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  1. Characterization of a Graded Cervical Hemicontusion Spinal Cord Injury Model in Adult Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Dunham, Kelly A.; Siriphorn, Akkradate; Chompoopong, Supin

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Most experimental models of spinal cord injury (SCI) in rodents induce damage in the thoracic cord and subsequently examine hindlimb function as an indicator of recovery. In these models, functional recovery is most attributable to white-matter preservation and is less influenced by grey-matter sparing. In contrast, most clinical cases of SCI occur at the lower cervical levels, a region in which both grey-matter and white-matter sparing contribute to functional motor recovery. Thus experimental cervical SCI models are beginning to be developed and used to assess protective and pharmacological interventions following SCI. The objective of this study was to characterize a model of graded cervical hemicontusion SCI with regard to several histological and behavioral outcome measures, including novel forelimb behavioral tasks. Using a commercially available rodent spinal cord impactor, adult male rats received hemicontusion SCI at vertebral level C5 at 100, 200, or 300 kdyn force, to produce mild, moderate, or severe injury severities. Tests of skilled and unskilled forelimb and locomotor function were employed to assess functional recovery, and spinal cord tissue was collected to assess lesion severity. Deficits in skilled and unskilled forelimb function and locomotion relating to injury severity were observed, as well as decreases in neuronal numbers, white-matter area, and white-matter gliosis. Significant correlations were observed between behavioral and histological data. Taken together, these data suggest that the forelimb functional and locomotor assessments employed here are sensitive enough to measure functional changes, and that this hemicontusion model can be used to evaluate potential protective and regenerative therapeutic strategies. PMID:21087156

  2. Recurrent autonomic dysreflexia due to chronic aortic dissection in an adult male with cervical spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Vaidyanathan, Subramanian; Hughes, Peter L; Oo, Tun; Soni, Bakul M

    2008-01-01

    Autonomic dysreflexia is a hypertensive clinical emergency for persons with spinal cord injury at T-6 level or above. Recurrent autonomic dysreflexia is uncommon in spinal cord injury patients and is usually caused by noxious stimuli that cannot be removed promptly, e.g., somatic pain, abdominal distension. A 61-year-old man, who sustained tetraplegia at C-5 (ASIA-A) 38 years ago, was admitted with chest infection. Computerised tomography (CT) of the chest showed the ascending aorta to measure 4 cm in anteroposterior diameter; descending thoracic aorta measured 3.5 cm. No dissection was seen. Normal appearances of abdominal aorta were seen. He was treated with noninvasive ventilation, antibiotics, and diuretics. Nineteen days later, when there was sudden deterioration in his clinical condition, CT of the pulmonary angiogram was performed to rule out pulmonary embolism. This showed no pulmonary embolus, but the upper abdominal aorta showed some dissection with thrombosis of the false lumen. Blood pressure was controlled with perindopril 2 mg, once a day, doxazosin 4 mg, twice a day, and furosemide 20 mg, twice a day. Since this patient did not show clinical features of mesenteric or lower limb ischaemia, the vascular surgeon did not recommend subdiaphragmatic aortic replacement. This patient subsequently developed recurrent episodes of autonomic dysreflexia. Each acute episode of dysreflexia was controlled by nifedipine given sublingually in doses varying from 5 to 20 mg. No inciting cause for autonomic dysreflexia could be found other than chronic aortic dissection. This patient's medication was then changed to doxazosin 8 mg, twice a day, and sustained-release nifedipine 10 mg, twice a day, which helped to prevent recurrent autonomic dysreflexia. Chronic aortic dissection is a very rare cause for recurrent autonomic dysreflexia in ageing spinal cord injury patients. When the inciting cause for dysreflexia is not amenable for treatment, recurrent dysreflexic

  3. Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors in Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors in Adults Download Printable ... the topics below to get started. What Is Brain/CNS Tumors In Adults? What are adult brain ...

  4. Sexual Assault of Adult Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stermac, Lana; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examines the circumstances and characteristics of sexual assaults against adult males presenting to a crisis unit in a large metropolitan area. Most victims were young gay men, many of whom had physical or cognitive disabilities making them particularly vulnerable. Results suggest a need for increased awareness of acquaintance sexual assault in…

  5. Neurological complications in adult spinal deformity surgery.

    PubMed

    Iorio, Justin A; Reid, Patrick; Kim, Han Jo

    2016-09-01

    The number of surgeries performed for adult spinal deformity (ASD) has been increasing due to an aging population, longer life expectancy, and studies supporting an improvement in health-related quality of life scores after operative intervention. However, medical and surgical complication rates remain high, and neurological complications such as spinal cord injury and motor deficits can be especially debilitating to patients. Several independent factors potentially influence the likelihood of neurological complications including surgical approach (anterior, lateral, or posterior), use of osteotomies, thoracic hyperkyphosis, spinal region, patient characteristics, and revision surgery status. The majority of ASD surgeries are performed by a posterior approach to the thoracic and/or lumbar spine, but anterior and lateral approaches are commonly performed and are associated with unique neural complications such as femoral nerve palsy and lumbar plexus injuries. Spinal morphology, such as that of hyperkyphosis, has been reported to be a risk factor for complications in addition to three-column osteotomies, which are often utilized to correct large deformities. Additionally, revision surgeries are common in ASD and these patients are at an increased risk of procedure-related complications and nervous system injury. Patient selection, surgical technique, and use of intraoperative neuromonitoring may reduce the incidence of complications and optimize outcomes. PMID:27250041

  6. Adult Primary Spinal Epidural Extraosseous Ewing's Sarcoma: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Cheddhi; Modrek, Aram S.; Bayin, N. Sumru; Snuderl, Matija; Schiff, Peter B.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Extraosseous Ewing's sarcoma in the spinal epidural space is a rare malignancy, especially in adults. Case Presentation. A 40-year-old male presented with back pain and urinary hesitancy. MRI revealed a thoracic extradural mass with no osseous involvement. He underwent surgery for gross total resection of the mass, which was diagnosed as Ewing's sarcoma. He was subsequently treated with chemoradiotherapy. He remains disease-free 1 year after surgery. Review of the literature indicated only 45 previously reported cases of spinal epidural extraosseous Ewing's sarcoma in adults. Conclusions. Extraosseous Ewing's sarcoma in the spinal epidural space is a rare clinical entity that should be included in the differential for spinal epidural masses. Its treatment is multidisciplinary but frequently requires surgical intervention due to compressive neurologic symptoms. Gross total resection appears to correlate with improved outcomes. PMID:27610254

  7. Adult Primary Spinal Epidural Extraosseous Ewing's Sarcoma: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Bustoros, Mark; Thomas, Cheddhi; Frenster, Joshua; Modrek, Aram S; Bayin, N Sumru; Snuderl, Matija; Rosen, Gerald; Schiff, Peter B; Placantonakis, Dimitris G

    2016-01-01

    Background. Extraosseous Ewing's sarcoma in the spinal epidural space is a rare malignancy, especially in adults. Case Presentation. A 40-year-old male presented with back pain and urinary hesitancy. MRI revealed a thoracic extradural mass with no osseous involvement. He underwent surgery for gross total resection of the mass, which was diagnosed as Ewing's sarcoma. He was subsequently treated with chemoradiotherapy. He remains disease-free 1 year after surgery. Review of the literature indicated only 45 previously reported cases of spinal epidural extraosseous Ewing's sarcoma in adults. Conclusions. Extraosseous Ewing's sarcoma in the spinal epidural space is a rare clinical entity that should be included in the differential for spinal epidural masses. Its treatment is multidisciplinary but frequently requires surgical intervention due to compressive neurologic symptoms. Gross total resection appears to correlate with improved outcomes. PMID:27610254

  8. Decision Making Algorithm for Adult Spinal Deformity Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yongjung J.; Cheh, Gene; Cho, Samuel K.; Rhim, Seung-Chul

    2016-01-01

    Adult spinal deformity (ASD) is one of the most challenging spinal disorders associated with broad range of clinical and radiological presentation. Correct selection of fusion levels in surgical planning for the management of adult spinal deformity is a complex task. Several classification systems and algorithms exist to assist surgeons in determining the appropriate levels to be instrumented. In this study, we describe our new simple decision making algorithm and selection of fusion level for ASD surgery in terms of adult idiopathic idiopathic scoliosis vs. degenerative scoliosis. PMID:27446511

  9. Decision Making Algorithm for Adult Spinal Deformity Surgery.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yongjung J; Hyun, Seung-Jae; Cheh, Gene; Cho, Samuel K; Rhim, Seung-Chul

    2016-07-01

    Adult spinal deformity (ASD) is one of the most challenging spinal disorders associated with broad range of clinical and radiological presentation. Correct selection of fusion levels in surgical planning for the management of adult spinal deformity is a complex task. Several classification systems and algorithms exist to assist surgeons in determining the appropriate levels to be instrumented. In this study, we describe our new simple decision making algorithm and selection of fusion level for ASD surgery in terms of adult idiopathic idiopathic scoliosis vs. degenerative scoliosis. PMID:27446511

  10. Complications after spinal anesthesia in adult tethered cord syndrome.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing-Jie; Guan, Zheng; Gao, Zhen; Xiang, Li; Zhao, Feng; Huang, Sheng-Li

    2016-07-01

    Since little has been reported about complications of spinal anesthesia in adult tethered cord syndrome (TCS), we sought to delineate the characteristics of the condition.A total of 4 cases of adult TCS after spinal anesthesia were reviewed. The medical charts of the patients were obtained. Anesthesia, which was combined spinal and epidural anesthesia or spinal anesthesia was performed, and follow-up were carried out in all patients.The most common neurological symptom of adult TCS before surgery was occasional severe pain in back, perineal region, or legs. Frequent micturition, diminished knee and ankle reflexes, and difficulty in bending were exhibited in partial patients. Paraesthesia of perineal region or/and lower extremities existed 2 to 3 days after spinal anesthesia in all the cases. Weakness of lower extremities existed in 1 case. Lumbar magnetic resonance imaging showed the low location of conus medullaris. At follow-up, 3 cases recovered completely within 3 weeks, and 1 case underwent permanent disability.These cases suggest anesthesiologists and surgeons alert to the association of adult TCS and spinal anesthesia. Spinal anesthesia should be prohibited in patients with adult TCS to prevent neurological damages. PMID:27442670

  11. The adult well male examination.

    PubMed

    Heidelbaugh, Joel J; Tortorello, Michelle

    2012-05-15

    The adult well male examination should incorporate evidence-based guidance toward the promotion of optimal health and well-being, including screening tests shown to improve health outcomes. Nearly one-third of men report not having a primary care physician. The medical history should include substance use; risk factors for sexually transmitted infections; diet and exercise habits; and symptoms of depression. Physical examination should include blood pressure and body mass index screening. Men with sustained blood pressures greater than 135/80 mm Hg should be screened for diabetes mellitus. Lipid screening is warranted in all men 35 years and older, and in men 20 to 34 years of age who have cardiovascular risk factors. Ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm should occur between 65 and 75 years of age in men who have ever smoked. There is insufficient evidence to recommend screening men for osteoporosis or skin cancer. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force has provisionally recommended against prostate-specific antigen-based screening for prostate cancer because the harms of testing and overtreatment outweigh potential benefits. Screening for colorectal cancer should begin at 50 years of age in men of average risk and continue until at least 75 years of age. Screening should be performed by high-sensitivity fecal occult blood testing every year, flexible sigmoidoscopy every five years combined with [corrected] fecal occult blood testing every three years. [corrected]. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends against screening for testicular cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Immunizations should be recommended according to guidelines from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. PMID:22612046

  12. Sexually dimorphic nuclei in the spinal cord control male sexual functions

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Hirotaka

    2014-01-01

    Lower spinal cord injuries frequently cause sexual dysfunction in men, including erectile dysfunction and an ejaculation disorder. This indicates that the important neural centers for male sexual function are located within the lower spinal cord. It is interesting that the lumbar spinal segments contain several neural circuits, showing a clear sexually dimorphism that, in association with neural circuits of the thoracic and sacral spinal cord, are critical in expressing penile reflexes during sexual behavior. To date, many sex differences in the spinal cord have been discovered. Interestingly, most of these are male dominant. Substantial evidence of sexually dimorphic neural circuits in the spinal cord have been reported in many animal models, but major issues remain unknown. For example, it is not known how the different circuits cooperatively function during male sexual behavior. In this review, therefore, the anatomical and functional significance of the sexually dimorphic nuclei in the spinal cord corresponding to the expression of male sexual behavior is discussed. PMID:25071429

  13. Normal range of spinal mobility for healthy young adult Turkish men.

    PubMed

    Cidem, Muharrem; Karacan, Ilhan; Uludag, Murat

    2012-08-01

    Anthropometric characteristics may vary among human populations, especially with differences in race. The aim of the present study is to find normal values of some measures (chest expansion, Schober's test and modified Schober's test) frequently used in the assessment of patients with ankylosing spondylitis, in young adult Turkish men. Initial recruitment identified 2,925 healthy male participants aged 20-30 years, and the final study sample included 1,982 of them. Participants joined the research from all cities except one in Turkey. The measurements of chest expansion, Schober's test, and modified Schober's test were performed by the same researcher using a plastic measuring tape. The mean (±standard error) values of the chest expansion, Schober's test, and modified Schober's test were 6.11 (±0.02), 5.62 (±0.02), and 7.78 (±0.02) cm, respectively. The estimated normal lower bounds for chest expansion, Schober's test, and modified Schober's test may be between 3.71-3.86 cm, 3.86-3.97 cm, and 5.46-5.60 cm, respectively, for young adult Turkish men. No correlation was found between height and spinal mobility. The normal values for spinal mobility in this sample of healthy young adult Turkish men differed from those reported for other young adult male populations (chest expansion ≥5 cm, Schober's test >5 cm, modified Schober's test >7 cm). It is thus useful to consider nationality in interpreting results of spinal mobility tests. PMID:21544633

  14. Urinary considerations for adult patients with spinal dysraphism.

    PubMed

    Veenboer, Paul W; de Kort, Laetitia M O; Chrzan, Rafal J; de Jong, Tom P V M

    2015-06-01

    The incidence of newborns with spinal dysraphism is diminishing worldwide, although survival of individuals with this condition into adulthood continues to improve. The number of adults with spinal dysraphism will, therefore, increase in the coming years, which will pose new challenges in patient management. Urological manifestations of spinal dysraphism can include increased risks of urinary incontinence, urinary tract infection, urinary calculi, sexual dysfunction, end-stage renal disease and iatrogenic metabolic disturbances; however, the severity and incidence of these symptoms varies substantially between patients. Owing to the presence of multiple comorbidities, treatment and follow-up protocols often have to be adapted to best suit the needs of specific patients. Authors describe bladder and kidney function and long-term complications of treatments initiated in childhood, as well as the potential for improvements in quality of life through better follow-up schedules and future developments. PMID:25963964

  15. Abundance of gap junctions at glutamatergic mixed synapses in adult Mosquitofish spinal cord neurons

    PubMed Central

    Serrano-Velez, Jose L.; Rodriguez-Alvarado, Melanie; Torres-Vazquez, Irma I.; Fraser, Scott E.; Yasumura, Thomas; Vanderpool, Kimberly G.; Rash, John E.; Rosa-Molinar, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    “Dye-coupling”, whole-mount immunohistochemistry for gap junction channel protein connexin 35 (Cx35), and freeze-fracture replica immunogold labeling (FRIL) reveal an abundance of electrical synapses/gap junctions at glutamatergic mixed synapses in the 14th spinal segment that innervates the adult male gonopodium of Western Mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis (Mosquitofish). To study gap junctions’ role in fast motor behavior, we used a minimally-invasive neural-tract-tracing technique to introduce gap junction-permeant or -impermeant dyes into deep muscles controlling the gonopodium of the adult male Mosquitofish, a teleost fish that rapidly transfers (complete in <20 mS) spermatozeugmata into the female reproductive tract. Dye-coupling in the 14th spinal segment controlling the gonopodium reveals coupling between motor neurons and a commissural primary ascending interneuron (CoPA IN) and shows that the 14th segment has an extensive and elaborate dendritic arbor and more gap junctions than do other segments. Whole-mount immunohistochemistry for Cx35 results confirm dye-coupling and show it occurs via gap junctions. Finally, FRIL shows that gap junctions are at mixed synapses and reveals that >50 of the 62 gap junctions at mixed synapses are in the 14th spinal segment. Our results support and extend studies showing gap junctions at mixed synapses in spinal cord segments involved in control of genital reflexes in rodents, and they suggest a link between mixed synapses and fast motor behavior. The findings provide a basis for studies of specific roles of spinal neurons in the generation/regulation of sex-specific behavior and for studies of gap junctions’ role in regulating fast motor behavior. Finally, the CoPA IN provides a novel candidate neuron for future studies of gap junctions and neural control of fast motor behaviors. PMID:25018700

  16. Spinal intradural extramedullary mature cystic teratoma in an adult: A rare tumor with review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Sharad; Sharma, Vivek; Shinde, Neeraj; Ghosh, Amrita

    2015-01-01

    Background: Spinal intradural extramedullary teratoma is a rare condition, more common in children than in adults often with a history of spinal dysraphism. Method: We reviewed the literature and Pubmed advanced search showed nine results of intradural extramedullary teratoma in adults which included five independent case reports and three cases in a case series. We reported a rare case of intradural extramedullary teratoma in an adult located opposite L4 vertebra with neither spinal dysraphism nor any history of the prior spinal procedure. Results: The occurrence of teratomas in the spine is extremely rare. Further, spinal intradural extramedullary teratoma is more common in children but a rare entity in adults. Conclusion: Although uncommon, spinal cord neoplasm should be considered in the differential diagnosis of backache or radicular pain associated with neurological deficits even in absence of spinal dysraphism or any spinal procedure. PMID:26396595

  17. Male fertility following spinal cord injury: an update.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, E; Lynne, C M; Brackett, N L

    2016-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) occurs most often in young men at the peak of their reproductive health. The majority of men with SCI cannot father children naturally. Three major complications contribute to infertility in men with SCI: erectile dysfunction, ejaculatory dysfunction, and abnormal semen quality. Erectile dysfunction can be managed by regimens available to the general population, including oral administration of phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitors, intracavernosal injections, vacuum devices, and penile prostheses. Semen may be obtained from anejaculatory men with SCI via the medically assisted ejaculation methods of penile vibratory stimulation (PVS) or electroejaculation (EEJ). Sperm retrieval is also possible via prostate massage or surgical sperm retrieval. Most men with SCI have abnormal semen quality characterized by normal sperm concentrations but abnormally low sperm motility and viability. Accessory gland dysfunction has been proposed as the cause of these abnormalities. Leukocytospermia is evident in most SCI patients. Additionally, elevated concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines and elevated concentrations of inflammasome components are found in their semen. Neutralization of these constituents has resulted in improved sperm motility. There is a recent and alarming trend in the management of infertility in couples with SCI male partners. Although many men with SCI have sufficient motile sperm in their ejaculates for attempting intrauterine insemination (IUI) or even intravaginal insemination, surgical sperm retrieval is often introduced as the first and only sperm retrieval method for these couples. Surgical sperm retrieval commits the couple to the most advanced, expensive, and invasive method of assisted conception: in vitro fertilization with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI). Couples should be informed of all options, including semen retrieval by PVS or EEJ. Intravaginal insemination or IUI should be considered when indicated

  18. Expression of Lymphatic Markers in the Adult Rat Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    Kaser-Eichberger, Alexandra; Schroedl, Falk; Bieler, Lara; Trost, Andrea; Bogner, Barbara; Runge, Christian; Tempfer, Herbert; Zaunmair, Pia; Kreutzer, Christina; Traweger, Andreas; Reitsamer, Herbert A.; Couillard-Despres, Sebastien

    2016-01-01

    Under physiological conditions, lymphatic vessels are thought to be absent from the central nervous system (CNS), although they are widely distributed within the rest of the body. Recent work in the eye, i.e., another organ regarded as alymphatic, revealed numerous cells expressing lymphatic markers. As the latter can be involved in the response to pathological conditions, we addressed the presence of cells expressing lymphatic markers within the spinal cord by immunohistochemistry. Spinal cord of young adult Fisher rats was scrutinized for the co-expression of the lymphatic markers PROX1 and LYVE-1 with the cell type markers Iba1, CD68, PGP9.5, OLIG2. Rat skin served as positive control for the lymphatic markers. PROX1-immunoreactivity was detected in many nuclei throughout the spinal cord white and gray matter. These nuclei showed no association with LYVE-1. Expression of LYVE-1 could only be detected in cells at the spinal cord surface and in cells closely associated with blood vessels. These cells were found to co-express Iba1, a macrophage and microglia marker. Further, double labeling experiments using CD68, another marker found in microglia and macrophages, also displayed co-localization in the Iba1+ cells located at the spinal cord surface and those apposed to blood vessels. On the other hand, PROX1-expressing cells found in the parenchyma were lacking Iba1 or PGP9.5, but a significant fraction of those cells showed co-expression of the oligodendrocyte lineage marker OLIG2. Intriguingly, following spinal cord injury, LYVE-1-expressing cells assembled and reorganized into putative pre-vessel structures. As expected, the rat skin used as positive controls revealed classical lymphatic vessels, displaying PROX1+ nuclei surrounded by LYVE-1-immunoreactivity. Classical lymphatics were not detected in adult rat spinal cord. Nevertheless, numerous cells expressing either LYVE-1 or PROX1 were identified. Based on their localization and overlapping expression with

  19. Importance of balance and profile in adult spinal reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Teli, Marco GA

    2015-01-01

    Long before its current understanding, the concept of balance was common among spine surgeons dealing with deformities, but it was a hard one to transfer to clinical practice. Thanks to the pioneering work of Duval-Beaupere and followers, the idea of balancing the sagittal contour of the spine has gained scientific status and is now in the armamentarium of the skilled surgeon as the single most important tool to achieve superior clinical results in adult spinal deformity surgery. PMID:26085982

  20. Wnt/β-catenin signaling promotes regeneration after adult zebrafish spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Strand, Nicholas S; Hoi, Kimberly K; Phan, Tien M T; Ray, Catherine A; Berndt, Jason D; Moon, Randall T

    2016-09-01

    Unlike mammals, zebrafish can regenerate their injured spinal cord and regain control of caudal tissues. It was recently shown that Wnt/β-catenin signaling is necessary for spinal cord regeneration in the larval zebrafish. However, the molecular mechanisms of regeneration may or may not be conserved between larval and adult zebrafish. To test this, we assessed the role of Wnt/β-catenin signaling after spinal cord injury in the adult zebrafish. We show that Wnt/β-catenin signaling is increased after spinal cord injury in the adult zebrafish. Moreover, overexpression of Dkk1b inhibited Wnt/β-catenin signaling in the regenerating spinal cord of adult zebrafish. Dkk1b overexpression also inhibited locomotor recovery, axon regeneration, and glial bridge formation in the injured spinal cord. Thus, our data illustrate a conserved role for Wnt/β-catenin signaling in adult and larval zebrafish spinal cord regeneration. PMID:27387232

  1. Orthodontic treatment need in Asian adult males.

    PubMed

    Soh, Jen; Sandham, Andrew

    2004-12-01

    Orthodontic treatment in adults has gained social and professional acceptance in recent years. An assessment of orthodontic treatment need helps to identify individuals who will benefit from treatment and safeguard their interest. The purpose of this study was to assess the objective and subjective levels of orthodontic treatment need in a sample of orthodontically untreated adult Asian males. A sample of male army recruits (n = 339, age 17-22 years, Chinese = 258, Malay = 60, Indian = 21) with no history of orthodontic treatment or craniofacial anomalies participated in the study on a voluntary basis with informed consent. Impressions for study models were taken. Objective treatment need was assessed based on study model analysis using the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN). Questionnaires were used to assess subjective treatment need based on subjective esthetic component (EC) ratings. Fifty percentage of the sample had a definite need for orthodontic treatment (dental health component [DHC] grades 4 and 5), whereas 29.2% had a moderate need for treatment (DHC grades 3). The occlusal trait most commonly identified was dental crossbite. Malay males had the highest percentage with a definite need for treatment for both dental health and esthetic reasons in comparison with Chinese and Indian males. However, there was no difference in the level of treatment need among the ethnic groups (P > .05). No correlation between objective and subjective EC scores was found (P > .05). A high level of investigator-identified treatment need was not supported by a similar level of subject awareness among the adult sample. PMID:15673139

  2. Spinal Interneurons and Forelimb Plasticity after Incomplete Cervical Spinal Cord Injury in Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Rombola, Angela M.; Rousseau, Celeste A.; Mercier, Lynne M.; Fitzpatrick, Garrett M.; Reier, Paul J.; Fuller, David D.; Lane, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cervical spinal cord injury (cSCI) disrupts bulbospinal projections to motoneurons controlling the upper limbs, resulting in significant functional impairments. Ongoing clinical and experimental research has revealed several lines of evidence for functional neuroplasticity and recovery of upper extremity function after SCI. The underlying neural substrates, however, have not been thoroughly characterized. The goals of the present study were to map the intraspinal motor circuitry associated with a defined upper extremity muscle, and evaluate chronic changes in the distribution of this circuit following incomplete cSCI. Injured animals received a high cervical (C2) lateral hemisection (Hx), which compromises supraspinal input to ipsilateral spinal motoneurons controlling the upper extremities (forelimb) in the adult rat. A battery of behavioral tests was used to characterize the time course and extent of forelimb motor recovery over a 16 week period post-injury. A retrograde transneuronal tracer – pseudorabies virus – was used to define the motor and pre-motor circuitry controlling the extensor carpi radialis longus (ECRL) muscle in spinal intact and injured animals. In the spinal intact rat, labeling was observed unilaterally within the ECRL motoneuron pool and within spinal interneurons bilaterally distributed within the dorsal horn and intermediate gray matter. No changes in labeling were observed 16 weeks post-injury, despite a moderate degree of recovery of forelimb motor function. These results suggest that recovery of the forelimb function assessed following C2Hx injury does not involve recruitment of new interneurons into the ipsilateral ECRL motor pathway. However, the functional significance of these existing interneurons to motor recovery requires further exploration. PMID:25625912

  3. Population spatiotemporal dynamics of spinal intermediate zone interneurons during air-stepping in adult spinal cats

    PubMed Central

    AuYong, Nicholas; Ollivier-Lanvin, Karen

    2011-01-01

    The lumbar spinal cord circuitry can autonomously generate locomotion, but it remains to be determined which types of neurons constitute the locomotor generator and how their population activity is organized spatially in the mammalian spinal cord. In this study, we investigated the spatiotemporal dynamics of the spinal interneuronal population activity in the intermediate zone of the adult mammalian cord. Segmental interneuronal population activity was examined via multiunit activity (MUA) during air-stepping initiated by perineal stimulation in subchronic spinal cats. In contrast to single-unit activity, MUA provides a continuous measure of neuronal activity within a ∼100-μm volume around the recording electrode. MUA was recorded during air-stepping, along with hindlimb muscle activity, from segments L3 to L7 with two multichannel electrode arrays placed into the left and right hemicord intermediate zones (lamina V–VII). The phasic modulation and spatial organization of MUA dynamics were examined in relation to the locomotor cycle. Our results show that segmental population activity is modulated with respect to the ipsilateral step cycle during air-stepping, with maximal activity occurring near the ipsilateral swing to stance transition period. The phase difference between the population activity within the left and right hemicords was also found to correlate to the left-right alternation of the step cycle. Furthermore, examination of MUA throughout the rostrocaudal extent showed no differences in population dynamics between segmental levels, suggesting that the spinal interneurons targeted in this study may operate as part of a distributed “clock” mechanism rather than a rostrocaudal oscillation as seen with motoneuronal activity. PMID:21775722

  4. Erectile Dysfunction in the Older Adult Male.

    PubMed

    Mola, Joanna R

    2015-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) in the older adult male is a significant problem affecting more than 75% of men over 70 years of age in the United States. Older men have an increased likelihood of developing ED due to chronic disease, comorbid conditions, and age-related changes. Research has demonstrated that while the prevalence and severity of ED increases with age, sexual desire often remains unchanged. This article discusses the clinical picture of ED, including relevant pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and evaluation and treatment options. PMID:26197627

  5. Anterograde labeling of ventrolateral funiculus pathways with spinal enlargement connections in the adult rat spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Reed, William R.; Shum-Siu, Alice; Whelan, Ashley; Onifer, Stephen M.; Magnuson, David S.K.

    2009-01-01

    The ventrolateral funiculus in the spinal cord has been identified as containing important ascending and descending pathways related to locomotion and interlimb coordination. The purpose of this descriptive study was to investigate the patterns of axon termination of long ascending and descending ventrolateral pathways within the cervical and lumbar enlargements of the adult rat spinal cord. To accomplish this, we made discrete unilateral injections of the tracer biotinylated dextran-amine (BDA) into the ventrolateral white matter at T9. Although some BDA-labeled axons with varicosities were found bilaterally at all cervical levels, particularly dense BDA-labeling was observed in laminae VIII and IX ipsilaterally at the C6 and C8 levels. In the same animals, dense terminal labeling was found in the lumbar enlargement in medial lamina VII and ventromedial laminae VIII and IX contralaterally. This labeling was most apparent in the more rostral lumbar segments. These observations continue the characterization of inter-enlargement (long propriospinal) pathways, illustrating a substantial and largely reciprocal inter-enlargement network with large numbers of both ascending and descending ventrolateral commissural neurons. These pathways are anatomically well-suited to the task of interlimb coordination and to participate in the remarkable recovery of locomotor function seen in the rat following thoracic spinal cord injuries that spare as little as 20% of the total white matter cross sectional area. PMID:19766612

  6. Television viewing and obesity in adult males.

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, L A; Friedman, G M

    1989-01-01

    We estimated the extent to which time spent watching television is associated with obesity and super-obesity among 6,138 employed adult males. After adjustment for age, smoking status, length of work week, measured physical fitness, and reported weekly hours of exercise, people who viewed TV more than three hours/day were twice as likely to be obese as those who viewed less than 1 hour/day. Those who viewed for 1 to 2 hours daily had a relative risk of 1.60 (1.21, 2.11). Physical fitness consistently confounded the associations between TV viewing and obesity/super-obesity, but the other control variables did not do so. PMID:2929820

  7. Childhood Predictors of Young Adult Male Crime.

    PubMed

    Ou, Suh-Ruu; Reynolds, Arthur J

    2010-08-01

    The study sample was drawn from the Chicago Longitudinal Study (CLS), an ongoing investigation of a panel of low-income minority children (93% Black) growing up in high-poverty neighborhoods in Chicago. The study sample included 733 males who were active by age 26. Adult criminal records were collected through administrative records and supplemented with self-reports. Outcome measures included incarceration, conviction, and felony conviction by age 26. Probit regression was used to analyze the data. Findings indicated that common childhood predictors were AFDC participation by child's age 3, negative home environment, maltreatment experience, trouble making behavior, and number of school moves. Unique predictors were mother unemployed by child's age 3 for incarceration or jail, four or more children in household by child's age 3 for felony conviction, and mother did not complete high school by child's age 3 and social competence for both incarceration or jail and felony conviction. Implications on crime prevention were discussed. PMID:20657803

  8. Sexual experience and plasma testosterone levels in male veterans after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Phelps, G; Brown, M; Chen, J; Dunn, M; Lloyd, E; Stefanick, M L; Davidson, J M; Perkash, I

    1983-02-01

    Fifty men with spinal cord injuries (SCI) were asked to complete a questionnaire concerning their sexuality before and after injury. Medical examination confirmed the location and completeness of the injury and extracted information about genitourologic status. The respondents rated sexuality highly as a concern in living, and a wide variety of sexual techniques were reported. A marked decrease in sexual activity, satisfaction, and feelings of sexual adequacy was reported after injury, as compared to retrospective "before injury" responses, lack of opportunity being reported as causative by 66% of the subjects and insufficient personal satisfaction by 59%. Seventy-five percent of the subjects experienced sexual arousal from genital stimulation, and several methods of eliciting erection were cited. Orgasm was described by a variety of terms. Significant differences were found between quadriplegic and paraplegic patients in answers to several items, though there was generally no difference between cervical and thoracic groups, which were more specifically broken down with respect to motor or sensory/complete or incomplete lesions. Plasma testosterone levels were found to fall well within the normal adult male range, as were levels of free testosterone and serum sex binding protein. The resulting information demonstrated more sexual concern among men with SCI than the literature previously indicated. PMID:6681699

  9. The older adult with a spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Roth, E J; Lovell, L; Heinemann, A W; Lee, M Y; Yarkony, G M

    1992-07-01

    Sixty-two consecutive acute spinal cord injury (SCI) patients who were aged 55 years or older were studied and compared to 296 SCI patients of age less than 55 years. Compared to younger patients, the older group had significantly more females (29%), preexisting medical conditions (87%), associated injuries (55%), incomplete quadriplegic patients (63%), and persons whose injuries resulted from falls (53%). There were no differences between groups in frequency of ventilator use, occurrence of medical complications, or acute length of stay, but older patients tended to have fewer surgical spinal fusions (40%), shorter rehabilitation stays (66.5 days), more indwelling urethral cathteters (31%), and more nursing home discharges (19%). With other factors being controlled, advancing age was predictive only of nursing home discharge, and not of acute or rehabilitation lengths of stay. Among older SCI patients, those with complete injuries were nearly 3 times as likely to have been discharged to nursing homes in our series compared to older patients with incomplete lesions. Although many aspects of the presentation, course, and care of older SCI individuals are similar to those of younger patients, there are several unique features of older adults with a SCI. PMID:1508569

  10. Update on pathology and surgical treatment for adult spinal deformity.

    PubMed

    Taneichi, Hiroshi

    2016-03-01

    Update on pathologies of adult spinal deformity (ASD): With advancement of aging society, ASD has become one of the most notable topics of spinal disorders owing to its significant impact on health related quality of life. Treatment for ASD is challenging due to complex nature of deformity and high prevalence of comorbidities. Spino-pelvic harmony that is evaluated by pelvic incidence (PI) minus lumbar lordosis (LL) is the most important concept, which allows us to understand pathology of ASD more deeply. Proposed optimum "PI minus LL" is within ±10°. However, according to analysis of patients having good surgical outcomes, minimum requirement of postoperative "PI minus LL" is calculated by following equation: "PI minus LL" = 0.41PI - 11.12 (r = 0.45, p = 0.0059). "PI minus LL" is not fixed but flexible value reflecting the specific setting of the individual PI. To date, little is known about dynamic global sagittal alignment that is susceptible to compensatory mechanisms. Gait analysis revealed that compensated sagittal balance by pelvic retroversion in static standing was lost immediately after walking due to alignment change of the pelvis and worsened over time. Dynamic assessment of sagittal balance is recommended. Update on surgical strategies for ASD: We classified ASD into following 5 types in terms of curve patterns, global balance, and curve flexibility: Type 1, well-balanced scoliosis with flexible kyphosis is indicated for corrective posterior spinal fusion (PSF) without any release procedures; Type 2, poor-balanced scoliosis with flexible kyphosis is well corrected by aggressive intervertebral release with PSF; Type 3, fixed sagittal imbalance without coronal deformity is candidate for pedicle subtraction osteotomy; Type 4, fixed sagittal imbalance with coronal deformity is indicated for vertebral column resection; and Type 5, severe scoliosis without marked global sagittal malalignment can be treated by corrective anterior spinal fusion

  11. Nocturnal penile tumescence studies in spinal cord injured males.

    PubMed

    Lamid, S

    1986-02-01

    Traditional methods of evaluating sexual function in disabled individuals using neurological examinations, interviews, and psychological screening has been well established. A patient's ability to have erections and ejaculations are recorded through interviews with the patient and his partner. Therefore, to obtain a more objective view of the patient's sexual function, we used a nocturnal penile tumescence monitor in 12 tetraplegics and 12 paraplegics. Patients were interviewed for sexual histories before and after the injury. Their penile size was monitored during sleeping time using two strain gauges attached to each end of the penile shaft. The bridge output from these strain gauges was amplified to a single channel recorder. The spontaneous increase of penile circumference and its duration was recorded. The result showed that: tetraplegics had a greater increase of penile size and longer duration of erection than paraplegics, there is no correlation between incompleteness of spinal lesion and erection, there is no correlation between the presence of bulbocavernosus reflex and erection, and there is no correlation between sex dreams and erections. PMID:3960587

  12. Severe impairment of male reproductive organ development in a low SMN expressing mouse model of spinal muscular atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Ottesen, Eric W.; Howell, Matthew D.; Singh, Natalia N.; Seo, Joonbae; Whitley, Elizabeth M.; Singh, Ravindra N.

