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1

Adult Learning Theories Closure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A student-centered nontraditional learning program was proposed to better prepare fire department military personnel in obtaining their 911 dispatch certification at a Florida military installation. Maintaining an adequate number of dispatched qualified military personnel, in addition to current civilian dispatchers at the same location, improves…

Baskas, Richard S.

2011-01-01

2

Applying Adult Learning and Development Theories to Educational Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to determine the degree of correlation that adult learning theories and adult developmental theories have with educational practice. Two adult learning theories, Malcolm Knowles' phase theories and Daniel Levinson's developmental theories, were researched to determine their relevance to three components of a nontraditional…

Baskas, Richard S.

2011-01-01

3

Theory Based Approaches to Learning. Implications for Adult Educators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a codification of theory-based approaches that are applicable to adult learning situations. It also lists some general guidelines that can be used when selecting a particular approach or theory as a basis for planning instruction. Adult education's emphasis on practicality and the relationship between theory and practice is…

Bolton, Elizabeth B.; Jones, Edward V.

4

Teaching Nontraditional Adult Students: Adult Learning Theories in Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the USA experiences rapid growth of nontraditional adult students in higher education, educators and institutions will increasingly need to look beyond the traditional youth-centric educational models to better address adult learning needs. To date, no research has been conducted examining the learning experiences of adult students enrolled in…

Chen, Joseph C.

2014-01-01

5

Simulation Methodology in Nursing Education and Adult Learning Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Simulation is often used in nursing education as a teaching methodology. Simulation is rooted in adult learning theory. Three learning theories, cognitive, social, and constructivist, explain how learners gain knowledge with simulation experiences. This article takes an in-depth look at each of these three theories as each relates to simulation.…

Rutherford-Hemming, Tonya

2012-01-01

6

Centering Marxist-Feminist Theory in Adult Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using feminist extensions of Marxist theory, this article argues that a Marxist-feminist theory of adult learning offers a significant contribution to feminist pedagogical debates concerning the nature of experience and learning. From this theoretical perspective, the individual and the social are understood to exist in a mutually determining…

Carpenter, Sara

2012-01-01

7

A Critical Evaluation of Adult Learning Theories and Implication for Human Resource Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on a newly developed holistic theory of knowledge and learning, this paper critically evaluates several contemporary theories of adult learning. Most of existing adult learning theories tend to narrowly define knowledge and learning and fail to offer adequate explanation for adult learning. Implications for HRD theory, research, and practice…

Yang, Baiyin

2004-01-01

8

Adult Basic Skills Instructor Training and Experiential Learning Theory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Competency-based training workshops based on Kolb's experiential learning theory were held for North Carolina adult basic education teachers; 251 attended 1-day sessions and 91 a week-long summer institute. Topics included interpersonal communication, reading, numeracy, language arts, math, assessment, and program evaluation. (SK)

Marlowe, Mike; And Others

1991-01-01

9

A Review of Adult Learning Theory and Staff Development Research. Program Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adult learning theory and research on professional development provide a rich background context for examining school leader development for school improvement. The literature on adult learning theory identifies the following generalities about adults as learners: age reduces the speed of learning; adult learners bring life experiences to bear on…

Butler, Jocelyn A.

10

Beyond Knowles: What Those Conducting Simulation Need to Know About Adult Learning Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the adult learning theories that might affect the way that adult learners perceive learning and reach understanding of clinical expertise. Although educators in clinical and simulation settings are becoming much more aware of the theories that affect adult learning, too often their knowledge might not reach past the great work of Malcolm Knowles and his theory of

Timothy C. Clapper

2010-01-01

11

A Theory of Adult Learning and Implications for Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the most current thinking on how to best structure adult learning programs, noting that adult learners demand a convenient program which is specially designed with their learning style in mind. They learn best in an interactive format with heavy emphasis on the practical application of their learning. The paper discusses the…

Tweedell, Cynthia Benn

12

Adult learning theories: implications for learning and teaching in medical education: AMEE Guide No. 83.  

PubMed

There are many theories that explain how adults learn and each has its own merits. This Guide explains and explores the more commonly used ones and how they can be used to enhance student and faculty learning. The Guide presents a model that combines many of the theories into a flow diagram which can be followed by anyone planning learning. The schema can be used at curriculum planning level, or at the level of individual learning. At each stage of the model, the Guide identifies the responsibilities of both learner and educator. The role of the institution is to ensure that the time and resources are available to allow effective learning to happen. The Guide is designed for those new to education, in the hope that it can unravel the difficulties in understanding and applying the common learning theories, whilst also creating opportunities for debate as to the best way they should be used. PMID:24004029

Taylor, David C M; Hamdy, Hossam

2013-11-01

13

Adult Learning Theory: Applications to Non-Traditional College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adult learners that enter today's higher education community bring learning styles and life experiences that may either be critical foundations for future success or deeply entrenched beliefs that hinder learning in the academic environment. As adult learners enroll in their entry level courses, college instructors will need to realize that these…

Kenner, Cari; Weinerman, Jason

2011-01-01

14

Adult Learning Assumptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to examine Knowles' theory of andragogy and his six assumptions of how adults learn while providing evidence to support two of his assumptions based on the theory of andragogy. As no single theory explains how adults learn, it can best be assumed that adults learn through the accumulation of formal and informal…

Baskas, Richard S.

2011-01-01

15

Learning Theories & Their Application to Science Instruction for Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It has become apparent through the work of many researchers and practitioners that adults learn differently than their younger counterparts in the educational system. This is especially important to those educators teaching in colleges and universities in the sciences. Biology education in the post-secondary setting is inundated with teachers who…

Bass, Christa

2012-01-01

16

Revisiting Adult Learning Theory through the Lens of an Adult Learner  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In reading the last section of their primary text, "Learning in Adulthood: A Comprehensive Guide" by Merriam, Caffarella, and Baumgartner (2007) in his Adult Learning and Development class, the author continued to feel as though he was being self-assured of his previous learning experiences once again. The final section of the text focused on…

Jackson, Londell D.

2009-01-01

17

Analyzing Principal Professional Development Practices through the Lens of Adult Learning Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study sought to identify current principal professional development practices in four school systems in Georgia and to examine them by applying the principles of adult learning theory. The cross-case analysis of principal professional development initiatives in four school districts revealed nine common practices: connecting…

Zepeda, Sally J.; Parylo, Oksana; Bengtson, Ed

2014-01-01

18

Factors in Adult Learning and Instruction. Theory, Innovation, and Practice in Andragogy. No. 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication, the first in a series on theory, innovation, and practice in andragogy, is a reproduction of two papers first published in 1971 by Coolie Verner and Catherine V. Davison. The first paper in this booklet explores psychological factors in adult learning and instruction, while the second discusses physiological factors. In the five…

Adam, Felix, Ed.; Aker, George F., Ed.

19

Adult Learning Theory Increases the Success of Teaching Interns.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers practical strategies to be used by educators of adult student teachers, such as training for mutual support, inviting voluntary collaboration, replacing "knowing everything" with warmth, and celebrating the dissonance. (JOW)

Pike, Beth; Mansfield, Jim

1996-01-01

20

Learning Theory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This section of Chapter 4 concentrates on the theories of learning that have contributed to a better understanding of how behavior is established, maintained, and modified. The theories of learning that have been proposed and researched over many years ha...

A. J. Bachrach

1984-01-01

21

Aesthetic Learning Theory and the Faith Formation of Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Participation in the arts is a form of practical reason and as such has the potential to form and transform the faith of individuals. The findings from Katherine M. Douglass's 2011 study on the role of the arts in the faith lives of young adults provides examples of the transformative potential of the arts as they foster expression,…

Douglass, Katherine M.

2013-01-01

22

Media Analysis as Critical Reflexology in Exploring Adult Learning Theories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examining media artifacts as a learning method has received little attention in human resource development (HRD) despite it being a predominate form of information and influence in popular culture. As Giroux (2002) opines, media functions as a form of public pedagogy by offering situations and contexts through which viewers can vicariously…

Hutchins, Holly M.; Bierema, Laura

2013-01-01

23

Adult Learning and Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These eight conference papers discuss adult learning, instructional theory, and related issues in research and practice. Focusing on processes of educational change, the first paper considers how experienced teachers, educational theorists, and researchers possessing empirically tested knowledge can cooperate in program planning. The next paper…

Grabowski, Stanley M., Ed.

24

Toward Constructivism for Adult Learners in Online Learning Environments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the impact of constructivism in online learning environments with adult learners. Reviews theories of constructivism and of adult learning and considers interactive learning, collaborative learning, authentic learning, learner-centered learning, and higher order thinking skills. (Author/LRW)

Huang, Hsiu-Mei

2002-01-01

25

An overview of adult-learning processes.  

PubMed

Part of being an effective instructor involves understanding how adults learn best. Theories of adult education are based on valuing the prior learning and experience of adults. Adult learners have different learning styles which must be assessed prior to initiating any educational session. Health care providers can maximize teaching moments by incorporating specific adult-learning principles and learning styles into their teaching strategies. PMID:17078322

Russell, Sally S

2006-10-01

26

Applying Social Learning Theory of Career Decision Making to Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender, and Questioning Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Incorporating J. D. Krumboltz's (1979) social learning theory of career decision making, the author explores career development issues for gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (GLBTQ) adolescents and young adults. Unique challenges for the GLBTQ population are discussed, specific recommendations for effective career counseling with…

Datti, Paul A.

2009-01-01

27

Examination of the teaching styles of nursing professional development specialists, part I: best practices in adult learning theory, curriculum development, and knowledge transfer.  

PubMed

The American Nurses Association advocates for nursing professional development (NPD) specialists to have an earned graduate degree, as well as educational and clinical expertise. However, many NPD specialists have limited exposure to adult learning theory. Limited exposure to adult learning theory may affect NPD educational practices, learning outcomes, organizational knowledge transfer, and subsequently, the professional development of the nurses they serve and quality of nursing care. An examination of current teaching practices may reveal opportunities for NPD specialists to enhance educational methods to promote learning, learning transfer, and organizational knowledge and excellence. This article, the first in a two-part series, examines best practices of adult learning theories, nursing professional development, curriculum design, and knowledge transfer. Part II details the results of a correlational study that examined the effects of four variables on the use of adult learning theory to guide curriculum development for NPD specialists in hospitals. PMID:24779716

Curran, Mary K

2014-05-01

28

Enhancing Learning in Training and Adult Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book, which is designed to prepare individuals to become workplace consultants, examines the theory and practice of enhancing learning in training and adult education. The following are among the topics discussed: putting cognition theory into practice in instruction; cognitive science perspective on adult learning (adults as learners, three…

Morgan, Ronald R.; Ponticell, Judith A.; Gordon, Edward E.

29

Poststructural Feminist Pedagogies: The Possibilities and Limitations of Feminist Emancipatory Adult Learning Theory and Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper compares, contrasts, and examines the theoretical underpinnings of three strands of feminist pedagogy—the psychological models; the structural models; and poststructural feminist pedagogies-as they relate to critical pedagogy and the wider adult learning literature around four major themes: (1) the construction of knowledge; (2) voice; (3) authority; and (4) positionality. It is argued that poststructural feminist pedagogies which foreground

Elizabeth J. Tisdell

1998-01-01

30

Learning as Transformation: Critical Perspectives on a Theory in Progress. The Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stemming from a 1998 Columbia University conference on transformative learning, this 3-part book contains 12 articles that examine the concept of how adults learn to change ("transform") their frames of reference. The following are included in Part One: Developing Concepts of Transformative Learning: "Learning To Think Like an Adult: Core Concepts…

Mezirow, Jack, Ed.

31

Integration of Andragogy in Adult Second Language Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Current adult learning theory roots from andragogy. Andrag ogy, a method of adult learning based on six assumptions about adult learners, can be applied to adult second language acquisition with adults. Section 1 details the history of adult learning, the foundations of andragogy, and the debates regarding the method. Section 2 will search for similarities between the foundations of

Laura Middaugh

32

Adult Learning and Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As individuals and societies try to respond to fundamental economic and social transformation, the field of adult learning and education is rapidly getting increased attention and new topics for research on adult learning have emerged. This collection of articles from the International Encyclopedia of Education 3e offers practitioners and…

Rubenson, Kjell, Ed.

2011-01-01

33

Dimensions of Adult Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This broad introduction to adult and postcompulsory education offers an overview of the field for students, adult educators and workplace trainers. The book establishes an analytical framework to emphasize the nature of learning and agency of learners; examines the core knowledge and skills that adult educators need; discusses policy, research and…

Foley, Griff, Ed.

2004-01-01

34

Interdisciplinary Handbook of Adult Lifespan Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is divided into three parts: theories and models, learning in specific life contexts, and the influence of aging on learning. Chapters include: "Chaos Theory as a Framework for Understanding Adult Lifespan Learning" (John C. Cavanaugh, Lisa C. McGuire); "The Future Impact of the Communication Revolution" (Lynn Johnson); "The Educated…

Sinnott, Jan D., Ed.

35

Adult Learning Matters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adult Learners' Week--which is supported by the Department for Innovation, Universities and Skills and the European Social Fund, amongst a raft of other organisations--is all about raising demand for learning. At its core, the campaign is about encouraging under-represented groups--including low-skilled, unemployed and low-paid adults and those…

Thomson, Rachel

2009-01-01

36

Cognition and Learning in Young Adults.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report surveys the literature on cognition and learning in young adults. First an outline of a theory of the cognition-learning system is presented with particular attention to differences between young adults and other age groups in information proc...

R. E. Snow, D. F. Lohman

1981-01-01

37

Adults Learning Mathematics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Adults Learning Mathematics (ALM) organization is "an international research forum bringing together researchers and practitioners in adult mathematics/numeracy teaching and learning in order to promote the learning of mathematics by adults." The site contains sections such as "For teachers", "For PhD students", and "For policy makers". The "For teachers" area includes links to the ALM newsletters and their resources, which include downloadable posters and factsheets. Moving along, the "For PhD students" area includes information for those doctoral students that are seeking to incorporate pedagogical techniques for teaching math to adults in their research. Additionally, the "For policy makers" area includes helpful documents such as "High stakes assessment: Assessing numeracy for Nursing in two recent projects".

38

Who Needs Learning Theory Anyway?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Looks at a variety of learning theories: andragogy, behaviorism, cognitivism, conditions of learning, Gestalt, and social learning. Addresses the difficulty of selecting an appropriate theory for training. (JOW)

Zemke, Ron

2002-01-01

39

Adult Learning and HRD. Symposium.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This symposium on adult learning and human resource development consists of three presentations. "Adult Learning Principles and Concepts in the Workplace: Implications for Training in HRD" (Margot B. Weinstein) reports on findings from interviews with restaurant employees who reported that training practices using adult learning principles…

2002

40

Podcasting as Complement to Graduate Teaching: Does It Accommodate Adult Learning Theories?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Technology in higher education has exploded within the last decade, as educators become more knowledgeable about its uses and students become more demanding of access and convenience to teaching and learning. This article shares results of an exploratory study that determined graduate students' perceptions of podcasting access and utility in…

Luna, Gaye; Cullen, Deborah

2011-01-01

41

Enhancing Adult Learning through Interdisciplinary Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This examination of the pedagogical and curricular characteristics and imperatives of an interdisciplinary studies program for adult learners, within a wider context of theory and practice, draws on the example of a general education course to demonstrate the vitality between interdisciplinary thinking and adult learning.

Ntiri, Daphne W.; Schindler, Roslyn Abt; Henry, Stuart

2004-01-01

42

Adult Learning and Numeracy: Introduction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article was to explore the marginalization of adult mathematics learning within education. The problem is adult education subsumes adult mathematics learning under the umbrella of literacy. Literacy and numeracy compared in terms of their quantities of funding, directed projects, ERIC submissions, and published dissertations.…

Kantner, M. Joanne

2009-01-01

43

The discipline of hospital development: a conceptual framework incorporating marketing, managerial, consumer behavior, and adult learning theories.  

PubMed

The purpose of this explanatory and prescriptive article is to identify interdisciplinary theories used by hospital development to direct its practice. The article explores, explains, and applies theories and principles from behavioral, social, and managerial disciplines. Learning, motivational, organizational, marketing, and attitudinal theories are incorporated and transformed into the fundamental components of a conceptual framework that provides an overview of the practice of hospital development. How this discipline incorporates these theories to design, explain, and prescribe the focus of its own practice is demonstrated. This interdisciplinary approach results in a framework for practice that is adaptable to changing social, cultural, economic, political, and technological environments. PMID:9510737

Shirley, S; Stampfl, R

1997-12-01

44

Recruitment and replacement of hippocampal neurons in young and adult chickadees: an addition to the theory of hippocampal learning.  

PubMed Central

We used [3H]thymidine to document the birth of neurons and their recruitment into the hippocampal complex (HC) of juvenile (4.5 months old) and adult blackcapped chickadees (Parus atricapillus) living in their natural surroundings. Birds received a single dose of [3H]thymidine in August and were recaptured and killed 6 weeks later, in early October. All brains were stained with Cresyl violet, a Nissl stain. The boundaries of the HC were defined by reference to the ventricular wall, the brain surface, or differences in neuronal packing density. The HC of juveniles was as large as or larger than that of adults and packing density of HC neurons was 31% higher in juveniles than in adults. Almost all of the 3H-labeled HC neurons were found in a 350-m-wide layer of tissue adjacent to the lateral ventricle. Within this layer the fraction of 3H-labeled neurons was 50% higher in juveniles than in adults. We conclude that the HC of juvenile chickadees recruits more neurons and has more neurons than that of adults. We speculate that juveniles encounter greater environmental novelty than adults and that the greater number of HC neurons found in juveniles allows them to learn more than adults. At a more general level, we suggest that (i) long-term learning alters HC neurons irreversibly; (ii) sustained hippocampal learning requires the periodic replacement of HC neurons; (iii) memories coded by hippocampal neurons are transferred elsewhere before the neurons are replaced. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2

Barnea, A; Nottebohm, F

1996-01-01

45

Principles of Adult Learning Scale.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Principles of Adult Learning Scale (PALS) was developed and validated for measuring congruency between adult education practitioners' actual observable classroom behavior and their expressed belief in the collaborative teaching-learning mode. This model is a learner-centered instruction method in which learner and practitioner share authority…

Conti, Gary J.

46

Notes & Quotes on Adult Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is a review of literature on adult learning, assembled in a computer-printout format. It brings together brief statements made by authors on the various major aspects of individual and social (associational) learning, as well as information on planning and evaluation. The document also contains a glossary of adult education terms and…

Dobson, John R. A.

47

Cultural Influences on Adult Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five projects are reported that examined factors related to adult learning in nontraditional environments. "Conrad, Montana: A Community of Memories" (Janice Counter, Lynn Paul, and Gary Conti) reports on a group of adults who for over 40 years have been active in building a better community for friends, relatives, and themselves. A 17-item…

Conti, Gary J., Ed.; Fellenz, Robert A., Ed.

48

Travel and Adult Transformative Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This phenomenological research study examines the lived experience of individual adult transformation in the context of travel. Adults throughout history have experienced profound personal and perception changes as a result of significant travel events. Transformative learning occurs through experience, crisis, and reflection, all of which are…

Lindstrom, Steven K.

2011-01-01

49

Adult Learning in the Workplace.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains four papers from a symposium on adult learning in the workplace. The first paper, "Measuring Critical Thinking: Is There a Single Instrument?" (Patricia K. Leitsch, Carol A. Lentz), examines two issues: the relationship between tests measuring critical thinking and those measuring readiness for self-directed learning and the…

1997

50

The Learning Disabled Adult Offender.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the prevalence of learning disabilities among 189 male inmates in a county jail setting. If inmates scored below the sixth-grade level, they were further tested. From this procedure, it was concluded that there is a much higher rate of learning disabilities among the adult offender population than among the general…

Tevis, Marlan P.; Orem, Richard A.

1985-01-01

51

Online Education and Adult Learning: New Frontiers for Teaching Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The expanding field of adult learning encompasses the study and practice of utilizing sound instructional design principals, technology, and learning theory as a means to solve educational challenges and human performance issues relating to adults, often occurring online. This book disseminates current issues and trends emerging in the field of…

Kidd, Terry T., Ed.

2010-01-01

52

Reviewing the Evidence on How Adult Students Learn: An Examination of Knowles' Model of Andragogy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While there may be similarities between adults and children in how they learn (such as language, interaction and communication), many writers argue that adult learners are different from child learners in a number of ways. This article aims to review how adults learn through examining one particular theory of adult learning. Two conflicting…

McGrath, Valerie

2009-01-01

53

Organizational Learning Theory in Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The paper's purposes are to establish organizational learning theory as evolving from the theoretical and empirical study of organizations and to build grounded theory explaining organizational learning in schools. Design/methodology/approach: Implementation of instructional technology as a process of organizational learning was explored…

Fauske, Janice R.; Raybould, Rebecca

2005-01-01

54

Adult Learning Program Service (ALPS).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Adult Learning Program Service (ALPS) aims to reach eight and a half million adults between ages 25 and 44 and teach them reading and math skills they can use at home and on the job. ALPS proposes to reach those who have never finished high school but do have at least a sixth-grade reading level. They could use their new skills to prepare for…

Carlisle, Robert

55

Toward A Theory of HRD Learning Participation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article fills a gap by identifying an under-studied area for learning participation (LP) in HRD theory building. A literature review is presented to identify gaps in adult education and HRD literature. An HRD LP framework is then proposed, from cross-sectional/time-series perspectives, to describe the pattern, factors, structure, and the…

Wang, Greg G.; Wang, Jia

2005-01-01

56

Using Adult Learning Concepts To Assist Patients in Completing Advance Directives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Advance directives that enable individuals to control their health care are underused due to lack of patient knowledge. Nurses can teach patients about them using adult learning principles, transformation theory, and skills for learning how to learn. (SK)

Meyer, Rose Mary

2000-01-01

57

Where Now for Adult Learning?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With 6 billion British pounds of public spending reductions already on the table, and far deeper cuts inevitable, what are the prospects for adult learning in the new Parliament? Some of the regular contributors of this journal were asked what they expected and what they would like to see. Ewart Keep warns that the coalition parties' commitments…

Keep, Ewart; Rogers, David; Hunt, Sally; Walden, Christopher; Fryer, Bob; Gorard, Stephen; Williams, Ceri; Jones, Wendy; Hartley, Ralph

2010-01-01

58

Barriers to Adult Learning: Bridging the Gap  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A fundamental aspect of adult education is engaging adults in becoming lifelong learners. More often than not, this requires removing barriers to learning, especially those relating to the actual organisational or institutional learning process. This article explores some of the main barriers to adult learning discussed in the literature and…

Falasca, Marina

2011-01-01

59

A Phenomenological Study of Learning Processes at Work: Confirming, Extending, and Challenging Holistic Learning Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Holistic learning theory (Yang, 2003) identified explicit, implicit, and emancipatory knowledge facets in learning. A phenomenological study of how participants' experienced interactions between knowledge facets showed the facets expressed, informed, changed, and guided one another. The complexity of learning and the role of spirituality in learning were explored. In adult education and human resource development literature, spirituality is discussed in

Suzanne J. Gallagher

60

Learning How to Learn: Implications for Non Traditional Adult Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, learning how to learn for non traditional adult students is discussed with a focus on police officers and firefighters. Learning how to learn is particularly relevant for all returning non-traditional adults; however in the era of terrorism it is critical for the public safety officers returning to college after years of absence…

Tovar, Lynn A.

2008-01-01

61

Left Brain/Right Brain Learning for Adult Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contrasts and compares the theory and practice of adult education as it relates to the issue of right brain/left brain learning. The author stresses the need for a whole-brain approach to teaching and suggests that adult educators, given their philosophical directions, are the perfect potential users of this integrated system. (Editor/CT)

Garvin, Barbara

1986-01-01

62

The Design of Online Learning Communities for Older Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the creation of SeniorSage, an eight week facilitated online learning community for older adult volunteers in a Florida learning center. Discusses how members were prepared to participate in the community, explains the instructional design theory that guided the development of SeniorSage, and recommends future research. (Author/LRW)

Snyder, Marti M.

2002-01-01

63

Adult Learning and the Future of Work.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains 15 papers: "Introduction" (Madhu Singh); "Adult Learning and the Transformation of Work" (Paul Belanger); "Future of Work and Adult Learning" (Ettore Gelpi); "The Obligation of Education in the Face of Globalisation" (Nicole Arnaud); "Lifelong Learning and Vocational Education and Training: A Teacher's and Trade Union View"…

Singh, Madhu, Ed.

64

Learning Interests and Experiences of Adult Americans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document reports on one of a series of three surveys conducted on behalf of the Commission on Non-Traditional Study. The chief purpose of this study is to describe in detail the potential market for adult learning. A second general purpose is to analyze the learning activities of men and women who are engaged in adult learning. To gather this…

Carp, Abraham; And Others

65

Distance education and adult learning.  

PubMed

It is argued that interaction plays a crucial role in any humane distance education program that aims to be widely effective. Thus far, nonformal education has been neglected in the development of distance education. The argument for expansion of nonformal education is 2-fold: much of the world's population has been deprived of formal educational opportunities as children, and, as adults their educational needs are practical, immediate, and life-related rather than certificate-oriented; and the ability to reach most adults with traditional class-based adult education is strictly limited, particularly in the developing world where the need is greatest. The advantages of distance education include economy, the ability to enter into students' homes, and the flexibility of time and place. There also are some problems. A large number of the educationally deprived also are illiterate, so print, the central component of distance education, is of limited direct individual use. Additionally, nonformal education often teaches practical skills for immediate application, but distance education methods have notorious difficulty teaching practical subjects. Consequently, if distance education is to be used, it should be used in group learning situations. 3 examples of nonformal educational programs that have used distance education in this way are cited as excellent illustrations. The program in Zambia has been in existence for several years. The Pakistan program has grown from a small research project into a university program. The Ghana program remains in the planning stage. In all 3 examples, the target audiences are educationally-deprived rural populations in developing countries. The subject matter in all 3 is of vital concern to their livelihood and well-being. The aim of each program is to reach large numbers of people scattered across wide areas with limited financial and personal resources. Different combinations of media and different organizational and materials development approaches are used, but all combine distance-learning media and group interaction. All use media and packaged learning materials to enable people in remote areas to organize and lead groups of illiterate and neoliterate adults to learn and study together. The subjects they study and the group-learning methods being used lead to group decisions and group actions. PMID:12315713

Dodds, T

1988-01-01

66

The Emergence of Learning Societies: Who Participates in Adult Learning?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains nine papers in which data from the Adult Education Participation Survey (a part of the International Adult Literacy Survey) are used to identify and compare trends in organized learning in seven countries. The following papers are included: "Introduction: Who Participates in Organized Adult Learning?" (Paul Belanger, Sofia…

Belanger, Paul, Ed.; Valdivielso, Sofia, Ed.

67

Adult Learning Principles in Designing Learning Activities for Teacher Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research reported in this paper is an investigation of the application of adult learning principles in designing learning activities for teachers' life-long development. The exploration is illustrated by qualitative data from a case study of adult educators' and adult learners' insights and experiences of a teacher development course organised…

Gravani, Maria N.

2012-01-01

68

Learning Theory and Online Technologies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Learning Theory and Online Technologies" offers a powerful overview of the current state of elearning, a foundation of its historical roots and growth, and a framework for distinguishing among the major approaches to elearning. It effectively addresses pedagogy (how to design an effective online environment for learning), evaluation (how to know…

Harasim, Linda

2011-01-01

69

Learning a Theory of Causality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The very early appearance of abstract knowledge is often taken as evidence for innateness. We explore the relative learning speeds of abstract and specific knowledge within a Bayesian framework and the role for innate structure. We focus on knowledge about causality, seen as a domain-general intuitive theory, and ask whether this knowledge can be learned from co-occurrence of events. We

Noah D. Goodman; Tomer D. Ullman; Joshua B. Tenenbaum

2011-01-01

70

Learning a theory of causality.  

PubMed

The very early appearance of abstract knowledge is often taken as evidence for innateness. We explore the relative learning speeds of abstract and specific knowledge within a Bayesian framework and the role for innate structure. We focus on knowledge about causality, seen as a domain-general intuitive theory, and ask whether this knowledge can be learned from co-occurrence of events. We begin by phrasing the causal Bayes nets theory of causality and a range of alternatives in a logical language for relational theories. This allows us to explore simultaneous inductive learning of an abstract theory of causality and a causal model for each of several causal systems. We find that the correct theory of causality can be learned relatively quickly, often becoming available before specific causal theories have been learned--an effect we term the blessing of abstraction. We then explore the effect of providing a variety of auxiliary evidence and find that a collection of simple perceptual input analyzers can help to bootstrap abstract knowledge. Together, these results suggest that the most efficient route to causal knowledge may be to build in not an abstract notion of causality but a powerful inductive learning mechanism and a variety of perceptual supports. While these results are purely computational, they have implications for cognitive development, which we explore in the conclusion. PMID:21244189

Goodman, Noah D; Ullman, Tomer D; Tenenbaum, Joshua B

2011-01-01

71

Learning domain theories  

Microsoft Academic Search

By a 'domain theory' we mean a collection of facts and generalisations or rules which capture what commonly happens (or does not happen) in some domain of interest. As language users, we implicitly draw on such theories in various disambiguation tasks, such as anaphora resolution and prepositional phrase attachment, and formal encodings of domain theories can be used for this

Stephen G. Pulman; Maria Liakata

2003-01-01

72

Learning How to Learn in Adult Education. Information Series No. 10.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is a tentative effort to lay out some of the components and implications of the "learning how to learn" concept. It is intended to be used in theory building and practical applications in the realm of adult education. Four chapters are included: The Concept (with the subheadings Concerning Terminology, The Learner's Needs, Some…

Smith, Robert M.

