Sample records for adult learning theories

  1. Adult Learning Theories Closure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baskas, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    A student-centered nontraditional learning program was proposed to better prepare fire department military personnel in obtaining their 911 dispatch certification at a Florida military installation. Maintaining an adequate number of dispatched qualified military personnel, in addition to current civilian dispatchers at the same location, improves…

  2. Adult Learning Theory: A Primer. Information Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumgartner, Lisa M.; Lee, Ming-Yeh; Birden, Susan; Flowers, Doris

    The purpose of this monograph is to serve as a primer for practitioners on the foundational theories of adult learning. It begins with an explanation two lenses through which learning theory is viewed: behaviorism and constructivism. The next section defines andragogy and delineates Knowles's five assumptions about adult learners. This is followed…

  3. Applying Adult Learning and Development Theories to Educational Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baskas, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the degree of correlation that adult learning theories and adult developmental theories have with educational practice. Two adult learning theories, Malcolm Knowles' phase theories and Daniel Levinson's developmental theories, were researched to determine their relevance to three components of a nontraditional…

  4. Teaching Nontraditional Adult Students: Adult Learning Theories in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Joseph C.

    2014-01-01

    As the USA experiences rapid growth of nontraditional adult students in higher education, educators and institutions will increasingly need to look beyond the traditional youth-centric educational models to better address adult learning needs. To date, no research has been conducted examining the learning experiences of adult students enrolled in…

  5. Simulation Methodology in Nursing Education and Adult Learning Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutherford-Hemming, Tonya

    2012-01-01

    Simulation is often used in nursing education as a teaching methodology. Simulation is rooted in adult learning theory. Three learning theories, cognitive, social, and constructivist, explain how learners gain knowledge with simulation experiences. This article takes an in-depth look at each of these three theories as each relates to simulation.…

  6. Applying Adult Learning Theory through a Character Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baskas, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the behavior of a character, Celie, in a movie, 'The Color Purple," through the lens of two adult learning theorists to determine the relationships the character has with each theory. The development and portrayal of characters in movies can be explained and understood by the analysis of adult learning

  7. Centering Marxist-Feminist Theory in Adult Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Using feminist extensions of Marxist theory, this article argues that a Marxist-feminist theory of adult learning offers a significant contribution to feminist pedagogical debates concerning the nature of experience and learning. From this theoretical perspective, the individual and the social are understood to exist in a mutually determining…

  8. Towards a Critical Theory of Adult Learning/Education: Transformational Theory and Beyond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Arthur L.; Kiely, Richard C.

    Empirical research on adult learning conducted by Jack Mezirow in the 1970s was revolutionary and groundbreaking and contributed to the creation of a critical theory of adult learning. His influence has remained at the forefront of adult education theory for over two decades. It is timely to consider whether other empirical research has…

  9. Using Adult Learning Theory for New-Hire Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodard, Chris A.

    2007-01-01

    To test if adult learning theory can inform a training program for newly-hired employees in industry, a training program was set up using Knowles' concepts of andragogy. Evaluation results from before and after the new training program indicate that the perceptions of those in the new training program changed in a positive direction. This…

  10. Reexamining Theories of Adult Learning and Adult Development through the Lenses of Public Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandlin, Jennifer A.; Wright, Robin Redmon; Clark, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    The authors examine the modernist underpinnings of traditional adult learning and development theories and evaluate elements of those theories through more contemporary lenses. Drawing on recent literature focused on "public pedagogy," the authors argue that much learning takes place outside of formal educational institutions. They look beyond…

  11. A Theory of Adult Learning and Implications for Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tweedell, Cynthia Benn

    This paper presents the most current thinking on how to best structure adult learning programs, noting that adult learners demand a convenient program which is specially designed with their learning style in mind. They learn best in an interactive format with heavy emphasis on the practical application of their learning. The paper discusses the…

  12. Adult Learning Assumptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baskas, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine Knowles' theory of andragogy and his six assumptions of how adults learn while providing evidence to support two of his assumptions based on the theory of andragogy. As no single theory explains how adults learn, it can best be assumed that adults learn through the accumulation of formal and informal…

  13. A New World Order: Connecting Adult Developmental Theory to Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Lynda; Patton, James R.

    2003-01-01

    This article explores new connections between the current literature base on adult developmental theory and the field of learning disabilities. Emphasis is on theory and practice in self-determination and adult development. Implications for special education, vocational education, general education, and adult learning are discussed. (Contains…

  14. A Critical Theory of Adult Learning and Education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jack Mezirow

    1981-01-01

    Interpreting the ideas of Jurgen Habermas, the nature of three generic domains of adult learning is posited, each with its own interpretive categories, ways of determining which knowledge claims are warranted, methods of inquiry as well as its own learning goals, learning needs and modes of educational intervention. Perspective transformation is seen as one of the learning domains and the

  15. Why Adults Learn: Towards a Theory of Participation in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtney, Sean

    Voluntary participation in organized learning activities by adults is probably the most researched subject in the literature of adult education. Research goes back to the earliest days of 20th-century adult education in the United States. Surveys of adult learners within a broad empirical-positivist or policy-oriented framework are still the most…

  16. Revisiting Adult Learning Theory through the Lens of an Adult Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Londell D.

    2009-01-01

    In reading the last section of their primary text, "Learning in Adulthood: A Comprehensive Guide" by Merriam, Caffarella, and Baumgartner (2007) in his Adult Learning and Development class, the author continued to feel as though he was being self-assured of his previous learning experiences once again. The final section of the text focused on…

  17. Why Do We Teach? Adult Learning Theory in Professional Standards as a Basis for Curriculum Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilstrap, Donald L.

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an overview of adult learning theory in relation to teaching philosophies among librarians belonging to ACRL, using Hadley's Educational Orientation Questionnaire. Although not significant as a predictor, there was a nonlinear and negative correlation between librarians' familiarity with the ACRL Standards and their adult

  18. Application of Theories, Principles and Methods of Adult Learning for Managers to Improve Workplace Reactions to Learning, Knowledge and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steier, E. Joseph, III

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this dissertation was to explore the concept that knowledge and application of theories, principles and methods of adult learning to teaching may be a core management competency needed for companies to improve employee reaction to learning, knowledge transfer and behavior as well as engagement, retention and profitability.…

  19. Analyzing Principal Professional Development Practices through the Lens of Adult Learning Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zepeda, Sally J.; Parylo, Oksana; Bengtson, Ed

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study sought to identify current principal professional development practices in four school systems in Georgia and to examine them by applying the principles of adult learning theory. The cross-case analysis of principal professional development initiatives in four school districts revealed nine common practices: connecting…

  20. The Teaching Styles and Use of Adult Learning Theory among Nursing Professional Development Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran, Mary K.

    2013-01-01

    The American Nurses Association advocates for nursing professional development (NPD) specialists to have an earned graduate degree, as well as educational and clinical expertise. However, many NPD specialists have limited exposure to adult learning theory (ALT), and this lack of exposure may reduce organizational knowledge transfer (KT) and the…

  1. Helping Adults Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmundson, Phyllis J.

    2007-01-01

    Increased attention to preparing addictions counselors and related professionals to use evidence-based practices has brought new attention to the preparation programs for addictions counselors. Research and theory about adult learning emphasizes the importance of students as active participants in problem and experience based learning. This paper…

  2. Helping Adults Learn. Participant Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ. and Colleges, Long Beach. Office of the Chancellor.

    This publication is a workbook for those attending a "Helping Adults Learn" Workshop designed to assist higher education faculty and staff in promoting greater access and success for adult learners in higher education. An overview of the workshop describes the purpose, goals (to increase understanding of theory and research on adult learning, to…

  3. Aesthetic Learning Theory and the Faith Formation of Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglass, Katherine M.

    2013-01-01

    Participation in the arts is a form of practical reason and as such has the potential to form and transform the faith of individuals. The findings from Katherine M. Douglass's 2011 study on the role of the arts in the faith lives of young adults provides examples of the transformative potential of the arts as they foster expression,…

  4. Continuing Education in Athletic Training: An Alternative Approach Based on Adult Learning Theory

    PubMed Central

    Pitney, William A.

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To offer an alternative perspective on current continuing education practices and to propose a model for facilitating continuing education in the athletic training workplace. Background: Professional knowledge can quickly become outdated, and the personal/professional contexts of allied medical fields such as athletic training are becoming increasingly more complex, making continuing education paramount. Adult learning theory suggests that individuals are self- directed, autonomous learners in nature and that experience is a rich source for learning, subsequently making the workplace a fruitful environment in which to engage in continuing education. Unfortunately, mandating continuing education may violate the voluntary nature of adult learning, making the practice questionable. Therefore, alternative aspects of continuing education may be helpful. Description: This article consists of a brief synthesis of related literature that offers an alternative perspective of continuing education and proposes a model for facilitating continuing education in the workplace. The model's foundation includes preparing an environment conducive to learning and then focuses on identifying learning needs, setting goals, implementing specific strategies to facilitate self-directed learning, and assessing leaming. Additionally, the model suggests that ongoing reflection is a key factor in enhancing the identification of learning needs, goals, and strategies. Advantages: The model may best be used by clinical coordinators, directors, and supervisors to better facilitate employee learning and subsequently improve patient care delivery. PMID:16558490

  5. Media Analysis as Critical Reflexology in Exploring Adult Learning Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchins, Holly M.; Bierema, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Examining media artifacts as a learning method has received little attention in human resource development (HRD) despite it being a predominate form of information and influence in popular culture. As Giroux (2002) opines, media functions as a form of public pedagogy by offering situations and contexts through which viewers can vicariously…

  6. Becoming an expert: a review of adult learning theory and implications for vocational training in ophthalmology.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Timothy V; Gustavs, Julie; Mack, Heather G

    2012-07-01

    One of the key responsibilities of professional bodies, such as the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists, is to determine, teach and assess the competencies required for trainees to reach an expert level. Vocational training programs (VTP) need to incorporate advances in educational research and reflect changes in generational thinking and learning styles to provide the most optimal learning environment to meet the desired educational outcomes. This paper seeks to introduce some of the important concepts of adult educational theory and to explain how they connect to four strategic areas in the development and implementation of the VTP: 1?What are the learning needs of trainees? 2?What educational methods best address these needs? 3?What assessment methods best test the acquisition of the desired learning outcomes? 4?What are the needs of supervisors and teachers? PMID:22004095

  7. An overview of adult-learning processes.

    PubMed

    Russell, Sally S

    2006-10-01

    Part of being an effective instructor involves understanding how adults learn best. Theories of adult education are based on valuing the prior learning and experience of adults. Adult learners have different learning styles which must be assessed prior to initiating any educational session. Health care providers can maximize teaching moments by incorporating specific adult-learning principles and learning styles into their teaching strategies. PMID:17078322

  8. Helping Adults Learn. Facilitator's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ. and Colleges, Long Beach. Office of the Chancellor.

    This publication is a guide for those planning and facilitating a "Helping Adults Learn" Workshop designed to assist higher education faculty and staff in promoting greater access and success for adult learners in higher education. An overview of the workshop describes the purpose, goals (to increase understanding of theory and research on adult

  9. Adult Learning Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grigsby, Lindle

    This booklet addresses two of the competencies needed by part-time faculty who teach adults. The competencies are adult learning and the need for quality in preparation to assure quality in instruction. The booklet begins with a discussion of just who the adult learners are. The next topic is adult motivation to learn at the beginning, during, and…

  10. The Learning Theory Jungle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minter, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses the myriad of pedagogical and andragogical issues facing university educators in the student learning process. It briefly explores the proliferation of learning theories in an attempt to develop awareness among faculty who teach at the university/college levels that not all theories of learning apply to the adult learner. In…

  11. Characteristics of Adult Learners with Implications for Online Learning Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cercone, Kathleen

    2008-01-01

    The online educational environment is increasingly being used by adults and should be designed based on the needs of adult learners. This article discusses andragogy, an important adult learning theory, and reviews three other adult learning theories: self-directed learning, experiential learning, and transformational learning. During this…

  12. The Application of the Learning Project Interview as a Method of Communicating Principles of Learning Theory to Facilitators of Adult Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickett, R. E. Y.

    The learning project interview is a group-interview technique that is useful for developing an awareness of the process of adult learning. Specifically, it provides insights concerning the types of things adults try to learn, the number of learning experiences they have, their methods of learning, and the sources of the subject matter that they…

  13. Impact of an Evidence-Based Medicine Curriculum Based on Adult Learning Theory

    PubMed Central

    Green, Michael L; Ellis, Peter J

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To develop and implement an evidence-based medicine (EBM) curriculum and determine its effectiveness in improving residents' EBM behaviors and skills. DESIGN Description of the curriculum and a multifaceted evaluation, including a pretest-posttest controlled trial. SETTING University-based primary care internal medicine residency program. PARTICIPANTS Second- and third-year internal medicine residents (N =34). INTERVENTIONS A 7-week EBM curriculum in which residents work through the steps of evidence-based decisions for their own patients. Based on adult learning theory, the educational strategy included a resident-directed tutorial format, use of real clinical encounters, and specific EBM facilitating techniques for faculty. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Behaviors and self-assessed competencies in EBM were measured with questionnaires. Evidence-based medicine skills were assessed with a 17-point test, which required free text responses to questions based on a clinical vignette and a test article. After the intervention, residents participating in the curriculum (case subjects) increased their use of original studies to answer clinical questions, their examination of methods and results sections of articles, and their self-assessed EBM competence in three of five domains of EBM, while the control subjects did not. The case subjects significantly improved their scores on the EBM skills test (8.5 to 11.0, p =.001), while the control subjects did not (8.5 to 7.1, p =.09). The difference in the posttest scores of the two groups was 3.9 points (p =.001, 95% confidence interval 1.9, 5.9). CONCLUSIONS An EBM curriculum based on adult learning theory improves residents' EBM skills and certain EBM behaviors. The description and multifaceted evaluation can guide medical educators involved in EBM training. PMID:9436893

  14. An Annotated Bibliography: Using Theories of Self-Regulation to Understand How Adults Learn in Various Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artino, Anthony R., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    The present report presents an annotated bibliography of peer-reviewed articles that employed theories of self-regulation to understand how adults learn in various contexts. Seven scholarly articles, published between 2000 and 2006, were reviewed and summarized. Articles reviewed include (1) Self-regulation in a Web-based Course: A Case Study (J.…

  15. Examination of the teaching styles of nursing professional development specialists, part I: best practices in adult learning theory, curriculum development, and knowledge transfer.

    PubMed

    Curran, Mary K

    2014-05-01

    The American Nurses Association advocates for nursing professional development (NPD) specialists to have an earned graduate degree, as well as educational and clinical expertise. However, many NPD specialists have limited exposure to adult learning theory. Limited exposure to adult learning theory may affect NPD educational practices, learning outcomes, organizational knowledge transfer, and subsequently, the professional development of the nurses they serve and quality of nursing care. An examination of current teaching practices may reveal opportunities for NPD specialists to enhance educational methods to promote learning, learning transfer, and organizational knowledge and excellence. This article, the first in a two-part series, examines best practices of adult learning theories, nursing professional development, curriculum design, and knowledge transfer. Part II details the results of a correlational study that examined the effects of four variables on the use of adult learning theory to guide curriculum development for NPD specialists in hospitals. PMID:24779716

  16. Personal Assessment Guide and Learning Plan for Adult Basic Education Teachers. From Theory to Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fellenz, Robert A.; Conti, Gary J.

    1985-01-01

    This worksheet is intended to assist adult basic education teachers in organizing personal learning projects. Based on the learning approach advocated by Malcolm Knowles and a teacher training model developed through Project ACT, the worksheet includes information on the attributes of good teachers and development of a contract for self-directed…

  17. Integration of Andragogy in Adult Second Language Learning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura Middaugh

    Abstract Current adult learning theory roots from andragogy. Andrag ogy, a method of adult learning based on six assumptions about adult learners, can be applied to adult second language acquisition with adults. Section 1 details the history of adult learning, the foundations of andragogy, and the debates regarding the method. Section 2 will search for similarities between the foundations of

  18. Consulting Adults. NIACE Lifelines in Adult Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jude, Chris

    This document explains how adult and community educators in the United Kingdom can involve adults as equal partners in the provision and delivery of adult learning. The guide profiles many innovative and imaginative ways in which adult and community learning practitioners are engaging with their communities in increasing the demand for adult

  19. Adult Learning and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubenson, Kjell, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    As individuals and societies try to respond to fundamental economic and social transformation, the field of adult learning and education is rapidly getting increased attention and new topics for research on adult learning have emerged. This collection of articles from the International Encyclopedia of Education 3e offers practitioners and…

  20. Dimensions of Adult Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Griff, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    This broad introduction to adult and postcompulsory education offers an overview of the field for students, adult educators and workplace trainers. The book establishes an analytical framework to emphasize the nature of learning and agency of learners; examines the core knowledge and skills that adult educators need; discusses policy, research and…

  1. Adult Learning Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    Adult Learners' Week--which is supported by the Department for Innovation, Universities and Skills and the European Social Fund, amongst a raft of other organisations--is all about raising demand for learning. At its core, the campaign is about encouraging under-represented groups--including low-skilled, unemployed and low-paid adults and those…

  2. Adults Learning Mathematics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Adults Learning Mathematics (ALM) organization is "an international research forum bringing together researchers and practitioners in adult mathematics/numeracy teaching and learning in order to promote the learning of mathematics by adults." The site contains sections such as "For teachers", "For PhD students", and "For policy makers". The "For teachers" area includes links to the ALM newsletters and their resources, which include downloadable posters and factsheets. Moving along, the "For PhD students" area includes information for those doctoral students that are seeking to incorporate pedagogical techniques for teaching math to adults in their research. Additionally, the "For policy makers" area includes helpful documents such as "High stakes assessment: Assessing numeracy for Nursing in two recent projects".

  3. Adult Learning and HRD. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This symposium on adult learning and human resource development consists of three presentations. "Adult Learning Principles and Concepts in the Workplace: Implications for Training in HRD" (Margot B. Weinstein) reports on findings from interviews with restaurant employees who reported that training practices using adult learning principles…

  4. Computational Learning Theory Learning Regular Languages

    E-print Network

    Parthasarathy, Madhusudan

    Computational Learning Theory Learning Regular Languages Applications to Verification Learning A Tutorial P. Madhusudan Learning Algorithms and Formal Verification #12;Computational Learning Theory Learning Regular Languages Applications to Verification Outline 1 Computational Learning Theory 2 Learning

  5. Assessment Matters in Adult Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donley, Jan; Napper, Rosemary

    This handbook was developed to give tutors of adult education information and ideas about assessing adult learning. It can be used as a reference for information about assessment and as a practical tool for tutors. Section 1, Introduction to Assessment in Adult Learning, includes information on these topics: what assessment is, how to assess, why…

  6. Observational Learning among Older Adults Living in Nursing Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Story, Colleen D.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate learning by older adults living in nursing homes through observational learning based on Bandura's (1977) social learning theory. This quantitative study investigated if older adults could learn through observation. The nursing homes in the study were located in the midwestern United States. The…

  7. Overcoming Alienation as the Practice of Adult Education: The Contribution of Erich Fromm to a Critical Theory of Adult Learning and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookfield, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    Erich Fromm proposed that learning to penetrate ideological obfuscation and overcome the alienation it generates is the learning task of adulthood. He believed adult education would make people aware of ideological manipulation and prepare them for participatory democracy. His was a Marxist humanism aimed at the creation of democratic socialism.…

  8. Adult Learning Opportunities in Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regmi, Krishna; Regmi, Sharada

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the initial findings from a study of education system in Nepal. This paper examines the adult learning opportunities within the educational and cultural contexts by reviewing available literature relevant to Nepal. Findings show that there are wider opportunities for adult learning than those considered from education and…

  9. Podcasting as Complement to Graduate Teaching: Does It Accommodate Adult Learning Theories?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luna, Gaye; Cullen, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Technology in higher education has exploded within the last decade, as educators become more knowledgeable about its uses and students become more demanding of access and convenience to teaching and learning. This article shares results of an exploratory study that determined graduate students' perceptions of podcasting access and utility in…

  10. Facilitating Adult Learning Participant Materials for Notebook

    E-print Network

    UNIT 2: Facilitating Adult Learning Participant Materials for Notebook #12;Navigating for Success Facilitating Adult Learning p 1 Facilitating Adult Learning Adults tend to teach as they remember being taught. This unit is designed to help nutrition educators become more skilled in working with adult learners to make

  11. Travel and Adult Transformative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindstrom, Steven K.

    2011-01-01

    This phenomenological research study examines the lived experience of individual adult transformation in the context of travel. Adults throughout history have experienced profound personal and perception changes as a result of significant travel events. Transformative learning occurs through experience, crisis, and reflection, all of which are…

  12. Adult Learning. ARIS Information Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Language Australia, Melbourne (Victoria). Adult Education Resource and Information Service.

    Adults may seek out learning at different times in their lives, for different reasons, and for vastly different purposes. Some of the reasons are to achieve pre-determined goals; to fill education gaps; to explore options and make choices; to develop personally; to perform a job or role better; or to enhance employment prospects. Learning itself…

  13. Adult Learning in the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This document contains four symposium papers on adult learning in the workplace. "The Relationship between Workplace Learning and Employee Satisfaction in Small Businesses" (Robert W. Rowden, Shamsuddin Ahmad) reports the results of a study of the nature and extent of HRD, level of job satisfaction among workers, and correlation between HRD…

  14. Adults with Learning Disabilities Redux.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerber, Paul J.

    2003-01-01

    This introductory article on adults with learning disabilities considers historical antecedents, the role of public policy (the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and the 1975 Education for All Handicapped Children Act), the movement within the field of learning disabilities emphasizing transition to adulthood, and the continuance of public policy…

  15. Learning to preach: social learning theory and the development of Christian preachers 

    E-print Network

    Stevenson, Geoffrey

    2009-11-26

    examine in Chapter 2 adult learning principles and cognitively-oriented concepts, such as learning styles and the theory of multiple intelligences. In Chapters 3 and 4 social learning theories that I examine include imitation, the effect of role models...

  16. Online Education and Adult Learning: New Frontiers for Teaching Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Terry T., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The expanding field of adult learning encompasses the study and practice of utilizing sound instructional design principals, technology, and learning theory as a means to solve educational challenges and human performance issues relating to adults, often occurring online. This book disseminates current issues and trends emerging in the field of…

  17. Facilitating Adult Learning Unit Preparation Materials and

    E-print Network

    UNIT 2: Facilitating Adult Learning Unit Preparation Materials and Facilitator Guide #12; #12;Navigating for Success Facilitating Adult Learning f i Seven Steps of Planning - Facilitating Adult Learning to teaching. WHY: The Situation Adults tend to teach as they remember being taught. A common teaching method

  18. Online Learning for Adults: Research and

    E-print Network

    de Lijser, Peter

    ! Online Learning for Adults: Research and Implications for Instructors ! ! Jo a positive learning resource Thrive in an independent and interdependent learning environment Time the research-based characteristics of online learning instruction and communities to determine the extent

  19. Learning for Economic Self-Sufficiency: Constructing Pedagogies of Hope among Low-Income, Low-Literate Adults. Adult Education Special Topics: Theory, Research and Practice in LifeLong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfred, Mary V., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    In a most timely volume addressing many of the connections among current fiscal and employment crises to adult education, Learning for Economic Self-Sufficiency highlights the problems and challenges that low-literate adults encounter in various environments. Moreover, this book presents strategies for addressing the chronic illiteracy among…

  20. Putting Transformative Learning Theory into Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Michael; Carey, Michael; Robertson, Ann; Grainger, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This paper elaborates on a number of key criticisms of Mezirow's transformative learning theory as well as providing arguments that validate it. Our paper exemplifies how Mezirow's theory can help adult educators and prospective school teachers understand that social structures and belief systems can influence student learning, that learners make…

  1. Radicalizing Learning: Adult Education for a Just World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookfield, Stephen D.; Holst, John D.

    2010-01-01

    This book offers new readings of the theory, politics, policy, and practice of radical adult education and learning where people's lives are understood as complex and interrelated matters. Brookfield and Holst's poetics and deeply human prose sound rebellious; the authors confront some of the main radical trends in the field of adult education…

  2. Learning How to Learn: Implications for Non Traditional Adult Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tovar, Lynn A.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, learning how to learn for non traditional adult students is discussed with a focus on police officers and firefighters. Learning how to learn is particularly relevant for all returning non-traditional adults; however in the era of terrorism it is critical for the public safety officers returning to college after years of absence…

  3. Beyond Rhetoric: Adult Learning Policies and Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    Drawing on the experience of Canada, Denmark, Finland, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom, this document identifies effective adult education policies and practices. The following are among the topics discussed: (1) issues in adult learning and why adult learning is important; (2) patterns of participation and…

  4. Adult Learning and the Future of Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Madhu, Ed.

    This book contains 15 papers: "Introduction" (Madhu Singh); "Adult Learning and the Transformation of Work" (Paul Belanger); "Future of Work and Adult Learning" (Ettore Gelpi); "The Obligation of Education in the Face of Globalisation" (Nicole Arnaud); "Lifelong Learning and Vocational Education and Training: A Teacher's and Trade Union View"…

  5. Adults Learning in Pre-schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGivney, Veronica

    The learning that parents accomplish through informal involvement in running preschool learning groups was examined through a survey of adults who were actively involved in a Pre-School Learning Alliance program in 1 of 10 locations throughout England. Of the 632 adults contacted, 311 (nearly 50%) completed questionnaires. Approximately 60…

  6. The Design of Online Learning Communities for Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Marti M.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the creation of SeniorSage, an eight week facilitated online learning community for older adult volunteers in a Florida learning center. Discusses how members were prepared to participate in the community, explains the instructional design theory that guided the development of SeniorSage, and recommends future research. (Author/LRW)

  7. Transformational Learning: Reflections of an Adult Learning Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foote, Laura S.

    2015-01-01

    Transformational learning, narrative learning, and spiritual learning frame adult experiences in new and exciting ways. These types of learning can involve a simple transformation of belief or opinion or a radical transformation involving one's total perspective; learning may occur abruptly or incrementally. Education should liberate students from…

  8. A Day at the SPA (Successful Practices of Andragogy): How to Use the ELCC Standards and Adult Learning Theory to Sustain a "Self-as-Principal" Voice in Principal Preparation Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hines, Mack T., III

    2006-01-01

    Principal preparation programs are designed to create and prepare effective school leaders. These programs pursue many pathways to achieve this goal. This study highlighted the significance of framing this pursuit around the Educational Leadership Council Standards (ELCC; Wilmore, 2002) and Malcolm Knowles' (1970) adult learning theory. In…

  9. Adult Literacy, Learning Identities and Pedagogic Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowther, Jim; Maclachlan, Kathy; Tett, Lyn

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the relationship between persistence in adult literacy and numeracy programs, changes in the participants' attitudes to engaging in learning and pedagogic practices using data from eight Scottish literacy education organizations. It argues that literacy learning can act as a resource that enables vulnerable adults to change…

  10. View, 2000: Commentaries on Adult Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adult Learning Australia, Inc., Jamison.

