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1

The Changing Landscape of Adult Learning Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the founding of the field of adult education, the task of explaining how adult learners learn has been a major one on the part of both researchers and practitioners. Adult learning, after all, is the glue that holds together an otherwise widely disparate field, a field that ranges from adult basic education (ABE) to human resource development, and from

Sharan B. Merriam

2

Game Engagement Theory and Adult Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|One of the benefits of computer game-based learning is the ability of certain types of game to engage and motivate learners. However, theories of learning and engagement, particularly in the sphere of higher education, typically fail to consider gaming engagement theory. In this article, the author examines the principles of engagement from games…

Whitton, Nicola

2011-01-01

3

Game Engagement Theory and Adult Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the benefits of computer game-based learning is the ability of certain types of game to engage and motivate learners. However, theories of learning and engagement, particularly in the sphere of higher education, typically fail to consider gaming engagement theory. In this article, the author examines the principles of engagement from games…

Whitton, Nicola

2011-01-01

4

Simulation Methodology in Nursing Education and Adult Learning Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Simulation is often used in nursing education as a teaching methodology. Simulation is rooted in adult learning theory. Three learning theories, cognitive, social, and constructivist, explain how learners gain knowledge with simulation experiences. This article takes an in-depth look at each of these three theories as each relates to simulation.…

Rutherford-Hemming, Tonya

2012-01-01

5

Applying Adult Learning Theory through a Character Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to analyze the behavior of a character, Celie, in a movie, 'The Color Purple," through the lens of two adult learning theorists to determine the relationships the character has with each theory. The development and portrayal of characters in movies can be explained and understood by the analysis of adult learning

Baskas, Richard S.

2011-01-01

6

Centering Marxist-Feminist Theory in Adult Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using feminist extensions of Marxist theory, this article argues that a Marxist-feminist theory of adult learning offers a significant contribution to feminist pedagogical debates concerning the nature of experience and learning. From this theoretical perspective, the individual and the social are understood to exist in a mutually determining relationship, with a social world conceptualized as active human practice. The primary

Sara Carpenter

2012-01-01

7

Centering Marxist-Feminist Theory in Adult Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Using feminist extensions of Marxist theory, this article argues that a Marxist-feminist theory of adult learning offers a significant contribution to feminist pedagogical debates concerning the nature of experience and learning. From this theoretical perspective, the individual and the social are understood to exist in a mutually determining…

Carpenter, Sara

2012-01-01

8

Being, Having and Doing: Theories of Learning and Adults with Learning Difficulties  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The starting point for this review of literature on theories of learning and adults with learning difficulties is the FEFC's 1996 landmark report, "Inclusive Learning" (also known as the Tomlinson Report). This report made learning its central focus, arguing that unless we understand how students learn we cannot begin to make the right provision…

Dee, Leslie; Devecchi, Cristina; Florian, Lani

2006-01-01

9

Reexamining Theories of Adult Learning and Adult Development through the Lenses of Public Pedagogy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The authors examine the modernist underpinnings of traditional adult learning and development theories and evaluate elements of those theories through more contemporary lenses. Drawing on recent literature focused on "public pedagogy," the authors argue that much learning takes place outside of formal educational institutions. They look beyond…

Sandlin, Jennifer A.; Wright, Robin Redmon; Clark, Carolyn

2013-01-01

10

Beyond Knowles: What Those Conducting Simulation Need to Know About Adult Learning Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the adult learning theories that might affect the way that adult learners perceive learning and reach understanding of clinical expertise. Although educators in clinical and simulation settings are becoming much more aware of the theories that affect adult learning, too often their knowledge might not reach past the great work of Malcolm Knowles and his theory of

Timothy C. Clapper

2010-01-01

11

The History of Adult Learning Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The implementation of new programs for adult professionals has been the salvation for many small colleges struggling with retrenchment during the 1980s. Some of these programs were hastily assembled with little rationale other than to create cash for the traditional campus. Thus, they are often the object of suspicion by educational traditionalists looking for sound programs based on good educational

Cynthia Benn Tweedell

12

Andragogy and Self-Directed Learning: Pillars of Adult Learning Theory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Andragogy and self-directed learning were early attempts to define adult education as a unique field of practice. Both have been criticized for focusing on individual learners while ignoring sociohistorical context. Both continue to contribute to adult education theory and practice. (Contains 44 references.) (SK)

Merriam, Sharan B.

2001-01-01

13

Adult learning theories: Implications for learning and teaching in medical education: AMEE Guide No. 83.  

PubMed

There are many theories that explain how adults learn and each has its own merits. This Guide explains and explores the more commonly used ones and how they can be used to enhance student and faculty learning. The Guide presents a model that combines many of the theories into a flow diagram which can be followed by anyone planning learning. The schema can be used at curriculum planning level, or at the level of individual learning. At each stage of the model, the Guide identifies the responsibilities of both learner and educator. The role of the institution is to ensure that the time and resources are available to allow effective learning to happen. The Guide is designed for those new to education, in the hope that it can unravel the difficulties in understanding and applying the common learning theories, whilst also creating opportunities for debate as to the best way they should be used. PMID:24004029

Taylor, David C M; Hamdy, Hossam

2013-09-04

14

A Critical Theory of Adult Learning and Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interpreting the ideas of Jurgen Habermas, the nature of three generic domains of adult learning is posited, each with its own interpretive categories, ways of determining which knowledge claims are warranted, methods of inquiry as well as its own learning goals, learning needs and modes of educational intervention. (CT)

Mezirow, Jack

1981-01-01

15

Adult learning in veterinary education: theory to practice.  

PubMed

This paper argues the case for the increased application of adult learning principles to veterinary education. It encapsulates evidence from the United Kingdom, Europe, North America, and Australia to explain why it has taken veterinary schools so long to transform their curricula to best facilitate the development of lifelong learning skills, such as independent and self-directed learning, problem solving, and critical thinking. Despite the variation in training programs in these different regions, the paper identifies common issues-conflicting educational paradigms and the need for faculty development-and ultimately concludes that professional and continuing education should be viewed as a continuous process, supporting the adult learner's cognitive development and facilitated through experiential learning. PMID:19228912

Dale, Vicki H M; Sullivan, Martin; May, Stephen A

2008-01-01

16

Learning Theories & Their Application to Science Instruction for Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|It has become apparent through the work of many researchers and practitioners that adults learn differently than their younger counterparts in the educational system. This is especially important to those educators teaching in colleges and universities in the sciences. Biology education in the post-secondary setting is inundated with teachers who…

Bass, Christa

2012-01-01

17

A Choice and Growth Based Theory of Human Development and Learning in the Adult Years.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Writings in the field of human development and learning in the adult years can be integrated into a simple theory. A theory is defined as a policy, hypothesis, or set of principles used or proposed as a basis for action. The adult years are defined as a time in which one makes choices with a degree of maturity and wisdom and assumes…

Main, Keith

18

Repositioning Ideology Critique in a Critical Theory of Adult Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contemporary adult educational readings of the Frankfurt School of critical theory, as interpreted via Habermas, risk sliding into an exclusive engagement with the pragmatic dimensions of his thought to the exclusion of its Marxist underpinnings and its concern with ideology critique. Building on Max Horkheimer's recently republished essay on \\

Stephen Brookfield

2001-01-01

19

The Discourse of Retrospective Miscue Analysis: Links with Adult Learning Theory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the appropriateness of retrospective miscue analysis (RMA) for post-secondary developmental readers through the perspective of adult learning theory. Emphasizes the suitability of RMA as an instructional strategy for college readers through analyzing the process and effectiveness of two RMA sessions with a young adult college…

Paulson, Eric

2001-01-01

20

Application of Theories, Principles and Methods of Adult Learning for Managers to Improve Workplace Reactions to Learning, Knowledge and Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The objective of this dissertation was to explore the concept that knowledge and application of theories, principles and methods of adult learning to teaching may be a core management competency needed for companies to improve employee reaction to learning, knowledge transfer and behavior as well as engagement, retention and profitability.…

Steier, E. Joseph, III

2010-01-01

21

Learning Theory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This section of Chapter 4 concentrates on the theories of learning that have contributed to a better understanding of how behavior is established, maintained, and modified. The theories of learning that have been proposed and researched over many years ha...

A. J. Bachrach

1984-01-01

22

GED Teaching and Adult Learning Theory: Practical Approaches.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers practical approaches to creating a connected learning environment, integrating individual disciplines into holistic learning, and inspiring motivation to be lifelong learners for a general educational development (GED) program. (JOW)

Loughlin, Kathleen

1994-01-01

23

Role of Adult Learning Theory in Evaluating and Designing Strategies for Teaching Residents in Ambulatory Settings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: As more patient care moves into the outpatient arena, teaching medical resi- dents in this setting has become of critical importance. Ambulatory teaching is especially challenging due to highly variable, unpredictable learning needs and little time for teaching. Recent literature suggests many strategies for effective teaching; however, most are not grounded in education theory. Summary: Using precepts of Adult

TRACY L. LAIDLEY; CLARENCE H. BRADDOCK

2000-01-01

24

The Learning Theory Jungle  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article addresses the myriad of pedagogical and andragogical issues facing university educators in the student learning process. It briefly explores the proliferation of learning theories in an attempt to develop awareness among faculty who teach at the university/college levels that not all theories of learning apply to the adult learner. In…

Minter, Robert L.

2011-01-01

25

Uh-Oh...Second Thoughts about Adult Learning Theory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors review the concept of andragogy and synthesize recent criticisms of this theory. The use of andragogical techniques in job training is discussed. The authors conclude that, despite some weaknesses, andragogy is important in that it makes the teacher sensitive to the needs and interests of the learner. (CH)

Feuer, Dale; Geber, Beverly

1988-01-01

26

Continuing Education in Athletic Training: An Alternative Approach Based on Adult Learning Theory  

PubMed Central

Objective: To offer an alternative perspective on current continuing education practices and to propose a model for facilitating continuing education in the athletic training workplace. Background: Professional knowledge can quickly become outdated, and the personal/professional contexts of allied medical fields such as athletic training are becoming increasingly more complex, making continuing education paramount. Adult learning theory suggests that individuals are self- directed, autonomous learners in nature and that experience is a rich source for learning, subsequently making the workplace a fruitful environment in which to engage in continuing education. Unfortunately, mandating continuing education may violate the voluntary nature of adult learning, making the practice questionable. Therefore, alternative aspects of continuing education may be helpful. Description: This article consists of a brief synthesis of related literature that offers an alternative perspective of continuing education and proposes a model for facilitating continuing education in the workplace. The model's foundation includes preparing an environment conducive to learning and then focuses on identifying learning needs, setting goals, implementing specific strategies to facilitate self-directed learning, and assessing leaming. Additionally, the model suggests that ongoing reflection is a key factor in enhancing the identification of learning needs, goals, and strategies. Advantages: The model may best be used by clinical coordinators, directors, and supervisors to better facilitate employee learning and subsequently improve patient care delivery.

Pitney, William A.

1998-01-01

27

Transformative Learning Theory in the Practice of Adult Education: An Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transformative learning has emerged within the field of adult education as a powerful image for understanding how adults learn. It has attracted researchers and practitioners from a wide variety of theoretical persuasions and practice settings yet it is a complicated idea that offers considerable theoretical, practical, and ethical challenges. What transformative learning means and how it is best fostered within

John M. Dirkx

28

Adult Learning and Naval Leadership Training.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Adult learning embraces andragogy constructivism Transformative Learning Theory praxis and the understanding that not all adults are prepared initially for complete learning autonomy. The concept of andragogy can be traced to the Nineteenth Century and th...

M. J. Hitchcock

2004-01-01

29

Toward Constructivism for Adult Learners in Online Learning Environments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the impact of constructivism in online learning environments with adult learners. Reviews theories of constructivism and of adult learning and considers interactive learning, collaborative learning, authentic learning, learner-centered learning, and higher order thinking skills. (Author/LRW)

Huang, Hsiu-Mei

2002-01-01

30

Applying Social Learning Theory of Career Decision Making to Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender, and Questioning Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Incorporating J. D. Krumboltz's (1979) social learning theory of career decision making, the author explores career development issues for gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (GLBTQ) adolescents and young adults. Unique challenges for the GLBTQ population are discussed, specific recommendations for effective career counseling…

Datti, Paul A.

2009-01-01

31

Integration of the Adult Learning Theory with Social Skills Training in Field Instruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper documents the authors' experience as field supervisors of adult learners, who need a greater degree of self-direction and learning from experience. It looks at the guiding principles for the supervision of adult learners and at how teaching technology can be best used.

Joyce Ma Lai Chong; Petula Ho Sik Ying; Lily Cheung Yau Yin Hing

1991-01-01

32

Workplace Learning and Learning Theory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the limitations inherent in workplace learning, suggests how to establish effective interaction between workplace and educational learning, and presents an outline of how learning theory is used in workplace learning. Contains 32 references. (JOW)|

Illeris, Knud

2003-01-01

33

Health Learning and Adult Education: In Search of a Theory of Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Fifty-five percent of Canadians aged 16 to 64 years lack the skills necessary to read and appropriately interpret health information in textual format. This critical review of research explores issues related to adults' health and health literacy learning in an effort to illuminate why this unacceptable condition persists. The authors also…

Schecter, Sandra R.; Lynch, Jacqueline

2011-01-01

34

Poststructural Feminist Pedagogies: The Possibilities and Limitations of Feminist Emancipatory Adult Learning Theory and Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper compares, contrasts, and examines the theoretical underpinnings of three strands of feminist pedagogy—the psychological models; the structural models; and poststructural feminist pedagogies-as they relate to critical pedagogy and the wider adult learning literature around four major themes: (1) the construction of knowledge; (2) voice; (3) authority; and (4) positionality. It is argued that poststructural feminist pedagogies which foreground

Elizabeth J. Tisdell

1998-01-01

35

Health Learning and Adult Education: In Search of a Theory of Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fifty-five percent of Canadians aged 16 to 64 years lack the skills necessary to read and appropriately interpret health information in textual format. This critical review of research explores issues related to adults' health and health literacy learning in an effort to illuminate why this unacceptable condition persists. The authors also explore…

Schecter, Sandra R.; Lynch, Jacqueline

2011-01-01

36

Adult learning and action learning — A real workplace learning approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Rural Extension Centre (REC) has developed an approach to accredited training that is based on adult learning principles and is driven by an action learning approach. One of the central features of this approach is the use of real workplace based learning projects to allow participants to immediately apply the theory of the subject being studied in a practical

R. F. Fell

1999-01-01

37

Adult Learning: A Reader.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book on adult learning is divided into six sections. Section 1, Cognitive Processes, includes the following chapters: "Cognitive Processes: Contemporary Paradigms of Learning" (Jack Mezirow); "Information Processing, Memory, Age and Adult Learning" (Gillian Boulton-Lewis); "Adult Learners' Metacognitive Behaviour in Higher Education" (Barry…

Sutherland, Peter, Ed.

38

Enhancing Learning in Training and Adult Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book, which is designed to prepare individuals to become workplace consultants, examines the theory and practice of enhancing learning in training and adult education. The following are among the topics discussed: putting cognition theory into practice in instruction; cognitive science perspective on adult learning (adults as learners, three…

Morgan, Ronald R.; Ponticell, Judith A.; Gordon, Edward E.

39

Role of Adult Learning Theory in Evaluating and Designing Strategies for Teaching Residents in Ambulatory Settings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: As more patient care moves into the outpatient arena, teaching medical residents in this setting has become of critical importance. Ambulatory teaching is especially challenging due to highly variable, unpredictable learning needs and little time for teaching. Recent literature suggests many strategies for effective teaching; however, most are not grounded in education theory.

Tracy L. Laidley; Clarence H. Braddock

2000-01-01

40

Learning as Transformation: Critical Perspectives on a Theory in Progress. The Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stemming from a 1998 Columbia University conference on transformative learning, this 3-part book contains 12 articles that examine the concept of how adults learn to change ("transform") their frames of reference. The following are included in Part One: Developing Concepts of Transformative Learning: "Learning To Think Like an Adult: Core Concepts…

Mezirow, Jack, Ed.

41

Towards Self-Directed Learning Theory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review of self-planned learning is divided into three parts: (1) learning theory, (2) instructional theory, and (3) practitioner application. Its objective is to help participants learn about the relevance and applications to and implications for adult development and learning of psychology. In the first part behaviorism and neobehaviorism…

Penland, Patrick R.

42

Applying Adult Learning to the Online Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focus groups captured 35 adults' perceptions of an online library and information science master's program. Analysis of results using adult learning theories resulted in 10 recommendations for online courses. Student/instructor and student/student interaction was absent in theories but a key element in distance learning. (Contains 11 references.)…

Frey, Barbara A.; Alman, Susan Webreck

2003-01-01

43

Learning and caring in adult life: how to develop a good theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of learning is central for our times; the dominant rhetoric says that only those who are able to learn will survive. But this rhetoric is based on a reductive, func- tional and narrow-minded idea of what is learning (West et alii, 2007). It leaves out many aspects of life that are influential in any process of choice, in

Laura Formenti

44

Adult Learning Matters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Campaigning Alliance for Lifelong Learning is to lobby parliament for the restoration of the 1.5 million adult learning places lost over the past two years. The campaign has attracted supporters from an astonishingly wide range of backgrounds. In this article, Gordon Marsden, Caroline Biggins, Beth Walker, Mike Chaney, Peter Davies, Sian…

Adults Learning, 2009

2009-01-01

45

How Do Adults Learn?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dialog between Alan Rogers and Knud Illeris debates arguments Rogers made in a previous article about the differences between adult and child learning. Rogers emphasizes differences in teacher-learner relationships. Illeris believes the differences result from different motivations for learning. (SK)

Rogers, Alan; Illeris, Knud

2003-01-01

46

Social Learning Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Social learning theory utilizes precise descriptions of dyadic relationships and other larger system dynamics that are present\\u000a in families with adolescents. Similar to other theoretical perspectives that claim more individual psychological origins,\\u000a however, this theoretical approach is not given extensive coverage in the family theory literature. The present chapter discusses\\u000a how social learning theory focuses attention on the ways in

Stephen M. Gavazzi

47

Serial Learning Theory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report deals with what is lacking in serial learning theory in general and what needs to be done to improve the situation. Original data that point to critical phenomena are described and their implications are discussed. (Author)

E. Martin

1973-01-01

48

Overcoming Alienation as the Practice of Adult Education: The Contribution of Erich Fromm to a Critical Theory of Adult Learning and Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Erich Fromm proposed that learning to penetrate ideological obfuscation and overcome the alienation it generates is the learning task of adulthood. He believed adult education would make people aware of ideological manipulation and prepare them for participatory democracy. His was a Marxist humanism aimed at the creation of democratic socialism.…

Brookfield, Stephen

2002-01-01

49

Utilizing Adult Learning Principles to Teach Gerontological Social Work Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gerontological practice classes in a social work curriculum ought to reproduce the standards of good practice in the classroom. Adult learning theory is ideally suited to act as a vehicle for learning these practice concepts. This article describes a gerontological practice course for undergraduate social work majors. The course's heavy use of adult learning theory resulted in a course which

Gary S. Whitford

2002-01-01

50

The discipline of hospital development: a conceptual framework incorporating marketing, managerial, consumer behavior, and adult learning theories.  

PubMed

The purpose of this explanatory and prescriptive article is to identify interdisciplinary theories used by hospital development to direct its practice. The article explores, explains, and applies theories and principles from behavioral, social, and managerial disciplines. Learning, motivational, organizational, marketing, and attitudinal theories are incorporated and transformed into the fundamental components of a conceptual framework that provides an overview of the practice of hospital development. How this discipline incorporates these theories to design, explain, and prescribe the focus of its own practice is demonstrated. This interdisciplinary approach results in a framework for practice that is adaptable to changing social, cultural, economic, political, and technological environments. PMID:9510737

Shirley, S; Stampfl, R

1997-12-01

51

Observational Learning among Older Adults Living in Nursing Homes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to evaluate learning by older adults living in nursing homes through observational learning based on Bandura's (1977) social learning theory. This quantitative study investigated if older adults could learn through observation. The nursing homes in the study were located in the midwestern United States. The…

Story, Colleen D.

2010-01-01

52

Social Learning Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conceptual foundations of social learning theory (SLT), respondent conditioning, opérant conditioning, and observational learning, are empirically-supported approaches to understanding normative human development and the etiology of psychosocial problems. The principles of SLT are completely consistent with the currently popular eco-systems framework within social work practice. A thorough integration of SLT within the eco-systems model will substantially reduce the shortcomings

Bruce A. Thyer; Laura L. Myers

1998-01-01

53

Sociocultural Dynamics of ESL Learning (De)Motivation: An Activity Theory Analysis of Two Adult Korean Immigrants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examines the longitudinal trajectories of two Korean ESL immigrants' L2 learning motivation from an Activity Theory perspective. Two highly skilled immigrants participated in monthly semistructured interviews over a period of 10 months. The research questions are as follows: (1) How does the relationship between ESL learners and their…

Kim, Tae-Young

2011-01-01

54

Adult Education and Programmed Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Teaching and learning in adult education must be suited to individual characteristics of whole adult personalities (holism). The best help we can get in this today comes from programed instruction. Modern learning centers established to form networks would improve the abilities of citizens to learn independently, and facilitate continuing…

Andrilovic, Vlado

1974-01-01

55

A Theory of Effective Computer-Based Instruction for Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study presents a theory of critical components that affect the effectiveness of computer-based instruction (CBI) for adults. The theory was developed to provide a framework for research to explain or predict effective learning by adults using a desktop computer. The five conclusions drawn from this theory are as follows: (a) the…

Lowe, Janis S.; Holton, Elwood F., III

2005-01-01

56

Constructivist learning theories and complex learning environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Learning theories broadly characterised as constructivist, agree on the importance to learning of the environment, but differ on what exactly it is that constitutes this importance. Accordingly, they also differ on the educational consequences to be drawn from the theoretical perspective. Cognitive constructivism focuses on the active role of the learner, and on real-life learning. Social-learning theories, comprising the socio-historical,

P. R. J. Simons; S. Bolhuis

2004-01-01

57

Children's and adults' size estimates at near and far distances: A test of the perceptual learning theory of size constancy development  

PubMed Central

This study tested the perceptual learning theory of size constancy development, which proposes that children younger than 9 years are relatively insensitive to monocular cues for distance and size, and that developmental changes in far-distance size estimation result from increasing sensitivity to these cues. This theory predicts that before 10 years, children will make less accurate size judgments at far distances under monocular than under binocular viewing conditions. Five age groups were tested: 5–6, 7–8, 9–10, 19–28, and 50+ years. Participants judged the size of a standard disc, from viewing distances of 6.1 and 61 m, by pointing at 1 of 9 nearby comparison discs. Testing was conducted under both monocular and binocular viewing conditions. Five- to 6-year-olds underestimated object size at the far distance, 7- to 8-, 9- to 10-year-olds, and older adults made size estimates that were close to accurate, and the young adults significantly overestimated size. At the near distance, all age groups underestimated size and no age differences were found. Contrary to predictions from the perceptual learning theory, viewing condition had no significant effect on size estimates.

Kavsek, Michael; Granrud, Carl E.

2012-01-01

58

Notes & Quotes on Adult Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is a review of literature on adult learning, assembled in a computer-printout format. It brings together brief statements made by authors on the various major aspects of individual and social (associational) learning, as well as information on planning and evaluation. The document also contains a glossary of adult education terms and…

Dobson, John R. A.

59

Promoting Learning. NIACE Lifelines in Adult Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document is intended to help adult educators in the United Kingdom promote learning. The guide presents practical advice, case studies, and tips for undertaking and implementing effective promotional work. Sections 1 through 11 discuss the following topics: recognizing the increasing need for lifelong learning; the rationale for campaigns…

Malone, Kate

60

Learning for Economic Self-Sufficiency: Constructing Pedagogies of Hope among Low-Income, Low-Literate Adults. Adult Education Special Topics: Theory, Research and Practice in LifeLong Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In a most timely volume addressing many of the connections among current fiscal and employment crises to adult education, Learning for Economic Self-Sufficiency highlights the problems and challenges that low-literate adults encounter in various environments. Moreover, this book presents strategies for addressing the chronic illiteracy among…

Alfred, Mary V., Ed.

2010-01-01

61

High school students' implicit theories of what facilitates science learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Research has primarily concentrated on adults’ implicit theories about high quality science education for all students. Little work has considered the students’ perspective. This study investigated high school students’ implicit theories about what helped them learn science.Purpose: This study addressed (1) What characterizes high school students’ implicit theories of what facilitates their learning of science?; (2) With respect to

Eileen Carlton Parsons; Rhea Miles; Michael Petersen

2011-01-01

62

Toward A Theory of HRD Learning Participation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article fills a gap by identifying an under-studied area for learning participation (LP) in HRD theory building. A literature review is presented to identify gaps in adult education and HRD literature. An HRD LP framework is then proposed, from cross-sectional/time-series perspectives, to describe the pattern, factors, structure, and the…

Wang, Greg G.; Wang, Jia

2005-01-01

63

Learning and using relational theories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of human knowledge is organized into sophisticated systems that are often called intuitive theories. We propose that intuitive theories are mentally repre- sented in a logical language, and that the subjective complexity of a theory is determined by the length of its representation in this language. This complexity measure helps to explain how theories are learned from relational data,

Charles Kemp; Noah Goodman; Joshua B. Tenenbaum

2007-01-01

64

Adult Learning and Television, Adult Learning and the Overhead Projector Using Media with Adults.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Varied aspects of adult learning and media use are discussed in three papers. In the first, 'Adult Learning and Television,' a summary of concerns about the negative influences of commercial television viewing and criticisms of instructional television is...

J. A. Hortin

1982-01-01

65

Online Education and Adult Learning: New Frontiers for Teaching Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The expanding field of adult learning encompasses the study and practice of utilizing sound instructional design principals, technology, and learning theory as a means to solve educational challenges and human performance issues relating to adults, often occurring online. This book disseminates current issues and trends emerging in the field of…

Kidd, Terry T., Ed.

2010-01-01

66

Teaching, Interviewing, and Learning Theory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The major claim of this paper is that teachers should acquire the skills of administering clinical interviews in order to improve their instruction. First, the concepts of teaching and learning are differentiated and analyzed. Then certain aspects of theories of teaching and learning are covered. Following that, the conclusion that a theory of…

Pines, A. Leon

67

Adults with Learning Disabilities Redux.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This introductory article on adults with learning disabilities considers historical antecedents, the role of public policy (the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and the 1975 Education for All Handicapped Children Act), the movement within the field of learning disabilities emphasizing transition to adulthood, and the continuance of public policy…

Gerber, Paul J.

2003-01-01

68

Adult Learning in the Workplace.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document contains four symposium papers on adult learning in the workplace. "The Relationship between Workplace Learning and Employee Satisfaction in Small Businesses" (Robert W. Rowden, Shamsuddin Ahmad) reports the results of a study of the nature and extent of HRD, level of job satisfaction among workers, and correlation between HRD…

1999

69

The Learning Disabled Adult Offender.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigated the prevalence of learning disabilities among 189 male inmates in a county jail setting. If inmates scored below the sixth-grade level, they were further tested. From this procedure, it was concluded that there is a much higher rate of learning disabilities among the adult offender population than among the general…

Tevis, Marlan P.; Orem, Richard A.

1985-01-01

70

Adult Intelligence and Learning Ability  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzed relationships between WAIS and achievement scores of 207 adult learners who studied nine topics using pro gramed materials. Zero- and first-order correlations were com puted between each of 10 learning topic scores and each of 17 WAIS scores. All but one of the correlations were statistically significant. The correlation between a composite learning topic score and the

Alan B. Knox; Arden Grotelueschen; Douglas D. Sjogren

1968-01-01

71

Adult Learning Disorders: Contemporary Issues  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Recent advances in neuroimaging and genetics technologies have enhanced our understanding of neurodevelopmental disorders in adults. The authors in this volume not only discuss such advances as they apply to adults with learning disorders, but also address their translation into clinical practice. One cluster of chapters addresses developmental…

Wolf, Lorraine E., Ed.; Schreiber, Hope E., Ed.; Wasserstein, Jeanette, Ed.

2008-01-01

72

Travel and Adult Transformative Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This phenomenological research study examines the lived experience of individual adult transformation in the context of travel. Adults throughout history have experienced profound personal and perception changes as a result of significant travel events. Transformative learning occurs through experience, crisis, and reflection, all of which are…

Lindstrom, Steven K.

