556

Persson, Anna-Karin; Thun, Jonas; Xu, Xiao-Jun; Wiesenfeld-Hallin, Zsuzsanna; Ström, Mikael; Devor, Marshall; Lidman, Olle; Fried, Kaj

2009-08-18

159

Comparison of inbred mouse substrains reveals segregation of maladaptive fear phenotypes.  

PubMed

Maladaptive fear, such as fear that is persistent or easily generalized to a nonthreatening stimuli, is associated with anxiety-related disorders in humans. In the laboratory, maladaptive fear can be modeled in rodents using Pavlovian fear conditioning. Recently, an inbred mouse strain known as 129S1/SvImJ, or 129S1 has been reported as exhibiting impairments in fear extinction and enhanced fear generalization. With a long-term goal of identifying segregating genetic markers of maladaptive fear, we used Pavlovian fear conditioning to characterize a closely related substrain designated as 129S6/SvEvTac, or 129S6. Here we report that, like 129S1 animals, 129S6 mice exhibit appropriate levels of fear upon conditioning, but are unable to extinguish fear memories once they are consolidated. Importantly, the maladaptive fear phenotype in this inbred stain can be segregated by sub-strain when probed using conditioning protocols designed to assess generalized fear. We find that unlike the 129S1 substrain, mice from the 129S6 sub-strain do not generalize conditioned fear to previously novel contexts and can learn to discriminate between two similar contexts when trained using a discrimination protocol. These results suggest that at least two forms of maladaptive fear (deficits in fear extinction and fear generalization) can be can be functionally segregated, further suggesting that the underlying neurobiology is heritable. Given the observation that two closely related sub-strains can exhibit different constellations of maladaptive fear suggests that these findings could be exploited to facilitate the identification of candidate genes for anxiety-related disorders. PMID:25191238

Temme, Stephanie J; Bell, Ryan Z; Pahumi, Reciton; Murphy, Geoffrey G

2014-01-01

160

Partial short-read sequencing of a highly inbred Iberian pig and genomics inference thereof  

PubMed Central

Despite dramatic reduction in sequencing costs with the advent of next generation sequencing technologies, obtaining a complete mammalian genome sequence at sufficient depth is still costly. An alternative is partial sequencing. Here, we have sequenced a reduced representation library of an Iberian sow from the Guadyerbas strain, a highly inbred strain that has been used in numerous QTL studies because of its extreme phenotypic characteristics. Using the Illumina Genome Analyzer II (San Diego, CA, USA), we resequenced ?1% of the genome with average 4 × depth, identifying 68?778 polymorphisms. Of these, 55?457 were putative fixed differences with respect to the assembly, based on the genome of a Duroc pig, and 13?321 were heterozygous positions within Guadyerbas. Despite being highly inbred, the estimate of heterozygosity within Guadyerbas was ?0.78?kb?1 in autosomes, after correcting for low depth. Nucleotide variability was consistently higher at the telomeric regions than on the rest of the chromosome, likely a result of increased recombination rates. Further, variability was 50% lower in the X-chromosome than in autosomes, which may be explained by a recent bottleneck or by selection. We divided the whole genome in 500?kb windows and we analyzed overrepresented gene ontology terms in regions of low and high variability. Multi organism process, pigmentation and cell killing were overrepresented in high variability regions and metabolic process ontology, within low variability regions. Further, a genome wide Hudson–Kreitman–Aguadé test was carried out per window; overall, variability was in agreement with neutral expectations. PMID:21407255

Esteve-Codina, A; Kofler, R; Himmelbauer, H; Ferretti, L; Vivancos, A P; Groenen, M A M; Folch, J M; Rodríguez, M C; Pérez-Enciso, M

2011-01-01

161

Comparison of inbred mouse substrains reveals segregation of maladaptive fear phenotypes  

PubMed Central

Maladaptive fear, such as fear that is persistent or easily generalized to a nonthreatening stimuli, is associated with anxiety-related disorders in humans. In the laboratory, maladaptive fear can be modeled in rodents using Pavlovian fear conditioning. Recently, an inbred mouse strain known as 129S1/SvImJ, or 129S1 has been reported as exhibiting impairments in fear extinction and enhanced fear generalization. With a long-term goal of identifying segregating genetic markers of maladaptive fear, we used Pavlovian fear conditioning to characterize a closely related substrain designated as 129S6/SvEvTac, or 129S6. Here we report that, like 129S1 animals, 129S6 mice exhibit appropriate levels of fear upon conditioning, but are unable to extinguish fear memories once they are consolidated. Importantly, the maladaptive fear phenotype in this inbred stain can be segregated by sub-strain when probed using conditioning protocols designed to assess generalized fear. We find that unlike the 129S1 substrain, mice from the 129S6 sub-strain do not generalize conditioned fear to previously novel contexts and can learn to discriminate between two similar contexts when trained using a discrimination protocol. These results suggest that at least two forms of maladaptive fear (deficits in fear extinction and fear generalization) can be can be functionally segregated, further suggesting that the underlying neurobiology is heritable. Given the observation that two closely related sub-strains can exhibit different constellations of maladaptive fear suggests that these findings could be exploited to facilitate the identification of candidate genes for anxiety-related disorders. PMID:25191238

Temme, Stephanie J.; Bell, Ryan Z.; Pahumi, Reciton; Murphy, Geoffrey G.

2014-01-01

162

Genetic analysis in a variant of limb girdle muscular dystrophy in an inbred aboriginal community  

SciTech Connect

Limb girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) is a heterogeneous group of disorders with variable inheritance patterns, age-of-onset, rates of progression and patterns of muscle involvement. To date, 4 different chromosomal assignments have been described; LGMD1 to chromosome 5q, LGMD2 to chromosome 15q, SCARMD to chromosome 13q and a fourth locus on chromosome 2p. Because of this genetic heterogeneity, only large unambiguous multiplex families which are clearly linked to a particular locus can be utilized in a genetic analysis. We now report preliminary findings in a large highly inbred aboriginal kindred with 8 probands (5 females, 3 males) from 6 nuclear families with a progressive LMD. All presented in their mid- to late teens with gait disturbances. At time of presentation all except one had both proximal as well as distal muscle involvement, facial muscle sparing, CK levels 25 to 100 times normal (3762-20,400 U/l), dystrophic muscle biopsies and normal dystrophin and dystrophin-associated glycoprotein expression. We have studied the segregation of highly informative microsatellite markers for FBN1, D15S132 and the gene for thrombospondin on chromosome 15q and D2S134, D2S136, D2S147, and D2S166 on chromosome 2. Linkage to chromosome 15q has been excluded and two-point lod scores are not significant as yet to either confirm or exclude linkage to chromosome 2p. However, visual inspection reveals that affected individuals are not consistently homozygous for the chromosome 2p markers as would be predicted in such an inbred population. Clinically, SCARMD is unlikely and if the locus on chromosomes 2p and 5q can also be excluded, a genome-wide search using evenly spaced microsatellites will be initiated. A second geographically distinct aboriginal kindred with a similar clinical phenotype has now also been identified.

Greenberg, C.R.; Nylen, E.G.; Halliday, W. [Univ. of Manitoba, Winnipeg (Canada)] [and others

1994-09-01

163

Predicting the outcome of infectious diseases: variability among inbred mice as a new and powerful tool for biomarker discovery.  

PubMed

Individuals respond differently to infectious diseases. Even among inbred mice that are presumed to be genetically identical, the response to a microbial pathogen is variable, which is generally thought to reflect experimental inconsistencies, technical errors, and stochastic processes. Here we describe the remarkable observation that the variability of Helicobacter pylori colonization density in the stomachs of experimentally infected C57BL/6J mice is tightly correlated with weight loss and viral load after a challenge with influenza virus, though H. pylori infection per se does not affect influenza and vice versa. Since these two infectious agents are found in different tissue compartments and are detected using unrelated methods, the correlation in microbial burden must represent a biological measure of disease susceptibility among genetically nearly identical individuals and not technical or stochastic factors. We hypothesize that inbred mice represent a powerful new tool for the identification of biomarkers to predict the outcome of infectious diseases. PMID:23073762

Martin, Miriam E; Dieter, Jacquelyn A; Luo, Zheng; Baumgarth, Nicole; Solnick, Jay V

2012-01-01

164

Predicting the Outcome of Infectious Diseases: Variability among Inbred Mice as a New and Powerful Tool for Biomarker Discovery  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Individuals respond differently to infectious diseases. Even among inbred mice that are presumed to be genetically identical, the response to a microbial pathogen is variable, which is generally thought to reflect experimental inconsistencies, technical errors, and stochastic processes. Here we describe the remarkable observation that the variability of Helicobacter pylori colonization density in the stomachs of experimentally infected C57BL/6J mice is tightly correlated with weight loss and viral load after a challenge with influenza virus, though H. pylori infection per se does not affect influenza and vice versa. Since these two infectious agents are found in different tissue compartments and are detected using unrelated methods, the correlation in microbial burden must represent a biological measure of disease susceptibility among genetically nearly identical individuals and not technical or stochastic factors. We hypothesize that inbred mice represent a powerful new tool for the identification of biomarkers to predict the outcome of infectious diseases. PMID:23073762

Martin, Miriam E.; Dieter, Jacquelyn A.; Luo, Zheng; Baumgarth, Nicole; Solnick, Jay V.

2012-01-01

165

Reward-related behavioral paradigms for addiction research in the mouse: performance of common inbred strains.  

PubMed

The mouse has emerged as a uniquely valuable species for studying the molecular and genetic basis of complex behaviors and modeling neuropsychiatric disease states. While valid and reliable preclinical assays for reward-related behaviors are critical to understanding addiction-related processes, and various behavioral procedures have been developed and characterized in rats and primates, there have been relatively few studies using operant-based addiction-relevant behavioral paradigms in the mouse. Here we describe the performance of the C57BL/6J inbred mouse strain on three major reward-related paradigms, and replicate the same procedures in two other commonly used inbred strains (DBA/2J, BALB/cJ). We examined Pavlovian-instrumental transfer (PIT) by measuring the ability of an auditory cue associated with food reward to promote an instrumental (lever press) response. In a separate experiment, we assessed the acquisition and extinction of a simple stimulus-reward instrumental behavior on a touch screen based task. Reinstatement of this behavior was then examined following either continuous exposure to cues (conditioned reinforcers, CRs) associated with reward, brief reward and CR exposure, or brief reward exposure followed by continuous CR exposure. The third paradigm examined sensitivity of an instrumental (lever press) response to devaluation of food reward (a probe for outcome insensitive, habitual behavior) by repeated pairing with malaise. Results showed that C57BL/6J mice displayed robust PIT, as well as clear extinction and reinstatement, but were insensitive to reinforcer devaluation. DBA/2J mice showed good PIT and (rewarded) reinstatement, but were slow to extinguish and did not show reinforcer devaluation or significant CR-reinstatement. BALB/cJ mice also displayed good PIT, extinction and reinstatement, and retained instrumental responding following devaluation, but, unlike the other strains, demonstrated reduced Pavlovian approach behavior (food magazine head entries). Overall, these assays provide robust paradigms for future studies using the mouse to elucidate the neural, molecular and genetic factors underpinning reward-related behaviors relevant to addiction research. PMID:21249214

Lederle, Lauren; Weber, Susanna; Wright, Tara; Feyder, Michael; Brigman, Jonathan L; Crombag, Hans S; Saksida, Lisa M; Bussey, Timothy J; Holmes, Andrew

2011-01-01

166

Percolation theory relates corticocancellous architecture to mechanical function in vertebrae of inbred mouse strains  

PubMed Central

Complex corticocancellous skeletal sites such as the vertebra or proximal femur are connected networks of bone capable of transferring mechanical loads. Characterizing these structures as networks may allow us to quantify the load transferring behavior of the emergent system as a function of the connected cortical and trabecular components. By defining the relationship between certain physical bone traits and mechanical load transfer pathways, a clearer picture of the genetic determinants of skeletal fragility can be developed. We tested the hypothesis that the measures provided by network percolation theory will reveal that different combinations of cortical, trabecular, and compositional traits lead to significantly different load transfer pathways within the vertebral bodies among inbred mouse strains. Gross morphologic, micro-architectural, and compositional traits of L5 vertebrae from 15 week old A/J (A), C57BL6/J (B6), and C3H/HeJ (C3H) inbred mice (n=10/strain) were determined using micro-computed tomography. Measures included total cross-sectional area, bone volume fraction, trabecular number, thickness, spacing, cortical area, and tissue mineral density. Two-dimensional coronal sections were converted to network graphs with the cortical shell considered as one highly connected node. Percolation parameters including correlation length (average number of connected nodes between superior and inferior surfaces), chemical length (minimum number of connected nodes between surfaces), and backbone mass (strut number) were measured. Analysis of the topology of the connected bone networks showed that A and B6 mice transfer load through trabecular pathways in the middle of the vertebral body in addition to the cortical shell. C3H mice transfer load primarily through the highly mineralized cortical shell. Thus, the measures provided by percolation theory provide a quantitative approach to study how different combinations of cortical and trabecular traits lead to mechanically functional structures. The data further emphasize the interdependent nature of these physical bone traits suggesting similar genetic variants may affect both trabecular and cortical bone. Therefore, developing a network approach to study corticocancellous architecture during growth should further our understanding of the biological basis of skeletal fragility and, thus, provide novel engineering approaches to studying the genetic basis of fracture risk. PMID:18258502

Tommasini, Steven M.; Wearne, Susan L.; Hof, Patrick R.; Jepsen, Karl J.

2009-01-01

167

Copy-number dependent transpositions and excisions of the mdg-1 mobile element in inbred lines of Drosophila melanogaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chromosomal location of the mobile element mdg-1 was studied in 17 highly-inbred lines of Drosophila melanogaster. Although some lines were stable for their pattern of insertion sites from the 15th to the 27th and 35th brother–sister generations, others showed a high rate of gain of new insertion sites or a high rate of excision (loss of elements). In one

C Biémont; A Aouar

1987-01-01

168

Identification of genetically homozygous rapid and slow acetylators of drugs and environmental carcinogens among established inbred rabbit strains  

SciTech Connect

Liver and gut mucosa N-acetyltransferase (NAT) cytosol (105,000 x g) was prepared from selected lines of New Zealand White rapid and slow acetylator rabbits bred and housed at the University of Michigan, and from inbred and partially inbred rabbits obtained from The Jackson Laboratory. Liver NAT activity was determined with p-aminobenzoic acid, p-aminosalicylic acid, procainamide, sulfamethazine, isoniazid and 2-aminofluorene as substrates. Gut mucosal NAT activity was determined with 2-aminofluorene. A gene dose-response relationship was observed for both liver NAT and gut mucosa NAT with all substrates tested. Highest levels were always observed in homozygous rapid acetylator inbred strains (B/J, III/J, IIIC/J, III/DwJ, IIIEP/J and IIIVO/J), lower levels in obligate heterozygous rapid acetylator rabbits and lowest levels in homozygous slow acetylator inbred (ACEP/J, III/cdJ, IIIVO/ahJ, and IIIVO/vptJ) and outbred rabbits. The differences in magnitude of liver NAT activity level between acetylator genotypes was dependent on the substrate employed, progressively increasing in the following order: p-aminobenzoic acid, p-aminosalicyclic acid, procainamide, sulfamethazine, isoniazid, 2-aminofluorene. The determination of kinetic constants for liver p-aminosalicyclic acid NAT activity indicated a 2-fold difference in apparent Vmax between rapid acetylator genotypes and a 30-fold difference between rapid and slow acetylator phenotypes. In addition, the apparent Km for p-aminosalicyclic acid was significantly lower in the slow acetylators than in the rapid acetylators.

Hein, D.W.; Smolen, T.N.; Fox, R.R.; Weber, W.W.

1982-10-01

169

Identification of genetically homozygous rapid and slow acetylators of drugs and environmental carcinogens among established inbred rabbit strains.  

PubMed

Liver and gut mucosa N-acetyltransferase (NAT) cytosol (105,000 x g) was prepared from selected lines of New Zealand White rapid and slow acetylator rabbits bred and housed at the University of Michigan, and from inbred and partially inbred rabbits obtained from The Jackson Laboratory. Liver NAT activity was determined with p-aminobenzoic acid, p-aminosalicyclic acid, procainamide, sulfamethazine, isoniazid and 2-aminofluorene as substrates. Gut mucosal NAT activity was determined with 2-aminofluorene. A gene dose-response relationship was observed for both liver NAT and gut mucosa NAT with all substrates tested. Highest levels were always observed in homozygous rapid acetylator inbred strains (B/J, III/J, IIIC/J, III/DwJ, IIIEP/J and IIIVO/J), lower levels in obligate heterozygous rapid acetylator rabbits and lowest levels in homozygous slow acetylator inbred (ACEP/J, III/cdJ, IIIVO/ahJ, and IIIVO/vptJ) and outbred rabbits. The differences in magnitude of liver NAT activity level between acetylator genotypes was dependent on the substrate employed, progressively increasing in the following order: p-aminobenzoic acid, p-aminosalicyclic acid, procainamide, sulfamethazine, isoniazid, 2-aminofluorene. The determination of kinetic constants for liver p-aminosalicyclic acid NAT activity indicated a 2-fold difference in apparent Vmax between rapid acetylator genotypes and a 30-fold difference between rapid and slow acetylator phenotypes. In addition, the apparent Km for p-aminosalicyclic acid was significantly lower in the slow acetylators than in the rapid acetylators. PMID:7120125

Hein, D W; Smolen, T N; Fox, R R; Weber, W W

1982-10-01

170

SKHIN/Sprd, a new genetically defined inbred hairless mouse strain for UV-induced skin carcinogenesis studies  

PubMed Central

Strains of mice vary in their susceptibility to ultra-violet (UV) radiation-induced skin tumors. Some strains of hairless mice (homozygous for the spontaneous Hrhr mutation) are particularly susceptible to these tumors. The skin tumors that develop in hairless mice resemble, both at the morphologic and molecular levels, UV-induced squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) and their precursors in human. The most commonly employed hairless mice belong to the SKH1 stock. However, these mice are outbred and their genetic background is not characterized, which makes them a poor model for genetic studies. We have developed a new inbred strain from outbred SKH1 mice that we named SKHIN/Sprd (now at generation F31). In order to characterize the genetic background of this new strain, we genotyped a cohort of mice at F30 with 92 microsatellites and 140 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) evenly distributed throughout the mouse genome. We also exposed SKHIN/Sprd mice to chronic UV irradiation and showed that they are as susceptible to UV-induced skin carcinogenesis as outbred SKH1 mice. In addition, we proved that, albeit with low efficiency, inbred SKHIN/Sprd mice are suitable for transgenic production by classical pronuclear microinjection. This new inbred strain will be useful for the development of transgenic and congenic strains on a hairless inbred background as well as the establishment of syngeneic tumor cell lines. These new tools can potentially help elucidate a number of features of the cutaneous response to UV irradiation in humans, including the effect of genetic background and modifier genes. PMID:22379968

Perez, Carlos; Parker-Thornburg, Jan; Mikulec, Carol; Kusewitt, Donna F.; Fischer, Susan M.; DiGiovanni, John; Conti, Claudio J.; Benavides, Fernando

2013-01-01

171

Genetic mapping and QTL analysis of fruit and flower related traits in cucumber ( Cucumis sativus L.) using recombinant inbred lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of 224 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a narrow cross between two fresh eaten types (S94 (Northern China\\u000a type) × S06 (Northern European type)) (Cucumis sativus L.) was used to construct a genetic linkage map. With the RILs a 257-point genetic map was constructed including 206 SRAPs,\\u000a 22 SSRs, 25 SCARs, 1 STS, and three economically important morphological markers

X. J. Yuan; J. S. Pan; R. Cai; Y. Guan; L. Z. Liu; W. W. Zhang; Z. Li; H. L. He; C. Zhang; L. T. Si; L. H. Zhu

2008-01-01

172

Impaired Vasorelaxation in Inbred Mice Is Associated with Alterations in Both Nitric Oxide and Super Oxide Pathways  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, we showed that genetic factors determine flow-dependent vascular remodeling. Among five inbred mouse strains, the SJL strain developed the largest intima in response to low flow. Because SJL mice have a spontaneous mutation in superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD-2) we tested the hypothesis that strain-specific variations in vascular function are due to alterations in redox and nitric oxide (NO) pathways.

Chun Chen; Vyacheslav A. Korshunov; Michael P. Massett; Chen Yan; Bradford C. Berk

2007-01-01

173

Identification of QTLs affecting traits of agronomic importance in a recombinant inbred population derived from a subspecific rice cross  

Microsoft Academic Search

To detect QTLs controlling traits of agronomic importance in rice, two elite homozygous lines 9024 and LH422, which represent the indica and japonica subspecies of rice (Oryza sativa), were crossed. Subsequently a modified single-seed-descent procedure was employed to produce 194 recombinant inbred lines (F8). The 194 lines were genotyped at 141 RFLP marker loci and evaluated in a field trial

J. Xiao; J. Li; L. Yuan; S. D. Tanksley

1996-01-01

174

Genetic mapping of new cotton fiber loci using EST-derived microsatellites in an interspecific recombinant inbred line cotton population  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an immediate need for a high-density genetic map of cotton anchored with fiber genes to facilitate marker-assisted\\u000a selection (MAS) for improved fiber traits. With this goal in mind, genetic mapping with a new set of microsatellite markers\\u000a [comprising both simple (SSR) and complex (CSR) sequence repeat markers] was performed on 183 recombinant inbred lines (RILs)\\u000a developed from the

Young-Hoon Park; Magdy S. Alabady; Mauricio Ulloa; Brad Sickler; Thea A. Wilkins; John Yu; David M. Stelly; Russell J. Kohel; Osama M. El-Shihy; Roy G. Cantrell

2005-01-01

175

Expression characteristics of heat shock protein genes in two comparable inbred lines of Chinese cabbage, Chiifu and Kenshin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat-shock proteins (HSPs) and heat-shock transcription factors (HSFs) are central components of the heat-shock regulatory\\u000a network and are involved in cellular responses to various forms of stresses. To examine the differences in heat shock responses\\u000a (HSRs) of two comparable inbred lines of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa), 51 genes were selected from 130,000 Brassica rapa ESTs that belong to an HSF

Jeongyeo Lee; Hayoung Song; Ching-Tack Han; Yong Pyo Lim; Sang-Min Chung; Yoonkang Hur

2010-01-01

176

Individual differences in behavior of inbred Lewis rats are associated with severity of joint destruction in adjuvant-induced arthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of our study was to test the hypothesis that differences in behavioral characteristics are linked to severity of arthritis in association with neuro-endocrine and immune reactivity in an inbred strain of rats. Lewis rats were selected as high-active (HA) and low-active (LA) animals based on their exploratory activity in the open field. Subsequently, adjuvant-arthritis (AA) was induced in

Enikö Sajti; Nico van Meeteren; Annemieke Kavelaars; Janjaap van der Net; Willem Hendrik Gispen; Cobi Heijnen

2004-01-01

177

Genetic analysis of bread-making quality scores in bread wheat using a recombinant inbred line population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bread-making quality has been evaluated in a progeny of 194 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from the cross between the two\\u000a French cultivars Récital and Renan, cultivated in three environments. These cultivars have been previously identified as having\\u000a contrasting grain protein content and dough rheology properties, although they achieve similar scores for the official bread-making\\u000a test used for cultivar registration in

C. Groos; E. Bervas; E. Chanliaud; G. Charmet

2007-01-01

178

Genetic Architecture of Maize Kernel Composition in the Nested Association Mapping and Inbred Association Panels1[W  

PubMed Central

The maize (Zea mays) kernel plays a critical role in feeding humans and livestock around the world and in a wide array of industrial applications. An understanding of the regulation of kernel starch, protein, and oil is needed in order to manipulate composition to meet future needs. We conducted joint-linkage quantitative trait locus mapping and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for kernel starch, protein, and oil in the maize nested association mapping population, composed of 25 recombinant inbred line families derived from diverse inbred lines. Joint-linkage mapping revealed that the genetic architecture of kernel composition traits is controlled by 21–26 quantitative trait loci. Numerous GWAS associations were detected, including several oil and starch associations in acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase1-2, a gene that regulates oil composition and quantity. Results from nested association mapping were verified in a 282 inbred association panel using both GWAS and candidate gene association approaches. We identified many beneficial alleles that will be useful for improving kernel starch, protein, and oil content. PMID:22135431

Cook, Jason P.; McMullen, Michael D.; Holland, James B.; Tian, Feng; Bradbury, Peter; Ross-Ibarra, Jeffrey; Buckler, Edward S.; Flint-Garcia, Sherry A.

2012-01-01

179

[Construction of a genetic map of sunflower using a population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs)].  

PubMed

A genetic linkage map of sunflower was constructed by combined applying the SSR and AFLP markers using 187 F5:6 individuals of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) which derived from the cross between Helianthus annuus K55 and Helianthus annuus K58 through single-seed descent (SSD). Using 78 pairs of SSR primers and 48 pairs of AFLP primer, 341 and 1119 bands were amplified, respectively. Among these 1460 bands, 557 bands (39.52%) were polymorphic, including 184 bands by SSR markers and 393 bands by AFLP markers. In the group of these polymorphic bands, 84 bands from SSR markers and 108 bands from AFLP markers showed the genetic distortion (P = 0.05). A total of 192 segregation distortion markers were obtained in this study. By using the JoinMap 4.0 software to do the linkage analysis, a genetic linkage map was established with length of 2759.4 cM, consisted of 17 linkage groups, and comprised of 495 polymorphic molecular markers including 170 segregation distortion markers. The mean marker interval distance is 5.57 cM between markers. In addition, the number of markers in the linkage groups varied from 5 to 72, and the length of linkage groups were from 68.88 cM to 250.17 cM. The genetic map developed in the present study could be used for QTL mapping and gene cloning of sunflower important genes. PMID:25406252

Zhang, Yonghu; Yu, Haifeng; Hou, Jianhua; Li, Suping; Lv, Pin; Yu, Zhixian

2014-10-01

180

Naturally arising tumors of the inbred WAB/Not rat strain. II. Immunogenicity of transplanted tumors  

SciTech Connect

The immunogenicity of 28 transplanted naturally arising tumors of the inbred WAB/Not rat was investigated at early passages in strictly syngeneic, contemporary animals. Included were nephroblastomas, histologically benign and malignant mammary tumors, soft tissue and skin tumors, 1 lymphoid tumor, and 2 gastrointestinal lesions. In no case was evidence of immunogenicity observed when animals were treated with multiple grafts of irradiated (15,000 rad) tissue or by excision of a growing tumor. A few of these tumors were further investigated by other methods of immunization, including injection at various sites of irradiated cells followed by challenge at different sites and multiple injections of mitomycin C- or Formalin-treated cells. Again no evidence of immunogenicity was seen. Attempts to immunize with viable cells mixed with BCG or Corynebacterium parvum failed due to lack of tumor suppression by these agents. Limited concomitant immunity experiments yielded similarly negative results, except in one case of a fibrosarcoma for which a slight reduction in second tumor growth was observed when primary implants were very large. Some alterations in biologic properties during transplant passage and the incidence of postexcision recurrence and metastatic spread of some of the tumors are described.

Middle, J.G.; Embleton, M.J.

1981-09-01

181

Bone Morphology in 46 BXD Recombinant Inbred Strains and Femur-Tibia Correlation  

PubMed Central

We examined the bone properties of BXD recombinant inbred (RI) mice by analyzing femur and tibia and compared their phenotypes of different compartments. 46 BXD RI mouse strains were analyzed including progenitor C57BL/6J (n = 16) and DBA/2J (n = 15) and two first filial generations (D2B6F1 and B6D2F1). Strain differences were observed in bone quality and structural properties (P < 0.05) in each bone profile (whole bone, cortical bone, or trabecular bone). It is well known that skeletal phenotypes are largely affected by genetic determinants and genders, such as bone mineral density (BMD). While genetics and gender appear expectedly as the major determinants of bone mass and structure, significant correlations were also observed between femur and tibia. More importantly, positive and negative femur-tibia associations indicated that genetic makeup had an influence on skeletal integrity. We conclude that (a) femur-tibia association in bone morphological properties significantly varies from strain to strain, which may be caused by genetic differences among strains, and (b) strainwise variations were seen in bone mass, bone morphology, and bone microarchitecture along with bone structural property.

Zhang, Yueying; Lu, Lu; Hasty, Karen A.

2015-01-01

182

NKX2-5 Mutations in an Inbred Consanguineous Population: Genetic and Phenotypic Diversity  

PubMed Central

NKX2-5 mutations are associated with different forms of congenital heart disease. Despite the knowledge gained from molecular and animal studies, genotype-phenotype correlations in humans are limited by the lack of large cohorts and the incomplete assessment of family members. We hypothesized that studying the role of NKX2-5 in inbred populations with homogeneous genetic backgrounds and high consanguinity rates such as Lebanon could help closing this gap. We sequenced NKX2-5 in 188 index CHD cases (25 with ASD). Five variants (three segregated in families) were detected in eleven families including the previously documented p.R25C variant, which was found in seven patients from different families, and in one healthy individual. In 3/5 familial dominant ASD cases, we identified an NKX2-5 mutation. In addition to the heterogeneity of NKX2-5 mutations, a diversity of phenotypes occurred within the families with predominant ASD and AV block. We did in fact identify a large prevalence of Sudden Cardiac Death (SCD) in families with truncating mutations, and two patients with coronary sinus disease. NKX2-5 is thus responsible for dominant familial ASD even in consanguineous populations, and a wide genetic and phenotypic diversity is characteristic of NKX2-5 mutations in the Lebanese population. PMID:25742962

Abou Hassan, Ossama K.; Fahed, Akl C.; Batrawi, Manal; Arabi, Mariam; Refaat, Marwan M.; DePalma, Steven R.; Seidman, J. G.; Seidman, Christine E.; Bitar, Fadi F.; Nemer, Georges M.

2015-01-01

183

Liver Oxidative Stress after Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury is Leukocyte Dependent in Inbred Mice  

PubMed Central

Objective(s) There are some reports in recent years indicating that renal ischemia – reperfusion (IR) induces deleterious changes in remote organs such as liver. The aim of this study was to investigate whether leukocytes have a role on the induction of oxidative stress in liver after renal IR. Materials and Methods Inbred mice in IR donor group were subjected to renal IR injury. In sham donor group the procedure was almost the same except that ischemia was not induced. Then, mice were anesthetized and blood was collected. Leukocytes were isolated from donor groups and were then transferred to intact recipient mice (from IR donor mice to IR recipient mice and from sham donor mice to sham recipient mice). Results After 24 hr, hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities decreased significantly in recipient mice that received leukocytes from IR donor mice in comparison to recipient mice received leukocytes from sham donor mice. Conclusion These findings indicate that leukocytes are one of the mediators that induce hepatic oxidative stress after renal IR. PMID:23493418

Khastar, Hossein; Kadkhodaee, Mehri; Sadeghipour, Hamid reza; Seifi, Behjat; Hadjati, Jamshid; Najafi, Atefeh; Soleimani, Manoocher

2011-01-01

184

Beta-endorphin differentially affects inflammation in two inbred rat strains.  

PubMed

It has been shown that inflammation of rat paws elicits accumulation of opioid peptide beta-endorphin-containing immune cells in the inflamed subcutaneous tissue, contributing to immunocyte-produced pain suppression. However, the possible mechanisms involved in the pharmacological application of beta-endorphin in rat paw inflammation have not been investigated. The present study was set up to explore the effects of intraplantar injection of beta-endorphin on Concanavalin A-induced paw edema in two inbred rat strains, Albino Oxford (AO) and Dark Agouti (DA). Both high dose-induced suppression and low dose-induced potentiation of edema development in AO and DA rats, respectively, were blocked with antagonists specific for delta (naltrindole) and kappa (nor-binaltorphimine) opioid receptors. beta-endorphin in vitro decreased phagocytosis and increased nitric oxide (NO) production in air pouch granulocytes obtained from AO rats. However, in cells from DA rat strain beta-endorphin modulated both phagocytosis and NO production in a concentration-dependent manner. It could be concluded that the strain-dependent opposing effects of beta-endorphin on paw inflammation are mediated through delta and kappa opioid receptors and probably involve changes in the production of reactive oxygen species by inflammatory cells. Our results point to the importance of genotype for pharmacological manipulations and the development of inflammation. PMID:16978600

Stanojevi?, Stanislava; Miti?, Katarina; Vuji?, Vesna; Kovacevi?-Jovanovi?, Vesna; Dimitrijevi?, Mirjana

2006-11-01

185

Inheritance of Nitrogen Use Efficiency in Inbred Progenies of Tropical Maize Based on Multivariate Diallel Analysis  

PubMed Central

The objective of our study was to characterize and determine the patterns of genetic control in relation to tolerance and efficiency of nitrogen use by means of a complete diallel cross involving contrasting inbred progenies of tropical maize based on a univariate approach within the perspective of a multivariate mixed model. Eleven progenies, previously classified regarding the tolerance and responsiveness to nitrogen, were crossed in a complete diallel cross. Fifty-five hybrids were obtained. The hybrids and the progenies were evaluated at two different nitrogen levels, in two locations. The grain yield was measured as well as its yield components. The heritability values between the higher and lower nitrogen input environment did not differ among themselves. It was observed that the general combining ability values were similar for both approaches univariate and multivariate, when it was analyzed within each location and nitrogen level. The estimate of variance of the specific combining ability was higher than general combining ability estimate and the ratio between them was 0.54. The univariate and multivariate approaches are equivalent in experiments with good precision and high heritability. The nonadditive genetic effects exhibit greater quantities than the additive genetic effects for the genetic control of nitrogen use efficiency. PMID:25587575

Guedes, Fernando Lisboa; Diniz, Rafael Parreira; Balestre, Marcio; Ribeiro, Camila Bastos; Camargos, Renato Barbosa; Souza, Joăo Cândido

2014-01-01

186

Cardiovascular Response to Beta-Adrenergic Blockade or Activation in 23 Inbred Mouse Strains  

PubMed Central

We report the characterisation of 27 cardiovascular-related traits in 23 inbred mouse strains. Mice were phenotyped either in response to chronic administration of a single dose of the ?-adrenergic receptor blocker atenolol or under a low and a high dose of the ?-agonist isoproterenol and compared to baseline condition. The robustness of our data is supported by high trait heritabilities (typically H2>0.7) and significant correlations of trait values measured in baseline condition with independent multistrain datasets of the Mouse Phenome Database. We then focused on the drug-, dose-, and strain-specific responses to ?-stimulation and ?-blockade of a selection of traits including heart rate, systolic blood pressure, cardiac weight indices, ECG parameters and body weight. Because of the wealth of data accumulated, we applied integrative analyses such as comprehensive bi-clustering to investigate the structure of the response across the different phenotypes, strains and experimental conditions. Information extracted from these analyses is discussed in terms of novelty and biological implications. For example, we observe that traits related to ventricular weight in most strains respond only to the high dose of isoproterenol, while heart rate and atrial weight are already affected by the low dose. Finally, we observe little concordance between strain similarity based on the phenotypes and genotypic relatedness computed from genomic SNP profiles. This indicates that cardiovascular phenotypes are unlikely to segregate according to global phylogeny, but rather be governed by smaller, local differences in the genetic architecture of the various strains. PMID:19672458

Schüpfer, Fanny; Hayoz, Pamela; Kutalik, Zoltán; Abriel, Hugues; Pedrazzini, Thierry; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Bergmann, Sven; Maurer, Fabienne

2009-01-01

187

Large-Scale In Silico Mapping of Complex Quantitative Traits in Inbred Mice  

PubMed Central

Understanding the genetic basis of common disease and disease-related quantitative traits will aid in the development of diagnostics and therapeutics. The processs of gene discovery can be sped up by rapid and effective integration of well-defined mouse genome and phenome data resources. We describe here an in silico gene-discovery strategy through genome-wide association (GWA) scans in inbred mice with a wide range of genetic variation. We identified 937 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) from a survey of 173 mouse phenotypes, which include models of human disease (atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, cancer and obesity) as well as behavioral, hematological, immunological, metabolic, and neurological traits. 67% of QTLs were refined into genomic regions <0.5 Mb with ?40-fold increase in mapping precision as compared with classical linkage analysis. This makes for more efficient identification of the genes that underlie disease. We have identified two QTL genes, Adam12 and Cdh2, as causal genetic variants for atherogenic diet-induced obesity. Our findings demonstrate that GWA analysis in mice has the potential to resolve multiple tightly linked QTLs and achieve single-gene resolution. These high-resolution QTL data can serve as a primary resource for positional cloning and gene identification in the research community. PMID:17653278

Liu, Pengyuan; Vikis, Haris; Lu, Yan; Wang, Daolong; You, Ming

2007-01-01

188

Selection and phenotypic characterization of a core collection of Brachypodium distachyon inbred lines  

PubMed Central

Background The model grass Brachypodium distachyon is increasingly used to study various aspects of grass biology. A large and genotypically diverse collection of B. distachyon germplasm has been assembled by the research community. The natural variation in this collection can serve as a powerful experimental tool for many areas of inquiry, including investigating biomass traits. Results We surveyed the phenotypic diversity in a large collection of inbred lines and then selected a core collection of lines for more detailed analysis with an emphasis on traits relevant to the use of grasses as biofuel and grain crops. Phenotypic characters examined included plant height, growth habit, stem density, flowering time, and seed weight. We also surveyed differences in cell wall composition using near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) and comprehensive microarray polymer profiling (CoMPP). In all cases, we observed extensive natural variation including a two-fold variation in stem density, four-fold variation in ferulic acid bound to hemicellulose, and 1.7-fold variation in seed mass. Conclusion These characterizations can provide the criteria for selecting diverse lines for future investigations of the genetic basis of the observed phenotypic variation. PMID:24423101

2014-01-01

189

Neoplastic and nonneoplastic lesions in aging mice of unique and common inbred strains contribution to modeling of human neoplastic diseases.  