    2016-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is caused by low levels of survival motor neuron (SMN), a multifunctional protein essential for higher eukaryotes. While SMN is one of the most scrutinized proteins associated with neurodegeneration, its gender-specific role in vertebrates remains unknown. We utilized a mild SMA model (C/C model) to examine the impact of low SMN on growth and development of mammalian sex organs. We show impaired testis development, degenerated seminiferous tubules, reduced sperm count and low fertility in C/C males, but no overt sex organ phenotype in C/C females. Underscoring an increased requirement for SMN expression, wild type testis showed extremely high levels of SMN protein compared to other tissues. Our results revealed severe perturbations in pathways critical to C/C male reproductive organ development and function, including steroid biosynthesis, apoptosis, and spermatogenesis. Consistent with enhanced apoptosis in seminiferous tubules of C/C testes, we recorded a drastic increase in cells with DNA fragmentation. SMN was expressed at high levels in adult C/C testis due to an adult-specific splicing switch, but could not compensate for low levels during early testicular development. Our findings uncover novel hallmarks of SMA disease progression and link SMN to general male infertility. PMID:26830971

  13. Assessing Function and Endurance in Adults with Spinal and Bulbar Muscular Atrophy: Validity of the Adult Myopathy Assessment Tool

    PubMed Central

    Harris-Love, Michael O.; Fernandez-Rhodes, Lindsay; Joe, Galen; Shrader, Joseph A.; Kokkinis, Angela; La Pean Kirschner, Alison; Auh, Sungyoung; Chen, Cheunju; Li, Li; Levy, Ellen; Davenport, Todd E.; Di Prospero, Nicholas A.; Fischbeck, Kenneth H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. The adult myopathy assessment tool (AMAT) is a performance-based battery comprised of functional and endurance subscales that can be completed in approximately 30 minutes without the use of specialized equipment. The purpose of this study was to determine the construct validity and internal consistency of the AMAT with a sample of adults with spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA). Methods. AMAT validity was assessed in 56-male participants with genetically confirmed SBMA (mean age, 53 ± 10 years). The participants completed the AMAT and assessments for disease status, strength, and functional status. Results. Lower AMAT scores were associated with longer disease duration (r = −0.29; P < 0.03) and lower serum androgen levels (r = 0.49–0.59; P < 0.001). The AMAT was significantly correlated with strength and functional status (r = 0.82–0.88; P < 0.001). The domains of the AMAT exhibited good internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.77–0.89; P < 0.001). Conclusions. The AMAT is a standardized, performance-based tool that may be used to assess functional limitations and muscle endurance. The AMAT has good internal consistency, and the construct validity of the AMAT is supported by its significant associations with hormonal, strength, and functional characteristics of adults with SBMA. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT00303446. PMID:24876969

  14. Novel Multi-System Functional Gains via Task Specific Training in Spinal Cord Injured Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Patricia J.; Herrity, April N.; Smith, Rebecca R.; Willhite, Andrea; Harrison, Benjamin J.; Petruska, Jeffrey C.; Harkema, Susan J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Locomotor training (LT) after spinal cord injury (SCI) is a rehabilitative therapy used to enhance locomotor recovery. There is evidence, primarily anecdotal, also associating LT with improvements in bladder function and reduction in some types of SCI-related pain. In the present study, we determined if a step training paradigm could improve outcome measures of locomotion, bladder function, and pain/allodynia. After a T10 contusive SCI trained animals (adult male Wistar rats), trained animals began quadrupedal step training beginning 2 weeks post-SCI for 1 h/day. End of study experiments (3 months of training) revealed significant changes in limb kinematics, gait, and hindlimb flexor-extensor bursting patterns relative to non-trained controls. Importantly, micturition function, evaluated with terminal transvesical cystometry, was significantly improved in the step trained group (increased voiding efficiency, intercontraction interval, and contraction amplitude). Because both SCI and LT affect neurotrophin signaling, and neurotrophins are involved with post-SCI plasticity in micturition pathways, we measured bladder neurotrophin mRNA. Training regulated the expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) but not BDNF or NT3. Bladder NGF mRNA levels were inversely related to bladder function in the trained group. Monitoring of overground locomotion and neuropathic pain throughout the study revealed significant improvements, beginning after 3 weeks of training, which in both cases remained consistent for the study duration. These novel findings, improving non-locomotor in addition to locomotor functions, demonstrate that step training post-SCI could contribute to multiple quality of life gains, targeting patient-centered high priority deficits. PMID:24294909

  15. High yield extraction of pure spinal motor neurons, astrocytes and microglia from single embryo and adult mouse spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Beaudet, Marie-Josée; Yang, Qiurui; Cadau, Sébastien; Blais, Mathieu; Bellenfant, Sabrina; Gros-Louis, François; Berthod, François

    2015-01-01

    Extraction of mouse spinal motor neurons from transgenic mouse embryos recapitulating some aspects of neurodegenerative diseases like amyotrophic lateral sclerosis has met with limited success. Furthermore, extraction and long-term culture of adult mouse spinal motor neurons and glia remain also challenging. We present here a protocol designed to extract and purify high yields of motor neurons and glia from individual spinal cords collected on embryos and adult (5-month-old) normal or transgenic mice. This method is based on mild digestion of tissue followed by gradient density separation allowing to obtain two millions motor neurons over 92% pure from one E14.5 single embryo and more than 30,000 from an adult mouse. These cells can be cultured more than 14 days in vitro at a density of 100,000 cells/cm2 to maintain optimal viability. Functional astrocytes and microglia and small gamma motor neurons can be purified at the same time. This protocol will be a powerful and reliable method to obtain motor neurons and glia to better understand mechanisms underlying spinal cord diseases. PMID:26577180

  16. Mondia whitei (Periplocaceae) prevents and Guibourtia tessmannii (Caesalpiniaceae) facilitates fictive ejaculation in spinal male rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mondia whitei and Guibourtia tessmannii are used in Cameroon traditional medicine as aphrodisiacs. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the pro-ejaculatory effects of the aqueous and organic solvent extracts of these plants in spinal male rats. Methods In spinal cord transected and urethane-anesthetized rats, two electrodes where inserted into the bulbospongiosus muscles and the ejaculatory motor pattern was recorded on a polygraph after urethral and penile stimulations, intravenous injection of saline (0.1 ml/100 g), dopamine (0.1 μM/kg), aqueous and organic solvent plant extracts (20 mg/kg). Results In all spinal rats, urethral and penile stimulations always induced the ejaculatory motor pattern. Aqueous or hexane extract of Mondia whitei (20 mg/kg) prevented the expression of the ejaculatory motor pattern. The pro-ejaculatory effects of dopamine (0.1 μM/kg) were not abolished in spinal rats pre-treated with Mondia whitei extracts. Aqueous and methanolic stem bark extracts of Guibourtia tessmannii (20 mg/kg) induced fictive ejaculation characterized by rhythmic contractions of the bulbospongiosus muscles followed sometimes with expulsion of seminal plugs. In rats pre-treated with haloperidol (0.26 μM/kg), no ejaculatory motor pattern was recorded after intravenous injection of Guibourtia tessmannii extracts (20 mg/kg). Conclusion These results show that Mondia whitei possesses preventive effects on the expression of fictive ejaculation in spinal male rats, which is not mediated through dopaminergic pathway; on the contrary, the pro-ejaculatory activities of Guibourtia tessmannii require the integrity of dopaminergic system to exert its effects. The present findings further justify the ethno-medicinal claims of Mondia whitei and Guibourtia tessmannii. PMID:23295154

  17. Spinal inhibition of p38 MAP kinase reduces inflammatory and neuropathic pain in male but not female mice: Sex-dependent microglial signaling in the spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Taves, Sarah; Berta, Temugin; Liu, Da-Lu; Gan, Sophie; Chen, Gang; Kim, Yong Ho; Van de Ven, Thomas; Laufer, Stefan; Ji, Ru-Rong

    2016-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that activation of p38 mitogen-activating kinase (MAPK) in spinal microglia participates in the generation of inflammatory and neuropathic pain in various rodent models. However, these studies focused on male mice to avoid confounding effects of the estrous cycle of females. Recent studies have shown that some spinal pro-inflammatory signaling such as Toll-like receptor 4-mediated signaling contributes to pain hypersensitivity only in male mice. In this study we investigated the distinct role of spinal p38 in inflammatory and neuropathic pain using a highly selective p38 inhibitor skepinone. Intrathecal injection of skepinone prevented formalin induced inflammatory pain in male but not female mice. Furthermore, intrathecal skepinone reduced chronic constriction injury (CCI) induced neuropathic pain (mechanical allodynia) in male mice on CCI-day 7 but not CCI-day 21. This male-dependent inhibition of neuropathic pain also occurred in rats following intrathecal skepinone. Nerve injury induced spinal p38 activation (phosphorylation) in CX3CR1-GFP(+) microglia on CCI-day 7, and this activation was more prominent in male mice. In contrast, CCI induced comparable microgliosis and expression of the microglial markers CX3CR1 and IBA-1 in both sexes. Notably, intraperitoneal or local perineural administration of skepinone inhibited CCI-induced mechanical allodynia in both sexes of mice. Finally, skepinone only reduced the frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) in lamina IIo neurons of spinal cord slices of males 7days post CCI. Therefore, the sex-specific p38 activation and signaling is confined to the spinal cord in inflammatory and neuropathic pain conditions. PMID:26472019

  18. [Nursing care in males with spinal cord injury and sexual dysfunction].

    PubMed

    Cobo-Cuenca, Ana Isabel; Martín-Espinosa, Noelia M; Píriz Campos, Rosa M

    2013-01-01

    The impact of spinal cord injury and its sequels requires important efforts of adaptation. In several studies, people with spinal cord injury claim to have covered most of their needs at physical, emotional and social level, but they are not yet fully satisfied with their sexual life. Sexual function is usually impaired in men with spinal cord injuries, and is sometimes related to problems of erection, ejaculation and/or orgasm. This issue is not a priority in the first phase, but it appears over the subsequent periods when patients often ask for a solution to this problem. A case-study is presented of a 25 year old male with chronic complete spinal cord injury (ASIA A), L4-L5 level, who reported sexual dysfunction and attended an annual review in the National Hospital for Paraplegics. After performing a nursing assessment using the functional health patterns of Gordon, the team proposed a nursing care plan according to the taxonomy of NANDA (North American Nursing Association), NOC (Nursing Outcome Classification) and NIC (Nursing Intervention Classification). Nurses are the healthcare professionals who have more direct and continuous contact with these patients. Specific programs need to be designed to provide them with the sexual education, which should contain adequate emotional and sexual information. We believe that an appropriate and systematic assessment of patient's sexuality, as well as the application of the (NANDA, NOC, NIC) nurse methodology, may be very helpful in improving the outcomes of these specific interventions. PMID:23746665

  19. Select spinal lesions reveal multiple ascending pathways in the rat conveying input from the male genitalia.

    PubMed

    Hubscher, C H; Reed, W R; Kaddumi, E G; Armstrong, J E; Johnson, R D

    2010-04-01

    The specific white matter location of all the spinal pathways conveying penile input to the rostral medulla is not known. Our previous studies using rats demonstrated the loss of low but not high threshold penile inputs to medullary reticular formation (MRF) neurons after acute and chronic dorsal column (DC) lesions of the T8 spinal cord and loss of all penile inputs after lesioning the dorsal three-fifths of the cord. In the present study, select T8 lesions were made and terminal electrophysiological recordings were performed 45-60 days later in a limited portion of the nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis (Gi) and Gi pars alpha. Lesions included subtotal dorsal hemisections that spared only the lateral half of the dorsal portion of the lateral funiculus on one side, dorsal and over-dorsal hemisections, and subtotal transections that spared predominantly just the ventromedial white matter. Electrophysiological data for 448 single unit recordings obtained from 32 urethane-anaesthetized rats, when analysed in groups based upon histological lesion reconstructions, revealed (1) ascending bilateral projections in the dorsal, dorsolateral and ventrolateral white matter of the spinal cord conveying information from the male external genitalia to MRF, and (2) ascending bilateral projections in the ventrolateral white matter conveying information from the pelvic visceral organs (bladder, descending colon, urethra) to MRF. Multiple spinal pathways from the penis to the MRF may correspond to different functions, including those processing affective/pleasure/motivational, nociception, and mating-specific (such as for erection and ejaculation) inputs. PMID:20142271

  20. Sexual Behaviors and AIDS Concerns among Young Adult Heterosexual Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pomerantz, Sherry C.; Vergare, Michael J.

    As the human immunodeficiency virus spreads beyond homosexuals and intravenous drug users into the heterosexual community, there is heightened interest in the sexual behavior of sexually active young adults. There is little information on young adult black males, who may be at increased risk, since blacks in this country are contracting Acquired…

  1. Heart Rate Response During Underwater Treadmill Training in Adults with Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Don W.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Walking on a submerged treadmill can improve mobility in persons displaying lower limb muscle weakness and balance deficits. Little is known, however, regarding the effect of water treadmill exercise on cardiac performance in persons with incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI). Objective: To assess heart rate response during underwater treadmill training (UTT) in adults with iSCI. Methods: Seven males and 4 females with iSCI (age = 48 ± 13 years; 5 ± 8 years after injury) completed 8 weeks of UTT (3 sessions per week; 3 walks per session) incorporating individually determined walking speeds, personalized levels of body weight unloading, and gradual, alternating increases in speed and duration. Heart rate was monitored during the last 15 seconds of the final 2 minutes of each walk. Results: Over the course of 3 biweekly periods in which walking speed remained constant, heart rate fell by 7% (7 ± 1 b•min-1; P < .001) in weeks 2 and 3, 14% (17 ± 6 b•min-1; P < .001) in weeks 4 and 5, and 17% (21 ± 11 b•min-1; P < .001) in weeks 6 and 7. Conclusion: In adults with iSCI, progressively greater absolute and relative reductions in submaximal exercise heart rate occurred after 2 months of UTT featuring a systematic increase in training volume. PMID:25762859

  2. Dedifferentiated liposarcoma of the adult male breast

    PubMed Central

    Raj, Sean D.; Rogers, Samuel; del Junco, Gerard W.; Sepulveda, Karla

    2015-01-01

    A 66-year-old male presented with a right breast mass, enlarging insidiously over a one-year period after trauma to the site. After the findings were attributed to glandular injury and hematoma, the patient eventually underwent mammographic and ultrasonographic evaluation that demonstrated masses in the breast and the axilla. A subsequent ultrasound-guided biopsy of the breast mass yielded a diagnosis of fibromatosis. However, the imaging features were suggestive of malignancy. Surgical resection was performed and revealed dedifferentiated liposarcoma—a neoplasm with components of well- and poorly differentiated liposarcoma as well as nonlipomatous sarcoma. This tumor type is primarily described in the retroperitoneum and limbs and is especially rare in the breast. We report an unusual case of multifocal primary dedifferentiated liposarcoma involving the breast in a man. PMID:27186240

  3. Management of Spinal Deformity in Adult Patients With Neuromuscular Disease.

    PubMed

    Protopsaltis, Themistocles S; Boniello, Anthony J; Schwab, Frank J

    2016-09-01

    A wide range of neuromuscular diseases, including Parkinson disease, cerebral palsy, multiple sclerosis, and myopathy, are associated with spinal deformities. The most common postural deformities include anterocollis, Pisa syndrome (pleurothotonus), scoliosis, and camptocormia. Nonsurgical management of spinal deformity in patients with neuromuscular disease centers on maximizing the medical management of the underlying neurodegenerative pathology before surgical intervention is contemplated. Surgical management can include decompression alone, or decompression and fusion with short or long fusion constructs. Patients with neuromuscular disease are susceptible to postoperative medical complications, such as delirium, epidural hematomas, pulmonary emboli, and cardiac events. Compared with outcomes in the typical patient with spinal deformity, postoperative outcomes in patients with neuromuscular disease have higher rates of surgical complications, such as instrumentation failure, proximal junctional kyphosis, loss of correction, and the need for revision surgery, regardless of the magnitude of surgical treatment. PMID:27471900

  4. Anatomic autoandrophilia in an adult male.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Anne A

    2009-12-01

    Some men are sexually aroused by impersonating the individuals to whom they are sexually attracted, or by permanently changing their bodies to become facsimiles of such individuals. Blanchard (J Sex Marital Ther 17:235-251, 1991) suggested that these paraphilic sexual interests, along with fetishism, represented erotic target location errors, i.e., developmental errors in locating erotic targets in the environment. Because the desire to impersonate or become a facsimile of the kind of person to whom one is attracted can have significant implications for identity, Freund and Blanchard (Br J Psychiatry 162:558-563, 1993) coined the term erotic target identity inversion to describe this type of erotic target location error. The best-known examples of erotic target identity inversions occur in men who are sexually attracted to women and who are also sexually aroused by the idea of impersonating or becoming women; these paraphilic interests manifest as transvestic fetishism and as one type of male-to-female transsexualism. Analogous erotic target identity inversions have been described in men who are sexually attracted to children and to female amputees. In theory, erotic target identity inversions should also occur in men who are sexually attracted to men. There have been no unambiguous descriptions, however, of men who are sexually attracted to men and also sexually aroused by the idea of changing their bodies to become more sexually attractive men. This report describes such a man, whose paraphilic interest would appropriately be called anatomic autoandrophilia. The demonstration that anatomic autoandrophilia exists in men is consistent with the theory that erotic target location errors constitute an independent paraphilic dimension. PMID:19093196

  5. Forebrain GABAergic neuron precursors integrate into adult spinal cord and reduce injury-induced neuropathic pain

    PubMed Central

    Bráz, JM; Sharif-Naeini, R; Vogt, D; Kriegstein, A; Alvarez-Buylla, A; Rubenstein, JL; Basbaum, AI

    2012-01-01

    Neuropathic pain is a chronic debilitating disease characterized by mechanical allodynia and spontaneous pain. Because symptoms are often unresponsive to conventional methods of pain treatment, new therapeutic approaches are essential. Here, we describe a strategy that not only ameliorates symptoms of neuropathic pain, but is also potentially disease modifying. We show that transplantation of immature telencephalic GABAergic interneurons from the mouse medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) into the adult mouse spinal cord completely reverses the mechanical hypersensitivity produced by peripheral nerve injury. Underlying this improvement is a remarkable integration of the MGE transplants into the host spinal cord circuitry, in which the transplanted cells make functional connections with both primary afferent and spinal cord neurons. By contrast, MGE transplants were not effective against inflammatory pain. Our findings suggest that MGE-derived GABAergic interneurons overcome the spinal cord hyperexcitability that is a hallmark of nerve-injury induced neuropathic pain. PMID:22632725

  6. Functional Expression of T-Type Ca2+ Channels in Spinal Motoneurons of the Adult Turtle

    PubMed Central

    Canto-Bustos, Martha; Loeza-Alcocer, Emanuel; González-Ramírez, Ricardo; Gandini, María A.; Delgado-Lezama, Rodolfo; Felix, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Voltage-gated Ca2+ (CaV) channels are transmembrane proteins comprising three subfamilies named CaV1, CaV2 and CaV3. The CaV3 channel subfamily groups the low-voltage activated Ca2+ channels (LVA or T-type) a significant role in regulating neuronal excitability. CaV3 channel activity may lead to the generation of complex patterns of action potential firing such as the postinhibitory rebound (PIR). In the adult spinal cord, these channels have been found in dorsal horn interneurons where they control physiological events near the resting potential and participate in determining excitability. In motoneurons, CaV3 channels have been found during development, but their functional expression has not yet been reported in adult animals. Here, we show evidence for the presence of CaV3 channel-mediated PIR in motoneurons of the adult turtle spinal cord. Our results indicate that Ni2+ and NNC55-0396, two antagonists of CaV3 channel activity, inhibited PIR in the adult turtle spinal cord. Molecular biology and biochemical assays revealed the expression of the CaV3.1 channel isotype and its localization in motoneurons. Together, these results provide evidence for the expression of CaV3.1 channels in the spinal cord of adult animals and show also that these channels may contribute to determine the excitability of motoneurons. PMID:25255145

  7. Segmental Neuropathic Pain Does Not Develop in Male Rats with Complete Spinal Transections

    PubMed Central

    Kaddumi, Ezidin G.; Johnson, Richard D.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract In a previous study using male rats, a correlation was found between the development of “at-level” allodynia in T6-7 dermatomes following severe T8 spinal contusion injury and the sparing of some myelinated axons within the core of the lesion epicenter. To further test our hypothesis that this sparing is important for the expression of allodynia and the supraspinal plasticity that ensues, an injury that severs all axons (i.e., a complete spinal cord transection) was made in 15 male rats. Behavioral assessments were done at level throughout the 30-day recovery period followed by terminal electrophysiological recordings (urethane anesthesia) from single medullary reticular formation (MRF) neurons receiving convergent nociceptive inputs from receptive fields above, at, and below the lesion level. None of the rats developed signs of at-level allodynia (versus 18 of 26 male rats following severe contusion). However, the terminal recording (206 MRF neurons) data resembled those obtained previously post-contusion. That is, there was evidence of neuronal hyper-excitability (relative to previous data from intact controls) to high- and low-threshold mechanical stimulation for “at-level” (dorsal trunk) and “above-level” (eyelids and face) cutaneous territories. These results, when combined with prior data on intact controls and severe/moderate contusions, indicate that (1) an anatomically incomplete injury (some lesion epicenter axonal sparing) following severe contusion is likely important for the development of allodynia and (2) the neuronal hyper-excitability at the level of the medulla is likely involved in nociceptive processes that are not directly related to the conscious expression of pain-like avoidance behaviors that are being used as evidence of allodynia. PMID:18986225

  8. The Asparaginyl Endopeptidase Legumain Is Essential for Functional Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury in Adult Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Liping; Shen, Yan-Qin; Khatri, Harsh P.; Schachner, Melitta

    2014-01-01

    Unlike mammals, adult zebrafish are capable of regenerating severed axons and regaining locomotor function after spinal cord injury. A key factor for this regenerative capacity is the innate ability of neurons to re-express growth-associated genes and regrow their axons after injury in a permissive environment. By microarray analysis, we have previously shown that the expression of legumain (also known as asparaginyl endopeptidase) is upregulated after complete transection of the spinal cord. In situ hybridization showed upregulation of legumain expression in neurons of regenerative nuclei during the phase of axon regrowth/sprouting after spinal cord injury. Upregulation of Legumain protein expression was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Interestingly, upregulation of legumain expression was also observed in macrophages/microglia and neurons in the spinal cord caudal to the lesion site after injury. The role of legumain in locomotor function after spinal cord injury was tested by reducing Legumain expression by application of anti-sense morpholino oligonucleotides. Using two independent anti-sense morpholinos, locomotor recovery and axonal regrowth were impaired when compared with a standard control morpholino. We conclude that upregulation of legumain expression after spinal cord injury in the adult zebrafish is an essential component of the capacity of injured neurons to regrow their axons. Another feature contributing to functional recovery implicates upregulation of legumain expression in the spinal cord caudal to the injury site. In conclusion, we established for the first time a function for an unusual protease, the asparaginyl endopeptidase, in the nervous system. This study is also the first to demonstrate the importance of legumain for repair of an injured adult central nervous system of a spontaneously regenerating vertebrate and is expected to yield insights into its potential in nervous system regeneration in mammals. PMID:24747977

  9. PERSONALITY AND SUCCESS PROFILES CHARACTERISTIC OF YOUNG ADULT MALE RETARDATES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PECK, JOHN R.; AND OTHERS

    MAJOR SUCCESS-FAILURE SYNDROMES WERE STUDIED FROM DATA OBTAINED IN A PREVIOUS STUDY (COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROJECT NO. 1533) ON 100 MENTALLY RETARDED, YOUNG MALE ADULTS. STRUCTURED INTERVIEWS HAD BEEN CONDUCTED WITH THE SUBJECTS, THEIR PARENTS, AND THEIR SUPERVISORS. FACTOR ANALYSIS HAD DEVELOPED 21 BASIC PREDICTORS OF SUCCESS AND 17 AFTER-TRAINING…

  10. Prevalence of Childhood Physical Abuse in Adult Male Veteran Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Melodie R.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The study of 100 adult male alcoholics found that about one-third reported they had been physically abused as children. Abused alcoholics reported having more severe psychological symptoms and distress than nonabused counterparts, though they did not differ in the onset, severity, or treatment history for alcohol dependency. (Author/DB)

  11. Outpatient Treatment of Primary Anorexia Nervosa in Adult Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziesat, Harold A., Jr.; Ferguson, James M.

    1984-01-01

    Describes three cases of adult-onset primary anorexia nervosa in males. For each case, the history and diagnostic patterns are considered, followed by a discussion of the course of outpatient treatment. The therapy was multimodal and included elements of behavioral contingency management, cognitive therapy, and dynamic psychotherapy. (JAC)

  12. A comprehensive study of long-term skeletal changes after spinal cord injury in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tiao; Tong, Wei; Chandra, Abhishek; Hsu, Shao-Yun; Jia, Haoruo; Zhu, Ji; Tseng, Wei-Ju; Levine, Michael A; Zhang, Yejia; Yan, Shi-Gui; Liu, X Sherry; Sun, Dongming; Young, Wise; Qin, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI)-induced bone loss represents the most severe osteoporosis with no effective treatment. Past animal studies have focused primarily on long bones at the acute stage using adolescent rodents. To mimic chronic SCI in human patients, we performed a comprehensive analysis of long-term structural and mechanical changes in axial and appendicular bones in adult rats after SCI. In this experiment, 4-month-old Fischer 344 male rats received a clinically relevant T13 contusion injury. Sixteen weeks later, sublesional femurs, tibiae, and L4 vertebrae, supralesional humeri, and blood were collected from these rats and additional non-surgery rats for micro-computed tomography (µCT), micro-finite element, histology, and serum biochemical analyses. At trabecular sites, extreme losses of bone structure and mechanical competence were detected in the metaphysis of sublesional long bones after SCI, while the subchondral part of the same bones showed much milder damage. Marked reductions in bone mass and strength were also observed in sublesional L4 vertebrae but not in supralesional humeri. At cortical sites, SCI induced structural and strength damage in both sub- and supralesional long bones. These changes were accompanied by diminished osteoblast number and activity and increased osteoclast number and activity. Taken together, our study revealed site-specific effects of SCI on bone and demonstrated sustained inhibition of bone formation and elevation of bone resorption at the chronic stage of SCI. PMID:26528401

  13. A comprehensive study of long-term skeletal changes after spinal cord injury in adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Tiao; Tong, Wei; Chandra, Abhishek; Hsu, Shao-Yun; Jia, Haoruo; Zhu, Ji; Tseng, Wei-Ju; Levine, Michael A; Zhang, Yejia; Yan, Shi-Gui; Liu, X Sherry; Sun, Dongming; Young, Wise; Qin, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI)-induced bone loss represents the most severe osteoporosis with no effective treatment. Past animal studies have focused primarily on long bones at the acute stage using adolescent rodents. To mimic chronic SCI in human patients, we performed a comprehensive analysis of long-term structural and mechanical changes in axial and appendicular bones in adult rats after SCI. In this experiment, 4-month-old Fischer 344 male rats received a clinically relevant T13 contusion injury. Sixteen weeks later, sublesional femurs, tibiae, and L4 vertebrae, supralesional humeri, and blood were collected from these rats and additional non-surgery rats for micro-computed tomography (µCT), micro-finite element, histology, and serum biochemical analyses. At trabecular sites, extreme losses of bone structure and mechanical competence were detected in the metaphysis of sublesional long bones after SCI, while the subchondral part of the same bones showed much milder damage. Marked reductions in bone mass and strength were also observed in sublesional L4 vertebrae but not in supralesional humeri. At cortical sites, SCI induced structural and strength damage in both sub- and supralesional long bones. These changes were accompanied by diminished osteoblast number and activity and increased osteoclast number and activity. Taken together, our study revealed site-specific effects of SCI on bone and demonstrated sustained inhibition of bone formation and elevation of bone resorption at the chronic stage of SCI. PMID:26528401

  14. Cognitive Training Program for Youths/Young Adults Having a Spinal Cord Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stirling, Gloria; And Others

    The pilot study determined the effectiveness of a cognitive skills training program on both the vocational retraining of five young adults with traumatic spinal cord injuries and learning difficulties and the adaptation process to an altered lifestyle required by permanent paralysis. After a 40-hour Instrumental Enrichment (IE) program, Ss showed…

  15. Perineal striated muscles: Anatomy, spinal motoneurons, and participation on copulatory behavior in male rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    PubMed

    Zempoalteca, R; Lucio, R A; Eguibar, J R

    2008-09-01

    Despite the importance of rabbits in reproductive studies, little information is available on the anatomy and participation of the striated-perineal muscles in male copulatory behavior. In our study, we describe the gross anatomy of two striated-perineal muscles: the ischiocavernosus (ICm) and the bulbospongiosus (BSm). Both muscles have their origin at the ischiadic arc, but the ICm is inserted into the penile crura and the BSm onto the ligamentum suspensorium of the penis. The motoneurons of both muscles were identified using retrograde labeling with horseradish peroxidase coupled to wheat-germ agglutinin. Motoneurons were dispersed in the lower-lumbar and upper-sacral spinal-cord segments, instead of being aggregated in the neuronal nucleus as in other species: the rat, mouse, gerbil, cat, and man. Bilateral dennervation of the ICm or BSm or both in sexually experienced male rabbits did not affect copulatory variables measured at 10, 20, and 30 days after surgery. However, muscular dennervation produced extravaginal ejaculations in 42% of copulatory tests and no ejaculation in 7% of tests, although male pelvic thrusting occurred. These results suggest the participation of the ICm and BSm perineal muscles in penile orientation during copulation but not in seminal emission as described in other mammalian species. PMID:18563835

  16. Effects of Rolipram on Adult Rat Oligodendrocytes and Functional Recovery after Contusive Cervical Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Beaumont, Eric; Whitaker, Christopher M.; Burke, Darlene A.; Hetman, Michal; Onifer, Stephen M.

