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1

Adult Learning Theories Closure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A student-centered nontraditional learning program was proposed to better prepare fire department military personnel in obtaining their 911 dispatch certification at a Florida military installation. Maintaining an adequate number of dispatched qualified military personnel, in addition to current civilian dispatchers at the same location, improves…

Baskas, Richard S.

2011-01-01

2

Applying Adult Learning and Development Theories to Educational Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to determine the degree of correlation that adult learning theories and adult developmental theories have with educational practice. Two adult learning theories, Malcolm Knowles' phase theories and Daniel Levinson's developmental theories, were researched to determine their relevance to three components of a nontraditional…

Baskas, Richard S.

2011-01-01

3

Game Engagement Theory and Adult Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the benefits of computer game-based learning is the ability of certain types of game to engage and motivate learners. However, theories of learning and engagement, particularly in the sphere of higher education, typically fail to consider gaming engagement theory. In this article, the author examines the principles of engagement from games…

Whitton, Nicola

2011-01-01

4

Simulation Methodology in Nursing Education and Adult Learning Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Simulation is often used in nursing education as a teaching methodology. Simulation is rooted in adult learning theory. Three learning theories, cognitive, social, and constructivist, explain how learners gain knowledge with simulation experiences. This article takes an in-depth look at each of these three theories as each relates to simulation.…

Rutherford-Hemming, Tonya

2012-01-01

5

Applying Adult Learning Theory through a Character Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to analyze the behavior of a character, Celie, in a movie, 'The Color Purple," through the lens of two adult learning theorists to determine the relationships the character has with each theory. The development and portrayal of characters in movies can be explained and understood by the analysis of adult learning

Baskas, Richard S.

2011-01-01

6

Adult Learning: Moving toward More Inclusive Theories and Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adult learning theories do not address the real learning needs of women, people of color, or working class learners. Adult educators should teach nondichotomous ways of knowing, acknowledge and foster alternative forms of knowing, construct a supportive environment, and teach with love. (SK)

Amstutz, Donna D.

1999-01-01

7

Adult Learning Theory: Applications to Non-Traditional College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adult learners that enter today's higher education community bring learning styles and life experiences that may either be critical foundations for future success or deeply entrenched beliefs that hinder learning in the academic environment. As adult learners enroll in their entry level courses, college instructors will need to realize that these…

Kenner, Cari; Weinerman, Jason

2011-01-01

8

Reshuffling the Puzzle Pieces: Connecting Adult Developmental Theory to Learning Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Defines learning disabilities and relates them to adult learning theory. Describes their impact on adults as they move through their developmental tasks. Compares biological and psychological models and discusses workplace accommodations, legal compliance, and suggestions for career counselors. Contains 60 references and a list of web resources.…

Price, Lynda; Patton, James

2002-01-01

9

Learning Theories & Their Application to Science Instruction for Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It has become apparent through the work of many researchers and practitioners that adults learn differently than their younger counterparts in the educational system. This is especially important to those educators teaching in colleges and universities in the sciences. Biology education in the post-secondary setting is inundated with teachers who…

Bass, Christa

2012-01-01

10

Can Adult Learning Theory Provide a Foundation for Human Resource Development?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem and the solution. The field of human resource development (HRD) has been viewed as being supported by three theoretical foundations—namely, economic, psychological, and system theories. Although contributions of adult learning theory have been long acknowledged, it is more important to recognize its unique role of incorporating three theoretical foundations and consequently providing a distinct foundation of HRD. By

Baiyin Yang

2004-01-01

11

Application of Theories, Principles and Methods of Adult Learning for Managers to Improve Workplace Reactions to Learning, Knowledge and Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this dissertation was to explore the concept that knowledge and application of theories, principles and methods of adult learning to teaching may be a core management competency needed for companies to improve employee reaction to learning, knowledge transfer and behavior as well as engagement, retention and profitability.…

Steier, E. Joseph, III

2010-01-01

12

Factors in Adult Learning and Instruction. Theory, Innovation, and Practice in Andragogy. No. 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication, the first in a series on theory, innovation, and practice in andragogy, is a reproduction of two papers first published in 1971 by Coolie Verner and Catherine V. Davison. The first paper in this booklet explores psychological factors in adult learning and instruction, while the second discusses physiological factors. In the five…

Adam, Felix, Ed.; Aker, George F., Ed.

13

Analyzing Principal Professional Development Practices through the Lens of Adult Learning Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study sought to identify current principal professional development practices in four school systems in Georgia and to examine them by applying the principles of adult learning theory. The cross-case analysis of principal professional development initiatives in four school districts revealed nine common practices: connecting…

Zepeda, Sally J.; Parylo, Oksana; Bengtson, Ed

2014-01-01

14

Aesthetic Learning Theory and the Faith Formation of Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Participation in the arts is a form of practical reason and as such has the potential to form and transform the faith of individuals. The findings from Katherine M. Douglass's 2011 study on the role of the arts in the faith lives of young adults provides examples of the transformative potential of the arts as they foster expression,…

Douglass, Katherine M.

2013-01-01

15

Media Analysis as Critical Reflexology in Exploring Adult Learning Theories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examining media artifacts as a learning method has received little attention in human resource development (HRD) despite it being a predominate form of information and influence in popular culture. As Giroux (2002) opines, media functions as a form of public pedagogy by offering situations and contexts through which viewers can vicariously…

Hutchins, Holly M.; Bierema, Laura

2013-01-01

16

Continuing Education in Athletic Training: An Alternative Approach Based on Adult Learning Theory  

PubMed Central

Objective: To offer an alternative perspective on current continuing education practices and to propose a model for facilitating continuing education in the athletic training workplace. Background: Professional knowledge can quickly become outdated, and the personal/professional contexts of allied medical fields such as athletic training are becoming increasingly more complex, making continuing education paramount. Adult learning theory suggests that individuals are self- directed, autonomous learners in nature and that experience is a rich source for learning, subsequently making the workplace a fruitful environment in which to engage in continuing education. Unfortunately, mandating continuing education may violate the voluntary nature of adult learning, making the practice questionable. Therefore, alternative aspects of continuing education may be helpful. Description: This article consists of a brief synthesis of related literature that offers an alternative perspective of continuing education and proposes a model for facilitating continuing education in the workplace. The model's foundation includes preparing an environment conducive to learning and then focuses on identifying learning needs, setting goals, implementing specific strategies to facilitate self-directed learning, and assessing leaming. Additionally, the model suggests that ongoing reflection is a key factor in enhancing the identification of learning needs, goals, and strategies. Advantages: The model may best be used by clinical coordinators, directors, and supervisors to better facilitate employee learning and subsequently improve patient care delivery. PMID:16558490

Pitney, William A.

1998-01-01

17

The Learning Theory Jungle  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article addresses the myriad of pedagogical and andragogical issues facing university educators in the student learning process. It briefly explores the proliferation of learning theories in an attempt to develop awareness among faculty who teach at the university/college levels that not all theories of learning apply to the adult learner. In…

Minter, Robert L.

2011-01-01

18

Examination of the teaching styles of nursing professional development specialists, part I: best practices in adult learning theory, curriculum development, and knowledge transfer.  

PubMed

The American Nurses Association advocates for nursing professional development (NPD) specialists to have an earned graduate degree, as well as educational and clinical expertise. However, many NPD specialists have limited exposure to adult learning theory. Limited exposure to adult learning theory may affect NPD educational practices, learning outcomes, organizational knowledge transfer, and subsequently, the professional development of the nurses they serve and quality of nursing care. An examination of current teaching practices may reveal opportunities for NPD specialists to enhance educational methods to promote learning, learning transfer, and organizational knowledge and excellence. This article, the first in a two-part series, examines best practices of adult learning theories, nursing professional development, curriculum design, and knowledge transfer. Part II details the results of a correlational study that examined the effects of four variables on the use of adult learning theory to guide curriculum development for NPD specialists in hospitals. PMID:24779716

Curran, Mary K

2014-05-01

19

Holistic Learning Theory and Implications for Human Resource Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem and the solution. The adult learning literature provides a number of concepts and theories of adult learning. No unifying theory of learning has emerged because of the complexity and diversity of the adult learning process. A recently developed holistic theory provides an integrative framework to examine some of the contemporary adult learning theories. Implications for human resource development

Baiyin Yang

2004-01-01

20

Examination of the teaching styles of nursing professional development specialists, part II: correlational study on teaching styles and use of adult learning theory.  

PubMed

This article, the second in a two-part series, details a correlational study that examined the effects of four variables (graduate degrees in nursing education, professional development training in adult learning theory, nursing professional development [NPD] certification, and NPD specialist experience) on the use of adult learning theory to guide curriculum development. Using the Principles of Adult Learning Scale, 114 NPD specialists tested the hypothesis that NPD specialists with graduate degrees in nursing education, professional development training in adult learning theory, NPD certification, and NPD experience would use higher levels of adult learning theory in their teaching practices to guide curriculum development than those without these attributes. This hypothesis was rejected as regression analysis revealed only one statistically significant predictor variable, NPD certification, influenced the use of adult learning theory. In addition, analysis revealed NPD specialists tended to support a teacher-centered rather than a learner-centered teaching style, indicating NPD educators are not using adult learning theory to guide teaching practices and curriculum development. PMID:25081125

Curran, Mary K

2014-08-01

21

Examination of the Teaching Styles of Nursing Professional Development Specialists, Part II: Correlational Study on Teaching Styles and Use of Adult Learning Theory.  

PubMed

This article, the second in a two-part series, details a correlational study that examined the effects of four variables (graduate degrees in nursing education, professional development training in adult learning theory, nursing professional development [NPD] certification, and NPD specialist experience) on the use of adult learning theory to guide curriculum development. Using the Principles of Adult Learning Scale, 114 NPD specialists tested the hypothesis that NPD specialists with graduate degrees in nursing education, professional development training in adult learning theory, NPD certification, and NPD experience would use higher levels of adult learning theory in their teaching practices to guide curriculum development than those without these attributes. This hypothesis was rejected as regression analysis revealed only one statistically significant predictor variable, NPD certification, influenced the use of adult learning theory. In addition, analysis revealed NPD specialists tended to support a teacher-centered rather than a learner-centered teaching style, indicating NPD educators are not using adult learning theory to guide teaching practices and curriculum development. J Contin Educ Nurs. 2014;45(8):xxx-xxx. PMID:25019255

Curran, Mary K

2014-07-16

22

Interdisciplinary Handbook of Adult Lifespan Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is divided into three parts: theories and models, learning in specific life contexts, and the influence of aging on learning. Chapters include: "Chaos Theory as a Framework for Understanding Adult Lifespan Learning" (John C. Cavanaugh, Lisa C. McGuire); "The Future Impact of the Communication Revolution" (Lynn Johnson); "The Educated…

Sinnott, Jan D., Ed.

23

Learning as Transformation: Critical Perspectives on a Theory in Progress. The Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stemming from a 1998 Columbia University conference on transformative learning, this 3-part book contains 12 articles that examine the concept of how adults learn to change ("transform") their frames of reference. The following are included in Part One: Developing Concepts of Transformative Learning: "Learning To Think Like an Adult: Core Concepts…

Mezirow, Jack, Ed.

24

Adult Learning Matters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adult Learners' Week--which is supported by the Department for Innovation, Universities and Skills and the European Social Fund, amongst a raft of other organisations--is all about raising demand for learning. At its core, the campaign is about encouraging under-represented groups--including low-skilled, unemployed and low-paid adults and those…

Thomson, Rachel

2009-01-01

25

Adult Learning Matters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Campaigning Alliance for Lifelong Learning is to lobby parliament for the restoration of the 1.5 million adult learning places lost over the past two years. The campaign has attracted supporters from an astonishingly wide range of backgrounds. In this article, Gordon Marsden, Caroline Biggins, Beth Walker, Mike Chaney, Peter Davies, Sian…

Adults Learning, 2009

2009-01-01

26

Learning Disabilities in Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines five factors which appear to contribute to learning disabilities among adult basic education (ABE) learners. While the research literature does not provide a comprehensive basis for describing how the disadvantaged learn, it does lead the authors to make eight helpful suggestions for the ABE teacher. (JDS)

Glass, J. Conrad, Jr.; Hoffman, Lee McGraw

1976-01-01

27

Adults Learning Mathematics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Adults Learning Mathematics (ALM) organization is "an international research forum bringing together researchers and practitioners in adult mathematics/numeracy teaching and learning in order to promote the learning of mathematics by adults." The site contains sections such as "For teachers", "For PhD students", and "For policy makers". The "For teachers" area includes links to the ALM newsletters and their resources, which include downloadable posters and factsheets. Moving along, the "For PhD students" area includes information for those doctoral students that are seeking to incorporate pedagogical techniques for teaching math to adults in their research. Additionally, the "For policy makers" area includes helpful documents such as "High stakes assessment: Assessing numeracy for Nursing in two recent projects".

28

Overcoming Alienation as the Practice of Adult Education: The Contribution of Erich Fromm to a Critical Theory of Adult Learning and Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Erich Fromm proposed that learning to penetrate ideological obfuscation and overcome the alienation it generates is the learning task of adulthood. He believed adult education would make people aware of ideological manipulation and prepare them for participatory democracy. His was a Marxist humanism aimed at the creation of democratic socialism.…

Brookfield, Stephen

2002-01-01

29

Cultural Influences on Adult Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five projects are reported that examined factors related to adult learning in nontraditional environments. "Conrad, Montana: A Community of Memories" (Janice Counter, Lynn Paul, and Gary Conti) reports on a group of adults who for over 40 years have been active in building a better community for friends, relatives, and themselves. A 17-item…

Conti, Gary J., Ed.; Fellenz, Robert A., Ed.

30

Travel and Adult Transformative Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This phenomenological research study examines the lived experience of individual adult transformation in the context of travel. Adults throughout history have experienced profound personal and perception changes as a result of significant travel events. Transformative learning occurs through experience, crisis, and reflection, all of which are…

Lindstrom, Steven K.

2011-01-01

31

Who Needs Learning Theory Anyway?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Looks at a variety of learning theories: andragogy, behaviorism, cognitivism, conditions of learning, Gestalt, and social learning. Addresses the difficulty of selecting an appropriate theory for training. (JOW)

Zemke, Ron

2002-01-01

32

Comparing Adult Learning Systems: An Emerging Political Economy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adult learning systems have come to be dominated by the view that the essential role of adult learning is to generate the high levels of skills deemed necessary for competitiveness and growth in the globalised economy. This 'education gospel' is underpinned by human capital theory (HCT) and its contemporary conceptualisation in terms of…

Rees, Gareth

2013-01-01

33

Learning for Economic Self-Sufficiency: Constructing Pedagogies of Hope among Low-Income, Low-Literate Adults. Adult Education Special Topics: Theory, Research and Practice in LifeLong Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a most timely volume addressing many of the connections among current fiscal and employment crises to adult education, Learning for Economic Self-Sufficiency highlights the problems and challenges that low-literate adults encounter in various environments. Moreover, this book presents strategies for addressing the chronic illiteracy among…

Alfred, Mary V., Ed.

2010-01-01

34

Reviewing the Evidence on How Adult Students Learn: An Examination of Knowles' Model of Andragogy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While there may be similarities between adults and children in how they learn (such as language, interaction and communication), many writers argue that adult learners are different from child learners in a number of ways. This article aims to review how adults learn through examining one particular theory of adult learning. Two conflicting…

McGrath, Valerie

2009-01-01

35

Is Adult Learning Demanding Enough?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a fascinating time for adult learning in the UK. With a plethora of reviews reaching report stage alongside ongoing discussion about funding, qualifications and quality and the review of post-16 planning and funding in Wales, there is a real sense that things are about to change after a decade of well-meant but often misfocused reform.…

Hughes, David

2012-01-01

36

Where Now for Adult Learning?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With 6 billion British pounds of public spending reductions already on the table, and far deeper cuts inevitable, what are the prospects for adult learning in the new Parliament? Some of the regular contributors of this journal were asked what they expected and what they would like to see. Ewart Keep warns that the coalition parties' commitments…

Keep, Ewart; Rogers, David; Hunt, Sally; Walden, Christopher; Fryer, Bob; Gorard, Stephen; Williams, Ceri; Jones, Wendy; Hartley, Ralph

2010-01-01

37

Overcoming Exclusion through Adult Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Strategies for overcoming exclusion through adult learning were identified through case studies of 19 initiatives in the following countries: Belgium; Mexico; the Netherlands; Norway; Portugal; and the United Kingdom. The study programs involved a diverse array of formal, nonformal, and informal public sector, community, and enterprise-based…

Nash, Ian; Walshe, John

38

Neurobiological Learning and Adult Literacy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document, which is designed for adult literacy practitioners, differentiates between the different types of literacy, explains the principles of neurobiological learning and their relationship to the development of literacy and numeracy skills, and presents a neurobiology-based technique of literacy instruction. The differences between…

Winters, Clyde A.

39

Barriers to Adult Learning: Bridging the Gap  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A fundamental aspect of adult education is engaging adults in becoming lifelong learners. More often than not, this requires removing barriers to learning, especially those relating to the actual organisational or institutional learning process. This article explores some of the main barriers to adult learning discussed in the literature and…

Falasca, Marina

2011-01-01

40

Learning How to Learn: Implications for Non Traditional Adult Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, learning how to learn for non traditional adult students is discussed with a focus on police officers and firefighters. Learning how to learn is particularly relevant for all returning non-traditional adults; however in the era of terrorism it is critical for the public safety officers returning to college after years of absence…

Tovar, Lynn A.

2008-01-01

41

Fundamentals of Adult Education: Issues and Practices for Lifelong Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains 20 papers on the fundamentals of adult education and foundations, practices, and issues for lifelong learning. The following papers are included: "The Metamorphoses of Andragogy" (James A. Draper); "Stages in the Development of Canadian Adult Education" (Gordon Selman); "Philosophical Considerations" (Mark Selman); "Theory

Poonwassie, Deo H., Ed.; Poonwassie, Anne, Ed.

42

Radicalizing Learning: Adult Education for a Just World  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book offers new readings of the theory, politics, policy, and practice of radical adult education and learning where people's lives are understood as complex and interrelated matters. Brookfield and Holst's poetics and deeply human prose sound rebellious; the authors confront some of the main radical trends in the field of adult education…

Brookfield, Stephen D.; Holst, John D.

2010-01-01

43

The Design of Online Learning Communities for Older Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the creation of SeniorSage, an eight week facilitated online learning community for older adult volunteers in a Florida learning center. Discusses how members were prepared to participate in the community, explains the instructional design theory that guided the development of SeniorSage, and recommends future research. (Author/LRW)

Snyder, Marti M.

2002-01-01

44

Adult Learning and the Future of Work.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains 15 papers: "Introduction" (Madhu Singh); "Adult Learning and the Transformation of Work" (Paul Belanger); "Future of Work and Adult Learning" (Ettore Gelpi); "The Obligation of Education in the Face of Globalisation" (Nicole Arnaud); "Lifelong Learning and Vocational Education and Training: A Teacher's and Trade Union View"…

Singh, Madhu, Ed.

45

Adults Learning in Pre-schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The learning that parents accomplish through informal involvement in running preschool learning groups was examined through a survey of adults who were actively involved in a Pre-School Learning Alliance program in 1 of 10 locations throughout England. Of the 632 adults contacted, 311 (nearly 50%) completed questionnaires. Approximately 60…

McGivney, Veronica

46

Zombies, Cyborgs, and other Labor Organizers: An Introduction to Representations of Adult Learning Theories and HRD in Popular Culture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Too often, educators, researchers, and practitioners in the fields of adult education and human resource development rely on traditional curricular materials and an academic body of knowledge for teaching, evaluating, and training adults. This assumes a coherent body of prior knowledge, assumptions, worldviews, and experiences in their students…

Wright, Robin Redmon

2013-01-01

47

Adult Literacy, Learning Identities and Pedagogic Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the relationship between persistence in adult literacy and numeracy programs, changes in the participants' attitudes to engaging in learning and pedagogic practices using data from eight Scottish literacy education organizations. It argues that literacy learning can act as a resource that enables vulnerable adults to change…

Crowther, Jim; Maclachlan, Kathy; Tett, Lyn

2010-01-01

48

Rhizoactivity: Toward a Postmodern Theory of Lifelong Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the loss of certainty in the age of postmodernism is questioning knowledge production in general, the emerging discourse of lifelong learning demands a different theory of adult learning in particular. This article aims to offer a conceptual tool for describing learning in adulthood in terms of postmodern and lifelong learning conditions.…

Kang, Dae Joong

2007-01-01

49

Physical Criteria for Adult Learning Environments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development of learning environments especially for adults has been neglected and research in planning such environments is fragmented and minimal. There is general agreement that facilities for adults should have an aura of adulthood to contribute to an adult's feeling of ease, confidence, and capability; that they should be flexible in room…

White, Sally

50

Drosophila adult olfactory shock learning.  

PubMed

Drosophila have been used in classical conditioning experiments for over 40 years, thus greatly facilitating our understanding of memory, including the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms involved in cognitive diseases. Learning and memory can be assayed in larvae to study the effect of neurodevelopmental genes and in flies to measure the contribution of adult plasticity genes. Furthermore, the short lifespan of Drosophila facilitates the analysis of genes mediating age-related memory impairment. The availability of many inducible promoters that subdivide the Drosophila nervous system makes it possible to determine when and where a gene of interest is required for normal memory as well as relay of different aspects of the reinforcement signal. Studying memory in adult Drosophila allows for a detailed analysis of the behavior and circuitry involved and a measurement of long-term memory. The length of the adult stage accommodates longer-term genetic, behavioral, dietary and pharmacological manipulations of memory, in addition to determining the effect of aging and neurodegenerative disease on memory. Classical conditioning is induced by the simultaneous presentation of a neutral odor cue (conditioned stimulus, CS(+)) and a reinforcement stimulus, e.g., an electric shock or sucrose, (unconditioned stimulus, US), that become associated with one another by the animal. A second conditioned stimulus (CS(-)) is subsequently presented without the US. During the testing phase, Drosophila are simultaneously presented with CS+ and CS- odors. After the Drosophila are provided time to choose between the odors, the distribution of the animals is recorded. This procedure allows associative aversive or appetitive conditioning to be reliably measured without a bias introduced by the innate preference for either of the conditioned stimuli. Various control experiments are also performed to test whether all genotypes respond normally to odor and reinforcement alone. PMID:25145496

Malik, Bilal R; Hodge, James J L

2014-01-01

51

Psychology and Adult Learning. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book provides a critical account of the psychological theories that have informed contemporary adult education theory and practice. Chapter 1 discusses the importance of balancing description, critique, and comments on each theory's influence on adult education and the need to understand psychological development throughout the life span. The…

Tennant, Mark

52

A Phenomenological Study of Learning Processes at Work: Confirming, Extending, and Challenging Holistic Learning Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Holistic learning theory (Yang, 2003) identified explicit, implicit, and emancipatory knowledge facets in learning. A phenomenological study of how participants' experienced interactions between knowledge facets showed the facets expressed, informed, changed, and guided one another. The complexity of learning and the role of spirituality in learning were explored. In adult education and human resource development literature, spirituality is discussed in

Suzanne J. Gallagher

53

Organizational Learning Theory in Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The paper's purposes are to establish organizational learning theory as evolving from the theoretical and empirical study of organizations and to build grounded theory explaining organizational learning in schools. Design/methodology/approach: Implementation of instructional technology as a process of organizational learning was explored…

Fauske, Janice R.; Raybould, Rebecca

2005-01-01

54

RSMAS TA Training: Basic Learning Theories  

E-print Network

of others. Model: Attention, Retention, Reproduction, Motivation Vygotsky's Social Development Theory Learning Theories Bandura's Social Learning Theory People learn from observation, imitation, and modeling People learn through social interaction which precedes mental development. Model: More Knowledgeable

Miami, University of

55

Facilitating Adult Learning Unit Preparation Materials and  

E-print Network

** Available at FNEC website, http://www.fnec.cornell.edu/ Equipment needed CD Player with music Timer General -- Adult learner visual, flip chart papers for each of six key concepts of adult learning, CD player for task 5C, CD player and music Copyright 2007. Do not reproduce or distribute without author permission

56

Conceptual Learning: From Mollusks to Adult Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A brief analysis of conceptual learning in adult education and some philosophical implications for the practitioner are presented. This review traces the intellectual and political growth in the adult education movement. It lists recent seminal studies in the field and presents a series of relatively non-technical interpretations. The analysis of…

Carlson, Robert A.

57

Learning Disabled Adults in Postsecondary Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Options in postsecondary education for adults and young adults with learning disabilities (LD) are examined. An introductory section considers characteristics of LD that present special problems, including difficulties in reading, writing, spelling, and/or using numerical concepts; distractability; difficulties with understanding or following…

Hartman, Rhona C.; Krulwich, Maxine T.

58

Unlock a Brighter Future. Adult Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide, which is intended for adults in the United Kingdom, contains information about the educational and employment opportunities available to them. The following topics are discussed in the guide's 11 sections: assessing one's own learning skills and identifying available learning opportunities; locating sources of educational and career…

Department for Education and Employment, London (England).

59

Adult Learning Principles and Presentation Pearls  

PubMed Central

Although lectures are one of the most common methods of knowledge transfer in medicine, their effectiveness has been questioned. Passive formats, lack of relevance and disconnection from the student's needs are some of the arguments supporting this apparent lack of efficacy. However, many authors have suggested that applying adult learning principles (i.e., relevance, congruence with student's needs, interactivity, connection to student's previous knowledge and experience) to this method increases learning by lectures and the effectiveness of lectures. This paper presents recommendations for applying adult learning principles during planning, creation and development of lectures to make them more effective. PMID:24791101

Palis, Ana G.; Quiros, Peter A.

2014-01-01

60

The Three-Part Harmony of Adult Learning, Critical Thinking, and Decision-Making  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adult learning, critical thinking, and decision-making are fields that receive attention individually, although they are interspersed with elements of each other's theories and philosophies. In addressing adult learning precepts, it is essential to include critical thinking and decision-making. One without the other creates weakness; all must be…

Moore, Kyle

2010-01-01

61

Verbal and novel multisensory associative learning in adults  

PubMed Central

To date, few studies have focused on the behavioural differences between the learning of multisensory auditory-visual and intra-modal associations. More specifically, the relative benefits of novel auditory-visual and verbal-visual associations for learning have not been directly compared. In Experiment 1, 20 adult volunteers completed three paired associate learning tasks: non-verbal novel auditory-visual (novel-AV), verbal-visual (verbal-AV; using pseudowords), and visual-visual (shape-VV). Participants were directed to make a motor response to matching novel and arbitrarily related stimulus pairs. Feedback was provided to facilitate trial and error learning. The results of Signal Detection Theory analyses suggested a multisensory enhancement of learning, with significantly higher discriminability measures (d-prime) in both the novel-AV and verbal-AV tasks than the shape-VV task. Motor reaction times were also significantly faster during the verbal-AV task than during the non-verbal learning tasks.  Experiment 2 (n = 12) used a forced-choice discrimination paradigm to assess whether a difference in unisensory stimulus discriminability could account for the learning trends in Experiment 1. Participants were significantly slower at discriminating unisensory pseudowords than the novel sounds and visual shapes, which was notable given that these stimuli produced superior learning. Together the findings suggest that verbal information has an added enhancing effect on multisensory associative learning in adults PMID:24627770

Crewther, Sheila G

2013-01-01

62

Machine Learning Srihari Information Theory  

E-print Network

and Shortest Coding Length · Noiseless coding theorem of Shannon ­ Entropy is a lower bound on number of bits theory · Entropy is average amount of information needed to specify state of a random variable · ConceptMachine Learning Srihari 1 Information Theory Sargur N. Srihari #12;Machine Learning

63

Adult Learning in Educational Tourism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores notions of learning in the niche market sector of educational tourism, with a focus on organised recreational tours that promote a structured learning experience as a key feature. It analyses the qualitative findings of surveys and interviews with a cross-section of educational tourism providers in Australia, their…

Pitman, Tim; Broomhall, Sue; McEwan, Joanne; Majocha, Elzbieta

2010-01-01

64

Implications of Adult Learning Characteristics and Learning Styles for the Design of Software Documentation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on the results of research concerning the characteristics of adults as learners and theory of individual learning styles, suggests that software documentation should be organized with a flexible format, and with content that relates each piece of software to the user's relevant past experience. (SKC)

Lieberman, Jay

1987-01-01

65

E-Learning Implications for Adult Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

If a few decades ago, "the education received in school could be in most of the cases enough to go with for the rest of one's entire life," today the situation has changed dramatically. The individual has to be prepared for a new type of life and training, namely lifelong learning. The individual's survival in society could…

Criu, Roxana; Ceobanu, Ciprian

2013-01-01

66

A Theory Of Learning Classification Rules  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main contributions of this thesis are a Bayesian theory of learning classification rules, theunification and comparison of this theory with some previous theories of learning, and two extensiveapplications of the theory to the problems of learning class probability trees and bounding errorwhen learning logical rules.The thesis is motivated by considering some current research issues in machine learning such asbias,

Wray Lindsay Buntine

1992-01-01

67

Applying adult learning practices in medical education.  

PubMed

The application of the best practices of teaching adults to the education of adults in medical education settings is important in the process of transforming learners to become and remain effective physicians. Medical education at all levels should be designed to equip physicians with the knowledge, clinical skills, and professionalism that are required to deliver quality patient care. The ultimate outcome is the health of the patient and the health status of the society. In the translational science of medical education, improved patient outcomes linked directly to educational events are the ultimate goal and are best defined by rigorous medical education research efforts. To best develop faculty, the same principles of adult education and teaching adults apply. In a systematic review of faculty development initiatives designed to improve teaching effectiveness in medical education, the use of experiential learning, feedback, effective relationships with peers, and diverse educational methods were found to be most important in the success of these programs. In this article, we present 5 examples of applying the best practices in teaching adults and utilizing the emerging understanding of the neurobiology of learning in teaching students, trainees, and practitioners. These include (1) use of standardized patients to develop communication skills, (2) use of online quizzes to assess knowledge and aid self-directed learning, (3) use of practice sessions and video clips to enhance significant learning of teaching skills, (4) use of case-based discussions to develop professionalism concepts and skills, and (5) use of the American Academy of Pediatrics PediaLink as a model for individualized learner-directed online learning. These examples highlight how experiential leaning, providing valuable feedback, opportunities for practice, and stimulation of self-directed learning can be utilized as medical education continues its dynamic transformation in the years ahead. PMID:24981666

Reed, Suzanne; Shell, Richard; Kassis, Karyn; Tartaglia, Kimberly; Wallihan, Rebecca; Smith, Keely; Hurtubise, Larry; Martin, Bryan; Ledford, Cynthia; Bradbury, Scott; Bernstein, Henry Hank; Mahan, John D

2014-07-01

68

Museums and Adults Learning: Perspectives from Europe.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains 28 papers presenting perspectives from Europe on museums and adult learning. The papers, each of which is devoted to a specific country, examine topics such as the following: further education and inservice training; programs for unemployed individuals; lectures and open days; elderly visitors; immigrants; refugees; disabled…

Chadwick, Alan, Ed.; Stannett, Annette, Ed.

69

Adult Learning and the New Austerity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The spending review brought a promise to protect adult and community learning as well as swingeing cuts to further and higher education and local government. In this article, some of the key players--Lynne Sedgmore, Christopher Brooks, Graham Hoyle, Maggie Galliers, Louise Hazel, Richard Bolsin, Maggi Dawson, Ruth Bond, Stuart Etherington, Brendan…

Adults Learning, 2010

2010-01-01

70

A neuropsychological theory of multiple systems in category learning.  