PubMed

The evaluation of spontaneous lesions in classical inbred strains of mice has become increasingly important because genetically engineered mice (GEMs) are created on these backgrounds. Novel inbred strains-genetically diverse from classic strains-are valuable both as a new background for GEM mice and to increase the genetic variation found in laboratory mice. Newly arising spontaneous genetic alterations in commonly used strains may also lead to new and valuable mouse models of disease. This report evaluates gross and histological lesions in relatively new, classic, and rarely explored mouse inbred strains. Pathological lesions of 1273 mice from 12 inbred strains (129S1/SvW, A.CA-H2(f) /W, AKR/W, BALB/cW, BN/aW, C57BL/6 W, C57BL/10 W, C3H/W, C3H (wad) /W, CBA/W, DBA/2 W, and WOM/W) are reported. BN/aW, WOM/W, and C3H (wad) /W are novel inbred strains produced and maintained in the Department of Genetics and Laboratory Animal Breeding at the Center of Oncology, Warsaw, Poland. Both neoplastic and nonneoplastic lesions were examined. The prevalence of lung neoplasms was significantly higher in A.CA-H2(f) /W (33.3%) and BALB/cW (33.8%) mice (P < .01). The prevalence of liver neoplasms was significantly higher in the CBA/W strain (P < .01). Mammary gland neoplasms arose at a greater frequency in C3H/W mice (P < .01). The occurrence of uterine neoplasms was higher in DBA/W and 129S1/SvW mice. AKR/W and WOM/W mice developed T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma with high frequency (110/121 [90.9%] and 159/175 [90.9%], respectively) before 1 year of age. The occurrence of nonneoplastic lesions in the kidneys of BN/aW mice was increased (P < .01). PMID:24019352

Szymanska, H; Lechowska-Piskorowska, J; Krysiak, E; Strzalkowska, A; Unrug-Bielawska, K; Grygalewicz, B; Skurzak, H M; Pienkowska-Grela, B; Gajewska, M

2014-05-01

190

Functional Coding Variation in Recombinant Inbred Mouse Lines Reveals Novel Serotonin Transporter-Associated Phenotypes  

SciTech Connect

The human serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) transporter (hSERT, SLC6A4) figures prominently in the etiology or treatment of many prevalent neurobehavioral disorders including anxiety, alcoholism, depression, autism and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Here we utilize naturally occurring polymorphisms in recombinant inbred (RI) lines to identify novel phenotypes associated with altered SERT function. The widely used mouse strain C57BL/6J, harbors a SERT haplotype defined by two nonsynonymous coding variants (Gly39 and Lys152 (GK)). At these positions, many other mouse lines, including DBA/2J, encode Glu39 and Arg152 (ER haplotype), assignments found also in hSERT. Synaptosomal 5-HT transport studies revealed reduced uptake associated with the GK variant. Heterologous expression studies confirmed a reduced SERT turnover rate for the GK variant. Experimental and in silico approaches using RI lines (C57Bl/6J X DBA/2J=BXD) identifies multiple anatomical, biochemical and behavioral phenotypes specifically impacted by GK/ER variation. Among our findings are multiple traits associated with anxiety and alcohol consumption, as well as of the control of dopamine (DA) signaling. Further bioinformatic analysis of BXD phenotypes, combined with biochemical evaluation of SERT knockout mice, nominates SERT-dependent 5-HT signaling as a major determinant of midbrain iron homeostasis that, in turn, dictates ironregulated DA phenotypes. Our studies provide a novel example of the power of coordinated in vitro, in vivo and in silico approaches using murine RI lines to elucidate and quantify the system-level impact of gene variation.

Carneiro, Ana [Vanderbilt University; Airey, David [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Thompson, Brent [Vanderbilt University; Zhu, C [Vanderbilt University; Rinchik, Eugene M [ORNL; Lu, Lu [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Chesler, Elissa J [ORNL; Erikson, Keith [University of North Carolina; Blakely, Randy [Vanderbilt University

2009-01-01

191

Display of individuality in avoidance behavior and risk assessment of inbred mice  

PubMed Central

Factors determining individuality are still poorly understood. Rodents are excellent model organisms to study individuality, due to a rich behavioral repertoire and the availability of well-characterized isogenic populations. However, most current behavioral assays for rodents have short test duration in novel test environments and require human interference, which introduce coercion, thereby limiting the assessment of naturally occurring individuality. Thus, we developed an automated behavior system to longitudinally monitor conditioned fear for assessing PTSD-like behavior in individual mice. The system consists of a safe home compartment connected to a risk-prone test compartment (TC). Entry and exploration of the TC is solely based on deliberate choice determined by individual fear responsiveness and fear extinction. In this novel ethological assay, C57BL/6J mice show homogeneous responses after shock exposure (innate fear), but striking variation in long-lasting fear responses based on avoidance and risk assessment (learned fear), including automated stretch-attend posture quantification. TC entry (retention) latencies after foot shock differed >24 h and the re-explored TC area differed >50% among inbred mice. Next, we compared two closely related C57BL/6 substrains. Despite substantial individual differences, previously observed higher fear of C57BL/6N vs. C57BL/6J mice was reconfirmed, whereas fear extinction was fast and did not differ. The observed variation in fear expression in isogenic mice suggests individual differences in coping style with PTSD-like avoidance. Investigating the assumed epigenetic mechanisms, with reduced interpretational ambiguity and enhanced translational value in this assay, may help improve understanding of personality type-dependent susceptibility and resilience to neuropsychiatric disorders such as PTSD. PMID:25278853

Hager, Torben; Jansen, René F.; Pieneman, Anton W.; Manivannan, Suriya N.; Golani, Ilan; van der Sluis, Sophie; Smit, August B.; Verhage, Matthijs; Stiedl, Oliver

2014-01-01

192

Gene Expression in Accumbens GABA Neurons from Inbred Rats with Different Drug-Taking Behavior  

PubMed Central

Inbred Lewis and Fisher 344 rat strains differ greatly in drug self-administration; Lewis rats operantly self-administer drugs of abuse including nicotine, whereas Fisher self-administer poorly. As shown herein, operant food self-administration is similar. Based on their pivotal role in drug reward, we hypothesized that differences in basal gene expression in GABAergic neurons projecting from nucleus accumbens (NAcc) to ventral pallidum (VP) play a role in vulnerability to drug taking behavior. The transcriptomes of NAcc shell-VP GABAergic neurons from these two strains were analyzed in adolescents, using a multidisciplinary approach that combined stereotaxic ionotophoretic brain microinjections, laser-capture microdissection (LCM) and microarray measurement of transcripts. LCM enriched the gene transcripts detected in GABA neurons compared to the residual NAcc tissue: a ratio of neuron/residual > 1 and false discovery rate (FDR) <5% yielded 6,623 transcripts, whereas a ratio of >3 yielded 3,514. Strain-dependent differences in gene expression within GABA neurons were identified; 322 vs. 60 transcripts showed 1.5-fold vs. 2-fold differences in expression (FDR<5%). Classification by gene ontology showed these 322 transcripts were widely distributed, without categorical enrichment. This is most consistent with a global change in GABA neuron function. Literature-mining by Chilibot found 38 genes related to synaptic plasticity, signaling and gene transcription, all of which determine drug-abuse; 33 genes have no known association with addiction or nicotine. In Lewis rats, upregulation of Mint-1, Cask, CamkII?, Ncam1, Vsnl1, Hpcal1 and Car8 indicates these transcripts likely contribute to altered signaling and synaptic function in NAcc GABA projection neurons to VP. PMID:21745336

Sharp, B.M.; Chen, H.; Gong, S.; Wu, X.; Liu, Z.; Hiler, K.; Taylor, W.L.; Matta, S.G.

2011-01-01

193

The effects of buprenorphine on behaviour in the ACI and BN rat inbred strains.  

PubMed

Buprenorphine is a partial mu, kappa agonist that has been shown to influence spontaneous behaviour in animals. Previously, we have demonstrated significant differences in the analgesic response to buprenorphine between the August Copenhagen Irish (ACI)/SegHsd and the Brown Norway (BN)/RijHsd inbred rat strains. The purpose of this study was to determine whether these strains also differed in their behavioural response to buprenorphine in order to provide an additional parameter for the genetic analysis and localization of genes involved in this response. Male and female rats of both strains were used (n = 6/strain/sex) for this study. Each rat was subjected, respectively, to three treatment regimens at 15:00 h: (A) unchallenged; (B) intravenous saline; (C) intravenous buprenorphine (0.05 mg/kg) according to a crossover design. The relative duration (s/h) of locomotion, grooming, drinking and eating behaviour was subsequently determined from 15:30 to 07:00 h using the automatic registration system, Laboratory Animal Behaviour Registration and Analysis System(trade mark). Significant strain differences were observed in unchallenged behaviour between the ACI and the BN rats. ACI rats, but not BN rats, responded to buprenorphine treatment with decreased levels of locomotion, drinking and eating behaviour. The same treatment resulted in an increased grooming behaviour in both strains. Slight but significant sex differences were observed for locomotion and eating in the analysis of variance procedure, but did not reach the level of statistical significance in the multiple comparison procedure. The results of this study emphasize the possibility that strain-specific effects must be taken into account when using behavioural parameters for the assessment of the analgesic effects of buprenorphine in rats. PMID:18435875

Avsaroglu, H; Sommer, R; Hellebrekers, L J; van Zutphen, L F M; van Lith, H A

2008-04-01

194

Differences in sexual development in inbred and outbred zebrafish (Danio rerio) and implications for chemical testing.  

PubMed

Outbred laboratory animal strains used in ecotoxicology are intended to represent wild populations. However, breeding history may vary considerably between strains, driving differences in genetic variation and phenotypes used for assessing effects of chemical exposure. We compared a range of phenotypic endpoints in zebrafish from four different "breeding treatments" comprising a Wild Indian Karyotype (WIK) zebrafish strain and a WIK/Wild strain with three levels of inbreeding (F(IT)=n, n+0.25, n+0.375) in a new Fish Sexual Development Test (FSDT). There were no differences between treatments in terms of egg viability, hatch success or fry survival. However, compared with WIKs, WIK/Wild hybrids were significantly larger in size, with more advanced gonadal (germ cell) development at the end of the test (63 days post fertilisation). Increasing the levels of inbreeding in the related WIK/Wild lines did not affect body size, but there was a significant male-bias (72%) in the most inbred line (F(IT)=n+0.375). Conversely, in the reference WIK strain there was a significant female-bias in the population (80% females). Overall, our results support the use of outbred zebrafish strains in the FSDT, where one of the core endpoints is sex ratio. Despite increased variance (and reduced statistical power) for some endpoints, WIK/Wild outbreds (F(IT)=n) met all acceptance criteria for controls in this test, whereas WIKs failed to comply with tolerance limits for sex ratio (30-70% females). Sexual development was also more advanced in WIK/Wild outbreds (cf. WIKs), providing greater scope for detection of developmental reproductive toxicity following chemical exposure. PMID:22360940

Brown, A Ross; Bickley, Lisa K; Ryan, Thomas A; Paull, Gregory C; Hamilton, Patrick B; Owen, Stewart F; Sharpe, Alan D; Tyler, Charles R

2012-05-15

195

Quantitative Trait Loci for Cold Tolerance of Rice Recombinant Inbred Lines in Low Temperature Environments  

PubMed Central

Low temperature is one of the major environmental stresses in rice cultivation in high-altitude and high-latitude regions. In this study, we cultivated a set of recombinant inbred lines (RIL) derived from Dasanbyeo (indica) / TR22183 (japonica) crosses in Yanji (high-latitude area), Kunming (high-altitude area), Chuncheon (cold water irrigation) and Suwon (normal) to evaluate the main effects of quantitative trait loci (QTL) and epistatic QTL (E-QTL) with regard to their interactions with environments for coldrelated traits. Six QTLs for spikelet fertility (SF) were identified in three cold treatment locations. Among them, four QTLs on chromosomes 2, 7, 8, and 10 were validated by several near isogenic lines (NILs) under cold treatment in Chuncheon. A total of 57 QTLs and 76 E-QTLs for nine cold-related traits were identified as distributing on all 12 chromosomes; among them, 19 QTLs and E-QTLs showed significant interactions of QTLs and environments (QEIs). The total phenotypic variation explained by each trait ranged from 13.2 to 29.1% in QTLs, 10.6 to 29.0% in EQTLs, 2.2 to 8.8% in QEIs and 1.0% to 7.7% in E-QTL × environment interactions (E-QEIs). These results demonstrate that epistatic effects and QEIs are important properties of QTL parameters for cold tolerance at the reproductive stage. In order to develop cold tolerant varieties adaptable to wide-ranges of cold stress, a strategy facilitating marker-assisted selection (MAS) is being adopted to accumulate QTLs identified from different environments. PMID:22080374

Jiang, Wenzhu; Jin, Yong-Mei; Lee, Joohyun; Lee, Kang-Ie; Piao, Rihua; Han, Longzhi; Shin, Jin-Chul; Jin, Rong-De; Cao, Tiehua; Pan, Hong-Yu; Du, Xinglin; Koh, Hee-Jong

2011-01-01

196

Genetic Relationships between Obesity and Osteoporosis in LGXSM Recombinant Inbred Mice  

PubMed Central

Summary Obesity and osteoporosis affect millions of Americans. While phenotypically, obesity is negatively correlated with fracture risk, research on a genetic basis for this relationship is lacking. We used males and females from 16 LGXSM recombinant inbred (RI) mouse strains to investigate the genetically-mediated relationship between obesity and osteoporosis-related traits. First, heritabilities were estimated for (1) bone morphological properties determined by microCT (femoral and radial diaphyseal bone cross-sectional area and moments of inertia, as well as proximal tibial trabecular bone volume, connectivity density, structure model index, trabecular number, trabecular thickness, and trabecular separation), (2) mechanical properties determined by bending tests (femoral and radial rigidity, yield moment, ultimate moment, fracture displacement, and post-yield displacement), and (3) effective material properties (femoral and radial modulus of elasticity and ultimate tensile strength). All femoral (H2: 43-74%) and tibial traits (H2: 31-56%) were heritable; as were eight of 10 radial traits (H2: 21-33%). Eighteen significant genetic correlations were discovered between obesity- and osteoporosis-related phenotypes. Genetic correlations indicate that gene effects associated with increased fat mass and leptin levels are also associated with larger, stronger femora. Gene effects associated with larger, stronger radii and with denser tibiae were also associated with increased fat mass but not with leptin levels. Furthermore, quantitative trait loci (QTLs) previously reported for obesity and leptin levels also had effects on bone morphology, mechanical, and material properties. Our results support the use of the LG/J x SM/J mouse intercross populations as models for normal, complex genetic variation in obesity, bone properties, and their interrelationship. PMID:19061533

Reich, Michael S.; Jarvis, Joseph P.; Silva, Matthew J.; Cheverud, James M.

2009-01-01

197

Two distinct pathological syndromes in male CBA/J inbred mice with chronic Schistosoma mansoni infections.  

PubMed Central

Humans chronically infected with Schistosoma mansoni most commonly present with the relatively asymptomatic intestinal form of the disease, whereas a small minority develop hepatosplenism characterized by severe hepatic disease with portal hypertension. Investigation of hypotheses describing the pathogenic mechanisms underlying the clinical forms of the human disease has been limited by the absence of an animal model that predictably develops such a spectrum of disease. We report that inbred male CBA/J mice that are chronically infected with S. mansoni develop two distinct syndromes, hypersplenomegaly syndrome (HSS) and moderate splenomegaly syndrome (MSS). Pathologically and immunologically, MSS and HSS remarkably parallel the intestinal and hepatosplenic clinical forms, respectively, in humans. HSS affects approximately 20% of these mice and consists of massive splenomegaly, ascites, thymic atrophy, severe anemia, and cachexia. The remaining majority of mice with MSS develop moderate splenomegaly only. Histopathological features of HSS include 1) relatively extensive hepatic fibrosis and granulomatous inflammation, 2) splenic congestion, 3) lymph node plasmacytosis, and 4) worms and eggs in the pulmonary vasculature. Immunologically, the idiotypes present on antisoluble egg antigen antibodies from HSS mice are distinct from those from mice with acute infections or the chronic MSS infection. These idiotypic differences are similar to those observed in patients with intestinal and hepatosplenic forms of the disease and may have regulatory importance. Investigation of the cellular and molecular events that lead to the development of MSS and HSS may advance current understanding of the pathogenesis of the clinical forms of chronic schistosomiasis in humans. Images Figure 1 Figure 4 PMID:8456934

Henderson, G. S.; Nix, N. A.; Montesano, M. A.; Gold, D.; Freeman, G. L.; McCurley, T. L.; Colley, D. G.

1993-01-01

198

Mapping Genetic Variants Associated with Beta-Adrenergic Responses in Inbred Mice  

PubMed Central

?-blockers and ?-agonists are primarily used to treat cardiovascular diseases. Inter-individual variability in response to both drug classes is well recognized, yet the identity and relative contribution of the genetic players involved are poorly understood. This work is the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) addressing the values and susceptibility of cardiovascular-related traits to a selective ?1-blocker, Atenolol (ate), and a ?-agonist, Isoproterenol (iso). The phenotypic dataset consisted of 27 highly heritable traits, each measured across 22 inbred mouse strains and four pharmacological conditions. The genotypic panel comprised 79922 informative SNPs of the mouse HapMap resource. Associations were mapped by Efficient Mixed Model Association (EMMA), a method that corrects for the population structure and genetic relatedness of the various strains. A total of 205 separate genome-wide scans were analyzed. The most significant hits include three candidate loci related to cardiac and body weight, three loci for electrocardiographic (ECG) values, two loci for the susceptibility of atrial weight index to iso, four loci for the susceptibility of systolic blood pressure (SBP) to perturbations of the ?-adrenergic system, and one locus for the responsiveness of QTc (p<10?8). An additional 60 loci were suggestive for one or the other of the 27 traits, while 46 others were suggestive for one or the other drug effects (p<10?6). Most hits tagged unexpected regions, yet at least two loci for the susceptibility of SBP to ?-adrenergic drugs pointed at members of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. Loci for cardiac-related traits were preferentially enriched in genes expressed in the heart, while 23% of the testable loci were replicated with datasets of the Mouse Phenome Database (MPD). Altogether these data and validation tests indicate that the mapped loci are relevant to the traits and responses studied. PMID:22859963

Hersch, Micha; Peter, Bastian; Kang, Hyun Min; Schüpfer, Fanny; Abriel, Hugues; Pedrazzini, Thierry; Eskin, Eleazar; Beckmann, Jacques S.

2012-01-01

199

Karyotype variability in tropical maize sister inbred lines and hybrids compared with KYS standard line  

PubMed Central

Maize karyotype variability has been extensively investigated. The identification of maize somatic and pachytene chromosomes has improved with the development of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using tandemly repeated DNA sequences as probes. We identified the somatic chromosomes of sister inbred lines that were derived from a tropical flint maize population (Jac Duro [JD]), and hybrids between them, using FISH probes for the 180-bp knob repeat, centromeric satellite (CentC), centromeric satellite 4 (Cent4), subtelomeric clone 4-12-1, 5S ribosomal DNA and nucleolus organizing region DNA sequences. The observations were integrated with data based on C-banded mitotic metaphases and conventional analysis of pachytene chromosomes. Heterochromatic knobs visible at pachynema were coincident with C-bands and 180-bp FISH signals on somatic chromosomes, and most of them were large. Variation in the presence of some knobs was observed among lines. Small 180-bp knob signals were invariant on the short arms of chromosomes 1, 6, and 9. The subtelomeric 4-12-1 signal was also invariant and useful for identifying some chromosomes. The centromere location of chromosomes 2 and 4 differed from previous reports on standard maize lines. Somatic chromosomes of a JD line and the commonly used KYS line were compared by FISH in a hybrid of these lines. The pairing behavior of chromosomes 2 and 4 at pachytene stage in this hybrid was investigated using FISH with chromosome-specific probes. The homologues were fully synapsed, including the 5S rDNA and CentC sites on chromosome 2, and Cent4 and subtelomeric 4-12-1 sites on chromosome 4. This suggests that homologous chromosomes could pair through differential degrees of chromatin packaging in homologous arms differing in size. The results contribute to current knowledge of maize global diversity and also raise questions concerning the meiotic pairing of homologous chromosomes possibly differing in their amounts of repetitive DNA. PMID:25352856

Mondin, Mateus; Santos-Serejo, Janay A.; Bertäo, Mônica R.; Laborda, Prianda; Pizzaia, Daniel; Aguiar-Perecin, Margarida L. R.

2014-01-01

200

New Arabidopsis Advanced Intercross Recombinant Inbred Lines Reveal Female Control of Nonrandom Mating1[OPEN  

PubMed Central

Female control of nonrandom mating has never been genetically established, despite being linked to inbreeding depression and sexual selection. In order to map the loci that control female-mediated nonrandom mating, we constructed a new advanced intercross recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from a cross between Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) accessions Vancouver (Van-0) and Columbia (Col-0) and mapped quantitative trait loci (QTLs) responsible for nonrandom mating and seed yield traits. We genotyped a population of 490 RILs. A subset of these lines was used to construct an expanded map of 1,061.4 centimorgans with an average interval of 6.7 ± 5.3 centimorgans between markers. QTLs were then mapped for female- and male-mediated nonrandom mating and seed yield traits. To map the genetic loci responsible for female-mediated nonrandom mating and seed yield, we performed mixed pollinations with genetically marked Col-0 pollen and Van-0 pollen on RIL pistils. To map the loci responsible for male-mediated nonrandom mating and seed yield, we performed mixed pollinations with genetically marked Col-0 and RIL pollen on Van-0 pistils. Composite interval mapping of these data identified four QTLs that control female-mediated nonrandom mating and five QTLs that control female-mediated seed yield. We also identified four QTLs that control male-mediated nonrandom mating and three QTLs that control male-mediated seed yield. Epistasis analysis indicates that several of these loci interact. To our knowledge, the results of these experiments represent the first time female-mediated nonrandom mating has been genetically defined. PMID:24623850

Fitz Gerald, Jonathan Nesbit; Carlson, Ann Louise; Smith, Evadne; Maloof, Julin N.; Weigel, Detlef; Chory, Joanne; Borevitz, Justin O.; Swanson, Robert John

2014-01-01

201

Adult Intussusception  

PubMed Central

Recurrent abdominal pain is a common and challenging presenting chief complaint in the Emergency Department. Intussusception in adults, although rare, is an important etiology to consider. The diagnosis can often be delayed because of the nonspecific and intermittent nature of symptoms in adults. This report presents the case of a 37-year-old man with multiple Emergency Department visits for abdominal pain and with negative results for prior imaging studies, who was eventually diagnosed with intussusception after 5 years of recurrent symptoms. The case study is followed by a review of the literature regarding the diagnosis and management of intussusception in adults. PMID:25663210

Lu, Teng; Chng, Yi-mei

2015-01-01

202

Characterization of miRNAs in response to short-term waterlogging in three inbred lines of Zea mays.  

PubMed

Waterlogging of plants leads to low oxygen levels (hypoxia) in the roots and causes a metabolic switch from aerobic respiration to anaerobic fermentation that results in rapid changes in gene transcription and protein synthesis. Our research seeks to characterize the microRNA-mediated gene regulatory networks associated with short-term waterlogging. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate many genes involved in growth, development and various biotic and abiotic stress responses. To characterize the involvement of miRNAs and their targets in response to short-term hypoxia conditions, a quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) assay was used to quantify the expression of the 24 candidate mature miRNA signatures (22 known and 2 novel mature miRNAs, representing 66 miRNA loci) and their 92 predicted targets in three inbred Zea mays lines (waterlogging tolerant Hz32, mid-tolerant B73, and sensitive Mo17). Based on our studies, miR159, miR164, miR167, miR393, miR408 and miR528, which are mainly involved in root development and stress responses, were found to be key regulators in the post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms under short-term waterlogging conditions in three inbred lines. Further, computational approaches were used to predict the stress and development related cis-regulatory elements on the promoters of these miRNAs; and a probable miRNA-mediated gene regulatory network in response to short-term waterlogging stress was constructed. The differential expression patterns of miRNAs and their targets in these three inbred lines suggest that the miRNAs are active participants in the signal transduction at the early stage of hypoxia conditions via a gene regulatory network; and crosstalk occurs between different biochemical pathways. PMID:22768123

Liu, Zhijie; Kumari, Sunita; Zhang, Lifang; Zheng, Yonglian; Ware, Doreen

2012-01-01

203

Effect of bird density and dietary protein levels on the performance of midget and normal commercial inbred cross layers  

E-print Network

EFFECT OF BIRD DENSITY AND DIETARY PROTEIN LEVELS ON TEE PERFORFiANCE OF MIDGET AND NORMAL COMMERCIAL 1NBRED CROSS LAYERS A Thesis by Andres Gonzalez Delfino Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AlPl University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Flay 1969 Major Subject: Poultry Science EFFECT OF BIRD DENSITY AND DIETARY PROTEIN LEVELS ON TILE PZRFORJ'IA, 'ICE OF MIDGET AI'ID RORIC COI'INZRCIAL INBRED CROSS LAYERS A Thesis by ANDRES GONZALEZ...

Gonzalez Delfino, Andres

1969-01-01

204

Motivational effects of opiates in conditioned place preference and aversion paradigm—a study in three inbred strains of mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  Interstrain differences in the motivational properties of morphine and heroin have been previously reported in mice, suggesting\\u000a the involvement of a genotype-dependent modulation of the rewarding effects of opiates. Yet, interstrain differences in the\\u000a motivational effects of naloxone have not been described.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives  The aim of our study was to examine genotype modulation of the motivational effects of opiates in inbred

Wojciech Solecki; Anna Turek; Jakub Kubik; Ryszard Przewlocki

2009-01-01

205

Genetic diversity among INERA maize inbred lines with single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and their relationship with CIMMYT, IITA, and temperate lines.  

PubMed

BackgroundGenetic diversity provides the capacity for plants to meet changing environments. It is fundamentally important in crop improvement. Fifty-nine local maize lines developed at INERA and 41 exotic (temperate and tropical) inbred lines were characterized using 1057 SNP markers to (1) analyse the genetic diversity in a diverse set of maize inbred lines; (2) determine the level of genetic diversity in INERA inbred lines and patterns of relationships of these inbred lines developed from two sources; and (3) examine the genetic differences between local and exotic germplasms.ResultsRogerżs genetic distance for about 64% of the pairs of lines fell between 0.300 and 0.400. Sixty one per cent of the pairs of lines also showed relative kinship values of zero. Model-based population structure analysis and principal component analysis revealed the presence of 5 groups that agree, to some extent, with the origin of the germplasm. There was genetic diversity among INERA inbred lines, which were genetically less closely related and showed a low level of heterozygosity. These lines could be divided into 3 major distinct groups and a mixed group consistent with the source population of the lines. Pairwise comparisons between local and exotic germplasms showed that the temperate and some IITA lines were differentiated from INERA lines. There appeared to be substantial levels of genetic variation between local and exotic germplasms as revealed by missing and unique alleles.ConclusionsAllelic frequency differences observed between the germplasms, together with unique alleles identified within each germplasm, shows the potential for a mutual improvement between the sets of germplasm. The results from this study will be useful to breeders in designing inbred-hybrid breeding programs, association mapping population studies and marker assisted breeding. PMID:25421948

Dao, Abdalla; Sanou, Jacob; Mitchell, Sharon E; Gracen, Vernon; Danquah, Eric Y

2014-11-25

206

Mapping Isoflavone QTL with Main, Epistatic and QTL × Environment Effects in Recombinant Inbred Lines of Soybean.  

PubMed

Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) isoflavone is important for human health and plant defense system. To identify novel quantitative trait loci (QTL) and epistatic QTL underlying isoflavone content in soybean, F5:6, F5:7 and F5:8 populations of 130 recombinant inbred (RI) lines, derived from the cross of soybean cultivar 'Zhong Dou 27' (high isoflavone) and 'Jiu Nong 20' (low isoflavone), were analyzed with 95 new SSR markers. A new linkage map including 194 SSR markers and covering 2,312 cM with mean distance of about 12 cM between markers was constructed. Thirty four QTL for both individual and total seed isoflavone contents of soybean were identified. Six, seven, ten and eleven QTL were associated with daidzein (DZ), glycitein (GC), genistein (GT) and total isoflavone (TI), respectively. Of them 23 QTL were newly identified. The qTIF_1 between Satt423 and Satt569 shared the same marker Satt569 with qDZF_2, qGTF_1 and qTIF_2. The qGTD2_1 between Satt186 and Satt226 was detected in four environments and explained 3.41%-10.98% of the phenotypic variation. The qGTA2_1, overlapped with qGCA2_1 and detected in four environments, was close to the previously identified major QTL for GT, which were responsible for large a effects. QTL (qDZF_2, qGTF_1 and qTIF_2) between Satt144-Satt569 were either clustered or pleiotropic. The qGCM_1, qGTM_1 and qTIM_1 between Satt540-Sat_244 explained 2.02%-9.12% of the phenotypic variation over six environments. Moreover, the qGCE_1 overlapped with qGTE_1 and qTIE_1, the qTIH_2 overlapped with qGTH_1, qGCI_1 overlapped with qDZI_1, qTIL_1 overlapped with qGTL_1, and qTIO_1 overlapped with qGTO_1. In this study, some of unstable QTL were detected in different environments, which were due to weak expression of QTL, QTL by environment interaction in the opposite direction to a effects, and/or epistasis. The markers identified in multi-environments in this study could be applied in the selection of soybean cultivars for higher isoflavone content and in the map-based gene cloning. PMID:25738957

Wang, Yan; Han, Yingpeng; Zhao, Xue; Li, Yongguang; Teng, Weili; Li, Dongmei; Zhan, Yong; Li, Wenbin

2015-01-01

207

Mapping Isoflavone QTL with Main, Epistatic and QTL × Environment Effects in Recombinant Inbred Lines of Soybean  

PubMed Central

Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) isoflavone is important for human health and plant defense system. To identify novel quantitative trait loci (QTL) and epistatic QTL underlying isoflavone content in soybean, F5:6, F5:7 and F5:8 populations of 130 recombinant inbred (RI) lines, derived from the cross of soybean cultivar ‘Zhong Dou 27? (high isoflavone) and ‘Jiu Nong 20? (low isoflavone), were analyzed with 95 new SSR markers. A new linkage map including 194 SSR markers and covering 2,312 cM with mean distance of about 12 cM between markers was constructed. Thirty four QTL for both individual and total seed isoflavone contents of soybean were identified. Six, seven, ten and eleven QTL were associated with daidzein (DZ), glycitein (GC), genistein (GT) and total isoflavone (TI), respectively. Of them 23 QTL were newly identified. The qTIF_1 between Satt423 and Satt569 shared the same marker Satt569 with qDZF_2, qGTF_1 and qTIF_2. The qGTD2_1 between Satt186 and Satt226 was detected in four environments and explained 3.41%-10.98% of the phenotypic variation. The qGTA2_1, overlapped with qGCA2_1 and detected in four environments, was close to the previously identified major QTL for GT, which were responsible for large a effects. QTL (qDZF_2, qGTF_1 and qTIF_2) between Satt144-Satt569 were either clustered or pleiotropic. The qGCM_1, qGTM_1 and qTIM_1 between Satt540-Sat_244 explained 2.02%–9.12% of the phenotypic variation over six environments. Moreover, the qGCE_1 overlapped with qGTE_1 and qTIE_1, the qTIH_2 overlapped with qGTH_1, qGCI_1 overlapped with qDZI_1, qTIL_1 overlapped with qGTL_1, and qTIO_1 overlapped with qGTO_1. In this study, some of unstable QTL were detected in different environments, which were due to weak expression of QTL, QTL by environment interaction in the opposite direction to a effects, and/or epistasis. The markers identified in multi-environments in this study could be applied in the selection of soybean cultivars for higher isoflavone content and in the map-based gene cloning. PMID:25738957

Wang, Yan; Han, Yingpeng; Zhao, Xue; Li, Yongguang; Teng, Weili; Li, Dongmei; Zhan, Yong; Li, Wenbin

2015-01-01

208

Natural variation and genetic covariance in adult hippocampal neurogenesis  

SciTech Connect

Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is highly variable and heritable among laboratory strains of mice. Adult neurogenesis is also remarkably plastic and can be modulated by environment and activity. Here, we provide a systematic quantitative analysis of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in two large genetic reference panels of recombinant inbred strains (BXD and AXB?BXA, n ? 52 strains). We combined data on variation in neurogenesis with a new transcriptome database to extract a set of 190 genes with expression patterns that are also highly variable and that covary with rates of (i) cell proliferation, (ii) cell survival, or the numbers of surviving (iii) new neurons, and (iv) astrocytes. Expression of a subset of these neurogenesis-associated transcripts was controlled in cis across the BXD set. These self-modulating genes are particularly interesting candidates to control neurogenesis. Among these were musashi (Msi1h) and prominin1?CD133 (Prom1), both of which are linked to stem-cell maintenance and division. Twelve neurogenesis-associated transcripts had significant cis-acting quantitative trait loci, and, of these, six had plausible biological association with adult neurogenesis (Prom1, Ssbp2, Kcnq2, Ndufs2, Camk4, and Kcnj9). Only one cis- cting candidate was linked to both neurogenesis and gliogenesis, Rapgef6, a downstream target of ras signaling. The use of genetic reference panels coupled with phenotyping and global transcriptome profiling thus allowed insight into the complexity of the genetic control of adult neurogenesis.

Kempermann, Gerd [Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin, Germany; Chesler, Elissa J [ORNL; Lu, Lu [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Williams, Robert [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Gage, Fred [Salk Institute for Biological Studies, The, San Diego, CA

2006-01-01

209

Genetic relationship between ethanol-induced conditioned place preference and other ethanol phenotypes in 15 inbred mouse strains.  

PubMed

The genetic relationships between different behaviors used to index the rewarding or reinforcing effects of alcohol are poorly understood. To address this issue, ethanol-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) was tested in a genetically diverse panel of inbred mouse strains, and strain means from this study and other inbred strain studies were used to examine the genetic correlation between CPP and several ethanol-related phenotypes, including activity measures recorded during CPP training and testing. Mice from each strain were exposed to a well-characterized unbiased place conditioning procedure using ethanol doses of 2 or 4 g/kg; an additional group from each strain was exposed to saline alone on all trials. Genotype had a significant effect on CPP, basal locomotor activity, ethanol-stimulated activity, and the effect of repeated ethanol exposure on activity. Correlational analyses showed significant negative genetic correlations between CPP and sweetened ethanol intake and between CPP and test session activity, as well as a significant positive genetic correlation between CPP and chronic ethanol withdrawal severity. Moreover, there was a trend toward a positive genetic correlation between CPP and ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion. These genetic correlations suggest overlap in the genetic mechanisms underlying CPP and each of these traits. The patterns of genetic relationships suggest a greater impact of ethanol's aversive effects on drinking and a greater impact of ethanol's rewarding effects on CPP. Overall, these data support the idea that genotype influences ethanol's rewarding effect, a factor that may contribute importantly to addictive vulnerability. PMID:24841742

Cunningham, Christopher L

2014-08-01

210

Differences in embryo quality are associated with differences in oocyte composition: a proteomic study in inbred mice.  

