Baskas, Richard S.
A student-centered nontraditional learning program was proposed to better prepare fire department military personnel in obtaining their 911 dispatch certification at a Florida military installation. Maintaining an adequate number of dispatched qualified military personnel, in addition to current civilian dispatchers at the same location, improves…
Baskas, Richard S.
A study was conducted to determine the degree of correlation that adult learning theories and adult developmental theories have with educational practice. Two adult learning theories, Malcolm Knowles' phase theories and Daniel Levinson's developmental theories, were researched to determine their relevance to three components of a nontraditional…
Chen, Joseph C.
As the USA experiences rapid growth of nontraditional adult students in higher education, educators and institutions will increasingly need to look beyond the traditional youth-centric educational models to better address adult learning needs. To date, no research has been conducted examining the learning experiences of adult students enrolled in…
One of the benefits of computer game-based learning is the ability of certain types of game to engage and motivate learners. However, theories of learning and engagement, particularly in the sphere of higher education, typically fail to consider gaming engagement theory. In this article, the author examines the principles of engagement from games…
Simulation is often used in nursing education as a teaching methodology. Simulation is rooted in adult learning theory. Three learning theories, cognitive, social, and constructivist, explain how learners gain knowledge with simulation experiences. This article takes an in-depth look at each of these three theories as each relates to simulation.…
Dee, Leslie; Devecchi, Cristina; Florian, Lani
The starting point for this review of literature on theories of learning and adults with learning difficulties is the FEFC's 1996 landmark report, "Inclusive Learning" (also known as the Tomlinson Report). This report made learning its central focus, arguing that unless we understand how students learn we cannot begin to make the right provision…
Sandlin, Jennifer A.; Wright, Robin Redmon; Clark, Carolyn
The authors examine the modernist underpinnings of traditional adult learning and development theories and evaluate elements of those theories through more contemporary lenses. Drawing on recent literature focused on "public pedagogy," the authors argue that much learning takes place outside of formal educational institutions. They look beyond…
Baskas, Richard S.
The purpose of this study is to examine Knowles' theory of andragogy and his six assumptions of how adults learn while providing evidence to support two of his assumptions based on the theory of andragogy. As no single theory explains how adults learn, it can best be assumed that adults learn through the accumulation of formal and informal…
Price, Lynda; Patton, James R.
This article explores new connections between the current literature base on adult developmental theory and the field of learning disabilities. Emphasis is on theory and practice in self-determination and adult development. Implications for special education, vocational education, general education, and adult learning are discussed. (Contains…
Scott, Carol Jack
Of 346 physicians participating in continuing medical education, 91% completed postprogram surveys and 49% responded to a 3-month follow-up. Participants' high ratings for quality and effectiveness were attributed to use of adult learning theory in program design. Computer-assisted instruction was thought effective because of individualization and…
It has become apparent through the work of many researchers and practitioners that adults learn differently than their younger counterparts in the educational system. This is especially important to those educators teaching in colleges and universities in the sciences. Biology education in the post-secondary setting is inundated with teachers who…
Roberson, Donald N., Jr.
This summary of adult development covers a wide range of authors. Adult development is one way of understanding how the internal and external changes in our lives have an impact on learning. Of particular importance in this work are the developmental issues of older adults. I present various theories of adult development such as linear and…
Zepeda, Sally J.; Parylo, Oksana; Bengtson, Ed
This qualitative study sought to identify current principal professional development practices in four school systems in Georgia and to examine them by applying the principles of adult learning theory. The cross-case analysis of principal professional development initiatives in four school districts revealed nine common practices: connecting…
Douglass, Katherine M.
Participation in the arts is a form of practical reason and as such has the potential to form and transform the faith of individuals. The findings from Katherine M. Douglass's 2011 study on the role of the arts in the faith lives of young adults provides examples of the transformative potential of the arts as they foster expression,…
Hutchins, Holly M.; Bierema, Laura
Examining media artifacts as a learning method has received little attention in human resource development (HRD) despite it being a predominate form of information and influence in popular culture. As Giroux (2002) opines, media functions as a form of public pedagogy by offering situations and contexts through which viewers can vicariously…
Roberts, Timothy V; Gustavs, Julie; Mack, Heather G
One of the key responsibilities of professional bodies, such as the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists, is to determine, teach and assess the competencies required for trainees to reach an expert level. Vocational training programs (VTP) need to incorporate advances in educational research and reflect changes in generational thinking and learning styles to provide the most optimal learning environment to meet the desired educational outcomes. This paper seeks to introduce some of the important concepts of adult educational theory and to explain how they connect to four strategic areas in the development and implementation of the VTP: 1?What are the learning needs of trainees? 2?What educational methods best address these needs? 3?What assessment methods best test the acquisition of the desired learning outcomes? 4?What are the needs of supervisors and teachers? PMID:22004095
Grabowski, Stanley M., Ed.
These eight conference papers discuss adult learning, instructional theory, and related issues in research and practice. Focusing on processes of educational change, the first paper considers how experienced teachers, educational theorists, and researchers possessing empirically tested knowledge can cooperate in program planning. The next paper…
Heo, Gyeong Mi; Lee, Romee
This paper uses an Activity Theory framework to explore adult user activities and informal learning processes as reflected in their blogs and social network sites (SNS). Using the assumption that a web-based space is an activity system in which learning occurs, typical features of the components were investigated and each activity system then…
Artino, Anthony R., Jr.
The present report presents an annotated bibliography of peer-reviewed articles that employed theories of self-regulation to understand how adults learn in various contexts. Seven scholarly articles, published between 2000 and 2006, were reviewed and summarized. Articles reviewed include (1) Self-regulation in a Web-based Course: A Case Study (J.…
Rubenson, Kjell, Ed.
As individuals and societies try to respond to fundamental economic and social transformation, the field of adult learning and education is rapidly getting increased attention and new topics for research on adult learning have emerged. This collection of articles from the International Encyclopedia of Education 3e offers practitioners and…
Tisdell, Elizabeth J.
The purpose of this chapter is to consider the important influence that spirituality has in adult learning and how discussions of it are affecting the field of adult education. In so doing, the author begins by attempting to define spirituality and then considers the nature of spiritual experience and its relationship to adult development.…
Foley, Griff, Ed.
This broad introduction to adult and postcompulsory education offers an overview of the field for students, adult educators and workplace trainers. The book establishes an analytical framework to emphasize the nature of learning and agency of learners; examines the core knowledge and skills that adult educators need; discusses policy, research and…
Martin, Emma Lavinia
Background: This study investigates whether the Theory of Planned Behaviour is a viable model to predict the intentions of care staff to support adults with a learning disability to take part in physical activity. Previous ...
Sinnott, Jan D., Ed.
This book is divided into three parts: theories and models, learning in specific life contexts, and the influence of aging on learning. Chapters include: "Chaos Theory as a Framework for Understanding Adult Lifespan Learning" (John C. Cavanaugh, Lisa C. McGuire); "The Future Impact of the Communication Revolution" (Lynn Johnson); "The Educated…
Mezirow, Jack, Ed.
Stemming from a 1998 Columbia University conference on transformative learning, this 3-part book contains 12 articles that examine the concept of how adults learn to change ("transform") their frames of reference. The following are included in Part One: Developing Concepts of Transformative Learning: "Learning To Think Like an Adult: Core Concepts…
Adult Learners' Week--which is supported by the Department for Innovation, Universities and Skills and the European Social Fund, amongst a raft of other organisations--is all about raising demand for learning. At its core, the campaign is about encouraging under-represented groups--including low-skilled, unemployed and low-paid adults and those…
Adults Learning, 2009
The Campaigning Alliance for Lifelong Learning is to lobby parliament for the restoration of the 1.5 million adult learning places lost over the past two years. The campaign has attracted supporters from an astonishingly wide range of backgrounds. In this article, Gordon Marsden, Caroline Biggins, Beth Walker, Mike Chaney, Peter Davies, Sian…
Rogers, Alan; Illeris, Knud
This dialog between Alan Rogers and Knud Illeris debates arguments Rogers made in a previous article about the differences between adult and child learning. Rogers emphasizes differences in teacher-learner relationships. Illeris believes the differences result from different motivations for learning. (SK)
Discusses the limitations inherent in workplace learning, suggests how to establish effective interaction between workplace and educational learning, and presents an outline of how learning theory is used in workplace learning. Contains 32 references. (JOW)
Regmi, Krishna; Regmi, Sharada
This paper presents the initial findings from a study of education system in Nepal. This paper examines the adult learning opportunities within the educational and cultural contexts by reviewing available literature relevant to Nepal. Findings show that there are wider opportunities for adult learning than those considered from education and…
Crux, Sandra C.
This book is a practitioner's guide to presenting various compensatory learning strategies to adult students with learning disabilities. The introductory chapter defines key terminology related to adult learners, learning disabilities, and compensatory strategies; learning and learning-disabled adults; and the principles of adult learning. Chapter…
Luna, Gaye; Cullen, Deborah
Technology in higher education has exploded within the last decade, as educators become more knowledgeable about its uses and students become more demanding of access and convenience to teaching and learning. This article shares results of an exploratory study that determined graduate students' perceptions of podcasting access and utility in…
This article describes a Framework that can be used to help bridge the gap between theory and practice in adult learning. The Framework promotes practice informed by three strands important to adult literacy work: social theories of literacy, social-constructivist learning theory and principles of adult learning. The Framework shows how five key…
This document is intended to help adult educators in the United Kingdom promote learning. The guide presents practical advice, case studies, and tips for undertaking and implementing effective promotional work. Sections 1 through 11 discuss the following topics: recognizing the increasing need for lifelong learning; the rationale for campaigns…
This study explored the extent to which ambiguity can serve as a catalyst for adult learning. The purpose of this study is to understand learning that is generated when encountering ambiguity agitated by the complexity of liquid modernity. "Ambiguity," in this study, describes an encounter with an appearance of reality that is at first…
examine in Chapter 2 adult learning principles and cognitively-oriented concepts, such as learning styles and the theory of multiple intelligences. In Chapters 3 and 4 social learning theories that I examine include imitation, the effect of role models...
Lindstrom, Steven K.
This phenomenological research study examines the lived experience of individual adult transformation in the context of travel. Adults throughout history have experienced profound personal and perception changes as a result of significant travel events. Transformative learning occurs through experience, crisis, and reflection, all of which are…
Kidd, Terry T., Ed.
The expanding field of adult learning encompasses the study and practice of utilizing sound instructional design principals, technology, and learning theory as a means to solve educational challenges and human performance issues relating to adults, often occurring online. This book disseminates current issues and trends emerging in the field of…
This study examines the longitudinal trajectories of two Korean ESL immigrants' L2 learning motivation from an Activity Theory perspective. Two highly skilled immigrants participated in monthly semistructured interviews over a period of 10 months. The research questions are as follows: (1) How does the relationship between ESL learners and their…
Alfred, Mary V., Ed.
In a most timely volume addressing many of the connections among current fiscal and employment crises to adult education, Learning for Economic Self-Sufficiency highlights the problems and challenges that low-literate adults encounter in various environments. Moreover, this book presents strategies for addressing the chronic illiteracy among…
Looks at a variety of learning theories: andragogy, behaviorism, cognitivism, conditions of learning, Gestalt, and social learning. Addresses the difficulty of selecting an appropriate theory for training. (JOW)
Christie, Michael; Carey, Michael; Robertson, Ann; Grainger, Peter
This paper elaborates on a number of key criticisms of Mezirow's transformative learning theory as well as providing arguments that validate it. Our paper exemplifies how Mezirow's theory can help adult educators and prospective school teachers understand that social structures and belief systems can influence student learning, that learners make…
This is a fascinating time for adult learning in the UK. With a plethora of reviews reaching report stage alongside ongoing discussion about funding, qualifications and quality and the review of post-16 planning and funding in Wales, there is a real sense that things are about to change after a decade of well-meant but often misfocused reform.…
Poonwassie, Deo H., Ed.; Poonwassie, Anne, Ed.
This document contains 20 papers on the fundamentals of adult education and foundations, practices, and issues for lifelong learning. The following papers are included: "The Metamorphoses of Andragogy" (James A. Draper); "Stages in the Development of Canadian Adult Education" (Gordon Selman); "Philosophical Considerations" (Mark Selman); "Theory…
Tovar, Lynn A.
In this article, learning how to learn for non traditional adult students is discussed with a focus on police officers and firefighters. Learning how to learn is particularly relevant for all returning non-traditional adults; however in the era of terrorism it is critical for the public safety officers returning to college after years of absence…
Snyder, Marti M.
Describes the creation of SeniorSage, an eight week facilitated online learning community for older adult volunteers in a Florida learning center. Discusses how members were prepared to participate in the community, explains the instructional design theory that guided the development of SeniorSage, and recommends future research. (Author/LRW)
Kallenbach, Silja; Viens, Julie
The Adult Multiple Intelligences (AMI) Study investigated how multiple intelligences (MI) theory can support instruction and assessment in adult literacy education across different adult learning contexts. Two interwoven qualitative research projects focused on applying MI theory in practice. One involved 10 teacher-conducted and AMI…
Belanger, Paul, Ed.; Valdivielso, Sofia, Ed.
This book contains nine papers in which data from the Adult Education Participation Survey (a part of the International Adult Literacy Survey) are used to identify and compare trends in organized learning in seven countries. The following papers are included: "Introduction: Who Participates in Organized Adult Learning?" (Paul Belanger, Sofia…
Foote, Laura S.
Transformational learning, narrative learning, and spiritual learning frame adult experiences in new and exciting ways. These types of learning can involve a simple transformation of belief or opinion or a radical transformation involving one's total perspective; learning may occur abruptly or incrementally. Education should liberate students from…
Wright, Robin Redmon
Too often, educators, researchers, and practitioners in the fields of adult education and human resource development rely on traditional curricular materials and an academic body of knowledge for teaching, evaluating, and training adults. This assumes a coherent body of prior knowledge, assumptions, worldviews, and experiences in their students…
Adult Learning Australia, Inc., Jamison.
This booklet is compiled from all the Adult Learning Australia (ALA) Commentaries produced in 2000. Emailed to ALA members each week, ALA Commentaries are written by people in the field of adult learning in the broadest sense, usually in Australia, sometimes overseas, and designed to stimulate discussion. ALA hosts an online discussion forum about…
Roulston, Kathryn; Jutras, Peter; Kim, Seon Joo
This article reports findings from a qualitative study of adults' perceptions and experiences of learning musical instruments. Conducted in the south-east United States, 15 adults who were learning instruments were recruited via community music groups and private instrumental teachers. Analysis of transcripts of semi-structured interviews…
Muneja, Mussa S.
The aim of this paper is to synthesize a theoretical basis for adult learning facilitation in order to provide a valuable systematic resource in the field of adult education. The paper has reviewed 6 journal articles with topics ranging from theory of andragogy; the effect of globalization on adult learning; the contribution of Malcolm Knowles;…
Adult learners often face barriers to participation in traditional classroom instruction. As technology access grows and adults naturally incorporate technology into their daily lives, adult education programs are finding innovative ways to blend technology with instruction through quality online learning opportunities. This article highlights the…
Taylor, Maurice C.
This study investigated the types of informal learning activities that adults with low literacy skills engage in outside of formal literacy programs and how these activities relate to their literacy practices. Key informants for the study included 10 adults identified at International Adult Literacy Survey levels 1 and 2. Using ethnographic…
Munoz, Linda; Wrigley, Heide Spruck
Civic engagement, or the practice of democratic deliberation in adult education and learning, asks that adults use their experiences to cooperatively build solutions to the difficult social, economic, and political problems that affect their lives and communities now and into the future. The articles presented in this issue look at the…
Malik, Bilal R; Hodge, James J L
Drosophila have been used in classical conditioning experiments for over 40 years, thus greatly facilitating our understanding of memory, including the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms involved in cognitive diseases. Learning and memory can be assayed in larvae to study the effect of neurodevelopmental genes and in flies to measure the contribution of adult plasticity genes. Furthermore, the short lifespan of Drosophila facilitates the analysis of genes mediating age-related memory impairment. The availability of many inducible promoters that subdivide the Drosophila nervous system makes it possible to determine when and where a gene of interest is required for normal memory as well as relay of different aspects of the reinforcement signal. Studying memory in adult Drosophila allows for a detailed analysis of the behavior and circuitry involved and a measurement of long-term memory. The length of the adult stage accommodates longer-term genetic, behavioral, dietary and pharmacological manipulations of memory, in addition to determining the effect of aging and neurodegenerative disease on memory. Classical conditioning is induced by the simultaneous presentation of a neutral odor cue (conditioned stimulus, CS(+)) and a reinforcement stimulus, e.g., an electric shock or sucrose, (unconditioned stimulus, US), that become associated with one another by the animal. A second conditioned stimulus (CS(-)) is subsequently presented without the US. During the testing phase, Drosophila are simultaneously presented with CS+ and CS- odors. After the Drosophila are provided time to choose between the odors, the distribution of the animals is recorded. This procedure allows associative aversive or appetitive conditioning to be reliably measured without a bias introduced by the innate preference for either of the conditioned stimuli. Various control experiments are also performed to test whether all genotypes respond normally to odor and reinforcement alone. PMID:25145496
Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Yoo, Jeewon
The goal of this research was to examine the effects of phonological familiarity and rehearsal method (vocal vs. subvocal) on novel word learning. In Experiment 1, English-speaking adults learned phonologically familiar novel words that followed English phonological structure. Participants learned half the words via vocal rehearsal (saying the…
Clover, Darlene E.; Hill, Robert
The environment is now a common theme in adult education. However, conversations that swirled around the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20) in June 2012 suggested major environmental challenges persist, demanding that education, learning, advocacy and activism be augmented to ensure the survival of the planet. In adult…
Hunt, Celia; West, Linden
This paper stems from a dialogue on the subjects of learning and learners: one forged out of experiences in research and teaching, and the application of psychodynamic insights, developmental psychology and recent work in the neurosciences, to thinking about adult learning and subjectivity. We argue that some notion of the self needs to be…
Palis, Ana G.; Quiros, Peter A.
Although lectures are one of the most common methods of knowledge transfer in medicine, their effectiveness has been questioned. Passive formats, lack of relevance and disconnection from the student's needs are some of the arguments supporting this apparent lack of efficacy. However, many authors have suggested that applying adult learning principles (i.e., relevance, congruence with student's needs, interactivity, connection to student's previous knowledge and experience) to this method increases learning by lectures and the effectiveness of lectures. This paper presents recommendations for applying adult learning principles during planning, creation and development of lectures to make them more effective. PMID:24791101
Adult learning, critical thinking, and decision-making are fields that receive attention individually, although they are interspersed with elements of each other's theories and philosophies. In addressing adult learning precepts, it is essential to include critical thinking and decision-making. One without the other creates weakness; all must be…
This article focuses on the issue of policy development for adult learning in Mali, West Africa. On January 2007, the Malian government adopted the "Adult Non-formal Education Policy Document," which was intended to regulate the adult learning sector and federate the actions of policy makers, adult education providers, and adult learners. The…
Pitman, Tim; Broomhall, Sue; McEwan, Joanne; Majocha, Elzbieta
This article explores notions of learning in the niche market sector of educational tourism, with a focus on organised recreational tours that promote a structured learning experience as a key feature. It analyses the qualitative findings of surveys and interviews with a cross-section of educational tourism providers in Australia, their…
Intended for employers, supervisors, and coworkers, the booklet presents guidelines for accommodating learning disabled (LD) employees. An introductory section explains the condition, describing its nature and the range of impairments it includes. Five types of learning disabilities are identified: visual, auditory, motor, tactile, and academic.…
Practitioner research is a topic of growing interest and scholarly writing in the field of education in general and adult education in particular. This article describes a particular form of practitioner research that rests on a participatory worldview and draws heavily from theory and practice in adult learning and action research.…
This grounded theory study investigates adult student persistence at a community college. Student persistence in college is a prerequisite for degree achievement, which correlates with higher earnings and overall better quality of life. Persistence rates remain low for adult students, who combine their college endeavors with responsibilities to…
Criu, Roxana; Ceobanu, Ciprian
If a few decades ago, "the education received in school could be in most of the cases enough to go with for the rest of one's entire life," today the situation has changed dramatically. The individual has to be prepared for a new type of life and training, namely lifelong learning. The individual's survival in society could…
Aimone, James B.; Deng, Wei
The continuous incorporation of new neurons in the dentate gyrus of the adult hippocampus raises exciting questions about memory and learning, and has inspired new computational models to understand the function of adult neurogenesis. These theoretical approaches suggest distinct roles for new neurons as they slowly integrate into the existing dentate gyrus network: immature adult-born neurons appear to function as pattern integrators of temporally adjacent events, thereby enhancing pattern separation for events separated in time; whereas maturing adult-born neurons possibly contribute to pattern separation by being more amenable to learning new information, leading to dedicated groups of granule cells that respond to experienced environments. We review these hypothesized functions and supporting empirical research and point to new directions for future theoretical efforts. PMID:20471301
Koefer, Ann M.
This independent learning packet, which is designed for administrators, teachers, counselors, and tutors in Pennsylvania's Region 7 Tri-Valley Literacy Staff Development area as well as for their adult students, examines the following seven problems encountered by students: the job market, child care, single parenting/parenting skills, divorce,…
Chadwick, Alan, Ed.; Stannett, Annette, Ed.
This book contains 28 papers presenting perspectives from Europe on museums and adult learning. The papers, each of which is devoted to a specific country, examine topics such as the following: further education and inservice training; programs for unemployed individuals; lectures and open days; elderly visitors; immigrants; refugees; disabled…
Adults Learning, 2010
The spending review brought a promise to protect adult and community learning as well as swingeing cuts to further and higher education and local government. In this article, some of the key players--Lynne Sedgmore, Christopher Brooks, Graham Hoyle, Maggie Galliers, Louise Hazel, Richard Bolsin, Maggi Dawson, Ruth Bond, Stuart Etherington, Brendan…
Discusses the following barriers to adult learning: (1) motivation is dependent on usefulness of material; (2) ideas and values are fully formed and resistent to challenge; (3) students develop a negative self-image; and (4) students experience reentry shock and infantilization. Discusses an orientation course involving critical thinking designed…
The rapidly changing picture on localism and the government's focus on local economic growth have significant implications for adult learning and skills providers in England. Government now sees a sense of place as key to economic growth and recognises the need for a renewed debate on how business and state interact with localities. There is a…
O Fathaigh, Mairtin
This document, which was developed for presentation at a seminar on adult learning and safety, examines approaches to occupational safety and health (OSH) learning/training in the workplace. Section 1 examines selected factors affecting adults' learning in workplace OSH programs. The principal dimensions along which individual adult learners will…
Saar, Ellu; Ure, Odd Bjorn; Desjardins, Richard
This article considers the role of diverse institutions in framing adult learning systems. The focus is on institutional characteristics and configurations in different countries and their potential impact on the extent of adult learning, as well as on inequalities in access to adult learning. Typologies of education and training systems as well…
Klippel, Judith A.; And Others
The Personal Adult Learning Lab was establsiehd at the Georgia Center for Continuing Education (GCCE) at the University of Georgia to serve self-directed adult learners and conduct research on self-directed learning. The lab allows adult learners to design, conduct, and evaluate their personal learning experiences while proceeding at their own…
Githens, Rod P.
E-learning and distance education can play a role in helping older adults become integrated with the rest of society. As demographic and cultural changes affect the place of older adults in society, online learning programs become increasingly appealing to older adults. In this article, I discuss (1) the changing notion of work and learning in…
Wang, Victor C. X.
As adult learners and educators pioneer the use of technology in the new century, attention has been focused on developing strategic approaches to effectively integrate adult learning and technology in different learning environments. "Integrating Adult Learning and Technologies for Effective Education: Strategic Approaches" provides innovative…
Derrick, Jay, Ed.; Howard, Ursula, Ed.; Field, John, Ed.; Lavender, Peter, Ed.; Meyer, Sue, Ed.; von Rein, Ekkehard Nuissl, Ed.; Schuller, Tom, Ed.