    2009-01-01

    Traumatic human spinal cord injury causes devastating and long-term hardships. These are due to the irreparable primary mechanical injury and secondary injury cascade. In particular, oligodendrocyte cell death, white matter axon damage, spared axon demyelination, and the ensuing dysfunction in action potential conduction lead to the initial deficits and impair functional recovery. For these reasons, and that oligodendrocyte and axon survival may be related, various neuroprotective strategies after SCI are being investigated. We previously demonstrated that oligodendrocytes in the adult rat epicenter ventrolateral funiculus express 3′-5′-cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent phosphodiesterase 4 subtypes and that their death was attenuated up to 3 days after contusive cervical spinal cord injury when rolipram, a specific inhibitor of phosphodiesterase 4, was administered. Here, we report that 1) there are more oligodendrocyte somata in the adult rat epicenter ventrolateral funiculus, 2) descending and ascending axonal conductivity in the ventrolateral funiculus improves, and that 3) there are fewer hindlimb footfall errors during grid-walking at 5 weeks after contusive cervical spinal cord injury when rolipram is delivered for 2 weeks. This is the first demonstration of improved descending and ascending long-tract axonal conductivity across a spinal cord injury with this pharmacological approach. Since descending long-tract axonal conductivity did not return to normal, further evaluations of the pharmacokinetics and therapeutic window of rolipram as well as optimal combinations are necessary before consideration for neuroprotection in humans with spinal cord injury. PMID:19635528

  17. Neuronal labeling patterns in the spinal cord of adult transgenic Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Stil, Aurélie; Drapeau, Pierre

    2016-06-01

    We describe neuronal patterns in the spinal cord of adult zebrafish. We studied the distribution of cells and processes in the three spinal regions reported in the literature: the 8th vertebra used as a transection injury site, the 15th vertebra mainly used for motor cell recordings and also for crush injury, and the 24th vertebra used to record motor nerve activity. We used well-known transgenic lines in which expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) is driven by promoters to hb9 and isl1 in motoneurons, alx/chx10 and evx1 interneurons, ngn1 in sensory neurons and olig2 in oligodendrocytes, as well as antibodies for neurons (HuC/D, NF and SV2) and glia (GFAP). In isl1:GFP fish, GFP-positive processes are retained in the upper part of ventral horns and two subsets of cell bodies are observed. The pattern of the transgene in hb9:GFP adults is more diffuse and fibers are present broadly through the adult spinal cord. In alx/chx10 and evx1 lines we respectively observed two and three different GFP-positive populations. Finally, the ngn1:GFP transgene identifies dorsal root ganglion and some cells in dorsal horns. Interestingly some GFP positive fibers in ngn1:GFP fish are located around Mauthner axons and their density seems to be related to a rostrocaudal gradient. Many other cell types have been described in embryos and need to be studied in adults. Our findings provide a reference for further studies on spinal cytoarchitecture. Combined with physiological, histological and pathological/traumatic approaches, these studies will help clarify the operation of spinal locomotor circuits of adult zebrafish. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 76: 642-660, 2016. PMID:26408263

  18. Impact of Increasing Age on Outcomes of Spinal Fusion in Adult Idiopathic Scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Verla, Terence; Adogwa, Owoicho; Toche, Ulysses; Farber, S. Harrison; Petraglia, Frank; Murphy, Kelly R.; Thomas, Steven; Fatemi, Parastou; Gottfried, Oren; Bagley, Carlos A.; Lad, Shivanand P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role of advancing age on postoperative complications and revision surgery after fusion for scoliosis. Methods A retrospective, cohort study was performed using the Thomson Reuters MarketScan database, examining patients with adult scoliosis who underwent spinal fusion from 2000 to 2009. Primary outcomes included infection, hemorrhage and pulmonary embolism (PE) within 90 days of surgery, and refusion. The effect of increasing age was estimated using the odds ratio (OR) of complications in a multivariate logistic regression analysis, and a Cox proportional hazard model estimated the hazard ratio of refusion. Results A total of 8432 patients were included in this study. Overall, the average age was 53.3 years, with 26.90% males and 39% with a Charlson Comorbidity Score of ≥1. Most patients had commercial insurance (66.81%), with 26.03% and 7.16% covered by Medicare and Medicaid, respectively. Increasing age (per 5-year increment) was a significant predictor of hemorrhagic complication (OR, 1.06; confidence interval [CI], 1.01–1.11; P = 0.0196), PE (OR, 1.09; CI, 1.03–1.16; P = 0.0031), infection (OR, 1.04; CI, 1.01–1.07; P = 0.0053), and refusion (hazard ratio, 1.07; CI, 1.02–1.13; P = 0.0103). Conclusions In this study, age was associated with increased risk of hemorrhage, PE, infection, and refusion. With the aging population, the role of patient age on postoperative healing and outcomes deserves deeper investigation after repair of adult idiopathic scoliosis. PMID:26546999

  19. Extensive Neuronal Differentiation of Human Neural Stem Cell Grafts in Adult Rat Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Jun; Xu, Leyan; Welsh, Annie M; Hatfield, Glen; Hazel, Thomas; Johe, Karl; Koliatsos, Vassilis E

    2007-01-01

    Background Effective treatments for degenerative and traumatic diseases of the nervous system are not currently available. The support or replacement of injured neurons with neural grafts, already an established approach in experimental therapeutics, has been recently invigorated with the addition of neural and embryonic stem-derived precursors as inexhaustible, self-propagating alternatives to fetal tissues. The adult spinal cord, i.e., the site of common devastating injuries and motor neuron disease, has been an especially challenging target for stem cell therapies. In most cases, neural stem cell (NSC) transplants have shown either poor differentiation or a preferential choice of glial lineages. Methods and Findings In the present investigation, we grafted NSCs from human fetal spinal cord grown in monolayer into the lumbar cord of normal or injured adult nude rats and observed large-scale differentiation of these cells into neurons that formed axons and synapses and established extensive contacts with host motor neurons. Spinal cord microenvironment appeared to influence fate choice, with centrally located cells taking on a predominant neuronal path, and cells located under the pia membrane persisting as NSCs or presenting with astrocytic phenotypes. Slightly fewer than one-tenth of grafted neurons differentiated into oligodendrocytes. The presence of lesions increased the frequency of astrocytic phenotypes in the white matter. Conclusions NSC grafts can show substantial neuronal differentiation in the normal and injured adult spinal cord with good potential of integration into host neural circuits. In view of recent similar findings from other laboratories, the extent of neuronal differentiation observed here disputes the notion of a spinal cord that is constitutively unfavorable to neuronal repair. Restoration of spinal cord circuitry in traumatic and degenerative diseases may be more realistic than previously thought, although major challenges remain

  20. Role of minimally invasive surgery for adult spinal deformity in preventing complications.

    PubMed

    Yen, Chun-Po; Mosley, Yusef I; Uribe, Juan S

    2016-09-01

    With the aging population, there is a rising prevalence of degenerative spinal deformity and need of surgical care for these patients. Surgical treatment for adult spinal deformity (ASD) is often fraught with a high rate of complications. Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) has for the past decade been adopted by spine surgeons to treat ASD in the hopes of reducing access-related morbidity and perioperative complications. The benefits of MIS approach in general and recent development of MIS techniques to avoid long-term complications such as pseudoarthrosis or proximal junctional kyphosis are reviewed. PMID:27411527

  1. Potent spinal parenchymal AAV9-mediated gene delivery by subpial injection in adult rats and pigs

    PubMed Central

    Miyanohara, Atsushi; Kamizato, Kota; Juhas, Stefan; Juhasova, Jana; Navarro, Michael; Marsala, Silvia; Lukacova, Nada; Hruska-Plochan, Marian; Curtis, Erik; Gabel, Brandon; Ciacci, Joseph; Ahrens, Eric T; Kaspar, Brian K; Cleveland, Don; Marsala, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Effective in vivo use of adeno-associated virus (AAV)-based vectors to achieve gene-specific silencing or upregulation in the central nervous system has been limited by the inability to provide more than limited deep parenchymal expression in adult animals using delivery routes with the most clinical relevance (intravenous or intrathecal). Here, we demonstrate that the spinal pia membrane represents the primary barrier limiting effective AAV9 penetration into the spinal parenchyma after intrathecal AAV9 delivery. We develop a novel subpial AAV9 delivery technique and AAV9-dextran formulation. We use these in adult rats and pigs to show (i) potent spinal parenchymal transgene expression in white and gray matter including neurons, glial and endothelial cells after single bolus subpial AAV9 delivery; (ii) delivery to almost all apparent descending motor axons throughout the length of the spinal cord after cervical or thoracic subpial AAV9 injection; (iii) potent retrograde transgene expression in brain motor centers (motor cortex and brain stem); and (iv) the relative safety of this approach by defining normal neurological function for up to 6 months after AAV9 delivery. Thus, subpial delivery of AAV9 enables gene-based therapies with a wide range of potential experimental and clinical utilizations in adult animals and human patients. PMID:27462649

  2. Potent spinal parenchymal AAV9-mediated gene delivery by subpial injection in adult rats and pigs.

    PubMed

    Miyanohara, Atsushi; Kamizato, Kota; Juhas, Stefan; Juhasova, Jana; Navarro, Michael; Marsala, Silvia; Lukacova, Nada; Hruska-Plochan, Marian; Curtis, Erik; Gabel, Brandon; Ciacci, Joseph; Ahrens, Eric T; Kaspar, Brian K; Cleveland, Don; Marsala, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Effective in vivo use of adeno-associated virus (AAV)-based vectors to achieve gene-specific silencing or upregulation in the central nervous system has been limited by the inability to provide more than limited deep parenchymal expression in adult animals using delivery routes with the most clinical relevance (intravenous or intrathecal). Here, we demonstrate that the spinal pia membrane represents the primary barrier limiting effective AAV9 penetration into the spinal parenchyma after intrathecal AAV9 delivery. We develop a novel subpial AAV9 delivery technique and AAV9-dextran formulation. We use these in adult rats and pigs to show (i) potent spinal parenchymal transgene expression in white and gray matter including neurons, glial and endothelial cells after single bolus subpial AAV9 delivery; (ii) delivery to almost all apparent descending motor axons throughout the length of the spinal cord after cervical or thoracic subpial AAV9 injection; (iii) potent retrograde transgene expression in brain motor centers (motor cortex and brain stem); and (iv) the relative safety of this approach by defining normal neurological function for up to 6 months after AAV9 delivery. Thus, subpial delivery of AAV9 enables gene-based therapies with a wide range of potential experimental and clinical utilizations in adult animals and human patients. PMID:27462649

  3. Long-term outcomes of adults with pediatric-onset spinal cord injuries as a function of neurological impairment

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Lawrence C.; Chlan, Kathleen M.; Zebracki, Kathy; Anderson, Caroline J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To identify outcomes of participation, life satisfaction, and medical complications as a function of impairment in adults with pediatric-onset spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods Study participants were adults who sustained SCI at age 18 years or younger and were interviewed at age 24 years or older (M = 26.9, SD = 3.5). The telephone interview included a questionnaire and several standardized measures: FIM® instrument (FIM®), Craig Handicap Assessment and Reporting Technique (CHART), SF-12® Health Survey, and Satisfaction with Life Scale. Using the International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury and the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) Impairment Scale (AIS), subjects were grouped into four impairment categories: C1–C4 ABC, C5–C8 ABC, T1–L4 ABC, and AIS D. Results Of the 410 participants, 62% were male, 54% had tetraplegia, 70% had AIS A lesions, and average age at injury was 14 years (SD = 4.3). Of the 407 subjects who had complete neurological information, 59 had C1–C4 ABC, 140 had C5–C8 ABC, 168 had T1–L4 ABC, and 40 had AIS D lesions. The outcomes were delineated for education, employment, independent living and driving, marriage, participation, medical complications, health-related quality of life, and global life satisfaction, in addition to the ASIA motor score and FIM® motor scores, for each of the four impairment groups. Conclusions This information should help focus interventions that facilitate positive outcomes in relationship to the severity of impairment. In addition, these data can provide a level of expectation about long-term outcomes for newly injured children and their parents. PMID:21528628

  4. Towards Understanding Male Infertility After Spinal Cord Injury Using Quantitative Proteomics.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Barbara Ferreira; Meng, Chen; Helm, Dominic; Pachl, Fiona; Schiller, Jürgen; Ibrahim, Emad; Lynne, Charles M; Brackett, Nancy L; Bertolla, Ricardo Pimenta; Kuster, Bernhard

    2016-04-01

    The study of male infertility after spinal cord injury (SCI) has enhanced the understanding of seminal plasma (SP) as an important regulator of spermatozoa function. However, the most important factors leading to the diminished sperm motility and viability observed in semen of men with SCI remained unknown. Thus, to explore SP related molecular mechanisms underlying infertility after SCI, we used mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomics to compare SP retrieved from SCI patients to normal controls. As a result, we present an in-depth characterization of the human SP proteome, identifying ∼2,800 individual proteins, and describe, in detail, the differential proteome observed in SCI. Our analysis demonstrates that a hyper-activation of the immune system may influence some seminal processes, which likely are not triggered by microbial infection. Moreover, we show evidence of an important prostate gland functional failure,i.e.diminished abundance of metabolic enzymes related to ATP turnover and those secreted via prostasomes. Further we identify the main outcome related to this fact and that it is intrinsically linked to the low sperm motility in SCI. Together, our data highlights the molecular pathways hindering fertility in SCI and shed new light on other causes of male infertility. PMID:26814186

  5. Erectile function and male reproduction in men with spinal cord injury: a review.

    PubMed

    Dimitriadis, F; Karakitsios, K; Tsounapi, P; Tsambalas, S; Loutradis, D; Kanakas, N; Watanabe, N T; Saito, M; Miyagawa, I; Sofikitis, N

    2010-06-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) in men results in defects in erectile function, ejaculatory process and male reproductive potential. There are alterations in the capacity of men with SCI to achieve reflexogenic, psychogenic and nocturnal erections. The sexual function in different stages after SCI and the types of erections depend mainly on the completeness of the injury and the level of neurological damage. Furthermore, most of the SCI men demonstrate defects concerning the entrance of semen into the posterior urethra and the expulsion of the semen through the penile urethra and the urethral orifice. In addition, SCI men develop defects in the secretory function of the Leydig cells, Sertoli cells and the male accessory genital glands. The overall result is a decreased quality of the semen is recovered either with penile vibratory stimulation (PVS) or with electroejaculation. Nowadays the therapeutic andrological approach of SCI men focuses on achievement of erectile function, recovery of spermatozoa and assisted reproductive technology. The first line of therapy recommended for infertility in SCI men is collection of semen via PVS with concomitant evaluation of total motile sperm yields for assisted conception which may include intravaginal insemination, intrauterine insemination, or in vitro fertilisation/intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Patients failing PVS may be referred for electroejaculation or surgical sperm retrieval. PMID:20500744

  6. Twentieth century surge of excess adult male mortality

    PubMed Central

    Beltrán-Sánchez, Hiram; Finch, Caleb E.; Crimmins, Eileen M.

    2015-01-01

    Using historical data from 1,763 birth cohorts from 1800 to 1935 in 13 developed countries, we show that what is now seen as normal—a large excess of female life expectancy in adulthood—is a demographic phenomenon that emerged among people born in the late 1800s. We show that excess adult male mortality is clearly rooted in specific age groups, 50–70, and that the sex asymmetry emerged in cohorts born after 1880 when male:female mortality ratios increased by as much as 50% from a baseline of about 1.1. Heart disease is the main condition associated with increased excess male mortality for those born after 1900. We further show that smoking-attributable deaths account for about 30% of excess male mortality at ages 50–70 for cohorts born in 1900–1935. However, after accounting for smoking, substantial excess male mortality at ages 50–70 remained, particularly from cardiovascular disease. The greater male vulnerability to cardiovascular conditions emerged with the reduction in infectious mortality and changes in health-related behaviors. PMID:26150507

  7. Juvenile Hormone Is Required in Adult Males for Drosophila Courtship

    PubMed Central

    Wijesekera, Thilini P.; Saurabh, Sumit; Dauwalder, Brigitte

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile Hormone (JH) has a prominent role in the regulation of insect development. Much less is known about its roles in adults, although functions in reproductive maturation have been described. In adult females, JH has been shown to regulate egg maturation and mating. To examine a role for JH in male reproductive behavior we created males with reduced levels of Juvenile Hormone Acid O-Methyl Transferase (JHAMT) and tested them for courtship. JHAMT regulates the last step of JH biosynthesis in the Corpora Allata (CA), the organ of JH synthesis. Males with reduced levels of JHAMT showed a reduction in courtship that could be rescued by application of Methoprene, a JH analog, shortly before the courtship assays were performed. In agreement with this, reducing JHAMT conditionally in mature flies led to courtship defects that were rescuable by Methoprene. The same result was also observed when the CA were conditionally ablated by the expression of a cellular toxin. Our findings demonstrate that JH plays an important physiological role in the regulation of male mating behavior. PMID:27003411

  8. Concurrent Intraventricular and Sacral Spinal Drop Metastasis of Ganglioglioma in an Adult Patient: A Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Jay W; Jha, Ribhu T; Felbaum, Daniel; Kalhorn, Christopher G

    2016-01-01

    Gangliogliomas are uncommon tumors of the central nervous system and rarely occur in the lateral ventricle or present with drop metastasis. We report a 49-year-old male who presented with a six-week history of left leg pain and numbness. Clinical examination revealed no focal neurological deficits. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated enhancing nodular lesions in the sacral spine abutting the S2 nerve root. Further imaging of the neuroaxis demonstrated a cystic lesion in the left frontal horn of the lateral ventricle. Gross total surgical resection of the ventricular lesion was performed through a transcortical approach, followed by resection of the sacral spinal drop metastasis in a staged manner. A histopathological analysis revealed the diagnosis of low-grade ganglioglioma. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a low-grade intraventricular ganglioglioma presenting with symptoms associated with drop metastasis in an adult patient. PMID:27158568

  9. Distribution and phenotype of TrkB oligodendrocyte lineage cells in the adult rat spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Coulibaly, Aminata P; Deer, Matthew R; Isaacson, Lori G

    2014-09-25

    The distribution and phenotype of a previously undescribed population of nonneuronal cells in the intact spinal cord that expresses TrkB, the cognate receptor for brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin 4 (NT-4), were characterized by examining the extent of co-localization of TrkB with NG2, which identifies oligodendrocyte progenitors (OPCs) or CC1, a marker for mature oligodendrocytes (OLs). All TrkB nonneuronal cells expressed Olig2, confirming their role in the OL lineage. Similar to OPCs and OLs, TrkB cells resided in gray and white matter of the spinal cord in similar abundance. Less than 2% of TrkB cells expressed NG2, while over 80% of TrkB cells in the adult spinal cord co-expressed CC1. Most OPCs did not express detectable levels of TrkB, however a small OPC pool (~5%) showed TrkB immunoreactivity. The majority of mature OLs (~65%) expressed TrkB, but a population of mature OLs (~36%) did not express TrkB at detectable levels, and 17% of TrkB nonneuronal cells did not express NG2 or CC1. Approximately 20% of the TrkB nonneuronal population in the ventral horn resided in close proximity to motor neurons and were categorized as perineuronal. We conclude that TrkB is expressed by several pools of OL lineage cells in the adult spinal cord. These findings are important in understanding the neurotrophin regulation of OL lineage cells in the adult spinal cord. PMID:25072185

  10. Characterization of Proliferating Neural Progenitors after Spinal Cord Injury in Adult Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Subhra Prakash; Nag, Tapas Chandra; Ghosh, Sukla

    2015-01-01

    Zebrafish can repair their injured brain and spinal cord after injury unlike adult mammalian central nervous system. Any injury to zebrafish spinal cord would lead to increased proliferation and neurogenesis. There are presences of proliferating progenitors from which both neuronal and glial loss can be reversed by appropriately generating new neurons and glia. We have demonstrated the presence of multiple progenitors, which are different types of proliferating populations like Sox2+ neural progenitor, A2B5+ astrocyte/ glial progenitor, NG2+ oligodendrocyte progenitor, radial glia and Schwann cell like progenitor. We analyzed the expression levels of two common markers of dedifferentiation like msx-b and vimentin during regeneration along with some of the pluripotency associated factors to explore the possible role of these two processes. Among the several key factors related to pluripotency, pou5f1 and sox2 are upregulated during regeneration and associated with activation of neural progenitor cells. Uncovering the molecular mechanism for endogenous regeneration of adult zebrafish spinal cord would give us more clues on important targets for future therapeutic approach in mammalian spinal cord repair and regeneration. PMID:26630262

  11. "Aging males" symptoms and general health of adult males: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Yuen, John W; Ng, Chi-Fai; Chiu, Peter Ka Fung; Teoh, Jeremy Yuen Chun; Yee, C H

    2016-06-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to explore the prevalence and severity of health-related complaints perceived by adult males of Hong Kong by using the Hong Kong Traditional Chinese versions of the Aging males' symptoms (AMS) scale and the 5-dimensional and 3-level European Quality of life (EQ-5D-3L) questionnaire. A total of 825 adult males aged 40 years or above were surveyed, and observed that 80% of the population was living with little-to-mild levels of aging symptoms with mean total scores ranged between 26.02 ± 7.91 and 32.99 ± 7.91 in different age groups. Such symptoms were correlated with age, especially for the somato-vegetative and sexual symptoms. The most severe AMS symptoms were observed in the oldest age group at 70 years or above, with 76%, 34% and 70% living with moderate-to-severe levels of somato-vegetative, psychological and sexual symptoms, respectively. The result was highly correlated with the EQ-5D-3L questionnaire. Secondly, the Hong Kong Aging males' symptoms (AMS) scale was shown to have good reliability with test-retest coefficient at 0.79 (ranged 0.66-0.87) and Cronbach's alpha coefficient at 0.88 (ranged 0.70-0.84). In summary, the population of Hong Kong male adults was commonly living with little-to-mild levels of aging symptoms, whereas their severity was correlated with age. PMID:27068128

  12. Dietary glucose regulates yeast consumption in adult Drosophila males.

    PubMed

    Lebreton, Sébastien; Witzgall, Peter; Olsson, Marie; Becher, Paul G

    2014-01-01

    The adjustment of feeding behavior in response to hunger and satiety contributes to homeostatic regulation in animals. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster feeds on yeasts growing on overripe fruit, providing nutrients required for adult survival, reproduction and larval growth. Here, we present data on how the nutritional value of food affects subsequent yeast consumption in Drosophila adult males. After a period of starvation, flies showed intensive yeast consumption. In comparison, flies stopped feeding after having access to a nutritive cornmeal diet. Interestingly, dietary glucose was equally efficient as the complex cornmeal diet. In contrast, flies fed with sucralose, a non-metabolizable sweetener, behaved as if they were starved. The adipokinetic hormone and insulin-like peptides regulate metabolic processes in insects. We did not find any effect of the adipokinetic hormone pathway on this modulation. Instead, the insulin pathway was involved in these changes. Flies lacking the insulin receptor (InR) did not respond to nutrient deprivation by increasing yeast consumption. Together these results show the importance of insulin in the regulation of yeast consumption in response to starvation in adult D. melanogaster males. PMID:25566097

  13. Dietary glucose regulates yeast consumption in adult Drosophila males

    PubMed Central

    Lebreton, Sébastien; Witzgall, Peter; Olsson, Marie; Becher, Paul G.

    2014-01-01

    The adjustment of feeding behavior in response to hunger and satiety contributes to homeostatic regulation in animals. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster feeds on yeasts growing on overripe fruit, providing nutrients required for adult survival, reproduction and larval growth. Here, we present data on how the nutritional value of food affects subsequent yeast consumption in Drosophila adult males. After a period of starvation, flies showed intensive yeast consumption. In comparison, flies stopped feeding after having access to a nutritive cornmeal diet. Interestingly, dietary glucose was equally efficient as the complex cornmeal diet. In contrast, flies fed with sucralose, a non-metabolizable sweetener, behaved as if they were starved. The adipokinetic hormone and insulin-like peptides regulate metabolic processes in insects. We did not find any effect of the adipokinetic hormone pathway on this modulation. Instead, the insulin pathway was involved in these changes. Flies lacking the insulin receptor (InR) did not respond to nutrient deprivation by increasing yeast consumption. Together these results show the importance of insulin in the regulation of yeast consumption in response to starvation in adult D. melanogaster males. PMID:25566097

  14. Prevalence of childhood physical abuse in adult male veteran alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, M R; Sobieraj, K; Hollyfield, R L

    1988-01-01

    Although past research has identified psychological and behavioral consequences for adults who were abused as children, few studies have examined the incidence and consequences of childhood physical abuse among adult alcoholics. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of a childhood history of physical abuse in adult male alcoholics and to determine what differences may exist in the psychological profile and patterns of alcohol abuse in abused and nonabused alcoholics. The study sample was comprised of 100 male alcoholic inpatients from the alcoholism treatment unit at a metropolitan Veterans Administration hospital. Subjects were administered a self-report devised by the authors to assess a history of childhood physical abuse, the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST), the Severity of Alcohol Dependence Questionnaire (SADQ), and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R). Findings indicated that approximately one-third of the alcoholics were physically abused as children. Abused alcoholics reported having more severe psychological symptoms and distress than their nonabused counterparts, although they did not differ on the onset, severity, or treatment history for alcohol dependency. PMID:3260808

  15. CB1 cannabinoid receptor enrichment in the ependymal region of the adult human spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Paniagua-Torija, Beatriz; Arevalo-Martin, Angel; Ferrer, Isidro; Molina-Holgado, Eduardo; Garcia-Ovejero, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Cannabinoids are involved in the regulation of neural stem cell biology and their receptors are expressed in the neurogenic niches of adult rodents. In the spinal cord of rats and mice, neural stem cells can be found in the ependymal region, surrounding the central canal, but there is evidence that this region is largely different in adult humans: lacks a patent canal and presents perivascular pseudorosettes, typically found in low grade ependymomas. Using Laser Capture Microdissection, Taqman gene expression assays and immunohistochemistry, we have studied the expression of endocannabinoid system components (receptors and enzymes) at the human spinal cord ependymal region. We observe that ependymal region is enriched in CB1 cannabinoid receptor, due to high CB1 expression in GFAP+ astrocytic domains. However, in human spinal cord levels that retain central canal patency we found ependymal cells with high CB1 expression, equivalent to the CB1(HIGH) cell subpopulation described in rodents. Our results support the existence of ependymal CB1(HIGH) cells across species, and may encourage further studies on this subpopulation, although only in cases when central canal is patent. In the adult human ependyma, which usually shows central canal absence, CB1 may play a different role by modulating astrocyte functions. PMID:26634814

  16. Retinoic acid receptor beta2 and neurite outgrowth in the adult mouse spinal cord in vitro.

    PubMed

    Corcoran, Jonathan; So, Po-Lin; Barber, Robert D; Vincent, Karen J; Mazarakis, Nicholas D; Mitrophanous, Kyriacos A; Kingsman, Susan M; Maden, Malcolm

    2002-10-01

    Retinoic acid, acting through the nuclear retinoic acid receptor beta2 (RARbeta2), stimulates neurite outgrowth from peripheral nervous system tissue that has the capacity to regenerate neurites, namely, embryonic and adult dorsal root ganglia. Similarly, in central nervous system tissue that can regenerate, namely, embryonic mouse spinal cord, retinoic acid also stimulates neurite outgrowth and RARbeta2 is upregulated. By contrast, in the adult mouse spinal cord, which cannot regenerate, no such upregulation of RARbeta2 by retinoic acid is observed and no neurites are extended in vitro. To test our hypothesis that the upregulation of RARbeta2 is crucial to neurite regeneration, we have transduced adult mouse or rat spinal cord in vitro with a minimal equine infectious anaemia virus vector expressing RARbeta2. After transduction, prolific neurite outgrowth occurs. Outgrowth does not occur when the cord is transduced with a different isoform of RARbeta nor does it occur following treatment with nerve growth factor. These data demonstrate that RARbeta2 is involved in neurite outgrowth, at least in vitro, and that this gene may in the future be of some therapeutic use. PMID:12235288

  17. CB1 cannabinoid receptor enrichment in the ependymal region of the adult human spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Paniagua-Torija, Beatriz; Arevalo-Martin, Angel; Ferrer, Isidro; Molina-Holgado, Eduardo; Garcia-Ovejero, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Cannabinoids are involved in the regulation of neural stem cell biology and their receptors are expressed in the neurogenic niches of adult rodents. In the spinal cord of rats and mice, neural stem cells can be found in the ependymal region, surrounding the central canal, but there is evidence that this region is largely different in adult humans: lacks a patent canal and presents perivascular pseudorosettes, typically found in low grade ependymomas. Using Laser Capture Microdissection, Taqman gene expression assays and immunohistochemistry, we have studied the expression of endocannabinoid system components (receptors and enzymes) at the human spinal cord ependymal region. We observe that ependymal region is enriched in CB1 cannabinoid receptor, due to high CB1 expression in GFAP+ astrocytic domains. However, in human spinal cord levels that retain central canal patency we found ependymal cells with high CB1 expression, equivalent to the CB1HIGH cell subpopulation described in rodents. Our results support the existence of ependymal CB1HIGH cells across species, and may encourage further studies on this subpopulation, although only in cases when central canal is patent. In the adult human ependyma, which usually shows central canal absence, CB1 may play a different role by modulating astrocyte functions. PMID:26634814

  18. Patient-specific FDG dosimetry for adult males, adult females, and very low birth weight infants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niven, Erin

    Fluorodeoxyglucose is the most commonly used radiopharmaceutical in Positron Emission Tomography, with applications in neurology, cardiology, and oncology. Despite its routine use worldwide, the radiation absorbed dose estimates from FDG have been based primarily on data obtained from two dogs studied in 1977 and 11 adults (most likely males) studied in 1982. In addition, the dose estimates calculated for FDG have been centered on the adult male, with little or no mention of variations in the dose estimates due to sex, age, height, weight, nationality, diet, or pathological condition. Through an extensive investigation into the Medical Internal Radiation Dose schema for calculating absorbed doses, I have developed a simple patient-specific equation; this equation incorporates the parameters necessary for alterations to the mathematical values of the human model to produce an estimate more representative of the individual under consideration. I have used this method to determine the range of absorbed doses to FDG from the collection of a large quantity of biological data obtained in adult males, adult females, and very low birth weight infants. Therefore, a more accurate quantification of the dose to humans from FDG has been completed. My results show that per unit administered activity, the absorbed dose from FDG is higher for infants compared to adults, and the dose for adult women is higher than for adult men. Given an injected activity of approximately 3.7 MBq kg-1, the doses for adult men, adult women, and full-term newborns would be on the order of 5.5, 7.1, and 2.8 mSv, respectively. These absorbed doses are comparable to the doses received from other nuclear medicine procedures.

  19. Immature spinal cord neurons are dynamic regulators of adult nociceptive sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Rusanescu, Gabriel; Mao, Jianren

    2015-01-01

    Chronic pain is a debilitating condition with unknown mechanism. Nociceptive sensitivity may be regulated by genetic factors, some of which have been separately linked to neuronal progenitor cells and neuronal differentiation. This suggests that genetic factors that interfere with neuronal differentiation may contribute to a chronic increase in nociceptive sensitivity, by extending the immature, hyperexcitable stage of spinal cord neurons. Although adult rodent spinal cord neurogenesis was previously demonstrated, the fate of these progenitor cells is unknown. Here, we show that peripheral nerve injury in adult rats induces extensive spinal cord neurogenesis and a long-term increase in the number of spinal cord laminae I–II neurons ipsilateral to injury. The production and maturation of these new neurons correlates with the time course and modulation of nociceptive behaviour, and transiently mimics the cellular and behavioural conditions present in genetically modified animal models of chronic pain. This suggests that the number of immature neurons present at any time in the spinal cord dorsal horns contributes to the regulation of nociceptive sensitivity. The continuous turnover of these neurons, which can fluctuate between normal and injured states, is a dynamic regulator of nociceptive sensitivity. In support of this hypothesis, we find that promoters of neuronal differentiation inhibit, while promoters of neurogenesis increase long-term nociception. TrkB agonists, well-known promoters of nociception in the short-term, significantly inhibit long-term nociception by promoting the differentiation of newly produced immature neurons. These findings suggest that promoters of neuronal differentiation may be used to alleviate chronic pain. PMID:26223362

  20. Hormone Disruption by PBDEs in Adult Male Sport Fish Consumers

    PubMed Central

    Turyk, Mary E.; Persky, Victoria W.; Imm, Pamela; Knobeloch, Lynda; Chatterton, Robert; Anderson, Henry A.