2011-01-01

73

Travel and Adult Transformative Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This phenomenological research study examines the lived experience of individual adult transformation in the context of travel. Adults throughout history have experienced profound personal and perception changes as a result of significant travel events. Transformative learning occurs through experience, crisis, and reflection, all of which are…

Lindstrom, Steven K.

2011-01-01

74

Using Contemplative Practices to Open Space for Adult Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using grounded theory, thirty-one educators at the Shambhala Institute for Authentic Leadership were interviewed multiple times following their experience in working with groups of adult learners. The grounded theory of opening space to foster a field of learning describes four consecutive practices illustrating how the educator creates an external environment conducive to emergent group learning. All the practices relate to

Lyn Hartley

75

Adults with Learning Disabilities. Theoretical and Practical Perspectives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains 16 chapters dealing with services for adults with learning disabilities (LDs). "Adults with LDs" (Noel Gregg, Carolyn Phillips) questions whether the prevalent paradigm that advocates the self-contained individual is an obstacle to adults with LDs. "Paradigms" (Noel Gregg, Beth Ferri) describes theories that have contributed to…

Gregg, Noel, Ed.; And Others

76

Adults with Learning Disabilities. Theoretical and Practical Perspectives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book contains 16 chapters dealing with services for adults with learning disabilities (LDs). "Adults with LDs" (Noel Gregg, Carolyn Phillips) questions whether the prevalent paradigm that advocates the self-contained individual is an obstacle to adults with LDs. "Paradigms" (Noel Gregg, Beth Ferri) describes theories that have contributed to…

Gregg, Noel, Ed.; And Others

77

The Relationship Between Teaching Style and Adult Student Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult education literature suggests that a teacher's actions affect student achievement. To test the appropriateness of the adult education theory base, this study examined the relationship between the teacher's practice of the principles in the literature as measured by the Principles of Adult Learning Scale and student academic achievement based on teacher assessment. It involved 29 teachers and 837 students

Gary J. Conti

1985-01-01

78

Situated Learning and Identity Development in a Korean Older Adults’ Computer Classroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Situated learning theory understands learning to be a sociocultural activity, and individuals experience identity development as they participate in communities of practice. The purpose of this study was to understand how Korean older adults’ computer learning in a classroom is a situated activity and how this learning influences older adults’ identities. Eleven sessions of an intermediate course for older adults

Young Sek Kim; Sharan B. Merriam

2010-01-01

79

A Phenomenological Study of Learning Processes at Work: Confirming, Extending, and Challenging Holistic Learning Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Holistic learning theory (Yang, 2003) identified explicit, implicit, and emancipatory knowledge facets in learning. A phenomenological study of how participants' experienced interactions between knowledge facets showed the facets expressed, informed, changed, and guided one another. The complexity of learning and the role of spirituality in learning were explored. In adult education and human resource development literature, spirituality is discussed in

Suzanne J. Gallagher

80

A Day at the SPA (Successful Practices of Andragogy): How to Use the ELCC Standards and Adult Learning Theory to Sustain a "Self-as-Principal" Voice in Principal Preparation Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Principal preparation programs are designed to create and prepare effective school leaders. These programs pursue many pathways to achieve this goal. This study highlighted the significance of framing this pursuit around the Educational Leadership Council Standards (ELCC; Wilmore, 2002) and Malcolm Knowles' (1970) adult learning theory. In…

Hines, Mack T., III

2006-01-01

81

Adult Learning Program Service (ALPS).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Adult Learning Program Service (ALPS) aims to reach eight and a half million adults between ages 25 and 44 and teach them reading and math skills they can use at home and on the job. ALPS proposes to reach those who have never finished high school but do have at least a sixth-grade reading level. They could use their new skills to prepare for…

Carlisle, Robert

82

Learning Theory and Online Technologies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"Learning Theory and Online Technologies" offers a powerful overview of the current state of elearning, a foundation of its historical roots and growth, and a framework for distinguishing among the major approaches to elearning. It effectively addresses pedagogy (how to design an effective online environment for learning), evaluation (how to know…

Harasim, Linda

2011-01-01

83

Some Implications of Life Span Developmental Psychology for Adult Education and Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many adult educators do not consider developmental psychology relevant to adult education because the bulk of developmental theory offers little for practical ap- plication. This paper describes a different perspective of adult psychology—life span developmental psychology—which holds great promise for educators in understanding better adult learning. We attempt to make explicit and to strengthen connections between developmental theory and adult

Thomas L. Pourchot; M. Cecil Smith

2004-01-01

84

Where Now for Adult Learning?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|With 6 billion British pounds of public spending reductions already on the table, and far deeper cuts inevitable, what are the prospects for adult learning in the new Parliament? Some of the regular contributors of this journal were asked what they expected and what they would like to see. Ewart Keep warns that the coalition parties' commitments…

Keep, Ewart; Rogers, David; Hunt, Sally; Walden, Christopher; Fryer, Bob; Gorard, Stephen; Williams, Ceri; Jones, Wendy; Hartley, Ralph

2010-01-01

85

Overcoming Exclusion through Adult Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Strategies for overcoming exclusion through adult learning were identified through case studies of 19 initiatives in the following countries: Belgium; Mexico; the Netherlands; Norway; Portugal; and the United Kingdom. The study programs involved a diverse array of formal, nonformal, and informal public sector, community, and enterprise-based…

Nash, Ian; Walshe, John

86

Overcoming Exclusion through Adult Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Strategies for overcoming exclusion through adult learning were identified through case studies of 19 initiatives in the following countries: Belgium; Mexico; the Netherlands; Norway; Portugal; and the United Kingdom. The study programs involved a diverse array of formal, nonformal, and informal public sector, community, and enterprise-based…

Nash, Ian; Walshe, John

87

Barriers to Adult Learning: Bridging the Gap  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A fundamental aspect of adult education is engaging adults in becoming lifelong learners. More often than not, this requires removing barriers to learning, especially those relating to the actual organisational or institutional learning process. This article explores some of the main barriers to adult learning discussed in the literature and…

Falasca, Marina

2011-01-01

88

Learning through Action: Parallel Learning Processes in Children and Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Experiential learning has become an essential part of many educational settings from infancy through adulthood. While the effectiveness of active learning has been evaluated in youth and adult settings, few known studies have compared the learning processes of children and adults within the same project. This article contrasts the active learning

Ethridge, Elizabeth A.; Branscomb, Kathryn R.

2009-01-01

89

Pathways to Adult Alcohol Abuse across Racial\\/Ethnic Groups: An Application of General Strain and Social Learning Theories  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is considerable variation in the prevalence, etiology and consequences of alcohol and other drug use across racial\\/ethnic groups, but studies examining these issues among adult populations remain scarce. This is an important oversight as exposure to many of the risk factors associated with substance use and abuse has been shown to vary by race\\/ethnicity as well as age. This

Scott Akins; Chad L. Smith; Clayton Mosher

2010-01-01

90

Fundamentals of Adult Education: Issues and Practices for Lifelong Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document contains 20 papers on the fundamentals of adult education and foundations, practices, and issues for lifelong learning. The following papers are included: "The Metamorphoses of Andragogy" (James A. Draper); "Stages in the Development of Canadian Adult Education" (Gordon Selman); "Philosophical Considerations" (Mark Selman); "Theory

Poonwassie, Deo H., Ed.; Poonwassie, Anne, Ed.

91

Radicalizing Learning: Adult Education for a Just World  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book offers new readings of the theory, politics, policy, and practice of radical adult education and learning where people's lives are understood as complex and interrelated matters. Brookfield and Holst's poetics and deeply human prose sound rebellious; the authors confront some of the main radical trends in the field of adult education…

Brookfield, Stephen D.; Holst, John D.

2010-01-01

92

LEARNING THEORY AND INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN USING LEARNING OBJECT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Instructional System Development (ISD) is a set of procedures for systematically designing and developing instruction. A solid foundation in learning theory is an essential element in the application of ISD. One question that one might ask is if there is one best learning theory for instructional design using learning objects (LOs). Depending on the learners and situation, different learning theories

Lúcia Blondet Baruque; R. Marquês; S. Vicente; Rubens Nascimento Melo

93

Adult Learning and Television. [and] Adult Learning and the Overhead Projector. [and] Using Media with Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Varied aspects of adult learning and media use are discussed in three papers. In the first, "Adult Learning and Television," a summary of concerns about the negative influences of commercial television viewing and criticisms of instructional television is followed by a discussion of the potential of new technologies for two-way communication to…

Hortin, John A.

94

Transformative Learning Theory and TVET  

Microsoft Academic Search

Globalization of the economy, the restructuring of the workplace and rapid technical innovation challenge the workplace today\\u000a to prepare for continuous change and lifelong learning. As a way of reducing social exclusion, alienation, unemployment and\\u000a the polarization of ‘professional’ and ‘technical’ jobs or trades, it may be valuable to examine how transformative learning\\u000a theory can maximize motivation, participation, and educational

Karen Magro

95

Social Learning Theory of Leadership  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a For a long time motivational and learning approaches to leadership were based on a rather functional understanding of leadership\\u000a behavior. Focusing on the stimulus-response model, behavior and behavioral change were understood as functions of the consequences\\u000a a certain kind of behavior might cause. Following the ideas of Skinner’s theory of learning (e.g., Skinner 1966, 1969), systematic\\u000a modification of behavior has

Ingo Winkler

96

Sociocultural Theory and the Mediated Learning Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the two theories that have contributed most to the development of the mediational approach to learning, Vygotskian sociocultural theory and Feuerstein's theory of Mediated Learning Experience. Both theories emphasize the importance of sociocultural forces in shaping a child's development and learning, and have generated a number of…

Kozulin, Alex

2002-01-01

97

Overcoming Alienation as the Practice of Adult Education: The Contribution of Erich Fromm to a Critical Theory of Adult Learning and Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Erich Fromm's analysis of the commodification of contemporary life, his description of automation conformity, and his call for the overcoming of alienation represent important, though ignored. elements of the critical tradition that have great resonance for the practice of adult education. Drawing particularly on the early Marx of the Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts. Fromm conducted a radical, yet highly accessible,

Stephen Brookfield

2002-01-01

98

Adult Learning and the Future of Work.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book contains 15 papers: "Introduction" (Madhu Singh); "Adult Learning and the Transformation of Work" (Paul Belanger); "Future of Work and Adult Learning" (Ettore Gelpi); "The Obligation of Education in the Face of Globalisation" (Nicole Arnaud); "Lifelong Learning and Vocational Education and Training: A Teacher's and Trade Union View"…

Singh, Madhu, Ed.

99

High School Students' Implicit Theories of What Facilitates Science Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Research has primarily concentrated on adults' implicit theories about high quality science education for all students. Little work has considered the students' perspective. This study investigated high school students' implicit theories about what helped them learn science. Purpose: This study addressed (1) What characterizes high…

Parsons, Eileen Carlton; Miles, Rhea; Petersen, Michael

2011-01-01

100

Social Capital Theory: Implications for Women's Networking and Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This chapter describes social capital theory as a framework for exploring women's networking and social capital resources. It presents the foundational assumptions of the theory, the benefits and risks of social capital engagement, a feminist critique of social capital, and the role of social capital in adult learning.|

Alfred, Mary V.

2009-01-01

101

Adult Learning Principles in Designing Learning Activities for Teacher Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The research reported in this paper is an investigation of the application of adult learning principles in designing learning activities for teachers' life-long development. The exploration is illustrated by qualitative data from a case study of adult educators' and adult learners' insights and experiences of a teacher development course…

Gravani, Maria N.

2012-01-01

102

The Emergence of Learning Societies: Who Participates in Adult Learning?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains nine papers in which data from the Adult Education Participation Survey (a part of the International Adult Literacy Survey) are used to identify and compare trends in organized learning in seven countries. The following papers are included: "Introduction: Who Participates in Organized Adult Learning?" (Paul Belanger, Sofia…

Belanger, Paul, Ed.; Valdivielso, Sofia, Ed.

103

Learned-Helplessness Theory: Implications for Research in Learning Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The application of learned helplessness theory to achievement is discussed within the context of implications for research in learning disabilities. Finally, the similarities between helpless children and learning disabled students in terms of problems solving and attention are discussed. (Author)|

Canino, Frank J.

1981-01-01

104

TRANSFORMATIVE LEARNING THEORY: LEARNING BY TRANSFORMING AND CHANGING  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this manuscript, Mezirow’s transformative learning theory is studied. In this context, the definition, dimensions of transformative learning, the roles of teachers and learners in transformative learning and its curricular scopes are analyzed. In the study held as analyses of the literature, the following results are reached: Transformative learning theory is formed with a synthesis of critical reflection and hermeneutics.

Burhan Akpinar

2010-01-01

105

Towards a Social Learning Theory of Hypnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theory of hypnotic suggestibility is advanced based on social learning theory principles. The theory is presented in four parts and a summary section, with each part devoted to one of four constructs (attention, retention, reproduction, and reinforcement\\/motivational processes) used to account for such behavior. All four constructs are borrowed from Bandura's (1969) social learning theory, and a modified version

Larry D. Smyth

1981-01-01

106

Towards a Theory of Mobile Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

A first step in postulating a theory of mobile learning is to distinguish what is special about mobile learning compared to other types of learning activity. An obvious, yet essential, difference is that it starts from the assumption that learners are continually on the move. We learn across space as we take ideas and learning resources gained in one location

Mike Sharples; Josie Taylor; Giasemi Vavoula

107

Psychology and Adult Learning. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book provides a critical account of the psychological theories that have informed contemporary adult education theory and practice. Chapter 1 discusses the importance of balancing description, critique, and comments on each theory's influence on adult education and the need to understand psychological development throughout the life span.…

Tennant, Mark

108

Situated learning theory versus traditional cognitive learning theory: Why management education should not ignore management learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the differences between situated learning theory (SLT) and traditional cognitive theory (TCT). SLT is\\u000a distinctive because it perceives learning to be a socially relational rather than a mentalist process. SLT places research\\u000a attention upon knowledge productionin situ and in the course of work practices rather than upon learning transmission in the classroom. This paper argues that SLT's

Stephen Fox

1997-01-01

109

Media and Adult Learning. Volume 3, Number 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two articles are presented relevant to media and adult learning. In the first article, "The Pedagogy of Communication: Conscientization through Mass Media," David G. Gueulette sets forth ideas derived from Freire's theory of literacy training and suggests means by which effective teaching strategies can be developed through popular mass media…

Collins, Michael, Ed.; And Others

1981-01-01

110

Adult and Organizational Learning and Change Syllabus Fall, 2009  

Microsoft Academic Search

This course examines the theory, research, and practice of adult and organizational learning and change. The course focuses on bringing psychological and educational research to professional practice and bringing evidence-based practices and programs to schools and other human service settings through understanding the process of innovation implementation. The course seeks to develop student skills in methods and practices of effective

Susan G. Forman

111

LEARNING AND COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE IN ADULTS. BIBLIOGRAPHY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|THIS RETROSPECTIVE BIBLIOGRAPHY OF OVER 1,500 ITEMS IS LARGELY DEVOTED TO VARIOUS TYPES OF ADULT LEARNING AND COGNITIVE BEHAVIOR (CONDITIONING, SKILL LEARNING, DISCRIMINATION, VERBAL LEARNING, PROBLEM SOLVING AND COMPLEX BEHAVIOR, MEMORY, VERBAL BEHAVIOR, AND SET), TO STUDIES ON INTELLIGENCE AND TEST BEHAVIOR (AGE CHANGES, CORRELATIONAL AND…

KUHLEN, RAYMOND G.; AND OTHERS

112

Adult and Community Learning Fund Special Issue.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Twelve articles describe projects supported by Britain's Adult and Community Learning Fund, including employment skills and information technology for disadvantaged groups, heritage restoration skills, alcohol rehabilitation, basic skills through media-based learning, guidance for female ex-offenders, access to learning for socially excluded…

Adults Learning (England), 2002

2002-01-01

113

Adult Students' Views of Mathematics and Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we continue our investigations into adult mathematics students' ideas about mathematics and learning, based on their written reflections on the process of carrying out projects as part of a preparatory mathematics course at an Australian university. Previously, we have discussed their reflections on the process of learning using projects, and their use of technology in their learning.

Dubravka Viskic; Peter Petocz

114

Leading Online Learning Initiatives in Adult Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adult learners often face barriers to participation in traditional classroom instruction. As technology access grows and adults naturally incorporate technology into their daily lives, adult education programs are finding innovative ways to blend technology with instruction through quality online learning opportunities. This article highlights the…

Olesen-Tracey, Kathy

2010-01-01

115

Transformation for Adults in an Internet-Based Learning Environment--Is It Necessary to Be Self-Directed?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This research explores the relationships between self-directed learning readiness and transformative learning theory (TLT) reflected by the Constructivist Internet-based Learning Environment Scale (CILES). A questionnaire survey about adult learner's perceptions of Internet-based learning was administered to adults enrolled in classes in…

Chu, Regina Juchun; Chu, Anita Zichun; Weng, Cathy; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Lin, Chia-chun

2012-01-01

116

Adult Learning in Relation To Prior Adult Education Participation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two hundred eight adult subjects participated in two learning experiments in which prior participation in an educational activity was an independent variable. Analyses of variance and covariance were conducted on the criterion which tested achievement on topics presented in programed learning texts. The analysis of variance controlled for the effects of age, socio-economic status, and sex. The analysis of covariance

Douglas D. Sjogren; Alan B. Knox; Arden Grotelueschen

1968-01-01

117

Theories of Learning for the Workplace: Building Blocks for Training and Professional Development Programs. Routledge Psychology in Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Workplace and professional learning, lifelong learning, adult learning, learning in different contexts have become of more and more interest and now dominate all aspects of 21st century life. Learning is no longer about "storing and recall" but "development and flow". "Theories of Learning in the Workplace" offers fascinating overviews into some…

Dochy, Filip; Gijbels, David; Segers, Mien; Van den Bossche, Piet

2011-01-01

118

Theories of Learning for the Workplace: Building Blocks for Training and Professional Development Programs. Routledge Psychology in Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Workplace and professional learning, lifelong learning, adult learning, learning in different contexts have become of more and more interest and now dominate all aspects of 21st century life. Learning is no longer about "storing and recall" but "development and flow". "Theories of Learning in the Workplace" offers fascinating overviews into some…

Dochy, Filip; Gijbels, David; Segers, Mien; Van den Bossche, Piet

2011-01-01

119

The Varieties of Adult Civic Engagement in Adult Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Civic engagement, or the practice of democratic deliberation in adult education and learning, asks that adults use their experiences to cooperatively build solutions to the difficult social, economic, and political problems that affect their lives and communities now and into the future. The articles presented in this issue look at the…

Munoz, Linda; Wrigley, Heide Spruck

2012-01-01

120

An Application of Knowles' Theories of Adult Education to an Undergraduate Interdisciplinary Studies Degree Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Malcolm Knowles' theory of andragogy is best known in the world of adult education as a conceptualization of how and why adults learn. The following practice-based article that has applied Knowles' theories and precepts to an undergraduate program reflects on how those concepts work with people whom Knowles might well have not considered…

Harper, Lin; Ross, Jerry

2011-01-01

121

A Grounded Theory of Adult Student Persistence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This grounded theory study investigates adult student persistence at a community college. Student persistence in college is a prerequisite for degree achievement, which correlates with higher earnings and overall better quality of life. Persistence rates remain low for adult students, who combine their college endeavors with responsibilities to…

Capps, Rosemary

2010-01-01

122

Underpinnings of adult learning in formal teacher professional development in Cyprus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite controversy in the literature, the present article assumes that the adult learning theory provides a powerful framework for evaluating training practices. This study explores the degree to which adult learning traits are embedded in optional seminars, the primary form of formal in?service teacher training in Cyprus and a traditional, structural approach towards teacher development. A quantitative research design is

Yiasemina Karagiorgi; Chrystalla Kalogirou; Valentina Theodosiou; Maria Theophanous; Panagiota Kendeou

2008-01-01

123

Olfactory perceptual learning requires adult neurogenesis  

PubMed Central

Perceptual learning is required for olfactory function to adapt appropriately to changing odor environments. We here show that newborn neurons in the olfactory bulb are not only involved in, but necessary for, olfactory perceptual learning. First, the discrimination of perceptually similar odorants improves in mice after repeated exposure to the odorants. Second, this improved discrimination is accompanied by an elevated survival rate of newborn inhibitory neurons, preferentially involved in processing of the learned odor, within the olfactory bulb. Finally, blocking neurogenesis before and during the odorant exposure period prevents this learned improvement in discrimination. Olfactory perceptual learning is thus mediated by the reinforcement of functional inhibition in the olfactory bulb by adult neurogenesis.

Moreno, Melissa M.; Linster, Christiane; Escanilla, Olga; Sacquet, Joelle; Didier, Anne; Mandairon, Nathalie

2009-01-01

124

For Adults with Learning Disabilities  

MedlinePLUS

... high school? Understand your options: Post-secondary or higher education is the stage of learning that occurs at ... and matching up with the right institution of higher education help spell success for the student with learning ...

125

Linking cognitive learning theory to instructional prescriptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents an initial model of instructional design which directly links cognitive learning theory and instructional prescriptions. The major constructs of the model include components of the memory system, allocation of learning times by objectives and specific instructional methods. The model proposes that instructional time be divided so as to reach the educational goals of improvements in higher-order learning

Robert D. Tennyson; Mariana Rasch

1988-01-01

126

Unlock a Brighter Future. Adult Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide, which is intended for adults in the United Kingdom, contains information about the educational and employment opportunities available to them. The following topics are discussed in the guide's 11 sections: assessing one's own learning skills and identifying available learning opportunities; locating sources of educational and career…

Department for Education and Employment, London (England).

127

A Comprehensive Study of Learning Disabled Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Analysis of personal and educational histories and test data of 33 learning disabled adults revealed that many characteristics of learning disabled youngsters described in the literature persist into adulthood. Some significant sex differences in the reasoning section of the Woodcock-Johnson Cognitive Ability Test and in math achievement are also…

Buchanan, Mary; Wolf, Joan S.

1986-01-01

128

Supporting Learning-Disabled Adults in Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The learning difficulties of 23 adults were investigated in order to determine ways to better serve their literacy needs. These adults were all living in poverty, had less than eighth-grade literacy levels, and had failed to graduate from high school. The participants' records were examined and structured interviews were conducted with them;…

Pannucci, Lynnette; Walmsley, Sean A.

2007-01-01

129

Adult Learning, Education, and the Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The environment is now a common theme in adult education. However, conversations that swirled around the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20) in June 2012 suggested major environmental challenges persist, demanding that education, learning, advocacy and activism be augmented to ensure the survival of the planet. In adult

Clover, Darlene E.; Hill, Robert

2013-01-01

130

Reflections on Adult Learning in Cultural Institutions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Cultural institutions are rich locations for adult learning. Despite apparent differences in mission, they are similar in many ways. Similarities include social and historical development, educational philosophy and objectives, epistemological tensions and contestations, and challenges associated when attracting and educating adult visitors. In…

Parrish, Marilyn McKinley

2010-01-01

131

From Stress to Learning: Attachment Theory Meets Goal Orientation Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few investigators have explored connections between attachment theory and goal orientation theory. Although the theories differ in important ways, we suggest there is a striking similarity in their depiction of an adaptive pathway leading from stress to learning goals and constructive strategies, and a contrasting pathway leading from stress to self-validation goals and defensive strategies. We review evidence from two

Natalie Rusk; Fred Rothbaum

2010-01-01

132

Adult neurogenesis: integrating theories and separating functions  

PubMed Central

The continuous incorporation of new neurons in the dentate gyrus of the adult hippocampus raises exciting questions about memory and learning, and has inspired new computational models to understand the function of adult neurogenesis. These theoretical approaches suggest distinct roles for new neurons as they slowly integrate into the existing dentate gyrus network: immature adult-born neurons appear to function as pattern integrators of temporally adjacent events, thereby enhancing pattern separation for events separated in time; whereas maturing adult-born neurons possibly contribute to pattern separation by being more amenable to learning new information, leading to dedicated groups of granule cells that respond to experienced environments. We review these hypothesized functions and supporting empirical research and point to new directions for future theoretical efforts.

Aimone, James B.; Deng, Wei

2010-01-01

133

Adapting Learning Theories in Mobile Game-Based Learning Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The learning experiences through mobile device can be expected from the learning activities and the mobile contents such as games and mobile applications. This paper presents an approach to develop a mobile game-based learning (mGBL) by adapting a review of learning theories and approaches. The review reveals a few characteristics that interconnected to the mGBL. In adapting the characteristics, mGBL

Syamsul Bahrin Zaibon; Norshuhada Shiratuddin

2010-01-01

134

Experiential learning: transforming theory into practice.  

PubMed

Whilst much is debated about the importance of experiential learning in curriculum development, the concept only becomes effective if it is applied in an appropriate way. We believe that this effectiveness is directly related to a sound understanding of the theory, supporting the learning. The purpose of this article is to introduce readers to the theories underpinning experiential learning, which are then expanded further in an AMEE Guide, which considers the theoretical basis of experiential learning from a social learning, constructionist perspective and applies it to three stages of medical education: early workplace experience, clerkships and residency. This article argues for the importance and relevance of experiential learning and addresses questions that are commonly asked about it. First, we answer the questions 'what is experiential learning?' and 'how does it relate to social learning theory?' to orientate readers to the principles on which our arguments are based. Then, we consider why those ideas (theories) are relevant to educators--ranging from those with responsibilities for curriculum design to 'hands-on' teachers and workplace supervisors. The remainder of this article discusses how experiential learning theories and a socio-cultural perspective can be applied in practice. We hope that this will give readers a taste for our more detailed AMEE Guide and the further reading recommended at the end of it. PMID:22288996

Yardley, Sarah; Teunissen, Pim W; Dornan, Tim

2012-01-01

135

Constructivism, the so-called semantic learning theories, and situated cognition versus the psychological learning theories.  

PubMed

In this paper, the perspective of situated cognition, which gave rise both to the pragmatic theories and the so-called semantic theories of learning and has probably become the most representative standpoint of constructivism, is examined. We consider the claim of situated cognition to provide alternative explanations of the learning phenomenon to those of psychology and, especially, to those of the symbolic perspective, currently predominant in cognitive psychology. The level of analysis of situated cognition (i.e., global interactive systems) is considered an inappropriate approach to the problem of learning. From our analysis, it is concluded that the pragmatic theories and the so-called semantic theories of learning which originated in situated cognition can hardly be considered alternatives to the psychological learning theories, and they are unlikely to add anything of interest to the learning theory or to contribute to the improvement of our knowledge about the learning phenomenon. PMID:16255385

Aparicio, Juan José; Rodríguez Moneo, María

2005-11-01

136

Theories of Learning and Computer-Mediated Instructional Technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to describe the dominant schools of thought in relation to learning theories and how computermediated technologies can be integrated in relation to these theories. A framework is proposed for integrating the learning theories, situating the use of these learning theories in different instructional contexts. Hence, instead of regarding the learning theories as discordant, it

David Hung

2001-01-01

137

Braided Stories and Bricolaged Symbols: Critical Reflection and Transformative Learning Theory for Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this paper I make the case that transformative learning theory, a specific adult learning theory, and an arts-informed research method have important value for teacher professional practice and teacher education. I refer to two phases of a study involving women who have immigrated to Maritime Canada and were teachers in their countries of…

Brigham, Susan Mary

2011-01-01

138

Adult Learning in Educational Tourism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores notions of learning in the niche market sector of educational tourism, with a focus on organised recreational tours that promote a structured learning experience as a key feature. It analyses the qualitative findings of surveys and interviews with a cross-section of educational tourism providers in Australia, their…

Pitman, Tim; Broomhall, Sue; McEwan, Joanne; Majocha, Elzbieta

2010-01-01

139

Towards a Theory of Language Learning Ability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Four positions concerning foreign and second language learning ability in adults are summarized with attention to the "critical period" hypothesis. An argument is made for a shift from macro-correlational studies to controlled micro language learning research free of extralinguistic variables. (PMJ)|

Neufeld, Gerald G.

1979-01-01

140

Theories and Methods for Research on Informal Learning and Work: Towards Cross-Fertilization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The topic of informal learning and work has quickly become a staple in contemporary work and adult learning research internationally. The narrow conceptualization of work is briefly challenged before the article turns to a review of the historical origins as well as contemporary theories and methods involved in researching informal learning and…

Sawchuk, Peter H.