PubMed

Current models of early mouse development assign roles to stochastic processes and epigenetic regulation, which are considered to be as influential as the genetic differences that exist between strains of the species Mus musculus. The aim of this study was to test whether mouse oocytes vary from each other in the abundance of gene products that could influence, prime, or even predetermine developmental trajectories and features of derivative embryos. Using the paradigm of inbred mouse strains, we quantified 2010 protein groups (SILAC LC-MS/MS) and 15205 transcripts (RNA deep sequencing) present simultaneously in oocytes of four strains tested (129/Sv, C57Bl/6J, C3H/HeN, DBA/2J). Oocytes differed according to donor strain in the abundance of catalytic and regulatory proteins, as confirmed for a subset (bromodomain adjacent to zinc finger domain, 1B [BAZ1B], heme oxygenase 1 [HMOX1], estrogen related receptor, beta [ESRRB]) via immunofluorescence in situ. Given a Pearson's r correlation coefficient of 0.18-0.20, the abundance of oocytic proteins could not be predicted from that of cognate mRNAs. Our results document that a prerequisite to generate embryo diversity, namely the different abundances of maternal proteins in oocytes, can be studied in the model of inbred mouse strains. Thus, we highlight the importance of proteomic quantifications in modern embryology. All MS data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001059 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD001059). PMID:25367296

Pfeiffer, Martin J; Taher, Leila; Drexler, Hannes; Suzuki, Yutaka; Maka?owski, Wojciech; Schwarzer, Caroline; Wang, Bingyuan; Fuellen, Georg; Boiani, Michele

2015-02-01

211

Can we improve heterosis for root growth of maize by selecting parental inbred lines with different temperature behaviour?  

PubMed Central

Tolerance to high and low temperature is an important breeding aim for Central and Northern Europe, where temperature fluctuations are predicted to increase. However, the extent to which genotypes differ in their response to the whole range of possible temperatures is not well understood. We tested the hypothesis that the combination of maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines with differing temperature optima for root growth would lead to superior hybrids. This hypothesis is based on the concept of ‘marginal overdominance’ in which the hybrid expresses higher relative fitness than its parents, summed over all situations. The elongation rates of axile and lateral roots of the reciprocal cross between two flint and two dent inbred lines were assessed at temperatures between 15°C and 40°C. Indeed, the cross between UH005 and UH250 with lateral root growth temperature optima at 34°C and 28°C, respectively, resulted in intermediate hybrids. At temperatures below and above 31°C, the hybrids' root growth was comparable to the better parent, respectively, thereby increasing temperature tolerance of the hybrid compared with its parents. The implications of and reasons for this heterosis effect are discussed in the context of breeding for abiotic stress tolerance and of putatively underlying molecular mechanisms. This finding paves the way for more detailed investigations of this phenomenon in future studies. PMID:22527401

Hund, Andreas; Reimer, Regina; Stamp, Peter; Walter, Achim

2012-01-01

212

Genetic control of mammalian meiotic recombination. I. Variation in exchange frequencies among males from inbred mouse strains.  

PubMed Central

Genetic background effects on the frequency of meiotic recombination have long been suspected in mice but never demonstrated in a systematic manner, especially in inbred strains. We used a recently described immunostaining technique to assess meiotic exchange patterns in male mice. We found that among four different inbred strains--CAST/Ei, A/J, C57BL/6, and SPRET/Ei--the mean number of meiotic exchanges per cell and, thus, the recombination rates in these genetic backgrounds were significantly different. These frequencies ranged from a low of 21.5 exchanges in CAST/Ei to a high of 24.9 in SPRET/Ei. We also found that, as expected, these crossover events were nonrandomly distributed and displayed positive interference. However, we found no evidence for significant differences in the patterns of crossover positioning between strains with different exchange frequencies. From our observations of >10,000 autosomal synaptonemal complexes, we conclude that achiasmate bivalents arise in the male mouse at a frequency of 0.1%. Thus, special mechanisms that segregate achiasmate chromosomes are unlikely to be an important component of mammalian male meiosis. PMID:12242241

Koehler, Kara E; Cherry, Jonathan P; Lynn, Audrey; Hunt, Patricia A; Hassold, Terry J

2002-01-01

213

Severe inbreeding depression and no evidence of purging in an extremely inbred wild species--the Chatham Island black robin.  

PubMed

Although evidence of inbreeding depression in wild populations is well established, the impact of genetic purging in the wild remains controversial. The contrasting effects of inbreeding depression, fixation of deleterious alleles by genetic drift, and the purging of deleterious alleles via natural selection mean that predicting fitness outcomes in populations subjected to prolonged bottlenecks is not straightforward. We report results from a long-term pedigree study of arguably the world's most inbred wild species of bird: the Chatham Island black robin Petroica traversi, in which conditions were ideal for purging to occur. Contrary to expectations, black robins showed a strong, negative relationship between inbreeding and juvenile survival, yielding lethal equivalents (2B) of 6.85. We also determined that the negative relationship between inbreeding and survival did not appear to be mediated by levels of ancestral inbreeding and may be attributed in part to unpurged lethal recessives. Although the black robin demographic history provided ideal conditions for genetic purging, our results show no clear evidence of purging in the major life-history trait of juvenile survival. Our results also show no evidence of fixation of deleterious alleles in juvenile survival, but do confirm that continued high levels of contemporary inbreeding in a historically inbred population could lead to additional severe inbreeding depression. PMID:24303793

Kennedy, Euan S; Grueber, Catherine E; Duncan, Richard P; Jamieson, Ian G

2014-04-01

214

Can we improve heterosis for root growth of maize by selecting parental inbred lines with different temperature behaviour?  

PubMed

Tolerance to high and low temperature is an important breeding aim for Central and Northern Europe, where temperature fluctuations are predicted to increase. However, the extent to which genotypes differ in their response to the whole range of possible temperatures is not well understood. We tested the hypothesis that the combination of maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines with differing temperature optima for root growth would lead to superior hybrids. This hypothesis is based on the concept of 'marginal overdominance' in which the hybrid expresses higher relative fitness than its parents, summed over all situations. The elongation rates of axile and lateral roots of the reciprocal cross between two flint and two dent inbred lines were assessed at temperatures between 15°C and 40°C. Indeed, the cross between UH005 and UH250 with lateral root growth temperature optima at 34°C and 28°C, respectively, resulted in intermediate hybrids. At temperatures below and above 31°C, the hybrids' root growth was comparable to the better parent, respectively, thereby increasing temperature tolerance of the hybrid compared with its parents. The implications of and reasons for this heterosis effect are discussed in the context of breeding for abiotic stress tolerance and of putatively underlying molecular mechanisms. This finding paves the way for more detailed investigations of this phenomenon in future studies. PMID:22527401

Hund, Andreas; Reimer, Regina; Stamp, Peter; Walter, Achim

2012-06-01

215

Dissecting yield-associated loci in super hybrid rice by resequencing recombinant inbred lines and improving parental genome sequences  

PubMed Central

The growing world population and shrinkage of arable land demand yield improvement of rice, one of the most important staple crops. To elucidate the genetic basis of yield and uncover its associated loci in rice, we resequenced the core recombinant inbred lines of Liang–You–Pei–Jiu, the widely cultivated super hybrid rice, and constructed a high-resolution linkage map. We detected 43 yield-associated quantitative trait loci, of which 20 are unique. Based on the high-density physical map, the genome sequences of paternal variety 93–11 and maternal cultivar PA64s of Liang–You–Pei–Jiu were significantly improved. The large recombinant inbred line population combined with plentiful high-quality single nucleotide polymorphisms and insertions/deletions between parental genomes allowed us to fine-map two quantitative trait loci, qSN8 and qSPB1, and to identify days to heading8 and lax panicle1 as candidate genes, respectively. The quantitative trait locus qSN8 was further confirmed to be days to heading8 by a complementation test. Our study provided an ideal platform for molecular breeding by targeting and dissecting yield-associated loci in rice. PMID:23940322

Gao, Zhen-Yu; Zhao, Shan-Cen; He, Wei-Ming; Guo, Long-Biao; Peng, You-Lin; Wang, Jin-Jin; Guo, Xiao-Sen; Zhang, Xue-Mei; Rao, Yu-Chun; Zhang, Chi; Dong, Guo-Jun; Zheng, Feng-Ya; Lu, Chang-Xin; Hu, Jiang; Zhou, Qing; Liu, Hui-Juan; Wu, Hai-Yang; Xu, Jie; Ni, Pei-Xiang; Zeng, Da-Li; Liu, Deng-Hui; Tian, Peng; Gong, Li-Hui; Ye, Chen; Zhang, Guang-Heng; Wang, Jian; Tian, Fu-Kuan; Xue, Da-Wei; Liao, Yi; Zhu, Li; Chen, Ming-Sheng; Li, Jia-Yang; Cheng, Shi-Hua; Zhang, Geng-Yun; Wang, Jun; Qian, Qian

2013-01-01

216

Genetic variation among species, races, forms and inbred lines of lac insects belonging to the genus Kerria (Homoptera, Tachardiidae)  

PubMed Central

The lac insects (Homoptera: Tachardiidae), belonging to the genus Kerria, are commercially exploited for the production of lac. Kerria lacca is the most commonly used species in India. RAPD markers were used for assessing genetic variation in forty-eight lines of Kerria, especially among geographic races, infrasubspecific forms, cultivated lines, inbred lines, etc., of K. lacca. In the 48 lines studied, the 26 RAPD primers generated 173 loci, showing 97.7% polymorphism. By using neighbor-joining, the dendrogram generated from the similarity matrix resolved the lines into basically two clusters and outgroups. The major cluster, comprising 32 lines, included mainly cultivated lines of the rangeeni form, geographic races and inbred lines of K. lacca. The second cluster consisted of eight lines of K. lacca, seven of the kusmi form and one of the rangeeni from the southern state of Karnataka. The remaining eight lines formed a series of outgroups, this including a group of three yellow mutant lines of K. lacca and other species of the Kerria studied, among others. Color mutants always showed distinctive banding patterns compared to their wild-type counterparts from the same population. This study also adds support to the current status of kusmi and rangeeni, as infraspecific forms of K. lacca. PMID:21931527

Ranjan, Sanjeev Kumar; Mallick, Chandana Basu; Saha, Dipnarayan; Vidyarthi, Ambarish S; Ramani, Ranganathan

2011-01-01

217

Consulting Adults. NIACE Lifelines in Adult Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document explains how adult and community educators in the United Kingdom can involve adults as equal partners in the provision and delivery of adult learning. The guide profiles many innovative and imaginative ways in which adult and community learning practitioners are engaging with their communities in increasing the demand for adult

Jude, Chris

218

Behavioral effects of oral subacute exposure to BDE-209 in young adult mice: a preliminary study.  

PubMed

In this study, we examined the effects of an oral subacute exposure to 2,2',3,3',4,4',5,5',6,6'-decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) on young adult inbred wild type Tg2576 mice. BDE-209 was administered by gavage at doses of 0 and 20 mg/kg/day dissolved in sunflower oil for 15 days. Two behavioral endpoints were examined: anxiety-activity in a light/dark test and a zero maze test, and learning and spatial memory in a water maze test. Young adult mice exposed to BDE-209 showed a reduction in anxiety levels and a delayed learning in a spatial memory task. Although the results indicated that behavioral effects were present in a young adult exposed population of wild type Tg2576 mice, further studies on chronic exposure to BDE-209 are clearly necessary in order to corroborate these effects. PMID:22178224

Heredia, Luis; Torrente, Margarita; Colomina, María T; Domingo, José L

2012-03-01

219

Adult Questionnnaire  

Cancer.gov

­ OMB No. 0925-0583 Expiration Date: 12/31/2010 ­Questionnaire on­Adult­Care Physi?ian­Survey­ of­Pra?ti?es­on­Diet,­ Physi?al­A?tivity,­ and­Weight­Control Condu?ted­by: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) National Institutes

220

Comparison of Conventional, Modified Single Seed Descent, and Double Haploid Breeding Methods for Maize Inbred Line Development Using GEM Breeding Crosses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Good choice of germplasm, breeding methods, and careful evaluation are essential for maize inbred line and hybrid development. Choice of germplasm is particularly important since it may limit genetic gain given even the best breeding methodology and selection strategies. Exotic germplasm has the pot...

221

Dietary phytosterols and phytostanols decrease cholesterol levels but increase blood pressure in WKY inbred rats in the absence of salt-loading  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There are safety concerns regarding widespread consumption of phytosterol and phytostanol supplemented food products. The aim of this study was to determine, in the absence of excess dietary salt, the individual effects of excess accumulation of dietary phytosterols and phytostanols on blood pressure in Wistar Kyoto (WKY) inbred rats that have a mutation in the Abcg5 gene and thus

Qixuan Chen; Heidi Gruber; Eleonora Swist; Kara Coville; Catherine Pakenham; Walisundera MN Ratnayake; Kylie A Scoggan

2010-01-01

222

Comparison of Conventional, Modified Single Seed Descent, and Doubled Haploid Breeding Methods for Maize Inbred Line Development Using GEM Breeding Crosses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Breeding crosses from the Germplasm Enhancement of Maize (GEM) project between exotic accessions and elite Corn Belt Dent inbreds provide a unique opportunity for broadening the genetic base of the United States maize crop by incorporating favorable exotic alleles in elite genetic backgrounds. Genet...

223

Protection conferred by a fully recombinant sub-unit vaccine against Yersinia pestis in male and female mice of four inbred strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe for the first time the use of a fully recombinant sub-unit vaccine for plague. We have compared the protection afforded by the recombinant vaccine against Yersinia pestis in male and female mice of four inbred strains. We also determined the in vivo cellular memory and antibody response after one year. The recombinant vaccine was capable

S. M Jones; F Day; A. J Stagg; E. D Williamson

2000-01-01

224

Breeding value and variance component estimation from data containing inbred individuals: application to gynogenetic families in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under gynogenetic reproduction, offspring receive genes only from their dams and completely homozygous offspring are produced within one generation. When gynogenetic reproduction is applied to fully inbred individuals, homozygous clone lines are produced. A mixed model method was developed for breeding value and variance component estimation in gynogenetic families, which requires the inverse of the numerator relationship matrix. A general

P. Bijma; Arendonk van J. A. M; H. Bovenhuis

1997-01-01

225

Determining the linkage of quantitative trait loci to RFLP markers using extreme phenotypes of recombinant inbreds of soybean ( Glycine max L. Merr.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental test is described for linkages between RFLP markers and quantitative trait loci (QTL). Two hundred and eighty-four F7-derived recombinant inbred lines (RIL) obtained from crossing the soybean cultivars (Glycine max L. Merr.) ‘Minsoy’ and ‘Noir 1’ were evaluated for maturity, plant height, lodging, and seed yield. RIL exhibiting an extreme phenotype for each trait (earliest and latest plants

L. M. Mansur; J. Orf; K. G. Lark

1993-01-01

226

Use of the QTL approach to the study of soybean trait relationships in two populations of recombinant inbred lines at the F7 and F8 generations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work aimed to identify the quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with photosynthesis and growth and productivity traits of soybean and to study possible associations between these traits by the analysis of coincidence of QTL in linkage groups (LGs). Thus, populations of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of the F 7 and F 8 generations derived from the cross between the

Antonio José Dias Vieira; Dario Alves de Oliveira; Taís Cristina Bastos Soares; Ivan Schuster; Newton Deniz Piovesan; Carlos Alberto Martínez; Everaldo Gonçalves de Barros; Maurílio Alves Moreira

2006-01-01

227

Expression analysis of stress-related genes in kernels of different maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines with different resistance to aflatoxin contamination  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This research examined the expression patterns of 94 stress-related genes in 7 maize inbred lines with differential expression of resistance to aflatoxin contamination. The objective was to develop a set of genes/probes associated with resistance to A. flavus and/or aflatoxin contamination. We sele...

228

Registration of the MY2 Cypress/LaGrue rice recombinant inbred line mapping population. Journal of Plant Registrations 4(3): 261-265.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Grain quality plays a crucial economic role for producers, millers, and exporters of rice (Oryza sativa L.). The objective of this research was to develop a japonica -based rice recombinant inbred line (RIL) mapping population to assist in the identification of genomic regions associated with whole-...

229

Identification of multiple ear-colonizing insect and disease resistance in CIMMYT maize inbred lines with varying levels of silk maysin.  

PubMed

Ninety four corn inbred lines selected from International Center for the Improvement of Maize and Wheat (CIMMYT) in Mexico were evaluated for levels of silk maysin in 2001 and 2002. Damage by major ear-feeding insects [i.e., corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae); maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae); brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say); southern green stink bugs, Nezara viridula (L.) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae)], and common smut [Ustilago maydis DC (Corda)] infection on these inbred lines were evaluated in 2005 and 2006 under subtropical conditions at Tifton, GA. Ten inbred lines possessing good agronomic traits were also resistant to the corn earworm. The correlation between ear-feeding insect damage or smut infection and three phenotypic traits (silk maysin level, husk extension, and husk tightness of corn ears) was also examined. Corn earworm and stink bug damage was negatively correlated to husk extension, but not to either silk maysin levels or husk tightness. In combination with the best agronomic trait ratings that show the least corn earworm and stink bug damage, lowest smut infection rate, and good insect-resistant phenotypic traits (i.e., high maysin and good husk coverage and husk tightness), 10 best inbred lines (CML90, CML92, CML94, CML99, CML104, CML108, CML114, CML128, CML137, and CML373) were identified from the 94 lines examined. These selected inbred lines will be used for further examination of their resistance mechanisms and development of new corn germplasm that confers multiple ear-colonizing pest resistance. PMID:18767760

Ni, Xinzhi; Krakowsky, Matthew D; Buntin, G David; Rector, Brian G; Guo, Baozhu; Snook, Maurice E

2008-08-01

230

Panic Disorder among Adults  

MedlinePLUS

... Among Adults Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia ... Among Adults Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia ...

231

Disability and Functioning (Adults)  

MedlinePLUS

... Noninstitutionalized adults 18 years and older: Basic or complex activity limitations Number of adults with at least one basic actions ... Noninstitutionalized adults 65 years and older: Basic or complex activity limitations Number of adults 65 years and older with at ...

232

Polycystic kidney disease in adult Brazilian agoutis (Dasyprocta leporina).  

PubMed

During the last 21 years, 7 adult captive Brazilian agoutis (Dasyprocta leporina) from 4 different zoologic gardens were necropsied and histologically examined at the Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research, Berlin, Germany. All animals had polycystic kidney disease as the major pathologic change. Except in 1 case, no clinical signs were recognized prior to death. The animals had macroscopic bilateral alterations of the kidneys ranging from granulated surfaces to severe polycystic changes. Microscopic examination revealed multifocal to generalized, moderate to severe cystic dilatations of Bowman's capsules and renal tubules, moderate mesangial and capsular proliferation of the renal corpuscles, mild interstitial fibrosis, and mild to moderate interstitial lympho-plasmacytic infiltrations. Little information is known about the genetic relationships of these animals, but breeding practice indicates a high possibility of inbred agouti zoo populations in Germany. This is the first report on polycystic kidney disease in Brazilian agoutis with possible genetic background. PMID:19276054

Müller, D W H; Szentiks, C A; Wibbelt, G

2009-07-01

233

Sequential one-pot InBr(3)-catalyzed 1,4- then 1,2-nucleophilic addition to enones.  

PubMed

Low sensitivity toward traces of moisture and high tolerance of different functional groups make indium tribromide suitable for carrying out multistep synthetic sequences. In particular, we have realized a 1,4-conjugated addition of indoles/thiols to alpha,beta-unsaturated ketones mediated by a catalytic amount (10 mol %) of InBr(3) obtaining the desired beta-substituted ketones in good yields. The Lewis acidity of indium salts was not affected by coordinating and acid nucleophiles; therefore, the subsequent catalytic 1,2-addition of Me(3)SiCN to carbonyl compounds can be performed in one pot. With the optimized atom-efficient protocol, several polyfunctionalized alpha-silyloxy cyanohydrins were synthesized in good to excellent yields (up to 97%) and a notable level of simple 1,3-diastereoselection (up to 84:16) was recorded in the case of 2-cyclohexen-1-one 2c. PMID:12027683

Bandini, Marco; Cozzi, Pier Giorgio; Giacomini, Massimo; Melchiorre, Paolo; Selva, Simona; Umani-Ronchi, Achille

2002-05-31

234

Helicobacter bilis sp. nov., a novel Helicobacter species isolated from bile, livers, and intestines of aged, inbred mice.  

PubMed Central

A fusiform bacterium with 3 to 14 multiple bipolar sheathed flagella and periplasmic fibers wrapped around the cell was isolated from the liver, bile, and lower intestine of aged, inbred mice. The bacteria grew at 37 and 42 degrees C under microaerophilic conditions, rapidly hydrolyzed urea, were catalase and oxidase positive, reduced nitrate to nitrite, did not hydrolyze indoxyl acetate or hippurate, and were resistant to both cephalothin and nalidixic acid but sensitive to metronidazole. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the organism was classified as a novel helicobacter, Helicobacter bilis. This new helicobacter, like Helicobacter hepaticus, colonizes the bile, liver, and intestine of mice. Although the organism is associated with multifocal chronic hepatitis, further studies are required to ascertain whether H. bilis is responsible for causing chronic hepatitis and/or hepatocellular tumors in mice. PMID:7536217

Fox, J G; Yan, L L; Dewhirst, F E; Paster, B J; Shames, B; Murphy, J C; Hayward, A; Belcher, J C; Mendes, E N

1995-01-01

235

Differential Performance and Parasitism of Caterpillars on Maize Inbred Lines with Distinctly Different Herbivore-Induced Volatile Emissions  

PubMed Central

Plant volatiles induced by insect feeding are known to attract natural enemies of the herbivores. Six maize inbred lines that showed distinctly different patterns of volatile emission in laboratory assays were planted in randomized plots in the Central Mexican Highlands to test their ability to recruit parasitic wasps under field conditions. The plants were artificially infested with neonate larvae of the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda, and two of its main endoparasitoids, Campoletis sonorensis and Cotesia marginiventris, were released in the plots. Volatiles were collected from equally treated reference plants in the neighbourhood of the experimental field. The cumulative amount of 36 quantified volatile compounds determined for each line was in good accordance with findings from the laboratory; there was an almost 15-fold difference in total emission between the two extreme lines. We found significant differences among the lines with respect to the numbers of armyworms recovered from the plants, their average weight gain and parasitism rates. Average weight of the caterpillars was negatively correlated with the average total amount of volatiles released by the six inbred lines. However, neither total volatile emission nor any specific single compound within the blend could explain the differential parasitism rates among the lines, with the possible exception of (E)-2-hexenal for Campoletis sonorensis and methyl salicylate for Cotesia marginiventris. Herbivore-induced plant volatiles and/or correlates thereof contribute to reducing insect damage of maize plants through direct plant defence and enhanced attraction of parasitoids, alleged indirect defence. The potential to exploit these volatiles for pest control deserves to be further evaluated. PMID:23112820

Degen, Thomas; Bakalovic, Nenad; Bergvinson, David; Turlings, Ted C. J.

2012-01-01

236

Comparative analysis of the relationship between trichloroethylene metabolism and tissue-specific toxicity among inbred mouse strains: liver effects.  

PubMed

Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a widely used organic solvent. Although TCE is classified as carcinogenic to humans, substantial gaps remain in our understanding of interindividual variability in TCE metabolism and toxicity, especially in the liver. A hypothesis was tested that amounts of oxidative metabolites of TCE in mouse liver are associated with hepatic-specific toxicity. Oral dosing with TCE was conducted in subacute (600 mg/kg/d; 5 d; 7 inbred mouse strains) and subchronic (100 or 400 mg/kg/d; 1, 2, or 4 wk; 2 inbred mouse strains) designs. The quantitative relationship was evaluated between strain-, dose-, and time-dependent formation of TCE metabolites from cytochrome P-450-mediated oxidation (trichloroacetic acid [TCA], dichloroacetic acid [DCA], and trichloroethanol) and glutathione conjugation [S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine and S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)glutathione] in serum and liver, and various hepatic toxicity phenotypes. In subacute study, interstrain variability in TCE metabolite amounts was observed in serum and liver. No marked induction of Cyp2e1 protein levels in liver was detected. Serum and hepatic levels of TCA and DCA were correlated with increased transcription of peroxisome proliferator-marker genes Cyp4a10 and Acox1 but not with degree of induction in hepatocellular proliferation. In subchronic study, serum and liver levels of oxidative metabolites gradually decreased over time despite continuous dosing. Hepatic protein levels of CYP2E1, ADH, and ALDH2 were unaffected by treatment with TCE. While the magnitude of induction of peroxisome proliferator-marker genes also declined, hepatocellular proliferation increased. This study offers a unique opportunity to provide a scientific data-driven rationale for some of the major assumptions in human health assessment of TCE. PMID:25424544

Yoo, Hong Sik; Bradford, Blair U; Kosyk, Oksana; Shymonyak, Svitlana; Uehara, Takeki; Collins, Leonard B; Bodnar, Wanda M; Ball, Louise M; Gold, Avram; Rusyn, Ivan

2015-01-01

237

Comparative analysis of the relationship between trichloroethylene metabolism and tissue-specific toxicity among inbred mouse strains: kidney effects.  

PubMed

Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a well-known environmental and occupational toxicant that is classified as carcinogenic to humans based on the epidemiological evidence of an association with higher risk of renal-cell carcinoma. A number of scientific issues critical for assessing human health risks from TCE remain unresolved, such as the amount of kidney-toxic glutathione conjugation metabolites formed, interspecies and interindividual differences, and the mode of action for kidney carcinogenicity. It was postulated that TCE renal metabolite levels are associated with kidney-specific toxicity. Oral dosing with TCE was conducted in subacute (600 mg/kg/d; 5 d; 7 inbred mouse strains) and subchronic (100 or 400 mg/kg/d; 1, 2, or 4 wk; 2 inbred mouse strains) designs. The quantitative relationship was evaluated between strain-, dose, and time-dependent formation of TCE metabolites from cytochrome P-450-mediated oxidation (trichloroacetic acid [TCA], dichloroacetic acid [DCA], and trichloroethanol) and glutathione conjugation [S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine and S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)glutathione], and various kidney toxicity phenotypes. In subacute study, interstrain differences in renal TCE metabolite levels were observed. In addition, data showed that in several strains kidney-specific effects of TCE included induction of peroxisome proliferator-marker genes Cyp4a10 and Acox1, increased cell proliferation, and expression of KIM-1, a marker of tubular damage and regeneration. In subchronic study, peroxisome proliferator-marker gene induction and renal toxicity diminished while cell proliferative response was elevated in a dose-dependent manner in NZW/LacJ but not C57BL/6J mice. Overall, data demonstrated that renal TCE metabolite levels are associated with kidney-specific toxicity and that these effects are strain dependent. PMID:25424545

Yoo, Hong Sik; Bradford, Blair U; Kosyk, Oksana; Uehara, Takeki; Shymonyak, Svitlana; Collins, Leonard B; Bodnar, Wanda M; Ball, Louise M; Gold, Avram; Rusyn, Ivan

2015-01-01

238

Sequence and Ionomic Analysis of Divergent Strains of Maize Inbred Line B73 with an Altered Growth Phenotype  

PubMed Central

Maize (Zea mays) is the most widely grown crop species in the world and a classical model organism for plant research. The completion of a high-quality reference genome sequence and the advent of high-throughput sequencing have greatly empowered re-sequencing studies in maize. In this study, plants of maize inbred line B73 descended from two different sets of seed material grown for several generations either in the field or in the greenhouse were found to show a different growth phenotype and ionome under phosphate starvation conditions and moreover a different responsiveness towards mycorrhizal fungi of the species Glomus intraradices (syn: Rhizophagus irregularis). Whole genome re-sequencing of individuals from both sets and comparison to the B73 reference sequence revealed three cryptic introgressions on chromosomes 1, 5 and 10 in the line grown in the greenhouse summing up to a total of 5,257 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Transcriptome sequencing of three individuals from each set lent further support to the location of the introgression intervals and confirmed them to be fixed in all sequenced individuals. Moreover, we identified >120 genes differentially expressed between the two B73 lines. We thus have found a nearly-isogenic line (NIL) of maize inbred line B73 that is characterized by an altered growth phenotype under phosphate starvation conditions and an improved responsiveness towards symbiosis with mycorrhizal fungi. Through next-generation sequencing of the genomes and transcriptomes we were able to delineate exact introgression intervals. Putative de novo mutations appeared approximately uniformly distributed along the ten maize chromosomes mainly representing G:C -> A:T transitions. The plant material described in this study will be a valuable tool both for functional studies of genes differentially expressed in both B73 lines and for research on growth behavior especially in response to symbiosis between maize and mycorrhizal fungi. PMID:24804793

Gahrtz, Manfred; Bucher, Marcel; Scholz, Uwe; Dresselhaus, Thomas

2014-01-01

239

Something old and something new: wedding recombinant inbred lines with traditional line cross analysis increases power to describe gene interactions.  

PubMed

In this paper we present a novel approach to quantifying genetic architecture that combines recombinant inbred lines (RIL) with line cross analysis (LCA). LCA is a method of quantifying directional genetic effects (i.e. summed effects of all loci) that differentiate two parental lines. Directional genetic effects are thought to be critical components of genetic architecture for the long term response to selection and as a cause of inbreeding depression. LCA typically begins with two inbred parental lines that are crossed to produce several generations such as F1, F2, and backcrosses to each parent. When a RIL population (founded from the same P1 and P2 as was used to found the line cross population) is added to the LCA, the sampling variance of several nonadditive genetic effect estimates is greatly reduced. Specifically, estimates of directional dominance, additive x additive, and dominance x dominance epistatic effects are reduced by 92%, 94%, and 56% respectively. The RIL population can be simultaneously used for QTL identification, thus uncovering the effects of specific loci or genomic regions as elements of genetic architecture. LCA and QTL mapping with RIL provide two qualitatively different measures of genetic architecture with the potential to overcome weaknesses of each approach alone. This approach provides cross-validation of the estimates of additive and additive x additive effects, much smaller confidence intervals on dominance, additive x additive and dominance x dominance estimates, qualitatively different measures of genetic architecture, and the potential when used together to balance the weaknesses of LCA or RIL QTL analyses when used alone. PMID:20419131

Elnaccash, Tarek W; Tonsor, Stephen J

2010-01-01

240

Identification of Wild-Derived Inbred Mouse Strains Highly Susceptible to Monkeypox Virus Infection for Use as Small Animal Models?  

PubMed Central

Infection with monkeypox virus (MPXV) causes disease manifestations in humans that are similar, although usually less severe, than those of smallpox. Since routine vaccination for smallpox ceased more than 30 years ago, there is concern that MPXV could be used for bioterrorism. Thus, there is a need to develop animal models to study MPXV infection. Accordingly, we screened 38 inbred mouse strains for susceptibility to MPXV. Three highly susceptible wild-derived inbred strains were identified, of which CAST/EiJ was further developed as a model. Using an intranasal route of infection with an isolate of the Congo Basin clade of MPXV, CAST/EiJ mice exhibited weight loss, morbidity, and death in a dose-dependent manner with a calculated 50% lethal dose (LD50) of 680 PFU, whereas there were no deaths of BALB/c mice at a 10,000-fold higher dose. CAST/EiJ mice exhibited greater MPXV sensitivity when infected via the intraperitoneal route, with an LD50 of 14 PFU. Both routes resulted in MPXV replication in the lung, spleen, and liver. Intranasal infection with an isolate of the less-pathogenic West African clade yielded an LD50 of 7,600 PFU. The immune competence of CAST/EiJ mice was established by immunization with vaccinia virus, which induced antigen-specific T- and B-lymphocyte responses and fully protected mice from lethal doses of MPXV. The new mouse model has the following advantages for studying pathogenesis of MPXV, as well as for evaluation of potential vaccines and therapeutics: relative sensitivity to MPXV through multiple routes, genetic homogeneity, available immunological reagents, and commercial production. PMID:20519404

Americo, Jeffrey L.; Moss, Bernard; Earl, Patricia L.

2010-01-01

241

Adult Neurogenesis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

BioEd Online is an â??educational resource for educators, students, and parentsâ?ť from the Baylor College of Medicine. This is an excellent place to find educational materials and current information in the field of biology. The â??Hot Topicsâ?ť section of this site focus on current events and issues in biology that are â??receiving national attention.â?ť This site, created by Tadzia GrandPrĂ©, PhD, contains a brief discussion of Adult Neurogenesis or the ability for new neurons to develop in the brain. The article includes background information on the field of neuroscience, as well as information about how neurons work. The site includes links to references and further reading. In addition, a related slide set, "Adult Neurogenesis," is available for viewing along with links to several related news articles. Both the slide set and the news articles could be easily used in the classroom along with the other resources provided in this â??Hot Topicâ?ť from BioEd Online.

GrandPré, Tadzia

2007-03-21

242

On the Relationships of High-Frequency Hearing Loss and Cochlear Pathology to the Acoustic Startle Response (ASR) and Prepulse Inhibition of the ASR in the BXD Recombinant Inbred Series  

Microsoft Academic Search

The measurement of the acoustic startle response (ASR) and prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the ASR in many inbred strains of mice, including C57BL\\/6 and DBA\\/2, may be complicated by age-related high-frequency hearing loss (HFHL) and the associated cochlear pathology. Willott and Erway (1998) have recently reported on the age-related changes of the acoustic brain response in the BXD recombinant inbred

James McCaughran; James Bell; Robert Hitzemann

1999-01-01

243

Epigenetic Transgenerational Inheritance of Vinclozolin Induced Mouse Adult Onset Disease and Associated Sperm Epigenome Biomarkers  

PubMed Central

The endocrine disruptor vinclozolin has previously been shown to promote epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset disease in the rat. The current study was designed to investigate the transgenerational actions of vinclozolin on the mouse. Transient exposure of the F0 generation gestating female during gonadal sex determination promoted transgenerational adult onset disease in F3 generation male and female mice, including spermatogenic cell defects, testicular abnormalities, prostate abnormalities, kidney abnormalities and polycystic ovarian disease. Pathology analysis demonstrated 75% of the vinclozolin lineage animals developed disease with 34% having two or more different disease states. Interestingly, the vinclozolin induced transgenerational disease was observed in the outbred CD-1 strain, but not the inbred 129 mouse strain. Analysis of the F3 generation sperm epigenome identified differential DNA methylation regions that can potentially be utilized as epigenetic biomarkers for transgenerational exposure and disease. PMID:23041264

Guerrero-Bosagna, Carlos; Covert, Trevor R.; Haque, Md. M.; Settles, Matthew; Nilsson, Eric E.; Anway, Matthew D.; Skinner, Michael K.