    2008-01-01

    Background Persistent pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), affect endocrine function. Human exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), which are similar in structure to PCBs, has increased recently, but health effects have not been well studied. Objectives Our goal in this study was to determine whether PBDE body burdens are related to thyroid and steroid hormone levels, thyroid antibodies, and thyroid disease in a cohort of frequent and infrequent adult male sport fish consumers. Methods We tested serum from 405 adult males for PBDE congeners, PCB congeners, testosterone, sex-hormone–binding globulin (SHBG), SHBG-bound testosterone, thyroglobulin antibodies, and the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and T4-binding globulin (TBG). We collected data on demographics, fish consumption, medical diseases, and medication use. Results The median sum of PBDEs was 38 ng/g lipid. In 308 men without thyroid disease or diabetes, PBDEs were positively related to measures of T4 and reverse T3 and inversely related to total T3 and TSH. PBDEs were positively related to the percentage of T4 bound to albumin, and inversely related to the percentage of T4 bound to TBG. Associations of BDE congeners with hormones varied. BDE-47 was positively associated with testosterone levels. Participants with PBDEs over the 95th percentile were more likely to have thyroglobulin antibodies, although high PBDE exposure was not associated with thyroid disease. PBDE effects were independent of PCB exposure and sport fish consumption. Conclusions PBDE exposure, at levels comparable with those of the general U.S. population, was associated with increased thyroglobulin antibodies and increased T4 in adult males. PMID:19079713

  1. Altered differentiation of CNS neural progenitor cells after transplantation into the injured adult rat spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Onifer, S M; Cannon, A B; Whittemore, S R

    1997-01-01

    Denervation of CNS neurons and peripheral organs is a consequence of traumatic SCI. Intraspinal transplantation of embryonic CNS neurons is a potential strategy for reinnervating these targets. Neural progenitor cell lines are being investigated as alternates to embryonic CNS neurons. RN33B is an immortalized neural progenitor cell line derived from embryonic rat raphe nuclei following infection with a retrovirus encoding the temperature-sensitive mutant of SV40 large T-antigen. Transplantation studies have shown that local epigenetic signals in intact or partially neuron-depleted adult rat hippocampal formation or striatum direct RN33B cell differentiation to complex multipolar morphologies resembling endogenous neurons. After transplantation into neuron-depleted regions of the hippocampal formation or striatum, RN33B cells were relatively undifferentiated or differentiated with bipolar morphologies. The present study examines RN33B cell differentiation after transplantation into normal spinal cord and under different lesion conditions. Adult rats underwent either unilateral lesion of lumbar spinal neurons by intraspinal injection of kainic acid or complete transection at the T10 spinal segment. Neonatal rats underwent either unilateral lesion of lumbar motoneurons by sciatic nerve crush or complete transection at the T10 segment. At 2 or 6-7 wk postinjury, lacZ-labeled RN33B cells were transplanted into the lumbar enlargement of injured and age-matched normal rats. At 2 wk posttransplantation, bipolar and some multipolar RN33B cells were found throughout normal rat gray matter. In contrast, only bipolar RN33B cells were seen in gray matter of kainic acid lesioned, sciatic nerve crush, or transection rats. These observations suggest that RN33B cell multipolar morphological differentiation in normal adult spinal cord is mediated by direct cell-cell interaction through surface molecules on endogenous neurons and may be suppressed by molecules released after SCI

  2. Cervical Spinal Cord Atrophy Profile in Adult SMN1-Linked SMA

    PubMed Central

    El Mendili, Mohamed-Mounir; Lenglet, Timothée; Stojkovic, Tanya; Behin, Anthony; Guimarães-Costa, Raquel; Salachas, François; Meininger, Vincent; Bruneteau, Gaelle; Le Forestier, Nadine; Laforêt, Pascal; Lehéricy, Stéphane; Benali, Habib; Pradat, Pierre-François

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The mechanisms underlying the topography of motor deficits in spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) remain unknown. We investigated the profile of spinal cord atrophy (SCA) in SMN1-linked SMA, and its correlation with the topography of muscle weakness. Materials and Methods Eighteen SMN1-linked SMA patients type III/V and 18 age/gender-matched healthy volunteers were included. Patients were scored on manual muscle testing and functional scales. Spinal cord was imaged using 3T MRI system. Radial distance (RD) and cord cross-sectional area (CSA) measurements in SMA patients were compared to those in controls and correlated with strength and disability scores. Results CSA measurements revealed a significant cord atrophy gradient mainly located between C3 and C6 vertebral levels with a SCA rate ranging from 5.4% to 23% in SMA patients compared to controls. RD was significantly lower in SMA patients compared to controls in the anterior-posterior direction with a maximum along C4 and C5 vertebral levels (p-values < 10−5). There were no correlations between atrophy measurements, strength and disability scores. Conclusions Spinal cord atrophy in adult SMN1-linked SMA predominates in the segments innervating the proximal muscles. Additional factors such as neuromuscular junction or intrinsic skeletal muscle defects may play a role in more complex mechanisms underlying weakness in these patients. PMID:27089520

  3. Photometric facial analysis of the Igbo Nigerian adult male

    PubMed Central

    Ukoha, Ukoha Ukoha; Udemezue, Onochie Okwudili; Oranusi, Chidi Kingsley; Asomugha, Azuoma Lasbrey; Dimkpa, Uchechukwu; Nzeukwu, Lynda Chinenye

    2012-01-01

    Background: A carefully performed facial analysis can serve as a strong foundation for successful facial reconstructive and plastic surgeries, rhinoplasty or orthodontics. Aim: The purpose of this study is to determine the facial features and qualities of the Igbo Nigerian adult male using photometry. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty subjects aged between 18 and 28 years were studied at the Anambra State University, Uli, Nigeria. The frontal and right lateral view photographs of their faces were taken and traced out on tracing papers. On these, two vertical distances, nasion to subnasal and subnasale to menton, and four angles, nasofrontal (NF), nasofacial, nasomental (NM) and mentocervical, were measured. Results: The result showed that the Igbo Nigerian adult male had a middle face that was shorter than the lower one (41.76% vs.58.24%), a moderate glabella (NF=133.97°), a projected nose (NM=38.68°) and a less prominent chin (NM=125.87°). Conclusion: This study is very important in medical practice as it can be used to compare the pre- and post-operative results of plastic surgery and other related surgeries of the face. PMID:23661886

  4. Impact of spine surgery complications on costs associated with management of adult spinal deformity.

    PubMed

    Yeramaneni, Samrat; Robinson, Chessie; Hostin, Richard

    2016-09-01

    A better understanding of the consequences of spine surgery complications is warranted to optimize patient-reported outcomes and contain the rising health care costs associated with the management of adult spinal deformity (ASD). We systematically searched PubMed and Scopus databases using keywords "adult spinal deformity surgery," "complications," and "cost" for published studies on costs of complications associated with spinal surgery, with a particular emphasis on ASD and scoliosis. In the 17 articles reviewed, we identified 355,354 patients with 11,148 reported complications. Infection was the most commonly reported complication, with an average treatment cost ranging from $15,817 to $38,701. Hospital costs for patients with deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary thromboembolism, and surgical site infection were 2.3 to 3.1 times greater than for patients without those complications. An effort to collect and characterize data on cost of complications is encouraged, which may help health care providers to identify potential resources to limit complications and overall costs. PMID:27278531

  5. Intravenous multipotent adult progenitor cell treatment decreases inflammation leading to functional recovery following spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    DePaul, Marc A.; Palmer, Marc; Lang, Bradley T.; Cutrone, Rochelle; Tran, Amanda P.; Madalena, Kathryn M.; Bogaerts, Annelies; Hamilton, Jason A.; Deans, Robert J.; Mays, Robert W.; Busch, Sarah A.; Silver, Jerry

    2015-01-01

    Following spinal cord injury (SCI), immune-mediated secondary processes exacerbate the extent of permanent neurological deficits. We investigated the capacity of adult bone marrow-derived stem cells, which exhibit immunomodulatory properties, to alter inflammation and promote recovery following SCI. In vitro, we show that human multipotent adult progenitor cells (MAPCs) have the ability to modulate macrophage activation, and prior exposure to MAPC secreted factors can reduce macrophage-mediated axonal dieback of dystrophic axons. Using a contusion model of SCI, we found that intravenous delivery of MAPCs one day, but not immediately, after SCI significantly improves urinary and locomotor recovery, which was associated with marked spinal cord tissue sparing. Intravenous MAPCs altered the immune response in the spinal cord and periphery, however biodistribution studies revealed that no MAPCs were found in the cord and instead preferentially homed to the spleen. Our results demonstrate that MAPCs exert their primary effects in the periphery and provide strong support for the use of these cells in acute human contusive SCI. PMID:26582249

  6. Risk factors for adult male criminality in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Klevens, Joanne; Roca, Juanita; Restrepo, Ofelia; Martinez, Adriana

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study sought to establish, in Colombia, the importance of factors alleged to be causes or correlates of adult criminality according to the published literature from other countries. METHODS: A comparison was made of arrested male offenders from ages 18 to 30 (n = 223) and similar community controls (n = 222) selected from five cities in Colombia as to their family background, exposure to abuse, family stressors, perceived care and history of childhood disruptive behaviour problems. RESULTS: Compared with neighbourhood controls from similar social classes, offenders were significantly more likely to report having had parents with less education, a mother under the age of 18 or over the age of 35 at time of birth, family members involved in crime, experiencing extreme economic deprivation, parental absence, family conflict, severe punishments, physical abuse, and maternal unavailability, rejection and lack of supervision. Prevalence of childhood disruptive behaviour problems was similar among offenders and controls. These findings appear to be independent of economic status, family size or type, birth order, or primary caregiver. Although the independent contribution of most of these factors is small, once all others have been controlled for, their cumulative effect is strong. CONCLUSIONS: The findings obtained in this Latin American setting do not support the generalized view that adult antisocial behaviour is necessarily preceded by a history of childhood behaviour problems. However, they do add evidence for the importance of family factors in the risk for adult criminality. PMID:12048531

  7. Peripheral Nerve Grafts after Cervical Spinal Cord Injury in Adult Cats

    PubMed Central

    Côté, Marie-Pascale; Hanna, Amgad; Lemay, Michel A.; Ollivier-Lanvin, Karen; Santi, Lauren; Miller, Kassi; Monaghan, Rebecca; Houlé, John D.

    2010-01-01

    Peripheral nerve grafts (PNG) into the rat spinal cord support axon regeneration after acute or chronic injury, with synaptic reconnection across the lesion site and some level of behavioral recovery. Here, we grafted a peripheral nerve into the injured spinal cord of cats as a preclinical treatment approach to promote regeneration for eventual translational use. Adult female cats received a partial hemisection lesion at the cervical level (C7) and immediate apposition of an autologous tibial nerve segment to the lesion site. Five weeks later, a dorsal quadrant lesion was performed caudally (T1), the lesion site treated with Chondroitinase ABC two days later to digest growth inhibiting extracellular matrix molecules, and the distal end of the PNG apposed to the injury site. After 4–20 weeks, the grafts survived in 10/12 animals with several thousand myelinated axons present in each graft. The distal end of 9/10 grafts was well apposed to the spinal cord and numerous axons extended beyond the lesion site. Intraspinal stimulation evoked compound action potentials in the graft with an appropriate latency illustrating normal axonal conduction of the regenerated axons. Although stimulation of the PNG failed to elicit responses in the spinal cord distal to the lesion site, the presence of c-Fos immunoreactive neurons close to the distal apposition site indicates that regenerated axons formed functional synapses with host neurons. This study demonstrates the successful application of a nerve grafting approach to promote regeneration after spinal cord injury in a non-rodent, large animal model. PMID:20599980

  8. Adult female hamsters avoid interspecific mating after exposure to heterospecific males

    PubMed Central

    delBarco-Trillo, Javier; McPhee, M. E.; Johnston, Robert E.

    2010-01-01

    When females mate with a heterospecific male, they do not usually produce viable offspring. Thus, there is a selective pressure for females to avoid interspecific mating. In many species, females innately avoid heterospecific males; females can also imprint on their parents to avoid later sexual interactions with heterospecific males. However, it was previously unknown whether adult females can learn to discriminate against heterospecific males. We tested the hypothesis that adult females previously unable to avoid interspecific mating learn to avoid such mating after being exposed to heterospecific males. Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) females not previously exposed to Turkish hamster (Mesocricetus brandti) males can discriminate between odors of conspecific and heterospecific males, but they mate with either type of male. However, when we exposed adult females to both a conspecific male and a heterospecific male through wire-mesh barriers for 8 days, and then paired them sequentially with the two males, females were more receptive to conspecific males and more aggressive to heterospecific males. When females were paired with the heterospecific male first and the conspecific male second, no female was receptive and all were aggressive to heterospecific males. When females were paired with the conspecific male first, only 43% of females were then aggressive toward the heterospecific male. That is, interactions with conspecific males may decrease a female’s ability to properly avoid heterospecific males. Our study clearly shows for the first time that females can learn during adulthood to avoid interspecific mating just by being exposed to stimuli from heterospecific males. PMID:20676390

  9. Lessons for spinal cord injury rehabilitation taken from adult developmental psychology: 2011 Essie Morgan Lecture

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Jon

    2012-01-01

    Background/objective Developmental phases affect how individuals cope with and challenge threats to self-concept, health and functioning. Understanding prominent models of adult psychological development can help spinal cord injury/disease (SCI/D) rehabilitation professionals facilitate positive change and growth. Design Author's theoretical model informed by literature review and personal experience. Setting Veterans administration (VA) medical center interdisciplinary outpatient clinic providing primary and specialty care to veterans with spinal cord injuries and disorders. Conclusion Threats to life expectations, health, well-being, identity, and other aspects of self create crises that can result in psychopathology or psychological growth. SCI/D can present multiple threats across the lifespan. For example, self-image, ability to perform various activities, ability to feel attractive, and even life itself may be challenged by SCI/D or its complications. Threats may be perceived at the time of injury or onset of symptoms. Also, as the injured body declines further over time, complications can cause significant temporary or permanent functional decline. Individuals interpret each of these threats in the context of current developmental needs. How people cope is influenced by developmental factors and personality traits. An integrated model of adult psychological development based on the works of Erikson, Gutmann, and Baltes is related to the literature on coping with SCI/D. This model provides insights that interdisciplinary rehabilitation teams may use to facilitate personal growth, optimal functioning, and physical health as adults with SCI negotiate normal developmental challenges throughout their lifetimes. PMID:22507022

  10. Resting-State Brain Activity in Adult Males Who Stutter

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Chaozhe; Wang, Liang; Yan, Qian; Lin, Chunlan; Yu, Chunshui

    2012-01-01

    Although developmental stuttering has been extensively studied with structural and task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), few studies have focused on resting-state brain activity in this disorder. We investigated resting-state brain activity of stuttering subjects by analyzing the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF), region of interest (ROI)-based functional connectivity (FC) and independent component analysis (ICA)-based FC. Forty-four adult males with developmental stuttering and 46 age-matched fluent male controls were scanned using resting-state fMRI. ALFF, ROI-based FCs and ICA-based FCs were compared between male stuttering subjects and fluent controls in a voxel-wise manner. Compared with fluent controls, stuttering subjects showed increased ALFF in left brain areas related to speech motor and auditory functions and bilateral prefrontal cortices related to cognitive control. However, stuttering subjects showed decreased ALFF in the left posterior language reception area and bilateral non-speech motor areas. ROI-based FC analysis revealed decreased FC between the posterior language area involved in the perception and decoding of sensory information and anterior brain area involved in the initiation of speech motor function, as well as increased FC within anterior or posterior speech- and language-associated areas and between the prefrontal areas and default-mode network (DMN) in stuttering subjects. ICA showed that stuttering subjects had decreased FC in the DMN and increased FC in the sensorimotor network. Our findings support the concept that stuttering subjects have deficits in multiple functional systems (motor, language, auditory and DMN) and in the connections between them. PMID:22276215

  11. Effects of mechanical horseback riding velocity on spinal alignment in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Jae-Heon; Cho, Woon-Su; Lee, Seong-Jin; Park, Chi-Bok; Park, Jang-Sung

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine if the velocity of mechanical horseback-riding training can improve spinal alignment in young adults. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-six subjects were enrolled in this study. The subjects were randomly allocated into high-, moderate-, and low-velocity mechanical horseback-riding training groups. All participants completed one 20-minute session per day, 3 days per week, for 6 weeks. The evaluation was performed before and 6 weeks after the training intervention. The spinal alignment was measured by a Formetric III device. The measurement items were kyphotic angle, lordotic angle, trunk inclination, pelvic torsion, pelvic rotation, and lateral deviation. The data were analyzed using analysis of covariance to determine the statistical significance. [Results] The kyphotic angle and trunk inclination were significantly different among the groups. The kyphotic angles of the high- and moderate-velocity groups were significantly lower than that of the low-velocity group after the intervention. The trunk inclination of the high-velocity group was significantly lower than that of the low-velocity group after intervention. [Conclusion] Higher-velocity mechanical horseback-riding training is more effective than lower-velocity mechanical horseback-riding training for improving spinal alignment. PMID:27390428

  12. Chronic Contusion Spinal Cord Injury Impairs Ejaculatory Reflexes in Male Rats: Partial Recovery by Systemic Infusions of Dopamine D3 Receptor Agonist 7OHDPAT.

    PubMed

    Kozyrev, Natalie; Staudt, Michael D; Brown, Arthur; Coolen, Lique M

    2016-05-15

    Chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) causes major disruption of ejaculatory function in men. Ejaculation is a reflex and the spinal generator for ejaculatory reflexes in the rat has been located in the lumbosacral spinal cord. The effects of SCI on the rat spinal ejaculation generator and ejaculatory reflexes remain understudied. The first goal of the current study was to establish the effects of chronic SCI on the function of the spinal ejaculation generator. Male rats received a contusion injury of the spinal cord at spinal level T6-T7. Ejaculatory reflexes elicited by electrical stimulation of the dorsal penile nerve (DPN) were evaluated in injured and control rats at 4-6 weeks following SCI. SCI males demonstrated significant reductions in bursting of the bulbocavernosus muscle (BCM), an indicator for expulsion phase of ejaculation, and in seminal vesicle pressure (SVP) increases, an indicator for the emission phase of ejaculation, following DPN stimulation. Thus, contusion SCI resulted in long-term impairment of ejaculatory reflexes. The D3 agonist 7-hydroxy-2-(di-N-propylamino) tetralin (7OHDPAT) facilitates ejaculation in spinal cord intact rats, thus the second goal of the current study was to test whether subcutaneous infusions of 7OHDPAT can facilitate ejaculatory reflexes in rats with chronic SCI. Male rats received a contusion injury at T6-T7 and effects of systemic administration of 7OHDPAT (1 mg/kg) were tested 4-5 weeks following injury. Results showed that 7OHDPAT administration facilitated ejaculatory reflexes in SCI males with or without DPN stimulation, provided that supraspinal inputs to the lumbar cord were severed by transection just prior to evaluating the reflex. Thus, 7OHDPAT administration in SCI males was able to overcome the detrimental effects of SCI on ejaculatory reflexes. PMID:26437577

  13. Fellowship and Practice Composition Affect Surgical Decision Making in Patients with Adult Degenerative Scoliosis: Spinal Deformity versus Degenerative Spinal Surgeons

    PubMed Central

    Protopsaltis, Themistocles; Patel, Ashish; Yoo, Andrew; Lonner, Baron

    2015-01-01

    Background For the Adult Degenerative Scoliosis (ADS) patient with radiculopathy, there is no clear data in the literature to guide the spine surgeon's decision making in choosing between limited decompression alone, short segment fusion, or longer arthrodesis of the deformity. This study investigates the differences in operative planning, for patients with ADS and radiculopathy, between two groups of spine surgeons based on fellowship experience and practice composition. Methods Six Degenerative Spine surgeons (Group 1) and 6 Spinal Deformity surgeons (Group 2) were shown 7 cases of patients with ADS and radiculopathy. Surgeons completed a questionnaire detailing their planned operative intervention including the number of fusion levels, if any, approach, choice of bone graft, and interbody device. Pearson Correlation was used to investigate the association between fellowship training, practice composition, number of levels fused, and other variables. Intraclass correlation (ICC) analysis was used to investigate the internal consistency among the groups. Results There was a direct correlation between fellowship deformity experience and practice composition (r=0.75, p<0.01), and between deformity practice composition and the number of planned fusion levels (r=0.90, p<0.001). Group 1 surgeons fused a mean 3.7 vertebral levels (range 0-6.7), while Group 2 surgeons fused a mean 10.8 levels (range 4-16.5). Group 2 surgeons fused a significantly greater number of levels for each case than degenerative surgeons on paired student t-test (p=0.002). Group 1 surgeons chose decompression alone more commonly than deformity surgeons (p<0.05). Group 2 surgeons had significantly higher group consistency by ICC analysis (p=0.004). Conclusions Fellowship and practice composition influence the physician's surgical planning in ADS. There is a lack of standardized treatment paradigms for the management of radiculopathy in patients with ADS. PMID:26114090

  14. Folic acid in combination with adult neural stem cells for the treatment of spinal cord injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chen; Shen, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To observe the therapeutic effect of folic acid in combination with adult neural stem cells on spinal cord injury and to investigate the possible mechanism. Methods: A total of 120 Wistar rats were randomly assigned to six groups: normal, model, sham-surgery, folic acid injection, adult neural stem cell transplantation, and combination (folic acid injection + adult neural stem cells transplantation) groups. Morphology of neural stem cells was observed by inverted microscopy. Expression of CD105, CD45, CD44, and CD29 were detected by flow cytometry; expression of neuron-specific enolase and glial fibrillary acidic protein were determined by immunofluorescence. Motor coordination and integration capabilities were assessed using BBB scores; Morphology of spinal cord tissues was observed by hematoxylin-eosin staining and 5-bromodeoxyuridine immunohistochemistry. GDNF, BDNF and NT-3 expression in spinal cord tissues were determined by ELISA; while expression of the apoptosis-related proteins BCL-2, Bax and caspase-3 was detected using western blotting. Results: Flow cytometry showed that the isolated cells were positive for CD44 and CD29 and negative for CD105 and CD45. Combination treatment significantly improved the behavior of model rats with spinal cord injury, attenuated inflammatory reaction of spinal cord tissues, restored injured nerve cells, and increased expression of GDNF, BDNF and NT-3 in spinal cord tissues, up regulated BCL-2 expression, and down regulated Bax and caspase-3 expression. Conclusions: Folic acid in combination with adult neural stem cells significantly improved nerve function and plays a key role in maintaining microenvironment homeostasis in the neurons of rats with spinal cord injury. PMID:26379837

  15. Does social support impact depression in caregivers of adults ageing with spinal cord injuries?

    PubMed Central

    Rodakowski, Juleen; Skidmore, Elizabeth R.; Rogers, Joan C.; Schulz, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to examine the role of social support in predicting depression in caregivers of adults aging with spinal cord injuries (SCI). Design Cross-sectional secondary data analyses were conducted for this study. Setting Participants were recruited from multiple community locations in Pittsburgh, PA and Miami, FL. Subjects Community-dwelling caregivers of aging adults with SCI (N=173) were interviewed as part of a multisite randomized clinical trial. Main measures The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale measured caregiver depression symptom levels. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis examined the effect of social support (social integration, received social support, and negative social interactions) on depressive symptoms levels for the caregivers of adults aging with SCI, controlling for demographic characteristics and caregiving characteristics. Results Caregivers were, on average, 53 years old (SD=15) and care-recipients were 55 years old (SD=13). Average Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale scores indicated that sixty-nine (40%) caregivers had significant depressive symptoms (mean 8.69, SD=5.5). Negative social interactions (β̂ =.27, P<.01) and social integration (β̂ =−.25, P<.01) were significant independent predictors of depressive symptom levels in caregivers of adults aging with SCI. Conclusions Findings demonstrate that negative social interactions and social integration are associated with burden in caregivers of adults aging with SCI. Negative social interactions and social integration should be investigated in assessments and interventions intended to target caregiver depressive symptom levels. PMID:23117350

  16. Self-Awareness of the Male Sexual Response after Spinal Cord Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardoso, Fernando Luiz; Savall, Ana Carolina R.; Mendes, Aline K.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of spinal cord injury on men's sexual motivation, through the sexual desire self-assessment, and the sexual arousal and orgasm physiological responses. This research consisted of a descriptive, nonprobabilistic and comparative study, designed to outline the target population characteristics to compare…

  17. GENERAL STRAIN THEORY, PERSISTENCE, AND DESISTANCE AMONG YOUNG ADULT MALES

    PubMed Central

    Eitle, David

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Despite the surge in scholarly activity investigating the criminal career, relatively less attention has been devoted to the issue of criminal desistance versus persistence (until recently). The present study contributed to our understanding of this process by exploring the suitability of General Strain Theory (GST) for predicting changes in criminal activity across time. Methods Data from a longitudinal study of males in South Florida are examined using robust regression analyses. Results The core GST relationship, that changes in strain should predict changes in criminal activity, was supported, even after controlling for important adult social roles such as marriage, labor force participation, and education. While no support for the proposition that changes in self-esteem and social support moderate the strain-criminal desistance association was evinced, evidence was found that angry disposition, a measure of negative emotionality, moderated the association between change in chronic stressors and change in criminal activity. Conclusions While exploratory in nature, these findings demonstrate the utility of employing GST principles in studies of criminal desistance. PMID:21499526

  18. Position of the mandibular foramen in adult male Tanzania mandibles.

    PubMed

    Russa, Afadhali D; Fabian, Flora M

    2014-01-01

    Failure of the inferior alveolar nerve block anesthesia is common in various dental operations. Anatomical variations of the location of the inferior alveolar nerve as it enters the mandibular foramen have been implicated as a main cause of these anesthesia failures. The aim of this work was to determine the location of the mandibular foramen in relation to the occlusal plane at the level of mandibular first molar and second premolar--often used as landmarks during the blocking procedure--and to different landmarks on the ramus of the mandible. The study was performed using mandibles from adult black male Tanzanians aged 30-45 years. Measurements were accomplished using two-digit electronic Vernier calipers. The distances were determined from the center of the mandibular foramen to the different reference points. The mandibular foramen was above the occlusal plane at the M1 and PM2 reference points in all the mandibles studied. It was also located about 20 mm and 12 mm from the anterior and posterior borders of the ramus respectively. There was no significant difference between the left and right side in any of the measurements. These results indicate that during anesthetic or other clinical procedures, the clinician can precisely determine the position of neurovascular bundle of the inferior alveolar nerve above the occlusal plane. PMID:26749676

  19. Loud calls of adult male red howling monkeys (Alouatta seniculus).

    PubMed

    Schön Ybarra, M A

    1986-01-01

    Loud calls of adult male red howlers (Alouatta seniculus) inhabiting a deciduous and semideciduous open woodland site in Venezuela were recorded opportunistically and categorized by ear and sonographically as barks and roars. Five to six different bark syllables were identified as occurring singly or in sequences of doublets and triplets. In barks, spectral energy was concentrated in bands at 350-400 Hz, 900-1,100 Hz, 1,800-2,200 Hz and 3,000-3,500 Hz, but not all higher bands were present in each syllable. Roars appeared sonographically like prolonged barks composed of a pulsated preface, a long legato climax and a brief, fractionated and at times pulsated coda; each part varied internally to the ear and in acoustic structure. All loud calls were of the noisy type (nonharmonic energy over a broad frequency range). Acoustic characteristics of the calls are interpreted in terms of the subserving vocal tract anatomy. I compare loud calls of red howlers with those of mantled (A. palliata) and black (A. caraya) howlers. PMID:3609972

  20. Evaluation of the Behavior of Spinal Deformities in Tuberculosis of the Spine in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Magu, Narender Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Study Design A prospective clinical study. Purpose The objective of the present study was to evaluate the behavior of spinal deformities in tuberculosis (TB) of the spine during the initial 2 years and to suggest remedial measures. Overview of Literature Spinal TB is the most common cause of a kyphotic deformity in many parts of the world. Treatment of the established deformity is difficult, hazardous and has a high complication rate. Methods We followed 50 adult patients treated for spinal TB for a minimum of 2 years. Average values of vertebral body height loss (VBL), deformity angle, kyphosis angle, and lumbosacral joint angle at the final follow-up were compared with the values at initial presentation. The relationship between the amount of initial VBL and final kyphotic angle was analyzed. Results Average values of VBL, deformity angle, kyphosis angle, and lumbosacral joint angle at initial presentation were 0.26, 12.51°, 2.26°, and 12.3°, respectively; and the corresponding values at the final follow-up were 0.7, 17.8°, 5.64°, and 10.8°, respectively. The increase was extremely significant for the deformity angle (initial vs. 6th month, p=0.000; 6th month vs. 24th month, p=0.000) and kyphotic angle (initial vs. 6th month, p=0.003; 6th month vs. 24th month, p=0.000) in the thoracic and thoracolumbar regions during the first 2 years of the disease process. The increase in the deformity angle in the lumbar region was significant only in the initial 6 months (p=0.01). We could not find any correlation between the initial VBL and the final kyphotic angle (r=0.302, p>0.05). Conclusions Different regions of the vertebral column respond differently to bony destruction caused by spinal TB. Deformity progression is more significant during the initial 6 months of the disease process, and this may be the best time to take remedial measures to prevent development/progression of the deformity. Kyphotic deformity keeps increasing even after 6 months of antituberculous

  1. The Child's Expectations of Differences in Adult Male and Female Interactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagot, Beverly I.

    1984-01-01

    Two-year-olds and four-year-olds were placed with male and female adults in a play situation where the children were forced to control the choice of toys and mode of interaction. The four-year-olds elicited different types of play behaviors from male and female adults; the younger children did not. (Author/KH)

  2. Personality Profiles of Adult Males Sexually Molested by Their Maternal Caregivers: Preliminary Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roys, Deloris T.; Timms, Robert J.

    1995-01-01

    Examined two groups of adult males who had been sexually abused as children by female maternal caregivers: those in treatment at a clinic specializing in sexual abuse survivor work, and those in treatment at a clinic specializing in sexual offender work. These groups show greater psychological disruption than adult males who as children had not…

  3. The Association between Trunk Body Composition and Spinal Bone Mineral Density in Korean Males versus Females: a Farmers' Cohort for Agricultural Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders (FARM) Study.

    PubMed

    Kang, Eun Kyoung; Park, Hee Won; Baek, Sora; Lim, Jae Young

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was proposed to identify the association of trunk body composition with spinal bone mineral density (BMD) in Korean male and female farmers. A total of 523 Korean farmers (259 males, 44 premenopausal females, and 220 postmenopausal females) were recruited. Computed tomography scans were acquired at the mid-L4 vertebral level, and total trunk muscle mass (TMM, cm³), back muscle mass (BMM), and abdominal wall muscle mass (AMM), total trunk fat mass (TFM), visceral fat mass (VFM), and subcutaneous fat mass (SFM) were assessed. Spinal BMD (g/cm²) was estimated from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at the L4 level. In terms of muscle mass, spinal BMD was significantly correlated with all the components of the trunk muscle mass (r = 0.171-0.360; P < 0.05, P < 0.001) in female farmers, while only with AMM (r = 0.181; P < 0.01) in male farmers. In terms of fat mass, spinal BMD was significantly correlated with all components of the trunk fat mass (r = 0.142-0.424; P < 0.05, P < 0.001) in male and premenopausal female farmers, while only with VFM (r = 0.132; P < 0.05) in postmenopausal females. Adjusted multivariate regression analysis showed that AMM in male and post-menopausal female farmers was closely associated with spinal BMD. There may be positive associations between trunk muscle and fat mass and spinal BMD with sexual dimorphism, and abdominal wall muscle mass was an explanatory variable closely related to spinal BMD in Korean farmers. Registered at the Clinical Research Information Service (CRIS, http://cris.nih.go.kr), number KCT0000829. PMID:27550488

  4. High-resolution gene expression atlases for adult and developing mouse brain and spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Henry, Alex M; Hohmann, John G

    2012-10-01

    Knowledge of the structure, genetics, circuits, and physiological properties of the mammalian brain in both normal and pathological states is ever increasing as research labs worldwide probe the various aspects of brain function. Until recently, however, comprehensive cataloging of gene expression across the central nervous system has been lacking. The Allen Institute for Brain Science, as part of its mission to propel neuroscience research, has completed several large gene-mapping projects in mouse, nonhuman primate, and human brain, producing informative online public resources and tools. Here we present the Allen Mouse Brain Atlas, covering ~20,000 genes throughout the adult mouse brain; the Allen Developing Mouse Brain Atlas, detailing expression of approximately 2,000 important developmental genes across seven embryonic and postnatal stages of brain growth; and the Allen Spinal Cord Atlas, revealing expression for ~20,000 genes in the adult and neonatal mouse spinal cords. Integrated data-mining tools, including reference atlases, informatics analyses, and 3-D viewers, are described. For these massive-scale projects, high-throughput industrial techniques were developed to standardize and reliably repeat experimental goals. To verify consistency and accuracy, a detailed analysis of the 1,000 most viewed genes for the adult mouse brain (according to website page views) was performed by comparing our data with peer-reviewed literature and other databases. We show that our data are highly consistent with independent sources and provide a comprehensive compendium of information and tools used by thousands of researchers each month. All data and tools are freely available via the Allen Brain Atlas portal (www.brain-map.org). PMID:22832508

  5. Cervical Pre-Phrenic Interneurons in the Normal and Lesioned Spinal Cord of the Adult Rat

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Michael A.; White, Todd E.; Coutts, Marcella A.; Jones, Alex L.; Sandhu, Milapjit S.; Bloom, David C.; Bolser, Donald C.; Yates, Bill J.; Fuller, David D.; Reier, Paul J.