    This booklet is compiled from all the Adult Learning Australia (ALA) Commentaries produced in 2000. Emailed to ALA members each week, ALA Commentaries are written by people in the field of adult learning in the broadest sense, usually in Australia, sometimes overseas, and designed to stimulate discussion. ALA hosts an online discussion forum about…

  11. Physical Criteria for Adult Learning Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Sally

    The development of learning environments especially for adults has been neglected and research in planning such environments is fragmented and minimal. There is general agreement that facilities for adults should have an aura of adulthood to contribute to an adult's feeling of ease, confidence, and capability; that they should be flexible in room…

  12. Zombies, Cyborgs, and other Labor Organizers: An Introduction to Representations of Adult Learning Theories and HRD in Popular Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Robin Redmon

    2013-01-01

    Too often, educators, researchers, and practitioners in the fields of adult education and human resource development rely on traditional curricular materials and an academic body of knowledge for teaching, evaluating, and training adults. This assumes a coherent body of prior knowledge, assumptions, worldviews, and experiences in their students…

  13. Self-Directed Learning by Undereducated Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Marion

    2006-01-01

    In 2002-03, a qualitative study examined the experiences of 70 stakeholders connected to two community-based adult literacy programs in Manitoba, Canada. Self-directed learning was one of several elements that these research participants considered essential to the learning process. These literacy stakeholders defined self-directed learning as a…

  14. Rehearsal Effects in Adult Word Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Yoo, Jeewon

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this research was to examine the effects of phonological familiarity and rehearsal method (vocal vs. subvocal) on novel word learning. In Experiment 1, English-speaking adults learned phonologically familiar novel words that followed English phonological structure. Participants learned half the words via vocal rehearsal (saying the…

  15. Media and Adult Learning. Volume 3, Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Michael, Ed.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Two articles are presented relevant to media and adult learning. In the first article, "The Pedagogy of Communication: Conscientization through Mass Media," David G. Gueulette sets forth ideas derived from Freire's theory of literacy training and suggests means by which effective teaching strategies can be developed through popular mass media…

  16. Understanding and Promoting Transformative Learning: A Guide for Educators of Adults. Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cranton, Patricia

    This book describes the theory and process of transformative learning (TL) and presents practical strategies for fostering and supporting TL. In chapters 1 and 2, TL is placed within the broader context of adult learning and Mezirow's 1991 theory of TL is presented. Chapter 3 examines the following: TL's relationship to the instrumental,…

  17. Technology and Adult Learning: Current Perspectives. ERIC Digest No. 197.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imel, Susan

    When considering the role of technology in adult learning, adult educators must determine how to respond to technology and exploit it without diminishing the learning experience. Four approaches to integrating technology into adult learning are currently being used: technology as curriculum (adults not only learn content through technology but…

  18. Toward A Theory of HRD Learning Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Greg G.; Wang, Jia

    2005-01-01

    This article fills a gap by identifying an under-studied area for learning participation (LP) in HRD theory building. A literature review is presented to identify gaps in adult education and HRD literature. An HRD LP framework is then proposed, from cross-sectional/time-series perspectives, to describe the pattern, factors, structure, and the…

  19. An Application of Knowles' Theories of Adult Education to an Undergraduate Interdisciplinary Studies Degree Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Lin; Ross, Jerry

    2011-01-01

    Malcolm Knowles' theory of andragogy is best known in the world of adult education as a conceptualization of how and why adults learn. The following practice-based article that has applied Knowles' theories and precepts to an undergraduate program reflects on how those concepts work with people whom Knowles might well have not considered "adults."…

  20. The Importance of Place to Adult Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulton, Rodney D.

    The question of how important place is to learning is one that has fallen in and out of vogue during the past 40 years. Despite frequent statements of its importance, there has been a continual lack of attention to the physical environment of adult education. Under the leadership of John Becker, an architect from Cincinnati, the Adult Education…

  1. Adult Learning, Education, and the Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clover, Darlene E.; Hill, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The environment is now a common theme in adult education. However, conversations that swirled around the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20) in June 2012 suggested major environmental challenges persist, demanding that education, learning, advocacy and activism be augmented to ensure the survival of the planet. In adult

  2. Interrupting Adult Learning through Online Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart-Buttle, Ros

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers online pedagogy in relation to Christian adult learning and asks how this might be interpreted by theological educators. The online community of inquiry is proposed as one recognized pedagogical approach and illustrated by reference to a continuing professional development programme for online adult learners across the church…

  3. Adult Learning and Literacy in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shohet, Linda

    2001-01-01

    In Chapter Six, Linda Shohet offers a description of the adult literacy and learning system in Canada. In providing a historical overview of the development of the field, Shohet notes key political events that have influenced the funding and development of services for adults. Through her description, the author reveals the complexity and…

  4. Adult hepatoblastoma: learning from children.

    PubMed

    Rougemont, Anne-Laure; McLin, Valérie A; Toso, Christian; Wildhaber, Barbara E

    2012-06-01

    Hepatoblastoma is the most common malignant liver tumour in infants and young children. Its occurrence in the adult population is debated and has been questioned. The aim of this paper is to review the histological and clinical features of adult hepatoblastoma as described in the adult literature, and to compare the findings with those of paediatric hepatoblastoma. The developmental and molecular aspects of hepatoblastoma are reviewed and their potential contribution to diagnosis of adult hepatoblastoma discussed. Case reports of adult hepatoblastoma identified by a PubMed search of the English, French, German, Italian, and Spanish literature through March 2011 were reviewed. Forty-five cases of hepatoblastoma were collected. Age at presentation was variable. Survival was uniformly poor, except for the rare patients who presented with the relatively differentiated, foetal type. The common denominator between adult and paediatric cases is the occurrence of embryonal or immature aspect of the tumours. Whether the adult cases of hepatoblastoma represent blastemal tumours, stem cell tumours, or unusual differentiation patterns in otherwise more frequent adult liver tumours remains to be established. Adult tumours labelled as hepatoblastoma are characterised by malignant appearing mesenchymal components. Surgical management is the cornerstone of therapy in children and also appears to confer an improved prognosis in adults. Whether adult hepatoblastoma exists, remains controversial. Indeed, several features described in adult cases are markedly different from hepatoblastoma as it is understood in children, and other differential diagnoses should also be entertained. Nonetheless, hepatoblastoma should be considered in adults presenting with primary liver tumours in the absence of pre-existing liver disease. Adult and paediatric patients with immature hepatoblastoma appear to have worse outcomes, and adults presenting with presumed hepatoblastoma have an overall poorer prognosis than children with hepatoblastoma. In all patients, surgery should be the treatment of choice, neoadjuvant chemotherapy is advisable. PMID:22326463

  5. Adult learning principles and presentation pearls.

    PubMed

    Palis, Ana G; Quiros, Peter A

    2014-01-01

    Although lectures are one of the most common methods of knowledge transfer in medicine, their effectiveness has been questioned. Passive formats, lack of relevance and disconnection from the student's needs are some of the arguments supporting this apparent lack of efficacy. However, many authors have suggested that applying adult learning principles (i.e., relevance, congruence with student's needs, interactivity, connection to student's previous knowledge and experience) to this method increases learning by lectures and the effectiveness of lectures. This paper presents recommendations for applying adult learning principles during planning, creation and development of lectures to make them more effective. PMID:24791101

  6. Verbal and novel multisensory associative learning in adults

    PubMed Central

    Crewther, Sheila G

    2013-01-01

    To date, few studies have focused on the behavioural differences between the learning of multisensory auditory-visual and intra-modal associations. More specifically, the relative benefits of novel auditory-visual and verbal-visual associations for learning have not been directly compared. In Experiment 1, 20 adult volunteers completed three paired associate learning tasks: non-verbal novel auditory-visual (novel-AV), verbal-visual (verbal-AV; using pseudowords), and visual-visual (shape-VV). Participants were directed to make a motor response to matching novel and arbitrarily related stimulus pairs. Feedback was provided to facilitate trial and error learning. The results of Signal Detection Theory analyses suggested a multisensory enhancement of learning, with significantly higher discriminability measures (d-prime) in both the novel-AV and verbal-AV tasks than the shape-VV task. Motor reaction times were also significantly faster during the verbal-AV task than during the non-verbal learning tasks.  Experiment 2 (n = 12) used a forced-choice discrimination paradigm to assess whether a difference in unisensory stimulus discriminability could account for the learning trends in Experiment 1. Participants were significantly slower at discriminating unisensory pseudowords than the novel sounds and visual shapes, which was notable given that these stimuli produced superior learning. Together the findings suggest that verbal information has an added enhancing effect on multisensory associative learning in adults PMID:24627770

  7. Learning and Reality: Reflections on Trends in Adult Learning. Information Series No. 336.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fellenz, Robert A.; Conti, Gary J.

    The focus of the adult education field is shifting to adult learning. Current trends are the continued development of the concepts of andragogy and self-directed learning, increased emphasis on learning how to learn, and real-life learning. Cognitive psychology is influencing work in adult learning. The concept of intelligence as it relates to…

  8. Learning from Native Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orr, Jeffrey A.

    2000-01-01

    Describes the Native American concept of the Medicine Wheel, which symbolizes the unity of mental, spiritual, physical, and emotional dimensions. Includes strategies for using it to cultivate a spiritual way of being in adult education. (SK)

  9. Policy Review on Adult Learning: The Adult Non-Formal Education Policy of Mali, West Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadio, Moussa

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the issue of policy development for adult learning in Mali, West Africa. On January 2007, the Malian government adopted the "Adult Non-formal Education Policy Document," which was intended to regulate the adult learning sector and federate the actions of policy makers, adult education providers, and adult learners. The…

  10. Adult Learning in Educational Tourism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitman, Tim; Broomhall, Sue; McEwan, Joanne; Majocha, Elzbieta

    2010-01-01

    This article explores notions of learning in the niche market sector of educational tourism, with a focus on organised recreational tours that promote a structured learning experience as a key feature. It analyses the qualitative findings of surveys and interviews with a cross-section of educational tourism providers in Australia, their…

  11. Implications of Adult Learning Characteristics and Learning Styles for the Design of Software Documentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Jay

    1987-01-01

    Based on the results of research concerning the characteristics of adults as learners and theory of individual learning styles, suggests that software documentation should be organized with a flexible format, and with content that relates each piece of software to the user's relevant past experience. (SKC)

  12. Is a Learning Theory Harmonious with Others?

    E-print Network

    Mizoguchi, Riichiro

    Is a Learning Theory Harmonious with Others? To form E ective Collaborative Learning Groups learning process with justi cation by the learning theories. We propose possibility that theory-based learning groups. With the ontology, it will be possible to compare and synthesize the learning theories

  13. E-Learning Implications for Adult Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Criu, Roxana; Ceobanu, Ciprian

    2013-01-01

    If a few decades ago, "the education received in school could be in most of the cases enough to go with for the rest of one's entire life," today the situation has changed dramatically. The individual has to be prepared for a new type of life and training, namely lifelong learning. The individual's survival in society could…

  14. Adult Learning and the New Austerity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adults Learning, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The spending review brought a promise to protect adult and community learning as well as swingeing cuts to further and higher education and local government. In this article, some of the key players--Lynne Sedgmore, Christopher Brooks, Graham Hoyle, Maggie Galliers, Louise Hazel, Richard Bolsin, Maggi Dawson, Ruth Bond, Stuart Etherington, Brendan…

  15. The Learning Needs of Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdie, Nola; Boulton-Lewis, Gillian

    2003-01-01

    Interviews with 17 older adults about learning needs and barriers resulted in a questionnaire completed by 160 elders. Most important needs were associated with transportation, health, and safety. Physical disabilities were the chief barrier. They felt most confident addressing health, safety, leisure, and transportation needs but not…

  16. The Learning Industry. Education for Adult Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eurich, Nell P.

    This study focuses on the connection between education and the world of work and the urgency of the endeavor to educate the work force. Part I considers the resources for adult learning in the United States, with a focus on the major providers outside the traditional education system. Technological resources that can extend educational…

  17. Work, Love, and Learning in Adult Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merriam, Sharan B.; Clark, M. Carolyn

    To understand how work, love, and learning are interrelated in adults' lives, data were collected in two ways: through a life-history type instrument and through in-depth interviews with 19 men and women. A life event framework was chosen to illustrate the broad constructs of work and love. Respondents identified in two columns major life events…

  18. Adult learning disabilities screening using an internet-administered instrument

    E-print Network

    Lancaster, Sean; Mellard, Daryl

    2005-09-01

    The article validates an Internet-administered version of Adult Learning Disabilities Screening (ALDS), e-ALDS, by comparing 122 adult education participants who completed the ALDS in paper-and-pencil vs. Internet formats. Adults with undiagnosed...

  19. Learning careers and the social space: exploring the fragile identities of adult returners in the new further education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jim Gallacher; Beth Crossan; John Field; Barbara Merrill

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the concept of 'learning careers' as a way of understanding the processes through which adults return to education. It particularly considers the ways in which adults from groups who are at risk of social exclusion develop identities that enable them to engage with learning. The concept of learning careers is derived from symbolic interactionist theory, with its

  20. The Role of Diverse Institutions in Framing Adult Learning Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saar, Ellu; Ure, Odd Bjorn; Desjardins, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This article considers the role of diverse institutions in framing adult learning systems. The focus is on institutional characteristics and configurations in different countries and their potential impact on the extent of adult learning, as well as on inequalities in access to adult learning. Typologies of education and training systems as well…

  1. Older Adults and E-Learning: Opportunities and Barriers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Githens, Rod P.

    2007-01-01

    E-learning and distance education can play a role in helping older adults become integrated with the rest of society. As demographic and cultural changes affect the place of older adults in society, online learning programs become increasingly appealing to older adults. In this article, I discuss (1) the changing notion of work and learning in…

  2. Integrating Adult Learning and Technologies for Effective Education: Strategic Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Victor C. X.

    2010-01-01

    As adult learners and educators pioneer the use of technology in the new century, attention has been focused on developing strategic approaches to effectively integrate adult learning and technology in different learning environments. "Integrating Adult Learning and Technologies for Effective Education: Strategic Approaches" provides innovative…

  3. Personal Adult Learning Lab (Pall). Implications for Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klippel, Judith A.; And Others

    The Personal Adult Learning Lab was establsiehd at the Georgia Center for Continuing Education (GCCE) at the University of Georgia to serve self-directed adult learners and conduct research on self-directed learning. The lab allows adult learners to design, conduct, and evaluate their personal learning experiences while proceeding at their own…

  4. A Grounded Theory of Adult Student Persistence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capps, Rosemary

    2010-01-01

    This grounded theory study investigates adult student persistence at a community college. Student persistence in college is a prerequisite for degree achievement, which correlates with higher earnings and overall better quality of life. Persistence rates remain low for adult students, who combine their college endeavors with responsibilities to…

  5. Remaking Adult Learning: Essays on Adult Education in Honour of Alan Tuckett

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derrick, Jay, Ed.; Howard, Ursula, Ed.; Field, John, Ed.; Lavender, Peter, Ed.; Meyer, Sue, Ed.; von Rein, Ekkehard Nuissl, Ed.; Schuller, Tom, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    Remaking Adult Learning provides an exciting and innovative addition to the literature on adult learning. Charting challenges and successes in the sector, it illustrates how taking part in well-thought-out programmes can have a positive and sometimes life-saving impact on people's lives. While grounded in adult learning practice, the book draws…

  6. How Adults Learn Forms the Foundation of the Learning Designs Standard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drago-Severson, Eleanor

    2011-01-01

    Learning Forward's new Learning Designs standard is an important reminder that shaping professional learning as opportunities for adults to learn and grow is essential and that one's understanding of how adults learn is an essential component of this pressing goal. This article discusses the three strands of the Learning Designs standard: (1)…

  7. A Critical Comparison of Transformation and Deep Approach Theories of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howie, Peter; Bagnall, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports a critical comparative analysis of two popular and significant theories of adult learning: the transformation and the deep approach theories of learning. These theories are operative in different educational sectors, are significant, respectively, in each, and they may be seen as both touching on similar concerns with learning

  8. RSMAS TA Training: Basic Learning Theories

    E-print Network

    Miami, University of

    RSMAS TA Training: Basic Learning Theories Angela Colbert August 22, 2011 #12;Outline How do you) Bruner's Discovery Learning Problem-Based Learning (Gestalt Theory) Kolb's Experiential Learning Gardner's Multiple Intelligences Theory #12;How do you learn? What works for you? What doesn't work

  9. The Learning Needs of Adults in Johnson County, Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchins, Elbert C.

    The Adult Learning Project was conducted to determine the educational needs and conditions related to adult learning in Johnson County and to ascertain the attitudes of area residents toward Hill Junior College. The survey contacted approximately 1,200 adults; 576 questionnaires were returned. When results were correlated, four sample groups were…

  10. Book Review: Facing Learning Disabilities in the Adult Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alber, Sheila R.; Foil, Carolyn R.

    2001-01-01

    This article reviews "Facing Learning Disabilities in the Adult Years" by Joan Shapiro and Rebecca Rich, a book that discusses the definitions, causes, and characteristics of learning disabilities as well as many interventions for successful adult adjustment. The information is aimed at helping families and professionals, as well as the adults

  11. Learning Theory and Online Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harasim, Linda

    2011-01-01

    "Learning Theory and Online Technologies" offers a powerful overview of the current state of elearning, a foundation of its historical roots and growth, and a framework for distinguishing among the major approaches to elearning. It effectively addresses pedagogy (how to design an effective online environment for learning), evaluation (how to know…

  12. A Study of Barriers to Adult Self-Directed Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Edward

    2010-01-01

    Self-directed learning has contributed significantly to adult learners' personal and professional growth. Approximately 70% of adult learning is through a self-directed learning context (Heimstra, 2008). This quantitative correlational study involved an attempt to determine the nature of the relationship between situational, dispositional, and…

  13. An Examination of the Self-Directed Learning Practices of ESL Adult Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grover, Kendra S.; Miller, Michael T.; Swearingen, Brent; Wood, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Self-directed learning is one of the preeminent theories in the field of adult education. This study explored how English as a Second Language learners directed their own learning outside of the formal classroom through the use of practices that potentially advance their English language proficiency. Results from a survey of over 400 ESL students…

  14. The Studio Experience at the University of Georgia: An Example of Constructionist Learning for Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clinton, Gregory; Rieber, Lloyd P.

    2010-01-01

    The Studio curriculum in the Learning, Design, and Technology (formerly Instructional Technology) program at a large research-extensive university in the southeastern U.S. represents a deliberate application of contemporary theory of how adults learn complex information in ill-structured domains. The Studio curriculum, part of a graduate program…

  15. Improving Adult Learning and Professional Development in a Post-Conflict Area: The Case of Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkvens, Jan B. Y.; Kalyanpur, Maya; Kuiper, Wilmad; Van den Akker, Jan

    2012-01-01

    All over the world, international development organizations try to increase professional capacity of local staff. These attempts are thought to fail because of financial constraints, but this is just part of the story. Professional development and adult learning theories approach learning from a western perspective, while many developing societies…

  16. Motivational Challenges of Adult Learners in Self-Directed E-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kyong-Jee

    2009-01-01

    Learner motivation is a key to effective instruction and is critical to creating a successful online learning environment; yet, there is a paucity of theory and empirical research on how to create a motivating online learning environment. The purpose of the present study was to explore and describe the experiences of adult learners in a…

  17. Transitions: Issues for the Adult Learner with Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Belinda, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This issue of "Linkages" addresses the need for adult literacy programs to go beyond teaching basic academic skills to adults with learning disabilities to teaching skills in goal setting, problem solving, and self-advocacy that will assist adult learners in their transition into the workforce. Articles include: "Transition: Adult Literacy and…

  18. Learning to work” in small businesses : Learning and training for young adults with learning disabilities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geoff Ruggeri-Stevens; Susan Goodwin

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – The paper alerts small business employers to new dictates of the Disability Discrimination Act (2005) as it applies to learning disabilities. Then the “Learning to Work” project featured in the paper offers small business employers a set of approaches and methods for the identification of a learning-disabled young adult candidate's training needs. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Interviews were carried out

  19. Learning theories made easy: behaviourism.

    PubMed

    McKenna, G

    The last few years have witnessed many developments in nurse education, particularly as links with higher education are strengthened. The clinical environment, however, remains a key area for learning, and practitioners continue to make a huge contribution to the education of both pre- and post-registration students. In order to maximise opportunities, a knowledge of learning theories is useful. This is the first of three articles explaining the different theories of learning. This week the behaviourist theories are described. The following weeks will discuss cognitive and humanist perspectives. The series of three articles uses a creative approach to explain the theories, and to highlight their relevance for teaching in clinical practice. PMID:7766509

  20. Sleep modulates word-pair learning but not motor sequence learning in healthy older adults

    E-print Network

    Ivry, Rich

    Sleep modulates word-pair learning but not motor sequence learning in healthy older adults Jessica Sleep benefits memory across a range of tasks for young adults. However, remarkably little is known of the role of sleep on memory for healthy older adults. We used 2 tasks, 1 assaying motor skill learning

  1. Effective Literacy Instruction for Adults with Specific Learning Disabilities: Implications for Adult Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hock, Michael F.

    2012-01-01

    Adults with learning disabilities (LD) attending adult basic education, GED programs, or community colleges are among the lowest performers on measures of literacy. For example, on multiple measures of reading comprehension, adults with LD had a mean reading score at the third grade level, whereas adults without LD read at the fifth grade level.…

  2. Critical Race Theory and Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Closson, Rosemary B.

    2010-01-01

    Critical race theory (CRT) was developed to examine the persistence of racism. This literature review attempts to understand CRT as it has been applied in related fields such as higher education and possible reasons for its limited application in adult education theorizing about race and racism. This analysis of CRT is framed against a backdrop of…

  3. Adult Learning in Vocational Education. EEE700 Adults Learning: The Changing Workplace A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, David; And Others

    This monograph is part of the study materials for the one-semester distance education unit, Adults Learning: The Changing Workplace A, in the Open Campus Program at Deakin University (Australia). It explores four complex and interrelated issues: how vocational educators view their own practice, the characteristics and aspirations that distinguish…

  4. Contrasting Adult Literacy Learners With and Without Specific Learning Disabilities

    E-print Network

    Patterson, Margaret; Mellard, Daryl F.

    2008-04-01

    as andragogy, transformational learning, and self-directed learning (Baumgartner, Lee, Birden, & Flowers, 2003; Boyd, 1989; Daloz, 1999; Freire, 2000; Knowles, 1980; Merriam & Caffarella, 1999; Mezirow, 2000), in which adults take responsibility for and direct...

  5. Efficacy of Learning Strategies Instruction in Adult Basic Education

    E-print Network

    Hock, Mike; Mellard, Daryl

    2011-01-01

    Results from randomized controlled trials of learning strategies instruction with 375 adult basic education (AE) participants are reported. Reading outcomes from whole group strategic instruction in one of four learning ...

  6. Learning Theory and Epistemology Kevin T. Kelly

    E-print Network

    Andrews, Peter B.

    Learning Theory and Epistemology Kevin T. Kelly Department of Philosophy Carnegie Mellon University theories that extend past experience. Learning is not restricted to humans: machines and animals can learn it is adopted. Formal Learning Theory is an a priori, mathematical investigation of this strategic conception

  7. Learning to Be Drier: A Case Study of Adult and Community Learning in the Australian Riverland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Mike; Schulz, Christine

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the adult and community learning associated with "learning to be drier" in the Riverland region of South Australia. Communities in the Riverland are currently adjusting and making changes to their understandings and practices as part of learning to live with less water. The analysis of adult and community learning derived…

  8. The Snygg-Combs Phenomenological Theory of Perception and Its Implications for Adult Education Theory and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, John Tennyson

    The Snygg-Combs theory of perception was examined as to its utility in subsuming and explaining the interaction of common elements found among variables in adult teaching and learning situations. Answers were sought to 15 questions regarding the origins, essential characteristics, criticisms, and methodologies of the theory; its philosophical…

  9. Theory of Mind in Adults with HFA and Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spek, Annelies A.; Scholte, Evert M.; Van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina A.

    2010-01-01

    Theory of mind was assessed in 32 adults with HFA, 29 adults with Asperger syndrome and 32 neurotypical adults. The HFA and Asperger syndrome groups were impaired in performance of the Strange stories test and the Faux-pas test and reported more theory of mind problems than the neurotypical adults. The three groups did not differ in performance of…

  10. Since Levinson: View of Life Cycle Theory and Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastmond, Daniel V.

    1991-01-01

    Presents the fundamentals of Levinson's theory of adult development, which posits age-specific periods that are claimed to be universal. Examines the claim in relation to studies of women's and cross-cultural adult development. Recommends ways that adult development theory should affect the practice of adult education. (Author/JOW)

  11. Learning Approaches of Adult Students Taking Computer Conferencing Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastmond, Daniel V.

    This research, begun in Fall 1991, explored the learning-to-learn strategies of adult students taking computer conferencing courses for college credit. It investigated how these students define effective learning and how they direct their own learning and lifestyles to meet the unique demands of this medium. This research gathered data through…

  12. MTD 735: Learning Theories in Mathematics Education EDU 800: Learning Theories in Education

    E-print Network

    McConnell, Terry

    1 MTD 735: Learning Theories in Mathematics Education EDU 800: Learning Theories in Education in education. The course will look at the influence of a variety of learning theories on how educators view theories in education. II. Use these perspectives to examine how these learning theories influence research

  13. The Happenstance Learning Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krumboltz, John D.

    2009-01-01

    What-you-should-be-when-you-grow-up need not and should not be planned in advance. Instead career counselors should teach their clients the importance of engaging in a variety of interesting and beneficial activities, ascertaining their reactions, remaining alert to alternative opportunities, and learning skills for succeeding in each new…

  14. Theories of Learning for the Workplace: Building Blocks for Training and Professional Development Programs. Routledge Psychology in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dochy, Filip; Gijbels, David; Segers, Mien; Van den Bossche, Piet

    2011-01-01

    Workplace and professional learning, lifelong learning, adult learning, learning in different contexts have become of more and more interest and now dominate all aspects of 21st century life. Learning is no longer about "storing and recall" but "development and flow". "Theories of Learning in the Workplace" offers fascinating overviews into some…

  15. COGNITIVE LEARNING APPLIED TO OLDER ADULT LEARNERS AND TECHNOLOGY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amy J. Chaffin; Steven D. Harlow

    2005-01-01

    This article addresses the needs of older adults learning computer skills and the place of technology, especially the computer, in enhancing their lives. A model is discussed that illuminates the process used by older adults to learn computer skills. The model may be used to analyze and provide specific aid for common difficulties of the aged. Suggestions and recommendations are

  16. Working with Adults Who Have Learning Disabilities. Project Upgrade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manhattan Adult Learning and Resource Center, KS.

    Intended to help educators develop a philosophy and understanding for working with learning disabled adults, this document consists of an introduction, 11 chapters, a 76-item bibliography, materials and resource suggestions, and three appendices. The introduction provides an overview of learning disabled adults. The chapters include (1)…

  17. Stages in learning new technology: Naive adult email users

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne L. Russell

    1995-01-01

    How do adult students learn to use new technologies? Teachers' and learners' understanding of stages these students may pass through makes the learning process less traumatic. The research identifies six stages adult learners pass through as they become confident in their use of electronic mail. In the beginning stages there is tension as the technological processes dominate and intrude on

  18. Adult Literacy, Learning Disabilities and Technology: An Annotated Bibliography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jean

    2001-01-01

    How many adults with literacy problems actually have learning disabilities (LD)? Do most adults with severe literacy problems actually have a learning disability? What data exist to support the claims? How is LD being defined? Is the label overused? Is social/economic disadvantage misinterpreted as LD? What technologies and software exist to…

  19. Electronic Pathways. Adult Learning and the New Communication Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Jane, Ed.

    This book, which is intended as a practical resource for individuals who are professionally concerned with adult learning, contains 21 papers and 3 checklists concerning the new communication and information technologies (IT) and adult learning. The following papers and checklists are included: "Introduction" (Jane Field); "The Use of Telematics…

  20. Adult Learning Disabilities Screening Using an Internet-Administered Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancaster, Sean; Mellard, Daryl

    2005-01-01

    Identifying individuals with specific learning disabilities (SLD) is a complex task, particularly for adult populations. Adult agencies such as vocational rehabilitative services or adult basic education often use different SLD definitions and criteria, are often understaffed, have limited resources, and have a shortage of staff trained on SLD…

  1. Toward deep learning for adult students in online courses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fengfeng Ke; Kui Xie

    2009-01-01

    Adult students have become the new majority in online distance education. Research in online distance education, however, is still predominantly based on the historical perspective of the traditional student profile. This study examines adult students' learning engagement in online courses and explores the impact of online course design models and the type of online discussion on adult students' self-perceived and

  2. Wisdom, the Body, and Adult Learning: Insights from Neuroscience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Ann L.

    2011-01-01

    In adult education, there has recently been a recognition of the body's role in adult learning. Attention to neuroscience is somewhat limited, though is emerging. These two perspectives are not integrated. With this article, the author argues that adult education must look to science to achieve a deeper understanding of the evolving…

  3. Self-Directed Learning: Emerging Theory & Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Huey B.; And Others

    This book contains the following collection of papers: "Self-Directed Learning: Emerging Theory and Practice" (Long); "Self-Directed Orientation toward Learning: A Learning Style" (Bonham); "Self-Direction and Problem Solving: Theory and Method" (Peters); "Facilitating Self-Directed Learning: Not a Contradiction in Terms" (Garrison); "Development…

  4. Adult Language Learning: A Survey of Welsh for Adults in the Context of Language Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Colin; Andrews, Hunydd; Gruffydd, Ifor; Lewis, Gwyn

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of adult language learning when a minority language is threatened. Language acquisition planning attempts to reproduce the language across generations. The research context is Wales with its strong history of adults learning Welsh. The history of the Welsh language shows a decline in the last century, but…

  5. Learning with the Arts: What Opportunities Are There for Work-Related Adult Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Claire; Verenikina, Irina; Brown, Ian

    2010-01-01

    What can arts-based learning offer to adult, work-related education? A study was undertaken that explored the benefits of learning with the arts for professional development of an adult learner in Australia. The individual experiences of nine adults who participated in arts-based workshops to build work-related skills were examined using the…

  6. ANNEALED THEORIES OF LEARNING H. S. Seung

    E-print Network

    Seung, Sebastian

    ANNEALED THEORIES OF LEARNING H. S. Seung AT&T Bell Laboratories Murray Hill, NJ 07974 E-mail: seung@physics.att.com ABSTRACT We study annealed theories of learning boolean functions using a concept class of nite cardinality. The naive annealed theory can be used to derive a univer- sal learning curve

  7. THEORY OF CONFORMIST SOCIAL LEARNING Kimmo Eriksson

    E-print Network

    THEORY OF CONFORMIST SOCIAL LEARNING Kimmo Eriksson School of Education, Culture and Communication Bias Definition Within theories of animal behavior and cultural evolution, social learning or social other variant than the currently most common one. Theories of conformist social learning make a much

  8. An overview of statistical learning theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vladimir N. Vapnik

    1999-01-01

    Statistical learning theory was introduced in the late 1960's. Until the 1990's it was a purely theoretical analysis of the problem of function estimation from a given collection of data. In the middle of the 1990's new types of learning algorithms (called support vector machines) based on the developed theory were proposed. This made statistical learning theory not only a

  9. Statewide Staff Development Project: Adults with Learning Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Richard

    A project was conducted in Pennsylvania to conduct a statewide staff development project on adults with learning differences using the following delivery systems: initial training sessions; advanced training sessions; videotapes of training sessions; the "Learning disAbilities Newsletter"; printed material from the Center for Alternative Learning

  10. The Bounds of Adult Language Acquisition: Blocking and Learned Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Nick C.; Sagarra, Nuria

    2011-01-01

    The current study investigates the limited attainment of adult language acquisition in terms of an associative learning phenomenon whereby earlier learned cues attentionally block those that are experienced later. Short- and long-term blocking are demonstrated in experimental investigations of learned attention in the acquisition of temporal…

  11. Lifelong Learning. A Guide to Adult Education in the Church.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grothe, Rebecca, Ed.