73

Adult Literacy, Learning Identities and Pedagogic Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the relationship between persistence in adult literacy and numeracy programs, changes in the participants' attitudes to engaging in learning and pedagogic practices using data from eight Scottish literacy education organizations. It argues that literacy learning can act as a resource that enables vulnerable adults to change…

Crowther, Jim; Maclachlan, Kathy; Tett, Lyn

2010-01-01

74

Adult Education: Resource Guide and Learning Standards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is designed to link New York's learning standards with curriculum goals and objectives developed by adult education (AE) practitioners. It includes learning standards for English language arts (ELA) and mathematics, two areas identified by AE practitioners as the most important for beginning adult learners. Also provided are curriculum…

Hudson River Center for Program Development, Glenmont, NY.

75

An Overview of Adult Learning Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An overview of adult learning disabilities is presented with an emphasis on the most recent developments in the field. Areas discussed are definition, characteristics, current literature, and program design. Various definitions of a learning disabled adult are identified and the problems associated with these definitions are considered. The…

Haig, Joan M.; Patterson, Becky H.

76

View, 2000: Commentaries on Adult Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet is compiled from all the Adult Learning Australia (ALA) Commentaries produced in 2000. Emailed to ALA members each week, ALA Commentaries are written by people in the field of adult learning in the broadest sense, usually in Australia, sometimes overseas, and designed to stimulate discussion. ALA hosts an online discussion forum about…

Adult Learning Australia, Inc., Jamison.

77

Do Children and Adults Learn Differently?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article addresses a question that was a topic of debate in the middle decades of the 20th century but was then abandoned as interest in children's learning declined. The question is, does learning develop? In other words, does the learning process it- self undergo age-related change, or does it remain invariant ontogenetically and phylogenetically, as early learning theories claimed?

Deanna Kuhn; Maria Pease

2006-01-01

78

Physical Criteria for Adult Learning Environments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development of learning environments especially for adults has been neglected and research in planning such environments is fragmented and minimal. There is general agreement that facilities for adults should have an aura of adulthood to contribute to an adult's feeling of ease, confidence, and capability; that they should be flexible in room…

White, Sally

79

High School Students' Implicit Theories of What Facilitates Science Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Research has primarily concentrated on adults' implicit theories about high quality science education for all students. Little work has considered the students' perspective. This study investigated high school students' implicit theories about what helped them learn science. Purpose: This study addressed (1) What characterizes high…

Parsons, Eileen Carlton; Miles, Rhea; Petersen, Michael

2011-01-01

80

Media and Adult Learning. Volume 3, Number 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two articles are presented relevant to media and adult learning. In the first article, "The Pedagogy of Communication: Conscientization through Mass Media," David G. Gueulette sets forth ideas derived from Freire's theory of literacy training and suggests means by which effective teaching strategies can be developed through popular mass media…

Collins, Michael, Ed.; And Others

1981-01-01

81

Practice Theory in Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ortega (2011) has argued that second language acquisition is stronger and better after the social turn. Of the post-cognitive approaches she reviews, several focus on the social context of language learning rather than on language as the central phenomenon. In this article, we present Practice Theory not as yet another approach to language…

Young, Richard F.; Astarita, Alice C.

2013-01-01

82

On the necessity of distance learning courseware building for EFL adult learners  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author firstly analyzes the background and current situation of distance English learning for EFL adult students and points out the necessity of building distance learning courseware to update the teaching concepts and to improve teaching efficiency. The theoretical foundations for distance learning courseware construction are Independent Learning Theory and Interest Principle. In this paper, the author gives a perspective

Bi Huiying

2011-01-01

83

Advanced Learning Theories Applied to Leadership Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the development and implementation of an application of advanced learning theories to leadership development. A literature review was conducted to identify advanced learning theories that have been used across disciplines. These lear...

C. Curnow E. Weingart K. Nicely R. Calderon R. Mulvaney

2006-01-01

84

Learned-Helplessness Theory: Implications for Research in Learning Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The application of learned helplessness theory to achievement is discussed within the context of implications for research in learning disabilities. Finally, the similarities between helpless children and learning disabled students in terms of problems solving and attention are discussed. (Author)

Canino, Frank J.

1981-01-01

85

A Neuropsychological Theory of Motor Skill Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a neuropsychological theory of motor-skill learning that is based on the idea that learning grows directly out of motor-control processes. The theory accounts for patterns of impairment of motor-skill learning in patient populations and for learning-related changes in activity in functional imaging studies. (SLD)

Willingham, Daniel B.

1998-01-01

86

Self-Directed Learning: Emerging Theory & Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains the following collection of papers: "Self-Directed Learning: Emerging Theory and Practice" (Long); "Self-Directed Orientation toward Learning: A Learning Style" (Bonham); "Self-Direction and Problem Solving: Theory and Method" (Peters); "Facilitating Self-Directed Learning: Not a Contradiction in Terms" (Garrison); "Development…

Long, Huey B.; And Others

87

Transformation for Adults in an Internet-Based Learning Environment--Is It Necessary to Be Self-Directed?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research explores the relationships between self-directed learning readiness and transformative learning theory (TLT) reflected by the Constructivist Internet-based Learning Environment Scale (CILES). A questionnaire survey about adult learner's perceptions of Internet-based learning was administered to adults enrolled in classes in community…

Chu, Regina Juchun; Chu, Anita Zichun; Weng, Cathy; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Lin, Chia-chun

2012-01-01

88

Towards a Theory of Mobile Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

A first step in postulating a theory of mobile learning is to distinguish what is special about mobile learning compared to other types of learning activity. An obvious, yet essential, difference is that it starts from the assumption that learners are continually on the move. We learn across space as we take ideas and learning resources gained in one location

Mike Sharples; Josie Taylor; Giasemi Vavoula

89

Adult Learning and Literacy in Canada  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Chapter Six, Linda Shohet offers a description of the adult literacy and learning system in Canada. In providing a historical overview of the development of the field, Shohet notes key political events that have influenced the funding and development of services for adults. Through her description, the author reveals the complexity and…

Shohet, Linda

2001-01-01

90

Learning Style Preferences among Older Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results from the Kolb Learning Style Inventory for 172 older adults showed them evenly distributed across Accommodator (ages 55-65), Diverger (66-74), and Assimilator (75+) styles, with few Convergers. With age, it appears that adults tend to become more observational and reflective. (SK)

Truluck, Janet E.; Courtenay, Bradley C.

1999-01-01

91

An Exploratory Study of Adult Learning Styles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The exploratory study focused on the existence, variability, and effectiveness of adult learning styles among participants receiving computer-based instruction in the metric system. A pretest was administered to 75 adults not currently involved in formal educational programs, and 40 participants were selected whose pretest indicated no knowledge…

Elliott, Paul H.

92

Adult Degrees and the Learning Society  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This overview of the adult degree movement since World War II focuses on factors of creation before 1970, the adult degree revolution of the 1970s, the post-baby boomer enrollments in the 1980s, and globalization and technology-based distance learning in the 1990s.

Maehl, William H.

2004-01-01

93

A Grounded Theory of Adult Student Persistence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This grounded theory study investigates adult student persistence at a community college. Student persistence in college is a prerequisite for degree achievement, which correlates with higher earnings and overall better quality of life. Persistence rates remain low for adult students, who combine their college endeavors with responsibilities to…

Capps, Rosemary

2010-01-01

94

Olfactory perceptual learning requires adult neurogenesis  

PubMed Central

Perceptual learning is required for olfactory function to adapt appropriately to changing odor environments. We here show that newborn neurons in the olfactory bulb are not only involved in, but necessary for, olfactory perceptual learning. First, the discrimination of perceptually similar odorants improves in mice after repeated exposure to the odorants. Second, this improved discrimination is accompanied by an elevated survival rate of newborn inhibitory neurons, preferentially involved in processing of the learned odor, within the olfactory bulb. Finally, blocking neurogenesis before and during the odorant exposure period prevents this learned improvement in discrimination. Olfactory perceptual learning is thus mediated by the reinforcement of functional inhibition in the olfactory bulb by adult neurogenesis.

Moreno, Melissa M.; Linster, Christiane; Escanilla, Olga; Sacquet, Joelle; Didier, Anne; Mandairon, Nathalie

2009-01-01

95

Assessment of Adults with Severe Learning Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessment models used with school-age samples require modification for use with adults having severe learning disabilities. At Fordham University's Comprehensive Learning Program, a screening session determines the mutual suitability of the client and the program being offered; subsequent comprehensive assessment of cognitive, educational,…

Hagin, Rosa A.; And Others

1994-01-01

96

Actors vs. Animation for Adult Learning ?  

Microsoft Academic Search

While computer based training has been around for decades, the marriage of games and education is not so old. Given that education often focuses on the learning of children and children love playing games, the marriage is destined to last. What is not so clear is whether playing games is suited to adult learning. Our focus is on workplace training

Debbie Richards; Jason Barles

97

Verbal and novel multisensory associative learning in adults  

PubMed Central

To date, few studies have focused on the behavioural differences between the learning of multisensory auditory-visual and intra-modal associations. More specifically, the relative benefits of novel auditory-visual and verbal-visual associations for learning have not been directly compared. In Experiment 1, 20 adult volunteers completed three paired associate learning tasks: non-verbal novel auditory-visual (novel-AV), verbal-visual (verbal-AV; using pseudowords), and visual-visual (shape-VV). Participants were directed to make a motor response to matching novel and arbitrarily related stimulus pairs. Feedback was provided to facilitate trial and error learning. The results of Signal Detection Theory analyses suggested a multisensory enhancement of learning, with significantly higher discriminability measures (d-prime) in both the novel-AV and verbal-AV tasks than the shape-VV task. Motor reaction times were also significantly faster during the verbal-AV task than during the non-verbal learning tasks.  Experiment 2 (n = 12) used a forced-choice discrimination paradigm to assess whether a difference in unisensory stimulus discriminability could account for the learning trends in Experiment 1. Participants were significantly slower at discriminating unisensory pseudowords than the novel sounds and visual shapes, which was notable given that these stimuli produced superior learning. Together the findings suggest that verbal information has an added enhancing effect on multisensory associative learning in adults

Crewther, Sheila G

2013-01-01

98

Adult Learning Principles and Presentation Pearls  

PubMed Central

Although lectures are one of the most common methods of knowledge transfer in medicine, their effectiveness has been questioned. Passive formats, lack of relevance and disconnection from the student's needs are some of the arguments supporting this apparent lack of efficacy. However, many authors have suggested that applying adult learning principles (i.e., relevance, congruence with student's needs, interactivity, connection to student's previous knowledge and experience) to this method increases learning by lectures and the effectiveness of lectures. This paper presents recommendations for applying adult learning principles during planning, creation and development of lectures to make them more effective.

Palis, Ana G.; Quiros, Peter A.

2014-01-01

99

Situated learning theory versus traditional cognitive learning theory: Why management education should not ignore management learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the differences between situated learning theory (SLT) and traditional cognitive theory (TCT). SLT is\\u000a distinctive because it perceives learning to be a socially relational rather than a mentalist process. SLT places research\\u000a attention upon knowledge productionin situ and in the course of work practices rather than upon learning transmission in the classroom. This paper argues that SLT's

Stephen Fox

1997-01-01

100

Radical Learning for Liberation. Maynooth Adult and Community Education Occasional Series Number 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The six articles in this first issue comprise a critical discourse about theories, practices, and research with the intent of realizing the potential of adult learning to bring about social change. "Adult Education and Empowerment for Individual and Community Development" (Jack Mezirow) outlines and updates the author's transformation theory of…

Connolly, Brid, Ed.; Fleming, Ted, Ed.; McCormack, David, Ed.; Ryan, Anne, Ed.

101

Learning Performance Support System for Adult Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a As adults are often encountering some problems or issues in their workplace, some meaningful advices or guides are expected.\\u000a Based on the advices, they solve the issues, which can also be called as a kind of \\

Ji-Ping Zhang

2010-01-01

102

E-Learning Implications for Adult Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

If a few decades ago, "the education received in school could be in most of the cases enough to go with for the rest of one's entire life," today the situation has changed dramatically. The individual has to be prepared for a new type of life and training, namely lifelong learning. The individual's survival in society could…

Criu, Roxana; Ceobanu, Ciprian

2013-01-01

103

Supervising Adults with Learning Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended for employers, supervisors, and coworkers, the booklet presents guidelines for accommodating learning disabled (LD) employees. An introductory section explains the condition, describing its nature and the range of impairments it includes. Five types of learning disabilities are identified: visual, auditory, motor, tactile, and academic.…

Brown, Dale

104

A Beautiful Metaphor: Transformative Learning Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a critique of both transformative learning theory and critical comments on it to date. It argues that transformative learning theory remains substantively the same as its initial exposition, in spite of a raft of problematic contentions voiced against it. The theory is argued here to be conceptually problematic, except at the…

Howie, Peter; Bagnall, Richard

2013-01-01

105

Theories of Learning for the Workplace: Building Blocks for Training and Professional Development Programs. Routledge Psychology in Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Workplace and professional learning, lifelong learning, adult learning, learning in different contexts have become of more and more interest and now dominate all aspects of 21st century life. Learning is no longer about "storing and recall" but "development and flow". "Theories of Learning in the Workplace" offers fascinating overviews into some…

Dochy, Filip; Gijbels, David; Segers, Mien; Van den Bossche, Piet

2011-01-01

106

Applying adult learning practices in medical education.  

PubMed

The application of the best practices of teaching adults to the education of adults in medical education settings is important in the process of transforming learners to become and remain effective physicians. Medical education at all levels should be designed to equip physicians with the knowledge, clinical skills, and professionalism that are required to deliver quality patient care. The ultimate outcome is the health of the patient and the health status of the society. In the translational science of medical education, improved patient outcomes linked directly to educational events are the ultimate goal and are best defined by rigorous medical education research efforts. To best develop faculty, the same principles of adult education and teaching adults apply. In a systematic review of faculty development initiatives designed to improve teaching effectiveness in medical education, the use of experiential learning, feedback, effective relationships with peers, and diverse educational methods were found to be most important in the success of these programs. In this article, we present 5 examples of applying the best practices in teaching adults and utilizing the emerging understanding of the neurobiology of learning in teaching students, trainees, and practitioners. These include (1) use of standardized patients to develop communication skills, (2) use of online quizzes to assess knowledge and aid self-directed learning, (3) use of practice sessions and video clips to enhance significant learning of teaching skills, (4) use of case-based discussions to develop professionalism concepts and skills, and (5) use of the American Academy of Pediatrics PediaLink as a model for individualized learner-directed online learning. These examples highlight how experiential leaning, providing valuable feedback, opportunities for practice, and stimulation of self-directed learning can be utilized as medical education continues its dynamic transformation in the years ahead. PMID:24981666

Reed, Suzanne; Shell, Richard; Kassis, Karyn; Tartaglia, Kimberly; Wallihan, Rebecca; Smith, Keely; Hurtubise, Larry; Martin, Bryan; Ledford, Cynthia; Bradbury, Scott; Bernstein, Henry Hank; Mahan, John D

2014-07-01

107

Understanding Persistence in Adult Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper summarizes recent data on the retention and non-completion patterns of adult students, especially those over the age of 25 who have had a gap since completing full-time education. While data on further and higher education suggest that older learners are less likely than younger ones to complete longer, qualification-bearing programmes,…

McGivney, Veronica

2004-01-01

108

Accelerated Learning, Suggestopedia, and the Adult Student.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the possibility of conducting adult education courses based on the Accelerated Learning (A.L.) methodology and of evaluating its advantages and disadvantages vis a vis more traditional methods. It is not clear that the A.L. materials produce better results. Further study is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of the entire A.L.…

Schlick-Renner, Monique; Truscott, Sandra

1994-01-01

109

Accelerated Learning, Suggestopedia, and the Adult Student.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the use of suggestopedia and accelerated learning (AL) techniques in a 10-week French-as-a-Second-Language course for 13 adult learners. Course organization, lesson plans, and results, focusing on the effectiveness of AL techniques in short-term courses, are examined. (two references) (MDM)

Schlisk-Renner, Monique; Truscott, Sandra

1994-01-01

110

Personal Learning of Older, Rural Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is a summary of the findings of a research project that included ten older rural adults from a county in south Georgia. The research focused on self-directed learning. The researcher conducted two interviews with each participant over a two day period. The findings focused around four research questions: what is the nature of…

Roberson, Donald N., Jr.

2005-01-01

111

Graded Objectives for Adults Learning Russian.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the Graded Objectives for Adults Learning (GOLF) Russian program. The aim of the GOLF program is to have four levels, with Level Four being considered equivalent to a good GCSE pass, at which stage students will have a good working knowledge of the language and a wide vocabulary. (CK)

Purcell, Sue

1996-01-01

112

Breaking through Barriers to Adult Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the following barriers to adult learning: (1) motivation is dependent on usefulness of material; (2) ideas and values are fully formed and resistent to challenge; (3) students develop a negative self-image; and (4) students experience reentry shock and infantilization. Discusses an orientation course involving critical thinking designed…

Evans, Clyde

1989-01-01

113

Museums and Adults Learning: Perspectives from Europe.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains 28 papers presenting perspectives from Europe on museums and adult learning. The papers, each of which is devoted to a specific country, examine topics such as the following: further education and inservice training; programs for unemployed individuals; lectures and open days; elderly visitors; immigrants; refugees; disabled…

Chadwick, Alan, Ed.; Stannett, Annette, Ed.

114

Localism: The Changing Picture for Adult Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The rapidly changing picture on localism and the government's focus on local economic growth have significant implications for adult learning and skills providers in England. Government now sees a sense of place as key to economic growth and recognises the need for a renewed debate on how business and state interact with localities. There is a…

Lamb, Penny

2012-01-01

115

Springfield: Education for Adults with Learning Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present paper gives an overview of some of the modular day courses offered and, in some cases, developed by tutors at a former hospital school providing education to adults with severe learning disabilities. The aims of the courses were cognitive and personal development, as well as aesthetic and spiritual enrichment. Art history was offered…

Logan, Ellis

2002-01-01

116

Adult Learning and the New Austerity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The spending review brought a promise to protect adult and community learning as well as swingeing cuts to further and higher education and local government. In this article, some of the key players--Lynne Sedgmore, Christopher Brooks, Graham Hoyle, Maggie Galliers, Louise Hazel, Richard Bolsin, Maggi Dawson, Ruth Bond, Stuart Etherington, Brendan…

Adults Learning, 2010

2010-01-01

117

The Learning Industry. Education for Adult Workers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focuses on the connection between education and the world of work and the urgency of the endeavor to educate the work force. Part I considers the resources for adult learning in the United States, with a focus on the major providers outside the traditional education system. Technological resources that can extend educational…

Eurich, Nell P.

118

Serving To Learn. Adult Education Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual provides examples of how Service Learning can be integrated into the adult education curriculum. The integration of activities can add real-life experiences to the academic curriculum and help create the capacity for students to improve their school and community. The three types of service activities include: (1) direct activities…

Gibson, Kathy; And Others

119

Policy Review on Adult Learning: The Adult Non-Formal Education Policy of Mali, West Africa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on the issue of policy development for adult learning in Mali, West Africa. On January 2007, the Malian government adopted the "Adult Non-formal Education Policy Document," which was intended to regulate the adult learning sector and federate the actions of policy makers, adult education providers, and adult learners. The…

Gadio, Moussa

2011-01-01

120

Scandura's Structural Learning Theory: A Critique.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper offers a pragmatic critique of the instructional prescriptions based on Structural Learning Theory (SLT) conceived by Joseph M. Scandura in 1973. SLT is rooted in clarifying the roles of expository and discovery modes of problem solving in instruction. It is a cognitively oriented model combining learning theories, instructional…

Ikegulu, Nelson T.

121

How Adults Learn Forms the Foundation of the Learning Designs Standard  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning Forward's new Learning Designs standard is an important reminder that shaping professional learning as opportunities for adults to learn and grow is essential and that one's understanding of how adults learn is an essential component of this pressing goal. This article discusses the three strands of the Learning Designs standard: (1)…

Drago-Severson, Eleanor

2011-01-01

122

Online Collaborative Learning: Theory and Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Online Collaborative Learning: Theory and Practice" provides a resource for researchers and practitioners in the area of online collaborative learning (also known as CSCL, computer-supported collaborative learning), particularly those working within a tertiary education environment. It includes articles of relevance to those interested in both…

Roberts, Tim, Ed.

2004-01-01

123

Adult Learning in Health and Safety: Some Issues and Approaches.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document, which was developed for presentation at a seminar on adult learning and safety, examines approaches to occupational safety and health (OSH) learning/training in the workplace. Section 1 examines selected factors affecting adults' learning in workplace OSH programs. The principal dimensions along which individual adult learners will…

O Fathaigh, Mairtin

124

The Construction of a Magnitude Estimation Scale of Adult Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The psychophysical technique of magnitude estimation was used to develop a ratio scale of subjective estimations of adult learning in various adult education activities. A rank order of 26 learning activities and the magnitude estimations in "units of learning" that are expected to occur in each activity were obtained from 146 adult education…

Blunt, Adrian

125

Personal Adult Learning Lab (Pall). Implications for Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Personal Adult Learning Lab was establsiehd at the Georgia Center for Continuing Education (GCCE) at the University of Georgia to serve self-directed adult learners and conduct research on self-directed learning. The lab allows adult learners to design, conduct, and evaluate their personal learning experiences while proceeding at their own…

Klippel, Judith A.; And Others

126

Integrating Adult Learning and Technologies for Effective Education: Strategic Approaches  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As adult learners and educators pioneer the use of technology in the new century, attention has been focused on developing strategic approaches to effectively integrate adult learning and technology in different learning environments. "Integrating Adult Learning and Technologies for Effective Education: Strategic Approaches" provides innovative…

Wang, Victor C. X.

2010-01-01

127

Serving Adults with Learning Disabilities: Implications for Effective Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains four monographs on serving adults with learning disabilities. The preface (Mary Ann Corley) explains how the papers were commissioned. The primary and secondary characteristics of learning-disabled adults and the implications of those characteristics for adult literacy programs are discussed in "Characteristics of Adults

Lenz, B. Keith, Ed.; Sturomski, Neil A.; Corley, Mary Ann

128

Adult Numeracy Development: Theory, Research, Practice. Series on Literacy: Research, Policy, and Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains 16 papers on the theory, research, and practice of adult numeracy development. The following papers are included: "The Numeracy Challenge" (Iddo Gal); "Numeracy, Mathematics, and Adult Learning" (Diane Coben); "Building a Problem-Solving Environment for Teaching Mathematics" (Peter Kloosterman, Bin Hassan Mohamad-Ali, Lynda R.…

Gal, Iddo, Ed.

129

Theories and Methods for Research on Informal Learning and Work: Towards Cross-Fertilization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The topic of informal learning and work has quickly become a staple in contemporary work and adult learning research internationally. The narrow conceptualization of work is briefly challenged before the article turns to a review of the historical origins as well as contemporary theories and methods involved in researching informal learning and…

Sawchuk, Peter H.

2008-01-01

130

Adult Learning by Choice. Results of the CET LEARNING LINKS Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The LEARNING LINKS project was undertaken to expand opportunities for adult learning in nonformal, noneducational settings. It had the following three broad aims: stimulate student-negotiated learning, stimulate and support informal adult learning, and test the usefulness of microcomputers in an information service for adults. Over a period of 2…

Hall, Dorothea

131

Experiential learning: transforming theory into practice.  

PubMed

Whilst much is debated about the importance of experiential learning in curriculum development, the concept only becomes effective if it is applied in an appropriate way. We believe that this effectiveness is directly related to a sound understanding of the theory, supporting the learning. The purpose of this article is to introduce readers to the theories underpinning experiential learning, which are then expanded further in an AMEE Guide, which considers the theoretical basis of experiential learning from a social learning, constructionist perspective and applies it to three stages of medical education: early workplace experience, clerkships and residency. This article argues for the importance and relevance of experiential learning and addresses questions that are commonly asked about it. First, we answer the questions 'what is experiential learning?' and 'how does it relate to social learning theory?' to orientate readers to the principles on which our arguments are based. Then, we consider why those ideas (theories) are relevant to educators--ranging from those with responsibilities for curriculum design to 'hands-on' teachers and workplace supervisors. The remainder of this article discusses how experiential learning theories and a socio-cultural perspective can be applied in practice. We hope that this will give readers a taste for our more detailed AMEE Guide and the further reading recommended at the end of it. PMID:22288996

Yardley, Sarah; Teunissen, Pim W; Dornan, Tim

2012-01-01

132

Theory of Mind in Adults with HFA and Asperger Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Theory of mind was assessed in 32 adults with HFA, 29 adults with Asperger syndrome and 32 neurotypical adults. The HFA and Asperger syndrome groups were impaired in performance of the Strange stories test and the Faux-pas test and reported more theory of mind problems than the neurotypical adults. The three groups did not differ in performance of…

Spek, Annelies A.; Scholte, Evert M.; Van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina A.

2010-01-01

133

Improving Adult Learning and Professional Development in a Post-Conflict Area: The Case of Cambodia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

All over the world, international development organizations try to increase professional capacity of local staff. These attempts are thought to fail because of financial constraints, but this is just part of the story. Professional development and adult learning theories approach learning from a western perspective, while many developing societies…

Berkvens, Jan B. Y.; Kalyanpur, Maya; Kuiper, Wilmad; Van den Akker, Jan

2012-01-01

134

Adults' Learning Motivation: Expectancy of Success, Value, and the Role of Affective Memories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study tested the applicability of expectancy-value theory to adults' learning motivation. Motivation was measured as the anticipated reaction (AR) of German students (N = 300) to receiving their instructions in English as a new learning opportunity. We used structural equation modeling to test our hypotheses. Expectancies of success…

Gorges, Julia; Kandler, Christian

2012-01-01

135

The Studio Experience at the University of Georgia: An Example of Constructionist Learning for Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Studio curriculum in the Learning, Design, and Technology (formerly Instructional Technology) program at a large research-extensive university in the southeastern U.S. represents a deliberate application of contemporary theory of how adults learn complex information in ill-structured domains. The Studio curriculum, part of a graduate program…

Clinton, Gregory; Rieber, Lloyd P.

2010-01-01

136

The Impact of Team-Based Learning's Readiness Assurance Process on Virtually Isolated Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of the readiness assurance process of team-based learning (TBL) in virtually isolated settings. Many Internet sites offer courses for adults to use on their own without access to mentors or other learners. However, educational theory suggests that people learn better with others than by…

Barclay, Matthew W.

2011-01-01

137

Learning within a Situated Cognition Framework: Implications for Adult Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A qualitative study examined the uses to which 14 adult learners put their acquired knowledge from a graduate-level course in organizational behavior both in and outside classroom settings. The course goal was to empower learners to use organizational theory to improve the performance of vocational education personnel. The 14 learners, who ranged…

Black, Rhonda S.; Schell, John W.

138

Theories of Artificial Grammar Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Artificial grammar learning (AGL) is one of the most commonly used paradigms for the study of implicit learning and the contrast between rules, similarity, and associative learning. Despite five decades of extensive research, however, a satisfactory theoretical consensus has not been forthcoming. Theoretical accounts of AGL are reviewed, together…

Pothos, Emmanuel M.

2007-01-01

139

"Learning to Work" in Small Businesses: Learning and Training for Young Adults with Learning Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The paper alerts small business employers to new dictates of the Disability Discrimination Act (2005) as it applies to learning disabilities. Then the "Learning to Work" project featured in the paper offers small business employers a set of approaches and methods for the identification of a learning-disabled young adult candidate's…

Ruggeri-Stevens, Geoff; Goodwin, Susan

2007-01-01

140

Modern Learning Theories Provide Applications for Distance Learning Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports the findings of a recent empirical study that was conducted at a large university in the United States. The study compared the findings from modern learning theories to reported perceptions of undergraduate and graduate students taking courses in online learning environments. The intention of the study was to compare perceived…

Tesone, Dana V.; Severt, Denver; Carpenter, Monica L.

2008-01-01

141

Assessing learning styles of adults with intellectual difficulties.  