Remaking Adult Learning provides an exciting and innovative addition to the literature on adult learning. Charting challenges and successes in the sector, it illustrates how taking part in well-thought-out programmes can have a positive and sometimes life-saving impact on people's lives. While grounded in adult learning practice, the book draws…
Howie, Peter; Bagnall, Richard
This paper reports a critical comparative analysis of two popular and significant theories of adult learning: the transformation and the deep approach theories of learning. These theories are operative in different educational sectors, are significant, respectively, in each, and they may be seen as both touching on similar concerns with learning…
Parsons, Eileen Carlton; Miles, Rhea; Petersen, Michael
Background: Research has primarily concentrated on adults' implicit theories about high quality science education for all students. Little work has considered the students' perspective. This study investigated high school students' implicit theories about what helped them learn science. Purpose: This study addressed (1) What characterizes high…
Hock, Mike; Mellard, Daryl F.
learning strategies. The classes used beginning literacy, pre-GED, or GED preparation materials (e.g., McGrawHill/Contemporary, 2002), as well as local newspapers and other instructor-selected materials. Control class instructors were employees... strategies in adult education 1 Running head: LEARNING STRATEGIES IN ADULT EDUCATION Efficacy of learning strategies instruction in adult basic education Michael F. Hock Daryl F. Mellard Center for Research on Learning University of Kansas...
Manhattan Adult Learning and Resource Center, KS.
This document is designed to help adult educators understand and meet the needs of adults with learning disabilities (ALDs). A research-substantiated rationale for remedial instruction for ALDs is presented in the introduction. Selected terms are defined, and common characteristics of ALDs are examined. Basic assumptions regarding adult learning…
Vilkonis, Rytis; Bakanoviene, Tatjana; Turskiene, Sigita
The article presents results of the empirical research revealing readiness of adults to participate in the lifelong learning process using e-learning, m-learning and t-learning technologies. The research has been carried out in the framework of the international project eBig3 aiming at development a new distance learning platform blending virtual…
Gal, Iddo, Ed.
This book contains 16 papers on the theory, research, and practice of adult numeracy development. The following papers are included: "The Numeracy Challenge" (Iddo Gal); "Numeracy, Mathematics, and Adult Learning" (Diane Coben); "Building a Problem-Solving Environment for Teaching Mathematics" (Peter Kloosterman, Bin Hassan Mohamad-Ali, Lynda R.…
Strapp, Chehalis M.; Helmick, Augusta L.; Tonkovich, Hayley M.; Bleakney, Dana M.
This study compared negative and positive evidence in adult word learning, predicting that adults would learn more forms following negative evidence. Ninety-two native English speakers (32 men and 60 women [M[subscript age] = 20.38 years, SD = 2.80]), learned nonsense nouns and verbs provided within English frames. Later, participants produced…
Bretan, Gail Helene
The purpose of this study is to describe, implement, and interpret the intersection of service-learning, Jewish values and ways of knowing, adult education, and lifelong learning for people over the age of 50. By expanding service-learning to include both older adults and Jewish ways of knowing, there is potential for transforming these frameworks…
Gould, Holly C.; Brimijoin, Kay; Alouf, James L.; Mayhew, Mary Ann
Given the challenges of time and economics in education today, what are practical models for creating adult learning communities that improve teaching and learning in today's diverse classrooms? How do Americans foster and nurture adult learning communities once they are established? The authors have found that carefully crafted partnerships…
Closson, Rosemary B.
Critical race theory (CRT) was developed to examine the persistence of racism. This literature review attempts to understand CRT as it has been applied in related fields such as higher education and possible reasons for its limited application in adult education theorizing about race and racism. This analysis of CRT is framed against a backdrop of…
Berkvens, Jan B. Y.; Kalyanpur, Maya; Kuiper, Wilmad; Van den Akker, Jan
All over the world, international development organizations try to increase professional capacity of local staff. These attempts are thought to fail because of financial constraints, but this is just part of the story. Professional development and adult learning theories approach learning from a western perspective, while many developing societies…
Grover, Kendra S.; Miller, Michael T.; Swearingen, Brent; Wood, Nancy
Self-directed learning is one of the preeminent theories in the field of adult education. This study explored how English as a Second Language learners directed their own learning outside of the formal classroom through the use of practices that potentially advance their English language proficiency. Results from a survey of over 400 ESL students…
Clinton, Gregory; Rieber, Lloyd P.
The Studio curriculum in the Learning, Design, and Technology (formerly Instructional Technology) program at a large research-extensive university in the southeastern U.S. represents a deliberate application of contemporary theory of how adults learn complex information in ill-structured domains. The Studio curriculum, part of a graduate program…
Gorges, Julia; Kandler, Christian
The present study tested the applicability of expectancy-value theory to adults' learning motivation. Motivation was measured as the anticipated reaction (AR) of German students (N = 300) to receiving their instructions in English as a new learning opportunity. We used structural equation modeling to test our hypotheses. Expectancies of success…
Learner motivation is a key to effective instruction and is critical to creating a successful online learning environment; yet, there is a paucity of theory and empirical research on how to create a motivating online learning environment. The purpose of the present study was to explore and describe the experiences of adult learners in a…
Sleep modulates word-pair learning but not motor sequence learning in healthy older adults Jessica Sleep benefits memory across a range of tasks for young adults. However, remarkably little is known of the role of sleep on memory for healthy older adults. We used 2 tasks, 1 assaying motor skill learning
This is the second of three articles explaining theories of learning with particular relevance to clinical areas. In the story so far, the Director of Nurse Education at the St Elsewhere Academy of Nursing is trying to create the ultimate programme of nursing education. In order to ensure that the very highest standards of teaching and learning are achieved, the DNE has decided to employ a theorist of learning. Last week she interviewed the candidate representing the school of behaviourism. This week, the candidate from the school of congnitivism makes his presentation. PMID:7766519
#12;Conditioning Scene from the Big Bang Theory (S03E03,The Gothowitz Deviation) © Tom Lenaerts, 2010INFO-F-409 Learning dynamics Learning, evolutionary game theory and the evolution of co-operation T
Dochy, Filip; Gijbels, David; Segers, Mien; Van den Bossche, Piet
Workplace and professional learning, lifelong learning, adult learning, learning in different contexts have become of more and more interest and now dominate all aspects of 21st century life. Learning is no longer about "storing and recall" but "development and flow". "Theories of Learning in the Workplace" offers fascinating overviews into some…
Brown, Mike; Schulz, Christine
This article explores the adult and community learning associated with "learning to be drier" in the Riverland region of South Australia. Communities in the Riverland are currently adjusting and making changes to their understandings and practices as part of learning to live with less water. The analysis of adult and community learning derived…
Young, Richard F.; Astarita, Alice C.
Ortega (2011) has argued that second language acquisition is stronger and better after the social turn. Of the post-cognitive approaches she reviews, several focus on the social context of language learning rather than on language as the central phenomenon. In this article, we present Practice Theory not as yet another approach to language…
The Handbook of the Evolving Research of Transformative Learning: Based on the Learning Activities Survey (10th Anniversary Edition). Adult Education Special Topics--Theory, Research and Practice in LifeLong Learning
King, Kathleen P., Ed.
This handbook is a much expanded version of the original Learning Activities Survey published by Dr. Kathleen P. King of Fordham University in 1998. Based on her ground breaking research in this field where she used a mixed methodology research approach to study transformative learning, the book will provide a model of research, firsthand…
Journals have a long history as a means of self-expression, and they can be used as learning tools in adult education. Types of journals include the reader response journal or literature log, the learning journal, the reflective journal, and the electronic journal. Journal writing offers several benefits for adult learners: journals are less…
Jones, F. W.; Long, K.; Finlay, W. M. L.
Background: This study's aim was to begin the process of measuring the reading comprehension of adults with mild and borderline learning disabilities, in order to generate information to help clinicians and other professionals to make written material for adults with learning disabilities more comprehensible. Methods: The Test for the Reception of…
Since 1997, the identity of the research field of adults learning mathematics has been debated; the research field has grown in quantity and quality; and the research forum Adults Learning Mathematics (ALM) has established an international journal. In practice, the researchers answer the question about identity and quality of research papers in…
State Univ. of New York, Buffalo. Div. of Continuing Education.
The symposium celebrated the 50th anniversary of the Division of Continuing Education at the State University of New York at Buffalo; changes in higher education during those 50 years have moved adult learning into a primary area of attention. Traditional lines of learning are bluring and assumptions about the adult learner are rapidly changing.…
This article presents multivariate analyses of the characteristics associated with both participation in adult education and the intention to participate in future learning. It uses questionnaire data from more than 47,000 individuals collected by the National Institute of Adult Continuing Education (NIACE) over the course of nine annual surveys…
Swartz, Ann L.
In adult education, there has recently been a recognition of the body's role in adult learning. Attention to neuroscience is somewhat limited, though is emerging. These two perspectives are not integrated. With this article, the author argues that adult education must look to science to achieve a deeper understanding of the evolving…
Lancaster, Sean; Mellard, Daryl
Identifying individuals with specific learning disabilities (SLD) is a complex task, particularly for adult populations. Adult agencies such as vocational rehabilitative services or adult basic education often use different SLD definitions and criteria, are often understaffed, have limited resources, and have a shortage of staff trained on SLD…
Galbraith, Michael W., Ed.
This book contains 21 papers devoted to understanding and facilitating adult learning. After "Foreword to the Second Edition" (Malcolm S. Knowles) and other introductory materials, the papers are: "Becoming an Effective Teacher of Adults" (Michael W. Galbraith); "Understanding Adult Learners" (Huey B. Long); "Identifying Your Philosophical…
Finger, Matthias; Asun, Jose Manuel
This book assesses the current state of adult education, including the traditions out of which adult education comes, its current problems, and its possible futures. It begins with an overview of Ivan Illich's theory and explains its significance for adult education. Part 1 examines the main historical traditions in adult education, including the…
Manning, Claire; Verenikina, Irina; Brown, Ian
What can arts-based learning offer to adult, work-related education? A study was undertaken that explored the benefits of learning with the arts for professional development of an adult learner in Australia. The individual experiences of nine adults who participated in arts-based workshops to build work-related skills were examined using the…
Roessger, Kevin M.
Researchers have yet to agree on an approach that supports how adults best learn novel motor skills in formal educational contexts. The literature fails to adequately discuss adult motor learning from the standpoint of adult education. Instead, the subject is addressed by other disciplines. This review attempts to integrate perspectives across…
Lai, Horng-Ji; Wu, Ming-Lieh; Li, Ai-Tzu
This study investigated the informal learning experiences expressed by Taiwanese adults (aged from 16 to 97) and examined their involvement related to selected socio-demographic characteristics. Data of the 2008 Adult Education Participation Survey in Taiwan and Fujian Area were used to look at different variables of adults' demographic…
Ellis, Nick C.; Sagarra, Nuria
The current study investigates the limited attainment of adult language acquisition in terms of an associative learning phenomenon whereby earlier learned cues attentionally block those that are experienced later. Short- and long-term blocking are demonstrated in experimental investigations of learned attention in the acquisition of temporal…
Jones, Huw, Ed.; Mace, Jackie, Ed.
The four papers in this collection are intended to stimulate debate in the adult education sector and to set the agenda for further development work. "Learning Outcomes: Towards a Synthesis of Progress" (Peter Lavender) provides a summary of recent efforts to identify, record, and value learning that does not lead to qualifications. "Learning…
A project was conducted in Pennsylvania to conduct a statewide staff development project on adults with learning differences using the following delivery systems: initial training sessions; advanced training sessions; videotapes of training sessions; the "Learning disAbilities Newsletter"; printed material from the Center for Alternative Learning…
Storkel, Holly L.; Armbruster, Jonna; Hogan, Tiffany P.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to differentiate effects of phonotactic probability, the likelihood of occurrence of a sound sequence, and neighborhood density, the number of words that sound similar to a given word, on adult word learning. A second purpose was to determine what aspect of word learning (viz., triggering learning, formation…
does not, with a reversal at some point in which face yields points. The current study examined age: Reversal learning; Aging; Emotion; Reward; Feedback. Learning to update information in a rapidly changingNegative emotional outcomes impair older adults' reversal learning Kaoru Nashiro1 , Mara Mather1
Rakhlin, Alexander "Sasha"
Statistical Learning Theory Machine Learning Summer School, Kyoto, Japan Alexander (Sasha) Rakhlin University of Pennsylvania, The Wharton School Penn Research in Machine Learning (PRiML) August 27-28, 2012 1 the topic of a new article. 6 / 130 #12;Why Machine Learning? Impossible to hard-code all the knowledge
Willingham, Daniel T.; Hughes, Elizabeth M.; Dobolyi, David G.
Theories of learning styles suggest that individuals think and learn best in different ways. These are not differences of ability but rather preferences for processing certain types of information or for processing information in certain types of way. If accurate, learning styles theories could have important implications for instruction because…
Sawchuk, Peter H.
The topic of informal learning and work has quickly become a staple in contemporary work and adult learning research internationally. The narrow conceptualization of work is briefly challenged before the article turns to a review of the historical origins as well as contemporary theories and methods involved in researching informal learning and…
Yau, Suk-yu; Li, Ang; So, Kwok-Fai
Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is a process involving the continuous generation of newborn neurons in the hippocampus of adult animals. Mounting evidence has suggested that hippocampal neurogenesis contributes to some forms of hippocampus-dependent learning and memory; however, the detailed mechanism concerning how this small number of newborn neurons could affect learning and memory remains unclear. In this review, we discuss the relationship between adult-born neurons and learning and memory, with a highlight on recently discovered potential roles of neurogenesis in pattern separation and forgetting. PMID:26380120
Roberson, Donald N., Jr.
The purpose of this article is to present a program of learning for older adults in a national park. Because of the growing trend of tourism among retirees this learning during leisure is gaining prominence. The paper brings together the concepts of aging, self-directed learning, and tourism and leisure. In addition this paper presents a…
Brigham, Susan Mary
In this paper I make the case that transformative learning theory, a specific adult learning theory, and an arts-informed research method have important value for teacher professional practice and teacher education. I refer to two phases of a study involving women who have immigrated to Maritime Canada and were teachers in their countries of…
Howie, Peter; Bagnall, Richard
This article presents a critique of both transformative learning theory and critical comments on it to date. It argues that transformative learning theory remains substantively the same as its initial exposition, in spite of a raft of problematic contentions voiced against it. The theory is argued here to be conceptually problematic, except at the…
Livingstone, D. W.
A survey of 1,562 Canadian adults found that most are spending more time in learning, especially informal learning through employment, community service, and household work. Findings should be used to shape education policy and practice. (SK)
This chapter features a conceptual framework that considers the practical characteristics of learning cities, pointing to the field of adult and continuing education to lead a movement for the purposes of education, learning, and engagement for all.
Ehsani, Fatemeh; Abdollahi, Iraj; Mohseni Bandpei, Mohammad Ali; Zahiri, Nahid; Jaberzadeh, Shapour
Introduction: Motor skills play an important role during life span, and older adults need to learn or relearn these skills. The purpose of this study was to investigate how aging affects induction of improved movement performance by motor training. Methods: Serial Reaction Time Test (SRTT) was used to assess movement performance during 8 blocks of motor training. Participants were tested in two separate dates, 48 hours apart. First session included 8 blocks of training (blocks 1–8) and second session comprised 2 blocks (blocks 9, 10). Results: Analyses of data showed that reaction times in both online and offline learning were significantly shorter in older adults compared to younger adults (P<0.001). Young adults demonstrated both online and offline learning (P<0.001), but older adults only showed online learning (P<0.001) without offline learning (P=0.24). Discussion: The result of the current study provides evidence that the healthy older adults are able to improve their performance with practice and learn motor skill successfully in the form of online learning.
Welton, Michael R., Ed.
This book presents six critical commentaries on the state of the discipline and practice of adult education. "The Critical Turn in Adult Education Theory" (Michael R. Welton) takes the position that the critical theoretical tradition from Marx to Habermas can provide a foundation for an emancipatory educational practice. "Transformation Theory of…
This article examines the impact of social change and economic transformation on adult education and lifelong learning in post-Soviet Russia. The article begins with a brief economic and historical background to lifelong learning and adult education in terms of its significance as a feature of the Russian cultural heritage. An analysis of Ministerial education policy and curriculum changes reveals that these policies reflect neo-liberal and neo-conservative paradigms in the post-Soviet economy and education. Current issues and trends in adult education are also discussed, with particular attention to the Adult Education Centres, which operate as a vast umbrella framework for a variety of adult education and lifelong learning initiatives. The Centres are designed to promote social justice by means of compensatory education and social rehabilitation for individuals dislocated by economic restructuring. The article comments on their role in helping to develop popular consciousness of democratic rights and active citizenship in a participatory and pluralistic democracy.
Kapa, Leah Lynn
artificial language learning outcomes. After controlling for working memory and English receptive vocabulary, executive function scores positively predicted children's receptive vocabulary performance and adults' ability to produce labels and sentences...
Gasch, Audrey P.
listening, but doing. Adult learners like to draw on their personal and professional experiences. Adults skills and information immediately. Sharing information with fellow participants is valued. Some adults lecturing, use "active learning" strategies. This means developing and implementing planned activities
Gorlick, Marissa A; Maddox, W Todd
Age-related deficits are seen across tasks where learning depends on asocial feedback processing, however plasticity has been observed in some of the same tasks in social contexts suggesting a novel way to attenuate deficits. Socioemotional selectivity theory suggests this plasticity is due to a deliberative motivational shift toward achieving well-being with age (positivity effect) that reverses when executive processes are limited (negativity effect). The present study examined the interaction of feedback valence (positive, negative) and social salience (emotional face feedback - happy; angry, asocial point feedback - gain; loss) on learning in a deliberative task that challenges executive processes and a procedural task that does not. We predict that angry face feedback will improve learning in a deliberative task when executive function is challenged. We tested two competing hypotheses regarding the interactive effects of deliberative emotional biases on automatic feedback processing: (1) If deliberative emotion regulation and automatic feedback are interactive we expect happy face feedback to improve learning and angry face feedback to impair learning in older adults because cognitive control is available. (2) If deliberative emotion regulation and automatic feedback are not interactive we predict that emotional face feedback will not improve procedural learning regardless of valence. Results demonstrate that older adults show persistent deficits relative to younger adults during procedural category learning suggesting that deliberative emotional biases do not interact with automatic feedback processing. Interestingly, a subgroup of older adults identified as potentially using deliberative strategies tended to learn as well as younger adults with angry relative to happy feedback, matching the pattern observed in the deliberative task. Results suggest that deliberative emotional biases can improve deliberative learning, but have no effect on procedural learning. PMID:25932016
Belzer, Alisa; Ross-Gordon, Jovita
Since the 1980s, educators in adult basic education and special education have speculated that a substantial if unknown percentage of adults have specific learning disabilities (LDs) and have sought to identify and address effectively the needs of these learners. Two rarely intersecting bodies of historical literature on LDs provide the background…
Sheng, Li; Byrd, Courtney T.; McGregor, Karla K.; Zimmerman, Hannah; Bludau, Kadee
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to characterize the verbal memory limitations of young adults with language learning disability (LLD). Method: Sixteen young adults with LLD and 34 age- and education-matched controls with typical language participated in a Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM; Deese, 1959; Roediger & McDermott, 1995) list…
Hammond, Cathie; Feinstein, Leon
We use quantitative and qualitative methods to investigate the links between participation in adult learning and self-efficacy, particularly for the subgroup of adults who had low levels of achievement at school. We focus on self-efficacy because it translates into a range of wider benefits and because it may afford protection from depression and…
Bin Abdullah, Muhammad Madi; Parasuraman, Balakrishnan; Muniapan, Balakrishnan; Koren, Sebastien; Jones, Michael
Gaining and understanding of the motivation which drives adults to commit to, and complete, higher education through distance learning is an important requirement for the design and the delivery of adult programs for educational institutions in Malaysia and abroad. Through an in-depth empirical examination, this paper provides the insight of one…
Murray, Sara; Mitchell, Jane
The vocational education and training sector plays a critical role in the provision of educational opportunities for young adults who have left school prior to completing a qualification. Some research has found that a major factor that supports student re-engagement in formal education is the "adult learning environment" that characterises…
Lee, Joanna C.; Tomblin, J. Bruce
The aim of the study was to examine reinforcement learning (RL) in young adults with developmental language impairment (DLI) within the context of a neurocomputational model of the basal ganglia-dopamine system (Frank, Seeberger, & O'Reilly, 2004). Two groups of young adults, one with DLI and the other without, were recruited. A probabilistic…
Venezky, Richard L.; Sabatini, John P.; Brooks, Christine; Carino, Christine
Three case studies in adult literacy learning were conducted, with focus on instructional and policy issues. They came out of programs that, by state mandate, focus instruction around component skills through diagnostic tests, worksheets, and mastery tests. In Case 1, a learner managed to attend an adult basic education program regularly and…
Bates, Belinda, Ed.
This issue of "Linkages" addresses skills that literacy programs can include in their curriculum to teach self-advocacy to adult learners with learning disabilities. Articles include: "Consumers Empowering Consumers" (Noel Gregg and Cheri Hoy); "Self-Advocacy: Practical Advice to the Adult with LD" (Pat Boyd); "Disclosure: It's a Matter of Choice"…
Martinez, Luz M.
The changing social and economic reality of our world continues to shape how learning is conducted and acquired in the adult classroom and beyond. Given the pivotal importance for an adult to develop a variety of cognitive and emotional skills and given the need to work in collaboration with others, within educational environments and the…
Thanks to increased advocacy and research, several major federal laws, and heightened awareness of the changing demands of the workplace, more attention is being focused on adults with learning disabilities (LD). There is still no consensus on definitions of LD. Estimates of the incidence of LD range from 5% to 20% of the population. Adults with…
Over the period of this journal's life the education of adults has been changed and developed in a wide variety of ways: the same phenomenon--adult learning--has been given a variety of meanings and the education of adults has assumed many titles. The aim of this paper is to unravel some of the changes that have occurred in this field during…
This textbook examines the theory and practice of adult and continuing education. The following topics are among those discussed in 11 chapters: rationale for provision of education for adults (nature of contemporary society and the individual); conceptual framework for adult and continuing education (changing concept of education; teaching,…
Caminotti, Enzo; Gray, Jeremy
Purpose: As two doctoral students and adult learners, the authors strongly believe that story telling can be a great tool for educators working with adult learners. The purpose of this paper is to increase awareness of how effective storytelling can be for adult learners. Design/methodology/approach: The approach of this paper is one of gathering…
Seay, Sandra E.
Having stressful workdays is not the sole prerogative of adult students enrolled in educational leadership programs. According to a report released by the American Institute of Stress in 2002, 80% of adult workers felt stress in the workplace. From this it can be assumed that a certain amount of stress accompanies every adult who enters an evening…
This paper addresses many theories of learning and human development which are very similar with regards as to how they suggest learning occurs. The differences in most of the theories exist in how they treat the development of the learner compared to methods of teaching. Most of the major learning theories taught to educators today are based on…
Feingold, S. Norman
Motivation is vital to all learning with the possible exception of incidental learning. Home study may adapt motivational learning theory to its goals by considering basic concepts with related examples. First, the more advance reasons an individual has to believe in the value of home study, the more likely will be the success of educational…
The author reviews the many forces that have driven contemporary medical education approaches to evaluation and places them in an adult learning theory context. After noting their strengths and limitations, the author looks to lessons learned from manufacturing on both efficacy and efficiency and explores how these can be applied to the process of trainee assessment in medical education.Building on this, the author describes the rationale for and development of the Educational Kanban (EK) at Children's Hospital Boston--specifically, how it was designed to integrate adult learning theory, Japanese manufacturing models, and educator observations into a unique form of teacher-student collaboration that allows for continuous improvement. It is a formative tool, built on the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education's six core competencies, that guides educational efforts to optimize teaching and learning, promotes adult learner responsibility and efficacy, and takes advantage of the labor-intensive clinical educational setting. The author discusses how this model, which will be implemented in July 2009, will lead to training that is highly individualized, optimizes faculty and student educational efforts, and ultimately conserves faculty resources. A model EK is provided for general reference.The EK represents a novel approach to adult learning that will enhance educational effectiveness and efficiency and complement existing evaluative models. Described here in a specific graduate medical setting, it can readily be adapted and integrated into a wide range of undergraduate and graduate clinical educational environments. PMID:19550191
Palazesi, Louis Mark; Bower, Beverly L.; Schwartz, Robert A.