2008-01-01

141

Environmental sustainability: Understanding young adults' learning, thinking, and actions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis explores the ways in which young-adults' environmental learning and experiences influence their decision to live sustainably. In particular, this thesis focuses on young adults' environmental and sustainability learning. It elaborates on young peoples' views about environmental and sustainability issues, such as climate change, the sources for their learning about these issues, and how young adults' learning encounters, in

Anthony O. Kola-Olusanya

2008-01-01

142

Learned Helplessness: Theory and Evidence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Authors believes that three phenomena are all instances of "learned helplessness," instances in which an organism has learned that outcomes are uncontrollable by his responses and is seriously debilitated by this knowledge. This article explores the evidence for the phenomena of learned helplessness, and discussed a variety of theoretical…

Maier, Steven F.; Seligman, Martin E. P.

1976-01-01

143

Learning careers and the social space: exploring the fragile identities of adult returners in the new further education  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the concept of 'learning careers' as a way of understanding the processes through which adults return to education. It particularly considers the ways in which adults from groups who are at risk of social exclusion develop identities that enable them to engage with learning. The concept of learning careers is derived from symbolic interactionist theory, with its

Jim Gallacher; Beth Crossan; John Field; Barbara Merrill

2002-01-01

144

The Handbook of the Evolving Research of Transformative Learning: Based on the Learning Activities Survey (10th Anniversary Edition). Adult Education Special Topics--Theory, Research and Practice in LifeLong Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook is a much expanded version of the original Learning Activities Survey published by Dr. Kathleen P. King of Fordham University in 1998. Based on her ground breaking research in this field where she used a mixed methodology research approach to study transformative learning, the book will provide a model of research, firsthand…

King, Kathleen P., Ed.

2009-01-01

145

The Handbook of the Evolving Research of Transformative Learning: Based on the Learning Activities Survey (10th Anniversary Edition). Adult Education Special Topics--Theory, Research and Practice in LifeLong Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This handbook is a much expanded version of the original Learning Activities Survey published by Dr. Kathleen P. King of Fordham University in 1998. Based on her ground breaking research in this field where she used a mixed methodology research approach to study transformative learning, the book will provide a model of research, firsthand…

King, Kathleen P., Ed.

2009-01-01

146

New Product Production Costs and Learning Theory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

One of the most uncertain elements in budget planning is estimating production costs of items that have heretofore only been produced in prototype configurations and quantities. This paper examines the use of learning theory to predict production costs of...

V. K. Wilkinson

1980-01-01

147

Learning Theory and the Study of Instruction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This article examines the articulation of learning theory that is emerging from studies that take principled approaches to the design of instruction of complex forms of knowledge and skill. The representative studies discussed here are experimental instru...

M. Bassok R. Glaser

1989-01-01

148

Jigsaw Cooperative Learning: Acid-Base Theories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study focused on investigating the effectiveness of jigsaw cooperative learning instruction on first-year undergraduates' understanding of acid-base theories. Undergraduates' opinions about jigsaw cooperative learning instruction were also investigated. The participants of this study were 38 first-year undergraduates in chemistry education…

Tarhan, Leman; Sesen, Burcin Acar

2012-01-01

149

Learning Style Theory and Computer Mediated Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper looks at the low participation rates in computer mediated conferences (CMC) and argues that one of the causes of this may be an incompatibility between students' learning styles and the style adopted by CMC. Curry's Onion Model provides a well-established framework within which to view the main learning style theories (Riding and…

Atkins, Hilary; Moore, David; Sharpe, Simon; Hobbs, Dave

150

Jigsaw Cooperative Learning: Acid-Base Theories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focused on investigating the effectiveness of jigsaw cooperative learning instruction on first-year undergraduates' understanding of acid-base theories. Undergraduates' opinions about jigsaw cooperative learning instruction were also investigated. The participants of this study were 38 first-year undergraduates in chemistry education…

Tarhan, Leman; Sesen, Burcin Acar

2012-01-01

151

Critical Race Theory and Adult Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Critical race theory (CRT) was developed to examine the persistence of racism. This literature review attempts to understand CRT as it has been applied in related fields such as higher education and possible reasons for its limited application in adult education theorizing about race and racism. This analysis of CRT is framed against a backdrop of…

Closson, Rosemary B.

2010-01-01

152

Child development: A social learning theory perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Child developmental attainments can be observed and measured. In this case study I have assessed a child's development and observed his behaviour in different environments. I discuss these observations from a Social Learning Theory perspective, concentrating on the reciprocal interaction between the child's behaviour and his environment. Psychoanalytical theories, cognitive influences, genetic endowment and other biological variables are also discussed.Human

Ann Woodrow

2001-01-01

153

applying social learning theory to police misconduct  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although numerous studies have attempted to understand the causes of various forms of police misconduct, there is still no clear theoretical explanation of police misbehavior. Akers’ social learning theory posits that peer associations, attitudes, reinforcement, and modeling are predictors of delinquency and crime in general. With this article, we seek to determine if the theory can account for police deviance.

Allison T. Chappell; Alex R. Piquero

2004-01-01

154

The pleasure-pain theory of learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

A discussion of the pleasure-pain theory as formulated by Spencer, Bain, and Baldwin, and as modified in Thorndike's law of effect. The criticisms offered are (1) that the theory applied only to motor learning, (2) that it assumed affects to be inherited, and (3) that it depended on the exploded assumption that pleasure and pain accompany increase and decrease in

H. Cason

1932-01-01

155

Adult Numeracy Development: Theory, Research, Practice. Series on Literacy: Research, Policy, and Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains 16 papers on the theory, research, and practice of adult numeracy development. The following papers are included: "The Numeracy Challenge" (Iddo Gal); "Numeracy, Mathematics, and Adult Learning" (Diane Coben); "Building a Problem-Solving Environment for Teaching Mathematics" (Peter Kloosterman, Bin Hassan Mohamad-Ali, Lynda R.…

Gal, Iddo, Ed.

156

Adult Numeracy Development: Theory, Research, Practice. Series on Literacy: Research, Policy, and Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book contains 16 papers on the theory, research, and practice of adult numeracy development. The following papers are included: "The Numeracy Challenge" (Iddo Gal); "Numeracy, Mathematics, and Adult Learning" (Diane Coben); "Building a Problem-Solving Environment for Teaching Mathematics" (Peter Kloosterman, Bin Hassan Mohamad-Ali, Lynda R.…

Gal, Iddo, Ed.

157

Adult Age Differences in Function Concept Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Function concept learning and knowledge use was explored across adulthood. During training older and younger adults predicted an amount of physiological arousal produced as a negative and positive function of a chemical substance. Knowledge use was evaluated with two transfer conditions requiring a switch between contextual contingencies: a relationship inversion, predicting the chemical amount given the physiological arousal, and a

Jacqueline A. Griego; Matthias Kliegel

2007-01-01

158

Adult Learning and the New Austerity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The spending review brought a promise to protect adult and community learning as well as swingeing cuts to further and higher education and local government. In this article, some of the key players--Lynne Sedgmore, Christopher Brooks, Graham Hoyle, Maggie Galliers, Louise Hazel, Richard Bolsin, Maggi Dawson, Ruth Bond, Stuart Etherington,…

Adults Learning, 2010

2010-01-01

159

Personal Learning of Older, Rural Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is a summary of the findings of a research project that included ten older rural adults from a county in south Georgia. The research focused on self-directed learning. The researcher conducted two interviews with each participant over a two day period. The findings focused around four research questions: what is the nature of…

Roberson, Donald N., Jr.

2005-01-01

160

Museums and Adults Learning: Perspectives from Europe.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book contains 28 papers presenting perspectives from Europe on museums and adult learning. The papers, each of which is devoted to a specific country, examine topics such as the following: further education and inservice training; programs for unemployed individuals; lectures and open days; elderly visitors; immigrants; refugees; disabled…

Chadwick, Alan, Ed.; Stannett, Annette, Ed.

161

Student Problems. Adult Literacy Independent Learning Packet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This independent learning packet, which is designed for administrators, teachers, counselors, and tutors in Pennsylvania's Region 7 Tri-Valley Literacy Staff Development area as well as for their adult students, examines the following seven problems encountered by students: the job market, child care, single parenting/parenting skills, divorce,…

Koefer, Ann M.

162

Graded Objectives for Adults Learning Russian.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the Graded Objectives for Adults Learning (GOLF) Russian program. The aim of the GOLF program is to have four levels, with Level Four being considered equivalent to a good GCSE pass, at which stage students will have a good working knowledge of the language and a wide vocabulary. (CK)|

Purcell, Sue

1996-01-01

163

Evidence of Developmental Differences in Implicit Sequence Learning: An fMRI Study of Children and Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prevailing theories of implicit or unaware learning propose a developmental invariance model, with implicit function maturing early in infancy or childhood despite prolonged improvements in explicit or intentional learning and memory systems across childhood. Neuroimaging studies of adult visuomotor sequence learning have associated fronto-striatal brain regions with implicit learning of spatial sequences. Given evidence of continued development in these brain

Kathleen M. Thomas; Ruskin H. Hunt; Nathalie Vizueta; Tobias Sommer; Sarah Durston; Yihong Yang; Michael S. Worden

2004-01-01

164

Constructivism, the So-Called Semantic Learning Theories, and Situated Cognition versus the Psychological Learning Theories  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the perspective of situated cognition, which gave rise both to the pragmatic theories and the so-called semantic theories of learning and has probably become the most representative standpoint of constructivism, is examined. We consider the claim of situated cognition to provide alternative explanations of the learning phenomenon to those of psychology and, especially, to those of the

Juan José Aparicio; María Rodríguez Moneo

2005-01-01

165

Adult Learning in Health and Safety: Some Issues and Approaches.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document, which was developed for presentation at a seminar on adult learning and safety, examines approaches to occupational safety and health (OSH) learning/training in the workplace. Section 1 examines selected factors affecting adults' learning in workplace OSH programs. The principal dimensions along which individual adult learners will…

O Fathaigh, Mairtin

166

Personal Adult Learning Lab (Pall). Implications for Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Personal Adult Learning Lab was establsiehd at the Georgia Center for Continuing Education (GCCE) at the University of Georgia to serve self-directed adult learners and conduct research on self-directed learning. The lab allows adult learners to design, conduct, and evaluate their personal learning experiences while proceeding at their own…

Klippel, Judith A.; And Others

167

The Construction of a Magnitude Estimation Scale of Adult Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The psychophysical technique of magnitude estimation was used to develop a ratio scale of subjective estimations of adult learning in various adult education activities. A rank order of 26 learning activities and the magnitude estimations in "units of learning" that are expected to occur in each activity were obtained from 146 adult education…

Blunt, Adrian

168

Integrating Adult Learning and Technologies for Effective Education: Strategic Approaches  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As adult learners and educators pioneer the use of technology in the new century, attention has been focused on developing strategic approaches to effectively integrate adult learning and technology in different learning environments. "Integrating Adult Learning and Technologies for Effective Education: Strategic Approaches" provides innovative…

Wang, Victor C. X.

2010-01-01

169

Integrating Adult Learning and Technologies for Effective Education: Strategic Approaches  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As adult learners and educators pioneer the use of technology in the new century, attention has been focused on developing strategic approaches to effectively integrate adult learning and technology in different learning environments. "Integrating Adult Learning and Technologies for Effective Education: Strategic Approaches" provides innovative…

Wang, Victor C. X.

2010-01-01

170

Implicit and Explicit Learning in Aged and Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a wealth of evidence that learning ability declines with age. In almost all of the studies however, the performance measures employed are explicit, even though research has consistently indicated that aged adults have well preserved implicit learning ability. This suggests that under certain circumstances aged adults should be at no great learning disadvantage in comparison to young adults.

Richard Midford; Kim Kirsner

2005-01-01

171

The concept of experiential learning and John Dewey's theory of reflective thought and action  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conception of experiential learning is an established approach in the tradition of adult education theory. David Kolb' s four-stage model of experiential learning is a fundamental presentationof theapproach.Inhiswork ExperientialLearning,Kolb statesthatJohnDewey, Kurt Lewin and Jean Piaget are the founders of the approach. The article discusses Kolb' s eclectic method of constructing his model of experiential learning. It studies how Kolb

Reijo Miettinen

2000-01-01

172

Adults' Learning Motivation: Expectancy of Success, Value, and the Role of Affective Memories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study tested the applicability of expectancy-value theory to adults' learning motivation. Motivation was measured as the anticipated reaction (AR) of German students (N = 300) to receiving their instructions in English as a new learning opportunity. We used structural equation modeling to test our hypotheses. Expectancies of success…

Gorges, Julia; Kandler, Christian

2012-01-01

173

Improving Adult Learning and Professional Development in a Post-Conflict Area: The Case of Cambodia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|All over the world, international development organizations try to increase professional capacity of local staff. These attempts are thought to fail because of financial constraints, but this is just part of the story. Professional development and adult learning theories approach learning from a western perspective, while many developing…

Berkvens, Jan B. Y.; Kalyanpur, Maya; Kuiper, Wilmad; Van den Akker, Jan

2012-01-01

174

Motivational Challenges of Adult Learners in Self-Directed E-Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Learner motivation is a key to effective instruction and is critical to creating a successful online learning environment; yet, there is a paucity of theory and empirical research on how to create a motivating online learning environment. The purpose of the present study was to explore and describe the experiences of adult learners in a…

Kim, Kyong-Jee

2009-01-01

175

Improving Adult Learning and Professional Development in a Post-Conflict Area: The Case of Cambodia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

All over the world, international development organizations try to increase professional capacity of local staff. These attempts are thought to fail because of financial constraints, but this is just part of the story. Professional development and adult learning theories approach learning from a western perspective, while many developing societies…

Berkvens, Jan B. Y.; Kalyanpur, Maya; Kuiper, Wilmad; Van den Akker, Jan

2012-01-01

176

Adults' Learning Motivation: Expectancy of Success, Value, and the Role of Affective Memories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present study tested the applicability of expectancy-value theory to adults' learning motivation. Motivation was measured as the anticipated reaction (AR) of German students (N = 300) to receiving their instructions in English as a new learning opportunity. We used structural equation modeling to test our hypotheses. Expectancies of success…

Gorges, Julia; Kandler, Christian

2012-01-01

177

Ways of Learning: Learning Theories and Learning Styles in the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This is a detailed introduction to the major theories that lie behind children's learning styles. The book examines how to develop learning situations and how to plan and create the best opportunities for effective and lasting learning. After an introduction, six chapters are presented: (1) What Is Learning?; (2) Behaviourist Approaches; (3)…

Pritchard, Alan

2005-01-01

178

Mediated Learning Interactions in Adult Basic Education: Instructors' Responses to Learners' Needs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study investigated instructors' responses to learners' needs from the perspective of Feuerstein's Mediated Learning Experience (MLE) theory. Participants were 53 adult educators enrolled in an adult education course at Auburn University. Four scenarios were constructed, each based on one of the five MLE criteria (intentionality, meaning,…

Ares, Nancy; Gorrell, Jeffrey

179

Learning to work” in small businesses : Learning and training for young adults with learning disabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The paper alerts small business employers to new dictates of the Disability Discrimination Act (2005) as it applies to learning disabilities. Then the “Learning to Work” project featured in the paper offers small business employers a set of approaches and methods for the identification of a learning-disabled young adult candidate's training needs. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Interviews were carried out

Geoff Ruggeri-Stevens; Susan Goodwin

2007-01-01

180

"Learning to Work" in Small Businesses: Learning and Training for Young Adults with Learning Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The paper alerts small business employers to new dictates of the Disability Discrimination Act (2005) as it applies to learning disabilities. Then the "Learning to Work" project featured in the paper offers small business employers a set of approaches and methods for the identification of a learning-disabled young adult candidate's…

Ruggeri-Stevens, Geoff; Goodwin, Susan

2007-01-01

181

Spiritual Prosperity and Learning Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article aims to provide an account of "spiritual prosperity," whereby various related mental capacities may be developed through an expanded range of learning processes. This account will be secular and humanistic, thereby circumnavigating the theology of spirituality in favour of psychological models. As spirituality remains "a slippery…

Stratton, Nick

2011-01-01

182

A Framework for a Theory of Automated Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a topological theory of learning which characterizes learning as a homotopy (which is a function of the deformation of a space in time) from an original knowledge base to one augmented by learned knowledge. The knowledge representation, the algorithms and the theory are based on the cognitive theories of Jean Piaget, the psychological theories of Hebb, as

E. Hausen-tropper

1996-01-01

183

Adult Education and Learning DisabilitiesWhy are we still seeing them as children? Using what we know about adult education to improve outcomes for adults with learning disabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Almost two generations have now reached adulthood since they were originally diagnosed with learning disabilities in the 1960's. This population continues to grow at a rapid pace as others are diagnosed after adolescence. The collective knowledge base concerning the complex issues of adults with learning disabilities, however, is still in its infancy. As a result, this article applies theories of

Lynda Price; Stan Shaw

2000-01-01

184

Theories, relationships and interprofessionalism: learning to weave.  

PubMed

In this article, we illustrate the application of a number of theoretical frameworks we have used to guide our work in interprofessional education (IPE) and collaborative interprofessional care (IPC). Although we do not claim to be experts in any one of these theories, each has offered important insights that have broadened our understanding of the complexities of interprofessional learning and practice. We have gained an appreciation for an increasing number of theories relevant to IPE and IPC, and, as a result, we have woven together more key principles from different theories to develop activities for all levels of interprofessional learners and clinicians. We pay particular attention to relational competencies, knotworking/idea dominance, targeted tension and situational awareness. We are now drawing on the arts and humanities and complexity theory to foster relationship-building learning. Evaluation of our endeavors will eventually follow these latter theories for methods that better match the human and social experiences that underpin learning. Our "theoretical toolbox" therefore may be of value to educators who develop and implement creative interprofessional learning activities, as well as clinicians interested in moving toward more effective collaboration. PMID:23148863

Hall, Pippa; Weaver, Lynda; Grassau, Pamela Anne

2012-11-14

185

Remaking Adult Learning: Essays on Adult Education in Honour of Alan Tuckett  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Remaking Adult Learning provides an exciting and innovative addition to the literature on adult learning. Charting challenges and successes in the sector, it illustrates how taking part in well-thought-out programmes can have a positive and sometimes life-saving impact on people's lives. While grounded in adult learning practice, the book draws…

Derrick, Jay, Ed.; Howard, Ursula, Ed.; Field, John, Ed.; Lavender, Peter, Ed.; Meyer, Sue, Ed.; von Rein, Ekkehard Nuissl, Ed.; Schuller, Tom, Ed.

2010-01-01

186

Remaking Adult Learning: Essays on Adult Education in Honour of Alan Tuckett  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Remaking Adult Learning provides an exciting and innovative addition to the literature on adult learning. Charting challenges and successes in the sector, it illustrates how taking part in well-thought-out programmes can have a positive and sometimes life-saving impact on people's lives. While grounded in adult learning practice, the book draws…

Derrick, Jay, Ed.; Howard, Ursula, Ed.; Field, John, Ed.; Lavender, Peter, Ed.; Meyer, Sue, Ed.; von Rein, Ekkehard Nuissl, Ed.; Schuller, Tom, Ed.

2010-01-01

187

Action learning and control theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essay is a kind of 'product mix' of two separate concepts, manifestly quite different but found ultimately to blend into a common message. The author found management literature over the past two decades somewhat difficult to assimilate, due perhaps to an engineering training where problems are always simplified into tangible models and laws. Control theory (or cybernetics), however, seemed

VH Brix

1983-01-01

188

Making Computer Learning Easier for Older Adults: A Community Study of Tuition Practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Older adults are under increasing pressure to use information technologies, yet are reluctant to learn computer software due\\u000a to difficulties with ways of teaching such skills. This paper argues that examining tutoring techniques in a community computer\\u000a training centre is useful to discovering why they will persist with learning. Using a Grounded Theory study design, the theory\\u000a that emerged that

Michael Nycyk; Margaret Redsell

189

The covering number in learning theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The covering number of a ball of a reproducing kernel Hilbert space as a subset of the continuous function space plays an important role in Learning Theory.We give estimates for this covering number by means of the regularity of the Mercer kernel K: For convolution type kernels Kðx; t Þ¼ kðxtÞ on ½0; 1? n; we provide estimates depending on

Ding-xuan Zhou

2002-01-01

190

Self Modeling: Expanding the Theories of Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Self modeling (SM) offers a unique expansion of learning theory. For several decades, a steady trickle of empirical studies has reported consistent evidence for the efficacy of SM as a procedure for positive behavior change across physical, social, educational, and diagnostic variations. SM became accepted as an extreme case of model similarity;…

Dowrick, Peter W.

2012-01-01

191

Cultural historical activity theory and professional learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article I will discuss the route by which I came to work with Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT). The brief tracing of my own biography will highlight theoretical and methodological milestones. I will then discuss my current work, with colleagues, on approaches to investigating and improving the learning of professionals who are involved in interagency work, which intends

Harry Daniels

2004-01-01

192

Integrating Adults' Characteristics and the Requirements for Their Effective Learning in an e-Learning Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Learning technology, through e-learning, allows adults to adapt learning to their own time, place and pace. On the other hand,\\u000a the adults’ specific characteristics as learners and the requirements for their effective learning must be integrated in the\\u000a design and the development of any learning environment addressed to them. Adults in an online environment have also to deal\\u000a with new

Maria Pavlis Korres; Thanassis Karalis; Piera Leftheriotou; Elena García Barriocanal

2009-01-01

193

Complex Learning Preferences and Strategies of Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The research reported in this study concerns older adults from Australia who voluntarily chose to learn the craft of woodturning. The paper examines the literature of adult learning under the themes of presage factors, the learning environment, instructional methods, and techniques for facilitators. The paper then reports on the analysis of two…

Delahaye, Brian L.; Ehrich, Lisa C.

2008-01-01

194

Intellectual, Academic and Neuropsychological Performance Levels in Learning Disabled Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Normative data are provided for intellectual, academic achievement, and neuropsychological tests based on a sample of 100 learning disabled adults. It was concluded that the cognitive profile found in learning disabled adults is not dissimilar from what is typically found in learning disabled children. (Author/CL)|

McCue, P. Michael; And Others

1986-01-01

195

Motivation to Learn among Older Adults in Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study analyzed the survey on adults administered by the Ministry of Education in Taiwan in 2008, and logistic regression analysis showed a close relationship between learning motivations of older adults. The finding revealed that the higher age or the lower education attainment of older adults, the lower their learning motivation. The…

Chang, Dian-Fu; Lin, Sung-Po

2011-01-01

196

Reviewing and Critiquing Computer Learning and Usage Among Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

By searching the keywords of “older adult” and “computer” in ERIC, Academic Search Premier, and PsycINFO, this study reviewed 70 studies published after 1990 that address older adults' computer learning and usage. This study revealed 5 prominent themes among reviewed literature: (a) motivations and barriers of older adults' usage of computers, (b) age-related differences in computer learning and usage, (c)

Young Sek Kim

2008-01-01

197

Thematic Review on Adult Learning: Finland. Background Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In international comparisons, participation in adult learning in Finland is high. Work or career development is the main reason for participation. Persons starting with greater educational attainment participate in adult learning opportunities more. Roots of adult education and training (AET) lie in liberal education; those of occupational AET in…

Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

198

MOTIVATIONS FOR LEARNING AMONG OLDER ADULTS IN A LEARNING IN RETIREMENT INSTITUTE  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the population of older adults increases, the field of adult education needs to respond accordingly. The study reported in this paper examined motivations for learning among older adults actively engaged in formal lifelong learning. One hundred eighty-nine members of a Learning in Retirement institute were surveyed using Boshier's Education Participation Scale. Cognitive interest appeared to be the strongest motivator

Ahjin Kim; Sharan B. Merriam

2004-01-01

199

Adult Learning in a Non-Western Context: The Influence of Culture in a Senegalese Farming Village  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Senegal, as in many developing countries, the education of adults is often guided by theories of adult learning developed in Western societies. There is little evidence, however, that such theories are useful for educating farmers living in rural African villages. This study, conducted in a rural fanning village in Senegal, explored what, when, why, how, and from whom do

Waly Diouf; Barry G. Sheckley; Marijke Kehrhahn

2000-01-01

200

Learning to Be Drier: A Case Study of Adult and Community Learning in the Australian Riverland  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article explores the adult and community learning associated with "learning to be drier" in the Riverland region of South Australia. Communities in the Riverland are currently adjusting and making changes to their understandings and practices as part of learning to live with less water. The analysis of adult and community learning derived…

Brown, Mike; Schulz, Christine

2009-01-01

201

ACTIVITY THEORY AND SECOND LANGUAGE TEACHING AND LEARNING  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Vygotskian framework of socially mediated cognition and learning has increasingly influenced research on teaching and learning. Known popularly as Sociocultural Theory (SCT), an increasingly important aspect has come to be known as Activity Theory (AT). This theory views learning and cognition as a complex social practice acquired through dialogic communication located within cultural and historical contexts. This essay considers

John R. Haught

2006-01-01

202

Creating an Adult Learning Culture through Practice Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An action research project sought to create a learning culture in a hospital. Adult learning principles and facilitation of learning at and from work were emphasized. Although the hospital's top-down management eventually ended the project, active staff participation in learning was begun. (SK)|

Ward, Colin; McCormack, Brendan

2000-01-01

203

Adult Multimedia Learning withPDAs – The User Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Can rich interactive multimedia learning experiences be created for adults to use on a Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)? This was the research question that prompted,this exploratory work into creating mobile learning applications. The result is the development,of two prototypes of multimedia learning applications for the PDA. The first is a mobile local history tour designed to support informal learning.

Claire Bradley; Richard Haynes; Tom Boyle

204

Learning Multi-class Theories in ILP  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this paper we investigate the lack of reliability and consistency of those binary rule learners in ILP that employ the\\u000a one-vs-rest binarisation technique when dealing with multi-class domains. We show that we can learn a simple, consistent and\\u000a reliable multi-class theory by combining the rules of the multiple one-vs-rest theories into one rule list or set. We experimentally\\u000a show

Tarek Abudawood; Peter A. Flach

205

Adult Learning in Vocational Education. EEE700 Adults Learning: The Changing Workplace A.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This monograph is part of the study materials for the one-semester distance education unit, Adults Learning: The Changing Workplace A, in the Open Campus Program at Deakin University (Australia). It explores four complex and interrelated issues: how vocational educators view their own practice, the characteristics and aspirations that distinguish…

Little, David; And Others

206

Modelling the "Learning Divide": Predicting Participation in Adult Learning and Future Learning Intentions 2002 to 2010  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article presents multivariate analyses of the characteristics associated with both participation in adult education and the intention to participate in future learning. It uses questionnaire data from more than 47,000 individuals collected by the National Institute of Adult Continuing Education (NIACE) over the course of nine annual surveys…

White, Patrick

2012-01-01

207

Learning Stories of Our Own.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning autobiographies enable adult learners to gain a deeper insight into theories of adult learning. Writing their learning autobiographies helps adults chart how they have grown and developed. (Contains 11 references.) (Author/JOW)

Larson, Desi; Brady, E. Michael

2001-01-01

208

Information Theory, Inference and Learning Algorithms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Information theory and inference, often taught separately, are here united in one entertaining textbook. These topics lie at the heart of many exciting areas of contemporary science and engineering - communication, signal processing, data mining, machine learning, pattern recognition, computational neuroscience, bioinformatics, and cryptography. This textbook introduces theory in tandem with applications. Information theory is taught alongside practical communication systems, such as arithmetic coding for data compression and sparse-graph codes for error-correction. A toolbox of inference techniques, including message-passing algorithms, Monte Carlo methods, and variational approximations, are developed alongside applications of these tools to clustering, convolutional codes, independent component analysis, and neural networks. The final part of the book describes the state of the art in error-correcting codes, including low-density parity-check codes, turbo codes, and digital fountain codes -- the twenty-first century standards for satellite communications, disk drives, and data broadcast. Richly illustrated, filled with worked examples and over 400 exercises, some with detailed solutions, David MacKay's groundbreaking book is ideal for self-learning and for undergraduate or graduate courses. Interludes on crosswords, evolution, and sex provide entertainment along the way. In sum, this is a textbook on information, communication, and coding for a new generation of students, and an unparalleled entry point into these subjects for professionals in areas as diverse as computational biology, financial engineering, and machine learning.