PubMed

The development of an electronic inventory to assess learning styles of adults with intellectual difficulties was seen as an inclusion strategy to aid learning and achievement. Some argue for the 'centrality of e-learning to educational diversity', for example. The use of VAK inventories (whether electronic or paper based), however, has been derogated as leading to theory-practice pedagogy that is misinterpreted and ill-informed. The focus here is dual in that the vigour and 'user friendliness' of the tool developed is analysed in the midst of a critical appraisal of its use. Assessments conducted using the inventory developed showed 34 percent of the participants have visual preferences, 34 percent have auditory, 23 percent have kinaesthetic, and 9 percent have multimodal learning preferences. Thus, this participant group requires a varied and diverse learning programme. The inventory was found to be user friendly but in need of further development, and would best be used as part of a self-reflective learning package. PMID:17287228

Lisle, Angela Mary

2007-03-01

142

An Interpretation of Dewey's Experiential Learning Theory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Experience and Education" (John Dewey, 1938) serves as a foundation piece of literature when discussing experiential learning. To facilitate a better understanding, a conceptual model was developed. In John Dewey's experiential learning theory, everything occurs within a social environment. Knowledge is socially constructed and based on…

Roberts, T. Grady

143

Motivation to Learn among Older Adults in Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study analyzed the survey on adults administered by the Ministry of Education in Taiwan in 2008, and logistic regression analysis showed a close relationship between learning motivations of older adults. The finding revealed that the higher age or the lower education attainment of older adults, the lower their learning motivation. The…

Chang, Dian-Fu; Lin, Sung-Po

2011-01-01

144

Project Upgrade. Working with Adults Who Have Learning Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is designed to help adult educators understand and meet the needs of adults with learning disabilities (ALDs). A research-substantiated rationale for remedial instruction for ALDs is presented in the introduction. Selected terms are defined, and common characteristics of ALDs are examined. Basic assumptions regarding adult learning

Manhattan Adult Learning and Resource Center, KS.

145

Technology and Adult Learning: A Collection of Current Perspectives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This newsletter contains nine articles covering the topic of technology and adult learning and exploring what has been achieved in the six years since the Office of Technology Assessment conducted a study on adult literacy and new technologies. Included are (1): "Technology and Adult Learning: A Collection of Current Perspectives" (Office of…

Literacy Practitioner, 1999

1999-01-01

146

Adult Learning, Health and Well-Being--Changing Lives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is increasingly important for adult educators to articulate more clearly their understanding of the benefits and outcomes of adult learning. This paper reviews existing evidence of the impact of participation in education, and particularly explores the relevance of recent studies of how learning has influenced adults' health and well-being.…

Field, John

2011-01-01

147

Older Adults' Motivation to Learn in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A limited amount of literature has discussed older adults in formal education, especially their motivations to learn in higher education. This study aims to understand older adults' learning in the context of higher education. Specifically, this study argues that higher education can function as a stimulating learning environment that helps older…

Lin, Yi-Yin

2011-01-01

148

Learning Disabled Adults in Postsecondary Education. 1987 Edition: Update.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The fact sheet provides basic information on postsecondary educational services for learning disabled (LD) adults. The handicap of learning disability is described and a brief checklist of typical characteristics of the learning disabled adult is provided. A discussion of options after high school precedes information on types of programs for LD…

Brill, Jay

149

Creating Adult Learning Communities through School-College Partnerships  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given the challenges of time and economics in education today, what are practical models for creating adult learning communities that improve teaching and learning in today's diverse classrooms? How do Americans foster and nurture adult learning communities once they are established? The authors have found that carefully crafted partnerships…

Gould, Holly C.; Brimijoin, Kay; Alouf, James L.; Mayhew, Mary Ann

2010-01-01

150

Investigating the Learning-Theory Foundations of Game-Based Learning: A Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Past studies on the issue of learning-theory foundations in game-based learning stressed the importance of establishing learning-theory foundation and provided an exploratory examination of established learning theories. However, we found research seldom addressed the development of the use or failure to use learning-theory foundations and…

Wu, W-H.; Hsiao, H-C.; Wu, P-L.; Lin, C-H.; Huang, S-H.

2012-01-01

151

The concept of experiential learning and John Dewey's theory of reflective thought and action  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conception of experiential learning is an established approach in the tradition of adult education theory. David Kolb' s four-stage model of experiential learning is a fundamental presentationof theapproach.Inhiswork ExperientialLearning,Kolb statesthatJohnDewey, Kurt Lewin and Jean Piaget are the founders of the approach. The article discusses Kolb' s eclectic method of constructing his model of experiential learning. It studies how Kolb

Reijo Miettinen

2000-01-01

152

Computer-Aided Learning for Adults: A New Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Similarities in content, methods, sequence, and social context between adult education and cognitive apprenticeship make the latter an appropriate approach for a computer-assisted learning program for adults. (SK)

De Bruijn, H. F. M.

1993-01-01

153

Consumption, Adult Learning, and Adult Education: Envisioning a Pedagogy of Consumption  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article I call for adult educators to begin taking consumption seriously as a site of adult learning and education. I provide an overview of various sociological perspectives on consumption, and also discuss several areas where education, learning, and consumption intersect. In doing so, I seek to convince adult educators to more…

Sandlin, Jennifer A.

2008-01-01

154

Implicit and Explicit Learning in Young Adults with Mental Retardation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young adults with (n=34) and without (n=41) mental retardation completed a sequence-learning and identification task. For some, sequences were constructed following an artificial grammar. Explicit learning was determined by ability to learn and identify random sequences, implicit learning by the tendency to identify incorrectly new grammatical…

Atwell, Julie A.; Conners, Frances A.; Merrill, Edward C.

2003-01-01

155

Visual word learning in adults with dyslexia.  

PubMed

We investigated word learning in university and college students with a diagnosis of dyslexia and in typically-reading controls. Participants read aloud short (4-letter) and longer (7-letter) nonwords as quickly as possible. The nonwords were repeated across 10 blocks, using a different random order in each block. Participants returned 7 days later and repeated the experiment. Accuracy was high in both groups. The dyslexics were substantially slower than the controls at reading the nonwords throughout the experiment. They also showed a larger length effect, indicating less effective decoding skills. Learning was demonstrated by faster reading of the nonwords across repeated presentations and by a reduction in the difference in reading speeds between shorter and longer nonwords. The dyslexics required more presentations of the nonwords before the length effect became non-significant, only showing convergence in reaction times between shorter and longer items in the second testing session where controls achieved convergence part-way through the first session. Participants also completed a psychological test battery assessing reading and spelling, vocabulary, phonological awareness, working memory, nonverbal ability and motor speed. The dyslexics performed at a similar level to the controls on nonverbal ability but significantly less well on all the other measures. Regression analyses found that decoding ability, measured as the speed of reading aloud nonwords when they were presented for the first time, was predicted by a composite of word reading and spelling scores ("literacy"). Word learning was assessed in terms of the improvement in naming speeds over 10 blocks of training. Learning was predicted by vocabulary and working memory scores, but not by literacy, phonological awareness, nonverbal ability or motor speed. The results show that young dyslexic adults have problems both in pronouncing novel words and in learning new written words. PMID:24834044

Kwok, Rosa K W; Ellis, Andrew W

2014-01-01

156

Visual word learning in adults with dyslexia  

PubMed Central

We investigated word learning in university and college students with a diagnosis of dyslexia and in typically-reading controls. Participants read aloud short (4-letter) and longer (7-letter) nonwords as quickly as possible. The nonwords were repeated across 10 blocks, using a different random order in each block. Participants returned 7 days later and repeated the experiment. Accuracy was high in both groups. The dyslexics were substantially slower than the controls at reading the nonwords throughout the experiment. They also showed a larger length effect, indicating less effective decoding skills. Learning was demonstrated by faster reading of the nonwords across repeated presentations and by a reduction in the difference in reading speeds between shorter and longer nonwords. The dyslexics required more presentations of the nonwords before the length effect became non-significant, only showing convergence in reaction times between shorter and longer items in the second testing session where controls achieved convergence part-way through the first session. Participants also completed a psychological test battery assessing reading and spelling, vocabulary, phonological awareness, working memory, nonverbal ability and motor speed. The dyslexics performed at a similar level to the controls on nonverbal ability but significantly less well on all the other measures. Regression analyses found that decoding ability, measured as the speed of reading aloud nonwords when they were presented for the first time, was predicted by a composite of word reading and spelling scores (“literacy”). Word learning was assessed in terms of the improvement in naming speeds over 10 blocks of training. Learning was predicted by vocabulary and working memory scores, but not by literacy, phonological awareness, nonverbal ability or motor speed. The results show that young dyslexic adults have problems both in pronouncing novel words and in learning new written words.

Kwok, Rosa K. W.; Ellis, Andrew W.

2014-01-01

157

Bringing in Bourdieu's Theory of Social Capital: Renewing Learning Partnership Approaches to Social Inclusion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is developed from a recently HEA-funded study that seeks to identify key aspects of learning partnerships (LPs) and produce guidelines on best practice for educational providers working with under-represented adult learning groups. The theory and practice of social capital is highlighted as central to this task. In particular, the work…

O'Brien, Stephen; O Fathaigh, Mairtin

2005-01-01

158

Theories, relationships and interprofessionalism: learning to weave.  

PubMed

In this article, we illustrate the application of a number of theoretical frameworks we have used to guide our work in interprofessional education (IPE) and collaborative interprofessional care (IPC). Although we do not claim to be experts in any one of these theories, each has offered important insights that have broadened our understanding of the complexities of interprofessional learning and practice. We have gained an appreciation for an increasing number of theories relevant to IPE and IPC, and, as a result, we have woven together more key principles from different theories to develop activities for all levels of interprofessional learners and clinicians. We pay particular attention to relational competencies, knotworking/idea dominance, targeted tension and situational awareness. We are now drawing on the arts and humanities and complexity theory to foster relationship-building learning. Evaluation of our endeavors will eventually follow these latter theories for methods that better match the human and social experiences that underpin learning. Our "theoretical toolbox" therefore may be of value to educators who develop and implement creative interprofessional learning activities, as well as clinicians interested in moving toward more effective collaboration. PMID:23148863

Hall, Pippa; Weaver, Lynda; Grassau, Pamela Anne

2013-01-01

159

A Comparative Analysis of Three Unique Theories of Organizational Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to present three classical theories on organizational learning and conduct a comparative analysis that highlights their strengths, similarities, and differences. Two of the theories -- experiential learning theory and adaptive -- generative learning theory -- represent the thinking of the cognitive perspective, while…

Leavitt, Carol C.

2011-01-01

160

A Framework for a Theory of Automated Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a topological theory of learning which characterizes learning as a homotopy (which is a function of the deformation of a space in time) from an original knowledge base to one augmented by learned knowledge. The knowledge representation, the algorithms and the theory are based on the cognitive theories of Jean Piaget, the psychological theories of Hebb, as

E. Hausen-tropper

1996-01-01

161

Principles of Adult Learning Scale: Followup and Factor Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1978 the Principles of Adult Learning Scale (PALS) was developed to measure the degree of practitioner support of the principles of the collaborative teaching-learning mode for teaching adults. Although the original study with a field test group of 57 produced a valid and reliable 44-item summated rating scale, the stability of the normative…

Conti, Gary J.

162

Adult Education. Part II: Collection of Learning Experiences. Volume 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document, which is the first in a series of best practice documents incorporating the wisdom and experiences of New York's adult educators, presents eight learning experiences that are specifically tailored for adult learners and instructors. The following information is provided for each learning experience: (1) a brief description of the…

Peavey, Kay S., Ed.

163

Adult Children of Alcoholic Parents: Their Roles and Learning Styles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When children are raised in an environment where alcoholism is prominent, certain dysfunctional responses are learned as a way to cope with the challenge of that environment. This study was conducted to examine the learning styles of adult children of alcoholics. Subjects were college freshmen and self-identified adult children of alcoholics…

Mucowski, Richard; Hayden, Robert R.

164

White Matter Structure Changes as Adults Learn a Second Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional models hold that the plastic reorganization of brain structures occurs mainly during childhood and adolescence, leaving adults with limited means to learn new knowledge and skills. Research within the last decade has begun to overturn this belief, documenting changes in the brain's gray and white matter as healthy adults learn simple motor and cognitive skills [Lövdén, M., Bodammer, N.

Alexander A. Schlegel; Justin J. Rudelson; Peter U. Tse

2012-01-01

165

White Matter Structure Changes as Adults Learn a Second Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional models hold that the plastic reorganization of brain structures occurs mainly during childhood and adolescence, leaving adults with limited means to learn new knowledge and skills. Research within the last decade has begun to overturn this belief, documenting changes in the brain's gray and white matter as healthy adults learn simple motor and cognitive skills [Lövdén, M., Bodammer, N.

Alexander A. Schlegel; Justin J. Rudelson; Peter U. Tse

166

Stages in learning new technology: Naive adult email users  

Microsoft Academic Search

How do adult students learn to use new technologies? Teachers' and learners' understanding of stages these students may pass through makes the learning process less traumatic. The research identifies six stages adult learners pass through as they become confident in their use of electronic mail. In the beginning stages there is tension as the technological processes dominate and intrude on

Anne L. Russell

1995-01-01

167

Community Based Adult Jewish Learning Program Issues and Concerns.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adult learning in the Jewish community finds its roots in history, and has received renewed attention. Learning within the religious tradition encompasses a level of thought and activity which goes far beyond the typical adult education format. The purpose of the experience is to develop structures of meaning which aid individuals in relating…

Flexner, Paul A.

168

Symposium on Adult Learning Psychology: Implications for Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The symposium celebrated the 50th anniversary of the Division of Continuing Education at the State University of New York at Buffalo; changes in higher education during those 50 years have moved adult learning into a primary area of attention. Traditional lines of learning are bluring and assumptions about the adult learner are rapidly changing.…

State Univ. of New York, Buffalo. Div. of Continuing Education.

169

Assessing the Reading Comprehension of Adults with Learning Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: This study's aim was to begin the process of measuring the reading comprehension of adults with mild and borderline learning disabilities, in order to generate information to help clinicians and other professionals to make written material for adults with learning disabilities more comprehensible. Methods: The Test for the Reception of…

Jones, F. W.; Long, K.; Finlay, W. M. L.

2006-01-01

170

Working with Adults Who Have Learning Disabilities. Project Upgrade.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended to help educators develop a philosophy and understanding for working with learning disabled adults, this document consists of an introduction, 11 chapters, a 76-item bibliography, materials and resource suggestions, and three appendices. The introduction provides an overview of learning disabled adults. The chapters include (1)…

Manhattan Adult Learning and Resource Center, KS.

171

Learning with the Arts: What Opportunities Are There for Work-Related Adult Learning?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What can arts-based learning offer to adult, work-related education? A study was undertaken that explored the benefits of learning with the arts for professional development of an adult learner in Australia. The individual experiences of nine adults who participated in arts-based workshops to build work-related skills were examined using the…

Manning, Claire; Verenikina, Irina; Brown, Ian

2010-01-01

172

Toward an Interdisciplinary Perspective: A Review of Adult Learning Frameworks and Theoretical Models of Motor Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers have yet to agree on an approach that supports how adults best learn novel motor skills in formal educational contexts. The literature fails to adequately discuss adult motor learning from the standpoint of adult education. Instead, the subject is addressed by other disciplines. This review attempts to integrate perspectives across…

Roessger, Kevin M.

2012-01-01

173

Why children learn color and size words so differently: Evidence from adults' learning of artificial terms  

Microsoft Academic Search

An adult simulation study examined why children's learning of color and size terms follow different developmental patterns, one in which word comprehension precedes success in nonlinguistic matching tasks versus one in which matching precedes word comprehension. In 4 experiments, adults learned artificial labels for values on novel dimensions. Training mimicked that characteristic for children learning either color words or size

Catherine M. Sandhofer; Linda B. Smith

2001-01-01

174

Cognitive Science, Learning Theory, and Technical Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students in higher education are faced with rapidly changing societal conditions. As the nature and structure of the workplace and the family have changed, the specific knowledge and skills people need for the future have become less predictable. Teachers can address these changing conditions by applying cognitive theory to learning and…

Heckman, Richard T.

175

Participating in the Learning of Group Theory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focusing on student learning rather than the deductive presentation of mathematics is stimulus not only to discover theorems and proofs but also to generate meaning of definitions and axioms before their formal articulation. Provides worksheets that enable an intuitive grasp to precede formal definition in the field of elementary group theory for…

Burn, Robert P.

1998-01-01

176

Learning Theories: Insights for Music Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Effective music educators often recognize that there is more than one way to teach a musical objective and understand that a specific approach may be more appropriate than another in a given setting. To meet contemporary demands, music educators need to be smart--understanding the nuances of various theories of learning, savvy--understanding their…

Isbell, Dan

2012-01-01

177

A Pure Theory of Lifelong Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Charles Tiebout's Pure Theory of Local Expenditures serves as a helpful framework in examining the emergence of the learning society, communications technologies, freer trade, and the effects these will have on the educational infrastructure. Tiebout argued that the failure of market-type systems of public good at the central government level does…

Hatton, Michael J.

178

Understanding Feedback: A Learning Theory Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article aims to review literature on feedback to teachers. Because research has hardly focused on feedback among teachers, the review's scope also includes feedback in classrooms. The review proposes that the effectiveness of feedback and feedback processes depend on the learning theory adhered to. Findings show that regardless of the…

Thurlings, Marieke; Vermeulen, Marjan; Bastiaens, Theo; Stijnen, Sjef

2013-01-01

179

Adult Education and Lifelong Learning: New Developments in Russia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines effects of social and economic change on adult education and lifelong learning in postcommunist Russia. Discusses the history of Russian adult education, educational policy changes in the 1990s, establishment of the first Open University and a network of adult-education centers, and the conflict between market-oriented objectives and…

Zajda, Joseph

1999-01-01

180

Adult Learning Disabilities Screening Using an Internet-Administered Instrument  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identifying individuals with specific learning disabilities (SLD) is a complex task, particularly for adult populations. Adult agencies such as vocational rehabilitative services or adult basic education often use different SLD definitions and criteria, are often understaffed, have limited resources, and have a shortage of staff trained on SLD…

Lancaster, Sean; Mellard, Daryl

2005-01-01

181

Reviewing and Critiquing Computer Learning and Usage among Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By searching the keywords of "older adult" and "computer" in ERIC, Academic Search Premier, and PsycINFO, this study reviewed 70 studies published after 1990 that address older adults' computer learning and usage. This study revealed 5 prominent themes among reviewed literature: (a) motivations and barriers of older adults' usage of computers, (b)…

Kim, Young Sek

2008-01-01

182

Wisdom, the Body, and Adult Learning: Insights from Neuroscience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In adult education, there has recently been a recognition of the body's role in adult learning. Attention to neuroscience is somewhat limited, though is emerging. These two perspectives are not integrated. With this article, the author argues that adult education must look to science to achieve a deeper understanding of the evolving…

Swartz, Ann L.

2011-01-01

183

Adult Learning Methods: A Guide for Effective Instruction. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains 21 papers devoted to understanding and facilitating adult learning. After "Foreword to the Second Edition" (Malcolm S. Knowles) and other introductory materials, the papers are: "Becoming an Effective Teacher of Adults" (Michael W. Galbraith); "Understanding Adult Learners" (Huey B. Long); "Identifying Your Philosophical…

Galbraith, Michael W., Ed.

184

Developing Learning Environments: Challenges for Theory, Research and Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Addresses four key challenges in developing learning environments: how to develop learning organizations, how to promote learning cultures, how to enhance learning processes, and how to develop learning communities. For each challenge, addresses a variety of issues for theory, research and practice. Argues that organizational and individual learning are at the heart of competitive strategy, and provide the only sustainable

Paul Iles

1994-01-01

185

Emotions and Their Effect on Adult Learning: A Constructivist Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult educators are only beginning to understand the interaction between learning and emotion (Dirkx, 2006; O'Regan, 2003). Understanding these concepts and their interaction through the constructivist perspective presents a unique opportunity to appreciate the learner's perspective and the construction of knowledge through experience. Learning is primal. As one of the most basic human behaviors, learning occurs instinctively at all times.

Brad Shuck; Carlos Albornoz; Marina Winberg

186

Lifelong Learning. A Guide to Adult Education in the Church.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains eight papers about lifelong learning in the Christian church. The preface and foreword are written by Rebecca Groth and H. George Anderson, respectively. (1) "The Gospel Calls Us" (Margaret A. Krych) examines five theological themes of lifelong learning. Adult development and learning styles are considered in (2) "What Teachers…

Grothe, Rebecca, Ed.

187

Systems Theory: A Way of Looking at Adult Literacy Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A systems perspective of adult literacy assessment stresses use of comprehensive, holistic strategies. For literacy methods, systems theory emphasizes the holistic nature of the adult in relation to the complex web of systems. Systems theory applied to materials reflects the plurality of literacies and the need for a variety of materials. (SK)

Kazemek, Cheryl; Kazemek, Francis

1992-01-01

188

Incorporating Learning Theory into Existing Systems Engineering Models.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Systems engineering and learning theories are two major disciplines that involve preparing people to solve problems. While learning theories and their elements are apparent in the field of systems engineering, limited work has been performed on the intera...

V. Leo

2013-01-01

189

Adult Education at the Crossroads: Learning Our Way Out. Global Perspectives on Adult Education and Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book assesses the current state of adult education, including the traditions out of which adult education comes, its current problems, and its possible futures. It begins with an overview of Ivan Illich's theory and explains its significance for adult education. Part 1 examines the main historical traditions in adult education, including the…

Finger, Matthias; Asun, Jose Manuel

190

Exploring the Icebergs of Adult Learning: Findings of the First Canadian Survey of Informal Learning Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of 1,562 Canadian adults found that most are spending more time in learning, especially informal learning through employment, community service, and household work. Findings should be used to shape education policy and practice. (SK)

Livingstone, D. W.

1999-01-01

191

Underlying Consumer-Valuing Structures of Baby Boomers as Older Adults in Community Colleges: A Grounded Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to present a grounded theory that fills in gaps in the higher education literature on the concept of educational consumer value and perceptions that support consumer value. Specifically, this study focuses on the learning experiences of Baby Boomers (40–60 year old adults) as older adult students attending community colleges. This study examines value as

Louis Mark Palazesi; Beverly L. Bower; Robert A. Schwartz

2008-01-01

192

Topics in Computational Learning Theory and Graph Algorithms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This thesis addresses problems from two areas of theoretical computer science. The first area is that of computational learning theory, which is the study of the phenomenon of concept learning using formal mathematical models. The goal of computational learning theory is to investigate learning in a rigorous manner through the use of techniques…

Board, Raymond Acton

193

A Learning Theory for 21st-Century Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The affordances of today's digital technologies have significantly changed the way students learn. Arguing that current learning theories have failed to address this new reality, Marie Sontag proposes a new theory, social-connectedness and cognitive-connectedness schemata (SCCS) theory, that integrates key elements of other theories with gaming…

Sontag, Marie

2009-01-01

194

Learning "in" or "with" Games? Quality Criteria for Digital Learning Games from the Perspectives of Learning, Emotion, and Motivation Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This conceptual paper aims to clarify the theoretical underpinnings of game based learning (GBL) and learning with digital learning games (DLGs). To do so, it analyses learning of game related skills and contents, which occurs constantly during playing conventional entertainment games, from three perspectives: learning theory, emotion theory, and…

Hense, Jan; Mandl, Heinz

2012-01-01

195

The Springfield Link: What Research Says about Adult Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present success and future potential of the Springfield Simulation depend on six interrelated research findings about adult learning.These findings, enumerated and discussed, provide the theoretical framework for Springfield. (TE)

Loacker, Georgine

1986-01-01

196

Early Learning Canada: Workshop Leader Guide [and] Participant Resource [and] Trainer Manual. Learning & Reading Partners Adult Learning System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on the understanding that the capacity to learn is optimized in the early years, Early Learning Canada (ELC) is a community workshop program for parents and adults who work with children from birth to age 6 and their families to facilitate life-long learning. This workshop leader guide explains the ELC principles, examines learning styles…

Estey, Nancy; MacIsaac, Maitland; Rendell, Sandra

197

Revisiting Debates on Learning Disabilities in Adult Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the 1980s, educators in adult basic education and special education have speculated that a substantial if unknown percentage of adults have specific learning disabilities (LDs) and have sought to identify and address effectively the needs of these learners. Two rarely intersecting bodies of historical literature on LDs provide the background…

Belzer, Alisa; Ross-Gordon, Jovita

2011-01-01

198

Autobiography and Selfhood in the Practice of Adult Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article problematizes the role of autobiographical narratives in adult learning and suggests that the life histories produced by adult learners in our classrooms are, in important senses, fictions. Rather than being the free expressions of experience and selfhood, students' narratives are multiply overdetermined, both by the cultural frames…

Michelson, Elana

2011-01-01

199

Individual Instructional Programs for Learning Disabled Adults: An Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study surveyed 80 young adults (50 male, 30 female) referred through I.E.P.A. (Individualized Educational Program for Adults) for students with learning problems who wish to acquire preemployment skills and/or to improve their vocational status by upgrading their educational level. The pre- and postassessment was conducted in the areas of word…

Cant, Malcolm J.

200

Mentoring in Adult Learning Contexts: Partners in Dialogue.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document critiques various discourses about mentoring within the context of adult learning environments in general and adult literacy programs in particular. Mentoring is defined as an enabling or developmental relationship that occurs in partnerships wherein experienced individuals kindle knowledge and offer support to protgs in joint…

McDonald, Marya; Castleton, Geraldine

201

Services for Learning Disabled Adults in California's Community Colleges.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the 1980's, a series of studies have been conducted to examine assessment strategies, teaching methodologies, core services, and delivery systems for Learning Disabled Average (LDA) adults in California's community colleges. Study findings included the following: (1) between 1981-82 and 1985-86, the number of formal programs for LDA adults

Ostertag, Bruce A.; And Others

202

Emotional Intelligence and Collaborative Learning in Adult Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The changing social and economic reality of our world continues to shape how learning is conducted and acquired in the adult classroom and beyond. Given the pivotal importance for an adult to develop a variety of cognitive and emotional skills and given the need to work in collaboration with others, within educational environments and the…

Martinez, Luz M.

2011-01-01

203

Reinforcement Learning in Young Adults with Developmental Language Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the study was to examine reinforcement learning (RL) in young adults with developmental language impairment (DLI) within the context of a neurocomputational model of the basal ganglia-dopamine system (Frank, Seeberger, & O'Reilly, 2004). Two groups of young adults, one with DLI and the other without, were recruited. A probabilistic…

Lee, Joanna C.; Tomblin, J. Bruce

2012-01-01

204

The Relationship between Resourcefulness and Persistence in Adult Autonomous Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate the tenability of a proposed path-analytic model relating resourcefulness and persistence in the context of adult autonomous learning. Data collected from a nonprobability sample of 492 American adults using valid and reliable measures for resourcefulness and persistence were analyzed. Results suggest…

Ponton, Michael K; Derrick, M. Gail; Carr, Paul B.

2005-01-01

205

Motivational Style and Adult Life Stage Theory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some researchers have suggested that there are developmental stages in adult life. If adult developmental stages exist, such stages would be reflected in one's career. Individuals would progress from their career dream when they first enter the work force through a period of stability, a mid-life transition period when they compare reality to…

Neufeldt, David E.; And Others

206

The Power of Learning from Inquiry: Teacher Research as a Professional Development Tool in Multilingual Schools. Adult Education Special Topics: Theory, Research and Practice in LifeLong Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The power of teacher inquiry is revealed when educators examine their practices with the purpose of making necessary changes to improve the learning opportunities of their multilingual students, and working conditions in schools. Dr. Nevarez-La Torre, proposes a model for conducting classroom inquiry that teachers may follow to pursue important…

Nevarez-La Torre, Aida A.

2010-01-01

207

The Effectiveness of Storytelling on Adult Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: As two doctoral students and adult learners, the authors strongly believe that story telling can be a great tool for educators working with adult learners. The purpose of this paper is to increase awareness of how effective storytelling can be for adult learners. Design/methodology/approach: The approach of this paper is one of gathering…

Caminotti, Enzo; Gray, Jeremy

2012-01-01

208

The Peer Approach to Adult Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the peer approach to teaching writing with adult students. Discusses theoretical ideas about adults-in-transition, particularly women, that make the peer approach important to their education. Describes specific instances in which the peer approach has been used successfully with adults. Discusses student response to the process. (JS)

Schneider, Helen M.

1989-01-01

209

Age-Related Differences in the Relation between Motivation to Learn and Transfer of Training in Adult Continuing Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This meta-analysis (k = 38, N = 6977) examined age-related differences in the relation between motivation to learn and transfer of training, using data derived from the literature on adult continuing education of the past 25 years. Based on socioemotional selectivity theory, a lifespan approach to expectancy theory, and research on interest and…

Gegenfurtner, Andreas; Vauras, Marja

2012-01-01

210

Civil Society, Adult Learning and Action in India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five case studies of individual and collective learning projects in India demonstrate that (1) the impetus for civic action arises from local conditions; (2) transformative action requires sustained adult learning; and (3) civil society is a complex concept reflecting diverse priorities and perspectives. (SK)

Tandon, Rajesh

2000-01-01

211

The Neurobiology and Neuropsychology of Adult Learning Disorders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The area of adult learning disabilities is reviewed from a neurobiological and neuropsychological perspective. The paper covers possible pathophysiologic bases in dyslexia, neurobehavioral disorders that may coexist with learning disorders, neuropsychological assessment methods, treatment in the context of brain plasticity and recovery of…

Bigler, Erin D.