2012-01-01

244

An inbred line of the diploid strawberry Fragaria vesca f. semperflorens for genomic and molecular genetic studies in the Rosaceae  

PubMed Central

Background The diploid woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca) is an attractive system for functional genomics studies. Its small stature, fast regeneration time, efficient transformability and small genome size, together with substantial EST and genomic sequence resources make it an ideal reference plant for Fragaria and other herbaceous perennials. Most importantly, this species shares gene sequence similarity and genomic microcolinearity with other members of the Rosaceae family, including large-statured tree crops (such as apple, peach and cherry), and brambles and roses as well as with the cultivated octoploid strawberry, F. ×ananassa. F. vesca may be used to quickly address questions of gene function relevant to these valuable crop species. Although some F. vesca lines have been shown to be substantially homozygous, in our hands plants in purportedly homozygous populations exhibited a range of morphological and physiological variation, confounding phenotypic analyses. We also found the genotype of a named variety, thought to be well-characterized and even sold commercially, to be in question. An easy to grow, standardized, inbred diploid Fragaria line with documented genotype that is available to all members of the research community will facilitate comparison of results among laboratories and provide the research community with a necessary tool for functionally testing the large amount of sequence data that will soon be available for peach, apple, and strawberry. Results A highly inbred line, YW5AF7, of a diploid strawberry Fragaria vesca f. semperflorens line called "Yellow Wonder" (Y2) was developed and examined. Botanical descriptors were assessed for morphological characterization of this genotype. The plant line was found to be rapidly transformable using established techniques and media formulations. Conclusion The development of the documented YW5AF7 line provides an important tool for Rosaceae functional genomic analyses. These day-neutral plants have a small genome, a seed to seed cycle of 3.0 - 3.5 months, and produce fruit in 7.5 cm pots in a growth chamber. YW5AF7 is runnerless and therefore easy to maintain in the greenhouse, forms abundant branch crowns for vegetative propagation, and produces highly aromatic yellow fruit throughout the year in the greenhouse. F. vesca can be transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens, making these plants suitable for insertional mutagenesis, RNAi and overexpression studies that can be compared against a stable baseline of phenotypic descriptors and can be readily genetically substantiated. PMID:19878589

2009-01-01

245

Cyclic electron flow around PSI monitored by afterglow luminescence in leaves of maize inbred lines ( Zea mays L.): correlation with chilling tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines of contrasting chilling sensitivity (three tolerant, three sensitive lines) were acclimated to 280 µmol photons m-2 s-1 white light at a 17°C sub-optimal temperature. They showed no symptoms of photoinhibition, despite slight changes in photosystem II (PSII) fluorescence and thermoluminescence properties in two tolerant lines. A luminescence “afterglow” emission [Bertsch and Azzi (1965) Biochim Biophys Acta

Jean-Marc Ducruet; Miruna Roman; Michel Havaux; Tibor Janda; André Gallais

2005-01-01

246

Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies Candidate Genes That Affect Plant Height in Chinese Elite Maize (Zea mays L.) Inbred Lines  

PubMed Central

Background The harvest index for many crops can be improved through introduction of dwarf stature to increase lodging resistance, combined with early maturity. The inbred line Shen5003 has been widely used in maize breeding in China as a key donor line for the dwarf trait. Also, one major quantitative trait locus (QTL) controlling plant height has been identified in bin 5.05–5.06, across several maize bi-parental populations. With the progress of publicly available maize genome sequence, the objective of this work was to identify the candidate genes that affect plant height among Chinese maize inbred lines with genome wide association studies (GWAS). Methods and Findings A total of 284 maize inbred lines were genotyped using over 55,000 evenly spaced SNPs, from which a set of 41,101 SNPs were filtered with stringent quality control for further data analysis. With the population structure controlled in a mixed linear model (MLM) implemented with the software TASSEL, we carried out a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for plant height. A total of 204 SNPs (P?0.0001) and 105 genomic loci harboring coding regions were identified. Four loci containing genes associated with gibberellin (GA), auxin, and epigenetic pathways may be involved in natural variation that led to a dwarf phenotype in elite maize inbred lines. Among them, a favorable allele for dwarfing on chromosome 5 (SNP PZE-105115518) was also identified in six Shen5003 derivatives. Conclusions The fact that a large number of previously identified dwarf genes are missing from our study highlights the discovery of the consistently significant association of the gene harboring the SNP PZE-105115518 with plant height (P?=?8.91e-10) and its confirmation in the Shen5003 introgression lines. Results from this study suggest that, in the maize breeding schema in China, specific alleles were selected, that have played important roles in maize production. PMID:22216221

Wang, Jianjun; Liu, Changlin; Li, Mingshun; Zhang, Degui; Bai, Li; Zhang, Shihuang; Li, Xinhai

2011-01-01

247

Experimental Infection of Inbred Mice with Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1. I. Investigation of Humoral and Cellular Immunity and of Interferon Induction  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Considerable differences exist in the lethality of herpes simplex virus type t (HSV- 1) after intraperitoneal (i.p.) infection in different inbred strains of mice. In this study humoral and cellular immunity and interferon production were compared in resistant and susceptible mice. The serum IgG response, as determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), was the same in different strains

R. Zawatzky; J. Hilfenhaus; F. Marcucci; H. Kirchner

1981-01-01

248

Heterosis in early maize ear inflorescence development: a genome-wide transcription analysis for two maize inbred lines and their hybrid.  

PubMed

Heterosis, or hybrid vigor, contributes to superior agronomic performance of hybrids compared to their inbred parents. Despite its importance, little is known about the genetic and molecular basis of heterosis. Early maize ear inflorescences formation affects grain yield, and are thus an excellent model for molecular mechanisms involved in heterosis. To determine the parental contributions and their regulation during maize ear-development-genesis, we analyzed genome-wide digital gene expression profiles in two maize elite inbred lines (B73 and Mo17) and their F1 hybrid using deep sequencing technology. Our analysis revealed 17,128 genes expressed in these three genotypes and 22,789 genes expressed collectively in the present study. Approximately 38% of the genes were differentially expressed in early maize ear inflorescences from heterotic cross, including many transcription factor genes and some presence/absence variations (PAVs) genes, and exhibited multiple modes of gene action. These different genes showing differential expression patterns were mainly enriched in five cellular component categories (organelle, cell, cell part, organelle part and macromolecular complex), five molecular function categories (structural molecule activity, binding, transporter activity, nucleic acid binding transcription factor activity and catalytic activity), and eight biological process categories (cellular process, metabolic process, biological regulation, regulation of biological process, establishment of localization, cellular component organization or biogenesis, response to stimulus and localization). Additionally, a significant number of genes were expressed in only one inbred line or absent in both inbred lines. Comparison of the differences of modes of gene action between previous studies and the present study revealed only a small number of different genes had the same modes of gene action in both maize seedlings and ear inflorescences. This might be an indication that in different tissues or developmental stages, different global expression patterns prevail, which might nevertheless be related to heterosis. Our results support the hypotheses that multiple molecular mechanisms (dominance and overdominance modes) contribute to heterosis. PMID:25116687

Ding, Haiping; Qin, Cheng; Luo, Xirong; Li, Lujiang; Chen, Zhe; Liu, Hongjun; Gao, Jian; Lin, Haijian; Shen, Yaou; Zhao, Maojun; Lübberstedt, Thomas; Zhang, Zhiming; Pan, Guangtang

2014-01-01

249

A comparative analysis of the genetic diversity between inbred lines of Zinnia elegans using morphological traits and RAPD and ISSR markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic diversity within Zinnia elegans is key to the genetic improvement of this important ornamental species. Here, morphological traits and RAPD and ISSR molecular markers were used to assess levels of polymorphism across 20 inbred lines. Thirty-four morphological traits were scored and also 147 RAPD marker-fragments, as amplified by 12 arbitrary primers, and 128 ISSR marker-fragments as generated by 9

Y. M. Ye; J. W. Zhang; G. G. Ning; M. Z. Bao

2008-01-01

250

Mapping quantitative trait loci for milling quality, protein content and color characteristics of rice using a recombinant inbred line population derived from an elite rice hybrid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Milling properties, protein content, and flour color are important factors in rice. A marker-based genetic analysis of these\\u000a traits was carried out in this study using recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from an elite hybrid cross ’Shanyou 63’,\\u000a the most-widely grown rice hybrid in production in China. Correlation analysis shows that the traits were inter-correlated,\\u000a though the coefficients were generally

Y. F. Tan; M. Sun; Y. Z. Xing; J. P. Hua; X. L. Sun; Q. F. Zhang; H. Corke

2001-01-01

251

Genetic variation for N-remobilization and postsilking N-uptake in a set of maize recombinant inbred lines. 3. QTL detection and coincidences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to map and characterize QTLs for traits related to nitrogen utilization efficiency (NUE),\\u000a grain N yield, N-remobilization and post-silking N-uptake. Furthermore, to examine whether QTLs detected with recombinant\\u000a inbred lines (RILs) crossed to a tester are common to those detected with line per se evaluation, both types of evaluations\\u000a were developed from the same

M. Coque; A. Martin; J. B. Veyrieras; B. Hirel; A. Gallais

2008-01-01

252

Romanian Maize (Zea mays) Inbred Lines as a Source of Genetic Diversity in SE Europe, and Their Potential in Future Breeding Efforts  

PubMed Central

Maize has always been under constant human selection ever since it had been domesticated. Intensive breeding programs that resulted in the massive use of hybrids nowadays have started in the 60s. That brought significant yield increases but reduced the genetic diversity at the same time. Consequently, breeders and researchers alike turned their attention to national germplasm collections established decades ago in many countries, as they may hold allelic variations that could prove useful for future improvements. These collections are mainly composed of inbred lines originating from well-adapted local open pollinated varieties. However, there is an overall lack of data in the literature about the genetic diversity of maize in SE Europe, and its potential for future breeding efforts. There are no data, whatsoever, on the nutritional quality of the grain, primarily dictated by the zein proteins. We therefore sought to use the Romanian maize germplasm as an entry point in understanding the molecular make-up of maize in this part of Europe. By using 80 SSR markers, evenly spread throughout the genome, on 82 inbred lines from various parts of the country, we were able to decipher population structure and the existing relationships between those and the eight international standards used, including the reference sequenced genome B73. Corroborating molecular data with a standardized morphological, physiological, and biochemical characterization of all 90 inbred lines, this is the first comprehensive such study on the existing SE European maize germplasm. The inbred lines we present here are an important addition to the ever-shrinking gene pool that the breeding programs are faced-with, because of the allelic richness they hold. They may serve as parental lines in crosses that will lead to new hybrids, characterized by a high level of heterosis, nationwide and beyond, due to their existing relationship with the international germplasm. PMID:24392016

Ha?, Voichi?a; Ha?, Ioan; Micl?u?, Mihai

2013-01-01

253

Effect of gliadins and HMW and LMW subunits of glutenin on dough properties in the F 6 recombinant inbred lines from a bread wheat cross  

Microsoft Academic Search

The storage proteins of 64 F2-derived F6 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from the bread wheat cross ‘Prinqual’\\/‘Marengo’ were analyzed. Parents differed at four loci: Gli-B1 (coding for gliadins), Glu-B1 (coding for HMW glutenin subunits), Glu-A3\\/Gli-A1 (coding for LMW glutenin subunits\\/gliadins) and Glu-D3 (coding for LMW glutenin subunits). The effect of allelic variation at these loci on tenacity, extensibility and dough

M. T. Nieto-Taladriz; M. R. Perretant; M. Rousset

1994-01-01

254

Evaluation of Parameters Accounting for Phomopsis Resistance Using Natural Infection and Artificial Inoculation on Recombinant Inbred Lines From a Cross Between Susceptible and Resistant Sunflower  

Microsoft Academic Search

HA89, a sunflower line susceptible to Phomopsis, was crossed with a resistant line, LR4-17. Two hundred and forty-one F2\\/F3 progenies and 232 recombinant inbred (RI) lines were derived from this cross. F2\\/F3 progenies were tested in semi-natural infections in 1994. F7, F8 and F9 were tested with semi-natural infections in 1997, 1998 and 1999, respectively. F7 RI lines were artificially

Kamel Langar; Yves Griveau; François Kaan; Hervé Serieys; Didier Varčs; André Bervillé

2002-01-01

255

Comparing predictions of mean performance and environmental sensitivity of recombinant inbred lines based upon F3 and triple test cross families  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have previously shown that statistics estimated from the F1, F2, B1 and B2 families of a cross between two inbred lines or from a triple test cross on the F2 of such a cross can be successfully used to predict the properties of the pure breeding lines extractable from the cross by single seed descent. In this paper we

J L Jinks; H S Pooni

1980-01-01

256

IMMUNOLOGY, HEALTH, AND DISEASE Immune Response to a Killed Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Vaccine in Inbred Chicken Lines with Different Major Histocompatibility Complex Haplotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of MHC on antibody re- sponses to killed infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) vaccine was investigated in several MHC inbred chicken lines. We found a notable MHC haplotype effect on the specific antibody response against IBDV as measured by ELISA. Some MHC haplotypes were high responders (B201,B4, andBR5), whereas other MHC haplotypes were low responders (B19, B12 and

H. R. Juul-Madsen; T. S. Dalgaard; C. M. Rřntved; K. H. Jensen; N. Bumstead

257

Additive effects of two quantitative trait loci that confer Rhopalosiphum maidis (corn leaf aphid) resistance in maize inbred line Mo17.  

PubMed

Plants show considerable within-species variation in their resistance to insect herbivores. In the case of Zea mays (cultivated maize), Rhopalosiphum maidis (corn leaf aphids) produce approximately twenty times more progeny on inbred line B73 than on inbred line Mo17. Genetic mapping of this difference in maize aphid resistance identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) on chromosomes 4 and 6, with the Mo17 allele reducing aphid reproduction in each case. The chromosome 4 QTL mapping interval includes several genes involved in the biosynthesis of DIMBOA (2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one), a maize defensive metabolite that also is required for callose accumulation in response to aphid feeding. Consistent with the known association of callose with plant defence against aphids, R. maidis reproduction on B73×Mo17 recombinant inbred lines was negatively correlated with both DIMBOA content and callose formation. Further genetic mapping, as well as experiments with near-isogenic lines, confirmed that the Mo17 allele causes increased DIMBOA accumulation relative to the B73 allele. The chromosome 6 aphid resistance QTL functions independently of DIMBOA accumulation and has an effect that is additive to that of the chromosome 4 QTL. Thus, at least two separate defence mechanisms account for the higher level of R. maidis resistance in Mo17 compared with B73. PMID:25249072

Betsiashvili, Mariam; Ahern, Kevin R; Jander, Georg

2015-02-01

258

Bipolar Disorder Among Adults  

MedlinePLUS

... News About Us Home > Health & Education > Statistics > Prevalence Bipolar Disorder Among Adults Statistics Home Prevalence Serious Mental ... Disorder Among Adults Any Mood Disorder in Children Bipolar Disorder Among Adults Bipolar Disorder Among Children Dysthymic ...

259

America's Young Adults  

MedlinePLUS

America's Young Adults: Special Issue, 2014 Foreword Demographics Education Economic Circumstances Family Formation Civic, Social, and Personal ... Young Adult Tables List of Young Adult Figures America's Children at a Glance Forum Agencies List of ...

260

Adult Day Centers  

MedlinePLUS

... programs and discussion groups. Why use an adult day center One reason to use an adult day ... your needs for future care. Evaluating an adult day center Consider the following when you evaluate an ...

261

Depression in Older Adults  

MedlinePLUS

... You are here Home » Depression In Older Adults Depression In Older Adults Depression affects more than 19 ... combination of both. [8] Older Adult Attitudes Toward Depression: According to a Mental Health America survey [9] ...

262

Specific Phobia Among Adults  

MedlinePLUS

... Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among ...

263

Adult Education and Adult Needs. Research Reports.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this part of the Kansas City Study of Adult Life, educational implications of adult activities and goals were explored, with emphasis on effective living in middle life. Performance of adult developmental tasks and motivation toward effort in these areas were investigated. Criteria were offered for assessing high, medium, and low performance in…

Havighurst, Robert J.; Orr, Betty

264

The major histocompatibility complex-restricted response of recombinant inbred strains of mice to natural tick transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi.  

PubMed

The causative agent of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, is transmitted by ticks of the Ixodes ricinus complex. In this study, we report the antibody response of recombinant inbred strains of mice of the H-2, b, d, and k haplotypes, infected with B. burgdorferi as a result of exposure to infected I. dammini. The patterns of antibody response assayed by Western blot analysis indicate significant major histocompatibility complex (MHC) restriction to bacterial antigens within the first 2 mo of infection in mice. Other bacterial antigens induce a significant response across the MHC haplotypes tested when assayed on the same bacterial strain used to transmit the infection, but do not crossreact with the same proteins derived from heterologous strains of B. burgdorferi. No response to outer surface protein A was detected at any time during the 60-d period we analyzed this infection. A third group of bacterial antigens appear to generate a MHC-nonrestricted response, and this lack of restriction is maintained when assaying the crossreactivity of the response with other strains of B. burgdorferi. These proteins may provide more accurate diagnostic probes than those currently in use. Finally, there appears to be a significant difference in the expression of most bacterial antigens when the spirochete is cultured for many passages since the same strain of bacterium isolated from low-passage and high-passage preparations exhibit different banding patterns in Western blots when assayed with the same sera. PMID:8418212

Golde, W T; Burkot, T R; Sviat, S; Keen, M G; Mayer, L W; Johnson, B J; Piesman, J

1993-01-01

265

Construction of integrated linkage map of a recombinant inbred line population of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.)  

PubMed Central

We report the development of a Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) marker panel and its utilisation in the development of an integrated genetic linkage map of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) using an F8 recombinant inbred line population derived from Kiev Mutant/P27174. One hundred and thirty-six DArT markers were merged into the first genetic linkage map composed of 220 amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) and 105 genic markers. The integrated map consists of 38 linkage groups of 441 markers and spans a total length of 2,169 cM, with an average interval size of 4.6 cM. The DArT markers exhibited good genome coverage and were associated with previously identified genic and AFLP markers linked with quantitative trait loci for anthracnose resistance, flowering time and alkaloid content. The improved genetic linkage map of white lupin will aid in the identification of markers for traits of interest and future syntenic studies. PMID:24273424

Vipin, Cina Ann; Luckett, David J.; Harper, John D.I.; Ash, Gavin J.; Kilian, Andrzej; Ellwood, Simon R.; Phan, Huyen T.T.; Raman, Harsh

2013-01-01

266

A Set of Lotus japonicus Gifu × Lotus burttii Recombinant Inbred Lines Facilitates Map-based Cloning and QTL Mapping  

PubMed Central

Model legumes such as Lotus japonicus have contributed significantly to the understanding of symbiotic nitrogen fixation. This insight is mainly a result of forward genetic screens followed by map-based cloning to identify causal alleles. The L. japonicus ecotype ‘Gifu’ was used as a common parent for inter-accession crosses to produce F2 mapping populations either with other L. japonicus ecotypes, MG-20 and Funakura, or with the related species L. filicaulis. These populations have all been used for genetic studies but segregation distortion, suppression of recombination, low polymorphism levels, and poor viability have also been observed. More recently, the diploid species L. burttii has been identified as a fertile crossing partner of L. japonicus. To assess its qualities in genetic linkage analysis and to enable quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping for a wider range of traits in Lotus species, we have generated and genotyped a set of 163 Gifu × L. burttii recombinant inbred lines (RILs). By direct comparisons of RIL and F2 population data, we show that L. burttii is a valid alternative to MG-20 as a Gifu mapping partner. In addition, we demonstrate the utility of the Gifu × L. burttii RILs in QTL mapping by identifying an Nfr1-linked QTL for Sinorhizobium fredii nodulation. PMID:22619310

Sandal, Niels; Jin, Haojie; Rodriguez-Navarro, Dulce Nombre; Temprano, Francisco; Cvitanich, Cristina; Brachmann, Andreas; Sato, Shusei; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi; Tabata, Satoshi; Parniske, Martin; Ruiz-Sainz, Jose E.; Andersen, Stig U.; Stougaard, Jens

2012-01-01

267

A set of Lotus japonicus Gifu x Lotus burttii recombinant inbred lines facilitates map-based cloning and QTL mapping.  

PubMed

Model legumes such as Lotus japonicus have contributed significantly to the understanding of symbiotic nitrogen fixation. This insight is mainly a result of forward genetic screens followed by map-based cloning to identify causal alleles. The L. japonicus ecotype 'Gifu' was used as a common parent for inter-accession crosses to produce F2 mapping populations either with other L. japonicus ecotypes, MG-20 and Funakura, or with the related species L. filicaulis. These populations have all been used for genetic studies but segregation distortion, suppression of recombination, low polymorphism levels, and poor viability have also been observed. More recently, the diploid species L. burttii has been identified as a fertile crossing partner of L. japonicus. To assess its qualities in genetic linkage analysis and to enable quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping for a wider range of traits in Lotus species, we have generated and genotyped a set of 163 Gifu × L. burttii recombinant inbred lines (RILs). By direct comparisons of RIL and F2 population data, we show that L. burttii is a valid alternative to MG-20 as a Gifu mapping partner. In addition, we demonstrate the utility of the Gifu × L. burttii RILs in QTL mapping by identifying an Nfr1-linked QTL for Sinorhizobium fredii nodulation. PMID:22619310

Sandal, Niels; Jin, Haojie; Rodriguez-Navarro, Dulce Nombre; Temprano, Francisco; Cvitanich, Cristina; Brachmann, Andreas; Sato, Shusei; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi; Tabata, Satoshi; Parniske, Martin; Ruiz-Sainz, Jose E; Andersen, Stig U; Stougaard, Jens

2012-01-01

268

IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN VARIABLE REGION GENES CONTRIBUTE TO THE INDUCTION OF THYROID STIMULATING ANTIBODIES IN RECOMBINANT INBRED MICE  

PubMed Central

Graves’ hyperthyroidism is an autoimmune disease occurring spontaneously in humans caused by autoantibodies that stimulate the thyrotropin-receptor. In mice, inducing Graves’-like hyperthyroidism requires in vivo expression of the thyrotropin-receptor using plasmid or adenovirus vectors. However, mice with different genetic backgrounds vary markedly in their susceptibility to induced hyperthyroidism. Further, in some strains major disparities exist between the induction of hyperthyroidism and detection of thyroid-stimulating antibodies. To break tolerance, all Graves’ mouse models involve immunization with human thyrotropin-receptor DNA and the standard thyroid-stimulating antibodies bioassay utilizes cells expressing the human thyrotropin-receptor. We hypothesized, and now report, that disparities between hyperthyroidism and thyroid-stimulating antibody bioactivity are explained, at least in part, by differential antibody recognition of the human versus the mouse thyrotropin-receptor. The genetic basis for these species differences was explored using genotyped, recombinant-inbred mouse strains. We report that loci in the immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region as well as in the MHC region contribute in a strain-specific manner to the development of antibodies specific for the human or the mouse thyrotropin-receptor. The novel finding of a role for immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region gene involvement in thyroid-stimulating antibody epitopic specificity provides potential insight into genetic susceptibility in human Graves’ disease. PMID:20407472

Rapoport, Basil; Williams, Robert W.; Chen, Chun-Rong; McLachlan, Sandra M.

2014-01-01

269

Quantitative trait loci for rice yield-related traits using recombinant inbred lines derived from two diverse cultivars.  

PubMed

The thousand-grain weight and spikelets per panicle directly contribute to rice yield. Heading date and plant height also greatly influence the yield. Dissection of genetic bases of yield-related traits would provide tools for yield improvement. In this study, quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping for spikelets per panicle, thousand-grain weight, heading date and plant height was performed using recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross between two diverse cultivars, Nanyangzhan and Chuan7. In total, 20 QTLs were identified for four traits. They were located to 11 chromosomes except on chromosome 4. Seven and five QTLs were detected for thousand-grain weight and spikelets per panicle, respectively. Four QTLs were identified for both heading date and plant height. About half the QTLs were commonly detected in both years, 2006 and 2007. Six QTLs are being reported for the first time. Two QTL clusters were identified in regions flanked by RM22065 and RM5720 on chromosome 7 and by RM502 and RM264 on chromosome 8, respectively. The parent, Nanyangzhan with heavy thousand-grain weight, carried alleles with increased effects on all seven thousand-grain weight QTL, which explained why there was no transgressive segregation for thousand-grain weight in the population. In contrast, Chuan7 with more spikelets per panicle carried positive alleles at all five spikelets per panicle QTL except qspp5. Further work on distinction between pleiotropic QTL and linked QTL is needed in two yield-related QTL clusters. PMID:21869469

Bai, Xu Feng; Luo, Li Jun; Yan, Wen Hao; Kovi, Mallikarjuna Rao; Xing, Yong Zhong

2011-08-01

270

RNA-Seq Transcriptome Analysis of Maize Inbred Carrying Nicosulfuron-Tolerant and Nicosulfuron-Susceptible Alleles.  

PubMed

Postemergence applications of nicosulfuron can cause great damage to certain maize inbred lines and hybrids. Variation among different responses to nicosulfuron may be attributed to differential rates of herbicide metabolism. We employed RNA-Seq analysis to compare transcriptome responses between nicosulfuron-treated and untreated in both tolerant and susceptible maize plants. A total of 71.8 million paired end Illumina RNA-Seq reads were generated, representing the transcription of around 40,441 unique reads. About 345,171 gene ontology (GO) term assignments were conducted for the annotation in terms of biological process, cellular component and molecular function categories, and 6413 sequences with 108 enzyme commission numbers were assigned to 134 predicted Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) metabolic pathways. Digital gene expression profile (DGE) analysis using Solexa sequencing was performed within the susceptible and tolerant maize between the nicosulfuron-treated and untreated conditions, 13 genes were selected as the candidates most likely involved in herbicide metabolism, and quantitative RT-PCR validated the RNA-Seq results for eight genes. This transcriptome data may provide opportunities for the study of sulfonylurea herbicides susceptibility emergence of Zea mays. PMID:25782159

Liu, Xiaomin; Xu, Xian; Li, Binghua; Wang, Xueqing; Wang, Guiqi; Li, Moran

2015-01-01

271

Abiotic stress growth conditions induce different responses in kernel iron concentration across genotypically distinct maize inbred varieties  

PubMed Central

The improvement of grain nutrient profiles for essential minerals and vitamins through breeding strategies is a target important for agricultural regions where nutrient poor crops like maize contribute a large proportion of the daily caloric intake. Kernel iron concentration in maize exhibits a broad range. However, the magnitude of genotype by environment (GxE) effects on this trait reduces the efficacy and predictability of selection programs, particularly when challenged with abiotic stress such as water and nitrogen limitations. Selection has also been limited by an inverse correlation between kernel iron concentration and the yield component of kernel size in target environments. Using 25 maize inbred lines for which extensive genome sequence data is publicly available, we evaluated the response of kernel iron density and kernel mass to water and nitrogen limitation in a managed field stress experiment using a factorial design. To further understand GxE interactions we used partition analysis to characterize response of kernel iron and weight to abiotic stressors among all genotypes, and observed two patterns: one characterized by higher kernel iron concentrations in control over stress conditions, and another with higher kernel iron concentration under drought and combined stress conditions. Breeding efforts for this nutritional trait could exploit these complementary responses through combinations of favorable allelic variation from these already well-characterized genetic stocks. PMID:24363659

Kandianis, Catherine B.; Michenfelder, Abigail S.; Simmons, Susan J.; Grusak, Michael A.; Stapleton, Ann E.

2013-01-01

272

Genetic analysis of morphological traits in a new, versatile, rapid-cycling Brassica rapa recombinant inbred line population.  

PubMed

A recombinant inbred line (RIL) population was produced based on a wide cross between the rapid-cycling and self-compatible genotypes L58, a Caixin vegetable type, and R-o-18, a yellow sarson oil type. A linkage map based on 160 F7 lines was constructed using 100 Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 130 AFLP®, 27 InDel, and 13 publicly available SSR markers. The map covers a total length of 1150 centiMorgan (cM) with an average resolution of 4.3 cM/marker. To demonstrate the versatility of this new population, 17 traits, related to plant architecture and seed characteristics, were subjected to quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis. A total of 47 QTLs were detected, each explaining between 6 and 54% of the total phenotypic variance for the concerned trait. The genetic analysis shows that this population is a useful new tool for analyzing genetic variation for interesting traits in B. rapa, and for further exploitation of the recent availability of the B. rapa whole genome sequence for gene cloning and gene function analysis. PMID:22912644

Bagheri, Hedayat; El-Soda, Mohamed; van Oorschot, Inge; Hanhart, Corrie; Bonnema, Guusje; Jansen-van den Bosch, Tanja; Mank, Rolf; Keurentjes, Joost J B; Meng, Lin; Wu, Jian; Koornneef, Maarten; Aarts, Mark G M

2012-01-01

273

Maize Inbreds Exhibit High Levels of Copy Number Variation (CNV) and Presence/Absence Variation (PAV) in Genome Content  

PubMed Central

Following the domestication of maize over the past ?10,000 years, breeders have exploited the extensive genetic diversity of this species to mold its phenotype to meet human needs. The extent of structural variation, including copy number variation (CNV) and presence/absence variation (PAV), which are thought to contribute to the extraordinary phenotypic diversity and plasticity of this important crop, have not been elucidated. Whole-genome, array-based, comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) revealed a level of structural diversity between the inbred lines B73 and Mo17 that is unprecedented among higher eukaryotes. A detailed analysis of altered segments of DNA conservatively estimates that there are several hundred CNV sequences among the two genotypes, as well as several thousand PAV sequences that are present in B73 but not Mo17. Haplotype-specific PAVs contain hundreds of single-copy, expressed genes that may contribute to heterosis and to the extraordinary phenotypic diversity of this important crop. PMID:19956538

Fu, Yan; Ji, Tieming; Yeh, Cheng-Ting; Jia, Yi; Wu, Wei; Richmond, Todd; Kitzman, Jacob; Rosenbaum, Heidi; Iniguez, A. Leonardo; Barbazuk, W. Brad; Jeddeloh, Jeffrey A.; Nettleton, Dan; Schnable, Patrick S.

2009-01-01

274

Mapping 49 quantitative trait loci at high resolution through sequencing-based genotyping of rice recombinant inbred lines  

PubMed Central

Mapping chromosome regions responsible for quantitative phenotypic variation in recombinant populations provides an effective means to characterize the genetic basis of complex traits. We conducted a quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis of 150 rice recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between two cultivars, Oryza sativa ssp. indica cv. 93-11 and Oryza sativa ssp. japonica cv. Nipponbare. The RILs were genotyped through next-generation sequencing, which accurately determined the recombination breakpoints and provided a new type of genetic markers, recombination bins, for QTL analysis. We detected 49 QTL with phenotypic effect ranging from 3.2 to 46.0% for 14 agronomics traits. Five QTL of relatively large effect (14.6–46.0%) were located on small genomic regions, where strong candidate genes were found. The analysis using sequencing-based genotyping thus offers a powerful solution to map QTL with high resolution. Moreover, the RILs developed in this study serve as an excellent system for mapping and studying genetic basis of agricultural and biological traits of rice. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00122-010-1449-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20878143

Wang, Lu; Wang, Ahong; Huang, Xuehui; Zhao, Qiang; Dong, Guojun; Qian, Qian; Sang, Tao

2010-01-01

275

Identification of a novel gene, H34, in wheat using recombinant inbred lines and single nucleotide polymorphism markers.  

PubMed

Hessian fly (HF), Mayetiola destructor, is an important pest of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) worldwide. Because it has multiple biotypes that are virulent to different wheat HF resistance genes, pyramiding multiple resistance genes in a cultivar can improve resistance durability, and finding DNA markers tightly linked to these genes is essential to this process. This study identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for Hessian fly resistance (HFR) in the wheat cultivar 'Clark' and tightly linked DNA markers for the QTLs. A linkage map was constructed with single nucleotide polymorphism and simple sequence repeat markers using a population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from the cross 'Ning7840' × 'Clark' by single-seed descent. Two QTLs associated with resistance to fly biotype GP were identified on chromosomes 6B and 1A, with the resistance alleles contributed from 'Clark'. The QTL on 6B flanked by loci Xsnp921 and Xsnp2745 explained about 37.2 % of the phenotypic variation, and the QTL on 1A was flanked by Xgwm33 and Xsnp5150 and accounted for 13.3 % of phenotypic variation for HFR. The QTL on 6B has not been reported before and represents a novel wheat gene with resistance to HF, thus, it is designated H34. A significant positive epistasis was detected between the two QTLs that accounted for about 9.5 % of the mean phenotypic variation and increased HFR by 0.16. Our results indicated that different QTLs may contribute different degrees of resistance in a cultivar and that epistasis may play an important role in HFR. PMID:23689741

Li, Chunlian; Chen, Mingshun; Chao, Shiaoman; Yu, Jianming; Bai, Guihua

2013-08-01

276

Differences between three inbred rat strains in number of K+ channel-immunoreactive neurons in the medullary raphé nucleus  

PubMed Central

Ventilatory sensitivity to hypercapnia is greater in Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rats than in Fawn Hooded hypertensive (FHH) and Brown Norway (BN) inbred rats. Since pH-sensitive potassium ion (K+) channels are postulated to contribute to the sensing and signaling of changes in CO2-H+ in chemosensitive neurons, we tested the hypothesis that there are more pH-sensitive K+ channel-immunoreactive (ir) neurons within the medullary raphé nuclei of the highly chemosensitive SS rats than in the other two strains. Medullary tissues from male and female BN, FHH, and SS rats were stained with cresyl violet or with antibodies targeting TASK-1, Kv1.4, and Kir2.3 channels. K+ channel-ir neurons were quantified and compared with the total neurons in the region. The total number of neurons in the medullary raphé 1) was greater in male FHH than the other male rats, 2) did not differ among the female rats, and 3) did not differ between sexes. The average number of K+ channel-ir neurons per section was 30–60 neurons higher in the male SS than in the other rat strains. In contrast, for the females, the number of K+ channel-ir neurons was greatest in the BN. We also found significant differences in the number of K+ channel-ir neurons between sexes in SS (males > females) and BN (females > males) rats, but not the FHH strain. Our findings support the hypothesis for males but not for females, suggesting that both genetic background and sex are determinants of K+ channel immunoreactivity of medullary raphé neurons, and that the expression of pH-sensitive K+ channels in the medullary raphé does not correlate with the ventilatory sensitivity to hypercapnia. PMID:19926827

Riley, D.; Dwinell, M.; Qian, B.; Krause, K. L.; Bonis, J. M.; Neumueller, S.; Marshall, B. D.; Hodges, M. R.

2010-01-01

277

Learning strategy selection in the water maze and hippocampal CREB phosphorylation differ in two inbred strains of mice  

PubMed Central

Learning strategy selection was assessed in two different inbred strains of mice, C57BL/6 and DBA/2, which are used for developing genetically modified mouse models. Male mice received a training protocol in a water maze using alternating blocks of visible and hidden platform trials, during which mice escaped to a single location. After training, mice were required to choose between the spatial location where the platform had been during training (a place strategy) and a visible platform presented in a new location (a cued/response strategy). Both strains of mice had similar escape performance on the visible and hidden platform trials during training. However, in the strategy preference test, C57BL/6 mice selected a place strategy significantly more often than DBA/2 mice. Because much evidence implicates the hippocampus and striatum as important neural substrates for spatial/place and cued/response learning, respectively, the engagement of the hippocampus was then assessed after either place or cue training by determining levels of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and phosphorylated CREB (pCREB) in these two mouse strains. Results revealed that hippocampal CREB levels in both strains of mice were significantly increased after place in comparison to cued training. However, the relation of hippocampal pCREB levels to training was strain dependent; pCREB was significantly higher in C57BL/6 mice than in DBA/2 mice after place training, while hippocampal pCREB levels did not differ between strains after cued training. These findings indicate that pCREB, specifically associated with place/spatial training, is closely tied to differences in spatial/place strategy preference between C57BL/6 and DBA/2 mice. PMID:18353993

Sung, Jin-Young; Goo, June-Seo; Lee, Dong-Eun; Jin, Da-Qing; Bizon, Jennifer L.; Gallagher, Michela; Han, Jung-Soo

2008-01-01

278

Acute intravenous toxicity of dimethyl sulfoxide, polyethylene glycol 400, dimethylformamide, absolute ethanol, and benzyl alcohol in inbred mouse strains.  