    2008-01-01

    While monosynaptic bulbospinal projections to phrenic motoneurons have been extensively described, little is known about the organization of phrenic premotor neurons in the adult rat spinal cord. As interneurons may play an important role in normal breathing and recovery following spinal cord injury, the present study has used anterograde and transneuronal retrograde tracing to study their distribution and synaptic relations. Exclusive unilateral, first-order labeling of the phrenic motoneuron pool with pseudorabies virus demonstrated a substantial number of second-order, bilaterally-distributed cervical interneurons predominantly in the dorsal horn and around the central canal. Combined transneuronal and anterograde tracing revealed ventral respiratory column projections to pre-phrenic interneurons suggesting some propriospinal relays exist between medullary neurons and the phrenic nucleus. Dual-labeling studies with pseudorabies virus recombinants also showed pre-phrenic interneurons integrated with either contralateral phrenic or intercostal motoneuron pools. The stability of interneuronal pseudorabies virus labeling patterns following lateral cervical hemisection was then addressed. Except for fewer infected contralateral interneurons at the level of the central canal, the number and distribution of phrenic-associated interneurons was not significantly altered two weeks post-hemisection (i.e. when the earliest post-injury recovery of phrenic activity has been reported). These results demonstrate a heterogeneous population of phrenic-related interneurons. Their connectivity and relative stability after cervical hemisection raises speculation for potentially diverse roles in modulating phrenic function normally and post-injury. PMID:18924146

  6. Effects of psychostimulants on social interaction in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Šlamberová, Romana; Mikulecká, Anna; Macúchová, Eva; Hrebíčková, Ivana; Ševčíková, Mária; Nohejlová, Kateryna; Pometlová, Marie

    2015-12-01

    Psychostimulants are known to have a huge impact on different forms of social behaviour. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of three different psychostimulants [amphetamine, cocaine and 3,4 methylenedimethoxyamphetamine (MDMA)] on social interaction (SI) in adult male rats. The SI test was performed in a familiar arena and under low-stress environmental conditions. Experimental animals received amphetamine (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 mg/kg), cocaine (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.5, 5.0, 10.0 mg/kg) or MDMA (2.5, 5.0, 10 mg/kg) and control animals received saline (1 ml/kg) 45 min before the SI test. Time spent in SI (individual patterns of social behaviour) and nonsocial activities (locomotion and rearing) were video recorded and then analysed offline, with the following results: (a) all doses of amphetamine decreased SI. Specifically, all doses of amphetamine decreased mutual sniffing, and the higher doses also decreased allo-grooming and following behaviours. (b) The higher doses of cocaine decreased SI, especially mutual sniffing, allo-grooming and climbing over. Cocaine at the dose of 5.0 mg/kg increased genital investigation compared with lower doses. (c) All doses of MDMA decreased mutual sniffing and climbing over; the two higher doses decreased allo-grooming behaviour, and only the highest dose decreased following. The two higher doses of amphetamine and all the doses of MDMA increased locomotion and rearing; cocaine did not affect locomotion, but increased rearing at higher doses. In conclusion, the results confirm the well-known finding that psychostimulants suppress SI, but also show novel differences in the effects of psychostimulants on specific patterns of SI. PMID:26061354

  7. Volume and fat infiltration of spino-pelvic musculature in adults with spinal deformity

    PubMed Central

    Moal, Bertrand; Bronsard, Nicolas; Raya, José G; Vital, Jean Marc; Schwab, Frank; Skalli, Wafa; Lafage, Virginie

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate fat infiltration and volume of spino-pelvic muscles in adults spinal deformity (ASD) with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and 3D reconstructions. METHODS: Nineteen female ASD patients (mean age 60 ± 13) were included prospectively and consecutively and had T1-weighted Turbo Spin Echo sequence MRIs with Dixon method from the proximal tibia up to T12 vertebra. The Dixon method permitted to evaluate the proportion of fat inside each muscle (fat-water ratio). In order to investigate the accuracy of the Dixon method for estimating fat vs water, the same MRI acquisition was performed on phantoms of four vials composed of different proportion of fat vs water. With Muscl’X software, 3D reconstructions of 17 muscles or group of muscles were obtained identifying the muscle’s contour on a limited number of axial images [Deformation of parametric specific objects (DPSO) Method]. Musclar volume (Vmuscle), infiltrated fat volume (Vfat) and percentage of fat infiltration [Pfat, calculated as follow: Pfat = 100 × (Vfat/Vmuscle)] were characterized by extensor or flexor function respectively for the spine, hip and knee and theirs relationship with demographic data were investigated. RESULTS: Phantom acquisition demonstrated a non linear relation between Dixon fat-water ratio and the real fat-water ratio. In order to correct the Dixon fat-water ratio, the non linear relation was approximated with a polynomial function of degree three using the phantom acquisition. On average, Pfat was 13.3% ± 5.3%. Muscles from the spinal extensor group had a Pfat significantly greater than the other muscles groups, and the largest variability (Pfat = 31.9% ± 13.8%, P < 0.001). Muscles from the hip extensor group ranked 2nd in terms of Pfat (14% ± 8%), and were significantly greater than those of the knee extensor (P = 0.030). Muscles from the knee extensor group demonstrated the least Pfat (12% ± 8%). They were also the only group with a significant correlation

  8. Functional and electrophysiological changes after graded traumatic spinal cord injury in adult rat.

    PubMed

    Cao, Qilin; Zhang, Yi Ping; Iannotti, Christopher; DeVries, William H; Xu, Xiao-Ming; Shields, Christopher B; Whittemore, Scott R

    2005-02-01

    A graded contusion spinal cord injury (SCI) was created in the adult rat spinal cord using the Infinite Horizons (IH) impactor to study the correlation between injury severity and anatomical, behavioral, and electrophysiological outcomes. Adult Fisher rats were equally divided into five groups and received contusion injuries at the ninth thoracic level (T9) with 100, 125, 150, 175, or 200 kdyn impact forces, respectively. Transcranial magnetic motor-evoked potentials (tcMMEPs) and BBB open-field locomotor analyses were performed weekly for 4 weeks postinjury. Our results demonstrated that hindlimb locomotor function decreased in accordance with an increase in injury severity. The locomotor deficits were proportional to the amount of damage to the ventral and lateral white matter (WM). Locomotor function was strongly correlated to the amount of spared WM, which contains the reticulospinal and propriospinal tracts. Normal tcMMEP latencies were recorded in control, all of 100-kdyn-injured and half of 125-kdyn-injured animals. Delayed latency responses were recorded in some of 125-kdyn-injured and all of 150-kdyn-injured animals. No tcMMEP responses were recorded in 175- and 200-kdyn-injured animals. Comparison of tcMMEP responses with areas of WM loss or demyelination identified the medial ventrolateral funiculus (VLF) as the location of the tcMMEP pathway. Immunohistochemical and electromicroscopic (EM) analyses showed the presence of demyelinated axons in WM tracts surrounding the lesion cavities at 28 days postinjury. These data support the notion that widespread WM damage in the ventral and lateral funiculi may be a major cause for locomotor deficits and lack of tcMMEP responses after SCI. PMID:15629760

  9. The ependymal region of the adult human spinal cord differs from other species and shows ependymoma-like features.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Ovejero, Daniel; Arevalo-Martin, Angel; Paniagua-Torija, Beatriz; Florensa-Vila, José; Ferrer, Isidro; Grassner, Lukas; Molina-Holgado, Eduardo

    2015-06-01

    Several laboratories have described the existence of undifferentiated precursor cells that may act like stem cells in the ependyma of the rodent spinal cord. However, there are reports showing that this region is occluded and disassembled in humans after the second decade of life, although this has been largely ignored or interpreted as a post-mortem artefact. To gain insight into the patency, actual structure, and molecular properties of the adult human spinal cord ependymal region, we followed three approaches: (i) with MRI, we estimated the central canal patency in 59 control subjects, 99 patients with traumatic spinal cord injury, and 26 patients with non-traumatic spinal cord injuries. We observed that the central canal is absent from the vast majority of individuals beyond the age of 18 years, gender-independently, throughout the entire length of the spinal cord, both in healthy controls and after injury; (ii) with histology and immunohistochemistry, we describe morphological properties of the non-lesioned ependymal region, which showed the presence of perivascular pseudorosettes, a common feature of ependymoma; and (iii) with laser capture microdissection, followed by TaqMan® low density arrays, we studied the gene expression profile of the ependymal region and found that it is mainly enriched in genes compatible with a low grade or quiescent ependymoma (53 genes); this region is enriched only in 14 genes related to neurogenic niches. In summary, we demonstrate here that the central canal is mainly absent in the adult human spinal cord and is replaced by a structure morphologically and molecularly different from that described for rodents and other primates. The presented data suggest that the ependymal region is more likely to be reminiscent of a low-grade ependymoma. Therefore, a direct translation to adult human patients of an eventual therapeutic potential of this region based on animal models should be approached with caution. PMID:25882650

  10. The ependymal region of the adult human spinal cord differs from other species and shows ependymoma-like features

    PubMed Central

    Arevalo-Martin, Angel; Paniagua-Torija, Beatriz; Florensa-Vila, José; Ferrer, Isidro; Grassner, Lukas; Molina-Holgado, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Several laboratories have described the existence of undifferentiated precursor cells that may act like stem cells in the ependyma of the rodent spinal cord. However, there are reports showing that this region is occluded and disassembled in humans after the second decade of life, although this has been largely ignored or interpreted as a post-mortem artefact. To gain insight into the patency, actual structure, and molecular properties of the adult human spinal cord ependymal region, we followed three approaches: (i) with MRI, we estimated the central canal patency in 59 control subjects, 99 patients with traumatic spinal cord injury, and 26 patients with non-traumatic spinal cord injuries. We observed that the central canal is absent from the vast majority of individuals beyond the age of 18 years, gender-independently, throughout the entire length of the spinal cord, both in healthy controls and after injury; (ii) with histology and immunohistochemistry, we describe morphological properties of the non-lesioned ependymal region, which showed the presence of perivascular pseudorosettes, a common feature of ependymoma; and (iii) with laser capture microdissection, followed by TaqMan® low density arrays, we studied the gene expression profile of the ependymal region and found that it is mainly enriched in genes compatible with a low grade or quiescent ependymoma (53 genes); this region is enriched only in 14 genes related to neurogenic niches. In summary, we demonstrate here that the central canal is mainly absent in the adult human spinal cord and is replaced by a structure morphologically and molecularly different from that described for rodents and other primates. The presented data suggest that the ependymal region is more likely to be reminiscent of a low-grade ependymoma. Therefore, a direct translation to adult human patients of an eventual therapeutic potential of this region based on animal models should be approached with caution. PMID:25882650

  11. Arterial Compliance and Autonomic Functions in Adult Male Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Yogesh; Gupta, Rani

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Smoking is known to augment sympathetic activity and may lead to increased arterial stiffness. Several studies have reported association of increased sympathetic activity and arterial stiffness to cardiovascular risks among smokers. Pulse Wave Velocity (PWV) of peripheral arteries, instead of aorta can be used as a non-invasive indicator of arterial stiffness. Aim To measure non-invasively, the autonomic functions and peripheral arterial stiffness in smokers, and to find out whether the aforementioned factors are modified by the level of physical activity in these smokers. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional analytical study was conducted in the Department of Physiology, HIMS, Dehradun, over a period of 12 months (2013-2014) on 100 adult males (20-40 years); 50 smokers and 50 non-smokers. The parameters analysed include relevant anthropometric and cardiovascular parameters, Pulse Wave Velocity (PWV), sustained Hand Grip Test (HGT) and Heart Rate Variability (HRV) domains. Data interpretation and analysis was carried out using SPSS 17.0. Comparison of the above mentioned parameters amongst groups was done with unpaired t-test. The relationship of pack-years & physical activity with vascular functions was assessed by Pearson’s correlation. Interaction of various grades of smoking and physical activity with Cardiovascular System (CVS) parameters was assessed by one-way ANOVA. Results Smokers had higher values of PWV (5.7±0.5m/s) as compared to non-smokers (4.8±0.4m/s) (p<0.001). ΔDBP during HGT was lower (7±3.18mmHg) among smokers as compared to non-smokers (19.4±3.5mmHg) (p<0.001). Smoking (pack-years) was positively related to PWV (r= .03) but showed a weak negative relationship with change in Diastolic Blood Pressure (ΔDBP) (r= -0.084, p=0.56) showing that, more the frequency of smoking, the more was arterial stiffening and the lesser was the sympathetic response to the HGT. The smokers had significantly higher sympathetic activity; Low

  12. Spinal Kinematics of Adolescent Male Rowers with Back Pain in Comparison with Matched Controls During Ergometer Rowing.

    PubMed

    Ng, Leo; Campbell, Amity; Burnett, Angus; Smith, Anne; O'Sullivan, Peter

    2015-12-01

    There is a high prevalence of low back pain (LBP) in adolescent male rowers. In this study, regional lumbar spinal kinematics and self-reported LBP intensity were compared between 10 adolescent rowers with moderate levels of LBP relating to rowing with 10 reporting no history of LBP during a 15-minute ergometer trial using an electromagnetic tracking system. Adolescent male rowers with LBP reported increasing pain intensity during ergometer rowing. No significant differences were detected in mean upper or lower lumbar angles between rowers with and without LBP. However, compared with rowers without pain, rowers with pain: (1) had relatively less excursion of the upper lumbar spine into extension over the drive phase, (2) had relatively less excursion of the lower lumbar spine into extension over time, (3) had greater variability in upper and lower lumbar angles over the 15-minute ergometer trial, (4) positioned their upper lumbar spine closer to end range flexion for a greater proportion of the drive phase, and (5) showed increased time in sustained flexion loading in the upper lumbar spine. Differences in regional lumbar kinematics exist between adolescent male rowers with and without LBP, which may have injury implication and intervention strategies. PMID:26252195

  13. X-Linked adrenoleukodystrophy is a frequent cause of idiopathic Addison`s disease in young adult male patients

    SciTech Connect

    Laureti, S.; Casucci, G.; Santeusanio, F.

    1996-02-01

    X-Linked adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) is a genetic disease associated with demyelination of the central nervous system, adrenal insufficiency, and accumulation of very long chain fatty acids in tissue and body fluids. ALD is due to mutation of a gene located in Xq28 that encodes a peroxisomal transporter protein of unknown function. The most common phenotype of ALD is the cerebral form (45%) that develops in boys between 5-12 yr. Adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN) involves the spinal cord and peripheral nerves in young adults (35%). Adrenal insufficiency (Addison`s disease) is frequently associated with AMN or cerebral ALD and may remain the only clinical expression of ALD (8% of cases). The prevalence of ALD among adults with Addison`s disease remains unknown. To evaluate this prevalence, we performed biochemical analysis of very long chain fatty acids in 14 male patients (age ranging from 12-45 yr at diagnosis) previously diagnosed as having primary idiopathic adrenocortical insufficiency. In 5 of 14 patients (35%), elevated plasma concentrations of very long chain fatty acids were detected. None of these patients had adrenocortical antibodies. By electrophysiological tests and magnetic resonance imaging it was determined that two patients had cerebral ALD, one had adrenomyeloneuropathy with cerebral involvement, and two had preclinical AMN. Our data support the hypothesis that ALD is a frequent cause of idiopathic Addison`s disease in children and adults. 30 refs., 5 tabs.

  14. Latex allergy in adults with spinal cord injury: a pilot investigation.

    PubMed

    Monasterio, E A; Barber, D B; Rogers, S J; Able, A C; Fredrickson, M D

    2000-01-01

    Latex allergy is a well-known complication of repeated exposure to natural rubber latex (NRL) products. The medical literature is replete with studies investigating the prevalence of NRL allergy in myelodysplastic children. However, the prevalence of NRL allergy in adults with spinal cord injury (SCI) has received little attention. Patients with a history of NRL exposure secondary to long-term indwelling urinary catheter usage were recruited as subjects. The presence of NRL allergy was established using the radioallergosorbent assay technique (RAST). Serum from 15 subjects who had been injured an average of 23.8 +/- 11.9 years and who had used an indwelling urinary catheter an average of 17.1 +/- 11.5 years was obtained. RAST for NRL was positive in 7 of the 15 (47%). Of note, serum obtained in a control group of 4 subjects who had been injured an average of 54.4 +/- 3.1 years and had no significant history of long-term indwelling urinary catheter usage were all RAST negative. This study suggests that adults with SCI and significant NRL exposure via long-term indwelling urinary catheter usage may be at risk for the development of NRL allergy. PMID:10752867

  15. Factors that limit access to dental care for adults with spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Yuen, Hon K.; Wolf, Bethany J.; Bandyopadhyay, Dipankar; Magruder, Kathryn M.; Selassie, Anbesaw W.; Salinas, Carlos F.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated dental care service utilization among adults with spinal cord injury (SCI) and identified barriers and other factors affecting utilization among this population. Methods Respondents (n = 192) with SCI participated in an oral health survey assessing dental care service utilization and were compared with respondents from the 2004 Behavioral Risk Factors Surveillance System (BRFSS). Results There was no significant difference in the proportion of SCI respondents who visited the dentist for any reason in the past year compared to the general population (65.5% vs. 68.8%, P = 0.350). However, SCI respondents were less likely to go to the dentist for a dental cleaning in the past year compared to the general population (54.6% vs. 69.4%, P < 0.001). The three most commonly reported barriers to accessing dental care were cost (40.1 %), physical barriers (22.9%), and dental fear (15.1%). Multivariable modeling showed physical barriers and fear of dental visits were the two significant factors deterring respondents from dental visits in the past year. Conclusions Physical barriers preventing access to dental facilities and dental fear are prevalent and significantly impede the delivery of dental health care to adults with SCI. Dentists should undertake necessary physical remodeling in their facilities to accommodate wheelchair users and implement appropriate strategies for the management of dental fear among patients with SCI. PMID:20618781

  16. Comprehensive Locomotor Outcomes Correlate to Hyperacute Diffusion Tensor Measures After Spinal Cord Injury in the Adult Rat

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joong; Song, Sheng-Kwei; Burke, Darlene A.; Magnuson, David S. K.

    2012-01-01

    In adult rats, locomotor deficits following a contusive thoracic spinal cord injury (SCI) are caused primarily by white matter loss/dysfunction at the epicenter. This loss/dysfunction decreases descending input from the brain and cervical spinal cord, and decreases ascending signals in long propriospinal, spinocerebellar and somatosensory pathways, among many others. Predicting the long-term functional consequences of a contusive injury acutely, without knowledge of the injury severity is difficult due to the temporary flaccid paralysis and loss of reflexes that accompanies spinal shock. It is now well known that recovery of high quality hindlimb stepping requires only 12-15% spared white matter at the epicenter, but that forelimb-hindlimb coordination and precision stepping (grid or horizontal ladder) requires substantially more trans-contusion communication. In order to translate our understanding of the neural substrates for functional recovery in the rat to the clinical arena, common outcome measures and imaging modalities are required. In the current study we furthered the exploration of one of these approaches, diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DTI), a technique now used commonly to image the brain in clinical research but rarely used diagnostically or prognostically for spinal cord injury. In the adult rat model of SCI, we found that hyper-acute (<3 hours post-injury) DTI of the lateral and ventral white matter at the injury epicenter was predictive of both electrophysiological and behavioral (locomotor) recovery at 4 weeks post-injury, despite the presence of flaccid paralysis/spinal shock. Regions of white matter with a minimum axial diffusivity of 1.5μm2/ms at 3 hours were able to conduct action potentials at 4 weeks, and axial diffusivity within the lateral funiculus was highly predictive of locomotor function at 4 weeks. These observations suggest that acute DTI should be useful to provide functional predictions for spared white matter

  17. Potential of adult mammalian lumbosacral spinal cord to execute and acquire improved locomotion in the absence of supraspinal input

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgerton, V. R.; Roy, R. R.; Hodgson, J. A.; Prober, R. J.; de Guzman, C. P.; de Leon, R.

    1992-01-01

    The neural circuitry of the lumbar spinal cord can generate alternating extension and flexion of the hindlimbs. The hindlimbs of adult cats with complete transection of the spinal cord at a low thoracic level (T12-T13) can perform full weight-supporting locomotion on a treadmill belt moving at a range of speeds. Some limitations in the locomotor capacity can be associated with a deficit in the recruitment level of the fast extensors during the stance phase and the flexors during the swing phase of a step cycle. The level of locomotor performance, however, can be enhanced by daily training on a treadmill while emphasizing full weight-support stepping and by providing appropriately timed sensory stimulation, loading, and/or pharmacologic stimulation of the hindlimb neuromuscular apparatus. Furthermore, there appears to be an interactive effect of these interventions. For example, the maximum treadmill speed that a spinal adult cat can attain and maintain is significantly improved with daily full weight-supporting treadmill training, but progressive recruitment of fast extensors becomes apparent only when the hindlimbs are loaded by gently pulling down on the tail during the stepping. Stimulation of the sural nerve at the initiation of the flexion phase of the step cycle can likewise markedly improve the locomotor capability. Administration of clonidine, in particular in combination with an elevated load, resulted in the most distinct and consistent alternating bursts of electromyographic activity during spinal stepping. These data indicate that the spinal cord has the ability to execute alternating activation of the extensor and flexor musculature of the hindlimbs (stepping) and that this ability can be improved by several interventions such as training, sensory stimulation, and use of some pharmacologic agents. Thus, it appears that the spinal cord, without supraspinal input, is highly plastic and has the potential to "learn," that is, to acquire and improve its

  18. Host induction by transplanted neural stem cells in the spinal cord: further evidence for an adult spinal cord neurogenic niche

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Leyan; Mahairaki, Vasiliki; Koliatsos, Vassilis E

    2013-01-01

    Aim To explore the hypothesis that grafts of exogenous stem cells in the spinal cord of athymic rats or rats with transgenic motor neuron disease can induce endogenous stem cells and initiate intrinsic repair mechanisms that can be exploited in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis therapeutics. Materials & methods Human neural stem cells (NSCs) were transplanted into the lower lumbar spinal cord of healthy rats or rats with transgenic motor neuron disease to explore whether signals related to stem cells can initiate intrinsic repair mechanisms in normal and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis subjects. Patterns of migration and differentiation of NSCs in the gray and white matter, with emphasis on the central canal region and ependymal cell-driven neurogenesis, were analyzed. Results Findings suggest that there is extensive cross-signaling between transplanted NSCs and a putative neurogenic niche in the ependyma of the lower lumbar cord. The formation of a neuronal cord from NSC-derived cells next to ependyma suggests that this structure may serve a mediating or auxiliary role for ependymal induction. Conclusion These findings raise the possibility that NSCs may stimulate endogenous neurogenesis and initiate intrinsic repair mechanisms in the lower spinal cord. PMID:23164079

  19. The Reentry Adult College Student: An Exploration of the Black Male Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosser-Mims, Dionne; Palmer, Glenn A.; Harroff, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    This chapter shares findings from a qualitative study on reentry adult Black males' postsecondary education experiences and identifies strategies to help this population matriculate through college and graduate.

  20. GONADAL STEROIDS REGULATED THE EXPRESSION OF GLIAL FIBRILLARY ACIDIC PROTEIN IN THE ADULT MALE RAT HIPPOCAMPUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study demonstrates that gonadal steroids (estradiol, testosterone, dihydrotestosterone) can inhibit the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein and it MRNA in the adult male rat brain. esticular hormones may influence the activity of astrocytes in the intact and lesion...

  1. Mechanism of Forelimb Motor Function Restoration after Cervical Spinal Cord Hemisection in Rats: A Comparison of Juveniles and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hasegawa, Atsushi; Takahashi, Masahito; Satomi, Kazuhiko; Ohne, Hideaki; Takeuchi, Takumi; Sato, Shunsuke; Ichimura, Shoichi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate forelimb motor function after cervical spinal cord injury in juvenile and adult rats. Both rats received a left segmental hemisection of the spinal cord after C3-C4 laminectomy. Behavioral evaluation of motor function was monitored and assessed using the New Rating Scale (NRS) and Forelimb Locomotor Scale (FLS) and by measuring the range of motion (ROM) of both the elbow and wrist. Complete left forelimb motor paralysis was observed in both rats. The NRS showed motor function recovery restored to 50.2 ± 24.7% in juvenile rats and 34.0 ± 19.8% in adult rats. FLS was 60.4 ± 26.8% in juvenile rats and 46.5 ± 26.9% in adult rats. ROM of the elbow and wrist were 88.9 ± 20.6% and 44.4 ± 24.1% in juvenile rats and 70.0 ± 29.2% and 40.0 ± 21.1% in adult rats. Thus, the NRS and ROM of the elbow showed a significant difference between age groups. These results indicate that left hemisection of the cervical spinal cord was not related to right-sided motor functions. Moreover, while motor paralysis of the left forelimb gradually recovered in both groups, the improvement was greater in juvenile rats. PMID:27065569

  2. Mesenchymal Stem Cell Graft Improves Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury in Adult Rats through Neurotrophic and Pro-Angiogenic Actions

    PubMed Central

    Botman, Olivier; Sid, Selim; Schoenen, Jean; Franzen, Rachelle

    2012-01-01

    Numerous strategies have been managed to improve functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI) but an optimal strategy doesn't exist yet. Actually, it is the complexity of the injured spinal cord pathophysiology that begets the multifactorial approaches assessed to favour tissue protection, axonal regrowth and functional recovery. In this context, it appears that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) could take an interesting part. The aim of this study is to graft MSCs after a spinal cord compression injury in adult rat to assess their effect on functional recovery and to highlight their mechanisms of action. We found that in intravenously grafted animals, MSCs induce, as early as 1 week after the graft, an improvement of their open field and grid navigation scores compared to control animals. At the histological analysis of their dissected spinal cord, no MSCs were found within the host despite their BrdU labelling performed before the graft, whatever the delay observed: 7, 14 or 21 days. However, a cytokine array performed on spinal cord extracts 3 days after MSC graft reveals a significant increase of NGF expression in the injured tissue. Also, a significant tissue sparing effect of MSC graft was observed. Finally, we also show that MSCs promote vascularisation, as the density of blood vessels within the lesioned area was higher in grafted rats. In conclusion, we bring here some new evidences that MSCs most likely act throughout their secretions and not via their own integration/differentiation within the host tissue. PMID:22745769

  3. Transitional Urology for Male Adolescents: What Adult Urologists Should Know.

    PubMed

    Suson, Kristina D

    2016-10-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in transitional urology, or how to best prepare patients with major congenital urologic diseases, such as bladder exstrophy and neuropathic bladder, to manage their own health care with adult urologists. However, common pediatric urologic conditions may be encountered by the adult urologist with more regularity. This review focuses on three relatively common conditions which may be identified in childhood, the consequences from which a patient may seek help from an adult urologist: cryptorchidism, varicocele, and Klinefelter syndrome. PMID:27517862

  4. A prospective evaluation of a pressure ulcer prevention and management E-Learning Program for adults with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Brace, Jacalyn A; Schubart, Jane R

    2010-08-01

    Pressure ulcers are a common complication of spinal cord injury (SCI). Pressure ulcer education programs for spinal cord injured individuals have been found to have a positive effect on care protocol adherence. A prospective study was conducted among hospitalized spinal cord-injured men and women to determine if viewing the Pressure Ulcer Prevention and Management Education for Adults with Spinal Cord Injury: E-Learning Program affects their knowledge scores. A 20-question multiple-choice pre-/post learning test was developed and validated by 12 rehabilitation nurses. Twenty (20) patients (13 men, seven women; mean age 49 years, [SD: 18.26] with injuries to the cervical [seven], thoracic [six], and lumbar [six] regions) volunteered. Most (42%) had completed high school and time since SCI ranged from 2 weeks to 27 years. Eighteen (18) participants completed both the pre- and post test. Of those, 16 showed improvement in pressure ulcer knowledge scores. The median scores improved from 65 (range 25 to 100) pre-program to 92.5 (range 75 to 100) post-program. Descriptive statistics, Student's t-test, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to analyze the data. The results suggest that a single viewing of this e-learning program could improve pressure ulcer knowledge of hospitalized adults with SCI. Research to ascertain the effects of this and other educational programs on pressure ulcer rates is needed. PMID:20729562

  5. Chinmo is sufficient to induce male fate in somatic cells of the adult Drosophila ovary.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qing; de Cuevas, Margaret; Matunis, Erika L

    2016-03-01

    Sexual identity is continuously maintained in specific differentiated cell types long after sex determination occurs during development. In the adult Drosophila testis, the putative transcription factor Chronologically inappropriate morphogenesis (Chinmo) acts with the canonical male sex determinant DoublesexM (Dsx(M)) to maintain the male identity of somatic cyst stem cells and their progeny. Here we find that ectopic expression of chinmo is sufficient to induce a male identity in adult ovarian somatic cells, but it acts through a Dsx(M)-independent mechanism. Conversely, the feminization of the testis somatic stem cell lineage caused by loss of chinmo is enhanced by expression of the canonical female sex determinant Dsx(F), indicating that chinmo acts in parallel with the canonical sex determination pathway to maintain the male identity of testis somatic cells. Consistent with this finding, ectopic expression of female sex determinants in the adult testis disrupts tissue morphology. The miRNA let-7 downregulates chinmo in many contexts, and ectopic expression of let-7 in the adult testis is sufficient to recapitulate the chinmo loss-of-function phenotype, but we find no apparent phenotypes upon removal of let-7 in the adult ovary or testis. Our finding that chinmo is necessary and sufficient to promote a male identity in adult gonadal somatic cells suggests that the sexual identity of somatic cells can be reprogrammed in the adult Drosophila ovary as well as in the testis. PMID:26811385

  6. A Comparison of the Abuse Experiences of Male and Female Adults Molested as Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall-Tackett, Kathleen A.; Simon, Arthur F.

    To determine whether the molestation experiences of boys and girls differ, this study analyzed data from 365 adults (40 male and 325 female) molested as children, and compared findings for males and females on the identity of the perpetrator, age at onset and end of molestation, duration of molestation, type of sexual acts, and whether the…

  7. Rett Syndrome Symptomatology of Institutionalized Adults with Mental Retardation: Comparison of Males and Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burd, Larry; And Others

    1991-01-01

    The study of 297 institutionalized adults with mental retardation found no symptom of Rett syndrome occurred more frequently in males than in females and no single cluster of symptoms appeared to differentiate males from females. Only females were found to meet the necessary criteria for diagnosis of Rett syndrome. (Author/DB)

  8. High Fetal Estrogen Concentrations: Correlation with Increased Adult Sexual Activity and Decreased Aggression in Male Mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vom Saal, Frederick S.; Grant, William M.; McMullen, Carol W.; Laves, Kurt S.

    1983-06-01

    In the house mouse (Mus musculus), fetuses may develop in utero next to siblings of the same or opposite sex. The amniotic fluid of the female fetuses contains higher concentrations of estradiol than that of male fetuses. Male fetuses that developed in utero between female fetuses had higher concentrations of estradiol in their amniotic fluid than males that were located between other male fetusesw during intrauterine development. They were also more sexually active as adults, less aggressive, and had smaller seminal vesicles than males that had developed between other male fetuses in utero. These findings raise the possibility that during fetal life circulating estrogens may interact with circulating androgens both in regulating the development of sex differences between males and females and in producing variation in phenotype among males and among females.

  9. Characterizing phospholipase A2-induced spinal cord injury-a comparison with contusive spinal cord injury in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Nai-Kui; Titsworth, William Lee; Zhang, Yi Ping; Xhafa, Aurela I; Shields, Christopher B; Xu, Xiao-Ming

    2011-12-01

    To assess whether phospholipase A2 (PLA2) plays a role in the pathogenesis of spinal cord injury (SCI), we compared lesions either induced by PLA2 alone or by a contusive SCI. At 24-h post-injury, both methods induced a focal hemorrhagic pathology. The PLA2 injury was mainly confined within the ventrolateral white matter, whereas the contusion injury widely affected both the gray and white matter. A prominent difference between the two models was that PLA2 induced a massive demyelination with axons remaining in the lesion area, whereas the contusion injury induced axonal damage and myelin breakdown. At 4 weeks, no cavitation was found within the PLA2 lesion, and numerous axons were myelinated by host-migrated Schwann cells. Among them, 45% of animals had early transcranial magnetic motor-evoked potential (tcMMEP) responses. In contrast, the contusive SCI induced a typical centralized cavity with reactive astrocytes forming a glial border. Only 15% of rats had early tcMMEP responses after the contusion. BBB scores were similarly reduced in both models. Our study indicates that PLA2 may play a unique role in mediating secondary SCI likely by targeting glial cells, particularly those of oligodendrocytes. This lesion model could also be used for studying demyelination and remyelination in the injured spinal cord associated with PLA2-mediated secondary SCI. PMID:23585818

  10. Characterizing Phospholipase A2-Induced Spinal Cord Injury—A Comparison with Contusive Spinal Cord Injury in Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Nai-Kui; Titsworth, William Lee; Zhang, Yi Ping; Xhafa, Aurela I.; Shields, Christopher B.