The purpose of this study was to present a grounded theory that fills in gaps in the higher education literature on the concept of educational consumer value and perceptions that support consumer value. Specifically, this study focuses on the learning experiences of Baby Boomers (40-60 year old adults) as older adult students attending community…
Gillis, Doris E.; English, Leona M.
Community-based agencies (extension, women's association, public health department) initiated a health promotion project using adult learning approaches (experiential learning, storytelling, and networking) to enable participants to examine their experiences of health and factors affecting health in their communities. Assessment tools were…
Ady, Kellie; Kinsella, Keli; Paynter, Amber
As a part of a professional learning team, educators are constantly looking for new approaches and designs that promote deeper adult learning. This article describes how educators at Cherry Creek School District in Colorado developed a digital badge system that recognizes the work teachers are doing, supports a culture and climate of celebration,…
. Given that education often focuses on the learning of children and children love playing games, the marriage is destined to last. What is not so clear is whether playing games is suited to adult learning computer based training has been around for decades, the marriage of games and education is not so old
Eidsvåg, Sunniva Sørhus; Austad, Margit; Plante, Elena; Asbjørnsen, Arve E.
Purpose: This experiment investigated whether input variability would affect initial learning of noun gender subcategories in an unfamiliar, natural language (Russian), as it is known to assist learning of other grammatical forms. Method: Forty adults (20 men, 20 women) were familiarized with examples of masculine and feminine Russian words. Half…
Fahy, Patrick J.
In 1979 the adult basic education department at the Alberta Vocational Centre (AVC), Edmonton, began to use the Control Data PLATO system. Results of the first PLATO project showed students using PLATO learned at least as much as students in regular classes. Students learned faster and reported great satisfaction with PLATO experiences. Staff and…
Kissam, Ed; Dorsey, Holda
This module, which may be used as the basis for a workshop or as a special topic unit in an adult basic education or English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) course, focuses on access to adult learning opportunities. The following items are included: module overview; list of basic, thinking, interpersonal, information utilization, and other skills…
Roberts, Tim, Ed.
"Online Collaborative Learning: Theory and Practice" provides a resource for researchers and practitioners in the area of online collaborative learning (also known as CSCL, computer-supported collaborative learning), particularly those working within a tertiary education environment. It includes articles of relevance to those interested in both…
Comings, John, Ed.; Garner, Barbara, Ed.; Smith, Cristine, Ed.
"Review of Adult Learning and Literacy: Connecting Research, Policy, and Practice, Volume 6," is the newest volume in a series of annual publications of the National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy (NCSALL) that address major issues, the latest research, and the best practices in the field of adult literacy and learning. Each…
Comings, John, Ed.; Garner, Barbara, Ed.; Smith, Cristine, Ed.
"The Review of Adult Learning and Literacy: Connecting Research, Policy, and Practice, Volume 5" is a volume in a series of annual publications of the National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy (NCSALL) that address major issues, the latest research, and the best practices in the field of adult literacy and learning. Each…
Comings, John, Ed.; Garner, Barbara, Ed.; Smith, Cristine, Ed.
"The Review of Adult Learning and Literacy: Connecting Research Policy, and Practice, Volume 4" is an addition to a series of annual publications of the National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy (NCSALL) that address major issues, the latest research, and the best practices in the field of adult literacy and learning. "Volume 4"…
Neger, Thordis M.; Rietveld, Toni; Janse, Esther
Within a few sentences, listeners learn to understand severely degraded speech such as noise-vocoded speech. However, individuals vary in the amount of such perceptual learning and it is unclear what underlies these differences. The present study investigates whether perceptual learning in speech relates to statistical learning, as sensitivity to probabilistic information may aid identification of relevant cues in novel speech input. If statistical learning and perceptual learning (partly) draw on the same general mechanisms, then statistical learning in a non-auditory modality using non-linguistic sequences should predict adaptation to degraded speech. In the present study, 73 older adults (aged over 60 years) and 60 younger adults (aged between 18 and 30 years) performed a visual artificial grammar learning task and were presented with 60 meaningful noise-vocoded sentences in an auditory recall task. Within age groups, sentence recognition performance over exposure was analyzed as a function of statistical learning performance, and other variables that may predict learning (i.e., hearing, vocabulary, attention switching control, working memory, and processing speed). Younger and older adults showed similar amounts of perceptual learning, but only younger adults showed significant statistical learning. In older adults, improvement in understanding noise-vocoded speech was constrained by age. In younger adults, amount of adaptation was associated with lexical knowledge and with statistical learning ability. Thus, individual differences in general cognitive abilities explain listeners' variability in adapting to noise-vocoded speech. Results suggest that perceptual and statistical learning share mechanisms of implicit regularity detection, but that the ability to detect statistical regularities is impaired in older adults if visual sequences are presented quickly. PMID:25225475
Estey, Nancy; MacIsaac, Maitland; Rendell, Sandra
Based on the understanding that the capacity to learn is optimized in the early years, Early Learning Canada (ELC) is a community workshop program for parents and adults who work with children from birth to age 6 and their families to facilitate life-long learning. This workshop leader guide explains the ELC principles, examines learning styles…
Lau, Jennifer Y; Britton, Jennifer C; Nelson, Eric E; Angold, Adrian; Ernst, Monique; Goldwin, Michelle; Grillon, Christian; Leibenluft, Ellen; Lissek, Shmuel; Norcross, Maxine; Shiffrin, Nina; Pine, Daniel S
Most teenage fears subside with age, a change that may reflect brain maturation in the service of refined fear learning. Whereas adults clearly demarcate safe situations from real dangers, attenuating fear to the former but not the latter, adolescents' immaturity in prefrontal cortex function may limit their ability to form clear-cut threat categories, allowing pervasive fears to manifest. Here we developed a discrimination learning paradigm that assesses the ability to categorize threat from safety cues to test these hypotheses on age differences in neurodevelopment. In experiment 1, we first demonstrated the capacity of this paradigm to generate threat/safety discrimination learning in both adolescents and adults. Next, in experiment 2, we used this paradigm to compare the behavioral and neural correlates of threat/safety discrimination learning in adolescents and adults using functional MRI. This second experiment yielded three sets of findings. First, when labeling threats online, adolescents reported less discrimination between threat and safety cues than adults. Second, adolescents were more likely than adults to engage early-maturing subcortical structures during threat/safety discrimination learning. Third, adults' but not adolescents' engagement of late-maturing prefrontal cortex regions correlated positively with fear ratings during threat/safety discrimination learning. These data are consistent with the role of dorsolateral regions during category learning, particularly when differences between stimuli are subtle [Miller EK, Cohen JD (2001) Annu Rev Neurosci 24:167-202]. These findings suggest that maturational differences in subcortical and prefrontal regions between adolescent and adult brains may relate to age-related differences in threat/safety discrimination. PMID:21368210
Neroni, Joyce; Gijselaers, Hieronymus J. M.; Kirschner, Paul A.; Groot, Renate H. M.
Learning is crucial for everyone. The association between biological (eg, sleep, nutrition) and psychological factors (eg, test anxiety, goal orientation) and learning performance has been well established for children, adolescents and college students in traditional education. Evidence for these associations for adult distance students is lacking…
Council for Cultural Cooperation, Strasbourg (France).
The study prepares the ground for the introduction of a language learning system for adults. Part 1 presents a draft outline of such a system, in which the language material to be learned is organized into units and credits awarded on the completion of each unit. The content is defined with reference to the nature of the learners and their…
Rogers, Elice E.
Scholars have addressed adults and the impact of popular culture on adult learning, but little attention has been directed toward the relationship between adult learning and African Americans. Most specifically, minimal information is related to adult learning that evolves as a result of popular culture influences. Popular culture promotes…
The death of Paulo Freire in May 1997 was a momentous event for educators everywhere, especially adult educators, and a sad one for those who knew and loved him. The author has been thinking and writing about Freire's work for many years, exploring his contribution to a radical politics of adult education. While Freire's work features strongly in…
Mayo, Marjorie, Ed.; Thompson, Jane, Ed.
This collection of 21 essays reviews the context of developments in adult education in the last 15 years. "Adult Education for Change in the Nineties and Beyond" (Marjorie Mayo) is a critical review of the context for these changes and of the theoretical debates that attempt to analyze and explain them. "Challenging the Postmodern Condition"…
Roberts, Larry N.
With more adults seeking unique and meaningful learning experiences in both recreational and professional arenas, informal learning institutions, such as museums, zoos, and botanical gardens are a natural source. Informal learning opportunities are the business of these institutions; moreover, a goal in education mission statements of many of…
Kissam, Ed; Dorsey, Holda
This module, which may be used as the basis for a workshop or as a special topic unit in adult basic education or English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) courses, addresses learning to learn. It is designed to help instructors explain and demonstrate how learning is part of life and provide a valuable opportunity for them to engage their students in…
Brown, Tony, Ed.
This discussion paper is from the Adult Learners Week National Seminar on Lifelong Learning Policy (Canberra, Australia, September 1999) that identified a number of ideas about how to foster national policy development on lifelong learning. It consists of three sections. Part 1 contains "A National Lifelong Learning Policy for Australia?" (Tony…
Gegenfurtner, Andreas; Vauras, Marja
This meta-analysis (k = 38, N = 6977) examined age-related differences in the relation between motivation to learn and transfer of training, using data derived from the literature on adult continuing education of the past 25 years. Based on socioemotional selectivity theory, a lifespan approach to expectancy theory, and research on interest and…
Adkins, Cherie S
Christian nurses need to carefully evaluate a given theory for fit with their worldview before embracing it for use in professional practice. Evaluation of Transformative Learning Theory, from a Christian nurse's perspective through a biblical lens, reveals how this theory complements truths found in Scripture, in particular Romans 12:2. PMID:25898447
Comings, John, Ed.; Garner, Barbara, Ed.; Smith, Cristine, Ed.
This document contains eight papers on adult learning and literacy research and practice. "The Year 1999 in Review" (Dave Speights) presents an overview of adult learning and literacy research funding, policy, and activities in 1999. "Making Sense of Critical Pedagogy in Adult Literacy Education" (Sophie C. Degener) details a critical pedagogy…
Mason, Robb; Randell, Shirley
Australian adult education faces challenges from changing demography, shift away from Eurocentrism, a changing sociopolitical climate, lack of financial resources, and rising expectations for education. The future will bring increased attention to environmental education, indigenous peoples, and job training. (SK)
Sua, Dangbe Wuo
A study compared correctional adult educators and formal adult educators in terms of their expressed beliefs in the collaborative teaching mode as measured by the Principles of Adult Learning Scale. The sample consisted of 8 correctional adult educators from the Lake Correctional Institution and 10 adult education teachers from the Manatee Area…
Dupeyrat, Caroline; Marine, Claudette
This study tested and extended Dweck's social-cognitive theory of motivation with adults who deliberately chose to face the challenge of returning to school. We examined the relationships among beliefs (implicit theories) on the nature of intelligence, goal orientation, cognitive engagement in learning, and achievement using path analyses.…
Fahey, Kevin; Ippolito, Jacy
In the current, very complex, and even conflicted discourse about schools, one thing is clear: Schools need to be about student learning. Schools need to ensure that students are good readers, proficient writers, capable mathematicians, competent scientists, and knowledgeable historians. Students also need to learn to work together, be healthy, be…
Monk, David F.
The objective of this article is to investigate learning in museums through the lens of John Dewey's philosophy of education and experiential learning. The influence of Dewey's philosophy of education is widespread and resounding. In this article, I examine the experiential qualities of Dewey's philosophy and compare it with the objectives of the…
Jordan, Dale R.
This book reviews learning disabilities (LD) in adults and makes suggestions for helping adults cope with these disabilities. Each chapter covers a type of learning disability or related syndrome or explains characteristics of the brain. Chapter 1 explains several types of specific learning disabilities that make classroom performance difficult…
Building on Polanyi's insight in "The Tacit Dimension" that we know more than we can tell, this paper argues that we need to extend our understanding of learning to incorporate implicit learning, which is necessary in order to understand the process of becoming an expert and in so doing it points to the need to expand the theories of…
Maier, Steven F.; Seligman, Martin E. P.
Authors believes that three phenomena are all instances of "learned helplessness," instances in which an organism has learned that outcomes are uncontrollable by his responses and is seriously debilitated by this knowledge. This article explores the evidence for the phenomena of learned helplessness, and discussed a variety of theoretical…
Comings, John, Ed.; Garner, Barbara, Ed.; Smith, Cristine, Ed.
This review contains current information on research, policy, and practice in adult literacy and learning for individuals and organizations focused on adult basic education (ABE), adult English for speakers of other languages (ESOL), and adult secondary education (ASE) programs. "The Year 2000 In Review" (Lennox L. McLendon) describes the effects…
De Mol, Christine
Within the framework of statistical learning theory we analyze in detail the so-called elastic-net regularization scheme proposed by Zou and Hastie [H. Zou, T. Hastie, Regularization and variable selection via the elastic ...
The focus of Adult Learners Week in Estonia is on establishing a lifelong learning environment. Evaluation results indicate a need for more publicity outlets and volunteer support to carry out activities. (SK)
Lighthall, Nichole R.; Gorlick, Marissa A.; Schoeke, Andrej; Frank, Michael J.; Mather, Mara
Animal research and human neuroimaging studies indicate that stress increases dopamine levels in brain regions involved in reward processing and stress also appears to increase the attractiveness of addictive drugs. The current study tested the hypothesis that stress increases reward salience, leading to more effective learning about positive than negative outcomes in a probabilistic selection task. Changes to dopamine pathways with age raise the question of whether stress effects on incentive-based learning differ by age. Thus, the present study also examined whether effects of stress on reinforcement learning differed for younger (age 18–34) and older participants (age 65–85). Cold pressor stress was administered to half of the participants in each age group and salivary cortisol levels were used to confirm biophysiological response to cold stress. Following the manipulation, participants completed a probabilistic learning task involving positive and negative feedback. In both younger and older adults, stress enhanced learning about cues that predicted positive outcomes. In addition, during the initial learning phase, stress diminished sensitivity to recent feedback across age groups. These results indicate that stress affects reinforcement learning in both younger and older adults and suggests that stress exerts different effects on specific components of reinforcement learning depending on their neural underpinnings. PMID:22946523
Stewart, Barbara; Waight, Consuelo
Four cases relating to the efforts of e-learning teams in valuing adult learners in their e-learning solutions were examined to better understand how e-learning teams value their adult learners within corporate settings. Two questions guided the analysis of the cases, they are: (1) What is the nature of the e-learning solutions in these cases? (2)…
Tarhan, Leman; Sesen, Burcin Acar
This study focused on investigating the effectiveness of jigsaw cooperative learning instruction on first-year undergraduates' understanding of acid-base theories. Undergraduates' opinions about jigsaw cooperative learning instruction were also investigated. The participants of this study were 38 first-year undergraduates in chemistry education…
Atkins, Hilary; Moore, David; Sharpe, Simon; Hobbs, Dave
This paper looks at the low participation rates in computer mediated conferences (CMC) and argues that one of the causes of this may be an incompatibility between students' learning styles and the style adopted by CMC. Curry's Onion Model provides a well-established framework within which to view the main learning style theories (Riding and…
Wu, W-H.; Hsiao, H-C.; Wu, P-L.; Lin, C-H.; Huang, S-H.
Past studies on the issue of learning-theory foundations in game-based learning stressed the importance of establishing learning-theory foundation and provided an exploratory examination of established learning theories. However, we found research seldom addressed the development of the use or failure to use learning-theory foundations and…
1 Machine Learning, Chapter 7 CSE 574, Spring 2004 Computational Learning Theory (COLT) Goals: Theoretical characterization of 1. Difficulty of machine learning problems · Under what conditions is learning possible and impossible? 2. Capabilities of machine learning algorithms · Under what conditions
Livingstone, D. W.
The extent and distribution of self-reported learning activities in the current Canadian adult population was estimated on the basis of data collected during a 1998 telephone survey of a sample of 1,562 Canadian adults. Random digital dialing was used to give all provinces, households, and individuals within households an equal chance of…
Bertels, Julie; Boursain, Emeline; Destrebecqz, Arnaud; Gaillard, Vinciane
Visual statistical learning (VSL) is the ability to extract the joint and conditional probabilities of shapes co-occurring during passive viewing of complex visual configurations. Evidence indicates that even infants are sensitive to these regularities (e.g., Kirkham et al., 2002). However, there is continuing debate as to whether VSL is accompanied by conscious awareness of the statistical regularities between sequence elements. Bertels et al. (2012) addressed this question in young adults. Here, we adapted their paradigm to investigate VSL and conscious awareness in children. Using the same version of the paradigm, we also tested young adults so as to directly compare results from both age groups. Fifth graders and undergraduates were exposed to a stream of visual shapes arranged in triplets. Learning of these sequences was then assessed using both direct and indirect measures. In order to assess the extent to which learning occurred explicitly, we also measured confidence through subjective measures in the direct task (i.e., binary confidence judgments). Results revealed that both children and young adults learned the statistical regularities between shapes. In both age groups, participants who performed above chance in the completion task had conscious access to their knowledge. Nevertheless, although adults performed above chance even when they claimed to guess, there was no evidence of implicit knowledge in children. These results suggest that the role of implicit and explicit influences in VSL may follow a developmental trajectory. PMID:25620943
Tredinnick, Gerlind; Cocks, Naomi
This study investigated the effectiveness of a 1-day dysphagia training package delivered to support workers who work with adults with a learning disability. Thirty-eight support staff took part in this study. Twenty-five support staff received training, and 13 did not receive training and therefore acted as a control group. Three questionnaires…
Founded in the 1850s to promote an informed citizenry, public libraries advanced both adult learning and citizenship education in the first half of the 20th century, thus becoming cornerstones of democracy. But with a more recent decline in public engagement in libraries and beyond, librarians question whether democracy requires more than an…
Szuhay, Joseph A.; Williams, John M.
The report reviews 415 documents (1969-1982) on rehabilitation of adults with learning disabilities (LD). The vast majority of the literature reviewed emphasizes LD in children and/or education. A summary of content focuses on five major topics (sample subtopics in parentheses): legislation and regulations (eligibility of LD individuals 16 and…
Part-time courses for adults often claim the benefits of linking classroom learning to students' work experiences. Author discusses obstacles to the use of learners' experiences in the classroom and argues that attitude changes in learners and lecturers need to occur before full benefits of part-time study can be reaped. (Author/CSS)
This article presents the results of a mixed-methods study of the Adult Literacy Education Wiki. Two research questions framed the study: (1) What do participants report they have learned by contributing to the wiki? and (2) What is the nature of participation and collaboration in the wiki? A key finding of the study is that the wiki does not…
Sloane-Seale, Atlanta; Kops, Bill
This article examines the relationship between the participation of older adult learners in educational activities and successful aging. In partnership with seniors' organizations, focus-group interviews were conducted on seniors' involvement in learning and their perceptions of its influence on successful aging. Successful aging is defined in…
Bunck, C.M.; Bunck, T.J.; Sileo, L.
Adult male bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) were fed a diet containing 0, 25 or 100 ppm paraquat dichloride. After 60 d on treated diets, discrimination learning was evaluated with acquisition and reversal tests. The three groups performed similarly on these tests. Dose-related histopathological lesions were not found in liver, kidney or lung tissues
Bell, Raymond; And Others
In order to determine the nature and prevalence of learning deficiencies among adult inmates in U.S. correctional institutions, a sample of subjects was drawn from three institutions in each of the states of Louisiana, Pennsylvania, and Washington. One male maximum security, one male medium security, and one women's prison were selected in each of…
Dudzinska-Przesmitzki, Dana; Grenier, Robin S.
The taking up of an "educative" mantle has proven to be a complex task for museums, filled with many unknown and/or misunderstood factors. Of the vast assortment of educational opportunities museums afford their adult patrons and staff, the majority fall into one or two learning categories: either they are nonformal or informal. In effort to…
Cyprian, Onwubiko Emeka
This study seeks to understand how adult learning takes place in homestay programme at Kanchong Darat, Banting, and Selangor in Malaysia. The study seeks to provide an overview evaluation and some salient lessons that could be derived in providing quality homestay services to learners. More so, the study succinctly covers socio-cultural issues in…
This instructional unit on getting one's driver's license is one of six Adult Competency Education Learning Modules designed for use in a program of competency-based instruction for students with intermediate reading level ability. It is self-contained and designed for immediate classroom use. The module is comprised of 4 parts and 10 lessons: The…
This instructional unit on travel and transportation is one of six Adult Competency Education Learning Modules designed for use in a program of competency-based instruction for students with intermediate reading level ability. It is self-contained and designed for immediate classroom use. Each of five lessons contains these types of materials:…
Hilton, William J.
The cost-effective use of communications technologies to extend adult learning opportunities is one way state policymakers can face the challenge of responding to growing demands for essential public services. The major new educational technologies that are available are television, radio, telephone, computers, communications satellites, and…
In Timor-Leste, many adults learn to read and write in a multilingual context. The official languages are Tetum and Portuguese, 15 regional languages are being further developed and Bahasa Indonesia and English are accepted as working languages. Most literacy programmes take place in Tetum, the lingua franca, and often regional languages are used…
The objective of this research was to identify the effects of participation in learning on the subjective wellbeing of older adults. Data were from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), a large-scale, nationally representative survey of those aged 50 and above. The survey contains several wellbeing measures and information on three…
Woodruff, Elizabeth A.; Sinelnikov, Oleg A.
While many scholars agree that service learning is beneficial to both the student and the community, the research on service learning in the physical education setting is limited. However, there are courses that can be aligned with the professional preparation needs of students and the broader needs of the community. Drawing on theory which has…
O Fathaigh, Mairtin
An action research project was conducted to understand the learning style profile of Irish adult learners better and to integrate the findings into development seminars for adult education teachers and tutors. The Grasha-Riechmann Student Learning Styles Scale (GRSLSS) was chosen as the research instrument to explore Irish adults' learning styles…
Torres, Carlos Alberto
This article discusses some of the generalized analyses of adult learning education, mostly informed by technocratic thinking, highlighting perceived trends in adult learning education between CONFINTEA V and CONFITEA VI. Those trends could be understood as challenges. Employing a political sociology of adult learning education as a critique of…
Wang, Feihong; Lockee, Barbara B.; Burton, John K.
The purpose of this study was to investigate senior Chinese adults' potential acceptance of computer game-based learning (CGBL) by probing their perceptions of computer game play and their perceived impacts of game play on their learning of computer skills and life satisfaction. A total of 60 senior adults from a local senior adult learning center…
Beblavy, Miroslav; Thum, Anna-Elisabeth; Potjagailo, Galina
Adult learning is seen as a key factor for enhancing employment, innovation and growth. The aim of this paper is to understand the points in the life cycle at which adult learning takes place and whether it leads to reaching a medium or high level of educational attainment. We perform a synthetic panel analysis of adult learning for cohorts aged…
Howland, Karole A.; Liederman, Jacqueline
Purpose: To examine how adults with dyslexia versus adults with typical reading form lexical representations during pseudoword learning. Method: Twenty adults with dyslexia and 20 adults with typical reading learned meanings, spellings, and pronunciations of 16 pictured pseudowords, (half with regular and half with irregular grapheme-phoneme…
Knowledge Acquisition in Statistical Learning Theory Thesis submitted for the degree \\Doctor and the pleasure to work closely in the past two years. Much of the understanding I've gained in the theory, sharing hopes and dreams, challenging each other with scienti#12;c quizzes and racing in the steepest ski
Taylor, J. Rodney
The author reviews theories of human motivation: Lewin's force field analysis, Skinner's operant reinforcement theory, and Maslow's hierarchy of needs. He then extracts the implications of these theories for adult learning. SK)
Hock, Michael F.; Mellard, Daryl F.