PubMed

A neuropsychological theory is proposed that assumes category learning is a competition between separate verbal and implicit (i.e., procedural-learning-based) categorization systems. The theory assumes that the caudate nucleus is an important component of the implicit system and that the anterior cingulate and prefrontal cortices are critical to the verbal system. In addition to making predictions for normal human adults, the theory makes specific predictions for children, elderly people, and patients suffering from Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, major depression, amnesia, or lesions of the prefrontal cortex. Two separate formal descriptions of the theory are also provided. One describes trial-by-trial learning, and the other describes global dynamics. The theory is tested on published neuropsychological data and on category learning data with normal adults. PMID:9697427

Ashby, F G; Alfonso-Reese, L A; Turken, A U; Waldron, E M

1998-07-01

71

Learning careers and the social space: exploring the fragile identities of adult returners in the new further education  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the concept of 'learning careers' as a way of understanding the processes through which adults return to education. It particularly considers the ways in which adults from groups who are at risk of social exclusion develop identities that enable them to engage with learning. The concept of learning careers is derived from symbolic interactionist theory, with its

Jim Gallacher; Beth Crossan; John Field; Barbara Merrill

2002-01-01

72

Integrating Adult Learning and Technologies for Effective Education: Strategic Approaches  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As adult learners and educators pioneer the use of technology in the new century, attention has been focused on developing strategic approaches to effectively integrate adult learning and technology in different learning environments. "Integrating Adult Learning and Technologies for Effective Education: Strategic Approaches" provides innovative…

Wang, Victor C. X.

2010-01-01

73

Adult Learning in Health and Safety: Some Issues and Approaches.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document, which was developed for presentation at a seminar on adult learning and safety, examines approaches to occupational safety and health (OSH) learning/training in the workplace. Section 1 examines selected factors affecting adults' learning in workplace OSH programs. The principal dimensions along which individual adult learners will…

O Fathaigh, Mairtin

74

The Construction of a Magnitude Estimation Scale of Adult Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The psychophysical technique of magnitude estimation was used to develop a ratio scale of subjective estimations of adult learning in various adult education activities. A rank order of 26 learning activities and the magnitude estimations in "units of learning" that are expected to occur in each activity were obtained from 146 adult education…

Blunt, Adrian

75

Managing Community Projects for Change. NIACE Lifelines in Adult Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents practical advice to help managers of adult learning projects in communities across the United Kingdom manage their community projects for change. The following topics are discussed in sections 1-12: (1) the benefits of adult learning projects; (2) characteristics of adult learning projects and quality assurance mechanisms;…

Eldred, Jan

76

Adult Education; Theory and Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A course organized by the United Kingdom and the University of Liverpool aimed at reviewing research undertaken in European countries, and examining its significance for the practice of adult education in different countries and the possibilities of cooperative action. The three main areas of research identified were: the approach to adult

Council for Cultural Cooperation, Strasbourg (France).

77

A Grounded Theory of Adult Student Persistence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This grounded theory study investigates adult student persistence at a community college. Student persistence in college is a prerequisite for degree achievement, which correlates with higher earnings and overall better quality of life. Persistence rates remain low for adult students, who combine their college endeavors with responsibilities to…

Capps, Rosemary

2010-01-01

78

Approximation in Learning Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses some problems of supervised learning in the setting formulated by Cucker and Smale. Supervised learning,\\u000a or learning-from-examples, refers to a process that builds on the base of available data of inputs xi and outputs yi, i = 1,...,m, a function that best represents the relation between the inputs x ? X and the corresponding outputs y ?

V. N. Temlyakov

2008-01-01

79

Domain theory in learning processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present applications of domain theory in stochastic learning automata and in neural nets. We show that a basic probabilistic algorithm, the so-called linear reward-penalty scheme, for the binary-state stochastic learning automata can be modelled by the dynamics of an iterated function system on a probabilistic power domain and we compute the expected value of any continuous function in the

Abbas Edalat

1995-01-01

80

The Studio Experience at the University of Georgia: An Example of Constructionist Learning for Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Studio curriculum in the Learning, Design, and Technology (formerly Instructional Technology) program at a large research-extensive university in the southeastern U.S. represents a deliberate application of contemporary theory of how adults learn complex information in ill-structured domains. The Studio curriculum, part of a graduate program…

Clinton, Gregory; Rieber, Lloyd P.

2010-01-01

81

The Impact of Team-Based Learning's Readiness Assurance Process on Virtually Isolated Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of the readiness assurance process of team-based learning (TBL) in virtually isolated settings. Many Internet sites offer courses for adults to use on their own without access to mentors or other learners. However, educational theory suggests that people learn better with others than by…

Barclay, Matthew W.

2011-01-01

82

An Examination of the Self-Directed Learning Practices of ESL Adult Language Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Self-directed learning is one of the preeminent theories in the field of adult education. This study explored how English as a Second Language learners directed their own learning outside of the formal classroom through the use of practices that potentially advance their English language proficiency. Results from a survey of over 400 ESL students…

Grover, Kendra S.; Miller, Michael T.; Swearingen, Brent; Wood, Nancy

2014-01-01

83

Adults' Learning Motivation: Expectancy of Success, Value, and the Role of Affective Memories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study tested the applicability of expectancy-value theory to adults' learning motivation. Motivation was measured as the anticipated reaction (AR) of German students (N = 300) to receiving their instructions in English as a new learning opportunity. We used structural equation modeling to test our hypotheses. Expectancies of success…

Gorges, Julia; Kandler, Christian

2012-01-01

84

Improving Adult Learning and Professional Development in a Post-Conflict Area: The Case of Cambodia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

All over the world, international development organizations try to increase professional capacity of local staff. These attempts are thought to fail because of financial constraints, but this is just part of the story. Professional development and adult learning theories approach learning from a western perspective, while many developing societies…

Berkvens, Jan B. Y.; Kalyanpur, Maya; Kuiper, Wilmad; Van den Akker, Jan

2012-01-01

85

Learning Disabled Adults in Postsecondary Education. 1987 Edition: Update.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The fact sheet provides basic information on postsecondary educational services for learning disabled (LD) adults. The handicap of learning disability is described and a brief checklist of typical characteristics of the learning disabled adult is provided. A discussion of options after high school precedes information on types of programs for LD…

Brill, Jay

86

Screening for Learning Disabilities in Adult Basic Education Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The extant literature offers little to describe the processes for screening students in adult basic education (ABE) programs for potential learning disabilities, referring adult students for diagnostic assessment, or barriers to obtaining diagnostic assessment for a learning disability. Without current documentation of a learning disability, ABE…

Reynolds, Sharon L.; Johnson, Jerry D.; Salzman, James A.

2012-01-01

87

Thematic Review on Adult Learning: Denmark. Background Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Denmark has a long tradition of adult learning with roots that go back to the 19th century folk high school movement. Since the late 1950s, an independent adult vocational education and training (VET) system has developed. In the last decades, attempts have been made to link adult VET systems with adult liberal education. More recently,…

Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

88

Adult Literacy Learning and Computer Technology: Features of Effective Computer-Assisted Learning Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Computer-assisted learning (CAL) can be used for adults functioning at any academic or grade level. In adult basic education (ABE), CAL can promote greater learning effectiveness and faster progress, concurrent learning and experience with computer literacy skills, privacy, and motivation. Adults who face barriers (financial, geographic, personal,…

Fahy, Patrick J.

89

Practice Theory in Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ortega (2011) has argued that second language acquisition is stronger and better after the social turn. Of the post-cognitive approaches she reviews, several focus on the social context of language learning rather than on language as the central phenomenon. In this article, we present Practice Theory not as yet another approach to language…

Young, Richard F.; Astarita, Alice C.

2013-01-01

90

Theories of Learning for the Workplace: Building Blocks for Training and Professional Development Programs. Routledge Psychology in Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Workplace and professional learning, lifelong learning, adult learning, learning in different contexts have become of more and more interest and now dominate all aspects of 21st century life. Learning is no longer about "storing and recall" but "development and flow". "Theories of Learning in the Workplace" offers fascinating overviews into some…

Dochy, Filip; Gijbels, David; Segers, Mien; Van den Bossche, Piet

2011-01-01

91

Critical Race Theory and Adult Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Critical race theory (CRT) was developed to examine the persistence of racism. This literature review attempts to understand CRT as it has been applied in related fields such as higher education and possible reasons for its limited application in adult education theorizing about race and racism. This analysis of CRT is framed against a backdrop of…

Closson, Rosemary B.

2010-01-01

92

Visual word learning in adults with dyslexia  

PubMed Central

We investigated word learning in university and college students with a diagnosis of dyslexia and in typically-reading controls. Participants read aloud short (4-letter) and longer (7-letter) nonwords as quickly as possible. The nonwords were repeated across 10 blocks, using a different random order in each block. Participants returned 7 days later and repeated the experiment. Accuracy was high in both groups. The dyslexics were substantially slower than the controls at reading the nonwords throughout the experiment. They also showed a larger length effect, indicating less effective decoding skills. Learning was demonstrated by faster reading of the nonwords across repeated presentations and by a reduction in the difference in reading speeds between shorter and longer nonwords. The dyslexics required more presentations of the nonwords before the length effect became non-significant, only showing convergence in reaction times between shorter and longer items in the second testing session where controls achieved convergence part-way through the first session. Participants also completed a psychological test battery assessing reading and spelling, vocabulary, phonological awareness, working memory, nonverbal ability and motor speed. The dyslexics performed at a similar level to the controls on nonverbal ability but significantly less well on all the other measures. Regression analyses found that decoding ability, measured as the speed of reading aloud nonwords when they were presented for the first time, was predicted by a composite of word reading and spelling scores (“literacy”). Word learning was assessed in terms of the improvement in naming speeds over 10 blocks of training. Learning was predicted by vocabulary and working memory scores, but not by literacy, phonological awareness, nonverbal ability or motor speed. The results show that young dyslexic adults have problems both in pronouncing novel words and in learning new written words. PMID:24834044

Kwok, Rosa K. W.; Ellis, Andrew W.

2014-01-01

93

Theory of Mind in Adults with HFA and Asperger Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Theory of mind was assessed in 32 adults with HFA, 29 adults with Asperger syndrome and 32 neurotypical adults. The HFA and Asperger syndrome groups were impaired in performance of the Strange stories test and the Faux-pas test and reported more theory of mind problems than the neurotypical adults. The three groups did not differ in performance of…

Spek, Annelies A.; Scholte, Evert M.; Van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina A.

2010-01-01

94

Cognitive Learning Applied to Older Adult Learners and Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article addresses the needs of older adults learning computer skills and the place of technology, especially the computer, in enhancing their lives. A model is discussed that illuminates the process used by older adults to learn computer skills. The model may be used to analyze and provide specific aid for common difficulties of the aged.…

Chaffin, Amy J.; Harlow, Steven D.

2005-01-01

95

Adult Children of Alcoholic Parents: Their Roles and Learning Styles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When children are raised in an environment where alcoholism is prominent, certain dysfunctional responses are learned as a way to cope with the challenge of that environment. This study was conducted to examine the learning styles of adult children of alcoholics. Subjects were college freshmen and self-identified adult children of alcoholics…

Mucowski, Richard; Hayden, Robert R.

96

Adult Participation in Lifelong Learning Activities in California.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined adult participation in lifelong learning activities in California. During the project, 354 telephone interviews were conducted with adults in nine cities in California. About 42 percent of those interviewed had participated in at least one course, class, or other organized learning activity during the previous year. As compared to…

Rose, Clare; Graesser, Cheryl C.

97

Statistical Learning Theory Machine Learning Summer School, Kyoto, Japan  

E-print Network

Statistical Learning Theory Machine Learning Summer School, Kyoto, Japan Alexander (Sasha) Rakhlin University of Pennsylvania, The Wharton School Penn Research in Machine Learning (PRiML) August 27-28, 2012 1 the topic of a new article. 6 / 130 #12;Why Machine Learning? Impossible to hard-code all the knowledge

Rakhlin, Alexander "Sasha"

98

Adult Education and Lifelong Learning: New Developments in Russia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines effects of social and economic change on adult education and lifelong learning in postcommunist Russia. Discusses the history of Russian adult education, educational policy changes in the 1990s, establishment of the first Open University and a network of adult-education centers, and the conflict between market-oriented objectives and…

Zajda, Joseph

1999-01-01

99

Wisdom, the Body, and Adult Learning: Insights from Neuroscience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In adult education, there has recently been a recognition of the body's role in adult learning. Attention to neuroscience is somewhat limited, though is emerging. These two perspectives are not integrated. With this article, the author argues that adult education must look to science to achieve a deeper understanding of the evolving…

Swartz, Ann L.

2011-01-01

100

Adult Learning Methods: A Guide for Effective Instruction. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains 21 papers devoted to understanding and facilitating adult learning. After "Foreword to the Second Edition" (Malcolm S. Knowles) and other introductory materials, the papers are: "Becoming an Effective Teacher of Adults" (Michael W. Galbraith); "Understanding Adult Learners" (Huey B. Long); "Identifying Your Philosophical…

Galbraith, Michael W., Ed.

101

Reviewing and Critiquing Computer Learning and Usage among Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By searching the keywords of "older adult" and "computer" in ERIC, Academic Search Premier, and PsycINFO, this study reviewed 70 studies published after 1990 that address older adults' computer learning and usage. This study revealed 5 prominent themes among reviewed literature: (a) motivations and barriers of older adults' usage of computers, (b)…

Kim, Young Sek

2008-01-01

102

Learning dynamics Evolutionary game theory and learning dynamics  

E-print Network

6Thursday 25 October 2012 Conditioning Scene from the Big Bang Theory (S03E03,The Gothowitz Deviation) © Tom Lenaerts, 2010 7Thursday 25 October 2012 Conditioning Scene from the Big Bang Theory (S03EINFO-F-409 Learning dynamics Evolutionary game theory and learning dynamics T. Lenaerts MAP, MLG

Steels, Luc

103

Sleep modulates word-pair learning but not motor sequence learning in healthy older adults  

E-print Network

[SWS]-rich) sleep than late-night (rapid eye move- ment [REM]-rich) sleep. Middle-aged adults showedSleep modulates word-pair learning but not motor sequence learning in healthy older adults Jessica Sleep benefits memory across a range of tasks for young adults. However, remarkably little is known

Ivry, Rich

104

Learning with the Arts: What Opportunities Are There for Work-Related Adult Learning?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What can arts-based learning offer to adult, work-related education? A study was undertaken that explored the benefits of learning with the arts for professional development of an adult learner in Australia. The individual experiences of nine adults who participated in arts-based workshops to build work-related skills were examined using the…

Manning, Claire; Verenikina, Irina; Brown, Ian

2010-01-01

105

Learning to Achieve: A Review of the Research Literature on Serving Adults with Learning Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Findings from "Learning to Achieve: A Review of the Research Literature on Serving Adults With Learning Disabilities" will inform a new professional development program to be offered to practitioners and others working with adults with learning disabilities (LD). The six topics covered in the review--assessment, English language learners,…

Taymans, Juliana M.; Swanson, H. Lee; Schwarz, Robin L.; Gregg, Noel; Hock, Michael; Gerber, Paul J.

2009-01-01

106

Outcomes of Adult Learning: Taking the Debate Forward.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The four papers in this collection are intended to stimulate debate in the adult education sector and to set the agenda for further development work. "Learning Outcomes: Towards a Synthesis of Progress" (Peter Lavender) provides a summary of recent efforts to identify, record, and value learning that does not lead to qualifications. "Learning

Jones, Huw, Ed.; Mace, Jackie, Ed.

107

THEORY OF CONFORMIST SOCIAL LEARNING Kimmo Eriksson  

E-print Network

THEORY OF CONFORMIST SOCIAL LEARNING Kimmo Eriksson School of Education, Culture and Communication Bias Definition Within theories of animal behavior and cultural evolution, social learning or social of cultural variants among social learners will not change in any systematic way. Theories of conformist

108

Braided Stories and Bricolaged Symbols: Critical Reflection and Transformative Learning Theory for Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper I make the case that transformative learning theory, a specific adult learning theory, and an arts-informed research method have important value for teacher professional practice and teacher education. I refer to two phases of a study involving women who have immigrated to Maritime Canada and were teachers in their countries of…

Brigham, Susan Mary

2011-01-01

109

The Relationships of Learning Style Balance and Learning Dimensions to Self-Directed Learning Propensity among Adult Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships of learning style characteristics to self-directed learning propensity among adult learners. The learning style characteristics investigated were learning style balance as measured by a scoring method developed by Mainemelis, Boyatzis, and Kolb (2002) and learning style dimensions as…

Hutto, Sarah Tullos

2009-01-01

110

Learning Theory and Epistemology Kevin T. Kelly  

E-print Network

Learning Theory and Epistemology Kevin T. Kelly Department of Philosophy Carnegie Mellon University psychological and epistemological issues, but retains its own, distinct emphasis and character. Reliability

Andrews, Peter B.

111

Practice of Adult Education--Older Adults, Tourism, and Learning in Yellowstone  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to present a program of learning for older adults in a national park. Because of the growing trend of tourism among retirees this learning during leisure is gaining prominence. The paper brings together the concepts of aging, self-directed learning, and tourism and leisure. In addition this paper presents a…

Roberson, Donald N., Jr.

2005-01-01

112

Exploring the Icebergs of Adult Learning: Findings of the First Canadian Survey of Informal Learning Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of 1,562 Canadian adults found that most are spending more time in learning, especially informal learning through employment, community service, and household work. Findings should be used to shape education policy and practice. (SK)

Livingstone, D. W.

1999-01-01

113

The Adult Learner. The Definitive Classic in Adult Education and Human Resource Development. Fifth Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book examines the core principles of adult learning and the roots of andragogy, advances in adult learning, and practice in adult learning. The following are among the topics discussed in the book's 17 chapters: importance of learning theory; theories of learning (concept of part and whole models of development, theories based on elemental…

Knowles, Malcolm S.; Holton, Elwood F., III; Swanson, Richard A.

114

Active-Passive-Intuitive Learning Theory: A Unified Theory of Learning and Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper addresses many theories of learning and human development which are very similar with regards as to how they suggest learning occurs. The differences in most of the theories exist in how they treat the development of the learner compared to methods of teaching. Most of the major learning theories taught to educators today are based on…

Sigette, Tyson

2009-01-01

115

Environmental sustainability: Understanding young adults' learning, thinking, and actions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis explores the ways in which young-adults' environmental learning and experiences influence their decision to live sustainably. In particular, this thesis focuses on young adults' environmental and sustainability learning. It elaborates on young peoples' views about environmental and sustainability issues, such as climate change, the sources for their learning about these issues, and how young adults' learning encounters, in turn, affect their actions toward environmental protection and decision-making. Through a series of in-depth individual interviews with 18 young adults from three universities in southeastern Ontario, this qualitative study provides in-depth insight into young adults' understanding, learning experiences, and actions in relation to environmental and sustainability issues. Employing a Contextual Model of Learning framework the narratives of the young adults in this study are analyzed and discussed within three overlapping environmental learning contexts: personal, sociocultural, and physical settings. This framework allows for an examination of the complex interactions and relationships that shape how and where environmental learning occurs. The findings in this study suggest that the three overlapping learning contexts, that is the personal, sociocultural, and physical play an important role in shaping young adults' learning about environmental and sustainability issues. The data reveal that despite the unavailability or near-absence of environmental studies and education within the formal school curriculum (particularly at the elementary and high school levels), the young adults rely on other locations for learning, such as the internet, environmental non-governmental organisations (ENGOs), television, and family. In light of this, the research participants suggest the re-introduction of environmental programs and content in the school curriculum. Finally, the results of this study demonstrate the centrality of knowledge and experience in relation to environmental and sustainability issues in the actions and thoughts of the young adult research participants. This study makes an important contribution to the field of environmental and sustainability education by demonstrating the critical role of learning in a knowledge society. It illuminates the implications of various learning contexts for a sustainable global environment and future. Furthermore, it provides insight into the views of young adults regarding the future of the global environment and current sustainability initiatives in a world that faces ever-greater challenges.

Kola-Olusanya, Anthony O.

116

Language lateralization shifts with learning by adults.  

PubMed

For the majority of the population, language is a left-hemisphere lateralized function. During childhood, a pattern of increasing left lateralization for language has been described in brain imaging studies, suggesting that this trait develops. This development could reflect change due to brain maturation or change due to skill acquisition, given that children acquire and refine language skills as they mature. We test the possibility that skill acquisition, independent of age-associated maturation can result in shifts in language lateralization in classic language cortex. We imaged adults exposed to an unfamiliar language during three successive fMRI scans. Participants were then asked to identify specific words embedded in Norwegian sentences. Exposure to these sentences, relative to complex tones, resulted in consistent activation in the left and right superior temporal gyrus. Activation in this region became increasingly left-lateralized with repeated exposure to the unfamiliar language. These results demonstrate that shifts in lateralization can be produced in the short term within a learning context, independent of maturation. PMID:25285756

Plante, Elena; Almryde, Kyle; Patterson, Dianne K; Vance, Christopher J; Asbjřrnsen, Arve E

2015-05-01

117

A YEAR IN REVIEW Adult and Lifelong Learning  

E-print Network

programs have long been recognized for providing essential labor market skills. However, they are lessIon: Adult Learning in Post-Modern times "demographics, the global economy, and technology have come together

Zhou, Yaoqi

118

Lifelong Learning and Adult Education: Russia Meets the West  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article examines the impact of social change and economic transformation on adult education and lifelong learning in post-Soviet Russia. The article begins with a brief economic and historical background to lifelong learning and adult education in terms of its significance as a feature of the Russian cultural heritage. An analysis of Ministerial education policy and curriculum changes reveals that these policies reflect neo-liberal and neo-conservative paradigms in the post-Soviet economy and education. Current issues and trends in adult education are also discussed, with particular attention to the Adult Education Centres, which operate as a vast umbrella framework for a variety of adult education and lifelong learning initiatives. The Centres are designed to promote social justice by means of compensatory education and social rehabilitation for individuals dislocated by economic restructuring. The article comments on their role in helping to develop popular consciousness of democratic rights and active citizenship in a participatory and pluralistic democracy.

Zajda, Joseph

2003-03-01

119

Theory of Mind in Adults with HFA and Asperger Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theory of mind was assessed in 32 adults with HFA, 29 adults with Asperger syndrome and 32 neurotypical adults. The HFA and\\u000a Asperger syndrome groups were impaired in performance of the Strange stories test and the Faux-pas test and reported more\\u000a theory of mind problems than the neurotypical adults. The three groups did not differ in performance of the Eyes

Annelies A. Spek; Evert M. Scholte; Ina A. Van Berckelaer-Onnes

2010-01-01

120

Behavioural Game Theory: Thinking, Learning and Teaching  

E-print Network

8 Behavioural Game Theory: Thinking, Learning and Teaching Colin F. Camerer,1 Teck-Hua Ho and Juin Kuan Chong Introduction Game theory is a mathematical system for analysing and predicting how humans the theory. But game theory is different: the players' fates are intertwined. The presence of players who do

Greer, Julia R.

121

Thematic Review on Adult Learning: Spain. Background Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report on adult learning in Spain first establishes a series of socioeconomic, historical, and conceptual coordinates. Chapter 1 has three parts dedicated to the context. Part 1 has a conceptual map showing the different terms and categories used in adult education and training (AET). Part 2 shows the present socioeconomic context in which…

Fernandez, Florentino Sanz; Prudenciano, Julio Lancho

122

Mentoring in Adult Learning Contexts: Partners in Dialogue.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document critiques various discourses about mentoring within the context of adult learning environments in general and adult literacy programs in particular. Mentoring is defined as an enabling or developmental relationship that occurs in partnerships wherein experienced individuals kindle knowledge and offer support to protgs in joint…

McDonald, Marya; Castleton, Geraldine

123

Services for Learning Disabled Adults in California's Community Colleges.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the 1980's, a series of studies have been conducted to examine assessment strategies, teaching methodologies, core services, and delivery systems for Learning Disabled Average (LDA) adults in California's community colleges. Study findings included the following: (1) between 1981-82 and 1985-86, the number of formal programs for LDA adults

Ostertag, Bruce A.; And Others

124

Reinforcement Learning in Young Adults with Developmental Language Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the study was to examine reinforcement learning (RL) in young adults with developmental language impairment (DLI) within the context of a neurocomputational model of the basal ganglia-dopamine system (Frank, Seeberger, & O'Reilly, 2004). Two groups of young adults, one with DLI and the other without, were recruited. A probabilistic…

Lee, Joanna C.; Tomblin, J. Bruce

2012-01-01

125

OutFront Adult Education Center: The Impact of Closing the Adult Learning Center in Leavenworth, Kansas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Every adult learning center is continually changing, reflecting demographic changes in their community and state and federal mandates. OutFront--Leavenworth's only adult learning center--is not just changing: it is closing. In this article, the author examines the impact of the closure of the adult learning center in Leavenworth, Kansas. The…

Shepard, Jewell

2007-01-01

126

Automatized Processing in Learning Disabled Adults: RAN, RAS, and Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Measures of automaticity have shown different developmental trends in the speed and accuracy of processing in learning disabled (LD) and normally achieving children. This study extends this research to young adults, comparing the learning disabled with normal achievers. Its primary focus was to document the presence of basic processing deficits in…

Hutchens, Teresa A.

127

Factors Influencing Adult Learning in Technology Based Firms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Application of adult learning principles was examined in a class for 30 managers of advanced-technology firms. Use of the principles contributed to acquisition, retention, and transfer of learning and a long-term impact on companies. Participants valued the relevance of content, the balance of technical and management skills, and the inviting…

MacDonald, Colla J.; Gabriel, Martha A.; Cousins, J. Bradley

2000-01-01

128

Differences Between Children and Adults in Learning BASIC on Microcomputers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Do children and adults who are novices in their use of microcomputers differ in their approaches when learning a computer language? Ten fourth- and fifth-grade students and 10 graduate students were observed learning the language BASIC on microcomputers. All sessions were tape recorded and verbalizations subsequently coded. Verbalizations, the…

Hamada-Adler, Renee; White, Mary Alice

129

Integration for Adults with Learning Difficulties: Contexts and Debates.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide for practitioners has the following aims: to outline the debate about integrated learning for adults with learning difficulties in continuing education programs; to provide examples of integration in action drawn from a range of settings in continuing education in England and Wales; and to encourage practitioners to develop similar…

Sutcliffe, Jeannie

130

Yes, There's Hope for Adults With Learning Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A program for adults with learning disabilities is being conducted at the Educational Testing and Learning Clinic (ETLC) at Orange Coast College (OCC). The program has five components. In order to enroll, the student's basic skill level must be below the eighth grade in reading, spelling, and writing, and below the sixth grade in mathematics. The…

Spear, Barbara E.

131

Learning Journeys: A Resource Handbook on Adult Learning and Mental Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document explains how tutors and managers in adult education programs across the United Kingdom can smooth the journeys of adults with mental health difficulties who are returning to learning. The handbook begins with suggestions for its use and case studies of two adult learners with mental health difficulties. Sections 1 through 4 discuss…

Mather, Joy; Atkinson, Sue

132

Relationship between perceptual learning in speech and statistical learning in younger and older adults  

PubMed Central

Within a few sentences, listeners learn to understand severely degraded speech such as noise-vocoded speech. However, individuals vary in the amount of such perceptual learning and it is unclear what underlies these differences. The present study investigates whether perceptual learning in speech relates to statistical learning, as sensitivity to probabilistic information may aid identification of relevant cues in novel speech input. If statistical learning and perceptual learning (partly) draw on the same general mechanisms, then statistical learning in a non-auditory modality using non-linguistic sequences should predict adaptation to degraded speech. In the present study, 73 older adults (aged over 60 years) and 60 younger adults (aged between 18 and 30 years) performed a visual artificial grammar learning task and were presented with 60 meaningful noise-vocoded sentences in an auditory recall task. Within age groups, sentence recognition performance over exposure was analyzed as a function of statistical learning performance, and other variables that may predict learning (i.e., hearing, vocabulary, attention switching control, working memory, and processing speed). Younger and older adults showed similar amounts of perceptual learning, but only younger adults showed significant statistical learning. In older adults, improvement in understanding noise-vocoded speech was constrained by age. In younger adults, amount of adaptation was associated with lexical knowledge and with statistical learning ability. Thus, individual differences in general cognitive abilities explain listeners' variability in adapting to noise-vocoded speech. Results suggest that perceptual and statistical learning share mechanisms of implicit regularity detection, but that the ability to detect statistical regularities is impaired in older adults if visual sequences are presented quickly. PMID:25225475

Neger, Thordis M.; Rietveld, Toni; Janse, Esther

2014-01-01

133

Engaging Black Learners in Adult and Community Education. NIACE Lifelines in Adult Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide explains how adult and community education (ACE) providers across Great Britain can engage black learners in ACE by making their learning programs relevant, challenging, and appropriate to adult learners from black and minority groups. The following topics are discussed: (1) the importance of engaging black and minority learners in ACE;…

White, Lenford

134

Review of Adult Learning and Literacy, Volume 6. Connecting Research, Policy and Practice: A Project of the National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Review of Adult Learning and Literacy: Connecting Research, Policy, and Practice, Volume 6," is the newest volume in a series of annual publications of the National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy (NCSALL) that address major issues, the latest research, and the best practices in the field of adult literacy and learning. Each…

Comings, John, Ed.; Garner, Barbara, Ed.; Smith, Cristine, Ed.

2006-01-01

135

Toward a Meta-Theory of Learning and Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This purpose of this paper is to identify implications of various learning theories for workplace learning and performance and HRD. It begins with a review of various theoretical positions on learning including behaviorism, Gestalt theory, cognitive theory, schema theory, connectionist theory, social learning or behavior modeling, social…

Russ-Eft, Darlene

2004-01-01

136

Learning dynamics An introduction to Game Theory  

E-print Network

INFO-F-409 Learning dynamics An introduction to Game Theory T. Lenaerts andY.-M. De Hauwere MLG, Université Libre de Bruxelles and AI-lab, Vrije Universiteit Brussel 1 Computational Game Theory An introduction to Game Theory Y.-M. De Hauwere and T. Lenaerts MAP, MLG, Université Libre de Bruxelles and AI

Steels, Luc

137

Lifelong Learning: Making It Work. An Adult Learning Australia Discussion Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This discussion paper is from the Adult Learners Week National Seminar on Lifelong Learning Policy (Canberra, Australia, September 1999) that identified a number of ideas about how to foster national policy development on lifelong learning. It consists of three sections. Part 1 contains "A National Lifelong Learning Policy for Australia?" (Tony…

Brown, Tony, Ed.

138

Using Adult Learning Principles as a Framework for Learning ICT Skills Needed for Research Projects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students in higher institutions need to carry out research projects. The focus of this paper explores a model to help students learn ICT skills needed for research projects. Generally students go through the "long and hard route" to learn and use ICT resources because they do not know how to do it. The paper explores the Adult Learning

Eyitayo, Oduronke Temitope

2013-01-01

139

The Relationship between Learning Styles and Learning Outcomes for Adults in an Informal Educational Setting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With more adults seeking unique and meaningful learning experiences in both recreational and professional arenas, informal learning institutions, such as museums, zoos, and botanical gardens are a natural source. Informal learning opportunities are the business of these institutions; moreover, a goal in education mission statements of many of…

Roberts, Larry N.

2013-01-01

140

Word Learning by Adults with Learning Disability: Effect of Grammatical Class  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A novel word learning paradigm in a reading context was employed to investigate the ability of adults with and without learning disability to learn new words. The participants were required to read a short English story. The story was based on an Indian folk tale to eliminate any confounding effect of familiarity with content. Two nouns and two…

Bahl, Megha

2010-01-01

141

Adults with learning disabilities and psychiatric problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The co-occurrence of psychiatric illness with a learning disability has been well established, and people with learning disabilities are more likely to suffer from mental ill health (including behavioural disorders, personality disorders, autistic-spectrum disorders and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder) (Deb et al, 2001b). The arrival of effective medical and psychosocial treatments for psychiatric disorders makes their diagnosis in those with learning

Mike Vanstraelen; Geraldine Holt; Nick Bouras

142

How to Build Schools Where Adults Learn  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the current, very complex, and even conflicted discourse about schools, one thing is clear: Schools need to be about student learning. Schools need to ensure that students are good readers, proficient writers, capable mathematicians, competent scientists, and knowledgeable historians. Students also need to learn to work together, be healthy, be…

Fahey, Kevin; Ippolito, Jacy

2014-01-01

143

Social Learning Theory and Health Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social learning theory provides a complex scientific foundation for health education and can be used to improve health education research and practice. This foundation includes proven cognitive and behavioral constructs and techniques for promoting health behavior changes. (JN)

Parcel, Guy S.; Baranowski, Tom

1981-01-01

144

Measuring student learning with item response theory  

E-print Network

We investigate short-term learning from hints and feedback in a Web-based physics tutoring system. Both the skill of students and the difficulty and discrimination of items were determined by applying item response theory ...