    This book contains eight papers about lifelong learning in the Christian church. The preface and foreword are written by Rebecca Groth and H. George Anderson, respectively. (1) "The Gospel Calls Us" (Margaret A. Krych) examines five theological themes of lifelong learning. Adult development and learning styles are considered in (2) "What Teachers…

  12. Outcomes of Adult Learning: Taking the Debate Forward.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Huw, Ed.; Mace, Jackie, Ed.

    The four papers in this collection are intended to stimulate debate in the adult education sector and to set the agenda for further development work. "Learning Outcomes: Towards a Synthesis of Progress" (Peter Lavender) provides a summary of recent efforts to identify, record, and value learning that does not lead to qualifications. "Learning

  13. Practice of Adult Education--Older Adults, Tourism, and Learning in Yellowstone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberson, Donald N., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present a program of learning for older adults in a national park. Because of the growing trend of tourism among retirees this learning during leisure is gaining prominence. The paper brings together the concepts of aging, self-directed learning, and tourism and leisure. In addition this paper presents a…

  14. Situated learning theory versus traditional cognitive learning theory: Why management education should not ignore management learning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen Fox

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the differences between situated learning theory (SLT) and traditional cognitive theory (TCT). SLT is\\u000a distinctive because it perceives learning to be a socially relational rather than a mentalist process. SLT places research\\u000a attention upon knowledge productionin situ and in the course of work practices rather than upon learning transmission in the classroom. This paper argues that SLT's

  15. Statistical Learning Theory Machine Learning Summer School, Kyoto, Japan

    E-print Network

    Rakhlin, Alexander "Sasha"

    Statistical Learning Theory Machine Learning Summer School, Kyoto, Japan Alexander (Sasha) Rakhlin University of Pennsylvania, The Wharton School Penn Research in Machine Learning (PRiML) August 27-28, 2012 1 the topic of a new article. 6 / 130 #12;Why Machine Learning? Impossible to hard-code all the knowledge

  16. Bridging Machine Learning Theory and Practice What we have learned

    E-print Network

    Heiser, Gernot

    Mining · Multilabel learning and Ranking · Generalized klabelset ensemble for multilabel classificationBridging Machine Learning Theory and Practice ­ What we have learned from participating ACM KDD Mining Lab · Social Network Analysis · Machine Learning and Data Mining · Natural Language Processing

  17. Learning Cities for All: Directions to a New Adult Education and Learning Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Leodis

    2015-01-01

    This chapter features a conceptual framework that considers the practical characteristics of learning cities, pointing to the field of adult and continuing education to lead a movement for the purposes of education, learning, and engagement for all.

  18. The Relationships of Learning Style Balance and Learning Dimensions to Self-Directed Learning Propensity among Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutto, Sarah Tullos

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships of learning style characteristics to self-directed learning propensity among adult learners. The learning style characteristics investigated were learning style balance as measured by a scoring method developed by Mainemelis, Boyatzis, and Kolb (2002) and learning style dimensions as…

  19. Understanding Learning in Social Movements: A Theory of Collective Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilgore, Deborah W.

    1999-01-01

    Outlines a theory of collective learning based on Vygotsky's Zone of Proximal Development and on New Social Movements theory. Argues that it is more appropriate than individual learning theories as it describes the relationship between individual and group development and it addresses social justice. (SK)

  20. Learning dynamics Evolutionary game theory and learning dynamics

    E-print Network

    Steels, Luc

    6Thursday 25 October 2012 Conditioning Scene from the Big Bang Theory (S03E03,The Gothowitz Deviation) © Tom Lenaerts, 2010 7Thursday 25 October 2012 Conditioning Scene from the Big Bang Theory (S03EINFO-F-409 Learning dynamics Evolutionary game theory and learning dynamics T. Lenaerts MAP, MLG

  1. Environmental sustainability: Understanding young adults' learning, thinking, and actions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kola-Olusanya, Anthony O.

    This thesis explores the ways in which young-adults' environmental learning and experiences influence their decision to live sustainably. In particular, this thesis focuses on young adults' environmental and sustainability learning. It elaborates on young peoples' views about environmental and sustainability issues, such as climate change, the sources for their learning about these issues, and how young adults' learning encounters, in turn, affect their actions toward environmental protection and decision-making. Through a series of in-depth individual interviews with 18 young adults from three universities in southeastern Ontario, this qualitative study provides in-depth insight into young adults' understanding, learning experiences, and actions in relation to environmental and sustainability issues. Employing a Contextual Model of Learning framework the narratives of the young adults in this study are analyzed and discussed within three overlapping environmental learning contexts: personal, sociocultural, and physical settings. This framework allows for an examination of the complex interactions and relationships that shape how and where environmental learning occurs. The findings in this study suggest that the three overlapping learning contexts, that is the personal, sociocultural, and physical play an important role in shaping young adults' learning about environmental and sustainability issues. The data reveal that despite the unavailability or near-absence of environmental studies and education within the formal school curriculum (particularly at the elementary and high school levels), the young adults rely on other locations for learning, such as the internet, environmental non-governmental organisations (ENGOs), television, and family. In light of this, the research participants suggest the re-introduction of environmental programs and content in the school curriculum. Finally, the results of this study demonstrate the centrality of knowledge and experience in relation to environmental and sustainability issues in the actions and thoughts of the young adult research participants. This study makes an important contribution to the field of environmental and sustainability education by demonstrating the critical role of learning in a knowledge society. It illuminates the implications of various learning contexts for a sustainable global environment and future. Furthermore, it provides insight into the views of young adults regarding the future of the global environment and current sustainability initiatives in a world that faces ever-greater challenges.

  2. Theories and Methods for Research on Informal Learning and Work: Towards Cross-Fertilization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawchuk, Peter H.

    2008-01-01

    The topic of informal learning and work has quickly become a staple in contemporary work and adult learning research internationally. The narrow conceptualization of work is briefly challenged before the article turns to a review of the historical origins as well as contemporary theories and methods involved in researching informal learning and…

  3. The Scientific Status of Learning Styles Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willingham, Daniel T.; Hughes, Elizabeth M.; Dobolyi, David G.

    2015-01-01

    Theories of learning styles suggest that individuals think and learn best in different ways. These are not differences of ability but rather preferences for processing certain types of information or for processing information in certain types of way. If accurate, learning styles theories could have important implications for instruction because…

  4. Computational Learning Theory and Language Acquisition

    E-print Network

    Clark, Alexander

    Computational Learning Theory and Language Acquisition Alexander Clark1 and Shalom Lappin2 1 Computational learning theory explores the limits of learnability. Studying language acquisition from. To the extent that such assumptions accurately reflect human language learning, a model that invokes them can

  5. Braided Stories and Bricolaged Symbols: Critical Reflection and Transformative Learning Theory for Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brigham, Susan Mary

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I make the case that transformative learning theory, a specific adult learning theory, and an arts-informed research method have important value for teacher professional practice and teacher education. I refer to two phases of a study involving women who have immigrated to Maritime Canada and were teachers in their countries of…

  6. Language lateralization shifts with learning by adults.

    PubMed

    Plante, Elena; Almryde, Kyle; Patterson, Dianne K; Vance, Christopher J; Asbjřrnsen, Arve E

    2015-05-01

    For the majority of the population, language is a left-hemisphere lateralized function. During childhood, a pattern of increasing left lateralization for language has been described in brain imaging studies, suggesting that this trait develops. This development could reflect change due to brain maturation or change due to skill acquisition, given that children acquire and refine language skills as they mature. We test the possibility that skill acquisition, independent of age-associated maturation can result in shifts in language lateralization in classic language cortex. We imaged adults exposed to an unfamiliar language during three successive fMRI scans. Participants were then asked to identify specific words embedded in Norwegian sentences. Exposure to these sentences, relative to complex tones, resulted in consistent activation in the left and right superior temporal gyrus. Activation in this region became increasingly left-lateralized with repeated exposure to the unfamiliar language. These results demonstrate that shifts in lateralization can be produced in the short term within a learning context, independent of maturation. PMID:25285756

  7. Does a simultaneous memory load affect older and younger adults’ implicit associative learning?

    PubMed Central

    Gamble, Katherine R.; Howard, James H.; Howard, Darlene V.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a simultaneous memory load on implicit associative sequence learning using the Triplets Learning Task (TLT). Participants in the Simultaneous condition held a secondary task memory load during the TLT, while those in the Sequential condition also performed both tasks, but successively, rather than simultaneously. Thus, the Simultaneous condition had a memory load during the TLT, while the Sequential condition did not. Probe blocks without the secondary task allowed separation of effects on learning from effects on its expression. Results revealed that the simultaneous memory load affected older, but not younger adults, by suppressing the expression of learning, not learning itself. Thus, older and younger adults can learn probabilistic associations while holding a simultaneous memory load, but the load can limit the extent to which older adults adapt their performance to environmental structure. Results are consistent with theories which propose that implicit associative learning does not call on limited capacity resources, and highlight the importance of distinguishing effects of dual tasks on the expression of learning from those on learning itself. PMID:23581975

  8. OSHER LIFELONG LEARNING INSTITUTE (OLLI) A Unique Learning Community for Adults 50+

    E-print Network

    Rock, Chris

    OSHER LIFELONG LEARNING INSTITUTE (OLLI) A Unique Learning Community for Adults 50+ Where Curiosity Never Retires SPRING 2014 CLASS SCHEDULE OSHER LIFELONG LEARNING INSTITUTE at Texas Tech University #12;Osher LifeLOng Learning institute (OLLi) Table of ConTenTs The Osher FOundaTiOn: The Bernard Osher

  9. List Memory in Young Adults with Language Learning Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheng, Li; Byrd, Courtney T.; McGregor, Karla K.; Zimmerman, Hannah; Bludau, Kadee

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to characterize the verbal memory limitations of young adults with language learning disability (LLD). Method: Sixteen young adults with LLD and 34 age- and education-matched controls with typical language participated in a Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM; Deese, 1959; Roediger & McDermott, 1995) list…

  10. The "Double-Edged Sword" of the Adult Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Sara; Mitchell, Jane

    2013-01-01

    The vocational education and training sector plays a critical role in the provision of educational opportunities for young adults who have left school prior to completing a qualification. Some research has found that a major factor that supports student re-engagement in formal education is the "adult learning environment" that characterises…

  11. The effects of adult learning on self?efficacy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cathie Hammond; Leon Feinstein

    2005-01-01

    We use quantitative and qualitative methods to investigate the links between participation in adult learning and self?efficacy, particularly for the subgroup of adults who had low levels of achievement at school. We focus on self?efficacy because it translates into a range of wider benefits and because it may afford protection from depression and other forms of social exclusion. Quantitative analyses

  12. The Librarian as Adult Educator in the Learning Resources Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Ronald J.

    1983-01-01

    Examines the historic interrelationship between libraries and adult education in light of the major personalities, events and forces affecting the relationship. Reports on interviews conducted at five learning resource centers (LRC's) regarding the development of the LRC and the librarian's role as adult educator. (DMM)

  13. The Relationship between Resourcefulness and Persistence in Adult Autonomous Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponton, Michael K; Derrick, M. Gail; Carr, Paul B.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the tenability of a proposed path-analytic model relating resourcefulness and persistence in the context of adult autonomous learning. Data collected from a nonprobability sample of 492 American adults using valid and reliable measures for resourcefulness and persistence were analyzed. Results suggest…

  14. Thematic Review on Adult Learning: Spain. Background Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Florentino Sanz; Prudenciano, Julio Lancho

    This report on adult learning in Spain first establishes a series of socioeconomic, historical, and conceptual coordinates. Chapter 1 has three parts dedicated to the context. Part 1 has a conceptual map showing the different terms and categories used in adult education and training (AET). Part 2 shows the present socioeconomic context in which…

  15. Numeracy Activities within VOX: The Norwegian Institute for Adult Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kvalo, Svein

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author introduces Vox, Norwegian Institute for Adult Learning, an agency of the Norwegian Ministry of Education and Research that focuses mainly on improving basic skills in the adult population in the areas of literacy, numeracy and the use of Information Communication Technologies (ICT). Vox is responsible for curriculum…

  16. Learning Disability Prevalence and Adult Education Program Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Margaret Becker

    2008-01-01

    This study identifies adult education program characteristics associated with learning disability (LD) prevalence through statistical analyses of data from a single U.S. state (Kansas). Data indicate that several variables at the adult education (AE) program level are linked to LD prevalence, including disability incidence, educational background…

  17. Social incentives improve deliberative but not procedural learning in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Gorlick, Marissa A.; Maddox, W. Todd

    2015-01-01

    Age-related deficits are seen across tasks where learning depends on asocial feedback processing, however plasticity has been observed in some of the same tasks in social contexts suggesting a novel way to attenuate deficits. Socioemotional selectivity theory suggests this plasticity is due to a deliberative motivational shift toward achieving well-being with age (positivity effect) that reverses when executive processes are limited (negativity effect). The present study examined the interaction of feedback valence (positive, negative) and social salience (emotional face feedback – happy; angry, asocial point feedback – gain; loss) on learning in a deliberative task that challenges executive processes and a procedural task that does not. We predict that angry face feedback will improve learning in a deliberative task when executive function is challenged. We tested two competing hypotheses regarding the interactive effects of deliberative emotional biases on automatic feedback processing: (1) If deliberative emotion regulation and automatic feedback are interactive we expect happy face feedback to improve learning and angry face feedback to impair learning in older adults because cognitive control is available. (2) If deliberative emotion regulation and automatic feedback are not interactive we predict that emotional face feedback will not improve procedural learning regardless of valence. Results demonstrate that older adults show persistent deficits relative to younger adults during procedural category learning suggesting that deliberative emotional biases do not interact with automatic feedback processing. Interestingly, a subgroup of older adults identified as potentially using deliberative strategies tended to learn as well as younger adults with angry relative to happy feedback, matching the pattern observed in the deliberative task. Results suggest that deliberative emotional biases can improve deliberative learning, but have no effect on procedural learning. PMID:25932016

  18. From Adult Education to Lifelong Learning and Beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvis, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Over the period of this journal's life the education of adults has been changed and developed in a wide variety of ways: the same phenomenon--adult learning--has been given a variety of meanings and the education of adults has assumed many titles. The aim of this paper is to unravel some of the changes that have occurred in this field during…

  19. A Beautiful Metaphor: Transformative Learning Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howie, Peter; Bagnall, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a critique of both transformative learning theory and critical comments on it to date. It argues that transformative learning theory remains substantively the same as its initial exposition, in spite of a raft of problematic contentions voiced against it. The theory is argued here to be conceptually problematic, except at the…

  20. Learning Havens for Stressed Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seay, Sandra E.

    2005-01-01

    Having stressful workdays is not the sole prerogative of adult students enrolled in educational leadership programs. According to a report released by the American Institute of Stress in 2002, 80% of adult workers felt stress in the workplace. From this it can be assumed that a certain amount of stress accompanies every adult who enters an evening…

  1. Introduction to Teaching Adults. Module 10: Understanding the Learning Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, David

    This module on the learning process is the tenth of 11 modules in the set, Introduction to Teaching Adults. Designed to meet the learning needs of part-time continuing education instructors, these modules can be used as resource materials for local workshops or study-discussion groups, as self-instruction (each module takes approximately two…

  2. Learning Problems of Adult Basic Education Students: Remediation and Compensations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagner, Tom; And Others

    This booklet presents strategies developed by six adult basic education (ABE) staff members for helping students with specific learning problems. The strategies were devised through reading, talking with experts in the field, attending a workshop, and experimenting with modified teaching strategies. The guide addresses 36 specific learning

  3. Learning perceptual skills: behavioral probes into adult cortical plasticity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Avi Karni; Giuseppe Bertini

    1997-01-01

    Recent studies of the improvement of perceptual performance as a function of training — perceptual learning — have provided new insights into the neuronal substrates of this type of skill learning in the adult brain. Issues such as where in the brain, when and under what conditions practice-related changes occur are under investigation. The results of these studies suggest that

  4. Integration for Adults with Learning Difficulties: Contexts and Debates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutcliffe, Jeannie

    This guide for practitioners has the following aims: to outline the debate about integrated learning for adults with learning difficulties in continuing education programs; to provide examples of integration in action drawn from a range of settings in continuing education in England and Wales; and to encourage practitioners to develop similar…

  5. The Neurobiology and Neuropsychology of Adult Learning Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigler, Erin D.

    1992-01-01

    The area of adult learning disabilities is reviewed from a neurobiological and neuropsychological perspective. The paper covers possible pathophysiologic bases in dyslexia, neurobehavioral disorders that may coexist with learning disorders, neuropsychological assessment methods, treatment in the context of brain plasticity and recovery of…

  6. Lifelong Learning: Literacy, Schooling and the Adult World. Literacy and Learning Series, No. 2. Adult Literacy Research Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, Ian, Ed.

    The 12 chapters in this second title in the series expose and explore the following significant issues underlying schooling and its intersection with the adult world outside of school: aspects of knowledge, gender, literacy across culture, and assessing what is learned in school and in the adult world. The chapters are: "Whose Knowledge Gets…

  7. Access to Adult Learning Opportunities. Tierra de Oportunidad Module 6. LAES: Latino Adult Education Services Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissam, Ed; Dorsey, Holda

    This module, which may be used as the basis for a workshop or as a special topic unit in an adult basic education or English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) course, focuses on access to adult learning opportunities. The following items are included: module overview; list of basic, thinking, interpersonal, information utilization, and other skills…

  8. LEARN! FOR ADULTS AND FAMILIES Adult certified gardening school, horticultural workshops, cooking

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    #12;LEARN! FOR ADULTS AND FAMILIES Adult certified gardening school, horticultural workshops.arboretum.umn.edu/facilityrental.aspx or call 952-443-1411. e Arboretum's roots reach back to 1908, when the Horticultural Research Center (HRC Garden Club and others, the University of Minnesota's Department of Horticultural Science

  9. Abuse of adults with learning difficulties: user consultation in developing adult protection procedures and guidelines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guy Wishart

    2003-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a national survey of the consultation of people with learning difficulties by social services departments in the development of adult protection procedures and guidelines. The survey also considered the consultation of other service users, carers and family, and staff. Despite the rhetoric of user involvement in adult protection literature, low levels of consultation for

  10. The Collaborative Teaching-Learning Mode: Health Education Professors and Adult Learning Principles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeland, D. Kim; Franklin, Joan E.

    A descriptive study using survey research techniques investigated the degree to which health education professors adhere to and practice the principles of adult education. The instrument used to measure acceptance of the adult education mode (collaborative style) was the Principles of Adult Learning Scale (PALS), a 44-item summative scale based on…

  11. Implementing E-Learning components with adult English language learners: Vital factors and lessons learned

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joellen E. Coryell; Dominique T. Chlup

    2007-01-01

    The growing use of both computers and the Internet in adult English language classrooms has widespread implications for English language programs. As computer access increases, so do new learning technologies in adult literacy education. Specifically, this paper is interested in the case of adult English language instruction, also commonly referred to as English as a Second Language (ESL) or English

  12. Review of Adult Learning and Literacy, Volume 4. Connecting Research, Policy, and Practice: A Project of the National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comings, John, Ed.; Garner, Barbara, Ed.; Smith, Cristine, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    "The Review of Adult Learning and Literacy: Connecting Research Policy, and Practice, Volume 4" is an addition to a series of annual publications of the National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy (NCSALL) that address major issues, the latest research, and the best practices in the field of adult literacy and learning. "Volume 4"…

  13. Review of Adult Learning and Literacy, Volume 6. Connecting Research, Policy and Practice: A Project of the National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comings, John, Ed.; Garner, Barbara, Ed.; Smith, Cristine, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    "Review of Adult Learning and Literacy: Connecting Research, Policy, and Practice, Volume 6," is the newest volume in a series of annual publications of the National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy (NCSALL) that address major issues, the latest research, and the best practices in the field of adult literacy and learning. Each…

  14. Improving vision in adult amblyopia by perceptual learning

    PubMed Central

    Polat, Uri; Ma-Naim, Tova; Belkin, Michael; Sagi, Dov

    2004-01-01

    Practicing certain visual tasks leads, as a result of a process termed “perceptual learning,” to a significant improvement in performance. Learning is specific for basic stimulus features such as local orientation, retinal location, and eye of presentation, suggesting modification of neuronal processes at the primary visual cortex in adults. It is not known, however, whether such low-level learning affects higher-level visual tasks such as recognition. By systematic low-level training of an adult visual system malfunctioning as a result of abnormal development (leading to amblyopia) of the primary visual cortex during the “critical period,” we show here that induction of low-level changes might yield significant perceptual benefits that transfer to higher visual tasks. The training procedure resulted in a 2-fold improvement in contrast sensitivity and in letter-recognition tasks. These findings demonstrate that perceptual learning can improve basic representations within an adult visual system that did not develop during the critical period. PMID:15096608

  15. Improving vision in adult amblyopia by perceptual learning.

    PubMed

    Polat, Uri; Ma-Naim, Tova; Belkin, Michael; Sagi, Dov

    2004-04-27

    Practicing certain visual tasks leads, as a result of a process termed "perceptual learning," to a significant improvement in performance. Learning is specific for basic stimulus features such as local orientation, retinal location, and eye of presentation, suggesting modification of neuronal processes at the primary visual cortex in adults. It is not known, however, whether such low-level learning affects higher-level visual tasks such as recognition. By systematic low-level training of an adult visual system malfunctioning as a result of abnormal development (leading to amblyopia) of the primary visual cortex during the "critical period," we show here that induction of low-level changes might yield significant perceptual benefits that transfer to higher visual tasks. The training procedure resulted in a 2-fold improvement in contrast sensitivity and in letter-recognition tasks. These findings demonstrate that perceptual learning can improve basic representations within an adult visual system that did not develop during the critical period. PMID:15096608

  16. Self-controlled practice benefits motor learning in older adults.

    PubMed

    Lessa, Helena Thofehrn; Chiviacowsky, Suzete

    2015-04-01

    Providing learners with the chance to choose over certain aspects of practice has been consistently shown to facilitate the acquisition of motor skills in several populations. However, studies investigating the effects of providing autonomy support during the learning process of older adults remain scarce. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of self-controlled amount of practice on the learning of a sequential motor task in older adults. Participants in the self-control group were able to choose when to stop practicing a speed cup stacking task, while the number of practice trials for a yoked group was pre-determined, mirroring the self-control group. The opportunity to choose when stop practicing facilitated motor performance and learning compared to the yoked condition. The findings suggest that letting older adult learners choose the amount of practice, supporting their autonomy needs, has a positive influence on motor learning. PMID:25687663

  17. Early Learning Canada: Workshop Leader Guide [and] Participant Resource [and] Trainer Manual. Learning & Reading Partners Adult Learning System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estey, Nancy; MacIsaac, Maitland; Rendell, Sandra

    Based on the understanding that the capacity to learn is optimized in the early years, Early Learning Canada (ELC) is a community workshop program for parents and adults who work with children from birth to age 6 and their families to facilitate life-long learning. This workshop leader guide explains the ELC principles, examines learning styles…

  18. What Makes Learners Learn? Motivational Learning Theory in Home Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feingold, S. Norman

    1979-01-01

    Motivation is vital to all learning with the possible exception of incidental learning. Home study may adapt motivational learning theory to its goals by considering basic concepts with related examples. First, the more advance reasons an individual has to believe in the value of home study, the more likely will be the success of educational…

  19. Collaborative Language Learning for Professional Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesh, Linda Joy

    2010-01-01

    Institutions of higher education realise the importance of the role of learning organisations in terms of providing personnel training and updating. Yet further consideration should be given to flexible and accessible means for meeting the growing request for continuous learning. Jason Hughes describes an organization's capability to "learn how to…

  20. Adult Learning, Critical Intelligence and Social Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayo, Marjorie, Ed.; Thompson, Jane, Ed.

    This collection of 21 essays reviews the context of developments in adult education in the last 15 years. "Adult Education for Change in the Nineties and Beyond" (Marjorie Mayo) is a critical review of the context for these changes and of the theoretical debates that attempt to analyze and explain them. "Challenging the Postmodern Condition"…

  1. Behavioural Game Theory: Thinking, Learning and Teaching

    E-print Network

    Greer, Julia R.

    8 Behavioural Game Theory: Thinking, Learning and Teaching Colin F. Camerer,1 Teck-Hua Ho and Juin Kuan Chong Introduction Game theory is a mathematical system for analysing and predicting how humans the theory. But game theory is different: the players' fates are intertwined. The presence of players who do

  2. Learning to Learn. Tierra de Oportunidad Module 30. LAES: Latino Adult Education Services Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissam, Ed; Dorsey, Holda

    This module, which may be used as the basis for a workshop or as a special topic unit in adult basic education or English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) courses, addresses learning to learn. It is designed to help instructors explain and demonstrate how learning is part of life and provide a valuable opportunity for them to engage their students in…

  3. The Relationship between Learning Styles and Learning Outcomes for Adults in an Informal Educational Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Larry N.

    2013-01-01

    With more adults seeking unique and meaningful learning experiences in both recreational and professional arenas, informal learning institutions, such as museums, zoos, and botanical gardens are a natural source. Informal learning opportunities are the business of these institutions; moreover, a goal in education mission statements of many of…

  4. Using Adult Learning Principles as a Framework for Learning ICT Skills Needed for Research Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eyitayo, Oduronke Temitope

    2013-01-01

    Students in higher institutions need to carry out research projects. The focus of this paper explores a model to help students learn ICT skills needed for research projects. Generally students go through the "long and hard route" to learn and use ICT resources because they do not know how to do it. The paper explores the Adult Learning

  5. Negative emotional outcomes impair older adults' reversal learning.

    PubMed

    Nashiro, Kaoru; Mather, Mara; Gorlick, Marissa A; Nga, Lin

    2011-09-01

    In a typical reversal-learning experiment, one learns stimulus-outcome contingencies that then switch without warning. For instance, participants might have to repeatedly choose between two faces, one of which yields points whereas the other does not, with a reversal at some point in which face yields points. The current study examined age differences in the effects of outcome type on reversal learning. In the first experiment, the participants' task was either to select the person who would be in a better mood or to select the person who would yield more points. Reversals in which face was the correct option occurred several times. Older adults did worse in blocks in which the correct response was to select the person who would not be angry than in blocks in which the correct response was to select the person who would smile. Younger adults did not show a difference by emotional valence. In the second study, the negative condition was switched to have the same format as the positive condition (to select who will be angry). Again, older adults did worse with negative than positive outcomes, whereas younger adults did not show a difference by emotional valence. A third experiment replicated the lack of valence effects in younger adults with a harder probabilistic reversal-learning task. In the first two experiments, older adults performed about as well as younger adults in the positive conditions but performed worse in the negative conditions. These findings suggest that negative emotional outcomes selectively impair older adults' reversal learning. PMID:21432639

  6. Negative Emotional Outcomes Impair Older Adults' Reversal Learning

    PubMed Central

    Nashiro, Kaoru; Mather, Mara; Gorlick, Marissa A.; Nga, Lin

    2010-01-01

    In a typical reversal-learning experiment, one learns stimulus-outcome contingencies that then switch without warning. For instance, participants might have to repeatedly choose between two faces, one of which yields points whereas the other does not, with a reversal at some point in which face yields points. The current study examined age differences in the effects of outcome type on reversal learning. In the first experiment, the participants' task was either to select the person who would be in a better mood or to select the person who would yield more points. Reversals in which face was the correct option occurred several times. Older adults did worse in blocks in which the correct response was to select the person who would not be angry than in blocks in which the correct response was to select the person who would smile. Younger adults did not show a difference by emotional valence. In the second study, the negative condition was switched to have the same format as the positive condition (to select who will be angry). Again, older adults did worse with negative than positive outcomes, whereas younger adults did not show a difference by emotional valence. A third experiment replicated the lack of valence effects in younger adults with a harder probabilistic reversal-learning task. In the first two experiments, older adults performed about as well as younger adults in the positive conditions but performed worse in the negative conditions. These findings suggest that negative emotional outcomes selectively impair older adults' reversal learning. PMID:21432639

  7. Linking cognitive learning theory to instructional prescriptions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert D. Tennyson; Mariana Rasch

    1988-01-01

    This article presents an initial model of instructional design which directly links cognitive learning theory and instructional prescriptions. The major constructs of the model include components of the memory system, allocation of learning times by objectives and specific instructional methods. The model proposes that instructional time be divided so as to reach the educational goals of improvements in higher-order learning

  8. Online Collaborative Learning: Theory and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Tim, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    "Online Collaborative Learning: Theory and Practice" provides a resource for researchers and practitioners in the area of online collaborative learning (also known as CSCL, computer-supported collaborative learning), particularly those working within a tertiary education environment. It includes articles of relevance to those interested in both…

  9. Randomized Techniques and Statistical Learning Theory for

    E-print Network

    Tempo, Roberto

    IEIIT-CNR Randomized Techniques and Statistical Learning Theory for Control Systems Design DCL. Tempo (2009) #12;IEIIT-CNR Applications of Randomized Techniques - 2 PageRank Computation in Google DCL GeorgiaTech ©RT 2010 [1] H. Ishii and R. Tempo (2010) #12;IEIIT-CNR Statistical Learning Theory

  10. Avoiding Pitfalls When Learning Recursive Theories

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Mike Cameron-jones; J. Ross Quinlan

    1993-01-01

    Learning systems that express theories in firstorderlogic must ensure that the theories areexecutable and, in particular, that they do notlead to infinite recursion. This paper presentsa heuristic method for preventing infinite recursionin the (multi-clause) definition of arecursive relation. The method has been implementedin the latest version of foil, but couldalso be used with any learning method thatgrows clauses from ground

  11. Age-Related Differences in the Relation between Motivation to Learn and Transfer of Training in Adult Continuing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gegenfurtner, Andreas; Vauras, Marja

    2012-01-01

    This meta-analysis (k = 38, N = 6977) examined age-related differences in the relation between motivation to learn and transfer of training, using data derived from the literature on adult continuing education of the past 25 years. Based on socioemotional selectivity theory, a lifespan approach to expectancy theory, and research on interest and…

  12. Annual Review of Adult Learning and Literacy. Volume 2. The Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comings, John, Ed.; Garner, Barbara, Ed.; Smith, Cristine, Ed.