Results from randomized controlled trials of learning strategies instruction with 375 adult basic education (AE) participants are reported. Reading outcomes from whole group strategic instruction in one of four learning strategies were compared to outcomes of reading instruction delivered in the context of typical adult education units on social studies, history, and science. Both experimental and control conditions experienced high attrition and low attendance, resulting in only 105 control and 100 experimental participants’ data in outcome analyses for the trials of the four learning strategies. Reading outcomes for these completers were not significantly different between experimental and control conditions, and each group achieved minimal gains. We discuss possible reasons for the non-significant effect from the intervention, including insufficient instructional dosage. PMID:22121409
Hill, Robert J.
The French philosopher Michel Foucault asks, "What's going on just now? What's happening to everyone? What is this world, this period, this precise moment in which everyone is living? Answers to these questions have a profound impact on learning. Before probing Foucault's questions regarding the nature of this precise moment and how they relate to…
Vogel, Susan A., Ed.; Reder, Stephen, Ed.
This book deals with the long-neglected problem of learning disabilities (LDs) and the relationship of LDs to difficulties in the acquisition of literacy. Its 17 chapters are divided into 5 sections that begin with an opener to help the reader identify the main themes and content of each chapter in the section. Four chapters in Section I address…
Stamer, Melissa K.; Vitevitch, Michael S.
Neighborhood density--the number of words that sound similar to a given word (Luce & Pisoni, 1998)--influences word learning in native English-speaking children and adults (Storkel, 2004; Storkel, Armbruster & Hogan, 2006): novel words with many similar sounding English words (i.e., dense neighborhood) are learned more quickly than novel words…
Aliakbari, Fatemeh; Parvin, Neda; Heidari, Mohammad; Haghani, Fariba
Learning theories are the main guide for educational systems planning in the classroom and clinical training included in nursing. The teachers by knowing the general principles of these theories can use their knowledge more effectively according to various learning situations. In this study, Eric, Medline, and Cochrane databases were used for articles in English and for the Persian literature, Magiran, Iran doc, Iran medex, and Sid databases were used with the help of keywords including social cognitive learning, learning theory, behavioral theory, cognitive theory, constructive theory, and nursing education. The search period was considered from 1990 to 2012. Some related books were also studied about each method, its original vision, the founders, practical application of the training theory, especially training of nursing and its strengths and weaknesses. Behaviorists believe that learning is a change in an observable behavior and it happens when the communication occurs between the two events, a stimulus and a response. Among the applications of this approach is the influence on the learner's emotional reactions. Among the theories of this approach, Thorndike and Skinner works are subject to review and critique. Cognitive psychologists unlike the behaviorists believe that learning is an internal process objective and they focus on thinking, understanding, organizing, and consciousness. Fundamentalists believe that learners should be equipped with the skills of inquiry and problem solving in order to learn by the discovery and process of information. Among this group, we will pay attention to analyze Wertheimer, Brunner, Ausubel theories, Ganyeh information processing model, in addition to its applications in nursing education. Humanists in learning pay attention to the feelings and experiences. Carl Rogers support the retention of learning-centered approach and he is believed to a semantic continuum. At the other end of the continuum, experiential learning is located with the meaning and meaningful. It applies the minds and feelings of the person. From this group, the main focus will be on the works of Rogers and Novels. Finally, it could be concluded that the usage of any of these theoriesin its place would be desired and useful. PMID:25767813
Jordan, Dale R.
This book is designed to show teachers how to reach out to adults and adolescents with learning disabilities and employ specific strategies for helping them to compensate for the disabilities and acquire literacy skills. The ways in which specific differences in brain structure inhibit the mastery of reading, spelling, handwriting, phonics, and…
Goodman, Noah D.
The very early appearance of abstract knowledge is often taken as evidence for innateness. We explore the relative learning speeds of abstract and specific knowledge within a Bayesian framework and the role for innate ...
Smith, M. Cecil, Ed.; Pourchot, Thomas, Ed.
Leading educational psychologists address problems in adult development and learning in this book. "What Does Educational Psychology Know about Adult Learning and Development?" (M. Cecil Smith, Thomas Pourchot) is the introduction. "We Learn, Therefore We Develop" (Nira Granott) tackles the problem of distinguishing between learning and…
Meyen, Edward L.; Schiefelbusch, Richard L.; Deshler, Donald D.; Alley, Gordon R.; Schumaker, Jean B.; Clark, Frances L.
Issues from the field of learning disabilities and the field of education in general which impact the learning disabled individual are discussed as they relate to research with learning disabled adolescents and young adults . Based on this knowledge...
learning for computer vision: Theory and algorithms Everything you wanted to know about machine learningSupervised learning for computer vision: Theory and algorithms - Introduction Francis Bach1 & Jean (but were afraid to ask) 2 #12;Supervised learning for computer vision: Theory and algorithms
Storkel, Holly L.; Bontempo, Daniel E.; Pak, Natalie S.
Purpose: In this study, the authors investigated adult word learning to determine how neighborhood density and practice across phonologically related training sets influence online learning from input during training versus offline memory evolution during no-training gaps. Method: Sixty-one adults were randomly assigned to learn low- or…
Leavitt, Carol C.
The purpose of this paper is to present three classical theories on organizational learning and conduct a comparative analysis that highlights their strengths, similarities, and differences. Two of the theories -- experiential learning theory and adaptive -- generative learning theory -- represent the thinking of the cognitive perspective, while…
Nahm, Eun-Shim; Barker, Bausell; Resnick, Barbara; Covington, Barbara; Magaziner, Jay; Brennan, Patricia Flatley
The purposes of this study were to develop a Social Cognitive Theory-based, structured Hip Fracture Prevention Web site for older adults and conduct a preliminary evaluation of its effectiveness. The Theory-based, structured Hip Fracture Prevention Web site is composed of learning modules and a moderated discussion board. A total of 245 older adults recruited from two Web sites and a newspaper advertisement were randomized into the Theory-based, structured Hip Fracture Prevention Web site and the conventional Web sites groups. Outcomes included (1) knowledge (hip fractures and osteoporosis), (2) self-efficacy and outcome expectations, and (3) calcium intake and exercise and were assessed at baseline, end of treatment (2 weeks), and follow-up (3 months). Both groups showed significant improvement in most outcomes. For calcium intake, only the Theory-based, structured Hip Fracture Prevention Web site group showed improvement. None of the group and time interactions were significant. The Theory-based, structured Hip Fracture Prevention Web site group, however, was more satisfied with the intervention. The discussion board usage was significantly correlated with outcome gains. Despite several limitations, the findings showed some preliminary effectiveness of Web-based health interventions for older adults and the use of a Theory-based, structured Hip Fracture Prevention Web site as a sustainable Web structure for online health behavior change interventions. PMID:20978408
This article is an account of how the author developed a comprehensive understanding of human learning over a period of almost 50 years. The learning theory includes the structure of learning, different types of learning, barriers of learning as well as how individual dispositions, age, the learning environment and general social and societal…
Allender, Susan Chou
A discussion of adult learners of English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) with special needs draws on what has been learned in an Australian program of adult immigrant ESL education and acculturation. It summarizes research undertaken within this program to identify groups of adult learners with special needs and the learning barriers that face them,…
Belanger, Paul; Bochynek, Bettina
The financing of adult learning in civil society in Europe was examined in an exploratory study that focused on the relationship between nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and the status of financing in the general field of adult learning. Adult education experts from the following countries were subcontracted to develop "country windows" on…
Aldaqre, Iyad; Paulus, Markus; Sodian, Beate
While typically developing children can use referential gaze to guide their word learning, those with autism spectrum disorder are often described to have problems with that. However, some researchers assume that the ability to follow gaze to select the correct referent can develop in autism later compared to typically developing individuals. To test this assumption, we compared the performance of adults with and without autism on a word learning task while recording their gaze behavior using an eye tracker. Results showed that both groups mostly chose the correct referent, but less so for the autism spectrum disorder group when the distractor's saliency was increased, suggesting that the ability to learn novel words by referring to gaze develops in autism spectrum disorder, but not fully, relative to their typically developing peers. PMID:25488004
of training sets to the hypothesis space of possible functional solutions. A central question for the theory. These functions could be acquired from training data. In another application in computational biology, algorithms from examples' is a paradigm in which systems (natural or artificial) learn a functional relationship
Effective music educators often recognize that there is more than one way to teach a musical objective and understand that a specific approach may be more appropriate than another in a given setting. To meet contemporary demands, music educators need to be smart--understanding the nuances of various theories of learning, savvy--understanding their…
Lee, Young-Jin; Palazzo, David J.; Warnakulasooriya, Rasil; Pritchard, David E.
We investigate short-term learning from hints and feedback in a Web-based physics tutoring system. Both the skill of students and the difficulty and discrimination of items were determined by applying item response theory (IRT) to the first answers of students who are working on for-credit homework items in an introductory Newtonian physics…
Dowrick, Peter W.
Self modeling (SM) offers a unique expansion of learning theory. For several decades, a steady trickle of empirical studies has reported consistent evidence for the efficacy of SM as a procedure for positive behavior change across physical, social, educational, and diagnostic variations. SM became accepted as an extreme case of model similarity;…
Anzai, Yuichiro; Simon, Herbert A.
A theory is proposed of the processes which enable a subject to learn while solving a problem. One subject's protocol--including 224 steps and taking 90 minutes--is described. Adequacy of the mechanisms is guaranteed by a computer simulation of the processes in an adaptive production system. (Author/GDC)
Thurlings, Marieke; Vermeulen, Marjan; Bastiaens, Theo; Stijnen, Sjef
This article aims to review literature on feedback to teachers. Because research has hardly focused on feedback among teachers, the review's scope also includes feedback in classrooms. The review proposes that the effectiveness of feedback and feedback processes depend on the learning theory adhered to. Findings show that regardless of the…
Kallenbach, Silja; Viens, Julie
This paper discusses how adult literacy educators chose to apply multiple intelligences (MI) theory. The findings fall into two categories of teachers' interpretation, MI-inspired instruction, and MI reflections. The resulting findings were that these MI-inspired teaching approaches helped to reduce teacher directedness and increase student…
Liu, Chun Ge
The themes of adult learning, cross-cultural learning, and transformative learning are common to many continuing educators working at universities across Canada. In this essay, I narrate my experiences as a mature, adult learner returning to university. Following a literature review and discussion of methodology, I begin this autobiographical…
Kidd, Terry T., Ed.; Keengwe, Jared, Ed.
As instructors move further into the incorporation of 21st century technologies in adult education, a new paradigm of digitally-enriched mediated learning has emerged. This book provides a comprehensive framework of trends and issues related to adult learning for the facilitation of authentic learning in the age of digital technology. This…
This research aimed to illuminate the experiences of adults with learning disabilities of the reflecting team, in the context of their systemic family therapy. Five adults with learning disabilities were recruited from one community learning disability team. A qualitative design using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) was appropriate…
Ranieri, Maria; Pachler, Norbert
This article explores the potential of mobile learning in adult education with a particular focus on identity formation and self-representation. It draws on the mobile learning experiences implemented within MyMobile--Education on the move, a European project (2010-2012) whose main purpose was to develop guidelines for mobile learning in adult…
Winn, James Bates
The purpose of this phenomenological study is to describe and better understand the meaning, structure, and essence of the experience of learning for adults labeled with learning disabilities as perceived by adults labeled with a "learning disability." Through a purposeful sampling method, six participants were chosen to participate in recorded…
This article describes a case study of adult learning in a Canadian multisite Community Cardiovascular Hearts in Motion program. The researcher highlights the informal learning of 40 adult participants in this 12-week community-based cardiac rehabilitation/education program in five rural Nova Scotia communities. The effects of this learning and…
Yun, Minwoo; Kim, Eunyoung
Since the mid-1990s, illicit drug use has become a problem in Korean society. This trend is likely due to the rapid globalization and expansion that occurred with the Internet revolution, which led to greater numbers of people socially learning about drug culture. The current study attempts to uncover criminogenic causality of such social learning about drug use by studying adult felony drug offenders in South Korea. The data used for the study were obtained from self-reported surveys, originally collected by the Korean Institution of Criminology (KIC). The final sample comprised 1,452 felony offenders convicted of illicit drug use, and their responses were analyzed with a set of multiple logistic regression tests. The current study found supportive evidence for the generalizability of social learning theory from the sample of the South Korean adult drug offenders. We argue that the current study provides additional empirical evidence that supports the generalizability of social learning theory. PMID:24752638
Board, Raymond Acton
This thesis addresses problems from two areas of theoretical computer science. The first area is that of computational learning theory, which is the study of the phenomenon of concept learning using formal mathematical models. The goal of computational learning theory is to investigate learning in a rigorous manner through the use of techniques…
Hense, Jan; Mandl, Heinz
This conceptual paper aims to clarify the theoretical underpinnings of game based learning (GBL) and learning with digital learning games (DLGs). To do so, it analyses learning of game related skills and contents, which occurs constantly during playing conventional entertainment games, from three perspectives: learning theory, emotion theory, and…
This paper develops a dialogic theory of thinking and of learning to think that has implications for education. The theory is offered as a contrast to theories that are based on both Piaget and Vygotsky. The paper proceeds by unpacking and interweaving three key concepts: dialogue, thinking and learning in order to argue that learning to think can…
Bowman, Stephanie L.; Plourde, Lee A.
Teens and young adults with Intellectual Disabilities (ID) meet the criteria of teen and adult learners chronologically, but may be deficient in many other areas of teen and adult learning. The spectrum of intellectual and adaptive capabilities among teens and adults with ID is vast, with each individual being unique. There are specific teaching…
To encourage male participation in adult learning, especially education aimed at antiviolence, parenting skills, and attitudes toward women, adult educators should use creative marketing strategies. Knowledge of marketing principles should be applied to both program design and promotion. (SK)
Eidsvåg, Sunniva Sørhus; Austad, Margit; Asbjørnsen, Arve E.
Purpose This experiment investigated whether input variability would affect initial learning of noun gender subcategories in an unfamiliar, natural language (Russian), as it is known to assist learning of other grammatical forms. Method Forty adults (20 men, 20 women) were familiarized with examples of masculine and feminine Russian words. Half of the participants were familiarized with 32 different root words in a high-variability condition. The other half were familiarized with 16 different root words, each repeated twice for a total of 32 presentations in a high-repetition condition. Participants were tested on untrained members of the category to assess generalization. Familiarization and testing was completed 2 additional times. Results Only participants in the high-variability group showed evidence of learning after an initial period of familiarization. Participants in the high-repetition group were able to learn after additional input. Both groups benefited when words included 2 cues to gender compared to a single cue. Conclusions The results demonstrate that the degree of input variability can influence learners' ability to generalize a grammatical subcategory (noun gender) from a natural language. In addition, the presence of multiple cues to linguistic subcategory facilitated learning independent of variability condition. PMID:25680081
Leach, Laura; Samuel, Arthur G.
People know thousands of words in their native language, and each of these words must be learned at some time in the person's lifetime. A large number of these words will be learned when the person is an adult, reflecting the fact that the mental lexicon is continuously changing. We explore how new words get added to the mental lexicon, and provide empirical support for a theoretical distinction between what we call lexical configuration and lexical engagement. Lexical configuration is the set of factual knowledge associated with a word (e.g., the word's sound, spelling, meaning, or syntactic role). Almost all previous research on word learning has focused on this aspect. However it is also critical to understand the process by which a word becomes capable of lexical engagement – the ways in which a lexical entry dynamically interacts with other lexical entries, and with sublexical representations. For example, lexical entries compete with each other during word recognition (inhibition within the lexical level), and they also support the activation of their constituents (top-down lexical-phonemic facilitation, and lexically-based perceptual learning). We systematically vary the learning conditions for new words, and use separate measures of lexical configuration and engagement. Several surprising dissociations in behavior demonstrate the importance of the theoretical distinction between configuration and engagement. PMID:17367775
This research aims to understand language learning strategies of Thai adult learners and factors affecting their strategy use. The participants are forty officers of General Service Division of the Council of State of Thailand, attending an English training course for developing their work potential. The data were collected through the…
Buxton, Eric; De Muth, James
Reduced corporate training budgets require cost efficiencies in professional development. Distance learning, with its lower intrinsic costs, will likely become more prevalent. Therefore, the educational experience will change for many professionals. The objective of this study was to examine the perceptions of adult learners attending a drug…
Perkins, Rosie; Aufegger, Lisa; Williamon, Aaron
Music is increasingly recognised as important in facilitating healthy ageing, yet little is known of what musicians themselves learn when they teach older adults. This article reports the practices of the "Rhythm for Life" project at the Royal College of Music in the UK, in which conservatoire students taught 10-week programmes of group…
Stamer, Melissa K.; Vitevitch, Michael S.
Neighborhood density—the number of words that sound similar to a given word (Luce & Pisoni, 1998)—influences word-learning in native English speaking children and adults (Storkel, 2004; Storkel, Armbruster, & Hogan, 2006): novel words with many similar sounding English words (i.e., dense neighborhood) are learned more quickly than novel words with few similar sounding English words (i.e., sparse neighborhood). The present study examined how neighborhood density influences word-learning in native English speaking adults learning Spanish as a foreign language. Students in their third-semester of Spanish language classes learned advanced Spanish words that sounded similar to many known Spanish words (i.e., dense neighborhood) or sounded similar to few known Spanish words (i.e., sparse neighborhood). In three word-learning tasks, performance was better for Spanish words with dense rather than sparse neighborhoods. These results suggest that a similar mechanism may be used to learn new words in a native and a foreign language. PMID:23950692
Prins, Lisa; Pauchulo, Ana Laura; Brooke, Auralia; Corrigan, Joe
We ask the reader to consider a proposal for cooperative renewal in the evaluation of a course (OurU) offered in partnership between a university and community-based adult learning center. This proposal's aim is to enhance adult learners' ability to evaluate their learning experiences, with the goal of adopting more learner-directed content into…
Vaughn, Lisa; del Rey, Javier Gonzalez; Baker, Raymond
Introduces Microburst Teaching and Learning, a strategy for combining various teaching styles and methods in 'bursts' with different learning styles to enhance the learning process. The model accommodates adult learning theory, adult attention span, learner motivation, the variety of learning styles found in learners, and the need for efficiency.…
Stamer, Melissa K.
Neighborhood density refers to the number of similar sounding words to a target word (Luce & Pisoni, 1998) and influences first language word learning in adults learning English (Storkel, Armbruster, & Hogan, 2006). There are two processes in word...
Kallenbach, Silja; Viens, Julie
The Adult Multiple Intelligences Study was the first systematic effort related to multiple intelligences (MI) theory in adult literacy education. The study's findings regarding MI theory served as the foundation for a study of MI theory's implications for adult literacy practice, policy, and research. The study was conducted across 10 different…
Mackay, David J. C.
Information theory and inference, often taught separately, are here united in one entertaining textbook. These topics lie at the heart of many exciting areas of contemporary science and engineering - communication, signal processing, data mining, machine learning, pattern recognition, computational neuroscience, bioinformatics, and cryptography. This textbook introduces theory in tandem with applications. Information theory is taught alongside practical communication systems, such as arithmetic coding for data compression and sparse-graph codes for error-correction. A toolbox of inference techniques, including message-passing algorithms, Monte Carlo methods, and variational approximations, are developed alongside applications of these tools to clustering, convolutional codes, independent component analysis, and neural networks. The final part of the book describes the state of the art in error-correcting codes, including low-density parity-check codes, turbo codes, and digital fountain codes -- the twenty-first century standards for satellite communications, disk drives, and data broadcast. Richly illustrated, filled with worked examples and over 400 exercises, some with detailed solutions, David MacKay's groundbreaking book is ideal for self-learning and for undergraduate or graduate courses. Interludes on crosswords, evolution, and sex provide entertainment along the way. In sum, this is a textbook on information, communication, and coding for a new generation of students, and an unparalleled entry point into these subjects for professionals in areas as diverse as computational biology, financial engineering, and machine learning.
Taymans, Juliana M.
Although the exact prevalence is not determined, a noticeable subset of individuals who enroll in adult education and training programs have either diagnosed or undiagnosed specific learning disabilities (SLD). Understanding SLD is important basic information for adult educators to inform program policies as well as determine effective…
Byrd, Courtney T.; McGregor, Karla K.; Zimmerman, Hannah; Bludau, Kadee
Purpose The purpose of this study was to characterize the verbal memory limitations of young adults with language learning disability (LLD). Method Sixteen young adults with LLD and 34 age- and education-matched controls with typical language participated in a Deese–Roediger–McDermott (DRM; Deese, 1959; Roediger & McDermott, 1995) list recall experiment. Participants listened to 12-item word lists that converged on a nonpresented critical item (e.g., rain) semantically (umbrella, drench, weather, hail), phonologically (train, main, ran, wren), or dually in a hybrid list (umbrella, train, drench, main) and recalled words in no particular order. Group comparisons were made on veridical recall (i.e., words that were presented) and false recall of nonpresented critical items. Recall performance was analyzed by list type and list position to examine potential differences in the quality of memorial processes. Results The LLD group produced fewer veridical recalls than the controls. Both groups demonstrated list type and list position effects in veridical recall. False recall of the critical items was comparable in the 2 groups and varied by list type in predictable ways. Conclusion Young adults with LLD have verbal memory limitations characterized by quantitatively low levels of accurate recall. Qualitative patterns of recall are similar to those of unaffected peers. Therefore, the memory problem is characterized by limited capacity; memorial processes appear to be intact. PMID:25652445
Hassan, O. A. B.
This paper attempts to critically review theories of learning from the perspective of engineering education in order to align relevant assessment methods with each respective learning theory, considering theoretical aspects and practical observations and reflections. The role of formative assessment, taxonomies, peer learning and educational…
Intelligence Through Interaction: Towards a Unified Theory for Learning Ah-Hwee Tan1 , Gail A-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2007 #12;Intelligence Through Interaction Towards a Unified Theory for Learning 1095,email@example.com Abstract. Machine learning, a cornerstone of intelligent systems, has typically been studied in the context
Painter, Rachel L.
Originating from the literature on resiliency, adult learning, and professional development, this qualitative study investigated how the relationship between resiliency and adult learning influenced professional development in one suburban-rural school district in Litchfield County, Connecticut. Data represent findings on the perceptions of…
The purpose of this study is to explore the social outcomes of older adult learning in Taiwan. In light of our society's aging population structure, the task of establishing evaluation framework and indicators for the social outcomes of learning (SOL) as applied to older adults is urgent. In order to construct evaluation indicators for older…
Kruse, Nathan B.
Discovering the perceptions that non-professional adult musicians hold regarding their participation in community ensembles may help improve instruction as well as the ability to more fully understand the implications of lifelong music making. Andragogy, or the teaching and learning strategies associated with adult learning, provided the impetus…
Jones, F. W.; Long, K.; Finlay, W. M. L.
Background: This study aimed to test the hypothesis that adding symbols to written text can improve its comprehensibility for adults with learning disabilities. Methods: Nineteen adults with mild or borderline learning disabilities attempted to read four short passages of text, two of which had Widgit Rebus symbols added to them. Following each…
Ambrosino, Audrey M.