PubMed

Acute intravenous toxicity of some solvents, i.e. dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG 400), dimethylformamide (DMF), absolute ethanol (EtOH) and benzyl alcohol (BeOH), was determined in three inbred (CD2F1, B6D2F1 and C57BL/6N) mouse strains used in many preclinical tests, mainly in oncology and toxicology. Haemolytic and precipitation potential tests in vitro were performed to assess the blood compatibility of the investigated solvents and its relationship with the observed symptoms. The single tested solvents did not show any major differences in acute toxicity in the three tested strains with the exclusion of DMSO (less toxic in CD2F1) and BeOH and EtOH (less toxic in B6D2F1). The tested dose ranges in the three strains (in ml/kg) were 1.0-5.66 for DMSO, 2.0-8.0 for PEG 400, 1.0-4.0 for DMF, 0.75-4.24 for EtOH, 0.025-0.4 for BeOH. The lowest tested dose was a safe dose and the highest one was the dose causing mortality in no more than half the animals in each group. The in vitro results suggest avoiding the use of BeOH (which also is more toxic than the other solvents in the in vivo test) and DMSO and using PEG400, EtOH and DMF even though the latter induced a body weight decrease in the B6D2F1 mouse strain. As a general conclusion, dilution of these solvents in water is suggested to ameliorate their blood compatibility and the use of doses not higher than the lowest dose tested in this study is recommended. PMID:8011014

Montaguti, P; Melloni, E; Cavalletti, E

1994-04-01

279

QTL Mapping of Agronomic Waterlogging Tolerance Using Recombinant Inbred Lines Derived from Tropical Maize (Zea mays L) Germplasm  

PubMed Central

Waterlogging is an important abiotic stress constraint that causes significant yield losses in maize grown throughout south and south-east Asia due to erratic rainfall patterns. The most economic option to offset the damage caused by waterlogging is to genetically incorporate tolerance in cultivars that are grown widely in the target agro-ecologies. We assessed the genetic variation in a population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from crossing a waterlogging tolerant line (CAWL-46-3-1) to an elite but sensitive line (CML311-2-1-3) and observed significant range of variation for grain yield (GY) under waterlogging stress along with a number of other secondary traits such as brace roots (BR), chlorophyll content (SPAD), % stem and root lodging (S&RL) among the RILs. Significant positive correlation of GY with BR and SPAD and negative correlation with S&RL indicated the potential use of these secondary traits in selection indices under waterlogged conditions. RILs were genotyped with 331 polymorphic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers using KASP (Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR) Platform. QTL mapping revealed five QTL on chromosomes 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10, which together explained approximately 30% of phenotypic variance for GY based on evaluation of RIL families under waterlogged conditions, with effects ranging from 520 to 640 kg/ha for individual genomic regions. 13 QTL were identified for various secondary traits associated with waterlogging tolerance, each individually explaining from 3 to 14% of phenotypic variance. Of the 22 candidate genes with known functional domains identified within the physical intervals delimited by the flanking markers of the QTL influencing GY and other secondary traits, six have previously been demonstrated to be associated with anaerobic responses in either maize or other model species. A pair of flanking SNP markers has been identified for each of the QTL and high throughput marker assays were developed to facilitate rapid introgression of waterlogging tolerance in tropical maize breeding programs. PMID:25884393

Zaidi, Pervez Haider; Rashid, Zerka; Vinayan, Madhumal Thayil; Almeida, Gustavo Dias; Phagna, Ramesh Kumar; Babu, Raman

2015-01-01

280

Differential gene expression in the nucleus accumbens with ethanol self-administration in inbred alcohol-preferring rats.  

PubMed

The current study examined the effects of operant ethanol (EtOH) self-administration on gene expression kin the nucleus accumbens (ACB) and amygdala (AMYG) of inbred alcohol-preferring (iP) rats. Rats self-trained on a standard two-lever operant paradigm to administer either water-water, EtOH (15% v/v)-water, or saccharin (SAC; 0.0125% g/v)-water. Animals were killed 24 h after the last operant session, and the ACB and AMYG dissected; RNA was extracted and purified for microarray analysis. For the ACB, there were 513 significant differences at the p<0.01 level in named genes: 55 between SAC and water; 215 between EtOH and water, and 243 between EtOH and SAC. In the case of the AMYG (p<0.01), there were 48 between SAC and water, 23 between EtOH and water, and 63 between EtOH and SAC group. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis indicated that differences in the ACB between the EtOH and SAC groups could be grouped into 15 significant (p<0.05) categories, which included major categories such as synaptic transmission, cell and ion homeostasis, and neurogenesis, whereas differences between the EtOH and water groups had only 4 categories, which also included homeostasis and synaptic transmission. Several genes were in common between the EtOH and both the SAC and water groups in the synaptic transmission (e.g., Cav2, Nrxn3, Gabrb2, Gad1, Homer1) and homeostasis (S100b, Prkca, Ftl1) categories. Overall, the results suggest that changes in gene expression in the ACB of iP rats are associated with the reinforcing effects of EtOH. PMID:18405950

Rodd, Zachary A; Kimpel, Mark W; Edenberg, Howard J; Bell, Richard L; Strother, Wendy N; McClintick, Jeanette N; Carr, Lucinda G; Liang, Tiebing; McBride, William J

2008-06-01

281

Discrimination against 15N among recombinant inbred lines of Phaseolus vulgaris L. contrasting in phosphorus use efficiency for nitrogen fixation.  

PubMed

Although isotopic discrimination processes during nitrogen (N) transformations influence the outcome of (15)N based quantification of N2 fixation in legumes, little attention has been given to the effects of genotypic variability and environmental constraints such as phosphorus (P) deficiency, on discrimination against (15)N during N2 fixation. In this study, six Phaseolus vulgaris recombinant inbred lines (RILs), i.e. RILs 115, 104, 34 (P deficiency tolerant) and 147, 83, 70 (P deficiency sensitive), were inoculated with Rhizobium tropici CIAT899, and hydroaeroponically grown with P-sufficient (250 ?mol P plant(-1) week(-1)) versus P-deficient (75 ?mol P plant(-1) week(-1)) supply. Two harvests were done at 15 (before nodule functioning) and 42 (flowering stage) days after transplanting. Nodulation, plant biomass, P and N contents, and the ratios of (15)N over total N content ((15)N/Nt) for shoots, roots and nodules were determined. The results showed lower (15)N/Nt in shoots than in roots, both being much lower than in nodules. P deficiency caused a larger decrease in (15)N/Nt in shoots (-0.18%) than in nodules (-0.11%) for all of the genotypes, and the decrease in shoots was greatest for RILs 34 (-0.33%) and 104 (-0.25%). Nodule (15)N/Nt was significantly related to both the quantity of N2 fixed (R(2)=0.96***) and the P content of nodules (R(2)=0.66*). We conclude that the discrimination against (15)N in the legume N2-fixing symbiosis of common bean with R. tropici CIAT899 is affected by P nutrition and plant genotype, and that the (15)N/Nt in nodules may be used to screen for genotypic variation in P use efficiency for N2 fixation. PMID:24035519

Lazali, Mohamed; Bargaz, Adnane; Carlsson, Georg; Ounane, Sidi Mohamed; Drevon, Jean Jacques

2014-02-15

282

Impaired Pavlovian fear extinction is a common phenotype across genetic lineages of the 129 inbred mouse strain.  

PubMed

Fear extinction is impaired in psychiatric disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder and schizophrenia, which have a major genetic component. However, the genetic factors underlying individual variability in fear extinction remain to be determined. By comparing a panel of inbred mouse strains, we recently identified a strain, 129S1/SvImJ (129S1), that exhibits a profound and selective deficit in Pavlovian fear extinction, and associated abnormalities in functional activation of a key prefrontal-amygdala circuit, as compared with C57BL/6J. The first aim of the present study was to assess fear extinction across multiple 129 substrains representing the strain's four different genetic lineages (parental, steel, teratoma and contaminated). Results showed that 129P1/ReJ, 129P3/J, 129T2/SvEmsJ and 129X1/SvJ exhibited poor fear extinction, relative to C57BL/6J, while 129S1 showed evidence of fear incubation. On the basis of these results, the second aim was to further characterize the nature and specificity of the extinction phenotype in 129S1, as an exemplar of the 129 substrains. Results showed that the extinction deficit in 129S1 was neither the result of a failure to habituate to a sensitized fear response nor an artifact of a fear response to (unconditioned) tone per se. A stronger conditioning protocol (i.e. five x higher intensity shocks) produced an increase in fear expression in 129S1, relative to C57BL/6J, due to rapid rise in freezing during tone presentation. Taken together, these data show that impaired fear extinction is a phenotypic feature common across 129 substrains, and provide preliminary evidence that impaired fear extinction in 129S1 may reflect a pro-fear incubation-like process. PMID:19674120

Camp, M; Norcross, M; Whittle, N; Feyder, M; D'Hanis, W; Yilmazer-Hanke, D; Singewald, N; Holmes, A

2009-11-01

283

Aging in inbred strains of mice: study design and interim report on median lifespans and circulating IGF1 levels.  

PubMed

To better characterize aging in mice, the Jackson Aging Center carried out a lifespan study of 31 genetically-diverse inbred mouse strains housed in a specific pathogen-free facility. Clinical assessments were carried out every 6 months, measuring multiple age-related phenotypes including neuromuscular, kidney and heart function, body composition, bone density, hematology, hormonal levels, and immune system parameters. In a concurrent cross-sectional study of the same 31 strains at 6, 12, and 20 months, more invasive measurements were carried out followed by necropsy to assess apoptosis, DNA repair, chromosome fragility, and histopathology. In this report, which is the initial paper of a series, the study design, median lifespans, and circulating insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) levels at 6, 12, and 18 months are described for the first cohort of 32 females and 32 males of each strain. Survival curves varied dramatically among strains with the median lifespans ranging from 251 to 964 days. Plasma IGF1 levels, which also varied considerably at each time point, showed an inverse correlation with a median lifespan at 6 months (R = -0.33, P = 0.01). This correlation became stronger if the short-lived strains with a median lifespan < 600 days were removed from the analysis (R = -0.53, P < 0.01). These results support the hypothesis that the IGF1 pathway plays a key role in regulating longevity in mice and indicates that common genetic mechanisms may exist for regulating IGF1 levels and lifespan. PMID:19627267

Yuan, Rong; Tsaih, Shirng-Wern; Petkova, Stefka B; Marin de Evsikova, Caralina; Xing, Shuqin; Marion, Michael A; Bogue, Molly A; Mills, Kevin D; Peters, Luanne L; Bult, Carol J; Rosen, Clifford J; Sundberg, John P; Harrison, David E; Churchill, Gary A; Paigen, Beverly

2009-06-01

284

Absence of replication-competent human-tropic porcine endogenous retroviruses in the germ line DNA of inbred miniature Swine.  

PubMed

The potential transmission of porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs) has raised concern in the development of porcine xenotransplantation products. Our previous studies have resulted in the identification of animals within a research herd of inbred miniature swine that lack the capacity to transmit PERV to human cells in vitro. In contrast, other animals were capable of PERV transmission. The PERVs that were transmitted to human cells are recombinants between PERV-A and PERV-C in the post-VRA region of the envelope (B. A. Oldmixon, J. C. Wood, T. A. Ericsson, C. A. Wilson, M. E. White-Scharf, G. Andersson, J. L. Greenstein, H. J. Schuurman, and C. Patience, J. Virol. 76:3045-3048, 2002); these viruses we term PERV-A/C. This observation prompted us to determine whether these human-tropic replication-competent (HTRC) PERV-A/C recombinants were present in the genomic DNA of these miniature swine. Genomic DNA libraries were generated from one miniature swine that transmitted HTRC PERV as well as from one miniature swine that did not transmit HTRC PERV. HTRC PERV-A/C proviruses were not identified in the germ line DNAs of these pigs by using genomic mapping. Similarly, although PERV-A loci were identified in both libraries that possessed long env open reading frames, the Env proteins encoded by these loci were nonfunctional according to pseudotype assays. In the absence of a germ line source for HTRC PERV, further studies are warranted to assess the mechanisms by which HTRC PERV can be generated. Once identified, it may prove possible to generate animals with further reduced potential to produce HTRC PERV. PMID:14963152

Scobie, Linda; Taylor, Samantha; Wood, James C; Suling, Kristen M; Quinn, Gary; Meikle, Sharon; Patience, Clive; Schuurman, Henk-Jan; Onions, David E

2004-03-01

285

Oocyte activation after intracytoplasmic injection with sperm frozen without cryoprotectants results in live offspring from inbred and hybrid mouse strains.  

PubMed

Re-establishment of mouse strains used for mutagenesis and transgenesis has been hindered by difficulties in freezing sperm. The use of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) enables the production of embryos for the restoration of mouse lines using sperm with reduced quality. By using ICSI, simplified sperm-freezing methods such as snap freezing can be explored. We examined the capacity of embryos from the inbred C57Bl/6J and 129Sv/ImJ mouse strains, commonly used for transgenic and N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutagenesis purposes to develop to blastocysts in vitro and to term following ICSI with sperm frozen without cryoprotectant. The results were compared to F1 (C57BlxCBA) hybrid embryos. Following freezing, sperm were immotile but could fertilize oocytes at similar rates to fresh sperm. However, embryo development in vitro to the blastocyst stage was reduced in all three strains. No pups were born from C57Bl/6J or 129Sv/ImJ embryos obtained from frozen sperm following transfer to foster females, and only a limited number of F1 embryos developed to term. Activation of oocytes injected with frozen sperm with 1.7 mM Sr2+ (SrCl2) did result in the birth of pups in all three strains. We conclude that the inability of sperm frozen without cryoprotectants to effectively activate oocytes may affect embryo development to term and can be overcome by strontium activation. This may become an effective strategy for sperm preservation and the restoration of most popular strains used for genetic modifications. PMID:12890731

Lacham-Kaplan, Orly; Shaw, Jill; Sanchez-Partida, L Gabriel; Trounson, Alan

2003-11-01

286

Quantitative trait loci associated with leaf and neck blast resistance in recombinant inbred line population of rice (Oryza sativa).  

PubMed

Blast is an economically important disease of rice. To map genes controlling blast resistance, recombinant inbred lines (RIL) were developed from Khao Dawk Mali 105, an aromatic, blast-susceptible cultivar and the blast resistance donor, CT 9993-5-10-M (CT). A linkage map encompassing 2112 cM was constructed from 141 RILs using 90 restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) and 31 simple sequence repeats (SSR). Virulent isolates of blast fungus were identified by screening differential host sets against 87 single-spore isolates collected from the north and northeast of Thailand. Fifteen virulent blast isolates were selected for leaf blast screening. Neck blast was evaluated both under natural conditions and controlled inoculations. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for broad resistance spectrum (BRS) to leaf blast were located on chromosomes 7 and 9. In particular, the QTL(ch9) was mapped near the Pi5(t) locus. The QTL(ch7) was located close to a previously mapped partial resistance QTL. Both loci showed significant allelic interaction. Genotypes having CT alleles at both QTL(ch7) and QTL(ch9) were the most resistant. Two neck-blast QTLs were mapped on chromosomes 5 and 6. The inconsistent map locations between the leaf and neck blast QTLs indicate the complexity of fixing both leaf and neck blast resistance. The coincidence of BRS and field resistance QTLs on chromosome 7 supports the idea that BRS may reflect the broad resistance spectrum to leaf blast in rice. These findings laid the foundation for the development of a marker-assisted scheme for improving Khoa Dawk Mali 105 and the majority of aromatic Thai rice varieties that are susceptible to blast. PMID:12168952

Sirithunya, Pattama; Tragoonrung, Somvong; Vanavichit, Apichart; Pa-In, Nathinee; Vongsaprom, Chanakarn; Toojinda, Theerayut

2002-06-30

287

A-to-I pre-mRNA editing of the serotonin 2C receptor: comparisons among inbred mouse strains.  

PubMed

The serotonin receptor 5HT2CR pre-mRNA is subject to adenosine deamination (RNA editing) at five residues located within a 15 nucleotide stretch of the coding region. Such changes of adenosine to inosine (A-to-I) can produce 32 mRNA variants, encoding 24 different protein isoforms, some of which vary in biochemical and pharmacological properties. Because serotonin mediates diverse neurological processes relevant to behavior and because inbred mouse strains vary in their responses to tests of learning and behavior, we have examined the A-to-I editing patterns of the 5HT2CR mRNA in whole brains from eight mouse strains. By sequencing approximately 100 clones from individual mice, we generated detailed information on levels of editing at each site and patterns of editing that identify a total of 28 mRNA and 20 protein isoforms. Significant differences between individuals from different strains were found in total editing frequency, in the proportion of transcripts with 1 and 4 edited sites, in editing frequency at the A, B, E and D sites, in amino acid frequencies at positions 157 and 161, and in subsets of major protein isoforms. Primer extension assays were used to show that individuals within strains (six C3H.B-+rd1 and four 129SvImrJ) displayed no significant differences in any feature. These findings suggest that genetic background contributes to subtle variation in 5HT2CR mRNA editing patterns which may have consequences for pharmacological treatments and behavioral testing. PMID:16904273

Du, Yunzhi; Davisson, Muriel T; Kafadar, Karen; Gardiner, Katheleen

2006-11-01

288

Genomic regions influencing resistance to the parasitic weed Striga hermonthica in two recombinant inbred populations of sorghum.  

PubMed

Molecular markers for resistance of sorghum to the hemi-parasitic weed Striga hermonthica were mapped in two recombinant inbred populations (RIP-1, and -2) of F(3:5) lines developed from the crosses IS9830 x E36-1 (1) and N13 x E36-1 (2). The resistant parental lines were IS9830 and N13; the former is characterized by a low stimulation of striga seed germination, the latter by "mechanical" resistance. The genetic maps of RIP-1 and RIP-2 spanned 1,498 cM and 1,599 cM, respectively, with 137 and 157 markers distributed over 11 linkage groups. To evaluate striga resistance, we divided each RIP into set 1 (116 lines tested in 1997) and set 2 (110 lines evaluated in 1998). Field trials were conducted in five environments per year in Mali and Kenya. Heritability estimates for area under the striga number progress curve (ASNPC) in sets 1 and 2 were respectively 0.66 and 0.74 in RIP-1 0.81 and 0.82 in RIP-2. Across sites, composite interval mapping detected 11 QTL (quantitative trait loci) and nine QTL in sets 1 and 2 of RIP-1, explaining 77% and 80% of the genetic variance for ASNPC, respectively. The most significant RIP-1 QTL corresponded to the major-gene locus lgs (low stimulation of striga seed germination) in linkage group I. In RIP-2, 11 QTL and nine QTL explained 79% and 82% of the genetic variance for ASNPC in sets 1 and 2, respectively. Five QTL were common to both sets of each RIP, wtih the resistance alleles deriving from IS9830 or N13. Since their effects were validated across environments, years and independent RIP samples, these QTL are excellent candidates for marker-assisted selection. PMID:15160241

Haussmann, B I G; Hess, D E; Omanya, G O; Folkertsma, R T; Reddy, B V S; Kayentao, M; Welz, H G; Geiger, H H

2004-09-01

289

Genetic Linkages for Thyroxine Released in Response to Thyrotropin Stimulation in Three Sets of Recombinant Inbred Mice Provide Evidence for Shared and Novel Genes Controlling Thyroid Function  

PubMed Central

Background Graves' hyperthyroidism is induced by immunizing mice with adenovirus expressing the human thyrotropin (TSH)-receptor. Using families of recombinant-inbred mice, we previously discovered that genetic susceptibility to induced thyroid-stimulating antibodies and hyperthyroidism are linked to loci on different chromosomes, indicating a fundamental genetic difference in thyroid sensitivity to ligand stimulation. An approach to assess thyroid sensitivity involves challenging genetically diverse lines of mice with TSH and measuring the genotype/strain-specific increase in serum thyroxine (T4). Methods We investigated genetic susceptibility and genetic control of T4 stimulation by 10?mU bovine TSH in female mice of the CXB, BXH, and AXB/BXA strain families, all previously studied for induced Graves' hyperthyroidism. Results Before TSH injection, T4 levels must be suppressed by inhibiting endogenous TSH secretion. Three daily intraperitoneal L-triiodothyronine injections efficiently suppressed serum T4 in females of 50 of 51 recombinant inbred strains. T4 stimulation by TSH was more strongly linked in CXB and BXH sets, derived from parental strains with divergent T4 stimulation, than in AXB/BXA strains generated from parents with similar TSH-induced responses. Genetic loci linked to the acute TSH-induced T4 response (hours) were not the same as those linked to induced hyperthyroidism (which develops over months). Conclusions Genetic susceptibility for thyroid sensitivity to TSH stimulation was distinct for three families of inbred mouse lines. These observations parallel the human situation with multiple genetic loci contributing to the same trait and different loci associated with the same trait in different ethnic groups. Of the genetic loci highlighted in mice, three overlap with, or are located up or downstream, of human TSH-controlling genes. Other studies show that human disease genes can be identified through cross-species gene mapping of evolutionary conserved processes. Consequently, our findings suggest that novel thyroid function genes may yet be revealed in humans. PMID:22988948

Hamidi, Sepehr; Aliesky, Holly A.; Williams, Robert W.; Rapoport, Basil

2013-01-01

290

Ups and downs of a transcriptional landscape shape iron deficiency associated chlorosis of the maize inbreds B73 and Mo17  

PubMed Central

Background Improving nutrient homeostasis is a major challenge of a sustainable maize cultivation, and cornerstone to ensure food supply for a growing world population. Although, iron constitutes an important nutrient, iron availability is limited. In this respect, iron deficiency associated chlorosis causes severe yield losses every year. Natural variation of the latter trait has yet not been addressed in maize and was therefore studied in the present analysis. Results In this study, we i) report about the contrasting chlorosis phenotypes of the inbreds B73 and Mo17 at 10 and 300 ?M iron regime, ii) identified over 400 significantly regulated transcripts (FDR?inbreds at these growth conditions by deep RNA-Sequencing, iii) linked the gained knowledge with QTL information about iron deficiency related traits within the maize intermated B73 by Mo17 (IBM) population, and iv) highlighted contributing molecular pathways. In this respect, several genes within methionine salvage pathway and phytosiderophore synthesis were found to present constitutively high expression in Mo17, even under sufficient iron supply. Moreover, the same expression pattern could be observed for two putative bHLH transcription factors. In addition, a number of differentially expressed genes showed a co-localisation with QTL confidence intervals for iron deficiency related traits within the IBM population. Conclusions Our study highlights differential iron deficiency associated chlorosis between B73 and Mo17 and represents a valuable resource for differentially expressed genes upon iron limitation and chlorosis response. Besides identifying two putative bHLH transcription factors, we propose that methionine salvage pathway and sterol metabolism amongst others; underlie the contrasting iron deficiency related chlorosis phenotype of both inbreds. Altogether, this study emphasizes a contribution of selected genes and pathways on natural trait variation within the IBM population. PMID:24330725

2013-01-01

291

Identification and characterization of a repertoire of genes differentially expressed in developing top ear shoots between a superior hybrid and its parental inbreds in Zea mays L.  

PubMed

Heterosis has been widely used in crop breeding and production; however, little is known about the genes controlling trait heterosis. The shortage of genes known to function in heterosis significantly limits our understanding of the molecular basis underlying heterosis. Here, we report 748 genes differentially expressed (DG) in the developing top ear shoots between a maize heterotic F1 hybrid (Mo17 × B73) and its parental inbreds identified using maize microarrays containing 28,608 unigene features. Of the 748 DG, over 600 were new for the inbred and hybrid combination. The DG were enriched for 35 of the total 213 maize gene ontology (GO) terms, including those describing photosynthesis, respiration, DNA replication, metabolism, and hormone biosynthesis. From the DG, we identified six genes involved in glycolysis, three genes in the citrate cycle, and four genes in the C4-dicarboxylic acid cycle. We mapped 533 of the 748 DG to the maize B73 genome, 298 (55.9 %) of which mapped to the QTL intervals of 11 maize ear traits. Moreover, we compared the repertoire of the DG with that of 14-day seedlings of the same inbred and hybrid combination. Only approximately 5 % of the DG was shared between the two organs and developmental stages. Furthermore, we mapped 417 (55.7 %) of the 748 maize DG to the QTL intervals of 26 rice yield-related traits. Therefore, this study provides a repertoire of genes useful for identification of genes involved in maize ear trait heterosis and information for a better understanding of the molecular basis underlying heterosis in maize. PMID:24146224

Qin, Jun; Scheuring, Chantel F; Wei, Gang; Zhi, Hui; Zhang, Meiping; Huang, James J; Zhou, Xin; Galbraith, David W; Zhang, Hong-Bin

2013-12-01

292

Determination of mechanisms of host plant resistance to the Banks grass mite Oligonychus pratensis (Banks) (Acari: Tetranychidae) in selected maize inbreds  

E-print Network

. OB JECTIVES 1. To determine the mechanisms of resistance of selected inbred maize lines for the Banks grass mite. 2. To determine whether a reasonable estimate of Birch's rrii value (Birch, 1948) can be calculated using data collected from a... the probability of a female being alive at age x (Q and mean number of female offspring produced in a unit of time by a female aged x (~ in the equation (Birch 1948) ge' "l?m?= 1 where r = intrinsic rate of increase, I?= probability of female being alive...

Krakowsky, Matthew David

1999-01-01

293

AN ADULT APPROACH TO ADULT EDUCATION.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

COLLEGE OF SAN MATEO HAS NOTED THAT ADULTS RETURNING TO THE CAMPUS ARE DOING SO WITH FAR MORE SERIOUS PURPOSE THAN THEY WERE A FEW YEARS AGO. THE TREND IS AWAY FROM AVOCATIONAL COURSES TO ONES OF OCCUPATIONAL OR CULTURAL CONTENT AND TO CREDIT COURSES RATHER THAN NON-CREDIT. THIS CHANGE TO MORE ADULT OFFERINGS HAS ALSO STIMULATED ENROLLMENT--FROM…

HUBBARD, JOHN M.

294

Clueless? Adult Mysteries with Young Adult Appeal.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a list of adult mystery titles for young adult readers. Includes first titles in a series (for reading in order); new and lesser-known mystery authors' works are the focus. Annotations include plot summary. The rest of each annotation is for professional use (includes date and name of award bestowed). (AEF)

Charles, John; Morrison, Joanna

1997-01-01

295

Young Adult Books.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Poses the question of why coming-of-age stories about girls are usually published as juveniles while those about boys originate on adult book lists. Challenges the conventional wisdom on how best to market young adult literature. (FL)

Epstein, Connie C.

1987-01-01

296

Kidney Stones in Adults  

MedlinePLUS

... Info Statistics Research Resources About Us Espańol National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse Publications Tools and ... of Topics and Titles : Kidney Stones in Adults Kidney Stones in Adults On this page: What is ...

297

Can Fluoride Help Adults?  

MedlinePLUS

Can Fluoride Help Adults? Fluoride isn't just for children. The use of fluoride can prove beneficial for both children and adults. Research has shown that fluoride applied directly to teeth is important for fighting ...

298

Immunization Schedules for Adults  

MedlinePLUS

... Immunize? Vaccines: The Basics Vaccines Home Share Compartir Immunization Schedules for Adults in Easy-to-read Formats ... never outgrow the need for vaccines. The specific immunizations you need as an adult are determined by ...

299

Exploring the Genetic Characteristics of Two Recombinant Inbred Line Populations via High-Density SNP Markers in Maize  

PubMed Central

Understanding genetic characteristics can reveal the genetic diversity in maize and be used to explore evolutionary mechanisms and gene cloning. A high-density linkage map was constructed to determine recombination rates (RRs), segregation distortion regions (SDRs), and recombinant blocks (RBs) in two recombinant inbred line populations (RILs) (B73/By804 and Zong3/87-1) generated by the single seed descent method. Population B73/By804 containing 174 lines were genotyped with 198 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) markers while population Zong3/87-1 comprised of 175 lines, were genotyped with 210 SSR markers along with 1536 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for each population, spanning 1526.7 cM and 1996.2 cM in the B73/By804 and Zong3/87-1 populations, respectively. The total variance of the RR in the whole genome was nearly 100 fold, and the maximum average was 10.43–11.50 cM/Mb while the minimum was 0.08–0.10 cM/Mb in the two populations. The average number of RB was 44 and 37 in the Zong3/87-1 and B73/By804 populations, respectively, whereas 28 SDRs were observed in both populations. We investigated 11 traits in Zong3/87-1 and 10 traits in B73/By804. Quantitative trait locus (QTLs) mapping of SNP+SSR with SNP and SSR marker sets were compared to showed the impact of different density markers on QTL mapping and resolution. The confidence interval of QTL Pa19 (FatB gene controlling palmitic acid content) was reduced from 3.5 Mb to 1.72 Mb, and the QTL Oil6 (DGAT1-2 gene controlling oil concentration) was significantly reduced from 10.8 Mb to 1.62 Mb. Thus, the use of high-density markers considerably improved QTL mapping resolution. The genetic information resulting from this study will support forthcoming efforts to understand recombination events, SDRs, and variations among different germplasm. Furthermore, this study will facilitate gene cloning and understanding of the fundamental sources of total variation and RR in maize, which is the most widely cultivated cereal crop. PMID:23300772

Pan, Qingchun; Ali, Farhan; Yang, Xiaohong; Li, Jiansheng; Yan, Jianbing

2012-01-01

300

Teaching Languages to Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A collection of six essays focuses on second language instruction for adult learners. In "Modern Languages and the Adult Student" (David Smith), the motivations of adults taking evening classes are examined and the ways in which language teachers need to adjust to this population are discussed. "Language Learning Theories and Their Implications…

Sidwell, Duncan, Ed.

301

Kids Who Outwit Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Kids who distrust adults are highly skilled at hiding their real nature and resisting change. Most adults shun such youths or get mired in conflict with them. Punitive get tough practices as well as traditional flaw-fixing treatment are reactive strategies that often drive these youths further from adult bonds and reinforce oppositional and…

Seita, John R.; Brendtro, Larry K.

302

Adult Learners in Universities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Theories on adult development and learning and some of the Ontario universities' programs and services for the adult learner are examined, and Athabasca University, Alberta's answer to the British Open University, is described. Peter O'Donnell discusses adult learners' needs and explains how Athabasca University serves this specific type of…

Baker, Janette, Ed.

1981-01-01

303

Adult Learning: A Reader.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book on adult learning is divided into six sections. Section 1, Cognitive Processes, includes the following chapters: "Cognitive Processes: Contemporary Paradigms of Learning" (Jack Mezirow); "Information Processing, Memory, Age and Adult Learning" (Gillian Boulton-Lewis); "Adult Learners' Metacognitive Behaviour in Higher Education" (Barry…

Sutherland, Peter, Ed.

304

Adolescents and Young Adults  

Cancer.gov

Kent EE, Wilder Smith A, Keegan THM, Lynch CF, Kato I, Wu X, Schwartz S, Hamilton A. (in press). Social information needs of adolescent and young adults with cancer in the Adolescent and Young Adult Health Outcomes and Patient Experiences (AYA-HOPE) Study. Jounral of Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology.

305

Adult Day Services  

MedlinePLUS

... 3 $35-45 $60-70 $130-140 Adult Day Services $75,000 $50,000 $25,000 $0 Adult Day Services At-a-Glance • Families share in the ... as many locations 5 • More funding for adult day services decreases Medicaid costs by reducing full-time ...

306

Canadian Adult Basic Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Trends," a publication of the Canadian Association for Adult Education, is a collection of abstracts on selected subjects affecting adult education; this issue is on adult basic education (ABE). It covers teachers and teacher training, psychological factors relating to the ABE teacher and students, manuals for teachers, instructional materials,…

Brooke, W. Michael, Comp.

307

Comparing Adult Education Worldwide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comparative international adult education, defined as that field in which adult educators from various countries compare their own institutions and practices with those of their counterparts in other nations, is examined. Provided is an account of adult education in nine European socialist countries (including the Soviet Union), as well as…

Charters, Alexander N.; And Others

308

Navajo Adult Basic Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objectives of this Special Experimental Demonstration Project in Adult Basic Education for the Navajo were: (1) to raise the educational and social level of Navajo adult students who are unable to read, write, and speak English; (2) to assist the Navajo adult students to take advantage of occupational and vocational training programs; (3) to…

Navajo Community Coll., Tsaile, AZ.

309

Adult Learning Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This note summarizes several modern theories of adult learning, including the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, neurolinguistic programming, and the theories of Malcolm Knowles, David Kolb, and Gib Akin. The note can be used as an introduction to adult learning in a doctoral seminar on pedagogy, and invites readers to be aware of adult learning styles in preparing for and teaching their

James Clawson

310

Adult Education Access Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A project was conducted to improve access to adult education for clients of Pennsylvania's Erie Family Center. The project's primary objectives were as follows: include adult education services in the referral services provided to family center clients; expedite students' referral to adult education services; provide career counseling to…

Northwest Tri-County Intermediate Unit, Edinboro, PA.

311

Dimensions of Adult Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This broad introduction to adult and postcompulsory education offers an overview of the field for students, adult educators and workplace trainers. The book establishes an analytical framework to emphasize the nature of learning and agency of learners; examines the core knowledge and skills that adult educators need; discusses policy, research and…

Foley, Griff, Ed.

2004-01-01

312

Expression Analysis of Stress-Related Genes in Kernels of Different Maize (Zea mays L.) Inbred Lines with Different Resistance to Aflatoxin Contamination  

PubMed Central

This research examined the expression patterns of 94 stress-related genes in seven maize inbred lines with differential expressions of resistance to aflatoxin contamination. The objective was to develop a set of genes/probes associated with resistance to A. flavus and/or aflatoxin contamination. Ninety four genes were selected from previous gene expression studies with abiotic stress to test the differential expression in maize lines, A638, B73, Lo964, Lo1016, Mo17, Mp313E, and Tex6, using real-time RT-PCR. Based on the relative-expression levels, the seven maize inbred lines clustered into two different groups. One group included B73, Lo1016 and Mo17, which had higher levels of aflatoxin contamination and lower levels of overall gene expression. The second group which included Tex6, Mp313E, Lo964 and A638 had lower levels of aflatoxin contamination and higher overall levels of gene expressions. A total of six “cross-talking” genes were identified between the two groups, which are highly expressed in the resistant Group 2 but down-regulated in susceptible Group 1. When further subjected to drought stress, Tex6 expressed more genes up-regulated and B73 has fewer genes up-regulated. The transcript patterns and interactions measured in these experiments indicate that the resistant mechanism is an interconnected process involving many gene products and transcriptional regulators, as well as various host interactions with environmental factors, particularly, drought and high temperature. PMID:22069724

Jiang, Tingbo; Zhou, Boru; Luo, Meng; Abbas, Hamed K.; Kemerait, Robert; Lee, Robert Dewey; Scully, Brian T.; Guo, Baozhu

2011-01-01

313

All possible modes of gene action are observed in a global comparison of gene expression in a maize F1 hybrid and its inbred parents.  

PubMed

Heterosis is the phenomenon whereby the progeny of particular inbred lines have enhanced agronomic performance relative to both parents. Although several hypotheses have been proposed to explain this fundamental biological phenomenon, the responsible molecular mechanisms have not been determined. The maize inbred lines B73 and Mo17 produce a heterotic F1 hybrid. Global patterns of gene expression were compared in seedlings of these three genotypes by using a microarray that contains 13,999 cDNAs. Using an estimated 15% false discovery rate as a cutoff, 1,367 ESTs (9.8%) were identified as being significantly differentially expressed among genotypes. All possible modes of gene action were observed, including additivity, high- and low-parent dominance, underdominance, and overdominance. The largest proportion of the ESTs (78%; 1,062 of 1,367) exhibited expression patterns that are not statistically distinguishable from additivity. Even so, 22% of the differentially regulated ESTs exhibited nonadditive modes of gene expression. Classified on the basis of significant pairwise comparisons of genotype means, 181 of these 305 nonadditive ESTs exhibited high-parent dominance and 23 exhibited low-parent dominance. In addition, 44 ESTs exhibited underdominance or overdominance. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that multiple molecular mechanisms, including overdominance, contribute to heterosis. PMID:16641103

Swanson-Wagner, Ruth A; Jia, Yi; DeCook, Rhonda; Borsuk, Lisa A; Nettleton, Dan; Schnable, Patrick S

2006-05-01

314

Adult Education and National Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One conference address and two reports on adult education in Zambia are presented. The address is entitled "Adult Education and Industrialization" and the reports are "Adult Education and Industrialisation" and "Adult Education and Rural Development," respectively. (CK)

African Adult Education Association, Lusaka (Zambia).

315

A linkage map of the chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) genome based on recombinant inbred lines from a C. arietinum×C. reticulatum cross: localization of resistance genes for fusarium wilt races 4 and 5  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrated molecular marker map of the chickpea genome was established using 130 recombinant inbred lines from a wide cross\\u000a between a cultivar resistant to fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. emend. Snyd. &. Hans f. sp. ciceri (Padwick) Snyd & Hans, and an accession of Cicer reticulatum (PI 489777), the wild progenitor of chickpea. A total of 354

P. Winter; A.-M. Benko-Iseppon; B. Hüttel; M. Ratnaparkhe; A. Tullu; G. Sonnante; T. Pfaff; M. Tekeoglu; D. Santra; V. J. Sant; P. N. Rajesh; G. Kahl; F. J. Muehlbauer

2000-01-01

316

Determination of resistance spectra of the Pi-ta and Pi-k genes to US races of Magnaporthe oryzae causing rice blast in a recombinant inbred line population  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Resistance (R) genes to ten common races of Magnaporthe oryzae were mapped using an F10 recombinant inbred line population of a cross of a tropical japonica cultivar Katy with a breeding line RU9101001. Katy was found to confer resistance to all common races IA-45, IB-1, IB-45, IB-49, IB-54, IC-17,...