    This document contains eight papers on adult learning and literacy research and practice. "The Year 1999 in Review" (Dave Speights) presents an overview of adult learning and literacy research funding, policy, and activities in 1999. "Making Sense of Critical Pedagogy in Adult Literacy Education" (Sophie C. Degener) details a critical pedagogy…

  13. Contrasting Adult Literacy Learners With and Without Specific Learning Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Margaret Becker; Mellard, Daryl

    2011-01-01

    Contrasting adult literacy learners with and without specific learning disabilities This study of 311 adult education (AE) learners found 29% self-reported having a specific learning disability (SLD). Significant differences in demographic, academic, and life experience variables between the adult learners with and without SLD included: prior participation in special education, having both an SLD diagnosis and a high school diploma, low reading scores, middle age, and negative perceptions about limitations due to reading abilities. A post-hoc regression analysis found SLD status significantly contributes to variance in reading level when controlling for age and IQ. From these findings we conclude that SLD status should be considered an educationally relevant variable in adult education that warrants a diagnostic or clinical teaching approach. PMID:22140297

  14. Learning Objects, Learning Object Repositories, and Learning Theory: Preliminary Best Practices for Online Courses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan Smith Nash

    2005-01-01

    This paper evaluates current practices in the use of learning objects in online courses, reviews best practices, and suggests new approaches that incorporate learning theory. In doing so, the pa- per also explores the relationship between the use of learning objects and learning theory. The analysis and observations are based on surveys of existing approaches, best practices, and hands- on

  15. Probabilistic framework to study batch-mode supervised learning Hints about automatic learning theories

    E-print Network

    Wehenkel, Louis

    theories Guidelines to design automatic learning algorithms Applied inductive learning - Lecture 6 Louis;Probabilistic framework to study batch-mode supervised learning Hints about automatic learning theories learning Data generation model Bayes model Learning from a sample Hints about automatic learning theories

  16. Learning enhances adult neurogenesis in the hippocampal formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Beylin; Patima Tanapat; Alison Reeves; Tracey J. Shors; Elizabeth Gould

    1999-01-01

    Thousands of hippocampal neurons are born in adulthood, suggesting that new cells could be important for hippocampal function. To determine whether hippocampus-dependent learning affects adult-generated neurons, we examined the fate of new cells labeled with the thymidine analog bromodeoxyuridine following specific behavioral tasks. Here we report that the number of adult-generated neurons doubles in the rat dentate gyrus in response

  17. John Dewey and Adult Learning in Museums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monk, David F.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this article is to investigate learning in museums through the lens of John Dewey's philosophy of education and experiential learning. The influence of Dewey's philosophy of education is widespread and resounding. In this article, I examine the experiential qualities of Dewey's philosophy and compare it with the objectives of the…

  18. Entity versus incremental theories predict older adults' memory performance.

    PubMed

    Plaks, Jason E; Chasteen, Alison L

    2013-12-01

    The authors examined whether older adults' implicit theories regarding the modifiability of memory in particular (Studies 1 and 3) and abilities in general (Study 2) would predict memory performance. In Study 1, individual differences in older adults' endorsement of the "entity theory" (a belief that one's ability is fixed) or "incremental theory" (a belief that one's ability is malleable) of memory were measured using a version of the Implicit Theories Measure (Dweck, 1999). Memory performance was assessed with a free-recall task. Results indicated that the higher the endorsement of the incremental theory, the better the free recall. In Study 2, older and younger adults' theories were measured using a more general version of the Implicit Theories Measure that focused on the modifiability of abilities in general. Again, for older adults, the higher the incremental endorsement, the better the free recall. Moreover, as predicted, implicit theories did not predict younger adults' memory performance. In Study 3, participants read mock news articles reporting evidence in favor of either the entity or incremental theory. Those in the incremental condition outperformed those in the entity condition on reading span and free-recall tasks. These effects were mediated by pretask worry such that, for those in the entity condition, higher worry was associated with lower performance. Taken together, these studies suggest that variation in entity versus incremental endorsement represents a key predictor of older adults' memory performance. PMID:24128076

  19. Collaborative Learning and Dialogue: Democratic Learning in Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Joseph; Hyslop-Margison, Emery

    2006-01-01

    Building on the framework of Peters and Armstrong's (1998) three Types of Teaching/Learning, this article explores the use of dialogue to foster a collaborative and democratic learning experience. There are three conditions under which dialogue can be facilitated as a part of the collaborative learning experience: (a) intent, (b) a dialogical…

  20. Assessing Adult Learning: A Guide for Practitioners. Revised Edition. Professional Practices in Adult Education and Human Resource Development Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Joseph J.

    This book, which is intended for adult educators and human resource developers, presents guidelines for assessing adult learning. The following are among the topics covered in the book's eight chapters: (1) basic principles of informal assessment (relationship between learning and assessment activities; sequencing learning and assessment…

  1. Theory of mind in adults with HFA and Asperger syndrome.

    PubMed

    Spek, Annelies A; Scholte, Evert M; Van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina A

    2010-03-01

    Theory of mind was assessed in 32 adults with HFA, 29 adults with Asperger syndrome and 32 neurotypical adults. The HFA and Asperger syndrome groups were impaired in performance of the Strange stories test and the Faux-pas test and reported more theory of mind problems than the neurotypical adults. The three groups did not differ in performance of the Eyes test. Furthermore, correlations between the Eyes test and the three other theory of mind tests were low or absent. Therefore one can question the ability of the Eyes test to measure theory of mind. Of all theory of mind tests used, the self-report questionnaire had the largest discriminating power in differentiating the two disorder groups from the neurotypical group. PMID:19763808

  2. Adult Learning as Strategic Behaviour and Strategic Learning as Competence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Damme, Dirk

    A conceptual framework for analyzing participation in adult education was developed. Adult education participation was considered a specific kind of strategic behavior. The term "strategic" was defined by proceeding from Pierre Bourdieu's concept of "educational strategy," which permits consideration of the structural constraints that the social…

  3. Annual Review of Adult Learning and Literacy. Volume 3. The Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comings, John, Ed.; Garner, Barbara, Ed.; Smith, Cristine, Ed.

    This review contains current information on research, policy, and practice in adult literacy and learning for individuals and organizations focused on adult basic education (ABE), adult English for speakers of other languages (ESOL), and adult secondary education (ASE) programs. "The Year 2000 In Review" (Lennox L. McLendon) describes the effects…

  4. Adult Students' Perception of the Congruence of Hybrid Courses with Their Adult Learning Needs and Their Satisfaction from Hybrid Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iqbal, Rubina

    2011-01-01

    The overall purpose of the study was to examine adult students' perception of the congruence of hybrid courses with adult learning needs and to examine adult students' level of satisfaction with hybrid courses. The study collected data through pre and post surveys, administered at the beginning and near the end of the hybrid courses, of adult

  5. Learning dynamics An introduction to Game Theory

    E-print Network

    Steels, Luc

    INFO-F-409 Learning dynamics An introduction to Game Theory T. Lenaerts andY.-M. De Hauwere MLG, Université Libre de Bruxelles and AI-lab, Vrije Universiteit Brussel 1 Computational Game Theory An introduction to Game Theory Y.-M. De Hauwere and T. Lenaerts MAP, MLG, Université Libre de Bruxelles and AI

  6. Modern Learning Theories Provide Applications for Distance Learning Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tesone, Dana V.; Severt, Denver; Carpenter, Monica L.

    2008-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a recent empirical study that was conducted at a large university in the United States. The study compared the findings from modern learning theories to reported perceptions of undergraduate and graduate students taking courses in online learning environments. The intention of the study was to compare perceived…

  7. Learning Expertise in Practice: Implications for Learning Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvis, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Building on Polanyi's insight in "The Tacit Dimension" that we know more than we can tell, this paper argues that we need to extend our understanding of learning to incorporate implicit learning, which is necessary in order to understand the process of becoming an expert and in so doing it points to the need to expand the theories of…

  8. Andragogy in Practice: Clarifying the Andragogical Model of Adult Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holton, Elwood F., III; Swanson, Richard A.; Naquin, Sharon S.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses aspects of andragogy that are important for performance improvement professionals. Topics include the core andragogical model that presents core principles of adult learning; andragogy as an individual-transactional framework; individual learner differences; situational differences; and the Andragogy in Practice Model. (Contains 70…

  9. The Pattern of Learned Visual Improvements in Adult Amblyopia

    E-print Network

    Nottingham, University of

    be collapsed along two basic visual dimensions (visual acuity and contrast sensitivity) that together accountThe Pattern of Learned Visual Improvements in Adult Amblyopia Andrew T. Astle, Ben S. Webb for most of the variability in performance of the amblyopic visual system. In this study, this space

  10. Effectiveness of Dysphagia Training for Adult Learning Disabilities Support Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tredinnick, Gerlind; Cocks, Naomi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of a 1-day dysphagia training package delivered to support workers who work with adults with a learning disability. Thirty-eight support staff took part in this study. Twenty-five support staff received training, and 13 did not receive training and therefore acted as a control group. Three questionnaires…

  11. Spirituality of South Asian Women: Implications for Adult Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Jody L.

    The implications of the spirituality of South Asian women for adult learning were examined through semistructured interviews of five South Asian women who resided in Canada. The women, who included students, working professionals, mothers, and single women, originated from Nepal, India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka and were from Hindu, Moslem, and…

  12. Adult Learning Innovations: Vehicles for Social and Economic Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, William J.

    The cost-effective use of communications technologies to extend adult learning opportunities is one way state policymakers can face the challenge of responding to growing demands for essential public services. The major new educational technologies that are available are television, radio, telephone, computers, communications satellites, and…

  13. Adult Literacy Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Timor-Leste

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boon, Danielle

    2011-01-01

    In Timor-Leste, many adults learn to read and write in a multilingual context. The official languages are Tetum and Portuguese, 15 regional languages are being further developed and Bahasa Indonesia and English are accepted as working languages. Most literacy programmes take place in Tetum, the lingua franca, and often regional languages are used…

  14. New York State Goals for Adult Learning Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Adult Learning Services Committee.

    Eight goals are presented that are intended to provide a framework for the development of adult learning in New York in the next two decades and that are targeted for implementation by the year 2000. Each goal is preceded by background information that also spells out the intent of the goal. Goal 1 formulates the public interest in the various…

  15. Adults' Learning about Science in Free-Choice Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rennie, Leonie J.; Williams, Gina F.

    2006-01-01

    This paper synthesizes findings from three studies to answer a general question: What do casual, adult visitors learn about science from their science-related experiences in free-choice settings? Specifically we asked whether there are changes in how people think about science in their daily lives, the nature and use of scientific knowledge, and…

  16. Engaging Education: Integrating Work, Technology and Learning for Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Housing and Urban Development, Washington, DC.

    This guide is for Neighborhood Networks center staff and volunteers who want to learn how centers across the country are helping adults meet work force demands. It provides resources to work force development programs so examples can be tailored to meet the needs of other communities. It focuses on challenges that integrating academics and job…

  17. Equality and Diversity in Adult and Community Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reisenberger, Anna; Dadzie, Stella

    This document is a practical guide to help managers of adult and community education programs in the United Kingdom address equality and diversity in the context of the Learning and Skills Council (LSC) remit and the Common Inspection Framework. The following are among the topics discussed in Sections 1-4: (1) learner-centered approaches…

  18. Getting Your Driver's License. An Adult Competency Education Learning Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Virginia

    This instructional unit on getting one's driver's license is one of six Adult Competency Education Learning Modules designed for use in a program of competency-based instruction for students with intermediate reading level ability. It is self-contained and designed for immediate classroom use. The module is comprised of 4 parts and 10 lessons: The…

  19. Learning and Collaborating in the Adult Literacy Education Wiki

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Erik

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the results of a mixed-methods study of the Adult Literacy Education Wiki. Two research questions framed the study: (1) What do participants report they have learned by contributing to the wiki? and (2) What is the nature of participation and collaboration in the wiki? A key finding of the study is that the wiki does not…

  20. Promoting Adult Learning through Civil Discourse in the Public Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kranich, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Founded in the 1850s to promote an informed citizenry, public libraries advanced both adult learning and citizenship education in the first half of the 20th century, thus becoming cornerstones of democracy. But with a more recent decline in public engagement in libraries and beyond, librarians question whether democracy requires more than an…

  1. Human Service Planning as a Collective Adult Learning Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Joan

    Based on a study by the Department of Community Service Education, Cornell University, to evaluate human service planning (HSP) nationwide, this paper discusses the premises that HSP may be defined as community learning and that the community (according to the Robert Boyd and Jerold Apps model for adult education) is both a beneficiary of and…

  2. Adults' Abilities to Detect Children's Readiness to Learn

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michelle Perry; Jacqueline Woolley; John lfcher

    1995-01-01

    Children are much more likely to benefit from instruction when they are ready to incorporate new knowledge into their existing knowledge base. But can we detect such readiness? In a series of studies, we investigated this critical component of the interactional nature of the learning process. In the first study, we assessed whether adults are able to identify children who

  3. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and learning disabilities in adults.

    PubMed

    McCann, B S; Roy-Byrne, P

    2000-07-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a developmental disorder which begins in childhood. It is now recognized that ADHD persists into adolescence and adulthood in the majority of cases. Significant psychiatric comorbidity, particularly substance abuse, antisocial personality disorder, and mood and anxiety disorders occurs in adolescent and adult ADHD. Perhaps one fifth of childhood cases of ADHD may also have co-morbid learning disorder. Significant legal, academic, social, and occupational problems have been observed in adults with ADHD. The clinician faces a diagnostic and treatment challenge in trying to determine whether ADHD and learning disabilities (LDs) are present in the adult patient. Treatment and recommendations for accommodations in institutions of higher education and the workplace may rest on accurate discrimination between ADHD and LD. PMID:11291014

  4. Learned Helplessness: Theory and Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maier, Steven F.; Seligman, Martin E. P.

    1976-01-01

    Authors believes that three phenomena are all instances of "learned helplessness," instances in which an organism has learned that outcomes are uncontrollable by his responses and is seriously debilitated by this knowledge. This article explores the evidence for the phenomena of learned helplessness, and discussed a variety of theoretical…

  5. Do Learning Strategies Affect Adults' Transfer of Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Nina; Taraban, Roman

    A study of 113 graduate students in a college of education explored how readily they would apply their knowledge about transfer of learning to a personally relevant teaching task. One group practiced integration; participants were asked to think about concepts they were learning in terms of the three elements of the integration strategy. A second…

  6. A turning point in mathematical learning theory.

    PubMed

    Bower, G H

    1994-04-01

    This target article by Estes (1950) sparked the mathematical learning theory movement, which took seriously the goal of predicting quantitative details of behavioral data from standard learning experiments. The central constructs of Estes's theory were stimulus variability, stimulus sampling, and stimulus-response association by contiguity, all cast within a framework enabling predictions of response probabilities and latencies. The math models enterprise flourished during the period 1950-1975 and provided successful quantitative accounts of data from Pavlovian and instrumental conditioning, probability learning, verbal learning, concept identification, and other standard learning paradigms. The techniques have been assimilated into the armamentarium of theoretical psychology. Stimulus sampling theory has faded away as it has been transformed into modern descendants such as connectionism and information-processing models of cognition. PMID:8022959

  7. Connecting Research, Policy, and Practice. Review of Adult Learning and Literacy, Volume 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comings, John, Ed.; Garner, Barbara, Ed.; Smith, Christine, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "Review of Adult Learning and Literacy: Connecting Research, Policy, and Practice, Volume 7" is the newest volume in a series of annual publications of the National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy (NCSALL) that address major issues, the latest research, and the best practices in the field of adult literacy and learning. Each…

  8. The Social-Interaction Learning Styles of Irish Adult Learners: Some Empirical Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O Fathaigh, Mairtin

    An action research project was conducted to understand the learning style profile of Irish adult learners better and to integrate the findings into development seminars for adult education teachers and tutors. The Grasha-Riechmann Student Learning Styles Scale (GRSLSS) was chosen as the research instrument to explore Irish adults' learning styles…

  9. From Hamburg to Belem: The Limits of Technocratic Thinking in Adult Learning Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Carlos Alberto

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses some of the generalized analyses of adult learning education, mostly informed by technocratic thinking, highlighting perceived trends in adult learning education between CONFINTEA V and CONFITEA VI. Those trends could be understood as challenges. Employing a political sociology of adult learning education as a critique of…

  10. Toward a New Motivation to Learn Framework for Older Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Yi-Yin; Sandmann, Lorilee R.

    2012-01-01

    Although existing literature addresses adults' motivation to learn, and some specifically focuses on older adults, it is now recognized that older adults are more heterogeneous and complex than other age groups. Therefore, this study seeks to provide an alternative theoretical framework to investigate motivation to learn for older adult learners…

  11. Beyond Decoding: Adults with Dyslexia Have Trouble Forming Unified Lexical Representations across Pseudoword Learning Episodes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howland, Karole A.; Liederman, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To examine how adults with dyslexia versus adults with typical reading form lexical representations during pseudoword learning. Method: Twenty adults with dyslexia and 20 adults with typical reading learned meanings, spellings, and pronunciations of 16 pictured pseudowords, (half with regular and half with irregular grapheme-phoneme…

  12. Investigating the Learning-Theory Foundations of Game-Based Learning: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, W-H.; Hsiao, H-C.; Wu, P-L.; Lin, C-H.; Huang, S-H.

    2012-01-01

    Past studies on the issue of learning-theory foundations in game-based learning stressed the importance of establishing learning-theory foundation and provided an exploratory examination of established learning theories. However, we found research seldom addressed the development of the use or failure to use learning-theory foundations and…

  13. Machine Learning, Chapter 7 CSE 574, Spring 2004 Computational Learning Theory (COLT)

    E-print Network

    1 Machine Learning, Chapter 7 CSE 574, Spring 2004 Computational Learning Theory (COLT) Goals: Theoretical characterization of 1. Difficulty of machine learning problems · Under what conditions is learning possible and impossible? 2. Capabilities of machine learning algorithms · Under what conditions

  14. Learning Disabilities, Literacy, and Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogel, Susan A., Ed.; Reder, Stephen, Ed.

    This book deals with the long-neglected problem of learning disabilities (LDs) and the relationship of LDs to difficulties in the acquisition of literacy. Its 17 chapters are divided into 5 sections that begin with an opener to help the reader identify the main themes and content of each chapter in the section. Four chapters in Section I address…

  15. Efficacy of learning strategies instruction in adult basic education

    PubMed Central

    Hock, Michael F.; Mellard, Daryl F.

    2011-01-01

    Results from randomized controlled trials of learning strategies instruction with 375 adult basic education (AE) participants are reported. Reading outcomes from whole group strategic instruction in one of four learning strategies were compared to outcomes of reading instruction delivered in the context of typical adult education units on social studies, history, and science. Both experimental and control conditions experienced high attrition and low attendance, resulting in only 105 control and 100 experimental participants’ data in outcome analyses for the trials of the four learning strategies. Reading outcomes for these completers were not significantly different between experimental and control conditions, and each group achieved minimal gains. We discuss possible reasons for the non-significant effect from the intervention, including insufficient instructional dosage. PMID:22121409

  16. Determining a Difference in Self-Directed Learning Readiness Using the Survey of Adult Learning Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ezell, Diana

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the self-directed learning of educators and explore the differences between and among the variables of age, level of education, position, school district ratings, levels of poverty and affluence, and gender. The Survey of Adult Learning Traits (SALT) authored by Hogg was used as the instrument to measure…

  17. The Use of Computer-Managed Learning for Media-Based Informal Adult Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waniewicz, Ignacy

    TVOntario, the television network operated by the Ontario Educational Communications Authority, has been utilizing computer managed learning (CML) in its support of television-based nonformal adult learning projects since 1980. Three of these projects, or academies, have been offered on the topics of health and environment, music and musicians,…

  18. Reinforcement learning: Computational theory and biological mechanisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenji Doya

    2007-01-01

    Reinforcement learning is a computational framework for an active agent to learn behaviors on the basis of a scalar reward signal. The agent can be an animal, a human, or an artificial system such as a robot or a computer program. The reward can be food, water, money, or whatever measure of the performance of the agent. The theory of

  19. Educational theory and the psychology of learning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. T. Buswell

    1956-01-01

    After discussing in detail what consequences various theories of learning hold for practical educational situations, the author points out current practices in educational research as related to the psychology of learning. He feels that in general educational psychologists have not been independent enough in solving problems in their field. They should \\

  20. Learning Style Theory and Computer Mediated Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkins, Hilary; Moore, David; Sharpe, Simon; Hobbs, Dave

    This paper looks at the low participation rates in computer mediated conferences (CMC) and argues that one of the causes of this may be an incompatibility between students' learning styles and the style adopted by CMC. Curry's Onion Model provides a well-established framework within which to view the main learning style theories (Riding and…

  1. Jigsaw Cooperative Learning: Acid-Base Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarhan, Leman; Sesen, Burcin Acar

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on investigating the effectiveness of jigsaw cooperative learning instruction on first-year undergraduates' understanding of acid-base theories. Undergraduates' opinions about jigsaw cooperative learning instruction were also investigated. The participants of this study were 38 first-year undergraduates in chemistry education…

  2. Gender Differences in Adult Word Learning

    PubMed Central

    Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Marian, Viorica; Yoo, Jeewon

    2011-01-01

    In prior work, women were found to outperform men on short-term verbal memory tasks. The goal of the present work was to examine whether gender differences on short-term memory tasks are tied to the involvement of long-term memory in the learning process. In Experiment 1, men and women were compared on their ability to remember phonologically-familiar novel words and phonologically-unfamiliar novel words. Learning of phonologically-familiar novel words (but not of phonologically-unfamiliar novel words) can be supported by long-term phonological knowledge. Results revealed that women outperformed men on phonologically-familiar novel words, but not on phonologically-unfamiliar novel words. In Experiment 2, we replicated Experiment 1 using a within-subjects design, and confirmed gender differences on phonologically-familiar, but not phonologically-unfamiliar stimuli. These findings are interpreted to suggest that women are more likely than men to recruit native-language phonological knowledge during novel word-learning. PMID:21392726

  3. Self-Directed Adult Learners and Learning. PANEL Resource Paper #13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Virginia R.

    Directions in self-directed learning for adults and perspectives for the future are discussed. The following five movements in self-directed learning are considered: the Knowles Group Learning Stream, the Tough Adult Learning Projects Stream, individualized programmed instruction, nontraditional institutional arrangements, and heuristic life…

  4. Adult Learning and Development. Perspectives from Educational Psychology. The Educational Psychology Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, M. Cecil, Ed.; Pourchot, Thomas, Ed.

    Leading educational psychologists address problems in adult development and learning in this book. "What Does Educational Psychology Know about Adult Learning and Development?" (M. Cecil Smith, Thomas Pourchot) is the introduction. "We Learn, Therefore We Develop" (Nira Granott) tackles the problem of distinguishing between learning and…

  5. The Pattern of Learned Visual Improvements in Adult Amblyopia

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Ben S.; McGraw, Paul V.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. Although amblyopia is diagnosed in terms of a monocular letter acuity loss, individuals typically present with deficits on a wide range of spatial tasks. Many of these deficits can be collapsed along two basic visual dimensions (visual acuity and contrast sensitivity) that together account for most of the variability in performance of the amblyopic visual system. In this study, this space was exploited, to target the main deficits and fully characterize the pattern of learned visual improvements in adult amblyopic subjects. Methods. Twenty-six amblyopic subjects (mean age, 39 ±12 years) were trained on one of four tasks, categorized as either visual acuity (letter or grating acuity) or contrast sensitivity (letter or grating contrast) tasks. Performance was measured on all tasks before and after training, to quantify learning along each dimension and generalization to the other dimension. Performance in 35 visually normal subjects (mean, age 24 ± 5 years) was used to establish normal variation in visual performance along each dimension, against which the learned improvements in amblyopic subjects was compared. Results. Training on the contrast sensitivity tasks produced substantial within-task learning and generalization to measures of visual acuity. The learned improvements in performance after training on the letter acuity task were also substantial, but did not generalize to contrast sensitivity. Conclusions. Mapping the pattern of learning onto the known deficit space for amblyopia enabled the identification of tasks and stimulus configurations that optimized learning, guiding further development of learning-based interventions in this clinical group. PMID:21810976

  6. Theories of Learning Problems in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southwest Educational Development Lab., Austin, TX.

    Presented are five papers on the application of the cognitive theories of Jean Piaget to learning problems in young children. The first paper, by Remy Droz, looks at current interactions between psychology and teaching, and relates Piaget's theories to the general scientific trend of the century. Discussed are the four developmental stages…

  7. New Theories for New Learnings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papert, Seymour

    1984-01-01

    The computer is going to be a catalyst of deep and radical change in the educational system. New conceptual frameworks are needed for thinking about the learning process, and experimental methodologies need to be reexamined. Examples of computer impact in learning situations utilizing its interactive capabilities are presented. (BS)

  8. Cohort Programming and Learning: Improving Educational Experiences for Adult Learners. Professional Practices in Adult Education and Human Resource Development Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saltiel, Iris M.; Russo, Charline S.