Lee, Young-Jin; Palazzo, David J.; Warnakulasooriya, Rasil; Pritchard, David E.

2008-01-01

145

Investigating the Learning-Theory Foundations of Game-Based Learning: A Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Past studies on the issue of learning-theory foundations in game-based learning stressed the importance of establishing learning-theory foundation and provided an exploratory examination of established learning theories. However, we found research seldom addressed the development of the use or failure to use learning-theory foundations and…

Wu, W-H.; Hsiao, H-C.; Wu, P-L.; Lin, C-H.; Huang, S-H.

2012-01-01

146

Learning Style Theory and Computer Mediated Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper looks at the low participation rates in computer mediated conferences (CMC) and argues that one of the causes of this may be an incompatibility between students' learning styles and the style adopted by CMC. Curry's Onion Model provides a well-established framework within which to view the main learning style theories (Riding and…

Atkins, Hilary; Moore, David; Sharpe, Simon; Hobbs, Dave

147

Jigsaw Cooperative Learning: Acid-Base Theories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focused on investigating the effectiveness of jigsaw cooperative learning instruction on first-year undergraduates' understanding of acid-base theories. Undergraduates' opinions about jigsaw cooperative learning instruction were also investigated. The participants of this study were 38 first-year undergraduates in chemistry education…

Tarhan, Leman; Sesen, Burcin Acar

2012-01-01

148

An Interpretation of Dewey's Experiential Learning Theory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Experience and Education" (John Dewey, 1938) serves as a foundation piece of literature when discussing experiential learning. To facilitate a better understanding, a conceptual model was developed. In John Dewey's experiential learning theory, everything occurs within a social environment. Knowledge is socially constructed and based on…

Roberts, T. Grady

149

Theories of Learning and Computer-Mediated Instructional Technologies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes four major models of learning: behaviorism, cognitivism, constructivism, and social constructivism. Discusses situated cognition; differences between learning theories and instructional approaches; and how computer-mediated technologies can be integrated with learning theories. (LRW)

Hung, David

2001-01-01

150

Transfer of Instances in Cognitive Skill Learning: Adult Age Differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments assessed the utilization of pretrained problem-solution associations (i.e., instances) in memory-based cognitive skill learning in younger and older adults. In Experiment 1, participants were given practice with repeated alphabet-arithmetic problems and then trained on a compound skill-learning task that incorporated the pretrained alphabet-arithmetic items. In Experiment 2, participants were pretrained with compound problems, and then trained on just

Michael A. DEredita; William J. Hoyer

2009-01-01

151

Understanding and Managing Learning Disabilities in Adults. Professional Practices in Adult Education and Human Resource Development Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book reviews learning disabilities (LD) in adults and makes suggestions for helping adults cope with these disabilities. Each chapter covers a type of learning disability or related syndrome or explains characteristics of the brain. Chapter 1 explains several types of specific learning disabilities that make classroom performance difficult…

Jordan, Dale R.

152

applying social learning theory to police misconduct  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although numerous studies have attempted to understand the causes of various forms of police misconduct, there is still no clear theoretical explanation of police misbehavior. Akers’ social learning theory posits that peer associations, attitudes, reinforcement, and modeling are predictors of delinquency and crime in general. With this article, we seek to determine if the theory can account for police deviance.

Allison T. Chappell; Alex R. Piquero

2004-01-01

153

Literature Discussions in Adult L2 Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores how literature circles work in the context of L2 instruction through a close scrutiny of classroom interactions in an adult ESL class where nine ESL learners read fictional works and discussed the readings. The paper examines the characteristics of student interactions with the literary text and with other group members,…

Kim, Myonghee

2004-01-01

154

Online Learning for Adults: Research and  

E-print Network

Nated!by!F2F!"Boot!Up!Camp"!providing!program!resources!and! training! · F2F!Mid+Point!Symposium! · Blackboard!Course!Management management is a high priority among adult learners !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!Andragogy #12;1.Quantitative and Qualitative Case Study Method (Merriam, 1988; Yin 1989, 2003; Stake 1995) 2. Literature Review revealed

de Lijser, Peter

155

The Contribution of Adult Learning to Health and Social Capital. Wider Benefits of Learning Research Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers investigated effects of adult learning (AL) on a range of measures of health and social capital and cohesion. Data from the National Child Development Study relating to almost 10,000 adults born in Britain in 1958 were used, with focus on changes in their lives between age 33 in 1991 and 42 in 2000. Findings indicated AL played an…

Feinstein, Leon; Hammond, Cathie; Woods, Laura; Preston, John; Bynner, John

156

Exploring the Icebergs of Adult Learning: Findings of the First Canadian Survey of Informal Learning Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The extent and distribution of self-reported learning activities in the current Canadian adult population was estimated on the basis of data collected during a 1998 telephone survey of a sample of 1,562 Canadian adults. Random digital dialing was used to give all provinces, households, and individuals within households an equal chance of…

Livingstone, D. W.

157

Learning for the Future: Neighborhood Renewal through Adult and Community Learning. A Guide for Local Authorities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is intended to assist managers within England's local authority adult and community education services in supporting neighborhood renewal through adult and community learning (ACL). The guide's overall aim is to promote the skills, knowledge, and understanding that underpin the following items: (1) identification and development of…

Merton, Bryan; Turner, Cheryl; Ward, Jane; White, Lenford

158

Adult Students' Perception of the Congruence of Hybrid Courses with Their Adult Learning Needs and Their Satisfaction from Hybrid Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The overall purpose of the study was to examine adult students' perception of the congruence of hybrid courses with adult learning needs and to examine adult students' level of satisfaction with hybrid courses. The study collected data through pre and post surveys, administered at the beginning and near the end of the hybrid courses, of adult

Iqbal, Rubina

2011-01-01

159

Adult Learning Theory: The Mentoring Connection.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The mission of an effective mentoring program for beginning teachers is critical to their successful professional development. In order to successfully prepare veteran teachers for the role of mentor to beginning teachers, a combination of cognitive coaching and Pathwise Performance Assessment (PPA) is suggested. Included in such a staff…

Williams, Bonnie

160

Promoting Adult Learning through Civil Discourse in the Public Library  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Founded in the 1850s to promote an informed citizenry, public libraries advanced both adult learning and citizenship education in the first half of the 20th century, thus becoming cornerstones of democracy. But with a more recent decline in public engagement in libraries and beyond, librarians question whether democracy requires more than an…

Kranich, Nancy

2010-01-01

161

Visual statistical learning in children and young adults: how implicit?  

PubMed Central

Visual statistical learning (VSL) is the ability to extract the joint and conditional probabilities of shapes co-occurring during passive viewing of complex visual configurations. Evidence indicates that even infants are sensitive to these regularities (e.g., Kirkham et al., 2002). However, there is continuing debate as to whether VSL is accompanied by conscious awareness of the statistical regularities between sequence elements. Bertels et al. (2012) addressed this question in young adults. Here, we adapted their paradigm to investigate VSL and conscious awareness in children. Using the same version of the paradigm, we also tested young adults so as to directly compare results from both age groups. Fifth graders and undergraduates were exposed to a stream of visual shapes arranged in triplets. Learning of these sequences was then assessed using both direct and indirect measures. In order to assess the extent to which learning occurred explicitly, we also measured confidence through subjective measures in the direct task (i.e., binary confidence judgments). Results revealed that both children and young adults learned the statistical regularities between shapes. In both age groups, participants who performed above chance in the completion task had conscious access to their knowledge. Nevertheless, although adults performed above chance even when they claimed to guess, there was no evidence of implicit knowledge in children. These results suggest that the role of implicit and explicit influences in VSL may follow a developmental trajectory.

Bertels, Julie; Boursain, Emeline; Destrebecqz, Arnaud; Gaillard, Vinciane

2015-01-01

162

Learning and Collaborating in the Adult Literacy Education Wiki  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the results of a mixed-methods study of the Adult Literacy Education Wiki. Two research questions framed the study: (1) What do participants report they have learned by contributing to the wiki? and (2) What is the nature of participation and collaboration in the wiki? A key finding of the study is that the wiki does not…

Jacobson, Erik

2008-01-01

163

Older Adults in Lifelong Learning: Participation and Successful Aging  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the relationship between the participation of older adult learners in educational activities and successful aging. In partnership with seniors' organizations, focus-group interviews were conducted on seniors' involvement in learning and their perceptions of its influence on successful aging. Successful aging is defined in…

Sloane-Seale, Atlanta; Kops, Bill

2008-01-01

164

Discrimination learning in adult bobwhite quail fed paraquat  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Adult male bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) were fed a diet containing 0, 25 or 100 ppm paraquat dichloride. After 60 d on treated diets, discrimination learning was evaluated with acquisition and reversal tests. The three groups performed similarly on these tests. Dose-related histopathological lesions were not found in liver, kidney or lung tissues

Bunck, C.M.; Bunck, T.J.; Sileo, L.

1986-01-01

165

Drama in Education and Self-Directed Learning for Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drama in Education (DIE), as an artistic and educational experience, is sufficiently evidenced in the literature as a dialogical, liberating practice of education. This article discusses a practitioner research project in a second chance adult education school in Greece, where the use of a DIE teaching and learning approach was explored in an…

Karavoltsou, Athina A.; O'Sullivan, Carmel

2011-01-01

166

Managing Programs for Adults Learning English. CAELA Network Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Programs for adults learning English vary widely in size and scope. Some are large, multilevel programs, such as the Arlington Education and Employment Program (REEP) in Virginia, which has more than 45 staff members, over 100 volunteers, and an array of student services for the 7,500 learners served annually at the program's 7 locations. Others…

Rodriguez, Amber Gallup; Burt, Miriam; Peyton, Joy Kreeft; Ueland, Michelle

2009-01-01

167

Developing Adult Learners in a Preservice Teacher Learning Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A preservice teacher learning community at California Polytechnic University was created to guide adult learners in being able to effectively teach diverse learners. From the spring quarter of 2008 to 2009, these preservice teachers engaged in working with each other to write their own lesson plans and teach mathematics and literacy to English…

Ahn, Ruth

2010-01-01

168

Adult Basic and Continuing Education through Oklahoma Learning Centers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document provides guidelines for administrators and teachers at the 37 Oklahoma Adult Learning Centers which deal with the educationally deprived and economically depressed population. The first section provides information on establishing programs, school board authorization, regulations (State and Federal), and financing. The next section…

Timken, Joe E.; Harrison, M. Mattie

169

Adult Learning and Literacy in the United Kingdom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this chapter the authors' primary aim is to describe the general workings of the system of adult literacy and learning as it exists in the United Kingdom today. To better illuminate that system, they take a little time delving into its past--that is, showing how it arrived at its current state of operation. A secondary aim is to compare and…

Hamilton, Mary; Merrifield, Juliet

1999-01-01

170

Gestural Communication Learning in Mentally Retarded Adults with Down's Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten mentally retarded adults with Down's Syndrome were assigned to American Indian Gestural Code (Amer-Ind) and American Sign Language (ASL) teaching groups to compare sign comprehension, imitation, and retrieval learning in relation to system characteristics (iconicity, motoric complexity of signs) and subject specific factors (language and motoric ability). Twenty lexical items, significantly different in iconicity and motor difficulty for the

Thomas P. Marquardt; Sylvia Sanchez; Maria L. Muńoz

1999-01-01

171

Equality and Diversity in Adult and Community Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is a practical guide to help managers of adult and community education programs in the United Kingdom address equality and diversity in the context of the Learning and Skills Council (LSC) remit and the Common Inspection Framework. The following are among the topics discussed in Sections 1-4: (1) learner-centered approaches…

Reisenberger, Anna; Dadzie, Stella

172

Effectiveness of Dysphagia Training for Adult Learning Disabilities Support Workers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effectiveness of a 1-day dysphagia training package delivered to support workers who work with adults with a learning disability. Thirty-eight support staff took part in this study. Twenty-five support staff received training, and 13 did not receive training and therefore acted as a control group. Three questionnaires…

Tredinnick, Gerlind; Cocks, Naomi

2014-01-01

173

Learning Disabled Adults in Postsecondary Education. 1984 Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper examines postsecondary options for learning disabled (LD) adults. LD is defined and typical characteristics that an LD person may exhibit are specified, including poorly formed handwriting, difficulty in following directions, and the appearance of clumsiness. The remainder of the paper focuses on universities and 2- or 4-year colleges…

Hartmen, Rhona C.; Krulwich, Maxine T.

174

Designing Adult Learning Strategies: The Case of South Eastern Europe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The importance of lifelong learning is generally well understood and few people today would query the need for adults to regularly update their skills in line with labour market needs, and for governments and social partners to provide an environment that supports skills acquisition and updating. However, it is clear when we look at data from the…

Gunny, Madeleine; Viertel, Evelyn

2006-01-01

175

Participation in Learning and Wellbeing among Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this research was to identify the effects of participation in learning on the subjective wellbeing of older adults. Data were from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), a large-scale, nationally representative survey of those aged 50 and above. The survey contains several wellbeing measures and information on three…

Jenkins, Andrew

2011-01-01

176

Trends in Adult Learning: Implications for Community College Educators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes major trends in adult learning; i.e., expanded focus on career choice and preparation, changing roles in the workplace, skills training in the community, and changing lifestyles. Views positive communication skills, group skills, career balance, wholistic thought, creative management, and educational brokering skills as essential…

Duffy, Karen Louise; Fendt, Paul F.

1984-01-01

177

Six Postschool Case Studies of Mildly Learning Handicapped Young Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six mildly learning-handicapped young adults were observed for one year following graduation from high school. All six floundered from job to job and from class to class at a community college. They expressed discontent and frustration with their present situation, but were unable to plan realistically for the future. (Author/JDD)

Zetlin, Andrea G.; Hosseini, Ashraf

1989-01-01

178

Adults' Learning about Science in Free-Choice Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper synthesizes findings from three studies to answer a general question: What do casual, adult visitors learn about science from their science-related experiences in free-choice settings? Specifically we asked whether there are changes in how people think about science in their daily lives, the nature and use of scientific knowledge, and…

Rennie, Leonie J.; Williams, Gina F.

2006-01-01

179

Learning Disabilities, Literacy, and Adult Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book deals with the long-neglected problem of learning disabilities (LDs) and the relationship of LDs to difficulties in the acquisition of literacy. Its 17 chapters are divided into 5 sections that begin with an opener to help the reader identify the main themes and content of each chapter in the section. Four chapters in Section I address…

Vogel, Susan A., Ed.; Reder, Stephen, Ed.

180

Troubling Adult Learning in the Present Time  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The French philosopher Michel Foucault asks, "What's going on just now? What's happening to everyone? What is this world, this period, this precise moment in which everyone is living? Answers to these questions have a profound impact on learning. Before probing Foucault's questions regarding the nature of this precise moment and how they relate to…

Hill, Robert J.

2008-01-01

181

Efficacy of learning strategies instruction in adult basic education  

PubMed Central

Results from randomized controlled trials of learning strategies instruction with 375 adult basic education (AE) participants are reported. Reading outcomes from whole group strategic instruction in one of four learning strategies were compared to outcomes of reading instruction delivered in the context of typical adult education units on social studies, history, and science. Both experimental and control conditions experienced high attrition and low attendance, resulting in only 105 control and 100 experimental participants’ data in outcome analyses for the trials of the four learning strategies. Reading outcomes for these completers were not significantly different between experimental and control conditions, and each group achieved minimal gains. We discuss possible reasons for the non-significant effect from the intervention, including insufficient instructional dosage. PMID:22121409

Hock, Michael F.; Mellard, Daryl F.

2011-01-01

182

Open Education 2030: Planning the Future of Adult Learning in Europe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adult learning and open education have become key elements on the European Agenda. This paper presents the first results of a foresight activity that aims to contribute to an understanding of how "Opening up Education" can improve adult learning in Europe in the future. It argues that to open up adult learning two main challenges must be…

Castańo Muńoz, Jonatan; Redecker, Christine; Vuorikari, Riina; Punie, Yves

2013-01-01

183

Beyond Decoding: Adults with Dyslexia Have Trouble Forming Unified Lexical Representations across Pseudoword Learning Episodes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To examine how adults with dyslexia versus adults with typical reading form lexical representations during pseudoword learning. Method: Twenty adults with dyslexia and 20 adults with typical reading learned meanings, spellings, and pronunciations of 16 pictured pseudowords, (half with regular and half with irregular grapheme-phoneme…

Howland, Karole A.; Liederman, Jacqueline

2013-01-01

184

Attitudes of Adult Students Regarding the Learning Environment at East Tennessee State University.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to obtain measurements of adult student attitudes using the Mattering Scales for Adult Students in Higher Education (MHE). The MHE is designed to assess the perceptions of adult learners about their learning environment. The purpose of the scale is to learn more about the different ways in which adult learners feel they…

Warner, Carla; Williams, Jennifer

185

Gender Differences in Adult Word Learning  

PubMed Central

In prior work, women were found to outperform men on short-term verbal memory tasks. The goal of the present work was to examine whether gender differences on short-term memory tasks are tied to the involvement of long-term memory in the learning process. In Experiment 1, men and women were compared on their ability to remember phonologically-familiar novel words and phonologically-unfamiliar novel words. Learning of phonologically-familiar novel words (but not of phonologically-unfamiliar novel words) can be supported by long-term phonological knowledge. Results revealed that women outperformed men on phonologically-familiar novel words, but not on phonologically-unfamiliar novel words. In Experiment 2, we replicated Experiment 1 using a within-subjects design, and confirmed gender differences on phonologically-familiar, but not phonologically-unfamiliar stimuli. These findings are interpreted to suggest that women are more likely than men to recruit native-language phonological knowledge during novel word-learning. PMID:21392726

Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Marian, Viorica; Yoo, Jeewon

2011-01-01

186

Maslow's Theories and Educating the Disadvantaged Adult.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes Abraham Maslow's concepts of the organization of the personality with implications for educating the disadvantaged adult learner. Special attention is given to personality syndromes and the effect they have on the expression of behavior. (JOW)

Long, Jerry

1982-01-01

187

A Comparative Analysis of Three Unique Theories of Organizational Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to present three classical theories on organizational learning and conduct a comparative analysis that highlights their strengths, similarities, and differences. Two of the theories -- experiential learning theory and adaptive -- generative learning theory -- represent the thinking of the cognitive perspective, while…

Leavitt, Carol C.

2011-01-01

188

Motivation and Adult Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author reviews theories of human motivation: Lewin's force field analysis, Skinner's operant reinforcement theory, and Maslow's hierarchy of needs. He then extracts the implications of these theories for adult learning. SK)

Taylor, J. Rodney

1982-01-01

189

Training in the Laboratory Animal Science Community: Strategies to Support Adult Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essence of learning is change; learning is the process by which learners customize new information to make it per- sonally meaningful and relevant. Training is the process of helping students make those changes. Research indicates that adults learn differently than children or adolescents and that adults consistently use the following six learning strat- egies: prior experiences; conversations; metacognition; re-

Jackie Dobrovolny; James Stevens; Leticia V. Medina

2007-01-01

190

A Model for Conducting Research with Learning Disabled Adolescents and Young Adults  

E-print Network

Issues from the field of learning disabilities and the field of education in general which impact the learning disabled individual are discussed as they relate to research with learning disabled adolescents and young adults ...

Meyen, Edward L.; Schiefelbusch, Richard L.; Deshler, Donald D.; Alley, Gordon R.; Schumaker, Jean B.; Clark, Frances L.

1980-01-01

191

Co-creating learning: insights from complexity theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Recent advances in the interactive technologies have transformed the way today's organizations and their different stakeholders learn. Now, because of the increasing learning requirements, neither these organizations nor their stakeholders can afford to be too self-focused while learning; instead, they collaborate and learn together. Existing theories of learning are not sufficient to explain this complex learning “co-creation”. Therefore,

Darshan A. Desai

2010-01-01

192

The Development of a Comprehensive and Coherent Theory of Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is an account of how the author developed a comprehensive understanding of human learning over a period of almost 50 years. The learning theory includes the structure of learning, different types of learning, barriers of learning as well as how individual dispositions, age, the learning environment and general social and societal…

Illeris, Knud

2015-01-01

193

Online Learning from Input versus Offline Memory Evolution in Adult Word Learning: Effects of Neighborhood Density and Phonologically Related Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: In this study, the authors investigated adult word learning to determine how neighborhood density and practice across phonologically related training sets influence online learning from input during training versus offline memory evolution during no-training gaps. Method: Sixty-one adults were randomly assigned to learn low- or…

Storkel, Holly L.; Bontempo, Daniel E.; Pak, Natalie S.

2014-01-01

194

Self Modeling: Expanding the Theories of Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Self modeling (SM) offers a unique expansion of learning theory. For several decades, a steady trickle of empirical studies has reported consistent evidence for the efficacy of SM as a procedure for positive behavior change across physical, social, educational, and diagnostic variations. SM became accepted as an extreme case of model similarity;…

Dowrick, Peter W.

2012-01-01

195

Computational Learning Theory read Chapter 7  

E-print Network

to teacher Learner proposes instance x, teacher provides c(x) 2. If teacher (who knows c) provides training: 2 Teacher (who knows c) provides training examples (assume c is in learner's hypothesis space H.8] Computational learning theory Setting 1: learner poses queries to teacher Setting 2: teacher chooses examples

Mitchell, Tom

196

Computational Learning Theory [read Chapter 7  

E-print Network

instance x, teacher provides c(x) 2. If teacher (who knows c) provides training examples ffl teacher; Sample Complexity: 2 Teacher (who knows c) provides training examples (assume c is in learner Computational learning theory ffl Setting 1: learner poses queries to teacher ffl Setting 2: teacher chooses

Mitchell, Tom

197

Participating in the Learning of Group Theory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focusing on student learning rather than the deductive presentation of mathematics is stimulus not only to discover theorems and proofs but also to generate meaning of definitions and axioms before their formal articulation. Provides worksheets that enable an intuitive grasp to precede formal definition in the field of elementary group theory for…

Burn, Robert P.

1998-01-01

198

Towards a Theory of Aesthetic Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

D.H. Hargreaves's “traumatic theory of aesthetic learning” is reviewed in the light of research on educational events in the areas of creative writing and drama. If the full educational benefits of conversive drama are to be realised, they have to be seen within the context of more gradual cumulation of skills and knowledge. Before the trauma, students are prepared by

Peter Woods

1993-01-01

199

Understanding Feedback: A Learning Theory Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article aims to review literature on feedback to teachers. Because research has hardly focused on feedback among teachers, the review's scope also includes feedback in classrooms. The review proposes that the effectiveness of feedback and feedback processes depend on the learning theory adhered to. Findings show that regardless of the…

Thurlings, Marieke; Vermeulen, Marjan; Bastiaens, Theo; Stijnen, Sjef

2013-01-01

200

Learning Tiny Theories Tim Menzies  

E-print Network

of our users demanded gruffly. In response to these demands from our users, we have been exploring important domain details. The benefits of decreasing theory size must be carefully balanced against the cost;# of features accuracy domain all-SELECT ed all all-SELECT ed all Ionosphere 94.1% 0.9% HorseColic 90.9% 4

Menzies, Tim

201

National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located at Harvard University, The National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy (NCSALL) draws on numerous scholars and experts to investigate the practice of educational programs around the country that serve adults with limited literacy and English language skills. Their various outreach efforts include disseminating their research findings through journals and policy reports, along with the leadership provided by their Connecting Practice, Policy, and Research initiative. The â??Researchâ?ť section of the site is a good place to start, as users can learn about their most recent research projects and also read publications authored by researchers working at NCSALL. Beyond this section, visitors will also appreciate the â??Publicationsâ?ť area, which includes research briefs, reports, and selections from their occasional papers series. One highlight here is the â??Focus on Basicsâ?ť quarterly publication, which presents best practices and current research on adult learning and literacy. Visitors can view the current issue, and also scan through the archives, which date back to 1997.

202

Learning "in" or "with" Games? Quality Criteria for Digital Learning Games from the Perspectives of Learning, Emotion, and Motivation Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This conceptual paper aims to clarify the theoretical underpinnings of game based learning (GBL) and learning with digital learning games (DLGs). To do so, it analyses learning of game related skills and contents, which occurs constantly during playing conventional entertainment games, from three perspectives: learning theory, emotion theory, and…

Hense, Jan; Mandl, Heinz

2012-01-01

203

Learning categories via rules and similarity: Comparing adults and children.  

PubMed

Two experiments explored the different strategies used by children and adults when learning new perceptual categories. Participants were asked to learn a set of categories for which both a single-feature rule and overall similarity would allow for perfect performance. Other rules allowed for suboptimal performance. Transfer stimuli (Experiments 1 and 2) and single features (Experiment 2) were presented after training to help determine how the categories were learned. In both experiments, we found that adults made significantly more optimal rule-based responses to the test stimuli than children. Children showed a variety of categorization styles, with a few relying on the optimal rules, many relying on suboptimal single-feature rules, and only a few relying on overall family resemblance. We interpret these results within a multiple systems framework, and we argue that children show the pattern they do because they lack the necessary cognitive resources to fully engage in hypothesis testing, rule selection, and verbally mediated category learning. PMID:25558860

Rabi, Rahel; Miles, Sarah J; Minda, John Paul

2015-03-01

204

Enhanced Visual Statistical Learning in Adults With Autism.  

PubMed

Objective: Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are often characterized as having social engagement and language deficiencies, but a sparing of visuospatial processing and short-term memory (STM), with some evidence of supranormal levels of performance in these domains. The present study expanded on this evidence by investigating the observational learning of visuospatial concepts from patterns of covariation across multiple exemplars. Method: Child and adult participants with ASD, and age-matched control participants, viewed multishape arrays composed from a random combination of pairs of shapes that were each positioned in a fixed spatial arrangement. Results: After this passive exposure phase, a posttest revealed that all participant groups could discriminate pairs of shapes with high covariation from randomly paired shapes with low covariation. Moreover, learning these shape-pairs with high covariation was superior in adults with ASD than in age-matched controls, whereas performance in children with ASD was no different than controls. Conclusions: These results extend previous observations of visuospatial enhancement in ASD into the domain of learning, and suggest that enhanced visual statistical learning may have arisen from a sustained bias to attend to local details in complex arrays of visual features. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25151115

Roser, Matthew E; Aslin, Richard N; McKenzie, Rebecca; Zahra, Daniel; Fiser, József

2014-08-25

205

Towards a Dialogic Theory of How Children Learn to Think  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper develops a dialogic theory of thinking and of learning to think that has implications for education. The theory is offered as a contrast to theories that are based on both Piaget and Vygotsky. The paper proceeds by unpacking and interweaving three key concepts: dialogue, thinking and learning in order to argue that learning to think can…

Wegerif, Rupert

2011-01-01

206

Illicit Drug Use Among South Korean Offenders: Assessing the Generality of Social Learning Theory.  

PubMed

Since the mid-1990s, illicit drug use has become a problem in Korean society. This trend is likely due to the rapid globalization and expansion that occurred with the Internet revolution, which led to greater numbers of people socially learning about drug culture. The current study attempts to uncover criminogenic causality of such social learning about drug use by studying adult felony drug offenders in South Korea. The data used for the study were obtained from self-reported surveys, originally collected by the Korean Institution of Criminology (KIC). The final sample comprised 1,452 felony offenders convicted of illicit drug use, and their responses were analyzed with a set of multiple logistic regression tests. The current study found supportive evidence for the generalizability of social learning theory from the sample of the South Korean adult drug offenders. We argue that the current study provides additional empirical evidence that supports the generalizability of social learning theory. PMID:24752638

Yun, Minwoo; Kim, Eunyoung

2014-04-21

207

Lifeline Work: Community-Based Adult Learning and Learners' Personal Progression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores learner progression for participants in community-based adult learning (CBAL) provision in Scotland. It focuses on learners' perceptions of progression drawn from analysis of life history interviews carried out with ten adults who had participated in community-based adult learning. The analysis of data was undertaken in three…

Macintyre, Janis

2012-01-01

208

Connection and Caring: The Role of Educational Leadership in Adult Jewish Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores how the role of educational leadership can significantly enhance adult Jewish learning experiences through an in-depth examination of the position of site director at the Florence Melton Adult Mini-School, a two-year program of adult Jewish learning operating at more than sixty sites across North America. Applying the…

Grant, Lisa D.

2004-01-01

209

How children and adults learn to intercept moving gaps.  

PubMed

We used an immersive virtual environment to examine how children and adults learn to intercept moving gaps and whether children and adults benefit from variability of practice. Children (10- and 12-year-olds) and adults attempted to bicycle between two moving vehicle-size blocks without stopping. In Experiment 1, block motions were timed such that if participants maintained a constant speed, they would intercept the gap between the blocks. By the last set of intersections, adults learned to maintain a constant speed throughout the approach to the intersection, 12-year-olds exhibited less variability in time-to-spare when they intercepted the blocks, and 10-year-olds exhibited no significant change across intersection sets. In Experiment 2, block motions during the first eight intersections were timed such that participants needed to either speed up or slow down on all intersections or needed to speed up on half and slow down on half of the intersections. On the last four intersections, all age groups encountered a novel block timing in which no adjustment in speed was necessary to intercept the blocks. The adults performed well regardless of whether they experienced consistent or variable block timings. The 10-year-olds in the variable condition performed better on slow-down trials than their peers in the slow-down condition but performed worse on speed-up trials than their peers in the speed-up condition. Discussion focuses on possible developmental changes in reliance on perceptually available and remembered information in complex perception-action tasks. PMID:24576506

Chihak, Benjamin J; Grechkin, Timofey Y; Kearney, Joseph K; Cremer, James F; Plumert, Jodie M

2014-06-01

210

MTD 735: Learning Theories in Mathematics Education EDU 800: Learning Theories in Education  

E-print Network

of three research articles that use frameworks of cognitive science, constructivism, and social cognition in Driscoll June 2 Meaningful Learning and Schema Theory: discussion of Chapter 4 in Driscoll June 7 Cognitive in Steffe et al. (reader) June 16 Interactive Theories of Cognitive Development: discussion of Chapter 7

McConnell, Terry

211

Adult Learning in the Digital Age: Perspectives on Online Technologies and Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As instructors move further into the incorporation of 21st century technologies in adult education, a new paradigm of digitally-enriched mediated learning has emerged. This book provides a comprehensive framework of trends and issues related to adult learning for the facilitation of authentic learning in the age of digital technology. This…

Kidd, Terry T., Ed.; Keengwe, Jared, Ed.

2010-01-01

212

Adult Learning and Recognition of Prior Learning: The "White Elephant" in Australian Universities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adult learners are being attracted to university programs based on the granting of either academic credit or the recognition of prior learning (RPL). Typically, this attraction is being aligned to fast-tracking degree attainment or student cost effectiveness. It appears from the literature that there are varied interpretations and application of…

Fox, Tricia A.

2005-01-01

213

Adult Learners' Perceptions of a Professional Development Program Comparing Live Distance Learning versus Live Local Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reduced corporate training budgets require cost efficiencies in professional development. Distance learning, with its lower intrinsic costs, will likely become more prevalent. Therefore, the educational experience will change for many professionals. The objective of this study was to examine the perceptions of adult learners attending a drug…

Buxton, Eric; De Muth, James

2012-01-01

214

Lexical configuration and lexical engagement: when adults learn new words.  