317

Mus spretus LINE-1s in the Mus musculus domesticus inbred strain C57BL/6J are from two different Mus spretus LINE-1 subfamilies  

SciTech Connect

A LINE-1 element, L1C105, was found in the Mus musculus domesticus inbred strain, C57BL/6J. Upon sequencing, this element was found to belong to a M. spretus LINE-1 subfamily originating within the last 0.2 million years. This is the second spretus-specific LINE-1 subfamily found to be represented in C57BL/6J. Although it is unclear how these M. spretus LINE-1s transferred from M. spretus to M. m. domesticus, it is now clear that at least two different spretus LINE-1 sequences have recently transferred. The limited divergence between the C57BL/6J spretus-like LINE-1s and their closest spretus ancestors suggests that the transfer did not involve an exceptionally long lineage of sequential transpositions. 54 refs., 6 figs.

Zhao, Yingping; Daggett, L.P.; Hardies, S.C. [Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX (United States)

1996-02-01

318

Inbred mouse strains C57BL/6J and DBA/2J vary in sensitivity to a subset of bitter stimuli  

PubMed Central

Background Common inbred mouse strains are genotypically diverse, but it is still poorly understood how this diversity relates to specific differences in behavior. To identify quantitative trait genes that influence taste behavior differences, it is critical to utilize assays that exclusively measure the contribution of orosensory cues. With a few exceptions, previous characterizations of behavioral taste sensitivity in inbred mouse strains have generally measured consumption, which can be confounded by post-ingestive effects. Here, we used a taste-salient brief-access procedure to measure taste sensitivity to eight stimuli characterized as bitter or aversive in C57BL/6J (B6) and DBA/2J (D2) mice. Results B6 mice were more sensitive than D2 mice to a subset of bitter stimuli, including quinine hydrochloride (QHCl), 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP), and MgCl2. D2 mice were more sensitive than B6 mice to the bitter stimulus raffinose undecaacetate (RUA). These strains did not differ in sensitivity to cycloheximide (CYX), denatonium benzoate (DB), KCl or HCl. Conclusion B6-D2 taste sensitivity differences indicate that differences in consumption of QHCl, PROP, MgCl2 and RUA are based on immediate orosensory cues, not post-ingestive effects. The absence of a strain difference for CYX suggests that polymorphisms in a T2R-type taste receptor shown to be differentially sensitive to CYX in vitro are unlikely to differentially contribute to the CYX behavioral response in vivo. The results of these studies point to the utility of these common mouse strains and their associated resources for investigation into the genetic mechanisms of taste. PMID:15967025

Boughter, John D; Raghow, Sandeep; Nelson, Theodore M; Munger, Steven D

2005-01-01

319

Neurodegeneration and glial activation patterns after mechanical nerve injury are differentially regulated by non-MHC genes in congenic inbred rat strains.  

PubMed

Ventral root avulsion in the rat leads to a retrograde response, with activation of glia and up-regulation of immunologic cell surface molecules such as major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens, and the subsequent degeneration of a large proportion of the lesioned motoneurons. Herein, we examined several inbred congenic rat strains previously known to react differently to experimentally induced autoimmune diseases and demonstrate a substantial genetic diversity in the regulation of glial activation and neuron death in this injury model. The panel of examined inbred rat strains included DA(RT1AV1), PVG.1AV1, LEW.1AV1, LEW.1N, BN(RT1N) and E3(RT1U), and the following parameters were determined: (1) MHC class II expression on glia; (2) expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein, C3 complement, and microglial response factor-1 mRNAs in glia; (3) levels of the tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1beta cytokine mRNAs; (4) degree of motoneuron loss. The findings of considerable strain-dependent differences in all parameters studied demonstrate important polymorphisms in the genetic regulation of these events. Furthermore, some of the studied features segregated from each other, suggesting independent regulatory mechanisms. Genes outside of the MHC complex are mainly implicated as being of importance for the phenotypic differences, as significant differences were recorded between the MHC congenic strains differing in the non-MHC genes but not vice versa. These results contribute new important insights into the genetic regulation of glial reactivity and neuron death after mechanical nerve injuries. In addition, the finding of conspicuous strain-dependent differences makes it necessary to consider the genetic background when designing and interpreting animal experiments involving noxious insults to the central nervous system resulting in glial activation and nerve cell loss. PMID:11169991

Lundberg, C; Lidman, O; Holmdahl, R; Olsson, T; Piehl, F

2001-02-26

320

Mapping quantitative trait loci for lint yield and fiber quality across environments in a Gossypium hirsutum × Gossypium barbadense backcross inbred line population.  

PubMed

Identification of stable quantitative trait loci (QTLs) across different environments and mapping populations is a prerequisite for marker-assisted selection (MAS) for cotton yield and fiber quality. To construct a genetic linkage map and to identify QTLs for fiber quality and yield traits, a backcross inbred line (BIL) population of 146 lines was developed from a cross between Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and Egyptian cotton (Gossypium barbadense) through two generations of backcrossing using Upland cotton as the recurrent parent followed by four generations of self pollination. The BIL population together with its two parents was tested in five environments representing three major cotton production regions in China. The genetic map spanned a total genetic distance of 2,895 cM and contained 392 polymorphic SSR loci with an average genetic distance of 7.4 cM per marker. A total of 67 QTLs including 28 for fiber quality and 39 for yield and its components were detected on 23 chromosomes, each of which explained 6.65-25.27% of the phenotypic variation. Twenty-nine QTLs were located on the At subgenome originated from a cultivated diploid cotton, while 38 were on the Dt subgenome from an ancestor that does not produce spinnable fibers. Of the eight common QTLs (12%) detected in more than two environments, two were for fiber quality traits including one for fiber strength and one for uniformity, and six for yield and its components including three for lint yield, one for seedcotton yield, one for lint percentage and one for boll weight. QTL clusters for the same traits or different traits were also identified. This research represents one of the first reports using a permanent advanced backcross inbred population of an interspecific hybrid population to identify QTLs for fiber quality and yield traits in cotton across diverse environments. It provides useful information for transferring desirable genes from G. barbadense to G. hirsutum using MAS. PMID:23064252

Yu, Jiwen; Zhang, Ke; Li, Shuaiyang; Yu, Shuxun; Zhai, Honghong; Wu, Man; Li, Xingli; Fan, Shuli; Song, Meizhen; Yang, Daigang; Li, Yunhai; Zhang, Jinfa

2013-01-01

321

Adult Education in Croatian Society.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains eight papers on adult education in Croatian society. "Basic Characteristics of Croatian Adult Education up to These Days" (Silvije Pongrac, Ilija Lavrnja) highlights key trends in the development of Croatian adult education. "Adult Education in Croatia Based on Social Changes" (Anita Klapan) discusses Croatian adult

Pongrac, Silvije, Ed.

322

Today's Adult Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Who are the adult students in career and technical education (CTE) today? There is not one simple answer to that question. Some are young with little life experience, while others are returning to the workforce and learning new skills to reinvent themselves. Whatever the case, educating adult students is an integral part of ACTE's mission, and the…

Reese, Susan

2012-01-01

323

Adult Education and Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains 19 papers on adult education and development worldwide. The following papers are included: "Editorial" (Heribert Hinzen); "Lifelong Learning in Europe: Moving towards EFA (Dakar Framework for Action on Education for All) Goals and the CONFINTEA V Agenda" (Sofia Conference on Adult Education); "Poverty and Schooling in the…

Hinzen, Heribert, Ed.

2002-01-01

324

Adult Tech Prep.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For over 2 years, Blak Hawk College (Illinois) has provided high school equivalency (GED) candidates and recipients, older returning students, and underprepared high school graduates with a Tech Prep curriculum to give them the skills to make the transition from adult basic education to college or work. The Adult Tech Prep (ATP) core curriculum…

Schaad, Donna

325

The adult scoliosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult scoliosis is defined as a spinal deformity in a skeletally mature patient with a Cobb angle of more than 10° in the coronal plain. Adult scoliosis can be separated into four major groups: Type 1: Primary degenerative scoliosis, mostly on the basis of a disc and\\/or facet joint arthritis, affecting those structures asymmetrically with predominantly back pain symptoms, often

Max Aebi

2005-01-01

326

Counseling Adult Adoptees  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review presents various resources about working with adult adoptees in order to inform counselors in their practice. Topics covered include basics of adoption, including types of adoption and adoption statistics; possible issues adult adoptees may face; and suggestions and implications for counselors. The article addresses some of the serious…

Corder, Kate

2012-01-01

327

Dementia: Unique to Older Adults  

MedlinePLUS

... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Dementia Unique to Older Adults This section provides information ... Managing Additional Health Problems in Older Adults with Dementia Dementia is rare in adults younger than 60. ...

328

Renal Disease and Adult Vaccination  

MedlinePLUS

... for Adults Share Compartir Renal Disease and Adult Vaccination Vaccines are especially critical for people with health ... have immunity to this disease Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Type 1 ...

329

Any Mood Disorder Among Adults  

MedlinePLUS

... Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among ...

330

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder among Adults  

MedlinePLUS

... Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among ...

331

Characterization of Adult Transcriptomes from the Omnivorous Lady Beetle Coleomegilla maculata Fed Pollen or Insect Egg Diet  

PubMed Central

Diet, nutrition, and obesity are important topics of current research. While many insect genome and/or transcriptome models are based on dietary specialists, the lady beetle Coleomegilla maculata, a common New World species, is highly omnivorous. C. maculata feeds on plants, fungi, insects and other arthropods; its diet frequently includes conspecific cannibalism. This study reports and discusses the first nutritionally based C. maculata transcriptomes. These transcriptomes were prepared from highly inbred specimens provided limited diets, after adult eclosion, of either pollen only or eggs of a soft bodied hemipteran insect only. Selected sequences from the transcriptomes were compared to verify basic genetic similarity of the sampled individuals. Differentially expressed genes associated with these diets were identified to aid with studies of omnivore diet and nutrition. Selected transcriptome sequences described herein are filed with the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), GenBank Bioproject PRJNA236444. PMID:25628762

Allen, Margaret Louise

2015-01-01

332

Characterization of Adult Transcriptomes from the Omnivorous Lady Beetle Coleomegilla maculata Fed Pollen or Insect Egg Diet.  

PubMed

Diet, nutrition, and obesity are important topics of current research. While many insect genome and/or transcriptome models are based on dietary specialists, the lady beetle Coleomegilla maculata, a common New World species, is highly omnivorous. C. maculata feeds on plants, fungi, insects and other arthropods; its diet frequently includes conspecific cannibalism. This study reports and discusses the first nutritionally based C. maculata transcriptomes. These transcriptomes were prepared from highly inbred specimens provided limited diets, after adult eclosion, of either pollen only or eggs of a soft bodied hemipteran insect only. Selected sequences from the transcriptomes were compared to verify basic genetic similarity of the sampled individuals. Differentially expressed genes associated with these diets were identified to aid with studies of omnivore diet and nutrition. Selected transcriptome sequences described herein are filed with the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), GenBank Bioproject PRJNA236444. PMID:25628762

Allen, Margaret Louise

2015-01-01

333

Older Adults and Alcohol  

MedlinePLUS

... Older Adults In this Section Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol Facts & Statistics What Is A Standard Drink? Drinking Levels Defined Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Genetics of ...

334

Young Adult Books.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers the similarities between science fiction writing and young adult literature, and points out that several well-known authors, such as Robert Heinlein and Jane Yolen, write in both genres. (NKA)

Epstein, Connie C.

1987-01-01

335

Adults Learning Mathematics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Adults Learning Mathematics (ALM) organization is "an international research forum bringing together researchers and practitioners in adult mathematics/numeracy teaching and learning in order to promote the learning of mathematics by adults." The site contains sections such as "For teachers", "For PhD students", and "For policy makers". The "For teachers" area includes links to the ALM newsletters and their resources, which include downloadable posters and factsheets. Moving along, the "For PhD students" area includes information for those doctoral students that are seeking to incorporate pedagogical techniques for teaching math to adults in their research. Additionally, the "For policy makers" area includes helpful documents such as "High stakes assessment: Assessing numeracy for Nursing in two recent projects".

336

Motivation and Adult Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper examines the role of adult education and the contribution it can make to the solution of current problems in developing countries, particularly the problems of economic under-development and over-population. (Author/AG)

Veeraraghavan, J.

1974-01-01

337

Yoga and Older Adults  

MedlinePLUS

... nia.nih.gov/Go4Life Yoga and Older Adults Yoga is a mind and body practice that typically ... breathing exercises, and relaxation. Researchers are studying how yoga may help improve health and to learn more ...

338

Thrush - children and adults  

MedlinePLUS

... live in our bodies. This includes bacteria and fungi. While most germs are harmless, some can cause ... children and adults when too much of a fungus called Candida grows in your mouth. A small ...

339

Einstein Books for Adults  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This reference list has more than 15 books and articles on Einstein that are written for adults, including biographies and some of Einstein's own writings. For each title, the author's name, publisher, and publication date are included.

340

Motivation and Adult Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author reviews theories of human motivation: Lewin's force field analysis, Skinner's operant reinforcement theory, and Maslow's hierarchy of needs. He then extracts the implications of these theories for adult learning. SK)

Taylor, J. Rodney

1982-01-01

341

The Adult Asthmatic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asthma in the adult patient is a complex clinical syndrome. Multiple patient phenotypes and subphenotypes exist that contribute\\u000a to disease heterogeneity. Whether adult asthma begins in utero, develops in childhood, or manifests for the first time in\\u000a adulthood is not completely understood, nor are the mechanisms fully delineated. In this chapter, we update definitions that\\u000a apply to this group, emphasize

Amir A. Zeki; Nicholas J. Kenyon; Ken Yoneda; Samuel Louie

342

The ABC's of Adult Ed  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to the 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy, it is estimated that 93 million adults in the United States have basic or below basic literacy skills. Those individuals found most lacking in literacy skills were adults living in poverty, adults lacking a high school diploma, seniors and the elderly aged 65 and older, the more than one…

Roehrig, Lucy

2010-01-01

343

Adult Education Research in Saskatchewan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of adult education research at the University of Saskatchewan and other provincial sites identified two research traditions: adult education for social change and adult education to meet multifunctional social goals. Human resource development and economic foci were limited. Adult education research appeared increasingly to be the site of…

Blunt, Adrian

1995-01-01

344

Riddell Revolution Speed Adult Large  

E-print Network

Available: Adult Football Helmet Detailed Ratings May 2012 Riddell 360 Sample 1 2 3 Size Adult Large Adult.237 0.239 Overall STAR 0.239 Best Available: A total of 15 adult football helmet models that have been. Helmets with lower STAR values provide a reduction in concussion risk compared to helmets with higher STAR

Lu, Chang

345

Improved Derivation Efficiency and Pluripotency of Stem Cells from the Refractory Inbred C57BL/6 Mouse Strain by Small Molecules  

PubMed Central

The ability of small molecules to maintain self-renewal and to inhibit differentiation of pluripotent stem cells has been well-demonstrated. Two widely used molecules are PD 98059 (PD), an inhibitor of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK), and SC1 (Pluripotin), which inhibits the RasGAP and ERK pathways. However, no studies have been conducted to compare their effects on the pluripotency and derivation of embryonic stem (ES) cells from inbred mice C57BL/6, an important mouse strain frequently used to model behavior, cognitive functions, immune system, and metabolic disorders in humans and also the first mouse strain chosen to be sequenced for its entire genome. We found significantly increased derivation efficiency of ES cells from in vivo fertilized embryos (fES) of C57BL/6 with the use of PD (71.4% over the control of 35.3%). Because fES and ES from cloned embryos (ntES) are not distinguishable in transcription or translation profiles, we used ntES cells to compare the effect of small molecules on their in vitro characteristics, in vitro differentiation ability, and the ability to generate full-term ntES-4N pups by tetraploid complementation. NtES cells exhibited typical ES characteristics and up-regulated Sox2 expression in media with either small-molecule. Higher rates of full term ntES-4N pup were generated by the supplementation of PD or SC1. We obtained the highest efficiency of ntES-4N pup generation ever reported from this strain by supplementing ES medium with SC1. Lastly, we compared the pluripotency of fES, ntES and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells of C57BL/6 background using the tetraploid complementation assay. A significant increase in implantation sites and the number of full-term pups were obtained when fES, ntES, and iPS cells were cultured with SC1 compared to the control ES medium. In conclusion, supplementing ES cell culture medium with PD and SC1 increases the derivation efficiency and pluripotency, respectively, of stem cells derived from the refractory inbred C57BL/6 strain. PMID:25211343

Lin, Chih-Jen; Amano, Tomokazu; Tang, Yong; Tian, Xiuchun

2014-01-01

346

A non-synonymous SNP within the isopentenyl transferase 2 locus is associated with kernel weight in Chinese maize inbreds (Zea mays L.)  

PubMed Central

Background Kernel weight, controlled by quantitative trait loci (QTL), is an important component of grain yield in maize. Cytokinins (CKs) participate in determining grain morphology and final grain yield in crops. ZmIPT2, which is expressed mainly in the basal transfer cell layer, endosperm, and embryo during maize kernel development, encodes an isopentenyl transferase (IPT) that is involved in CK biosynthesis. Results The coding region of ZmIPT2 was sequenced across a panel of 175 maize inbred lines that are currently used in Chinese maize breeding programs. Only 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and seven haplotypes were detected among these inbred lines. Nucleotide diversity (?) within the ZmIPT2 window and coding region were 0.347 and 0.0047, respectively, and they were significantly lower than the mean nucleotide diversity value of 0.372 for maize Chromosome 2 (P?

2013-01-01

347

Comparison of whole-genome prediction models for traits with contrasting genetic architecture in a diversity panel of maize inbred lines  

PubMed Central

Background There is increasing empirical evidence that whole-genome prediction (WGP) is a powerful tool for predicting line and hybrid performance in maize. However, there is a lack of knowledge about the sensitivity of WGP models towards the genetic architecture of the trait. Whereas previous studies exclusively focused on highly polygenic traits, important agronomic traits such as disease resistances, nutrifunctional or climate adaptational traits have a genetic architecture which is either much less complex or unknown. For such cases, information about model robustness and guidelines for model selection are lacking. Here, we compared five WGP models with different assumptions about the distribution of the underlying genetic effects. As contrasting model traits, we chose three highly polygenic agronomic traits and three metabolites each with a major QTL explaining 22 to 30% of the genetic variance in a panel of 289 diverse maize inbred lines genotyped with 56,110 SNPs. Results We found the five WGP models to be remarkable robust towards trait architecture with the largest differences in prediction accuracies ranging between 0.05 and 0.14 for the same trait, most likely as the result of the high level of linkage disequilibrium prevailing in elite maize germplasm. Whereas RR-BLUP performed best for the agronomic traits, it was inferior to LASSO or elastic net for the three metabolites. We found the approach of genome partitioning of genetic variance, first applied in human genetics, as useful in guiding the breeder which model to choose, if prior knowledge of the trait architecture is lacking. Conclusions Our results suggest that in diverse germplasm of elite maize inbred lines with a high level of LD, WGP models differ only slightly in their accuracies, irrespective of the number and effects of QTL found in previous linkage or association mapping studies. However, small gains in prediction accuracies can be achieved if the WGP model is selected according to the genetic architecture of the trait. If the trait architecture is unknown e.g. for novel traits which only recently received attention in breeding, we suggest to inspect the distribution of the genetic variance explained by each chromosome for guiding model selection in WGP. PMID:22947126

2012-01-01

348

Genetic dissection of rice grain shape using a recombinant inbred line population derived from two contrasting parents and fine mapping a pleiotropic quantitative trait locus qGL7  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The three-dimensional shape of grain, measured as grain length, width, and thickness (GL, GW, and GT), is one of the most important components of grain appearance in rice. Determining the genetic basis of variations in grain shape could facilitate efficient improvements in grain appearance. In this study, an F7:8 recombinant inbred line population (RIL) derived from a cross between

Xufeng Bai; Lijun Luo; Wenhao Yan; Mallikarjuna Rao Kovi; Wei Zhan; Yongzhong Xing

2010-01-01

349

Construction of a SSR-based genetic map and identification of QTL for domestication traits using recombinant inbred lines from a cross between wild and cultivated cowpea ( V. unguiculata (L.) Walp.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) is a grain legume commonly grown and consumed in many parts of the tropics and subtropics. A genetic linkage\\u000a map was constructed using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and a recombinant inbred (RI) population of159 individuals\\u000a derived from a cross between the breeding line 524B, a California Blackeye, and 219-01, a perennial wild cowpea from

Mebeaselassie Andargie; Remy S. Pasquet; Bhavani S. Gowda; Geoffrey M. Muluvi; Michael P. Timko

350

Segregation distortion in Arabidopsis C24\\/Col0 and Col0\\/C24 recombinant inbred line populations is due to reduced fertility caused by epistatic interaction of two loci  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new large set of reciprocal recombinant inbred lines (RILs) was created between the Arabidopsis accessions Col-0 and C24 for quantitative trait mapping approaches, consisting of 209 Col-0  C24 and 214 C24  Col-0 F7 RI lines. Genotyping was performed using 110 evenly distributed framework single nucleotide polymorphism markers, yielding a genetic map of 425.70 cM, with an average interval of 3.87 cM. Segregation distortion

Ottó Törjék; Hanna Witucka-Wall; Rhonda C. Meyer; Maria von Korff; Barbara Kusterer; Carsten Rautengarten; Thomas Altmann

2006-01-01

351

Transcript co-variance with Nestin in two mouse genetic reference populations identifies Lef1 as a novel candidate regulator of neural precursor cell proliferation in the adult hippocampus  

PubMed Central

Adult neurogenesis, the lifelong production of new neurons in the adult brain, is under complex genetic control but many of the genes involved remain to be identified. In this study, we have integrated publicly available gene expression data from the BXD and CXB recombinant inbred mouse lines to discover genes co-expressed in the adult hippocampus with Nestin, a common marker of the neural precursor cell population. In addition, we incorporated spatial expression information to restrict candidates to genes with high differential gene expression in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Incorporating data from curated protein-protein interaction databases revealed interactions between our candidate genes and those already known to be involved in adult neurogenesis. Enrichment analysis suggested a link to the Wnt/?-catenin pathway, known to be involved in adult neurogenesis. In particular, our candidates were enriched in targets of Lef1, a modulator of the Wnt pathway. In conclusion, our combination of bioinformatics approaches identified six novel candidate genes involved in adult neurogenesis; Amer3, Eya3, Mtdh, Nr4a3, Polr2a, and Tbkbp1. Further, we propose a role for Lef1 transcriptional control in the regulation of adult hippocampal precursor cell proliferation. PMID:25565948

Ashbrook, David G.; Delprato, Anna; Grellmann, Claudia; Klein, Marieke; Wetzel, Richard; Overall, Rupert W.; Badea, Alexandra

2014-01-01

352

Adult supraglottitis: changing trends.  

PubMed

There is no clinical dynamic staging system which scores according to severity all the anatomical regions in adult supraglottitis. The objective of the study was to describe the demographics, clinical presentation, interventions and outcomes of adult patients diagnosed with acute supraglottitis (AS), and to study the correlation of a new AS classification with the need for airway intervention, in comparison with the current classification. This was a retrospective, cohort study conducted at a secondary medical care center. Adults diagnosed with AS from the years 1990-2013 were identified. Data were extracted for demographic and clinical information and there was no intervention. The main outcome and measures were the need for airway intervention. 288 eligible patients were enrolled. AS incidence rate was 4.3/100,000 patients/year. The mean age was 50 ± 16 years. Sore throat (94 %) and dysphagia (88 %) were the most common presenting symptoms. Patients were hospitalized either in the Otolaryngology Department (n = 255, 89 %) or in the Intensive Care Unit (n = 33, 11 %). Of the latter, 19 (58 %) had an airway securing intervention procedure. Our suggested classification was more sensitive than the current one for predicting the need for intubation (p = 0.03). Signs and symptoms of AS in adults are different from those in children. Adult patients presenting with oropharyngeal complaints should be suspected for AS and treated appropriately. PMID:25528553

Ovnat Tamir, Sharon; Marom, Tal; Barbalat, Irina; Spevak, Stanislav; Goldfarb, Abraham; Roth, Yehudah

2015-04-01

353

Mus spretus LINE-1 sequences detected in the Mus musculus inbred strain C57BL/6J using LINE-1 DNA probes  

SciTech Connect

The inbred mouse strain, C57BL/6J, was derived from mice of the Mus musculus complex. C57BL/6J can be crossed in the laboratory with a closely related mouse species, M. spretus to produce fertile offspring; however there has been no previous evidence of gene flow between M. spretus and M. musculus in nature. Analysis of the repetitive sequence LINE-1, using both direct sequence analysis and genomic Southern blot hybridization to species-specific LINE-1 hybridization probes, demonstrates the presence of LINE-1 elements in C57BL/6J that were derived from the species of M. spretus. These spretus-like LINE-1 elements in C57BL/6J reveal a cross to M. spretus somewhere in the history of C57BL/6J. It is unclear if the spretus-like LINE-1 elements are still embedded in flanking DNA derived from M. spretus or if they have transposed to new sites. The number of spretus-like elements detected suggests a maximum of 6.5% of the C57BL/6J genome may be derived from M. spretus. 27 refs., 4 figs.

Rikke, B.A.; Zhao, Y.; Daggett, L.P.; Reyes, R.; Hardies, S.C. [Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX (United States)

1995-02-01

354

A missense mutation in ALDH1A3 causes isolated microphthalmia/anophthalmia in nine individuals from an inbred Muslim kindred.  

PubMed

Nine affected individuals with isolated anophthalmia/microphthalmia from a large Muslim-inbred kindred were investigated. Assuming autosomal-recessive mode of inheritance, whole-genome linkage analysis, on DNA samples from four affected individuals, was undertaken. Homozygosity mapping techniques were employed and a 1.5-Mbp region, homozygous in all affected individuals, was delineated. The region contained nine genes, one of which, aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1A3), was a clear candidate. This gene seems to encode a key enzyme in the formation of a retinoic-acid gradient along the dorsoventral axis during an early eye development and the development of the olfactory system. Sanger sequence analysis revealed a missense mutation, causing a substitution of valine (Val) to methionine (Met) at position 71. Analyzing the p.Val71Met missense mutation using standard open access software (MutationTaster online, PolyPhen, SIFT/PROVEAN) predicts this variant to be damaging. Enzymatic activity, studied in vitro, showed no changes between the mutated and the wild-type ALDH1A3 protein. PMID:23881059

Mory, Adi; Ruiz, Francesc X; Dagan, Efrat; Yakovtseva, Evgenia A; Kurolap, Alina; Parés, Xavier; Farrés, Jaume; Gershoni-Baruch, Ruth

2014-03-01

355

Relationships between Growth, Growth Response to Nutrient Supply, and Ion Content Using a Recombinant Inbred Line Population in Arabidopsis1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Growth is an integrative trait that responds to environmental factors and is crucial for plant fitness. A major environmental factor influencing plant growth is nutrient supply. In order to explore this relationship further, we quantified growth-related traits, ion content, and other biochemical traits (protein, hexose, and chlorophyll contents) of a recombinant inbred line population of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) grown on different levels of potassium and phosphate. Performing an all subsets multiple regression analyses revealed a link between growth-related traits and mineral nutrient content. Based on our results, up to 85% of growth variation can be explained by variation in ion content, highlighting the importance of ionomics for a broader understanding of plant growth. In addition, quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were detected for growth-related traits, ion content, further biochemical traits, and their responses to reduced supplies of potassium or phosphate. Colocalization of these QTLs is explored, and candidate genes are discussed. A QTL for rosette weight response to reduced potassium supply was identified on the bottom of chromosome 5, and its effects were validated using selected near isogenic lines. These lines retained over 20% more rosette weight in reduced potassium supply, accompanied by an increase in potassium content in their leaves. PMID:20826703

Prinzenberg, Aina E.; Barbier, Hugues; Salt, David E.; Stich, Benjamin; Reymond, Matthieu

2010-01-01

356

Comparative live bioluminescence imaging of monkeypox virus dissemination in a wild-derived inbred mouse (Mus musculus castaneus) and outbred African dormouse (Graphiurus kelleni).  

PubMed

Monkeypox virus belongs to the orthopoxvirus genus, infects rodents and monkeys in Africa, produces a smallpox-like zoonotic disease in humans, and has the potential for global spread and exploitation for bioterrorism. Several small animal models for studying monkeypox virus pathogenesis have been investigated. The African dormouse is a candidate natural host but is outbred and no immunological reagents exist. Although not a natural host, the CAST/EiJ mouse is inbred and animals and reagents are commercially available. We compared the dissemination of monkeypox virus by bioluminescence imaging in CAST/EiJ mice and dormice. In CAST/EiJ mice, intense replication occurred at the intranasal site of inoculation and virus spread rapidly to lungs and abdominal organs, which had a lower virus burden. Compared to CAST/EiJ mice, dormice exhibited a greater variation of virus spread, a slower time course, less replication in the head and chest, and more replication in abdominal organs prior to death. PMID:25462355

Earl, Patricia L; Americo, Jeffrey L; Cotter, Catherine A; Moss, Bernard

2015-01-15

357

Breeding Value and Variance Component Estimation from Data Containing Inbred Individuals: Application to Gynogenetic Families in Common Carp (Cyprinus Carpio L.)  

PubMed Central

Under gynogenetic reproduction, offspring receive genes only from their dams and completely homozygous offspring are produced within one generation. When gynogenetic reproduction is applied to fully inbred individuals, homozygous clone lines are produced. A mixed model method was developed for breeding value and variance component estimation in gynogenetic families, which requires the inverse of the numerator relationship matrix. A general method for creating the inverse for a population with unusual relationships between animals is presented, which reduces to simple rules as is illustrated for gynogenetic populations. The presence of clones in gynogenetic populations causes singularity of the numerator relationship matrix. However, clones can be regarded as repeated observations of the same genotype, which can be accommodated by modifying the incidence matrix, and by considering only unique genotypes in the estimation procedure. Optimum gynogenetic sib family sizes for estimating heritabilities and estimates of their accuracy were derived and compared to those for conventional full-sib designs. This was done by means of a deterministic derivation and by stochastic simulation using Gibbs sampling. Optimum family sizes were smallest for gynogenetic families. Only for low heritabilities, there was a small advantage in accuracy under the gynogenetic design. PMID:9093872

Bijma, P.; Van-Arendonk, JAM.; Bovenhuis, H.

1997-01-01

358

Fixation, Segregation and Linkage of Allozyme Loci in Inbred Families of the Pacific Oyster Crassostrea Gigas (Thunberg): Implications for the Causes of Inbreeding Depression  

PubMed Central

The effect that inbreeding has on the fixation and segregation of genes has rarely been confirmed by direct observation. Here, fixation, segregation, and linkage of allozymes is investigated in the progeny of self-fertilized hermaphrodites of the normally outcrossing Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. The estimate of fixation pooled over loci, individuals, and families, F = 0.462, is significantly lower than the expected value of 0.5. Log-likelihood ratios reveal significant heterogeneity in fixation among individuals, among families, and among loci. In addition, the grand pooled segregation ratio, 127:243:54, deviates significantly from 1:2:1, with a bias against homozygotes for alleles of lesser frequency in the natural population. Segregation ratios for 11 of 14 loci are significantly heterogeneous among families, and exact tests for segregation within families reveal 16 significant results out of 51 tests. Thus, fixation and segregation of allozyme markers in inbred oyster families deviates from the expectations of neutral inbreeding theory. Di-genic disequilibria are significant for four of 74 di-locus pairs revealing two linkage groups. Strong viability selection is apparently conditional on the genotype of the hermaphrodite-founders and is largely focused on these two linkage groups. These genetic effects are explained by interaction between cis-linked factors and polymorphic regulatory backgrounds. PMID:9136021

McGoldrick, D. J.; Hedgecock, D.

1997-01-01

359

Determining the linkage of quantitative trait loci to RFLP markers using extreme phenotypes of recombinant inbreds of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.).  

PubMed

An experimental test is described for linkages between RFLP markers and quantitative trait loci (QTL). Two hundred and eighty-four F7-derived recombinant inbred lines (RIL) obtained from crossing the soybean cultivars (Glycine max L. Merr.) 'Minsoy' and 'Noir 1' were evaluated for maturity, plant height, lodging, and seed yield. RIL exhibiting an extreme phenotype for each trait (earliest and latest plants for maturity, etc.) were selected, and two bulked DNA samples were prepared for each trait. A Southern transfer of the digested bulked DNA was hybridized with restriction fragement length polymorphism (RFLP) probes, and linkages with QTL were established by quantitating the amount of radioactive probe that bound to fragments defining alternative parental RFLP alleles. When an RFLP marker was linked to a QTL, one parental allele predominated in the bulked DNA from a particular phenotype; the other allele was associated with the opposite phenotype. When linkage was absent, radioactivity was associated equally with both alleles for a given phenotype (or with both phenotypes for a given allele). These results confirmed RFLP-QTL associations previously discovered by interval mapping on a smaller segregating population from the same cross. New linkages to QTL were also verified. PMID:24193997

Mansur, L M; Orf, J; Lark, K G

1993-09-01

360

Detection and verification of QTLs associated with heat-induced quality decline of rice (Oryza sativa L.) using recombinant inbred lines and near-isogenic lines.  

PubMed

Decline in the apparent quality of rice (Oryza sativa L.) grain due to high temperatures during ripening recently became a major concern in many areas in Japan. The occurrence of white-back kernels (WBK) is one of the main problems of heat-induced quality decline. We identified QTLs associated with the occurrence of WBK using recombinant inbred lines (RILs) and verified their effects using near-isogenic lines (NILs). The QTL analysis used F7 and F8 RILs derived from 'Hana-echizen' (HE), which is tolerant to high temperature, × 'Niigata-wase' (NW), which is sensitive to high temperature. Four QTLs were identified on chromosomes 3, 4, 6, and 9 (qWB3, qWB4, qWB6 and qWB9). To verify the effects of qWB6 and qWB9, we developed two NILs in which qWB6 or both were introduced from HE into the NW background. The HE allele at qWB6 significantly decreased WBK under multiple environments. The combination of qWB6 and qWB9 in an F2 population derived from a cross between a NIL and NW showed that the NW allele at qWB9 significantly decreased WBK if the qWB6 allele was HE. These results will be of value in marker-assisted selection for the breeding of rice with tolerance to heat-induced quality decline. PMID:24273430

Kobayashi, Asako; Sonoda, Junya; Sugimoto, Kazuhiko; Kondo, Motohiko; Iwasawa, Norio; Hayashi, Takeshi; Tomita, Katsura; Yano, Masahiro; Shimizu, Toyohiro

2013-09-01

361

The genetic architecture of constitutive and induced trichome density in two new recombinant inbred line populations of Arabidopsis thaliana: phenotypic plasticity, epistasis, and bidirectional leaf damage response  

PubMed Central

Background Herbivory imposes an important selective pressure on plants. In Arabidopsis thaliana leaf trichomes provide a key defense against insect herbivory; however, trichome production incurs a fitness cost in the absence of herbivory. Previous work on A. thaliana has shown an increase in trichome density in response to leaf damage, suggesting a mechanism by which the cost associated with constitutively high trichome density might be mitigated; however, the genetic basis of trichome density induction has not been studied. Results Here, we describe the mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for constitutive and damage induced trichome density in two new recombinant inbred line populations of A. thaliana; mapping for constitutive and induced trichome density also allowed for the investigation of damage response (plasticity) QTL. Both novel and previously identified QTL for constitutive trichome density and the first QTL for induced trichome density and response are identified. Interestingly, two of the four parental accessions and multiple RILs in each population exhibited lower trichome density following leaf damage, a response not previously described in A. thaliana. Importantly, a single QTL was mapped for the response phenotype and allelic variation at this locus appears to determine response trajectory in RILs. The data also show that epistatic interactions are a significant component of the genetic architecture of trichome density. Conclusions Together, our results provide further insights into the genetic architecture of constitutive trichome density and new insights into induced trichome density in A. thaliana specifically and to our understanding of the genetic underpinnings of natural variation generally. PMID:24885520

2014-01-01

362

Differential Expressions of the Alternatively Spliced Variant mRNAs of the µ Opioid Receptor Gene, OPRM1, in Brain Regions of Four Inbred Mouse Strains  

PubMed Central

The µ opioid receptor gene, OPRM1, undergoes extensive alternative pre-mRNA splicing in rodents and humans, with dozens of alternatively spliced variants of the OPRM1 gene. The present studies establish a SYBR green quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay to more accurately quantify mouse OPRM1 splice variant mRNAs. Using these qPCR assays, we examined the expression of OPRM1 splice variant mRNAs in selected brain regions of four inbred mouse strains displaying differences in µ opioid-induced tolerance and physical dependence: C56BL/6J, 129P3/J, SJL/J and SWR/J. The complete mRNA expression profiles of the OPRM1 splice variants reveal marked differences of the variant mRNA expression among the brain regions in each mouse strain, suggesting region-specific alternative splicing of the OPRM1 gene. The expression of many variants was also strain-specific, implying a genetic influence on OPRM1 alternative splicing. The expression levels of a number of the variant mRNAs in certain brain regions appear to correlate with strain sensitivities to morphine analgesia, tolerance and physical dependence in four mouse strains. PMID:25343478

Xu, Jin; Lu, Zhigang; Xu, Mingming; Rossi, Grace C.; Kest, Benjamin; Waxman, Amanda R.; Pasternak, Gavril W.; Pan, Ying-Xian

2014-01-01

363

Shaken Adult Syndrome  

PubMed Central

IMPORTANCE To establish that the intracranial and ophthalmologic findings present in victims of abusive head trauma can also be seen in shaken adults. OBSERVATIONS We report 2 cases of shaken adults with intracranial and ophthalmologic findings that resulted from repetitive acceleration-deceleration injury. These findings included intracranial hemorrhages, hemorrhages involving the optic nerve sheath, intraretinal and subretinal hemorrhages, and macular folds. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE The intracranial and ophthalmologic findings that are characteristic of abusive head trauma—subdural hemorrhages, optic nerve sheath hemorrhages, and retinal hemorrhages—are generally thought to be limited to young children and infants. Adults may also be victims of shaking abuse, and an ophthalmic examination may be beneficial when shaking is suspected. PMID:24077385

Azari, Amir A.; Kanavi, Mozhgan R.; Saipe, Noah B.; Potter, Heather D.; Albert, Daniel M.; Stier, Michael A.