    This book, which is intended for adult educators and human resource developers, presents guidelines for using the principles of cohort programming and learning to improve adult learners' educational experiences. The following are among the topics covered in the book's eight chapters: (1) cohort programming and learning (cohort programs defined;…

  9. Learning theories application in nursing education.

    PubMed

    Aliakbari, Fatemeh; Parvin, Neda; Heidari, Mohammad; Haghani, Fariba

    2015-01-01

    Learning theories are the main guide for educational systems planning in the classroom and clinical training included in nursing. The teachers by knowing the general principles of these theories can use their knowledge more effectively according to various learning situations. In this study, Eric, Medline, and Cochrane databases were used for articles in English and for the Persian literature, Magiran, Iran doc, Iran medex, and Sid databases were used with the help of keywords including social cognitive learning, learning theory, behavioral theory, cognitive theory, constructive theory, and nursing education. The search period was considered from 1990 to 2012. Some related books were also studied about each method, its original vision, the founders, practical application of the training theory, especially training of nursing and its strengths and weaknesses. Behaviorists believe that learning is a change in an observable behavior and it happens when the communication occurs between the two events, a stimulus and a response. Among the applications of this approach is the influence on the learner's emotional reactions. Among the theories of this approach, Thorndike and Skinner works are subject to review and critique. Cognitive psychologists unlike the behaviorists believe that learning is an internal process objective and they focus on thinking, understanding, organizing, and consciousness. Fundamentalists believe that learners should be equipped with the skills of inquiry and problem solving in order to learn by the discovery and process of information. Among this group, we will pay attention to analyze Wertheimer, Brunner, Ausubel theories, Ganyeh information processing model, in addition to its applications in nursing education. Humanists in learning pay attention to the feelings and experiences. Carl Rogers support the retention of learning-centered approach and he is believed to a semantic continuum. At the other end of the continuum, experiential learning is located with the meaning and meaningful. It applies the minds and feelings of the person. From this group, the main focus will be on the works of Rogers and Novels. Finally, it could be concluded that the usage of any of these theoriesin its place would be desired and useful. PMID:25767813

  10. Learning theories application in nursing education

    PubMed Central

    Aliakbari, Fatemeh; Parvin, Neda; Heidari, Mohammad; Haghani, Fariba

    2015-01-01

    Learning theories are the main guide for educational systems planning in the classroom and clinical training included in nursing. The teachers by knowing the general principles of these theories can use their knowledge more effectively according to various learning situations. In this study, Eric, Medline, and Cochrane databases were used for articles in English and for the Persian literature, Magiran, Iran doc, Iran medex, and Sid databases were used with the help of keywords including social cognitive learning, learning theory, behavioral theory, cognitive theory, constructive theory, and nursing education. The search period was considered from 1990 to 2012. Some related books were also studied about each method, its original vision, the founders, practical application of the training theory, especially training of nursing and its strengths and weaknesses. Behaviorists believe that learning is a change in an observable behavior and it happens when the communication occurs between the two events, a stimulus and a response. Among the applications of this approach is the influence on the learner's emotional reactions. Among the theories of this approach, Thorndike and Skinner works are subject to review and critique. Cognitive psychologists unlike the behaviorists believe that learning is an internal process objective and they focus on thinking, understanding, organizing, and consciousness. Fundamentalists believe that learners should be equipped with the skills of inquiry and problem solving in order to learn by the discovery and process of information. Among this group, we will pay attention to analyze Wertheimer, Brunner, Ausubel theories, Ganyeh information processing model, in addition to its applications in nursing education. Humanists in learning pay attention to the feelings and experiences. Carl Rogers support the retention of learning-centered approach and he is believed to a semantic continuum. At the other end of the continuum, experiential learning is located with the meaning and meaningful. It applies the minds and feelings of the person. From this group, the main focus will be on the works of Rogers and Novels. Finally, it could be concluded that the usage of any of these theoriesin its place would be desired and useful. PMID:25767813

  11. Online Learning from Input versus Offline Memory Evolution in Adult Word Learning: Effects of Neighborhood Density and Phonologically Related Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storkel, Holly L.; Bontempo, Daniel E.; Pak, Natalie S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors investigated adult word learning to determine how neighborhood density and practice across phonologically related training sets influence online learning from input during training versus offline memory evolution during no-training gaps. Method: Sixty-one adults were randomly assigned to learn low- or…

  12. Dispositional factors affecting motivation during learning in adult basic and secondary education programs

    PubMed Central

    Krieshok, Thomas; Fall, Emily; Woods, Kari

    2012-01-01

    Research indicates that about a quarter of adult students separate from formal adult basic and secondary education (ABE/ASE) programs before completing one educational level. This retrospective study explores individual dispositional factors that affect motivation during learning, particularly students’ goals, goal-directed thinking and action based on hope theory and attendance behaviors, and self-perceptions of competency based on affective domain attributions about external and internal obstacles to learning and employment, and demographic factors. Among 274 ABE/ASE students, those learners who made an education gain in 1 year significantly differed from those who did not in only a few dispositional or demographic variables; and by educational level they significantly differed in a wide variety of dispositional and demographic variables. These findings suggest researchable questions and programmatic considerations that may lead to future innovations that improve learner persistence. PMID:23734069

  13. Dispositional factors affecting motivation during learning in adult basic and secondary education programs.

    PubMed

    Mellard, Daryl F; Krieshok, Thomas; Fall, Emily; Woods, Kari

    2013-04-01

    Research indicates that about a quarter of adult students separate from formal adult basic and secondary education (ABE/ASE) programs before completing one educational level. This retrospective study explores individual dispositional factors that affect motivation during learning, particularly students' goals, goal-directed thinking and action based on hope theory and attendance behaviors, and self-perceptions of competency based on affective domain attributions about external and internal obstacles to learning and employment, and demographic factors. Among 274 ABE/ASE students, those learners who made an education gain in 1 year significantly differed from those who did not in only a few dispositional or demographic variables; and by educational level they significantly differed in a wide variety of dispositional and demographic variables. These findings suggest researchable questions and programmatic considerations that may lead to future innovations that improve learner persistence. PMID:23734069

  14. Prolonged Perceptual Learning of Positional Acuity in Adult Amblyopia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Roger W; Klein, Stanley A; Levi, Dennis M

    2009-01-01

    Amblyopia is a developmental abnormality that results in physiological alterations in the visual cortex and impairs form vision. It is often successfully treated by patching the sound eye in infants and young children, but is generally considered to be untreatable in adults. However, a number of recent studies suggest that repetitive practice of a visual task using the amblyopic eye results in improved performance in both children and adults with amblyopia. These perceptual learning studies have used relatively brief periods of practice; however, clinical studies have shown that the time-constant for successful patching is long. The time-constant for perceptual learning in amblyopia is still unknown. Here we show that the time-constant for perceptual learning depends on the degree of amblyopia. Severe amblyopia requires more than 50 hours (?35,000 trials) to reach plateau, yielding as much as a five-fold improvement in performance at a rate of ?1.5% per hour. There is significant transfer of learning from the amblyopic to the dominant eye, suggesting that the learning reflects alterations in higher decision stages of processing. Using a reverse correlation technique, we document, for the first time, a dynamic retuning of the amblyopic perceptual decision template and a substantial reduction in internal spatial distortion. These results show that the mature amblyopic brain is surprisingly malleable, and point to more intensive treatment methods for amblyopia. PMID:19109504

  15. Considering Personality Type in Adult Learning: Using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator in Instructor Preparation at PricewaterhouseCoopers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daisley, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the feasibility of using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) as a framework for instructor development in a professional services training environment. It explores the consistency of MBTI with common adult learning theory, addresses questions on MBTI's reliability and validity, and explores the applicability of MBTI to the…

  16. Learning a theory of causality

    E-print Network

    Goodman, Noah D.

    The very early appearance of abstract knowledge is often taken as evidence for innateness. We explore the relative learning speeds of abstract and specific knowledge within a Bayesian framework and the role for innate ...

  17. National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Located at Harvard University, The National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy (NCSALL) draws on numerous scholars and experts to investigate the practice of educational programs around the country that serve adults with limited literacy and English language skills. Their various outreach efforts include disseminating their research findings through journals and policy reports, along with the leadership provided by their Connecting Practice, Policy, and Research initiative. The â??Researchâ?ť section of the site is a good place to start, as users can learn about their most recent research projects and also read publications authored by researchers working at NCSALL. Beyond this section, visitors will also appreciate the â??Publicationsâ?ť area, which includes research briefs, reports, and selections from their occasional papers series. One highlight here is the â??Focus on Basicsâ?ť quarterly publication, which presents best practices and current research on adult learning and literacy. Visitors can view the current issue, and also scan through the archives, which date back to 1997.

  18. Learning categories via rules and similarity: comparing adults and children.

    PubMed

    Rabi, Rahel; Miles, Sarah J; Minda, John Paul

    2015-03-01

    Two experiments explored the different strategies used by children and adults when learning new perceptual categories. Participants were asked to learn a set of categories for which both a single-feature rule and overall similarity would allow for perfect performance. Other rules allowed for suboptimal performance. Transfer stimuli (Experiments 1 and 2) and single features (Experiment 2) were presented after training to help determine how the categories were learned. In both experiments, we found that adults made significantly more optimal rule-based responses to the test stimuli than children. Children showed a variety of categorization styles, with a few relying on the optimal rules, many relying on suboptimal single-feature rules, and only a few relying on overall family resemblance. We interpret these results within a multiple systems framework, and we argue that children show the pattern they do because they lack the necessary cognitive resources to fully engage in hypothesis testing, rule selection, and verbally mediated category learning. PMID:25558860

  19. Applications of Educational Technology in a Self-Directed Learning Program for Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Helen; DeJoy, Judith Klippel

    1988-01-01

    The authors describe their observations, as administrators of the Personal Adult Learning Lab at the University of Georgia, about the role of educational technology in adult self-directed learning and the adult learner's reaction to technology. The ways in which the lab is using computer-assisted instruction and interactive video technology are…

  20. Adult Play-Learning: Observing Informal Family Education at a Science Museum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanhadilok, Peeranut; Watts, Mike

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the issues surrounding the nature of adult play. More specifically, we explore "family play-learning", where play activities result in forms of added knowledge or insight for the adults involved. Adult play itself is an under-researched area, and play-learning even more so. We discuss related research and, in…

  1. A Comparative Analysis of Three Unique Theories of Organizational Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leavitt, Carol C.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present three classical theories on organizational learning and conduct a comparative analysis that highlights their strengths, similarities, and differences. Two of the theories -- experiential learning theory and adaptive -- generative learning theory -- represent the thinking of the cognitive perspective, while…

  2. The Development of a Comprehensive and Coherent Theory of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illeris, Knud

    2015-01-01

    This article is an account of how the author developed a comprehensive understanding of human learning over a period of almost 50 years. The learning theory includes the structure of learning, different types of learning, barriers of learning as well as how individual dispositions, age, the learning environment and general social and societal…

  3. How Children and Adults Learn to Intercept Moving Gaps

    PubMed Central

    Chihak, Benjamin J.; Grechkin, Timofey Y.; Kearney, Joseph K.; Cremer, James F.; Plumert, Jodie M.

    2014-01-01

    We used an immersive virtual environment to examine how children and adults learn to intercept moving gaps and whether children and adults benefit from variability of practice. Ten- and 12-year-old children and adults attempted to bicycle between two moving vehicle-size blocks without stopping. In Experiment 1, block motions were timed such that if participants maintained a constant speed, they would intercept the gap between the blocks. By the last set of intersections, adults learned to maintain a constant speed throughout the approach to the intersection and 12-year-old exhibited less variability in time-to-spare when they intercepted the blocks. Ten-year-olds exhibited no significant change across intersection sets. In Experiment 2, block motions during the first eight intersections were timed such that participants had to either speed up or slow down on all intersections, or had to speed up on half and slow down on half of the intersections. On the last four intersections, all groups encountered a novel block timing in which no adjustment in speed was necessary to intercept the blocks. Adults performed well regardless of whether they experienced consistent or variable block timings. Ten-year-olds in the variable condition performed better on slow-down trials than their peers in the slow-down condition, but worse on speed-up trials than their peers in the speed-up condition. Discussion focuses on possible developmental changes in reliance on perceptually-available and remembered information in complex perception-action tasks. PMID:24576506

  4. Learning in Adulthood. A Comprehensive Guide. Second Edition. Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merriam, Sharan B.; Caffarella, Rosemary S.

    Intended for adult educators, this book is a comprehensive overview and synthesis of what is known about adult learning. Part 1 describes the context of learning. Chapters 1-4 describe the following: the sociocultural context; the range of settings and ways they influence learners and the learning process; literature on who participates in formal…

  5. Adult Health Learning and Transformation: A Case Study of a Canadian Community-Based Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coady, Maureen

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a case study of adult learning in a Canadian multisite Community Cardiovascular Hearts in Motion program. The researcher highlights the informal learning of 40 adult participants in this 12-week community-based cardiac rehabilitation/education program in five rural Nova Scotia communities. The effects of this learning and…

  6. Learning Rule-Described and Non-Rule-Described Categories: A Comparison of Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minda, John Paul; Desroches, Amy S.; Church, Barbara A.

    2008-01-01

    Three experiments investigated the ability of 3-, 5-, and 8-year-old children as well as adults to learn sets of perceptual categories. Adults and children performed comparably on categories that could be learned by either a single-dimensional rule or by associative learning mechanisms. However, children showed poorer performance relative to…

  7. The Influence of the Openness of an E-Learning Situation on Adult Students' Self-

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    The Influence of the Openness of an E-Learning Situation on Adult Students' Self- Regulation l sis of the e-learning situation and students' self-regulated behaviors in the management of these components Influence of the Openness of an E-Learning Situation on Adult Students' Self-Regulation Jézégou Vol 14

  8. Between Sundays: A Case Study of a Korean Immigrant Adult Learning Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jun, Byoungchul Joseph

    2010-01-01

    This study examined a Korean immigrant adult learning program, the Reading Facilitator Training program, at a Korean immigrant church in Los Angeles, CA, in 2008. The purpose of this research was to discover how Korean immigrant adults learn in a way that has meaning and brings about change and how the local church can function as a safe learning

  9. Learning Outcomes and Achievement among Working Adult Students in the Distance and Collaborative Learning Program in Universiti Malaya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chew Fong Peng; Goh Teck; Lee Tan Luck

    Purpose - This research is attempt to examine the learning outcomes of the registered adult learners in the distance and e learning program in the Education Faculty, Social Science and Art Faculty and Language Faculty in Universiti Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, particularly at degree and post degree level who have followed the learning modules in distance and e learning. The

  10. Geometric Parameters in Learning Theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shahar Mendelson

    Contents. 1. Introduction 2. Glivenko-Cantelli Classes and Learnability 2.1. The Classical Approach 2.2. Talagrand’s Inequality for Empirical Processes 3. Uniform Measures of Complexity 3.1. Metric Entropy and the Combinatorial Dimension 3.2. Random Averages and the Combinatorial Dimension 3.3. Phase Transitions in GC Classes 3.4. Concentration of the Combinatorial Dimension 4. Learning Sample Complexity and Error Bounds 4.1. Error Bounds 4.2.

  11. Adult Learning and the Teaching of Evaluation: A Study of an Experiential Learning Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preskill, Hallie

    The paper describes the development of a course on evaluation in business and industry, offered as part of a Master's program in Human Resource Development. Since the average age of the students was 36, special emphasis was placed on structuring the class to increase relevance to the students' working lives and to ways adults learn best. A brief…

  12. 2. Theories of Learning Learning in animals and humans has been intensively studied in the scientific

    E-print Network

    Witkowski, Mark

    23 Chapter 2 2. Theories of Learning Learning in animals and humans has been intensively studied undertaken during this period radically new theories describing the nature of the learning process in animals a selection. Bower and Hilgard's classic "Theories of Learning", now in its fifth edition since first

  13. Toward a Theory of Aesthetic Learning Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uhrmacher, P. Bruce

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to reveal ways to provide the opportunity for students to have aesthetically engaged learning experiences. Using John Dewey's ideas from "Art as Experience" as a framework, the author uses aesthetic theory to show how such ends can be reached. In addition, he suggests six themes that teachers can draw upon to help…

  14. Teaching Family Systems Theory through Service Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Christine E.; Lampinen, Autumn; Kelley-Soderholm, Erin L.

    2006-01-01

    The authors present a rationale for incorporating service-learning projects into courses that teach family systems theory. A model program is presented to provide an example of the objectives, practical considerations, and student responses to such a project. Recommendations for counselor educators are made based on experience with the model…

  15. Self Modeling: Expanding the Theories of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowrick, Peter W.

    2012-01-01

    Self modeling (SM) offers a unique expansion of learning theory. For several decades, a steady trickle of empirical studies has reported consistent evidence for the efficacy of SM as a procedure for positive behavior change across physical, social, educational, and diagnostic variations. SM became accepted as an extreme case of model similarity;…

  16. The covering number in learning theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ding-xuan Zhou

    2002-01-01

    The covering number of a ball of a reproducing kernel Hilbert space as a subset of the continuous function space plays an important role in Learning Theory.We give estimates for this covering number by means of the regularity of the Mercer kernel K: For convolution type kernels Kđx; t ŢĽ kđxtŢ on ˝0; 1? n; we provide estimates depending on

  17. Understanding Feedback: A Learning Theory Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurlings, Marieke; Vermeulen, Marjan; Bastiaens, Theo; Stijnen, Sjef

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to review literature on feedback to teachers. Because research has hardly focused on feedback among teachers, the review's scope also includes feedback in classrooms. The review proposes that the effectiveness of feedback and feedback processes depend on the learning theory adhered to. Findings show that regardless of the…

  18. On learning fundamental concepts of group theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ed Dubinsky; Jennie Dautermann; Uri Leron; Rina Zazkis

    1994-01-01

    The research reported in this paper explores the nature of student knowledge about group theory, and how an individual may develop an understanding of certain topics in this domain. As part of a long-term research and development project in learning and teaching undergraduate mathematics, this report is one of a series of papers on the abstract algebra component of that

  19. Illicit Drug Use Among South Korean Offenders: Assessing the Generality of Social Learning Theory.

    PubMed

    Yun, Minwoo; Kim, Eunyoung

    2014-04-21

    Since the mid-1990s, illicit drug use has become a problem in Korean society. This trend is likely due to the rapid globalization and expansion that occurred with the Internet revolution, which led to greater numbers of people socially learning about drug culture. The current study attempts to uncover criminogenic causality of such social learning about drug use by studying adult felony drug offenders in South Korea. The data used for the study were obtained from self-reported surveys, originally collected by the Korean Institution of Criminology (KIC). The final sample comprised 1,452 felony offenders convicted of illicit drug use, and their responses were analyzed with a set of multiple logistic regression tests. The current study found supportive evidence for the generalizability of social learning theory from the sample of the South Korean adult drug offenders. We argue that the current study provides additional empirical evidence that supports the generalizability of social learning theory. PMID:24752638

  20. Lifelong Learning, Lifelong Education and Adult Education in Higher Institutions of Learning in Eastern Africa: The Case of Makerere University Institute of Adult and Continuing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Openjuru, George L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper advocates for policy recognition of lifelong learning by institutions of higher learning and governments in Eastern Africa. Lifelong learning and lifelong education are two concepts that aim at widening access to and the participation of adult learners in the acquisition of new knowledge, skills, values and attitudes. There are many…

  1. Machine learning approach for classification of ADHD adults.

    PubMed

    Tenev, Aleksandar; Markovska-Simoska, Silvana; Kocarev, Ljupco; Pop-Jordanov, Jordan; Müller, Andreas; Candrian, Gian

    2014-07-01

    Machine learning techniques that combine multiple classifiers are introduced for classifying adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) subtypes based on power spectra of EEG measurements. The analyzed sample includes 117 adults (67 ADHD, 50 controls). The measurements are taken for four different conditions: two resting conditions (eyes open and eyes closed) and two neuropsychological tasks (visual continuous performance test and emotional continuous performance test). We divide the sample into four data sets, one for each condition. Each data set is used for training of four different support vector machine classifiers, while the output of classifiers is combined using logical expression derived from the Karnaugh map. The results show that this approach improves the discrimination between ADHD and control groups, as well as between ADHD subtypes. PMID:23361114

  2. Implementation of a journal club on adult learning and nursing professional development.

    PubMed

    Ravin, Claudia Reid

    2012-10-01

    A provider unit in a nursing specialty organization sought ways to expand nurse planners' knowledge of current theories in adult learning and methods of teaching and delivery of continuing education while enhancing skills in the review and analysis of research. Taking a cue from nurse educators in clinical settings, provider unit leaders launched the Provider Unit Journal Club in 2007. This article describes the development, implementation, and evaluation of this 5-year-old journal club. Included is a discussion of strategies for success and measurement of effectiveness. PMID:22783821

  3. Learning "in" or "with" Games? Quality Criteria for Digital Learning Games from the Perspectives of Learning, Emotion, and Motivation Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hense, Jan; Mandl, Heinz

    2012-01-01

    This conceptual paper aims to clarify the theoretical underpinnings of game based learning (GBL) and learning with digital learning games (DLGs). To do so, it analyses learning of game related skills and contents, which occurs constantly during playing conventional entertainment games, from three perspectives: learning theory, emotion theory, and…

  4. Learning theories and assessment methodologies – an engineering educational perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. A. B. Hassan

    2011-01-01

    This paper attempts to critically review theories of learning from the perspective of engineering education in order to align relevant assessment methods with each respective learning theory, considering theoretical aspects and practical observations and reflections. The role of formative assessment, taxonomies, peer learning and educational policy as regards promoting the learning of engineering is discussed. It is suggested that an

  5. Topics in Computational Learning Theory and Graph Algorithms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Board, Raymond Acton

    This thesis addresses problems from two areas of theoretical computer science. The first area is that of computational learning theory, which is the study of the phenomenon of concept learning using formal mathematical models. The goal of computational learning theory is to investigate learning in a rigorous manner through the use of techniques…

  6. Building Vibrant Learning Communities: Framework and Actions to Strengthen Community Adult Learning Councils and Community Literacy Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Because of the important role played by community learning providers, Premier Ed Stelmach asked Canadian Minister of Advanced Education and Technology to increase support for community education and literacy programs. Community Adult Learning Councils and other community providers of adult literacy and family literacy programming are primarily…

  7. Helping Providers to Improve Quality of Day?Care Provision: Theories of Education and Learning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony G. Munton; Ann Mooney; Linda Rowland

    1996-01-01

    This paper argues that continuous training for child care staff is an important element in improving quality of day care provision. Evidence from the day care field, the school effectiveness literature and adult education is cited. Theories of education and learning are used to examine the design of effective approaches to training for day care providers. More specifically, Kolb's model

  8. Annual Review of Adult Learning and Literacy. Volume 1. The Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comings, John, Ed.; Garner, Barbara, Ed.; Smith, Cristine, Ed.

    This book contains eight papers on adult learning and literacy. "The Year 1998 in Review" (Fran Tracy-Mumford) examines educational legislation and policy and developments in adult education program development, program accountability, strategic alliances and partnerships, and instructional methodologies and technologies. "Lessons from 'Preventing…

  9. Legal and Definitional Issues Affecting the Identification and Education of Adults with Specific Learning Disabilities in Adult Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taymans, Juliana M.

    2012-01-01

    Although the exact prevalence is not determined, a noticeable subset of individuals who enroll in adult education and training programs have either diagnosed or undiagnosed specific learning disabilities (SLD). Understanding SLD is important basic information for adult educators to inform program policies as well as determine effective…

  10. A Learning Theory for 21st-Century Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sontag, Marie

    2009-01-01

    The affordances of today's digital technologies have significantly changed the way students learn. Arguing that current learning theories have failed to address this new reality, Marie Sontag proposes a new theory, social-connectedness and cognitive-connectedness schemata (SCCS) theory, that integrates key elements of other theories with gaming…

  11. A Quest for Understanding Understanding in Mathematics Learning: Examining Theories of Learning

    E-print Network

    Spagnolo, Filippo

    A Quest for Understanding Understanding in Mathematics Learning: Examining Theories of Learning that teachers' understanding of understanding in mathematics learning is largely influenced by, and therefore Kgomotso Gertrude Garegae, PhD Lecturer, Department of mathematics and Science education Faculty

  12. A Study of Career Development, Learning Motivation, and Learning Satisfaction of Adult Learners in Unconventional Scheduling Graduate Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Hui-Chin; Hsieh, Mei-Chi; Chang, Shan-Chih

    2007-01-01

    The study aimed at investigating the relationships among career development, learning motivation, and learning satisfaction of adult learners in master's programs at S University. Questionnaires were distributed with 211 valid returns (71%). The results indicated that some of the demographics are factors affecting both of the learners' learning

  13. A Volunteer Literacy Tutor Training Model for Teaching Adults with or without Learning Disabilities. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pottstown YWCA Adult Literacy Center, PA.

    This report describes a project to develop a tutor training model for teaching adults who manifested signs of learning disabilities. A needs assessment was done by surveying previously trained tutors. Existing adult literacy materials and instructional materials specifically developed for individuals with learning disabilities were reviewed and…

  14. Chronology of Milestones for Libraries and Adult Lifelong Learning and Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCook, Kathleen de la Pena; Barber, Peggy

    This chronology highlights milestones for libraries and adult lifelong learning and literacy from 1924-2001, including the following events: William S. Learned's "The American Public Library and the Diffusion of Knowledge" is published (1924); establishment of the ALA (American Library Association) Adult Education Section (1946); the "Great…

  15. Adult Learning in a Distance Education Context: Theoretical and Methodological Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gravani, Maria N.

    2015-01-01

    The study aspires, by giving voice to the experiences and perceptions of adult learners and their educators, as they embark on distance learning courses delivered by the Open University of Cyprus and the Hellenic Open University to unveil the adult learning and "fine-grained" processes at work during the organization and delivery of the…

  16. Broad bandwidth of perceptual learning in the visual system of adults with anisometropic amblyopia

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Yi-Feng

    , University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027, China; and Laboratory of Brain Processes of perceptual learning in teenage and adult observers with anisometropic am- blyopia and compared in teenagers and adults with and without amblyopia. We found that the bandwidth of perceptual learning

  17. The Social Outcomes of Older Adult Learning in Taiwan: Evaluation Framework and Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Li-Hui

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the social outcomes of older adult learning in Taiwan. In light of our society's aging population structure, the task of establishing evaluation framework and indicators for the social outcomes of learning (SOL) as applied to older adults is urgent. In order to construct evaluation indicators for older…

  18. The Characteristics of Resiliency Development and Adult Learning: Examining Teacher Perspective through Narrative Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Painter, Rachel L.

    2013-01-01

    Originating from the literature on resiliency, adult learning, and professional development, this qualitative study investigated how the relationship between resiliency and adult learning influenced professional development in one suburban-rural school district in Litchfield County, Connecticut. Data represent findings on the perceptions of…

  19. Socioeconomic Contributions of Adult Learning to Community: A Social Capital Perspective. CRLRA Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balatti, Jo; Falk, Ian

    The socioeconomic contributions of adult learning to community were examined from a social capital perspective. The concepts of human capital and social capital were differentiated, and the relationship between learning, human capital, and social capital was explored. The relevance of social capital in describing the wider benefits of adult

  20. Levels of Engagement and Barriers to Physical Activity in a Population of Adults with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Andrew; Look, Roger

    2006-01-01

    This study examined levels of, and barriers to, physical activity in a population of 19 adults with learning disabilities living in community supported accommodation, using diary records and semi-structured interviews with staff. The levels of physical activity were higher in the sample population than previous figures for adults with learning

  1. Older Adults' Training Courses: Considerations for Course Design and the Development of Learning Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    du Plessis, Karin; Anstey, Kaarin J.; Schlumpp, Arianne

    2011-01-01

    Demographic trends indicate that older adults live longer and maintain active lifestyles. The majority are educated and many enjoy the stimulation that ongoing learning opportunities present. In order for these older adults to benefit from learning opportunities, circumstances specific to these individuals (e.g. age-related decline) need to be…

  2. Adults Engaged in Lifelong Learning in Taiwan: Analysis by Gender and Socioeconomic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Dian-Fu; Wu, Ming-Lieh; Lin, Sung-Po

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the nature of adult engagement in lifelong learning in Taiwan. Previous studies have shown that gender and socioeconomic status (SES) are key variables related to equal access to education. Are these variables related to adults' engagement in lifelong learning in a specific country? This study analysed data from a survey of…

  3. Policy-Driven for Lifelong Learning and Its Effects: Experiences of Working Adults in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Dian-Fu; Lin, Sung-Po

    2012-01-01

    Since the government enacted the "Lifelong Learning Act" in 2002, Taiwanese working adults consider lifelong learning as a better route to increase their employability or competitiveness at work. This study analyzed the survey on adults administered by the Ministry of Education in Taiwan in 2008, and statistics analysis showed a close relationship…

  4. European Research Conference Adult Learning and the Challenge of Social and Cultural Diversity

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    5th European Research Conference Adult Learning and the Challenge of Social and Cultural Diversity version) A film as a source for the history of adult education The film, a documentary entitled "Retour ŕ asked to express the way how they lived this experience as adult learners. Shot in different locations

  5. Adults Learn Differently Than Children. An Examination of an Old Basic Assumption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Jerry; Johnson, Thomas

    A study explored research data to see if evidence exists to support the assumption by adult educators that adults learn differently than children. Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) documents, educational and psychological periodicals, and other resources were reviewed. It was discovered that most adult educators have dealt with…

  6. Sabemos y Podemos: Learning for Social Action. Adult Education Curriculum. English Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Rachel

    This adult education curriculum, part of the Aprender Es Poder (To Learn Is Power) program, explores the themes of school success for Latino children, expands the work options and improves the working conditions of Latino adults, and identifies community issues. It is meant to be a resource for English as a Second Language Literacy and adult basic…

  7. Effects of Aging and Adult Development Education and Service Learning on Attitude, Anxiety, and Occupational Interest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boswell, Stefanie S.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of a semester-long aging and adult development course that included an intergenerational, service-learning component on attitudes toward older adult men and women, aging anxiety, and interest in occupations that serve older adults among individuals training for careers in healthcare and social services. It also…

  8. Knowledge of Results after Good Trials Enhances Learning in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiviacowsky, Suzete; Wulf, Gabriele; Wally, Raquel; Borges, Thiago

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, some researchers have examined motor learning in older adults. Some of these studies have specifically looked at the effectiveness of different manipulations of extrinsic feedback, or knowledge of results (KR). Given that many motor tasks may already be more challenging for older adults compared to younger adults, making KR more…

  9. The Belem Framework for Action: Harnessing the Power and Potential of Adult Learning and Education for a Viable Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adult Learning, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the Belem Framework for Action. This framework focuses on harnessing the power and potential of adult learning and education for a viable future. This framework begins with a preamble on adult education and towards lifelong learning.