Recent years have witnessed a renewed interest in the role of museums and cultural festivals in adult learning. Once considered the keepers of physical and cultural history, there was only limited concern for if and how adults learned from these settings. The conventional view held that museums provided knowledge, and it was an individual's…
Chang, Dian-Fu; Lin, Sung-Po
Since the government enacted the "Lifelong Learning Act" in 2002, Taiwanese working adults consider lifelong learning as a better route to increase their employability or competitiveness at work. This study analyzed the survey on adults administered by the Ministry of Education in Taiwan in 2008, and statistics analysis showed a close relationship…
Hawkins, Andrew; Look, Roger
This study examined levels of, and barriers to, physical activity in a population of 19 adults with learning disabilities living in community supported accommodation, using diary records and semi-structured interviews with staff. The levels of physical activity were higher in the sample population than previous figures for adults with learning…
Kawalilak, Colleen; Wells, Noella; Connell, Lynn; Beamer, Kate
This exploratory qualitative study focused on 1) the learning needs of Aboriginal adult learners residing in selected First Nations communities in rural Alberta and 2) the potential for increasing access to e-learning education. Through open dialogue with First Nations community leaders, Aboriginal adult learners, and Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal…
Jobs for the Future, Boston, MA.
This guide assists family literacy and adult education organizations considering ways in which work and learning can be integrated in their educational programs. Part I addresses influences motivating the family literacy and adult education fields to incorporate work-related learning into their efforts. Part II provides a framework for designing…
Clover, Darlene E.
Increasingly, practices of collective arts-based learning are being used by adult educators and community organizations as creative and participatory ways to respond to contemporary social or environmental issues. Investigating the potential contributions of arts-based learning to cross-cultural and antiracisms adult education was the aim of this…
Kawalilak, Colleen; Wihak, Wihak
Prior Learning Assessment and Recognition (PLAR) offers adults formal recognition for learning obtained through non-formal and informal means. The practice reflects both equity and economic development concerns (Keeton, 2000). In the field of Adult Education as a formal study, however, tensions exist between honouring the learner and honouring the…
Sinatra, Richard; Eschenauer, Robert
Four-week summer academy programs served homeless children and adults in two contiguous innovative learning programs. The programs may be the first of their kind in the homeless literature in which both adults and children were exposed to career, academic, and leadership opportunities in the supportive learning environment of a university campus,…
This qualitative study aimed to add to the research on the self-concept of adults with mild learning disabilities and to generate a deeper understanding of their self-perceptions rather than draw generalised quantitative conclusions. Eight adults diagnosed with mild learning disabilities receiving support from a supported living project were…
Balatti, Jo; Falk, Ian
The socioeconomic contributions of adult learning to community were examined from a social capital perspective. The concepts of human capital and social capital were differentiated, and the relationship between learning, human capital, and social capital was explored. The relevance of social capital in describing the wider benefits of adult…
Martin, John P.
A number of factors have come together to generate a renewed interest in adult learning in Organization for Economic Cooperation Development (OECD) countries, including emphasis on demand shifts associated with technology and globalization; large size of skills needs; and aging population. Major gaps in knowledge about adult learning still hinder…
Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni; Cunillera, Toni; Mestres-Missé, Anna; de Diego-Balaguer, Ruth
Little is known about the brain mechanisms involved in word learning during infancy and in second language acquisition and about the way these new words become stable representations that sustain language processing. In several studies we have adopted the human simulation perspective, studying the effects of brain-lesions and combining different neuroimaging techniques such as event-related potentials and functional magnetic resonance imaging in order to examine the language learning (LL) process. In the present article, we review this evidence focusing on how different brain signatures relate to (i) the extraction of words from speech, (ii) the discovery of their embedded grammatical structure, and (iii) how meaning derived from verbal contexts can inform us about the cognitive mechanisms underlying the learning process. We compile these findings and frame them into an integrative neurophysiological model that tries to delineate the major neural networks that might be involved in the initial stages of LL. Finally, we propose that LL simulations can help us to understand natural language processing and how the recovery from language disorders in infants and adults can be accomplished. PMID:19933142
Learning from examples is a very effective means of initial cognitive skill acquisition. There is an enormous body of research on the specifics of this learning method. This article presents an instructionally oriented theory of example-based learning that integrates theoretical assumptions and findings from three research areas: learning from…
Ginns, Paul; Martin, Andrew J.; Papworth, Brad
Biggs' 3P (Presage-Process-Product) model, a key framework in Student Learning Theory, provides a powerful means of understanding relations between students' perceptions of the teaching and learning environment, learning strategies, and learning outcomes. While influential in higher education, fewer tests of the model in secondary…
Fotheringham, Diane; Lamont, David; Macbride, Tamsin; MacKenzie, Laura
Nurse educators internationally are challenged with finding a sufficient number of suitable practice learning experiences for student nurses. This paper reports on a study which aimed to evaluate the utilisation of specialised and highly technical environments ("new" environments) as first practice learning experiences for adult nursing students in the UK. A survey was conducted on 158 first year student nurses who were allocated to either "new" or "old" (those that have been traditionally used) environments. Data analysis was conducted using Mann-Whitney U test and exploratory factor analysis was performed. Results have demonstrated that all environments afford novice nurses the opportunity to observe or practice the essential skills of nursing. In addition, the "new" environments have revealed greater opportunity to observe and practice aspects of practice related to governance of care. This paper concludes that a nursing curriculum which makes clear association between the essential nature of nursing and practice based learning outcomes will help the student to appreciate contemporary nursing practice and to link nursing theory with practice. Further research is required to explain the observation that aspects of practice related to governance are more visible within highly technical areas of practice. PMID:25481982
This book, based on the work of a teacher and community development expert with many years of teaching adult education in numerous developing countries all over the world, provides a process for teaching and learning with adults. The book is illustrated with stories from the author's experience and examples that show how to begin, set up, carry…
An Analysis of Stochastic Game Theory for Multiagent Reinforcement Learning Michael Bowling Manuela and adapt. Stochastic games, first studied in the game theory community, are a natural extension of MDPs techniques for solving stochastic games from both the game theory community and reinforcement learning
Jiang, Xiaoye; Yao, Yuan; Ye, Yinyu
We propose techniques for learning a global ranking from data that may be incomplete and imbalanced -- characteristics almost universal to modern datasets coming from e-commerce and internet applications. We are primarily interested in score or rating-based cardinal data. From raw ranking data, we construct pairwise rankings, represented as edge flows on an appropriate graph. Our rank learning method uses the graph Helmholtzian, the graph theoretic analogue of the Helmholtz operator or vector Laplacian, in much the same way the graph Laplacian is an analogue of the Laplace operator or scalar Laplacian. We study the graph Helmholtzian using combinatorial Hodge theory: we show that every edge flow representing pairwise ranking can be resolved into two orthogonal components, a gradient flow that represents the L2-optimal global ranking and a divergence-free flow (cyclic) that measures the validity of the global ranking obtained -- if this is large, then the data does not have a meaningful global ranking. This di...
Boswell, Stefanie S.
This study investigated the effect of a semester-long aging and adult development course that included an intergenerational, service-learning component on attitudes toward older adult men and women, aging anxiety, and interest in occupations that serve older adults among individuals training for careers in healthcare and social services. It also…
A staff development program was conducted to provide adult educators in Pennsylvania with information about adults with learning differences and information about using alternative instructional tools and techniques to instruct such adults. The following four training sessions were developed: (1) Teaching GED (General Educational Development) Math…
Adult Learning, 2012
This article presents the Belem Framework for Action. This framework focuses on harnessing the power and potential of adult learning and education for a viable future. This framework begins with a preamble on adult education and towards lifelong learning.
Instructional Technology and the Adult Learner. Theory, Innovation, and Practice in Andragogy. No. 2. = La Technologia Educativa y el Aprendiz Adulto. Teoria, Innovacion y Practica en Andragogia. No. 2.
This second issue of a series on theory, innovation, and practice in andragogy analyzes some of the instructional variables in adult learning and discusses ways to influence the degree of learning through the application of instructional and behavioral technologies. It unites theory and practice, generating recommendations from the abstract…
Blair, J E
Occupational health nurses can facilitate the design of more effective health promotion programs by utilizing theories of behavior change. Planning a health promotion program based on the Social Learning Theory includes an assessment of personal as well as environmental factors that influence behavior. The motivation of employees to make behavior changes can be enhanced by raising their awareness of the problem, engaging clients in the process of goal setting, and making self-satisfaction conditional on a certain level of performance. Goal setting with attainable subgoals creates and sustains self-motivation, which can lead to larger, future goals. Interpreting the consequences of health behavior can be an incentive for individuals who value the perceived effects of lifestyle changes. PMID:8512608
Strawn, Clare L.
This study of social capital employs data from the Longitudinal Study of Adult Learning (LSAL), funded by the National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy (NCSALL) and conducted at Portland State University to increase understanding of the learning process of adults with limited formal education. It provides longitudinal data on…
Pilling, Rachel F.
Equality of access to health care for adults with learning disability has been in the spotlight in the UK in recent years due to publication of several reports. Adults with learning disability are thought to account for a significant proportion of the diabetic population in the UK. A list of adults known to the learning disability health…
Ellis, Nick C.; Sagarra, Nuria
This study investigates associative learning explanations of the limited attainment of adult compared to child language acquisition in terms of learned attention to cues. It replicates and extends Ellis and Sagarra (2010) in demonstrating short- and long-term learned attention in the acquisition of temporal reference in Latin. In Experiment 1,…
Ziegler, Mary; Durant, Chas; Mincey, Rosemarie
Six adult basic education programs were examined to understand why they reported higher than average attendance for welfare recipients. Learners saw class not as mandatory, but as a way to achieve goals. Programs focused on engagement, a precursor to learning. Engagement factors included beliefs about teaching/learning, relationships, learning…
Wong, Patrick C. M.; Perrachione, Tyler K.
The current study investigates the learning of nonnative suprasegmental patterns for word identification. Native English-speaking adults learned to use suprasegmentals (pitch patterns) to identify a vocabulary of six English pseudosyllables superimposed with three pitch patterns (18 words). Successful learning of the vocabulary necessarily…
Fletcher, Jo; Nicholas, Karen; Davis, Niki
Many adults need help with literacy learning. This is extremely challenging for the tertiary education sector and workplace-situated learning organisations. E-learning may be an effective and efficient way to improve the delivery of teaching of basic skills to learners. Our research study included five embedded case studies within one tertiary…
Tims, Nereida Rodrigues
This study focus on Project-Based Learning (PBL) as an instructional approach that, among other important features, promotes hands-on meaningful learning for adult ESL learners and permits them to connect what they learn in the classroom to real life, along with opportunities to develop the four language skills in an integrated and contextualized…
Baker, Janette, Ed.
Theories on adult development and learning and some of the Ontario universities' programs and services for the adult learner are examined, and Athabasca University, Alberta's answer to the British Open University, is described. Peter O'Donnell discusses adult learners' needs and explains how Athabasca University serves this specific type of…
Kilpi-Jakonen, Elina; Vono de Vilhena, Daniela; Blossfeld, Hans-Peter
Adult learning is an increasingly important form of education in globalised and aging societies. While current policy recommendations tend to focus on increasing participation rates, the authors of this article argue that higher participation rates do not necessarily lead to lower social/educational inequalities in participation. The aim of this paper is to examine the relationship between social inequalities and adult learning by exploring cross-national patterns of participation in different adult learning activities and the consequences of participation on individual labour market trajectories. The empirical basis of the paper is an analysis of 13 country studies (as well as two cross-national analyses) brought together by the international comparative research project "Education as a lifelong process - comparing educational trajectories in modern societies" ( eduLIFE). Despite wide variations in participation rates across countries, mechanisms of social/educational inequality in engagement in job-related adult learning tend to be relatively similar across countries, in particular with regard to non-formal learning. Effects tend most frequently to be a presence of cumulative advantage, though in some countries a certain degree of equalisation is noticeable with regard to formal adult education. The authors conclude that it is relatively clear that currently almost no country is truly able to reduce social inequalities through adult learning. Their recommendation is that public policy makers should place greater emphasis on making adult learning more accessible (in terms of entry requirements, affordability as well as motivation) to underrepresented groups, in particular those who are educationally disadvantaged.
Kilpi-Jakonen, Elina; Vono de Vilhena, Daniela; Blossfeld, Hans-Peter
Adult learning is an increasingly important form of education in globalised and aging societies. While current policy recommendations tend to focus on increasing participation rates, the authors of this article argue that higher participation rates do not necessarily lead to lower social/educational inequalities in participation. The aim of this paper is to examine the relationship between social inequalities and adult learning by exploring cross-national patterns of participation in different adult learning activities and the consequences of participation on individual labour market trajectories. The empirical basis of the paper is an analysis of 13 country studies (as well as two cross-national analyses) brought together by the international comparative research project "Education as a lifelong process - comparing educational trajectories in modern societies" (eduLIFE). Despite wide variations in participation rates across countries, mechanisms of social/educational inequality in engagement in job-related adult learning tend to be relatively similar across countries, in particular with regard to non-formal learning. Effects tend most frequently to be a presence of cumulative advantage, though in some countries a certain degree of equalisation is noticeable with regard to formal adult education. The authors conclude that it is relatively clear that currently almost no country is truly able to reduce social inequalities through adult learning. Their recommendation is that public policy makers should place greater emphasis on making adult learning more accessible (in terms of entry requirements, affordability as well as motivation) to underrepresented groups, in particular those who are educationally disadvantaged.
Willis, Jerry W.
For a number of years, the Software Technology Branch of the Information Systems Directorate has been involved in the application of cutting edge hardware and software technologies to instructional tasks related to NASA projects. The branch has developed intelligent computer aided training shells, instructional applications of virtual reality and multimedia, and computer-based instructional packages that use fuzzy logic for both instructional and diagnostic decision making. One outcome of the work on space-related technology-supported instruction has been the creation of a significant pool of human talent in the branch with current expertise on the cutting edges of instructional technologies. When the human talent is combined with advanced technologies for graphics, sound, video, CD-ROM, and high speed computing, the result is a powerful research and development group that both contributes to the applied foundations of instructional technology and creates effective instructional packages that take advantage of a range of advanced technologies. Several branch projects are currently underway that combine NASA-developed expertise to significant instructional problems in public education. The branch, for example, has developed intelligent computer aided software to help high school students learn physics and staff are currently working on a project to produce educational software for young children with language deficits. This report deals with another project, the adult literacy tutor. Unfortunately, while there are a number of computer-based instructional packages available for adult literacy instruction, most of them are based on the same instructional models that failed these students when they were in school. The teacher-centered, discrete skill and drill-oriented, instructional strategies, even when they are supported by color computer graphics and animation, that form the foundation for most of the computer-based literacy packages currently on the market may not be the most effective or most desirable way to use computer technology in literacy programs. This project is developing a series of instructional packages that are based on a different instructional model - authentic instruction. The instructional development model used to create these packages is also different. Instead of using the traditional five stage linear, sequential model based on behavioral learning theory, the project uses the recursive, reflective design and development model (R2D2) that is based on cognitive learning theory, particularly the social constructivism of Vygotsky, and an epistemology based on critical theory. Using alternative instructional and instructional development theories, the result of the summer faculty fellowship is LiteraCity, a multimedia adult literacy instructional package that is a simulation of finding and applying for a job. The program, which is about 120 megabytes, is distributed on CD-ROM.
Mahan, John D; Stein, David S
It is important in teaching adults to recognize the essential characteristics of adult learners and how these characteristics define their learning priorities and activities. The seven key premises and practices for teaching adults provide a good guide for those interested in helping adults learn. The emerging science of the neurobiology of learning provides powerful new insights into how learning occurs in the complex integrated neural network that characterizes the adult. Differentiation of the two types of thinking: System 1 (fast, intuitive, and, often, emotional) and System 2 (slower, deliberate, and logical). System 1 thinking helps explain the basis for quick decisions and reliance of humans on heuristics (or rules of thumb) that leads to the type of convenient thinking associated with errors of thinking and judgment. We now know that the learning experience has an objective location-in the temporal and parietal lobes-as persistent dynamic networks of neurons and neuronal connections. Learning is initially stored in transient working memory (relatively limited capacity and time frame) and then moved under the right conditions to more long-lasting/stable memory (with larger capacity) that is stored for future access and development. It is clear that memories are not static and are not destined, once developed, to forever remain as stable constructs; rather, memories are dynamic, always available for modulation and alteration, and heavily invested with context, emotion, and other operant factors. The framework for such neural networks involves new neuronal connections, enhanced neuronal synaptic transmission, and neuron generation. Ten key teaching and learning concepts derived from recent neurobiology studies on learning and memory are presented. As the neurobiology of learning is better defined, the basis for how adults best learn, and even the preferences they display, can be employed as the physiological foundation for our best methods to effectively teach adults and facilitate their learning. PMID:24981663
Sargeant, Joan; Curran, Vernon; Allen, Michael; Jarvis-Selinger, Sandra; Ho, Kendall
Introduction: An earlier study of physicians' perceptions of interactive online learning showed that these were shaped both by program design and quality and the quality and quantity of interpersonal interaction. We explore instructor roles in enhancing online learning through interpersonal interaction and the learning theories that inform these.…
Phillips, Rob; Kennedy, Gregor; McNaught, Carmel
This paper attempts a fundamental analysis of the nature of research into e-learning and the role that theory plays in this. We examine "research" in broad terms, and the nature of phenomena in general. We identify that e-learning is an artificial phenomenon, and that research approaches need to be cognisant of the design elements in e-learning,…
In this article, a case is made that affect is central in determining students' experience of learning or not learning mathematics. I show how reversal theory (Apter, 2001), and particularly its taxonomy of motivations and emotions, provides a basis for a thick description of students' experiences of learning in a mathematics classroom. Using data…
Tuijnman, Albert C., Ed.; Van Der Kamp, Max, Ed.
This book contains 15 papers on the following topics related to lifelong learning: lifespan development and education, capacity to learn in the lifespan, skills formation in the workplace, learning to learn in the lifespan, and implications for policy and practice. The following papers are included: "Learning for Life: New Ideas, New Significance"…
Task-Based Language Teaching (TBLT) has become increasingly recognized as an effective pedagogy, but its location in generalized sociocultural theories of learning has led to misunderstandings and criticism. The purpose of this article is to explain the congruence between TBLT and Expansive Learning Theory and the benefits of doing so. The merit…
Kucukaydin, Ilhan; Cranton, Patricia
In this article, the authors critically examine the way discourse enters into and becomes embedded in transformative learning theory, especially from the extrarational or depth psychology perspective. The authors begin by providing an overview of how transformative learning theory has developed in diverse directions, including the extrarational…
Application of Statistical Learning Theory to DNA Microarray Analysis by Sayan Mukherjee B INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY July 2001 c Massachusetts Institute of Technology 2001. All rights reserved. Author Learning Theory to DNA Microarray Analysis by Sayan Mukherjee Submitted to the Department of Brain Sciences
For students, theory is often one of the most daunting aspects of sociology--it seems abstract, removed from the concrete events of their everyday lives, and therefore intimidating. In an attempt to break down student resistance to theory, instructors are increasingly turning to active learning approaches. Active learning exercises, then, appear…
Lawton, Pamela Harris; La Porte, Angela M.
Quality community-based art education programs for older adults over the age of 50 should exploit the broad range of interests and cognitive abilities of participants by utilizing adult education theory, brain research, and the best practices of adult art education programs. We consider a developing paradigm on the cognitive abilities of the…
Arsenault, Louis-Francois; Lopez-Bezanilla, Alejandro; von Lilienfeld, O. Anatole; Littlewood, P. B.; Millis, Andy
Machine Learning (ML), an approach that infers new results from accumulated knowledge, is in use for a variety of tasks ranging from face and voice recognition to internet searching and has recently been gaining increasing importance in chemistry and physics. In this talk, we investigate the possibility of using ML to solve the equations of dynamical mean field theory which otherwise requires the (numerically very expensive) solution of a quantum impurity model. Our ML scheme requires the relation between two functions: the hybridization function describing the bare (local) electronic structure of a material and the self-energy describing the many body physics. We discuss the parameterization of the two functions for the exact diagonalization solver and present examples, beginning with the Anderson Impurity model with a fixed bath density of states, demonstrating the advantages and the pitfalls of the method. DOE contract DE-AC02-06CH11357.
Chiang, I-Tsun; Chen, Mei-Li
The purpose of this study was to employ complexity theory as a theoretical framework and technology to facilitate the development of a life-long learning model for non-working time in the interdependent homes for adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). A "Shining Star Sustainable Action Project" of the ROC Foundation for Autistic Children and…
Knowland, Victoria C. P.; Thomas, Michael S. C.
The acquisition of new skills in adulthood can positively affect an individual's quality of life, including their earning potential. In some cases, such as the learning of literacy in developing countries, it can provide an avenue to escape from poverty. In developed countries, job retraining in adulthood contributes to the flexibility of labour markets. For all adults, learning opportunities increase participation in society and family life. However, the popular view is that adults are less able to learn for an intrinsic reason: their brains are less plastic than in childhood. This article reviews what is currently known from neuroscientific research about how brain plasticity changes with age, with a particular focus on the ability to acquire new skills in adulthood. Anchoring their review in the examples of the adult acquisition of literacy and new motor skills, the authors address five specific questions: (1) Are sensitive periods in brain development relevant to learning complex educational skills like literacy? (2) Can adults become proficient in a new skill? (3) Can everyone learn equally effectively in adulthood? (4) What is the role of the learning environment? (5) Does adult education cost too much? They identify areas where further research is needed and conclude with a summary of principles for enhancing adult learning now established on a neuroscience foundation.
van der Kant, Anne; Derégnaucourt, Sébastien; Gahr, Manfred; Van der Linden, Annemie; Poirier, Colline
Vocal learning in songbirds and humans occurs by imitation of adult vocalizations. In both groups, vocal learning includes a perceptual phase during which juveniles birds and infants memorize adult vocalizations. Despite intensive research, the neural mechanisms supporting this auditory memory are still poorly understood. The present functional MRI study demonstrates that in adult zebra finches, the right auditory midbrain nucleus responds selectively to the copied vocalizations. The selective signal is distinct from selectivity for the bird's own song and does not simply reflect acoustic differences between the stimuli. Furthermore, the amplitude of the selective signal is positively correlated with the strength of vocal learning, measured by the amount of song that experimental birds copied from the adult model. These results indicate that early sensory experience can generate a long-lasting memory trace in the auditory midbrain of songbirds that may support song learning. PMID:23637903
Clarke, Sherice Nicole
This doctoral study explores the museum as site and resource for language learning by adult migrants, refugees and asylum seekers. English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) provision has emerged over the past decade ...
Meyen, Edward L.; Schiefelbusch, Richard L.; Deshler, Donald D.; Alley, Gordon R.; Moran, Mary Ross; Clark, Frances L.
This paper details the assumptions about learning disabled adolescents and young adults as well as assumptions about conducting research with this population held by researchers at the Kansas Institute. Strategies developed to facilitate...
As a voluntary learning movement, adult education finds expression through a search for values. Continuing and community education provide support for both hospice and palliative care workers as well as families and friends of terminally ill persons in dealing with death and dying. (SK)
Rennie, Léonie J.; Williams, Gina F.
This paper synthesizes findings from three studies to answer a general question: What do casual, adult visitors learn about science from their science-related experiences in free-choice settings? Specifically we asked whether there are changes in how people think about science in their daily lives, the nature and use of scientific knowledge, and its communication by scientists. The three studies involved samples of visitors to an interactive science centre, visitors to a traditional natural history museum, and attendees at a series of public lectures, each given by an expert scientist in human genetics. Pretest and post-test data collected by parallel questionnaires indicated that, despite the different nature of their experience in the three different settings, participants became more positive about the value of science and the work done by scientists and their ability to communicate with the public. At all venues, however, participants became less scientific in their thinking about the nature of scientific knowledge, becoming more likely to believe it to be infallible. The consistency of these findings was surprising, and participants’ changed views about the nature of scientific knowledge were unexpected. Possible explanations for theses outcomes were suggested in terms of participants’ reasons for attending the venue, the nature of their engagement, and the non-controversial ways in which the exhibitions and lectures were structured. The findings suggest that the educational role of free-choice settings should be considered carefully, particularly with regard to the representation of science.