1992-01-01

212

Know Thyself: The Impact of Portfolio Development on Adult Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thousands of years ago the Greeks carved above their temples the phrase “know thyself,” two simple words that imply a lifetime of investigation. Throughout the ages philosophers and scholars have emphasized the importance of self-knowledge as an outcome of learning. One teaching strategy that facilitates self-knowledge among adult students is the creation of an experiential learning portfolio. This study describes

Judith O. Brown

2002-01-01

213

Designing Learning Activities for Adults: A Practical Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews David Kolb's Experiential Learning Model, stressing its potential for developing or redesigning curricula for adult learners to include learning modes focusing on concrete experience, active experimentation, reflective observation, and abstract conceptualization. Offers a checklist for assessing which modes are accommodated by an…

Williams, Christine C.

1984-01-01

214

How Adults with Learning Disabilities View Living Independently  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is seen as increasingly important for people with learning disabilities to be supported to live independently and manage their own self care, productivity and leisure activities. This qualitative study explored the experiences of nine adults with mild learning disabilities who lived alone with minimal support. Their narratives were analysed…

Bond, Rebecca J.; Hurst, Jenni

2010-01-01

215

From Adult Education to Lifelong Learning and Beyond  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the period of this journal's life the education of adults has been changed and developed in a wide variety of ways: the same phenomenon--adult learning--has been given a variety of meanings and the education of adults has assumed many titles. The aim of this paper is to unravel some of the changes that have occurred in this field during…

Jarvis, Peter

2014-01-01

216

Learning Journeys: A Resource Handbook on Adult Learning and Mental Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document explains how tutors and managers in adult education programs across the United Kingdom can smooth the journeys of adults with mental health difficulties who are returning to learning. The handbook begins with suggestions for its use and case studies of two adult learners with mental health difficulties. Sections 1 through 4 discuss…

Mather, Joy; Atkinson, Sue

217

Do Children and Adults Learn Differently?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article addresses a question that was a topic of debate in the middle decades of the 20th century but was then abandoned as interest in children's learning declined. The question is, does learning develop? In other words, does the learning process itself undergo age-related change, or does it remain invariant ontogenetically and…

Kuhn, Deanna; Pease, Maria

2006-01-01

218

Determinants of Malaysian Adult Learners' Distance Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study attempts to identify the factors perceived to be important in choosing an Institution of Higher Learning (IHL) for distance learning. One thousand five hundred questionnaires were distributed to the first year students in the social sciences distance learning programs and 980 valid responses were received of Malaysian public university.…

Ghani, Erlane K.; Said, Jamaliah; Nasir, Noraini Mohd

2008-01-01

219

Adult Learning, Currency and Subjectivity in PLA.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This inaugural issue of the Journal of the National Institute on the Assessment of Experiential Learning begins with the article, "Semantic and Conceptual Ambiguities in Prior Learning Assessment" (Richard J. Hamilton). It is the basis for a session presented at the National Institute on the Assessment of Experiential Learning in June 1994. The…

Journal of the National Institute on the Assessment of Experiential Learning, 1994

1994-01-01

220

CAREER MOBILITY IN AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION: A SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY APPROACH  

Microsoft Academic Search

mobility phenomenon. An appealing approach for such an in-depth inquiry into turnover is social learning theory. Social learning theory posits that psychological functioning can be explained in terms of the interaction of personal characteristics, previous behavior (learning) and environmental determinants (Chapman, 1984). This psychological functioning involves valuing certain outcomes, discriminating among situations in terms of their potential to bring about

Tom Grady

1990-01-01

221

Self-Regulated Learning: From Theory to Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While there have been many articles published in the area of self-regulated learning, there is a need to have a research article that solely emphasizes on how to put self-regulated learning theory into practice. In order to help teachers incorporate self-regulated learning theory into their classroom teaching and students to do so into their…

Kuo, Ya-Hui

2010-01-01

222

Verbal Learning Strategies of Adolescents and Adults with the Syndrome of Nonverbal Learning Disabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although many psychometric studies of individuals with the syndrome of nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD) have been conducted, one relatively neglected area has been the study of their performance on explicit verbal memory measures. We examined the performance of adolescents and adults with NLD on the California Verbal Learning Test, a measure allowing analysis of self-initiated learning strategies, and compared their

Nancy J. Fisher; John W. Deluca

1997-01-01

223

Lifelong Learning: Literacy, Schooling and the Adult World. Literacy and Learning Series, No. 2. Adult Literacy Research Network.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 12 chapters in this second title in the series expose and explore the following significant issues underlying schooling and its intersection with the adult world outside of school: aspects of knowledge, gender, literacy across culture, and assessing what is learned in school and in the adult world. The chapters are: "Whose Knowledge Gets…

Falk, Ian, Ed.

224

Distinct neural signatures of threat learning in adolescents and adults  

PubMed Central

Most teenage fears subside with age, a change that may reflect brain maturation in the service of refined fear learning. Whereas adults clearly demarcate safe situations from real dangers, attenuating fear to the former but not the latter, adolescents’ immaturity in prefrontal cortex function may limit their ability to form clear-cut threat categories, allowing pervasive fears to manifest. Here we developed a discrimination learning paradigm that assesses the ability to categorize threat from safety cues to test these hypotheses on age differences in neurodevelopment. In experiment 1, we first demonstrated the capacity of this paradigm to generate threat/safety discrimination learning in both adolescents and adults. Next, in experiment 2, we used this paradigm to compare the behavioral and neural correlates of threat/safety discrimination learning in adolescents and adults using functional MRI. This second experiment yielded three sets of findings. First, when labeling threats online, adolescents reported less discrimination between threat and safety cues than adults. Second, adolescents were more likely than adults to engage early-maturing subcortical structures during threat/safety discrimination learning. Third, adults’ but not adolescents’ engagement of late-maturing prefrontal cortex regions correlated positively with fear ratings during threat/safety discrimination learning. These data are consistent with the role of dorsolateral regions during category learning, particularly when differences between stimuli are subtle [Miller EK, Cohen JD (2001) Annu Rev Neurosci 24:167–202]. These findings suggest that maturational differences in subcortical and prefrontal regions between adolescent and adult brains may relate to age-related differences in threat/safety discrimination.

Lau, Jennifer Y.; Britton, Jennifer C.; Nelson, Eric E.; Angold, Adrian; Ernst, Monique; Goldwin, Michelle; Grillon, Christian; Leibenluft, Ellen; Lissek, Shmuel; Norcross, Maxine; Shiffrin, Nina; Pine, Daniel S.

2011-01-01

225

Optimizing Computer Assisted Instruction By Applying Principles of Learning Theory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development of learning theory and its application to computer-assisted instruction (CAI) are described. Among the early theoretical constructs thought to be important are E. L. Thorndike's concept of learning connectisms, Neal Miller's theory of motivation, and B. F. Skinner's theory of operant conditioning. Early devices incorporating those…

Edwards, Thomas O.

226

Review of Adult Learning and Literacy, Volume 6. Connecting Research, Policy and Practice: A Project of the National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Review of Adult Learning and Literacy: Connecting Research, Policy, and Practice, Volume 6," is the newest volume in a series of annual publications of the National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy (NCSALL) that address major issues, the latest research, and the best practices in the field of adult literacy and learning. Each…

Comings, John, Ed.; Garner, Barbara, Ed.; Smith, Cristine, Ed.

2006-01-01

227

Deep and Lifelong Learning: When Theory and SoTL Intersect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this reflective essay, a teacher educator describes her own transformation that occurred as a result of studying adult learning theory along with a group of doctoral students. In examining her habits of course design, she realized that her practices had departed from her ideals and that her course planning was guided as much by pragmatic…

West, Jane

2013-01-01

228

Partners in Learning: A Grounded Theory Study of Relational Practice between Master's Students and Professors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Meaningful academic relationships between adult master's students and their professors can both deepen students' learning and serve as a regenerating force for professors. This study employed grounded theory methods to explore the question, "What goes on in relational practice between master's students and professors?" I interviewed 10 matched…

Schwartz, Harriet L.; Holloway, Elizabeth L.

2012-01-01

229

Towards a Language-Based Theory of Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the fact that educational knowledge is massively dependent on verbal learn- ing, theories of learning have not been specifically derived from observations of children's language development. But language development is learning how to mean; and because human beings are quintessentially creatures who mean (i.e., who engage in semiotic processes, with natural language as prototypical), all human learning is essentially

M. A. K. HALLIDAY

1994-01-01

230

Toward an Instructionally Oriented Theory of Example-Based Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning from examples is a very effective means of initial cognitive skill acquisition. There is an enormous body of research on the specifics of this learning method. This article presents an instructionally oriented theory of example-based learning that integrates theoretical assumptions and findings from three research areas: learning from…

Renkl, Alexander

2014-01-01

231

Attachment theory: Application to clinical practice with adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

An application of attachment theory to clinical practice with adults is based on psychoanalytic-object relations theory, expanding and emphasizing the influence of affectional bonds with others. The role of the therapist is to provide the conditions in which to explore current and past experiences, especially those related to attachment, separation and loss, helping patients reappraise and reconstruct their inner representations

Pat Sable

1992-01-01

232

An integrated reweighting theory of perceptual learning  

PubMed Central

Improvements in performance on visual tasks due to practice are often specific to a retinal position or stimulus feature. Many researchers suggest that specific perceptual learning alters selective retinotopic representations in early visual analysis. However, transfer is almost always practically advantageous, and it does occur. If perceptual learning alters location-specific representations, how does it transfer to new locations? An integrated reweighting theory explains transfer over retinal locations by incorporating higher level location-independent representations into a multilevel learning system. Location transfer is mediated through location-independent representations, whereas stimulus feature transfer is determined by stimulus similarity at both location-specific and location-independent levels. Transfer to new locations/positions differs fundamentally from transfer to new stimuli. After substantial initial training on an orientation discrimination task, switches to a new location or position are compared with switches to new orientations in the same position, or switches of both. Position switches led to the highest degree of transfer, whereas orientation switches led to the highest levels of specificity. A computational model of integrated reweighting is developed and tested that incorporates the details of the stimuli and the experiment. Transfer to an identical orientation task in a new position is mediated via more broadly tuned location-invariant representations, whereas changing orientation in the same position invokes interference or independent learning of the new orientations at both levels, reflecting stimulus dissimilarity. Consistent with single-cell recording studies, perceptual learning alters the weighting of both early and midlevel representations of the visual system.

Dosher, Barbara Anne; Jeter, Pamela; Liu, Jiajuan; Lu, Zhong-Lin

2013-01-01

233

Using David Kolb's Experiential Learning Theory in Portfolio Development Courses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As personal portfolio assessment matures, practitioners continue to look for techniques that enhance both personal development and the process of seeking academic credit through assessment. Kolb's experiential learning theory and learning style inventory may have applications in this search. (Author)

Mark, Michael; Menson, Betty

1982-01-01

234

Retaining the Learning Disabled Adult. A Handbook for Adult Basic Education Instructors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook is designed to address teachers' most common concerns about learning disabilities (LDs) and teaching adults with LDs. Section 1 defines LDs by describing traits that adults with LDs share. Section 2 focuses on identification of students with LDs. LD characteristics are divided into eight categories: academics, speech/language, motor…

Hawkins, Diane, Comp.

235

Some Models of Adult Learning and Adult Change. Studies on Permanent Education, No. 22/1974.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With emphasis on the developmental psychology unique to adults, the author presents a comprehensive document of research and progress pertaining to adult learning and change. Section 1 reviews age cycles of adulthood as well as changing career patterns for men and women. Also examined are changes with age in leisure and interest patterns,…

Huberman, A. M.

236

Paulo Freire's Legacy for Adults Learning Mathematics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The death of Paulo Freire in May 1997 was a momentous event for educators everywhere, especially adult educators, and a sad one for those who knew and loved him. The author has been thinking and writing about Freire's work for many years, exploring his contribution to a radical politics of adult education. While Freire's work features strongly in…

Coben, Diana

237

Maeler's Regard: Images of Adult Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book examines the mysterious and complex process of learning. It argues that learning and teaching are not just means by which one achieves personal growth, but are tools to be used in the struggle for social justice. Written in an accessible style, the book covers a range of themes. Section 1 focuses on experience, including kinds of…

Newman, Michael

238

John Dewey and Adult Learning in Museums  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this article is to investigate learning in museums through the lens of John Dewey's philosophy of education and experiential learning. The influence of Dewey's philosophy of education is widespread and resounding. In this article, I examine the experiential qualities of Dewey's philosophy and compare it with the objectives of the…

Monk, David F.

2013-01-01

239

Contextual Adult Life Span Theory for Adapting Psychotherapy with Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our aging population is growing in size and diversity. To integrate different views on aging and make explicit the role of\\u000a culture as a contextual factor, we modified Knight’s (Psychotherapy with older adults, 2004) Contextual, Cohort-based, Maturity,\\u000a Specific Challenge (CCMSC) model of psychotherapy with older adults into the Contextual Adult Lifespan Theory for Adapting\\u000a Psychotherapy (CALTAP). This article describes various

Bob G. Knight; Cecilia Y. M. Poon

2008-01-01

240

Adult Learning as Strategic Behaviour and Strategic Learning as Competence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A conceptual framework for analyzing participation in adult education was developed. Adult education participation was considered a specific kind of strategic behavior. The term "strategic" was defined by proceeding from Pierre Bourdieu's concept of "educational strategy," which permits consideration of the structural constraints that the social…

Van Damme, Dirk

241

Adult Age Differences in Learning from Positive and Negative Probabilistic Feedback  

PubMed Central

Objective Past research has investigated age differences in frontal-based decision making, but few studies have focused on the behavioral effects of striatal-based changes in healthy aging. Feedback learning has been found to vary with dopamine levels; increases in dopamine facilitate learning from positive feedback, whereas decreases facilitate learning from negative feedback. Given previous evidence of striatal dopamine depletion in healthy aging, we investigated behavioral differences between college-aged and healthy old adults using a feedback learning task that is sensitive to both frontal and striatal processes. Method Seventeen college-aged (M = 18.9 years) and 24 healthy, older adults (M = 70.3 years) completed the Probabilistic selection task, in which participants are trained on probabilistic stimulus-outcome information and then tested to determine whether they learned more from positive or negative feedback. Results As a group, the old adults learned equally well from positive and negative feedback, whereas the college-aged group learned more from positive than negative feedback, F(1, 39) = 4.10, p < .05, reffect = .3. However, these group differences were not due to the older individuals being more balanced learners. Most individuals of both ages were balanced learners, but while all of the remaining young learners had a positive bias, the remaining older learners were split between those with positive and negative learning biases (?2(2) = 6.12, p<.047). Conclusions These behavioral results are consistent with the dopamine theory of striatal aging, and suggest there might be adult age differences in the kinds of information people use when faced with a current choice.

Simon, Jessica R.; Howard, James H.; Howard, Darlene V.

2010-01-01

242

Turning Theory into Theorizing: Collaborative Learning in a Sociological Theory Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the ways collaborative learning methods can enhance the undergraduate course in sociological theory. Presents an explanation of collaborative learning, distinguishes it from active learning, identifies its challenges, and describes some specific ways that instructors can use it to teach classical sociological theory. (CMK)

Rinehart, Jane A.

1999-01-01

243

Live To Learn and Learn To Live: The Fifth Adult Learners' Week in Estonia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The focus of Adult Learners Week in Estonia is on establishing a lifelong learning environment. Evaluation results indicate a need for more publicity outlets and volunteer support to carry out activities. (SK)

Plaks, Sirje

2002-01-01

244

Stress Modulates Reinforcement Learning in Younger and Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Animal research and human neuroimaging studies indicate that stress increases dopamine levels in brain regions involved in reward processing and stress also appears to increase the attractiveness of addictive drugs. The current study tested the hypothesis that stress increases reward salience, leading to more effective learning about positive than negative outcomes in a probabilistic selection task. Changes to dopamine pathways with age raise the question of whether stress effects on incentive-based learning differ by age. Thus, the present study also examined whether effects of stress on reinforcement learning differed for younger (age 18–34) and older participants (age 65–85). Cold pressor stress was administered to half of the participants in each age group and salivary cortisol levels were used to confirm biophysiological response to cold stress. Following the manipulation, participants completed a probabilistic learning task involving positive and negative feedback. In both younger and older adults, stress enhanced learning about cues that predicted positive outcomes. In addition, during the initial learning phase, stress diminished sensitivity to recent feedback across age groups. These results indicate that stress affects reinforcement learning in both younger and older adults and suggests that stress exerts different effects on specific components of reinforcement learning depending on their neural underpinnings.

Lighthall, Nichole R.; Gorlick, Marissa A.; Schoeke, Andrej; Frank, Michael J.; Mather, Mara

2012-01-01

245

Stress modulates reinforcement learning in younger and older adults.  

PubMed

Animal research and human neuroimaging studies indicate that stress increases dopamine levels in brain regions involved in reward processing, and stress also appears to increase the attractiveness of addictive drugs. The current study tested the hypothesis that stress increases reward salience, leading to more effective learning about positive than negative outcomes in a probabilistic selection task. Changes to dopamine pathways with age raise the question of whether stress effects on incentive-based learning differ by age. Thus, the present study also examined whether effects of stress on reinforcement learning differed for younger (age 18-34) and older participants (age 65-85). Cold pressor stress was administered to half of the participants in each age group, and salivary cortisol levels were used to confirm biophysiological response to cold stress. After the manipulation, participants completed a probabilistic learning task involving positive and negative feedback. In both younger and older adults, stress enhanced learning about cues that predicted positive outcomes. In addition, during the initial learning phase, stress diminished sensitivity to recent feedback across age groups. These results indicate that stress affects reinforcement learning in both younger and older adults and suggests that stress exerts different effects on specific components of reinforcement learning depending on their neural underpinnings. PMID:22946523

Lighthall, Nichole R; Gorlick, Marissa A; Schoeke, Andrej; Frank, Michael J; Mather, Mara

2013-03-01

246

Merging Organizational Learning with Learning Theory - A Task for the 21st Century?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We argue that the discipline called 'organizational learning' has a potential to fertilize and catalyze instructional technology, and vice versa. We envision a bridge between 'organizational' learning theory and 'individual' learning theory in the interrelated features 'fragmentation and limitations of human knowledge', 'quality (or reliability) of individual know-how' and 'philosophy of science.' In this contribution we would like to interpret

Jose J Gonzalez

2000-01-01

247

Developing a Domain Theory Defining and Exemplifying a Learning Theory of Progressive Attainments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article defines the concept of Domain Theory, or, when educational measurement is the goal, one might call it a "Learning Theory of Progressive Attainments in X Domain". The concept of Domain Theory is first shown to be rooted in validity theory, then the concept of domain theory is expanded to amplify its necessary but long neglected…

Bunderson, C. Victor

2011-01-01

248

Impacts of Learning Styles and Computer Skills on Adult Students' Learning Online  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the influences of learning styles/preferences, prior computer skills and experience with online courses on adult learners' knowledge acquisition in a web-based special education course. Forty-six adult learners who enrolled in a web-based special education course participated in the study. The results of the study showed…

Rakap, Salih

2010-01-01

249

The Contribution of Adult Learning to Health and Social Capital. Wider Benefits of Learning Research Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers investigated effects of adult learning (AL) on a range of measures of health and social capital and cohesion. Data from the National Child Development Study relating to almost 10,000 adults born in Britain in 1958 were used, with focus on changes in their lives between age 33 in 1991 and 42 in 2000. Findings indicated AL played an…

Feinstein, Leon; Hammond, Cathie; Woods, Laura; Preston, John; Bynner, John

250

Learning for the Future: Neighborhood Renewal through Adult and Community Learning. A Guide for Local Authorities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is intended to assist managers within England's local authority adult and community education services in supporting neighborhood renewal through adult and community learning (ACL). The guide's overall aim is to promote the skills, knowledge, and understanding that underpin the following items: (1) identification and development of…

Merton, Bryan; Turner, Cheryl; Ward, Jane; White, Lenford

251

Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Electrical Theory. Course: Basic Electricity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This individualized course on basic electricity covers the basic ideas of direct current and alternating current electricity. The course is comprised of two units: (1) Electrical Theory "B," and (2) Electrical Theory "A." Each unit is comprised of Learning Activity Packages (LAP) that provide specific information for completion of a learning

Belcher, Herb; Carey, John

252

Linking Theory to Practice in Learning Technology Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We present a case to reposition theory so that it plays a pivotal role in learning technology research and helps to build an ecology of learning. To support the case, we present a critique of current practice based on a review of articles published in two leading international journals from 2005 to 2010. Our study reveals that theory features only…

Gunn, Cathy; Steel, Caroline

2012-01-01

253

Critically Questioning the Discourse of Transformative Learning Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors critically examine the way discourse enters into and becomes embedded in transformative learning theory, especially from the extrarational or depth psychology perspective. The authors begin by providing an overview of how transformative learning theory has developed in diverse directions, including the extrarational…

Kucukaydin, Ilhan; Cranton, Patricia

2013-01-01

254

Teaching Sociological Theory through Active Learning: The Irrigation Exercise  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For students, theory is often one of the most daunting aspects of sociology--it seems abstract, removed from the concrete events of their everyday lives, and therefore intimidating. In an attempt to break down student resistance to theory, instructors are increasingly turning to active learning approaches. Active learning exercises, then, appear…

Holtzman, Mellisa

2005-01-01

255

Applying Distributed Learning Theory in Online Business Communication Courses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on the critical use of technology in online formats that entail relatively new teaching media. Argues that distributed learning theory is valuable for teachers of online business communication courses for several reasons. Discusses the application of distributed learning theory to the teaching of business communication online. (SG)

Walker, Kristin

2003-01-01

256

Three Theories of Learning and Their Implications for Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Currently, three theories of learning dominate classroom practice. First, B.F. Skinner's Theory of Operant Conditioning states that if behavior, including learning behavior, is reinforced, the probability of its being repeated increases strongly. Different types and schedules of reinforcement have been studied, by Skinner and others, and the…

Ramirez, Aura I.

257

Action Learning: Nothing So Practical as a Good Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Kurt Lewin's epigrammatic paradox is particularly true for action learning. Marquardt and Waddill (2004), and previously Yorks O'Neil and Marsick (1999) have approached the issue of the relationship between theory and action learning by looking at a variety of theories which they have placed in "schools". This provides an interesting analysis, but…

Mumford, Alan

2006-01-01

258

Phonological Similarity Influences Word Learning in Adults Learning Spanish as a Foreign Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Neighborhood density--the number of words that sound similar to a given word (Luce & Pisoni, 1998)--influences word learning in native English-speaking children and adults (Storkel, 2004; Storkel, Armbruster & Hogan, 2006): novel words with many similar sounding English words (i.e., dense neighborhood) are learned more quickly than novel words…

Stamer, Melissa K.; Vitevitch, Michael S.

2012-01-01

259

Creating Learning Centered Classrooms. What Does Learning Theory Have To Say? ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Digest of a larger report with the same title examines the application of learning theory to the quality of learning in undergraduate college classrooms. Relevant theories are identified, including theories which address college students' attributions for success or failure, self-efficacy, social constructivism, conscientization, multiple…

Stage, Frances K.; Muller, Patricia, A.; Kinzie, Jillian; Simmons, Ada

260

On Building A Learning Community of Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An exploration of Project Transition, an outgrowth of the University Without Walls program for adult learners, is presented. The development on nontraditional educational thinking is recounted from a personal standpoint, including the realization that return to education in mid-life often signaled a larger decision to reshape personal identity,…

Charland, William A., Jr.

261

The Role of Theory in Learning Technology Evaluation Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper attempts a fundamental analysis of the nature of research into e-learning and the role that theory plays in this. We examine "research" in broad terms, and the nature of phenomena in general. We identify that e-learning is an artificial phenomenon, and that research approaches need to be cognisant of the design elements in e-learning,…

Phillips, Rob; Kennedy, Gregor; McNaught, Carmel

2012-01-01

262

The Effect of a ‘Learning Theories’ Unit on Students’ Attitudes Toward Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

People can improve themselves cognitively, professionally, academically, and in terms of their quality of life by continuous learning. Teachers, who are charged with bringing up new members of society, have to be aware of the importance of developing the ability to learn. This study examined how their knowledge of learning theories affected the attitudes of teacher candidates toward learning. For

Ahmet Kara

2009-01-01

263

Who Learns Best with Multiple Representations? Cognitive Theory Implications for Individual Differences in Multimedia Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a cognitive theory of multimedia learning from which predictions on individual differences in learning are derived and tested. Elementary students learned how to add and subtract integers with an interactive multimedia game that included visual and symbolic representations of the arithmetic procedure. They learned either with…

Moreno, Roxana

264

Mapping the Learning of Older Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports a study to map the progression of learning that resulted from participation in University of the Third Age (U3A)activities. Also looks at members' reasons for joining U3A and their participation in non-U3A activities. (JOW)

Walker, Jo

1998-01-01

265

Associative Learning Increases Adult Neurogenesis During a Critical Period  

PubMed Central

Learning increases the number of immature neurons that survive and mature in the adult hippocampus (Gould et al., 1999). One week old cells are more likely to survive in response to learning than cells in animals that are exposed to training but do not learn (Shors, 2009). Because neurogenesis is an ongoing and overlapping process, it is possible that learning differentially affects new cells as a function of their maturity. To address this issue, we examined the effects of associative learning on the survival of cells at different stages of development. Training did not alter the number of cells that were produced and present during the training experience. Cells that were 1–2 weeks of age at the time of training remained in the hippocampus several weeks later but cells that were young or older did not. In contrast, cells that were produced during training were less likely to survive when compared to cells in untrained animals. Additionally, the number of cells that were generated after learning in trained animals was not different from untrained animals. Finally, survival was not increased if the association was reacquired and expressed when the cells were about one week old. Together, these results indicate that new neurons are rescued from death by initial acquisition, not the expression or reacquisition, of an associative memory and only during a critical period. Overall, these results suggest the presence of a feedback system, which controls how many new neurons become incorporated into the adult brain in response to learning.

Anderson, Megan L.; Sisti, Helene M.; Curlik, Daniel M.; Shors, Tracey J.

2010-01-01

266

Motivation and Adult Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author reviews theories of human motivation: Lewin's force field analysis, Skinner's operant reinforcement theory, and Maslow's hierarchy of needs. He then extracts the implications of these theories for adult learning. SK)

Taylor, J. Rodney

1982-01-01

267

Adult Distance Learning Using a Web-Based Learning Management System: Methodology and Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present the methodology and results derived from a distance learning programme offered by a higher education\\u000a institute to adults. Computer Science and interdisciplinary courses are offered through a Web-based Learning Management System\\u000a (LMS). Administrative, technical and pedagogical issues are considered systemically and a methodology is developed taking\\u000a into consideration the group of learners, appropriate learning methods,

Konstantinos Antonis; Petros Lampsas; Jim Prentzas

2007-01-01

268

Glossary of Adult Learning in Europe. A.E. Monographs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents detailed "definitions" of more than 150 key terms covering the lexicon currently being used in the field of adult learning in 20 European countries. The document begins with an introduction that discusses the glossary's theoretical and historical references and includes 14 references and a 16-item bibliography. The…

Federighi, Paolo, Ed.

269

Subtypes of Learning Disabilities in Adolescents and Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study found that 331 Toronto (Ontario, Canada) adolescent and adult subjects with learning disabilities could be grouped into three subtypes: (1) arithmetic disability, (2) reading disability, and (3) reading and arithmetic disabilities. Each group differed significantly from the others on tests of reading, spelling, memory, and other…

Shafrir, Uri; Siegel, Linda S.

1994-01-01

270

Promoting Adult Learning through Civil Discourse in the Public Library  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Founded in the 1850s to promote an informed citizenry, public libraries advanced both adult learning and citizenship education in the first half of the 20th century, thus becoming cornerstones of democracy. But with a more recent decline in public engagement in libraries and beyond, librarians question whether democracy requires more than an…

Kranich, Nancy

2010-01-01

271

Down the Rabbit Hole: Adults' Learning Adventures in Wonderland  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This account of learning journeys, taken from interviews with a group of adults graduating from a part-time humanities program, traces one prominent pattern from first enrollment to graduation, prioritizing the importance of "time out". Students who had joined a course out of curiosity found themselves traveling in a land of unexpected pleasures,…

Westland, Ella

2004-01-01

272

Adult Language/Learning Disability: Issues and Resources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A language/learning disability (LLD) is a disorder that may affect the comprehension and use of spoken or written language as well as nonverbal language, such as eye contact and tone of speech in both adults and children. Most research, treatment, and support resources emphasize childhood LLD, but the problems do not disappear once a person has…

Comstock, Renee; Kamara, Carol A.