  10. Learning Theories and Assessment Methodologies--An Engineering Educational Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassan, O. A. B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper attempts to critically review theories of learning from the perspective of engineering education in order to align relevant assessment methods with each respective learning theory, considering theoretical aspects and practical observations and reflections. The role of formative assessment, taxonomies, peer learning and educational…

  11. Self-Regulated Learning: From Theory to Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuo, Ya-Hui

    2010-01-01

    While there have been many articles published in the area of self-regulated learning, there is a need to have a research article that solely emphasizes on how to put self-regulated learning theory into practice. In order to help teachers incorporate self-regulated learning theory into their classroom teaching and students to do so into their…

  12. Understanding and Creating Whole Organizational Change Through Learning Theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris Hendry

    1996-01-01

    The management of change has become characterized by an atheoretical pragmatism, overfocused on the political aspects of the change process. Emerging interest in the learning organization provides an occasion to remedy this, by developing a theory of change which is more congruent with the requirement to build learning capacity within organizations. The result should be to place learning theory more

  13. Mathematical learning theory through time Marc W. Howard1

    E-print Network

    Howard, Marc

    Mathematical learning theory through time Marc W. Howard1 Department of Psychology and Center) was the first rigorous mathematical model of learning that posited a central role for an abstract cognitive in mathematical learning theory wrote down equations implementing elementary psychological mechanisms

  14. The Economic Benefits of Adult Learning to Low-Qualified Young Adults: Do Participation and Qualification Decrease the Risk of Unemployment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knipprath, Heidi; De Rick, Katleen

    2014-01-01

    Policymakers worldwide consider participation in adult learning beneficial for employability, in particular for specific target groups. However, still little is known about the effect of adult learning pursued by low-qualified young adults on their employment prospects. On the basis of a Flemish longitudinal database, we study the determinants and…

  15. Toward an Instructionally Oriented Theory of Example-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renkl, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Learning from examples is a very effective means of initial cognitive skill acquisition. There is an enormous body of research on the specifics of this learning method. This article presents an instructionally oriented theory of example-based learning that integrates theoretical assumptions and findings from three research areas: learning from…

  16. Student Learning Theory Goes (Back) to (High) School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginns, Paul; Martin, Andrew J.; Papworth, Brad

    2014-01-01

    Biggs' 3P (Presage-Process-Product) model, a key framework in Student Learning Theory, provides a powerful means of understanding relations between students' perceptions of the teaching and learning environment, learning strategies, and learning outcomes. While influential in higher education, fewer tests of the model in secondary…

  17. Screening for Diabetic Retinopathy in Adults with Learning Disability: Current Uptake and Adjustments to Facilitate Equality of Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilling, Rachel F.

    2015-01-01

    Equality of access to health care for adults with learning disability has been in the spotlight in the UK in recent years due to publication of several reports. Adults with learning disability are thought to account for a significant proportion of the diabetic population in the UK. A list of adults known to the learning disability health…

  18. An Analysis of Stochastic Game Theory for Multiagent Reinforcement Learning

    E-print Network

    An Analysis of Stochastic Game Theory for Multiagent Reinforcement Learning Michael Bowling Manuela and adapt. Stochastic games, first studied in the game theory community, are a natural extension of MDPs techniques for solving stochastic games from both the game theory community and reinforcement learning

  19. Logical learning theory: Propositions, corollaries, and research evidence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph F. Rychlak

    1981-01-01

    Logical learning theory is presented as a teleological alternative to the nontelic theories of learning that currently dominate explanations in rigorous psychology. Traditional personality theory suffers due to the lack of a proper laboratory-based terminology capable of subsuming the meanings actually intended by Freud, Adler, Jung, Rogers, and others. Mediation and related information-processing conceptions are unable to subsume what these

  20. Learning to rank with combinatorial Hodge theory

    E-print Network

    Jiang, Xiaoye; Yao, Yuan; Ye, Yinyu

    2008-01-01

    We propose techniques for learning a global ranking from data that may be incomplete and imbalanced -- characteristics almost universal to modern datasets coming from e-commerce and internet applications. We are primarily interested in score or rating-based cardinal data. From raw ranking data, we construct pairwise rankings, represented as edge flows on an appropriate graph. Our rank learning method uses the graph Helmholtzian, the graph theoretic analogue of the Helmholtz operator or vector Laplacian, in much the same way the graph Laplacian is an analogue of the Laplace operator or scalar Laplacian. We study the graph Helmholtzian using combinatorial Hodge theory: we show that every edge flow representing pairwise ranking can be resolved into two orthogonal components, a gradient flow that represents the L2-optimal global ranking and a divergence-free flow (cyclic) that measures the validity of the global ranking obtained -- if this is large, then the data does not have a meaningful global ranking. This di...

  1. Learning Disabilities and Its Impact on Poverty and Adult Literacy Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Glenn; Gerber, Paul J.; Reder, Stephen; Cooper, Richard

    The four papers that make up this document report on poverty issues as they pertain to adults with learning disabilities. "Programmatic Response to Welfare Clients with Learning Disabilities" (Glenn Young) describes steps in the Learning Disabilities Initiative that works with federal agencies, states, local governments, and nonprofit…

  2. Learned Attention in Adult Language Acquisition: A Replication and Generalization Study and Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Nick C.; Sagarra, Nuria

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates associative learning explanations of the limited attainment of adult compared to child language acquisition in terms of learned attention to cues. It replicates and extends Ellis and Sagarra (2010) in demonstrating short- and long-term learned attention in the acquisition of temporal reference in Latin. In Experiment 1,…

  3. Unravelling the Lifelong Learning Process for Canadian Workers and Adult Learners Acquiring Higher Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Maurice; Trumpower, David; Pavic, Ivana

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on a mixed methods study that investigated aspects of formal, non-formal and informal learning for workers and adult high school learners seeking literacy and essential skills. Three key themes emerged from the qualitative data: motivations for participation in various forms of learning; seeking out informal learning

  4. Transformative Learning, Adult Learners and the September 11 Terrorism Incidents in North America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Theresia

    Despite their tremendous tragedy, the terrorist attacks that occurred on September 11, 2001, have also produced a juncture for transformative learning. Several transformative learning opportunities that may enable some adult learners find and use knowledge as the tool to transcend a tragedy into a learning experience have been identified. Although…

  5. Explicit learning of arbitrary and non-arbitrary action-effect relations in adults and 4-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Verschoor, Stephan A; Eenshuistra, Rena M; Kray, Jutta; Biro, Szilvia; Hommel, Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    Ideomotor theories claim that carrying out a movement that produces a perceivable effect creates a bidirectional association between the two, which can then be used by action control processes to retrieve the associated action by anticipating its outcome. Previous implicit-learning studies have shown that practice renders novel but action-contingent stimuli effective retrieval cues of the action they used to follow, suggesting that experiencing sequences of actions and effects creates bidirectional action-effect associations. We investigated whether action-effect associations are also acquired under explicit learning conditions and whether familiar action-effect relations (such as between a trumpet and a trumpet sound) are learned the same way as novel, arbitrary relations are. We also investigated whether these factors affect adults and 4-year-old children equally. Findings suggest that explicit learning produces the same bidirectional action-effect associations as implicit-learning does, that non-arbitrary relations improve performance without affecting learning per se, and that adults and young children show equivalent performance - apart from the common observation that children have greater difficulty to withstand stimulus-induced action tendencies. PMID:22375130

  6. Using learning style theory to improve learning and teaching in the engineering classroom

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. E. Terry; J. N. Harb

    1993-01-01

    This workshop introduces a method for the enhancement of engineering education based on learning style theory. The material is presented in three parts. The first part describes four learning styles or preferences which are derived from the manner in which individuals perceive and process information. Part two of the presentation is designed to facilitate practical application of learning style theory

  7. Toward Development Work: The Workplace as a Learning Environment. EEE701 Adults Learning: The Changing Workplace B.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welton, Michael

    This publication is part of the study materials for the distance education course, The Changing Workplace: Part B, in the Open Campus Program at Deakin University. The first part of the document constructs a framework for exploring the concept of the workplace as a learning environment that is in fact the primary school for adult learning and…

  8. Feedback Processing and Learning in Older Adults 1 Attenuating Age-Related Learning Deficits: Emotional Valenced Feedback Interacts with

    E-print Network

    Mather, Mara

    Feedback Processing and Learning in Older Adults 1 Attenuating Age-Related Learning Deficits: Emotional Valenced Feedback Interacts with Task Complexity Marissa A. Gorlick1 , Gyslain Gigučre1 , Brian D-475-8494 Maddox@psy.utexas.edu August, 2012: paper in press at Psychology and Aging. #12;Feedback Processing

  9. Critical evidence for the prediction error theory in associative learning

    PubMed Central

    Terao, Kanta; Matsumoto, Yukihisa; Mizunami, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    In associative learning in mammals, it is widely accepted that the discrepancy, or error, between actual and predicted reward determines whether learning occurs. Complete evidence for the prediction error theory, however, has not been obtained in any learning systems: Prediction error theory stems from the finding of a blocking phenomenon, but blocking can also be accounted for by other theories, such as the attentional theory. We demonstrated blocking in classical conditioning in crickets and obtained evidence to reject the attentional theory. To obtain further evidence supporting the prediction error theory and rejecting alternative theories, we constructed a neural model to match the prediction error theory, by modifying our previous model of learning in crickets, and we tested a prediction from the model: the model predicts that pharmacological intervention of octopaminergic transmission during appetitive conditioning impairs learning but not formation of reward prediction itself, and it thus predicts no learning in subsequent training. We observed such an “auto-blocking”, which could be accounted for by the prediction error theory but not by other competitive theories to account for blocking. This study unambiguously demonstrates validity of the prediction error theory in associative learning. PMID:25754125

  10. Critical evidence for the prediction error theory in associative learning.

    PubMed

    Terao, Kanta; Matsumoto, Yukihisa; Mizunami, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    In associative learning in mammals, it is widely accepted that the discrepancy, or error, between actual and predicted reward determines whether learning occurs. Complete evidence for the prediction error theory, however, has not been obtained in any learning systems: Prediction error theory stems from the finding of a blocking phenomenon, but blocking can also be accounted for by other theories, such as the attentional theory. We demonstrated blocking in classical conditioning in crickets and obtained evidence to reject the attentional theory. To obtain further evidence supporting the prediction error theory and rejecting alternative theories, we constructed a neural model to match the prediction error theory, by modifying our previous model of learning in crickets, and we tested a prediction from the model: the model predicts that pharmacological intervention of octopaminergic transmission during appetitive conditioning impairs learning but not formation of reward prediction itself, and it thus predicts no learning in subsequent training. We observed such an "auto-blocking", which could be accounted for by the prediction error theory but not by other competitive theories to account for blocking. This study unambiguously demonstrates validity of the prediction error theory in associative learning. PMID:25754125

  11. Running head: LEARNING THEORIES AND EDUCATION Submitted Draft: April 4, 2005

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Running head: LEARNING THEORIES AND EDUCATION Submitted Draft: April 4, 2005 Learning Theories). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. #12;Learning Theories and Education 2 Learning Theories and Education: Toward learning is a highly complex topic. Different theories have emerged as researchers have focused

  12. Some Papers and Books with Insights into Language Learning from Computational Learning Theory

    E-print Network

    Case, John

    Some Papers and Books with Insights into Language Learning from Computational Learning Theory and Control, 45:117--135, 1980. [BCJ95] G. Baliga, J. Case, and S. Jain. Language learning with some negative and A. Marras, editors, Language Learning and Concept Acquisition. Ablex Publishing Company, 1986. [Cas

  13. A multimedia adult literacy program: Combining NASA technology, instructional design theory, and authentic literacy concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Jerry W.

    1993-01-01

    For a number of years, the Software Technology Branch of the Information Systems Directorate has been involved in the application of cutting edge hardware and software technologies to instructional tasks related to NASA projects. The branch has developed intelligent computer aided training shells, instructional applications of virtual reality and multimedia, and computer-based instructional packages that use fuzzy logic for both instructional and diagnostic decision making. One outcome of the work on space-related technology-supported instruction has been the creation of a significant pool of human talent in the branch with current expertise on the cutting edges of instructional technologies. When the human talent is combined with advanced technologies for graphics, sound, video, CD-ROM, and high speed computing, the result is a powerful research and development group that both contributes to the applied foundations of instructional technology and creates effective instructional packages that take advantage of a range of advanced technologies. Several branch projects are currently underway that combine NASA-developed expertise to significant instructional problems in public education. The branch, for example, has developed intelligent computer aided software to help high school students learn physics and staff are currently working on a project to produce educational software for young children with language deficits. This report deals with another project, the adult literacy tutor. Unfortunately, while there are a number of computer-based instructional packages available for adult literacy instruction, most of them are based on the same instructional models that failed these students when they were in school. The teacher-centered, discrete skill and drill-oriented, instructional strategies, even when they are supported by color computer graphics and animation, that form the foundation for most of the computer-based literacy packages currently on the market may not be the most effective or most desirable way to use computer technology in literacy programs. This project is developing a series of instructional packages that are based on a different instructional model - authentic instruction. The instructional development model used to create these packages is also different. Instead of using the traditional five stage linear, sequential model based on behavioral learning theory, the project uses the recursive, reflective design and development model (R2D2) that is based on cognitive learning theory, particularly the social constructivism of Vygotsky, and an epistemology based on critical theory. Using alternative instructional and instructional development theories, the result of the summer faculty fellowship is LiteraCity, a multimedia adult literacy instructional package that is a simulation of finding and applying for a job. The program, which is about 120 megabytes, is distributed on CD-ROM.

  14. Assumptions and Strategies for Conducting Research with Learning Disabled Adolescents and Young Adults

    E-print Network

    Meyen, Edward L.; Schiefelbusch, Richard L.; Deshler, Donald D.; Alley, Gordon R.; Moran, Mary Ross; Clark, Frances L.

    1980-01-01

    This paper details the assumptions about learning disabled adolescents and young adults as well as assumptions about conducting research with this population held by researchers at the Kansas Institute. Strategies developed ...

  15. Olfactory learning promotes input-specific synaptic plasticity in adult-born neurons

    PubMed Central

    Lepousez, Gabriel; Nissant, Antoine; Bryant, Alex K.; Gheusi, Gilles; Greer, Charles A.; Lledo, Pierre-Marie

    2014-01-01

    The production of new neurons in the olfactory bulb (OB) through adulthood is a major mechanism of structural and functional plasticity underlying learning-induced circuit remodeling. The recruitment of adult-born OB neurons depends not only on sensory input but also on the context in which the olfactory stimulus is received. Among the multiple steps of adult neurogenesis, the integration and survival of adult-born neurons are both strongly influenced by olfactory learning. Conversely, optogenetic stimulation of adult-born neurons has been shown to specifically improve olfactory learning and long-term memory. However, the nature of the circuit and the synaptic mechanisms underlying this reciprocal influence are not yet known. Here, we showed that olfactory learning increases the spine density in a region-restricted manner along the dendritic tree of adult-born granule cells (GCs). Anatomical and electrophysiological analysis of adult-born GCs showed that olfactory learning promotes a remodeling of both excitatory and inhibitory inputs selectively in the deep dendritic domain. Circuit mapping revealed that the malleable dendritic portion of adult-born neurons receives excitatory inputs mostly from the regions of the olfactory cortex that project back to the OB. Finally, selective optogenetic stimulation of olfactory cortical projections to the OB showed that learning strengthens these inputs onto adult-born GCs. We conclude that learning promotes input-specific synaptic plasticity in adult-born neurons, which reinforces the top-down influence from the olfactory cortex to early stages of olfactory information processing. PMID:25189772

  16. Olfactory learning promotes input-specific synaptic plasticity in adult-born neurons.

    PubMed

    Lepousez, Gabriel; Nissant, Antoine; Bryant, Alex K; Gheusi, Gilles; Greer, Charles A; Lledo, Pierre-Marie

    2014-09-23

    The production of new neurons in the olfactory bulb (OB) through adulthood is a major mechanism of structural and functional plasticity underlying learning-induced circuit remodeling. The recruitment of adult-born OB neurons depends not only on sensory input but also on the context in which the olfactory stimulus is received. Among the multiple steps of adult neurogenesis, the integration and survival of adult-born neurons are both strongly influenced by olfactory learning. Conversely, optogenetic stimulation of adult-born neurons has been shown to specifically improve olfactory learning and long-term memory. However, the nature of the circuit and the synaptic mechanisms underlying this reciprocal influence are not yet known. Here, we showed that olfactory learning increases the spine density in a region-restricted manner along the dendritic tree of adult-born granule cells (GCs). Anatomical and electrophysiological analysis of adult-born GCs showed that olfactory learning promotes a remodeling of both excitatory and inhibitory inputs selectively in the deep dendritic domain. Circuit mapping revealed that the malleable dendritic portion of adult-born neurons receives excitatory inputs mostly from the regions of the olfactory cortex that project back to the OB. Finally, selective optogenetic stimulation of olfactory cortical projections to the OB showed that learning strengthens these inputs onto adult-born GCs. We conclude that learning promotes input-specific synaptic plasticity in adult-born neurons, which reinforces the top-down influence from the olfactory cortex to early stages of olfactory information processing. PMID:25189772

  17. Dopamine responses comply with basic assumptions of formal learning theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pascale Waelti; Anthony Dickinson; Wolfram Schultz

    2001-01-01

    According to contemporary learning theories, the discrepancy, or error, between the actual and predicted reward determines whether learning occurs when a stimulus is paired with a reward. The role of prediction errors is directly demonstrated by the observation that learning is blocked when the stimulus is paired with a fully predicted reward. By using this blocking procedure, we show that

  18. A Social Theory Perspective on e-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remtulla, Karim A.

    2008-01-01

    Current research on e-learning that focuses predominantly on instructional programming, and on various hardware and software, essentially neglects the more socio-cultural perspectives on e-learning. With this in mind, this article proceeds from a social theory perspective with a more socio-culturally engaged look at e-learning for workplace…

  19. Teaching Sociological Theory through Active Learning: The Irrigation Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holtzman, Mellisa

    2005-01-01

    For students, theory is often one of the most daunting aspects of sociology--it seems abstract, removed from the concrete events of their everyday lives, and therefore intimidating. In an attempt to break down student resistance to theory, instructors are increasingly turning to active learning approaches. Active learning exercises, then, appear…

  20. Applying Distributed Learning Theory in Online Business Communication Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Kristin

    2003-01-01

    Focuses on the critical use of technology in online formats that entail relatively new teaching media. Argues that distributed learning theory is valuable for teachers of online business communication courses for several reasons. Discusses the application of distributed learning theory to the teaching of business communication online. (SG)

  1. Linking Theory to Practice in Learning Technology Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunn, Cathy; Steel, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    We present a case to reposition theory so that it plays a pivotal role in learning technology research and helps to build an ecology of learning. To support the case, we present a critique of current practice based on a review of articles published in two leading international journals from 2005 to 2010. Our study reveals that theory features only…

  2. Statistical learning theory for location fingerprinting in wireless LANs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mauro Brunato; Roberto Battiti

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, techniques and algorithms developed in the framework of statistical learning theory are analyzed and applied to the problem of determining the location of a wireless de- vice by measuring the signal strengths from a set of access points (location fingerprinting). Statistical Learning Theory provides a rich theoretical basis for the development of models starting from a set

  3. Task-Based Language Teaching and Expansive Learning Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Task-Based Language Teaching (TBLT) has become increasingly recognized as an effective pedagogy, but its location in generalized sociocultural theories of learning has led to misunderstandings and criticism. The purpose of this article is to explain the congruence between TBLT and Expansive Learning Theory and the benefits of doing so. The merit…

  4. Statistical Learning Theory for Location Fingerprinting in Wireless LANs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberto Battiti

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, techniques and algorithms developed in the framework of statistical learning theory are analyzed and applied to the problem of determining the location of a wireless device by measuring the signal strengths from a set of access points (location fingerprinting). Statistical Learning Theory provides a rich theoretical basis for the development of models starting from a set of

  5. Critically Questioning the Discourse of Transformative Learning Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kucukaydin, Ilhan; Cranton, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the authors critically examine the way discourse enters into and becomes embedded in transformative learning theory, especially from the extrarational or depth psychology perspective. The authors begin by providing an overview of how transformative learning theory has developed in diverse directions, including the extrarational…

  6. Valuing the adult learner in e-learning: part one – a conceptual model for corporate settings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Consuelo L. Waight; Barbara L. Stewart

    2005-01-01

    Purpose – To illustrate how the interdependence among four championing factors, five antecedents, and four moderators affect companies' efforts in valuing the adult learner in e-learning. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A literature review was conducted to identify the championing factors, antecedents, and moderators that can assist teams in designing e-learning that values the adult learner. A conceptual model was designed based on

  7. Integrating M-technology into Web-based ESL Vocabulary Learning for Working Adult Learners

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yanjie Song; Robert Fox

    2005-01-01

    The paper reports on a small pilot study that explores the role of mobile technology (m-technology) in English as second language (ESL) vocabulary learning for working adult learners. In this study, through the use of Short Message Service (SMS), m- technology was integrated into web-based vocabulary learning for working adult learners. This pilot study examined learner experiences of m-technology used

  8. Dispositional Factors Affecting Motivation during Learning in Adult Basic and Secondary Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellard, Daryl F.; Krieshok, Thomas; Fall, Emily; Woods, Kari

    2013-01-01

    Research indicates that about a quarter of adult students separate from formal adult basic and secondary education (ABE/ASE) programs before completing one educational level. This retrospective study explores individual dispositional factors that affect motivation during learning, particularly students' goals, goal-directed thinking and action…

  9. Women Who Learn Computing Like Men: Different Gender Positions on Basic Computer Courses in Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salminen-Karlsson, Minna

    2009-01-01

    This article argues that research on gender and adult learning too often regards men and women as unified and separate groups, and does not take intra-gender variation into account. It presents one possible approach to address this problem, in a study of 142 women and 35 men attending basic computer courses in Swedish municipal adult education…

  10. The Longitudinal Study of Adult Learning: Challenging Assumptions. Research Brief. Perspectives on Literacy and Essential Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reder, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Professor Stephen Reder presented the Longitudinal Study of Adult Learning (LSAL) at The Centre's 2011 Fall Institute--IALS: Its Meaning and Impact for Policy and Practice--whose findings had implications far beyond assessment. Based on evidence from the ten-year study of more than a thousand adult high school drop-outs, Dr. Reder challenges many…

  11. "Turning the Sugar": Adult Learning and Cultural Repertoires of Practice in a Puerto Rican Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Laura Ruth; Stribling, Colleen; Almburg, Anne; Vitale, Gail

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the processes of knowledge acquisition and transmission among adults within two "communities of practice" in Humboldt Park/"Paseo Boricua," a Puerto Rican community located on Chicago's near-northwest side. In particular, we examine the ways in which two adult women engaged in learning processes and…

  12. The California and Central Valley Microwave Network: Serving Adult Learners through Lifelong Learning Opportunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leveille, David E.

    Ways that technology is being integrated into the instructional and administrative operation of U.S. colleges are considered, along with the application of one of the technologies, microwave, to adult learning opportunities. Changing demographics relating to adult learners over the next 10 to 15 years are identified. Eight projects applying…

  13. The lessons of learning: Reconciling theories of policy learning and policy change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Colin J. Bennett; Michael Howlett

    1992-01-01

    Several different explanations of policy change based on notions of learning have emerged in the policy literature to challenge conventional conflict-oriented theories. These include notions of ‘political-learning’ developed by Heclo, ‘policy-oriented learning’ developed by Sabatier, ‘lesson-drawing’ analyzed by Rose, ‘social learning’ discussed by Hall and ‘government learning’ identified by Etheredge. These different concepts identify different actors and different effects with

  14. Developing a Domain Theory Defining and Exemplifying a Learning Theory of Progressive Attainments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunderson, C. Victor

    2011-01-01

    This article defines the concept of Domain Theory, or, when educational measurement is the goal, one might call it a "Learning Theory of Progressive Attainments in X Domain". The concept of Domain Theory is first shown to be rooted in validity theory, then the concept of domain theory is expanded to amplify its necessary but long neglected…

  15. Sociocultural Learning Theory in Practice: Implications for Athletic Training Educators

    PubMed Central

    Peer, Kimberly S.; McClendon, Ronald C.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To discuss cognitive and sociocultural learning theory literature related to athletic training instructional and evaluation strategies while providing support for the application of these practices in the didactic and clinical components of athletic training education programs. Data Sources: We searched Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) and Education Abstracts from 1975–2001 using the key words social cognitive, sociocultural learning theory, constructivism, and athletic training education. Current literature in the fields of educational psychology and athletic training education provides the foundation for applying theory to practice with specific emphasis on the theoretic framework and application of sociocultural learning theory strategies in athletic training education. Data Synthesis: Athletic training educators must have a strong fundamental knowledge of learning theory and a commitment to incorporate theory into educational practice. We integrate literature from both fields to generate practical strategies for using sociocultural learning theory in athletic training education. Conclusions/Recommendations: Social cognitive and sociocultural learning theory advocates a constructive, self-regulated, and goal-oriented environment with the student at the center of the educational process. Although a shift exists in athletic training education toward more active instructional strategies with the implementation of competency-based education, many educational environments are still dominated by traditional didactic instructional methods promoting student passivity. As athletic training education programs strive to increase accountability, educators in the field must critically analyze teaching and evaluation methods and integrate new material to ensure that learning is maximized. PMID:12937534

  16. Partners in Learning: A Grounded Theory Study of Relational Practice between Master’s Students and Professors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harriet L. Schwartz; Elizabeth L. Holloway

    2012-01-01

    Meaningful academic relationships between adult master’s students and their professors can both deepen students’ learning and serve as a regenerating force for professors. This study employed grounded theory methods to explore the question, “What goes on in relational practice between master’s students and professors?” I interviewed 10 matched pairs of recent alumni and professors who identified as having “a meaningful

  17. Profiling Executive Dysfunction in Adults with Autism and Comorbid Learning Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard, Louise; Muldoon, Kevin; Hasan, Reem; O'Brien, Gregory; Stewart, Mary

    2008-01-01

    Executive dysfunction is thought to be primary to autism. We examined differences in executive function between 20 adults with autism and learning disability and 23 individuals with learning disabilities outside the autistic spectrum. All participants were matched for chronological age and full-scale IQ, and were given a battery of tasks assessing…

  18. Setting up and Running a Loss and Bereavement Support Group for Adults with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyden, Paul; Freeman, Adele; Offen, Liz

    2010-01-01

    Following evidence based literature, the Birmingham Clinical Psychology Service for People with Learning Disabilities ran a Loss and Bereavement Psychotherapy Group. The group consisted of five adults with mild learning disabilities, who met for 8 consecutive weeks. This paper reports the process of setting up a bereavement group for people with…

  19. Planned Pregnancy, Planned Parenting: Enabling Choice for Adults with a Learning Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conder, Jennifer; Mirfin-Veitch, Brigit; Sanders, Jackie; Munford, Robyn

    2011-01-01

    For adults with learning disabilities, becoming a parent can fulfil childhood dreams to take their place in society through a highly valued social role. Recent research aimed at describing the experience of parents with a learning disability suggests that there are barriers to successful planning for both pregnancy and parenthood. However, with…

  20. Improving Mathematics Teaching and Learning in an Adult Basic Education Program Using Cogenerative Dialogues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wharton, Felicia O.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the use of cogenerative dialogue (cogen) in an Adult Basic Education (ABE) program located in New York City, and the ways in which students and teachers collaborated to cogenerate resources that afforded a positive and equitable learning environment built on solidarity and new perspectives on teaching and learning of…

  1. A Review of Distance Learning Influences on Adult Learners: Advantages and Disadvantages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henry O'Lawrence

    This paper discussed the advantages and disadvantages of distance learning influences on adult learners. Distance learning has become popular in higher institutions because of its flexibility and availability to learners and teachers at anytime, regardless of geographic location. With so many definitions and phases of distance education, this paper only focuses on the delivery mode of dis- tance education (the

  2. Developing and Evaluating Personal Health Records for Adults with Learning Disabilities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vicky Turk; Sarah Burchell

    2003-01-01

    This article argues for the introduction of patient-held health care records for people with learning disabilities. The evidence reviewed demonstrates that people with learning disabilities have more health care needs than other adults in society but receive less health care than others. The rationale for implementing hand-held records is considered from three perspectives: a consumer point of view, an analysis

  3. Using Technology to Enhance Adult Learning in the Counselor Education Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renfro-Michel, Edina L.; O'Halloran, Kim C.; Delaney, Megan E.

    2010-01-01

    The authors present a study that used a conceptual framework of adult learning and differentiated learning styles with graduate students in a counselor education classroom. Students in a hybrid course had higher midterm, group proposal, and posttest scores than did students in a face-to-face course taught by the same professor.