Mackay, David J. C.

2003-10-01

209

Consumption, Adult Learning, and Adult Education: Envisioning a Pedagogy of Consumption  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article I call for adult educators to begin taking consumption seriously as a site of adult learning and education. I provide an overview of various sociological perspectives on consumption, and also discuss several areas where education, learning, and consumption intersect. In doing so, I seek to convince adult educators to more…

Sandlin, Jennifer A.

2008-01-01

210

Consumption, Adult Learning, and Adult Education: Envisioning a Pedagogy of Consumption  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article I call for adult educators to begin taking consumption seriously as a site of adult learning and education. I provide an overview of various sociological perspectives on consumption, and also discuss several areas where education, learning, and consumption intersect. In doing so, I seek to convince adult educators to more…

Sandlin, Jennifer A.

2008-01-01

211

Designing Instruction for the Adult Learner: Systematic Training Theory and Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Instructional design as a discipline is currently experiencing rapid expansion on a variety of fronts: theoretical, technological, philosophical, and in the spheres of practice. This book is about changing design theory and practice to meet the challenges of this growth in the particular area of adult learning. The six chapters address the…

Richey, Rita

212

Exploring Constructivist Learning Theory and Course Visualization on Computer Graphics  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Constructivist learning theory has shown its advantages on learning system by improving students’ interests and ability. In\\u000a this paper, we introduce some research works of constructivist learning theory and some successful methods from ACM\\/IEEE-CS\\u000a CC2001 course. Application for GV (Graphics and Visual Computing) shows the power that integrating constructivist view of\\u000a learning with the real learning environment. Based on PLATFORM

Yiming Zhao; Mingmin Zhang; Shu Wang; Yefang Chen

2005-01-01

213

Stages in learning new technology: Naive adult email users  

Microsoft Academic Search

How do adult students learn to use new technologies? Teachers' and learners' understanding of stages these students may pass through makes the learning process less traumatic. The research identifies six stages adult learners pass through as they become confident in their use of electronic mail. In the beginning stages there is tension as the technological processes dominate and intrude on

Anne L. Russell

1995-01-01

214

Community Based Adult Jewish Learning Program Issues and Concerns.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Adult learning in the Jewish community finds its roots in history, and has received renewed attention. Learning within the religious tradition encompasses a level of thought and activity which goes far beyond the typical adult education format. The purpose of the experience is to develop structures of meaning which aid individuals in relating…

Flexner, Paul A.

215

White Matter Structure Changes as Adults Learn a Second Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional models hold that the plastic reorganization of brain structures occurs mainly during childhood and adolescence, leaving adults with limited means to learn new knowledge and skills. Research within the last decade has begun to overturn this belief, documenting changes in the brain's gray and white matter as healthy adults learn simple motor and cognitive skills [Lövdén, M., Bodammer, N.

Alexander A. Schlegel; Justin J. Rudelson; Peter U. Tse

216

White Matter Structure Changes as Adults Learn a Second Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional models hold that the plastic reorganization of brain structures occurs mainly during childhood and adolescence, leaving adults with limited means to learn new knowledge and skills. Research within the last decade has begun to overturn this belief, documenting changes in the brain's gray and white matter as healthy adults learn simple motor and cognitive skills [Lövdén, M., Bodammer, N.

Alexander A. Schlegel; Justin J. Rudelson; Peter U. Tse

2012-01-01

217

Adult Children of Alcoholic Parents: Their Roles and Learning Styles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|When children are raised in an environment where alcoholism is prominent, certain dysfunctional responses are learned as a way to cope with the challenge of that environment. This study was conducted to examine the learning styles of adult children of alcoholics. Subjects were college freshmen and self-identified adult children of alcoholics…

Mucowski, Richard; Hayden, Robert R.

218

Efficacy of Learning Strategies Instruction in Adult Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results from randomized controlled trials of learning strategies instruction with 375 adult basic education participants are reported. Reading outcomes from whole group strategic instruction in 1 of 4 learning strategies were compared to outcomes of reading instruction delivered in the context of typical adult education units on social studies, history, and science. Both experimental and control conditions experienced high attrition

Michael F. Hock; Daryl F. Mellard

2011-01-01

219

The Relationships of Learning Style Balance and Learning Dimensions to Self-Directed Learning Propensity among Adult Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships of learning style characteristics to self-directed learning propensity among adult learners. The learning style characteristics investigated were learning style balance as measured by a scoring method developed by Mainemelis, Boyatzis, and Kolb (2002) and learning style dimensions as…

Hutto, Sarah Tullos

2009-01-01

220

Learning Theories and Assessment Methodologies--An Engineering Educational Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper attempts to critically review theories of learning from the perspective of engineering education in order to align relevant assessment methods with each respective learning theory, considering theoretical aspects and practical observations and reflections. The role of formative assessment, taxonomies, peer learning and educational…

Hassan, O. A. B.

2011-01-01

221

CAREER MOBILITY IN AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION: A SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY APPROACH  

Microsoft Academic Search

mobility phenomenon. An appealing approach for such an in-depth inquiry into turnover is social learning theory. Social learning theory posits that psychological functioning can be explained in terms of the interaction of personal characteristics, previous behavior (learning) and environmental determinants (Chapman, 1984). This psychological functioning involves valuing certain outcomes, discriminating among situations in terms of their potential to bring about

Tom Grady

1990-01-01

222

Effects of infantile and adult shock-trauma upon learning in the adult white rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rats given severe traumatizing electrical shock during infancy show more effective escape learning with shock motivation and slower extinction as adults. The effect of the infantile trauma appears restricted to adult traumatic situations.

Alan Baron; Kenneth H. Brookshire; Richard A. Littman

1957-01-01

223

The Adult Learner. The Definitive Classic in Adult Education and Human Resource Development. Fifth Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book examines the core principles of adult learning and the roots of andragogy, advances in adult learning, and practice in adult learning. The following are among the topics discussed in the book's 17 chapters: importance of learning theory; theories of learning (concept of part and whole models of development, theories based on elemental…

Knowles, Malcolm S.; Holton, Elwood F., III; Swanson, Richard A.

224

Effective Literacy Instruction for Adults with Specific Learning Disabilities: Implications for Adult Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Adults with learning disabilities (LD) attending adult basic education, GED programs, or community colleges are among the lowest performers on measures of literacy. For example, on multiple measures of reading comprehension, adults with LD had a mean reading score at the third grade level, whereas adults without LD read at the fifth grade level.…

Hock, Michael F.

2012-01-01

225

The Social Learning Theory of Crime and Deviance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social learning theory is a general theory of criminal and deviant behaviors that has found consistent and robust empirical\\u000a support for more than four decades (see Gottfredson & Hirschi, 1990; Hirschi, 1969). The generality and validity of the theory\\u000a has through those years become increasingly recognized. In a recent major compilation on the status of criminological theory,\\u000a social learning theory

Ronald L. Akers; Wesley G. Jennings

226

The Studio experience at the University of Georgia: an example of constructionist learning for adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Studio curriculum in the Learning, Design, and Technology (formerly Instructional Technology) program at a large research-extensive\\u000a university in the southeastern U.S. represents a deliberate application of contemporary theory of how adults learn complex\\u000a information in ill-structured domains. The Studio curriculum, part of a graduate program leading to a master’s degree, has\\u000a been implemented since 1998 to prepare professionals to

Gregory ClintonLloyd; Lloyd P. Rieber

2010-01-01

227

Optimizing Computer Assisted Instruction By Applying Principles of Learning Theory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The development of learning theory and its application to computer-assisted instruction (CAI) are described. Among the early theoretical constructs thought to be important are E. L. Thorndike's concept of learning connectisms, Neal Miller's theory of motivation, and B. F. Skinner's theory of operant conditioning. Early devices incorporating those…

Edwards, Thomas O.

228

Categorizing and combining theories of cognitive development and learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper considers the centrality of meta-theoretical belief systems (MTBSs) for theories of cognitive development and learning. It is argued that MTBSs guide and constrain the construction of theoretical models and developmental mechanisms. Moreover, it is shown how MTBSs can be effectively used to categorize theories and to address the issue of whether theories of cognitive development and learning

James P. Byrnes

1992-01-01

229

Adult Learners' Perceptions of the Incorporation of Their L1 in Foreign Language Teaching and Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article challenges the theory and practice of the exclusion of the adult learner's first language (L1) by reporting learners' overwhelmingly positive perceptions of its incorporation in foreign language teaching and learning. Classroom-based research was undertaken with university students in an English as a foreign language course which…

Brooks-Lewis, Kimberly Anne

2009-01-01

230

Cohort comparisons: Social learning explanations for alcohol use among adolescents and older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some researchers have suggested that theories of delinquency are appropriate to the study of deviant behavior among older adults. This study compares the relative effects of social learning variables on alcohol use and abuse by adolescents and older adults. Two sub-samples–aged 12–17 (N=17709) and aged 65 and older (N=2019)–were created from the 2002 National Household Survey of Drug Use and

Pamela Preston; Marianne Goodfellow

2006-01-01

231

Underlying Consumer-Valuing Structures of Baby Boomers as Older Adults in Community Colleges: A Grounded Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to present a grounded theory that fills in gaps in the higher education literature on the concept of educational consumer value and perceptions that support consumer value. Specifically, this study focuses on the learning experiences of Baby Boomers (40-60 year old adults) as older adult students attending community…

Palazesi, Louis Mark; Bower, Beverly L.; Schwartz, Robert A.

2008-01-01

232

An Empirical Examination of Competing Theories in Predicting Recidivism of Adult Offenders Five Years After Graduation from Boot Camp  

Microsoft Academic Search

This was a five-year follow-up study of recidivism of 572 male graduates of the only boot camp for adults in a southern state. The purpose was to examine competing theories in predicting recidivism among these adult males. Elements of social learning and general theoretical models were tested to determine their relative prediction of return to Department of Correction (DOC) in

Brent B. Benda; Nancy J. Toombs; Mark Peacock

2003-01-01

233

Lifelong Learning. A Guide to Adult Education in the Church.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains eight papers about lifelong learning in the Christian church. The preface and foreword are written by Rebecca Groth and H. George Anderson, respectively. (1) "The Gospel Calls Us" (Margaret A. Krych) examines five theological themes of lifelong learning. Adult development and learning styles are considered in (2) "What Teachers…

Grothe, Rebecca, Ed.

234

Social learning theory: strategies for health promotion.  

PubMed

Occupational health nurses can facilitate the design of more effective health promotion programs by utilizing theories of behavior change. Planning a health promotion program based on the Social Learning Theory includes an assessment of personal as well as environmental factors that influence behavior. The motivation of employees to make behavior changes can be enhanced by raising their awareness of the problem, engaging clients in the process of goal setting, and making self-satisfaction conditional on a certain level of performance. Goal setting with attainable subgoals creates and sustains self-motivation, which can lead to larger, future goals. Interpreting the consequences of health behavior can be an incentive for individuals who value the perceived effects of lifestyle changes. PMID:8512608

Blair, J E

1993-05-01

235

Reviewing and Critiquing Computer Learning and Usage among Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|By searching the keywords of "older adult" and "computer" in ERIC, Academic Search Premier, and PsycINFO, this study reviewed 70 studies published after 1990 that address older adults' computer learning and usage. This study revealed 5 prominent themes among reviewed literature: (a) motivations and barriers of older adults' usage of computers,…

Kim, Young Sek

2008-01-01

236

Toward deep learning for adult students in online courses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult students have become the new majority in online distance education. Research in online distance education, however, is still predominantly based on the historical perspective of the traditional student profile. This study examines adult students' learning engagement in online courses and explores the impact of online course design models and the type of online discussion on adult students' self-perceived and

Fengfeng Ke; Kui Xie

2009-01-01

237

An Empirical Examination of Competing Theories in Predicting Recidivism of Adult Offenders Five Years after Graduation from Boot Camp.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Five-year follow-up study of recidivism of male graduates from adult boot camp examined the competing theories in predicting recidivism among these males. Findings indicated that elements of social learning theory are among the strongest predictors of recidivism. Differential peer association and normative definitions are the two top predictors.…

Benda, Brent B.; Toombs, Nancy J.; Peacock, Mark

2003-01-01

238

Experiential Learning Theory: A Dynamic, Holistic Approach to Management Learning, Education and Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiential learning theory (ELT) has been widely used in management learning research and practice for over thirty-five years. Building on the foundational works of Kurt Lewin, John Dewey and others, experiential learning theory offers a dynamic theory based on a learning cycle driven by the resolution of the dual dialectics of action\\/reflection and experience\\/abstraction. These two dimensions define a holistic

Alice Y. Kolb; David A. Kolb

239

From Adult Education to Lifelong Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a There are two reasons why it seems to us timely to reconsider the concept of learning. The first reason, as we will outline\\u000a in section one, is that there is a contemporary emphasis on learning (eg lifelong learning, the learning society, the establishment\\u000a of an Institute for Teaching and Learning) with universities facing an unaccustomed emphasis on teaching\\/learning quality\\u000a issues.

Mal Leicester; Stella Parker

240

Helping Providers to Improve Quality of Day?Care Provision: Theories of Education and Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper argues that continuous training for child care staff is an important element in improving quality of day care provision. Evidence from the day care field, the school effectiveness literature and adult education is cited. Theories of education and learning are used to examine the design of effective approaches to training for day care providers. More specifically, Kolb's model

Anthony G. Munton; Ann Mooney; Linda Rowland

1996-01-01

241

Adult Education at the Crossroads: Learning Our Way Out. Global Perspectives on Adult Education and Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book assesses the current state of adult education, including the traditions out of which adult education comes, its current problems, and its possible futures. It begins with an overview of Ivan Illich's theory and explains its significance for adult education. Part 1 examines the main historical traditions in adult education, including the…

Finger, Matthias; Asun, Jose Manuel

242

Testing the Adult Development Tower of Babel Hypothesis: Homogeneous by Perry Position Collaborative Learning Groups and Graduate Student Satisfaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to investigate what appears to be a grounding assumption in some adult developmental and educational research: persons of differing epistemologies who are grouped together will understand one another less well than persons who are grouped homogeneously. A robust effect is discussed within the context of adult development theory, research on collaborative learning groups,

Christopher W. Lovell; John Nunnery

2004-01-01

243

Early Learning Canada: Workshop Leader Guide [and] Participant Resource [and] Trainer Manual. Learning & Reading Partners Adult Learning System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Based on the understanding that the capacity to learn is optimized in the early years, Early Learning Canada (ELC) is a community workshop program for parents and adults who work with children from birth to age 6 and their families to facilitate life-long learning. This workshop leader guide explains the ELC principles, examines learning styles…

Estey, Nancy; MacIsaac, Maitland; Rendell, Sandra

244

E-Learning and Constructivism: From Theory to Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a learner-centered model for designing e-learning assignments\\/activities within e-learning environments. The model is based on constructivism learning theory. The model includes two categories - the learning design elements (comprised of fundamental design elements and collaborative elements) and the learning assessment elements (self-assessment, team assessment, and facilitator's assessment). The application of the model is shown through various working

Alex Koohang; Liz Riley; Terry Smith; Jeanne Schreurs

2009-01-01

245

The Educational Kanban: promoting effective self-directed adult learning in medical education.  

PubMed

The author reviews the many forces that have driven contemporary medical education approaches to evaluation and places them in an adult learning theory context. After noting their strengths and limitations, the author looks to lessons learned from manufacturing on both efficacy and efficiency and explores how these can be applied to the process of trainee assessment in medical education.Building on this, the author describes the rationale for and development of the Educational Kanban (EK) at Children's Hospital Boston--specifically, how it was designed to integrate adult learning theory, Japanese manufacturing models, and educator observations into a unique form of teacher-student collaboration that allows for continuous improvement. It is a formative tool, built on the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education's six core competencies, that guides educational efforts to optimize teaching and learning, promotes adult learner responsibility and efficacy, and takes advantage of the labor-intensive clinical educational setting. The author discusses how this model, which will be implemented in July 2009, will lead to training that is highly individualized, optimizes faculty and student educational efforts, and ultimately conserves faculty resources. A model EK is provided for general reference.The EK represents a novel approach to adult learning that will enhance educational effectiveness and efficiency and complement existing evaluative models. Described here in a specific graduate medical setting, it can readily be adapted and integrated into a wide range of undergraduate and graduate clinical educational environments. PMID:19550191

Goldman, Stuart

2009-07-01

246

Practice of Adult Education--Older Adults, Tourism, and Learning in Yellowstone  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to present a program of learning for older adults in a national park. Because of the growing trend of tourism among retirees this learning during leisure is gaining prominence. The paper brings together the concepts of aging, self-directed learning, and tourism and leisure. In addition this paper presents a…

Roberson, Donald N., Jr.

2005-01-01

247

Environmental sustainability: Understanding young adults' learning, thinking, and actions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis explores the ways in which young-adults' environmental learning and experiences influence their decision to live sustainably. In particular, this thesis focuses on young adults' environmental and sustainability learning. It elaborates on young peoples' views about environmental and sustainability issues, such as climate change, the sources for their learning about these issues, and how young adults' learning encounters, in turn, affect their actions toward environmental protection and decision-making. Through a series of in-depth individual interviews with 18 young adults from three universities in southeastern Ontario, this qualitative study provides in-depth insight into young adults' understanding, learning experiences, and actions in relation to environmental and sustainability issues. Employing a Contextual Model of Learning framework the narratives of the young adults in this study are analyzed and discussed within three overlapping environmental learning contexts: personal, sociocultural, and physical settings. This framework allows for an examination of the complex interactions and relationships that shape how and where environmental learning occurs. The findings in this study suggest that the three overlapping learning contexts, that is the personal, sociocultural, and physical play an important role in shaping young adults' learning about environmental and sustainability issues. The data reveal that despite the unavailability or near-absence of environmental studies and education within the formal school curriculum (particularly at the elementary and high school levels), the young adults rely on other locations for learning, such as the internet, environmental non-governmental organisations (ENGOs), television, and family. In light of this, the research participants suggest the re-introduction of environmental programs and content in the school curriculum. Finally, the results of this study demonstrate the centrality of knowledge and experience in relation to environmental and sustainability issues in the actions and thoughts of the young adult research participants. This study makes an important contribution to the field of environmental and sustainability education by demonstrating the critical role of learning in a knowledge society. It illuminates the implications of various learning contexts for a sustainable global environment and future. Furthermore, it provides insight into the views of young adults regarding the future of the global environment and current sustainability initiatives in a world that faces ever-greater challenges.

Kola-Olusanya, Anthony O.

248

Negative Emotional Outcomes Impair Older Adults' Reversal Learning  

PubMed Central

In a typical reversal-learning experiment, one learns stimulus-outcome contingencies that then switch without warning. For instance, participants might have to repeatedly choose between two faces, one of which yields points whereas the other does not, with a reversal at some point in which face yields points. The current study examined age differences in the effects of outcome type on reversal learning. In the first experiment, the participants' task was either to select the person who would be in a better mood or to select the person who would yield more points. Reversals in which face was the correct option occurred several times. Older adults did worse in blocks in which the correct response was to select the person who would not be angry than in blocks in which the correct response was to select the person who would smile. Younger adults did not show a difference by emotional valence. In the second study, the negative condition was switched to have the same format as the positive condition (to select who will be angry). Again, older adults did worse with negative than positive outcomes, whereas younger adults did not show a difference by emotional valence. A third experiment replicated the lack of valence effects in younger adults with a harder probabilistic reversal-learning task. In the first two experiments, older adults performed about as well as younger adults in the positive conditions but performed worse in the negative conditions. These findings suggest that negative emotional outcomes selectively impair older adults' reversal learning.

Nashiro, Kaoru; Mather, Mara; Gorlick, Marissa A.; Nga, Lin

2010-01-01

249

Leading organizational learning: Reflections on theory and research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay conveys some of the author's ideas about the influence of leaders on organizational learning. Limitations of some well known leadership theories for explaining this influence are described, and ideas for developing more comprehensive and accurate theories are suggested. Examples of specific ways leaders can influence organizational learning are provided. The methods used for most of the research on

Gary Yukl

2009-01-01

250

Three Theories of Learning and Their Implications for Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Currently, three theories of learning dominate classroom practice. First, B.F. Skinner's Theory of Operant Conditioning states that if behavior, including learning behavior, is reinforced, the probability of its being repeated increases strongly. Different types and schedules of reinforcement have been studied, by Skinner and others, and the…

Ramirez, Aura I.

251

A Social Learning Theory Conceptualization of Interpersonal Relationships.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A new conceptualization of interpersonal relationship, based on the notions of specific and generalized expectancies and other basic tenets of Rotter's social learning theory, is presented. Interpersonal relationships are translated into the language of social learning theory, with its established body of literature and methodology. Two studies…

Duke, Marshall P.; Nowicki, Stephen

252

Linking Theory to Practice in Learning Technology Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We present a case to reposition theory so that it plays a pivotal role in learning technology research and helps to build an ecology of learning. To support the case, we present a critique of current practice based on a review of articles published in two leading international journals from 2005 to 2010. Our study reveals that theory features…

Gunn, Cathy; Steel, Caroline

2012-01-01

253

Statistical learning theory for location fingerprinting in wireless LANs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, techniques and algorithms developed in the framework of statistical learning theory are analyzed and applied to the problem of determining the location of a wireless de- vice by measuring the signal strengths from a set of access points (location fingerprinting). Statistical Learning Theory provides a rich theoretical basis for the development of models starting from a set

Mauro Brunato; Roberto Battiti

2005-01-01

254

Activity theory as a framework for designing constructivist learning environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epistemic assumptions of constructive learning are different from those of traditional instruction, so classical methods of needs and task analysis are inappropriate for designing constructivist learning environments (CLEs). This paper argues that activity theory provides an appropriate framework for analyzing needs, tasks, and outcomes for designing CLEs. Activity theory is a socio-cultural, socio-historical lens through which designers can analyze

David H. Jonassen; Lucia Rohrer-Murphy

1999-01-01

255

Learning experiences in dance class predict adult eating disturbance.  

PubMed

Elite dancers are at increased risk of eating disorders. The authors hypothesized that specific learning about thinness in dance class, rather than simple participation in dance training, tends to be an important aspect of the risk process. Approximately 500 college women reported on their previous dance experiences, their dance-related learning about thinness, their eating behaviours and attitudes and their thinness expectancies. Results showed that lifetime amount of time spent in dance class was unrelated to adult eating disturbance, women's reports of learning experiences concerning thinness during their dance classes predicted adult disordered eating concurrently, and thinness expectancies appeared to mediate the relationship between learning about thinness and adult eating disturbance. Learning experiences about thinness in dance class seem more important than time spent in dance class when examining the relationship between dance study and eating disorders. PMID:18729131

Annus, Agnes; Smith, Gregory T

2009-01-01

256

Toward a Theory and Practice for Whole-Person Learning: Reconceptualizing Experience and the Role of Affect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the importance of affect is acknowledged in the North American literature on adult learning and adult education, its role remains undertheorized. We argue that the influence of American pragmatism contributes to a cultural bias favoring reflective discourse and, thus, theoretical inattention to the role of affect. We describe a theory of personhood developed by John Heron to explore how

Lyle Yorks; Elizabeth Kasl

2002-01-01

257

Self-Directed Adult Learning: A Critical Paradigm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research into self-directed learning constitutes a chief growth area in the field of adult education research in the last decade. This paper argues that the propensity and capacity of many adults to conduct self-directed learning projects is now well proven, and that researchers should now infuse a spirit of self-critical scrutiny into this developing field of research. The paper advances

Stephen Brookfield

1984-01-01

258

Peer Tutoring between Young Adults with Severe and Complex Learning Difficulties: The Effects of Mediation Training with Feuerstein's Instrumental Enrichment Programme  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study aimed to draw upon a sociocultural perspective for elucidating the process and outcome of peer learning interactions between young adults with serious learning disabilities. A heterogeneous group of ten young adults between ages of 18 and 27 participated in the year-long cognitive program based on the principles of Feuerstein's theory

Kaufman, Ruth; Burden, Robert

2004-01-01

259

Attachment and Spiritual Coping: Theory and Practice With Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many older adults may reference God as both a source of helpful and harmful interactions in their lives. Attachment theory may be a useful lens for (a) assessment of older adults' relational style to a Transcendent Other with implications for formulating future interactions; (b) understanding how attachment to God facilitates coping; and (c) viewing attachment to God as a mechanism

Joseph G. Pickard; Holly Nelson-Becker

2011-01-01

260

Limits on theory of mind use in adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

By 6 years, children have a sophisticated adult-like theory of mind that enables them not only to understand the actions of social agents in terms of underlying mental states, but also to distinguish between their own mental states and those of others. Despite this, we argue that even adults do not reliably use this sophisticated ability for the very purpose

Boaz Keysar; Shuhong Lin; Dale J Barr

2003-01-01

261

Improving College Teaching through Adapting Learning Styles Theory into Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Learning styles theory on how people learn has been known for at least 25 years. Yet, for the most part, college teachers still dispense information in the traditional lecture/exam method without regard for the differing learning styles of their students. This study, conducted at North Central Technical College in Mansfield, Ohio, demonstrates…

Ault, Kay

262

The Role of Theory in Learning Technology Evaluation Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper attempts a fundamental analysis of the nature of research into e-learning and the role that theory plays in this. We examine "research" in broad terms, and the nature of phenomena in general. We identify that e-learning is an artificial phenomenon, and that research approaches need to be cognisant of the design elements in e-learning,…

Phillips, Rob; Kennedy, Gregor; McNaught, Carmel

2012-01-01

263

A Social Theory Perspective on e-Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current research on e-learning that focuses predominantly on instructional programming, and on various hardware and software, essentially neglects the more socio-cultural perspectives on e-learning. With this in mind, this article proceeds from a social theory perspective with a more socio-culturally engaged look at e-learning for workplace…

Remtulla, Karim A.

2008-01-01

264

The Effect of a ‘Learning Theories’ Unit on Students’ Attitudes Toward Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

People can improve themselves cognitively, professionally, academically, and in terms of their quality of life by continuous learning. Teachers, who are charged with bringing up new members of society, have to be aware of the importance of developing the ability to learn. This study examined how their knowledge of learning theories affected the attitudes of teacher candidates toward learning. For

Ahmet Kara

2009-01-01

265

The Self-Directed Learning Process of Older, Rural Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Medical advances and lifestyle changes have resulted in older adults living longer and healthier lives. Nevertheless, older adulthood, as other life stages, requires change in work, family, and health. Self-directed learning (SDL) is one way of negotiating these transitions. The purpose of this study was to understand this process of learning.…

Roberson, Donald N., Jr.; Merriam, Sharan B.

2005-01-01

266

Automatized Processing in Learning Disabled Adults: RAN, RAS, and Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Measures of automaticity have shown different developmental trends in the speed and accuracy of processing in learning disabled (LD) and normally achieving children. This study extends this research to young adults, comparing the learning disabled with normal achievers. Its primary focus was to document the presence of basic processing deficits in…

Hutchens, Teresa A.

267

The Neurobiology and Neuropsychology of Adult Learning Disorders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The area of adult learning disabilities is reviewed from a neurobiological and neuropsychological perspective. The paper covers possible pathophysiologic bases in dyslexia, neurobehavioral disorders that may coexist with learning disorders, neuropsychological assessment methods, treatment in the context of brain plasticity and recovery of…

Bigler, Erin D.

1992-01-01

268

Differences Between Children and Adults in Learning BASIC on Microcomputers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Do children and adults who are novices in their use of microcomputers differ in their approaches when learning a computer language? Ten fourth- and fifth-grade students and 10 graduate students were observed learning the language BASIC on microcomputers. All sessions were tape recorded and verbalizations subsequently coded. Verbalizations, the…

Hamada-Adler, Renee; White, Mary Alice

269

Extension and Health Promotion: An Adult Learning Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Community-based agencies (extension, women's association, public health department) initiated a health promotion project using adult learning approaches (experiential learning, storytelling, and networking) to enable participants to examine their experiences of health and factors affecting health in their communities. Assessment tools were…

Gillis, Doris E.; English, Leona M.