PubMed

People know thousands of words in their native language, and each of these words must be learned at some time in the person's lifetime. A large number of these words will be learned when the person is an adult, reflecting the fact that the mental lexicon is continuously changing. We explore how new words get added to the mental lexicon, and provide empirical support for a theoretical distinction between what we call lexical configuration and lexical engagement. Lexical configuration is the set of factual knowledge associated with a word (e.g., the word's sound, spelling, meaning, or syntactic role). Almost all previous research on word learning has focused on this aspect. However, it is also critical to understand the process by which a word becomes capable of lexical engagement--the ways in which a lexical entry dynamically interacts with other lexical entries, and with sublexical representations. For example, lexical entries compete with each other during word recognition (inhibition within the lexical level), and they also support the activation of their constituents (top-down lexical-phonemic facilitation, and lexically-based perceptual learning). We systematically vary the learning conditions for new words, and use separate measures of lexical configuration and engagement. Several surprising dissociations in behavior demonstrate the importance of the theoretical distinction between configuration and engagement. PMID:17367775

Leach, Laura; Samuel, Arthur G

2007-12-01

215

Andragogy for Teen and Young Adult Learners with Intellectual Disabilities: Learning, Independence, and Best Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teens and young adults with Intellectual Disabilities (ID) meet the criteria of teen and adult learners chronologically, but may be deficient in many other areas of teen and adult learning. The spectrum of intellectual and adaptive capabilities among teens and adults with ID is vast, with each individual being unique. There are specific teaching…

Bowman, Stephanie L.; Plourde, Lee A.

2012-01-01

216

Lifelong Learning, Lifelong Education and Adult Education in Higher Institutions of Learning in Eastern Africa: The Case of Makerere University Institute of Adult and Continuing Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper advocates for policy recognition of lifelong learning by institutions of higher learning and governments in Eastern Africa. Lifelong learning and lifelong education are two concepts that aim at widening access to and the participation of adult learners in the acquisition of new knowledge, skills, values and attitudes. There are many…

Openjuru, George L.

2011-01-01

217

Social Learning, Social Control, and Strain Theories: A Formalization of Micro-level Criminological Theories.  

E-print Network

??This dissertation proposes theoretical formalization as a way of enhancing theory development within criminology. Differential association, social learning, social control, and general strain theories are… (more)

Proctor, Kristopher Ryan

2010-01-01

218

How Children and Adults Learn to Use Computers: A Developmental Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How do children and adults learn to use computers? What developmental processes are involved in learning to use computers? This chapter reviews current understanding of these issues and presents empirical studies demonstrating how to advance that understanding. (Contains 2 figures.)

Yan, Zheng; Fischer, Kurt W.

2004-01-01

219

Machine Learning, Chapter 7 CSE 574, Spring 2004 Computational Learning Theory (COLT)  

E-print Network

1 Machine Learning, Chapter 7 CSE 574, Spring 2004 Computational Learning Theory (COLT) Goals: Theoretical characterization of 1. Difficulty of machine learning problems · Under what conditions is learning possible and impossible? 2. Capabilities of machine learning algorithms · Under what conditions

220

Learning Theories and Assessment Methodologies--An Engineering Educational Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper attempts to critically review theories of learning from the perspective of engineering education in order to align relevant assessment methods with each respective learning theory, considering theoretical aspects and practical observations and reflections. The role of formative assessment, taxonomies, peer learning and educational…

Hassan, O. A. B.

2011-01-01

221

Psychological Factors in Adult Learning and Instruction. Research to Practice Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The learning and instructional processes related to adult education are discussed in this monograph. Following a brief discussion of the nature of learning and of instruction, the stages and conditions of learning and instruction are presented. These stages and conditions relate to internal conditions prerequisite to learning (motivation,…

Verner, Coolie; Davison, Catherine V.

222

Student Learning Theory Goes (Back) to (High) School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Biggs' 3P (Presage-Process-Product) model, a key framework in Student Learning Theory, provides a powerful means of understanding relations between students' perceptions of the teaching and learning environment, learning strategies, and learning outcomes. While influential in higher education, fewer tests of the model in secondary…

Ginns, Paul; Martin, Andrew J.; Papworth, Brad

2014-01-01

223

Annual Review of Adult Learning and Literacy. Volume 1. The Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains eight papers on adult learning and literacy. "The Year 1998 in Review" (Fran Tracy-Mumford) examines educational legislation and policy and developments in adult education program development, program accountability, strategic alliances and partnerships, and instructional methodologies and technologies. "Lessons from 'Preventing…

Comings, John, Ed.; Garner, Barbara, Ed.; Smith, Cristine, Ed.

224

DISSERTATION A SYNTHESIS OF REINFORCEMENT LEARNING AND ROBUST CONTROL THEORY  

E-print Network

DISSERTATION A SYNTHESIS OF REINFORCEMENT LEARNING AND ROBUST CONTROL THEORY Submitted by R OF DISSERTATION A SYNTHESIS OF REINFORCEMENT LEARNING AND ROBUST CONTROL THEORY The pursuit of control algorithms is a collection of theories, techniques, and tools that form one of the leading edge approaches to control. Most

Anderson, Charles W.

225

An Analysis of Stochastic Game Theory for Multiagent Reinforcement Learning  

E-print Network

An Analysis of Stochastic Game Theory for Multiagent Reinforcement Learning Michael Bowling Manuela and adapt. Stochastic games, first studied in the game theory community, are a natural extension of MDPs techniques for solving stochastic games from both the game theory community and reinforcement learning

226

Linking theory to practice in introductory practice learning experiences.  

PubMed

Nurse educators internationally are challenged with finding a sufficient number of suitable practice learning experiences for student nurses. This paper reports on a study which aimed to evaluate the utilisation of specialised and highly technical environments ("new" environments) as first practice learning experiences for adult nursing students in the UK. A survey was conducted on 158 first year student nurses who were allocated to either "new" or "old" (those that have been traditionally used) environments. Data analysis was conducted using Mann-Whitney U test and exploratory factor analysis was performed. Results have demonstrated that all environments afford novice nurses the opportunity to observe or practice the essential skills of nursing. In addition, the "new" environments have revealed greater opportunity to observe and practice aspects of practice related to governance of care. This paper concludes that a nursing curriculum which makes clear association between the essential nature of nursing and practice based learning outcomes will help the student to appreciate contemporary nursing practice and to link nursing theory with practice. Further research is required to explain the observation that aspects of practice related to governance are more visible within highly technical areas of practice. PMID:25481982

Fotheringham, Diane; Lamont, David; Macbride, Tamsin; MacKenzie, Laura

2014-11-26

227

A Transactional Perspective on Teaching and Learning: A Framework for Adult and Higher Education. Advances in Learning and Instruction Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focusing on teaching and learning (the learning process rather than selection of learning content), this book provides a comprehensive perspective on the process of adult and higher education. Part 1 explores the transactional relationship between the personal reflective world of the learner and the collaborative shared world of the educational…

Garrison, D. Randy; Archer, Walter

228

Research News: Debate on Learning Theory Is Shifting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses current learning theories, indicating that though many psychologists and ethologists now agree on using a mechanistic approach, some linguists doubt its adequacy. Implications of research on the mollusk "Aplasia" to understand the learning process are included. (JN)

Fox, Jeffrey L.

1983-01-01

229

The Entropy in Learning Theory. Error Estimates  

Microsoft Academic Search

We continue the investigation of some problems in learning theory in the setting formulated by F. Cucker and S. Smale. The\\u000a goal is to find an estimator \\u000a \\u000a on the base of given data \\u000a \\u000a that approximates well the regression function \\u000a \\u000a of an unknown Borel probability measure \\u000a \\u000a defined on \\u000a \\u000a We assume that \\u000a \\u000a belongs to a function class \\u000a \\u000a It is known from previous

S. V. Konyagin; V. N. Temlyakov

2007-01-01

230

Implicit language learning: Adults’ ability to segment words in Norwegian*  

PubMed Central

Previous language learning research reveals that the statistical properties of the input offer sufficient information to allow listeners to segment words from fluent speech in an artificial language. The current pair of studies uses a natural language to test the ecological validity of these findings and to determine whether a listener’s language background influences this process. In Study 1, the “guessibility” of potential test words from the Norwegian language was presented to 22 listeners who were asked to differentiate between true words and nonwords. In Study 2, 22 adults who spoke one of 12 different primary languages learned to segment words from continuous speech in an implicit language learning paradigm. The task consisted of two sessions, approximately three weeks apart, each requiring participants to listen to 7.2 minutes of Norwegian sentences followed by a series of bisyllabic test items presented in isolation. The participants differentially accepted the Norwegian words and Norwegian-like nonwords in both test sessions, demonstrating the capability to segment true words from running speech. The results were consistent across three broadly-defined language groups, despite differences in participants’ language background. PMID:21512605

KITTLESON, MEGAN M.; AGUILAR, JESSICA M.; TOKERUD, GRY LINE; PLANTE, ELENA; ASBJŘRNSEN, ARVE E.

2010-01-01

231

Neurophysiological mechanisms involved in language learning in adults  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the brain mechanisms involved in word learning during infancy and in second language acquisition and about the way these new words become stable representations that sustain language processing. In several studies we have adopted the human simulation perspective, studying the effects of brain-lesions and combining different neuroimaging techniques such as event-related potentials and functional magnetic resonance imaging in order to examine the language learning (LL) process. In the present article, we review this evidence focusing on how different brain signatures relate to (i) the extraction of words from speech, (ii) the discovery of their embedded grammatical structure, and (iii) how meaning derived from verbal contexts can inform us about the cognitive mechanisms underlying the learning process. We compile these findings and frame them into an integrative neurophysiological model that tries to delineate the major neural networks that might be involved in the initial stages of LL. Finally, we propose that LL simulations can help us to understand natural language processing and how the recovery from language disorders in infants and adults can be accomplished. PMID:19933142

Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni; Cunillera, Toni; Mestres-Missé, Anna; de Diego-Balaguer, Ruth

2009-01-01

232

Policy-Driven for Lifelong Learning and Its Effects: Experiences of Working Adults in Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the government enacted the "Lifelong Learning Act" in 2002, Taiwanese working adults consider lifelong learning as a better route to increase their employability or competitiveness at work. This study analyzed the survey on adults administered by the Ministry of Education in Taiwan in 2008, and statistics analysis showed a close relationship…

Chang, Dian-Fu; Lin, Sung-Po

2012-01-01

233

"An Elusive Bird": Perceptions of Music Learning among Canadian and American Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discovering the perceptions that non-professional adult musicians hold regarding their participation in community ensembles may help improve instruction as well as the ability to more fully understand the implications of lifelong music making. Andragogy, or the teaching and learning strategies associated with adult learning, provided the impetus…

Kruse, Nathan B.

2009-01-01

234

Learning Disabilities and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Intelligent Well Educated Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This retrospective study examined scores for 111 adult participants on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised, the Wide Range Achievement Test-III and the Nelson-Denny Reading Test. All participants were referred to a university clinic for learning problems. The participants were diagnosed with a learning disability, an…

Guyer, Kenneth E.; Guyer, Barbara P.; Banks, Steven R.

2008-01-01

235

Exploring the Self-concept of Adults with Mild Learning Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study aimed to add to the research on the self-concept of adults with mild learning disabilities and to generate a deeper understanding of their self-perceptions rather than draw generalised quantitative conclusions. Eight adults diagnosed with mild learning disabilities receiving support from a supported living project were…

Pestana, Claudio

2015-01-01

236

The Readiness of Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder for Self-Directed Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the readiness for self-directed learning of adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), as well as their overall educational experiences. Using Guglielmino's Self-Directed Learning Readiness Scale for Adults (SDLRS-A), the researcher investigated whether the following factors were significantly related to…

Wright, Melissa Sue

2011-01-01

237

The Belem Framework for Action: Harnessing the Power and Potential of Adult Learning and Education for a Viable Future  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the Belem Framework for Action. This framework focuses on harnessing the power and potential of adult learning and education for a viable future. This framework begins with a preamble on adult education and towards lifelong learning.

Adult Learning, 2012

2012-01-01

238

Adult Educators: An Example of the New Approach to Lifelong Learning in Poland  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents reflections arising from a study on adult learning professions in Poland. Changes in the socio-political and legal context created phenomena that have occurred in the adult education systems, mechanisms and approaches. The article focuses on the impact of those processes on a specific professional group--adult educators.…

Mazurkiewicz, Grzegorz

2009-01-01

239

Vocal Memory and Learning in Adult Bengalese Finches with Regenerated Hair Cells  

E-print Network

Vocal Memory and Learning in Adult Bengalese Finches with Regenerated Hair Cells Sarah M. N for the mainte- nance of stable adult song. A technique was developed to reversibly deafen Bengalese Finches suggest that, in Bengalese Finches, the degree of behavioral and neural plasticity in juvenile and adult

Rubel, Edwin

240

Exploring the Contribution of Play to Social Capital in Institutional Adult Learning Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores how play as an educational tool can enhance social capital for adult learners in institutional settings. Framed by conceptualisations of social capital (Putnam 1993, 2000) and play (Melamed 1987, Meares 2005, Vygotsky 1978) and supported by research literature on play in adult learning, our action research in our adult

Harris, Pauline; Daley, John

2008-01-01

241

Winners and Losers in an Expanding System. The NIACE Survey on Adult Participation in Learning, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adult participation in the United Kingdom in 2001 was examined through interviews with a weighted sample of 6,310 adults over age 17 across Great Britain with a boosted sample in Wales. The following were among the key findings: (1) for the first time in 20 years, there was a marked upswing in adults' participation in learning from the previous…

Aldridge, Fiona; Tuckett, Alan

242

Facilitating Responsibility for Learning in Adult Community College Students. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This digest discusses adult students in community colleges, focusing on their learning expectations and needs. In 1997, nearly a third of community college students were age 30 or older. Adult students often have realistic, practical goals for their education and bring valuable life experience to the community college classroom. However, adults

Howell, Cynthia Lake

243

New neurons and new memories: how does adult hippocampal neurogenesis affect learning and memory?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The integration of adult-born neurons into the circuitry of the adult hippocampus suggests an important role for adult hippocampal neurogenesis in learning and memory, but its specific function in these processes has remained elusive. In this article, we summarize recent progress in this area, including advances based on behavioural studies and insights provided by computational modelling. Increasingly, evidence suggests that

Wei Deng; James B. Aimone; Fred H. Gage

2010-01-01

244

Adult Education and Lifelong Learning within UNESCO: CONFINTEA, Education for All, and beyond  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There can no longer be any doubt that adult education within lifelong learning is a key factor for economic and social development, as well as being a human right. New policies for adult education must now result in coherent forms of laws and legislation clearly spelling out ways and means for financing adult education. These must involve the…

Duke, Chris; Hinzen, Heribert

2012-01-01

245

The Economics of Learning Models: A Self-tuning Theory of Learning in Games  

E-print Network

equilibrium theory. The more parsimonious self-tuning EWA does as well as EWA in predicting behavior in new. But Schelling (1960, p. 98) noted that, "a normative theory must produce strategies that are at least as goodThe Economics of Learning Models: A Self-tuning Theory of Learning in Games Teck H. Ho, Colin F

Greer, Julia R.

246

Screening for Diabetic Retinopathy in Adults with Learning Disability: Current Uptake and Adjustments to Facilitate Equality of Access  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Equality of access to health care for adults with learning disability has been in the spotlight in the UK in recent years due to publication of several reports. Adults with learning disability are thought to account for a significant proportion of the diabetic population in the UK. A list of adults known to the learning disability health…

Pilling, Rachel F.

2015-01-01

247

Instructional Technology and the Adult Learner. Theory, Innovation, and Practice in Andragogy. No. 2. = La Technologia Educativa y el Aprendiz Adulto. Teoria, Innovacion y Practica en Andragogia. No. 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This second issue of a series on theory, innovation, and practice in andragogy analyzes some of the instructional variables in adult learning and discusses ways to influence the degree of learning through the application of instructional and behavioral technologies. It unites theory and practice, generating recommendations from the abstract…

Wager, Walter

248

The Influence of Phonological Similarity in Adults Learning Words in a Second Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Neighborhood density refers to the number of similar sounding words to a target word (Luce & Pisoni, 1998) and influences first language word learning in adults learning English (Storkel, Armbruster, & Hogan, 2006). There are two processes in word learning: lexical configuration and lexical engagement (Leach & Samuel, 2007). Lexical configuration…

Stamer, Melissa

2010-01-01

249

Cooperative Learning: Applying Contact Theory in Desegregated Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews research on instructional methods designed to operationalize the principal elements of Allport's contact theory of intergroup relations. These cooperative learning methods, which employ ethnically mixed learning groups who are rewarded for learning as a group, have had positive effects on intergroup relations and on the academic…

Slavin, Robert E.

1985-01-01

250

Facilitating Interpersonal Interaction and Learning Online: Linking Theory and Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: An earlier study of physicians' perceptions of interactive online learning showed that these were shaped both by program design and quality and the quality and quantity of interpersonal interaction. We explore instructor roles in enhancing online learning through interpersonal interaction and the learning theories that inform these.…

Sargeant, Joan; Curran, Vernon; Allen, Michael; Jarvis-Selinger, Sandra; Ho, Kendall

2006-01-01

251

The Role of Theory in Learning Technology Evaluation Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper attempts a fundamental analysis of the nature of research into e-learning and the role that theory plays in this. We examine "research" in broad terms, and the nature of phenomena in general. We identify that e-learning is an artificial phenomenon, and that research approaches need to be cognisant of the design elements in e-learning,…

Phillips, Rob; Kennedy, Gregor; McNaught, Carmel

2012-01-01

252

Teaching Sociological Theory through Active Learning: The Irrigation Exercise  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For students, theory is often one of the most daunting aspects of sociology--it seems abstract, removed from the concrete events of their everyday lives, and therefore intimidating. In an attempt to break down student resistance to theory, instructors are increasingly turning to active learning approaches. Active learning exercises, then, appear…

Holtzman, Mellisa

2005-01-01

253

Action Learning: Nothing So Practical as a Good Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Kurt Lewin's epigrammatic paradox is particularly true for action learning. Marquardt and Waddill (2004), and previously Yorks O'Neil and Marsick (1999) have approached the issue of the relationship between theory and action learning by looking at a variety of theories which they have placed in "schools". This provides an interesting analysis, but…

Mumford, Alan

2006-01-01

254

A Social Learning Theory Conceptualization of Interpersonal Relationships.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new conceptualization of interpersonal relationship, based on the notions of specific and generalized expectancies and other basic tenets of Rotter's social learning theory, is presented. Interpersonal relationships are translated into the language of social learning theory, with its established body of literature and methodology. Two studies…

Duke, Marshall P.; Nowicki, Stephen

255

Developing a Domain Theory Defining and Exemplifying a Learning Theory of Progressive Attainments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article defines the concept of Domain Theory, or, when educational measurement is the goal, one might call it a "Learning Theory of Progressive Attainments in X Domain". The concept of Domain Theory is first shown to be rooted in validity theory, then the concept of domain theory is expanded to amplify its necessary but long neglected…

Bunderson, C. Victor

2011-01-01

256

Embracing Complexity: Using Technology to Develop a Life-Long Learning Model for Non-Working Time in the Interdependent Homes for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to employ complexity theory as a theoretical framework and technology to facilitate the development of a life-long learning model for non-working time in the interdependent homes for adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). A "Shining Star Sustainable Action Project" of the ROC Foundation for Autistic Children and…

Chiang, I-Tsun; Chen, Mei-Li

2011-01-01

257

Educating the adult brain: How the neuroscience of learning can inform educational policy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The acquisition of new skills in adulthood can positively affect an individual's quality of life, including their earning potential. In some cases, such as the learning of literacy in developing countries, it can provide an avenue to escape from poverty. In developed countries, job retraining in adulthood contributes to the flexibility of labour markets. For all adults, learning opportunities increase participation in society and family life. However, the popular view is that adults are less able to learn for an intrinsic reason: their brains are less plastic than in childhood. This article reviews what is currently known from neuroscientific research about how brain plasticity changes with age, with a particular focus on the ability to acquire new skills in adulthood. Anchoring their review in the examples of the adult acquisition of literacy and new motor skills, the authors address five specific questions: (1) Are sensitive periods in brain development relevant to learning complex educational skills like literacy? (2) Can adults become proficient in a new skill? (3) Can everyone learn equally effectively in adulthood? (4) What is the role of the learning environment? (5) Does adult education cost too much? They identify areas where further research is needed and conclude with a summary of principles for enhancing adult learning now established on a neuroscience foundation.

Knowland, Victoria C. P.; Thomas, Michael S. C.

2014-05-01

258

Social Learning Theory and the Health Belief Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Health Belief Model, social learning theory (recently relabelled social cognitive theory), self-efficacy, and locus of control have all been applied with varying success to problems of explaining, predicting, and influencing behavior. Yet, there is con ceptual confusion among researchers and practitioners about the interrelationships of these theories and variables. This article attempts to show how these explanatory fac tors

Irwin M. Rosenstock; Victor J. Strecher; Marshall H. Becker

1988-01-01

259

Turning Learning Theory into Classroom Instruction: A Minicase Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Illustrates how a group of teachers went about addressing the issue of turning theory into classroom practice, to illuminate the nature of the issues to be addressed when teachers seek to engage in the theory-into-practice process. Presents a table (created by this group) which is a framework for turning a theory of learning into classroom reading…

Cambourne, Brian

2001-01-01

260

Adults' Learning about Science in Free-choice Settings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper synthesizes findings from three studies to answer a general question: What do casual, adult visitors learn about science from their science-related experiences in free-choice settings? Specifically we asked whether there are changes in how people think about science in their daily lives, the nature and use of scientific knowledge, and its communication by scientists. The three studies involved samples of visitors to an interactive science centre, visitors to a traditional natural history museum, and attendees at a series of public lectures, each given by an expert scientist in human genetics. Pretest and post-test data collected by parallel questionnaires indicated that, despite the different nature of their experience in the three different settings, participants became more positive about the value of science and the work done by scientists and their ability to communicate with the public. At all venues, however, participants became less scientific in their thinking about the nature of scientific knowledge, becoming more likely to believe it to be infallible. The consistency of these findings was surprising, and participants’ changed views about the nature of scientific knowledge were unexpected. Possible explanations for theses outcomes were suggested in terms of participants’ reasons for attending the venue, the nature of their engagement, and the non-controversial ways in which the exhibitions and lectures were structured. The findings suggest that the educational role of free-choice settings should be considered carefully, particularly with regard to the representation of science.

Rennie, Léonie J.; Williams, Gina F.

2006-06-01

261

Learning Study Guided by Variation Theory: Exemplified by Children Learning to Halve and Double Whole Numbers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aims to describe how the learning study model can be used to improve lesson design and children's learning outcomes by enabling them to perceive and define the critical aspects of the object of learning, guided by variation theory. Three lesson designs were used with three groups of children (A = 24, B = 13, C = 14) from two…

Holmqvist Olander, Mona; Nyberg, Eva

2014-01-01

262

Constructivist Learning Theory and Climate Science Communication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Communicating climate science is a form of education. A scientist giving a television interview or testifying before Congress is engaged in an educational activity, though one not identical to teaching graduate students. Knowledge, including knowledge about climate science, should never be communicated as a mere catalogue of facts. Science is a process, a way of regarding the natural world, and a fascinating human activity. A great deal is already known about how to do a better job of science communication, but implementing change is not easy. I am confident that improving climate science communication will involve the paradigm of constructivist learning theory, which traces its roots to the 20th-century Swiss epistemologist Jean Piaget, among others. This theory emphasizes the role of the teacher as supportive facilitator rather than didactic lecturer, "a guide on the side, not a sage on the stage." It also stresses the importance of the teacher making a serious effort to understand and appreciate the prior knowledge and viewpoint of the student, recognizing that students' minds are not empty vessels to be filled or blank slates to be written on. Instead, students come to class with a background of life experiences and a body of existing knowledge, of varying degrees of correctness or accuracy, about almost any topic. Effective communication is also usually a conversation rather than a monologue. We know too that for many audiences, the most trusted messengers are those who share the worldview and cultural values of those with whom they are communicating. Constructivist teaching methods stress making use of the parallels between learning and scientific research, such as the analogies between assessing prior knowledge of the audience and surveying scientific literature for a research project. Meanwhile, a well-funded and effective professional disinformation campaign has been successful in sowing confusion, and as a result, many people mistakenly think climate change science is unreliable or is controversial within the expert community. Thus, an urgent task for climate scientists may be to give the public useful guidelines for recognizing and rejecting junk science and disinformation.

Somerville, R. C.

2012-12-01

263

A Research Strategy for Studying Learning Disabled Adolescents and Young Adults  

E-print Network

Unique problems related to adolescents and young adults which researchers must consider in designing interventions are discussed. These unique factors associate with the condition of learning disabilities in adolescents ...

Schumaker, Jean B.; Alley, Gordon R.; Warner, Michael M.; Deshler, Donald D.

1980-01-01

264

Representation of Early Sensory Experience in the Adult Auditory Midbrain: Implications for Vocal Learning  

PubMed Central

Vocal learning in songbirds and humans occurs by imitation of adult vocalizations. In both groups, vocal learning includes a perceptual phase during which juveniles birds and infants memorize adult vocalizations. Despite intensive research, the neural mechanisms supporting this auditory memory are still poorly understood. The present functional MRI study demonstrates that in adult zebra finches, the right auditory midbrain nucleus responds selectively to the copied vocalizations. The selective signal is distinct from selectivity for the bird's own song and does not simply reflect acoustic differences between the stimuli. Furthermore, the amplitude of the selective signal is positively correlated with the strength of vocal learning, measured by the amount of song that experimental birds copied from the adult model. These results indicate that early sensory experience can generate a long-lasting memory trace in the auditory midbrain of songbirds that may support song learning. PMID:23637903

van der Kant, Anne; Derégnaucourt, Sébastien; Gahr, Manfred; Van der Linden, Annemie; Poirier, Colline

2013-01-01

265

Assumptions and Strategies for Conducting Research with Learning Disabled Adolescents and Young Adults  

E-print Network

This paper details the assumptions about learning disabled adolescents and young adults as well as assumptions about conducting research with this population held by researchers at the Kansas Institute. Strategies developed ...

Meyen, Edward L.; Schiefelbusch, Richard L.; Deshler, Donald D.; Alley, Gordon R.; Moran, Mary Ross; Clark, Frances L.

1980-01-01

266

Olfactory learning promotes input-specific synaptic plasticity in adult-born neurons.  

PubMed

The production of new neurons in the olfactory bulb (OB) through adulthood is a major mechanism of structural and functional plasticity underlying learning-induced circuit remodeling. The recruitment of adult-born OB neurons depends not only on sensory input but also on the context in which the olfactory stimulus is received. Among the multiple steps of adult neurogenesis, the integration and survival of adult-born neurons are both strongly influenced by olfactory learning. Conversely, optogenetic stimulation of adult-born neurons has been shown to specifically improve olfactory learning and long-term memory. However, the nature of the circuit and the synaptic mechanisms underlying this reciprocal influence are not yet known. Here, we showed that olfactory learning increases the spine density in a region-restricted manner along the dendritic tree of adult-born granule cells (GCs). Anatomical and electrophysiological analysis of adult-born GCs showed that olfactory learning promotes a remodeling of both excitatory and inhibitory inputs selectively in the deep dendritic domain. Circuit mapping revealed that the malleable dendritic portion of adult-born neurons receives excitatory inputs mostly from the regions of the olfactory cortex that project back to the OB. Finally, selective optogenetic stimulation of olfactory cortical projections to the OB showed that learning strengthens these inputs onto adult-born GCs. We conclude that learning promotes input-specific synaptic plasticity in adult-born neurons, which reinforces the top-down influence from the olfactory cortex to early stages of olfactory information processing. PMID:25189772

Lepousez, Gabriel; Nissant, Antoine; Bryant, Alex K; Gheusi, Gilles; Greer, Charles A; Lledo, Pierre-Marie

2014-09-23

267

Adolescent development, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function, and programming of adult learning and memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic exposure to stress is known to affect learning and memory in adults through the release of glucocorticoid hormones by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. In adults, glucocorticoids alter synaptic structure and function in brain regions that express high levels of glucocorticoid receptors and that mediate goal-directed behaviour and learning and memory. In contrast to relatively transient effects of stress on

Cheryl M. McCormick; Iva Z. Mathews

2010-01-01

268

Towards a Theory of e-Learning: Experiential e-Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

E-learning is frequently technology-led rather than theory-led. In order to provide a deeper theoretical foundation for the development of e-learning, this case study uses a model developed from experiential learning theory as the practical basis for the design of an induction CD-Rom for students. In moving from a face-to-face experience to an electronic experience, video content was added to text-based

Colin Beard

269

Measuring student learning with item response theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate short-term learning from hints and feedback in a Web-based physics tutoring system. Both the skill of students and the difficulty and discrimination of items were determined by applying item response theory (IRT) to the first answers of students who are working on for-credit homework items in an introductory Newtonian physics course. We show that after tutoring a shifted logistic item response function with lower discrimination fits the students’ second responses to an item previously answered incorrectly. Student skill decreased by 1.0 standard deviation when students used no tutoring between their (incorrect) first and second attempts, which we attribute to “item-wrong bias.” On average, using hints or feedback increased students’ skill by 0.8 standard deviation. A skill increase of 1.9 standard deviation was observed when hints were requested after viewing, but prior to attempting to answer, a particular item. The skill changes measured in this way will enable the use of IRT to assess students based on their second attempt in a tutoring environment.

Lee, Young-Jin; Palazzo, David J.; Warnakulasooriya, Rasil; Pritchard, David E.

2008-06-01

270

Measuring student learning with item response theory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We investigate short-term learning from hints and feedback in a Web-based physics tutoring system. Both the skill of students and the difficulty and discrimination of items were determined by applying item response theory (IRT) to the first answers of students who are working on for-credit homework items in an introductory Newtonian physics course. We show that after tutoring a shifted logistic item response function with lower discrimination fits the studentsâ second responses to an item previously answered incorrectly. Student skill decreased by 1.0 standard deviation when students used no tutoring between their (incorrect) first and second attempts, which we attribute to âitem-wrong bias.â On average, using hints or feedback increased studentsâ skill by 0.8 standard deviation. A skill increase of 1.9 standard deviation was observed when hints were requested after viewing, but prior to attempting to answer, a particular item. The skill changes measured in this way will enable the use of IRT to assess students based on their second attempt in a tutoring environment.

Lee, Young-Jin; J., Palazzo D.; Warnakulasooriya, Rasil; Pritchard, David E.