273

Discrimination learning in adult bobwhite quail fed paraquat  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Adult male bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) were fed a diet containing 0, 25 or 100 ppm paraquat dichloride. After 60 d on treated diets, discrimination learning was evaluated with acquisition and reversal tests. The three groups performed similarly on these tests. Dose-related histopathological lesions were not found in liver, kidney or lung tissues

Bunck, C.M.; Bunck, T.J.; Sileo, L.

1986-01-01

274

Developing Adult Learners in a Preservice Teacher Learning Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A preservice teacher learning community at California Polytechnic University was created to guide adult learners in being able to effectively teach diverse learners. From the spring quarter of 2008 to 2009, these preservice teachers engaged in working with each other to write their own lesson plans and teach mathematics and literacy to English…

Ahn, Ruth

2010-01-01

275

Learning for Life: White Paper on Adult Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previously ignored, lifelong learning became a governing principle of Irish educational policy in 2000. Participation trends in education were assessed including early school leaving by males, poor educational levels of older adults, low literacy levels throughout the population, and educational barriers experienced by women. Resulting government…

Department of Education and Science, Dublin (Ireland).

276

Equality and Diversity in Adult and Community Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is a practical guide to help managers of adult and community education programs in the United Kingdom address equality and diversity in the context of the Learning and Skills Council (LSC) remit and the Common Inspection Framework. The following are among the topics discussed in Sections 1-4: (1) learner-centered approaches…

Reisenberger, Anna; Dadzie, Stella

277

Adult Learning and the Changing Workforce: A TEC Viewpoint.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to the chief executive of the South London Training and Enterprise Council (TEC), the key factor in the creation of a dynamic and successful modern economy in Britain is the development of the workforce. Adult learning is the essential component of the modern economy. (JOW)

Howell, John

1995-01-01

278

Managing Programs for Adults Learning English. CAELA Network Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Programs for adults learning English vary widely in size and scope. Some are large, multilevel programs, such as the Arlington Education and Employment Program (REEP) in Virginia, which has more than 45 staff members, over 100 volunteers, and an array of student services for the 7,500 learners served annually at the program's 7 locations. Others…

Rodriguez, Amber Gallup; Burt, Miriam; Peyton, Joy Kreeft; Ueland, Michelle

2009-01-01

279

Effectiveness of Dysphagia Training for Adult Learning Disabilities Support Workers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effectiveness of a 1-day dysphagia training package delivered to support workers who work with adults with a learning disability. Thirty-eight support staff took part in this study. Twenty-five support staff received training, and 13 did not receive training and therefore acted as a control group. Three questionnaires…

Tredinnick, Gerlind; Cocks, Naomi

2014-01-01

280

Personality Patterns of Successful and Unsuccessful Adults with Learning Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adults (N=86) with learning disabilities completed the Personality Pattern Inventory, an employment history, and an interview. Verbal intelligence quotient was found to be the best predictor of employment success or lack of success. The incidence of reactor, persister, and workaholic personality types differed between subjects and a population of…

Faas, Larry A.; And Others

1990-01-01

281

Endnote: Leading, Learning, and Supporting Adult Development for All Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The subject of adult learning has seen increased recognition during the past decade. Over 20 years ago, California established the New Teacher Project (NTP), a forerunner of the current Beginning Teacher Support and Assessment System (BTSA) which was developed to support new teachers in their journey in becoming an expert educator. Recently,…

Erickson, Deborah E.

2010-01-01

282

Adults' Learning about Science in Free-Choice Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper synthesizes findings from three studies to answer a general question: What do casual, adult visitors learn about science from their science-related experiences in free-choice settings? Specifically we asked whether there are changes in how people think about science in their daily lives, the nature and use of scientific knowledge, and…

Rennie, Leonie J.; Williams, Gina F.

2006-01-01

283

Learning Projects of Adults of Low Literacy Attainment in Jamaica.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to implications raised by earlier research in the field, a study investigated the learning projects (as defined by Allen Tough, 1971) of a group of nonliterate and semiliterate adults in a small community. Brown's Town, Jamaica, was chosen as the area of the study because Jamaica is a Third World nation that has recently initiated a…

Field, Jeffrey L.

284

Nonformal and Informal Adult Learning in Museums: A Literature Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The taking up of an "educative" mantle has proven to be a complex task for museums, filled with many unknown and/or misunderstood factors. Of the vast assortment of educational opportunities museums afford their adult patrons and staff, the majority fall into one or two learning categories: either they are nonformal or informal. In effort to…

Dudzinska-Przesmitzki, Dana; Grenier, Robin S.

2008-01-01

285

Helping Adults Learn To Deliver Value in a Global Society.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Andersen Consulting is a global management and technology consulting organization whose mission is to boost clients' success by teaching them to link strategy, people, processes, and technology. Andersen's professional development program for its own 41,000-person global work force is designed to help adults learn to deliver value to global…

Montgomery, Joel R.

286

Observational Learning: Peer versus Adult Models and Autistic Children's Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study compared the effectiveness of peer and adult models in teaching an expressive language task to four autistic boys (9-11 years old). Ss had well developed imitative repertoires and some spontaneous language. Using a BCBC design, counterbalanced across modeling conditions and replicated across Ss, autistic Ss were taught to respond to…

Ihrig, Kristin; Wolchik, Sharlene A.

287

Gender differences in adult word learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

In prior work, women were found to outperform men on short-term verbal memory tasks. The goal of the present work was to examine whether gender differences on short-term memory tasks are tied to the involvement of long-term memory in the learning process. In Experiment 1, men and women were compared on their ability to remember phonologically-familiar novel words and phonologically-unfamiliar

Margarita Kaushanskaya; Viorica Marian; Jeewon Yoo

2011-01-01

288

Gender differences in adult word learning.  

PubMed

In prior work, women were found to outperform men on short-term verbal memory tasks. The goal of the present work was to examine whether gender differences on short-term memory tasks are tied to the involvement of long-term memory in the learning process. In Experiment 1, men and women were compared on their ability to remember phonologically-familiar novel words and phonologically-unfamiliar novel words. Learning of phonologically-familiar novel words (but not of phonologically-unfamiliar novel words) can be supported by long-term phonological knowledge. Results revealed that women outperformed men on phonologically-familiar novel words, but not on phonologically-unfamiliar novel words. In Experiment 2, we replicated Experiment 1 using a within-subjects design, and confirmed gender differences on phonologically-familiar, but not on phonologically-unfamiliar stimuli. These findings are interpreted to suggest that women are more likely than men to recruit native-language phonological knowledge during novel word-learning. PMID:21392726

Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Marian, Viorica; Yoo, Jeewon

2011-05-01

289

Computer Game-Based Learning: Perceptions and Experiences of Senior Chinese Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate senior Chinese adults' potential acceptance of computer game-based learning (CGBL) by probing their perceptions of computer game play and their perceived impacts of game play on their learning of computer skills and life satisfaction. A total of 60 senior adults from a local senior adult learning center…

Wang, Feihong; Lockee, Barbara B.; Burton, John K.

2012-01-01

290

Adult Students' Perception of the Congruence of Hybrid Courses with Their Adult Learning Needs and Their Satisfaction from Hybrid Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The overall purpose of the study was to examine adult students' perception of the congruence of hybrid courses with adult learning needs and to examine adult students' level of satisfaction with hybrid courses. The study collected data through pre and post surveys, administered at the beginning and near the end of the hybrid courses, of adult

Iqbal, Rubina

2011-01-01

291

Constructivist Learning Theory and Climate Science Communication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Communicating climate science is a form of education. A scientist giving a television interview or testifying before Congress is engaged in an educational activity, though one not identical to teaching graduate students. Knowledge, including knowledge about climate science, should never be communicated as a mere catalogue of facts. Science is a process, a way of regarding the natural world, and a fascinating human activity. A great deal is already known about how to do a better job of science communication, but implementing change is not easy. I am confident that improving climate science communication will involve the paradigm of constructivist learning theory, which traces its roots to the 20th-century Swiss epistemologist Jean Piaget, among others. This theory emphasizes the role of the teacher as supportive facilitator rather than didactic lecturer, "a guide on the side, not a sage on the stage." It also stresses the importance of the teacher making a serious effort to understand and appreciate the prior knowledge and viewpoint of the student, recognizing that students' minds are not empty vessels to be filled or blank slates to be written on. Instead, students come to class with a background of life experiences and a body of existing knowledge, of varying degrees of correctness or accuracy, about almost any topic. Effective communication is also usually a conversation rather than a monologue. We know too that for many audiences, the most trusted messengers are those who share the worldview and cultural values of those with whom they are communicating. Constructivist teaching methods stress making use of the parallels between learning and scientific research, such as the analogies between assessing prior knowledge of the audience and surveying scientific literature for a research project. Meanwhile, a well-funded and effective professional disinformation campaign has been successful in sowing confusion, and as a result, many people mistakenly think climate change science is unreliable or is controversial within the expert community. Thus, an urgent task for climate scientists may be to give the public useful guidelines for recognizing and rejecting junk science and disinformation.

Somerville, R. C.

2012-12-01

292

Considering Personality Type in Adult Learning: Using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator in Instructor Preparation at PricewaterhouseCoopers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the feasibility of using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) as a framework for instructor development in a professional services training environment. It explores the consistency of MBTI with common adult learning theory, addresses questions on MBTI's reliability and validity, and explores the applicability of MBTI to the…

Daisley, Richard J.

2011-01-01

293

Social Learning Theory and the Health Belief Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Health Belief Model, social learning theory (recently relabelled social cognitive theory), self-efficacy, and locus of control have all been applied with varying success to problems of explaining, predicting, and influencing behavior. Yet, there is con ceptual confusion among researchers and practitioners about the interrelationships of these theories and variables. This article attempts to show how these explanatory fac tors

Irwin M. Rosenstock; Victor J. Strecher; Marshall H. Becker

1988-01-01

294

Toward a New Motivation to Learn Framework for Older Adult Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although existing literature addresses adults' motivation to learn, and some specifically focuses on older adults, it is now recognized that older adults are more heterogeneous and complex than other age groups. Therefore, this study seeks to provide an alternative theoretical framework to investigate motivation to learn for older adult learners…

Lin, Yi-Yin; Sandmann, Lorilee R.

2012-01-01

295

Beyond Decoding: Adults with Dyslexia Have Trouble Forming Unified Lexical Representations across Pseudoword Learning Episodes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To examine how adults with dyslexia versus adults with typical reading form lexical representations during pseudoword learning. Method: Twenty adults with dyslexia and 20 adults with typical reading learned meanings, spellings, and pronunciations of 16 pictured pseudowords, (half with regular and half with irregular grapheme-phoneme…

Howland, Karole A.; Liederman, Jacqueline

2013-01-01

296

Dispositional factors affecting motivation during learning in adult basic and secondary education programs  

PubMed Central

Research indicates that about a quarter of adult students separate from formal adult basic and secondary education (ABE/ASE) programs before completing one educational level. This retrospective study explores individual dispositional factors that affect motivation during learning, particularly students’ goals, goal-directed thinking and action based on hope theory and attendance behaviors, and self-perceptions of competency based on affective domain attributions about external and internal obstacles to learning and employment, and demographic factors. Among 274 ABE/ASE students, those learners who made an education gain in 1 year significantly differed from those who did not in only a few dispositional or demographic variables; and by educational level they significantly differed in a wide variety of dispositional and demographic variables. These findings suggest researchable questions and programmatic considerations that may lead to future innovations that improve learner persistence.

Krieshok, Thomas; Fall, Emily; Woods, Kari

2012-01-01

297

Learning-Dependent Structural Plasticity in the Adult Olfactory Pathway  

PubMed Central

Olfactory learning in humans leads to enhanced perceptual discrimination of odor cues. Examining mouse models of both aversive and appetitive conditioning, we demonstrate a mechanism which may underlie this adult learning phenomenon. Topographically-unique spatial wiring of the olfactory system allowed us to demonstrate that emotional learning of odor cues alters the primary sensory representation within the nose and brain of adult mice. Transgenic mice labeled at the M71 odorant receptor (specifically activated by the odorant acetophenone), were behaviorally trained with olfactory-dependent fear conditioning or conditioned place preference using acetophenone. Odor-trained mice had larger M71-specific glomeruli and an increase in M71-specific sensory neurons within the nose compared to mice that were untrained, trained to a non-M71 activating odorant, or had non-associative pairings of acetophenone. These data indicate that the primary sensory neuron population and its projections may remain plastic in adults, providing a structural mechanism for learning-enhanced olfactory sensitivity and discrimination.

Jones, Seth V.; Choi, Dennis C.; Davis, Michael

2008-01-01

298

Why formal learning theory matters for cognitive science.  

PubMed

This article reviews a number of different areas in the foundations of formal learning theory. After outlining the general framework for formal models of learning, the Bayesian approach to learning is summarized. This leads to a discussion of Solomonoff's Universal Prior Distribution for Bayesian learning. Gold's model of identification in the limit is also outlined. We next discuss a number of aspects of learning theory raised in contributed papers, related to both computational and representational complexity. The article concludes with a description of how semi-supervised learning can be applied to the study of cognitive learning models. Throughout this overview, the specific points raised by our contributing authors are connected to the models and methods under review. PMID:23335571

Fulop, Sean; Chater, Nick

2013-01-01

299

Measuring student learning with item response theory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We investigate short-term learning from hints and feedback in a Web-based physics tutoring system. Both the skill of students and the difficulty and discrimination of items were determined by applying item response theory (IRT) to the first answers of students who are working on for-credit homework items in an introductory Newtonian physics course. We show that after tutoring a shifted logistic item response function with lower discrimination fits the studentsâ second responses to an item previously answered incorrectly. Student skill decreased by 1.0 standard deviation when students used no tutoring between their (incorrect) first and second attempts, which we attribute to âitem-wrong bias.â On average, using hints or feedback increased studentsâ skill by 0.8 standard deviation. A skill increase of 1.9 standard deviation was observed when hints were requested after viewing, but prior to attempting to answer, a particular item. The skill changes measured in this way will enable the use of IRT to assess students based on their second attempt in a tutoring environment.

Lee, Young-Jin; J., Palazzo D.; Warnakulasooriya, Rasil; Pritchard, David E.

2008-09-24

300

Learning theory: a driving force in understanding orbitofrontal function.  

PubMed

Since it was demonstrated the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is critical to reversal learning, there has been considerable interest in specifying its role in flexible, outcome-guided behavior. Behavioral paradigms from the learning theory tradition, such as outcome devaluation, blocking, Pavlovian to instrumental transfer, and overexpectation have been a driving force in this research. The use of these procedures has revealed OFC's unique role in forming and integrating information about specific features of events and outcomes to drive behavior and learning. These studies highlight the power and importance of learning theory principles in guiding neuroscience research. PMID:23770491

McDannald, Michael A; Jones, Joshua L; Takahashi, Yuji K; Schoenbaum, Geoffrey

2014-02-01

301

Teaching Adults with Learning Disabilities. Professional Practices in Adult Education and Human Resource Development Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is designed to show teachers how to reach out to adults and adolescents with learning disabilities and employ specific strategies for helping them to compensate for the disabilities and acquire literacy skills. The ways in which specific differences in brain structure inhibit the mastery of reading, spelling, handwriting, phonics, and…

Jordan, Dale R.

302

Learning with Hypertext Learning Environments: Theory, Design, and Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studied 69 undergraduates who used conceptually-indexed hypertext learning environments with differently structured thematic criss-crossing (TCC) treatments: guided and learner selected. Found that students need explicit modeling and scaffolding support to learn complex knowledge from these learning environments, and considers implications for…

Jacobson, Michael J.; And Others

1996-01-01

303

A Critical Theory Perspective on Accelerated Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Critically analyzes accelerated learning using concepts from Herbert Marcuse (rebellious subjectivity) and Erich Fromm (automaton conformity). Concludes that, by providing distance and separation, accelerated learning has more potential to stimulate critical autonomous thought. (SK)

Brookfield, Stephen D.

2003-01-01

304

Criminological theory in the digital age: The case of social learning theory and digital piracy  

Microsoft Academic Search

To date, few studies had attempted to extend existing theories of crime to technology driven crimes, such as digital piracy. To address this gap in the literature, this study explored the ability of Akers’ social learning theory in explaining the likelihood of engaging in digital piracy. Also explored was the extent to which the social learning process mediated the impact

Robert G. Morris; George E. Higgins

2010-01-01

305

Reconstructing Constructivism: Causal Models, Bayesian Learning Mechanisms, and the Theory Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We propose a new version of the "theory theory" grounded in the computational framework of probabilistic causal models and Bayesian learning. Probabilistic models allow a constructivist but rigorous and detailed approach to cognitive development. They also explain the learning of both more specific causal hypotheses and more abstract framework…

Gopnik, Alison; Wellman, Henry M.

2012-01-01

306

Using Learning Styles Theory in Engineering Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies have shown that, while learning different concepts, people sometimes take different approaches (learning styles). Accordingly, their performance reflected differently in their academic studies. With the effect of globalisation to the educational environments, the influence of individual learning styles on educational performance is getting…

Cagiltay, Nergiz Ercil

2008-01-01

307

Reinforcement learning in young adults with developmental language impairment.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to examine reinforcement learning (RL) in young adults with developmental language impairment (DLI) within the context of a neurocomputational model of the basal ganglia-dopamine system (Frank, Seeberger, & O'Reilly, 2004). Two groups of young adults, one with DLI and the other without, were recruited. A probabilistic selection task was used to assess how participants implicitly extracted reinforcement history from the environment based on probabilistic positive/negative feedback. The findings showed impaired RL in individuals with DLI, indicating an altered gating function of the striatum in testing. However, they exploited similar learning strategies as comparison participants at the beginning of training, reflecting relatively intact functions of the prefrontal cortex to rapidly update reinforcement information. Within the context of Frank's model, these results can be interpreted as evidence for alterations in the basal ganglia of individuals with DLI. PMID:22921956

Lee, Joanna C; Tomblin, J Bruce

2012-12-01

308

Reinforcement Learning in Young Adults with Developmental Language Impairment  

PubMed Central

The aim of the study was to examine reinforcement learning (RL) in young adults with developmental language impairment (DLI) within the context of a neurocomputational model of the basal ganglia-dopamine system (Frank et al., 2004). Two groups of young adults, one with DLI and the other without, were recruited. A probabilistic selection task was used to assess how participants implicitly extracted reinforcement history from the environment based on probabilistic positive/negative feedback. The findings showed impaired RL in individuals with DLI, indicating an altered gating function of the striatum in testing. However, they exploited similar learning strategies as comparison participants at the beginning of training, reflecting relatively intact functions of the prefrontal cortex to rapidly update reinforcement information. Within the context of Frank’s model, these results can be interpreted as evidence for alterations in the basal ganglia of individuals with DLI.

Lee, Joanna C.; Tomblin, J. Bruce

2012-01-01

309

The Effect of a "Learning Theories" Unit on Students' Attitudes toward Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

People can improve themselves cognitively, professionally, academically, and in terms of their quality of life by continuous learning. Teachers, who are charged with bringing up new members of society, have to be aware of the importance of developing the ability to learn. This study examined how their knowledge of learning theories affected the…

Kara, Ahmet

2009-01-01

310

What Learning Looks Like: Mediated Learning in Theory and Practice, K-6  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this unique collaboration, the authors bring to life the theory of mediated learning. Through numerous examples and scenarios from classrooms and museums, they show how mediated learning helps children to become more effective learners. Readers learn the steps in the process, including analyzing the child's problem, teaching the child to focus…

Feuerstein, Reuven; Lewin-Benham, Ann

2012-01-01

311

Learning Study Guided by Variation Theory: Exemplified by Children Learning to Halve and Double Whole Numbers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aims to describe how the learning study model can be used to improve lesson design and children's learning outcomes by enabling them to perceive and define the critical aspects of the object of learning, guided by variation theory. Three lesson designs were used with three groups of children (A = 24, B = 13, C = 14) from two…

Holmqvist Olander, Mona; Nyberg, Eva

2014-01-01

312

Learning Theories Applied to the Teaching of Business Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews major learning theories that can be followed by business communication instructors, including those by David Ausubel, Albert Bandura, Kurt Lewin, Edward Thorndike, B.F. Skinner, and Robert Gagne. (LRA)

Hart, Maxine Barton

1980-01-01

313

A Natural Teaching Method Based on Learning Theory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The natural teaching method is active and student-centered, based on schema and constructivist theories, and informed by research in neuroplasticity. A schema is a mental picture or understanding of something we have learned. Humans can have knowledge only to the degree to which they have constructed schemas from learning experiences and practice.…

Smilkstein, Rita

1991-01-01

314

Learning from Cases and Bridging Some "Theory-Practice" Gaps.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study described the professional learning of teacher educators in graduate schools which allowed, by the consideration of different pedagogical practices, the construction of bridges between those practices and theories supporting them. It analyzed the effectiveness of teaching and learning case studies in promoting teachers' personal…

Mizukami, Maria da Graca Nicoletti

315

Toward a Theory of Human Resource Development Learning Participation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article fills a theoretical gap by identifying an understudied subject area for human resource development (HRD) theory building, learning participation of HRD interventions in organizations. The topic has critical significance in current HRD practices, such as concerns on e-learning dropout rates and HRD measurement and evaluation. First, a…

Wang, Greg G.; Wang, Jia

2004-01-01

316

Structural Learning Theory: Current Status and New Perspectives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the current status and new perspectives on the Structured Learning Theory (SLT), with special consideration given to how SLT has been influenced by recent research in software engineering. Topics include theoretical constructs; content domains; structural analysis; cognition; assessing behavior potential; and teaching and learning issues,…

Scandura, Joseph M.

2001-01-01

317

Active and Collaborative Learning in an Undergraduate Sociological Theory Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author describes the use of active and collaborative learning strategies in an undergraduate sociological theory course. A semester-long ethnographic project is the foundation for the course; both individual and group participation contribute to the learning process. Assessment findings indicate that students are able, through…

Pedersen, Daphne E.

2010-01-01

318

Using Motor-Learning Theory to Design More Effective Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Choosing which teaching approach to use and when to use it is a complex decision, especially for preservice teachers learning to teach individuals with a variety of skill levels and abilities. One source of information that teachers can use to help select an approach is motor-learning theory. This article describes an early field experience in…

Rukavina, Paul B.; Foxworth, K. Randell

2009-01-01

319

Reviewing Theory and Research on Informal and Incidental Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Leaders and employees of today's organizations typically assume increasing responsibility for their own and their organization's learning. Much of that learning is informal or incidental. This article reviews theory and research to update that model and identify future research challenges. Through this review, groundwork will be laid for…

Marsick, Victoria J.; Watkins, Karen E.; Callahan, Mary Wilson; Volpe, Marie

2006-01-01

320

Experiential Learning Theory as a Guide for Effective Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

David Kolb's experiential learning theory involves a framework useful in designing courses that meet needs of diverse learners. Course designs providing systematic activities in concrete experience, reflective observations, abstract conceptualization, and active experimentation will be sensitive to students' learning styles while challenging…

Murrell, Patricia H.; Claxton, Charles S.

1987-01-01

321

An information theory based learning paradigm for linear feature extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel unsupervised learning paradigm for feature extraction in linear networks under the constraint that no information distortion occurs in the input-output map. Independent feature extraction is then accomplished by minimizing an appropriate information theory based measure of the statistical dependence between the output components. In the case of Gaussian input distribution, a learning rule which preserves

Dragan Obradovic; Gustavo Deco

1996-01-01

322

Supporting Alternative Strategies for Learning Chemical Applications of Group Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A group theory course for chemists was taught entirely with process oriented guided inquiry learning (POGIL) to facilitate alternative strategies for learning. Students completed a test of one aspect of visuospatial aptitude to determine their individual approaches to solving spatial tasks, and were sorted into groups for analysis on the basis of…

Southam, Daniel C.; Lewis, Jennifer E.

2013-01-01

323

Evaluating theories of bird song learning: implications for future directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of birdsong learning have stimulated extensive hypotheses at all levels of behavioral and physiological organization. This hypothesis building is valuable for the field and is consistent with the remarkable range of issues that can be rigorously addressed in this system. The traditional instructional (template) theory of song learning has been challenged on multiple fronts, especially at a behavioral level

D. Margoliash

2002-01-01

324

Learning Outcomes and Achievement among Working Adult Students in the Distance and Collaborative Learning Program in Universiti Malaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose - This research is attempt to examine the learning outcomes of the registered adult learners in the distance and e learning program in the Education Faculty, Social Science and Art Faculty and Language Faculty in Universiti Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, particularly at degree and post degree level who have followed the learning modules in distance and e learning. The

Chew Fong Peng; Goh Teck; Lee Tan Luck

325

Adventure Learning: Theory and Implementation of Hybrid Learning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adventure Learning (AL), a hybrid distance education approach, provides students and teachers with the opportunity to learn about authentic curricular content areas while interacting with adventurers, students, and content experts at various locations throughout the world within an online learning environment (Doering, 2006). An AL curriculum and online environment provides collaborative community spaces where traditional hierarchical classroom roles are blurred and learning is transformed. AL has most recently become popular in K-12 classrooms nationally and internationally with millions of students participating online. However, in the literature, the term "adventure learning" many times gets confused with phrases such as "virtual fieldtrip" and activities where someone "exploring" is posting photos and text. This type of "adventure learning" is not "Adventure Learning" (AL), but merely a slideshow of their activities. The learning environment may not have any curricular and/or social goals, and if it does, the environment design many times does not support these objectives. AL, on the other hand, is designed so that both teachers and students understand that their online and curriculum activities are in synch and supportive of the curricular goals. In AL environments, there are no disparate activities as the design considers the educational, social, and technological affordances (Kirschner, Strijbos, Kreijns, & Beers, 2004); in other words, the artifacts of the learning environment encourage and support the instructional goals, social interactions, collaborative efforts, and ultimately learning. AL is grounded in two major theoretical approaches to learning - experiential and inquiry-based learning. As Kolb (1984) noted, in experiential learning, a learner creates meaning from direct experiences and reflections. Such is the goal of AL within the classroom. Additionally, AL affords learners a real-time authentic online learning experience concurrently as they study the AL curriculum. AL is also grounded in an inquiry- based approach to learning where learners are pursuing answers to questions they have posed rather than focusing on memorizing and regurgitating isolated, irrelevant facts. Both the curriculum and the online classroom are developed to foster students' abilities to inquire via "identifying and posing questions, designing and conducting investigations, analyzing data and evidence, using models and explanations, and communicating findings" (Keys and Bryan, 2001, p 121). The union of experiential and inquiry-based learning is the foundation of AL, guiding and supporting authentic learning endeavors. Based on these theoretical foundations, the design of the adventure learning experiences follows seven interdependent principles that further operationalize AL: researched curriculum grounded in inquiry; collaboration and interaction opportunities between students, experts, peers, and content; utilization of the Internet for curriculum and learning environment delivery; enhancement of curriculum with media and text from the field delivered in a timely manner; synched learning opportunities with the AL curriculum; pedagogical guidelines of the curriculum and the online learning environment; and adventure-based education. (Doering, 2006).

Doering, A.

2008-12-01

326

Journal Writing as an Adult Learning Tool. Practice Application Brief No. 22.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Journals can be valuable tools for fostering adult learning and experience. Research has supported the following assumptions about learning from journals: (1) articulating connections between new and existing knowledge improves learning; (2) writing about learning is a way of demonstrating what has been learned; (3) journal writing accentuates…

Kerka, Sandra

327

Activity Theory and Situated Learning Theory: Contrasting Views of Educational Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to offer a critical discussion of the practice turn in contemporary educational research. In order to make the discussion specific, I use two influential theories, namely activity theory and situated learning theory. They both turn to the notion of practice in order to overcome the limitations of mentalist and…

Arnseth, Hans Christian

2008-01-01

328

White matter structure changes as adults learn a second language.  