2001-01-01

270

How Adults with Learning Disabilities View Living Independently  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|It is seen as increasingly important for people with learning disabilities to be supported to live independently and manage their own self care, productivity and leisure activities. This qualitative study explored the experiences of nine adults with mild learning disabilities who lived alone with minimal support. Their narratives were analysed…

Bond, Rebecca J.; Hurst, Jenni

2010-01-01

271

Know Thyself: The Impact of Portfolio Development on Adult Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thousands of years ago the Greeks carved above their temples the phrase “know thyself,” two simple words that imply a lifetime of investigation. Throughout the ages philosophers and scholars have emphasized the importance of self-knowledge as an outcome of learning. One teaching strategy that facilitates self-knowledge among adult students is the creation of an experiential learning portfolio. This study describes

Judith O. Brown

2002-01-01

272

Lifelong Learning: Making It Work. An Adult Learning Australia Discussion Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This discussion paper is from the Adult Learners Week National Seminar on Lifelong Learning Policy (Canberra, Australia, September 1999) that identified a number of ideas about how to foster national policy development on lifelong learning. It consists of three sections. Part 1 contains "A National Lifelong Learning Policy for Australia?" (Tony…

Brown, Tony, Ed.

273

Real partnerships in community learning and development - empowering the voluntary adult learning sector in Scotland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Voluntary adult learning organisations are being asked to play an increasingly active role in the planning and development of learning opportunities within their communities (both of interest and geographical), as well as providing a service that meets the needs of a diverse range of users. Many voluntary organisations have been very actively involved in the work of Community Learning partnerships

Roberta Downes

274

Do Children and Adults Learn Differently?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article addresses a question that was a topic of debate in the middle decades of the 20th century but was then abandoned as interest in children's learning declined. The question is, does learning develop? In other words, does the learning process itself undergo age-related change, or does it remain invariant ontogenetically and…

Kuhn, Deanna; Pease, Maria

2006-01-01

275

Revisiting Debates on Learning Disabilities in Adult Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the 1980s, educators in adult basic education and special education have speculated that a substantial if unknown percentage of adults have specific learning disabilities (LDs) and have sought to identify and address effectively the needs of these learners. Two rarely intersecting bodies of historical literature on LDs provide the background…

Belzer, Alisa; Ross-Gordon, Jovita

2011-01-01

276

Adults Learning Languages: A CILT Guide to Good Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"Adults Learning Languages" is aimed at those responsible for teaching languages across AE, FE and HE. In the much-changed world of post-19 languages, new funding and inspection regimes with revised needs for quality assurance are challenging practitioners to adapt and review approaches. This book offers teachers of languages to adults tools to…

Harnisch, Henriette, Ed.; Swanton, Pauline, Ed.

2004-01-01

277

Identifying the Needs of Adult Women in Distance Learning Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined reasons that adult female students are motivated to enroll in distance learning programs, described their perceptions of the courses, and identified barriers these women face as they attempt to progress through their degree programs. Results of focus groups with 40 returning adult women were analyzed. Their needs were grouped into…

Furst-Bowe, Julie

278

Reinforcement Learning in Young Adults with Developmental Language Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The aim of the study was to examine reinforcement learning (RL) in young adults with developmental language impairment (DLI) within the context of a neurocomputational model of the basal ganglia-dopamine system (Frank, Seeberger, & O'Reilly, 2004). Two groups of young adults, one with DLI and the other without, were recruited. A probabilistic…

Lee, Joanna C.; Tomblin, J. Bruce

2012-01-01

279

Reinforcement Learning in Young Adults with Developmental Language Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the study was to examine reinforcement learning (RL) in young adults with developmental language impairment (DLI) within the context of a neurocomputational model of the basal ganglia-dopamine system (Frank, Seeberger, & O'Reilly, 2004). Two groups of young adults, one with DLI and the other without, were recruited. A probabilistic…

Lee, Joanna C.; Tomblin, J. Bruce

2012-01-01

280

The "Double-Edged Sword" of the Adult Learning Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The vocational education and training sector plays a critical role in the provision of educational opportunities for young adults who have left school prior to completing a qualification. Some research has found that a major factor that supports student re-engagement in formal education is the "adult learning environment" that characterises…

Murray, Sara; Mitchell, Jane

2013-01-01

281

Meeting Older Adults Learning Needs When Using Information Technologies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As in other countries, older adults in Australia could benefit from acquiring information technology (IT) skills in many ways, including improved access to information on health issues and development of the skills needed for employment in high-demand IT-related occupations. The research on adult learning and the problems faced by many older…

Cameron, Don

282

Sociocultural Learning Theory in Practice: Implications for Athletic Training Educators  

PubMed Central

Objective: To discuss cognitive and sociocultural learning theory literature related to athletic training instructional and evaluation strategies while providing support for the application of these practices in the didactic and clinical components of athletic training education programs. Data Sources: We searched Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) and Education Abstracts from 1975–2001 using the key words social cognitive, sociocultural learning theory, constructivism, and athletic training education. Current literature in the fields of educational psychology and athletic training education provides the foundation for applying theory to practice with specific emphasis on the theoretic framework and application of sociocultural learning theory strategies in athletic training education. Data Synthesis: Athletic training educators must have a strong fundamental knowledge of learning theory and a commitment to incorporate theory into educational practice. We integrate literature from both fields to generate practical strategies for using sociocultural learning theory in athletic training education. Conclusions/Recommendations: Social cognitive and sociocultural learning theory advocates a constructive, self-regulated, and goal-oriented environment with the student at the center of the educational process. Although a shift exists in athletic training education toward more active instructional strategies with the implementation of competency-based education, many educational environments are still dominated by traditional didactic instructional methods promoting student passivity. As athletic training education programs strive to increase accountability, educators in the field must critically analyze teaching and evaluation methods and integrate new material to ensure that learning is maximized.

Peer, Kimberly S.; McClendon, Ronald C.

2002-01-01

283

Sociocultural Learning Theory in Practice: Implications for Athletic Training Educators.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: To discuss cognitive and sociocultural learning theory literature related to athletic training instructional and evaluation strategies while providing support for the application of these practices in the didactic and clinical components of athletic training education programs. DATA SOURCES: We searched Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) and Education Abstracts from 1975-2001 using the key words social cognitive, sociocultural learning theory, constructivism, and athletic training education. Current literature in the fields of educational psychology and athletic training education provides the foundation for applying theory to practice with specific emphasis on the theoretic framework and application of sociocultural learning theory strategies in athletic training education. DATA SYNTHESIS: Athletic training educators must have a strong fundamental knowledge of learning theory and a commitment to incorporate theory into educational practice. We integrate literature from both fields to generate practical strategies for using sociocultural learning theory in athletic training education. CONCLUSIONS/RECOMMENDATIONS: Social cognitive and sociocultural learning theory advocates a constructive, self-regulated, and goal-oriented environment with the student at the center of the educational process. Although a shift exists in athletic training education toward more active instructional strategies with the implementation of competency-based education, many educational environments are still dominated by traditional didactic instructional methods promoting student passivity. As athletic training education programs strive to increase accountability, educators in the field must critically analyze teaching and evaluation methods and integrate new material to ensure that learning is maximized. PMID:12937534

Peer, Kimberly S; McClendon, Ronald C

2002-12-01

284

Learning to Achieve: A Professional's Guide to Educating Adults with Learning Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Approximately 3 million adults attend a variety of federally funded adult education and training programs. A noticeable number of these individuals have either diagnosed or undiagnosed learning disabilities (LD). For some, their adult education experience, based on effective instruction and respectful relationships, provides the preparation they…

Taymans, Juliana

2010-01-01

285

Implementing E-Learning components with adult English language learners: Vital factors and lessons learned  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growing use of both computers and the Internet in adult English language classrooms has widespread implications for English language programs. As computer access increases, so do new learning technologies in adult literacy education. Specifically, this paper is interested in the case of adult English language instruction, also commonly referred to as English as a Second Language (ESL) or English

Joellen E. Coryell; Dominique T. Chlup

2007-01-01

286

Learning, Continuity and Change in Adult Life. Wider Benefits of Learning Research Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between learning and continuity and change in adult life was explored in a study involving 140 in-depth biographical interviews of adult learners in 3 different areas of England and case studies of 6 adult learners. The study methodology was based on a triangular conceptualization according to which personal identity, human…

Schuller, Tom; Brassett-Grundy, Angela; Green, Andy; Hammond, Cathie; Preston, John

287

The Effectiveness of Storytelling on Adult Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: As two doctoral students and adult learners, the authors strongly believe that story telling can be a great tool for educators working with adult learners. The purpose of this paper is to increase awareness of how effective storytelling can be for adult learners. Design/methodology/approach: The approach of this paper is one of gathering…

Caminotti, Enzo; Gray, Jeremy

2012-01-01

288

Using learning styles theory in engineering education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies have shown that, while learning different concepts, people sometimes take different approaches (learning styles). Accordingly, their performance reflected differently in their academic studies. With the effect of globalisation to the educational environments, the influence of individual learning styles on educational performance is getting more significant. In this study, a learning style assessment tool was used to examine the relationship

Nergiz Ercil Cagiltay

2008-01-01

289

Social Learning Theory and Partner Violence: A Research Note  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite being a well-established area of inquiry, the study of intimate partner violence and aggression is limited by a lack of theoretical development. In this study we show how the key theoretical elements of two of the more prominent explanations for partner violence, intergenerational transmission theory and male peer support theory, are easily subsumed by Akers' social learning theory. We

Christine S. Sellers; John K. Cochran; Kathryn A. Branch

2005-01-01

290

Design a general-purpose network teaching platform based on blended learning theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considering classroom teaching and online learning as a whole, the activities of teachers and students in the network teaching platform are designed, based on blended learning theory, activity theory and constructivism learning theory. The network teaching platform emphasizes activity and task as its cores, ensuring learning resources and building a learning community. Based on activity theory model, this paper presents

Sun Haimin

2012-01-01

291

Lifelong Learning: Literacy, Schooling and the Adult World. Literacy and Learning Series, No. 2. Adult Literacy Research Network.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The 12 chapters in this second title in the series expose and explore the following significant issues underlying schooling and its intersection with the adult world outside of school: aspects of knowledge, gender, literacy across culture, and assessing what is learned in school and in the adult world. The chapters are: "Whose Knowledge Gets…

Falk, Ian, Ed.

292

Distinct neural signatures of threat learning in adolescents and adults  

PubMed Central

Most teenage fears subside with age, a change that may reflect brain maturation in the service of refined fear learning. Whereas adults clearly demarcate safe situations from real dangers, attenuating fear to the former but not the latter, adolescents’ immaturity in prefrontal cortex function may limit their ability to form clear-cut threat categories, allowing pervasive fears to manifest. Here we developed a discrimination learning paradigm that assesses the ability to categorize threat from safety cues to test these hypotheses on age differences in neurodevelopment. In experiment 1, we first demonstrated the capacity of this paradigm to generate threat/safety discrimination learning in both adolescents and adults. Next, in experiment 2, we used this paradigm to compare the behavioral and neural correlates of threat/safety discrimination learning in adolescents and adults using functional MRI. This second experiment yielded three sets of findings. First, when labeling threats online, adolescents reported less discrimination between threat and safety cues than adults. Second, adolescents were more likely than adults to engage early-maturing subcortical structures during threat/safety discrimination learning. Third, adults’ but not adolescents’ engagement of late-maturing prefrontal cortex regions correlated positively with fear ratings during threat/safety discrimination learning. These data are consistent with the role of dorsolateral regions during category learning, particularly when differences between stimuli are subtle [Miller EK, Cohen JD (2001) Annu Rev Neurosci 24:167–202]. These findings suggest that maturational differences in subcortical and prefrontal regions between adolescent and adult brains may relate to age-related differences in threat/safety discrimination.

Lau, Jennifer Y.; Britton, Jennifer C.; Nelson, Eric E.; Angold, Adrian; Ernst, Monique; Goldwin, Michelle; Grillon, Christian; Leibenluft, Ellen; Lissek, Shmuel; Norcross, Maxine; Shiffrin, Nina; Pine, Daniel S.

2011-01-01

293

Adults with learning disabilities and psychiatric problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The co-occurrence of psychiatric illness with a learning disability has been well established, and people with learning disabilities are more likely to suffer from mental ill health (including behavioural disorders, personality disorders, autistic-spectrum disorders and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder) (Deb et al, 2001b). The arrival of effective medical and psychosocial treatments for psychiatric disorders makes their diagnosis in those with learning

Mike Vanstraelen; Geraldine Holt; Nick Bouras

294

Creating an adult learning culture through practice development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of a learning culture is becoming a dominant theme in the strategic plans of health care organisations. This is arising through a drive to improve standards of practice, bridge the perceived theory–practice gap and create means of integrating learning with practice. There have been many initiatives to create such a change, including continuous professional development, reflective practice, clinical

Colin Ward; Brendan McCormack

2000-01-01

295

Spinal learning in the adult mouse using the Horridge paradigm.  

PubMed

The spinal cord is endogenously capable of several forms of adaptive plasticity and learning, including functional re-training, instrumental, and Pavlovian learning. Understanding the mechanisms of spinal plasticity could lead to improved therapies for spinal cord injury and other neuromotor disorders. We describe and demonstrate techniques for eliciting spinal learning in the adult mouse using the Horridge paradigm. In the Horridge paradigm, instrumental learning occurs when a nociceptive leg stimulus is made to be contingent on leg position and the spinal cord learns to maintain the ankle in a flexed position. Using fine-wire intramuscular stimulating electrodes, an inexpensive real-time video tracking system, and DC current stimulation, we were able to elicit instrumental spinal learning from mouse lumbrosacral spinal cords that were functionally isolated from the brain. This technique makes it more feasible to use the powerful genetic manipulations available in mice to better understand the processes of spinal learning, memory, and plasticity. PMID:19520117

Jindrich, Devin L; Joseph, M Selvan; Otoshi, Chad K; Wei, Robert Y; Zhong, Hui; Roy, Roland R; Tillakaratne, Niranjala J K; Edgerton, V Reggie

2009-06-09

296

Spinal learning in the adult mouse using the Horridge paradigm  

PubMed Central

The spinal cord is endogenously capable of several forms of adaptive plasticity and learning, including functional re-training, instrumental, and Pavlovian learning. Understanding the mechanisms of spinal plasticity could lead to improved therapies for spinal cord injury and other neuromotor disorders. We describe and demonstrate techniques for eliciting spinal learning in the adult mouse using the Horridge paradigm. In the Horridge paradigm, instrumental learning occurs when a nociceptive leg stimulus is made to be contingent on leg position and the spinal cord learns to maintain the ankle in a flexed position. Using fine-wire intramuscular stimulating electrodes, an inexpensive real-time video tracking system, and DC current stimulation, we were able to elicit instrumental spinal learning from mouse lumbrosacral spinal cords that were functionally isolated from the brain. This technique makes it more feasible to use the powerful genetic manipulations available in mice to better understand the processes of spinal learning, memory, and plasticity.

Jindrich, Devin L.; Joseph, M. Selvan; Otoshi, Chad K.; Wei, Robert Y.; Zhong, Hui; Roy, Roland R.; Tillakaratne, Niranjala J.K.; Edgerton, V. Reggie

2009-01-01

297

Structuring Instruction To Promote Self-Regulated Learning by Adolescents and Adults with Learning Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes strategic content learning (SCL), a strategies-training model that integrates cognitive, behavioral, sociocultural, and constructivist learning theories. The theoretical rationale for SCL is provided, followed by a review of research documenting SCL efficacy for postsecondary students with learning disabilities. Preliminary…

Butler, Deborah L.

2003-01-01

298

Why formal learning theory matters for cognitive science.  

PubMed

This article reviews a number of different areas in the foundations of formal learning theory. After outlining the general framework for formal models of learning, the Bayesian approach to learning is summarized. This leads to a discussion of Solomonoff's Universal Prior Distribution for Bayesian learning. Gold's model of identification in the limit is also outlined. We next discuss a number of aspects of learning theory raised in contributed papers, related to both computational and representational complexity. The article concludes with a description of how semi-supervised learning can be applied to the study of cognitive learning models. Throughout this overview, the specific points raised by our contributing authors are connected to the models and methods under review. PMID:23335571

Fulop, Sean; Chater, Nick

2013-01-01

299

18 Adult education and lifelong learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stage 8 of the German National Educational Panel Study focuses on the adult working age population in Germany and serves,\\u000a in many respects, as a capstone for the National Educational Panel Study structure. Its main purpose is to collect data on\\u000a adult education, on competence endowment and its development over the life course, and on returns to initial and adult

Jutta Allmendinger; Corinna Kleinert; Manfred Antoni; Bernhard Christoph; Katrin Drasch; Florian Janik; Kathrin Leuze; Britta Matthes; Reinhard Pollak; Michael Ruland

2011-01-01

300

Reflections on self?directed adult learning: some implications for educators of adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self?directed learning has attracted intense interest among researchers, theoreticians and practitioners in adult education and human resource development. This paper explores some general reasons for this, before examining several different perspectives on self?directed adult learning. The main theme is that attention needs now to be focused less on process and more on the self?directed learner. The key element in self?directed

Roger Harris

1989-01-01

301

Measuring student learning with item response theory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We investigate short-term learning from hints and feedback in a Web-based physics tutoring system. Both the skill of students and the difficulty and discrimination of items were determined by applying item response theory (IRT) to the first answers of students who are working on for-credit homework items in an introductory Newtonian physics course. We show that after tutoring a shifted logistic item response function with lower discrimination fits the studentsâ second responses to an item previously answered incorrectly. Student skill decreased by 1.0 standard deviation when students used no tutoring between their (incorrect) first and second attempts, which we attribute to âitem-wrong bias.â On average, using hints or feedback increased studentsâ skill by 0.8 standard deviation. A skill increase of 1.9 standard deviation was observed when hints were requested after viewing, but prior to attempting to answer, a particular item. The skill changes measured in this way will enable the use of IRT to assess students based on their second attempt in a tutoring environment.

Lee, Young-Jin; J., Palazzo D.; Warnakulasooriya, Rasil; Pritchard, David E.

2008-09-24

302

Criminological theory in the digital age: The case of social learning theory and digital piracy  

Microsoft Academic Search

To date, few studies had attempted to extend existing theories of crime to technology driven crimes, such as digital piracy. To address this gap in the literature, this study explored the ability of Akers’ social learning theory in explaining the likelihood of engaging in digital piracy. Also explored was the extent to which the social learning process mediated the impact

Robert G. Morris; George E. Higgins

2010-01-01

303

John Dewey and Adult Learning in Museums  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The objective of this article is to investigate learning in museums through the lens of John Dewey's philosophy of education and experiential learning. The influence of Dewey's philosophy of education is widespread and resounding. In this article, I examine the experiential qualities of Dewey's philosophy and compare it with the objectives of the…

Monk, David F.

2013-01-01

304

Adult Learning Projects Related to Spiritual Growth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study examined significant deliberate learning activities (as demonstrated in learning projects) which were related to spiritual growth. (Spiritual growth was defined in broad terms within which each interviewee interpreted his or her own concept.) Fifty persons between the ages of thirty-five and fifty-five and representing five groups (three…

Wickett, R.E.Y.

305

John Dewey and Adult Learning in Museums  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this article is to investigate learning in museums through the lens of John Dewey's philosophy of education and experiential learning. The influence of Dewey's philosophy of education is widespread and resounding. In this article, I examine the experiential qualities of Dewey's philosophy and compare it with the objectives of the…

Monk, David F.

2013-01-01

306

A Critical Theory Perspective on Accelerated Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Critically analyzes accelerated learning using concepts from Herbert Marcuse (rebellious subjectivity) and Erich Fromm (automaton conformity). Concludes that, by providing distance and separation, accelerated learning has more potential to stimulate critical autonomous thought. (SK)|

Brookfield, Stephen D.

2003-01-01

307

Do Learning Strategies Affect Adults' Transfer of Learning?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study of 113 graduate students in a college of education explored how readily they would apply their knowledge about transfer of learning to a personally relevant teaching task. One group practiced integration; participants were asked to think about concepts they were learning in terms of the three elements of the integration strategy. A second…

Wang, Nina; Taraban, Roman

308

Do Learning Strategies Affect Adults' Transfer of Learning?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of 113 graduate students in a college of education explored how readily they would apply their knowledge about transfer of learning to a personally relevant teaching task. One group practiced integration; participants were asked to think about concepts they were learning in terms of the three elements of the integration strategy. A second…

Wang, Nina; Taraban, Roman

309

Flexible Learning Options for Adult Students.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In a March 2006 report to the Department of Labor, Adult Learners in Higher Education: Barriers to Success and Strategies to Improve Results, Jobs for the Future, Eduventures, and FutureWorks assessed the obstacles facing adult learners who want to earn p...

H. Prince V. Choitz

2008-01-01

310

Adult Learning, Critical Intelligence and Social Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This collection of 21 essays reviews the context of developments in adult education in the last 15 years. "Adult Education for Change in the Nineties and Beyond" (Marjorie Mayo) is a critical review of the context for these changes and of the theoretical debates that attempt to analyze and explain them. "Challenging the Postmodern Condition"…

Mayo, Marjorie, Ed.; Thompson, Jane, Ed.

311

Principles of Adult Learning: An ESL Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given the current global economic situation, industries have been forced to examine their efficiency and effectiveness, and this is also true for adult education programs. Many programs, whether public or private, face budget downsizing which leads to questions of how to effectively instruct the adults they serve. This article provides an overview…

Finn, Donald

2011-01-01

312

Developing theory-based, practical information literacy training for adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teaching librarians seeking to educate people to be lifelong, information literate learners, often employ training sessions to introduce new skill sets to patrons. To create and deliver effective training, one must first understand how training differs from traditional education, how adults learn (andragogy) in different ways than do children, and how using instructional design can yield effective, low cost information

Caroline Stern; Trishanjit Kaur

2010-01-01

313

Designing a Project-based Learning in a University with New Theory of Learning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New theory of learning indicates “learning” is the process of interaction which occurs in social relationships within a community containing a multitude of things beyond any single individual. From this point of view, the “project-based learning” is one of new methods of teaching and learning at university. The method of project-based learning includes of team learning, team teaching, portfolio assessment, open space, and faculty development. This paper discusses potential of university to become a learning community with the method along with results of the educational practice at Future University-Hakodate.

Mima, Noyuri

314

A Basic Reference Shelf on Learning Theory. A Series One Paper from ERIC at Stanford.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This reference work briefly identifies the salient principles of learning theory under the subdivisions: 1) S-R theory, 2) cognitive theory, and 3) motivation and personality theory. It also describes various approaches to practical problems via unified theories of learning. A seven-item annotated bibliography on learning theory and its…

Hilgard, Ernest R.

315

Social Learning Theory: The Role of Imitation and Modeling in Learning Socially Desirable Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The paper defines and discusses various social learning theories. Central to most theories of how an individual acquires socially acceptable behaviors are the processes of imitation, or observational learning, and identification, or modeling. The effectiveness of each process is noted. (SB)|

Khan, Kanwar Habib; Cangemi, Joseph P.

1979-01-01

316

Learning to Collaborate: An Application of Activity Theory to Interprofessional Learning Across Children's Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the pedagogy of a continuing professional development (CPD) programme to develop interprofessional learning (IPL) and collaborative practice for professionals across children's services, using a framework underpinned by Activity Theory. The aim of the study was to establish which pedagogical features enabled successful interprofessional learning and subsequent changes in collaborative, interprofessional practice. Activity Theory was used as a

Edgar Meyer; Amanda Lees

2012-01-01

317

Waiting to Exhale: African American Women and Adult Learning Through Movies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scholars have addressed adults and the impact of popular culture on adult learning, but little attention has been directed toward the relationship between adult learning and African Americans. Most specifically, minimal information is related to adult learning that evolves as a result of popular culture influences. Popular culture promotes…

Rogers, Elice E.

318

Cognitive theories and the design of e-learning environments.  

PubMed

Cognitive development refers to a mental process by which knowledge is acquired, stored, and retrieved to solve problems. Therefore, cognitive developmental theories attempt to explain cognitive activities that contribute to students' intellectual development and their capacity to learn and solve problems. Cognitive developmental research has had a great impact on the constructivism movement in education and educational technology. In order to appreciate how cognitive developmental theories have contributed to the design, process and development of constructive e-learning environments, we shall first present Piaget's cognitive theory and derive an inquiry training model from it that will support a constructivism approach to teaching and learning. Second, we will discuss an example developed by NASA that used the Web as an appropriate instructional delivery medium to apply Piaget's cognitive theory to create e-learning environments. PMID:15718680

Gillani, Bijan; O'Guinn, Christina

2004-01-01

319

Live To Learn and Learn To Live: The Fifth Adult Learners' Week in Estonia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The focus of Adult Learners Week in Estonia is on establishing a lifelong learning environment. Evaluation results indicate a need for more publicity outlets and volunteer support to carry out activities. (SK)|

Plaks, Sirje

2002-01-01

320

Transfer of instances in cognitive skill learning: adult age differences.  

PubMed

Two experiments assessed the utilization of pretrained problem-solution associations (i.e., instances) in memory-based cognitive skill learning in younger and older adults. In Experiment 1, participants were given practice with repeated alphabet-arithmetic problems and then trained on a compound skill-learning task that incorporated the pretrained alphabet-arithmetic items. In Experiment 2, participants were pretrained with compound problems, and then trained on just the alphabet-arithmetic items that were part of the compound problems. In both experiments, utilization of pretrained instances was much greater for younger adults than for older adults. These findings can be taken to imply that failure to retrieve and apply reoccurring instances is a primary source of age-related deficits in the transfer of cognitive skill learning across task situations. PMID:20054725

D'Eredita, Michael A; Hoyer, William J

321

What Learning Looks Like: Mediated Learning in Theory and Practice, K-6  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this unique collaboration, the authors bring to life the theory of mediated learning. Through numerous examples and scenarios from classrooms and museums, they show how mediated learning helps children to become more effective learners. Readers learn the steps in the process, including analyzing the child's problem, teaching the child to focus…

Feuerstein, Reuven; Lewin-Benham, Ann

2012-01-01

322

The Effect of a "Learning Theories" Unit on Students' Attitudes toward Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

People can improve themselves cognitively, professionally, academically, and in terms of their quality of life by continuous learning. Teachers, who are charged with bringing up new members of society, have to be aware of the importance of developing the ability to learn. This study examined how their knowledge of learning theories affected the…

Kara, Ahmet

2009-01-01

323

Two Tests of a Theory of Verbal-Discrimination Learning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two tests were made of a theory which assumes that verbal-discrimination (VD) learning is based upon a frequency differential between the right and wrong words. In Experiment I Ss were given either 0, 2, or 5 free-recall learning (FL) trials on a list of ...

B. J. Underwood J. S. Freund

1968-01-01

324

Toward a Semiotic Theory of Choice and of Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this essay, Andrew Stables and Stephen Gough explore some of the implications for educational policy and practice of a view of living (and, therefore, of learning) as semiotic engagement. Such a view, Stables and Gough argue, has the potential to displace or circumvent essentially Cartesian models currently dominant within learning theory

Stables, Andrew; Gough, Stephen

2006-01-01

325

Learning from Cases and Bridging Some "Theory-Practice" Gaps.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study described the professional learning of teacher educators in graduate schools which allowed, by the consideration of different pedagogical practices, the construction of bridges between those practices and theories supporting them. It analyzed the effectiveness of teaching and learning case studies in promoting teachers' personal…

Mizukami, Maria da Graca Nicoletti

326

A Social Learning Theory Model of Marital Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

A social learning theory model of minor and severe marital violence offending and victimization among males and females was tested. Results support social learning as an important perspective in marital violence. However, males and females are impacted differently by their experiences with violence in childhood and adolescence. Prior experiences with violence have a more dramatic impact in the lives of

Sharon Wofford Mihalic; Delbert Elliott

1997-01-01

327

A Natural Teaching Method Based on Learning Theory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The natural teaching method is active and student-centered, based on schema and constructivist theories, and informed by research in neuroplasticity. A schema is a mental picture or understanding of something we have learned. Humans can have knowledge only to the degree to which they have constructed schemas from learning experiences and practice.…

Smilkstein, Rita

1991-01-01

328

The Internet, Internet Curriculum Materials, and Constructivist Learning Theory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper synthesizes issues related to the Internet, Internet curriculum materials (i.e., any type of teaching material or activity that can be incorporated into the K-12 curriculum and is available on the Internet), and constructivist learning theory; it explores the use of the Internet as a constructivist environment for learning and the…

Tillman, Mike

329

The Application of Learning Theories to Communication Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper attempts to draw applications from major learning taxonomies and theories Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives and Gagne's types of learning are considered in terms of their implications as diagnostic and evaluation criteria. Additionally, an attempt is made to operationalize these criteria behaviorally. Instructional strategies…

Lashbrook, Velma J.