2008-09-24

271

Using Learning Styles Theory in Engineering Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies have shown that, while learning different concepts, people sometimes take different approaches (learning styles). Accordingly, their performance reflected differently in their academic studies. With the effect of globalisation to the educational environments, the influence of individual learning styles on educational performance is getting…

Cagiltay, Nergiz Ercil

2008-01-01

272

Mastery Learning: Theory, Research, and Implementation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mastery learning is a group-based, teacher-paced instructional strategy. Because it is also committed to criterion-referenced evaluation and to a strong emphasis on feedback and correctives throughout the learning experience, it is often confused with competency-based education, individualized instruction, and related innovations. Mastery learning

Ryan, Doris W.; Schmidt, Martha

273

Research Utilization in the Field of Adult Learning and Literacy: Lessons Learned by NCSALL about Connecting Practice, Policy, and Research. NCSALL Occasional Paper  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This occasional paper is a summary of what the staff of the National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy (NCSALL) Dissemination Initiative learned about how to connect research, policy and practice in ways that promote evidence-based practice in the field of adult learning and literacy. NCSALL Tools for connecting practice, policy,…

Smith, Cristine; Bingman, Beth; Beall, Kaye

2007-01-01

274

Use of Language Learning Strategies by Spanish Adults for Business English  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this phenomenological study was to explore the language learning strategies (LLSs) of Spanish adults in a business context. The research questions examined the specific LLSs used by Spanish adults in business communication tasks. In addition, this study addressed the cultural influences on LLSs from the Spanish educational system along…

Judge, Jeffrey Wallace

2012-01-01

275

Women Who Learn Computing Like Men: Different Gender Positions on Basic Computer Courses in Adult Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article argues that research on gender and adult learning too often regards men and women as unified and separate groups, and does not take intra-gender variation into account. It presents one possible approach to address this problem, in a study of 142 women and 35 men attending basic computer courses in Swedish municipal adult education…

Salminen-Karlsson, Minna

2009-01-01

276

Making a Difference: Leading and Managing for Quality Improvement in Adult and Community Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide looks at demands on leaders and managers in adult and community learning (ACL) in the roles and issues they face in the context of quality improvement (QI). It suggests practical approaches for improving the quality of provision for adults. The guide's design builds on current practice toward the desired state of excellence in all…

Ravenhall, Mark; Kenway, Mike

277

Adult Learning, Generativity and "Successful" Aging in Multicultural Perspective: A Hmong American Educational Biography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document examines the themes of adult learning, generativity, and successful aging against the backdrop of the biography of a Hmong refugee who immigrated to the United States in 1988 at the age of 35, began studying English as a second language (ESL), and continues to study ESL in adult education classes while six of his seven children…

Hones, Donald F.

278

WAIS-R Scores as Predictors of Employment Success and Failure among Adults with Learning Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eighty-six adults (mean age 26 years) with learning disabilities were evaluated clinically using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R). Significant relationships were identified between subjects' WAIS-R intelligence quotients and scaled scores and job success. (Author/DB)

Faas, Larry A.; D'Alonzo, Bruno J.

1990-01-01

279

The Processes that Promote Learning in Adult Mentoring and Coaching Dyadic Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a study of 10 adults participating in one-to-one mentoring and/or coaching. Participants were selected for interviewing through a purposive sampling process from leading international mentoring and coaching organizations. Selection criteria included (a) being an adult, (b) participating in a dyadic learning, and (c) regarding that…

Marx, Michael J.

2009-01-01

280

Dispositional Factors Affecting Motivation during Learning in Adult Basic and Secondary Education Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research indicates that about a quarter of adult students separate from formal adult basic and secondary education (ABE/ASE) programs before completing one educational level. This retrospective study explores individual dispositional factors that affect motivation during learning, particularly students' goals, goal-directed thinking and action…

Mellard, Daryl F.; Krieshok, Thomas; Fall, Emily; Woods, Kari

2013-01-01

281

Greening the Net Generation: Outdoor Adult Learning in the Digital Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adult learning today takes place primarily within walled classrooms or in other indoor settings, and often in front of various types of digital screens. As adults have adopted the digital technologies and indoor lifestyle attributed to the so-called "Net Generation," we have become detached from contact with the natural world outdoors.…

Walter, Pierre

2013-01-01

282

Why Adults Participate in Learning Activities in Jordan: Guidelines for Recruitment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Knowledge of Jordan's historical background and the role of well-educated individuals and groups in motivating adults to participate in learning activities is essential for finding ways to recruit and retain adults in education programs. Some means that have proven effective include the following: (1) persuading religious and social leaders to…

Nimer, Kamal

283

Images of Possibility. Creating Learning Opportunities for Adults with Mental Health Difficulties.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book, which is the product of a national survey of all further education colleges and local education authorities in England and Wales, explains how adult educators can create learning opportunities for adults with mental health difficulties. The chapter topics are as follows: setting the scene; labels applied to people with mental health…

Wertheimer, Alison

284

Adult Learning: Implications for Research and Policy in the Eighties. A Symposium. Information Series No. 194.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Themes and thoughts (rather than a literal transcription of proceedings) are presented on a symposium held in November, 1979, on the research, policy, and practice of adult learning. Participants were federal officers, adult education professors, researchers in business and education, and policy developers. The symposium was organized around four…

Selz, Nina; Jones, Joan Simon

285

Adult education, popular culture, and women's identity development: self-directed learning with The Avengers  

E-print Network

episodes of The Avengers as a portal to adult learning. It further explores the ways in which television, as a form of public pedagogy, can help facilitate the formation of a critical or feminist identity among adult learner viewers. The research questions...

Wright, Robin Redmon

2009-06-02

286

Preliminary Findings of Learning Gains for Adult Learners with Developmental Disabilities. Research Brief No. 6  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Public perception of adults with developmental disabilities realizing learning gains often remains illusive. This paper highlights key findings in achievement in basic skills for adults with mental retardation on a functional assessment in a life skills context for three program years (2003-2006). In this study the time period between the pre- and…

Posey, Virginia; Jacobsen, Jared

2007-01-01

287

A theory for how sensorimotor skills are learned and retained in noisy and nonstationary neural circuits  

PubMed Central

During the process of skill learning, synaptic connections in our brains are modified to form motor memories of learned sensorimotor acts. The more plastic the adult brain is, the easier it is to learn new skills or adapt to neurological injury. However, if the brain is too plastic and the pattern of synaptic connectivity is constantly changing, new memories will overwrite old memories, and learning becomes unstable. This trade-off is known as the stability–plasticity dilemma. Here a theory of sensorimotor learning and memory is developed whereby synaptic strengths are perpetually fluctuating without causing instability in motor memory recall, as long as the underlying neural networks are sufficiently noisy and massively redundant. The theory implies two distinct stages of learning—preasymptotic and postasymptotic—because once the error drops to a level comparable to that of the noise-induced error, further error reduction requires altered network dynamics. A key behavioral prediction derived from this analysis is tested in a visuomotor adaptation experiment, and the resultant learning curves are modeled with a nonstationary neural network. Next, the theory is used to model two-photon microscopy data that show, in animals, high rates of dendritic spine turnover, even in the absence of overt behavioral learning. Finally, the theory predicts enhanced task selectivity in the responses of individual motor cortical neurons as the level of task expertise increases. From these considerations, a unique interpretation of sensorimotor memory is proposed—memories are defined not by fixed patterns of synaptic weights but, rather, by nonstationary synaptic patterns that fluctuate coherently. PMID:24324147

Ajemian, Robert; D’Ausilio, Alessandro; Moorman, Helene; Bizzi, Emilio

2013-01-01

288

A theory for how sensorimotor skills are learned and retained in noisy and nonstationary neural circuits.  

PubMed

During the process of skill learning, synaptic connections in our brains are modified to form motor memories of learned sensorimotor acts. The more plastic the adult brain is, the easier it is to learn new skills or adapt to neurological injury. However, if the brain is too plastic and the pattern of synaptic connectivity is constantly changing, new memories will overwrite old memories, and learning becomes unstable. This trade-off is known as the stability-plasticity dilemma. Here a theory of sensorimotor learning and memory is developed whereby synaptic strengths are perpetually fluctuating without causing instability in motor memory recall, as long as the underlying neural networks are sufficiently noisy and massively redundant. The theory implies two distinct stages of learning--preasymptotic and postasymptotic--because once the error drops to a level comparable to that of the noise-induced error, further error reduction requires altered network dynamics. A key behavioral prediction derived from this analysis is tested in a visuomotor adaptation experiment, and the resultant learning curves are modeled with a nonstationary neural network. Next, the theory is used to model two-photon microscopy data that show, in animals, high rates of dendritic spine turnover, even in the absence of overt behavioral learning. Finally, the theory predicts enhanced task selectivity in the responses of individual motor cortical neurons as the level of task expertise increases. From these considerations, a unique interpretation of sensorimotor memory is proposed--memories are defined not by fixed patterns of synaptic weights but, rather, by nonstationary synaptic patterns that fluctuate coherently. PMID:24324147

Ajemian, Robert; D'Ausilio, Alessandro; Moorman, Helene; Bizzi, Emilio

2013-12-24

289

Learning Theories Applied to Teaching Technology: Constructivism versus Behavioral Theory for Instructing Multimedia Software Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study sought to find evidence for a beneficial learning theory to teach computer software programs. Additionally, software was analyzed for each learning theory's applicability to resolve whether certain software requires a specific method of education. The results are meant to give educators more effective teaching tools, so students…

Reed, Cajah S.

2012-01-01

290

Learning and teaching the theories of Melanie Klein  

Microsoft Academic Search

I shall attempt to bring together here thoughts of experienced clinicians and teachers who have taught Melanie Klein's theories to child psychotherapists. However, most of the contributors have also taught Klein to clinical trainees in adult psychoanalytic work and to different groups abroad and, in some cases, to already trained psychotherapists or psychoanalysts. Klein's theories are introduced at different stages

Karen Proner

1998-01-01

291

One of the Paths of Development of Soviet Learning Theory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies in Soviet learning theory are reviewed to provide information to educators as they work with didacticians and methodologists to improve the public education system along lines specified by the 25th Party Congress. (DB)

Talyzina, N. F.

1978-01-01

292

A Feminist Approach to Teaching Learning Theory with Educational Applications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a learning theory course using methods recommended in the book, "Women's Ways of Knowing." Outlines course activities and assignments. Maintains that students gave the course high ratings on evaluations. (CFR)

Ortman, Patricia E.

1993-01-01

293

Adventure Learning: Theory and Implementation of Hybrid Learning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adventure Learning (AL), a hybrid distance education approach, provides students and teachers with the opportunity to learn about authentic curricular content areas while interacting with adventurers, students, and content experts at various locations throughout the world within an online learning environment (Doering, 2006). An AL curriculum and online environment provides collaborative community spaces where traditional hierarchical classroom roles are blurred and learning is transformed. AL has most recently become popular in K-12 classrooms nationally and internationally with millions of students participating online. However, in the literature, the term "adventure learning" many times gets confused with phrases such as "virtual fieldtrip" and activities where someone "exploring" is posting photos and text. This type of "adventure learning" is not "Adventure Learning" (AL), but merely a slideshow of their activities. The learning environment may not have any curricular and/or social goals, and if it does, the environment design many times does not support these objectives. AL, on the other hand, is designed so that both teachers and students understand that their online and curriculum activities are in synch and supportive of the curricular goals. In AL environments, there are no disparate activities as the design considers the educational, social, and technological affordances (Kirschner, Strijbos, Kreijns, & Beers, 2004); in other words, the artifacts of the learning environment encourage and support the instructional goals, social interactions, collaborative efforts, and ultimately learning. AL is grounded in two major theoretical approaches to learning - experiential and inquiry-based learning. As Kolb (1984) noted, in experiential learning, a learner creates meaning from direct experiences and reflections. Such is the goal of AL within the classroom. Additionally, AL affords learners a real-time authentic online learning experience concurrently as they study the AL curriculum. AL is also grounded in an inquiry- based approach to learning where learners are pursuing answers to questions they have posed rather than focusing on memorizing and regurgitating isolated, irrelevant facts. Both the curriculum and the online classroom are developed to foster students' abilities to inquire via "identifying and posing questions, designing and conducting investigations, analyzing data and evidence, using models and explanations, and communicating findings" (Keys and Bryan, 2001, p 121). The union of experiential and inquiry-based learning is the foundation of AL, guiding and supporting authentic learning endeavors. Based on these theoretical foundations, the design of the adventure learning experiences follows seven interdependent principles that further operationalize AL: researched curriculum grounded in inquiry; collaboration and interaction opportunities between students, experts, peers, and content; utilization of the Internet for curriculum and learning environment delivery; enhancement of curriculum with media and text from the field delivered in a timely manner; synched learning opportunities with the AL curriculum; pedagogical guidelines of the curriculum and the online learning environment; and adventure-based education. (Doering, 2006).

Doering, A.

2008-12-01

294

Raising the Bar: A Qualitative Study of Adult Learning Theory and Its Role on the Effectiveness of Law School Education in Preparing New Graduates to Begin the Practice of Law  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative research study examined the effectiveness of law school education in preparing new attorneys to practice law from the view point of novice criminal law attorneys. A debate has existed over the past few decades between legal academia and the practicing bar as to what are the most effective learning processes and strategies of…

Taylor, Bryan Finley

2010-01-01

295

Profiling Executive Dysfunction in Adults with Autism and Comorbid Learning Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Executive dysfunction is thought to be primary to autism. We examined differences in executive function between 20 adults with autism and learning disability and 23 individuals with learning disabilities outside the autistic spectrum. All participants were matched for chronological age and full-scale IQ, and were given a battery of tasks assessing…

Barnard, Louise; Muldoon, Kevin; Hasan, Reem; O'Brien, Gregory; Stewart, Mary

2008-01-01

296

Responding to the Mental Health and Well-Being Agenda in Adult Community Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the United Kingdom, changes in the policy, funding and commissioning landscape for mental health and well-being are posing opportunities and challenges for adult community learning (ACL). Opportunities include increased recognition of, and funding for, the "wider benefits" of learning, whereas challenges include the risks of ACL…

Lewis, Lydia

2014-01-01

297

A Community Development Approach to Service-Learning: Building Social Capital between Rural Youth and Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using 4-H and FFA case study findings, this article explores how community service-learning supports the building of social capital between rural youth and adults and the positive effects on community viability. Key elements of practice form a community development approach to service-learning, which opens up doorways for youth to partner with…

Henness, Steven A.; Ball, Anna L.; Moncheski, MaryJo

2013-01-01

298

The Use of Psychotropic Medication with Adults with Learning Disabilities: Survey Findings and Implications for Services  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the findings of a survey into prescribing of psychotropic medication with adults with learning disabilities in a British city. A self-completion questionnaire was sent to staff in dispersed housing and community learning disability teams to gather information about the number of people prescribed psychoactive medication, the…

Chapman, Melanie; Gledhill, Paul; Jones, Phillip; Burton, Mark; Soni, Saroj

2006-01-01

299

Reaching Out: A Starter Kit for Adult Education Distance Learning Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is intended as a template for individuals initiating and developing adult education distance learning programs. The introduction discusses the following issues: benefits of distance learning; flexibility; confidentiality; retention; and the best students to target. The template and supplementary materials are organized in five…

Vaughn, Carol

300

Involving Tutors and Support Staff in the Adult and Community Learning Quality Agenda.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet outlines the new policy context facing adult and community learning (ACL) providers in Great Britain in their pursuit of high-quality learning experiences for their customers. It shows how a Total Quality Management (TQM) approach to supporting staff development can be effective in securing quality. TQM components are values,…

Ravenhall, Mark; Ogilvie, Margaret; Ewens, David

301

Distance Learning and Adult Students. A Review of Recent Developments in the Public Education Sector.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This descriptive state-of-the-art report presents a survey of recent distance learning developments in Britain, mainly by local colleges in the public education sector, and discusses the motivation and experience of adult learners. Distance learning in general is examined, and current models of provision and the audiences served by these programs…

Advisory Council for Adult and Continuing Education, Leicester (England).

302

Patterns of Learning in a Sample of Adult Returners to Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents empirical research exploring adult returner students' patterns of learning via qualitative analysis of a series of semi-structured interviews. Interviewees' comments shed light on the relation between patterns of learning on the one hand, and study skills, epistemological issues and attitudes to peer interaction on…

Anderson, Anthony; Johnston, Bill; McDonald, Alexandra

2014-01-01

303

Reclaiming the Radical: Using Fiction to Explore Adult Learning Connected to Citizenship  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditionally, adult education has had a focus on learning connected to social purpose. In the current neoliberal climate, lifelong learning is increasingly defined as an endeavour whereby individuals must situate themselves in a competitive position in order to succeed in the global marketplace. Radical educators who believe that education should…

Gouthro, Patricia; Holloway, Susan

2013-01-01

304

ICT for Adults with Learning Disabilities: An Organisation-Wide Audit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a survey of microcomputer use for adults with learning disability within The Home Farm Trust, a United Kingdom national organization for people with learning disability that was carried out in light of a planned organization-wide initiative to introduce modern information and communications technology to service users. (Author/LRW)

Aspinall, Ann; Hegarty, John R.

2001-01-01

305

The Right Tools for the Job--Technology Options for Adult Online Learning and Collaboration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many options exist for using technology as a tool for adult learning, and each day, it becomes easier to share information online than it ever has been. Online learning technology has grown from one-sided communications to numerous options for audience engagement and interactivity. This guide introduces a variety of tools, online platforms, and…

Regional Educational Laboratory, 2014

2014-01-01

306

The Multisensory Handbook: A Guide for Children and Adults with Sensory Learning Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Do you support a child or adult with sensory perceptual issues or cognitive impairment? For people with challenging sensory and cognitive conditions, everyday life can become so unpredictable and chaotic that over time, lack of engagement can often lead to a state of learned helplessness. In this insightful text, Paul Pagliano shows how "learned

Pagliano, Paul

2012-01-01

307

Subjects to Citizens: Adult Learning and the Challenges of Democracy in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Theme 1 of the "Hamburg Declaration on Adult Learning" boldly proclaimed that active citizenship and full participation of all citizens was the necessary foundation for "the creation of a learning society committed to social justice and general well-being" (UNESCO, 1997, p. 4). The "Declaration" advocated that future societies create "greater…

Welton, Michael

2013-01-01

308

Assessment for Learning: Understanding Theory to Improve Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The assessment for learning framework in education has become big business: huge quantities of time, money and energy have been invested in England, Wales and more recently the USA. This article shows that the assessment for learning theory is inefficient and often contradictory. Black and Wiliam's earlier work provides much of the theoretical…

Taras, Maddalena

2007-01-01

309

Reviewing Theory and Research on Informal and Incidental Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Leaders and employees of today's organizations typically assume increasing responsibility for their own and their organization's learning. Much of that learning is informal or incidental. This article reviews theory and research to update that model and identify future research challenges. Through this review, groundwork will be laid for…

Marsick, Victoria J.; Watkins, Karen E.; Callahan, Mary Wilson; Volpe, Marie

2006-01-01

310

Supporting Alternative Strategies for Learning Chemical Applications of Group Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A group theory course for chemists was taught entirely with process oriented guided inquiry learning (POGIL) to facilitate alternative strategies for learning. Students completed a test of one aspect of visuospatial aptitude to determine their individual approaches to solving spatial tasks, and were sorted into groups for analysis on the basis of…

Southam, Daniel C.; Lewis, Jennifer E.

2013-01-01

311

Toward a Semiotic Theory of Choice and of Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this essay, Andrew Stables and Stephen Gough explore some of the implications for educational policy and practice of a view of living (and, therefore, of learning) as semiotic engagement. Such a view, Stables and Gough argue, has the potential to displace or circumvent essentially Cartesian models currently dominant within learning theory

Stables, Andrew; Gough, Stephen

2006-01-01

312

Assessing Student Learning in Academic Advising Using Social Cognitive Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated whether the social cognitive theory constructs of self-efficacy and self-regulated learning apply to academic advising for measuring student learning outcomes. Community college students (N = 120) participated in an individual academic-advising session. We assessed students' post-intervention self-efficacy in academic planning…

Erlich, Richard J.; Russ-Eft, Darlene F.

2013-01-01

313

Geotechnical Physical Modeling for Education: Learning Theory Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

As physical modeling sees increasing use in geotechnical engineering education, there is a need for a strategic approach for integrating this powerful simulation technique into courses in a way that ensures the greatest benefit for students. For this reason, a learning theory approach, which recognizes the natural learning cycle of students, has been developed. The approach is based on a

Joseph Wartman

2006-01-01

314

Toward a Theory of Human Resource Development Learning Participation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article fills a theoretical gap by identifying an understudied subject area for human resource development (HRD) theory building, learning participation of HRD interventions in organizations. The topic has critical significance in current HRD practices, such as concerns on e-learning dropout rates and HRD measurement and evaluation. First, a comprehensive literature review and analysis are presented to identify the research

Greg G. Wang; Jia Wang

2004-01-01

315

A Natural Teaching Method Based on Learning Theory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The natural teaching method is active and student-centered, based on schema and constructivist theories, and informed by research in neuroplasticity. A schema is a mental picture or understanding of something we have learned. Humans can have knowledge only to the degree to which they have constructed schemas from learning experiences and practice.…

Smilkstein, Rita

1991-01-01

316

Lifelong Learning and Adult Education. Special Issue in Memory of CIHED Advisory Board Member J. Roby Kidd.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This newsletter deals with lifelong learning and adult and continuing education. Included in the issue are the following articles: "The Learning Society," by Solveig M. Turner; "Adult Education at the Beginning of the 1980s," by J. Roby Kidd; "Lifelong Learning in an International Perspective: Selected Case Studies," by J. Roby Kidd; "Continuing…

CIHED Newsletter, 1982

1982-01-01

317

Making the Jump: 'We Can Do a Good Job'. A Pack for Adults with Learning Difficulties Who Want To Work.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document uses clear language and pictures to help adults with learning disabilities learn how other adults with learning difficulties have made the jump from courses and training into jobs and kept working. The following are among the topics discussed in Sections 1 through 9: (1) the objectives and activities of the Making the Jump project…

Jacobsen, Yola

318

The Attribution Theory of Learning and Advising Students on Academic Probation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Academic advisors need to be knowledgeable of the ways students learn. To aid advisors in their exploration of learning theories, I provide an overview of the attribution theory of learning, including recent applications of the theory to research in college student learning. An understanding of this theory may help advisors understand student…

Demetriou, Cynthia

2011-01-01

319

Recruitment of Older Adult Patient-Caregiver Dyads for an Online Caregiver Resource Program: Lessons Learned  

PubMed Central

Hip fracture is a significant health problem for older adults and generally requires surgery followed by intensive rehabilitation. Informal caregivers (CGs) can provide vital assistance to older adults recovering from hip fracture. Caregiving is a dyadic process that affects both CGs and care recipients (CRs). In a feasibility study, we assessed the effects of using a theory-based online hip fracture resource program for CGs on both CGs and CRs. In this article, we discuss our recruitment process and the lessons learned. Participants were recruited from six acute hospitals, and CGs used the online resource program for 8 weeks. A total of 256 hip fracture patients were screened, and 164 CRs were ineligible. CG screening was initiated when CRs were determined to be eligible. Among 41 eligible dyads, 36 dyads were recruited. Several challenges to the recruitment of these dyads for online studies were identified, including a low number of eligible dyads in certain hospitals and difficulty recruiting both the CR and the CG during the short hospital stay. Field nurses often had to make multiple trips to the hospital to meet with both the CR and the CG. Thus, when a subject unit is a dyad recruited from acute settings, the resources required for the recruitment may be more than doubled. These challenges could be successfully alleviated with careful planning, competent field staff members, collaboration with hospital staff members, and efficient field operations. PMID:23549905

Orwig, Denise; Resnick, Barbara; Magaziner, Jay; Bellantoni, Michele; Sterling, Robert

2012-01-01

320

A Novel Application of a Model of Adult Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analysis of four transcripts of genetic counseling sessions shows how Jarvis' model of contemplative learning helps elucidate the process genetic clients undergo. The model can be applied in other areas of health care involving patient learning. (SK)

Rae, John

1999-01-01

321

A qualitative study of middle school students' perceptions of factors facilitating the learning of science: Grounded theory and existing theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to explore middle school students' perceptions of what factors facilitated their learning of science. Florida's Educational Reform Act of 1983 funded programs providing the state's precollege students with summer learning opportunities in science. mathematics, and computers. The programs were intended to encourage the development of creative approaches to the teaching of these disciplines. Under this program, between 50 and 60 high-achieving middle school students were in residence on the University of South Florida campus for 12 consecutive days of study in the World of Water (WOW) program. There were two sessions per summer involving a total of 572 participants. Eighi specially trained teachers were in residence with the students. Between 50 and 70 experts from the university, government. business, and industry interacted with the students each year in an innovative science/technology/society (STS) program. An assignment toward the close of the program asked students to reflect on their experiences in residence at the university and write an essay comparing learning in the WOW program to learning in their schools. Those essays were the base for this study. This was a qualitative study using a discursive approach to emergent design to generate grounded theory. Document review, participant observation, and open-ended interviews were used to gather and triangulate data in five phases. Some of the factors that middle school students perceived as helpful to learning science were (a) experiencing the situations about which they were learning; (b) having live presentations by professional experts; (c) doing hands-on activities: (d) being active learners; (e) using inductive reasoning to generate new knowledge; (f) exploring transdisciplinary approaches to problem solving; (g) having adult mentors; (h) interacting with peers and adults; (i) establishing networks; (j) having close personal friends who shared their interest in learning; (k) trusting the individuals in their learning environment, including adults and students; and (1) experiencing a sense of self-reliance. The preceding information was used to generate a series of hypotheses which were woven into a theoretical model. This model suggests that middle school science teacher education would be enhanced by helping prospective and in-service teachers develop and implement strategies that build trust, provide immersion in learning, and use inductive reasoning. This model is currently being used as the theoretical base to convert a traditional junior high school in the South to a middle school.

Spector, Barbara S.; Gibson, Charles W.

322

Rapid taste aversion learning in adult cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The common cuttlefish is an opportunistic predator with certain prey preferences. The literature suggests that learning plays a role in the predatory behaviour of cuttlefish. However, nothing is known about taste aversion learning in cephalopods. We developed a learning procedure in which the preferred prey of the experimental cuttlefish was made distasteful by a bitter taste (quinine). In the training

Anne-Sophie Darmaillacq; Ludovic Dickel; Marie-Paule Chichery; Véronique Agin; Raymond Chichery

2004-01-01

323

Learning and e-learning: the role of theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book chapter reviews the three major theoretical perspectives for the positioning and design of e-learning. A fuller version of this review is available at: http:\\/\\/www.jisc.ac.uk\\/whatwedo\\/programmes\\/elearningpedagogy\\/outcomes.

J. Terry Mayes; Sara De Freitas

2007-01-01

324

Theory of Mind and Central Coherence in Adults with High-Functioning Autism or Asperger Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study investigated theory of mind and central coherence abilities in adults with high-functioning autism (HFA) or Asperger syndrome (AS) using naturalistic tasks. Twenty adults with HFA/AS correctly answered significantly fewer theory of mind questions than 20 controls on a forced-choice response task. On a narrative task, there were no…

Beaumont, Renae; Newcombe, Peter

2006-01-01

325

Reflection in Learning & Professional Development: Theory & Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book reviews the literature on reflection, explores the relationship between reflection and learning, and discusses how reflection can be used to improve learning and professional practice. The following are among the topics discussed: (1) common-sense and developmental stage approaches to reflection; (2) the philosophies of Dewey and…

Moon, Jennifer A.

326

Realizing Wisdom Theory in Complex Learning Networks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The word "wisdom" is rarely seen in contemporary technology and learning discourse. This conceptual paper aims to provide some clear principles that answer the question: How can we establish wisdom in complex learning networks? By considering the nature of contemporary calls for wisdom the paper provides a metatheoretial framework to evaluate the…

Kok, Ayse

2009-01-01

327

Extreme learning machine: Theory and applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is clear that the learning speed of feedforward neural networks is in general far slower than required and it has been a major bottleneck in their applications for past decades. Two key reasons behind may be: (1) the slow gradient-based learning algorithms are extensively used to train neural networks, and (2) all the parameters of the networks are tuned

Guang-Bin Huang; Qin-Yu Zhu; Chee-Kheong Siew

2006-01-01

328

Self-Regulated Learning, Social Cognitive Theory, and Agency  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The conception and theory of agency as self-regulation that is contained within Bandura's social cognitive theory is examined and elaborated in the context of the relevant philosophical history of ideas and through consideration of recent work in theoretical developmental psychology. Implications for self-regulated learning in classrooms are…

Martin, Jack

2004-01-01

329

Community Service-Learning and Cultural-Historical Activity Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the potential of cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT), to provide new insights into community service-learning (CSL) in higher education. While CSL literature acknowledges the influences of John Dewey and Paolo Freire, discussion of the potential contribution of cultural-historical activity theory, rooted in the work of…

Taylor, Alison

2014-01-01

330

Children Balance Theories and Evidence in Exploration, Explanation, and Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We look at the effect of evidence and prior beliefs on exploration, explanation and learning. In Experiment 1, we tested children both with and without differential prior beliefs about balance relationships (Center Theorists, mean: 82 months; Mass Theorists, mean: 89 months; No Theory children, mean: 62 months). Center and Mass Theory children who…

Bonawitz, Elizabeth Baraff; van Schijndel, Tessa J. P.; Friel, Daniel; Schulz, Laura

2012-01-01

331

Cognitive Type Theory & Learning Style, A Teacher's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide provides a practical explanation of cognitive type theory and learning style that will help teachers meet students' needs and discover their own strengths as teachers and colleagues. The introduction provides an overview of the book from the perspective of a high school classroom teacher. Part One introduces the theory of psychological…

Mamchur, Carolyn

332

Evaluation Theory in Problem-Based Learning Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to review evaluation theories and techniques in both the medical and educational fields and to propose an evaluation theory to explain the condition variables, the method variables, and the outcome variables of student assessment in a problem-based learning (PBL) approach. The PBL definition and process are presented,…

Hsu, Yu-chen

333

Learning by Doing--Piagets konstruktivistische Lerntheorie und ihre Konsequenzen fur die padagogische Praxis (Learning by Doing--Piaget's Constructivist Learning Theory and Its Consequences for Pedagogical Practice).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents Jean Piaget's theory of genetic recognition, one of the first constructivist learning theories. Examines critically the relationship of the theory to present-day teaching and learning research, pedagogical practice, and other forms of constructivism. Asserts that one practical application of Piaget's learning theory would be to teach by…

Vollmers, Burkhard

1997-01-01

334

What Non-Readers or Beginning Readers Need To Know: Performance-Based ESL Adult Literacy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The guide provides adult literacy teachers with background information in adult learning and the performance-based approach to literacy education. The first section reviews theory and research on adult learning, including the factors affecting learning (language background, expectations, gender, learning styles and modes, age and health,…

Brod, Shirley

335

Older adults learn less, but still reduce metabolic cost, during motor adaptation  

PubMed Central

The ability to learn new movements and dynamics is important for maintaining independence with advancing age. Age-related sensorimotor changes and increased muscle coactivation likely alter the trial-and-error-based process of adapting to new movement demands (motor adaptation). Here, we asked, to what extent is motor adaptation to novel dynamics maintained in older adults (?65 yr)? We hypothesized that older adults would adapt to the novel dynamics less well than young adults. Because older adults often use muscle coactivation, we expected older adults to use greater muscle coactivation during motor adaptation than young adults. Nevertheless, we predicted that older adults would reduce muscle activity and metabolic cost with motor adaptation, similar to young adults. Seated older (n = 11, 73.8 ± 5.6 yr) and young (n = 15, 23.8 ± 4.7 yr) adults made targeted reaching movements while grasping a robotic arm. We measured their metabolic rate continuously via expired gas analysis. A force field was used to add novel dynamics. Older adults had greater movement deviations and compensated for just 65% of the novel dynamics compared with 84% in young adults. As expected, older adults used greater muscle coactivation than young adults. Last, older adults reduced muscle activity with motor adaptation and had consistent reductions in metabolic cost later during motor adaptation, similar to young adults. These results suggest that despite increased muscle coactivation, older adults can adapt to the novel dynamics, albeit less accurately. These results also suggest that reductions in metabolic cost may be a fundamental feature of motor adaptation. PMID:24133222

Huang, Helen J.