    2012-01-01

    To assess whether phospholipase A2 (PLA2) plays a role in the pathogenesis of spinal cord injury (SCI), we compared lesions either induced by PLA2 alone or by a contusive SCI. At 24-h post-injury, both methods induced a focal hemorrhagic pathology. The PLA2 injury was mainly confined within the ventrolateral white matter, whereas the contusion injury widely affected both the gray and white matter. A prominent difference between the two models was that PLA2 induced a massive demyelination with axons remaining in the lesion area, whereas the contusion injury induced axonal damage and myelin breakdown. At 4 weeks, no cavitation was found within the PLA2 lesion, and numerous axons were myelinated by host-migrated Schwann cells. Among them, 45% of animals had early transcranial magnetic motor-evoked potential (tcMMEP) responses. In contrast, the contusive SCI induced a typical centralized cavity with reactive astrocytes forming a glial border. Only 15% of rats had early tcMMEP responses after the contusion. BBB scores were similarly reduced in both models. Our study indicates that PLA2 may play a unique role in mediating secondary SCI likely by targeting glial cells, particularly those of oligodendrocytes. This lesion model could also be used for studying demyelination and remyelination in the injured spinal cord associated with PLA2-mediated secondary SCI. PMID:23585818

  11. Interacting Factors Associated with Adult Male Drowning in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Croft, James L.; Button, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Objectives i) to identify factors that contribute to the global trend of the higher incidence of male drowning relative to females, and; ii) to explore relationships between such factors from mortality data in New Zealand. Methods Drownings from 1983 to 2012 were examined for: Age, Ethnicity, Site, Activity, Buoyancy and Alcohol. Conditional frequency tables presented as mosaic plots were used to assess the interactions of these factors. Results Alcohol was involved in a high proportion of Accidental Immersion drownings (61%) and was highest for males aged 20-24 years. When alcohol was involved there were proportionally more incidences where a life jacket was Available But Not Worn and less incidences where a life jacket was Worn. Many 30-39 year old males drowned during underwater activities (e.g., snorkeling, diving). Older men (aged +55 years old) had a high incidence of drowning while boating. Different ethnicities were over-represented in different age groups (Asian men aged 25-29, and European men aged 65-74) and when involved in different activities. Conclusions Numerous interacting factors are responsible for male drownings. In New Zealand, drowning locations and activities differ by age and ethnicity which require targeted intervention strategies. PMID:26083689

  12. Spinal Cord Lesions in Congenital Toxoplasmosis Demonstrated with Neuroimaging, Including Their Successful Treatment in an Adult

    PubMed Central

    Burrowes, Delilah; Boyer, Kenneth; Swisher, Charles N.; Noble, A. Gwendolyn; Sautter, Mari; Heydemann, Peter; Rabiah, Peter; Lee, Daniel; McLeod, Rima

    2012-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies for persons in the National Collaborative Chicago-Based Congenital Toxoplasmosis Study (NCCCTS) with symptoms and signs referable to the spinal cord were reviewed. Three infants had symptomatic spinal cord lesions, another infant a Chiari malformation, and another infant a symptomatic peri-spinal cord lipoma. One patient had an unusual history of prolonged spinal cord symptoms presenting in middle age. Neuroimaging was used to establish her diagnosis and response to treatment. This 43 year-old woman with congenital toxoplasmosis developed progressive leg spasticity, weakness, numbness, difficulty walking, and decreased visual acuity and color vision without documented re-activation of her chorioretinal disease. At 52 years of age, spinal cord lesions in locations correlating with her symptoms and optic atrophy were diagnosed with 3 Tesla MRI scan. Treatment with pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine decreased her neurologic symptoms, improved her neurologic examination, and resolved her enhancing spinal cord lesions seen on MRI. PMID:23487348

  13. Testosterone influences spatial strategy preferences among adult male rats

    PubMed Central

    Spritzer, Mark D.; Fox, Elliott C.; Larsen, Gregory D.; Batson, Christopher G.; Wagner, Benjamin A.; Maher, Jack

    2013-01-01

    Males outperform females on some spatial tasks, and this may be partially due to the effects of sex steroids on spatial strategy preferences. Previous work with rodents indicates that low estradiol levels bias females toward a striatum-dependent response strategy, whereas high estradiol levels bias them toward a hippocampus-dependent place strategy. We tested whether testosterone influenced the strategy preferences in male rats. All subjects were castrated and assigned to one of three daily injection doses of testosterone (0.125, 0.250, or 0.500 mg/rat) or a control group that received daily injections of the drug vehicle. Three different maze protocols were used to determine rats’ strategy preferences. A low dose of testosterone (0.125 mg) biased males toward a motor-response strategy on a T-maze task. In a water maze task in which the platform itself could be used intermittently as a visual cue, a low testosterone dose (0.125 mg) caused a significant increase in the use of a cued-response strategy relative to control males. Results from this second experiment also indicated that males receiving a high dose of testosterone (0.500 mg) were biased toward a place strategy. A third experiment indicated that testosterone dose did not have a strong influence on the ability of rats to use a nearby visual cue (floating ball) in the water maze. For this experiment, all groups seemed to use a combination of place and cued-response strategies. Overall, the results indicate that the effects of testosterone on spatial strategy preference are dose dependent and task dependent. PMID:23597827

  14. Transplantation of ciliary neurotrophic factor-expressing adult oligodendrocyte precursor cells promotes remyelination and functional recovery after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Cao, Qilin; He, Qian; Wang, Yaping; Cheng, Xiaoxin; Howard, Russell M; Zhang, Yiping; DeVries, William H; Shields, Christopher B; Magnuson, David S K; Xu, Xiao-Ming; Kim, Dong H; Whittemore, Scott R

    2010-02-24

    Demyelination contributes to the dysfunction after traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). We explored whether the combination of neurotrophic factors and transplantation of adult rat spinal cord oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) could enhance remyelination and functional recovery after SCI. Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) was the most effective neurotrophic factor to promote oligodendrocyte (OL) differentiation and survival of OPCs in vitro. OPCs were infected with retroviruses expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) or CNTF and transplanted into the contused adult thoracic spinal cord 9 d after injury. Seven weeks after transplantation, the grafted OPCs survived and integrated into the injured spinal cord. The survival of grafted CNTF-OPCs increased fourfold compared with EGFP-OPCs. The grafted OPCs differentiated into adenomatus polyposis coli (APC(+)) OLs, and CNTF significantly increased the percentage of APC(+) OLs from grafted OPCs. Immunofluorescent and immunoelectron microscopic analyses showed that the grafted OPCs formed central myelin sheaths around the axons in the injured spinal cord. The number of OL-remyelinated axons in ventrolateral funiculus (VLF) or lateral funiculus (LF) at the injured epicenter was significantly increased in animals that received CNTF-OPC grafts compared with all other groups. Importantly, 75% of rats receiving CNTF-OPC grafts recovered transcranial magnetic motor-evoked potential and magnetic interenlargement reflex responses, indicating that conduction through the demyelinated axons in VLF or LF, respectively, was partially restored. More importantly, recovery of hindlimb locomotor function was significantly enhanced in animals receiving grafts of CNTF-OPCs. Thus, combined treatment with OPC grafts expressing CNTF can enhance remyelination and facilitate functional recovery after traumatic SCI. PMID:20181596

  15. Transplantation of CNTF-expressing adult oligodendrocyte precursor cells promotes remyelination and functional recovery after spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Qilin; He, Qian; Wang, Yaping; Cheng, Xiaoxin; Howard, Russell M.; Zhang, Yiping; DeVries, William H.; Shields, Christopher B.; Magnuson, David S.K.; Xu, Xiaoming; Kim, Dong H.; Whittemore, Scott R.

    2010-01-01

    Demyelination contributes to the dysfunction after traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). We explored whether the combination of neurotrophic factors and transplantation of adult rat spinal cord oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) could enhance remyelination and functional recovery after SCI. Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) was the most effective neurotrophic factor to promote oligodendrocyte (OL) differentiation and survival of OPCs in vitro. OPCs were infected with retroviruses expressing EGFP or CNTF and transplanted into the contused adult thoracic spinal cord 9 days post-injury. Seven weeks after transplantation, the grafted OPCs survived and integrated into the injured spinal cord. The survival of grafted CNTF-OPCs increased 4-fold compared to EGFP-OPCs. The grafted OPCs differentiated into adenomatus polyposis coli (APC+) OLs and CNTF significantly increased the percentage of APC+ OLs from grafted OPCs. Immunofluoresent and immuno-electron microscopic analyses showed that the grafted OPCs formed central myelin sheaths around the axons in the injured spinal cord. The number of OL-remyelinated axons in ventrolateral funiculus (VLF) or lateral funiculus (LF) at the injured epiecenter was significantly increased in animals that received CNTF-OPC grafts compared to all other groups. Importantly, 75% of rats receiving CNTF-OPC grafts recovered transcranial magnetic motor-evoked potential (tcMMEP) and magnetic inter-englargement reflex (MIER) responses, indicating that conduction through the demyelinated axons in VLF or LF, respectively, was partially restored. More importantly, recovery of hindlimb locomotor function was significantly enhanced in animals receiving grafts of CNTF-OPCs. Thus, combined treatment with OPC grafts expressing CNTF can enhance remyelination and facilitate functional recovery after traumatic SCI. PMID:20181596

  16. Risk of Intimate Partner Violence among Young Adult Males with Childhood ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Wymbs, Brian T.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Pelham, William E.; Cheong, JeeWon; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Belendiuk, Katherine A.; Walther, Christine A. P.; Babinski, Dara E.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Research has clearly documented the social dysfunction of youth with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, little is known about the interpersonal relationships of adults diagnosed with ADHD in childhood, including rates of intimate partner violence (IPV). Method Using data from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study, analyses compared the level of IPV (verbal aggression, violence) reported by young adult (18-25 year-old) males with childhood ADHD (n=125) to reports by demographically-similar males without ADHD histories (n=88). Results Males with childhood ADHD, especially those with conduct problems persisting from childhood, were more likely to be verbally aggressive and violent with romantic partners than males without histories of ADHD or conduct problems. Conclusion Research is needed to replicate these findings, to explore potential mechanisms, and to develop effective interventions for romantic relationship discord among young adults with ADHD histories, especially those with persistent conduct problems. PMID:22044962

  17. Altered Cerebellar Circuitry following Thoracic Spinal Cord Injury in Adult Rats.

    PubMed

    Visavadiya, Nishant P; Springer, Joe E

    2016-01-01

    Cerebellar function is critical for coordinating movement and motor learning. However, events occurring in the cerebellum following spinal cord injury (SCI) have not been investigated in detail. We provide evidence of SCI-induced cerebellar synaptic changes involving a loss of granule cell parallel fiber input to distal regions of the Purkinje cell dendritic tree. This is accompanied by an apparent increase in synaptic contacts to Purkinje cell proximal dendrites, presumably from climbing fibers originating in the inferior olive. We also observed an early stage injury-induced decrease in the levels of cerebellin-1, a synaptic organizing molecule that is critical for establishing and maintaining parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synaptic integrity. Interestingly, this transsynaptic reorganizational pattern is consistent with that reported during development and in certain transgenic mouse models. To our knowledge, such a reorganizational event has not been described in response to SCI in adult rats. Regardless, the novel results of this study are important for understanding SCI-induced synaptic changes in the cerebellum, which may prove critical for strategies focusing on promoting functional recovery. PMID:27504204

  18. Alteration of Forebrain Neurogenesis after Cervical Spinal Cord Injury in the Adult Rat

    PubMed Central

    Felix, Marie-Solenne; Popa, Natalia; Djelloul, Mehdi; Boucraut, José; Gauthier, Patrick; Bauer, Sylvian; Matarazzo, Valery A.

    2012-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) triggers a complex cellular response at the injury site, leading to the formation of a dense scar tissue. Despite this local tissue remodeling, the consequences of SCI at the cellular level in distant rostral sites (i.e., brain), remain unknown. In this study, we asked whether cervical SCI could alter cell dynamics in neurogenic areas of the adult rat forebrain. To this aim, we quantified BrdU incorporation and determined the phenotypes of newly generated cells (neurons, astrocytes, or microglia) during the subchronic and chronic phases of injury. We find that subchronic SCI leads to a reduction of BrdU incorporation and neurogenesis in the olfactory bulb and in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. By contrast, subchronic SCI triggers an increased BrdU incorporation in the dorsal vagal complex of the hindbrain, where most of the newly generated cells are identified as microglia. In chronic condition 90 days after SCI, BrdU incorporation returns to control levels in all regions examined, except in the hippocampus, where SCI produces a long-term reduction of neurogenesis, indicating that this structure is particularly sensitive to SCI. Finally, we observe that SCI triggers an acute inflammatory response in all brain regions examined, as well as a hippocampal-specific decline in BDNF levels. This study provides the first demonstration that forebrain neurogenesis is vulnerable to a distal SCI. PMID:22509147

  19. Altered Cerebellar Circuitry following Thoracic Spinal Cord Injury in Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Cerebellar function is critical for coordinating movement and motor learning. However, events occurring in the cerebellum following spinal cord injury (SCI) have not been investigated in detail. We provide evidence of SCI-induced cerebellar synaptic changes involving a loss of granule cell parallel fiber input to distal regions of the Purkinje cell dendritic tree. This is accompanied by an apparent increase in synaptic contacts to Purkinje cell proximal dendrites, presumably from climbing fibers originating in the inferior olive. We also observed an early stage injury-induced decrease in the levels of cerebellin-1, a synaptic organizing molecule that is critical for establishing and maintaining parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synaptic integrity. Interestingly, this transsynaptic reorganizational pattern is consistent with that reported during development and in certain transgenic mouse models. To our knowledge, such a reorganizational event has not been described in response to SCI in adult rats. Regardless, the novel results of this study are important for understanding SCI-induced synaptic changes in the cerebellum, which may prove critical for strategies focusing on promoting functional recovery. PMID:27504204

  20. Gender Modulates the APOE ε4 Effect in Healthy Older Adults: Convergent Evidence from Functional Brain Connectivity and Spinal Fluid Tau Levels

    PubMed Central

    Damoiseaux, Jessica S.; Seeley, William W.; Zhou, Juan; Shirer, William R.; Coppola, Giovanni; Karydas, Anna; Rosen, Howard J.; Miller, Bruce L.; Kramer, Joel H.; Greicius, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    We examined whether the effect of APOE genotype on functional brain connectivity is modulated by gender in healthy older human adults. Our results confirm significantly decreased connectivity in the default mode network in healthy older APOE ε4 carriers compared to ε3 homozygotes. More importantly, further testing revealed a significant interaction between APOE genotype and gender in the precuneus, a major default mode hub. Female ε4 carriers showed significantly reduced default mode connectivity compared to either female ε3 homozygotes or male ε4 carriers, whereas male ε4 carriers differed minimally from male ε3 homozygotes. An additional analysis in an independent sample of healthy elderly using an independent marker of Alzheimer’s disease, i.e. spinal fluid levels of tau, provided corresponding evidence for this gender by APOE interaction. Taken together, these results converge with previous work showing a higher prevalence of the ε4 allele among women with Alzheimer’s disease and, critically, demonstrate that this interaction between APOE genotype and gender is detectable in the preclinical period. PMID:22699906

  1. Both dorsal and ventral spinal cord pathways contribute to overground locomotion in the adult rat.

    PubMed

    Loy, David N; Talbott, Jason F; Onifer, Stephen M; Mills, Michael D; Burke, Darlene A; Dennison, Jessica B; Fajardo, Lili C; Magnuson, David S K; Whittemore, Scott R

    2002-10-01

    Identification of long tracts responsible for spontaneous locomotion is critical for spinal cord injury (SCI) repair strategies. We recently demonstrated that extensive demyelination of adult rat thoracic ventral columns, ventromedial, and ventrolateral white matter produces persistent, significant open-field hindlimb locomotor deficits. Locomotor movements resulting from stimulation of the pontomedullary locomotor region are inhibited by dorsolateral funiculus (DLF) lesions suggesting that important pathways for locomotion may also exist in the dorsal white matter. However, dorsal hemisections that interrupt dorsal columns/dorsal corticospinal tract (DC/CST) and DLF pathways do not produce persistent, severe locomotor deficits in the adult rat. We studied the contributions of myelinated tracts in the DLF and DC/CST to overground locomotion following complete conduction blockade of axons in the ventrolateral funiculus (VLF), a region important for locomotor movements and for transcranial magnetic motor-evoked potentials (tcMMEP). Animals received ethidium bromide plus photon irradiation to produce discrete demyelinating lesions sufficient to stop axonal conduction in the VLF, combined VLF + DLF, or combined VLF + DC/CST. Open-field BBB scores and tcMMEPs were studied at 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks postlesion. VLF lesions resulted in mean BBB scores of 17 at 4 weeks. VLF + DC/CST and VLF + DLF lesions resulted in mean BBB scores of 15.9 and 11.1, respectively. TcMMEPs were absent in all lesion types confirming VLF conduction blockade throughout the study. Our data indicate that significant contributions to locomotion from myelinated pathways within the rat DLF can be revealed when combined with simultaneous compromise of the VLF. PMID:12429203

  2. [Importance of adult protein ingestion on the mating success of Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann males (Diptera: Tephritidae)].

    PubMed

    Silva Neto, Alberto M da; Dias, Vanessa S; Joachim-Bravo, Iara S

    2010-01-01

    The importance of the protein ingestion during the adult stage on the mating success of males of Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann was evaluated in experiments of laboratory and field cage. In laboratory, the effects of protein ingestion during the first four or 12 days of the male adult life was assessed by the following parameters: mating success (capacity of being chosen by the female) and the number of males that give out pheromonal signals. Some experiments of mating success had been carried through with males in different ratios. In these tests, the number of males which had ingested protein (an unique male) was remained constant and the number of males fed without protein was gradually increased from 1:1 to 1:5. In the field cages, the mating success experiments were done using a 1:1 ratio. The results showed that the protein ingestion in the first four days of life did not influence any of the analyzed parameters. When the period of ingestion of protein was extended to 12 days, protein-fed males fed produced more pheromonal signals and had a higher mating success when at a 1:1 ratio in laboratory and field cage assays. In laboratory, females randomly chose males in any other tested ratio (1:2, 1:3, 1:4 and 1:5), indicating that the female may lose the perception to identify the male who ingested protein in the first 12 days. PMID:20498961

  3. Kin recognition and cannibalistic behaviours by adult male fathead minnows ( Pimephales promelas)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Warren W.; Mirza, Reehan S.; Pyle, Greg G.

    2008-03-01

    Parental care is an energetically demanding activity that ensures genes are efficiently passed from one generation to the next. According to evolutionary theory, the greatest energetic investment should be directed towards offspring that are most closely related to the parent. Male fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, provide this parental investment to developing embryos but not newly hatched larvae. Therefore, selection should favour recognition of embryonic kin to ensure energetic expenditure is optimally invested. In this study, adult male fathead minnows were tested using behavioural assays, with egg cannibalism as an endpoint, to determine whether adult males could discriminate between related and unrelated embryos. Egg cannibalism was highest when adult male fathead minnows were presented with unrelated eggs and lowest when presented with eggs fertilized by the test subject (related eggs). The degree of cannibalism was also a function of breeding status. Unrelated males in breeding condition showed an intermediate response between the low cannibalism demonstrated by related males and the high cannibalism demonstrated by unrelated males in a nonbreeding condition. These results suggest that although male fathead minnows can discriminate between unrelated and related embryos, at least some component of parental investment is a simple function of breeding status.

  4. [Measurement report on the horizontal position relationship between the umbilicus and the 2nd lum- bar spinal process in adults].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jingyi; Fu, Liyuan; Wang, Yueqi; Qiu, Wenqi; Yao, Miaojie; Zhao, Baixiao; Guo, Changqing

    2016-04-01

    The impact factors were explored to determine the horizontal positional relationship between the umbilicus and the 2nd lumbar spinal process in adults and to verify the accuracy of the localization of Shenshu (BL 23) via the umbilicus. The position of the umbilicus and the 2nd lumbar spinal process was measured in 100 participants and the data were analyzed through SPSS 20.0 software. It was found that the umbilicus and the 2nd lumbar process were not positioned horizontally. The positional relationship of these two sites was not apparently correlated with gender, age, body weight, body height, BMI, waistline and discomfort of lumbar region. The umbilicus was commonly and posteriorly projected on the site between the 4th and 5th lumbar vertebra. It is explained that the localization of Shenshu (BL23) via the umbilicus is not accurate. PMID:27352498

  5. Astounding recovery after resection of an intradural nerve sheath tumor in an adult male from Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    King, Paul; Khan, Saleen; Inamullah, Ovais

    2015-01-01

    Background: Spinal cord tumors can be classified as intramedullary, intradural extramedullary, or extradural. The differential diagnosis of spinal cord tumors includes meningiomas, astrocytomas, ependymomas, metastasis, nerve sheath tumors such as schwannomas or neurofibromas, and multiple sclerosis plaques. Radiology can provide clues to the type of tumor, but a pathology evaluation of a specimen is necessary to provide an accurate diagnosis. These tumors can cause a variety of neurological symptoms from spinal cord compression including pain, weakness, and paresthesia. They are treated by surgical resection, with a variety of outcomes possible depending on the severity of the preoperative symptoms, location and extent of the tumor, and efficacy of the surgery performed. Case Description: A 59-year-old male from Vietnam came to the Atlanta Medical Center for evaluation of severe ride sided hemiparesis and paresthesias. He first noticed alterations in his handwriting and quickly deteriorated to the point of being unable to walk or move his right arm. A cervical spinal mass was identified and analyzed on magnetic resonance imaging. Surgical resection was performed under a microscope in a joint operation between an orthopedic surgeon and neurosurgeon. A specimen of the tumor was sent to pathology for further evaluation. Conclusion: The mass was determined to be an intradural extramedullary schwannoma. The severity of the patient's symptoms and the location and size of the tumor made full recovery unlikely and postoperative quadriplegia a real possibility. The tumor was surgically resected, which led surprisingly, however, to a full and prompt resolution of the patient's symptoms. Less than 2 weeks after surgery, the patient was able to walk and had almost fully regained use of his hands. PMID:26425395

  6. Effect of 5-HT7 receptor agonist, LP-211, on micturition following spinal cord injury in male rats

    PubMed Central

    Norouzi-Javidan, Abbas; Javanbakht, Javad; Barati, Fardin; Fakhraei, Nahid; Mohammadi, Fatemeh; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Central and peripheral 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptors play a critical role in regulation of micturition reflex. The aim of this study was to evaluate effect of a 5-HT7 receptor agonist, LP-211 (N-(4-cyanophenylmethyl)-4-(2-diphenyl)-1-piperazinehexanamide) on micturition reflex in acute spinal cord-injured (SCI) rats during infusion of vehicle into the bladder. Methods: SCI was induced by compressing T10 segment using an aneurysm clip, extradurally in male rats. Following two weeks, LP-211 doses (0.003-0.3 mg/kg) were administered cumulatively (intraperitoneally, i.p.) with 20 min interval. The 5-HT7 antagonist, SB-269970 ((R)-3-[2-[2-(4-Methylpiperidin-1-yl) ethyl] pyrrolidine-1-sulfonyl] phenol hydrochloride), was administered after achievement of LP-211 dose-response. A cystometric study was performed 2 weeks after spinal crushing in all the animals. Cystometric variables consisting of micturition volume (voided volume), residual volume (volume remaining in the bladder after voiding), and bladder capacity (micturition volume plus residual volume). Voiding efficiency was calculated as the percent of micturition volume to bladder capacity. Findings: Intact and sham-operated rats showed few significant changes in micturition reflex. SCI rats responded to LP-211 (0.003-0.3, mg/kg, i.v.) with dose-dependent increases in bladder capacity, and residual volume. In this treatment group, LP-211 induced significant dose-dependent increases in micturition volume, resulting in significant increases in voiding efficiency (P<0.001) compared to intact and sham-operated rats, SB-269970 (0.1 mg/kg, i.v.) completely reversed the LP-211-induced changes on micturition volume and voiding efficiency was decreased significantly. Conclusion: The 5-HT7 receptors activation by LP-211 facilitated the micturition reflex. Furthermore, 5-HT7 receptors do seem to play an important role in physiological regulation of micturition, and as a result, may represent a

  7. Regulation by equilibrative nucleoside transporter of adenosine outward currents in adult rat spinal dorsal horn neurons.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Fujita, Tsugumi; Kawasaki, Yasuhiko; Kumamoto, Eiichi

    2004-07-30

    A current response induced by superfusing adenosine was examined in substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons of adult rat spinal cord slices by using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. In 78% of the neurons examined, adenosine induced an outward current at -70 mV [18.8 +/- 1.1 pA (n = 98) at 1mM] in a dose-dependent manner (EC(50) = 177 microM). A similar current was induced by A(1) agonist N(6)-cyclopentyladenosine (1 microM), whereas A(1) antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (1 microM) reversed the adenosine action. The adenosine current reversed its polarity at a potential being close to the equilibrium potential for K(+), and was attenuated by Ba(2+) (100 microM) and 4-aminopyridine (5mM) but not tetraethylammonium (5mM). The adenosine current was enhanced in duration by equilibrative nucleoside-transport (rENT1) inhibitor S-(4-nitrobenzyl)-6-thioinosine (1 microM) and adenosine deaminase (ADA) inhibitor erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl) adenine (1 microM), and slowed in falling phase by adenosine kinase (AK) inhibitor iodotubercidine (1 microM). We conclude that a Ba(2+)- and 4-aminopyridine-sensitive K(+) channel in SG neurons is opened via the activation of A(1) receptors by adenosine whose level is possibly regulated by rENT1, adenosine deaminase and adenosine kinase. Considering that intrathecally-administered adenosine analogues produce antinociception, the regulatory systems of adenosine may serve as targets for antinociceptive drugs. PMID:15275960

  8. Craniofacial norms in white adult males. Final report 1 Oct 80-30 Sep 83

    SciTech Connect

    Kapur, K.K.; Lestrel, P.

    1983-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to establish clinical 'norms' of craniofacial skeletal orientation and the associated soft tissue facial profile for adult white males. Lateral and frontal cephalometric radiographs and study casts taken on 305 white males, with 28 or more teeth and 25-75 years of age, were used to develop these craniofacial standards. The goal of the research program has been to develop a computerized approach based upon dentofacial templates for the fabrication of complete dentures and to define clinical standards that can be applied in assessing the prosthodontic and orthodontic treatment needs of adult patients.

  9. Stable isotope evidence of meat eating and hunting specialization in adult male chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Fahy, Geraldine E.; Richards, Michael; Riedel, Julia; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Boesch, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Observations of hunting and meat eating in our closest living relatives, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), suggest that among primates, regular inclusion of meat in the diet is not a characteristic unique to Homo. Wild chimpanzees are known to consume vertebrate meat, but its actual dietary contribution is, depending on the study population, often either unknown or minimal. Constraints on continual direct observation throughout the entire hunting season mean that behavioral observations are limited in their ability to accurately quantify meat consumption. Here we present direct stable isotope evidence supporting behavioral observations of frequent meat eating among wild adult male chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) in Taï National Park, Côte d’Ivoire. Meat eating among some of the male chimpanzees is significant enough to result in a marked isotope signal detectable on a short-term basis in their hair keratin and long-term in their bone collagen. Although both adult males and females and juveniles derive their dietary protein largely from daily fruit and seasonal nut consumption, our data indicate that some adult males also derive a large amount of dietary protein from hunted meat. Our results reinforce behavioral observations of male-dominated hunting and meat eating in adult Taï chimpanzees, suggesting that sex differences in food acquisition and consumption may have persisted throughout hominin evolution, rather than being a recent development in the human lineage. PMID:23530185

  10. Testosterone and Adult Male Bone: Actions Independent of 5α-Reductase and Aromatase.

    PubMed

    Yarrow, Joshua F; Wronski, Thomas J; Borst, Stephen E

    2015-10-01

    Androgens and estrogens influence skeletal development and maintenance in males. However, the relative contributions of the circulating sex steroid hormones that originate from testicular/adrenal secretion versus those produced locally in bone via intracrine action require further elucidation. Our novel hypothesis is that testosterone exerts direct protective effects on the adult male skeleton independently of the actions of 5α-reductase or aromatase. PMID:26196865

  11. Sexual interactions with unfamiliar females reduce hippocampal neurogenesis among adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Spritzer, M D; Curtis, M G; DeLoach, J P; Maher, J; Shulman, L M

    2016-03-24

    Recent experiments have shown that sexual interactions prior to cell proliferation cause an increase in neurogenesis in adult male rats. Because adult neurogenesis is critical for some forms of memory, we hypothesized that sexually induced changes in neurogenesis may be involved in mate recognition. Sexually naive adult male rats were either exposed repeatedly to the same sexual partner (familiar group) or to a series of novel sexual partners (unfamiliar group), while control males never engaged in sexual interactions. Ovariectomized female rats were induced into estrus every four days. Males were given two injections of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) (200mg/kg) to label proliferating cells, and the first sexual interactions occurred three days later. Males in the familiar and unfamiliar groups engaged in four, 30-min sexual interactions at four-day intervals, and brain tissue was collected the day after the last sexual interaction. Immunohistochemistry followed by microscopy was used to quantify BrdU-labeled cells. Sexual interactions with unfamiliar females caused a significant reduction in neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus compared to males that interacted with familiar females and compared to the control group. The familiar group showed no difference in neurogenesis compared to the control group. Males in the familiar group engaged in significantly more sexual behavior (ejaculations and intromissions) than did males in the unfamiliar group, suggesting that level of sexual activity may influence neurogenesis levels. In a second experiment, we tested whether this effect was unique to sexual interactions by replicating the entire procedure using anestrus females. We found that interactions with unfamiliar anestrus females reduced neurogenesis relative to the other groups, but this effect was not statistically significant. In combination, these results indicate that interactions with unfamiliar females reduce adult neurogenesis and the effect is stronger for sexual

  12. Age-Related Differences in Neuropathic Pain Behavior and Spinal Microglial Activity after L5 Spinal Nerve Ligation in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zeinali, Hossein; Manaheji, Homa; Zaringhalam, Jalal; Bahari, Zahra; Nazemi, Samad; Sadeghi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Several studies have reported the involvement of age-related changes in the development of neuropathic pain behaviors. However, limited data are available on the role of age in establishing and maintaining chronic neuropathic pain after peripheral nerve injury. Methods: In the present study, we examined age-related neuropathic behavior among rats in 4 age groups: pups (4 weeks old; weight, 60–80 g), juvenile rats (6 weeks old; weight, 120–140 g), and mature rats (10–12 weeks old; weight, 200–250 g). Because the exact contribution of spinal microglia and its association with the development of neuropathic pain remains unknown, we also evaluated the expression of spinal Iba1, a microglial marker, by using western blotting before and 5 days after spinal nerve ligation (SNL) as well as after the daily IP administration of minocycline (30 mg/kg). Results: Our results showed that SNL-induced mechanical allodynia but not thermal hyperalgesia in mature rats but not in pups (P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively). The expression of spinal Iba1 in the juvenile rats was significantly lower than that in pups and mature rats (P<0.01). Moreover, administration of minocycline decreased the expression of spinal Iba1 in the pup rats more than in juvenile rats (P<0.001) and in the juvenile rats more than in the mature rats (P<0.05). Conclusion: These data suggest that the development of neuropathic behaviors and microglial activation after SNL could be age dependent. PMID:27563413

  13. Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia in a black adult male: case report.

    PubMed

    Kitonyi, G W; Wambugu, P M; Oburra, H O; Ireri, J M

    2008-08-01

    Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia, (HHT) or Rendu-Osler-Weber disease is a genetic autosomal dominant disorder that is characterised by telangiectasias, (small vascular malformations), in mucocutaneous tissues and arterial venous malformations, (AVMs), in various internal organs. Although HHT is relatively common in whites, the disorder has been reported to be rare in people of black African descent. Majority of HHT patients present with recurrent epistaxis, which in a significant proportion of patients is severe, warranting repeated blood transfusions and iron supplementation. Telangiectasias are most frequent on the tongue, hands, nose, lips and the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). AVMs occur in internal organs, particularly the lungs, brain, and the liver. Early and correct diagnosis of HHT is crucial as patients derive benefit from certain specific treatment modalities. Besides, AVMs which occur in various organs pose serious complications that may lead to death and therefore require early detection. We report a 55 year old black African male with HHT who presented with severe recurrent epistaxis and haematochezia leading to severe anaemia requiring repeated blood transfusions. His son, daughter and a maternal uncle experience milder recurrent epistaxis. The management of this patient and a brief review of the clinical features and management of HHT is presented. Our aim is to raise awareness of the occurrence of HHT in Kenya, in order to enhance early diagnosis and appropriate management. PMID:19115559

  14. Sustaining intrinsic growth capacity of adult neurons promotes spinal cord regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, Simona; Skinner, Kate; Basbaum, Allan I.

    2005-11-01

    The peripheral axonal branch of primary sensory neurons readily regenerates after peripheral nerve injury, but the central branch, which courses in the dorsal columns of the spinal cord, does not. However, if a peripheral nerve is transected before a spinal cord injury, sensory neurons that course in the dorsal columns will regenerate, presumably because their intrinsic growth capacity is enhanced by the priming peripheral nerve lesion. As the effective priming lesion is made before the spinal cord injury it would clearly have no clinical utility, and unfortunately, a priming lesion made after a spinal cord injury results in an abortive regenerative response. Here, we show that two priming lesions, one made at the time of a spinal cord injury and a second 1 week after a spinal cord injury, in fact, promote dramatic regeneration, within and beyond the lesion. The first lesion, we hypothesize, enhances intrinsic growth capacity, and the second one sustains it, providing a paradigm for promoting CNS regeneration after injury. primary afferents | dorsal columns | neurite outgrowth | sprouting | priming

  15. Morphological and antioxidant impairments in the spinal cord of male offspring rats following exposure to a continuous 900MHz electromagnetic field during early and mid-adolescence.