330

Evaluating theories of bird song learning: implications for future directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of birdsong learning have stimulated extensive hypotheses at all levels of behavioral and physiological organization. This hypothesis building is valuable for the field and is consistent with the remarkable range of issues that can be rigorously addressed in this system. The traditional instructional (template) theory of song learning has been challenged on multiple fronts, especially at a behavioral level

D. Margoliash

2002-01-01

331

Learning outside the Classroom: Theory and Guidelines for Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"Learning Outside the Classroom" outlines theory and practice that will enable and encourage teachers to systematically and progressively incorporate meaningful outdoor learning opportunities into their daily teaching activities in a wide variety of environments and with diverse populations of pupils. This is the first textbook based around the…

Beames, Simon; Higgins, Pete; Nicol, Robbie

2011-01-01

332

A schema theory of discrete motor skill learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Argues that although a number of closed-loop postulations to explain motor skills learning and performance phenomena have appeared recently, each of these views suffers from either (a) logical problems in explaining the phenomena or (b) predictions that are not supported by the empirical evidence. After these difficulties are discussed, a new theory for discrete motor learning is proposed that is

Richard A. Schmidt

1975-01-01

333

Learning outside the Classroom: Theory and Guidelines for Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Learning Outside the Classroom" outlines theory and practice that will enable and encourage teachers to systematically and progressively incorporate meaningful outdoor learning opportunities into their daily teaching activities in a wide variety of environments and with diverse populations of pupils. This is the first textbook based around the…

Beames, Simon; Higgins, Pete; Nicol, Robbie

2011-01-01

334

A Theory Bite on Learning through Mathematical Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author wishes to emphasize two fundamental points related to theory that were significantly underplayed in Simon et al.'s "A Developing Approach to Studying Students' Learning through Their Mathematical Activity" (2010). The author believes these points are central to any study of children's mathematical learning. The first…

Steffe, Leslie P.

2011-01-01

335

Chapter I Online Synchronous English Learning from Activity Theory Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The implementation of Online Synchronous Learning (OSL) poses many challenges to existing instruc- tion technology theory because of the complexity of the digital age. Although many studies have been carried out for an OSL, there is little evidence of OSL for teaching language learning. This is especially so when it involves multiple cultural perspectives. This chapter describes the implementation of

Lorna Uden; Nian-Shing Chen; Chun-Wang Wei

336

Theories of Learning: Reflective Thought in Teacher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To help educators better understand how to prepare reflective teachers, this study examined four preservice elementary teachers' theories regarding how elementary children learn and what instruction should look like. Participants designed and implemented learning activities for elementary students. Each activity was videotaped, observed, and…

Collier, Sunya T.

337

Learning Styles and Learning Strategies. I. Conversation Theory--The Work of Gordon Pask. 1983:01.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The work of English cybernetician Gordon Pask on learning styles and strategies is presented. An attempt is made to describe the basic ideas of Conversation Theory, Pask's general theory of cognition. The learning strategies "holism" and "serialism," and the more general learning styles "comprehension learning" and "operation learning" are…

Lindstrom, Berner

338

A social learning theory of cross-functional case education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective cross-functional integration is needed to solve problems and improve work processes that cross organizational lines. Cross-functional education is intended to develop managers with an organizational perspective that enhances communication, learning, and decision making. It is proposed that the social learning theory (SLT) is appropriate as a theoretical foundation to facilitate learning and teaching with cross-functional cases. The SLT explains

William F. Crittenden

2005-01-01

339

Dichoptic training enables the adult amblyopic brain to learn.  

PubMed

Adults with amblyopia, a common visual cortex disorder caused primarily by binocular disruption during an early critical period, do not respond to conventional therapy involving occlusion of one eye. But it is now clear that the adult human visual cortex has a significant degree of plasticity, suggesting that something must be actively preventing the adult brain from learning to see through the amblyopic eye. One possibility is an inhibitory signal from the contralateral eye that suppresses cortical inputs from the amblyopic eye. Such a gating mechanism could explain the apparent lack of plasticity within the adult amblyopic visual cortex. Here we provide direct evidence that alleviating suppression of the amblyopic eye through dichoptic stimulus presentation induces greater levels of plasticity than forced use of the amblyopic eye alone. This indicates that suppression is a key gating mechanism that prevents the amblyopic brain from learning to see. PMID:23618662

Li, Jinrong; Thompson, Benjamin; Deng, Daming; Chan, Lily Y L; Yu, Minbin; Hess, Robert F

2013-04-22

340

Contrasting Adult Literacy Learners With and Without Specific Learning Disabilities  

PubMed Central

Contrasting adult literacy learners with and without specific learning disabilities This study of 311 adult education (AE) learners found 29% self-reported having a specific learning disability (SLD). Significant differences in demographic, academic, and life experience variables between the adult learners with and without SLD included: prior participation in special education, having both an SLD diagnosis and a high school diploma, low reading scores, middle age, and negative perceptions about limitations due to reading abilities. A post-hoc regression analysis found SLD status significantly contributes to variance in reading level when controlling for age and IQ. From these findings we conclude that SLD status should be considered an educationally relevant variable in adult education that warrants a diagnostic or clinical teaching approach.

Patterson, Margaret Becker; Mellard, Daryl

2011-01-01

341

A Theory for Memory-Based Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

A memory-based learning system is an extended memory management system that decomposes the input space either statically or dynamically into subregions for the purpose of storing and retrieving functional information. The main generalization techniques employed by memory-based learning systems are the nearest-neighbor search, space decomposition techniques, and clustering. Research on memory-based learning is still in its early stage. In particular,

Jyh-Han Lin; Jeffrey Scott Vitter

1994-01-01

342

Learning enhances adult neurogenesis in the hippocampal formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thousands of hippocampal neurons are born in adulthood, suggesting that new cells could be important for hippocampal function. To determine whether hippocampus-dependent learning affects adult-generated neurons, we examined the fate of new cells labeled with the thymidine analog bromodeoxyuridine following specific behavioral tasks. Here we report that the number of adult-generated neurons doubles in the rat dentate gyrus in response

Anna Beylin; Patima Tanapat; Alison Reeves; Tracey J. Shors; Elizabeth Gould

1999-01-01

343

Theories of Willpower Affect Sustained Learning  

PubMed Central

Building cognitive abilities often requires sustained engagement with effortful tasks. We demonstrate that beliefs about willpower–whether willpower is viewed as a limited or non-limited resource–impact sustained learning on a strenuous mental task. As predicted, beliefs about willpower did not affect accuracy or improvement during the initial phases of learning; however, participants who were led to view willpower as non-limited showed greater sustained learning over the full duration of the task. These findings highlight the interactive nature of motivational and cognitive processes: motivational factors can substantially affect people’s ability to recruit their cognitive resources to sustain learning over time.

Miller, Eric M.; Walton, Gregory M.; Dweck, Carol S.; Job, Veronika; Trzesniewski, Kali H.; McClure, Samuel M.

2012-01-01

344

Theories of willpower affect sustained learning.  

PubMed

Building cognitive abilities often requires sustained engagement with effortful tasks. We demonstrate that beliefs about willpower-whether willpower is viewed as a limited or non-limited resource-impact sustained learning on a strenuous mental task. As predicted, beliefs about willpower did not affect accuracy or improvement during the initial phases of learning; however, participants who were led to view willpower as non-limited showed greater sustained learning over the full duration of the task. These findings highlight the interactive nature of motivational and cognitive processes: motivational factors can substantially affect people's ability to recruit their cognitive resources to sustain learning over time. PMID:22745675

Miller, Eric M; Walton, Gregory M; Dweck, Carol S; Job, Veronika; Trzesniewski, Kali H; McClure, Samuel M

2012-06-22

345

Phonological Similarity Influences Word Learning in Adults Learning Spanish as a Foreign Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Neighborhood density--the number of words that sound similar to a given word (Luce & Pisoni, 1998)--influences word learning in native English-speaking children and adults (Storkel, 2004; Storkel, Armbruster & Hogan, 2006): novel words with many similar sounding English words (i.e., dense neighborhood) are learned more quickly than novel words…

Stamer, Melissa K.; Vitevitch, Michael S.

2012-01-01

346

Adapting Suitable Spaces in Learning Management Systems to Support Distance Learning in Adults with ADHD  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an approach to adapt a playful space and an organizational space in Learning Management Systems to support virtual learning in adults with ADHD. The playful space consists of an adaptive videogame and some computer exercises that attempt to train cognitive areas deficient in people with ADHD, providing at the same time a strategy to motivate students. The

Laura Mancera; Silvia Baldiris; Ramon Fabregat; Ferran Vinas; Beatriz Caparros

2011-01-01

347

"It's Not Like Normal School": The Role of Prior Learning Contexts in Adult Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the ways in which prior experiences in formal learning contexts influence adult learners' views of their current context. Using interview data from five women participating in a General Educational Development program, this study suggests that these learners' constructions of previous learning contexts function as "screens"…

Belzer, Alisa

2004-01-01

348

Adult Learning in the Digital Age: Information Technology and the Learning Society  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book sheds light on the ways in which adults in the twenty-first century interact with technology in different learning environments. Based on one of the first large-scale academic research projects in this area, the authors present their findings and offer practical recommendations for the use of new technology in a learning society. They…

Selwyn, Neil; Gorard, Stephen; Furlong, John

2005-01-01

349

The Attribution Theory of Learning and Advising Students on Academic Probation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Academic advisors need to be knowledgeable of the ways students learn. To aid advisors in their exploration of learning theories, I provide an overview of the attribution theory of learning, including recent applications of the theory to research in college student learning. An understanding of this theory may help advisors understand student…

Demetriou, Cynthia

2011-01-01

350

Speech motor learning in profoundly deaf adults.  

PubMed

Speech production, like other sensorimotor behaviors, relies on multiple sensory inputs--audition, proprioceptive inputs from muscle spindles and cutaneous inputs from mechanoreceptors in the skin and soft tissues of the vocal tract. However, the capacity for intelligible speech by deaf speakers suggests that somatosensory input alone may contribute to speech motor control and perhaps even to speech learning. We assessed speech motor learning in cochlear implant recipients who were tested with their implants turned off. A robotic device was used to alter somatosensory feedback by displacing the jaw during speech. We found that implant subjects progressively adapted to the mechanical perturbation with training. Moreover, the corrections that we observed were for movement deviations that were exceedingly small, on the order of millimeters, indicating that speakers have precise somatosensory expectations. Speech motor learning is substantially dependent on somatosensory input. PMID:18794839

Nasir, Sazzad M; Ostry, David J

2008-09-14

351

The Contribution of Adult Learning to Health and Social Capital. Wider Benefits of Learning Research Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers investigated effects of adult learning (AL) on a range of measures of health and social capital and cohesion. Data from the National Child Development Study relating to almost 10,000 adults born in Britain in 1958 were used, with focus on changes in their lives between age 33 in 1991 and 42 in 2000. Findings indicated AL played an…

Feinstein, Leon; Hammond, Cathie; Woods, Laura; Preston, John; Bynner, John

352

Impacts of Learning Styles and Computer Skills on Adult Students' Learning Online  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the influences of learning styles/preferences, prior computer skills and experience with online courses on adult learners' knowledge acquisition in a web-based special education course. Forty-six adult learners who enrolled in a web-based special education course participated in the study. The results of the study showed…

Rakap, Salih

2010-01-01

353

Cognitive Type Theory & Learning Style, A Teacher's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide provides a practical explanation of cognitive type theory and learning style that will help teachers meet students' needs and discover their own strengths as teachers and colleagues. The introduction provides an overview of the book from the perspective of a high school classroom teacher. Part One introduces the theory of psychological…

Mamchur, Carolyn

354

On the Prospects of a Semiotic Theory of Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Taking as its exegetic point of departure Peirce's outline of a semiotic theory of cognition from the mid 1890s, this paper explores the relevance of this outline to a theory of learning and also to a broader, normative vision of education. Firstly, besides providing for fallibilism in philosophical inquiry Peirce's outline accords with critical…

Midtgarden, Torjus

2005-01-01

355

Participatory Learning Theories: A Framework for Early Childhood Pedagogy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper continues scholarly conversations about appropriate theories of development to underpin early childhood pedagogy. It focuses on sociocultural theoretical perspectives and proposes that participatory learning theories (PLTs) underpin pedagogy built on principles specified in three curricular documents. Further, the paper argues that the…

Hedges, Helen; Cullen, Joy

2012-01-01

356

Conductive Education and the Mediated Learning Experience Theory of Feuerstein.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper examines parallels between aspects of conductive education for brain-damaged children and R. Feuerstein's theory of mediated learning. Two key aspects of Feuerstein's theory are examined and applied to conductive education: structural cognitive modifiability and the mediation process between culture and child. Mediation processes,…

Lebeer, Jo

1995-01-01

357

Dialogue Theory as a Tool for Understanding Interactive Learning Processes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explicates aspects of dialogue theory that may enhance understanding of educational processes in general and interactive learning processes in particular. Bakhtin's extended theory of dialogue, the concept of multivoicedness and Lotman's dual functions of texts are explained and used to analyze a Web-mediated discussion among university students.…

Dysthe, Olga

1999-01-01

358

Teaching discrete mathematics with the constructivism learning theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Constructivism theory reveals the regularity of human cognition. According to constructivism theory, students will learn best by trying to make sense of something on their own with the teacher as a guide to help them along the way. Discrete mathematics is a very important course for computer majors. As discrete mathematics has quite rich contents and it is very abstract,

Hu Yahong; Wang Weihong; Jiang Li

2011-01-01

359

ARE DEVELOPMENTAL THEORIES OF LEARNING PAYING ATTENTION TO ATTENTION?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently available empirical evidence is often insufficient to distinguish among developmental theories of word learning, categorization, and induction. This paper argues that theories of conceptual development should be evaluated not only on the basis of their ability to account for empirical findings, but also on the basis of their consistency with a broader body of knowledge, particularly with the known

Anna FISHER

360

Context and Rationality In Mezirow's Theory of Transformational Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transformational learning is fundamentally concerned with construing meaning from experience as a guide to action. In his theory of perspective transformation, Mezirow presents a significant conceptualization of that process, but it is flawed in one major aspect: It fails to account for context. We examine the absence of context in the theory itself, then focus on the decontextualized form of

M. Carolyn Clark; Arthur L. Wilson

1991-01-01

361

Learning Theory for Collaborative Large Shared Digital Spaces  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This research applies Socio-Cultural theory and Distributed Cognition/Activity theory to conceptualize the design of collaborative learning activities in large shared digital spaces. The paper begins by providing a summary of previous work in the creation of a technology platform for large shared digital spaces. It then details how Socio-Cultural…

McGivern, Daniela; Morgan, Michael; Butler, Matthew

2012-01-01

362

Apprenticeship: from learning theory to practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

To meet the requirements of an increasingly innovative and competitive environment, workers need to continuously develop and maintain competence. Consequently, initial vocational education and training should prepare (future) workers by providing a basis for lifelong learning in developing both routine and flexible competence. The question is whether workplace learning in initial VET contributes to this aim. To describe WPL processes

Cindy Louise Poortman; Knud Illeris; Loek Nieuwenhuis

2011-01-01

363

Social Learning Theory in Second Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the current trends in distance education is the use of multi-user virtual environments (MUVE) as a training platform. MUVEs are being used for both formal and informal online learning. Second Life is a popular MUVEs being used for education today. Teaching and learning in Second Life requires a paradigm shift by educators, researchers, and learners who must adapt

Michele Smith; Zane L. Berge

2009-01-01

364

From Computational Learning Theory to Discovery Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

. Machine learning has been one of the important subjects of AI that ismotivated by many real world applications. In theoretical computer science, researchersalso have introduced mathematical frameworks for investigating machine learning, and inthese frameworks, many interesting results have been obtained. Now we are proceedingto a new stage to study how to apply these fruitful theoretical results to real problems.We

Osamu Watanabe

1999-01-01

365

Toward a Theory of Embodied Statistical Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to outline a new formulation of statistical learning that will be more useful and relevant to the eld of robotics. The primary motivation for this new perspective is the mis- match between the form of data assumed by current statistical learning algorithms, and the form of data that is actually generated by robotic sys-

Daniel Burfoot; Max Lungarella; Yasuo Kuniyoshi

2008-01-01

366

Reflection in Learning & Professional Development: Theory & Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book reviews the literature on reflection, explores the relationship between reflection and learning, and discusses how reflection can be used to improve learning and professional practice. The following are among the topics discussed: (1) common-sense and developmental stage approaches to reflection; (2) the philosophies of Dewey and…

Moon, Jennifer A.

367

Reflection in Learning & Professional Development: Theory & Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book reviews the literature on reflection, explores the relationship between reflection and learning, and discusses how reflection can be used to improve learning and professional practice. The following are among the topics discussed: (1) common-sense and developmental stage approaches to reflection; (2) the philosophies of Dewey and…

Moon, Jennifer A.

368

Teaching and Learning Theory: Who Needs It?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Integrating technology into the classroom and using the Internet for learning are now the norm in community colleges. Instructors are busy developing online resources and using them either in conjunction with traditional classes or in online courses. While this implementation surges ahead, how can teachers learn to use the online environment for…

Frank, Christine

2005-01-01

369

An examination of Terror Management Theory with older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terror Management Theory (TMT) holds that individuals who are made aware of death rapidly suppress\\/repress it from consciousness, but this suppression leads to harsher judgments of others who violate society's norms. Although TMT has been supported by a large number of empirical studies showing that mortality salience (MS) has increased younger adults' defense of their cultural worldviews, none of this

Masooda Nassimi Bashir

2007-01-01

370

A GROUNDED THEORY ANALYSIS OF OLDER ADULTS AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study reported in this article used grounded theory methodology to investigate older adults accounts of their use of information technology (IT). A small number of SeniorNet Wellington members volunteered to be interviewed about their experiences with and opinions about computer technology. It was found that participants began using computers because technology was associated with modern life, leading them to

2000-01-01

371

A Framework for Theory and Research on Adult Education Participation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proposed is a comprehensive, multivariate, multi-realm theoretical framework with which to integrate and advance the theory and research on adult education participation (AEP). The elements of the ISSTAL model, as elaborated by D. H. Smith, are identified, defined, and exemplified in terms of the current literature on AEP. This article describes elements of the framework which have already been investigated

Peter S. Cookson

1986-01-01

372

Speech motor learning in profoundly deaf adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Speech production, like other sensorimotor behaviors, relies on multiple sensory inputs—audition, proprioceptive inputs from muscle spindles and cutaneous inputs from mechanoreceptors in the skin and soft tissues of the vocal tract. However, the capacity for intelligible speech by deaf speakers suggests that somatosensory input alone may contribute to speech motor control and perhaps even to speech learning. We assessed speech

Sazzad M Nasir; David J Ostry

2008-01-01

373

Mapping the Learning of Older Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reports a study to map the progression of learning that resulted from participation in University of the Third Age (U3A)activities. Also looks at members' reasons for joining U3A and their participation in non-U3A activities. (JOW)|

Walker, Jo

1998-01-01

374

Microburst Teaching and Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces Microburst Teaching and Learning, a strategy for combining various teaching styles and methods in 'bursts' with different learning styles to enhance the learning process. The model accommodates adult learning theory, adult attention span, learner motivation, the variety of learning styles found in learners, and the need for efficiency.…

Vaughn, Lisa; del Rey, Javier Gonzalez; Baker, Raymond

2001-01-01

375

Assessing Adult Learning: A Guide for Practitioners. Revised Edition. Professional Practices in Adult Education and Human Resource Development Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book, which is intended for adult educators and human resource developers, presents guidelines for assessing adult learning. The following are among the topics covered in the book's eight chapters: (1) basic principles of informal assessment (relationship between learning and assessment activities; sequencing learning and assessment…

Moran, Joseph J.

376

Understanding and Managing Learning Disabilities in Adults. Professional Practices in Adult Education and Human Resource Development Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book reviews learning disabilities (LD) in adults and makes suggestions for helping adults cope with these disabilities. Each chapter covers a type of learning disability or related syndrome or explains characteristics of the brain. Chapter 1 explains several types of specific learning disabilities that make classroom performance difficult…

Jordan, Dale R.

377

Assessing Adult Learning: A Guide for Practitioners. Revised Edition. Professional Practices in Adult Education and Human Resource Development Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book, which is intended for adult educators and human resource developers, presents guidelines for assessing adult learning. The following are among the topics covered in the book's eight chapters: (1) basic principles of informal assessment (relationship between learning and assessment activities; sequencing learning and assessment…

Moran, Joseph J.

378

Understanding and Managing Learning Disabilities in Adults. Professional Practices in Adult Education and Human Resource Development Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book reviews learning disabilities (LD) in adults and makes suggestions for helping adults cope with these disabilities. Each chapter covers a type of learning disability or related syndrome or explains characteristics of the brain. Chapter 1 explains several types of specific learning disabilities that make classroom performance difficult…

Jordan, Dale R.

379

Computer-based Training in Medicine and Learning Theories.  

PubMed

Computer-based training (CBT) systems can efficiently support modern teaching and learning environments. In this paper, we demonstrate on the basis of the case-based CBT system CAMPUS that current learning theories and design principles (Bloom's Taxonomy and practice fields) are (i) relevant to CBT and (ii) are feasible to implement using computer-based training and adequate learning environments. Not all design principles can be fulfilled by the system alone, the integration of the system in adequate teaching and learning environments therefore is essential. Adequately integrated, CBT programs become valuable means to build or support practice fields for learners that build domain knowledge and problem-solving skills. Learning theories and their design principles can support in designing these systems as well as in assessing their value. PMID:16160267

Haag, Martin; Bauch, Matthias; Garde, Sebastian; Heid, Jörn; Weires, Thorsten; Leven, Franz-Josef

2005-01-01

380

Implicit Learning is Intact in Adult Developmental Dyslexic Readers: Evidence from the Serial Reaction Time Task and Artificial Grammar Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research yielded equivocal results concerning implicit learning abilities of developmental dyslexic readers. These studies employed a sequence learning task that requires a motor response to each stimulus. However, implicit learning has been often studied using non-motor tasks. Thus, we investigated implicit learning capabilities of adult developmental dyslexic readers in two standard implicit learning paradigms differing in the involvement of

Jascha Rüsseler; Ivonne Gerth; Thomas F. Münte

2006-01-01

381

Derivative reproducing properties for kernel methods in learning theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The regularity of functions from reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces (RKHSs) is studied in the setting of learning theory. We provide a reproducing property for partial derivatives up to order s when the Mercer kernel is C2s. For such a kernel on a general domain we show that the RKHS can be embedded into the function space Cs. These observations yield a representer theorem for regularized learning algorithms involving data for function values and gradients. Examples of Hermite learning and semi-supervised learning penalized by gradients on data are considered.

Zhou, Ding-Xuan

2008-10-01

382

Cartographical Imaginations: Spatiality, Adult Education and Lifelong Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Recent empirical and theoretical literature in cultural geography, feminist and postcolonial philosophy, cultural studies, and political economy, was explored in an examination of the significance of spatiality to the changes taking place in the policy, practice, and study of adult education and lifelong learning. The following were among the key…

Edwards, Richard; Cervero, Ron; Clarke, Julia; Morgan-Klein, Brenda; Usher, Robin; Wilson, Arthur

383

Designing Adult Learning Strategies: The Case of South Eastern Europe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The importance of lifelong learning is generally well understood and few people today would query the need for adults to regularly update their skills in line with labour market needs, and for governments and social partners to provide an environment that supports skills acquisition and updating. However, it is clear when we look at data from the…

Gunny, Madeleine; Viertel, Evelyn

2006-01-01

384

Learning Projects of Adults of Low Literacy Attainment in Jamaica.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to implications raised by earlier research in the field, a study investigated the learning projects (as defined by Allen Tough, 1971) of a group of nonliterate and semiliterate adults in a small community. Brown's Town, Jamaica, was chosen as the area of the study because Jamaica is a Third World nation that has recently initiated a…

Field, Jeffrey L.

385

Endnote: Leading, Learning, and Supporting Adult Development for All Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The subject of adult learning has seen increased recognition during the past decade. Over 20 years ago, California established the New Teacher Project (NTP), a forerunner of the current Beginning Teacher Support and Assessment System (BTSA) which was developed to support new teachers in their journey in becoming an expert educator. Recently,…

Erickson, Deborah E.

2010-01-01

386

Orientation for Adult Learners in Problem-Based Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To prepare adult students for a problem-based degree program, an orientation workshop was designed to help identify resources, address barriers to study, and acquire skills to benefit from problem-based learning. Transfer strategies included student involvement in planning and as presenters, mentoring, action plans, self-study materials, and…

Connell, Jane

2003-01-01

387

Adults' Learning about Science in Free-Choice Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper synthesizes findings from three studies to answer a general question: What do casual, adult visitors learn about science from their science-related experiences in free-choice settings? Specifically we asked whether there are changes in how people think about science in their daily lives, the nature and use of scientific knowledge, and…

Rennie, Leonie J.; Williams, Gina F.

2006-01-01

388

Gestural Communication Learning in Mentally Retarded Adults with Down's Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten mentally retarded adults with Down's Syndrome were assigned to American Indian Gestural Code (Amer-Ind) and American Sign Language (ASL) teaching groups to compare sign comprehension, imitation, and retrieval learning in relation to system characteristics (iconicity, motoric complexity of signs) and subject specific factors (language and motoric ability). Twenty lexical items, significantly different in iconicity and motor difficulty for the

Thomas P. Marquardt; Sylvia Sanchez; Maria L. Muñoz

1999-01-01

389

Discrimination learning in adult bobwhite quail fed paraquat  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Adult male bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) were fed a diet containing 0, 25 or 100 ppm paraquat dichloride. After 60 d on treated diets, discrimination learning was evaluated with acquisition and reversal tests. The three groups performed similarly on these tests. Dose-related histopathological lesions were not found in liver, kidney or lung tissues

Bunck, C.M.; Bunck, T.J.; Sileo, L.

1986-01-01

390

Older Adults in Lifelong Learning: Participation and Successful Aging  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article examines the relationship between the participation of older adult learners in educational activities and successful aging. In partnership with seniors' organizations, focus-group interviews were conducted on seniors' involvement in learning and their perceptions of its influence on successful aging. Successful aging is defined in…

Sloane-Seale, Atlanta; Kops, Bill

2008-01-01

391

Participation in Learning and Wellbeing among Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The objective of this research was to identify the effects of participation in learning on the subjective wellbeing of older adults. Data were from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), a large-scale, nationally representative survey of those aged 50 and above. The survey contains several wellbeing measures and information on three…

Jenkins, Andrew

2011-01-01

392

Nonformal and Informal Adult Learning in Museums: A Literature Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The taking up of an "educative" mantle has proven to be a complex task for museums, filled with many unknown and/or misunderstood factors. Of the vast assortment of educational opportunities museums afford their adult patrons and staff, the majority fall into one or two learning categories: either they are nonformal or informal. In effort to…

Dudzinska-Przesmitzki, Dana; Grenier, Robin S.

2008-01-01

393

Adult Literacy Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Timor-Leste  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In Timor-Leste, many adults learn to read and write in a multilingual context. The official languages are Tetum and Portuguese, 15 regional languages are being further developed and Bahasa Indonesia and English are accepted as working languages. Most literacy programmes take place in Tetum, the lingua franca, and often regional languages are used…

Boon, Danielle

2011-01-01

394

Human Service Planning as a Collective Adult Learning Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Based on a study by the Department of Community Service Education, Cornell University, to evaluate human service planning (HSP) nationwide, this paper discusses the premises that HSP may be defined as community learning and that the community (according to the Robert Boyd and Jerold Apps model for adult education) is both a beneficiary of and…

Wright, Joan

395

Community Based Learning with Adults: Bridging Efforts in Multiple Sectors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors explore the diverse ways in which community based learning strategies are used to enhance further development of adults, raising their levels of educational attainment and increasing their involvement in public and civic activities. There are two social and demographic dynamics at the heart of this topic: the aging…

Holland, Barbara; Robinson, Gail

2008-01-01

396

The Meaning and Role of Emotions in Adult Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article describes different ways of understanding emotions and their role in adult learning. The author suggests that people's understanding of emotions is shifting from one where they are viewed as an obstacle to reason and knowing to more holistic and integral ways of knowing one's self and the world. In this article, he provides a…

Dirkx, John M.