2013-01-01

336

Audiovisual spoken word training can promote or impede auditory-only perceptual learning: prelingually deafened adults with late-acquired cochlear implants versus normal hearing adults  

PubMed Central

Training with audiovisual (AV) speech has been shown to promote auditory perceptual learning of vocoded acoustic speech by adults with normal hearing. In Experiment 1, we investigated whether AV speech promotes auditory-only (AO) perceptual learning in prelingually deafened adults with late-acquired cochlear implants. Participants were assigned to learn associations between spoken disyllabic C(=consonant)V(=vowel)CVC non-sense words and non-sense pictures (fribbles), under AV and then AO (AV-AO; or counter-balanced AO then AV, AO-AV, during Periods 1 then 2) training conditions. After training on each list of paired-associates (PA), testing was carried out AO. Across all training, AO PA test scores improved (7.2 percentage points) as did identification of consonants in new untrained CVCVC stimuli (3.5 percentage points). However, there was evidence that AV training impeded immediate AO perceptual learning: During Period-1, training scores across AV and AO conditions were not different, but AO test scores were dramatically lower in the AV-trained participants. During Period-2 AO training, the AV-AO participants obtained significantly higher AO test scores, demonstrating their ability to learn the auditory speech. Across both orders of training, whenever training was AV, AO test scores were significantly lower than training scores. Experiment 2 repeated the procedures with vocoded speech and 43 normal-hearing adults. Following AV training, their AO test scores were as high as or higher than following AO training. Also, their CVCVC identification scores patterned differently than those of the cochlear implant users. In Experiment 1, initial consonants were most accurate, and in Experiment 2, medial consonants were most accurate. We suggest that our results are consistent with a multisensory reverse hierarchy theory, which predicts that, whenever possible, perceivers carry out perceptual tasks immediately based on the experience and biases they bring to the task. We point out that while AV training could be an impediment to immediate unisensory perceptual learning in cochlear implant patients, it was also associated with higher scores during training. PMID:25206344

Bernstein, Lynne E.; Eberhardt, Silvio P.; Auer, Edward T.

2014-01-01

337

Adult Student Learning Behaviors in a Roadblock Mathematics Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adult students are a growing population on college campuses. Adult students have lower graduation rates and longer times to graduation than traditional-age students. The ability to pass a college level mathematics course is a key factor in the graduation rates of all students. Past research has identified developmental mathematics, college…

Tennant, Aimee

2012-01-01

338

Lessons in Conference Planning: Adult Learning Principles at Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chairing the annual Mountain Plains Adult Education Association Conference for 250 adult educators in Coeur d'Alene this past spring provided an opportunity for the author to offer a hands-on, conference planning experience to graduate students. Wanting to try something outside the typical classroom experience, the author organized a special…

Holyoke, Laura B.

2007-01-01

339

Activity Theory and Situated Learning Theory: Contrasting Views of Educational Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to offer a critical discussion of the practice turn in contemporary educational research. In order to make the discussion specific, I use two influential theories, namely activity theory and situated learning theory. They both turn to the notion of practice in order to overcome the limitations of mentalist and…

Arnseth, Hans Christian

2008-01-01

340

Design for learning: adapting the microscopic anatomy laboratory to adult learners.  

PubMed

Medical school curricula are undergoing transformational change in response to calls for integrating content across courses and years to enable better retention and application and for individualizing learning to meet the diverse backgrounds and thus differing needs of students. To address the related teaching challenges, faculty can employ solid principles of adult learning and instructional design and use teaching strategies that stimulate different learning styles. We developed laboratory sessions that follow a learner-centered instructional design model we refer to as "PLHET," reflecting the steps of preparing, linking, hooking, engaging, and transferring learning, and also applied teaching strategies that reflect Kolb's four styles of learning (accommodative, divergent, assimilative, and convergent). We utilized a group learning format to promote active learning, teamwork, and self-direction. Preliminary data based on student surveys of laboratory activity show positive responses. In the future, we will test the hypothesis that this design will improve medical students' performance. PMID:23081886

Jurjus, Rosalyn A; Krum, Janette; Goldman, Ellen F

2013-01-01

341

Bridging Generations: Applying "Adult" Leadership Theories to Youth Leadership Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To explore the relationship between youth and adult leadership--or the relationship between the youth leadership literature and the adult leadership literature--it is important to examine where and how youth appear in the discussions on leadership. Based on a comparison of the literature focused on adult leadership development compared to the…

MacNeil, Carole A.

2006-01-01

342

Speech and Nonspeech Sequence Skill Learning in Adults Who Stutter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies compared the speech and nonspeech sequence skill learning of nine persons who stutter (PWS) and nine matched fluent speakers (PNS). Sequence skill learning was defined as a continuing process of stable improvement in speed and/or accuracy of sequencing performance over practice and was measured by comparing PWS's and PNS's performance…

Smits-Bandstra, Sarah; De Nil, Luc; Saint-Cyr, Jean A.

2006-01-01

343

Is there a link between adult neurogenesis and learning?  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past several years, evidence has accumulated suggesting a relationship between newly born cells in the hippocampus and various types of learning and memory. However, most of the evi- dence is correlational and some of it does not agree. This review dis- cusses both sides of this issue, considering the effects of learning on the production of new neurons

Benedetta Leuner; Elizabeth Gould; Tracey J. Shors

2006-01-01

344

Word learning in adults with second language experience: Effects of phonological and referent familiarity  

PubMed Central

Purpose The goal of this research was to examine whether phonological familiarity exerts different effects on novel word learning for familiar vs. unfamiliar referents, and whether successful word-learning is associated with increased second-language experience. Method Eighty-one adult native English speakers with various levels of Spanish knowledge learned phonologically-familiar novel words (constructed using English sounds) or phonologically-unfamiliar novel words (constructed using non-English and non-Spanish sounds) in association with either familiar or unfamiliar referents. Retention was tested via a forced-choice recognition-task. A median-split procedure identified high-ability and low-ability word-learners in each condition, and the two groups were compared on measures of second-language experience. Results Findings suggest that the ability to accurately match newly-learned novel names to their appropriate referents is facilitated by phonological familiarity only for familiar referents but not for unfamiliar referents. Moreover, more extensive second-language learning experience characterized superior learners primarily in one word-learning condition: Where phonologically-unfamiliar novel words were paired with familiar referents. Conclusions Together, these findings indicate that phonological familiarity facilitates novel word learning only for familiar referents, and that experience with learning a second language may have a specific impact on novel vocabulary learning in adults. PMID:22992709

Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Yoo, Jeewon; Van Hecke, Stephanie

2014-01-01

345

Suppression of Adult Neurogenesis Impairs Olfactory Learning and Memory in an Adult Insect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although adult neurogenesis has now been demonstrated in many different species, the functional role of newborn neurons still remains unclear. In the house cricket, a cluster of neuroblasts, located in the main associative center of the insect brain, keeps producing new interneurons throughout the animal's life. Here we address the functional significance of adult neurogenesis by specific suppression of neuroblast

Sophie Scotto-Lomassese; Colette Strambi; Alain Strambi; Aicha Aouane; Roger Augier; Genevieve Rougon; Myriam Cayre

2003-01-01

346

GENERAL STRAIN THEORY, PERSISTENCE, AND DESISTANCE AMONG YOUNG ADULT MALES  

PubMed Central

Purpose Despite the surge in scholarly activity investigating the criminal career, relatively less attention has been devoted to the issue of criminal desistance versus persistence (until recently). The present study contributed to our understanding of this process by exploring the suitability of General Strain Theory (GST) for predicting changes in criminal activity across time. Methods Data from a longitudinal study of males in South Florida are examined using robust regression analyses. Results The core GST relationship, that changes in strain should predict changes in criminal activity, was supported, even after controlling for important adult social roles such as marriage, labor force participation, and education. While no support for the proposition that changes in self-esteem and social support moderate the strain-criminal desistance association was evinced, evidence was found that angry disposition, a measure of negative emotionality, moderated the association between change in chronic stressors and change in criminal activity. Conclusions While exploratory in nature, these findings demonstrate the utility of employing GST principles in studies of criminal desistance. PMID:21499526

Eitle, David

2010-01-01

347

Psycholinguistic Theory of Learning to Read Compared to the Traditional Theory Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A comparison of two models of the reading process--the psycholinguistic model, in which learning to read is seen as a top-down, holistic procedure, and the traditional theory model, in which learning to read is seen as a bottom-up, atomistic procedure--is provided in this paper. The first part of the paper provides brief overviews of the following…

Murphy, Robert F.

348

The effect of attentional load on implicit sequence learning in children and young adults  

PubMed Central

We investigated the effect of a secondary task on implicit sequence learning in children and young adults. A serial reaction time (SRT) task was administered to 8-to-10 year old children and 18-to-22 year old adults. Participants reacted to the location of a target presented in one of four locations on the screen with a spatially corresponding response key. Unknown to participants, the location at which the target appeared was structured according to a deterministic sequence. Occasionally, the black target dot was replaced by a red target dog. To assess the effect of attentional load on implicit sequence learning, half of the participants of each age group was assigned to the single task condition, while the other half executed the task under dual task conditions. Whereas participants in the single task condition could ignore the change in target identity, dual task participants additionally had to count the number of times the black dot was replaced by a red dog to increase the attentional load. Sequence learning was tested under single task conditions in both conditions. Z-transformed results indicate that young adults generally showed more sequence learning than children. Importantly, the secondary task had no effect on sequence learning in children, since children learned as much under dual task conditions as under single task conditions. Adults, on the other hand, showed a different result pattern, as they displayed more sequence learning under single task than under dual task conditions. We surmise that this result is due to the vainly attempt of adults, but not children, to integrate both sequences. PMID:24904481

Coomans, Daphné; Vandenbossche, Jochen; Deroost, Natacha

2014-01-01

349

Differential effects of binge drinking on learning and memory in emerging adults  

PubMed Central

Alterations in memory function due to alcohol exposure have been observed in both animal models and human populations. The human literature on neurocognitive consequences of binge alcohol use in emerging adults has not systematically investigated its potential negative impacts on visuospatial memory. For instance, these impacts have not yet been assessed using a human analogue of the Morris Water Maze Task (WMT), a key memory measure in the animal literature. Accordingly, this study compared performance between emerging adult binge drinkers (BD, n=22) and age- and sex-matched light drinkers (LD, n=29) using the Morris WMT, as well as verbal memory using the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT). Emerging adult BD demonstrated worse performance on verbal learning and memory relative to LD. However, no significant group differences were observed on spatial learning and memory. Furthermore, no sex differences or interactions with drinking status were observed on either memory domain. These data suggest that in emerging adults who are at a heightened risk for alcohol abuse disorders, but who do not yet meet diagnostic criteria, verbal learning is uniquely impacted by the neurotoxic effects of binge drinking, whereas spatial learning is relatively spared between bouts of intoxication. PMID:24404407

Sneider, Jennifer T.; Cohen-Gilbert, Julia E.; Crowley, David J.; Paul, Margot D.; Silveri, Marisa M.

2013-01-01

350

The response of the anterior striatum during adult human vocal learning.  

PubMed

Research on mammals predicts that the anterior striatum is a central component of human motor learning. However, because vocalizations in most mammals are innate, much of the neurobiology of human vocal learning has been inferred from studies on songbirds. Essential for song learning is a pathway, the homolog of mammalian cortical-basal ganglia "loops," which includes the avian striatum. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study investigated adult human vocal learning, a skill that persists throughout life, albeit imperfectly given that late-acquired languages are spoken with an accent. Monolingual adult participants were scanned while repeating novel non-native words. After training on the pronunciation of half the words for 1 wk, participants underwent a second scan. During scanning there was no external feedback on performance. Activity declined sharply in left and right anterior striatum, both within and between scanning sessions, and this change was independent of training and performance. This indicates that adult speakers rapidly adapt to the novel articulatory movements, possibly by using motor sequences from their native speech to approximate those required for the novel speech sounds. Improved accuracy correlated only with activity in motor-sensory perisylvian cortex. We propose that future studies on vocal learning, using different behavioral and pharmacological manipulations, will provide insights into adult striatal plasticity and its potential for modification in both educational and clinical contexts. PMID:24805076

Simmonds, Anna J; Leech, Robert; Iverson, Paul; Wise, Richard J S

2014-08-15

351

Learning control theory for dynamical systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three types of learning control laws are proposed for mechanical or mechatronics systems with linear and nonlinear dynamics, which may be operated repeatedly at low cost. Given a desired output Yd over a finite time duration [0,T] and an appropriate input u0, these laws are formed by the following simple iterative processes: 1) uk+1 = uk + ż(yd - yk),

S. Arimoto; S. Kawamura; F. Miyazaki; S. Tamaki

1985-01-01

352

Transformative Learning Theory in Gerontology: Nontraditional Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mezirow (1978) applied and used Transformative Learning Theoretical (TLT) processes while studying women who reentered academics during the 1970s. Similar to Mezirow's original 1975 work, we identify "factors that impeded or facilitated" participants' progress to obtain their undergraduate degree during the traditional student…

Brown, Pamela Pitman; Brown, Candace S.

2015-01-01

353

Reading and the New Learning Theory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Very little has been reported in the literature as to how a child actually learns, but what is known can be put to more effective use in teaching the child to read. The brain has at least five input systems: sight, hearing, touch, taste, and smell. The first of these senses is employed more than the others in reading; however, it is believed that…

Jordan, William C.

354

Melding Sound Learning Theory and Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Online learning has become a well-respected alternative to traditional bricks and mortar. Almost every institution of higher education in the United States, and many secondary educational institutions, feature opportunities for students to take courses, if not earn an entire degree, online. Community colleges have been at the forefront of this…

O'Banion, Terry

2005-01-01

355

Mature students learning statistics: The activity theory perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of approach "stresses relationships between intention, process and outcome within a specified context as described by an individual" (Schmeck, 1988, p. 10). This paper explores the approaches to learning of a group of mature students from the theoretical perspective of activity theory in order to gain an insight into some of the ways statistics is learned. In this framework, learning, regarded as goal-directed behaviour, is analysed by exploring the socio-historical factors relating to students' self regulation of their cognitive activities. The material is derived from questionnaires and interviews with five students, and focuses on the students' own interpretations of the contexts affecting their approaches.

Gordon, Sue

1993-09-01

356

Adults with self-reported learning disabilities in Slovenia: findings from the international adult literacy survey on the incidence and correlates of learning disabilities in Slovenia.  

PubMed

This study of adults with self-reported learning disabilities (SRLD) in Slovenia is part of a larger secondary analysis of the data from the International Literacy Survey project (IALS). The purpose of the study was to examine the characteristics of 79 (2.68%) individuals who reported experiencing learning disabilities and compare them to the general population on a variety of indicators of educational background, employment status, and reading and writing activities at work and at home. The proficiency scores of the SRLD individuals were lower in all three literacy domains (prose, document and quantitative literacy). In prose literacy 77.9% of SRLD adults performed at Level 1 and only 7.8% reached the level necessary for a modern technological society. Experiencing learning disabilities was not related to gender or age, however, results showed significant differences between the levels achieved by older and younger people with SRLD. In SRLD groups aged 40 years and above, no one achieved more than the second level of literacy in any domain. Learning disabilities were reported more frequently in rural areas. SRLD groups achieve significantly lower educational attainment, and lower employment status, with a preference for manual labour or craft. These findings are of critical importance. SRLD people report that poorer literacy skills are an obstacle to their progression in employment. In the Slovene sample, the SRLD group stands out for low scores in quantitative literacy. Results show that they are less active, pick up information only auditorily or in short written form. They need more frequent help from relatives in literacy activities. Interpretation of the IALS data on SRLD presents many problems. These include amongst others, problems in terminology, different background factors, and the validity of self-report measures. However, the study also raises many interesting challenges for future research and policy. Increasing the availability of support, assistance and counselling for adolescents and adults with learning disabilities remains a very important goal for dyslexia and LD policies in Slovenia. PMID:14672511

Magajna, Lidija; Kavkler, Marija; Ortar-Krizaj, Martina

2003-11-01

357

General and Domain-Specific Self-Concepts of Adults with Learning Disabilities: A Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The empirical literature investigating general and domain-specific self-concepts of adults with learning disabilities was examined using meta-analytic techniques. Eight inclusion criteria were developed to evaluate this literature and led to the inclusion of 22 studies. Results indicated that adults with learning disabilities reported lower…

Nelson, Jason M.

2012-01-01

358

Adult Learning and Technology in OECD Countries. Proceedings of a Round Table (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, February 14-16, 1996).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book, which is based on the papers presented by the various countries attending an international conference on technology and adult learning, contains 16 papers examining the use of technology in adult learning programs in the context of major institutional and economic change. The following papers are included: "A View from Philadelphia:…

Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Centre for Educational Research and Innovation.

359

Making music, making friends: Long-term music therapy with young adults with severe learning disabilities.  

PubMed

This collaborative practitioner research study emerged from music therapists' concerns about the value of improvisational, music-centred music therapy for young adults with severe learning disabilities (SLDs), given the long-term nature of such work. Concerns included the relevance, in this context, of formulating, and reporting on, therapeutic aims, development, change; and working in 'goal-oriented' way. Focus groups with the young adults' families and a range of professionals suggest that, rather than leading to developmental change, long-term shared therapeutic musicking provides young adults with ongoing opportunities for experiencing confidence and self-esteem, with feelings of shared acceptance and success, and also provides young adults and their families with opportunities for developing and sustaining friendships. In addition, families experienced meeting other parents and carers in the communal reception area as supportive and countering their isolation. Focus groups assigned intrapersonal, relational and social values to long-term music therapy for young adults with SLDs. PMID:24196841

Pavlicevic, Mercédčs; O'Neil, Nicky; Powell, Harriet; Jones, Oonagh; Sampathianaki, Ergina

2014-03-01

360

Probabilistic reward learning in adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder-An electrophysiological study.  

PubMed

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is hypothesized to be characterized by altered reinforcement sensitivity. The main aim of the present study was to assess alterations in the electrophysiological correlates of monetary reward processing in adult patients with ADHD of the combined subtype. Fourteen adults with ADHD of the combined subtype and 14 healthy control participants performed an active and an observational probabilistic reward-based learning task while an electroencephalogramm (EEG) was recorded. Regardless of feedback valence, there was a general feedback-related negativity (FRN) enhancement in combination with reduced learning performance during both active and observational reward learning in patients with ADHD relative to healthy controls. Other feedback-locked potentials such as the P200 and P300 and response-locked potentials were unaltered in the patients. There were no significant correlations between learning performance, FRN amplitudes and clinical symptoms, neither in the overall group involving all participants, nor in patients or controls considered separately. This pattern of findings might reflect generally impaired reward prediction in adults with ADHD of the combined subtype. We demonstrated for the first time that patients with ADHD of the combined subtype show not only deficient active reward learning but are also impaired when learning by observing other people?s outcomes. PMID:25467706

Thoma, Patrizia; Edel, Marc-Andreas; Suchan, Boris; Bellebaum, Christian

2015-01-30

361

A Model for Designing Instructional Narratives for Adult Learners: Connecting the Dots  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to develop a research-based model for designing and deploying instructional narratives based on principles derived from narrative theory, development theory, communication theory, learning theory and instructional design theory to enable adult learning and retention and the effective transfer of that retained learning

Smith, Debra M.

2013-01-01

362

Improving Adult Literacy Instruction: Supporting Learning and Motivation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Virtually everyone needs a high level of literacy in both print and digital media to negotiate most aspects of 21st century life-succeeding in a competitive job market, supporting a family, navigating health information, and participating in civic activities. Yet, according to a recent survey estimate, more than 90 million adults in the United…

Lesgold, Alan M., Ed.; Welch-Ross, Melissa, Ed.

2012-01-01

363

Working Adults in Accelerated Cohorts: More than a Learning Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are 54 million working adults in the United States without bachelor's degrees (Pusser et al., 2007). Many would like to obtain a college degree but need an educational program that fits their needs. A viable alternative to a traditional college program is an accelerated program in a cohort format. This article highlights best practices for…

Spaid, Robin; Duff, Evan D.

2009-01-01

364

[Adult Reading-Bilingual Laboratories and Learning Center, Huntsville, Texas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This program, included in "Effective Reading Programs...," serves 1,221 inmates of nine prison units of the Texas Department of Corrections. Students in the program are black, Spanish-speaking, or non-Spanish-speaking white adults. Students are released from their assigned industrial jobs for three hours each week to attend the laboratory for…

Texas State Dept. of Corrections, Huntsville. Windham School District.

365

Community Based Learning and Civic Engagement: Informal Learning among Adult Volunteers in Community Organizations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many iterations of community based learning employ models, such as consciousness raising groups, cultural circles, and participatory action research. In all of them, learning is a deliberate part of an explicit educational activity. This article explores another realm of community learning: the informal learning that results from volunteering in…

Mundel, Karsten; Schugurensky, Daniel

2008-01-01

366

Learning of Grammar-Like Visual Sequences by Adults with and without Language-Learning Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Two studies examined learning of grammar-like visual sequences to determine whether a general deficit in statistical learning characterizes this population. Furthermore, we tested the hypothesis that difficulty in sustaining attention during the learning task might account for differences in statistical learning. Method: In Study 1,…

Aguilar, Jessica M.; Plante, Elena

2014-01-01

367

Jack Mezirow's Conceptualisation of Adult Transformative Learning: A Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper traces the evolution of Jack Mezirow's transformative learning theory and its conceptualisation. It discusses the three major influences, namely Thomas Khun's philosophical conception of paradigm, Freire's conception of conscientisation and consciousness growth, and Habermas' domains of learning and the discussion of…

Calleja, Colin

2014-01-01

368

What Propels Sexual Homicide Offenders? Testing an Integrated Theory of Social Learning and Routine Activities Theories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual homicide is a rare occurrence. Little is known about the offending perspective of sexual homicide from a criminological standpoint. Recently, Chan, Heide, and Beauregard (2011) proposed an integrative theoretical framework using concepts and propositions of Social Learning Theory (differential association, definitions, differential reinforcement or punishment, and imitation) and Routine Activities Theory (a motivated offender, an attractive and suitable target,

Heng Choon Chan

2012-01-01

369

ADULT DEVELOPMENT AND PSYCHOTHERAPY: BRIDGING THE GAP BETWEEN THEORY AND PRACTICE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult development as posed by Jung and Erikson are discussed as precursors to Daniel Levinson s notion of Life Structure. The authors apply psychosocial adult development theory to psychotherapy practice and report a way of working with dreams to facilitate Life Structure work in psychotherapy.

Robert Simmermon; Karen M. Schwartz

1986-01-01

370

Learning My Way. Papers from the National Conference on Adult Aboriginal Learning (Perth, Western Australia, September 1988). A Special Edition of Wikaru 16.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These 31 papers dealing with adult aboriginal learning are divided into three sections. The keynote speakers' papers appear first in each section. Section 1, Learning Our Way, contains these papers: "The Invasion of Aboriginal Education" (Christie); "The Drover's Daughter" (Bedford); "Nyungar Women Returning to Education" (Bennell); "Learning

Harvey, Barbara, Comp.; McGinty, Suzanne, Comp.

371

SALSA (Southwest Advanced Learning System for Adults). Pilot Project Research Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers at Rio Salado Community College (Arizona) directing an educational research project, called the Southwest Advanced Learning System for Adults (SALSA), placed personal computers in the homes of production line workers as a supplement to traditional classroom basic skills training. Objectives were to determine whether this supplemental…

Rio Salado Community Coll., AZ.

372

Stories of Learning across the Lifespan: Life History and Biographical Research in Adult Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Life history or biographical approaches to research in lifelong learning may be particularly useful for researchers working from a social purpose and/or feminist perspective. Adult educators working from an emancipatory framework are often curious about factors that shape people's lives, both from an individualistic, biographical perspective…

Gouthro, Patricia

2014-01-01

373

Language Learning Strategy Use by Colombian Adult English Language Learners: A Phenomenological Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this phenomenological study was to describe how Colombian adult English language learners (ELL) select and use language learning strategies (LLS). This study used Oxford's (1990a) taxonomy for LLS as its theoretical framework. Semi-structured interviews and a focus group interview, were conducted, transcribed, and analyzed for 12…

Paredes, Elsie Elena

2010-01-01

374

The Social Adjustment and Self-Concept of Adults with Learning Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the social adjustment and self-concept of 81 adults (18 to 26 years of age), of whom half had received special education services for learning disabilities. No significant differences were found between groups on social adjustment or self-concept scales. Achievement and IQ measures, collectively, were good predictors of global…

Lewandowski, Lawrence; Arcangelo, Karen

1994-01-01

375

Theorizing the Effects of Class, Gender, and Race on Adult Learning in Nonformal and Informal Settings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent empirical and theoretical literature was reviewed to examine how the dynamics of class, gender, and race affect adult learning in nonformal and informal settings. The following were among the key findings: (1) social dynamics such as class, gender, and race influence individuals' development of their self or subjectivity, which in turn…

Cain, Margaret L.

376

Public Pedagogy, Private Lives: Self-Help Books and Adult Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Self-help literature has become an important domain of adult learning in North America. Self-help books offer readers advice on how to take charge of their lives and achieve goals such as prosperity, love, happiness, wellness, and self-actualization. Despite the popularity of self-help books, there has been little research about them from scholars…

McLean, Scott

2013-01-01

377

Understanding Learning Transfer in Employment Preparation Programmes for Adults with Low Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Canadian study investigated how the transfer of learning occurred in an employment preparation programme for adults with low literacy skills using a multi-site case study research design. Four different programmes involving trainees, instructors and workplace supervisors participated in the investigation. Results indicated that the transfer…

Taylor, Maurice C.; Ayala, Gabriel E.; Pinsent-Johnson, Christine

2009-01-01

378

Short-Term and Working Memory Differences in Language/Learning Disabled and Normal Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fifteen adults who reported a childhood history of speech-language and/or learning disability were tested on two verbal memory tasks. Their performance on sentence repetitions and reading span measures was compared to a control group. Results indicated statistically significant group performance differences on both short-term and working memory…

Isaki, Emi; Plante, Elena

1997-01-01

379

"We Are Guinea Pigs Really": Examining the Realities of ICT-based Adult Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interviews with 36 adult learners in information-communications technology (ICT) settings, using the concept of learning trajectories, revealed barriers to widening participation through ICT. In addition to technical shortcomings, social, economic, cultural, and political issues hinder the process, including lack of innovative instruction and…

Selwyn, Neil; Gorard, Stephen; Williams, Sara

2002-01-01

380

Using Quality Schemes in Adult and Community Learning: A Guide for Managers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document examines adult and community learning (ACL) and quality programs across England. The difficulties faced by local education agencies' ACL services in delivering quality are noted, along with ways quality improvement has been supported. Quality programs--whether internal or external, based on awards, or used as diagnostic tools--are…

Ewens, David; Watters, Kate

381

Assessment-Oriented Learning and Adult Work--An International Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A recently begun longitudinal study of a trend toward credentialism or qualifications-orientation among adult students in six countries (India, Japan, Malaysia, Nigeria, Sri Lanka, and England) is described. The development of measures of student learning orientations for different cultures is discussed. (MSE)

Higher Education in Europe, 1984

1984-01-01

382

What We Know about Literacy Practices for Adults with Learning Disabilities: A Review of Published Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research on literacy practices for adults with learning disabilities was reviewed. A computerized search of four databases--Dissertation Abstracts International (DAI), ERIC, Psychological Abstracts (PA), and Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI)--yielded more than 500 pertinent publications that were published during the past 14 years. Of the…

Scanlon, David; Mellard, Daryl F.; Garrison, Steven; Lancaster, Sean; Mellard, Jessica; Rausch, Trena

383

The "Letter to the Editor": An Application of Verner's Principles of Adult Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an exercise in which students select an article or program pertaining to a problem or issue in their field and write a "letter to the editor," which is then critiqued in class. Illustrates how the exercise supports adult learning principles. (SK)

Davenport, Joseph, III; Davenport, Judith

1984-01-01

384

Adult ESOL Students and Service-Learning: Voices, Experiences, and Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This multiple-case study examined the unique perspectives of six adult English for speakers of other languages (ESOL) students who participated as the givers of a service in a semester-long service learning community college ESOL course. Their ages ranged from 19 to 45 and they hailed from five different countries (Colombia, Mexico, South Korea,…

Bippus, Sharon L.; Eslami, Zohreh R.

2013-01-01

385

An Exploration of Transformational Learning in Adults as a Result of Adventure Travel Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this exploratory qualitative research study was to identify the elements of adventure travel experiences that contribute to the process of transformational learning in adults. A qualitative research design was employed for this study. The sources of data were twelve pre-existing and de-identified interview transcriptions. A textual…

Bennett, Michael

2013-01-01

386

Development of Young Adults' Fine Motor Skills when Learning to Play Percussion Instruments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When playing percussion instruments, the main activity is done with the help of a motion or motor skills; to perform it, developed fine motor skills are necessary: the speed and precision of fingers, hands and palms. The aim of the research was to study and test the development of young adults' fine motor skills while learning to play percussion…

Gzibovskis, Talis; Marnauza, Mara

2012-01-01

387

Evaluation of the Effectiveness of a Web-Based Learning Design for Adult Computer Science Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on work undertaken within a pilot study concerned with the design, development, and evaluation of online computer science training courses. Drawing on recent developments in e-learning technology, these courses were structured around the principles of a learner-oriented approach for use with adult learners. The paper describes a…

Antonis, Konstantinos; Daradoumis, Thanasis; Papadakis, Spyros; Simos, Christos

2011-01-01

388

Content-Learning Tasks for Adult ESL Learners: Promoting Literacy for Work or School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers of English as a second language (ESL) are often on the frontline of working with adult ESL learners who are facing a difficult developmental pathway to academic and/or economic success. These learners come to the task of learning English with widely varying schooling experiences, degrees of first language literacy, and English language…

Ewert, Doreen E.

2014-01-01

389

Adult learners and professional development: peer?to?peer learning in a networked community  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses how adult learners on a professional development course learn and develop through online dialogue. The research uses Wenger’s community of practice framework, and assesses whether the concept of ‘legitimate peripheral participation’ is useful in relation to this specific case study in which the students are practitioners and parents of individuals with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD). The study

Karen Guldberg

2008-01-01

390

Working for Equality and Diversity in Adult and Community Learning: Leadership, Representation and Racialised "Outsiders within"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article uses empirical material from a qualitative study of adult and community learning (ACL) to explore issues around leading for equality and diversity in educational organisations. What the author is interested in is the way that the commitment to a "community" context in ACL opens up (or keeps open) certain possibilities for "diverse"…

Hunter, Shona

2006-01-01

391

Self-Assessment and Development Planning for Adult and Community Learning Providers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is designed to help adult and community learning (ACL) services across the United Kingdom complete the annual self-assessment reports (SARs). The guide begins with background information on the purposes of self-assessment, the new context of ACL and the elements and format of the new SARs. The remaining four sections examine the…

Kenway, Mike; Reisenberger, Anna

392

Managing Staff Development in Adult and Community Learning: Reflection to Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is intended to assist individuals responsible for managing staff development in adult and community learning (ACL) in the United Kingdom. The guide presents step-by-step advice for designing and implementing an approach based on the belief that staff development should do the following things: (1) relate holistically to the…

Ewens, David

393

Adult and Organizational Learning and Policy Development in Environments of Gray  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adult and Organizational Learning and Policy Development in Environments of Gray The purpose of this study was to describe, analyze and provide an understanding of the values that influence state legislators' decision-making as it relates to appropriations, tuition and fees, and financial aid for public postsecondary education in Idaho. The study…

Fair-Szofran, Nancy C.

2010-01-01

394

Understanding and Changing Older Adults' Perceptions and Learning of Social Media  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An exploratory study was conducted to answer the following questions: What are older adults' perceptions of social media? What educational strategies can facilitate their learning of social media? A thematic map was developed to illustrate changing perceptions from the initial unanimous, strong negative to the more positive but cautious, and to…

Xie, Bo; Watkins, Ivan; Golbeck, Jen; Huang, Man

2012-01-01

395

When Coping Strategies Fail: Assessing and Counseling Learning Disabled Adults Facing New Challenges.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Kingsbury Center in Washington, D.C. works with adult learning disabled persons providing assessment, remediation, and counseling services. Assessment emphasizes taking a detailed history, along with formal testing, informal testing, and behavioral observation. Intervention focuses on specific coping strategies and remediation in specific…

Zangwill, Judith; Greene, Felice

396

Diagnosing Dyslexia. A Guide to the Assessment of Adults with Specific Learning Difficulties.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book offers tutors in adult, further, and higher education materials for diagnosing students with specific learning disabilities (dyslexia). It provides information for setting up an appropriate individualized teaching program and making recommendations for supporting such students. Materials and methods can be used with students from basic…

Klein, Cynthia

397

Physical Aggression towards Others in Adults with Learning Disabilities: Prevalence and Associated Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Many people with learning disabilities (LD) show aggressive behaviour, but the extent of the problem and its associated factors and effects are unclear. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis was carried out using interview data from 3065 adults with LD on the Leicestershire LD Register. Physical aggression towards others was defined as…

Tyrer, F.; McGrother, C. W.; Thorp, C. F.; Donaldson, M.; Bhaumik, S.; Watson, J. M.; Hollin, C.