Orena, Adriel John; Theodore, Rachel M; Polka, Linda
Adults show a native language advantage for talker identification, which has been interpreted as evidence that phonological knowledge mediates talker learning. However, infants also show a native language benefit for talker discrimination, suggesting that sensitivity to linguistic structure due to systematic language exposure promotes talker learning, even in the absence of functional phonological knowledge or language comprehension. We tested this hypothesis by comparing two groups of English-monolingual adults on their ability to learn English and French voices. One group resided in Montréal with regular exposure to spoken French; the other resided in Storrs, Connecticut and did not have French exposure. Montréal residents showed faster learning and better retention for the French voices compared to their Storrs-residing peers. These findings demonstrate that systematic exposure to a foreign language bolsters talker learning in that language, expanding the gradient effect of language experience on talker learning to perceptual learning that precedes sentence comprehension. PMID:26113447
Price, Jodi; Hertzog, Christopher; Dunlosky, John
Two experiments examined whether younger and older adults' self-regulated study (item selection and study time) conformed to the region of proximal learning (RPL) model when studying normatively easy, medium, and difficult vocabulary pairs. Experiment 2 manipulated the value of recalling different pairs and provided learning goals for words recalled and points earned. Younger and older adults in both experiments selected items for study in an easy-to-difficult order, indicating the RPL model applies to older adults' self-regulated study. Individuals allocated more time to difficult items, but prioritized easier items when given less time or point values favoring difficult items. Older adults studied more items for longer but realized lower recall than did younger adults. Older adults' lower memory self-efficacy and perceived control correlated with their greater item restudy and avoidance of difficult items with high point values. Results are discussed in terms of RPL and agenda-based regulation models. PMID:19866382
Best, Catherine A.; Yim, Hyungwook; Sloutsky, Vladimir M.
Selective attention plays an important role in category learning. However, immaturities of top-down attentional control during infancy coupled with successful category learning suggest that early category learning is achieved without attending selectively. Research presented here examines this possibility by focusing on category learning in infants (6–8 months old) and adults. Participants were trained on a novel visual category. Halfway through the experiment, unbeknownst to participants, the to-be-learned category switched to another category, where previously relevant features became irrelevant and previously irrelevant features became relevant. If participants attend selectively to the relevant features of the first category, they should incur a cost of selective attention immediately after the unknown category switch. Results revealed that adults demonstrated a cost, as evidenced by a decrease in accuracy and response time on test trials as well as a decrease in visual attention to newly relevant features. In contrast, infants did not demonstrate a similar cost of selective attention as adults despite evidence of learning both to-be-learned categories. Findings are discussed as supporting multiple systems of category learning and as suggesting that learning mechanisms engaged by adults may be different from those engaged by infants. PMID:23773914
Professor Stephen Reder presented the Longitudinal Study of Adult Learning (LSAL) at The Centre's 2011 Fall Institute--IALS: Its Meaning and Impact for Policy and Practice--whose findings had implications far beyond assessment. Based on evidence from the ten-year study of more than a thousand adult high school drop-outs, Dr. Reder challenges many…
Woolley, Sarah M. N.
and then restoring hearing? Studying changes in adult song behavior during hair cell loss and regeneration revealedVocal Memory and Learning in Adult Bengalese Finches with Regenerated Hair Cells Sarah M. N by destruction and regen- eration of inner ear auditory hair cells. With this approach, we asked two questions
National Inst. of Adult Continuing Education, Leicester (England).
A 1996 report recognized the benefits of effective learning provision and the impact that mental health difficulties can have on quality of life of young adults in the United Kingdom. The range of mental health difficulties experienced by young adults in the United Kingdom and elsewhere is similar to that experienced by the older population and…
Mavor, Anne S.; And Others
Part two of the final report on the adult independent learning program focuses on the following: (1) discussion of the 11 data collection categories developed to meet the information needs of specific groups--advisors working with adult learners, planners monitoring service performance, library policy decision makers responsible for determining…
The issues facing the following areas of adult education in Ireland in the era of lifelong learning were examined in a white paper: (1) second chance and further education; (2) community education; (3) workplace education; and (4) higher education. The Irish National Association of Adult Education (AONTAS) analyzed the recommendations presented in…
Leveille, David E.
Ways that technology is being integrated into the instructional and administrative operation of U.S. colleges are considered, along with the application of one of the technologies, microwave, to adult learning opportunities. Changing demographics relating to adult learners over the next 10 to 15 years are identified. Eight projects applying…
Hones, Donald F.
This document examines the themes of adult learning, generativity, and successful aging against the backdrop of the biography of a Hmong refugee who immigrated to the United States in 1988 at the age of 35, began studying English as a second language (ESL), and continues to study ESL in adult education classes while six of his seven children…
Klassen, Robert M.; Tze, Virginia M. C.; Hannok, Wanwisa
In this article the authors report a meta-analysis that examines the association between internalizing problems (anxiety and depressive symptoms) and learning disabilities (LD) in adults. Two hypotheses about the relationship between internalizing problems and LD in adults are posited and tested: the abeyance hypothesis (internalizing problems…
Clover, Darlene E.; Sanford, Kathy; Jayme, Bruno de Oliveira
Using a content analysis approach, this article shares the results of scholarly adult education study on museum and library adult education and learning as represented in peer-reviewed publications over the past 60 years. Findings show a paucity of studies in general, but particularly around libraries. The majority of publications on libraries…
Marx, Michael J.
This is a study of 10 adults participating in one-to-one mentoring and/or coaching. Participants were selected for interviewing through a purposive sampling process from leading international mentoring and coaching organizations. Selection criteria included (a) being an adult, (b) participating in a dyadic learning, and (c) regarding that…
Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC.
Goal 5 of the Adult Literacy and Lifelong Learning initiative of the U.S. Department of Education states that by the year 2000, every adult will be literate and will possess the knowledge and skills necessary to compete in a global economy and exercise the rights and responsibilities of citizenship. Flowing from this goal are the following five…
Mellard, Daryl F.; Krieshok, Thomas; Fall, Emily; Woods, Kari
Research indicates that about a quarter of adult students separate from formal adult basic and secondary education (ABE/ASE) programs before completing one educational level. This retrospective study explores individual dispositional factors that affect motivation during learning, particularly students' goals, goal-directed thinking and action…
Gerber, Paul J.; Price, Lynda A.
Self-disclosure for adults with learning disabilities is very complex after the beyond-school years. The issues of invisibility, risk/benefit, and the multiple contexts of adult functioning create many challenges in the process of disclosure. Moreover, self-disclosure, one element of the larger issue of self-determination, is viewed as an entry…
Johnson, Laura Ruth; Stribling, Colleen; Almburg, Anne; Vitale, Gail
This article examines the processes of knowledge acquisition and transmission among adults within two "communities of practice" in Humboldt Park/"Paseo Boricua," a Puerto Rican community located on Chicago's near-northwest side. In particular, we examine the ways in which two adult women engaged in learning processes and…
Ravenhall, Mark; Kenway, Mike
This guide looks at demands on leaders and managers in adult and community learning (ACL) in the roles and issues they face in the context of quality improvement (QI). It suggests practical approaches for improving the quality of provision for adults. The guide's design builds on current practice toward the desired state of excellence in all…
Mengue-Topio, Hursula; Courbois, Yannick; Farran, Emily K.; Sockeel, Pascal
The ability to learn routes though a virtual environment (VE) and to make a novel shortcut between two locations was assessed in 18 adults with intellectual disability and 18 adults without intellectual disability matched on chronological age. Participants explored two routes (A [double big arrow] B and A [double big arrow] C) until they reached a…
Adult learning today takes place primarily within walled classrooms or in other indoor settings, and often in front of various types of digital screens. As adults have adopted the digital technologies and indoor lifestyle attributed to the so-called "Net Generation," we have become detached from contact with the natural world outdoors.…
Judge, Jeffrey Wallace
The aim of this phenomenological study was to explore the language learning strategies (LLSs) of Spanish adults in a business context. The research questions examined the specific LLSs used by Spanish adults in business communication tasks. In addition, this study addressed the cultural influences on LLSs from the Spanish educational system along…
Mean Field Theory of Learning in Pruned Perceptrons ? K. Y. Michael Wong Department of Physics@usthk.ust.hk Abstract. We consider the mean field theory of optimally pruned per ceptrons. Using the cavity method to the micro scopic equations result in high stability of the examples. 1 Introduction The mean field theory
The purpose of this paper is to analyze feedback given by students of a communication theory class, which uses an integrated approach to help students learn the concepts of communication theory. This analysis seeks to determine how this integrated approach helps students understand communication theory, if at all it does help them. The paper draws…
Information theory and neural network learning algorithms Mark D Plumbleyy 1 y Centre for Neural papers on information theory and neural networks, especially in a perceptual system such as vision. Some], psychologists and physiologists were interested in the idea that information theory could help to explain
Beaumont, Renae; Newcombe, Peter
The study investigated theory of mind and central coherence abilities in adults with high-functioning autism (HFA) or Asperger syndrome (AS) using naturalistic tasks. Twenty adults with HFA/AS correctly answered significantly fewer theory of mind questions than 20 controls on a forced-choice response task. On a narrative task, there were no…
Somerville, R. C.
Communicating climate science is a form of education. A scientist giving a television interview or testifying before Congress is engaged in an educational activity, though one not identical to teaching graduate students. Knowledge, including knowledge about climate science, should never be communicated as a mere catalogue of facts. Science is a process, a way of regarding the natural world, and a fascinating human activity. A great deal is already known about how to do a better job of science communication, but implementing change is not easy. I am confident that improving climate science communication will involve the paradigm of constructivist learning theory, which traces its roots to the 20th-century Swiss epistemologist Jean Piaget, among others. This theory emphasizes the role of the teacher as supportive facilitator rather than didactic lecturer, "a guide on the side, not a sage on the stage." It also stresses the importance of the teacher making a serious effort to understand and appreciate the prior knowledge and viewpoint of the student, recognizing that students' minds are not empty vessels to be filled or blank slates to be written on. Instead, students come to class with a background of life experiences and a body of existing knowledge, of varying degrees of correctness or accuracy, about almost any topic. Effective communication is also usually a conversation rather than a monologue. We know too that for many audiences, the most trusted messengers are those who share the worldview and cultural values of those with whom they are communicating. Constructivist teaching methods stress making use of the parallels between learning and scientific research, such as the analogies between assessing prior knowledge of the audience and surveying scientific literature for a research project. Meanwhile, a well-funded and effective professional disinformation campaign has been successful in sowing confusion, and as a result, many people mistakenly think climate change science is unreliable or is controversial within the expert community. Thus, an urgent task for climate scientists may be to give the public useful guidelines for recognizing and rejecting junk science and disinformation.
Feuerstein, Reuven; Lewin-Benham, Ann
In this unique collaboration, the authors bring to life the theory of mediated learning. Through numerous examples and scenarios from classrooms and museums, they show how mediated learning helps children to become more effective learners. Readers learn the steps in the process, including analyzing the child's problem, teaching the child to focus…
Herpich, Florian; Melnick, Michael; Huxlin, Krystel; Tadin, Duje; Agosta, Sara; Battelli, Lorella
Recent psychophysical studies have demonstrated that visuo-perceptual functions can improve over multiple training sessions, both in healthy adults (Sagi, 2011) and in hemianopic stroke patients (Das et al., 2014). To date, rehabilitative therapies for hemianopic patients have shown significant improvements only after many weeks of daily training. Recent studies using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) have shown enhancement of visual performance in normal subjects. Notably, when current is applied in a random noise mode (tRNS), effects are seen earlier and are longer lasting. Here, we asked whether tDCS or tRNS can be used to boost visual perceptual learning of global direction discrimination, thus providing a proof-of-concept for the potential use of this approach in pathological populations. We tested 40 healthy, visually-intact subjects, aged 19-26 who were randomly assigned to 4 training groups: "anodal tDCS", high frequency "hf-tRNS", "sham" and "no-stimulation". All subjects were trained to discriminate the left or right global motion direction of random-dot stimuli for 10 days (one session/day). Before and after training, we measured the subjects' direction range and motion signal thresholds. Brain stimulation was delivered concurrently with the training task. For the active stimulation conditions, anodal tDCS was delivered over the occipital pole, while for hf-tRNS and sham, electrodes were positioned bilaterally over the left and right occipital poles. On average, all subjects improved over the two-weeks training period. However, the hf-tRNS group attained a direction range threshold of 162.88° (subtracting day10 from day1), while the "tDCS", "sham" and "no stimulation" subjects attained a threshold of 53.57°, 126.6° and 88°, respectively. Paired sampled t-tests indicated a significant effect of hf-tRNS on performance relative to the other groups (p = .03). These results indicate that hf-tRNS may be a more effective intervention to boost visual perceptual learning than tDCS or no stimulation during visual training. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26325728
Laasonen, Marja; Väre, Jenni; Oksanen-Hennah, Henna; Leppämäki, Sami; Tani, Pekka; Harno, Hanna; Hokkanen, Laura; Pothos, Emmanuel; Cleeremans, Axel
In this study of the project DyAdd, implicit learning was investigated through two paradigms in adults (18-55 years) with dyslexia (n?=?36) or with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, n?=?22) and in controls (n?=?35). In the serial reaction time (SRT) task, there were no group differences in learning. However, those with ADHD exhibited…
Reyes, Luis O.
An elementary school in a low-income, immigrant community of South Brooklyn (New York) developed a bilingual variation of the adult learning community model of professional development. Bilingual administrators and teachers collaboratively created a positive learning environment through teacher action research, coaching and mentoring, on-site…
Do you support a child or adult with sensory perceptual issues or cognitive impairment? For people with challenging sensory and cognitive conditions, everyday life can become so unpredictable and chaotic that over time, lack of engagement can often lead to a state of learned helplessness. In this insightful text, Paul Pagliano shows how "learned…
Recker, Kara M.; Plumert, Jodie M.; Hund, Alycia M.; Reimer, Rachel
This investigation tracked changes in categorical bias (i.e., placing objects belonging to the same spatial group closer together than they really are) while 7-, 9-, and 11-year-olds and adults were learning a set of locations. Participants learned the locations of 20 objects marked by dots on the floor of an open square box divided into…
Chapman, Melanie; Gledhill, Paul; Jones, Phillip; Burton, Mark; Soni, Saroj
This paper describes the findings of a survey into prescribing of psychotropic medication with adults with learning disabilities in a British city. A self-completion questionnaire was sent to staff in dispersed housing and community learning disability teams to gather information about the number of people prescribed psychoactive medication, the…
Aspinall, Ann; Hegarty, John R.
Describes a survey of microcomputer use for adults with learning disability within The Home Farm Trust, a United Kingdom national organization for people with learning disability that was carried out in light of a planned organization-wide initiative to introduce modern information and communications technology to service users. (Author/LRW)
Gouthro, Patricia; Holloway, Susan
Traditionally, adult education has had a focus on learning connected to social purpose. In the current neoliberal climate, lifelong learning is increasingly defined as an endeavour whereby individuals must situate themselves in a competitive position in order to succeed in the global marketplace. Radical educators who believe that education should…
Conder, Jennifer; Mirfin-Veitch, Brigit; Sanders, Jackie; Munford, Robyn
For adults with learning disabilities, becoming a parent can fulfil childhood dreams to take their place in society through a highly valued social role. Recent research aimed at describing the experience of parents with a learning disability suggests that there are barriers to successful planning for both pregnancy and parenthood. However, with…
Anderson, Anthony; Johnston, Bill; McDonald, Alexandra
This article presents empirical research exploring adult returner students' patterns of learning via qualitative analysis of a series of semi-structured interviews. Interviewees' comments shed light on the relation between patterns of learning on the one hand, and study skills, epistemological issues and attitudes to peer interaction on…
Verner, Coolie; Davison, Catherine V.
The physiological condition of the adult learner as related to his learning capability is discussed. The design of the instructional process, the selection of learning tasks, the rate at which instruction occurs, and the nature of the instructional setting may all be modified by the instructor to accomodate the variable physiological conditions of…
Boyden, Paul; Freeman, Adele; Offen, Liz
Following evidence based literature, the Birmingham Clinical Psychology Service for People with Learning Disabilities ran a Loss and Bereavement Psychotherapy Group. The group consisted of five adults with mild learning disabilities, who met for 8 consecutive weeks. This paper reports the process of setting up a bereavement group for people with…
Theme 1 of the "Hamburg Declaration on Adult Learning" boldly proclaimed that active citizenship and full participation of all citizens was the necessary foundation for "the creation of a learning society committed to social justice and general well-being" (UNESCO, 1997, p. 4). The "Declaration" advocated that future societies create "greater…
In the United Kingdom, changes in the policy, funding and commissioning landscape for mental health and well-being are posing opportunities and challenges for adult community learning (ACL). Opportunities include increased recognition of, and funding for, the "wider benefits" of learning, whereas challenges include the risks of ACL…
Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Yoo, Jeewon; Van Hecke, Stephanie
Purpose: The goal of this research was to examine whether phonological familiarity exerts different effects on novel word learning for familiar versus unfamiliar referents and whether successful word learning is associated with increased second-language experience. Method: Eighty-one adult native English speakers with various levels of Spanish…
Previous studies have indicated that bilingualism may facilitate lexical learning in adults. The goals of this research were (i) to examine whether bilingual influences on word learning diverge for phonologically-familiar and phonologically-unfamiliar novel words, and (ii) to examine whether increased phonological memory capacity can account for…
Ravenhall, Mark; Ogilvie, Margaret; Ewens, David
This booklet outlines the new policy context facing adult and community learning (ACL) providers in Great Britain in their pursuit of high-quality learning experiences for their customers. It shows how a Total Quality Management (TQM) approach to supporting staff development can be effective in securing quality. TQM components are values,…
When acquiring information from a 2D platform, self-control and/or optimal pacing may help reduce cognitive load and enhance learning outcomes. In the present research, adults viewed novel action sequences via one of four learning media: (1) self-paced slideshows, where viewers advanced through slides at their own pace by clicking a mouse, (2)…
Regional Educational Laboratory, 2014
Many options exist for using technology as a tool for adult learning, and each day, it becomes easier to share information online than it ever has been. Online learning technology has grown from one-sided communications to numerous options for audience engagement and interactivity. This guide introduces a variety of tools, online platforms, and…
Henness, Steven A.; Ball, Anna L.; Moncheski, MaryJo
Using 4-H and FFA case study findings, this article explores how community service-learning supports the building of social capital between rural youth and adults and the positive effects on community viability. Key elements of practice form a community development approach to service-learning, which opens up doorways for youth to partner with…
CIHED Newsletter, 1982
This newsletter deals with lifelong learning and adult and continuing education. Included in the issue are the following articles: "The Learning Society," by Solveig M. Turner; "Adult Education at the Beginning of the 1980s," by J. Roby Kidd; "Lifelong Learning in an International Perspective: Selected Case Studies," by J. Roby Kidd; "Continuing…
Ajemian, Robert; D’Ausilio, Alessandro; Moorman, Helene; Bizzi, Emilio
During the process of skill learning, synaptic connections in our brains are modified to form motor memories of learned sensorimotor acts. The more plastic the adult brain is, the easier it is to learn new skills or adapt to neurological injury. However, if the brain is too plastic and the pattern of synaptic connectivity is constantly changing, new memories will overwrite old memories, and learning becomes unstable. This trade-off is known as the stability–plasticity dilemma. Here a theory of sensorimotor learning and memory is developed whereby synaptic strengths are perpetually fluctuating without causing instability in motor memory recall, as long as the underlying neural networks are sufficiently noisy and massively redundant. The theory implies two distinct stages of learning—preasymptotic and postasymptotic—because once the error drops to a level comparable to that of the noise-induced error, further error reduction requires altered network dynamics. A key behavioral prediction derived from this analysis is tested in a visuomotor adaptation experiment, and the resultant learning curves are modeled with a nonstationary neural network. Next, the theory is used to model two-photon microscopy data that show, in animals, high rates of dendritic spine turnover, even in the absence of overt behavioral learning. Finally, the theory predicts enhanced task selectivity in the responses of individual motor cortical neurons as the level of task expertise increases. From these considerations, a unique interpretation of sensorimotor memory is proposed—memories are defined not by fixed patterns of synaptic weights but, rather, by nonstationary synaptic patterns that fluctuate coherently. PMID:24324147
Lee, Young-Jin; Palazzo, David J.; Warnakulasooriya, Rasil; Pritchard, David E.
We investigate short-term learning from hints and feedback in a Web-based physics tutoring system. Both the skill of students and the difficulty and discrimination of items were determined by applying item response theory (IRT) to the first answers of students who are working on for-credit homework items in an introductory Newtonian physics course. We show that after tutoring a shifted logistic item response function with lower discrimination fits the students’ second responses to an item previously answered incorrectly. Student skill decreased by 1.0 standard deviation when students used no tutoring between their (incorrect) first and second attempts, which we attribute to “item-wrong bias.” On average, using hints or feedback increased students’ skill by 0.8 standard deviation. A skill increase of 1.9 standard deviation was observed when hints were requested after viewing, but prior to attempting to answer, a particular item. The skill changes measured in this way will enable the use of IRT to assess students based on their second attempt in a tutoring environment.
McCain, Mary L.
There is a highly compelling case for using technology on a large scale to increase access to and improve America's adult education and workforce skills enterprise. By the reckoning of the National Commission on Adult Literacy and others, the nation must reach many more millions of adults with effective college- and job-readiness skills programs…
Division of Adult Educational Programs, BAVT.
A PREINSTITUTE SEMINAR, FINANCED BY A GRANT FROM THE ADULT EDUCATION DIVISION OF THE OFFICE OF EDUCATION TO THE NATIONAL UNIVERSITY EXTENSION ASSOCIATION AND HELD AT WAYNE STATE UNIVERSITY IN MAY 1967, FOCUSED ON PLANS FOR THE 20 ADULT BASIC EDUCATION TEACHER TRAINING INSTITUTES HELD DURING THE SUMMER OF 1967. LEADERS IN ADULT BASIC EDUCATION AND…
Willis, Jerry; Willis, Dee Anna; Walsh, Clare; Stephens, Elizabeth; Murphy, Timothy; Price, Jerry; Stevens, William; Jackson, Kevin; Villareal, James A.; Way, Bob
An important part of NASA's mission involves the secondary application of its technologies in the public and private sectors. One current application under development is LiteraCity, a simulation-based instructional package for adults who do not have functional reading skills. Using fuzzy logic routines and other technologies developed by NASA's Information Systems Directorate and hypermedia sound, graphics, and animation technologies the project attempts to overcome the limited impact of adult literacy assessment and instruction by involving the adult in an interactive simulation of real-life literacy activities. The project uses a recursive instructional development model and authentic instruction theory. This paper describes one component of a project to design, develop, and produce a series of computer-based, multimedia instructional packages. The packages are being developed for use in adult literacy programs, particularly in correctional education centers. They use the concepts of authentic instruction and authentic assessment to guide development. All the packages to be developed are instructional simulations. The first is a simulation of 'finding a friend a job.'
Edwards, Richard; Ranson, Stewart; Strain, Michael
The current notion of lifelong learning in policy and practice is dominated by behaviorist, adaptive accumulation of skills and qualifications. An alternative is reflexive lifelong learning, developed through social learning networks within the context of dislocation and uncertainty. It involves the reflexive practices of metacognitive analysis…
Reed, Cajah S.
This study sought to find evidence for a beneficial learning theory to teach computer software programs. Additionally, software was analyzed for each learning theory's applicability to resolve whether certain software requires a specific method of education. The results are meant to give educators more effective teaching tools, so students…
Hilgard, Ernest R.