2008-01-01

397

Adult Learning Innovations: Vehicles for Social and Economic Progress.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The cost-effective use of communications technologies to extend adult learning opportunities is one way state policymakers can face the challenge of responding to growing demands for essential public services. The major new educational technologies that are available are television, radio, telephone, computers, communications satellites, and…

Hilton, William J.

398

AdultsLearning about Science in Free?choice Settings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper synthesizes findings from three studies to answer a general question: What do casual, adult visitors learn about science from their science?related experiences in free?choice settings? Specifically we asked whether there are changes in how people think about science in their daily lives, the nature and use of scientific knowledge, and its communication by scientists. The three studies involved

Léonie J. Rennie; Gina F. Williams

2006-01-01

399

Adults' Learning about Science in Free-choice Settings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper synthesizes findings from three studies to answer a general question: What do casual, adult visitors learn about science from their science-related experiences in free-choice settings? Specifically we asked whether there are changes in how people think about science in their daily lives, the nature and use of scientific knowledge, and its communication by scientists. The three studies involved

Léonie J. Rennie; Gina F. Williams

2006-01-01

400

Managing Programs for Adults Learning English. CAELA Network Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Programs for adults learning English vary widely in size and scope. Some are large, multilevel programs, such as the Arlington Education and Employment Program (REEP) in Virginia, which has more than 45 staff members, over 100 volunteers, and an array of student services for the 7,500 learners served annually at the program's 7 locations. Others…

Rodriguez, Amber Gallup; Burt, Miriam; Peyton, Joy Kreeft; Ueland, Michelle

2009-01-01

401

Equality and Diversity in Adult and Community Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is a practical guide to help managers of adult and community education programs in the United Kingdom address equality and diversity in the context of the Learning and Skills Council (LSC) remit and the Common Inspection Framework. The following are among the topics discussed in Sections 1-4: (1) learner-centered approaches…

Reisenberger, Anna; Dadzie, Stella

402

The Nature and Prevalence of Learning Deficiencies among Adult Inmates.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to determine the nature and prevalence of learning deficiencies among adult inmates in U.S. correctional institutions, a sample of subjects was drawn from three institutions in each of the states of Louisiana, Pennsylvania, and Washington. One male maximum security, one male medium security, and one women's prison were selected in each of…

Bell, Raymond; And Others

403

Nonformal and Informal Adult Learning in Museums: A Literature Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The taking up of an "educative" mantle has proven to be a complex task for museums, filled with many unknown and/or misunderstood factors. Of the vast assortment of educational opportunities museums afford their adult patrons and staff, the majority fall into one or two learning categories: either they are nonformal or informal. In effort to…

Dudzinska-Przesmitzki, Dana; Grenier, Robin S.

2008-01-01

404

Profile of Alberta's Adult Learning System: A Context for Discussion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This profile of Alberta's adult learning system draws together information from widely different sources for the period 1994-1995 to 1999-2000. The profile looks at Alberta's system relative to those in other jurisdictions in Canada and discusses emerging trends and issues. The profile provides a context for discussing policy and program…

Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

405

Introductory Material Structure and Prior Knowledge Effects On Adult Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an effort to identify the effects of presenting differentially structured in troductory learning materials, adults of three levels of prior knowledge of a specific mathematics concept, numeral sets in various bases, were given two differentially structured sets of instructional materials. One set was abstract throughout and the other progressed from concrete to abstract in structure.It was found that the

Arden D. Grotelueschen

1979-01-01

406

Designing Adult Learning Strategies: The Case of South Eastern Europe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The importance of lifelong learning is generally well understood and few people today would query the need for adults to regularly update their skills in line with labour market needs, and for governments and social partners to provide an environment that supports skills acquisition and updating. However, it is clear when we look at data from the…

Gunny, Madeleine; Viertel, Evelyn

2006-01-01

407

Considering Personality Type in Adult Learning: Using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator in Instructor Preparation at PricewaterhouseCoopers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article explores the feasibility of using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) as a framework for instructor development in a professional services training environment. It explores the consistency of MBTI with common adult learning theory, addresses questions on MBTI's reliability and validity, and explores the applicability of MBTI to…

Daisley, Richard J.

2011-01-01

408

Transforming Adult Learning Through Critical Design Inquiry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marching toward the 21st century, there are not only drastic changes in global economic and political development, but also\\u000a in technological advancement and ecological evolution. All of these are intertwined with one another to shape national and\\u000a societal development in various areas. In the milieu of education, these changes exert great influence on the way we perceive\\u000a learning and instruction,

MingFen Li

2008-01-01

409

Gender Differences in Adult Word Learning  

PubMed Central

In prior work, women were found to outperform men on short-term verbal memory tasks. The goal of the present work was to examine whether gender differences on short-term memory tasks are tied to the involvement of long-term memory in the learning process. In Experiment 1, men and women were compared on their ability to remember phonologically-familiar novel words and phonologically-unfamiliar novel words. Learning of phonologically-familiar novel words (but not of phonologically-unfamiliar novel words) can be supported by long-term phonological knowledge. Results revealed that women outperformed men on phonologically-familiar novel words, but not on phonologically-unfamiliar novel words. In Experiment 2, we replicated Experiment 1 using a within-subjects design, and confirmed gender differences on phonologically-familiar, but not phonologically-unfamiliar stimuli. These findings are interpreted to suggest that women are more likely than men to recruit native-language phonological knowledge during novel word-learning.

Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Marian, Viorica; Yoo, Jeewon

2011-01-01

410

Children's Literature for Adults: A Meaningful Paradox  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children's literature is immensely suitable for discovering themes in spirituality with adults. The theory proposed here for the use of children's literature for adults is grounded in common understandings of how adults learn. It proposes that children's literature enables significant adult learning because it facilitates learn- ing through experience, responds to the adult need to have relevant educational experiences which

Leona M. English

2000-01-01

411

A study of adults' perceptions of learning in two science museums  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to determine whether adults who visited either the Gulf Coast World of Science or the Orlando Science Center with a child perceived that they had learned as a result of their visit and what factors would predict adult learning within the museum setting. Data were collected during summer, 1997 from 196 visitors to either the Gulf Coast World of Science in Sarasota, Florida or the Orlando Science Center. Respondents to the paper-and-pen survey instrument provided information on their perceptions of learning while at the museum, reasons for visiting, ease of interacting with exhibits, whether they or the child initiated interaction, and demographic information about themselves and the child. Results revealed that a majority of visitors (89%) perceived they learned as a result of their visit. Visitors most often reported learning science information, and learning from interacting with exhibits and reading exhibit signs. Very few indicated they had talked with museum staff. While children most often approached exhibits, it was the adult who initiated interaction. An exploratory factor analysis on reasons for visiting a science center revealed two factors, an informal learning and a recreational factor. Of respondents who reported visiting the science center for educational reasons, an overwhelming number perceived that they had learned. Overall, demographics had no significant relationship to perceived learning in the museum setting. Gender, educational level, age, museum membership, whether they would visit without a child, and time of arrival had no relationship to perceived learning either individually or in any combination. In spite of differences in physical facilities at the two sites, few significant differences were revealed in the characteristics of the visitors or in their perceptions of learning. Because visitors most often learn from exhibits, signs, and discussions with others in their group, and seldom from museum staff, museums should evaluate their exhibits and signs to ensure that they present scientific information and encourage interaction. Further, since science information, rather than more in-depth application or theory, was cited as knowledge most often gained, museum learning should be presented to stimulate curiosity and encourage further inquiry, perhaps even beyond the museum setting.

Farrell, Elva Sears

412

The New Learning Theory: Brain Physiology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Argues that, as scientists learn more about the chemistry and physiology of the human brain, it is incumbent upon educators and educational psychologists to begin to build models of brain function that reflect growing scientific knowledge. (FL)|

Esler, William K.

1984-01-01

413

Science Teaching, Concept Formation, and Learning Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Briefly reviews research concerning concept learning related to science instruction and argues that a strong theoretical understanding of these processes will be needed whatever the variations in curriculum emphasis. (AL)

Kuhn, D. J.

1972-01-01

414

Theories of Willpower Affect Sustained Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Building cognitive abilities often requires sustained engagement with effortful tasks. We demonstrate that beliefs about willpower–whether willpower is viewed as a limited or non-limited resource–impact sustained learning on a strenuous mental task. As predicted, beliefs about willpower did not affect accuracy or improvement during the initial phases of learning; however, participants who were led to view willpower as non-limited showed

Eric M. Miller; Gregory M. Walton; Carol S. Dweck; Veronika Job; Kali H. Trzesniewski; Samuel M. McClure

2012-01-01

415

Computer Game-Based Learning: Perceptions and Experiences of Senior Chinese Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to investigate senior Chinese adults' potential acceptance of computer game-based learning (CGBL) by probing their perceptions of computer game play and their perceived impacts of game play on their learning of computer skills and life satisfaction. A total of 60 senior adults from a local senior adult learning

Wang, Feihong; Lockee, Barbara B.; Burton, John K.

2012-01-01

416

Connecting Research, Policy, and Practice. Review of Adult Learning and Literacy, Volume 7  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Review of Adult Learning and Literacy: Connecting Research, Policy, and Practice, Volume 7" is the newest volume in a series of annual publications of the National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy (NCSALL) that address major issues, the latest research, and the best practices in the field of adult literacy and learning. Each…

Comings, John, Ed.; Garner, Barbara, Ed.; Smith, Christine, Ed.

2007-01-01

417

The Social-Interaction Learning Styles of Irish Adult Learners: Some Empirical Findings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An action research project was conducted to understand the learning style profile of Irish adult learners better and to integrate the findings into development seminars for adult education teachers and tutors. The Grasha-Riechmann Student Learning Styles Scale (GRSLSS) was chosen as the research instrument to explore Irish adults' learning styles…

O Fathaigh, Mairtin

418

Connecting Research, Policy, and Practice. Review of Adult Learning and Literacy, Volume 7  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"Review of Adult Learning and Literacy: Connecting Research, Policy, and Practice, Volume 7" is the newest volume in a series of annual publications of the National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy (NCSALL) that address major issues, the latest research, and the best practices in the field of adult literacy and learning. Each…

Comings, John, Ed.; Garner, Barbara, Ed.; Smith, Christine, Ed.

2007-01-01

419

Learning by Doing--Piagets konstruktivistische Lerntheorie und ihre Konsequenzen fur die padagogische Praxis (Learning by Doing--Piaget's Constructivist Learning Theory and Its Consequences for Pedagogical Practice).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents Jean Piaget's theory of genetic recognition, one of the first constructivist learning theories. Examines critically the relationship of the theory to present-day teaching and learning research, pedagogical practice, and other forms of constructivism. Asserts that one practical application of Piaget's learning theory would be to teach by…

Vollmers, Burkhard

1997-01-01

420

Learning by Doing--Piagets konstruktivistische Lerntheorie und ihre Konsequenzen fur die padagogische Praxis (Learning by Doing--Piaget's Constructivist Learning Theory and Its Consequences for Pedagogical Practice).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents Jean Piaget's theory of genetic recognition, one of the first constructivist learning theories. Examines critically the relationship of the theory to present-day teaching and learning research, pedagogical practice, and other forms of constructivism. Asserts that one practical application of Piaget's learning theory would be to teach by…

Vollmers, Burkhard

1997-01-01

421

Effects of adult modeling and adult direction on impulsive behavior of learning-disabled adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared the Feuerstein adult direction and the Meichenbaum adult modeling approaches using two Feuerstein Instrumental Enrichment tasks with adolescent students classified as emotionally-handicapped\\/learning-disabled in a residential treatment center to determine the effect on impulsivity, higher-level thinking and task transfer.^ Twenty-nine students who demonstrated impulsive behavior as measured by Kagan's Matching Familiar Figures Test (MFFT) were randomly assigned to

Rose Niles

1989-01-01

422

GUEST EDITORIAL From workplace learning to inter-organizational learning and back: the contribution of activity theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to show how activity theory transcends the boundary between workplace learning and organizational learning. Design\\/methodology\\/approach - Activity-theoretical analyses examine collectives and organizations as learners. On the other hand, activity theory is committed to pedagogical and interventionist actions to change and learning characteristic of workplace learning. Findings - Activity-theoretical studies put an emphasis

Hannele Kerosuo

423

Training in the Laboratory Animal Science Community: Strategies to Support Adult Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essence of learning is change; learning is the process by which learners customize new information to make it per- sonally meaningful and relevant. Training is the process of helping students make those changes. Research indicates that adults learn differently than children or adolescents and that adults consistently use the following six learning strat- egies: prior experiences; conversations; metacognition; re-

Jackie Dobrovolny; James Stevens; Leticia V. Medina

2007-01-01

424

Is stalking a learned phenomenon? An empirical test of social learning theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeWe examine the extent to which components of social learning theory (i.e., definitions, differential reinforcement, and differential association\\/modeling) predict stalking victimization and perpetration using survey data from a large sample of college students.

Kathleen A. Fox; Matt R. Nobles; Ronald L. Akers

2011-01-01

425

Developing the master learner: applying learning theory to the learner, the teacher, and the learning environment.  

PubMed

As a result of the paradigm shift to a competency-based framework, both self-directed lifelong learning and learner-centeredness have become essential tenets of medical education. In the competency-based framework, learners drive their own educational process, and both learners and teachers share the responsibility for the path and content of learning. This learner-centered emphasis requires each physician to develop and maintain lifelong learning skills, which the authors propose culminate in becoming a "master leaner." To better understand the development of these skills and the attainment of that goal, the authors explore how learning theories inform the development of master learners and how to translate these theories into practical strategies for the learner, the teacher, and the learning environment so as to optimize this development.The authors begin by exploring self-determination theory, which lays the groundwork for understanding the motivation to learn. They next consider the theories of cognitive load and situated cognition, which inform the optimal context and environment for learning. Building from this foundation, the authors consider key educational theories that affect learners' abilities to serve as primary drivers of their learning, including self-directed learning (SDL); the self-assessment skills necessary for SDL; factors affecting self-assessment (self-concept, self-efficacy, illusory superiority, gap filling); and ways to mitigate the inaccuracies of self-assessment (reflection, self-monitoring, external information seeking, and self-directed assessment seeking).For each theory, they suggest practical action steps for the learner, the teacher, and the learning environment in an effort to provide a road map for developing master learners. PMID:24072107

Schumacher, Daniel J; Englander, Robert; Carraccio, Carol

2013-11-01

426

Learning-Dependent Structural Plasticity in the Adult Olfactory Pathway  

PubMed Central

Olfactory learning in humans leads to enhanced perceptual discrimination of odor cues. Examining mouse models of both aversive and appetitive conditioning, we demonstrate a mechanism which may underlie this adult learning phenomenon. Topographically-unique spatial wiring of the olfactory system allowed us to demonstrate that emotional learning of odor cues alters the primary sensory representation within the nose and brain of adult mice. Transgenic mice labeled at the M71 odorant receptor (specifically activated by the odorant acetophenone), were behaviorally trained with olfactory-dependent fear conditioning or conditioned place preference using acetophenone. Odor-trained mice had larger M71-specific glomeruli and an increase in M71-specific sensory neurons within the nose compared to mice that were untrained, trained to a non-M71 activating odorant, or had non-associative pairings of acetophenone. These data indicate that the primary sensory neuron population and its projections may remain plastic in adults, providing a structural mechanism for learning-enhanced olfactory sensitivity and discrimination.

Jones, Seth V.; Choi, Dennis C.; Davis, Michael

2008-01-01

427

A qualitative study of middle school students' perceptions of factors facilitating the learning of science: Grounded theory and existing theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to explore middle school students' perceptions of what factors facilitated their learning of science. Florida's Educational Reform Act of 1983 funded programs providing the state's precollege students with summer learning opportunities in science. mathematics, and computers. The programs were intended to encourage the development of creative approaches to the teaching of these disciplines. Under this program, between 50 and 60 high-achieving middle school students were in residence on the University of South Florida campus for 12 consecutive days of study in the World of Water (WOW) program. There were two sessions per summer involving a total of 572 participants. Eighi specially trained teachers were in residence with the students. Between 50 and 70 experts from the university, government. business, and industry interacted with the students each year in an innovative science/technology/society (STS) program. An assignment toward the close of the program asked students to reflect on their experiences in residence at the university and write an essay comparing learning in the WOW program to learning in their schools. Those essays were the base for this study. This was a qualitative study using a discursive approach to emergent design to generate grounded theory. Document review, participant observation, and open-ended interviews were used to gather and triangulate data in five phases. Some of the factors that middle school students perceived as helpful to learning science were (a) experiencing the situations about which they were learning; (b) having live presentations by professional experts; (c) doing hands-on activities: (d) being active learners; (e) using inductive reasoning to generate new knowledge; (f) exploring transdisciplinary approaches to problem solving; (g) having adult mentors; (h) interacting with peers and adults; (i) establishing networks; (j) having close personal friends who shared their interest in learning; (k) trusting the individuals in their learning environment, including adults and students; and (1) experiencing a sense of self-reliance. The preceding information was used to generate a series of hypotheses which were woven into a theoretical model. This model suggests that middle school science teacher education would be enhanced by helping prospective and in-service teachers develop and implement strategies that build trust, provide immersion in learning, and use inductive reasoning. This model is currently being used as the theoretical base to convert a traditional junior high school in the South to a middle school.

Spector, Barbara S.; Gibson, Charles W.

428

The contribution of transformative learning theory to the practice of participatory research and extension: Theoretical reflections  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores ways in which experiential learning theories, in particular transformative learning theory, can inform farmer participatory research and extension (PR&E). I identify and discuss three key elements of experiential learning theory – second-order experiences, reflection, and dialogue – that are particularly pertinent to PR&E practice. I then turn to one experiential learning theorist – Mezirow, and examine his

Rachel Percy

2005-01-01

429

Annual Review of Adult Learning and Literacy. Volume 3. The Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This review contains current information on research, policy, and practice in adult literacy and learning for individuals and organizations focused on adult basic education (ABE), adult English for speakers of other languages (ESOL), and adult secondary education (ASE) programs. "The Year 2000 In Review" (Lennox L. McLendon) describes the effects…

Comings, John, Ed.; Garner, Barbara, Ed.; Smith, Cristine, Ed.

430

Adult Students' Perception of the Congruence of Hybrid Courses with Their Adult Learning Needs and Their Satisfaction from Hybrid Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The overall purpose of the study was to examine adult students' perception of the congruence of hybrid courses with adult learning needs and to examine adult students' level of satisfaction with hybrid courses. The study collected data through pre and post surveys, administered at the beginning and near the end of the hybrid courses, of adult

Iqbal, Rubina

2011-01-01

431

What Propels Sexual Homicide Offenders? Testing an Integrated Theory of Social Learning and Routine Activities Theories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual homicide is a rare occurrence. Little is known about the offending perspective of sexual homicide from a criminological standpoint. Recently, Chan, Heide, and Beauregard (2011) proposed an integrative theoretical framework using concepts and propositions of Social Learning Theory (differential association, definitions, differential reinforcement or punishment, and imitation) and Routine Activities Theory (a motivated offender, an attractive and suitable target,

Heng Choon Chan

2012-01-01

432

Melding Sound Learning Theory and Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Online learning has become a well-respected alternative to traditional bricks and mortar. Almost every institution of higher education in the United States, and many secondary educational institutions, feature opportunities for students to take courses, if not earn an entire degree, online. Community colleges have been at the forefront of this…

O'Banion, Terry

2005-01-01

433

Social learning theory and academic dishonesty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a longitudinal self?report survey of undergraduate students, social learning concepts were evaluated for the possible effects on various forms of academic dishonesty. The acceptance of definitions favorable to academic dishonesty was found to be a significant predictor of student involvement in deviant activity, as was the degree of involvement of the peer group in questionable acts. Mixed results were

Kim Michelle Lersch

1999-01-01

434

Melding Sound Learning Theory and Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Online learning has become a well-respected alternative to traditional bricks and mortar. Almost every institution of higher education in the United States, and many secondary educational institutions, feature opportunities for students to take courses, if not earn an entire degree, online. Community colleges have been at the forefront of this…

O'Banion, Terry

2005-01-01

435

Integration of Learning: A Grounded Theory Analysis of College Students’ Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a grounded theory of “integration of learning” among traditional aged college students, which is characterized by the demonstrated ability to link various skills and knowledge learned in a variety of contexts. The author analyzed 194 interviews with students at liberal arts colleges to investigate empirically the ways undergraduates bring knowledge and experiences together so that educators might

James P. Barber

2012-01-01

436

Learning the MI Way: The Effects on Students’ Learning of Using the Theory of Multiple Intelligences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the 1988 Education Reform Act, issues of curriculum differentiation, varied learning styles and teaching approaches relevant to the needs of individual pupils have maintained high priority on the education agenda. This article discusses the effects on pupils’ learning of using Howard Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences. It is based on explorations carried out in a project ‘using multiple intelligences

Brenda Hopper; Pamela Hurry

2000-01-01

437

TWO-PROCESS LEARNING THEORY: RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN PAVLOVIAN CONDITIONING AND INSTRUMENTAL LEARNING  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE HISTORY OF 2-PROCESS LEARNING THEORY IS DESCRIBED, AND THE LOGICAL AND EMPIRICAL VALIDITY OF ITS MAJOR POSTULATES IS EXAMINED. THE ASSUMPTION OF 2 ACQUISITION PROCESSES REQUIRES THE DEMONSTRATION OF AN EMPIRICAL INTERACTION BETWEEN 2 TYPES OF REINFORCEMENT CONTINGENCIES AND (1) RESPONSE CLASSES, (2) REINFORCING STIMULUS CLASSES, OR (3) CHARACTERISTICS OF THE LEARNED BEHAVIOR ITSELF. THE MEDIATION POSTULATES OF 2-PROCESS

ROBERT A. RESCORLA; RICHARD L. SOLOMON

1967-01-01

438

Employees' and Managers' Accounts of Interactive Workplace Learning: A Grounded Theory of "Complex Integrative Learning"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate employees' and managers' accounts of interactive learning and what might encourage or inhibit emergent learning. Design/methodology/approach: The approach taken was a constructivist/social constructivist ontology, interpretive epistemology and qualitative methodology, using grounded theory

Armson, Genevieve; Whiteley, Alma

2010-01-01

439

Studying Adult Learning through the History of Knowledge.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the methodology by which people arrive at "knowledge" and how knowledge has been seen by philosophers and critical thinkers through history. Includes the theories of Jurgen Habermas, Jack Mezirow, Thomas Kuhn, and Paulo Freire. Cites implications for adult education. (JOW)

Ekpenyong, Lawrence E.

1990-01-01

440

Self-Regulated Learning, Motivation and Goal Theory: Implications for Instructional Design and E-Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Instructional designers can use evidence-based theories of motivation and self-regulated learning to construct e-learning environments that promote goal-setting and achievement. We have used gStudy, educational software designed according to principles of self-regulated learning, to construct a Goal-Setting Kit. The Goal-Setting Kit incorporates tests, scaffolds, concept maps, and exercises that allow students to express, organize, and monitor their strategies for achieving

Jillianne R. Code; Ken MacAllister; Carmen L. Z. Gress; John C. Nesbit

2006-01-01

441

Prolonged Perceptual Learning of Positional Acuity in Adult Amblyopia  

PubMed Central

Amblyopia is a developmental abnormality that results in physiological alterations in the visual cortex and impairs form vision. It is often successfully treated by patching the sound eye in infants and young children, but is generally considered to be untreatable in adults. However, a number of recent studies suggest that repetitive practice of a visual task using the amblyopic eye results in improved performance in both children and adults with amblyopia. These perceptual learning studies have used relatively brief periods of practice; however, clinical studies have shown that the time-constant for successful patching is long. The time-constant for perceptual learning in amblyopia is still unknown. Here we show that the time-constant for perceptual learning depends on the degree of amblyopia. Severe amblyopia requires more than 50 hours (?35,000 trials) to reach plateau, yielding as much as a five-fold improvement in performance at a rate of ?1.5% per hour. There is significant transfer of learning from the amblyopic to the dominant eye, suggesting that the learning reflects alterations in higher decision stages of processing. Using a reverse correlation technique, we document, for the first time, a dynamic retuning of the amblyopic perceptual decision template and a substantial reduction in internal spatial distortion. These results show that the mature amblyopic brain is surprisingly malleable, and point to more intensive treatment methods for amblyopia.

Li, Roger W; Klein, Stanley A; Levi, Dennis M

2009-01-01

442

A Paradoxical Analysis of Social Learning Theory as Applied to The Potential Reform of Terrorist Offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the causes of terrorism from the standpoint of social learning theory. One key contention is that terrorism is a learned behavior that is specifically taught through the various mechanisms that are common to any and all learned behaviors. Further, it is a tenet of social learning theory that just as behaviors are learned behaviors can also be

Coleen Ryan; Jeffrey Vanderlick; Whitney Matthews

443

Motor-learning theory and the neurodevelopmental treatment approach:.  

PubMed

The neurodevelopmental treatment approach is frequently used by occupational therapists to supplement occupational therapy treatment techniques. As little empirical evidence exists to support the efficacy of this treatment approach, several authors have advocated incorporating motor-learning theory into occupational therapy intervention for people with motor-control disorders. This paper will review the basic principles of motor-learning theory and the neurodevelopmental treatment approach as related to the occupational therapy process. The review will include a description of the theoretical concepts, treatment applications, and research related to each approach. The two approaches will be compared and contrasted and methods for incorporating both approaches into occupational therapy will be described. PMID:23941080

Breslin, D M

1996-01-01

444

Open to Interpretation: Multiple Intelligences Theory in Adult Literacy Education. NCSALL Research Brief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Adult Multiple Intelligences Study was the first systematic effort related to multiple intelligences (MI) theory in adult literacy education. The study's findings regarding MI theory served as the foundation for a study of MI theory's implications for adult literacy practice, policy, and research. The study was conducted across 10 different…

Kallenbach, Silja; Viens, Julie

445

Exploring the role of explicit knowledge in adult second language learning: language proficiency, pedagogical grammar and language learning strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is often assumed that adults learn more successfully by drawing on explicit knowledge. In the field of second language (L2) learning, this assumption has been applied to both knowledge about language learning and knowledge about language, as exemplified respectively by research into the use of language learning strategies and the relationship between metalinguistic knowledge and L2 proficiency in formal

Karen Roehr

2004-01-01

446

Expansive Learning: Benefits and Limitations of Subject-Scientific Learning Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One critical learning theory that has survived is once again being acclaimed. Subject-scientific theory requires learners to be taken seriously. Their reasons and resistance need to be brought into the open. This requirement was too radical for schools since it does not allow a fixed syllabus. It has borne fruit, however, in continuing education.…

Grotluschen, Anke

2005-01-01

447

The Theory of Learning in Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

In economics, most noncooperative game theory has focused on equilibrium in games, especially Nash equilibrium and its refinements. The traditional explanation for when and why equilibrium arises is that it results from analysis and introspection by the players in a situation where the rules of the game, the rationality of the players, and the players' payoff functions are all common

Drew Fudenberg; David K. Levine

1999-01-01

448

Lexical learning and dysgraphia in a group of adults with developmental dyslexia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the ability to learn new words in a group of 22 adults with developmental dyslexia\\/dysgraphia and the relationship between their learning and spelling problems. We identified a deficit that affected the ability to learn both spoken and written new words (lexical learning deficit). There were no comparable problems in learning other kinds of representations (lexical\\/semantic and visual) and

Anna Maria Di Betta; Cristina Romani

2006-01-01

449

Phonological similarity influences word learning in adults learning Spanish as a foreign language  

PubMed Central

Neighborhood density—the number of words that sound similar to a given word (Luce & Pisoni, 1998)—influences word-learning in native English speaking children and adults (Storkel, 2004; Storkel, Armbruster, & Hogan, 2006): novel words with many similar sounding English words (i.e., dense neighborhood) are learned more quickly than novel words with few similar sounding English words (i.e., sparse neighborhood). The present study examined how neighborhood density influences word-learning in native English speaking adults learning Spanish as a foreign language. Students in their third-semester of Spanish language classes learned advanced Spanish words that sounded similar to many known Spanish words (i.e., dense neighborhood) or sounded similar to few known Spanish words (i.e., sparse neighborhood). In three word-learning tasks, performance was better for Spanish words with dense rather than sparse neighborhoods. These results suggest that a similar mechanism may be used to learn new words in a native and a foreign language.