    PubMed

    İkinci, Ayşe; Mercantepe, Tolga; Unal, Deniz; Erol, Hüseyin Serkan; Şahin, Arzu; Aslan, Ali; Baş, Orhan; Erdem, Havva; Sönmez, Osman Fikret; Kaya, Haydar; Odacı, Ersan

    2016-09-01

    The effects of devices emitting electromagnetic field (EMF) on human health have become the subject of intense research among scientists due to the rapid increase in their use. Children and adolescents are particularly attracted to the use of devices emitting EMF, such as mobile phones. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate changes in the spinal cords of male rat pups exposed to the effect of 900MHz EMF. The study began with 24 Sprague-Dawley male rats aged 3 weeks. Three groups containing equal numbers of rats were established-control group (CG), sham group (SG) and EMF group (EMFG). EMFG rats were placed inside an EMF cage every day between postnatal days (PD) 21 and 46 and exposed to the effect of 900MHz EMF for 1h. SG rats were kept in the EMF cage for 1h without being exposed to the effect of EMF. At the end of the study, the spinal cords in the upper thoracic region of all rats were removed. Tissues were collected for biochemistry, light microscopy (LM) and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) examination. Biochemistry results revealed significantly increased malondialdehyde and glutathione levels in EMFG compared to CG and SG, while SG and EMFG catalase and superoxide dismutase levels were significantly higher than those in CG. In EMFG, LM revealed atrophy in the spinal cord, vacuolization, myelin thickening and irregularities in the perikarya. TEM revealed marked loss of myelin sheath integrity and invagination into the axon and broad vacuoles in axoplasm. The study results show that biochemical alterations and pathological changes may occur in the spinal cords of male rats following exposure to 900MHz EMF for 1h a day on PD 21-46. PMID:26708410

  16. Vocalizations during electroejaculation in anaesthetized adult and young pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus) males.

    PubMed

    Fumagalli, F; Damián, J P; Ungerfeld, R

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the vocalizations produced during electroejaculation under general anaesthesia in pampas deer males and to determine whether the characteristics of those vocalizations differ in adult and young pampas deer males. Electroejaculation was applied to 13 adults (AM) and 13 young (YM) males under general anaesthesia. Vocalizations were digitally recorded, and the number and duration of vocalizations, the latency in relation to each voltage, the total time vocalizing, and the structure of the fundamental frequency (F0) [initial frequency (F(start)), maximal frequency (F(max)), minimal frequency (F(min)) and final frequency (F(end))] were analysed. No male vocalized with 0 V; the number of animals that vocalized increased at 2 and 3 V and increased again at 4, 5 and 6 V (p < 0.05). The latency time from the beginning of each series (each voltage) decreased until 4 V (p < 0.01). The number of vocalizations/voltage increased from 4 V (p < 0.05). The length of each vocalization and the total time during which animals vocalized were greater in YM than AM (p = 0.02 and p = 0.01, respectively). Similarly, the fundamental frequencies were higher in YM than AM (p ≤ 0.05). Overall, we concluded that the vocalizations emitted during electroejaculation in pampas deer under general anaesthesia are related to the voltage applied during the process. Young males vocalize more time, probably due to a greater sensibility to the electric stimulation. The differences in the characteristics of the vocalizations between adult and young males may be related to the anatomic differences in the neck of adult or young males. PMID:25683788

  17. Immunoendocrine responses of male spinal cord injured athletes to 1-hour self-paced exercise: pilot study.

    PubMed

    Allgrove, Judith E; Chapman, Mark; Christides, Tatiana; Smith, Paul M

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effect of a 1 h, self-paced handcycling time trial on blood leukocytes, mucosal immunity, and markers of stress in paraplegic athletes. Nine male paraplegic athletes (spinal injury level thoracic 4-lumbar 2) performed 1 h of handcycling exercise on a standard 400 m athletics track. Heart rate (HR) was measured continuously during exercise, and a retrospective rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was obtained immediately after. Venous blood and saliva samples were collected immediately before exercise (Pre-Ex), after exercise (End-Ex), and 1 h postexercise (1-h Post). The athletes completed mean +/- standard error of mean 22.4 +/- 1.1 km cycling at HR 165 +/- 2 beats/min, RPE 15 +/- 1, and blood lactate 7.9 +/- 2.5 mmol/L. Total leukocytes increased 72% and neutrophils increased 74% End-Ex; both remained elevated at 1-h Post (both p < 0.05). Lymphocytes increased 53% and natural killer cells increased 175% End-Ex (both p < 0.05), but returned to near baseline levels 1-h Post. Increases (p < 0.05) were observed End-Ex in alpha-amylase activity (p < 0.05), which returned to baseline at 1-h Post, but there was no significant change in saliva flow rate, salivary immunoglobulin A, or cortisol. These data confirm that 1 h of handcycling exercise elevated circulating leukocytes but had a minimal effect on mucosal immunity. These changes appear to be associated with alpha-amylase rather than cortisol. PMID:23299262

  18. PREPUBERTAL EXPOSURES TO COMPOUNDS THAT INCREASE PROLACTIN SECRETION IN THE MALE RAT: EFFECTS ON ADULT PROSTATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prepubertal exposure to compounds that increase prolactin secretion in the male rat: effects on the adult prostate.

    Stoker TE, Robinette CL, Britt BH, Laws SC, Cooper RL.

    Endocrinology Branch, Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effec...

  19. Future Life Goals of HIV-Positive Gay and Bisexual Male Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Douglas; Harper, Gary W.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the future life goals reported by a sample of HIV-positive gay/bisexual male emerging adults. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 54 participants ages 17-24 at four geographically and demographically diverse adolescent HIV medicine programs to explore the content of participants' goals, perceived…

  20. The Remodeling Process: A Grounded Theory Study of Perceptions of Treatment among Adult Male Incest Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheela, Rochelle A.

    1992-01-01

    Conducted grounded theory study to explore incest offender perceptions of treatment to generate explanatory theory of sexual abuse treatment process. Findings from theoretical sampling of 20 adult male incest offenders revealed that offenders felt remodeling process occurred as they faced discovery of their abuse and went through treatment.…

  1. Adolescent and Young Adult Male Sex Offenders: Understanding the Role of Recidivism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riser, Diana K.; Pegram, Sheri E.; Farley, Julee P.

    2013-01-01

    The current review explores the complex paths that can lead to adolescent and young adult males becoming sexually abusive. Because sexual abuse is an ongoing issue in our society that is often oversimplified, this article distinguishes between the various risk factors that predict sexually abusive behavior and types of sex offenders, particularly…

  2. Sexual Behavior in High-Functioning Male Adolescents and Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellemans, Hans; Colson, Kathy; Verbraeken, Christine; Vermeiren, Robert; Deboutte, Dirk

    2007-01-01

    Group home caregivers of 24 institutionalized, male, high-functioning adolescents and young adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder, were interviewed with the Interview Sexuality Autism. Most subjects were reported to express sexual interest and to display some kind of sexual behavior. Knowledge of socio-sexual skills existed, but practical use was…

  3. Locus of Control, Field Dependence, and Stress Reactivity in Young Adult Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweibinz, Janet S.

    This study examined the potential relationships between locus of control, field dependence, and stress reactivity in a sample of young adult males (N=40). Locus of control, field dependence, and stress reactivity were measured by the Rotter Locus of Control Scale, the Embedded Figures Test, and the Life Events Survey, respectively. State stress…

  4. Implementing Adlerian Sand Tray Therapy with Adult Male Substance Abuse Offenders: A Phenomenological Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monakes, Sarah; Garza, Yvonne; Wiesner, Van, III; Watts, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to understand the perceptions of adult male substance offenders who experienced sand tray therapy as an adjunct to their cognitive behavioral rehabilitative treatment. Results indicate a positive experience for participants. Implications for counselors are discussed. (Contains 1 table.)

  5. Item Parameter Invariance of the Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test across Male and Female Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Immekus, Jason C.; Maller, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    The Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test (KAIT[TM]) is an individually administered test of intelligence for individuals ranging in age from 11 to 85+ years. The item response theory-likelihood ratio procedure, based on the two-parameter logistic model, was used to detect differential item functioning (DIF) in the KAIT across males and…

  6. Self-Management of Aggression in an Adult Male with Mental Retardation and Severe Behavior Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Terry L.; Altman, Reuben

    1996-01-01

    A community-based social-learning program that combined behavior modification with cognitive intervention was used to help an adult male with a history of aggressive, antisocial behavior develop self-management skills. Results showed a significant decline in physical and nonphysical aggression, allowing the man to maintain competitive employment…

  7. The Effectiveness of a Computerized Self-Help Stress Coping Program with Adult Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, James J.

    1987-01-01

    Examined whether computerized self-help stress coping program was effective in reducing stress among 30 adult male juvenile counselors. Compared to controls, subjects who participated in program showed decreases in personal strain and state anxiety and increases in personal resources. Concluded that program could provide relief for situational…

  8. PATTERN OF CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITION IN ADULT, MALE RATS CHRONICALLY EXPOSED TO DIETARY CHLORPYRIFOS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Very little is known about the effects of chronic exposure to relatively low levels of anticholinesterase insecticides or how the effects of chronic exposure compare to higher, intermittent exposure of the same compound for the same duration. To that end, we exposed adult male ra...

  9. THE EFFECTS OF HYPERTHERMIA ON SPERMATOGENESIS, APOPTOSIS, GENE EXPRESSION AND FERTILITY IN ADULT MALE MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of hyperthermia on spermatogenesis, apoptosis, gene expression and fertility in adult male mice
    John C. Rockett1, Faye L. Mapp1, J. Brian Garges1, J. Christopher Luft1, Chisato Mori2 and David J. Dix1.
    1Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Envir...

  10. Queering the Adult Gaze: Young Male Hustlers and Their Alliances with Older Gay Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raible, John

    2011-01-01

    Based on ethnographic data collected at a gay bar with sexual minority youths as dancers or strippers, this study calls attention to the gazes through which adults view and position male youths. It highlights a dancer named Austin, who at times engaged in the underground hustling economy centered in the bar. The findings suggest that the social…

  11. Factor Structure Invariance of the Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test across Male and Female Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Immekus, Jason C.; Maller, Susan J.

    2010-01-01

    Multisample confirmatory factor analysis (MCFA) and latent mean structures analysis (LMS) were used to test measurement invariance and latent mean differences on the Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Scale[TM] (KAIT) across males and females in the standardization sample. MCFA found that the parameters of the KAIT two-factor model were…

  12. Effect of methoprene application, adult food and feeding duration on male melon fly starvation survival

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The application of methoprene and access to protein in adult diet has been shown to enhance mating success in male melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae), supporting their incorporation into operational area-wide programmes integrating the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). T...

  13. REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS OF LOW ACUTE DOSES OF CADMIUM CHLORIDE IN ADULT MALE RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected sc with cadmium (Cd, as cadmium chloride) in doses ranging from 1.6 to 152 micromol Cd/kg body weight (body wt). Fourteen days after dosing, animals were evaluated for reproductive damage. Evaluations for each animal included tests, se...

  14. ADHD and Reading Disability in Male Adults: Is There a Connection?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuelsson, S.; Lundberg, I.; Herkner, B.

    2004-01-01

    The present study examined the comorbidity between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and reading disability (RD) in male adults. Participants were 120 men, of whom 24 were classified as having ADHD. The basis for the diagnosis was two self-report scales validated by interviews and background data. An extensive battery was used to…

  15. A Handbook for a Small Halfway House for the Male Adolescent-Adult Retardate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masterson, Russell W.; Melanphy, Robert F.

    Presented are guidelines on planning and establishing a small, residential halfway house for the male adolescent/adult retardate in which mental health and use of the halfway house to replace institutionalization of selected retardates are emphasized. The halfway house is explained to be planned on premises of community participation and program…

  16. Spatio-Temporal Expression Pattern of Frizzled Receptors after Contusive Spinal Cord Injury in Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Arenas, Ernest; Rodriguez, Francisco Javier

    2012-01-01

    Background Wnt proteins are a large family of molecules that are critically involved in multiple central nervous system (CNS) developmental processes. Experimental evidences suggest a role for this family of proteins in many CNS disorders, including spinal cord injury (SCI), which is a major neuropathology owing to its high prevalence and chronic sensorimotor functional sequelae. Interestingly, most Wnt proteins and their inhibitors are expressed in the uninjured spinal cord, and their temporal expression patterns are dramatically altered after injury. However, little is known regarding the expression of their better-known receptors, the Frizzled family, after SCI. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the expression of Frizzled receptors in the damaged spinal cord. Findings Based on the evidence that Wnts are expressed in the spinal cord and are transcriptionally regulated by SCI in adulthood, we analysed the spatio-temporal mRNA and protein expression patterns of Frizzled receptors after contusive SCI using quantitative RT-PCR and single and double immunohistochemistry, respectively. Our results show that almost all of the 10 known Frizzled receptors were expressed in specific spatial patterns in the uninjured spinal cords. Moreover, the Frizzled mRNAs and proteins were expressed after SCI, although their expression patterns were altered during the temporal progression of SCI. Finally, analysis of cellular Frizzled 5 expression pattern by double immunohistochemistry showed that, in the uninjured spinal cord, this receptor was expressed in neurons, oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, microglia and NG2+ glial precursors. After injury, Frizzled 5 was not only still expressed in oligodendrocytes, astrocytes and NG2+ glial precursors but also in axons at all evaluated time points. Moreover, Frizzled 5 was expressed in reactive microglia/macrophages from 3 to 14 days post-injury. Conclusions Our data suggest the involvement of Frizzled receptors in physiological

  17. Personality and symptoms of psychological ill health among adult male offenders.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Gayle

    2011-05-01

    The current study investigated the relationship between personality and symptoms of psychological ill health in adult male offenders. Male offenders (N = 161) housed at two medium-high-risk institutions completed the Ten Item Personality Inventory and the Symptom Checklist Outpatient Rating Scale. Emotional stability emerged as the strongest individual predictor of psychological ill health and predicted each of the subscales measured (somatization, obsessive-compulsive, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, anger-hostility, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, and psychoticism) and overall symptoms. Although agreeableness predicted depression and anger-hostility only, extraversion, conscientiousness, and openness to experience did not predict any aspect of psychological ill health investigated. The findings contribute to the current literature and provide further information about the relationship between personality and symptoms of psychological ill health in adult male offenders. PMID:20798143

  18. Hindlimb Immobilization in a Wheelchair Alters Functional Recovery Following Contusive Spinal Cord Injury in the Adult Rat

    PubMed Central

    Caudle, Krista L.; Brown, Edward H.; Shum-Siu, Alice; Burke, Darlene A.; Magnuson, Trystan S. G.; Voor, Michael J.; Magnuson, David S. K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Locomotor training of rats with thoracic contusion spinal cord injuries can induce task-specific changes in stepping but rarely results in improved overground locomotion, possibly due to a ceiling effect. Thus, the authors hypothesize that incompletely injured rats maximally retrain themselves while moving about in their cages over the first few weeks postinjury. Objective To test the hypothesis using hindlimb immobilization after mild thoracic contusion spinal cord injury in adult female rats. A passive stretch protocol was included as an independent treatment. Methods Wheelchairs were used to hold the hindlimbs stationary in an extended position leaving the forelimbs free. The wheelchairs were used for 15 to 18 hours per day, 5 days per week for 8 weeks, beginning at 4 days postinjury. A 20-minute passive hindlimb stretch therapy was applied to half of the animals. Results Hindlimb locomotor function of the wheelchair group was not different from controls at 1 week postinjury but declined significantly over the next 4 weeks. Passive stretch had no influence on wheelchair animals but limited functional recovery of normally housed animals, preventing them from regaining forelimb–hindlimb coordination. Following 8 weeks of wheelchair immobilization and stretch therapy, only the wheelchair group displayed an improvement in function when returned to normal housing but retained significant deficits in stepping and coordination out to 16 weeks. Conclusion Hindlimb immobilization and passive stretch may hinder or conceal the normal course of functional recovery of spinal cord injured rats. These observations have implications for the management of acute clinical spinal cord injuries. PMID:21697451

  19. Serotonin Concentrations in the Lumbosacral Spinal Cord of the Adult Rat Following Microinjection or Dorsal Surface Application

    PubMed Central

    Brumley, Michele R.; Hentall, Ian D.; Pinzon, Alberto; Kadam, Brijesh H.; Blythe, Anthony; Sanchez, Francisco J.; Taberner, Annette M.; Noga, Brian R.

    2009-01-01

    Application of neuroactive substances, including monoamines, is common in studies examining the spinal mechanisms of sensation and behavior. However, affected regions and time courses of transmitter activity are uncertain. We measured the spatial and temporal distribution of serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] in the lumbosacral spinal cord of halothane-anesthetized adult rats, following its intraspinal microinjection or surface application. Carbon fiber microelectrodes (CFMEs) were positioned at various locations in the spinal cord and oxidation currents corresponding to extracellular 5-HT were measured by fast cyclic voltammetry. Intraspinal microinjection of 5-HT (100μM, 1–3 μl) produced responses that were most pronounced at CFMEs positioned ≤800 μm from the drug micropipette: 5-HT concentration was significantly higher (1.43 vs. <0.28% of initial concentration) and response latency was shorter (67.1 vs. 598.2 s) compared with more distantly positioned CFMEs. Treatment with the selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitor clomipramine only slightly affected the spread of microinjected 5-HT. Surface application over several segments led to a transient rise in concentration that was usually apparent within 30 s and was dramatically attenuated with increasing depth: 0.25% of initial concentration (1 mM) within 400 μm of the dorsal surface and <0.001% between 1,170 and 2,000 μm. This initial response to superfusion was sometimes followed by a gradual increase to a new concentration plateau. In sum, compared with bath application, microinjection can deliver about tenfold higher transmitter concentrations, but to much more restricted areas of the spinal cord. PMID:17634342

  20. Remyelination after chronic spinal cord injury is associated with proliferation of endogenous adult progenitor cells after systemic administration of guanosine.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shucui; Ballerini, Patrizia; Buccella, Silvana; Giuliani, Patricia; Jiang, Cai; Huang, Xinjie; Rathbone, Michel P

    2008-03-01

    Axonal demyelination is a consistent pathological sequel to chronic brain and spinal cord injuries and disorders that slows or disrupts impulse conduction, causing further functional loss. Since oligodendroglial progenitors are present in the demyelinated areas, failure of remyelination may be due to lack of sufficient proliferation and differentiation of oligodendroglial progenitors. Guanosine stimulates proliferation and differentiation of many types of cells in vitro and exerts neuroprotective effects in the central nervous system (CNS). Five weeks after chronic traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI), when there is no ongoing recovery of function, intraperitoneal administration of guanosine daily for 2 weeks enhanced functional improvement correlated with the increase in myelination in the injured cord. Emphasis was placed on analysis of oligodendrocytes and NG2-positive (NG2+) cells, an endogenous cell population that may be involved in oligodendrocyte replacement. There was an increase in cell proliferation (measured by bromodeoxyuridine staining) that was attributable to an intensification in progenitor cells (NG2+ cells) associated with an increase in mature oligodendrocytes (determined by Rip+ staining). The numbers of astroglia increased at all test times after administration of guanosine whereas microglia only increased in the later stages (14 days). Injected guanosine and its breakdown product guanine accumulated in the spinal cords; there was more guanine than guanosine detected. We conclude that functional improvement and remyelination after systemic administration of guanosine is due to the effect of guanosine/guanine on the proliferation of adult progenitor cells and their maturation into myelin-forming cells. This raises the possibility that administration of guanosine may be useful in the treatment of spinal cord injury or demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis where quiescent oligodendroglial progenitors exist in demyelinated plaques. PMID

  1. Remyelination after chronic spinal cord injury is associated with proliferation of endogenous adult progenitor cells after systemic administration of guanosine

    PubMed Central

    Ballerini, Patrizia; Buccella, Silvana; Giuliani, Patricia; Jiang, Cai; Huang, Xinjie; Rathbone, Michel P.

    2008-01-01

    Axonal demyelination is a consistent pathological sequel to chronic brain and spinal cord injuries and disorders that slows or disrupts impulse conduction, causing further functional loss. Since oligodendroglial progenitors are present in the demyelinated areas, failure of remyelination may be due to lack of sufficient proliferation and differentiation of oligodendroglial progenitors. Guanosine stimulates proliferation and differentiation of many types of cells in vitro and exerts neuroprotective effects in the central nervous system (CNS). Five weeks after chronic traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI), when there is no ongoing recovery of function, intraperitoneal administration of guanosine daily for 2 weeks enhanced functional improvement correlated with the increase in myelination in the injured cord. Emphasis was placed on analysis of oligodendrocytes and NG2-positive (NG2+) cells, an endogenous cell population that may be involved in oligodendrocyte replacement. There was an increase in cell proliferation (measured by bromodeoxyuridine staining) that was attributable to an intensification in progenitor cells (NG2+ cells) associated with an increase in mature oligodendrocytes (determined by Rip+ staining). The numbers of astroglia increased at all test times after administration of guanosine whereas microglia only increased in the later stages (14 days). Injected guanosine and its breakdown product guanine accumulated in the spinal cords; there was more guanine than guanosine detected. We conclude that functional improvement and remyelination after systemic administration of guanosine is due to the effect of guanosine/guanine on the proliferation of adult progenitor cells and their maturation into myelin-forming cells. This raises the possibility that administration of guanosine may be useful in the treatment of spinal cord injury or demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis where quiescent oligodendroglial progenitors exist in demyelinated plaques

  2. Spinal tumor

    MedlinePlus

    Tumor - spinal cord ... spinal tumors occur in the nerves of the spinal cord itself. Most often these are ependymomas and other ... gene mutations. Spinal tumors can occur: Inside the spinal cord (intramedullary) In the membranes (meninges) covering the spinal ...

  3. Asymmetric control of cycle period by the spinal locomotor rhythm generator in the adult cat.

    PubMed

    Frigon, Alain; Gossard, Jean-Pierre

    2009-10-01

    During walking, a change in speed is accomplished by varying the duration of the stance phase, while the swing phase remains relatively invariant. To determine if this asymmetry in the control of locomotor cycles is an inherent property of the spinal central pattern generator (CPG), we recorded episodes of fictive locomotion in decerebrate cats with or without a complete spinal transection (acute or chronic). During fictive locomotion, stance and swing phases typically correspond to extension and flexion phases, respectively. The extension and flexion phases were determined by measuring the duration of extensor and flexor bursts, respectively. In the vast majority of locomotor episodes, cycle period varied more with the extension phase. This was found without phasic sensory feedback, supraspinal structures, pharmacology or sustained stimulation. We conclude that the control of walking speed is governed by an asymmetry within the organization of the spinal CPG, which can be modified by extraneous factors. PMID:19675066

  4. Description of the larva of Mitosynum vockerothi Campbell, 1982, with remarks on the adult male genital morphology (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Oxytelinae)

    PubMed Central

    Makranczy, György; Webster, Reginald P.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The previously unknown larva of Mitosynum vockerothi Campbell, 1982, is described and illustrated. Adult male terminalia and genitalia are illustrated with line drawings. Adults of this species exhibit little difference in size or external morphology between males and females. PMID:27110170

  5. Description of the larva of Mitosynum vockerothi Campbell, 1982, with remarks on the adult male genital morphology (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Oxytelinae).

    PubMed

    Makranczy, György; Webster, Reginald P

    2016-01-01

    The previously unknown larva of Mitosynum vockerothi Campbell, 1982, is described and illustrated. Adult male terminalia and genitalia are illustrated with line drawings. Adults of this species exhibit little difference in size or external morphology between males and females. PMID:27110170

  6. Surgical management of intradural spinal cord tumors in children and young adults: A single-center experience with 50 patients

    PubMed Central

    Özkan, Neriman; Jabbarli, Ramazan; Wrede, Karsten Henning; Sariaslan, Zeynep; Stein, Klaus Peter; Dammann, Philipp; Ringelstein, Adrian; Sure, Ulrich; Sandalcioglu, Erol Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intradural spinal cord tumors (IDSCTs) in children and young adults are rare diseases. This present study is aimed to demonstrate our experience with a large series of children and young adults with IDSCT. Methods: A total of 50 patients aged <20 years with IDSCT treated in our department between 1990 and 2010 were included in the study. Clinical, histological, and radiological findings, treatment strategies, and clinical outcome were retrospectively assessed. Depending on the relation to the spinal cord, IDSCT were dichotomized into intramedullary SCT (IMSCT) and extramedullary SCT (EMSCT). The functional outcome was evaluated with the Frankel score assessing the longest available follow-up period. Results: Mean age was 10.3 years (range 6 months–19 years). IDSCT surgery was performed in 44 patients (88%). A common first symptom in patients with EMSCT was neck and back pain (41%), whereas monoparesis of arms (43%) were often seen in patients with IMSCT. The main duration of the symptoms was longer in patients with IMSCT. The postoperative functional outcome was generally comparable to the preoperative functional condition, while better for EMSCT (P < 0.01). The functional outcome at last follow-up correlated significantly with the preoperative Frankel score (P < 0.002). Conclusion: Due to the mostly mild impact of the surgery on the functional outcome, the surgical treatment of IDSCT in children and young patients can be uniquely advocated. PMID:26713174

  7. One-Stage Posterior Debridement and Transpedicular Screw Fixation for Treating Monosegmental Thoracic and Lumbar Spinal Tuberculosis in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhili; Peng, Aifeng; Long, Xinhua; Yang, Dong; Huang, Shanhu

    2014-01-01

    Spinal tuberculosis is still prevalent in some developing countries. The purpose of this study is to investigate the efficacy and safety of one-stage posterior debridement, autogenous bone grafting, and transpedicular screw fixation in treating monosegmental thoracic and lumbar tuberculosis in adults. 37 patients were retrospectively reviewed in this study. The data of images, operative time and blood loss volume, perioperative complications, time to achieve bony fusion, VAS score, and neurologic function preoperatively and postoperatively were collected. The mean follow-up period was 21.5 ± 3.5 months. The tuberculosis was cured after surgery in all patients, and no recurrence was observed. Bony fusion was achieved in all patients with a mean time of 5.6 ± 2.5 months. Neurological outcome did not change in one case with grade A, and increased by 1–3 grades in the other patients with nerve deficit. The average preoperative and postoperative VAS scores were 5.5 ± 2.23 and 1.5 ± 1.22, respectively; the difference was significant (P < 0.05). There were three perioperative complications (8.1%, 3/37) observed in this study. In conclusion, the procedure of one-stage posterior debridement, interbody fusion with autogenous bone grafting, and posterior fixation with pedicle screw is effective and safe for treating monosegmental thoracic and lumbar spinal tuberculosis in adults. PMID:24701134

  8. A New Adult Diet Formulation for Sterile Males of Anastrepha ludens and Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Orozco-Dávila, Dina; Quintero-Fong, Luis

    2015-08-01

    A new adult diet formulation was evaluated for sterile Anastrepha ludens (Loew) and Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) males at the emergence and release facility of fruit flies in Mexico. The formulation consists of hydrolyzed protein, sugar, juvenile hormone analogue methoprene, and water. The proportion of the ingredients between the solute (4% hydrolyzed protein and 96% sugar) and solvent (10% methoprene and 90% water) was 5:1. This new formulation was called the 1:24 formulation. The main objectives of this study were to develop a simple way to supply the 1:24 formulation to adults and to compare the sexual performance of these flies with the performance of flies fed a standard diet (called the Mubarqui formulation) used at the emergence and release facility of fruit flies in Mexico. The preparation, time, and cost also were evaluated. The results showed no significant differences in the sexual behaviors of the males (number of males mating, number of males calling, mating latency, and mating duration) between the 1:24 formulation and the Mubarqui formulation. However, the cost and the required preparation time are much lower for the 1:24 formulation process than for the Mubarqui formulation process. Based on these results, we recommend the 1:24 formulation as an additional adult diet option in the handling of sterile flies. Its application is practical and does not require changes in packaging systems. The contribution of our findings and their potential application to the improvement of the sterile insect technique are discussed. PMID:26470310

  9. Prenatal sex hormones, digit ratio, and face shape in adult males

    PubMed Central

    Weinberg, S. M.; Parsons, T. E.; Raffensperger, Z. D.; Marazita, M. L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Several reports have demonstrated a relationship between second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) and facial shape, suggesting that prenatal sex hormones play a role in the development of the craniofacial complex. Using 3D surface imaging and geometric morphometrics, we test the hypothesis that decreased digit ratio (indicative of increased prenatal androgen exposure) is associated with a more masculine facial phenotype. Methods 3D facial surface images and digit measures were collected on a sample of 151 adult males. Facial landmarks collected from the images were aligned by Procrustes superimposition and the resulting shape coordinates regressed on 2D:4D. Variations in facial shape related to 2D:4D were visualized with deformable surface warps. Results A significant statistical relationship was observed between facial shape variation and 2D:4D (p = 0.0084). Lower 2D:4D ratio in adult males was associated with increased facial width relative to height, increased mandibular prognathism, greater nasal projection, and increased upper and lower lip projection. Conclusions A statistical relationship between 2D:4D and facial shape in adult males was observed. Faces tended to look more masculine as 2D:4D decreased, suggesting a biologically plausible link between prenatal androgen exposure and the development of male facial characteristics. PMID:25257381

  10. Prenatal methamphetamine differentially alters myocardial sensitivity to ischemic injury in male and female adult hearts.

    PubMed

    Rorabaugh, Boyd R; Seeley, Sarah L; Bui, Albert D; Sprague, Lisanne; D'Souza, Manoranjan S

    2016-02-15

    Methamphetamine is one of the most common illicit drugs abused during pregnancy. The neurological effects of prenatal methamphetamine are well known. However, few studies have investigated the potential effects of prenatal methamphetamine on adult cardiovascular function. Previous work demonstrated that prenatal cocaine exposure increases sensitivity of the adult heart to ischemic injury. Methamphetamine and cocaine have different mechanisms of action, but both drugs exert their effects by increasing dopaminergic and adrenergic receptor stimulation. Thus the goal of this study was to determine whether prenatal methamphetamine also worsens ischemic injury in the adult heart. Pregnant rats were injected with methamphetamine (5 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) or saline throughout pregnancy. When pups reached 8 wk of age, their hearts were subjected to ischemia and reperfusion by means of a Langendorff isolated heart system. Prenatal methamphetamine had no significant effect on infarct size, preischemic contractile function, or postischemic recovery of contractile function in male hearts. However, methamphetamine-treated female hearts exhibited significantly larger infarcts and significantly elevated end-diastolic pressure during recovery from ischemia. Methamphetamine significantly reduced protein kinase Cε expression and Akt phosphorylation in female hearts but had no effect on these cardioprotective proteins in male hearts. These data indicate that prenatal methamphetamine differentially affects male and female sensitivity to myocardial ischemic injury and alters cardioprotective signaling proteins in the adult heart. PMID:26683901

  11. Depressive-like behavioral response of adult male rhesus monkeys during routine animal husbandry procedure.

    PubMed

    Hennessy, Michael B; McCowan, Brenda; Jiang, Jing; Capitanio, John P

    2014-01-01

    Social isolation is a major risk factor for the development of depressive illness; yet, no practical nonhuman primate model is available for studying processes involved in this effect. In a first study, we noted that adult male rhesus monkeys housed individually indoors occasionally exhibited a hunched, depressive-like posture. Therefore, Study 2 investigated the occurrence of a hunched posture by adult males brought from outdoor social groups to indoor individual housing. We also scored two other behaviors-lying on the substrate and day time sleeping-that convey an impression of depression. During the first week of observation following individual housing, 18 of 26 adult males exhibited the hunched posture and 21 of 26 displayed at least one depressive-like behavior. Over 2 weeks, 23 of 26 males showed depressive-like behavior during a total of only 20 min observation. Further, the behavior during the first week was positively related to the level of initial response to a maternal separation procedure experienced in infancy. In Study 3, more than half of 23 adult males of a new sample displayed depressive-like behavior during 10 min of observation each of Weeks 7-14 of individual housing. The surprisingly high frequency of depressive-like behavior in Studies 2 and 3 may have been due to recording behavior via camera with no human in the room to elicit competing responses. These results suggest that a common animal husbandry procedure might provide a practical means for examining effects of social isolation on depression-related endpoints in a nonhuman primate. The findings also suggest that trait-like differences in emotional responsiveness during separation in infancy may predict differences in responsiveness during social isolation in adulthood. PMID:25249954

  12. Correlates of Life Satisfaction, Residential Satisfaction, and Locus of Control among Adults with Spinal Cord Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boschen, Kathryn A.

    1996-01-01

    Examined life satisfaction, residential satisfaction, locus of control, and their correlates among a sample of 82 urban-dwelling individuals with spinal cord injuries. Results indicated that life satisfaction was virtually synonymous with self-concept. Residential satisfaction was tied to perceived residential choice and to issues surrounding…

  13. Temporal Response of Endogenous Neural Progenitor Cells Following Injury to the Adult Rat Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Yilin; Mathews, Kathryn; Gorrie, Catherine A.