This reference work briefly identifies the salient principles of learning theory under the subdivisions: 1) S-R theory, 2) cognitive theory, and 3) motivation and personality theory. It also describes various approaches to practical problems via unified theories of learning. A seven-item annotated bibliography on learning theory and its…
Johnson, Jeannette L.; Bennett, Linda A.
The concept of adult children of alcoholics (ACoA) has received wide public recognition and acceptance. An ACoA is defined as any adult who, as a child, was reared by one or two alcoholic parents. To date research has not sufficiently addressed the many questions generated by the grass roots movement, such as whether or not adult children of…
MacNeil, Carole A.
To explore the relationship between youth and adult leadership--or the relationship between the youth leadership literature and the adult leadership literature--it is important to examine where and how youth appear in the discussions on leadership. Based on a comparison of the literature focused on adult leadership development compared to the…
Spector, Barbara S.; Gibson, Charles W.
The purpose of this study was to explore middle school students' perceptions of what factors facilitated their learning of science. Florida's Educational Reform Act of 1983 funded programs providing the state's precollege students with summer learning opportunities in science. mathematics, and computers. The programs were intended to encourage the development of creative approaches to the teaching of these disciplines. Under this program, between 50 and 60 high-achieving middle school students were in residence on the University of South Florida campus for 12 consecutive days of study in the World of Water (WOW) program. There were two sessions per summer involving a total of 572 participants. Eighi specially trained teachers were in residence with the students. Between 50 and 70 experts from the university, government. business, and industry interacted with the students each year in an innovative science/technology/society (STS) program. An assignment toward the close of the program asked students to reflect on their experiences in residence at the university and write an essay comparing learning in the WOW program to learning in their schools. Those essays were the base for this study. This was a qualitative study using a discursive approach to emergent design to generate grounded theory. Document review, participant observation, and open-ended interviews were used to gather and triangulate data in five phases. Some of the factors that middle school students perceived as helpful to learning science were (a) experiencing the situations about which they were learning; (b) having live presentations by professional experts; (c) doing hands-on activities: (d) being active learners; (e) using inductive reasoning to generate new knowledge; (f) exploring transdisciplinary approaches to problem solving; (g) having adult mentors; (h) interacting with peers and adults; (i) establishing networks; (j) having close personal friends who shared their interest in learning; (k) trusting the individuals in their learning environment, including adults and students; and (1) experiencing a sense of self-reliance. The preceding information was used to generate a series of hypotheses which were woven into a theoretical model. This model suggests that middle school science teacher education would be enhanced by helping prospective and in-service teachers develop and implement strategies that build trust, provide immersion in learning, and use inductive reasoning. This model is currently being used as the theoretical base to convert a traditional junior high school in the South to a middle school.
Green, Mildred R.
Suggests that it is time for biology curriculum planners and teachers to apply theories that explain how students acquire and retain knowledge, especially human information processing theory and the cognitive theories of Piaget. (BB)
Huang, Helen J.
The ability to learn new movements and dynamics is important for maintaining independence with advancing age. Age-related sensorimotor changes and increased muscle coactivation likely alter the trial-and-error-based process of adapting to new movement demands (motor adaptation). Here, we asked, to what extent is motor adaptation to novel dynamics maintained in older adults (?65 yr)? We hypothesized that older adults would adapt to the novel dynamics less well than young adults. Because older adults often use muscle coactivation, we expected older adults to use greater muscle coactivation during motor adaptation than young adults. Nevertheless, we predicted that older adults would reduce muscle activity and metabolic cost with motor adaptation, similar to young adults. Seated older (n = 11, 73.8 ± 5.6 yr) and young (n = 15, 23.8 ± 4.7 yr) adults made targeted reaching movements while grasping a robotic arm. We measured their metabolic rate continuously via expired gas analysis. A force field was used to add novel dynamics. Older adults had greater movement deviations and compensated for just 65% of the novel dynamics compared with 84% in young adults. As expected, older adults used greater muscle coactivation than young adults. Last, older adults reduced muscle activity with motor adaptation and had consistent reductions in metabolic cost later during motor adaptation, similar to young adults. These results suggest that despite increased muscle coactivation, older adults can adapt to the novel dynamics, albeit less accurately. These results also suggest that reductions in metabolic cost may be a fundamental feature of motor adaptation. PMID:24133222
Southam, Daniel C.; Lewis, Jennifer E.
A group theory course for chemists was taught entirely with process oriented guided inquiry learning (POGIL) to facilitate alternative strategies for learning. Students completed a test of one aspect of visuospatial aptitude to determine their individual approaches to solving spatial tasks, and were sorted into groups for analysis on the basis of…
Rukavina, Paul B.; Foxworth, K. Randell
Choosing which teaching approach to use and when to use it is a complex decision, especially for preservice teachers learning to teach individuals with a variety of skill levels and abilities. One source of information that teachers can use to help select an approach is motor-learning theory. This article describes an early field experience in…
The natural teaching method is active and student-centered, based on schema and constructivist theories, and informed by research in neuroplasticity. A schema is a mental picture or understanding of something we have learned. Humans can have knowledge only to the degree to which they have constructed schemas from learning experiences and practice.…
Mizukami, Maria da Graca Nicoletti
This study described the professional learning of teacher educators in graduate schools which allowed, by the consideration of different pedagogical practices, the construction of bridges between those practices and theories supporting them. It analyzed the effectiveness of teaching and learning case studies in promoting teachers' personal…
Reich, Ann; Rooney, Donna; Gardner, Anne; Willey, Keith; Boud, David; Fitzgerald, Terry
With the increasing challenges facing professional engineers working in more complex, global and interdisciplinary contexts, different approaches to understanding how engineers practice and learn are necessary. This paper draws on recent research in the social sciences from the field of workplace learning, to suggest that a practice-theory…
Erlich, Richard J.; Russ-Eft, Darlene F.
We investigated whether the social cognitive theory constructs of self-efficacy and self-regulated learning apply to academic advising for measuring student learning outcomes. Community college students (N = 120) participated in an individual academic-advising session. We assessed students' post-intervention self-efficacy in academic planning…
Foley, Jeffrey M.; Kaiser, Leann M. R.
Broad (1997) defined learning transfer as the "effective and continuing application by learners--to their performance of jobs or other individual, organizational, or community responsibilities--of knowledge and skills gained in the learning activities" (p. 2). This chapter offers an introduction to learning transfer and the major concepts related…
Waight, Consuelo L.; Stewart, Barbara
The framework describes that e-Learning engagement, learning and transfer within corporate settings can possibly be achieved if antecedents such as needs assessment, learner analysis, for example, and moderators such as return on investment, learning theories, for example, are adhered. The realization of antecedents and moderators, however, are…
Bernstein, Lynne E.; Eberhardt, Silvio P.; Auer, Edward T.
Training with audiovisual (AV) speech has been shown to promote auditory perceptual learning of vocoded acoustic speech by adults with normal hearing. In Experiment 1, we investigated whether AV speech promotes auditory-only (AO) perceptual learning in prelingually deafened adults with late-acquired cochlear implants. Participants were assigned to learn associations between spoken disyllabic C(=consonant)V(=vowel)CVC non-sense words and non-sense pictures (fribbles), under AV and then AO (AV-AO; or counter-balanced AO then AV, AO-AV, during Periods 1 then 2) training conditions. After training on each list of paired-associates (PA), testing was carried out AO. Across all training, AO PA test scores improved (7.2 percentage points) as did identification of consonants in new untrained CVCVC stimuli (3.5 percentage points). However, there was evidence that AV training impeded immediate AO perceptual learning: During Period-1, training scores across AV and AO conditions were not different, but AO test scores were dramatically lower in the AV-trained participants. During Period-2 AO training, the AV-AO participants obtained significantly higher AO test scores, demonstrating their ability to learn the auditory speech. Across both orders of training, whenever training was AV, AO test scores were significantly lower than training scores. Experiment 2 repeated the procedures with vocoded speech and 43 normal-hearing adults. Following AV training, their AO test scores were as high as or higher than following AO training. Also, their CVCVC identification scores patterned differently than those of the cochlear implant users. In Experiment 1, initial consonants were most accurate, and in Experiment 2, medial consonants were most accurate. We suggest that our results are consistent with a multisensory reverse hierarchy theory, which predicts that, whenever possible, perceivers carry out perceptual tasks immediately based on the experience and biases they bring to the task. We point out that while AV training could be an impediment to immediate unisensory perceptual learning in cochlear implant patients, it was also associated with higher scores during training. PMID:25206344
Adventure Learning (AL), a hybrid distance education approach, provides students and teachers with the opportunity to learn about authentic curricular content areas while interacting with adventurers, students, and content experts at various locations throughout the world within an online learning environment (Doering, 2006). An AL curriculum and online environment provides collaborative community spaces where traditional hierarchical classroom roles are blurred and learning is transformed. AL has most recently become popular in K-12 classrooms nationally and internationally with millions of students participating online. However, in the literature, the term "adventure learning" many times gets confused with phrases such as "virtual fieldtrip" and activities where someone "exploring" is posting photos and text. This type of "adventure learning" is not "Adventure Learning" (AL), but merely a slideshow of their activities. The learning environment may not have any curricular and/or social goals, and if it does, the environment design many times does not support these objectives. AL, on the other hand, is designed so that both teachers and students understand that their online and curriculum activities are in synch and supportive of the curricular goals. In AL environments, there are no disparate activities as the design considers the educational, social, and technological affordances (Kirschner, Strijbos, Kreijns, & Beers, 2004); in other words, the artifacts of the learning environment encourage and support the instructional goals, social interactions, collaborative efforts, and ultimately learning. AL is grounded in two major theoretical approaches to learning - experiential and inquiry-based learning. As Kolb (1984) noted, in experiential learning, a learner creates meaning from direct experiences and reflections. Such is the goal of AL within the classroom. Additionally, AL affords learners a real-time authentic online learning experience concurrently as they study the AL curriculum. AL is also grounded in an inquiry- based approach to learning where learners are pursuing answers to questions they have posed rather than focusing on memorizing and regurgitating isolated, irrelevant facts. Both the curriculum and the online classroom are developed to foster students' abilities to inquire via "identifying and posing questions, designing and conducting investigations, analyzing data and evidence, using models and explanations, and communicating findings" (Keys and Bryan, 2001, p 121). The union of experiential and inquiry-based learning is the foundation of AL, guiding and supporting authentic learning endeavors. Based on these theoretical foundations, the design of the adventure learning experiences follows seven interdependent principles that further operationalize AL: researched curriculum grounded in inquiry; collaboration and interaction opportunities between students, experts, peers, and content; utilization of the Internet for curriculum and learning environment delivery; enhancement of curriculum with media and text from the field delivered in a timely manner; synched learning opportunities with the AL curriculum; pedagogical guidelines of the curriculum and the online learning environment; and adventure-based education. (Doering, 2006).
Academic advisors need to be knowledgeable of the ways students learn. To aid advisors in their exploration of learning theories, I provide an overview of the attribution theory of learning, including recent applications of the theory to research in college student learning. An understanding of this theory may help advisors understand student…
Coryell, Joellen E.
To live and work in today's global community, adults need to develop an intercultural responsiveness and flexibility in order to interact sensitively in situations involving international cultural contexts, practices, beliefs, understandings, and communications. One way to support this development in adult and higher education is to offer…
Describes a study of longevity and older adults' economic and educational status in Nigeria, based on interviews with 332 adults over 64 years old. Determinants of longevity include faith in God, heredity, modest living, and contentment. Finds illiteracy linked to poverty, and most interviewees ill-prepared for postretirement life. (DMM)
The work of Jurgen Habermas is often cited in adult educational literature as underpinning dialogic traditions and practices central to the field. But to many adult educators the density of Habermas's analysis and complexity of his language limit his influence on their practice. This article's intent is to render a comprehensive analysis of the…
Holyoke, Laura B.
Chairing the annual Mountain Plains Adult Education Association Conference for 250 adult educators in Coeur d'Alene this past spring provided an opportunity for the author to offer a hands-on, conference planning experience to graduate students. Wanting to try something outside the typical classroom experience, the author organized a special…
Falk, Ian, Ed.; Penson, Margaret, Ed.
This book contains eight papers reporting research projects that were conducted by adult language, literacy, and numeracy practitioners with funding provided through one-time scholarships to Tasmanian students in the field of adult language and literacy. The following papers are included: "Foreword" (Ian Falk); "Preface" (Margaret Penson); "How Do…
Costanzo, Meg Ryback
In the Adult Multiple Intelligences (AMI) study, 10 teachers of adults from the northeastern region of the United States explored for 18 months the ways that multiple intelligences (MI) theory could support instruction and assessment in various adult learning contexts. The results of this research were published in a book by Julie Viens called MI…
Mosvold, Reidar; Bjuland, Raymond
Learning study has been used by many to develop exemplary teaching in school, and this approach has recently been adopted for use in kindergarten as well. When using such approaches in different settings than they were intended for, several challenges potentially arise. This article discusses the implementation of a learning study approach in a…
The word "wisdom" is rarely seen in contemporary technology and learning discourse. This conceptual paper aims to provide some clear principles that answer the question: How can we establish wisdom in complex learning networks? By considering the nature of contemporary calls for wisdom the paper provides a metatheoretial framework to evaluate the…
This guide provides a practical explanation of cognitive type theory and learning style that will help teachers meet students' needs and discover their own strengths as teachers and colleagues. The introduction provides an overview of the book from the perspective of a high school classroom teacher. Part One introduces the theory of psychological…
McGivern, Daniela; Morgan, Michael; Butler, Matthew
This research applies Socio-Cultural theory and Distributed Cognition/Activity theory to conceptualize the design of collaborative learning activities in large shared digital spaces. The paper begins by providing a summary of previous work in the creation of a technology platform for large shared digital spaces. It then details how Socio-Cultural…
Jonassen, David H.; Rohrer-Murphy, Lucia
Defines activity theory as a socio-cultural and socio-historical lens through which the interaction of human activity and consciousness within its relevant environmental context can be analyzed. Describes how activity theory can be used as a framework for analyzing activities and settings for the purpose of designing constructivist learning…
Bonawitz, Elizabeth Baraff; van Schijndel, Tessa J. P.; Friel, Daniel; Schulz, Laura
We look at the effect of evidence and prior beliefs on exploration, explanation and learning. In Experiment 1, we tested children both with and without differential prior beliefs about balance relationships (Center Theorists, mean: 82 months; Mass Theorists, mean: 89 months; No Theory children, mean: 62 months). Center and Mass Theory children who…
This paper explores the potential of cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT), to provide new insights into community service-learning (CSL) in higher education. While CSL literature acknowledges the influences of John Dewey and Paolo Freire, discussion of the potential contribution of cultural-historical activity theory, rooted in the work of…
Promoting Positive Learning Attitudes: Adult Learning Provisions, Demographic Characteristics and Previous Learning Experiences as Predictors of Positive Affective Development by External Students. A Study of the Learning Experiences of Fifty Weipa (Far North Queensland) Students.
A study attempted to identify the adult learning provisions, demographic characteristics, and previous learning experiences that are predictive of positive affective development by external (distance education) students. The study population consisted of 50 adult students who were currently enrolled in 10 tertiary institutions as external students…
A theory concerning low achievement of student that applies to adult education is developed, based on an interconnection between cognitive and affective domains. A holistic picture of what happens to students may be gained from Piaget's theory of intellectual development, Bloom's hierarchy of cognitive abilities, theories proposing that what…
Arnseth, Hans Christian
The purpose of this article is to offer a critical discussion of the practice turn in contemporary educational research. In order to make the discussion specific, I use two influential theories, namely activity theory and situated learning theory. They both turn to the notion of practice in order to overcome the limitations of mentalist and…
Learning by Doing--Piagets konstruktivistische Lerntheorie und ihre Konsequenzen fur die padagogische Praxis (Learning by Doing--Piaget's Constructivist Learning Theory and Its Consequences for Pedagogical Practice).
Presents Jean Piaget's theory of genetic recognition, one of the first constructivist learning theories. Examines critically the relationship of the theory to present-day teaching and learning research, pedagogical practice, and other forms of constructivism. Asserts that one practical application of Piaget's learning theory would be to teach by…
during the entire life of an animal. De-novo neuronal incorporation continues in the adult mammalian of seasonal changes of neuronal incorporation and death in canaries, as they renew their yearly repertoire
Patterson, Margaret; Mellard, Daryl F.
by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institute for Literacy, and the U.S. Department of Education Office of Vocational and Adult Education (Award # HD 43775). The authors also gratefully acknowledge the contributions... provides funding and oversight to state and local adult education programs. In A blueprint: Preparing for America's future, the U.S. Department of Education affirmed this population "deserve[s] a broad array of high-quality program options that best meet...
Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Yoo, Jeewon; Van Hecke, Stephanie
Purpose The goal of this research was to examine whether phonological familiarity exerts different effects on novel word learning for familiar vs. unfamiliar referents, and whether successful word-learning is associated with increased second-language experience. Method Eighty-one adult native English speakers with various levels of Spanish knowledge learned phonologically-familiar novel words (constructed using English sounds) or phonologically-unfamiliar novel words (constructed using non-English and non-Spanish sounds) in association with either familiar or unfamiliar referents. Retention was tested via a forced-choice recognition-task. A median-split procedure identified high-ability and low-ability word-learners in each condition, and the two groups were compared on measures of second-language experience. Results Findings suggest that the ability to accurately match newly-learned novel names to their appropriate referents is facilitated by phonological familiarity only for familiar referents but not for unfamiliar referents. Moreover, more extensive second-language learning experience characterized superior learners primarily in one word-learning condition: Where phonologically-unfamiliar novel words were paired with familiar referents. Conclusions Together, these findings indicate that phonological familiarity facilitates novel word learning only for familiar referents, and that experience with learning a second language may have a specific impact on novel vocabulary learning in adults. PMID:22992709
Productivity-related experiential learning practices of 96 Senegalese farmers were investigated. The high-productivity group (n=51) used collegial discussion (29.4%) and trial and error (27.4%); low-productivity farmers used trial and error (28.8%) and observation (24.4%). Experiential learning appeared to be rooted in the culture and values of…
The concept of learning strategies has become quite familiar to most professionals in teaching English as a foreign language. The aim of this study is to discover gender differences in language learning strategies used by foreign language learners in a Turkish University. 184 university students who participated in this study were enrolled in the…
Since the U.S.S.R. released Sputnik I into space in 1957, American science teachers have been focused on preparing scientifically literate students. New instructional approaches have emerged, with the 5E learning cycle being one of the more popular methods used. The 5E learning cycle gets its name from its five stages: Engage, Explore, Explain,…
Sheared, Vanessa, Ed.; Sissel, Peggy A., Ed.
This book represents the beginning dialogue and critique of social, political, economic, and historical forms of hegemony operating in the adult education field. Twenty-three chapters are grouped into five sections. Section I, Deconstructing Exclusion and Inclusion in Adult Education, offers a dialogue on hegemony and critiques the philosophical,…
Warren, Earle Theodore
The Maslow Hierarchy of Needs was reviewed and implications were sought for adult education theory, program planning and operation, promotional activities, and program evaluation. Maslow's work suggested self-actualization as an ultimate goal, meaning that adult education programs should be structured to foster both the acquisition of facts,…
Mayo, Catherine; Turk, Alice
Children and adults appear to weight some acoustic cues differently in perceiving certain speech contrasts. There are currently two main theories to explain this difference. One of these is the Developmental Weighting ...
Boutelle, Kerri N; Bouton, Mark E
Childhood obesity is associated with medical and psychological comorbidities, and interventions targeting overeating could be pragmatic and have a significant impact on weight. Calorically dense foods are easily available, variable, and tasty which allows for effective opportunities to learn to associate behaviors and cues in the environment with food through fundamental conditioning processes, resulting in measurable psychological and physiological food cue reactivity in vulnerable children. Basic research suggests that initial learning is difficult to erase, and that it is vulnerable to a number of phenomena that will allow the original learning to re-emerge after it is suppressed or replaced. These processes may help explain why it may be difficult to change food cue reactivity and overeating over the long term. Extinction theory may be used to develop effective cue-exposure treatments to decrease food cue reactivity through inhibitory learning, although these processes are complex and require an integral understanding of the theory and individual differences. Additionally, learning theory can be used to develop other interventions that may prove to be useful. Through an integration of learning theory, basic and translational research, it may be possible to develop interventions that can decrease the urges to overeat, and improve the weight status of children. PMID:25998235
Gandolfi, Michela; Mattiacci, Letizia; Dorn, Silvia
The behavioural responses of parasitic wasps to chemical cues from their hosts and host plants are known to be affected by genetic and environmental components. In a previous study of the codling moth ectoparasitoid Hyssopus pallidus, we found that the response of adult parasitoids to the frass of their host caterpillars depended on a learning process involving plant cues. In the present study, we investigated how and when learning takes place. A series of experiments was conducted involving exposure of parasitoids to fruit cues at different developmental stages. While parasitoids were not able to learn the fruit cues in the adult stage, exposure to fruit odour at early preimaginal stages significantly increased the adult response to frass from fruit-fed caterpillars. The olfactory memory persisted through metamorphosis, with a retention time of 14 days. Preimaginal learning was not confined to fruit cues but was also demonstrated for a host- and fruit-independent cue, menthol. Parasitoids exposed to menthol odour at the egg and larval stages no longer showed negative responses as adults. Sensitization to fruit cues and habituation to menthol are considered to be the mechanisms involved. This study provides evidence of true preimaginal learning of olfactory cues in a parasitic wasp. PMID:14728786
Barber, James P.
This article presents a grounded theory of "integration of learning" among traditional aged college students, which is characterized by the demonstrated ability to link various skills and knowledge learned in a variety of contexts. The author analyzed 194 interviews with students at liberal arts colleges to investigate empirically the ways…
Bertelsen, P. H.
Well-developed information and counseling services not only afford immediate assistance to adult learners, but also generate a significant feedback effect on many other components of the overall system and thus make a considerable contribution to the overall development of adult education. Access to learning and progress in learning should be like…
Moreno, Melissa M; Bath, Kevin; Kuczewski, Nicola; Sacquet, Joëlle; Didier, Anne; Mandairon, Nathalie
We have previously shown that an experience-driven improvement in olfactory discrimination (perceptual learning) requires the addition of newborn neurons in the olfactory bulb (OB). Despite this advance, the mechanisms which govern the selective survival of newborn OB neurons following learning remain largely unknown. We propose that activity of the noradrenergic system is a critical mediator providing a top-down signal to control the selective survival of newly born cells and support perceptual learning. In adult mice, we used pharmacological means to manipulate the noradrenergic system and neurogenesis and to assess their individual and additive effects on behavioral performance on a perceptual learning task. We then looked at the effects of these manipulations on regional survival of adult-born cells in the OB. Finally, using confocal imaging and electrophysiology, we investigated potential mechanisms by which noradrenaline could directly influence the survival of adult-born cells. Consistent with our hypotheses, direct manipulation of noradrenergic transmission significantly effect on adult-born cell survival and perceptual learning. Specifically, learning required both the presence of adult-born cell and noradrenaline. Finally, we provide a mechanistic link between these effects by showing that adult-born neurons receive noradrenergic projections and are responsive to noradrenaline. Based upon these data we argue that noradrenergic transmission is a key mechanism selecting adult-born neurons during learning and demonstrate that top-down neuromodulation acts on adult-born neuron survival to modulate learning performance. PMID:22423095
Nelson, Jason M.
The empirical literature investigating general and domain-specific self-concepts of adults with learning disabilities was examined using meta-analytic techniques. Eight inclusion criteria were developed to evaluate this literature and led to the inclusion of 22 studies. Results indicated that adults with learning disabilities reported lower…
Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Centre for Educational Research and Innovation.