2014-01-01

364

Adult Seborrheic Dermatitis  

PubMed Central

Seborrheic dermatitis is a common chronic-recurrent inflammatory disorder that most commonly affects adults; however, a more transient infantile form also occurs. The definitive cause of seborrheic dermatitis is unknown. However, proliferation of Malassezia species has been described as a contributing factor. The adult form of seborrheic dermatitis affects up to approximately five percent of the general population. The disorder commonly affects the scalp, face, and periauricular region, with the central chest, axillae, and genital region also involved in some cases. Pruritus is not always present and is relatively common, especially with scalp disease. A variety of treatments are available including topical corticosteroids, topical antifungal agents, topical calcineurin inhibitors, and more recently, a nonsteroidal “device ”cream. This article reviews the practical topical management of seborrheic dermatitis in the United States, focusing on the adult population. PMID:21607192

2011-01-01

365

Pediatric and adult tracheobronchomalacia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve cases of tracheobronchomalacia (TBM) cases were reviewed: five were pediatric, and seven were adult, two of which were due to relapsing polychondritis (RPC). In pediatric TBM, the malacic segments were short. Resection of the malacic segment in one case and laryngotracheoplasty with autologous costal cartilage in one case were unsuccessful. However, aortopexy gained good results. Two cases managed conservatively

A. Masaoka; Y. Yamakawa; H. Niwa; F. Hara; S. Kondo; I. Fukai; M. Kiriyama

1996-01-01

366

Pediatric and adult tracheobronchomalacia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve cases of tracheo- bronchomalacia (TBM) cases were reviewed: five were pediatric, and seven were adult, two of which were due to relapsing polychondritis (RPC). In pediatric TBM, the mala- cic segments were short. Resection of the malacic segment in one case and laryngotracheopl asty with autol- ogous costal cartilage in one case were unsuccessful. However, aortop- exy gained good

A. Masaoka; Y. Yamakawa; H. Niwa; E Hara; S. Kondo; I. Fukai; M. Kiriyama; Y. Yamakawa-H. Nlwa

2010-01-01

367

Hearing Loss in Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses hearing loss in adults. It begins with an explanation of the anatomy of the ear and then explains the three types of hearing loss: conductive hearing loss, sensorineural hearing loss, and mixed conductive-sensorineural hearing loss. Tinnitus, hearing aids, and cochlear implants are also addressed. (CR)

House, John W.

1997-01-01

368

Adult Learning Matters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Campaigning Alliance for Lifelong Learning is to lobby parliament for the restoration of the 1.5 million adult learning places lost over the past two years. The campaign has attracted supporters from an astonishingly wide range of backgrounds. In this article, Gordon Marsden, Caroline Biggins, Beth Walker, Mike Chaney, Peter Davies, Sian…

Adults Learning, 2009

2009-01-01

369

Special Adult Degree Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The reflections of 79 participants attending a national conference on special adult degree programs are synthesized. The central theme of the first session was the identification of the most appropriate content for a liberal studies curriculum. Session 2 expressed concern over major problems: the transient nature of man; the role of accrediting…

Kearney, Kevin E., Ed.

370

Adult Religious Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most religious organizations exert their greatest effort in the religious education of children. This makes sense in terms of handing on the faith to the next generation. Historically, however, religious education of adults is the first endeavor of religious groups. Conducting education of children requires the previous religious education of…

Elias, John L.

2012-01-01

371

Adult Intelligence. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With few exceptions, the development of adult intelligence assessment instruments has proceeded along the lines of the Binet-Simon tests for children, stressing psychological assessment over the evaluation of what an individual knows. These tests, developed over 90 years ago, were quite effective in predicting school success, but were much less…

Ackerman, Phillip L.

372

Hepatoblastoma in an adult  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, our aim is to report a very rare case of adult hepatoblastoma (HB) and to discover clues of diagnosis and adequate treatment by surveying collected English literatures. Our patient was a 20-year-old lady suffering from nausea and appetite loss. The main tumor measuring 18cm was located in the anterior and medial segments. Other tumors were also present

Masato Yamazaki; Munemasa Ryu; Shinichi Okazumi; Fukuo Kondo; Akihiro Cho; Tadashi Okada; Wataru Takayama; Taichi Kawashima; Arata Furuki; Tetsushi Hirata

2004-01-01

373

Adult Computer Literacy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Futurists claim that computers will change the workplace and the entire society of the United States within the next few years. Already they are making many changes such as displacement of clerical workers and creation of more jobs for programmers and analysts. In the future, the majority of adults will need to be computer literate. However,…

Hill, Kearney H. J.

374

Adult Learning and Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These eight conference papers discuss adult learning, instructional theory, and related issues in research and practice. Focusing on processes of educational change, the first paper considers how experienced teachers, educational theorists, and researchers possessing empirically tested knowledge can cooperate in program planning. The next paper…

Grabowski, Stanley M., Ed.

375

Adult Education in Brazil.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The status and goals of adult education programs in Brazil are discussed in this report. Supplemental systems such as the Brazilian Literacy Movement (Mobral) and their results are described and evaluated. Charts detailing the evolution of literacy are shown and priorities in education are suggested. The progress of other educational entities is…

Ministerio da Educacao e Cultura, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil).

376

Diabetes in Elderly Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diabetes is common in the elderly population. By the age of 75, approximately 20% of the population are afflicted with this illness. Diabetes in elderly adults is metabolically distinct from diabetes in younger patient populations, and the approach to therapy needs to be different in this age group. Diabetes is associated with substantial mor- bidity from macro- and microvascular complications.

Graydon S. Meneilly; Daniel Tessier

2001-01-01

377

Profiles of Adult Learners.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since January 1986, when the Illinois Secretary of State Literacy Grant Program began funding a wide variety of adult literacy programs, more than 30,000 students have sought help with reading. They have been matched with 25,000 tutors who have provided more than 2 million hours of volunteer instruction. The profiles in this booklet are stories of…

Illinois State Library, Springfield.

378

The Adult Student Population.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is concerned with the following topics on adult student attendance at Harrisburg Area Community College (HACC) during the 1969-70 academic year: student background, reason for attendance, enrollment in programs or courses, academic success, evidence of personal and occupational development. The report is based on the useable…

Snyder, Fred A.; Blocker, Clyde E.

379

Cutaneous Mastocytosis in Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Objective: Systemic mastocytosis is a rather rare disorder involving the skin and several other organs. The aim of this study was to analyse the extent of extracutaneous manifestations in 14 adult patients who presented with prominent cutaneous involvement within the last 5 years. Results: The cutaneous lesions were clinically diagnosed as telangiectasia macularis eruptiva perstans in 2 patients,

B. Tebbe; P. G. Stavropoulos; K. Krasagakis; C. E. Orfanos

1998-01-01

380

Treatment Options for Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

MedlinePLUS

... Clinical Trials NCI Publications Espańol Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®) Treatment Options for Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Standard treatment of ...

381

Adult Gray Jay Captures an Adult Black-capped Chickadee  

Microsoft Academic Search

We observed an adult Gray Jay (Perisoreus canadensis) that had captured an adult Black-capped Chickadee (Poecile atricapillus) in Al- gonquin Provincial Park, Ontario, Canada, during win- ter. Aerial pursuit of small, adult birds and an instance of capture and predation of a juvenile bird by a Gray Jay have been reported previously. Here, we present the first documented case of

DOUGLAS C. TOZER; MARTHA L. ALLEN

2004-01-01

382

Adult Development. What do Teachers of Adults Need To Know?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first part of this two-part paper provides a general review of adult development and is premised on an understanding of andragogy. Andragogy is the art and science of helping adults learn. It is based on the following four assumptions about adults: (1) as people mature they become less dependent and more self-directed; (2) experiences serve as…

Whiting, Susan; And Others

383

Teaching Adults to Read Critically.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The importance of critical reading skills is discussed. Motivation techniques and methods for adult instruction in analytical reading and thinking are suggested, together with ways for adult educators to evaluate their own teaching of critical reading skills. (SK)

Harvey, Rhonda L.

1979-01-01

384

Diabetes: Unique to Older Adults  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... Incontinence Related Video Join our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Diabetes Unique to Older Adults ... their disease or condition in conjunction with other health issues. As older adults live longer, they may ...

385

Liver Disease and Adult Vaccination  

MedlinePLUS

... Vaccination Home Recommended Vaccines for Adults Share Compartir Liver Disease and Adult Vaccination Vaccines are especially critical for people with health conditions such as liver disease. If you have chronic liver disease, talk ...

386

Adults with Congenital Heart Defects  

MedlinePLUS

... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Web Booklet: Adults With Congenital Heart Defects Updated:Apr ... topic from the list below to learn more. Web Booklet: Adults With Congenital Heart Defects Introduction Introduction: ...

387

Substance Use among Black Adults  

MedlinePLUS

... web browser. February 18, 2010 Substance Use among Black Adults In Brief Rates of past month alcohol ... substance use and treatment need among non-Hispanic black or African American adults (hereafter referred to as " ...

388

Healthy Aging (for Older Adults)  

MedlinePLUS

... Access general health information for older adults . Healthy Aging Topics Healthy Brain Initiative Cognitive health and impairment, ... topics for older adults Interactive Data Tool Healthy Aging Data Portfolio Provides easy access to CDC data ...

389

Assessment Matters in Adult Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook was developed to give tutors of adult education information and ideas about assessing adult learning. It can be used as a reference for information about assessment and as a practical tool for tutors. Section 1, Introduction to Assessment in Adult Learning, includes information on these topics: what assessment is, how to assess, why…

Donley, Jan; Napper, Rosemary

390

Adult Literacy and National Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The causal relationship among adult literacy, social evolution, and economic development has traditionally made adult literacy programs a priority in developing nations. To develop effective adult literacy programs, educational planners must consider a variety of linguistic, cultural, economic, and political needs. First of all, planners must…

Miller, Harry G.; Shapiro, Freddy L.

391

Adult Education and Development, 1994.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The publication is a half-yearly journal for adult education in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Issue 42 includes the following: "Adult Education for Self-Reliance in Community Health Education Programmes" (Kweka); "Promoting Good Nutrition" (Mangvwat); "Incorporating Health-Improvement Activities in Adult Education Programmes in Nigeria"…

Adult Education and Development, 1994

1994-01-01

392

Act To Promote Adult Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An act of the German Lower Saxony Parliament to promote adult education is presented. It has 24 general provisions relating to the following: purpose of adult education, principle for promotion, conditions for promotions of establishments, independence of adult education, prerequisites and form of acknowledgement of entitlement to promotion,…

1970

393

Adult Learning and HRD. Symposium.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This symposium on adult learning and human resource development consists of three presentations. "Adult Learning Principles and Concepts in the Workplace: Implications for Training in HRD" (Margot B. Weinstein) reports on findings from interviews with restaurant employees who reported that training practices using adult learning principles…

2002

394

Literacy Proficiency of Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a supplement to the International Adult Literacy Survey, the Netherlands devoted special attention to the literacy proficiency of older adults. A close look at the literacy skills of older adults and their use in daily life is relevant because demographic developments, individualisation, the position of older employees in the labour market and…

van der Kamp, Max; Boudard, Emmanuel

2003-01-01

395

Adult Development and the Workplace.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little attention has been given to how adults develop through their lifetimes and what roles their workplace environments play in that development. Research and theory regarding adult psychosocial development have confirmed the developmental life-cycle phases of adulthood. These are: leaving the family (ages 16-22), getting into the adult world…

Heffernan, James M.

396

Normal adult echocardiography - parasternal views  

PubMed Central

Children with congenital heart disease will grow into adults who may also develop adult heart disease. This article attempts to familiarise practitioners that usually deal with congenital heart disease with the conventional views that are obtained during adult echocardiography. PMID:22368664

Aquilina, O; Felice, H; Fenech, A; Grech, V

2006-01-01

397

Identification and validation of quantitative trait loci for seed yield, oil and protein contents in two recombinant inbred line populations of soybean.  

PubMed

Soybean seeds contain high levels of oil and protein, and are the important sources of vegetable oil and plant protein for human consumption and livestock feed. Increased seed yield, oil and protein contents are the main objectives of soybean breeding. The objectives of this study were to identify and validate quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with seed yield, oil and protein contents in two recombinant inbred line populations, and to evaluate the consistency of QTLs across different environments, studies and genetic backgrounds. Both the mapping population (SD02-4-59 × A02-381100) and validation population (SD02-911 × SD00-1501) were phenotyped for the three traits in multiple environments. Genetic analysis indicated that oil and protein contents showed high heritabilities while yield exhibited a lower heritability in both populations. Based on a linkage map constructed previously with the mapping population and using composite interval mapping and/or interval mapping analysis, 12 QTLs for seed yield, 16 QTLs for oil content and 11 QTLs for protein content were consistently detected in multiple environments and/or the average data over all environments. Of the QTLs detected in the mapping population, five QTLs for seed yield, eight QTLs for oil content and five QTLs for protein content were confirmed in the validation population by single marker analysis in at least one environment and the average data and by ANOVA over all environments. Eight of these validated QTLs were newly identified. Compared with the other studies, seven QTLs for seed yield, eight QTLs for oil content and nine QTLs for protein content further verified the previously reported QTLs. These QTLs will be useful for breeding higher yield and better quality cultivars, and help effectively and efficiently improve yield potential and nutritional quality in soybean. PMID:24861102

Wang, Xianzhi; Jiang, Guo-Liang; Green, Marci; Scott, Roy A; Song, Qijian; Hyten, David L; Cregan, Perry B

2014-10-01

398

Genetic evaluation of recombinant inbred lines of rice (Oryza sativa L.) for grain zinc concentrations, yield related traits and identification of associated SSR markers.  

PubMed

The objectives of the present study were to evaluate genetic variability parameters, correlations that exist for grain Zn concentration and yield related traits and identification of SSR markers linked to these traits in rice. One hundred seventy six Recombinant Inbred Lines (RILs) of Azucena X Moromutant were grown at University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore in augmented experimental design during wet seasons of 2010 and 2011. The study revealed significant genetic variability for all the traits. Grain yield per plant and grain zinc concentration showed higher phenotypic and genotypic co-efficient of variation. Significant positive correlation was observed for grain yield per plant with number of productive tillers per plant (r = 0.5) and number of tillers per plant (r = 0.4). Grain zinc concentration showed negative correlation with grain yield per plant (r = - 0.27). The path-coefficient analysis indicated the positive direct effect of number of productive tillers per plant on grain yield per plant (0.514). Grain zinc concentration showed negative direct effect on grain yield per plant (-0.186). Single-marker analysis using 26 SSR markers on RILs mapping population showed that RM212, RM263, RM6832, RM152, RM21, RM234 and RM3331 had association with grain zinc concentration and other yield related traits. But validation of these markers on fifty two rice genotypes showed that only three markers RM263, RM152 and RM21 had association with grain zinc concentration. Therefore, the genetic information generated and molecular markers identified from this study could be used for zinc biofortification programmes in rice. PMID:24506038

Bekele, Berhanu D; Naveen, G K; Rakhi, S; Shashidhar, H E

2013-12-01

399

Quantitative trait locus analysis and construction of consensus genetic map for drought tolerance traits based on three recombinant inbred line populations in cultivated groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.).  

PubMed

Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important food and cash crop grown mainly in semi-arid tropics (SAT) regions of the world where drought is the major constraint on productivity. With the aim of understanding the genetic basis and identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for drought tolerance, two new recombinant inbred line (RIL) mapping populations, namely ICGS 76 × CSMG 84-1 (RIL-2) and ICGS 44 × ICGS 76 (RIL-3), were used. After screening of 3,215 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers on the parental genotypes of these populations, two new genetic maps were developed with 119 (RIL-2) and 82 (RIL-3) SSR loci. Together with these maps and the reference map with 191 SSR loci based on TAG 24 × ICGV 86031 (RIL-1), a consensus map was constructed with 293 SSR loci distributed over 20 linkage groups, spanning 2,840.8 cM. As all these three populations segregate for drought-tolerance-related traits, a comprehensive QTL analysis identified 153 main effect QTL (M-QTL) and 25 epistatic QTL (E-QTL) for drought-tolerance-related traits. Localization of these QTL on the consensus map provided 16 genomic regions that contained 125 QTL. A few key genomic regions were selected on the basis of the QTL identified in each region, and their expected role in drought adaptation is also discussed. Given that no major QTL for drought adaptation were identified, novel breeding approaches such as marker-assisted recurrent selection (MARS) and genomic selection (GS) approaches are likely to be the preferred approaches for introgression of a larger number of QTL in order to breed drought-tolerant groundnut genotypes. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11032-011-9660-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:22924017

Gautami, B; Pandey, M K; Vadez, V; Nigam, S N; Ratnakumar, P; Krishnamurthy, L; Radhakrishnan, T; Gowda, M V C; Narasu, M L; Hoisington, D A; Knapp, S J; Varshney, R K

2012-08-01

400

ATR-FTIR spectroscopy reveals genomic loci regulating the tissue response in high fat diet fed BXD recombinant inbred mouse strains  

PubMed Central

Background Obesity-associated organ-specific pathological states can be ensued from the dysregulation of the functions of the adipose tissues, liver and muscle. However, the influence of genetic differences underlying gross-compositional differences in these tissues is largely unknown. In the present study, the analytical method of ATR-FTIR spectroscopy has been combined with a genetic approach to identify genetic differences responsible for phenotypic alterations in adipose, liver and muscle tissues. Results Mice from 29 BXD recombinant inbred mouse strains were put on high fat diet and gross-compositional changes in adipose, liver and muscle tissues were measured by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. The analysis of genotype-phenotype correlations revealed significant quantitative trait loci (QTL) on chromosome 12 for the content of fat and collagen, collagen integrity, and the lipid to protein ratio in adipose tissue and on chromosome 17 for lipid to protein ratio in liver. Using gene expression and sequence information, we suggest Rsad2 (viperin) and Colec11 (collectin-11) on chromosome 12 as potential quantitative trait candidate genes. Rsad2 may act as a modulator of lipid droplet contents and lipid biosynthesis; Colec11 might play a role in apoptopic cell clearance and maintenance of adipose tissue. An increased level of Rsad2 transcripts in adipose tissue of DBA/2J compared to C57BL/6J mice suggests a cis-acting genetic variant leading to differential gene activation. Conclusion The results demonstrate that the analytical method of ATR-FTIR spectroscopy effectively contributed to decompose the macromolecular composition of tissues that accumulate fat and to link this information with genetic determinants. The candidate genes in the QTL regions may contribute to obesity-related diseases in humans, in particular if the results can be verified in a bigger BXD cohort. PMID:23758785

2013-01-01

401

Genetic Analysis of Ligation-Induced Neointima Formation in an F2 Intercross of C57BL/6 and FVB/N Inbred Mouse Strains  

PubMed Central

Objective Proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) are central for arterial diseases including atherosclerosis and restenosis. We hypothesized that the underlying mechanisms may be modeled by carotid ligation in mice. In FVB/N inbred mice, ligation leads to abundant neointima formation with proliferating media-derived SMCs, whereas in C57BL/6 mice hardly any neointima is formed. In the present study, we aimed to identify the chromosomal location of the causative gene variants in an F2 intercross between these two mouse strains. Methods and Results The neointimal cross-sectional area was significantly different between FVB/N, C57BL/6 and F1 female mice 4 weeks after ligation. Carotid artery ligation and a genome scan using 800 informative SNP markers were then performed in 157 female F2 mice. Using quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis, we identified suggestive, but no genome-wide significant, QTLs on chromosomes 7 and 12 for neointimal cross-sectional area and on chromosome 14 for media area. Further analysis of the cross revealed 4 QTLs for plasma cholesterol, which combined explained 69% of the variation among F2 mice. Conclusions We identified suggestive QTLs for neointima and media area after carotid ligation in an intercross of FVB/N and C57BL/6 mice, but none that reached genome-wide significance indicating a complex genetic architecture of the traits. Genome-wide significant QTLs for total cholesterol levels were identified on chromosomes 1, 3, 9, and 12. PMID:25875831

Östergren, Caroline; Shim, Jeong; Larsen, Jens Vinther; Nielsen, Lars Bo; Bentzon, Jacob F.

2015-01-01

402

Genetic separation of GvL and GvH reactivity in new recombinant-inbred tumor-resistant mouse strains.  

PubMed

From a cross between a tumor-susceptible syngeneic mouse strain (DBA/2) and a tumor resistant MHC congenic strain (B10.D2) new recombinant inbred mouse strains were established over many generations of inbreeding and tumor resistance selection. The resistance selected against one DBA/2 derived malignant tumor (ESb) extended to other DBA/2 malignant tumors (SL 2, MDAY-D2) and was thus of more general significance. Since tumor resistance had an immunological basis and since the two parental strains differed in multiple minor histocompatibility antigens (H) as well as in viral superantigens (vSAGs) we determined specificities of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses in vitro. All CTL responses from tumor resistant strains showed not only antitumor reactivity but also rather strong anti-minor H reactivity. There was no relationship between cytolysis and the DBA/2 type vSAG-7 (Mls(a)) expression. We also tested the capacity of immune cells from 7 resistant lines to transfer graft versus leukemia and graft versus host reactivity to ESb tumor bearing DBA/2 mice. Immune cells from one subline were capable of transfering complete protection without development of chronic GVH over a period of 4 months. The resistant parental line B10.D2 and most of the other sublines also were able to transfer GvL reactivity but this was usually associated later with chronic GVH disease caused mortality. These results demonstrate the potential of this genetic approach to separate GvL from GvH reactivity. PMID:21544461

Schirrmacher, V; Griesbach, A; Gehring, M; Lehr, B

1996-06-01

403

Accumulation, speciation, and coordination of arsenic in an inbred line and a wild type cultivar of the desert plant species Chilopsis linearis (Desert willow).  

PubMed

This study investigated the absorption of arsenic (As), sulfur (S), and phosphorus (P) in the desert plant Chilopsis linearis (Desert willow). A comparison between an inbred line (red flowered) and wild type (white flowered) plants was performed to look for differential responses to As treatment. One month old seedlings were treated for 7 days with arsenate (As(2)O(5), As(V)) at 0, 20, and 40 mg As(V)L(-1). Results from the ICP-OES analysis showed that at 20mg As(V)L(-1), red flowered plants had 280+/-11 and 98+/-7 mg As kg(-1) dry wt in roots and stems, respectively, while white flowered plants had 196+/-30 and 103+/-13 mg As kg(-1) dry wt for roots and stems. At this treatment level, the concentration of As in leaves was below detection limits for both plants. In red flowered plants treated with 40 mg As(V)L(-1), As was at 290+/-77 and 151+/-60 mg As kg(-1) in roots and stems, respectively, and not detected in leaves, whereas white flowered plants had 406+/-36, 213+/-12, and 177+/-40 mg As kg(-1) in roots, stems, and leaves. The concentration of S increased in all As treated plants, while the concentration of P decreased in roots and stems of both types of plants and in leaves of red flowered plants. X-ray absorption spectroscopy analyses demonstrated partial reduction of arsenate to arsenite in the form of As-(SX)(3) species in both types of plants. PMID:19251289

Castillo-Michel, Hiram A; Zuverza-Mena, Nubia; Parsons, Jason G; Dokken, Kenneth M; Duarte-Gardea, Maria; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

2009-03-01

404

Lack of Structural Variation but Extensive Length Polymorphisms and Heteroplasmic Length Variations in the Mitochondrial DNA Control Region of Highly Inbred Crested Ibis, Nipponia nippon  

PubMed Central

The animal mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) length polymorphism and heteroplasmy are accepted to be universal. Here we report the lack of structural variation but the presence of length polymorphism as well as heteroplasmy in mtDNA control region of an endangered avian species – the Crested Ibis (Nipponia nippon). The complete control region was directly sequenced while the distribution pattern and inheritance of the length variations were examined using both direct sequencing and genotyping of the PCR fragments from captive birds with pedigrees, wild birds and a historical specimen. Our results demonstrated that there was no structural variation in the control region, however, different numbers of short tandem repeats with an identical motif of CA3CA2CA3 at the 3?-end of the control region determined the length polymorphisms among and heteroplasmy within individual birds. There were one to three predominant fragments in every bird; nevertheless multiple minor fragments coexist in all birds. These extremely high polymorphisms were suggested to have derived from the ‘replication slippage’ of a perfect microsatellite evolution following the step-wise mutational model. The patterns of heteroplasmy were found to be shifted between generations and among siblings but rather stable between blood and feather samples. This study provides the first evidence of a very extensive mtDNA length polymorphism and heteroplasmy in the highly inbred Crested Ibis which carries an mtDNA genome lack of structural genetic diversity. The analysis of pedigreed samples also sheds light on the transmission of mtDNA length heteroplasmy in birds following the genetic bottleneck theory. Further research focusing on the generation and transmission of particular mtDNA heteroplasmy patterns in single germ line of Crested Ibis is encouraged by this study. PMID:23805212

He, Xue-Lian; Ding, Chang-Qing; Han, Jian-Lin

2013-01-01

405

Immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region and major histocompatibility region genes are linked to induced graves' disease in females from two very large families of recombinant inbred mice.  

PubMed

Graves' hyperthyroidism is caused by antibodies to the TSH receptor (TSHR) that mimic thyroid stimulation by TSH. Stimulating TSHR antibodies and hyperthyroidism can be induced by immunizing mice with adenovirus expressing the human TSHR A-subunit. Prior analysis of induced Graves' disease in small families of recombinant inbred (RI) female mice demonstrated strong genetic control but did not resolve trait loci for TSHR antibodies or elevated serum T4. We investigated the genetic basis for induced Graves' disease in female mice of two large RI families and combined data with earlier findings to provide phenotypes for 178 genotypes. TSHR antibodies measured by inhibition of TSH binding to its receptor were highly significantly linked in the BXD set to the major histocompatibility region (chromosome 17), consistent with observations in 3 other RI families. In the LXS family, we detected linkage between T4 levels after TSHR-adenovirus immunization and the Ig heavy chain variable region (Igvh, chromosome 12). This observation is a key finding because components of the antigen binding region of Igs determine antibody specificity and have been previously linked to induced thyroid-stimulating antibodies. Data from the LXS family provide the first evidence in mice of a direct link between induced hyperthyroidism and Igvh genes. A role for major histocompatibility genes has now been established for genetic susceptibility to Graves' disease in both humans and mice. Future studies using arrays incorporating variation in the complex human Ig gene locus will be necessary to determine whether Igvh genes are also linked to Graves' disease in humans. PMID:25051451

McLachlan, Sandra M; Aliesky, Holly; Banuelos, Bianca; Magana, Jessica; Williams, Robert W; Rapoport, Basil

2014-10-01

406

Complementary DNA cloning, sequence analysis, and tissue transcription profile of a novel U2AF2 gene from the Chinese Banna mini-pig inbred line.  

PubMed

U2 small nuclear RNA auxiliary factor 2 (U2AF2) is an important gene for pre-messenger RNA splicing in higher eukaryotes. In this study, the Banna mini-pig inbred line (BMI) U2AF2 coding sequence (CDS) was cloned, sequenced, and characterized. The U2AF2 complete CDS was amplified using the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique based on the conserved sequence information of cattle and known highly homologous swine expressed sequence tags. This novel gene was deposited into the National Center for Biotechnology Information database (Accession No. JQ839267). Sequence analysis revealed that the BMI U2AF2 coding sequence consisted of 1416 bp and encoded 471 amino acids with a molecular weight of 53.12 kDa. The protein sequence has high sequence homology with U2AF65 of 6 species - Homo sapiens (100%), Equus caballus (100%), Canis lupus (100%), Macaca mulatta (99.8%), Bos taurus (74.4%), and Mus musculus (74.4%). The phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that BMI U2AF65 has a closer genetic relationship with B. taurus U2AF65 than with U2AF65 of E. caballus, C. lupus, M. mulatta, H. sapiens, and M. musculus. RT-PCR analysis showed that BMI U2AF2 was most highly expressed in the brain; moderately expressed in the spleen, lung, muscle, and skin; and weakly expressed in the liver, kidney, and ovary. Its expression was nearly silent in the spinal cord, nerve fiber, heart, stomach, pancreas, and intestine. Three microRNA target sites were predicted in the CDS of BMI U2AF2 messenger RNA. Our results establish a foundation for further insight into this swine gene. PMID:23613239

Wang, S Y; Huo, J L; Miao, Y W; Cheng, W M; Zeng, Y Z

2013-01-01

407

An expression quantitative trait loci-guided co-expression analysis for constructing regulatory network using a rice recombinant inbred line population.  

PubMed

The ability to reveal the regulatory architecture of genes at the whole-genome level by constructing a regulatory network is critical for understanding the biological processes and developmental programmes of organisms. Here, we conducted an eQTL-guided function-related co-expression analysis to identify the putative regulators and construct gene regulatory network. We performed an eQTL analysis of 210 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between two indica rice lines, Zhenshan 97 and Minghui 63, the parents of an elite hybrid, using data obtained by hybridizing RNA samples of flag leaves at the heading stage with Affymetrix whole-genome arrays. Making use of an ultrahigh-density single-nucleotide polymorphism bin map constructed by population sequencing, 13 647 eQTLs for 10 725 e-traits were detected, comprising 5079 cis-eQTLs (37.2%) and 8568 trans-eQTLs (62.8%). The analysis revealed 138 trans-eQTLs hotspots, each of which apparently regulates the expression variations of many genes. Co-expression analysis of functionally related genes within the framework of regulator-target relationships outlined by the eQTLs led to the identification of putative regulators in the system. The usefulness of the strategy was demonstrated with the genes known to be involved in flowering. We also applied this strategy to the analysis of QTLs for yield traits, which also suggested likely candidate genes. eQTL-guided co-expression analysis may provide a promising solution for outlining a framework for the complex regulatory network of an organism. PMID:24420573

Wang, Jia; Yu, Huihui; Weng, Xiaoyu; Xie, Weibo; Xu, Caiguo; Li, Xianghua; Xiao, Jinghua; Zhang, Qifa

2014-03-01

408

Comparative expression profiling in meristems of inbred-hybrid triplets of maize based on morphological investigations of heterosis for plant height.  

PubMed

Heterosis, the superior performance of hybrids as compared to their parental mean is an agronomically important phenomenon well-described morphologically. However, little is known about its molecular basis. We investigated four genetically unrelated maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines and their F(1) crosses both at the phenotype and transcriptome level, focusing on plant height (PHT) component traits. Substantial mid-parent heterosis (MPH) was found for all parent-hybrid triplets for PHT in the range of 37.9-56.4% in the field and 11.1-39.5% under controlled greenhouse conditions. Analyses of heterosis for number and length of internodes showed two to three times higher MPH in the field as compared to the greenhouse. All three traits exhibited high heritabilities, highest for PHT 95-98%. Two methods for gene expression quantification were applied. High-density cDNA uni-gene microarrays containing 11,827 ESTs were utilized for the selection of differentially expressed genes related to heterosis for PHT. For the four triplets with eight possible parent-hybrid comparisons we identified 434 consistently differentially expressed genes with a p < or = 0.05. Microarray results were used to verify the dominance/overdominance hypothesis. In our study, more than 50% genes showed overdominance, 26% partial dominance, 12.6% complete dominance and 10.2% additive gene action. Moreover, more consistently differentially expressed genes were detected in related triplets, sharing one parent, than in unrelated triplets. Quantitative RT-PCR was applied in order to validate microarray results. The role of the differentially expressed genes in relation to heterosis for PHT is discussed. PMID:17006594

Uzarowska, Anna; Keller, Barbara; Piepho, Hans-Peter; Schwarz, Gerhard; Ingvardsen, Christina; Wenzel, Gerhard; Lübberstedt, Thomas

2007-01-01

409

Genetic Determinants for Enzymatic Digestion of Lignocellulosic Biomass Are Independent of Those for Lignin Abundance in a Maize Recombinant Inbred Population.  

PubMed

Biotechnological approaches to reduce or modify lignin in biomass crops are predicated on the assumption that it is the principal determinant of the recalcitrance of biomass to enzymatic digestion for biofuels production. We defined quantitative trait loci (QTL) in the Intermated B73 × Mo17 recombinant inbred maize (Zea mays) population using pyrolysis molecular-beam mass spectrometry to establish stem lignin content and an enzymatic hydrolysis assay to measure glucose and xylose yield. Among five multiyear QTL for lignin abundance, two for 4-vinylphenol abundance, and four for glucose and/or xylose yield, not a single QTL for aromatic abundance and sugar yield was shared. A genome-wide association study for lignin abundance and sugar yield of the 282-member maize association panel provided candidate genes in the 11 QTL of the B73 and Mo17 parents but showed that many other alleles impacting these traits exist among this broader pool of maize genetic diversity. B73 and Mo17 genotypes exhibited large differences in gene expression in developing stem tissues independent of allelic variation. Combining these complementary genetic approaches provides a narrowed list of candidate genes. A cluster of SCARECROW-LIKE9 and SCARECROW-LIKE14 transcription factor genes provides exceptionally strong candidate genes emerging from the genome-wide association study. In addition to these and genes associated with cell wall metabolism, candidates include several other transcription factors associated with vascularization and fiber formation and components of cellular signaling pathways. These results provide new insights and strategies beyond the modification of lignin to enhance yields of biofuels from genetically modified biomass. PMID:24972714

Penning, Bryan W; Sykes, Robert W; Babcock, Nicholas C; Dugard, Christopher K; Held, Michael A; Klimek, John F; Shreve, Jacob T; Fowler, Matthew; Ziebell, Angela; Davis, Mark F; Decker, Stephen R; Turner, Geoffrey B; Mosier, Nathan S; Springer, Nathan M; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Weil, Clifford F; McCann, Maureen C; Carpita, Nicholas C

2014-06-27

410

An integrated genetic linkage map with 1,137 markers constructed from five F2 crosses of autoimmune disease-prone and -resistant inbred rat strains.  