Stamer, Melissa K.; Vitevitch, Michael S.

2013-01-01

450

Reconstructing constructivism: causal models, Bayesian learning mechanisms, and the theory theory.  

PubMed

We propose a new version of the "theory theory" grounded in the computational framework of probabilistic causal models and Bayesian learning. Probabilistic models allow a constructivist but rigorous and detailed approach to cognitive development. They also explain the learning of both more specific causal hypotheses and more abstract framework theories. We outline the new theoretical ideas, explain the computational framework in an intuitive and nontechnical way, and review an extensive but relatively recent body of empirical results that supports these ideas. These include new studies of the mechanisms of learning. Children infer causal structure from statistical information, through their own actions on the world and through observations of the actions of others. Studies demonstrate these learning mechanisms in children from 16 months to 4 years old and include research on causal statistical learning, informal experimentation through play, and imitation and informal pedagogy. They also include studies of the variability and progressive character of intuitive theory change, particularly theory of mind. These studies investigate both the physical and the psychological and social domains. We conclude with suggestions for further collaborative projects between developmental and computational cognitive scientists. PMID:22582739

Gopnik, Alison; Wellman, Henry M

2012-05-14

451

Reconstructing constructivism: Causal models, Bayesian learning mechanisms and the theory theory  

PubMed Central

We propose a new version of the “theory theory” grounded in the computational framework of probabilistic causal models and Bayesian learning. Probabilistic models allow a constructivist but rigorous and detailed approach to cognitive development. They also explain the learning of both more specific causal hypotheses and more abstract framework theories. We outline the new theoretical ideas, explain the computational framework in an intuitive and non-technical way, and review an extensive but relatively recent body of empirical results that supports these ideas. These include new studies of the mechanisms of learning. Children infer causal structure from statistical information, through their own actions on the world and through observations of the actions of others. Studies demonstrate these learning mechanisms in children from 16 months to 4 years old and include research on causal statistical learning, informal experimentation through play, and imitation and informal pedagogy. They also include studies of the variability and progressive character of intuitive theory change, particularly theory of mind. These studies investigate both the physical and psychological and social domains. We conclude with suggestions for further collaborative projects between developmental and computational cognitive scientists.

Gopnik, Alison; Wellman, Henry M.

2012-01-01

452

A theory-based approach to designing student learning context  

Microsoft Academic Search

How can we keep technology-focused computing and software engineering students interested and engaged in a soft subject like HCI? How can we avoid leaving the less gifted and less enthused students behind in a 12-week module packed with theories, methodologies and with a new development tool to learn? This paper describes how educational research findings were deployed to address the

Jarinee Chattratichart

2007-01-01

453

Evaluating Action Learning: A Critical Realist Complex Network Theory Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This largely theoretical paper will argue the case for the usefulness of applying network and complex adaptive systems theory to an understanding of action learning and the challenge it is evaluating. This approach, it will be argued, is particularly helpful in the context of improving capability in dealing with wicked problems spread around…

Burgoyne, John G.

2010-01-01

454

Understanding Volunteer Peer Health Educators' Motivations: Applying Social Learning Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted focus group interviews with students who were current peer health educators at a mid-sized university to determine what factors motivate individuals to volunteer for a peer health education program. Specifically, we asked the participants questions designed to explore their life experiences, their expectations of the peer education program, and their motivations. Constructs from social learning theory were used

Nicole Aydt Klein; K. Ann Sondag; Judy C. Drolet

1994-01-01

455

Roundtable: Theory, Policy and Practice in Lifelong Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains outlines of 14 presentations at a roundtable discussion on theory, policy, and practice in lifelong learning that was held during a conference on human resource development (HRD) research and practice across Europe. Outlines of the following presentations and discussions are included: "Discourses on HRD and Lifelong…

Manning, Sabine, Ed.

456

Writing for publication: faculty development initiative using social learning theory.  

PubMed

Demonstrating scholarly competency is an expectation for nurse faculty. However, there is hesitancy among some faculty to fully engage in scholarly activities. To strengthen a school of nursing's culture of scholarship, a faculty development writing initiative based on Social Learning Theory was implemented. The authors discuss this initiative to facilitate writing for publication productivity among faculty and the successful outcomes. PMID:22914279

Sanderson, Bonnie K; Carter, Matt; Schuessler, Jenny B

457

Social-learning theory, social desirability, and the MMPI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent factor analytic interpretations of the MMPI have emphasized response sets as sources of variance, and the tendency to answer items in socially desirable or undesirable ways has been interpreted as the primary factor. It is contended that the primary factor is better interpreted as degree of psychopathology and both social-learning theory and empirical data are presented to support this

Alfred B. Heilbrun

1964-01-01

458

PREDICTION OF ABSENTEEISM IN COLLEGE STUDENTS USING SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rotter's social learning theory served as a basis for developing some brief new scales and employing some existing ones for the purpose of predicting absenteeism in college social science classrooms. Near the beginning the term one hundred thirty?two community college student filled out a questionnaire containing these scales. At the end of the term they were asked to estimate the

Lynn McCutcheon

1989-01-01

459

SSL: A Theory of How People Learn to Select Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The assumption that people possess a repertoire of strategies to solve the inference problems they face has been raised repeatedly. However, a computational model specifying how people select strategies from their repertoire is still lacking. The proposed strategy selection learning (SSL) theory predicts a strategy selection process on the basis…

Rieskamp, Jorg; Otto, Philipp E.

2006-01-01

460

Social Learning Theory and the Health Belief Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article shows how the Health Belief Model, social learning theory, and locus of control may be related and posits an explanatory model that incorporates self-efficacy into the Health Belief Model. Self-efficacy is proposed as an independent variable with the traditional variables of perceived susceptibility, severity, benefits, and barriers.…

Rosenstock, Irwin M.; And Others

1988-01-01

461

Transformative Radicalization: Applying Learning Theory to Islamist Radicalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

While a consensus has emerged concerning the role radicalization plays in persuading Westerners to participate in terrorism, little research investigates the cognitive processes inherent to radicalization processes. Transformative learning theory, developed from the sciences in education and rehabilitation, offers an interdisciplinary lens with which to study the processes of personal change associated with radicalization. Transformative radicalization explains how triggering factors

Alex S. Wilner; Claire-Jehanne Dubouloz

2011-01-01

462

Roundtable: Theory, Policy and Practice in Lifelong Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document contains outlines of 14 presentations at a roundtable discussion on theory, policy, and practice in lifelong learning that was held during a conference on human resource development (HRD) research and practice across Europe. Outlines of the following presentations and discussions are included: "Discourses on HRD and Lifelong…

Manning, Sabine, Ed.

463

Conversations, Individuals and Knowables: Toward a Theory of Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a learning theory in the language of cybernetics based on the tenet that the minimal experimental situation for making psychological observations is a conversation. The account is directed at generating interest in the original work by G. Pask, et al. (GS)

Daniel, John S.

1975-01-01

464

Implications of Complexity and Chaos Theories for Organizations that Learn  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In 1996 Hubert Saint-Onge and Smith published an article ("The evolutionary organization: avoiding a Titanic fate", in The Learning Organization, Vol. 3 No. 4), based on their experience at the Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce (CIBC). It was established at CIBC that change could be successfully facilitated through blended application of theory

Smith, Peter A. C.

2003-01-01

465

Classical Interpretations of Social-Learning Theory: Protagoras and Socrates.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the theoretical assumptions of one type of behaviorism, currently known as social-learning theory, developed by the Sophist Protagoras. Also included is a brief investigation of Socrates' criticism of this view of psychology and his argument that it is an unsatisfactory basis for moral and citizenship education. (IAH)

Sichel, Betty A.

1989-01-01

466

White matter structure changes as adults learn a second language.  

PubMed

Traditional models hold that the plastic reorganization of brain structures occurs mainly during childhood and adolescence, leaving adults with limited means to learn new knowledge and skills. Research within the last decade has begun to overturn this belief, documenting changes in the brain's gray and white matter as healthy adults learn simple motor and cognitive skills [Lövdén, M., Bodammer, N. C., Kühn, S., Kaufmann, J., Schütze, H., Tempelmann, C., et al. Experience-dependent plasticity of white-matter microstructure extends into old age. Neuropsychologia, 48, 3878-3883, 2010; Taubert, M., Draganski, B., Anwander, A., Müller, K., Horstmann, A., Villringer, A., et al. Dynamic properties of human brain structure: Learning-related changes in cortical areas and associated fiber connections. The Journal of Neuroscience, 30, 11670-11677, 2010; Scholz, J., Klein, M. C., Behrens, T. E. J., & Johansen-Berg, H. Training induces changes in white-matter architecture. Nature Neuroscience, 12, 1370-1371, 2009; Draganski, B., Gaser, C., Busch, V., Schuirer, G., Bogdahn, U., & May, A. Changes in grey matter induced by training. Nature, 427, 311-312, 2004]. Although the significance of these changes is not fully understood, they reveal a brain that remains plastic well beyond early developmental periods. Here we investigate the role of adult structural plasticity in the complex, long-term learning process of foreign language acquisition. We collected monthly diffusion tensor imaging scans of 11 English speakers who took a 9-month intensive course in written and spoken Modern Standard Chinese as well as from 16 control participants who did not study a language. We show that white matter reorganizes progressively across multiple sites as adults study a new language. Language learners exhibited progressive changes in white matter tracts associated with traditional left hemisphere language areas and their right hemisphere analogs. Surprisingly, the most significant changes occurred in frontal lobe tracts crossing the genu of the corpus callosum-a region not generally included in current neural models of language processing. These results indicate that plasticity of white matter plays an important role in adult language learning and additionally demonstrate the potential of longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging as a new tool to yield insights into cognitive processes. PMID:22571459

Schlegel, Alexander A; Rudelson, Justin J; Tse, Peter U

2012-05-09

467

Adult Learners' Perceptions of a Professional Development Program Comparing Live Distance Learning versus Live Local Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reduced corporate training budgets require cost efficiencies in professional development. Distance learning, with its lower intrinsic costs, will likely become more prevalent. Therefore, the educational experience will change for many professionals. The objective of this study was to examine the perceptions of adult learners attending a drug…

Buxton, Eric; De Muth, James

2012-01-01

468

Mindfulness, adult learning and therapeutic education: integrating the cognitive and affective domains of learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although it has been given qualified approval by a number of philosophers of education, the so?called ‘therapeutic turn’ in education has been the subject of criticism by several commentators on post?compulsory and adult learning over the last few years. A key feature of this alleged development in recent educational policy is said to be the replacement of the traditional goals

Terry Hyland

2010-01-01

469

An Overview of Selected Theories about Student Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Engineering educators are often not familiar with the theories and research findings of educational psychology, adult development, curriculum design, and instruction design. Even the published research in engineering/computing education does not sufficiently leverage this body of knowledge. Often in the educational reports and recommendations by…

Goel, Sanjay

2011-01-01

470

Gaming Mindsets: Implicit Theories in Serious Game Learning  

PubMed Central

Abstract Individuals' beliefs about the malleability of their abilities may predict their response and outcome in learning from serious games. Individuals with growth mindsets believe their abilities can develop with practice and effort, whereas individuals with fixed mindsets believe their abilities are static and cannot improve. This study uses survey and gameplay server data to examine the implicit theory of intelligence in the context of serious game learning. The findings show that growth mindset players performed better than fixed mindset players, their mistakes did not affect their attention to the game, and they read more learning feedback than fixed mindset players. In addition, growth mindset players were more likely to actively seek difficult challenges, which is often essential to self-directed learning. General mindset measurements and domain-specific measurements were also compared. These findings suggest that players' psychological attributes should be considered when designing and applying serious games.

Heeter, Carrie; Magerko, Brian; Medler, Ben

2012-01-01

471

Lexical Configuration and Lexical Engagement: When Adults Learn New Words  

PubMed Central

People know thousands of words in their native language, and each of these words must be learned at some time in the person's lifetime. A large number of these words will be learned when the person is an adult, reflecting the fact that the mental lexicon is continuously changing. We explore how new words get added to the mental lexicon, and provide empirical support for a theoretical distinction between what we call lexical configuration and lexical engagement. Lexical configuration is the set of factual knowledge associated with a word (e.g., the word's sound, spelling, meaning, or syntactic role). Almost all previous research on word learning has focused on this aspect. However it is also critical to understand the process by which a word becomes capable of lexical engagement – the ways in which a lexical entry dynamically interacts with other lexical entries, and with sublexical representations. For example, lexical entries compete with each other during word recognition (inhibition within the lexical level), and they also support the activation of their constituents (top-down lexical-phonemic facilitation, and lexically-based perceptual learning). We systematically vary the learning conditions for new words, and use separate measures of lexical configuration and engagement. Several surprising dissociations in behavior demonstrate the importance of the theoretical distinction between configuration and engagement.

Leach, Laura; Samuel, Arthur G.

2007-01-01

472

Statistical learning of tone sequences by human infants and adults.  

PubMed

Previous research suggests that language learners can detect and use the statistical properties of syllable sequences to discover words in continuous speech (e.g. Aslin, R.N., Saffran, J.R., Newport, E.L., 1998. Computation of conditional probability statistics by 8-month-old infants. Psychological Science 9, 321-324; Saffran, J.R., Aslin, R.N., Newport, E.L., 1996. Statistical learning by 8-month-old infants. Science 274, 1926-1928; Saffran, J., R., Newport, E.L., Aslin, R.N., (1996). Word segmentation: the role of distributional cues. Journal of Memory and Language 35, 606-621; Saffran, J.R., Newport, E.L., Aslin, R.N., Tunick, R.A., Barrueco, S., 1997. Incidental language learning: Listening (and learning) out of the corner of your ear. Psychological Science 8, 101-195). In the present research, we asked whether this statistical learning ability is uniquely tied to linguistic materials. Subjects were exposed to continuous non-linguistic auditory sequences whose elements were organized into 'tone words'. As in our previous studies, statistical information was the only word boundary cue available to learners. Both adults and 8-month-old infants succeeded at segmenting the tone stream, with performance indistinguishable from that obtained with syllable streams. These results suggest that a learning mechanism previously shown to be involved in word segmentation can also be used to segment sequences of non-linguistic stimuli. PMID:10193055

Saffran, J R; Johnson, E K; Aslin, R N; Newport, E L

1999-02-01

473

Sociocultural Theories of Learning and Motivation: Looking Back, Looking Forward. Research on Sociocultural Influences on Motivation and Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|It is now nearly thirty years since sociocultural theories of learning created great excitement and debate amongst those concerned with learning in diverse contexts. Since that time significant advances have been made in sociocultural theory and research. Various sociocultural approaches to the understanding of learning (for example,…

McInerney, Dennis M., Ed.; Walker, Richard A., Ed.; Liem, Gregory Arief D., Ed.

2011-01-01

474

Using Multimedia Tutorials to Enhance Student Learning of File Management for Adult Beginner Computer Users  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this project was to develop and assess the effectiveness of multimedia modules assisting the learning of file management (FM) skills for adults at least 50 years of age. Older adults are capable of learning modern technologies but experience anxiety and physiological problems that may interfere with their learning of new skills. The incorporation of multimedia in lessons

Tiffany Akiyama

2009-01-01

475

Learning in Adulthood. A Comprehensive Guide. Second Edition. Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Intended for adult educators, this book is a comprehensive overview and synthesis of what is known about adult learning. Part 1 describes the context of learning. Chapters 1-4 describe the following: the sociocultural context; the range of settings and ways they influence learners and the learning process; literature on who participates in formal…

Merriam, Sharan B.; Caffarella, Rosemary S.

476

Evaluating the Impacts of Professional Development: A Mixed Method Study of Adult Education Learning Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Adult education programs providing classes to students preparing for high school equivalency and learning English that demonstrate characteristics of learning organizations may be better able to thrive when confronted with less-than-ideal circumstances. Many of these programs organize adult educators into learning communities as the context for…

Dilworth, Jessica S.

2010-01-01

477

Adult Learning in the Digital Age: Perspectives on Online Technologies and Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As instructors move further into the incorporation of 21st century technologies in adult education, a new paradigm of digitally-enriched mediated learning has emerged. This book provides a comprehensive framework of trends and issues related to adult learning for the facilitation of authentic learning in the age of digital technology. This…

Kidd, Terry T., Ed.; Keengwe, Jared, Ed.

2010-01-01

478

Bigger Knows Better: Young Children Selectively Learn Rule Games from Adults Rather than from Peers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Preschoolers' selective learning from adult versus peer models was investigated. Extending previous research, children from age 3 were shown to selectively learn simple rule games from adult rather than peer models. Furthermore, this selective learning was not confined to preferentially performing certain acts oneself, but more specifically had a…

Rakoczy, Hannes; Hamann, Katharina; Warneken, Felix; Tomasello, Michael

2010-01-01

479

Adult Learning and Change: An Autobiographical Portrait of a Chinese Woman in Canada  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The themes of adult learning, cross-cultural learning, and transformative learning are common to many continuing educators working at universities across Canada. In this essay, I narrate my experiences as a mature, adult learner returning to university. Following a literature review and discussion of methodology, I begin this autobiographical…

Liu, Chun Ge

2007-01-01

480

Learning Rule-Described and Non-Rule-Described Categories: A Comparison of Children and Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three experiments investigated the ability of 3-, 5-, and 8-year-old children as well as adults to learn sets of perceptual categories. Adults and children performed comparably on categories that could be learned by either a single-dimensional rule or by associative learning mechanisms. However, children showed poorer performance relative to…

Minda, John Paul; Desroches, Amy S.; Church, Barbara A.

2008-01-01

481

A Study of the Learning of Mature Adult Students on a Professional Course  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim was to explore the way in which mature professional adults learn. A number of different strands within current thinking about adult learning were incorporated into a semi?structured interview. This was given to 17 nurse tutors taking a professional qualification. Results indicated a general rejection of the surface in favour of the deep as their dominant approach to learning.

Peter Sutherland

1999-01-01

482

Taking Learning to Task: Creative Strategies for Teaching Adults. The Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book examines an approach to teaching adults, in which teaching and learning are integrated and where the learning task is the overall design, incorporating the lecture or input along with practice. In 12 chapters, the book challenges the reader to describe the difference between teaching tasks and learning tasks and to examine both the…

Vella, Jane

483

Women as Learners: The Significance of Gender in Adult Learning. The Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book is intended to address the need for information and understanding about adult women's learning and education. It gathers knowledge about women and their learning and places women's learning experiences in the contexts of where women live. The book also promotes an understanding of women's diversity and makes recommendations for future…

Hayes, Elisabeth; Flannery, Daniele D.

484

ADULT LEARNERS IN A COMMUNITY COLLEGE ENVIRONMENT: EXAMINING CHANGES AND TRENDS IN LEARNING PATTERNS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ACT Adult Learner Needs Assessment instrument was utilized to study adult learners interested or enrolled in community colleges. The adults were examined to determine learning style preferences and characteristics and to study learning trends or changes occurring over a four year period. Several statistical differences were observed which have implications for program planning.

Steven W. Graham

1988-01-01

485

Using social learning theory to explain individual differences in human sexuality  

Microsoft Academic Search

To explain individual differences in human sexual expression, investigators most often stress either physiological or experiential determinants. Psychologists commonly espouse some variant of learning theory (classical conditioning, operant conditioning, or social learning theory) as an explanatory framework and a source of hypotheses and methodology. The historical use of social learning theory is described in this article, and we review its

Matthew Hogben; Donn Byrne

1998-01-01

486

Occupational Therapy Students in the Process of Interprofessional Collaborative Learning: A Grounded Theory Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this grounded theory study was to generate a theory of the interprofessional collaborative learning process of occupational therapy (OT) students who were engaged in a collaborative learning experience with students from other allied health disciplines. Data consisted of semi-structured interviews with nine OT students from four different interprofessional collaborative learning experiences at three universities. The emergent theory

Dana M. Howell

2009-01-01

487

Lifelong Learning, Lifelong Education and Adult Education in Higher Institutions of Learning in Eastern Africa: The Case of Makerere University Institute of Adult and Continuing Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper advocates for policy recognition of lifelong learning by institutions of higher learning and governments in Eastern Africa. Lifelong learning and lifelong education are two concepts that aim at widening access to and the participation of adult learners in the acquisition of new knowledge, skills, values and attitudes. There are many…

Openjuru, George L.

2011-01-01

488

'E-stablishing a Learning Society': the Use of the Internet to Attract Adults to Lifelong Learning in Wales  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Internet has recently been heralded by both politicians and educators as a ready means of promoting 'lifelong learning' and widening the numbers of adults participating in education. Yet, despite such enthusiasm, the use of technology to attract adults to lifelong learning is only now beginning to be implemented on a widespread basis. Thus much of the technology-based vision of

Neil Selwyn; Sara Williams; Stephen Gorard

2001-01-01

489

Building Vibrant Learning Communities: Framework and Actions to Strengthen Community Adult Learning Councils and Community Literacy Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because of the important role played by community learning providers, Premier Ed Stelmach asked Canadian Minister of Advanced Education and Technology to increase support for community education and literacy programs. Community Adult Learning Councils and other community providers of adult literacy and family literacy programming are primarily…

Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2007

2007-01-01

490

Another look at statistical learning theory and regularization.  

PubMed

The paper reviews and highlights distinctions between function-approximation (FA) and VC theory and methodology, mainly within the setting of regression problems and a squared-error loss function, and illustrates empirically the differences between the two when data is sparse and/or input distribution is non-uniform. In FA theory, the goal is to estimate an unknown true dependency (or 'target' function) in regression problems, or posterior probability P(y/x) in classification problems. In VC theory, the goal is to 'imitate' unknown target function, in the sense of minimization of prediction risk or good 'generalization'. That is, the result of VC learning depends on (unknown) input distribution, while that of FA does not. This distinction is important because regularization theory originally introduced under clearly stated FA setting [Tikhonov, N. (1963). On solving ill-posed problem and method of regularization. Doklady Akademii Nauk USSR, 153, 501-504; Tikhonov, N., & V. Y. Arsenin (1977). Solution of ill-posed problems. Washington, DC: W. H. Winston], has been later used under risk-minimization or VC setting. More recently, several authors [Evgeniou, T., Pontil, M., & Poggio, T. (2000). Regularization networks and support vector machines. Advances in Computational Mathematics, 13, 1-50; Hastie, T., Tibshirani, R., & Friedman, J. (2001). The elements of statistical learning: Data mining, inference and prediction. Springer; Poggio, T. and Smale, S., (2003). The mathematics of learning: Dealing with data. Notices of the AMS, 50 (5), 537-544] applied constructive methodology based on regularization framework to learning dependencies from data (under VC-theoretical setting). However, such regularization-based learning is usually presented as a purely constructive methodology (with no clearly stated problem setting). This paper compares FA/regularization and VC/risk minimization methodologies in terms of underlying theoretical assumptions. The control of model complexity, using regularization and using the concept of margin in SVMs, is contrasted in the FA and VC formulations. PMID:19443179

Cherkassky, Vladimir; Ma, Yunqian

2009-04-22

491

A neural-network learning theory and a polynomial time RBF algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new learning theory (a set of principles for brain-like learning) and a corresponding algorithm for the neural-network field. The learning theory defines computational characteristics that are much more brain-like than that of classical connectionist learning. Robust and reliable learning algorithms would result if these learning principles are followed rigorously when developing neural-network algorithms. This paper also

Asim Roy; Sandeep Govil; Raymond Miranda

1997-01-01

492

Cognitive versus stimulus-response theories of learning  

PubMed Central

In his 1948 address to the Division of Theoretical-Experimental Psychology of the American Psychological Association, Kenneth W. Spence discussed six distinctions between cognitive and stimulus-response (S-R) theories of learning. In this article I first review these six distinctions, and then focus on two of them in the context of my own research. This research concerns the specification of stimulus-stimulus associations in associative learning, and the characterization of neural systems underlying those associations. In the course of describing Spence's views and my research, I hope to communicate some of the richness of Spence's S-R psychology, and its currency within modern scientific analyses of behavior.

Holland, Peter C.

2010-01-01

493

A Rose by any Other Name: State Criminality and the Limits of Social Learning Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past thirty years, social learning theory has emerged as one of the top criminological theories of the time. Capitalizing on Edwin Sutherland’s differential association theory, social learning theory provided the means for a quantitative assessment of Sutherland’s propositions. Advanced largely by Ronald Akers, the vast majority of research conducted on social learning theory has been limited to self-report

Elizabeth A. Bradshaw

2012-01-01

494

Employees' and managers' accounts of interactive workplace learning : A grounded theory of “complex integrative learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate employees' and managers' accounts of interactive learning and what might encourage or inhibit emergent learning. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The approach taken was a constructivist\\/social constructivist ontology, interpretive epistemology and qualitative methodology, using grounded theory method. Data collection included semi-structured interview, “complete this sentence” and “scenarios” from 51 respondents: 22 managers and

Genevieve Armson; Alma Whiteley

2010-01-01

495

Applying social learning theory to childhood and adolescent firesetting: can it lead to serial murder?  

PubMed

Despite the fact that serial murder has existed for centuries, it has been given little academic attention in the social science literature. Existing studies have primarily examined the motivational factors involved in the commission of serial murder. However, research examining the childhood and adolescent backgrounds of serial murderers is scant. Based on three case studies of serial murderers, this study contributes to the existing literature by exploring the possible link between childhood and/or adolescent fire setting and adult serial murder by applying social learning theory. PMID:15245657

Singer, Stephen D; Hensley, Christopher

2004-08-01

496

The Role of the Constructivist Learning Theory and Collaborative Learning Environment on Wiki Classroom, and the Relationship between Them  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper seeks to discover the relationship between both the social constructivist learning theory and the collaborative learning environment. This relationship can be identified by giving an example of the learning environment. Due to wiki characteristics, Wiki technology is one of the most famous learning environments that can show the…

Alzahrani, Ibraheem; Woollard, John

2013-01-01

497

Hand Movement Effects on Word Learning and Retrieval in Adults  

PubMed Central

The present study investigated the effect of performing an intentional non-meaningful hand movement on subsequent lexical acquisition and retrieval in healthy adults. Twenty-five right-handed healthy individuals were required to learn the names (2-syllable legal nonwords) for a series of unfamiliar objects. Participants also completed a familiar picture naming task to investigate the effects of the intentional non-meaningful movement on lexical retrieval. Results revealed that performing this hand movement immediately before linguistic tasks interfered with both new word learning and familiar picture naming when compared with no movement. These results extend previous findings of dual task interference effects in healthy individuals, suggesting that complex, non-meaningful, hand movements can also interfere with subsequent lexical acquisition and retrieval.

Ciantar, Jessica; Finch, Emma; Copland, David A.

2013-01-01

498

Machine learning approach for classification of ADHD adults.  

PubMed

Machine learning techniques that combine multiple classifiers are introduced for classifying adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) subtypes based on power spectra of EEG measurements. The analyzed sample includes 117 adults (67 ADHD, 50 controls). The measurements are taken for four different conditions: two resting conditions (eyes open and eyes closed) and two neuropsychological tasks (visual continuous performance test and emotional continuous performance test). We divide the sample into four data sets, one for each condition. Each data set is used for training of four different support vector machine classifiers, while the output of classifiers is combined using logical expression derived from the Karnaugh map. The results show that this approach improves the discrimination between ADHD and control groups, as well as between ADHD subtypes. PMID:23361114

Tenev, Aleksandar; Markovska-Simoska, Silvana; Kocarev, Ljupco; Pop-Jordanov, Jordan; Müller, Andreas; Candrian, Gian

2013-01-27

499

Realizing a Social Practices Approach in Literacy Learning: Engaging with the Everyday Lives of Adults with Learning Difficulties  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper presents findings from an action research project funded by the Scottish Government through Learning Connections (March 2006 to April 2007) to develop and explore the potential for enhancing literacies learning for adults with learning difficulties by engaging with their systems of care and/or support. The paper explores the ways in…

Wilson, Alastair; Hunter, Katie

2010-01-01

500

Contextual Orientation Patterns as Describing Adults' Personal Approach to Learning in a Web-Based Learning Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore patterns of learning among adult learners in a Web-based learning environment over the study period of one year in the Open University in Tampere and Lohja in Finland. The learning environment varied from face-to-face small group sessions to Web-based online discussion sessions. During this study contextual…

Korhonen, Vesa

2004-01-01