This book, which is based on the papers presented by the various countries attending an international conference on technology and adult learning, contains 16 papers examining the use of technology in adult learning programs in the context of major institutional and economic change. The following papers are included: "A View from Philadelphia:…
Our societies have come to be known as knowledge societies in which lifelong learning is becoming increasingly important. In this context, competences have become a much discussed topic. Many documents were published by international organisations (UNESCO, World Bank, European Commission) which enumerated 21st century key competences. The field of…
Bevan, Ann L; Joy, Rosalyn; Keeley, Sarah; Brown, Petra
Following a recent Nursing and Midwifery Council revalidation of a university undergraduate nursing programme, simulation skills sessions and anatomy and physiology theory were integrated into one unit (module). This was done in order to integrate the basis for patient assessment and care provision with the anatomical and physiological theory and thereby enhance student learning and nursing practice. Students evaluated the new unit well and valued the close link between theory and practice simulation. Improvements were seen in the simulation skills sessions as students were better able to apply their underlying theory to their actions. Learning was enhanced as both simulation and theory were seen as more meaningful to practice and patient care. PMID:26266445
Smith, Debra M.
The purpose of this study was to develop a research-based model for designing and deploying instructional narratives based on principles derived from narrative theory, development theory, communication theory, learning theory and instructional design theory to enable adult learning and retention and the effective transfer of that retained learning…
Engineering educators are often not familiar with the theories and research findings of educational psychology, adult development, curriculum design, and instruction design. Even the published research in engineering/computing education does not sufficiently leverage this body of knowledge. Often in the educational reports and recommendations by…
Barer-Stein, Thelma, Ed.; Draper, James A., Ed.
The chapters and authors in this volume are as follows: "The New World of Continuing Education" (Thomas); "Compared to What? Comparison Studies as an Added Dimension for Adult Learning" (Kidd); "Culture in the Classroom" (Barer-Stein); "Planning for Learning: A Model for Creative Decision Making" (Herman); "Application of Learning Theory to the…
Vosko, R. S.; Hiemstra, R.
This paper reviews the literature primarily outside of educational circles on three topics--ergonomics, anthropometry, and proxemics--that affect the learning environment. It also discusses some implications in the hope that research and dialogue can be stimulated. (JOW)
Brooks, Patricia J; Kempe, Vera
In this study, we sought to identify cognitive predictors of individual differences in adult foreign-language learning and to test whether metalinguistic awareness mediated the observed relationships. Using a miniature language-learning paradigm, adults (N = 77) learned Russian vocabulary and grammar (gender agreement and case marking) over six 1-h sessions, completing tasks that encouraged attention to phrases without explicitly teaching grammatical rules. The participants' ability to describe the Russian gender and case-marking patterns mediated the effects of nonverbal intelligence and auditory sequence learning on grammar learning and generalization. Hence, even under implicit-learning conditions, individual differences stemmed from explicit metalinguistic awareness of the underlying grammar, which, in turn, was linked to nonverbal intelligence and auditory sequence learning. Prior knowledge of languages with grammatical gender (predominantly Spanish) predicted learning of gender agreement. Transfer of knowledge of gender from other languages to Russian was not mediated by awareness, which suggests that transfer operates through an implicit process akin to structural priming. PMID:23055121
Thoma, Patrizia; Edel, Marc-Andreas; Suchan, Boris; Bellebaum, Christian
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is hypothesized to be characterized by altered reinforcement sensitivity. The main aim of the present study was to assess alterations in the electrophysiological correlates of monetary reward processing in adult patients with ADHD of the combined subtype. Fourteen adults with ADHD of the combined subtype and 14 healthy control participants performed an active and an observational probabilistic reward-based learning task while an electroencephalogramm (EEG) was recorded. Regardless of feedback valence, there was a general feedback-related negativity (FRN) enhancement in combination with reduced learning performance during both active and observational reward learning in patients with ADHD relative to healthy controls. Other feedback-locked potentials such as the P200 and P300 and response-locked potentials were unaltered in the patients. There were no significant correlations between learning performance, FRN amplitudes and clinical symptoms, neither in the overall group involving all participants, nor in patients or controls considered separately. This pattern of findings might reflect generally impaired reward prediction in adults with ADHD of the combined subtype. We demonstrated for the first time that patients with ADHD of the combined subtype show not only deficient active reward learning but are also impaired when learning by observing other people?s outcomes. PMID:25467706
Murphy, Robert F.
A comparison of two models of the reading process--the psycholinguistic model, in which learning to read is seen as a top-down, holistic procedure, and the traditional theory model, in which learning to read is seen as a bottom-up, atomistic procedure--is provided in this paper. The first part of the paper provides brief overviews of the following…
Spaid, Robin; Duff, Evan D.
There are 54 million working adults in the United States without bachelor's degrees (Pusser et al., 2007). Many would like to obtain a college degree but need an educational program that fits their needs. A viable alternative to a traditional college program is an accelerated program in a cohort format. This article highlights best practices for…
This study examines the process of linguistic-and-cultural-identity formation as experienced by adult immigrants to Canada who consider themselves professionally successful and highly proficient in the target language. It addresses the characteristics of "good language learners" by determining how they negotiated their marginal standing in…
Miller, Jeffrey A.; Barona, Andres
Adult students in 4 groups (24 reading disabled, 5 math disabled, 4 reading and math disabled, and 60 nondisabled) completed 2 screening batteries: (1) Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT) and Barona Premorbid Intelligence Index and (2) WRAT and Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test. Resulting classifications correctly identified approximately 80% as…
Glass, J. Conrad, Jr.; Denny, James B.
Reviews second-language learning literature concerning factors which may affect adult students. Focuses on cognitive mechanisms, cerebral dominance theories, formal operations, motivation, and second-language teaching and learning. Offers suggestions for community college teaching and programs. (DMM)
PHD IN NURSING SAMPLE FULL-TIME PROGRAM Student with an interest in Symptom Management in Adults; Theory & Practice Emphasis Year 1 Fall Spring Course Title Credits Course Title Credits N722 Advanced Practice Nursing Theory: Adults and Older Adults 3 N703 Health Care & Public Policy 3 N815 Knowledge
Brown, Pamela Pitman; Brown, Candace S.
Mezirow (1978) applied and used Transformative Learning Theoretical (TLT) processes while studying women who reentered academics during the 1970s. Similar to Mezirow's original 1975 work, we identify "factors that impeded or facilitated" participants' progress to obtain their undergraduate degree during the traditional student…
Wrenn, Jan; Wrenn, Bruce
Educators in professional degree programs are charged with multiple responsibilities in the classroom and in practice settings. We apply our professional knowledge in a variety of settings to serve our communities; we reflect on how to improve practice from our experiences in these settings; we observe our students engaging in learning experiences…
Kenway, Mike; Reisenberger, Anna
This document is designed to help adult and community learning (ACL) services across the United Kingdom complete the annual self-assessment reports (SARs). The guide begins with background information on the purposes of self-assessment, the new context of ACL and the elements and format of the new SARs. The remaining four sections examine the…
This article describes a pilot project carried out at City University London, Department of Language and Communication Science, where adult service users with learning disabilities trained first-year speech and language therapy students. The training involved presentations by the service users on their involvement in interviewing support staff,…
Parish, Kay Annette
The purpose of this study was to investigate the role between mindfulness practice and adult learning. The participants were full-time students enrolled in a two-year radiography program at a Midwestern community college. Critical thinking and problem solving skills are essential to students' success and to healthcare professionals. The main…
Antonis, Konstantinos; Daradoumis, Thanasis; Papadakis, Spyros; Simos, Christos
This paper reports on work undertaken within a pilot study concerned with the design, development, and evaluation of online computer science training courses. Drawing on recent developments in e-learning technology, these courses were structured around the principles of a learner-oriented approach for use with adult learners. The paper describes a…
Shields, John D.; And Others
Sixty-one adolescents with learning disabilities received clear or unclear instructions from an adult before completing the Rorschach Arrangement Task and a test of abstract thinking. Adolescents receiving clear communication performed significantly better and used more efficient cognitive strategies than did adolescents in the unclear…
Sitlington, Patricia L.; Frank, Alan R.
The adult adjustment of 101 dropouts with learning disabilities (LD), whose graduating class had been out of school for 1 year, was investigated in terms of employment rate, occupational status, hours worked, wages, and benefits; vocational training, postsecondary education, and usefulness of high school; instructional model used; gender; and…
Burruss, W. Jinnings, Jr.
Discusses the mix of features in the learning environment that must be considered for adult learners: visual environment, acoustics, temperature, lighting design, and layout. Addresses the interplay of these features with the learner's behavior in the space. (Contains 41 references.) (SK)
Gzibovskis, Talis; Marnauza, Mara
When playing percussion instruments, the main activity is done with the help of a motion or motor skills; to perform it, developed fine motor skills are necessary: the speed and precision of fingers, hands and palms. The aim of the research was to study and test the development of young adults' fine motor skills while learning to play percussion…
This literature review provides an overview of the main lines of discussion and enquiry around social capital and adult learning and literacy. It was written as a background paper for "The Centre for Literacy's 2010 Summer Institute" on workplace literacy and essential skills (LES). The Institute focus was "what…
Stoltz-Loike, Marian; Morrell, Roger W.; Loike, James D.
BusinessThinking [TM] is a computer-based e-learning package designed to teach technology skills and business information to adults, ages 50-69, who remain in the workforce. This article outlines results from usability testing for the material on using technology applications (Microsoft Word, PowerPoint, Excel and the Internet), and career…
Mass incarceration in America is a moral, economic, and societal crisis with serious implications for many men of color and high school non-completers who are incarcerated at proportionally higher rates than Whites or college graduates. For the formerly incarcerated, engagement in adult learning, whether high school equivalency (HSE) or college,…
This publication is part of the study materials for the distance education course, Adults Learning: The Changing Workplace A, in the Open Campus Program at Deakin University. The first part of the document examines the relationship between technological change and skills development. The following topics are discussed: the new technological…
Stress Modulates Reinforcement Learning in Younger and Older Adults Nichole R. Lighthall, Marissa A that stress increases dopamine levels in brain regions involved in reward processing, and stress also appears to increase the attractiveness of addictive drugs. The current study tested the hypothesis that stress
Scheier, Elaine; Senter, Donald R.
This study compared the effectiveness of Learning 100 (L-100) with that of a conventional reading program in the Bedford Stuyvesant section of Brooklyn. L-100 is a multimedia, multimodal, multilevel communication skills system designed for use with undereducated adults, out-of-school youth, and potential dropouts. There were 49 in the experimental…
Wright, Robin Redmon; Sandlin, Jennifer A.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of popular culture, especially prime-time television, on women viewers' identity development. More specifically, this study explores one television show, the 1962-1964 Cathy Gale episodes of "The Avengers," as a portal to adult learning. We explored how television, as a form of public…
Xie, Bo; Watkins, Ivan; Golbeck, Jen; Huang, Man
An exploratory study was conducted to answer the following questions: What are older adults' perceptions of social media? What educational strategies can facilitate their learning of social media? A thematic map was developed to illustrate changing perceptions from the initial unanimous, strong negative to the more positive but cautious, and to…
Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, 2010
This report presents the results of the formative evaluation of the Adult Learning, Literacy and Essential Skills Program (ALLESP). Data collection related to this evaluation took place between November 2008 and May 2009. The evaluation resulted in the following four recommendations: (1) It is recommended that Program objectives and activities…
To address the need to connect Americans with learning opportunities, the Office of Career, Technical, and Adult Education released the present report. Grounded in evidence and informed by effective and emerging practices, "Making Skills Everyone's Business" offers seven strategies that hold great promise for improving the conditions…
Madaus, Joseph W.; Gerber, Paul J.; Price, Lynda A.
Now almost 15 years after the implementation of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) data are emerging in the literature related to job entry and employment outcomes of adults with learning disabilities (LD). Although these data are derived from varying methodologies, they converge in three critical areas: Knowledge of the ADA, realities of…
Littler, Craig R.
This publication is part of the study materials for the distance education course, Adults Learning: The Changing Workplace B, in the Open Campus Program at Deakin University. The first part of the document analyzes the relationship between technology, skill, and work within the context of the debates concerning deskilling and managerial control…
Rio Salado Community Coll., AZ.
Researchers at Rio Salado Community College (Arizona) directing an educational research project, called the Southwest Advanced Learning System for Adults (SALSA), placed personal computers in the homes of production line workers as a supplement to traditional classroom basic skills training. Objectives were to determine whether this supplemental…
Fair-Szofran, Nancy C.
Adult and Organizational Learning and Policy Development in Environments of Gray The purpose of this study was to describe, analyze and provide an understanding of the values that influence state legislators' decision-making as it relates to appropriations, tuition and fees, and financial aid for public postsecondary education in Idaho. The study…
Seider, Scott; Rabinowicz, Samantha; Gillmor, Susan
The Serve Program at Ignatius University is a community service-learning program that combines academic study of philosophy with a yearlong field-based project at one of approximately 50 different sites. Half of these projects entail working with youth, while the other half entail working with adults. This mixed methods analysis found that college…
Investigations into the lives and transition from compulsory schooling of young adults with a disability, including a learning difficulty (LD), are increasing. The emerging consensus is one which points to this group of young people experiencing greater difficulties and poorer outcomes compared to the general population. How these investigations…
Bippus, Sharon L.; Eslami, Zohreh R.
This multiple-case study examined the unique perspectives of six adult English for speakers of other languages (ESOL) students who participated as the givers of a service in a semester-long service learning community college ESOL course. Their ages ranged from 19 to 45 and they hailed from five different countries (Colombia, Mexico, South Korea,…
Tuquero, Jean M.
This qualitative research study utilized Noblit and Hare's (1988) meta-ethnographic approach to synthesize findings of five dissertations that focused on distance learning support services for adult learners. Noblit and Hare's (1988) meta-ethnographic approach consists of seven phases. Each meta-ethnographic phase guided the identification process…
Fellenz, Robert A.; Conti, Gary J.
This document contains the final report and the third-year report of the Center for Adult Learning Research, which was established at Montana State University (MSU) in December 1985 with support from the W. K. Kellogg Foundation. The final report reviews first- through third-year activities. It describes the following research projects: strategies…
Angelaki, Christina; Mavroidis, Ilias
The aim of this work is to examine the role of communication and social presence in distance learning environments and their impact on the emotions of adult learners. A study was conducted at the Hellenic Open University (HOU), using a questionnaire that was completed by 94 undergraduate and postgraduate students. More than 94% of the students…
Self-help literature has become an important domain of adult learning in North America. Self-help books offer readers advice on how to take charge of their lives and achieve goals such as prosperity, love, happiness, wellness, and self-actualization. Despite the popularity of self-help books, there has been little research about them from scholars…
Mojzsis, Stephen J.
#12;University of Colorado, Boulder Division of Continuing Education Adult Learning Opportunities University-level work. They are offered during the early evening hours, carry full University credit at 492-8666. Certificate in Commercial Design Are you interested in the growing field of commercial
Ackerman, Phillip L.; Beier, Margaret E.
The ability (fluid and crystallized intelligence) and nonability (personality, interests, self-concept, etc.) determinants of domain knowledge before and after an independent learning opportunity were evaluated in the context of a study of 141 adults between the ages of 18 and 69. The domain knowledge under consideration included an array of…
Recent research from the K-12 field indicates that professional development (PD) is a necessary (although not sufficient) factor in improving teacher quality. The research also clearly identifies ways to make professional learning activities for teachers effective. Yet the adult basic education and literacy (ABEL) field is not, for the most part,…
Judge, Jeffrey Wallace
Research of language learning strategy (LLS) has provided insight for language learners from many international cultures since this branch of research began in the 1970s. Despite the urgent need for competence in the use of business English in Western Europe, LLS studies have not been conducted on Spanish adults who use English for business. The…
Selwyn, Neil; Gorard, Stephen; Williams, Sara
Interviews with 36 adult learners in information-communications technology (ICT) settings, using the concept of learning trajectories, revealed barriers to widening participation through ICT. In addition to technical shortcomings, social, economic, cultural, and political issues hinder the process, including lack of innovative instruction and…
This book offers tutors in adult, further, and higher education materials for diagnosing students with specific learning disabilities (dyslexia). It provides information for setting up an appropriate individualized teaching program and making recommendations for supporting such students. Materials and methods can be used with students from basic…
Koch, Kourtland R.
This study is a replication of an original study conducted by James and Blank (1991) which examined the relationship between educational attainment and adult performance using the Multi-Modal Paired Associates Learning Test-Revised (MMPALT-II) (Cherry, 1981). The MMPALT-II was designed to measure an individual's demonstrated perceptual modality…
Merriam, Sharan B.; Kee, Youngwha
Community wellbeing is a function of many factors working in concert to promote an optimal quality of life for all members of a community. It is argued here that the promotion of lifelong learning among older adults can significantly contribute to community wellbeing. The aging society is a worldwide phenomenon presenting both opportunities and…
The purpose of this exploratory qualitative research study was to identify the elements of adventure travel experiences that contribute to the process of transformational learning in adults. A qualitative research design was employed for this study. The sources of data were twelve pre-existing and de-identified interview transcriptions. A textual…
Fahy, Patrick J.
This report presents findings from four pilot projects introducing computer-based individualization in adult basic education programming. The report includes a description of the andragogic and developmental studies underpinnings supporting the principal project goals of responsiveness in the learning environment and choices for students. Elements…
The author's academic interest in how shopping relates to adult learning goes back several years, to the author's Ph.D. program. Concerns are wide ranging, from social and material inequities manifest in unfair labor conditions for producers, to environmental degradation, to the tendency to favor economic viability single-mindedly over ecological…
Dongyu, Zhang; Fanyu, B.; Wanyi, Du
This paper discusses the sociocultural theory (SCT). In particular, three significant concepts of Vyogtsky's theory: self-regulation, the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD), and scaffolding all of which have been discussed in numerous second language acquisition (SLA) and second language learning (SLL) research papers. These concepts lay the…
This paper traces the evolution of Jack Mezirow's transformative learning theory and its conceptualisation. It discusses the three major influences, namely Thomas Khun's philosophical conception of paradigm, Freire's conception of conscientisation and consciousness growth, and Habermas' domains of learning and the discussion of…
Tompkins, Connie A.; Scharp, Victoria L.; Fassbinder, Wiltrud; Meigh, Kimberly M.; Armstrong, Elizabeth M.
Background Difficulties in social cognition and interaction can characterise adults with unilateral right hemisphere brain damage (RHD). Some pertinent evidence involves their apparently poor reasoning from a “Theory of Mind” perspective, which requires a capacity to attribute thoughts, beliefs, and intentions in order to understand other people’s behaviour. Theory of Mind is typically assessed with tasks that induce conflicting mental representations. Prior research with a commonly used text task reported that adults with RHD were less accurate in drawing causal inferences about mental states than at making non-mental-state causal inferences from control texts. However, the Theory of Mind and control texts differed in the number and nature of competing discourse entity representations. This stimulus discrepancy, together with the explicit measure of causal inferencing, likely put the adults with RHD at a disadvantage on the Theory of Mind texts. Aims This study revisited the question of Theory of Mind deficit in adults with RHD. The aforementioned Theory of Mind texts were used but new control texts were written to address stimulus discrepancies, and causal inferencing was assessed relatively implicitly. Adults with RHD were hypothesised not to display a Theory of Mind deficit under these conditions. Methods & Procedures The participants were 22 adults with unilateral RHD from cerebrovascular accident, and 38 adults without brain damage. Participants listened to spoken texts that targeted either mental-state or non-mental-state causal inferences. Each text was followed by spoken True/False probe sentences, to gauge target inference comprehension. Both accuracy and RT data were recorded. Data were analysed with mixed, two-way Analyses of Variance (Group by Text Type). Outcomes & Results There was a main effect of Text Type in both accuracy and RT analyses, with a performance advantage for the Theory of Mind/mental-state inference stimuli. The control group was faster at responding, and primed more for the target inferences, than the RHD group. The overall advantage for Theory of Mind texts was traceable to one highly conventional inference: someone tells a white lie to be polite. Particularly poor performance in mental-state causal inferencing was not related to neglect or lesion site for the group with RHD. Conclusions With appropriate stimulus controls and a relatively implicit measure of causal inferencing, this study found no “Theory of Mind” deficit for adults with RHD. The utility of the “Theory of Mind” construct is questioned. A better understanding of the social communication difficulties of adults with RHD will enhance clinical management in the future. PMID:20054449
Aguilar, Jessica M.; Plante, Elena
Purpose: Two studies examined learning of grammar-like visual sequences to determine whether a general deficit in statistical learning characterizes this population. Furthermore, we tested the hypothesis that difficulty in sustaining attention during the learning task might account for differences in statistical learning. Method: In Study 1,…
In this study a post-assessment survey was analyzed to seek for social learning preferences among women in a competency-based online learning environment. The survey asked what learning resources students used to prepare for the assessment. Each learning resource was given a relative sociability rating. This rating acts as the weighting for a…
Harvey, Barbara, Comp.; McGinty, Suzanne, Comp.
These 31 papers dealing with adult aboriginal learning are divided into three sections. The keynote speakers' papers appear first in each section. Section 1, Learning Our Way, contains these papers: "The Invasion of Aboriginal Education" (Christie); "The Drover's Daughter" (Bedford); "Nyungar Women Returning to Education" (Bennell); "Learning…
Scheela, Rochelle A.
Conducted grounded theory study to explore incest offender perceptions of treatment to generate explanatory theory of sexual abuse treatment process. Findings from theoretical sampling of 20 adult male incest offenders revealed that offenders felt remodeling process occurred as they faced discovery of their abuse and went through treatment.…
This paper examines how local knowledge is employed in environmental adult education in a community-based ecotourism project in an island community in southern Thailand. The study is based on field research and analysis of project websites, media reports and documents. Situated at the intersection of global tourism and a local Thai-Malay Muslim…
Wayland, Ratree; Lombardino, Linda
It has been estimated that approximately 5%-9% of school-aged children in the United States are diagnosed with some kind of learning disorders. Moreover, previous research has established that many of these children exhibited perceptual deficits in response to auditory stimuli, suggesting that an auditory perceptual deficit may underlie their learning disabilities. The goal of this research is to examine the ability to auditorily process speech and nonspeech stimuli among language-learning disabled (LLD) children and adults. The two questions that will be addressed in this study are: (a) Are there subtypes of LLD children/adults based on their auditory processing deficit, and (b) Is there any relationship between types of auditory processing deficits and types of language deficits as measured by a battery of psychoeducational tests.
Hush, D. R.; Scovel, James C.; Kelly, P. M.; Howse, J. W.; Fugate, M. L.; Cannon, A.
This tutorial provides an overview of the problem of learning from examples. Emphasis is placed on fundamental limitations in three areas: approximation, estimation and computation. Each of these is compared and contrasted in situations where the problem is one of regression verses pattern classification, parametric versus nonparametric, and linear versus nonlinear. General methods for improving generalization and computation speed are discussed, and practical examples are used to illustrate these methods.
Markos, Patricia A.; Strawser, Sherri
This article describes the relationship between learning disabilities (LD) and homelessness. Research describing the connection between disabilities and homelessness has focused on individuals presenting with disabilities such as mental illness, physical disabilities, medical disabilities, or substance abuse. At this time, the presence of LD in…
Boulton-Lewis, G. M.; Buys, L.; Tedman-Jones, J.
This article includes a description of conceptions of aging and engagement with learning for 16 older people (52 to 80 years; mean age 62 years) with a lifelong intellectual disability. The sample also included the care workers and family member/friend. The older people had sufficient verbal skills to participate in the interviews. Half the sample…
DeVille, Randall C.
Evidence suggests that a disconnect is growing between the information provided in Christian sermons and the life challenges faced by those church attendees. To bridge that divide, the purpose of this study was to better understand the characteristics of a sermon that enhance learning for churchgoers in Christian churches. The guiding question…
Lifer, Charles William
The purpose of this study was to determine how much personnel in an urban business would view agricultural films during their lunch hour; their reaction and how much they would learn. Employees of the home office of the Nationwide Insurance Company were the experimental group and employees of the regional office, the control group. The…