  4. Reclaiming the Radical: Using Fiction to Explore Adult Learning Connected to Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gouthro, Patricia; Holloway, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, adult education has had a focus on learning connected to social purpose. In the current neoliberal climate, lifelong learning is increasingly defined as an endeavour whereby individuals must situate themselves in a competitive position in order to succeed in the global marketplace. Radical educators who believe that education should…

  5. The Multisensory Handbook: A Guide for Children and Adults with Sensory Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagliano, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Do you support a child or adult with sensory perceptual issues or cognitive impairment? For people with challenging sensory and cognitive conditions, everyday life can become so unpredictable and chaotic that over time, lack of engagement can often lead to a state of learned helplessness. In this insightful text, Paul Pagliano shows how "learned

  6. Involving Tutors and Support Staff in the Adult and Community Learning Quality Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravenhall, Mark; Ogilvie, Margaret; Ewens, David

    This booklet outlines the new policy context facing adult and community learning (ACL) providers in Great Britain in their pursuit of high-quality learning experiences for their customers. It shows how a Total Quality Management (TQM) approach to supporting staff development can be effective in securing quality. TQM components are values,…

  7. Word Learning in Adults with Second-Language Experience: Effects of Phonological and Referent Familiarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Yoo, Jeewon; Van Hecke, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this research was to examine whether phonological familiarity exerts different effects on novel word learning for familiar versus unfamiliar referents and whether successful word learning is associated with increased second-language experience. Method: Eighty-one adult native English speakers with various levels of Spanish…

  8. Instructional Strategies To Benefit Adolescents and Adults with Learning Disabilities. Volume 1 [and] Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Cathy; Dalheim, Zoe; LaRocque, Barbara; Mauke, Martha; Risley, Cynthia; Smith, Margaret

    This two-volume notebook is part of a three-volume set containing strategies developed by experienced adult basic education (ABE) teachers in response to learning problems observed in their classrooms. Instructions on how to use the notebook with students with learning disabilities (LD) begin each volume. Volume 1 consists of these seven sections:…

  9. Responding to the Mental Health and Well-Being Agenda in Adult Community Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Lydia

    2014-01-01

    In the United Kingdom, changes in the policy, funding and commissioning landscape for mental health and well-being are posing opportunities and challenges for adult community learning (ACL). Opportunities include increased recognition of, and funding for, the "wider benefits" of learning, whereas challenges include the risks of ACL…

  10. Patterns of Learning in a Sample of Adult Returners to Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Anthony; Johnston, Bill; McDonald, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    This article presents empirical research exploring adult returner students' patterns of learning via qualitative analysis of a series of semi-structured interviews. Interviewees' comments shed light on the relation between patterns of learning on the one hand, and study skills, epistemological issues and attitudes to peer interaction on…

  11. How Adults Learn from Self-Paced, Technology-Based Corporate Training: New Focus for Learners, New Focus for Designers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobrovolny, Jackie

    2006-01-01

    "How" do adults learn from self-paced, technology-based corporate training, which they select based on its relevance to their current employment responsibilities? Specifically, "how" do adults use the following learning strategies: prior experience, reflection, metacognition, conversations, generative learning strategies, and authentic…

  12. General conditions for predictivity in learning theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomaso Poggio; Ryan Rifkin; Sayan Mukherjee; Partha Niyogi

    2004-01-01

    Developing theoretical foundations for learning is a key step towards understanding intelligence. `Learning from examples' is a paradigm in which systems (natural or artificial) learn a functional relationship from a training set of examples. Within this paradigm, a learning algorithm is a map from the space of training sets to the hypothesis space of possible functional solutions. A central question

  13. Learning and altering behaviours by reinforcement: neurocognitive differences between children and adults.

    PubMed

    Shephard, E; Jackson, G M; Groom, M J

    2014-01-01

    This study examined neurocognitive differences between children and adults in the ability to learn and adapt simple stimulus-response associations through feedback. Fourteen typically developing children (mean age=10.2) and 15 healthy adults (mean age=25.5) completed a simple task in which they learned to associate visually presented stimuli with manual responses based on performance feedback (acquisition phase), and then reversed and re-learned those associations following an unexpected change in reinforcement contingencies (reversal phase). Electrophysiological activity was recorded throughout task performance. We found no group differences in learning-related changes in performance (reaction time, accuracy) or in the amplitude of event-related potentials (ERPs) associated with stimulus processing (P3 ERP) or feedback processing (feedback-related negativity; FRN) during the acquisition phase. However, children's performance was significantly more disrupted by the reversal than adults and FRN amplitudes were significantly modulated by the reversal phase in children but not adults. These findings indicate that children have specific difficulties with reinforcement learning when acquired behaviours must be altered. This may be caused by the added demands on immature executive functioning, specifically response monitoring, created by the requirement to reverse the associations, or a developmental difference in the way in which children and adults approach reinforcement learning. PMID:24365670

  14. An Evaluation of Beck's Cognitive Theory of Depression in Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esbensen, A. J.; Benson, B. A.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The theories supporting cognitive treatment for depression among individuals with intellectual disability (ID) have not been formally tested with this population. The current study evaluated Becks cognitive theory of depression to determine its appropriateness for adults with ID. Methods: Forty-eight adults with primarily mild or…

  15. Social Learning Theory and the Health Belief Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irwin M. Rosenstock; Victor J. Strecher; Marshall H. Becker

    1988-01-01

    The Health Belief Model, social learning theory (recently relabelled social cognitive theory), self-efficacy, and locus of control have all been applied with varying success to problems of explaining, predicting, and influencing behavior. Yet, there is con ceptual confusion among researchers and practitioners about the interrelationships of these theories and variables. This article attempts to show how these explanatory fac tors

  16. Learning Study Guided by Variation Theory: Exemplified by Children Learning to Halve and Double Whole Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmqvist Olander, Mona; Nyberg, Eva

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to describe how the learning study model can be used to improve lesson design and children's learning outcomes by enabling them to perceive and define the critical aspects of the object of learning, guided by variation theory. Three lesson designs were used with three groups of children (A = 24, B = 13, C = 14) from two…

  17. What Learning Looks Like: Mediated Learning in Theory and Practice, K-6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feuerstein, Reuven; Lewin-Benham, Ann

    2012-01-01

    In this unique collaboration, the authors bring to life the theory of mediated learning. Through numerous examples and scenarios from classrooms and museums, they show how mediated learning helps children to become more effective learners. Readers learn the steps in the process, including analyzing the child's problem, teaching the child to focus…

  18. The Effect of a "Learning Theories" Unit on Students' Attitudes toward Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kara, Ahmet

    2009-01-01

    People can improve themselves cognitively, professionally, academically, and in terms of their quality of life by continuous learning. Teachers, who are charged with bringing up new members of society, have to be aware of the importance of developing the ability to learn. This study examined how their knowledge of learning theories affected the…

  19. A Novel Application of a Model of Adult Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rae, John

    1999-01-01

    Analysis of four transcripts of genetic counseling sessions shows how Jarvis' model of contemplative learning helps elucidate the process genetic clients undergo. The model can be applied in other areas of health care involving patient learning. (SK)

  20. SimStudent: A computational model of human learning to advance theories in the sciences of learning

    E-print Network

    SimStudent: A computational model of human learning to advance theories in the sciences of learning- and human- learning. Three areas of SimStudent research are: Theory Building SimStudents can be used to conduct controlled studies to explore theories of learning. For example, we have compared different

  1. Constructivist Learning Theory and Climate Science Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somerville, R. C.

    2012-12-01

    Communicating climate science is a form of education. A scientist giving a television interview or testifying before Congress is engaged in an educational activity, though one not identical to teaching graduate students. Knowledge, including knowledge about climate science, should never be communicated as a mere catalogue of facts. Science is a process, a way of regarding the natural world, and a fascinating human activity. A great deal is already known about how to do a better job of science communication, but implementing change is not easy. I am confident that improving climate science communication will involve the paradigm of constructivist learning theory, which traces its roots to the 20th-century Swiss epistemologist Jean Piaget, among others. This theory emphasizes the role of the teacher as supportive facilitator rather than didactic lecturer, "a guide on the side, not a sage on the stage." It also stresses the importance of the teacher making a serious effort to understand and appreciate the prior knowledge and viewpoint of the student, recognizing that students' minds are not empty vessels to be filled or blank slates to be written on. Instead, students come to class with a background of life experiences and a body of existing knowledge, of varying degrees of correctness or accuracy, about almost any topic. Effective communication is also usually a conversation rather than a monologue. We know too that for many audiences, the most trusted messengers are those who share the worldview and cultural values of those with whom they are communicating. Constructivist teaching methods stress making use of the parallels between learning and scientific research, such as the analogies between assessing prior knowledge of the audience and surveying scientific literature for a research project. Meanwhile, a well-funded and effective professional disinformation campaign has been successful in sowing confusion, and as a result, many people mistakenly think climate change science is unreliable or is controversial within the expert community. Thus, an urgent task for climate scientists may be to give the public useful guidelines for recognizing and rejecting junk science and disinformation.

  2. Integrated Curricular Approaches in Reaching Adult Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emerick-Brown, Dylan

    2013-01-01

    In the field of adult basic education, there are two strategies that have been found to be of particular value to student learning: multiple intelligences and purpose-based learning. However, putting these learning theories into practice is not always as easy as an educator might at first believe. Adult basic education teacher Dylan Emerick-Brown…

  3. Rapid taste aversion learning in adult cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne-Sophie Darmaillacq; Ludovic Dickel; Marie-Paule Chichery; Véronique Agin; Raymond Chichery

    2004-01-01

    The common cuttlefish is an opportunistic predator with certain prey preferences. The literature suggests that learning plays a role in the predatory behaviour of cuttlefish. However, nothing is known about taste aversion learning in cephalopods. We developed a learning procedure in which the preferred prey of the experimental cuttlefish was made distasteful by a bitter taste (quinine). In the training

  4. Learning Transfer and Its Intentionality in Adult and Continuing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Jeffrey M.; Kaiser, Leann M. R.

    2013-01-01

    Broad (1997) defined learning transfer as the "effective and continuing application by learners--to their performance of jobs or other individual, organizational, or community responsibilities--of knowledge and skills gained in the learning activities" (p. 2). This chapter offers an introduction to learning transfer and the major concepts related…

  5. The Influences of Distance Learning on Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Lawrence, Henry

    2006-01-01

    Distance learning is any type of instruction in which the student and instructor are separated by physical distance (not in the same room) (Wahlstrom, Williams & Shea, 2003). It is a medium of teaching and learning using modern technology so that teachers or students do not have to be together in the classroom. With the growth of distance learning

  6. Lessons in Conference Planning: Adult Learning Principles at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holyoke, Laura B.

    2007-01-01

    Chairing the annual Mountain Plains Adult Education Association Conference for 250 adult educators in Coeur d'Alene this past spring provided an opportunity for the author to offer a hands-on, conference planning experience to graduate students. Wanting to try something outside the typical classroom experience, the author organized a special…

  7. Literacy, Adults and Diversity. Literacy & Learning Series, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, Ian, Ed.; Penson, Margaret, Ed.

    This book contains eight papers reporting research projects that were conducted by adult language, literacy, and numeracy practitioners with funding provided through one-time scholarships to Tasmanian students in the field of adult language and literacy. The following papers are included: "Foreword" (Ian Falk); "Preface" (Margaret Penson); "How Do…

  8. Views on Adults Re-Learning Mathematics: A Comparative Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angiama, R. O.

    This paper is based on the on-going research, work, and teaching carried out in the Mathematics Foundations Course (MFC) at Goldsmiths College, University of London. Teaching is a very intimate and rewarding experience for the mathematics lecturer as well as for the adult student. Mathematics lecturers and adults should be challenged by their…

  9. A Critical Theory Perspective on Accelerated Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookfield, Stephen D.

    2003-01-01

    Critically analyzes accelerated learning using concepts from Herbert Marcuse (rebellious subjectivity) and Erich Fromm (automaton conformity). Concludes that, by providing distance and separation, accelerated learning has more potential to stimulate critical autonomous thought. (SK)

  10. A Basic Reference Shelf on Learning Theory. A Series One Paper from ERIC at Stanford.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilgard, Ernest R.

    This reference work briefly identifies the salient principles of learning theory under the subdivisions: 1) S-R theory, 2) cognitive theory, and 3) motivation and personality theory. It also describes various approaches to practical problems via unified theories of learning. A seven-item annotated bibliography on learning theory and its…

  11. Reflexivity: Towards a Theory of Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Richard; Ranson, Stewart; Strain, Michael

    2002-01-01

    The current notion of lifelong learning in policy and practice is dominated by behaviorist, adaptive accumulation of skills and qualifications. An alternative is reflexive lifelong learning, developed through social learning networks within the context of dislocation and uncertainty. It involves the reflexive practices of metacognitive analysis…

  12. Cooperative Learning: Integrating Theory and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillies, Robyn M.

    2007-01-01

    Although cooperative learning is widely endorsed as a pedagogical practice that promotes learning and socialization among students, teachers still struggle with how to introduce it into their classrooms. This text highlights the strategies teachers can use to challenge student thinking and scaffold their learning as well as the strategies students…

  13. Using Learning Styles Theory in Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cagiltay, Nergiz Ercil

    2008-01-01

    Studies have shown that, while learning different concepts, people sometimes take different approaches (learning styles). Accordingly, their performance reflected differently in their academic studies. With the effect of globalisation to the educational environments, the influence of individual learning styles on educational performance is getting…

  14. Literacity: A multimedia adult literacy package combining NASA technology, recursive ID theory, and authentic instruction theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Jerry; Willis, Dee Anna; Walsh, Clare; Stephens, Elizabeth; Murphy, Timothy; Price, Jerry; Stevens, William; Jackson, Kevin; Villareal, James A.; Way, Bob

    1994-01-01

    An important part of NASA's mission involves the secondary application of its technologies in the public and private sectors. One current application under development is LiteraCity, a simulation-based instructional package for adults who do not have functional reading skills. Using fuzzy logic routines and other technologies developed by NASA's Information Systems Directorate and hypermedia sound, graphics, and animation technologies the project attempts to overcome the limited impact of adult literacy assessment and instruction by involving the adult in an interactive simulation of real-life literacy activities. The project uses a recursive instructional development model and authentic instruction theory. This paper describes one component of a project to design, develop, and produce a series of computer-based, multimedia instructional packages. The packages are being developed for use in adult literacy programs, particularly in correctional education centers. They use the concepts of authentic instruction and authentic assessment to guide development. All the packages to be developed are instructional simulations. The first is a simulation of 'finding a friend a job.'

  15. Reconstructing Constructivism: Causal Models, Bayesian Learning Mechanisms, and the Theory Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gopnik, Alison; Wellman, Henry M.

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new version of the "theory theory" grounded in the computational framework of probabilistic causal models and Bayesian learning. Probabilistic models allow a constructivist but rigorous and detailed approach to cognitive development. They also explain the learning of both more specific causal hypotheses and more abstract framework…

  16. Learning Theories Applied to Teaching Technology: Constructivism versus Behavioral Theory for Instructing Multimedia Software Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Cajah S.

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to find evidence for a beneficial learning theory to teach computer software programs. Additionally, software was analyzed for each learning theory's applicability to resolve whether certain software requires a specific method of education. The results are meant to give educators more effective teaching tools, so students…

  17. Adult Children of Alcoholics: Theory and Research. Pamphlet Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jeannette L.; Bennett, Linda A.

    The concept of adult children of alcoholics (ACoA) has received wide public recognition and acceptance. An ACoA is defined as any adult who, as a child, was reared by one or two alcoholic parents. To date research has not sufficiently addressed the many questions generated by the grass roots movement, such as whether or not adult children of…

  18. Algorithms/Theory Artificial Intelligence/Machine Learning

    E-print Network

    Stanford, Kyle

    Algorithms/Theory Artificial Intelligence/Machine Learning Circuit Analysis/Chip Design Compilers/Operating Systems Computational Biology Computer Architecture Digital Logic Digital Signal Processing Embedded Systems Game Design Graphics Human-Computer Interaction Information/Database Management Introduction

  19. Sociocultural Learning Theories and Information Literacy Teaching Activities in Higher Education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li Wang

    2007-01-01

    This article introduces collaborative learning models based on sociocultural learning theories and discusses their potential for developing more effective learning opportunities in information literacy teaching. As described in the research of Vygotsky and other theoreticians, sociocultural learning theories are learner-centered and provide insight into collaborative approaches to student learning. These theories take into account the social and cultural aspects of

  20. Adventure Learning: Theory and Implementation of Hybrid Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doering, A.

    2008-12-01

    Adventure Learning (AL), a hybrid distance education approach, provides students and teachers with the opportunity to learn about authentic curricular content areas while interacting with adventurers, students, and content experts at various locations throughout the world within an online learning environment (Doering, 2006). An AL curriculum and online environment provides collaborative community spaces where traditional hierarchical classroom roles are blurred and learning is transformed. AL has most recently become popular in K-12 classrooms nationally and internationally with millions of students participating online. However, in the literature, the term "adventure learning" many times gets confused with phrases such as "virtual fieldtrip" and activities where someone "exploring" is posting photos and text. This type of "adventure learning" is not "Adventure Learning" (AL), but merely a slideshow of their activities. The learning environment may not have any curricular and/or social goals, and if it does, the environment design many times does not support these objectives. AL, on the other hand, is designed so that both teachers and students understand that their online and curriculum activities are in synch and supportive of the curricular goals. In AL environments, there are no disparate activities as the design considers the educational, social, and technological affordances (Kirschner, Strijbos, Kreijns, & Beers, 2004); in other words, the artifacts of the learning environment encourage and support the instructional goals, social interactions, collaborative efforts, and ultimately learning. AL is grounded in two major theoretical approaches to learning - experiential and inquiry-based learning. As Kolb (1984) noted, in experiential learning, a learner creates meaning from direct experiences and reflections. Such is the goal of AL within the classroom. Additionally, AL affords learners a real-time authentic online learning experience concurrently as they study the AL curriculum. AL is also grounded in an inquiry- based approach to learning where learners are pursuing answers to questions they have posed rather than focusing on memorizing and regurgitating isolated, irrelevant facts. Both the curriculum and the online classroom are developed to foster students' abilities to inquire via "identifying and posing questions, designing and conducting investigations, analyzing data and evidence, using models and explanations, and communicating findings" (Keys and Bryan, 2001, p 121). The union of experiential and inquiry-based learning is the foundation of AL, guiding and supporting authentic learning endeavors. Based on these theoretical foundations, the design of the adventure learning experiences follows seven interdependent principles that further operationalize AL: researched curriculum grounded in inquiry; collaboration and interaction opportunities between students, experts, peers, and content; utilization of the Internet for curriculum and learning environment delivery; enhancement of curriculum with media and text from the field delivered in a timely manner; synched learning opportunities with the AL curriculum; pedagogical guidelines of the curriculum and the online learning environment; and adventure-based education. (Doering, 2006).

  1. Environmental Learning: Reflections on Practice, Research and Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyers, Ronald B.

    2006-01-01

    The environmental and interdisciplinary nature of environmental education presents extraordinary challenges to individuals' abilities as a field to clearly conceptualize, theorize and communicate findings about what they have learned about practice, research and theory in environmental learning (Disinger, 2001). Unfortunately, these factors also…

  2. Theory-based Bayesian models of inductive learning and reasoning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joshua B. Tenenbaum; Thomas L. Griffiths; Charles Kemp

    2006-01-01

    Inductive inference allows humans to make powerful generalizations from sparse data when learning about word meanings, unobserved properties, causal relationships, and many other aspects of the world. Traditional accounts of induction emphasize either the power of statistical learning, or the importance of strong constraints from structured domain knowledge, intuitive theories or schemas. We argue that both components are necessary to

  3. Experiential Learning Theory as a Guide for Effective Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murrell, Patricia H.; Claxton, Charles S.

    1987-01-01

    David Kolb's experiential learning theory involves a framework useful in designing courses that meet needs of diverse learners. Course designs providing systematic activities in concrete experience, reflective observations, abstract conceptualization, and active experimentation will be sensitive to students' learning styles while challenging…

  4. Chapter I Online Synchronous English Learning from Activity Theory Perspectives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lorna Uden; Nian-Shing Chen; Chun-Wang Wei

    The implementation of Online Synchronous Learning (OSL) poses many challenges to existing instruc- tion technology theory because of the complexity of the digital age. Although many studies have been carried out for an OSL, there is little evidence of OSL for teaching language learning. This is especially so when it involves multiple cultural perspectives. This chapter describes the implementation of

  5. An Information Processing Theory of Learning and Forgetting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andre, Thomas

    A theory of learning and forgetting is proposed which uses an information processing (IP) model. The IP model views learning as a process of storing, retrieving, and outputing information from a permanent memory. The concept of information pattern is important to the IP model because the pattern of information determines how the information will…

  6. Geotechnical Physical Modeling for Education: Learning Theory Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph Wartman

    2006-01-01

    As physical modeling sees increasing use in geotechnical engineering education, there is a need for a strategic approach for integrating this powerful simulation technique into courses in a way that ensures the greatest benefit for students. For this reason, a learning theory approach, which recognizes the natural learning cycle of students, has been developed. The approach is based on a

  7. Evaluating theories of bird song learning: implications for future directions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Margoliash

    2002-01-01

    Studies of birdsong learning have stimulated extensive hypotheses at all levels of behavioral and physiological organization. This hypothesis building is valuable for the field and is consistent with the remarkable range of issues that can be rigorously addressed in this system. The traditional instructional (template) theory of song learning has been challenged on multiple fronts, especially at a behavioral level

  8. Efficient Learning in Boltzmann Machines Using Linear Response Theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hilbert J. Kappen; Francisco De Borja Rodríguez Ortiz

    1998-01-01

    The learning process in Boltzmann machines is computationally very expensive. The computational complexity of the exact algorithm is exponential in the number of neurons. We present a new approximate learning algorithm for Boltzmann machines, based on mean-field theory and the linear response theorem. The computational complexity of the algorithm is cubic in the number of neurons. In the absence of

  9. Assessment for Learning: Understanding Theory to Improve Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taras, Maddalena

    2007-01-01

    The assessment for learning framework in education has become big business: huge quantities of time, money and energy have been invested in England, Wales and more recently the USA. This article shows that the assessment for learning theory is inefficient and often contradictory. Black and Wiliam's earlier work provides much of the theoretical…

  10. Computer-Mediated Collaborative Learning: Theory and Practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARK WARSCHAUER

    Recently interest has grown concerning the uses of online communication for language teach- ing. Yet this growing interest in computer-mediated collaborative language learning has not been matched by sufficient research and theory. This article introduces a conceptual frame- work for understanding the role of computer-mediated interaction based on a sociocultural analysis of the relationship among text, talk, and learning. The

  11. Placing Theory in the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchings, Pat; Huber, Mary Taylor

    2008-01-01

    As the scholarship of teaching and learning matures as a field, the place of theory has garnered growing attention. Educational research and the learning sciences can certainly contribute, but professors who view their classrooms as sites for inquiry draw from a wide range and variety of theoretical foundations. With their diverse efforts in view,…

  12. Assessing Student Learning in Academic Advising Using Social Cognitive Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erlich, Richard J.; Russ-Eft, Darlene F.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated whether the social cognitive theory constructs of self-efficacy and self-regulated learning apply to academic advising for measuring student learning outcomes. Community college students (N = 120) participated in an individual academic-advising session. We assessed students' post-intervention self-efficacy in academic planning…

  13. Supporting Alternative Strategies for Learning Chemical Applications of Group Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southam, Daniel C.; Lewis, Jennifer E.

    2013-01-01

    A group theory course for chemists was taught entirely with process oriented guided inquiry learning (POGIL) to facilitate alternative strategies for learning. Students completed a test of one aspect of visuospatial aptitude to determine their individual approaches to solving spatial tasks, and were sorted into groups for analysis on the basis of…

  14. Increasing Access to Learning for the Adult Basic Education Learner with Learning Disabilities: Evidence-Based Accommodation Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregg, Noel

    2012-01-01

    Accommodating adult basic education (ABE) learners with learning disabilities (LD) is common practice across many instructional, testing, and work settings. However, the results from this literature search indicate that very few empirically based studies are available to support or reject the effectiveness of a great deal of accommodation…

  15. ADULT EDUCATION AND UTOPIA, TOWARDS A PHILOSOPHY OF ADULT LEARNING. DOCUMENTARY, 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SMITH, H.P., ED.

    IN SIR THOMAS MORE'S "UTOPIA," UNIVERSAL ADULT EDUCATION IS PART OF A SOCIAL IDEA, AND LABOR AND EDUCATION ARE THE MORAL FOUNDATIONS OF THE SOCIETY. WHILE THE STORY OF UTOPIA IS BASED ON CONTRASTS BETWEEN THE EXISTING SOCIETY AND AN IDEAL COMMONWEALTH, IT IS LINKED TO REALITY BY RESEMBLANCES BETWEEN THE CULTURAL PURSUITS OF ADULTS IN UTOPIA AND…

  16. The Attribution Theory of Learning and Advising Students on Academic Probation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demetriou, Cynthia

    2011-01-01

    Academic advisors need to be knowledgeable of the ways students learn. To aid advisors in their exploration of learning theories, I provide an overview of the attribution theory of learning, including recent applications of the theory to research in college student learning. An understanding of this theory may help advisors understand student…

  17. Identifying Learning Needs: Six Methods Adult Educators Can Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Catherine

    1988-01-01

    Discusses characteristics of six needs assessment methods that can be used in adult education: intuition, market analysis, surveys, self-assessment by learners, diagnostic approaches, and performance analysis. (JOW)

  18. GENERAL STRAIN THEORY, PERSISTENCE, AND DESISTANCE AMONG YOUNG ADULT MALES

    PubMed Central

    Eitle, David

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Despite the surge in scholarly activity investigating the criminal career, relatively less attention has been devoted to the issue of criminal desistance versus persistence (until recently). The present study contributed to our understanding of this process by exploring the suitability of General Strain Theory (GST) for predicting changes in criminal activity across time. Methods Data from a longitudinal study of males in South Florida are examined using robust regression analyses. Results The core GST relationship, that changes in strain should predict changes in criminal activity, was supported, even after controlling for important adult social roles such as marriage, labor force participation, and education. While no support for the proposition that changes in self-esteem and social support moderate the strain-criminal desistance association was evinced, evidence was found that angry disposition, a measure of negative emotionality, moderated the association between change in chronic stressors and change in criminal activity. Conclusions While exploratory in nature, these findings demonstrate the utility of employing GST principles in studies of criminal desistance. PMID:21499526

  19. GENERAL STRAIN THEORY, PERSISTENCE, AND DESISTANCE AMONG YOUNG ADULT MALES.

    PubMed

    Eitle, David

    2010-11-01

    PURPOSE: Despite the surge in scholarly activity investigating the criminal career, relatively less attention has been devoted to the issue of criminal desistance versus persistence (until recently). The present study contributed to our understanding of this process by exploring the suitability of General Strain Theory (GST) for predicting changes in criminal activity across time. METHODS: Data from a longitudinal study of males in South Florida are examined using robust regression analyses. RESULTS: The core GST relationship, that changes in strain should predict changes in criminal activity, was supported, even after controlling for important adult social roles such as marriage, labor force participation, and education. While no support for the proposition that changes in self-esteem and social support moderate the strain-criminal desistance association was evinced, evidence was found that angry disposition, a measure of negative emotionality, moderated the association between change in chronic stressors and change in criminal activity. CONCLUSIONS: While exploratory in nature, these findings demonstrate the utility of employing GST principles in studies of criminal desistance. PMID:21499526

  20. Spatial and symbolic implicit sequence learning in young and older adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jin BoRachael; Rachael D. Seidler

    2010-01-01

    In three experiments, we examined the effects of age and spatial processing on implicit sequence learning. In experiment 1,\\u000a 48 older adults (OA) and 48 young adults (YA) performed the alternating serial reaction time task (ASRT) under one of four\\u000a conditions in which spatial processing demands were either present or absent from stimulus presentation (spatial vs. symbolic\\u000a cueing) and\\/or response

  1. Language learning strategy use by colombian adult English language learners: A phenomenological study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elsie Elena Paredes

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to describe how Colombian adult English language learners (ELL) select and use language learning strategies (LLS). This study used Oxford’s (1990a) taxonomy for LLS as its theoretical framework. Semi-structured interviews and a focus group interview, were conducted, transcribed, and analyzed for 12 Colombian adult ELL. A communicative activity known as strip story (Gibson,

  2. Language Learning Strategy Use by Colombian Adult English Language Learners: A Phenomenological Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elsie E Paredes

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to describe how Colombian adult English language learners (ELL) select and use language learning strategies (LLS). This study used Oxford’s (1990a) taxonomy for LLS as its theoretical framework. Semi-structured interviews and a focus group interview, were conducted, transcribed, and analyzed for 12 Colombian adult ELL. A communicative activity known as strip story (Gibson,

  3. Incorporating Young Adult Literature into the 5E Learning Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niederberger, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Since the U.S.S.R. released Sputnik I into space in 1957, American science teachers have been focused on preparing scientifically literate students. New instructional approaches have emerged, with the 5E learning cycle being one of the more popular methods used. The 5E learning cycle gets its name from its five stages: Engage, Explore, Explain,…

  4. Word learning in adults with second language experience: Effects of phonological and referent familiarity

    PubMed Central

    Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Yoo, Jeewon; Van Hecke, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The goal of this research was to examine whether phonological familiarity exerts different effects on novel word learning for familiar vs. unfamiliar referents, and whether successful word-learning is associated with increased second-language experience. Method Eighty-one adult native English speakers with various levels of Spanish knowledge learned phonologically-familiar novel words (constructed using English sounds) or phonologically-unfamiliar novel words (constructed using non-English and non-Spanish sounds) in association with either familiar or unfamiliar referents. Retention was tested via a forced-choice recognition-task. A median-split procedure identified high-ability and low-ability word-learners in each condition, and the two groups were compared on measures of second-language experience. Results Findings suggest that the ability to accurately match newly-learned novel names to their appropriate referents is facilitated by phonological familiarity only for familiar referents but not for unfamiliar referents. Moreover, more extensive second-language learning experience characterized superior learners primarily in one word-learning condition: Where phonologically-unfamiliar novel words were paired with familiar referents. Conclusions Together, these findings indicate that phonological familiarity facilitates novel word learning only for familiar referents, and that experience with learning a second language may have a specific impact on novel vocabulary learning in adults. PMID:22992709

  5. Linking the Developmental and Degenerative Theories of Schizophrenia: Association Between Infant Development and Adult Cognitive Decline

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Isohanni, Matti; Jääskeläinen, Erika; Miettunen, Jouko; Veijola, Juha; Haapea, Marianne; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jones, Peter B.; Murray, Graham K.