PubMed

Traditional models hold that the plastic reorganization of brain structures occurs mainly during childhood and adolescence, leaving adults with limited means to learn new knowledge and skills. Research within the last decade has begun to overturn this belief, documenting changes in the brain's gray and white matter as healthy adults learn simple motor and cognitive skills [Lövdén, M., Bodammer, N. C., Kühn, S., Kaufmann, J., Schütze, H., Tempelmann, C., et al. Experience-dependent plasticity of white-matter microstructure extends into old age. Neuropsychologia, 48, 3878-3883, 2010; Taubert, M., Draganski, B., Anwander, A., Müller, K., Horstmann, A., Villringer, A., et al. Dynamic properties of human brain structure: Learning-related changes in cortical areas and associated fiber connections. The Journal of Neuroscience, 30, 11670-11677, 2010; Scholz, J., Klein, M. C., Behrens, T. E. J., & Johansen-Berg, H. Training induces changes in white-matter architecture. Nature Neuroscience, 12, 1370-1371, 2009; Draganski, B., Gaser, C., Busch, V., Schuirer, G., Bogdahn, U., & May, A. Changes in grey matter induced by training. Nature, 427, 311-312, 2004]. Although the significance of these changes is not fully understood, they reveal a brain that remains plastic well beyond early developmental periods. Here we investigate the role of adult structural plasticity in the complex, long-term learning process of foreign language acquisition. We collected monthly diffusion tensor imaging scans of 11 English speakers who took a 9-month intensive course in written and spoken Modern Standard Chinese as well as from 16 control participants who did not study a language. We show that white matter reorganizes progressively across multiple sites as adults study a new language. Language learners exhibited progressive changes in white matter tracts associated with traditional left hemisphere language areas and their right hemisphere analogs. Surprisingly, the most significant changes occurred in frontal lobe tracts crossing the genu of the corpus callosum-a region not generally included in current neural models of language processing. These results indicate that plasticity of white matter plays an important role in adult language learning and additionally demonstrate the potential of longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging as a new tool to yield insights into cognitive processes. PMID:22571459

Schlegel, Alexander A; Rudelson, Justin J; Tse, Peter U

2012-08-01

329

The Attribution Theory of Learning and Advising Students on Academic Probation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Academic advisors need to be knowledgeable of the ways students learn. To aid advisors in their exploration of learning theories, I provide an overview of the attribution theory of learning, including recent applications of the theory to research in college student learning. An understanding of this theory may help advisors understand student…

Demetriou, Cynthia

2011-01-01

330

Learning and adult neurogenesis: survival with or without proliferation?  

PubMed

Recent high quality papers have renewed interest in the phenomenon of neurogenesis within the adult mammalian brain. Many studies now show that neurogenesis can be modulated by environmental factors including physical activity, stress, and learning. These findings have considerable implications for neuroscience in general, including the study of learning and memory, neural network plasticity, aging, neurodegeneration, and the recovery from brain injury. Although new light has been shed on this field, many contradictory findings have been reported. Here we propose two principle issues which underlie these inconsistencies, with particular focus on the interaction between learning and neurogenesis. The first issue relates to the basic methodology of measuring the generation of new brain cells, i.e., proliferation, as compared to survival of the newly made cells. Mostly, measures of neurogenesis reported are a combination of proliferation and survival, making it impossible to distinguish between these separate processes. The second aspect is in regards to the role of environmental factors which can affect both proliferation and survival independently. Especially the interaction between stress and learning is of importance since these might counteract each other in some circumstances. Reviewing the literature while taking these issues into account indicates that, in contrast to some findings, cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus as a result of learning cannot be ruled out yet. On the other hand, increased survival of granule cells in the dentate gyrus as a result of hippocampal-dependent learning has been clearly demonstrated. Moreover, this learning-induced survival of granule cells, which were born before the actual learning experience, might provide a molecular mechanism for the 'use it or lose it' principle. PMID:14670353

Prickaerts, Jos; Koopmans, Guido; Blokland, Arjan; Scheepens, Arjan

2004-01-01

331

Mathematical Modelling and New Theories of Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Demonstrates the importance of expanding notions of learning beyond knowledge to the practices in mathematics classrooms. Considers a three-year study of students who learned through mathematical modeling. Shows that a modeling approach encouraged the development of a range of important practices in addition to knowledge that were useful in real…

Boaler, Jo

2001-01-01

332

An Activity Theory View on Learning Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning study has been used by many to develop exemplary teaching in school, and this approach has recently been adopted for use in kindergarten as well. When using such approaches in different settings than they were intended for, several challenges potentially arise. This article discusses the implementation of a learning study approach in a…

Mosvold, Reidar; Bjuland, Raymond

2011-01-01

333

Apprenticeship: from learning theory to practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

To meet the requirements of an increasingly innovative and competitive environment, workers need to continuously develop and maintain competence. Consequently, initial vocational education and training should prepare (future) workers by providing a basis for lifelong learning in developing both routine and flexible competence. The question is whether workplace learning in initial VET contributes to this aim. To describe WPL processes

Cindy Louise Poortman; Knud Illeris; Loek Nieuwenhuis

2011-01-01

334

Reflection in Learning & Professional Development: Theory & Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book reviews the literature on reflection, explores the relationship between reflection and learning, and discusses how reflection can be used to improve learning and professional practice. The following are among the topics discussed: (1) common-sense and developmental stage approaches to reflection; (2) the philosophies of Dewey and…

Moon, Jennifer A.

335

On the Prospects of a Semiotic Theory of Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Taking as its exegetic point of departure Peirce's outline of a semiotic theory of cognition from the mid 1890s, this paper explores the relevance of this outline to a theory of learning and also to a broader, normative vision of education. Firstly, besides providing for fallibilism in philosophical inquiry Peirce's outline accords with critical…

Midtgarden, Torjus

2005-01-01

336

Children Balance Theories and Evidence in Exploration, Explanation, and Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We look at the effect of evidence and prior beliefs on exploration, explanation and learning. In Experiment 1, we tested children both with and without differential prior beliefs about balance relationships (Center Theorists, mean: 82 months; Mass Theorists, mean: 89 months; No Theory children, mean: 62 months). Center and Mass Theory children who…

Bonawitz, Elizabeth Baraff; van Schijndel, Tessa J. P.; Friel, Daniel; Schulz, Laura

2012-01-01

337

Learning Theory for Collaborative Large Shared Digital Spaces  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research applies Socio-Cultural theory and Distributed Cognition/Activity theory to conceptualize the design of collaborative learning activities in large shared digital spaces. The paper begins by providing a summary of previous work in the creation of a technology platform for large shared digital spaces. It then details how Socio-Cultural…

McGivern, Daniela; Morgan, Michael; Butler, Matthew

2012-01-01

338

Self-Regulated Learning, Social Cognitive Theory, and Agency  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The conception and theory of agency as self-regulation that is contained within Bandura's social cognitive theory is examined and elaborated in the context of the relevant philosophical history of ideas and through consideration of recent work in theoretical developmental psychology. Implications for self-regulated learning in classrooms are…

Martin, Jack

2004-01-01

339

Participatory Learning Theories: A Framework for Early Childhood Pedagogy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper continues scholarly conversations about appropriate theories of development to underpin early childhood pedagogy. It focuses on sociocultural theoretical perspectives and proposes that participatory learning theories (PLTs) underpin pedagogy built on principles specified in three curricular documents. Further, the paper argues that the…

Hedges, Helen; Cullen, Joy

2012-01-01

340

The Comprehensive Adult Education Planner: Providing Education for Adult Learners Including Those with Learning and Behavioral Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for new program directors, adult educators who are starting a new program, or those considering changes in existing adult education programs, this manual contains materials resulting from a four-year effort to improve adult education services, especially for persons with learning disabilities and serious emotional disturbances. The major…

Mellard, Daryl; Scanlon, David

341

Through the Looking Glass: Adult Education through the Lens of the Australian Journal of Adult Learning over Fifty Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper we review fifty years of articles published in Australian Journal of Adult Learning in its various iterations. We examine the different roles of the journal: to illuminate the history and trends of adult education authors; to be the flagship of the adult education profession in Australia; to reflect on significant national events;…

Harris, Roger; Morrison, Anne

2011-01-01

342

Enhancing the learning of new words using an errorless learning procedure: Evidence from typical adults.  

PubMed

Two experiments compared the efficacy of errorless and errorful training procedures in the acquisition of novel words in typical adults. One experiment involved learning novel names for novel objects, while a second involved learning obscure English words and their definitions. In both studies the errorless method led to significantly better learning as assessed by an immediate cued recall test. The errorless advantage was characterised by a reduction in extra-experimental intrusion errors and was still present when learning was re-tested 3-4 days after training. In contrast there was no errorless advantage in recognition of word-to-object pairings. Taken together, these results suggest that errorless learning procedures improve retrieval by leading to the creation of better-specified, retrievable representations in long-term memory. PMID:23799282

Warmington, Meesha; Hitch, Graham J

2014-07-01

343

A theory for how sensorimotor skills are learned and retained in noisy and nonstationary neural circuits  

PubMed Central

During the process of skill learning, synaptic connections in our brains are modified to form motor memories of learned sensorimotor acts. The more plastic the adult brain is, the easier it is to learn new skills or adapt to neurological injury. However, if the brain is too plastic and the pattern of synaptic connectivity is constantly changing, new memories will overwrite old memories, and learning becomes unstable. This trade-off is known as the stability–plasticity dilemma. Here a theory of sensorimotor learning and memory is developed whereby synaptic strengths are perpetually fluctuating without causing instability in motor memory recall, as long as the underlying neural networks are sufficiently noisy and massively redundant. The theory implies two distinct stages of learning—preasymptotic and postasymptotic—because once the error drops to a level comparable to that of the noise-induced error, further error reduction requires altered network dynamics. A key behavioral prediction derived from this analysis is tested in a visuomotor adaptation experiment, and the resultant learning curves are modeled with a nonstationary neural network. Next, the theory is used to model two-photon microscopy data that show, in animals, high rates of dendritic spine turnover, even in the absence of overt behavioral learning. Finally, the theory predicts enhanced task selectivity in the responses of individual motor cortical neurons as the level of task expertise increases. From these considerations, a unique interpretation of sensorimotor memory is proposed—memories are defined not by fixed patterns of synaptic weights but, rather, by nonstationary synaptic patterns that fluctuate coherently.

Ajemian, Robert; D'Ausilio, Alessandro; Moorman, Helene; Bizzi, Emilio

2013-01-01

344

Mindfulness, Adult Learning and Therapeutic Education: Integrating the Cognitive and Affective Domains of Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although it has been given qualified approval by a number of philosophers of education, the so-called "therapeutic turn" in education has been the subject of criticism by several commentators on post-compulsory and adult learning over the last few years. A key feature of this alleged development in recent educational policy is said to be the…

Hyland, Terry

2010-01-01

345

A Homogeneous Group of Persons with Learning Disabilities: Adults with Severe Learning Disabilities in Vocational Rehabilitation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning-disabled adults (N=145) participating in vocational rehabilitation were found to constitute a homogeneous group with severe deficits, exhibiting: low-average general intelligence; lower verbal than performance Intelligence Quotients; attention, reasoning, and auditory memory deficits; academic achievement at the fourth/fifth-grade level;…

Minskoff, Esther H.; And Others

1989-01-01

346

Adult Learning Satisfaction and Instructional Perspective in the Foreign Language Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adult education literature suggests that the instructional perspective of the teacher has an important effect on adult satisfaction with learning. In this study, the relationships between instructional perspective, satisfaction with language learning, and certain teacher and student characteristics were investigated. Study participants were adult

Ryan, Linda Jo

2009-01-01

347

The Financing of Adult Learning in Civil Society: A European Exploratory Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The financing of adult learning in civil society in Europe was examined in an exploratory study that focused on the relationship between nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and the status of financing in the general field of adult learning. Adult education experts from the following countries were subcontracted to develop "country windows" on…

Belanger, Paul; Bochynek, Bettina

348

Evaluating the Impacts of Professional Development: A Mixed Method Study of Adult Education Learning Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adult education programs providing classes to students preparing for high school equivalency and learning English that demonstrate characteristics of learning organizations may be better able to thrive when confronted with less-than-ideal circumstances. Many of these programs organize adult educators into learning communities as the context for…

Dilworth, Jessica S.

2010-01-01

349

Adult Health Learning and Transformation: A Case Study of a Canadian Community-Based Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a case study of adult learning in a Canadian multisite Community Cardiovascular Hearts in Motion program. The researcher highlights the informal learning of 40 adult participants in this 12-week community-based cardiac rehabilitation/education program in five rural Nova Scotia communities. The effects of this learning and…

Coady, Maureen

2013-01-01

350

Adult Learning in the Digital Age: Perspectives on Online Technologies and Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As instructors move further into the incorporation of 21st century technologies in adult education, a new paradigm of digitally-enriched mediated learning has emerged. This book provides a comprehensive framework of trends and issues related to adult learning for the facilitation of authentic learning in the age of digital technology. This…

Kidd, Terry T., Ed.; Keengwe, Jared, Ed.

2010-01-01

351

Social sensitivity in adolescents and adults with learning disabilities.  

PubMed

This study investigated social sensitivity and self-concept in students with learning disabilities (LD) and their non-learning-disabled (non-LD) peers. Thirty students each from public junior and senior high schools and a community college participated in the study; at each grade level, half were identified as learning disabled and half experienced no learning problem. Students were individually assessed in 30-minute interviews for their accuracy in interpreting the thoughts and feelings of actors in tape-recorded stories depicting two adults in happy angry, anxious, and sad interactions. A questionnaire assessing four dimensions of self-concept in learning situations (motivation, task orientation, problem-solving ability, and class membership) was also administered. LD students at all grade levels were significantly less accurate at interpreting social situations than were their non-LD peers, and had significantly lower self-concepts. These results support the need for remediation efforts specifically aimed at social skills for overcoming social deficits in adulthood. PMID:1471573

Jarvis, P A; Justice, E M

1992-01-01

352

The region of proximal learning heuristic and adult age differences in self-regulated learning.  

PubMed

Younger, middle-aged, and older adults were asked to study 36 Chinese-English vocabulary pairs of different complexity levels from grids where presentation order was randomized and no information about item complexity was provided. Of interest was whether participants' item selection and study time allocation would initially favor simple items, as predicted by Metcalfe's (2002) region of proximal learning (RPL) model, or complex items, as suggested by the discrepancy reduction model (DRM; Nelson & Leonesio, 1988), when participants had to select items based on something other than similarity to English. Each age group gauged item complexity similarly and made a similar use of the RPL heuristic in initial selection and study behaviors. However, older adults were more likely to restudy and allocate more time to simpler items, suggesting that, at least for restudy, older adults particularly relied on the RPL heuristic. Results are discussed in terms of self-regulated learning models. PMID:22946525

Price, Jodi; Murray, Rory G

2012-12-01

353

Lifelong Learning, Lifelong Education and Adult Education in Higher Institutions of Learning in Eastern Africa: The Case of Makerere University Institute of Adult and Continuing Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper advocates for policy recognition of lifelong learning by institutions of higher learning and governments in Eastern Africa. Lifelong learning and lifelong education are two concepts that aim at widening access to and the participation of adult learners in the acquisition of new knowledge, skills, values and attitudes. There are many…

Openjuru, George L.

2011-01-01

354

A qualitative study of middle school students' perceptions of factors facilitating the learning of science: Grounded theory and existing theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to explore middle school students' perceptions of what factors facilitated their learning of science. Florida's Educational Reform Act of 1983 funded programs providing the state's precollege students with summer learning opportunities in science. mathematics, and computers. The programs were intended to encourage the development of creative approaches to the teaching of these disciplines. Under this program, between 50 and 60 high-achieving middle school students were in residence on the University of South Florida campus for 12 consecutive days of study in the World of Water (WOW) program. There were two sessions per summer involving a total of 572 participants. Eighi specially trained teachers were in residence with the students. Between 50 and 70 experts from the university, government. business, and industry interacted with the students each year in an innovative science/technology/society (STS) program. An assignment toward the close of the program asked students to reflect on their experiences in residence at the university and write an essay comparing learning in the WOW program to learning in their schools. Those essays were the base for this study. This was a qualitative study using a discursive approach to emergent design to generate grounded theory. Document review, participant observation, and open-ended interviews were used to gather and triangulate data in five phases. Some of the factors that middle school students perceived as helpful to learning science were (a) experiencing the situations about which they were learning; (b) having live presentations by professional experts; (c) doing hands-on activities: (d) being active learners; (e) using inductive reasoning to generate new knowledge; (f) exploring transdisciplinary approaches to problem solving; (g) having adult mentors; (h) interacting with peers and adults; (i) establishing networks; (j) having close personal friends who shared their interest in learning; (k) trusting the individuals in their learning environment, including adults and students; and (1) experiencing a sense of self-reliance. The preceding information was used to generate a series of hypotheses which were woven into a theoretical model. This model suggests that middle school science teacher education would be enhanced by helping prospective and in-service teachers develop and implement strategies that build trust, provide immersion in learning, and use inductive reasoning. This model is currently being used as the theoretical base to convert a traditional junior high school in the South to a middle school.

Spector, Barbara S.; Gibson, Charles W.

355

Social cognitive theory, metacognition, and simulation learning in nursing education.  

PubMed

Simulation learning encompasses simple, introductory scenarios requiring response to patients' needs during basic hygienic care and during situations demanding complex decision making. Simulation integrates principles of social cognitive theory (SCT) into an interactive approach to learning that encompasses the core principles of intentionality, forethought, self-reactiveness, and self-reflectiveness. Effective simulation requires an environment conducive to learning and introduces activities that foster symbolic coding operations and mastery of new skills; debriefing builds self-efficacy and supports self-regulation of behavior. Tailoring the level of difficulty to students' mastery level supports successful outcomes and motivation to set higher standards. Mindful selection of simulation complexity and structure matches course learning objectives and supports progressive development of metacognition. Theory-based facilitation of simulated learning optimizes efficacy of this learning method to foster maturation of cognitive processes of SCT, metacognition, and self-directedness. Examples of metacognition that are supported through mindful, theory-based implementation of simulation learning are provided. PMID:22909039

Burke, Helen; Mancuso, Lorraine

2012-10-01

356

Machine learning approach for classification of ADHD adults.  

PubMed

Machine learning techniques that combine multiple classifiers are introduced for classifying adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) subtypes based on power spectra of EEG measurements. The analyzed sample includes 117 adults (67 ADHD, 50 controls). The measurements are taken for four different conditions: two resting conditions (eyes open and eyes closed) and two neuropsychological tasks (visual continuous performance test and emotional continuous performance test). We divide the sample into four data sets, one for each condition. Each data set is used for training of four different support vector machine classifiers, while the output of classifiers is combined using logical expression derived from the Karnaugh map. The results show that this approach improves the discrimination between ADHD and control groups, as well as between ADHD subtypes. PMID:23361114

Tenev, Aleksandar; Markovska-Simoska, Silvana; Kocarev, Ljupco; Pop-Jordanov, Jordan; Müller, Andreas; Candrian, Gian

2014-07-01

357

Learning by Doing--Piagets konstruktivistische Lerntheorie und ihre Konsequenzen fur die padagogische Praxis (Learning by Doing--Piaget's Constructivist Learning Theory and Its Consequences for Pedagogical Practice).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents Jean Piaget's theory of genetic recognition, one of the first constructivist learning theories. Examines critically the relationship of the theory to present-day teaching and learning research, pedagogical practice, and other forms of constructivism. Asserts that one practical application of Piaget's learning theory would be to teach by…

Vollmers, Burkhard

1997-01-01

358

How Adults Learn: A Conference. Held in Washington, DC on April 6-8, 1998.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document contains the proceedings of a conference on adult learners conducted to identify barriers that prevent certain groups of adults from participating in lifelong learning opportunities and to deepen understanding of practices and institutional ...

1999-01-01

359

Adult Learning in the Caribbean at the Beginning of a New Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To encourage male participation in adult learning, especially education aimed at antiviolence, parenting skills, and attitudes toward women, adult educators should use creative marketing strategies. Knowledge of marketing principles should be applied to both program design and promotion. (SK)

Ramsay, Angela

2001-01-01

360

Teaching Children about Money: Applications of Social Learning and Cognitive Learning Developmental Theories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the need to teach children age-appropriate and effective financial lessons based on developmental theories of social and cognitive learning. Provides recommendations and techniques suggested by experts. (JOW)

Martin, Allen; Oliva, Juan Carlos

2001-01-01

361

Learning Experiences of Adults Mentoring Socially Excluded Young People: Issues of Power and Gender  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult educators have not as yet investigated the vast movement of adults who mentor socially excluded youth. But these mentors are adult learners too. Their experiences suggest that mentoring - in any context - may entail the 'toxic' learning of emotional labour. More attention should be paid to their training from a perspective of social justice. Millions of adults across

Helen Colley

362

Andragogy for Teen and Young Adult Learners with Intellectual Disabilities: Learning, Independence, and Best Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teens and young adults with Intellectual Disabilities (ID) meet the criteria of teen and adult learners chronologically, but may be deficient in many other areas of teen and adult learning. The spectrum of intellectual and adaptive capabilities among teens and adults with ID is vast, with each individual being unique. There are specific teaching…

Bowman, Stephanie L.; Plourde, Lee A.

2012-01-01

363

Distance Learning and Adult Students. A Review of Recent Developments in the Public Education Sector.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This descriptive state-of-the-art report presents a survey of recent distance learning developments in Britain, mainly by local colleges in the public education sector, and discusses the motivation and experience of adult learners. Distance learning in ge...

1983-01-01

364

Reading and the New Learning Theory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Very little has been reported in the literature as to how a child actually learns, but what is known can be put to more effective use in teaching the child to read. The brain has at least five input systems: sight, hearing, touch, taste, and smell. The first of these senses is employed more than the others in reading; however, it is believed that…

Jordan, William C.

365

Translating Learning Style Theory into University Teaching Practices: An Article Based on Kolb's Experiential Learning Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Translates learning style theory into the following university teaching practices: classroom learning, group assignments, essay research-writing instruction, and examinations. Notes that the recommendations for practice can be adapted to accommodate the style delineations of other theorists' models. Focuses on university classroom, group, essay…

Terry, Marion

2001-01-01

366

Language Learning Theories and Cooperative Learning Techniques in the EFL Classroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Group work in the educational context generally involves a small number of students working together to achieve a task. However, not all group work provides equal opportunities for learning for all members of the group. Cooperative learning techniques allow instructors to more effectively structure and implement group work in their classrooms. This paper first discusses prevailing cognitive and social-cultural theories

Matthew T. APPLE

367

Adults' Informal Learning: Definitions, Findings, Gaps, and Future Research. NALL Working Paper #21.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper on adult informal learning is divided into four sections. Section 1 examines different conceptions of informal learning and the issues and limitations associated with alternative definitions of informal learning. Section 2 is a review of empirical research on the estimated extent, role, and outcomes of informal learning and posited…

Livingstone, D. W.

368

Contextual Orientation Patterns as Describing Adults' Personal Approach to Learning in a Web-Based Learning Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore patterns of learning among adult learners in a Web-based learning environment over the study period of one year in the Open University in Tampere and Lohja in Finland. The learning environment varied from face-to-face small group sessions to Web-based online discussion sessions. During this study contextual…

Korhonen, Vesa

2004-01-01

369

The Application of Learning Theories in Community College Classrooms. UCLA Community College Bibliography  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The references in this document provide an overview of empirical and conceptual scholarship on the application of learning theories in community college classrooms. Specific theories discussed in the citations include: active learning, cooperative learning, multiple intelligences, problem-based learning, and self-regulated learning. In addition to…

Carducci, Rozana

2006-01-01

370

The relevance of attachment theory to the philosophy, organization, and practice of adult mental health care  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review is an inquiry into the relevance of attachment theory to the current philosophy, organization, and practice of adult mental health care, via an examination of the literature relating to attachment theory and, in particular, the literature relating to research into adult attachment. The review does not seek to critique attachment theory itself, but considers carefully the relevance of

Isabel Goodwin

2003-01-01

371

Learning through Dignity: Participatory Communication Theory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes an alternative approach to traditional instructional design models by suggesting that participatory communication theory (PCT) creates a process that values the learner's voice. As a student develops a critical awareness of his or her environment, participatory media becomes a catalyst for cognition. Learners use media tools…

Maxey, Dennis

372

The Theory of Learning in Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

In economics, most noncooperative game theory has focused on equilibrium in games, especially Nash equilibrium and its refinements. The traditional explanation for when and why equilibrium arises is that it results from analysis and introspection by the players in a situation where the rules of the game, the rationality of the players, and the players' payoff functions are all common

Drew Fudenberg; David K. Levine

1999-01-01

373

Vitamin D Deficiency Impairs Spatial Learning in Adult Rats  

PubMed Central

Background: Through its membrane and intracellular receptors, vitamin D regulates many vital functions in the body including its well known actions on musculoskeletal system. Growing body of evidences demonstrate that vitamin D undergoes some of behavioral aspects of neurocognition. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of food regimens without vitamin D or with a supplement of 1,25(OH)2D3 on spatial performance of adult rats. Methods: The animals were trained in the Morris water maze to find a hidden platform. The time spent and the distance traveled to find the platform, speed of navigation and the percentage of unsuccessful trials were considered for assessment of the task learning. Results: Our findings indicated that the vitamin D-deprived rats had a significant lower performance compared to both the controls and the animals receiving 1,25(OH)2D3 supplementation. Concerning the unsuccessful trials, lack of vitamin D resulted in the highest failures in the maze navigation. The regimen with additional 1,25(OH)2D3 did not considerably influence learning of the maze task. Conclusion: We concluded that while vitamin D deficiency deteriorates the spatial task learning, the 1,25(OH)2D3 supplementation did not effectively underlie the maze performance.

Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Talaei, Sayyed Alireza; Salami, Mahmoud

2013-01-01

374

An Overview of Selected Theories about Student Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Engineering educators are often not familiar with the theories and research findings of educational psychology, adult development, curriculum design, and instruction design. Even the published research in engineering/computing education does not sufficiently leverage this body of knowledge. Often in the educational reports and recommendations by…

Goel, Sanjay

2011-01-01

375

Working with Adults with Learning Disabilities in Adult Education Programs: A Guide for Instructors. Quality Professional Development Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is designed for professional development of both new and experienced Florida adult educators by providing them with insight into general characteristics of learning disabilities in adults. It is one of three manuals developed to supplement a previous series of professional development manuals. Each of its five units consist of some or…

Florida Community Coll., Jacksonville.

376

Legal and Definitional Issues Affecting the Identification and Education of Adults with Specific Learning Disabilities in Adult Education Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the exact prevalence is not determined, a noticeable subset of individuals who enroll in adult education and training programs have either diagnosed or undiagnosed specific learning disabilities (SLD). Understanding SLD is important basic information for adult educators to inform program policies as well as determine effective…

Taymans, Juliana M.

2012-01-01

377

The Interdependence of Pedagogy, Learning Theory, Morality and Metaphysics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the incompatibility between constructivist theories of learning and realist metaphysics (belief that knowledge and skills exist in mind-independent workplace practices). Shows how this results in conflict between constructivist teaching approaches and the transmission or banking mode favored by realist metaphysics. (SK)

Blunden, Ralph

1997-01-01

378

Writing for publication: faculty development initiative using social learning theory.  

PubMed

Demonstrating scholarly competency is an expectation for nurse faculty. However, there is hesitancy among some faculty to fully engage in scholarly activities. To strengthen a school of nursing's culture of scholarship, a faculty development writing initiative based on Social Learning Theory was implemented. The authors discuss this initiative to facilitate writing for publication productivity among faculty and the successful outcomes. PMID:22914279

Sanderson, Bonnie K; Carter, Matt; Schuessler, Jenny B

2012-01-01

379

Roundtable: Theory, Policy and Practice in Lifelong Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains outlines of 14 presentations at a roundtable discussion on theory, policy, and practice in lifelong learning that was held during a conference on human resource development (HRD) research and practice across Europe. Outlines of the following presentations and discussions are included: "Discourses on HRD and Lifelong…

Manning, Sabine, Ed.

380

Learning Disabilities: Theory, Assessment and Remediation. A Bibliography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The bibliography on learning disabilities emphasizes current, research-oriented literature in three areas--theory, diagnosis and assessment, and remediation. Entries are divided into the above major topic areas and listed alphabetically by author in books and periodicals sections under the following subtopics: general neurological-perceptual…

McMurray, J. G.

381

SSL: A Theory of How People Learn to Select Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The assumption that people possess a repertoire of strategies to solve the inference problems they face has been raised repeatedly. However, a computational model specifying how people select strategies from their repertoire is still lacking. The proposed strategy selection learning (SSL) theory predicts a strategy selection process on the basis…

Rieskamp, Jorg; Otto, Philipp E.

2006-01-01

382

Iterative learning control synthesis based on 2-D system theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

An algorithm is presented for iterative learning of the control input for a linear discrete-time multivariable system. Necessary and sufficient conditions are stated for convergence of the proposed algorithm. The algorithm synthesis and analysis are based on two-dimensional (2-D) system theory. A numerical example is given

J. E. Kurek; M. B. Zaremba

1993-01-01

383

Sketch for a Theory of Confusion in Mathematics Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper analyses three well-known paradoxes to show how mathematical statements can cause mental disharmony. The outcome forms a basis for a psychological theory of confusion in mathematics learning which has important implications for classroom practice and curriculum innovation. (Author/MN)

Harper, Eon

1978-01-01

384

Human-centered knowledge acquisition: a structural learning theory approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops the application of structural learning theory (SLT) to support the knowledge engineer (KE) in the knowledge acquisition process and the development of expert systems. The underlying research focuses on the knowledge to elicit from skilled domain problem solvers, and thestructure(i.e. form and type) of this knowledge using SLT to guide elicitation and interpretation. SLT explicitly models both

David P. Hale; Shane Sharpe; Dwight A. Haworth

1996-01-01

385

Applying Learning Principles and Theories to Vocational Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph is intended for use by vocational teachers, state supervisors, administrators, and curriculum developers as a resource guide in the development of sound curriculum for vocational programs in Arizona. It examines learning theories and principles and, where applicable, applies these ideas to vocational education. Chapter 1 introduces…

Loomis, Linda Jacobsen; Prickett, Charlotte

386

Amidst Multiple Theories of Learning in Mathematics Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Currently, there are more theories of learning in use in mathematics education research than ever before (Lerman & Tsatsaroni, 2004). Although this is a positive sign for the field, it also has brought with it a set of challenges. In this article, I identify some of these challenges and consider how mathematics education researchers might think…

Simon, Martin A.