2006-01-01

398

Understanding and Changing Older Adults' Perceptions and Learning of Social Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exploratory study was conducted to answer the following questions: What are older adults’ perceptions of social media? What educational strategies can facilitate their learning of social media? A thematic map was developed to illustrate changing perceptions from the initial unanimous, strong negative to the more positive but cautious, and to the eventual willingness to actually contribute content. Privacy was

Bo Xie; Ivan Watkins; Jen Golbeck; Man Huang

2012-01-01

399

Adolescents' Cognitive "Habitus", Learning Environments, Affective Outcomes of Schooling, and Young Adults' Educational Attainment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A moderation-mediation model was constructed to examine relationships among adolescents' cognitive "habitus" (their cognitive dispositions), learning environments, affective outcomes of schooling, and young adults' educational attainment. Data were collected as part of a longitudinal survey of Australian youth (4,171 females, 3,718 males). The…

Marjoribanks, Kevin

2006-01-01

400

Adult Educators' Perceptions of Their Organization Promoting Learning Practices and Culture: A Caribbean Law Enforcement Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many organizations, whether private or public, invest extensively in training and development. Such investment in training and development does not guarantee that the organization is perceived as a learning organization. This study examined law enforcement adult educators' (training facilitators') perceptions of their organization promoting…

Hunter-Johnson, Yvonne; Closson, Rosemary

2012-01-01

401

Quieting the Cacophony of the Mind: The Role of Mindfulness in Adult Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate the role between mindfulness practice and adult learning. The participants were full-time students enrolled in a two-year radiography program at a Midwestern community college. Critical thinking and problem solving skills are essential to students' success and to healthcare professionals. The main…

Parish, Kay Annette

2010-01-01

402

Does Learning Spanish Grammatical Gender Change English-Speaking Adults' Categorization of Inanimate Objects?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Second language acquisition studies can contribute to the body of research on the influence of language on thought by examining cognitive change as a result of second language learning. We conducted a longitudinal study that examined how the acquisition of Spanish grammatical gender influences categorization in native English-speaking adults. We…

Kurinski, Elena; Sera, Maria D.

2011-01-01

403

Kellogg Center for Adult Learning Research. Final Report and Third Year Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains the final report and the third-year report of the Center for Adult Learning Research, which was established at Montana State University (MSU) in December 1985 with support from the W. K. Kellogg Foundation. The final report reviews first- through third-year activities. It describes the following research projects: strategies…

Fellenz, Robert A.; Conti, Gary J.

404

A Theory of Perceptual Learning: Uncertainty Reduction and Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Behaviorism cannot adequately explain language processing. A synthesis of the psycholinguistic and information processing approaches of cognitive psychology, however, can provide the basis for a speculative analysis of reading, if this synthesis is tempered by a perceptual learning theory of uncertainty reduction. Theorists of information…

Henk, William A.

405

Roundtable: Theory, Policy and Practice in Lifelong Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains outlines of 14 presentations at a roundtable discussion on theory, policy, and practice in lifelong learning that was held during a conference on human resource development (HRD) research and practice across Europe. Outlines of the following presentations and discussions are included: "Discourses on HRD and Lifelong…

Manning, Sabine, Ed.

406

The Application of Learning Theory to Information Literacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many colleges and universities are advocating information literacy within their mission statements. To this end, many librarians are offering for-credit courses that incorporate the Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL) Information Literacy Competency Standards in their instructional programs. In their role as instructors, librarians should be familiar with learning theory, in particular behaviorism and constructivism. The application of a

Wendell G. Johnson

2008-01-01

407

Flow Theory and GIS: Is There a Connection for Learning?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines how Geographic Information Systems (GIS) can potentially capture a student's imagination, facilitate active learning, and create a state of "flow" in geography classrooms. The paper is organised in four sections. First, the author provides a condensed overview to the major tenets of "FlowTheory." Second, a short discussion…

Smith, Janet S.

2005-01-01

408

Learning and Emotion: Perspectives for Theory and Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is growing interest in and knowledge about the interplay of learning and emotion. However, the different approaches and empirical studies correspond to each other only to a low extent. To prevent this research field from increasing fragmentation, a shared basis of theory and research is needed. The presentation aims at giving an overview of…

Hascher, Tina

2010-01-01

409

PDAs as Lifelong Learning Tools: An Activity Theory Based Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the use of an activity theory (AT) framework to analyze the ways that distance part time learners and mobile workers adapted and appropriated mobile devices for their activities and in turn how their use of these new tools changed the ways that they carried out their learning or their work. It is argued that there are two key…

Waycott, Jenny; Jones, Ann; Scanlon, Eileen

2005-01-01

410

LANGUAGE AND LANGUAGE LEARNING, THEORY AND PRACTICE. SECOND EDITION.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

DESIGNED TO HELP LANGUAGE TEACHERS MEET THE DEMANDS OF THE AUDIOLINGUAL AND CULTURALLY INTEGRATED APPROACHES TO LANGUAGE TEACHING, THIS BOOK DEALS EXTENSIVELY WITH VARIOUS ASPECTS OF LANGUAGE THEORY, LEARNING, AND INSTRUCTION. A REVISION OF THE FIRST EDITION, THERE IS EXTENDED COVERAGE OF SUCH TOPICS AS PATTERN PRACTICE, TEST CONSTRUCTION, AND THE…

BROOKS, NELSON

411

Evaluating Action Learning: A Critical Realist Complex Network Theory Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This largely theoretical paper will argue the case for the usefulness of applying network and complex adaptive systems theory to an understanding of action learning and the challenge it is evaluating. This approach, it will be argued, is particularly helpful in the context of improving capability in dealing with wicked problems spread around…

Burgoyne, John G.

2010-01-01

412

Statistical Learning Theory for Location Fingerprinting in Wireless LANs  

E-print Network

: Context-aware computing, Location management, Wi-Fi, Mobile computing, Statistical learning theory 1991-aware computing, also known as sentient computing, refers to all tech- niques by which an electronic device may. In mobile computing systems, where wireless networking is used to distribute contents and services to mobile

Brunato, Mauro

413

SSL: A Theory of How People Learn to Select Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The assumption that people possess a repertoire of strategies to solve the inference problems they face has been raised repeatedly. However, a computational model specifying how people select strategies from their repertoire is still lacking. The proposed strategy selection learning (SSL) theory predicts a strategy selection process on the basis…

Rieskamp, Jorg; Otto, Philipp E.

2006-01-01

414

Optimal rates for regularization operators in learning theory  

E-print Network

Corporate Research, Inc., Sony, Sumitomo Metal Industries, and Toyota Motor Corporation. This work was alsoOptimal rates for regularization operators in learning theory Andrea Caponnetto a b c a C minimax rates of convergence for the expected squared loss of the estimators, over the family of priors

Caponnetto, Andrea

415

Shannon Sampling II. Connections to Learning Theory Steve Smale  

E-print Network

Shannon Sampling II. Connections to Learning Theory Steve Smale Toyota Technological Institute are replaced by estimates of integral operators. Keywords and Phrases: Shannon sampling, function to the asymptotic choice of the regularization parameter or . §2. Sampling Operator Let H be a Hilbert space

Smale, Steve

416

Gestalt-A Learning Theory for Graphic Design Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article will begin by seeking to define the notion of learning "by, through" and "from" experience. A linkage will then be established between these notions of experiences and gestalt theory. This will be explored within a subject specific context of graphic design. Links will be highlighted between the inherent nature of graphic design and…

Jackson, Ian

2008-01-01

417

The Theory of Learning in Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

In economics, most noncooperative game theory has focused on equilibrium in games, especially Nash equilibrium and its refinements. The traditional explanation for when and why equilibrium arises is that it results from analysis and introspection by the players in a situation where the rules of the game, the rationality of the players, and the players' payoff functions are all common

Drew Fudenberg; David K. Levine

1999-01-01

418

Learning among Older Adults with Lifelong Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article includes a description of conceptions of aging and engagement with learning for 16 older people (52 to 80 years; mean age 62 years) with a lifelong intellectual disability. The sample also included the care workers and family member/friend. The older people had sufficient verbal skills to participate in the interviews. Half the sample…

Boulton-Lewis, G. M.; Buys, L.; Tedman-Jones, J.

2008-01-01

419

Assessment and Remediation of Oral Language. Academic Assessment and Remediation of Adults with Learning Disabilities: A Resource Series for Adult Basic Education Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The third of seven booklets on adults with learning disabilities, this manual addresses the evaluation and remediation of oral language difficulties. An assessment section focuses on behaviors and disorders which adult education teachers should look for as well as informal diagnostic tasks in auditory discrimination, grammar, vocabulary, social…

Hoy, Cheri A.; Gregg, K. Noel

420

Adult Learning and the Changing World of Work. Report of Theme V. Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Adult Education (Hamburg, Germany, July 14-18, 1997).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents the contributions to theme five, "Adult Learning and the Changing World of Work," of the Fifth International Conference on Adult Education. Section 1 is an introduction to the Conference with objectives, themes, and agenda for the future. Section 2, "Discussion and Debate on the Issues of Theme Five" (R. Barry Hobart) answers…

Singh, Madhu, Ed.

421

The Role of the Constructivist Learning Theory and Collaborative Learning Environment on Wiki Classroom, and the Relationship between Them  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper seeks to discover the relationship between both the social constructivist learning theory and the collaborative learning environment. This relationship can be identified by giving an example of the learning environment. Due to wiki characteristics, Wiki technology is one of the most famous learning environments that can show the…

Alzahrani, Ibraheem; Woollard, John

2013-01-01

422

Efficacy of Learning Strategies Instruction in Adult Basic Education  

E-print Network

the adult population (lack of proficiency vs. lack of capacity). These dimensional differences appear to us to influence learners’ engagement, persistence, and outcomes. Settings. Secondary school attendance is compulsory and penalties occur for absenteeism.... Classes usually meet for 5 days a week for an 18-week semester. In contrast, AE enrollment is generally voluntary and penalties for absenteeism are limited or non-existent. AE classes meet at most 4 days per week with shorter cycles (e.g., 8-week units...

Hock, Mike; Mellard, Daryl

2011-01-01

423

Gaming Mindsets: Implicit Theories in Serious Game Learning  

PubMed Central

Abstract Individuals' beliefs about the malleability of their abilities may predict their response and outcome in learning from serious games. Individuals with growth mindsets believe their abilities can develop with practice and effort, whereas individuals with fixed mindsets believe their abilities are static and cannot improve. This study uses survey and gameplay server data to examine the implicit theory of intelligence in the context of serious game learning. The findings show that growth mindset players performed better than fixed mindset players, their mistakes did not affect their attention to the game, and they read more learning feedback than fixed mindset players. In addition, growth mindset players were more likely to actively seek difficult challenges, which is often essential to self-directed learning. General mindset measurements and domain-specific measurements were also compared. These findings suggest that players' psychological attributes should be considered when designing and applying serious games. PMID:22165916

Heeter, Carrie; Magerko, Brian; Medler, Ben

2012-01-01

424

Perceptual learning: Toward a comprehensive theory  

PubMed Central

Visual perceptual learning (VPL) is long-term performance increase resulting from visual perceptual experience. Task-relevant VPL of a feature results from training of a task on the feature relevant to the task. Task-irrelevant VPL arises as a result of exposure to the feature irrelevant to the trained task. There are at least two serious problems. First, which stage of information processing is changed in association with task-relevant VPL is controversial. Second, no model has ever explained both task-relevant and task-irrelevant VPL. Here we propose a dual plasticity model, in which there are feature-based plasticity that is a change in a representation of the learned feature and task-based plasticity that is a change in processing of the trained task. While the two types of plasticity underlie task-relevant VPL, only feature-based plasticity lies under task-irrelevant VPL. This model provides a new comprehensive framework in which apparently contradictory results could be explained. PMID:25251494

Watanabe, Takeo; Sasaki, Yuka

2014-01-01

425

The Impact of Cognitive Load Theory on Learning Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Every student is different, which is the challenge of astronomy education research (AER) and teaching astronomy. This difference also provides the greatest goal for education researchers - our GUT - we need to be able to quantify these differences and provide explanatory and predictive theories to curriculum developers and teachers. One educational theory that holds promise is Cognitive Load Theory. Cognitive Load Theory begins with the well-established fact that everyone's working memory can hold 7 ± 2 unique items. This quirk of the human brain is why phone numbers are 7 digits long. This quirk is also why we forget peoples’ names after just meeting them, leave the iron on when we leave the house, and become overwhelmed as students of new material. Once the intricacies of Cognitive Load are understood, it becomes possible to design learning environments to marshal the resources students have and guide them to success. Lessons learned from Cognitive Load Theory can and should be applied to learning astronomy. Classroom-ready ideas will be presented.

Foster, Thomas M.

2010-01-01

426

Age-Differences in Environment Route Learning: The Role of Input and Recall-Test Modalities in Young and Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this research was to examine age-related differences in young and older adults in route learning, using different types of learning and recall test modalities. A sample of young adults (20-30 years old) and older adults (60-70 years old) learned a city route by using either a map or a description; they then performed a verification…

Meneghetti, Chiara; Borella, Erika; Gyselinck, Valerie; De Beni, Rossana

2012-01-01

427

Adult Learners: Why Were They Successful? Lessons Learned via an Adult Learner Task Force.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An adult learner task force at a small liberal arts college conducted a telephone survey of a random stratified sample of approximately 40 recent graduates from 3 college programs to identify factors perceived as contributing to the graduates' academic success. Additionally, a focus group was convened to assess faculty perceptions of institutional…

Hofmann, Joan M.; And Others

428

Local Knowledge and Adult Learning in Environmental Adult Education: Community-Based Ecotourism in Southern Thailand  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines how local knowledge is employed in environmental adult education in a community-based ecotourism project in an island community in southern Thailand. The study is based on field research and analysis of project websites, media reports and documents. Situated at the intersection of global tourism and a local Thai-Malay Muslim…

Walter, Pierre

2009-01-01

429

New directions for the study of incarcerated older adults: using social capital theory.  

PubMed

As the population of older adults continues to rise, so, too, does the population of older adults in prison. The body of literature on older adults in corrections is scant, particularly with regard to health and social functioning. Past studies of aging inmates primarily focus on health care and related costs. The purpose of this article is twofold: (a) outline and synthesize the research on older adults living in prison; and (b) propose a framework for future research and intervention development based on social capital theory. Recommendations for social work practice, programs, and research are discussed. PMID:24893276

Jang, Eunyoung; Canada, Kelli E

2014-01-01

430

Functional EWA: A One-parameter Theory of Learning in Games  

E-print Network

Functional EWA: A One-parameter Theory of Learning in Games Teck H. Ho, Colin F. Camerer, and Juin-parameter theory of learning in games. It approximates the free parameters in an earlier model (EWA) with functions of experience. The theory was originally tested on seven di®erent games and compared to four other learning

Greer, Julia R.

431

What learning theories can teach us in designing neurofeedback treatments  

PubMed Central

Popular definitions of neurofeedback point out that neurofeedback is a process of operant conditioning which leads to self-regulation of brain activity. Self-regulation of brain activity is considered to be a skill. The aim of this paper is to clarify that not only operant conditioning plays a role in the acquisition of this skill. In order to design the learning process additional references have to be derived from classical conditioning, two-process-theory and in particular from skill learning and research into motivational aspects. The impact of learning by trial and error, cueing of behavior, feedback, reinforcement, and knowledge of results as well as transfer of self-regulation skills into everyday life will be analyzed in this paper. In addition to these learning theory basics this paper tries to summarize the knowledge about acquisition of self-regulation from neurofeedback studies with a main emphasis on clinical populations. As a conclusion it is hypothesized that learning to self-regulate has to be offered in a psychotherapeutic, i.e., behavior therapy framework. PMID:25414659

Strehl, Ute

2014-01-01

432

Information Theory, Inference, and Learning Algorithms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Spanning over 600 pages, this online textbook about information theory was released in its final version on June 26, 2003. The book's author, a physics professor at the University of Cambridge, wrote the book with the intention of unifying theoretical concepts with practical statistical communications. Furthermore, he addresses "Bayesian data modeling, Monte Carlo methods," and much more to provide a thorough overview of advanced data compression and error-correcting codes. The book's material spans many disciplines, having applications in engineering, computer science, mathematics, and the other sciences.

MacKay, David J. C.

433

Perceptual Learning Improves Adult Amblyopic Vision Through Rule-Based Cognitive Compensation  

PubMed Central

Purpose. We investigated whether perceptual learning in adults with amblyopia could be enabled to transfer completely to an orthogonal orientation, which would suggest that amblyopic perceptual learning results mainly from high-level cognitive compensation, rather than plasticity in the amblyopic early visual brain. Methods. Nineteen adults (mean age = 22.5 years) with anisometropic and/or strabismic amblyopia were trained following a training-plus-exposure (TPE) protocol. The amblyopic eyes practiced contrast, orientation, or Vernier discrimination at one orientation for six to eight sessions. Then the amblyopic or nonamblyopic eyes were exposed to an orthogonal orientation via practicing an irrelevant task. Training was first performed at a lower spatial frequency (SF), then at a higher SF near the cutoff frequency of the amblyopic eye. Results. Perceptual learning was initially orientation specific. However, after exposure to the orthogonal orientation, learning transferred to an orthogonal orientation completely. Reversing the exposure and training order failed to produce transfer. Initial lower SF training led to broad improvement of contrast sensitivity, and later higher SF training led to more specific improvement at high SFs. Training improved visual acuity by 1.5 to 1.6 lines (P < 0.001) in the amblyopic eyes with computerized tests and a clinical E acuity chart. It also improved stereoacuity by 53% (P < 0.001). Conclusions. The complete transfer of learning suggests that perceptual learning in amblyopia may reflect high-level learning of rules for performing a visual discrimination task. These rules are applicable to new orientations to enable learning transfer. Therefore, perceptual learning may improve amblyopic vision mainly through rule-based cognitive compensation. PMID:24550359

Zhang, Jun-Yun; Cong, Lin-Juan; Klein, Stanley A.; Levi, Dennis M.; Yu, Cong

2014-01-01

434

Choice Theory as a Model of Adult Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Choice Theory is popularly recognized as a basis for the practice of Reality Therapy, Quality Education and Lead Management. There seems to be little thought given, how- ever, to Choice Theory as a broader model for human development. This lack of perspective is surprising given the Institute's training emphasis on application of Choice Theory in practitioners' lives, as well as

Ron Mottern

2008-01-01

435

Sex-specific positive and negative consequences of avoidance training during childhood on adult active avoidance learning in mice  

PubMed Central

In humans and animals cognitive training during childhood plays an important role in shaping neural circuits and thereby determines learning capacity later in life. Using a negative feedback learning paradigm, the two-way active avoidance (TWA) learning, we aimed to investigate in mice (i) the age-dependency of TWA learning, (ii) the consequences of pretraining in childhood on adult learning capacity and (iii) the impact of sex on the learning paradigm in mice. Taken together, we show here for the first time that the beneficial or detrimental outcome of pretraining in childhood depends on the age during which TWA training is encountered, indicating that different, age-dependent long-term “memory traces” might be formed, which are recruited during adult TWA training and thereby either facilitate or impair adult TWA learning. While pretraining during infancy results in learning impairment in adulthood, pretraining in late adolescence improved avoidance learning. The experiments revealed a clear sex difference in the group of late-adolescent mice: female mice showed better avoidance learning during late adolescence compared to males, and the beneficial impact of late-adolescent pretraining on adult learning was more pronounced in females compared to males. PMID:24137115

Spröwitz, Almuth; Bock, Jörg; Braun, Katharina

2013-01-01

436

A different story on “Theory of Mind” deficit in adults with right hemisphere brain damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Difficulties in social cognition and interaction can characterise adults with unilateral right hemisphere brain damage (RHD). Some pertinent evidence involves their apparently poor reasoning from a “Theory of Mind” perspective, which requires a capacity to attribute thoughts, beliefs, and intentions in order to understand other people's behaviour. Theory of Mind is typically assessed with tasks that induce conflicting mental

Connie A. Tompkins; Victoria L. Scharp; Wiltrud Fassbinder; Kimberly M. Meigh; Elizabeth M. Armstrong

2008-01-01

437

SOME IMPLICATIONS OF A CONCEPT OF GROWTH MOTIVATION FOR ADULT EDUCATION THEORY AND PRACTICE.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS STUDY EXAMINED GROWTH MOTIVATION AS A DEVELOPING CONCEPT AND AS A THEORETICAL CONSTRUCT, AND THE IMPLICATIONS OF THIS THEORY FOR ADULT EDUCATION THEORY AND PRACTICE. SPECIAL ATTENTION WAS GIVEN TO THE THEORETICAL CONSTRUCTS OF ABRAHAM MASLOW, TO THE NATURE OF GROWTH MOTIVATION CONCEPTS IN GENERAL, AND TO FORMS OF SELF UNDERSTANDING AND…

NOREEN, DAVID SHELDON

438

Transformative Learning as an "Inter-Practice" Phenomenon  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Transformative learning theory and practice-based theory both offer compelling but distinct accounts of adult learning. The vicissitudes of individual meaning-making is the focus of transformative learning theory whereas practice-based accounts view participation in social practices as the key to understanding learning. Despite their differing…

Hodge, Steven

2014-01-01

439

A Passion for Learning: Celebrating 80 Years of NIACE Support for Adult Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents a series of reflections on the development, mission, and accomplishments of the National Institute for Adult Continuing Education (NIACE), which has worked to influence policy concerning adult education and other areas of social and cultural life in the United Kingdom since its founding in 1921 as the British Institute of…

Gilbert, Howard; Prew, Helen

440

Continuity, commitment and context: adult siblings of people with autism plus learning disability.  

PubMed

Sibling relationships are usually lifelong and reciprocal. They can assume particular significance when a brother or sister has a learning disability. Until recently, adult siblings of people with disabilities such as severe autism have been ignored by policy, practice and research. This qualitative study contributes to an emerging literature by exploring how adult siblings, who have a brother or sister with autism (plus learning disability) and living in England, give meaning to their family (and caring) relationships and engage with service delivery. We spoke to 21 adult siblings using semi-structured interviews and met with 12 of their siblings with autism. Our analysis, using a broad narrative approach, demonstrates the continuity of the sibling relationship and an enduring personalised commitment. The nature of this relationship, however, is sensitive to context. How non-disabled adult siblings relate to their childhood experience is fundamental when making sense of this, as is their need to fulfil other social and family obligations, alongside their 'sense of duty' to support their disabled brother or sister. Sibling experience was further mediated by negotiating their 'perceived invisibility' in social care policy and practice. Our work concludes that by understanding the way relationships between siblings have developed over time, adult siblings' contribution to the lives of their brother or sister with autism can be better supported for the benefit of both parties. Such an approach would support current policy developments. PMID:23638906

Tozer, Rosemary; Atkin, Karl; Wenham, Aniela

2013-09-01

441

A Learning-Style Theory for Understanding Autistic Behaviors  

PubMed Central

Understanding autism's ever-expanding array of behaviors, from sensation to cognition, is a major challenge. We posit that autistic and typically developing brains implement different algorithms that are better suited to learn, represent, and process different tasks; consequently, they develop different interests and behaviors. Computationally, a continuum of algorithms exists, from lookup table (LUT) learning, which aims to store experiences precisely, to interpolation (INT) learning, which focuses on extracting underlying statistical structure (regularities) from experiences. We hypothesize that autistic and typical brains, respectively, are biased toward LUT and INT learning, in low- and high-dimensional feature spaces, possibly because of their narrow and broad tuning functions. The LUT style is good at learning relationships that are local, precise, rigid, and contain little regularity for generalization (e.g., the name–number association in a phonebook). However, it is poor at learning relationships that are context dependent, noisy, flexible, and do contain regularities for generalization (e.g., associations between gaze direction and intention, language and meaning, sensory input and interpretation, motor-control signal and movement, and social situation and proper response). The LUT style poorly compresses information, resulting in inefficiency, sensory overload (overwhelm), restricted interests, and resistance to change. It also leads to poor prediction and anticipation, frequent surprises and over-reaction (hyper-sensitivity), impaired attentional selection and switching, concreteness, strong local focus, weak adaptation, and superior and inferior performances on simple and complex tasks. The spectrum nature of autism can be explained by different degrees of LUT learning among different individuals, and in different systems of the same individual. Our theory suggests that therapy should focus on training autistic LUT algorithm to learn regularities. PMID:21886617

Qian, Ning; Lipkin, Richard M.

2011-01-01

442

A Virtual Learning Application of the Schoolwide Enrichment Model and High-End Learning Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Remarkable advances in instructional communication technology (ICT) have now made it possible to provide high levels of enrichment services to students online. This paper describes an Internet-based enrichment program based on a high-end learning theory that focuses on the development of creative productivity through the "application" of knowledge…

Renzulli, Joseph S.; Reis, Sally M.

2012-01-01

443

Adult brain neurogenesis and psychiatry: a novel theory of depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neurogenesis (the birth of new neurons) continues postnatally and into adulthood in the brains of many animal species, including humans. This is particularly prominent in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampal formation. One of the factors that potently suppresses adult neurogenesis is stress, probably due to increased glucocorticoid release. Complementing this, we have recently found that increasing brain levels of

B L Jacobs; H van Praag; F H Gage

2000-01-01

444

What Becoming Pilot-in-Command Taught Me about Teaching Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This essay outlines the key lessons I re-learned about teaching adults when I decided to earn my private pilot license. I faced a steep learning curve and needed to conquer my fear of falling from the sky when learning required flight maneuvers. The lessons are not about adult development or learning theories or instructional techniques. The…

Erickson, Diane

2009-01-01

445

Psychoandragogy: Applying Insights from the Depth Psychology of Carl Jung to Adult Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The issue of relationship is important personally and organizationally. Individuals find themselves, discover who they are, existentially and psychologically speaking, in the living of their relationships. The question is then what adult education experience is available--solid in theory and in practice--to teach the art and science of the "90…

Rock, Michael E.

446

Language learning strategies and suggested model in adults processes of learning second language  

Microsoft Academic Search

Language learning strategies have crucial values for second language learners because they are means for activity and self –evaluation. These strategies can help to progresses and these communicating competences. In regard to the importance of language English language as a foreign language and based on the resent research which implicated that foreign language learners use less language learning strategies than

Masoud Gholamali Lavasani; Fereshteh Faryadres

2011-01-01

447

The relationship between learning style preference and achievement in the adult student in a multicultural college  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Minority college students have varied learning styles and process information from distinct background and cultural perspectives, which influences their learning. Accordingly, the way faculty approach teaching affects student achievement. Few minorities are in scientific fields, with a shortage of scientists predicted. A problem exists in understanding the relationship between learning style preferences and achievement of minority college students. The purpose of the study was to investigate this relationship in adult minority students in a South Florida college's biology courses. Research questions pertained to relationships between learning style preferences, race, ethnicity and grades. This quantitative study used the online Felder-Soloman Inventory of Learning Styles with a 73% response comprised of 162 White, Black-African American, Hispanic, and Asian students. Variables included grades, race, ethnicity, and learning styles. Relative frequency analysis revealed students preferred sensing, visual and sequential learning. ANOVA analysis showed no significant differences between learning style preference and achievement, nor between race-ethnicity and grades. Chi-square analysis revealed a significant relationship between Black-African Americans and Hispanics for sensing, visual and sequential learning, but not for visual. Black-African American students had the lowest passing rate in biology courses, with Asians having the highest. Increased educator and advisor knowledge of learning styles could result in social change and educational reform from this study, through the adoption of best methods for teaching minority groups enrolled in science courses. Knowing the potential shortage of minorities in the sciences, increased achievement in science courses might encourage these students to enter into scientific careers.

Roig, Matilde E.

448

The Learning Divide Revisited: A Report on the Findings of a UK-Wide Survey on Adult Participation in Education and Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on a 1999 survey of 5,054 adults, this report describes those who are and are not participating in adult learning in Great Britain. It covers factors such as age, gender, previous education experiences, socioeconomic background, and geographical location and points to the workplace as a significant source of information, motivation, and…

Sargant, Naomi

449

The Learning Divide. A Report of the Findings of a UK-wide Survey on Adult Participation in Education and Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adult participation in education and learning in the United Kingdom was examined through a Gallup survey of a stratified (by region and town size) national sample of 4,673 adults aged 17 years and over from England, Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland. Interviewers were given quotas for sex by respondents' age, class, and employment status.…

Sargant, Naomi; Field, John; Francis, Hywel; Schuller, Tom; Tuckett, Alan

450

Learning Disabilities: The Challenges of Adulthood.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of 13 essays focuses on the many challenges that adults with learning disabilities face in educational, work, and social settings. The essays are: (1) "Adults with Learning Disabilities: An Emerging Area of Professional Interest and Public Attention" (James R. Patton and Edward A. Polloway); (2) "Adult Development Theories: An…

Patton, James R., Ed.; Polloway, Edward A., Ed.

451

Adult Learning and Social Division: A Persistent Pattern. A Report of the Findings of a UK-Wide Survey on Adult Participation in Education and Learning Carried Out for NIACE by Research Surveys of Great Britain (RSGB).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adult participation in learning in the United Kingdom in 2002 was examined in a survey of a representative sample of 4,896 adults who were selected using a random location sampling method that involved dividing the study area into 600 areas of equal proportion. The findings from the 2002 survey were compared with those of surveys conducted in 1996…

Sargant, Naomi; Aldridge, Fiona

452

"The Theory behind How Students Learn": Applying Developmental Theory to Research on Children's Historical Thinking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research on children's historical thinking has produced rich descriptions of instruction. However, the research literature is largely lacking a theoretical model of learning. This article asserts that developmental constructivist theory informs research design and interpretation, provides explanatory power, and promises more useful…

Dulberg, Nancy

2005-01-01

453

A community development approach to service-learning: building social capital between rural youth and adults.  

PubMed

Using 4-H and FFA case study findings, this article explores how community service-learning supports the building of social capital between rural youth and adults and the positive effects on community viability. Key elements of practice form a community development approach to service-learning, which opens up doorways for youth to partner with adult leaders and decision makers, gain credibility as resources and problem solvers, address community issues, and raise awareness of the value of school- and community-based youth programs. Case study evidence suggests that rural 4-H and FFA youth and adults benefit from the bonding relationships they form through working together to solve community issues over time. Positive community outcomes are noted as well, including increased community capacity and community recognition. By focusing on social capital as a key outcome of community service-learning, 4-H youth and community development extension professionals, educators, and other practitioners have contributed to the viability of rural communities. PMID:23878087

Henness, Steven A; Ball, Anna L; Moncheski, Maryjo

2013-06-01

454

Presentation-Practice-Production and Task-Based Learning in the Light of Second Language Learning Theories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Features of presentation-practice-production (PPP) and task-based learning (TBL) models for language teaching are discussed with reference to language learning theories. Pre-selection of target structures, use of controlled repetition, and explicit grammar instruction in a PPP lesson are given. Suggests TBL approaches afford greater learning

Ritchie, Graeme

2003-01-01

455

A Phenomenological Study of Spirituality and Learning Processes at Work: Exploring the Holistic Theory of Knowledge and Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The holistic theory of knowledge and learning offers an integrative framework for understanding the interactions of cognitions, feelings, and behavior in learning. Explicit (cognitions), implicit (behavior), and emancipatory (feelings, values, spirituality) knowledge facets interact in learning processes. Little is known, however, about the nature…

Gallagher, Suzanne J.; Rocco, Tonette S.; Landorf, Hilary

2007-01-01

456

Ghrelin directly stimulates adult hippocampal neurogenesis: implications for learning and memory.  