    2014-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative theories may be viewed as incompatible accounts that compete to explain the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. However, it is possible that neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative processes could both reflect common underlying causal mechanisms. We hypothesized that cognitive dysfunction would gradually deteriorate over time in schizophrenia and the degree of this deterioration in adulthood would be predicted by an infant measure of neurodevelopment. We aimed to examine the association between age of learning to stand in infancy and deterioration of cognitive function in adulthood. Participants were nonpsychotic control subjects (n = 76) and participants with schizophrenia (n = 36) drawn from the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort study. The schizophrenia group showed greater deterioration in abstraction with memory than controls, but there were no differences between schizophrenia and controls in rate of change of other cognitive measures. Age of learning to stand in infancy significantly inversely predicted later deterioration of abstraction with memory in adult schizophrenia (later infant development linked to greater subsequent cognitive deterioration during adulthood), possibly suggesting a link between abnormal neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative processes in schizophrenia. PMID:24583905

  6. Linking the developmental and degenerative theories of schizophrenia: association between infant development and adult cognitive decline.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Isohanni, Matti; Jääskeläinen, Erika; Miettunen, Jouko; Veijola, Juha; Haapea, Marianne; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jones, Peter B; Murray, Graham K

    2014-11-01

    Neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative theories may be viewed as incompatible accounts that compete to explain the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. However, it is possible that neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative processes could both reflect common underlying causal mechanisms. We hypothesized that cognitive dysfunction would gradually deteriorate over time in schizophrenia and the degree of this deterioration in adulthood would be predicted by an infant measure of neurodevelopment. We aimed to examine the association between age of learning to stand in infancy and deterioration of cognitive function in adulthood. Participants were nonpsychotic control subjects (n = 76) and participants with schizophrenia (n = 36) drawn from the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort study. The schizophrenia group showed greater deterioration in abstraction with memory than controls, but there were no differences between schizophrenia and controls in rate of change of other cognitive measures. Age of learning to stand in infancy significantly inversely predicted later deterioration of abstraction with memory in adult schizophrenia (later infant development linked to greater subsequent cognitive deterioration during adulthood), possibly suggesting a link between abnormal neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative processes in schizophrenia. PMID:24583905

  7. Differential effects of binge drinking on learning and memory in emerging adults

    PubMed Central

    Sneider, Jennifer T.; Cohen-Gilbert, Julia E.; Crowley, David J.; Paul, Margot D.; Silveri, Marisa M.

    2013-01-01

    Alterations in memory function due to alcohol exposure have been observed in both animal models and human populations. The human literature on neurocognitive consequences of binge alcohol use in emerging adults has not systematically investigated its potential negative impacts on visuospatial memory. For instance, these impacts have not yet been assessed using a human analogue of the Morris Water Maze Task (WMT), a key memory measure in the animal literature. Accordingly, this study compared performance between emerging adult binge drinkers (BD, n=22) and age- and sex-matched light drinkers (LD, n=29) using the Morris WMT, as well as verbal memory using the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT). Emerging adult BD demonstrated worse performance on verbal learning and memory relative to LD. However, no significant group differences were observed on spatial learning and memory. Furthermore, no sex differences or interactions with drinking status were observed on either memory domain. These data suggest that in emerging adults who are at a heightened risk for alcohol abuse disorders, but who do not yet meet diagnostic criteria, verbal learning is uniquely impacted by the neurotoxic effects of binge drinking, whereas spatial learning is relatively spared between bouts of intoxication. PMID:24404407

  8. Second-Language Learning Experiments and Mathematical Learning Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selinker, Larry

    1972-01-01

    Critique of Crothers and Suppes' Experiments in Second Language Learning,'' New York: Academic Press, 1967. Revised version of lecture presented to the Applied Linguistics section of the Modern Language Association, New York, New York, December 1970. (RS)

  9. Learning by Doing--Piagets konstruktivistische Lerntheorie und ihre Konsequenzen fur die padagogische Praxis (Learning by Doing--Piaget's Constructivist Learning Theory and Its Consequences for Pedagogical Practice).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vollmers, Burkhard

    1997-01-01

    Presents Jean Piaget's theory of genetic recognition, one of the first constructivist learning theories. Examines critically the relationship of the theory to present-day teaching and learning research, pedagogical practice, and other forms of constructivism. Asserts that one practical application of Piaget's learning theory would be to teach by…

  10. On the Prospects of a Semiotic Theory of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Midtgarden, Torjus

    2005-01-01

    Taking as its exegetic point of departure Peirce's outline of a semiotic theory of cognition from the mid 1890s, this paper explores the relevance of this outline to a theory of learning and also to a broader, normative vision of education. Firstly, besides providing for fallibilism in philosophical inquiry Peirce's outline accords with critical…

  11. Children Balance Theories and Evidence in Exploration, Explanation, and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonawitz, Elizabeth Baraff; van Schijndel, Tessa J. P.; Friel, Daniel; Schulz, Laura

    2012-01-01

    We look at the effect of evidence and prior beliefs on exploration, explanation and learning. In Experiment 1, we tested children both with and without differential prior beliefs about balance relationships (Center Theorists, mean: 82 months; Mass Theorists, mean: 89 months; No Theory children, mean: 62 months). Center and Mass Theory children who…

  12. Cognitive Type Theory & Learning Style, A Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mamchur, Carolyn

    This guide provides a practical explanation of cognitive type theory and learning style that will help teachers meet students' needs and discover their own strengths as teachers and colleagues. The introduction provides an overview of the book from the perspective of a high school classroom teacher. Part One introduces the theory of psychological…

  13. Participatory Learning Theories: A Framework for Early Childhood Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedges, Helen; Cullen, Joy

    2012-01-01

    This paper continues scholarly conversations about appropriate theories of development to underpin early childhood pedagogy. It focuses on sociocultural theoretical perspectives and proposes that participatory learning theories (PLTs) underpin pedagogy built on principles specified in three curricular documents. Further, the paper argues that the…

  14. Individualized Learning in Theory and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proia, Kathleen

    This paper describes individualized learning, a form of individualized instruction that emphasizes students' self-paced learning progress within a tutorial teaching structure, as it was used in a freshman composition program. The teachers first determined the composition skills that their students should have acquired upon completion of the three…

  15. Extreme learning machine: Theory and applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guang-Bin Huang; Qin-Yu Zhu; Chee-Kheong Siew

    2006-01-01

    It is clear that the learning speed of feedforward neural networks is in general far slower than required and it has been a major bottleneck in their applications for past decades. Two key reasons behind may be: (1) the slow gradient-based learning algorithms are extensively used to train neural networks, and (2) all the parameters of the networks are tuned

  16. Nurse Education Tomorrow Conference theme paper--section D. The student experience: adult learning and mentorship revisited.

    PubMed

    Burnard, P

    1990-10-01

    Nursing education is being cited frequently as an example of adult education. Mentorship is also a concept that has been adopted as an approach to enhancing learning in the clinical setting. This paper examines, critically, the notions of adult learning, andragogy and mentorship and explores their relationship to modern nursing educational practice. PMID:2215433

  17. Self-generation amplifies the errorless learning effect in healthy older adults when transfer appropriate processing conditions are met

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emma B. Guild; Nicole D. Anderson

    2012-01-01

    Errorless learning improves memory for older adults by providing individuals with correct information from the onset, thereby minimizing the misleading influence of errors. Our previous research demonstrated that self-generation enhanced the errorless learning effect among older adults in cued recall when encoding encouraged processing of cue–target relationships, suggesting that transfer appropriate processing is necessary for this interactive effect (Lubinsky, Rich,

  18. Activity Theory and Situated Learning Theory: Contrasting Views of Educational Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnseth, Hans Christian

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to offer a critical discussion of the practice turn in contemporary educational research. In order to make the discussion specific, I use two influential theories, namely activity theory and situated learning theory. They both turn to the notion of practice in order to overcome the limitations of mentalist and…

  19. An innovative outcomes-based medical education program built on adult learning principles.

    PubMed

    McNeil, H Patrick; Hughes, Chris S; Toohey, Susan M; Dowton, S Bruce

    2006-09-01

    An innovative medical curriculum at the University of New South Wales (UNSW) has been developed through a highly collaborative process aimed at building faculty ownership and ongoing sustainability. The result is a novel capability-based program that features early clinical experience and small-group teaching, which offers students considerable flexibility and achieves a high degree of alignment between graduate outcomes, learning activities and assessments. Graduate capabilities that focus student learning on generic outcomes are described (critical evaluation, reflection, communication and teamwork) along with traditional outcomes in biomedical science, social aspects, clinical performance and ethics. Each two-year phase promotes a distinctive learning process to support and develop autonomous learning across six years. The approaches emphasize important adult education themes: student autonomy; learning from experience; collaborative learning; and adult teacher-learner relationships. Teaching in each phase draws on stages of the human life cycle to provide an explicit organization for the vertical integration of knowledge and skills. A learning environment that values the social nature of learning is fostered through the program's design and assessment system, which supports interdisciplinary integration and rewards students who exhibit self-direction. Assessment incorporates criterion referencing, interdisciplinary examinations, a balance between continuous and barrier assessments, peer feedback and performance assessments of clinical competence. A portfolio examination in each phase, in which students submit evidence of reflection and achievement for each capability, ensures overall alignment. PMID:17074700

  20. Individual differences in adult foreign language learning: the mediating effect of metalinguistic awareness.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Patricia J; Kempe, Vera

    2013-02-01

    In this study, we sought to identify cognitive predictors of individual differences in adult foreign-language learning and to test whether metalinguistic awareness mediated the observed relationships. Using a miniature language-learning paradigm, adults (N = 77) learned Russian vocabulary and grammar (gender agreement and case marking) over six 1-h sessions, completing tasks that encouraged attention to phrases without explicitly teaching grammatical rules. The participants' ability to describe the Russian gender and case-marking patterns mediated the effects of nonverbal intelligence and auditory sequence learning on grammar learning and generalization. Hence, even under implicit-learning conditions, individual differences stemmed from explicit metalinguistic awareness of the underlying grammar, which, in turn, was linked to nonverbal intelligence and auditory sequence learning. Prior knowledge of languages with grammatical gender (predominantly Spanish) predicted learning of gender agreement. Transfer of knowledge of gender from other languages to Russian was not mediated by awareness, which suggests that transfer operates through an implicit process akin to structural priming. PMID:23055121

  1. Probabilistic reward learning in adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder--an electrophysiological study.

    PubMed

    Thoma, Patrizia; Edel, Marc-Andreas; Suchan, Boris; Bellebaum, Christian

    2015-01-30

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is hypothesized to be characterized by altered reinforcement sensitivity. The main aim of the present study was to assess alterations in the electrophysiological correlates of monetary reward processing in adult patients with ADHD of the combined subtype. Fourteen adults with ADHD of the combined subtype and 14 healthy control participants performed an active and an observational probabilistic reward-based learning task while an electroencephalogramm (EEG) was recorded. Regardless of feedback valence, there was a general feedback-related negativity (FRN) enhancement in combination with reduced learning performance during both active and observational reward learning in patients with ADHD relative to healthy controls. Other feedback-locked potentials such as the P200 and P300 and response-locked potentials were unaltered in the patients. There were no significant correlations between learning performance, FRN amplitudes and clinical symptoms, neither in the overall group involving all participants, nor in patients or controls considered separately. This pattern of findings might reflect generally impaired reward prediction in adults with ADHD of the combined subtype. We demonstrated for the first time that patients with ADHD of the combined subtype show not only deficient active reward learning but are also impaired when learning by observing other people?s outcomes. PMID:25467706

  2. Making Space: Merging Theory and Practice in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheared, Vanessa, Ed.; Sissel, Peggy A., Ed.

    This book represents the beginning dialogue and critique of social, political, economic, and historical forms of hegemony operating in the adult education field. Twenty-three chapters are grouped into five sections. Section I, Deconstructing Exclusion and Inclusion in Adult Education, offers a dialogue on hegemony and critiques the philosophical,…

  3. Employing Adult Education Principles in Instructional Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMartino, Darrell J.

    An instructional systems approach to learning draws on principles of instructional design and development but also draws from theories such as behaviorism, information processing, cognitive theory, adult education, and systems theory among others. This paper focuses on how instructional designers can benefit from awareness of different adult

  4. Lessons Learned from Teaching Software Engineering to Adult Students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James J. Cusick

    2000-01-01

    Teaching provides many challenges. Presenting software engineering to students brings a teacher face to face with a most unwieldy subject. Packaging this subject for delivery to adult students in a continuing education setting has proven both rewarding and difficult. This paper attempts to communicate the specific approach used to teach software engineering as part of an applied technology program. The

  5. Adult Learning in Self-Help/Mutual Aid Support Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammerman, Myrna Lynn

    Although the origins of self-help groups can be traced back to early history, the self-help movement as we know it today began almost 50 years ago. Approximately 15 million Americans currently belong to about 500,000 different self-help groups. Adults in transition are likely to seek both formal and informal sources of help when faced with…

  6. Improving Adult Literacy Instruction: Supporting Learning and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesgold, Alan M., Ed.; Welch-Ross, Melissa, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Virtually everyone needs a high level of literacy in both print and digital media to negotiate most aspects of 21st century life-succeeding in a competitive job market, supporting a family, navigating health information, and participating in civic activities. Yet, according to a recent survey estimate, more than 90 million adults in the United…

  7. Serving Adult Learning at the College of New Rochelle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Dorothy A.

    1979-01-01

    The College of New Rochelle's School of New Resources is described including: adult participation in decision making (selection and development of courses, faculty recruitment, and courses and programs evaluation), and descriptions of extension centers and campuses (AFSCME-AFL/CIO, Co-op City, South Bronx, New York Theological Seminary, and…

  8. Developing the master learner: applying learning theory to the learner, the teacher, and the learning environment.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Daniel J; Englander, Robert; Carraccio, Carol

    2013-11-01

    As a result of the paradigm shift to a competency-based framework, both self-directed lifelong learning and learner-centeredness have become essential tenets of medical education. In the competency-based framework, learners drive their own educational process, and both learners and teachers share the responsibility for the path and content of learning. This learner-centered emphasis requires each physician to develop and maintain lifelong learning skills, which the authors propose culminate in becoming a "master leaner." To better understand the development of these skills and the attainment of that goal, the authors explore how learning theories inform the development of master learners and how to translate these theories into practical strategies for the learner, the teacher, and the learning environment so as to optimize this development.The authors begin by exploring self-determination theory, which lays the groundwork for understanding the motivation to learn. They next consider the theories of cognitive load and situated cognition, which inform the optimal context and environment for learning. Building from this foundation, the authors consider key educational theories that affect learners' abilities to serve as primary drivers of their learning, including self-directed learning (SDL); the self-assessment skills necessary for SDL; factors affecting self-assessment (self-concept, self-efficacy, illusory superiority, gap filling); and ways to mitigate the inaccuracies of self-assessment (reflection, self-monitoring, external information seeking, and self-directed assessment seeking).For each theory, they suggest practical action steps for the learner, the teacher, and the learning environment in an effort to provide a road map for developing master learners. PMID:24072107

  9. Adult Learning and the Changing World of Work. Report of Theme V. Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Adult Education (Hamburg, Germany, July 14-18, 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Madhu, Ed.

    This report presents the contributions to theme five, "Adult Learning and the Changing World of Work," of the Fifth International Conference on Adult Education. Section 1 is an introduction to the Conference with objectives, themes, and agenda for the future. Section 2, "Discussion and Debate on the Issues of Theme Five" (R. Barry Hobart) answers…

  10. Integration of Learning: A Grounded Theory Analysis of College Students' Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, James P.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a grounded theory of "integration of learning" among traditional aged college students, which is characterized by the demonstrated ability to link various skills and knowledge learned in a variety of contexts. The author analyzed 194 interviews with students at liberal arts colleges to investigate empirically the ways…

  11. The Economics of Learning Models: A Self-tuning Theory of Learning in Games

    E-print Network

    Greer, Julia R.

    The Economics of Learning Models: A Self-tuning Theory of Learning in Games Teck H. Ho, Colin F correspondence to the first author. Thanks to participants in the 2000 Southern Economics Association meetings Workshop, the Nobel Symposium on Behavioral and Experimental Economics (December 2001) and C. M´onica Capra

  12. Employees' and Managers' Accounts of Interactive Workplace Learning: A Grounded Theory of "Complex Integrative Learning"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armson, Genevieve; Whiteley, Alma

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate employees' and managers' accounts of interactive learning and what might encourage or inhibit emergent learning. Design/methodology/approach: The approach taken was a constructivist/social constructivist ontology, interpretive epistemology and qualitative methodology, using grounded theory

  13. TWO-PROCESS LEARNING THEORY: RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN PAVLOVIAN CONDITIONING AND INSTRUMENTAL LEARNING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ROBERT A. RESCORLA; RICHARD L. SOLOMON

    1967-01-01

    THE HISTORY OF 2-PROCESS LEARNING THEORY IS DESCRIBED, AND THE LOGICAL AND EMPIRICAL VALIDITY OF ITS MAJOR POSTULATES IS EXAMINED. THE ASSUMPTION OF 2 ACQUISITION PROCESSES REQUIRES THE DEMONSTRATION OF AN EMPIRICAL INTERACTION BETWEEN 2 TYPES OF REINFORCEMENT CONTINGENCIES AND (1) RESPONSE CLASSES, (2) REINFORCING STIMULUS CLASSES, OR (3) CHARACTERISTICS OF THE LEARNED BEHAVIOR ITSELF. THE MEDIATION POSTULATES OF 2-PROCESS

  14. Stress Modulates Reinforcement Learning in Younger and Older Adults Nichole R. Lighthall, Marissa A. Gorlick,

    E-print Network

    Mather, Mara

    Stress Modulates Reinforcement Learning in Younger and Older Adults Nichole R. Lighthall, Marissa A that stress increases dopamine levels in brain regions involved in reward processing, and stress also appears to increase the attractiveness of addictive drugs. The current study tested the hypothesis that stress

  15. Quieting the Cacophony of the Mind: The Role of Mindfulness in Adult Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parish, Kay Annette

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the role between mindfulness practice and adult learning. The participants were full-time students enrolled in a two-year radiography program at a Midwestern community college. Critical thinking and problem solving skills are essential to students' success and to healthcare professionals. The main…

  16. Transitioning an Adult-Serving University to a Blended Learning Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korr, Jeremy; Derwin, Ellen Baker; Greene, Kimberly; Sokoloff, William

    2012-01-01

    While many institutions deliver some classes in blended format, Brandman University transitioned all of its face-to-face classes to blended delivery, using a model tailored to the needs of adult learners. This article provides research supporting the ways that blended learning principles align with key principles of andragogy. The article provides…

  17. Does Learning Spanish Grammatical Gender Change English-Speaking Adults' Categorization of Inanimate Objects?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurinski, Elena; Sera, Maria D.

    2011-01-01

    Second language acquisition studies can contribute to the body of research on the influence of language on thought by examining cognitive change as a result of second language learning. We conducted a longitudinal study that examined how the acquisition of Spanish grammatical gender influences categorization in native English-speaking adults. We…

  18. Self-Assessment and Development Planning for Adult and Community Learning Providers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenway, Mike; Reisenberger, Anna

    This document is designed to help adult and community learning (ACL) services across the United Kingdom complete the annual self-assessment reports (SARs). The guide begins with background information on the purposes of self-assessment, the new context of ACL and the elements and format of the new SARs. The remaining four sections examine the…

  19. Evaluation of Learning 100: An Adult Basic Education Project in Bedford-Stuyvesant, 1967-68.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheier, Elaine; Senter, Donald R.

    This study compared the effectiveness of Learning 100 (L-100) with that of a conventional reading program in the Bedford Stuyvesant section of Brooklyn. L-100 is a multimedia, multimodal, multilevel communication skills system designed for use with undereducated adults, out-of-school youth, and potential dropouts. There were 49 in the experimental…

  20. Critical and Social Literacy Practices from the Scottish Adult Literacy Experience: Resisting Deficit Approaches to Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowther, Jim; Tett, Lyn

    2011-01-01

    Scotland provides an interesting context for studying adult literacy in that it is one of the few countries that explicitly acknowledge the idea of literacy as a social practice. By drawing on two initiatives we illustrate literacy learning derived from a mixture of social practice and critical literacy perspectives. Together they provide insights…

  1. Use of Language Learning Strategies by Spanish Adults for Mastering Business English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judge, Jeffrey Wallace

    2010-01-01

    Research of language learning strategy (LLS) has provided insight for language learners from many international cultures since this branch of research began in the 1970s. Despite the urgent need for competence in the use of business English in Western Europe, LLS studies have not been conducted on Spanish adults who use English for business. The…

  2. Formative Evaluation of the Adult Learning, Literacy and Essential Skills Program. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This report presents the results of the formative evaluation of the Adult Learning, Literacy and Essential Skills Program (ALLESP). Data collection related to this evaluation took place between November 2008 and May 2009. The evaluation resulted in the following four recommendations: (1) It is recommended that Program objectives and activities…

  3. Depression and Anxiety in Two Groups of Adults with Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoy, Cheri; Gregg, Noel; Wisenbaker, Joseph; Manglitz, Elaine; King, Michael; Moreland, Elaine

    1997-01-01

    This study examined the incidence of depression and anxiety in 184 college students with learning disabilities (LD), 57 young adults with LD receiving rehabilitation services, and 140 college students without LD. Females with LD in the rehabilitation setting showed a higher incidence of depression and college students with LD demonstrated…

  4. Standards for Creating Multimedia Learning Modules for Low Literacy and Limited English Proficient Adult Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ. Inst., Long Beach.

    This document is a working paper from Cyberstep, a 3-year project during which five literacy service innovators are collaborating to identify practices for educating English-as-a-second-language learners and adults functioning at low literacy levels, extend the use of technology to facilitate learning, and provide practical tools for educators.…

  5. Characteristics of Operant Learning Games Associated with Optimal Child and Adult Social--Emotional Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunst, Carl J.; Raab, Melinda; Trivette, Carol M.; Wilson, Linda L.; Hamby, Deborah W.; Parkey, Cindy; Gatens, Mary; French, Jennie

    2007-01-01

    Findings from a study investigating the conditions under which contingency learning games were associated with optimal child and adult concomitant and social--emotional behavior benefits are reported. Participants were 41 preschool children with multiple disabilities and profound developmental delays and their parents or teachers. Results showed…

  6. An Exploration of Transformational Learning in Adults as a Result of Adventure Travel Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory qualitative research study was to identify the elements of adventure travel experiences that contribute to the process of transformational learning in adults. A qualitative research design was employed for this study. The sources of data were twelve pre-existing and de-identified interview transcriptions. A textual…

  7. After Incarceration and Adult Learning: A Collaborative Inquiry and Writing Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Joni

    2015-01-01

    Mass incarceration in America is a moral, economic, and societal crisis with serious implications for many men of color and high school non-completers who are incarcerated at proportionally higher rates than Whites or college graduates. For the formerly incarcerated, engagement in adult learning, whether high school equivalency (HSE) or college,…

  8. What Art Educators Can Learn from the Fan-Based Artmaking of Adolescents and Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manifold, Marjorie Cohee

    2009-01-01

    The explanations of 101 adolescents and young adults, who are fans of popular culture narratives and make art inspired by these phenomena, provide insight into why these youth were drawn to create fan-based artworks, how they learned to make these art forms, and what the creative activities mean to them. Emergent themes highlight (a) the…

  9. An invitation from the MSU Teaching & Learning Committee Facebook for Adults

    E-print Network

    Dyer, Bill

    An invitation from the MSU Teaching & Learning Committee Facebook for Adults ~ a primer, we'll explore the mechanics of the popular social networking tool Facebook. What does it look like of Facebook in the context of higher education: how to understand the common uses of the tools by students

  10. Understanding Adult Learners amidst Societal Crisis: Learning and Grief in Tandem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Kathleen P.

    2003-01-01

    A participant-observer study included initial and 10-month follow-up surveys of 19 adult learners before and after the September 11th terrorist attacks; 18 described their experiences as perspective transformation. Grief stages were observed; the reorganization stage was most evident. Combining the models of transformative learning and grief…

  11. Naturally Acquired Mentoring Relationships and Young Adult Outcomes among Adolescents with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahrens, Kym; DuBois, David Lane; Lozano, Paula; Richardson, Laura P.

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated whether having a naturally acquired mentor during adolescence was associated with improved adult outcomes among youth with learning disabilities (YLD). Mentored youth were more likely to have graduated from high school, reported a higher level of self-esteem, and reported a higher overall number of positive outcomes than nonmentored…

  12. Dialogue with Adult Overseas Students: Reflections on Experiences of Teaching and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malthus, Caroline; Gunn-Lewis, Jane

    2000-01-01

    Focus groups with 30 adult international students studying in New Zealand identified teaching practices they found helpful and ways their perspectives changed over a year. In the acculturation period, students needed detailed assistance. A supportive learning environment that welcomed difference was a key factor. (SK)

  13. Content-Learning Tasks for Adult ESL Learners: Promoting Literacy for Work or School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewert, Doreen E.

    2014-01-01

    Teachers of English as a second language (ESL) are often on the frontline of working with adult ESL learners who are facing a difficult developmental pathway to academic and/or economic success. These learners come to the task of learning English with widely varying schooling experiences, degrees of first language literacy, and English language…

  14. Understanding and Changing Older Adults' Perceptions and Learning of Social Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Bo; Watkins, Ivan; Golbeck, Jen; Huang, Man

    2012-01-01

    An exploratory study was conducted to answer the following questions: What are older adults' perceptions of social media? What educational strategies can facilitate their learning of social media? A thematic map was developed to illustrate changing perceptions from the initial unanimous, strong negative to the more positive but cautious, and to…

  15. The Impact of Adults' Communication Clarity versus Communication Deviance on Adolescents with Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, John D.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Sixty-one adolescents with learning disabilities received clear or unclear instructions from an adult before completing the Rorschach Arrangement Task and a test of abstract thinking. Adolescents receiving clear communication performed significantly better and used more efficient cognitive strategies than did adolescents in the unclear…

  16. Evaluating and Interpreting Research Syntheses in Adult Learning and Literacy. NCSALL Occasional Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Harris

    2007-01-01

    This occasional paper introduces the methods of research synthesis and meta-analysis to researchers and consumers of research in the field of adult learning and literacy. To begin, the first section of the paper defines key terms and offers a brief history of how the methodologies developed. The second section provides a conceptualization of…

  17. Using Quality Schemes in Adult and Community Learning: A Guide for Managers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewens, David; Watters, Kate

    This document examines adult and community learning (ACL) and quality programs across England. The difficulties faced by local education agencies' ACL services in delivering quality are noted, along with ways quality improvement has been supported. Quality programs--whether internal or external, based on awards, or used as diagnostic tools--are…

  18. A Follow-Up Study of Learning Disabled Children as Adults. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogan, Laura Lehtinen; Hartman, Lenore Dumas

    The study looked at the adult attainments of 91 children with learning disabilities who received remedial education in a private school for an average of 3 years between the ages 6 and 13. Methodology included questionnaires, interviews, and psychological testing. Approximately 60% were employed, 16% were in college. Major occupations were…

  19. Revisiting Adults' Perceptual Learning Style and Their Educational Level: A Replication Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Kourtland R.

    2004-01-01

    This study is a replication of an original study conducted by James and Blank (1991) which examined the relationship between educational attainment and adult performance using the Multi-Modal Paired Associates Learning Test-Revised (MMPALT-II) (Cherry, 1981). The MMPALT-II was designed to measure an individual's demonstrated perceptual modality…

  20. Usability Testing of BusinessThinking [TM] e-Learning CD-Roms with Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoltz-Loike, Marian; Morrell, Roger W.; Loike, James D.

    2005-01-01

    BusinessThinking [TM] is a computer-based e-learning package designed to teach technology skills and business information to adults, ages 50-69, who remain in the workforce. This article outlines results from usability testing for the material on using technology applications (Microsoft Word, PowerPoint, Excel and the Internet), and career…