2009-01-01

387

PDAs as Lifelong Learning Tools: An Activity Theory Based Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the use of an activity theory (AT) framework to analyze the ways that distance part time learners and mobile workers adapted and appropriated mobile devices for their activities and in turn how their use of these new tools changed the ways that they carried out their learning or their work. It is argued that there are two key…

Waycott, Jenny; Jones, Ann; Scanlon, Eileen

2005-01-01

388

Reconstructing constructivism: causal models, Bayesian learning mechanisms, and the theory theory.  

PubMed

We propose a new version of the "theory theory" grounded in the computational framework of probabilistic causal models and Bayesian learning. Probabilistic models allow a constructivist but rigorous and detailed approach to cognitive development. They also explain the learning of both more specific causal hypotheses and more abstract framework theories. We outline the new theoretical ideas, explain the computational framework in an intuitive and nontechnical way, and review an extensive but relatively recent body of empirical results that supports these ideas. These include new studies of the mechanisms of learning. Children infer causal structure from statistical information, through their own actions on the world and through observations of the actions of others. Studies demonstrate these learning mechanisms in children from 16 months to 4 years old and include research on causal statistical learning, informal experimentation through play, and imitation and informal pedagogy. They also include studies of the variability and progressive character of intuitive theory change, particularly theory of mind. These studies investigate both the physical and the psychological and social domains. We conclude with suggestions for further collaborative projects between developmental and computational cognitive scientists. PMID:22582739

Gopnik, Alison; Wellman, Henry M

2012-11-01

389

English Vocabulary Learning System Based on Theory of Depths of Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

English learning involves memorization and practice of vocabularies. It is widely known that English learning should pay great attention to vocabulary learning, and what's more, the vocabulary learning is considered to be a key issue for English learning because vocabularies are fundamental in an English sentence. This study proposes a study system of English vocabulary learning based on theory of

Zheng Hongyan; Wang Xiaohui; Han Liyang

2009-01-01

390

Adjusting the Fulcrum: How Prior Learning Is Recognized and Regarded in University Adult Education Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prior Learning Assessment and Recognition (PLAR) offers adults formal recognition for learning obtained through non-formal and informal means. The practice reflects both equity and economic development concerns (Keeton, 2000). In the field of Adult Education as a formal study, however, tensions exist between honouring the learner and honouring the…

Kawalilak, Colleen; Wihak, Wihak

2013-01-01

391

Career Development and Occupational Studies: A Supplement to the Adult Education Resource Guide and Learning Standards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication focuses on New York's learning standards for career development and occupational studies (CDOS) in adult education: career development, integrated learning, universal foundation skills, and career majors. A section on the adult learner provides information on engaging learners to increase motivation. The next section focuses on…

Peavey, Kay S.; Krieger, Alan

392

Work-Related Learning Guide for Family Literacy and Adult Education Organizations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide assists family literacy and adult education organizations considering ways in which work and learning can be integrated in their educational programs. Part I addresses influences motivating the family literacy and adult education fields to incorporate work-related learning into their efforts. Part II provides a framework for designing…

Jobs for the Future, Boston, MA.

393

Results of Innovative and Supportive Learning Programs for Homeless Children and Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four-week summer academy programs served homeless children and adults in two contiguous innovative learning programs. The programs may be the first of their kind in the homeless literature in which both adults and children were exposed to career, academic, and leadership opportunities in the supportive learning environment of a university campus,…

Sinatra, Richard; Eschenauer, Robert

2012-01-01

394

The Readiness of Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder for Self-Directed Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the readiness for self-directed learning of adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), as well as their overall educational experiences. Using Guglielmino's Self-Directed Learning Readiness Scale for Adults (SDLRS-A), the researcher investigated whether the following factors were significantly related to…

Wright, Melissa Sue

2011-01-01

395

"An Elusive Bird": Perceptions of Music Learning among Canadian and American Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discovering the perceptions that non-professional adult musicians hold regarding their participation in community ensembles may help improve instruction as well as the ability to more fully understand the implications of lifelong music making. Andragogy, or the teaching and learning strategies associated with adult learning, provided the impetus…

Kruse, Nathan B.

2009-01-01

396

Good for your soul? Adult learning and mental well?being  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although there is a widely held view that adult learning has a positive impact on well?being, only recently has this proposition been systematically tested. A review of recent research confirms that adult learning has a clear influence on earnings and employability, both of which may influence well?being indirectly. These are more important for some groups than others: in economically advanced

John Field

2009-01-01

397

Socioeconomic Contributions of Adult Learning to Community: A Social Capital Perspective. CRLRA Discussion Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The socioeconomic contributions of adult learning to community were examined from a social capital perspective. The concepts of human capital and social capital were differentiated, and the relationship between learning, human capital, and social capital was explored. The relevance of social capital in describing the wider benefits of adult

Balatti, Jo; Falk, Ian

398

Vocal Memory and Learning in Adult Bengalese Finches with Regenerated Hair Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Critical learning periods are common in vertebrate develop- ment. In many birds, song learning is limited by a critical period; juveniles copy songs from adult birds by forming memories of those songs during a restricted developmental period and then using auditory feedback to practice their own vocalizations. Adult songs are stable over time regardless of exposure to other birds, but

Sarah M. N. Woolley; Edwin W Rubel

2002-01-01

399

Culture and Antiracisms in Adult Education: An Exploration of the Contributions of Arts-Based Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increasingly, practices of collective arts-based learning are being used by adult educators and community organizations as creative and participatory ways to respond to contemporary social or environmental issues. Investigating the potential contributions of arts-based learning to cross-cultural and antiracisms adult education was the aim of this…

Clover, Darlene E.

2006-01-01

400

E-Learning Access, Opportunities, and Challenges for Aboriginal Adult Learners Located in Rural Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This exploratory qualitative study focused on 1) the learning needs of Aboriginal adult learners residing in selected First Nations communities in rural Alberta and 2) the potential for increasing access to e-learning education. Through open dialogue with First Nations community leaders, Aboriginal adult learners, and Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal…

Kawalilak, Colleen; Wells, Noella; Connell, Lynn; Beamer, Kate

2012-01-01

401

Getting Connected: Insights into Social Capital from Recent Adult Learning Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper begins by teasing out the nature of social capital and its particular and current relevance to adult learning policy and practice in Australia. The paper identifies a number of benefits and significant problems with social capital as an organising construct for adult learning research and policy in Australia. Some connections are made…

Golding, Barry

2007-01-01

402

The Impact of Cognitive Load Theory on Learning Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Every student is different, which is the challenge of astronomy education research (AER) and teaching astronomy. This difference also provides the greatest goal for education researchers - our GUT - we need to be able to quantify these differences and provide explanatory and predictive theories to curriculum developers and teachers. One educational theory that holds promise is Cognitive Load Theory. Cognitive Load Theory begins with the well-established fact that everyone's working memory can hold 7 ± 2 unique items. This quirk of the human brain is why phone numbers are 7 digits long. This quirk is also why we forget peoples’ names after just meeting them, leave the iron on when we leave the house, and become overwhelmed as students of new material. Once the intricacies of Cognitive Load are understood, it becomes possible to design learning environments to marshal the resources students have and guide them to success. Lessons learned from Cognitive Load Theory can and should be applied to learning astronomy. Classroom-ready ideas will be presented.

Foster, Thomas M.

2010-01-01

403

Children balance theories and evidence in exploration, explanation, and learning.  

PubMed

We look at the effect of evidence and prior beliefs on exploration, explanation and learning. In Experiment 1, we tested children both with and without differential prior beliefs about balance relationships (Center Theorists, mean: 82 months; Mass Theorists, mean: 89 months; No Theory children, mean: 62 months). Center and Mass Theory children who observed identical evidence explored the block differently depending on their beliefs. When the block was balanced at its geometric center (belief-violating to a Mass Theorist, but belief-consistent to a Center Theorist), Mass Theory children explored the block more, and Center Theory children showed the standard novelty preference; when the block was balanced at the center of mass, the pattern of results reversed. The No Theory children showed a novelty preference regardless of evidence. In Experiments 2 and 3, we follow-up on these findings, showing that both Mass and Center Theorists selectively and differentially appeal to auxiliary variables (e.g., a magnet) to explain evidence only when their beliefs are violated. We also show that children use the data to revise their predictions in the absence of the explanatory auxiliary variable but not in its presence. Taken together, these results suggest that children's learning is at once conservative and flexible; children integrate evidence, prior beliefs, and competing causal hypotheses in their exploration, explanation, and learning. PMID:22365179

Bonawitz, Elizabeth Baraff; van Schijndel, Tessa J P; Friel, Daniel; Schulz, Laura

2012-06-01

404

Theory of Mind experience sampling in typical adults.  

PubMed

We explored the frequency with which typical adults make Theory of Mind (ToM) attributions, and under what circumstances these attributions occur. We used an experience sampling method to query 30 typical adults about their everyday thoughts. Participants carried a Personal Data Assistant (PDA) that prompted them to categorize their thoughts as Action, Mental State, or Miscellaneous at approximately 30 pseudo-random times during a continuous 10-h period. Additionally, participants noted the direction of their thought (self versus other) and degree of socializing (with people versus alone) at the time of inquiry. We were interested in the relative frequency of ToM (mental state attributions) and how prominent they were in immediate social exchanges. Analyses of multiple choice answers suggest that typical adults: (1) spend more time thinking about actions than mental states and miscellaneous things, (2) exhibit a higher degree of own- versus other-directed thought when alone, and (3) make mental state attributions more frequently when not interacting (offline) than while interacting with others (online). A significant 3-way interaction between thought type, direction of thought, and socializing emerged because action but not mental state thoughts about others occurred more frequently when participants were interacting with people versus when alone; whereas there was an increase in the frequency of both action and mental state attributions about the self when participants were alone as opposed to socializing. A secondary analysis of coded free text responses supports findings 1-3. The results of this study help to create a more naturalistic picture of ToM use in everyday life and the method shows promise for future study of typical and atypical thought processes. PMID:23685620

Bryant, Lauren; Coffey, Anna; Povinelli, Daniel J; Pruett, John R

2013-09-01

405

Gaming Mindsets: Implicit Theories in Serious Game Learning  

PubMed Central

Abstract Individuals' beliefs about the malleability of their abilities may predict their response and outcome in learning from serious games. Individuals with growth mindsets believe their abilities can develop with practice and effort, whereas individuals with fixed mindsets believe their abilities are static and cannot improve. This study uses survey and gameplay server data to examine the implicit theory of intelligence in the context of serious game learning. The findings show that growth mindset players performed better than fixed mindset players, their mistakes did not affect their attention to the game, and they read more learning feedback than fixed mindset players. In addition, growth mindset players were more likely to actively seek difficult challenges, which is often essential to self-directed learning. General mindset measurements and domain-specific measurements were also compared. These findings suggest that players' psychological attributes should be considered when designing and applying serious games.

Heeter, Carrie; Magerko, Brian; Medler, Ben

2012-01-01

406

What Is Learned when Concept Learning Fails?--A Theory of Restricted-Domain Relational Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two matching-to-sample (MTS) and four same/different (S/D) experiments employed tests to distinguish between item-specific learning and relational learning. One MTS experiment showed item-specific learning when concept learning failed (i.e., no novel-stimulus transfer). Another MTS experiment showed item-specific learning when pigeons'…

Wright, Anthony A.; Lickteig, Mark T.

2010-01-01

407

Applying social learning theory to childhood and adolescent firesetting: can it lead to serial murder?  

PubMed

Despite the fact that serial murder has existed for centuries, it has been given little academic attention in the social science literature. Existing studies have primarily examined the motivational factors involved in the commission of serial murder. However, research examining the childhood and adolescent backgrounds of serial murderers is scant. Based on three case studies of serial murderers, this study contributes to the existing literature by exploring the possible link between childhood and/or adolescent fire setting and adult serial murder by applying social learning theory. PMID:15245657

Singer, Stephen D; Hensley, Christopher

2004-08-01

408

The Belem Framework for Action: Harnessing the Power and Potential of Adult Learning and Education for a Viable Future  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the Belem Framework for Action. This framework focuses on harnessing the power and potential of adult learning and education for a viable future. This framework begins with a preamble on adult education and towards lifelong learning.

Adult Learning, 2012

2012-01-01

409

Sociocultural Theories of Learning and Motivation: Looking Back, Looking Forward. Research on Sociocultural Influences on Motivation and Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is now nearly thirty years since sociocultural theories of learning created great excitement and debate amongst those concerned with learning in diverse contexts. Since that time significant advances have been made in sociocultural theory and research. Various sociocultural approaches to the understanding of learning (for example, sociocultural…

McInerney, Dennis M., Ed.; Walker, Richard A., Ed.; Liem, Gregory Arief D., Ed.

2011-01-01

410

Examining the relationship between word learning, nonword repetition, and immediate serial recall in adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments examined whether the association between word-learning, nonword repetition, and immediate serial recall observed in children also exists in normal adults. The experiments also introduce a novel paradigm for studying word-learning. Experiment 1 studied the performance of 52 adults in nonword repetition, immediate serial recall, and word-learning tasks, examining the correlation between these measures. The results indicate that the

Prahlad Gupta

2003-01-01

411

Statewide Staff Development Project: Adults with Learning Differences. Final Report, 1998-1999.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A staff development program was conducted to provide adult educators in Pennsylvania with information about adults with learning differences and information about using alternative instructional tools and techniques to instruct such adults. The following four training sessions were developed: (1) Teaching GED (General Educational Development) Math…

Cooper, Richard

412

Adult Education and Lifelong Learning within UNESCO: CONFINTEA, Education for All, and beyond  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There can no longer be any doubt that adult education within lifelong learning is a key factor for economic and social development, as well as being a human right. New policies for adult education must now result in coherent forms of laws and legislation clearly spelling out ways and means for financing adult education. These must involve the…

Duke, Chris; Hinzen, Heribert

2012-01-01

413

Helping Learning Disabled Adults through Special Tutorial Techniques. Final Report. 1992-1993.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A project offered special training to instructors and volunteer tutors for adult basic education classes in recognizing and helping adults who are enrolled in adult education programs with learning disabilities. These instructors and tutors were taught the necessary skills through a series of three 3-hour inservice sessions. The regular…

Reading Area Community Coll., PA.

414

Exploring the Contribution of Play to Social Capital in Institutional Adult Learning Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores how play as an educational tool can enhance social capital for adult learners in institutional settings. Framed by conceptualisations of social capital (Putnam 1993, 2000) and play (Melamed 1987, Meares 2005, Vygotsky 1978) and supported by research literature on play in adult learning, our action research in our adult

Harris, Pauline; Daley, John

2008-01-01

415

New neurons and new memories: how does adult hippocampal neurogenesis affect learning and memory?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The integration of adult-born neurons into the circuitry of the adult hippocampus suggests an important role for adult hippocampal neurogenesis in learning and memory, but its specific function in these processes has remained elusive. In this article, we summarize recent progress in this area, including advances based on behavioural studies and insights provided by computational modelling. Increasingly, evidence suggests that

Wei Deng; James B. Aimone; Fred H. Gage

2010-01-01

416

Facilitating Responsibility for Learning in Adult Community College Students. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This digest discusses adult students in community colleges, focusing on their learning expectations and needs. In 1997, nearly a third of community college students were age 30 or older. Adult students often have realistic, practical goals for their education and bring valuable life experience to the community college classroom. However, adults

Howell, Cynthia Lake

417

Adult Age Differences in Self-Regulated Learning From Reading Sentences  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined age differences in the heuristic used to allocate effort in learning information from sentences. Younger and older adults read and reread sentences varying in propositional density for recall, making judgments of learning before producing recall. The allocation of effort in rereading items that were less well learned on the first reading was optimized for sentences of intermediate complexity,

Joseph R. Miles; Elizabeth A. L. Stine-Morrow

2004-01-01

418

Learning Disabilities and Its Impact on Poverty and Adult Literacy Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The four papers that make up this document report on poverty issues as they pertain to adults with learning disabilities. "Programmatic Response to Welfare Clients with Learning Disabilities" (Glenn Young) describes steps in the Learning Disabilities Initiative that works with federal agencies, states, local governments, and nonprofit…

Young, Glenn; Gerber, Paul J.; Reder, Stephen; Cooper, Richard

419

The Influence of Phonological Similarity in Adults Learning Words in a Second Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Neighborhood density refers to the number of similar sounding words to a target word (Luce & Pisoni, 1998) and influences first language word learning in adults learning English (Storkel, Armbruster, & Hogan, 2006). There are two processes in word learning: lexical configuration and lexical engagement (Leach & Samuel, 2007). Lexical configuration…

Stamer, Melissa

2010-01-01

420

A Growth Curve Model of Learning Acquisition among Cognitively Normal Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to model recall and learning on the Auditory Verbal Learning Test using latent growth curve techniques. Participants were older adults recruited for the ACTIVE cognitive intervention pilot. A series of nested models revealed that an approximately logarithmic growth curve model provided optimal fit to the data. Although recall and learning factors were statistically uncorrelated,

Richard N. Jones; Adrienne L. Rosenberg; John N. Morris; Jason C. Allaire; Karin J. M. McCoy; Michael Marsiske; Ken P. Kleinman; George W. Rebok; Paul F. Malloy

2005-01-01

421

Transformative Learning, Adult Learners and the September 11 Terrorism Incidents in North America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite their tremendous tragedy, the terrorist attacks that occurred on September 11, 2001, have also produced a juncture for transformative learning. Several transformative learning opportunities that may enable some adult learners find and use knowledge as the tool to transcend a tragedy into a learning experience have been identified. Although…

Williams, Theresia

422

The Influences of Social Capital on Lifelong Learning among Adults Who Did Not Finish High School. NCSALL Occasional Paper  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study of social capital employs data from the Longitudinal Study of Adult Learning (LSAL), funded by the National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy (NCSALL) and conducted at Portland State University to increase understanding of the learning process of adults with limited formal education. It provides longitudinal data on…

Strawn, Clare L.

2003-01-01

423

An Evaluation of Beck's Cognitive Theory of Depression in Adults with Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The theories supporting cognitive treatment for depression among individuals with intellectual disability (ID) have not been formally tested with this population. The current study evaluated Becks cognitive theory of depression to determine its appropriateness for adults with ID. Methods: Forty-eight adults with primarily mild or…

Esbensen, A. J.; Benson, B. A.

2007-01-01

424

Analysis of ensemble learning using simple perceptrons based on online learning theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ensemble learning of K nonlinear perceptrons, which determine their outputs by sign functions, is discussed within the framework of online learning and statistical mechanics. One purpose of statistical learning theory is to theoretically obtain the generalization error. This paper shows that ensemble generalization error can be calculated by using two order parameters, that is, the similarity between a teacher and a student, and the similarity among students. The differential equations that describe the dynamical behaviors of these order parameters are derived in the case of general learning rules. The concrete forms of these differential equations are derived analytically in the cases of three well-known rules: Hebbian learning, perceptron learning, and AdaTron (adaptive perceptron) learning. Ensemble generalization errors of these three rules are calculated by using the results determined by solving their differential equations. As a result, these three rules show different characteristics in their affinity for ensemble learning, that is “maintaining variety among students.” Results show that AdaTron learning is superior to the other two rules with respect to that affinity.

Miyoshi, Seiji; Hara, Kazuyuki; Okada, Masato

2005-03-01

425

Adults in Cooperative Learning: Effects of Group Size and Group Gender Composition on Group Learning Behaviors (A Summary).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study described in this report investigated the effects of two context variables on small-group learning--namely, group size and group gender composition--within an adult learning framework. In the study, the "revolving circle" method was innovated. In this design, one group member is the center of the cooperative circle and all discussions…

Maskit, Ditza; Hertz-Lazarowitz, Rachel

426

A Program of Research in Adult Differences in Cognitive Performance and Learning: Backgrounds for Adult Education and Vocational Retraining. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A five-year program of research in adult learning is reported upon. One purpose of this program was to determine age differences in cognitive abilities, with special reference to items selected as suitable for adults of different ages, to survey the educational backgrounds and skills that older and younger adults bring to learning situations, and…

Monge, Rolf H.; Gardner, Eric F.

427

A learning-style theory for understanding autistic behaviors.  

PubMed

Understanding autism's ever-expanding array of behaviors, from sensation to cognition, is a major challenge. We posit that autistic and typically developing brains implement different algorithms that are better suited to learn, represent, and process different tasks; consequently, they develop different interests and behaviors. Computationally, a continuum of algorithms exists, from lookup table (LUT) learning, which aims to store experiences precisely, to interpolation (INT) learning, which focuses on extracting underlying statistical structure (regularities) from experiences. We hypothesize that autistic and typical brains, respectively, are biased toward LUT and INT learning, in low- and high-dimensional feature spaces, possibly because of their narrow and broad tuning functions. The LUT style is good at learning relationships that are local, precise, rigid, and contain little regularity for generalization (e.g., the name-number association in a phonebook). However, it is poor at learning relationships that are context dependent, noisy, flexible, and do contain regularities for generalization (e.g., associations between gaze direction and intention, language and meaning, sensory input and interpretation, motor-control signal and movement, and social situation and proper response). The LUT style poorly compresses information, resulting in inefficiency, sensory overload (overwhelm), restricted interests, and resistance to change. It also leads to poor prediction and anticipation, frequent surprises and over-reaction (hyper-sensitivity), impaired attentional selection and switching, concreteness, strong local focus, weak adaptation, and superior and inferior performances on simple and complex tasks. The spectrum nature of autism can be explained by different degrees of LUT learning among different individuals, and in different systems of the same individual. Our theory suggests that therapy should focus on training autistic LUT algorithm to learn regularities. PMID:21886617

Qian, Ning; Lipkin, Richard M

2011-01-01

428

Conceptions and Theories of Learning for Workplace Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter on conceptions and theories of learning is intended to inform the work of educators about those components of\\u000a professional education that occur in the practice settings of the workplace, the signature pedagogy in education for the professions.\\u000a In those milieus, novices experience professional socialization as they enter into a community of practice; develop clinical\\u000a and professional skills through

Ilene B. Harris

429

Rethinking Distance Learning Activities: A Comparison of Transactional Distance Theory and Activity Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite its invaluable guidance to distance education development, transactional distance (TD) theory is not seamlessly synchronised with current field practice and lacks a social component. After it has provided over 30 years of guidance, there is now a need to re-appraise TD's propositions about distance learning activities. The social-cultural…

Kang, Haijun; Gyorke, Allan S.

2008-01-01

430

What propels sexual murderers: a proposed integrated theory of social learning and routine activities theories.  

PubMed

Despite the great interest in the study of sexual homicide, little is known about the processes involved in an individual's becoming motivated to sexually kill, deciding to sexually kill, and acting on that desire, intention, and opportunity. To date, no comprehensive model of sexual murdering from the offending perspective has been proposed in the criminological literature. This article incorporates the works of Akers and Cohen and Felson regarding their social learning theory and routine activities theory, respectively, to construct an integrated conceptual offending framework in sexual homicide. This integrated model produces a stronger and more comprehensive explanation of sexual murder than any single theory currently available. PMID:20160008

Chan, Heng Choon Oliver; Heide, Kathleen M; Beauregard, Eric

2011-04-01

431

Hippocampus-dependent learning is associated with adult neurogenesis in MRL/MpJ mice.  

PubMed

The hippocampus is involved in declarative memory and produces new neurons throughout adulthood. Numerous experiments have been aimed at testing the possibility that adult neurogenesis is required for learning and memory. However, progress has been encumbered by the fact that abating adult neurogenesis usually affects other biological processes, confounding the interpretation of such experiments. In an effort to circumvent this problem, we used a reverse approach to test the role of neurogenesis in hippocampus-dependent learning, exploiting the low levels of adult neurogenesis in the MRL/MpJ strain of mice compared with other mouse strains. We observed that adult MRL/MpJ mice produce 75% fewer new neurons in the dentate gyrus than age-matched C57BL/6 mice. Learning-induced synaptic remodeling, spatial learning, and visual recognition learning were reduced in MRL/MpJ mice compared with C57BL/6 mice. When MRL/MpJ mice were allowed unlimited access to running wheels, neurogenesis along with spatial learning and visual recognition learning were increased to levels comparable to those in running C57BL/6 mice. Together, these results suggest that adult neurogenesis is correlated with spatial learning and visual recognition learning, possibly by modulating morphological plasticity in the dentate gyrus. PMID:19140178

Thuret, Sandrine; Toni, Nicolas; Aigner, Stefan; Yeo, Gene W; Gage, Fred H

2009-07-01

432

Teaching adults-best practices that leverage the emerging understanding of the neurobiology of learning.  

PubMed

It is important in teaching adults to recognize the essential characteristics of adult learners and how these characteristics define their learning priorities and activities. The seven key premises and practices for teaching adults provide a good guide for those interested in helping adults learn. The emerging science of the neurobiology of learning provides powerful new insights into how learning occurs in the complex integrated neural network that characterizes the adult. Differentiation of the two types of thinking: System 1 (fast, intuitive, and, often, emotional) and System 2 (slower, deliberate, and logical). System 1 thinking helps explain the basis for quick decisions and reliance of humans on heuristics (or rules of thumb) that leads to the type of convenient thinking associated with errors of thinking and judgment. We now know that the learning experience has an objective location-in the temporal and parietal lobes-as persistent dynamic networks of neurons and neuronal connections. Learning is initially stored in transient working memory (relatively limited capacity and time frame) and then moved under the right conditions to more long-lasting/stable memory (with larger capacity) that is stored for future access and development. It is clear that memories are not static and are not destined, once developed, to forever remain as stable constructs; rather, memories are dynamic, always available for modulation and alteration, and heavily invested with context, emotion, and other operant factors. The framework for such neural networks involves new neuronal connections, enhanced neuronal synaptic transmission, and neuron generation. Ten key teaching and learning concepts derived from recent neurobiology studies on learning and memory are presented. As the neurobiology of learning is better defined, the basis for how adults best learn, and even the preferences they display, can be employed as the physiological foundation for our best methods to effectively teach adults and facilitate their learning. PMID:24981663

Mahan, John D; Stein, David S

2014-07-01

433

GENERAL STRAIN THEORY, PERSISTENCE, AND DESISTANCE AMONG YOUNG ADULT MALES  

PubMed Central

Purpose Despite the surge in scholarly activity investigating the criminal career, relatively less attention has been devoted to the issue of criminal desistance versus persistence (until recently). The present study contributed to our understanding of this process by exploring the suitability of General Strain Theory (GST) for predicting changes in criminal activity across time. Methods Data from a longitudinal study of males in South Florida are examined using robust regression analyses. Results The core GST relationship, that changes in strain should predict changes in criminal activity, was supported, even after controlling for important adult social roles such as marriage, labor force participation, and education. While no support for the proposition that changes in self-esteem and social support moderate the strain-criminal desistance association was evinced, evidence was found that angry disposition, a measure of negative emotionality, moderated the association between change in chronic stressors and change in criminal activity. Conclusions While exploratory in nature, these findings demonstrate the utility of employing GST principles in studies of criminal desistance.

Eitle, David

2010-01-01

434

GENERAL STRAIN THEORY, PERSISTENCE, AND DESISTANCE AMONG YOUNG ADULT MALES.  

PubMed

PURPOSE: Despite the surge in scholarly activity investigating the criminal career, relatively less attention has been devoted to the issue of criminal desistance versus persistence (until recently). The present study contributed to our understanding of this process by exploring the suitability of General Strain Theory (GST) for predicting changes in criminal activity across time. METHODS: Data from a longitudinal study of males in South Florida are examined using robust regression analyses. RESULTS: The core GST relationship, that changes in strain should predict changes in criminal activity, was supported, even after controlling for important adult social roles such as marriage, labor force participation, and education. While no support for the proposition that changes in self-esteem and social support moderate the strain-criminal desistance association was evinced, evidence was found that angry disposition, a measure of negative emotionality, moderated the association between change in chronic stressors and change in criminal activity. CONCLUSIONS: While exploratory in nature, these findings demonstrate the utility of employing GST principles in studies of criminal desistance. PMID:21499526

Eitle, David

2010-11-01

435

Learning in Context: Technology Integration in a Teacher Preparation Program Informed by Situated Learning Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This investigation explores the effectiveness of a teacher preparation program aligned with situated learning theory on preservice science teachers' use of technology during their student teaching experiences. Participants included 26 preservice science teachers enrolled in a 2-year Master of Teaching program. A specific program goal was to…

Bell, Randy L.; Maeng, Jennifer L.; Binns, Ian C.