PubMed

The rat (Rattus norvegicus) is an important experimental model for many human diseases including arthritis, diabetes, and other autoimmune and chronic inflammatory diseases. The rat genetic linkage map, however, is less well developed than those of mouse and human. Integrated rat genetic linkage maps have been previously reported by Pravenec et al. (1996, Mamm. Genome 7: 117-127) (500 markers mapped in one cross), Bihoreau et al. (1997, Genome Res. 7: 434-440) (767 markers mapped in three crosses), Wei et al. (1998, Mamm. Genome 9: 1002-1007) (562 markers mapped in two crosses), Brown et al. (1998, Mamm. Genome 9: 521-530) (678 markers mapped in four crosses), and Nordquist et al. (1999, Rat Genome 5: 15-20) (330 markers mapped in two crosses). The densest linkage map combined with a radiation hybrid map, reported by Steen et al. (1999, Genome Res. 9: AP1-AP8), includes 4736 markers mapped in two crosses. Here, we present an integrated linkage map with 1137 markers. We have constructed this map by genotyping F2 progeny of five crosses: F344/NHsd x LEW/NHsd (673 markers), DA/Bkl x F344/NHsd (531 markers), BN/SsN x LEW/N (714 markers), DA/Bkl x BN/SsNHsd (194 markers), and DA/Bkl x ACI/SegHsd (245 markers). These inbred rat strains vary in susceptibility/resistance to multiple autoimmune diseases and are used extensively for many types of investigation. The integrated map includes 360 loci mapped in three or more crosses. The map contains 196 new SSLP markers developed by our group, as well as many SSLP markers developed by other groups. Two hundred forty genes are incorporated in the map. This integrated map should allow comparison of rat genetic maps from different groups and thereby facilitate genetic studies of rat autoimmune and related disease models. PMID:10673333

Dracheva, S V; Remmers, E F; Chen, S; Chang, L; Gulko, P S; Kawahito, Y; Longman, R E; Wang, J; Du, Y; Shepard, J; Ge, L; Joe, B; Kotake, S; Salstrom, J L; Furuya, T; Hoffman, J; Cannon, G W; Griffiths, M M; Wilder, R L

2000-01-15

411

Divergent compensatory responses to high-fat diet between C57BL6/J and C57BLKS/J inbred mouse strains  

PubMed Central

Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) are polygenic disorders with complex pathophysiologies; recapitulating them with mouse models is challenging. Despite 70% genetic homology, C57BL/6J (BL6) and C57BLKS/J (BLKS) inbred mouse strains differ in response to diet- and genetic-induced obesity. We hypothesized these differences would yield insight into IGT and T2DM susceptibility and response to pharmacological therapies. To this end, male 8-wk-old BL6 and BLKS mice were fed normal chow (18% kcal from fat), high-fat diet (HFD; 42% kcal from fat), or HFD supplemented with the PPAR? agonist pioglitazone (PIO; 140 mg PIO/kg diet) for 16 wk. Assessments of body composition, glucose homeostasis, insulin production, and energy metabolism, as well as histological analyses of pancreata were undertaken. BL6 mice gained weight and adiposity in response to HFD, leading to peripheral insulin resistance that was met with increased ?-cell proliferation and insulin production. By contrast, BLKS mice responded to HFD by restricting food intake and increasing activity. These behavioral responses limited weight gain and protected against HFD-induced glucose intolerance, which in this strain was primarily due to ?-cell dysfunction. PIO treatment did not affect HFD-induced weight gain in BL6 mice, and decreased visceral fat mass, whereas in BLKS mice PIO increased total fat mass without improving visceral fat mass. Differences in these responses to HFD and effects of PIO reflect divergent human responses to a Western lifestyle and underscore the careful consideration needed when choosing mouse models of diet-induced obesity and diabetes treatment. PMID:24169046

Sims, Emily K.; Hatanaka, Masayuki; Morris, David L.; Tersey, Sarah A.; Kono, Tatsuyoshi; Chaudry, Zunaira Z.; Day, Kathleen H.; Moss, Dan R.; Stull, Natalie D.; Mirmira, Raghavendra G.

2013-01-01

412

A Quantitative Analysis of Previously Launched Adults  

E-print Network

Young adults are moving back into their family homes and are now living with their parents. Common terms for the adult children include "previously launched adult" and "incompletely launched adult." I used data from Wave 3 (2001 to 2003...

Farris, Demetrea Nicole

2012-02-14

413

CDC Vital Signs: Adults with Disabilities  

MedlinePLUS

... gov . Vital Signs Share Compartir Adults with Disabilities Physical activity is for everybody May 2014 3x Adults with ... Problem More adults with disabilities need to get physical activity. Adults with disabilities who get no physical activity ...

414

Visuomotor Binding in Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Action integration is the process through which actions performed on a stimulus and perceptual aspects of the stimulus become bound as a unitary object. This process appears to be controlled by the dopaminergic system in the prefrontal cortex, an area that is known to decrease in volume and dopamine functioning in older adults. Although the decline should lead to reduced action integration in older adults, we found equivalent integration in both young and older adults. This indicates that older adults may be able to compensate for their dopaminergic deficiencies by activating additional neural networks that are not used by young adults. PMID:20810199

Bloesch, Emily K.; Abrams, Richard A.

2010-01-01

415

Whooping cough in adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the 1970s whooping cough returned in Sweden after an absence of more than 10 years and is now seen in all age groups, During a three-year period 174 adults with culture-verified whooping cough were identified in Gothenburg. Most of the patients had typical symptoms with whooping attacks and often vomiting. The disease was long lasting but complications were rare.

B Trollfors; E Rabo

1981-01-01

416

Sorbitol intolerance in adults.  

PubMed

Sorbitol is a commonly used sugar substitute in "sugar-free" food products. Although sorbitol intolerance manifested by abdominal pain, bloating, and diarrhea has been observed in children, it has not been well documented in adults. Forty-two healthy adults (23 whites, 19 nonwhites) participated in this study. After ingestion of 10 g of sorbitol solution, end expiratory breath samples were collected at 15-min intervals for 4 h and analyzed for H2 concentration. Clinical sorbitol intolerance was detected in 43% of the whites and 55% of the nonwhites, the difference not being statistically significant. However, severe clinical sorbitol intolerance was significantly more prevalent in nonwhites (32%) as compared to whites (4%). There was a good correlation between the severity of symptoms and the amount of hydrogen exhaled. Dietetic foods, many of them containing sorbitol, are very popular with diabetics and "weight watchers." Based on our observations, we believe that a large number of adults could be suffering from sorbitol-induced nonspecific abdominal symptoms and diarrhea. These symptoms could lead to an extensive diagnostic work-up and lifelong diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome. PMID:4036946

Jain, N K; Rosenberg, D B; Ulahannan, M J; Glasser, M J; Pitchumoni, C S

1985-09-01

417

Reading Comprehension Strategies for Adult Literacy Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because an adult's literacy is measured on different dimensions from a child's or youth's, several competency-based, standardized tests of literacy are commonly accepted as reasonable proxies for the global construct of adult literacy. Tests such as The Adult Basic Learning Examination (ABLE), Comprehension Adult Student Assessment System (CASAS), Test of Adult Basic Education (TABE), National Assessment of Adult Literacy (NAALS),

Mike Hock; Daryl Mellard

2005-01-01

418

Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Adult respiratory distress syndrome is a common respiratory emergency which follows a variety of severe direct and indirect lung insults. Major features are severe respiratory distress, diffuse pulmonary infiltrations, reduced compliance and refractory hypoxemia due to shunt effect. Surfactant abnormalities may play a role in the mechanical derangement of lung function. Supportive care with mechanical ventilation and positive end expiratory pressure results in survival of approximately 50 percent of patients. Only minimal abnormalities in lung function are found in long-term survivors. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2. PMID:664643

Petty, Thomas L.; Newman, John H.

1978-01-01

419

[Rehabilitation for older adults.  

PubMed

The positive effect of rehabilitation is well documented among older adults where functional disability affects daily activities and participation. Existing knowledge, however, needs to be implemented in daily routines. Everyday rehabilitation in the municipalities is improving. Fast-track methods are tested in hospitals. More studies are needed for follow-up evaluation and regarding how, for whom and for how long rehabilitation should take place. All doctors should be aware of and able to handle the patient's need of rehabilitation in an integrated health-care perspective. PMID:25096739

Hendriksen, Carsten; Lyngbye, Pernille Würtz

2014-05-12

420

Quantitative trait locus analysis and construction of consensus genetic map for foliar disease resistance based on two recombinant inbred line populations in cultivated groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.).  

PubMed

Late leaf spot (LLS) and rust have the greatest impact on yield losses worldwide in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.). With the objective of identifying tightly linked markers to these diseases, a total of 3,097 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were screened on the parents of two recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations, namely TAG 24 × GPBD 4 (RIL-4) and TG 26 × GPBD 4 (RIL-5), and segregation data were obtained for 209 marker loci for each of the mapping populations. Linkage map analysis of the 209 loci resulted in the mapping of 188 and 181 loci in RIL-4 and RIL-5 respectively. Using 143 markers common to the two maps, a consensus map with 225 SSR loci and total map distance of 1,152.9 cM was developed. Comprehensive quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis detected a total of 28 QTL for LLS and 15 QTL for rust. A major QTL for LLS, namely QTL(LLS)01 (GM1573/GM1009-pPGPseq8D09), with 10.27-62.34% phenotypic variance explained (PVE) was detected in all the six environments in the RIL-4 population. In the case of rust resistance, in addition to marker IPAHM103 identified earlier, four new markers (GM2009, GM1536, GM2301 and GM2079) showed significant association with the major QTL (82.96% PVE). Localization of 42 QTL for LLS and rust on the consensus map identified two candidate genomic regions conferring resistance to LLS and rust. One region present on linkage group AhXV contained three QTL each for LLS (up to 67.98% PVE) and rust (up to 82.96% PVE). The second candidate genomic region contained the major QTL with up to 62.34% PVE for LLS. Molecular markers associated with the major QTL for resistance to LLS and rust can be deployed in molecular breeding for developing groundnut varieties with enhanced resistance to foliar diseases. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11032-011-9661-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:22924018

Sujay, V; Gowda, M V C; Pandey, M K; Bhat, R S; Khedikar, Y P; Nadaf, H L; Gautami, B; Sarvamangala, C; Lingaraju, S; Radhakrishan, T; Knapp, S J; Varshney, R K

2012-08-01

421

Human Metapneumovirus in Adults  

PubMed Central

Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a relative newly described virus. It was first isolated in 2001 and currently appears to be one of the most significant and common human viral infections. Retrospective serologic studies demonstrated the presence of HMPV antibodies in humans more than 50 years earlier. Although the virus was primarily known as causative agent of respiratory tract infections in children, HMPV is an important cause of respiratory infections in adults as well. Almost all children are infected by HMPV below the age of five; the repeated infections throughout life indicate transient immunity. HMPV infections usually are mild and self-limiting, but in the frail elderly and the immunocompromised patients, the clinical course can be complicated. Since culturing the virus is relatively difficult, diagnosis is mostly based on a nucleic acid amplification test, such as reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. To date, no vaccine is available and treatment is supportive. However, ongoing research shows encouraging results. The aim of this paper is to review the current literature concerning HMPV infections in adults, and discuss recent development in treatment and vaccination. PMID:23299785

Haas, Lenneke E. M.; Thijsen, Steven F. T.; van Elden, Leontine; Heemstra, Karen A.

2013-01-01

422

Oakland Adult Reading Lab. Building Comprehension in Adult Education Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many adult poor readers do not organize what they read in a way that best facilitates good comprehension. To help students overcome this problem, the Adult Day and Evening School in Oakland, California, organized a reading laboratory for their mostly low-income, educationally disadvantaged students with a diverse range of needs. Instruction in the…

Johnston, Suzanne

423

Adult Literacy and Numeracy: Assessing Change. Adult Literacy Research Network.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains eight papers from an action research program to foster good practice in adult literacy provision and policy. "Introduction" (J. Joy Cumming, Christina E. van Kraayenoord) presents an overview of the action research project and individual reports. "Assessment: Making a Difference in Adult Literacy and Numeracy Learning" (J.…

Cumming, J. Joy, Ed.; van Kraayenoord, Christina E., Ed.

424

Atomoxetine Treatment for ADHD: Younger Adults Compared with Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Atomoxetine is a nonstimulant medication for treating child, adolescent, and adult ADHD. This meta-analysis compared the effects in younger and older adults. Method: A post hoc analysis was conducted using data from two double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials. Data from patients aged 18-25 years were compared with data from…

Durell, Todd; Adler, Lenard; Wilens, Timothy; Paczkowski, Martin; Schuh, Kory

2010-01-01

425

Working with Young Adults. NIACE Lifelines in Adult Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document explains how adult educators and others in the United Kingdom can increase levels of participation and achievement in learning for young adults by providing informal learning opportunities for those young people who are least inclined to participate in formal education and training programs. The guide outlines a step-by-step approach…

Jackson, Carol

426

[Adult onset Still's disease].  

PubMed

Adult onset Still's disease is a rare, febrile, multisystem rheumatic disease with unknown etiology, which runs an intermittent course and can either go into remission after months to years or progress to a chronic course with substantial joint destruction. The prevalence of this disease has been increasing in the last decade presumably caused by better diagnostic tools but also by a higher awareness among physicians taking care of patients with "fever of unknown origin". This review is intended to augment this trend, since research on the role of proinflammatory cytokines in this disease has led to an improved diagnostic and therapeutic repertoire over the last few years. Ferritin and interleukin-18 serum levels are valuable diagnostic parameters and blockade of interleukin-1, interleukin-6, and tumor-necrosis-factor alpha can effectively control the inflammatory activity of this disease in most cases and also in life-threatening conditions. PMID:18696089

Manger, B

2008-09-01

427

Enteral access in adults.  

PubMed

Enteral feeding is widely used for hospitalized patients but is also used for ambulatory persons living at home or in home care settings. Aside from decisions that must be made about appropriate nutrient delivery, choices related to which type of enteral access will be used and the procedures for enteral access surveillance are extremely important. In this paper we review the various techniques for establishment of enteral access in adult patients. Prevention and treatment of potential complications are detailed. The use of protocols that are written by a multidisciplinary nutrition team is mandatory. It is also of vital importance to discuss treatment plans with the patient and care givers, to assure appropriate follow-up, and to consider ethical issues related to enteral feeding. PMID:25439396

Toussaint, Emmanuel; Van Gossum, André; Ballarin, Asuncion; Arvanitakis, Marianna

2014-11-13

428

Adult ADHD and suicide.  

PubMed

While suicidal behaviour has been implicated in a plethora of psychiatric disorders including depression, psychoses and substance abuse, its association with adult ADHD is largely under-researched. Given that emotional instability and the high prevalence of comorbid conditions such as mood disorders and alcohol/drug dependence are typical for ADHD, the question of suicide risk must not be neglected in this patient group. A review of the current literature focusing on this issue provides strong evidence that ADHD patients are at a significant risk for experiencing suicidal ideations and committing suicide. For daily clinical practice, it is therefore essential to incorporate this aspect into the diagnostic and therapeutic process and to take preventive measures. PMID:25063344

Furczyk, Karolina; Thome, Johannes

2014-09-01

429

Services for Adult & Commuting Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recognizing the need to extend a variety of academic and student support services to its adult and commuting students, East Tennessee State University initiated a Center for Adult Programs and Services. The center, a collaborative effort of the Divisions of Academic Affairs and Student Affairs, offers a broad array of programs and services to…

Turnbull, Sharon K.

430

Travel and Adult Transformative Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This phenomenological research study examines the lived experience of individual adult transformation in the context of travel. Adults throughout history have experienced profound personal and perception changes as a result of significant travel events. Transformative learning occurs through experience, crisis, and reflection, all of which are…

Lindstrom, Steven K.

2011-01-01

431

Adult Literacy: Contexts and Challenges.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reporting recent and significant studies across the spectrum of the literacy movement to help plan the United States' literacy future, this book discusses the history of the adult literacy movement, especially in the United States, and the emergent definitions of adult literacy. The book also reports on the scholarship about, practice of, and…

Newman, Anabel Powell; Beverstock, Caroline

432

Adult Education in Israel IV.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This fourth journal edition, oriented towards the topic of adult education and the community in Israel, focuses on these two major themes: the different approaches to analyzing and understanding the community, its populations, and its connection to adult education; and educational institutions and cultural entities within the community. Seventeen…

Kirmayer, Paul, Ed.; Michaelson, Serena T., Ed.

433

ANNUAL ADULT SURVIVAL RATES OF  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purposes of this study were (1) to determine annual adult survival rates from banding data for each sex of the Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater), Common Grackle (Quiscalus quiscula), Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus), and Starling (Sturnus vulgaris), and (2) to compare survival rates calculated from band returns with survival rates calculated from band recoveries. Others have studied annual adult survival

DON P. FANKHAIJSER

434

Books for Adult New Readers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is an annotated bibliography of recommended print materials for English-speaking adults reading at the seventh grade level or below. (Sixty percent of the titles are at fifth grade level or below). The titles were selected for their broad appeal to the average adult new reader. In the selection, special consideration was given to…

O'Brien, Roberta Luther, Comp.

435

ADULT BASIC EDUCATION. PROGRAM SUMMARY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A BRIEF DESCRIPTION IS GIVEN OF THE FEDERAL ADULT BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM, UNDER THE ADULT EDUCATION ACT OF 1966, AT THE NATIONAL AND STATE LEVELS (INCLUDING PUERTO RICO, GUAM, AMERICAN SAMOA, AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS) AS PROVIDED BY STATE EDUCATION AGENCIES. STATISTICS FOR FISCAL YEARS 1965 AND 1966, AND ESTIMATES FOR FISCAL YEAR 1967, INDICATE…

Office of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC.

436

Staff Handbook, Adult Basic Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended primarily for new staff members, this manual includes most procedures, rules, benefits applicable to the entire White Plains, New York, school system or unique to the Adult Education Center. It covers such matters as enrollment trends within the overall adult basic education (ABE) program, the ABE program organization chart, personnel…

White Plains Public Schools, NY.

437

Adult Learning and Public Broadcasting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This five-part report summarizes the activities and findings of each phase of the Adult Learning and Public Broadcasting Project conducted by the American Association of Community and Junior Colleges to examine the use of television in adult education. Part I presents the results of a survey of 1,300 two-year colleges conducted in December, 1978,…

Kressel, Marilyn, Ed.

438

Segmenting the Adult Education Market.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes market segmentation and how the principles of segmentation can be applied to the adult education market. Indicates that applying segmentation techniques to adult education programs results in programs that are educationally and financially satisfying and serve an appropriate population. (JOW)

Aurand, Tim

1994-01-01

439

Adult Learning Disorders: Contemporary Issues  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent advances in neuroimaging and genetics technologies have enhanced our understanding of neurodevelopmental disorders in adults. The authors in this volume not only discuss such advances as they apply to adults with learning disorders, but also address their translation into clinical practice. One cluster of chapters addresses developmental…

Wolf, Lorraine E., Ed.; Schreiber, Hope E., Ed.; Wasserstein, Jeanette, Ed.

2008-01-01

440

Clinical Interviewing with Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the next few decades the older adult population will increase dramatically, and prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders are also expected to increase in the elderly cohort. These demographic projections highlight the need for diagnostic instruments and methods that are specifically tailored to older adults. The current paper discusses the…

Mohlman, Jan; Sirota, Karen Gainer; Papp, Laszlo A.; Staples, Alison M.; King, Arlene; Gorenstein, Ethan E.

2012-01-01

441

Native American Adult Reader I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aspects of Native American history and culture as well as issues and concerns of American Indians are presented in the twelve short articles in this reader for adults. Intended for use in an adult basic education/GED program, the reader features simply written stories (for grades 0-3), illustrations, vocabulary lists and student study questions.…

King, Lovern Root, Ed.

442

Assessment Models for Adult Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook was developed to provide adult educators in Texas with sufficient background in assessment models to ensure confidence in recognizing and/or selecting appropriate measurement techniques and in using evaluation results to individualize and improve instruction for adult students. The handbook is based on information derived from a…

Snow, Ellen; And Others

443

Predictive Modeling in Adult Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current economic crisis, a growing workforce, the increasing lifespan of workers, and demanding, complex jobs have made organizations highly selective in employee recruitment and retention. It is therefore important, to the adult educator, to develop models of learning that better prepare adult learners for the workplace. The purpose of…

Lindner, Charles L.

2011-01-01

444

Economic Essays on Adult Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adult students are an important component of the current U.S education landscape. They account for over 40% of the degree-seeking fresh enrollees in the U.S. colleges and according to the U.S. Department of Education, their growth will soon outpace that of traditional students. Adult students have also received considerable attention in higher…

Shetty, Sandeep

2013-01-01

445

Adult Academy Tutor Training Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook is for volunteer tutors, student interns, and VISTA volunteers working with adult basic education (ABE) and English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) learners. The community-based handbook contains information about adult literacy and tutoring--what tutors do, who the learners are, and how the literacy learning process works. Introductory…

Isserlis, Janet; And Others

446

[Sleep disorders in older adults].  

PubMed

Sleep is an essential physiological process with restorative functions. It is reported that the prevalence of chronic sleep-related complaints in older adults is over 50%, which is higher than that in younger adults. The etiology of sleep disorders in older adults is considered to be multifactorial, consisting of normal age-related changes(e.g., sleep fragmentation, earlier awakening, and decreased slow wave sleep), medical or psychiatric diseases (e.g., lifestyle-related diseases, dementia, delirium, and depression), primary age-related sleep disorders(e.g., sleep-related breathing disorders and periodic limb movement disorders), or a combination of these factors. Because sleep disorders in older adults may have implications for quality of life, it is crucial to distinguish normal age-related sleep changes from those originating from pathological processes. This mini-review discusses crucial points in the diagnosis and management of sleep disorders in older adults. PMID:24261205

Chiba, Shigeru

2013-10-01

447

Quantitative trait loci for adult-plant resistance to Mycosphaerella graminicola in two winter wheat populations.  

PubMed

Septoria tritici blotch (STB) is one of the most important leaf spot diseases in wheat worldwide. The goal of this study was to detect chromosomal regions for adult-plant resistance in large winter wheat populations to STB. Inoculation by two isolates with virulence to Stb6 and Stb15, both present in the parents, was performed and STB severity was visually scored plotwise as percent coverage of flag leaves with pycnidia-bearing lesions. 'Florett'/'Biscay' and 'Tuareg'/'Biscay', each comprising a cross of a resistant and a susceptible cultivar, with population sizes of 316 and 269 F(7:8) recombinant inbred lines, respectively, were phenotyped across four and five environments and mapped with amplified fragment length polymorphism, diversity array technology, and simple sequence repeat markers covering polymorphic regions of ?1,340 centimorgans. Phenotypic data revealed significant (P < 0.01) genotypic differentiation for STB, heading date, and plant height. Entry-mean heritabilities (h(2)) for STB were 0.73 for 'Florett'/'Biscay' and 0.38 for 'Tuareg'/'Biscay'. All correlations between STB and heading date as well as between STB and plant height were low (r = -0.13 to -0.20). In quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis, nine and six QTL were found for STB ratings explaining, together, 55 and 51% of phenotypic variation in 'Florett'/'Biscay' and 'Tuareg'/'Biscay', respectively. Genotype-environment and QTL-environment interactions had a large impact. Two major QTL were detected consistently across environments on chromosomes 3B and 6D from 'Florett' and chromosomes 4B and 6B from 'Tuareg', each explaining 12 to 17% of normalized adjusted phenotypic variance. These results indicate that adult-plant resistance to STB in both mapping populations was of a quantitative nature. PMID:21635143

Risser, P; Ebmeyer, E; Korzun, V; Hartl, L; Miedaner, T

2011-10-01

448

The Queens Public Library Adult Learning Center's role in providing literacy services to adult populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to describe the role an Adult Learning Center played in helping adults to acquire literacy and to identify the strategies used to instruct adult non-readers. Participants consisted of nine adults who attended an Adult Learning Center, four volunteer tutors, and four professional staff members. The Adult Learning Center is located in Central Jamaica in

Alice Annmarie Robinson

2000-01-01

449

Treatment Options for Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma  

MedlinePLUS

... Soft Tissue Sarcoma That Has Not Spread to Lymph Nodes Treatment of stage II adult soft tissue sarcoma ... Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma That Has Spread to Lymph Nodes (Advanced) Treatment of stage III adult soft tissue ...

450

Treatment Option Overview (Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia)  

MedlinePLUS

... different types of treatment for patients with adult ALL. Different types of treatment are available for patients ... have not started treatment. The treatment of adult ALL usually has two phases. The treatment of adult ...

451

Treatment Options for Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma  

MedlinePLUS

... Search for Clinical Trials NCI Publications Espańol Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma Treatment (PDQ®) Treatment Options for Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma Early Favorable Hodgkin Lymphoma Treatment of early favorable ...

452

Clueless: Adult Mysteries with Young Adult Appeal 2002.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This annotated bibliography includes adult mysteries that appeal to teen readers under the categories of Sherlock Holmes; reference sources; private investigators; amateur sleuths; historical sleuths; suspense and thrillers; police procedurals; mystery blends; and anthologies. (LRW)

Charles, John; Morrison, Joanna

2002-01-01

453

Burkitt lymphoma in adults.  

PubMed

The diagnosis of Burkitt Lymphoma (BL) and B-cell lymphomas unclassifiable with features intermediate between Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma and BL (BLU) in adults remains problematic even with immunophenotyping and MYC gene analysis. Gene expression profiling may improve categorization but is not routinely available. BL and its variants should be treated with specific regimens incorporating intensive courses of chemotherapy with fractionated alkylating agents and cell cycle phase-specific agents that readily cross the blood brain barrier. Subsequent courses should be given as soon as haematological recovery occurs, with the whole course completed within a few months. A number of regimens have been developed that encompass these principles but there have been no comparative randomized trials. The results from several studies suggest that the addition of rituximab is highly efficacious and this may be particularly valuable in older patients. It is usual to employ 'risk-adapted' strategies in the treatment of BL but these must be continually re-evaluated, and 'response-adapted' approaches should be explored. The role of transplantation is limited and largely confined to autologous transplants in patients who only achieve a partial response on front-line therapy or who have a chemosensitive relapse. Further advances will be greatly facilitated by randomized trials, which will require international collaboration. PMID:21923642

Linch, David C

2012-03-01

454

Vitalistic thinking in adults.  

PubMed

Vitalistic thinking has traditionally been associated with reasoning about biological phenomena. The current research aimed to investigate a broader range of vitalistic thinking than previously studied. Esoteric notions of 'energy' are frequently used by individuals when making causal attributions for strange occurrences, and previous literature has linked such thinking with paranormal, magical, and superstitious beliefs. Two experiments are described that aim to investigate whether adults are vitalistic when asked to make causal judgments, and whether this can be predicted by thinking styles and prior paranormal belief. Experiment 1 asked participants to rate three causal options (one of which was vitalistic) for six vignettes. Scores on one dimension of paranormal belief (New Age Philosophy) and analytical thinking significantly predicted vitalism, but scores on intuitive thinking and Traditional Paranormal Beliefs did not. Experiment 2 extended the findings by asking participants to generate their own causal responses. Again, paranormal belief was found to be the best predictor of vitalism, but this time Traditional Paranormal Beliefs were associated with vitalistic responses whilst both intuitive and analytical thinking were unable to significantly predict classification. Results challenge previous findings, suggesting that vitalistic thinking may operate differently when applied to everyday causal reasoning. PMID:24094281

Wilson, Stuart

2013-11-01

455

Computational models of adult neurogenesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental results in recent years have shown that adult neurogenesis is a significant phenomenon in the mammalian brain. Little is known, however, about the functional role played by the generation and destruction of neurons in the context of an adult brain. Here, we propose two models where new projection neurons are incorporated. We show that in both models, using incorporation and removal of neurons as a computational tool, it is possible to achieve a higher computational efficiency that in purely static, synapse-learning-driven networks. We also discuss the implication for understanding the role of adult neurogenesis in specific brain areas like the olfactory bulb and the dentate gyrus.

Cecchi, Guillermo A.; Magnasco, Marcelo O.

2005-10-01

456

Thematic relations in adults' concepts.  

PubMed

Concepts can be organized by their members' similarities, forming a kind (e.g., animal), or by their external relations within scenes or events (e.g., cake and candles). This latter type of relation, known as the thematic relation, is frequently found to be the basis of children's but not adults' classification. However, 10 experiments found that when thematic relations are meaningful and salient, they have significant influence on adults' category construction (sorting), inductive reasoning, and verification of category membership. The authors conclude that concepts function closely with knowledge of scenes and events and that this knowledge has a role in adults' conceptual representations. PMID:11293459

Lin, E L; Murphy, G L

2001-03-01

457

Changing Concepts in Adult Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes 40 concepts in adult education in relation to time, space, policy, theory, and ideals, as well as tensions and competition among them. Seven categories of concepts are presented: core, international, institutional, work related, learning, curricular, and structural. (SK)

Tight, Malcolm

1996-01-01

458

Understanding and Facilitating Adult Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the general nature of adult learning and six principles of effective practice for facilitating learning: (1) voluntary participation; (2) mutual respect; (3) collaborative spirit; (4) action and reflection; (5) critical reflection; and (6) self-direction. (45 references) (MES)

Brookfield, Stephen D.

1988-01-01

459

Death of an Adult Child  

MedlinePLUS

... AIDS, or other causes that carry a social stigma, many parents often experience an even more intense ... their adult child due to a physical or mental illness, or when suffering difficulties with drugs or alcohol. ...

460

Stages of Adult Brain Tumors  

MedlinePLUS

... no standard staging system for adult brain and spinal cord tumors. The extent or spread of cancer is ... is no standard staging system for brain and spinal cord tumors . Brain tumors that begin in the brain ...

461

Diabetes Resources for Older Adults  

MedlinePLUS

... Professionals, Businesses & Schools Partners & Community Organizations About NDEP | Contact Us | Site Map Tengo diabetes żCorro riesgo? You are here: NDEP Home > Resources > Diabetes Resources for Older Adults Text Size: S M L | About Diabetes Resources for ...

462

Older Adults and Mental Health  

MedlinePLUS

... Health & Education > Mental Health Information Older Adults and Mental Health Depression Depression is not a normal part of ... Finder Newsletters RSS Feeds The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) is part of the National Institutes of ...

463

Computer acceptance of older adults.  

PubMed

Even though computers play a massive role in everyday life of modern societies, older adults, and especially older women, are less likely to use a computer, and they perform fewer activities on it than younger adults. To get a better understanding of the factors affecting older adults' intention towards and usage of computers, the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Usage of Technology (UTAUT) was applied as part of a more extensive study with 52 users and non-users of computers, ranging in age from 50 to 90 years. The model covers various aspects of computer usage in old age via four key constructs, namely performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influences, and facilitating conditions, as well as the variables gender, age, experience, and voluntariness it. Interestingly, next to performance expectancy, facilitating conditions showed the strongest correlation with use as well as with intention. Effort expectancy showed no significant correlation with the intention of older adults to use a computer. PMID:22317258

Nägle, Sibylle; Schmidt, Ludger

2012-01-01

464

Recommended Immunizations for Adults 50+  

MedlinePLUS

... page please turn Javascript on. Health Screenings and Immunizations Recommended Immunizations For Adults 50+ The content in this section ... out more, visit How Vaccines Prevent Disease . Vaccines, Vaccinations, and Immunizations Understanding the difference between vaccines, vaccinations, ...

465

Vaccinations for Adults with Diabetes  

MedlinePLUS

Vaccinations for Adults with Diabetes The table below shows which vaccinations you should have to protect your health if ... sure you and your healthcare provider keep your vaccinations up to date. Vaccine Do you need it? ...

466

Hip Fractures among Older Adults  

MedlinePLUS

... MMWR 1996;45(41):877–83. Deprey SM, Descriptive analysis of fatal falls of older adults in ... for persons with and without hip fracture: a population-based study. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society ...

467

Near Vision Test for Adults  

MedlinePLUS

Near vision test for adults This test will check your close-up vision in each eye. Before you take this test, ... This test requires you to print the Near Vision Chart. The appearance of your printed chart may ...

468

Youths Transitioning as Adult Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter considers how transitions to adulthood have been historically represented and presents alternative ways of thinking about transitions to adulthood through the context of adult basic education programs.

Davis, C. Amelia

2014-01-01

469

Young Adults and Colon Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... hand corner of the player. Young Adults and Colon Cancer HealthDay January 28, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Colorectal Cancer Health Screening Transcript Colon cancer may be on the decline in older Americans, ...

470

Adult Stentless Laparoscopic Pyeloplasty  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives: Pyeloplasty, whether open or laparoscopic, has been the mainstay of treatment for ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO). A nonstented pyeloplasty has only been reported in the pediatric literature. Herein, to the best of our knowledge, we report the first published experience with laparoscopic stentless pyeloplasty (LSP) in the adult population. Methods: Patients with a normal contralateral kidney who underwent a laparoscopic pyeloplasty were included in this study. A dismembered pyeloplasty was performed without the placement of a ureteral stent. Functional Tc-99m MAG3 renal-scan data were compared with results at 4 weeks and 6 months postoperatively. Perioperative complications and long-term follow-up were prospectively gathered. Results: To date, 5 patients have undergone LSP with a mean follow-up of 15.7 months. Mean age and body mass index of this group were 42.8 years and 29.3 kg/m2, respectively. Mean operative time, estimated blood loss, and hospital stay were 196 minutes, 58 mL, 1.6 days, respectively. Three patients had right-sided UPJO, and 2 patients had left UPJO. No patient had undergone previous surgery for UPJO. All patients had a ureteral stent in place at the time of surgery. No intraoperative complications occurred. Only one patient complained of flank pain on POD1. No obstruction or urinary extravasation was seen on retrograde pyelography, but a ureteral stent was placed. During our follow-up, all patients had complete resolution of their symptoms. Postoperative renal scans demonstrated improved urinary drainage in all patients. Conclusion: Our initial experience suggests that in experienced hands, LSP may be an effective method for treating UPJO. PMID:17651549

Shalhav, Arieh L.; Mikhail, Albert A.; Orvieto, Marcelo A.; Gofrit, Ofer N.; Gerber, Glenn S.

2007-01-01

471

Tethered Cord Syndrome in Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  ¶?Background. The tethered cord syndrome (TCS) consists of an abnormally low conus medullaris tethered by a thickened filum terminale or\\u000a various forms of spinal dysraphism. The adult variant of the syndrome seems not to be as rare as once thought.\\u000a \\u000a ?Method. This study includes 11 patients with a TCS. Clinical, radiological findings and outcome were reviewed in these adult patients

K. M. Akay; Y. Er?ahin; Y. Çak?r

2000-01-01

472

Adult Stem and Progenitor Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The discovery of adult stem cells in most adult tissues is the basis of a number of clinical studies that are carried out, with therapeutic use of hematopoietic stem cells as a prime example. Intense scientific debate is still ongoing as to whether adult stem cells may have a greater plasticity than previously thought. Although cells with some features of embryonic stem cells that, among others, express Oct4, Nanog and SSEA1 are isolated from fresh tissue, it is not clear if the greater differentiation potential is acquired during cell culture. Moreover, adult more pluripotent cells do not have all pluripotent characteristics typical for embryonic stem cells. Recently, some elegant studies were published in which adult cells could be completely reprogrammed to embryonic stem cell-like cells by overexpression of some key transcription factors for pluripotency (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc). It will be interesting for the future to investigate the exact mechanisms underlying this reprogramming and whether similar transcription factor pathways are present and/or can be activated in adult more pluripotent stem cells.

Geraerts, Martine; Verfaillie, Catherine M.

473

Dealing with Disruptive Behavior of Adult Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The adult education literature on disruptive behavior of adult learners was reviewed and a survey on disruptive behavior of adult learners was conducted with adult educators. The findings are synthesized in a conceptual framework for understanding the types and causes of disruptive behavior, which fall into the categories of inattention,…

Dobmeier, Robert; Moran, Joseph

2008-01-01

474

Adult Education and Development, No. 47.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This serial issue contains a total of 26 articles grouped under five headings: "Adult Learning: A Key for the Twenty-First Century (Fifth International Conference on Adult Education (Confintea V))"; "Trends in Adult Education Policy" (Belanger); "Adult Education in Modern Times" (Geissler); "From Criticism to Constructiveness" (Torres); "An…

Adult Education and Development, 199