PubMed

Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is important in mediating hippocampal-dependent learning and memory. Exogenous ghrelin is known to stimulate progenitor cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus of adult hippocampus. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of endogenous ghrelin in regulating the in vivo proliferation and differentiation of the newly generating cells in the adult hippocampus using ghrelin knockout (GKO) mice. Targeted deletion of ghrelin gene resulted in reduced numbers of progenitor cells in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampus, while ghrelin treatment restored progenitor cell numbers to those of wild-type controls. We also found that not only the number of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-positive cells but also the fraction of immature neurons and newly generated neurons were decreased in the GKO mice, which were increased by ghrelin replacement. Additionally, in the GKO mice, we observed impairment of memory performance in Y-maze task and novel object recognition test. However, these functional deficiencies were attenuated by ghrelin administration. These results suggest that ghrelin directly induces proliferation and differentiation of adult neural progenitor cells in the SGZ. Our data suggest ghrelin may be a plausible therapeutic potential to enhance learning and memory processes. PMID:23411585

Li, Endan; Chung, Hyunju; Kim, Yumi; Kim, Dong Hyun; Ryu, Jong Hoon; Sato, Takahiro; Kojima, Masayasu; Park, Seungjoon

2013-01-01

457

Artificial grammar learning meets formal language theory: an overview  

PubMed Central

Formal language theory (FLT), part of the broader mathematical theory of computation, provides a systematic terminology and set of conventions for describing rules and the structures they generate, along with a rich body of discoveries and theorems concerning generative rule systems. Despite its name, FLT is not limited to human language, but is equally applicable to computer programs, music, visual patterns, animal vocalizations, RNA structure and even dance. In the last decade, this theory has been profitably used to frame hypotheses and to design brain imaging and animal-learning experiments, mostly using the ‘artificial grammar-learning’ paradigm. We offer a brief, non-technical introduction to FLT and then a more detailed analysis of empirical research based on this theory. We suggest that progress has been hampered by a pervasive conflation of distinct issues, including hierarchy, dependency, complexity and recursion. We offer clarifications of several relevant hypotheses and the experimental designs necessary to test them. We finally review the recent brain imaging literature, using formal languages, identifying areas of convergence and outstanding debates. We conclude that FLT has much to offer scientists who are interested in rigorous empirical investigations of human cognition from a neuroscientific and comparative perspective. PMID:22688631

Fitch, W. Tecumseh; Friederici, Angela D.

2012-01-01

458

Intergenerational Systems Theory and Identity Development in Young Adult Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explored via questionnaires how intergenerational family systems theory is related to identity development in 164 undergraduate women. Found intergenerational factors of intimacy, intimidation, and individuation along with autonomy versus fusion, contributed variance to various identity statuses. (Author/DLH)

Perosa, Linda M.; Perosa, Sandra L.; Tam, Hak Ping

2002-01-01

459

Adult stem cell and mesenchymal progenitor theories of aging  

PubMed Central

Advances in medical science and technology allow people live longer lives, which results in age-related problems. Humans cannot avoid the various aged-related alterations of aging; in other words, humans cannot remain young at molecular and cellular levels. In 1956, Harman proposed the “free radical theory of aging” to explain the molecular mechanisms of aging. Telomere length, and accumulation of DNA or mitochondrial damage are also considered to be mechanisms of aging. On the other hand, stem cells are essential for maintaining tissue homeostasis by replacing parenchymal cells; therefore, the stem cell theory of aging is also used to explain the progress of aging. Importantly, the stem cell theory of aging is likely related to other theories. In addition, recent studies have started to reveal the essential roles of tissue-resident mesenchymal progenitors/stem cells/stromal cells in maintaining tissue homeostasis, and some evidence of their fundamental roles in the progression of aging has been presented. In this review, we discuss how stem cell and other theories connect to explain the progress of aging. In addition, we consider the mesenchymal progenitor theory of aging to describing the process of aging. PMID:25364718

Fukada, So-ichiro; Ma, Yuran; Uezumi, Akiyoshi

2014-01-01

460

The Application of Carl Rogers' Person-Centered Learning Theory to Web-Based Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides a review of literature that relates research on Carl Rogers' person-centered learning theory to Web-based learning. Based on the review of the literature, a set of criteria is described that can be used to determine how closely a Web-based course matches the different components of Rogers' person-centered learning theory. Using…

Miller, Christopher T.

461

Popular Cultural Pedagogy, in Theory; Or: What Can Cultural Theory Learn about Learning from Popular Culture?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Culture has been theorized as pedagogy. In several languages and many contexts "culture" and "education" can be used interchangeably. This issue of the journal "Educational Philosophy and Theory" seeks to explore the dual proposition (1) that pedagogy is central to politicized cultural theory, but (2) that it has been…

Bowman, Paul

2013-01-01

462

Impaired prefrontal sleep spindle regulation of hippocampal-dependent learning in older adults.  

PubMed

A hallmark feature of cognitive aging is a decline in the ability to form new memories. Parallel to these cognitive impairments are marked disruptions in sleep physiology. Despite recent evidence in young adults establishing a role for sleep spindles in restoring hippocampal-dependent memory formation, the possibility that disrupted sleep physiology contributes to age-related decline in hippocampal-dependent learning remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that reduced prefrontal sleep spindles by over 40% in older adults statistically mediates the effects of old age on next day episodic learning, such that the degree of impaired episodic learning is explained by the extent of impoverished prefrontal sleep spindles. In addition, prefrontal spindles significantly predicted the magnitude of impaired next day hippocampal activation, thereby determining the influence of spindles on post-sleep learning capacity. These data support the hypothesis that disrupted sleep physiology contributes to age-related cognitive decline in later life, the consequence of which has significant treatment intervention potential. PMID:23901074

Mander, Bryce A; Rao, Vikram; Lu, Brandon; Saletin, Jared M; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Jagust, William J; Walker, Matthew P

2014-12-01

463

Watch the hands: infants can learn to follow gaze by seeing adults manipulate objects.  

PubMed

Infants gradually learn to share attention, but it is unknown how they acquire skills such as gaze-following. Deák and Triesch (2006) suggest that gaze-following could be acquired if infants learn that adults' gaze direction is likely to be aligned with interesting sights. This hypothesis stipulates that adults tend to look at things that infants find interesting, and that infants could learn by noticing this tendency. We tested the plausibility of this hypothesis through video-based micro-behavioral analysis of naturalistic parent-infant play. The results revealed that 3- to 11-month-old infants strongly preferred watching caregivers handle objects. In addition, when caregivers looked away from their infant they tended to look at their own object-handling. Finally, when infants looked toward the caregiver while she was looking at her own hands, the infant's next eye movement was often toward the caregiver's object-handling. In this way infants receive adequate naturalistic input to learn associations between their parent's gaze direction and the locations of interesting sights. PMID:24387193

Deák, Gedeon O; Krasno, Anna M; Triesch, Jochen; Lewis, Joshua; Sepeta, Leigh

2014-03-01

464

Final Report of the Development of an International Adult Learning Module (OECD AL Module): Recommendations on Methods, Concepts and Questions in International Adult Learning Surveys. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 21  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Policy interest in international surveys on Adult Learning (AL) has increased strongly. AL survey data are used as benchmarks for a country's educational system. However, results of key indicators like participation in learning activities often vary remarkably between different data sources. Stating that these differences are due to varying…

Kuwan, Helmut; Larsson, Ann-Charlotte

2008-01-01

465

Adult Learning: A Key for the 21st Century. CONFINTEA V Background Papers (Hamburg, Germany, July 14-18, 1997).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The following papers are included: "Foreword" (Jakob Horn, Paul Belanger); "Internationalization and Globalization" (Ove Korsgaard); "Adult Learning and the Challenges of the 21st Century" (Marc-Laurent Hazoume); "Diversity in Adult Education: Some Key Concepts in Minority and Indigenous Issues" (Linda King de Jardon); "The Culture of Peace: The…

Adult Education and Development, 1997

1997-01-01

466

A Study of Associations between Age, Race, Gender, and Adult Learners Graduating from a Distant-Learning Master's Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focused on adult learners' age, race, gender, and whether they graduated from a distant-learning, master in the art of teaching program at an accredited college during the three academic semesters that comprised the 2007-2008 school year. The dependent variable used in this study consisted of whether adult learners graduated from a…

Naughton, Deborah Trupp

2010-01-01

467

Let's Keep in Contact with Europe--a Joint European Research Project about Lifelong Education for Adults with Learning Difficulties.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses a partnership among professionals in Italy, Spain, the United Kingdom, and Hungary to construct a useful learning tool for adults with learning difficulties. It describes development of the training needs scale that includes units in three main educational areas: social work skills, new technologies, and European…

Fernandez, Samuel; Kovari, Janos; Vulterini, Paola; Williams, Val

2002-01-01

468

The Use of Scaffolding and Interactive Learning Strategies in Online Courses for Working Nurses: Implications for Adult and Online Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reviews the foundational literature of contemporary e-learning, with a focus on scaffolding, instructional design, and engagement. These concepts are then considered in two limited case studies, each involving e-learning and adult learners--in particular, nurse-learners. The first case study describes the use of a scaffolding model…

Salyers, Vince; Carter, Lorraine; Cairns, Steve; Durrer, Luke

2014-01-01

469

Food- and Nonfood-Related Differential Outcomes in Equivalence Learning by Adults with Prader-Willi Syndrome.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five adults with Prader-Willi syndrome (characterized by short stature, learning difficulties, incomplete sexual development, and uncontrollable eating) learned the conditional relations necessary for the formation of two equivalence classes under differential/nondifferential and edible/nonedible outcomes. Performance on test trials was better…

Joseph, Beth; And Others

1997-01-01

470

Adults' and 8-Year-Olds' Learning in a Foreign Word Repetition Task: Similar and Different  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the significance of age in second language acquisition is one of the most hotly debated issues in the field, very few studies have directly addressed age differences in the language learning process. The present study investigated learning in a foreign-word repetition task. Young Finnish adults and 8-year-olds repeated back Korean words.…

Service, Elisabet; Yli-Kaitala, Hely; Maury, Sini; Kim, Jeong-Young

2014-01-01

471

Riding the Waves of Policy? The Case of Basic Skills in Adult and Community Learning in England  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper draws on data from secondary sources and in-depth interviews to explore the question: What is the impact of policy on teaching, learning, assessment and inclusion in Adult and Community Learning (ACL) "Skills for Life" (SfL) provision? In particular, it focuses on the government's use of five policy-steering mechanisms--funding,…

Hodgson, Ann; Edward, Sheila; Gregson, Maggie

2007-01-01

472

Learner Awareness of Recasts in Classroom Interaction: A Case Study of an Adult EFL Student's Second Language Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a case study of an adult Japanese learner's second language (L2) learning through her teacher's recasts in an English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) classroom in Japan. Investigated the relationship between the student's awareness of feedback and her L2 learning. Findings suggest recasting is a complex verbal behavior influenced by the…

Nabei, Toshiyo; Swain, Merrill

2002-01-01

473

Underpinning Principles of Adult Learning in Face to Face (f2f) Meetings Employed by Distance-Teaching Universities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study presented in this article explores the application of the principles of adult learning in the face to face (f2f) meetings organised within the context of blended learning courses. The study adopts a case study approach, employing qualitative data collection through semi-structured interviews with participants in four thematic units in…

Gravani, Maria N.; Karagiorgi, Yiasemina

2014-01-01

474

The Secondary to Postsecondary Transition Process for Learning Disabled Adolescents and Adults: An Annotated Bibliography. Supplement #2. A Working Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The supplement to a previous bibliography lists 40 references concerned with the transition of learning-disabled (LD) students from secondary to postsecondary and work settings. An introduction notes the bibliography's emphasis on the following areas: (1) the psychosocial impact of learning disabilities on adolescent and adult development; (2)…

Price, Lynda

475

Sustainability of healthcare improvement: what can we learn from learning theory?  

PubMed Central

Background Changes that improve the quality of health care should be sustained. Falling back to old, unsatisfactory ways of working is a waste of resources and can in the worst case increase resistance to later initiatives to improve care. Quality improvement relies on changing the clinical system yet factors that influence the sustainability of quality improvements are poorly understood. Theoretical frameworks can guide further research on the sustainability of quality improvements. Theories of organizational learning have contributed to a better understanding of organizational change in other contexts. To identify factors contributing to sustainability of improvements, we use learning theory to explore a case that had displayed sustained improvement. Methods Fřrde Hospital redesigned the pathway for elective surgery and achieved sustained reduction of cancellation rates. We used a qualitative case study design informed by theory to explore factors that contributed to sustain the improvements at Fřrde Hospital. The model Evidence in the Learning Organization describes how organizational learning contributes to change in healthcare institutions. This model constituted the framework for data collection and analysis. We interviewed a strategic sample of 20 employees. The in-depth interviews covered themes identified through our theoretical framework. Through a process of coding and condensing, we identified common themes that were interpreted in relation to our theoretical framework. Results Clinicians and leaders shared information about their everyday work and related this knowledge to how the entire clinical pathway could be improved. In this way they developed a revised and deeper understanding of their clinical system and its interdependencies. They became increasingly aware of how different elements needed to interact to enhance the performance and how their own efforts could contribute. Conclusions The improved understanding of the clinical system represented a change in mental models of employees that influenced how the organization changed its performance. By applying the framework of organizational learning, we learned that changes originating from a new mental model represent double-loop learning. In double-loop learning, deeper system properties are changed, and consequently changes are more likely to be sustained. PMID:22863199

2012-01-01

476

Cognitive versus stimulus-response theories of learning  

PubMed Central

In his 1948 address to the Division of Theoretical-Experimental Psychology of the American Psychological Association, Kenneth W. Spence discussed six distinctions between cognitive and stimulus-response (S-R) theories of learning. In this article I first review these six distinctions, and then focus on two of them in the context of my own research. This research concerns the specification of stimulus-stimulus associations in associative learning, and the characterization of neural systems underlying those associations. In the course of describing Spence's views and my research, I hope to communicate some of the richness of Spence's S-R psychology, and its currency within modern scientific analyses of behavior. PMID:18683467

Holland, Peter C.

2010-01-01

477

Multi-Sensory Cognitive Learning as Facilitated in a Multimedia Tutorial for Item Response Theory  

E-print Network

Multi-Sensory Cognitive Learning as Facilitated in a Multimedia Tutorial for Item Response Theory Learning Technology Institute, Arizona State University Tempe AZ 85287, USA ABSTRACT The objective of a multimedia tutorial for Item Response Theory. The cognitive multimedia theory suggests that the visual

Yu, Alex

478

Theory of Mind Through the Ages: Older and Middle-Aged Adults Exhibit More Errors Than Do Younger Adults on a Continuous False Belief Task  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theory of mind (ToM), or the ability to understand mental states, is a fundamental aspect of social cognition. Previous research has documented marked advances in ToM in preschoolers, and declines in ToM in older-aged adults. In the present study, younger (n = 37), middle-aged (n = 20), and older (n = 37) adults completed a continuous false belief task measuring ToM. Middle-aged and older adults exhibited

Daniel M. Bernstein; Wendy Loken Thornton; Jessica A. Sommerville

2011-01-01

479

Activity and Participation Characteristics of Adults with Learning Disabilities - A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background ‘Learning disabilities’ (LD) refer to a wide group of neurological disorders caused by deficits in the central nervous system which influence the individual's ability to maintain-, process or convey information to others in an efficient way. A worldwide discussion about the definitions of LD continues while a conceptual framework for studying the diverse life outcomes of adults with LD is still missing. Objective The aim was to review the literature on the activity and participation of adults with LD based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) concepts. Methods “PsychInfo”, “Eric” and “PubMed” were searched for relevant literature according to the guidelines of Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). After a three-stage process, 62 articles relevant for domains of activity and participation of adults with LD were included in the review. Results Thirty-two articles focused on the domain of major life areas of education, work and employment and twelve articles focused on the domain of learning and applying knowledge. Limitations in activity and participation of the population with LD in these domains are recognized and discussed. Eighteen additional articles demonstrated that adults with LD confront difficulties in various life domains (e.g., communication, interpersonal interactions, mobility, and domestic life), however literature concerning these domains is scarce. Conclusions The ICF can be useful for further exploration of activity and participation characteristics of adults with LD in various life domains. Such exploration is required in order to gain a wider perspective of their functional characteristics and daily needs. PMID:25184315

Sharfi, Kineret; Rosenblum, Sara

2014-01-01

480

Autobiographical Memory in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: The role of Depressed Mood, Rumination, Working Memory and Theory of Mind  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Autobiographical memory difficulties have been widely reported in adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The aim of the current study was to explore the potential correlates of autobiographical memory performance (including depressed mood, rumination, working memory and theory of mind) in adults with ASD, relative to a group of typical adults

Crane, Laura; Goddard, Lorna; Pring, Linda

2013-01-01

481

PHD IN NURSING SAMPLE FULL-TIME PROGRAM Student with an interest in Symptom Management in Adults; Theory & Practice Emphasis  

E-print Network

PHD IN NURSING SAMPLE FULL-TIME PROGRAM Student with an interest in Symptom Management in Adults Practice Nursing Theory: Adults and Older Adults 3 N703 Health Care & Public Policy 3 N815 Knowledge Development in Nursing 3 N803 Advanced Quantitative Design & Methods 3 N816 Proseminar in Nursing Research 1

Sheridan, Jennifer

482

Designing the Electronic Classroom: Applying Learning Theory and Ergonomic Design Principles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Applies learning theory and ergonomic principles to the design of effective learning environments for library instruction. Discusses features of electronic classroom ergonomics, including the ergonomics of physical space, environmental factors, and workstations; and includes classroom layouts. (Author/LRW)

Emmons, Mark; Wilkinson, Frances C.

2001-01-01

483

The Agony and the Ecstasy of Adult Learning: Faculty Learning Computer Technology. What Lessons Can We Learn from These Experiences?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three years of helping faculty members at a state university learn computing technology yielded the following lessons: (1) for faculty members, the ownership of a computer is an emotional event during which computers are viewed successively as glorified typewriters, status symbols, and tools; (2) even to highly knowledgeable individuals, learning

Kasworm, Carol E.

484

A philosophical analysis of David Orr's theory of ecological literacy: biophilia, ecojustice and moral education in school learning communities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In his writings, David Orr claims that the US is in an "ecological crisis" and that this stems from a crisis of education. He outlines a theory of ecological literacy, a mode by which we better learn the ecology of the Earth and live in a sustainable manner. While emphasizing a shock doctrine, the diagnosis of "crisis" may be correct, but it is short-lived for children and adults of the world. In this philosophical analysis of Orr's theory, it is argued that we move beyond the perspective of crisis. By extending Orr's ecological literacy with biophilia and ecojustice and by recognizing the importance of experience-in-learning, science education is envisioned to incorporate values and morals within a longer term ideology of educational reform.

Mitchell, Debra B.; Mueller, Michael P.

2011-03-01

485

LEARNING TO CHOOSE AMONG SOCIAL FORAGING STRATEGIES IN ADULT HOUSE SPARROWS (Passer domesticus).  

PubMed

Social foragers may be regarded as being engaged in a producer-scrounger game in which they can search for food independently or join others who have discovered food. Research on the producer-scrounger game has focused mainly on the different factors influencing its ESS solution, but very little is known about the actual mechanisms that shape players' decisions. Recent work has shown that early experience can affect producer-scrounger foraging tendencies in young house sparrows, and that in nutmeg mannikins learning is involved in reaching the ESS. Here we show that direct manipulation of the success rate experienced by adult sparrows when following others can change their strategy choice on the following day. We presented to live sparrows an experimental regime, where stuffed adult house sparrows in a feeding position were positioned on a foraging grid that included two reward regimes: a positive one, in which the stuffed models were placed near food, and a negative one, in which the models were placed away from food. There was a significant increase in joining behavior after the positive treatment (exhibited by 84% of the birds), but no change after the negative treatment. Further analysis demonstrated that sparrows more frequently used the strategy with which they were more successful (usually joining), and that differences in strategy use were correlated with differences in success. These results suggest that adult birds can monitor their success and learn to choose among social foraging strategies in the producer-scrounger game. PMID:23226911

Belmaker, Amos; Motro, Uzi; Feldman, Marcus W; Lotem, Arnon

2012-11-01

486

LEARNING TO CHOOSE AMONG SOCIAL FORAGING STRATEGIES IN ADULT HOUSE SPARROWS (Passer domesticus)  

PubMed Central

Social foragers may be regarded as being engaged in a producer-scrounger game in which they can search for food independently or join others who have discovered food. Research on the producer-scrounger game has focused mainly on the different factors influencing its ESS solution, but very little is known about the actual mechanisms that shape players’ decisions. Recent work has shown that early experience can affect producer-scrounger foraging tendencies in young house sparrows, and that in nutmeg mannikins learning is involved in reaching the ESS. Here we show that direct manipulation of the success rate experienced by adult sparrows when following others can change their strategy choice on the following day. We presented to live sparrows an experimental regime, where stuffed adult house sparrows in a feeding position were positioned on a foraging grid that included two reward regimes: a positive one, in which the stuffed models were placed near food, and a negative one, in which the models were placed away from food. There was a significant increase in joining behavior after the positive treatment (exhibited by 84% of the birds), but no change after the negative treatment. Further analysis demonstrated that sparrows more frequently used the strategy with which they were more successful (usually joining), and that differences in strategy use were correlated with differences in success. These results suggest that adult birds can monitor their success and learn to choose among social foraging strategies in the producer-scrounger game. PMID:23226911

Belmaker, Amos; Motro, Uzi; Feldman, Marcus W.; Lotem, Arnon

2012-01-01

487

The Chautauqua Movement and Its Influence on Adult Education Theory and Practice Today  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What is Chautauqua? What contributions were made to adult education theory and practice by three early Chautauquan leaders: John Vincent, Lewis Miller, and William Rainey Harper? How did they handle certain administrative tasks? This article briefly introduces the reader to the Chautauqua Institution that then became the Chautauqua Movement. It…

Howell, Scott L.; McGinn, Alma D.

2006-01-01

488

Treatment of amblyopia in the adult: insights from a new rodent model of visual perceptual learning  

PubMed Central

Amblyopia is the most common form of impairment of visual function affecting one eye, with a prevalence of about 1–5% of the total world population. Amblyopia usually derives from conditions of early functional imbalance between the two eyes, owing to anisometropia, strabismus, or congenital cataract, and results in a pronounced reduction of visual acuity and severe deficits in contrast sensitivity and stereopsis. It is widely accepted that, due to a lack of sufficient plasticity in the adult brain, amblyopia becomes untreatable after the closure of the critical period in the primary visual cortex. However, recent results obtained both in animal models and in clinical trials have challenged this view, unmasking a previously unsuspected potential for promoting recovery even in adulthood. In this context, non invasive procedures based on visual perceptual learning, i.e., the improvement in visual performance on a variety of simple visual tasks following practice, emerge as particularly promising to rescue discrimination abilities in adult amblyopic subjects. This review will survey recent work regarding the impact of visual perceptual learning on amblyopia, with a special focus on a new experimental model of perceptual learning in the amblyopic rat. PMID:25076874

Bonaccorsi, Joyce; Berardi, Nicoletta; Sale, Alessandro

2014-01-01

489

Artificial grammar learning in zebra finches and human adults: XYX versus XXY.  

PubMed

Abstracting syntactic rules is critical to human language learning. It is debated whether this ability, already present in young infants, is human- and language specific or can also be found in non-human animals, indicating it may arise from more general cognitive mechanisms. Current studies are often ambiguous and few have directly compared rule learning by humans and non-human animals. In a series of discrimination experiments, we presented zebra finches and human adults with comparable training and tests with the same artificial stimuli consisting of XYX and XXY structures, in which X and Y were zebra finch song elements. Zebra finches readily discriminated the training stimuli. Some birds also discriminated novel stimuli when these were composed of familiar element types, but none of the birds generalized the discrimination to novel element types. We conclude that zebra finches show evidence of simple rule abstraction related to positional learning, suggesting stimulus-bound generalization, but found no evidence for a more abstract rule generalization. This differed from the human adults, who categorized novel stimuli consisting of novel element types into different groups according to their structure. The limited abilities for rule abstraction in zebra finches may indicate what the precursors of more complex abstraction as found in humans may have been like. PMID:25015135

Chen, Jiani; van Rossum, Danielle; Ten Cate, Carel

2014-07-12

490

Theoretical Observations on Applied Behavioral ScienceSchooling and Learning: The Place of Learning in Social Theories of Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Educational theory has developed in a fragmented fashion, with perspectives on the structure and organization of schooling developing in isolation from theories of cognition and learning. In this article, the author argues that for educational theory to have coherent policy implications, these two strands of thought must be integrated. Following an analysis of three major views of the role of

Jan Nespor

1988-01-01

491

Neural coding of basic reward terms of animal learning theory, game theory, microeconomics and behavioural ecology.  

PubMed

Neurons in a small number of brain structures detect rewards and reward-predicting stimuli and are active during the expectation of predictable food and liquid rewards. These neurons code the reward information according to basic terms of various behavioural theories that seek to explain reward-directed learning, approach behaviour and decision-making. The involved brain structures include groups of dopamine neurons, the striatum including the nucleus accumbens, the orbitofrontal cortex and the amygdala. The reward information is fed to brain structures involved in decision-making and organisation of behaviour, such as the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and possibly the parietal cortex. The neural coding of basic reward terms derived from formal theories puts the neurophysiological investigation of reward mechanisms on firm conceptual grounds and provides neural correlates for the function of rewards in learning, approach behaviour and decision-making. PMID:15082317

Schultz, Wolfram

2004-04-01

492

Toward a Theory of Childhood Learning Disorders, Hyperactivity, and Aggression  

PubMed Central

Learning disorders are often associated with persistent hyperactivity and aggression and are part of a spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders. A potential clue to understanding these linked phenomena is that physical exercise and passive forms of stimulation are calming, enhance cognitive functions and learning, and are recommended as complementary treatments for these problems. The theory is proposed that hyperactivity and aggression are intense stimulation-seeking behaviors (SSBs) driven by increased brain retinergic activity, and the stimulation thus obtained activates opposing nitrergic systems which inhibit retinergic activity, induce a state of calm, and enhance cognition and learning. In persons with cognitive deficits and associated behavioral disorders, the retinergic system may be chronically overactivated and the nitrergic system chronically underactivated due to environmental exposures occurring pre- and/or postnatally that affect retinoid metabolism or expression. For such individuals, the intensity of stimulation generated by SSB may be insufficient to activate the inhibitory nitrergic system. A multidisciplinary research program is needed to test the model and, in particular, to determine the extent to which applied physical treatments can activate the nitrergic system directly, providing the necessary level of intensity of sensory stimulation to substitute for that obtained in maladaptive and harmful ways by SSB, thereby reducing SSB and enhancing cognitive skills and performance. PMID:23762766

Mawson, Anthony R.

2012-01-01

493

Competitive Learning in Electric Circuit Theory Using MOODLE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have recently introduced an activity based on competitive learning in the subject of "Electric Circuit Theory", which is taught in the first year of the 3-year degree of Technical Telecommunication Engineering at the University of Valladolid. Students are divided into groups and compete in a tournament through a series of knockout rounds. In each of these rounds, a contending group solves an electric circuit problem, and proposes an update on it, which must then be solved by the other contending team, and so on until one of them fails. In order to facilitate the management of the game, the open-source MOODLE platform has been employed. This paper describes the experience and the learning benefits that it brings, as well as how the method has been implemented using the MOODLE platform. Moreover, the satisfaction of the students and the time required by the students and by the teacher when using this technique are also analyzed. While the experience focuses on the subject of "Electric Circuit Theory", it is worthy to note that it may be easily extended to other subjects.

Barroso, Ramón J. Durán; Bahillo, Alfonso; Fernández, Patricia; Merayo, Noemí; de Miguel, Ignacio; Aguado, Juan Carlos; Lorenzo, Rubén M.; Domi, Evaristo J. Abril

494

INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN TASK-SPECIFIC PAIRED ASSOCIATES LEARNING IN OLDER ADULTS: THE ROLE OF PROCESSING SPEED AND WORKING MEMORY  

PubMed Central

Background The role of processing speed and working memory was investigated in terms of individual differences in task-specific paired associates learning in a sample of older adults. Task-specific learning, as distinct from content-oriented item-specific learning, refers to gains in performance due to repeated practice on a learning task in which the to-be-learned material changes over trials. Methods Learning trajectories were modeled within an intensive repeated-measures design based on participants obtained from an opt-in internet-based sampling service (Mage = 65.3, SD = 4.81). Participants completed an eight-item paired associates task daily over a seven-day period. Results Results indicated that a three-parameter hyperbolic model (i.e., initial level, learning rate, and asymptotic performance) best described learning trajectory. After controlling for age-related effects, both higher working memory and higher processing speed had a positive effect on all three learning parameters. Conclusion These results emphasize the role of cognitive abilities for individual differences in task-specific learning of older adults. PMID:24151913

Kurtz, Tanja; Mogle, Jacqueline; Sliwinski, Martin J.; Hofer, Scott M.

2013-01-01

495

Breaking the Ice: Using Icebreakers and Re-Energizers with Adult Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article centers on theories of adult learning methods and how they relate to the practice of using icebreakers in the adult classroom. While one's language is geared toward the adult learning world, one's experience has been that these practices also work well in a variety of classroom and group settings, both traditional and non-traditional,…

Chlup, Dominique T.; Collins, Tracy E.

2010-01-01

496

A Biological Basis for Generative Learning in Technology-and-Science Part I: A Theory of Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a theory of learning in which the brain is seen as a Darwinian machine. Argues that the generative heuristic underlying Darwinism offers considerable value for technology and science education. Contains 33 references. (Author/WRM)

Schaverien, Lynette; Cosgrove, Mark

1999-01-01

497

The Economics of Adult Learning: The Role of Government. A Series of 29 Booklets Documenting Workshops Held at the Fifth International Conference on Adult Education (Hamburg, Germany, July 14-18, 1997).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The booklet reports on a new vision of the economics of adult learning. The vision considers adult learning to be not an expense but an investment that can be analyzed and managed as such. According to the booklet, governments in many countries, therefore, are adopting a steering role and are giving more direct responsibilities to institutions at…

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Hamburg (Germany). Inst. for Education.

498

Exploring "American History X" through Transformational Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adult educators often struggle with finding creative ways to help students understand adult learning theories and applications of those theories in professional practice. Media analysis of popular culture can uncomplicate this task by engaging learners in understanding concepts, principles or theories (Baumgartner & Merriam, 1999). The purpose of…

Sharma, Sonia

2013-01-01

499

Kolb's Experiential Learning Theory and Its Application in Geography in Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes David Kolb's experiential learning theory focusing on the main features of his theory. Applies Kolb's theory to the teaching of geography addressing ideas such as teaching how theories of gender explain aspects of suburbia, teaching a field course, and encouraging staff to rethink their teaching style. Include references. (CMK)

Healey, Mick; Jenkins, Alan

2000-01-01

500

Deep Learning in Intermediate Microeconomics: Using Scaffolding Assignments to Teach Theory and Promote Transfer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intermediate microeconomics is typically viewed as a theory and tools course that relies on algorithmic problems to help students learn and apply economic theory. However, the authors' assessment research suggests that algorithmic problems by themselves do not encourage students to think about where the theory comes from, why the theory is…

Green, Gareth P.; Bean, John C.; Peterson, Dean J.

2013-01-01