2013-01-01

436

Popular Cultural Pedagogy, in Theory; Or: What Can Cultural Theory Learn about Learning from Popular Culture?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Culture has been theorized as pedagogy. In several languages and many contexts "culture" and "education" can be used interchangeably. This issue of the journal "Educational Philosophy and Theory" seeks to explore the dual proposition (1) that pedagogy is central to politicized cultural theory, but (2) that it has been…

Bowman, Paul

2013-01-01

437

Multimedia for occupational safety and health training: a pilot study examining a multimedia learning theory.  

PubMed

Occupational diseases are a significant problem affecting public health. Safety training is an important method of preventing occupational illness. Training is increasingly being delivered by computer although theories of learning from computer-based multimedia have been tested almost entirely on college students. This study was designed to determine whether these theories might also be applied to safety training applications for working adults. Participants viewed either computer-based multimedia respirator use training with concurrent narration, narration prior to the animation, or unrelated safety training. Participants then took a five-item transfer test which measured their ability to use their knowledge in new and creative ways. Participants who viewed the computer-based multimedia trainings both did significantly better than the control group on the transfer test. The results of this pilot study suggest that design guidelines developed for younger learners may be effective for training workers in occupational safety and health although more investigation is needed. PMID:17085929

Wallen, Erik S; Mulloy, Karen B

2006-10-01

438

Adult Children of Alcoholics: Theory and Research. Pamphlet Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The concept of adult children of alcoholics (ACoA) has received wide public recognition and acceptance. An ACoA is defined as any adult who, as a child, was reared by one or two alcoholic parents. To date research has not sufficiently addressed the many questions generated by the grass roots movement, such as whether or not adult children of…

Johnson, Jeannette L.; Bennett, Linda A.

439

Educating the adult brain: How the neuroscience of learning can inform educational policy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The acquisition of new skills in adulthood can positively affect an individual's quality of life, including their earning potential. In some cases, such as the learning of literacy in developing countries, it can provide an avenue to escape from poverty. In developed countries, job retraining in adulthood contributes to the flexibility of labour markets. For all adults, learning opportunities increase participation in society and family life. However, the popular view is that adults are less able to learn for an intrinsic reason: their brains are less plastic than in childhood. This article reviews what is currently known from neuroscientific research about how brain plasticity changes with age, with a particular focus on the ability to acquire new skills in adulthood. Anchoring their review in the examples of the adult acquisition of literacy and new motor skills, the authors address five specific questions: (1) Are sensitive periods in brain development relevant to learning complex educational skills like literacy? (2) Can adults become proficient in a new skill? (3) Can everyone learn equally effectively in adulthood? (4) What is the role of the learning environment? (5) Does adult education cost too much? They identify areas where further research is needed and conclude with a summary of principles for enhancing adult learning now established on a neuroscience foundation.

Knowland, Victoria C. P.; Thomas, Michael S. C.

2014-05-01

440

Adults' Learning about Science in Free-choice Settings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper synthesizes findings from three studies to answer a general question: What do casual, adult visitors learn about science from their science-related experiences in free-choice settings? Specifically we asked whether there are changes in how people think about science in their daily lives, the nature and use of scientific knowledge, and its communication by scientists. The three studies involved samples of visitors to an interactive science centre, visitors to a traditional natural history museum, and attendees at a series of public lectures, each given by an expert scientist in human genetics. Pretest and post-test data collected by parallel questionnaires indicated that, despite the different nature of their experience in the three different settings, participants became more positive about the value of science and the work done by scientists and their ability to communicate with the public. At all venues, however, participants became less scientific in their thinking about the nature of scientific knowledge, becoming more likely to believe it to be infallible. The consistency of these findings was surprising, and participants’ changed views about the nature of scientific knowledge were unexpected. Possible explanations for theses outcomes were suggested in terms of participants’ reasons for attending the venue, the nature of their engagement, and the non-controversial ways in which the exhibitions and lectures were structured. The findings suggest that the educational role of free-choice settings should be considered carefully, particularly with regard to the representation of science.

Rennie, Léonie J.; Williams, Gina F.

2006-06-01

441

Towards a Holistic Theory of Adult Education: Academic-Skills-Deprivation, Cause and Cure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A theory concerning low achievement of student that applies to adult education is developed, based on an interconnection between cognitive and affective domains. A holistic picture of what happens to students may be gained from Piaget's theory of intellectual development, Bloom's hierarchy of cognitive abilities, theories proposing that what…

Phipps, Rita

442

Teaching Languages to Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A collection of six essays focuses on second language instruction for adult learners. In "Modern Languages and the Adult Student" (David Smith), the motivations of adults taking evening classes are examined and the ways in which language teachers need to adjust to this population are discussed. "Language Learning Theories and Their Implications…

Sidwell, Duncan, Ed.

443

Broadcast...Or Be Damned? Using Audio-Visual Material for Adult Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two issues in the use of multimedia for adult learning are addressed in this description of an Open University course: (1) integration of audiovisual and written materials and (2) merits of broadcast television versus videocassettes. (SK)

Surgey, Pip; Manners, Paul

1993-01-01

444

Selbstgesteuertes Lernen. Problembereiche in Theorie und Praxis (Self-Directed Learning--Problematic Issues of Both Theory and Practice).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the problematic issues, deficits, and open questions that have received little attention in the discussion on self-controlled learning although they arise in both theory formation and research practice. Discusses perspectives for a further development of both theory and research practice and of the practice of self-directed learning in…

Kraft, Susanne

1999-01-01

445

Research Utilization in the Field of Adult Learning and Literacy: Lessons Learned by NCSALL about Connecting Practice, Policy, and Research. NCSALL Occasional Paper  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This occasional paper is a summary of what the staff of the National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy (NCSALL) Dissemination Initiative learned about how to connect research, policy and practice in ways that promote evidence-based practice in the field of adult learning and literacy. NCSALL Tools for connecting practice, policy,…

Smith, Cristine; Bingman, Beth; Beall, Kaye

2007-01-01

446

Assessing general practitioners' care of adult patients with learning disability: case-control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To compare general practitioners' care of adult patients with learning disability with that of control patients in the same practice. DESIGN--Case-control study of patients and controls by a structured interview study of general practitioners. SETTING--Avon. PATIENTS--78 adult patients with learning disability and 78 age and sex matched controls--cared for by 62 general practitioners. MAIN MEASURES--Number and content of consultations and

M Whitfield; J Langan; O Russell

1996-01-01

447

Alternative Organisational Learning Therapy: An Empirical Case Study Using Behaviour and U Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper draws on the concept and process of deeper learning, namely the U theory (Senge, Scharmer, Jaworski, & Flowers, 2004a). As a driver to get a deeper exploration of organisational change process, the theory of U goes beyond the interpersonal aspects of learning, instead focusing on a deeper personal generative learning that emphasizes…

Ho, Li-An; Kuo, Tsung-Hsien

2009-01-01

448

The Application of Carl Rogers' Person-Centered Learning Theory to Web-Based Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides a review of literature that relates research on Carl Rogers' person-centered learning theory to Web-based learning. Based on the review of the literature, a set of criteria is described that can be used to determine how closely a Web-based course matches the different components of Rogers' person-centered learning theory. Using…

Miller, Christopher T.

449

Motivating Learners in Open and Distance Learning: Do We Need a New Theory of Learner Support?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper calls for a new theory of learner support in distance learning based on recent findings in the fields of learning and motivational psychology. It surveys some current learning motivation theories and proposes that models drawn from the relatively new field of Positive Psychology, such as the "Strengths Approach", together with Dweck's…

Simpson, Ormond

2008-01-01

450

Theory and Practice: How Filming "Learning in the Real World" Helps Students Make the Connection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes an assignment, titled "Learning in the Real World," designed for graduate students in a learning theory course. Students work in small groups to create high quality audio-visual films that present "real learning" through interviews and/or observations of learners. Students select topics relevant to theories we are discussing…

Commander, Nannette Evans; Ward, Teresa E.; Zabrucky, Karen M.

2012-01-01

451

Processes of Self-Regulated Learning in Music Theory in Elementary Music Schools in Slovenia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of our study was determine how students regulate their learning in music theory (MT). The research is based on the socio-cognitive theory of learning. The aim of our study was twofold: first, to design the instruments for measuring (meta)cognitive and affective-motivational processes in learning MT, and, second, to examine the relationship…

Fritz, Barbara Smolej; Peklaj, Cirila

2011-01-01

452

Adult Education and Palliative Care: The Last Journey of Life and Two Main Kinds of Adult Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a voluntary learning movement, adult education finds expression through a search for values. Continuing and community education provide support for both hospice and palliative care workers as well as families and friends of terminally ill persons in dealing with death and dying. (SK)

Elsey, Barry

1996-01-01

453

A Phenomenological Study of Spirituality and Learning Processes at Work: Exploring the Holistic Theory of Knowledge and Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The holistic theory of knowledge and learning offers an integrative framework for understanding the interactions of cognitions, feelings, and behavior in learning. Explicit (cognitions), implicit (behavior), and emancipatory (feelings, values, spirituality) knowledge facets interact in learning processes. Little is known, however, about the nature…

Gallagher, Suzanne J.; Rocco, Tonette S.; Landorf, Hilary

2007-01-01

454

Statistical learning theory and its application to pattern recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of pattern recognition is formulated as a classification in the statistic learning theory. Vapnik constructed a class of learning algorithms called support vector machine (SMV) to solve the problem. The algorithm not only has strong theoretical foundation but also provides a powerful tool for solving real-life problems. But it still has some drawbacks. Tow of them are 1) the computational complexity of finding the optimal separating hyperplane is quite high in the linearly separable case, and 2) in the linearly non-separable case, for any given sample set it's hard to choose a proper nonlinear mapping (kernel function) such that the sample set is linearly separable in the new space after the mapping. To overcome these drawbacks, we presented some new approaches. The main idea and some experimental results of the approaches are presented.

Zhang, Ling; Zhang, Bo

2001-09-01

455

Self-regulated learning in younger and older adults: does aging affect metacognitive control?  

PubMed

Two experiments examined whether younger and older adults' self-regulated study (item selection and study time) conformed to the region of proximal learning (RPL) model when studying normatively easy, medium, and difficult vocabulary pairs. Experiment 2 manipulated the value of recalling different pairs and provided learning goals for words recalled and points earned. Younger and older adults in both experiments selected items for study in an easy-to-difficult order, indicating the RPL model applies to older adults' self-regulated study. Individuals allocated more time to difficult items, but prioritized easier items when given less time or point values favoring difficult items. Older adults studied more items for longer but realized lower recall than did younger adults. Older adults' lower memory self-efficacy and perceived control correlated with their greater item restudy and avoidance of difficult items with high point values. Results are discussed in terms of RPL and agenda-based regulation models. PMID:19866382

Price, Jodi; Hertzog, Christopher; Dunlosky, John

2010-05-01

456

Learning control system design based on 2-D theory - An application to parallel link manipulator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An approach to iterative learning control system design based on two-dimensional system theory is presented. A two-dimensional model for the iterative learning control system which reveals the connections between learning control systems and two-dimensional system theory is established. A learning control algorithm is proposed, and the convergence of learning using this algorithm is guaranteed by two-dimensional stability. The learning algorithm is applied successfully to the trajectory tracking control problem for a parallel link robot manipulator. The excellent performance of this learning algorithm is demonstrated by the computer simulation results.

Geng, Z.; Carroll, R. L.; Lee, J. D.; Haynes, L. H.

1990-01-01

457

The Arlington Adult Learning System (AALS) Final Report, October 1992-December 1994.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Arlington (Virginia) Adult Learning System (AALS), a program designed to link resources and enhance services of English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) providers, is described. The AALS is a consortium in which an adult education provider (the public school system) coordinates efforts of its own organization with a community-based organization, a…

Arlington County Public Schools, VA. REEP, Arlington Education and Employment Program.

458

Women Who Learn Computing Like Men: Different Gender Positions on Basic Computer Courses in Adult Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article argues that research on gender and adult learning too often regards men and women as unified and separate groups, and does not take intra-gender variation into account. It presents one possible approach to address this problem, in a study of 142 women and 35 men attending basic computer courses in Swedish municipal adult education…

Salminen-Karlsson, Minna

2009-01-01

459

The Processes that Promote Learning in Adult Mentoring and Coaching Dyadic Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a study of 10 adults participating in one-to-one mentoring and/or coaching. Participants were selected for interviewing through a purposive sampling process from leading international mentoring and coaching organizations. Selection criteria included (a) being an adult, (b) participating in a dyadic learning, and (c) regarding that…

Marx, Michael J.

2009-01-01

460

A role for adult TLX-positive neural stem cells in learning and behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neurogenesis persists in the adult brain and can be regulated by a plethora of external stimuli, such as learning, memory, exercise, environment and stress. Although newly generated neurons are able to migrate and preferentially incorporate into the neural network, how these cells are molecularly regulated and whether they are required for any normal brain function are unresolved questions. The adult

Chun-Li Zhang; Yuhua Zou; Weimin He; Fred H. Gage; Ronald M. Evans

2008-01-01

461

Adult Learning, Generativity and "Successful" Aging in Multicultural Perspective: A Hmong American Educational Biography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document examines the themes of adult learning, generativity, and successful aging against the backdrop of the biography of a Hmong refugee who immigrated to the United States in 1988 at the age of 35, began studying English as a second language (ESL), and continues to study ESL in adult education classes while six of his seven children…

Hones, Donald F.

462

Self-Disclosure and Adults with Learning Disabilities: Practical Ideas about a Complex Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Self-disclosure for adults with learning disabilities is very complex after the beyond-school years. The issues of invisibility, risk/benefit, and the multiple contexts of adult functioning create many challenges in the process of disclosure. Moreover, self-disclosure, one element of the larger issue of self-determination, is viewed as an entry…

Gerber, Paul J.; Price, Lynda A.

2008-01-01

463

Book Review: Teaching Kids and Adults with Autism: Building the Framework for Lifetime Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews a book, "Teaching Kids and Adults with Autism: Building the Framework for Lifetime Learning," (Kathleen McConnell Fad and L. Rozelle Moulton) designed to provide parents and educators with information concerning some of the numerous options available in educating children and adults with autism. It finds the information…

Earles-Vollrath, Theresa L.

2001-01-01

464

Making a Difference: Leading and Managing for Quality Improvement in Adult and Community Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide looks at demands on leaders and managers in adult and community learning (ACL) in the roles and issues they face in the context of quality improvement (QI). It suggests practical approaches for improving the quality of provision for adults. The guide's design builds on current practice toward the desired state of excellence in all…

Ravenhall, Mark; Kenway, Mike

465

Use of Language Learning Strategies by Spanish Adults for Business English  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this phenomenological study was to explore the language learning strategies (LLSs) of Spanish adults in a business context. The research questions examined the specific LLSs used by Spanish adults in business communication tasks. In addition, this study addressed the cultural influences on LLSs from the Spanish educational system along…

Judge, Jeffrey Wallace

2012-01-01

466

Estimating future numbers of adults with profound multiple learning disabilities in England  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article summarises recent work, commissioned by the Department of Health, which estimated the future need for health and social care services for adults with profound multiple learning disabilities (PMLD) in England. This estimation process involved four stages: identifying children with SEN associated with PMLD; adjusting for the effects of child mortality; estimating the number of adults with PMLD in

Eric Emerson

2009-01-01

467

Screening for Adults with Learning Disabilities: The Role of the Practitioner in the Assessment Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is intended to help the literacy practitioner in the identification of adults with learning disabilities. These adults have worked diligently for a year or more to improve comprehension skills, writing and spelling, or work skills, yet, have made little progress. The role of screening as only the first step in a process involving a…

Academy for Educational Development, Washington, DC. National Adult Literacy and Learning Disabilities Center.

468

Looking Back on Lessons Learned: Gifted Adults Reflect on Their Experiences in Advanced Classes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to learn about gifted adults' experiences in advanced classes and attitudes about advanced classes or gifted programs for their children. Participants were 88 adults (33 men and 55 women) who have been participating in a longitudinal study of academically talented individuals since their high-school graduation in…

Perrone, Kristin M.; Wright, Stephen L.; Ksiazak, Tracy M.; Crane, Amy L.; Vannatter, Aarika

2010-01-01

469

Creating Learning Opportunities. Flexible Delivery of the Certificates of General Education for Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report aims to encourage and support Australian providers to extend their provision of English language, literacy, and numeracy courses by using flexible delivery strategies. An introduction describes the project's purpose and methodology. Chapter 2 discusses good practice, principles of adult basic education, adult learning, and flexible…

Adult, Community, and Further Education Board, Melbourne (Australia).

470

Adult Education and Lifelong Learning in Arts and Cultural Institutions: A Content Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a content analysis approach, this article shares the results of scholarly adult education study on museum and library adult education and learning as represented in peer-reviewed publications over the past 60 years. Findings show a paucity of studies in general, but particularly around libraries. The majority of publications on libraries…

Clover, Darlene E.; Sanford, Kathy; Jayme, Bruno de Oliveira

2010-01-01

471

Juvenile Lymnaea ventilate, learn and remember differently than do adult Lymnaea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult snails are capable of learning associatively not to perform aerial respiration and then to consolidate the acquired behaviour into long-term memory (LTM). Juvenile Lymnaea, however, perform aerial respiration significantly less often and the three-neuron circuit that drives this behaviour operates significantly differently than in it does in adults. We asked whether these ontogenic behavioural and neurophysiological differences are manifested

Chloe McComb; Nishi Varshney; Ken Lukowiak

2005-01-01

472

Dispositional Factors Affecting Motivation during Learning in Adult Basic and Secondary Education Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research indicates that about a quarter of adult students separate from formal adult basic and secondary education (ABE/ASE) programs before completing one educational level. This retrospective study explores individual dispositional factors that affect motivation during learning, particularly students' goals, goal-directed thinking and action…

Mellard, Daryl F.; Krieshok, Thomas; Fall, Emily; Woods, Kari

2013-01-01

473

The Learning Needs of Young Adults with Mental Health Difficulties. NIACE Briefing Sheet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 1996 report recognized the benefits of effective learning provision and the impact that mental health difficulties can have on quality of life of young adults in the United Kingdom. The range of mental health difficulties experienced by young adults in the United Kingdom and elsewhere is similar to that experienced by the older population and…

National Inst. of Adult Continuing Education, Leicester (England).

474

The Longitudinal Study of Adult Learning: Challenging Assumptions. Research Brief. Perspectives on Literacy and Essential Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Professor Stephen Reder presented the Longitudinal Study of Adult Learning (LSAL) at The Centre's 2011 Fall Institute--IALS: Its Meaning and Impact for Policy and Practice--whose findings had implications far beyond assessment. Based on evidence from the ten-year study of more than a thousand adult high school drop-outs, Dr. Reder challenges many…

Reder, Stephen

2012-01-01

475

Adult Learning Principles: The Individual Curriculum and Nursing Leadership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Author applies to the nursing field his observations on what motivates adult learners and the link between continuous education and leadership. Primarily he sees adult learners as acting out their roles as adults, strengthening their relationship with society, fortifying their leadership potential which is strengthened by individualized curricula.…

Stein, Leonard S.

1971-01-01

476

Post-High School Outcomes of High IQ Adults with Learning Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the long-term, post-high school outcomes of 80 adult-vocational-rehabilitation clients identified as having both high intellectual ability and learning disabilities. Subjects were generally functioning at levels consistent with their learning-disability deficits rather than at levels commensurate with their identified…

Holliday, Gregory A.; Koller, James R.; Thomas, Carol D.

1999-01-01

477

Reaching Out: A Starter Kit for Adult Education Distance Learning Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is intended as a template for individuals initiating and developing adult education distance learning programs. The introduction discusses the following issues: benefits of distance learning; flexibility; confidentiality; retention; and the best students to target. The template and supplementary materials are organized in five…

Vaughn, Carol

478

Learning from Researching: Literacy Practitioners and Assessment of Adults' Reading Progress.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a research project to evaluate the progress of adult beginning readers. States that the project gave the authors insight into designing and carrying out research; broadened their understanding of how students learn about the learning process; enriched their teaching; and helped them view others' research in a new light. (RS)

Fargo, Jean E.; Collins, Marilyn

1989-01-01

479

Subjects to Citizens: Adult Learning and the Challenges of Democracy in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Theme 1 of the "Hamburg Declaration on Adult Learning" boldly proclaimed that active citizenship and full participation of all citizens was the necessary foundation for "the creation of a learning society committed to social justice and general well-being" (UNESCO, 1997, p. 4). The "Declaration" advocated that future societies create "greater…

Welton, Michael

2013-01-01

480

Effective Communication Training Interventions for Paid Carers Supporting Adults with Learning Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Carer communication skills contribute to the well being of individuals with learning disabilities. Few studies have examined the effectiveness of communication training interventions, and there is a lack of robust measures of outcome. A communication self-efficacy measure relevant to carers supporting adults with learning disabilities was…

Kyle, Seonaid; Melville, Craig A.; Jones, Andrea

2010-01-01

481

Right Hemispheric Dysfunction in Nonverbal Learning Disabilities: Social, Academic, and Adaptive Functioning in Adults and Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review addresses recent research on social and nonverbal learning disabilities. Involvement of right hemispheric dysfunction in these disabilities has been hypothesized, as studies with adults have suggested that documented right hemisphere damage may lead to deficits in social skills, prosody, spatial orientation, problem solving, and recognition of nonverbal cues. Studies of children purported to evidence nonverbal learning disabilities are

Margaret Semrud-Clikeman; George W. Hynd

1990-01-01

482

Ego-Centricism and Cognitive Functioning in Iranian Young Adults' Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This introspective paper proves Iranian young adults' ego-centricism and its cognitive functioning an encumbrance in English language learning. Thru a brief look at the initiation of language acquisition in children and the generalizibility to language teaching and learning programs, it is realized that the ego of every learner is the main axis of…

Ebrahimi, Pouria

2008-01-01

483

Profiling Executive Dysfunction in Adults with Autism and Comorbid Learning Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Executive dysfunction is thought to be primary to autism. We examined differences in executive function between 20 adults with autism and learning disability and 23 individuals with learning disabilities outside the autistic spectrum. All participants were matched for chronological age and full-scale IQ, and were given a battery of tasks assessing…

Barnard, Louise; Muldoon, Kevin; Hasan, Reem; O'Brien, Gregory; Stewart, Mary

2008-01-01

484

Valuing the Adult Learner in E-Learning: Part Two--Insights from Four Companies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose--To investigate how the adult learner is valued in e-learning corporate settings. Design/methodology/approach--Case study methodology was used for this research. Four Fortune 500 companies that had active e-learning initiatives for a minimum of four years were selected. Data for the development of the four cases were collected via…

Waight, Consuelo L.; Stewart, Barbara L.

2005-01-01

485

Involving Tutors and Support Staff in the Adult and Community Learning Quality Agenda.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet outlines the new policy context facing adult and community learning (ACL) providers in Great Britain in their pursuit of high-quality learning experiences for their customers. It shows how a Total Quality Management (TQM) approach to supporting staff development can be effective in securing quality. TQM components are values,…

Ravenhall, Mark; Ogilvie, Margaret; Ewens, David

486

Improving Mathematics Teaching and Learning in an Adult Basic Education Program Using Cogenerative Dialogues  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores the use of cogenerative dialogue (cogen) in an Adult Basic Education (ABE) program located in New York City, and the ways in which students and teachers collaborated to cogenerate resources that afforded a positive and equitable learning environment built on solidarity and new perspectives on teaching and learning of…

Wharton, Felicia O.

2010-01-01

487

Using Technology to Enhance Adult Learning in the Counselor Education Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors present a study that used a conceptual framework of adult learning and differentiated learning styles with graduate students in a counselor education classroom. Students in a hybrid course had higher midterm, group proposal, and posttest scores than did students in a face-to-face course taught by the same professor.

Renfro-Michel, Edina L.; O'Halloran, Kim C.; Delaney, Megan E.

2010-01-01

488

Expanding Access, Knowledge, and Participation for Learning Disabled Young Adults with Low Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to provide a deeper understanding of learning disabled young adults who struggle with low literacy skills in order to learn more about their literacy profiles and, from an emic perspective, understand the affective factors that may have influenced their attendance and persistence in a post-secondary residential…

Shaw, Donita Massengill; Disney, Laurel

2012-01-01

489

Adult Participation in Learning and the Economic Imperative: A Critique of Policy in Wales.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evidence from a large-scale survey of adult learning experiences in Wales suggests there are serious flaws in policies for postsecondary education, including target setting, economic rationale for learning, and technology to overcome barriers. Data show the causes of nonparticipation may not be addressed by the policies being implemented.…

Gorard, Stephen

2000-01-01

490

Distance Learning and Adult Students. A Review of Recent Developments in the Public Education Sector.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This descriptive state-of-the-art report presents a survey of recent distance learning developments in Britain, mainly by local colleges in the public education sector, and discusses the motivation and experience of adult learners. Distance learning in general is examined, and current models of provision and the audiences served by these programs…

Advisory Council for Adult and Continuing Education, Leicester (England).

491

The Use of Psychotropic Medication with Adults with Learning Disabilities: Survey Findings and Implications for Services  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the findings of a survey into prescribing of psychotropic medication with adults with learning disabilities in a British city. A self-completion questionnaire was sent to staff in dispersed housing and community learning disability teams to gather information about the number of people prescribed psychoactive medication, the…

Chapman, Melanie; Gledhill, Paul; Jones, Phillip; Burton, Mark; Soni, Saroj

2006-01-01

492

Transitions: The Personal Journey of an Adult's Experience Living with Learning Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Perspectives on going through the education system are offered by an adult who was diagnosed with learning disability. Experiences are shared concerning elementary school, high school, college, employment, and graduate school. Ten tips are also offered for teachers of students with learning disabilities. (SW)

Woodman, Eve

1995-01-01

493

Processing Prosodic Structure by Adults with Language-Based Learning Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments investigated the ability of adults with a history of language-based learning disability (hLLD) and their normal language (NL) peers to learn prosodic patterns of a novel language. Participants were exposed to stimuli from an artificial language and tested on items that required generalization of the stress patterns and the…

Bahl, Megha; Plante, Elena; Gerken, LouAnn

2009-01-01

494

Planned Pregnancy, Planned Parenting: Enabling Choice for Adults with a Learning Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For adults with learning disabilities, becoming a parent can fulfil childhood dreams to take their place in society through a highly valued social role. Recent research aimed at describing the experience of parents with a learning disability suggests that there are barriers to successful planning for both pregnancy and parenthood. However, with…

Conder, Jennifer; Mirfin-Veitch, Brigit; Sanders, Jackie; Munford, Robyn

2011-01-01

495

Research and Learning: The Work of Children and Adults in Reggio Emilia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents fundamental concepts of the Reggio Emilia philosophy of early childhood education, focusing on the importance of "research" as a learning strategy for constructing knowledge for both children and adults. Describes the pertinent image of the child, the school, learning, and knowledge. Details components of a pedagogy of listening. (KB)

Rinaldi, Carla

2002-01-01

496

Stopping and Starting: Experiences of Adults Returning to Formal Literacy Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Case studies of six adult literacy students revealed factors that had influenced them to stop and restart formal education: family conditions, traumatic events, initial schooling experiences, social networks, personal motivations, and informal learning experiences. The influence of contextual factors on literacy learning and characteristics of…

Boyd, Vivienne; Cates, Julie; Hellyer, Jan; Leverton, Marianne; Robinson, Helen; Tobias, Robert

2002-01-01

497

Learning Styles of Baccalaureate Nursing Students and Attitudes toward Theory-Based Nursing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The personal and environmental factors related to undergraduate and post-RN nursing students' attitudes toward theory-based nursing from Kolb's experiential learning theory perspective were investigated. Learning style and environmental press perceptions were found to be related to attitudes toward theory-based nursing. (Author/MLW)

Laschinger, Heather K.; Boss, Marvin K.

1989-01-01

498

A Psychological Consultation Program for Learning-Disabled Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the role of the Learning Needs and Evaluation Center at the University of Virginia, which provides diagnostic testing for learning disabilities as well as psychological consultation. Usage trends are discussed as well as coping patterns of LD students. (JAC)

Lefebvre, R. Craig

1984-01-01

499

Neural coding of basic reward terms of animal learning theory, game theory, microeconomics and behavioural ecology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neurons in a small number of brain structures detect rewards and reward-predicting stimuli and are active during the expectation of predictable food and liquid rewards. These neurons code the reward information according to basic terms of various behavioural theories that seek to explain reward-directed learning, approach behaviour and decision-making. The involved brain structures include groups of dopamine neurons, the striatum

Wolfram Schultz

2004-01-01

500

Using Game Theory and Competition-Based Learning to Stimulate Student Motivation and Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper introduces a framework for using Game Theory tournaments as a base to implement Competition-based Learning (CnBL), together with other classical learning techniques, to motivate the students and increase their learning performance. The paper also presents a description of the learning activities performed along the past ten years of a…

Burguillo, Juan C.

2010-01-01