    2016-01-01

    A pool of endogenous neural progenitor cells (NPCs) found in the ependymal layer and the sub-ependymal area of the spinal cord are reported to upregulate Nestin in response to traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). These cells could potentially be manipulated within a critical time period offering an innovative approach to the repair of SCI. However, little is known about the temporal response of endogenous NPCs following SCI. This study used a mild contusion injury in rat spinal cord and immunohistochemistry to determine the temporal response of ependymal NPCs following injury and their correlation to astrocyte activation at the lesion edge. The results from the study demonstrated that Nestin staining intensity at the central canal peaked at 24 h post-injury and then gradually declined over time. Reactive astrocytes double labeled by Nestin and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) were found at the lesion edge and commenced to form the glial scar from 1 week after injury. We conclude that the critical time period for manipulating endogenous NPCs following a spinal cod injury in rats is between 24 h when Nestin expression in ependymal cells is increased and 1 week when astrocytes are activated in large numbers. PMID:27013972

  14. Effects of A Voltage Sensitive Calcium Channel Blocker and A Sodium-Calcium Exchanger Inhibitor on Apoptosis of Motor Neurons in Adult Spinal Cord Slices

    PubMed Central

    Momeni, Hamid Reza; Jarahzadeh, Mahsa

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The apoptosis of motor neurons is a critical phenomenon in spinal cord injuries. Adult spinal cord slices were used to investigate whether voltage sensitive calcium channels and Na+/Ca2+ exchangers play a role in the apoptosis of motor neurons. Materials and Methods: In this experimental research, the thoracic region of the adult mouse spinal cord was sliced using a tissue chopper and the slices were incubated in a culture medium in the presence or absence of N/L type voltage sensitive calcium channels blocker (loperamide, 100 µM) or Na+/Ca2+ exchangers inhibitor(bepridil, 20 µM) for 6 hours. 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5 diphenyl tetrazolium (MTT) staining was used to assess slice viability while morphological features of apoptosis in motor neurons were studied using fluorescent staining. Results: After 6 hours in culture, loperamideand bepridil not only increased slice viability, but also prevented motor neuron apoptosis and significantly increased the percentage of viable motor neurons in the ventral horns of the spinal cord. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that voltage sensitive calcium channels and Na+/Ca2+ exchanger might be involved in the apoptosis of motor neurons in adult spinal cord slices. PMID:23508879

  15. Differentiation in boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain: a BNCT approach.

    PubMed

    Goodarzi, Samereh; Pazirandeh, Ali; Jameie, Seyed Behnamedin; Khojasteh, Nasrin Baghban

    2012-06-01

    Boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain after boron carrier injection (0.005 g Boric Acid+0.005 g Borax+10 ml distilled water, pH: 7.4) was studied in this research. Coronal sections of control and trial animal tissue samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons. Using alpha autoradiography, significant differences in boron concentration were seen in forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain sections of male and female animal groups with the highest value, four hours after boron compound injection. PMID:22484141

  16. Aripiprazole-Induced Hypoprolactinemia in an Adult Male with First-Episode Psychosis.

    PubMed

    Propst, Alanna J; Jarvis, G Eric; Margolese, Howard C

    2016-01-01

    Aripiprazole is an atypical antipsychotic that acts as a partial agonist at dopamine D2 receptors. Compared to other atypical antipsychotics, aripiprazole has less metabolic side effects and is less likely to increase prolactin. Moreover, it has been shown to have a unique prolactin lowering effect. While aripiprazole has been associated with subnormal prolactin levels in children, no documented cases of hypoprolactinemia in adults exist thus far. Here we report a case of aripiprazole-induced hypoprolactinemia in an adult male with first-episode psychosis, and the possible effects of abnormally low prolactin are discussed. PMID:25711510

  17. Childhood Attachment and Adult Attachment in Incarcerated Adult Male Sex Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smallbone, Stephen W.; Dadds, Mark R.

    1998-01-01

    Forty-eight incarcerated sex offenders were compared with 16 property offenders and 16 nonoffenders on self-report measures of childhood maternal and paternal attachment and adult attachment. Results suggest that insecure childhood attachments may be related to offending behavior generally and that certain combinations of childhood attachment…

  18. Secular trend for stature in adult male Yucatec Maya to 1968.

    PubMed

    McCullough, J M

    1982-06-01

    Statures for 64 adult male Yucatec Maya (18 + years old, sons of campesinos) were measured in 1968 and compared with mean statures presented in results for previous studies. There were no significant changes in mean stature since 1895. If the sample is divided into 5-year age groups, no secular trend is evident. Using osteological information from as early as the Late Preclassic, stature of adult Maya males has decreased 119 mm in a little more than 20 centuries (-0.06 cm/decade). Comparing the results with measurements from other Mesoamerican groups, only one--the Otomí--show evidence of significant secular change. It is possible that modern economic development schemes in Mesoamerica are too recent or ineffective to have had an effect on stature. PMID:7114203

  19. IQ, handedness, and pedophilia in adult male patients stratified by referral source.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Ray; Kolla, Nathan J; Cantor, James M; Klassen, Philip E; Dickey, Robert; Kuban, Michael E; Blak, Thomas

    2007-09-01

    This study investigated whether the previously observed association of pedophilia with lower IQs is an artifact of heterogeneity in referral source. The subjects were 832 adult male patients referred to a specialty clinic for evaluation of their sexual behavior. The patients' erotic preferences for prepubescent, pubescent, or adult partners were assessed with phallometric testing. Full scale IQ was estimated using six subtests from the WAIS-R. The results showed that the relations between pedophilia and lower IQ, lesser education, and increased rates of non-right-handedness were the same in homogeneous groups referred by lawyers or parole and probation officers as they were in a heterogeneous group referred by a miscellany of other sources. Those results, along with secondary analyses in the study, supported the conclusion that the relation between pedophilia and cognitive function is genuine and not artifactual. The findings were interpreted as evidence for the hypothesis that neurodevelopmental perturbations increase the risk of pedophilia in males. PMID:17634757

  20. Early life stress induces renal dysfunction in adult male rats but not female rats

    PubMed Central

    Loria, Analia S.; Yamamoto, Tatsuo; Pollock, Jennifer S.

    2013-01-01

    Maternal separation (MatSep) is a model of behavioral stress during early life. We reported that MatSep exacerbates ANG II-induced hypertension in adult male rats. The aims of this study were to determine whether exposure to MatSep in female rats sensitizes blood pressure to ANG II infusion similar to male MatSep rats and to elucidate renal mechanisms involved in the response in MatSep rats. Wistar Kyoto (WKY) pups were exposed to MatSep 3 h/day from days 2 to 14, while control rats remained with their mothers. ANG II-induced mean arterial pressure (MAP; telemetry) was enhanced in female MatSep rats compared with control female rats but delayed compared with male MatSep rats. Creatinine clearance (Ccr) was reduced in male MatSep rats compared with control rats at baseline and after ANG II infusion. ANG II infusion significantly increased T cells in the renal cortex and greater histological damage in the interstitial arteries of male MatSep rats compared with control male rats. Plasma testosterone was greater and estradiol was lower in male MatSep rats compared with control rats with ANG II infusion. ANG II infusion failed to increase blood pressure in orchidectomized male MatSep and control rats. Female MatSep and control rats had similar Ccr, histological renal analysis, and sex hormones at baseline and after ANG II infusion. These data indicate that during ANG II-induced hypertension, MatSep sensitizes the renal phenotype in male but not female rats. PMID:23174859

  1. Patterns of coping preferences for male and female caregivers of frail older adults.

    PubMed

    DeVries, H M; Hamilton, D W; Lovett, S; Gallagher-Thompson, D

    1997-06-01

    The similarities and differences in male and female caregivers' preferred strategies for coping and the perceived helpfulness of these strategies in managing caregiving stressors were examined in this study. Respondents were 170 caregivers (139 women and 31 men) who were primary caregivers for an elderly adult relative who was either cognitively impaired or physically frail. Results provide preliminary evidence that gender is related to frequency of use but not to the perceived helpfulness of specific coping strategies. PMID:9189986

  2. Effect of estrogen receptor-subtype-specific ligands on fertility in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Dumasia, Kushaan; Kumar, Anita; Kadam, Leena; Balasinor, N H

    2015-06-01

    Maintenance of normal male fertility relies on the process of spermatogenesis which is under complex endocrine control by mechanisms involving gonadotropin and steroid hormones. Although testosterone is the primary sex steroid in males, estrogen is locally produced in the testis and plays a very crucial role in male fertility. This is evident from presence of both the estrogen receptors alpha (ERα) and beta (ERβ) in the testis and their absence, as in the case of knockout mice models, leads to sterility. The present study was undertaken to understand individual roles of the two ERs in spermatogenesis and their direct contribution towards the maintenance of male fertility using receptor-subtype-specific ligands. Administration of ERα and β agonists to adult male rats for 60 days results in a significant decrease in fertility, mainly due to an increase in pre- and post-implantation loss and a concomitant decrease in litter size and sperm counts. Our results indicate that ERα is mainly involved in negative feedback regulation of gonadotropin hormones, whereas both ERs are involved in regulation of prolactin and testosterone production. Histological examinations of the testis reveal that ERβ could be involved in the process of spermiation since many failed spermatids were observed in stages IX-XI following ERβ agonist treatment. Our results indicate that overactivation of estrogen signaling through either of its receptors can have detrimental effects on the fertility parameters and that the two ERs have both overlapping and distinct roles in maintenance of male fertility. PMID:25869617

  3. Effectiveness and safety of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 for adults with lumbar spine pseudarthrosis following spinal fusion surgery

    PubMed Central

    Balaji, V.; Kaila, R.; Wilson, L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We performed a systematic review of the literature to determine the safety and efficacy of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) compared with bone graft when used specifically for revision spinal fusion surgery secondary to pseudarthrosis. Methods The MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Library databases were searched using defined search terms. The primary outcome measure was spinal fusion, assessed as success or failure in accordance with radiograph, MRI or CT scan review at 24-month follow-up. The secondary outcome measure was time to fusion. Results A total of six studies (three prospective and three retrospective) reporting on the use of BMP2 met the inclusion criteria (203 patients). Of these, four provided a comparison of BMP2 and bone graft whereas the other two solely investigated the use of BMP2. The primary outcome was seen in 92.3% (108/117) of patients following surgery with BMP2. Although none of the studies showed superiority of BMP2 to bone graft for fusion, its use was associated with a statistically quicker time to achieving fusion. BMP2 did not appear to increase the risk of complication. Conclusion The use of BMP2 is both safe and effective within the revision setting, ideally in cases where bone graft is unavailable or undesirable. Further research is required to define its optimum role. Cite this article: Mr P. Bodalia. Effectiveness and safety of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 for adults with lumbar spine pseudarthrosis following spinal fusion surgery: A systematic review. Bone Joint Res 2016;5:145–152. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.54.2000418. PMID:27121215

  4. Vocal register effects on vowel spectral noise and roughness: findings for adult males.

    PubMed

    Emanuel, F; Scarinzi, A

    1980-03-01

    This study was the second in a series designed to investigate the effects of vocal register (vocal, fry, modal, and falsetto) on the perceived roughness and spectral noise level of isolated test vowels. The first study (reported previously) was concerned with such effects on the phonations of adult females; in this study the phonations of adult males were investigated. Each of 15 male subjects produced at a controlled intensity each of two test vowels (/u/ and /ae/) in each of three vocal registers. Eleven listeners subsequently rated the test samples for roughness on a 5-point equal-appearing intervals scale. The criterion measure of roughness for each sample was the median of listener ratings (MRR). Each sample was also analyzed to produce its 3-Hz bandwidth acoustic spectrum from which measures of vowel spectral noise were obtained. The criterion measure of spectral noise level (SNL) for each test sample was the mean of 25 measures taken in the frequency range from 100 to 2600 Hz. The major finding was that the MRR and SNL for productions of both test vowels diminished significantly across vocal registers; i.e., from fry, to modal, to falsetto. In general, the present findings for males appeared consistent with those we reported earlier for phonations by adult females. PMID:7358873

  5. An In-Depth Comparison of the Male Pediatric and Adult Urinary Proteomes

    PubMed Central

    Froehlich, John W.; Vaezzadeh, Ali R.; Kirchner, Marc; Briscoe, Andrew C.; Hofmann, Oliver; Hide, Winston; Steen, Hanno; Lee, Richard S.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we performed an in-depth characterization of the male pediatric infant urinary proteome by parallel proteomic analysis of normal healthy adult (n =6) and infant (n =6) males and comparison to available published data. A total of 1584 protein groups were identified. Of these, 708 proteins were identified in samples from both cohorts. Although present in both cohorts, 136 of these common proteins were significantly enriched in urine from adults and 94 proteins were significantly enriched in urine from infants. Using Gene Ontology, we found that the infant-enriched or specific subproteome (743 proteins) had an overrepresentation of proteins that are involved in translation and transcription, cellular growth and metabolic processes. In contrast, the adult enriched or specific subproteome (364 proteins) showed an overexpression of proteins involved in immune response and cell adhesion. This study demonstrates that the non-diseased male urinary proteome is quantitatively affected by age, has age-specific subproteomes, and identifies a common subproteome with no age-dependent abundance variations. These findings highlight the importance of age-matching in urinary proteomics. PMID:23707565

  6. Effect of different doses of Malaysian honey on reproductive parameters in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, M; Sulaiman, S A; Jaafar, H; Sirajudeen, K N S

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different doses of Malaysian honey on male reproductive parameters in adult rats. Thirty-two healthy adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups (eight rats per group). Group 1 (control group) was given 0.5 ml of distilled water. Groups 2, 3 and 4 were given 0.2, 1.2 and 2.4 g kg(-1) body weight of honey respectively. The rats were treated orally by gavage once daily for 4 weeks. Honey did not significantly alter body and male reproductive organs weights. The rats in Group 3 which received honey at 1.2 g kg(-1) had significantly higher epididymal sperm count than those in Groups 1, 2 and 4. No significant differences were found for the percentage of abnormal sperm, elongated spermatid count, reproductive hormonal levels as well as the histology of the testis among the groups. In conclusion, Malaysian honey at a dose of 1.2 g kg(-1) daily significantly increased epididymal sperm count without affecting spermatid count and reproductive hormones. These findings might suggest that oral administration of honey at this dose for 4 weeks may enhance spermiogenesis in adult rats. PMID:21592175

  7. [Long-term plasticity of HVC-RA synapses in adult male zebra finches].

    PubMed

    Li, Feng-Ling; Li, Dong-Feng

    2013-12-25

    Long-term synaptic plasticity is considered as a key part of the neural mechanism of learning and memory. The production of learned vocalization of male zebra finches is closely related to high vocal center (HVC)-robust nucleus of the arcopallium (RA) pathway. However, the long-term plasticity of HVC-RA synapses is unclear. This study investigated the long-term plasticity of HVC-RA synapses in adult male zebra finches through in vivo field potential recording. The results showed that physiologic stimulation, i.e., δ rhythmic stimulation and low frequency stimulation could not effectively induce long-term synaptic plasticity. The former leaded to no change of the amplitudes of evoked population spikes, and the latter induced short-term depression (STD) of the amplitudes of the second evoked population spikes caused by paired pulses. But high frequency stimulation induced long-term depression (LTD) of the amplitudes of evoked population spikes to show out long-term synaptic plasticity. These results suggest that LTD represents the long-term plasticity of HVC-RA synapses in adult male zebra finches, which may be a key part of the neural mechanism of vocal learning and memory and can explain the plasticity of adult song to some degree. PMID:24343715

  8. ChIP-Seq analysis of the adult male mouse brain after developmental exposure to arsenic.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Christina R; Weber, Jessica A; Labrecque, Matthew; Hessinger, Justin M; Edwards, Jeremy S; Allan, Andrea M

    2015-12-01

    Exposure to the common environmental contaminant arsenic impacts the epigenetic landscape, including DNA methylation and histone modifications, of several cell types. Developmental arsenic exposure (DAE) increases acetylation and methylation of histone proteins and the protein expression of several chromatin-modifying enzymes in the dentate gyrus (DG) subregion of the adult male mouse brain [26]. To complement and support these data, ChIP-Seq analysis of DNA associated with trimethylation of histone 3 lysine 4 (H3K4me3) derived from the adult male DG after DAE was performed. DAE induced differential H3K4me3 enrichment on genes in pathways associated with cellular development and growth, cell death and survival, and neurological disorders, particularly as they relate to cancer, in the adult male brain. Comparison of H3K4me3 enrichment in controls revealed mechanisms that are potentially lacking in arsenic-exposed animals, including neurotransmission, neuronal growth and development, hormonal regulation, protein synthesis, and cellular homeostasis. New pathways impacted by arsenic include cytoskeleton organization, cell signaling, and potential disruption of immune function and warrant further investigation using this DAE paradigm in the mouse brain. PMID:26543888

  9. Hybrid Computational Phantoms Representing the Reference Adult Male and Adult Female: Construction and Applications for Retrospective Dosimetry

    PubMed Central

    Hurtado, Jorge L.; Lee, Choonsik; Lodwick, Daniel; Goede, Timothy; Williams, Jonathan L.; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2013-01-01

    Currently, two classes of the computational phantoms have been developed for dosimetry calculation: (1) stylized (or mathematical) and (2) voxel (or tomographic) phantoms describing human anatomy through mathematical surface equations and 3D voxel matrices, respectively. Mathematical surface equations in stylized phantoms are flexible but the resulting anatomy is not as realistic. Voxel phantoms display far better anatomical realism, but they are limited in terms of their ability to alter organ shape, position, and depth, as well as body posture. A new class of computational phantoms - called hybrid phantoms - takes advantage of the best features of stylized and voxel phantoms - flexibility and anatomical realism, respectively. In the current study, hybrid computational phantoms representing the adult male and female reference anatomy and anthropometry are presented. These phantoms serve as the starting framework for creating patient or worker sculpted whole-body phantoms for retrospective dose reconstruction. Contours of major organs and tissues were converted or segmented from computed tomography images of a 36-year Korean volunteer and a 25-year U.S. female patient, respectively, with supplemental high-resolution CT images for the cranium. Polygon mesh models for the major organs and tissues were reconstructed and imported into Rhinoceros™ for non-uniform rational B-spline (NURBS) surface modeling. The resulting NURBS/polygon mesh models representing body contour and internal anatomy were matched to anthropometric data and reference organ mass data provided by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP), respectively. Finally, two hybrid adult male and female phantoms were completed where a total of 8 anthropometric data categories were matched to standard values within 4% and organ volumes matched to ICRP data within 1% with the exception of total skin. The hybrid phantoms were voxelized from

  10. Hybrid computational phantoms representing the reference adult male and adult female: construction and applications for retrospective dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Hurtado, Jorge L; Lee, Choonsik; Lodwick, Daniel; Goede, Timothy; Williams, Jonathan L; Bolch, Wesley E

    2012-03-01

    Currently, two classes of computational phantoms have been developed for dosimetry calculation: (1) stylized (or mathematical) and (2) voxel (or tomographic) phantoms describing human anatomy through mathematical surface equations and 3D voxel matrices, respectively. Mathematical surface equations in stylized phantoms are flexible, but the resulting anatomy is not as realistic. Voxel phantoms display far better anatomical realism, but they are limited in terms of their ability to alter organ shape, position, and depth, as well as body posture. A new class of computational phantoms called hybrid phantoms takes advantage of the best features of stylized and voxel phantoms-flexibility and anatomical realism, respectively. In the current study, hybrid computational phantoms representing the adult male and female reference anatomy and anthropometry are presented. These phantoms serve as the starting framework for creating patient or worker sculpted whole-body phantoms for retrospective dose reconstruction. Contours of major organs and tissues were converted or segmented from computed tomography images of a 36-y-old Korean volunteer and a 25-y-old U.S. female patient, respectively, with supplemental high-resolution CT images of the cranium. Polygon mesh models for the major organs and tissues were reconstructed and imported into Rhinoceros™ for non-uniform rational B-spline (NURBS) surface modeling. The resulting NURBS/polygon mesh models representing body contour and internal anatomy were matched to anthropometric data and reference organ mass data provided by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and International Commission on Radiation Protection, respectively. Finally, two hybrid adult male and female phantoms were completed where a total of eight anthropometric data categories were matched to standard values within 4% and organ volumes matched to ICRP data within 1% with the exception of total skin. The hybrid phantoms were voxelized from the NURBS phantoms

  11. Are males and females sexually abused as children socially anxious adults?

    PubMed

    Rojas, Ariz; Kinder, Bill N

    2009-01-01

    It is well documented that childhood sexual abuse is associated with deleterious outcomes in the areas of anxiety, depression, and sexual functioning. However, very little research has been conducted to specifically investigate childhood sexual abuse's relationship to adult social anxiety in both males and females. Participants included 250 undergraduate students from a large metropolitan university. Results indicated that almost one-third of males and a little over a third of females reported being sexually abused as a child or adolescent. Although a large portion of the sample exhibited socially anxious symptomology, childhood sexual abuse did not place males and females at increased risk for social anxiety. The use of a nonclinical, college student sample may provide researchers the opportunity to investigate resiliency in individuals with a history of childhood sexual abuse. PMID:19842534

  12. Adoptive transfer of M2 macrophages promotes locomotor recovery in adult rats after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shan-Feng; Chen, Yue-Juan; Zhang, Jing-Xing; Shen, Lin; Wang, Rui; Zhou, Jian-Sheng; Hu, Jian-Guo; Lü, He-Zuo

    2015-03-01

    Classically activated pro-inflammatory (M1) and alternatively activated anti-inflammatory (M2) macrophages populate the local microenvironment after spinal cord injury (SCI). The former type is neurotoxic while the latter has positive effects on neuroregeneration and is less toxic. In addition, while the M1 macrophage response is rapidly induced and sustained, M2 induction is transient. A promising strategy for the repair of SCI is to increase the fraction of M2 cells and prolong their residence time. This study investigated the effect of M2 macrophages induced from bone marrow-derived macrophages on the local microenvironment and their possible role in neuroprotection after SCI. M2 macrophages produced anti-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-10 and transforming growth factor β and infiltrated into the injured spinal cord, stimulated M2 and helper T (Th)2 cells, and produced high levels of IL-10 and -13 at the site of injury. M2 cell transfer decreased spinal cord lesion volume and resulted in increased myelination of axons and preservation of neurons. This was accompanied by significant locomotor improvement as revealed by Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan locomotor rating scale, grid walk and footprint analyses. These results indicate that M2 adoptive transfer has beneficial effects for the injured spinal cord, in which the increased number of M2 macrophages causes a shift in the immunological response from Th1- to Th2-dominated through the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines, which in turn induces the polarization of local microglia and/or macrophages to the M2 subtype, and creates a local microenvironment that is conducive to the rescue of residual myelin and neurons and preservation of neuronal function. PMID:25476600

  13. Antinociceptive Effects of Spinal Manipulative Therapy on Nociceptive Behavior of Adult Rats during the Formalin Test

    PubMed Central

    Onifer, Stephen M.; Reed, William R.; Sozio, Randall S.; Long, Cynthia R.

    2015-01-01

    Optimizing pain relief resulting from spinal manipulative therapies, including low velocity variable amplitude spinal manipulation (LVVA-SM), requires determining their mechanisms. Pain models that incorporate simulated spinal manipulative therapy treatments are needed for these studies. The antinociceptive effects of a single LVVA-SM treatment on rat nociceptive behavior during the commonly used formalin test were investigated. Dilute formalin was injected subcutaneously into a plantar hindpaw. Licking behavior was video-recorded for 5 minutes. Ten minutes of LVVA-SM at 20° flexion was administered with a custom-made device at the lumbar (L5) vertebra of isoflurane-anesthetized experimental rats (n = 12) beginning 10 minutes after formalin injection. Hindpaw licking was video-recorded for 60 minutes beginning 5 minutes after LVVA-SM. Control rats (n = 12) underwent the same methods except for LVVA-SM. The mean times spent licking the formalin-injected hindpaw of both groups 1–5 minutes after injection were not different. The mean licking time during the first 20 minutes post-LVVA-SM of experimental rats was significantly less than that of control rats (P < 0.001). The mean licking times of both groups during the second and third 20 minutes post-LVVA-SM were not different. Administration of LVVA-SM had a short-term, remote antinociceptive effect similar to clinical findings. Therefore, mechanistic investigations using this experimental approach are warranted. PMID:26693243

  14. Functional Electrical Stimulation Helps Replenish Progenitor Cells in the Injured Spinal Cord of Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Daniel; Gary, Devin S.; Rosenzweig, Ephron S.; Grill, Warren M.; McDonald, John W.

    2010-01-01

    Functional electrical stimulation (FES) can restore control and offset atrophy to muscles after neurological injury. However, FES has not been considered as a method for enhancing CNS regeneration. This paper demonstrates that FES dramatically enhanced progenitor cell birth in the spinal cord of rats with a chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). A complete SCI at thoracic level 8/9 was performed on 12 rats. Three weeks later, a FES device to stimulate hindlimb movement was implanted into these rats. Twelve identically-injured rats received inactive FES implants. An additional control group of uninjured rats were also examined. Ten days after FES implantation, dividing cells were marked with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). The ‘cell birth’ subgroup (half the animals in each group) was sacrificed immediately after completion of BrdU administration, and the ‘cell survival’ subgroup was sacrificed 7 days later. In the injured ‘cell birth’ subgroup, FES induced an 82-86 % increase in cell birth in the lumbar spinal cord. In the injured ‘cell survival’ subgroup, the increased lumbar newborn cell counts persisted. FES doubled the proportion of the newly-born cells which expressed nestin and other markers suggestive of tripotential progenitors. In uninjured rats, FES had no effect on cell birth/survival. This report suggests that controlled electrical activation of the CNS may enhance spontaneous regeneration after neurological injuries. PMID:20059998

  15. Effects of In Utero Exposure to Bisphenol A or Diethylstilbestrol on the Adult Male Reproductive System

    PubMed Central

    LaRocca, Jessica; Boyajian, Alanna; Brown, Caitlin; Smith, Stuart Duncan; Hixon, Mary

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if in utero exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA) induced reproductive tract abnormalities in the adult male testis. Using the C57/Bl6 mouse, we examined sex-organ weights, anogenital distance (AGD), and testis histopathology in adult males exposed in utero via oral gavage to sesame oil, 50 μg/kg BPA, 1,000 μg/kg BPA, or 2 μg/kg diethylstilbestrol (DES) as a positive control from gestational days 10–16. No changes in sperm production or germ cell apoptosis were observed in adult testes following exposure to either chemical. Adult mRNA levels of genes associated with sexual maturation and differentiation, GATA4 and ID2, were significantly lower only in DES-exposed testes. In summary, the data indicate no gross alterations in spermatogenesis following in utero exposure to BPA or DES. At the molecular level, in utero exposure to DES, but not BPA, leads to decreased mRNA expression of genes associated with Sertoli cell differentiation. PMID:21922642

  16. Differential Activation of TRP Channels in the Adult Rat Spinal Substantia Gelatinosa by Stereoisomers of Plant-Derived Chemicals.

    PubMed

    Kumamoto, Eiichi; Fujita, Tsugumi

    2016-01-01

    Activation of TRPV1, TRPA1 or TRPM8 channel expressed in the central terminal of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neuron increases the spontaneous release of l-glutamate onto spinal dorsal horn lamina II (substantia gelatinosa; SG) neurons which play a pivotal role in regulating nociceptive transmission. The TRP channels are activated by various plant-derived chemicals. Although stereoisomers activate or modulate ion channels in a distinct manner, this phenomenon is not fully addressed for TRP channels. By applying the whole-cell patch-clamp technique to SG neurons of adult rat spinal cord slices, we found out that all of plant-derived chemicals, carvacrol, thymol, carvone and cineole, increase the frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic current, a measure of the spontaneous release of l-glutamate from nerve terminals, by activating TRP channels. The presynaptic activities were different between stereoisomers (carvacrol and thymol; (-)-carvone and (+)-carvone; 1,8-cineole and 1,4-cineole) in the extent or the types of TRP channels activated, indicating that TRP channels in the SG are activated by stereoisomers in a distinct manner. This result could serve to know the properties of the central terminal TRP channels that are targets of drugs for alleviating pain. PMID:27483289

  17. Horizontal Ladder Task-Specific Re-training in Adult Rats with Contusive Thoracic Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Onifer, Stephen M.; Zhang, Oliver; Whitnel-Smith, Laura K.; Raza, Kashif; O'Dell, Christopher R.; Lyttle, Travis S.; Rabchevsky, Alexander G.; Kitzman, Patrick H.; Burke, Darlene A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Using the horizontal ladder task, we examined some issues that need to be resolved before task-specific rehabilitative training can be employed clinically for the frequent contusive spinal cord injury (SCI). We hypothesized that improving recovery in task performance after contusive thoracic SCI requires frequent re-training and initiating the re-training early during spontaneous recovery. Methods Contusive SCI was produced at the adult female Sprague Dawley rat T10 vertebra. Task re-training was initiated one week later when occasional weight-supported plantar steps were taken overground (n=8). It consisted of 2 repetitions each day, 5 days each week, for 3 weeks. Task performance and overground locomotion were assessed weekly. Neurotransmission through the SCI ventrolateral funiculus was examined. SCI morphometry was determined. Results Re-training did not improve task performance recovery compared to untrained Controls (n=7). Untrained overground locomotion and neurotransmission through the SCI did not change. Lesion area at the injury epicenter as a percentage of the total spinal cord area as well as total tissue, lesion, and spared tissue, white matter, or gray matter volumes did not differ. Conclusions For the horizontal ladder task after contusive thoracic SCI, earlier re-training sessions with more repetitions and critical neural circuitry may be necessary to engender a rehabilitation effect. PMID:21697591

  18. Sexual odor discrimination and physiological profiles in adult male rats after a neonatal, short term, reversible nasal obstruction.

    PubMed

    Thornton, S N; Padzys, G S; Trabalon, M

    2014-05-01

    The present study was designed to examine behavioral responses (interpreted as preferences) to olfactory cues (nest bedding odor and odors of estrous and anestrus females) in adult male rats after they had a short term reversible, bilateral, nasal obstruction (RbNO) as developing rat pups. These results were compared to behavior of control (untreated) and sham operated male littermates. Behavioral tests and physiological parameters were analyzed 90 days after recovery of nasal breathing. Experiments investigated the time spent in arms or the center of a maze of male rats in response to odors from the nest bedding or from adult females. There were no differences in responses between untreated, sham and RbNO adult male rats to fresh and nest bedding odors. RbNO males spent more time in the center of the maze when given a choice of estrus or anestrus female odors, or bedding odors from untreated or sham operated female rats. In contrast untreated and sham male rats preferred the odors of estrous females and of untreated or sham females. Plasma corticosterone levels in the males increased during the behavioral tests. Plasma testosterone levels were significantly lower in RbNO males compared to untreated males and did not increase during the behavioral tests compared to sham operated males. Males from all groups had similar preferences for the odor of bedding from adult RbNO females. Plasma levels of cholesterol and triglycerides were increased in RbNO adults. In conclusion, short term nasal obstruction in males while juvenile has long term consequences on hormones and behavioral preferences, thus potential partner selection when adult. PMID:24769524

  19. Effects of neonatal capsaicin treatment on descending modulation of spinal nociception from the rostral, medial medulla in adult rat.

    PubMed

    Zhuo, M; Gebhart, G F

    1994-05-01

    Stimulation-produced modulation from the rostral, medial medulla (RMM) on the spinal nociceptive tail-flick (TF) reflex and on lumbar spinal dorsal horn neuron responses to noxious cutaneous stimuli was studied in adult rats treated as neonates with capsaicin or vehicle. In vehicle-treated rats (n = 7), both descending facilitatory and inhibitory influences on the TF reflex were produced from the RMM. At 11/23 sites in the RMM, electrical stimulation produced biphasic modulatory effects. Electrical stimulation facilitated the spinal nociceptive TF reflex at low intensities (5-25 microA) and inhibited the TF reflex at greater intensities (50-200 microA). The mean threshold intensity of stimulation to inhibit the TF reflex (cut-off time = 7.0 s) was 66 microA (n = 11). At 11 of 23 sites, electrical stimulation only inhibited the TF reflex; the mean threshold intensity of stimulation to inhibit the TF reflex was 50 microA (n = 11). At one stimulation site, electrical stimulation only facilitated the TF reflex at the intensities tested (5-100 microA). In capsaicin-treated rats (n = 6), the proportion of sites from which electrical stimulation only inhibited the TF reflex was significantly less (3/27 sites = 11%) than in vehicle-treated rats (11/23 = 48%). The threshold intensity of stimulation to inhibit the TF reflex from these three sites was 50 microA. The number of sites in RMM from which electrical stimulation only facilitated the TF reflex was significantly greater in capsaicin-treated rats (15/27 = 56%) than in vehicle-treated rats (1/23 = 4%). Neither the number of sites in RMM from which electrical stimulation produced biphasic modulatory effects on the TF reflex (48% and 33%, respectively) nor the intensities of stimulation or magnitudes of facilitation or inhibition of the TF reflex significantly differed between vehicle- and capsaicin-treated rats. In electrophysiological experiments, all units studied responded to non-noxious and noxious intensities of

  20. Sun protection preferences and behaviors among young adult males during maximum ultraviolet radiation exposure activities.

    PubMed

    Wickenheiser, Marilyn; Baker, Mary Kate; Gaber, Rikki; Blatt, Hanz; Robinson, June K

    2013-08-01

    This study explores sun protection attitudes, preferences, and behaviors among young adult males participating in an open-field activity with extreme ultraviolet radiation exposure. Male drum corps members (n = 137) responded to survey questions regarding their behavior and willingness to engage in sun protection and barriers to sunscreen usage. A subset of members (n = 31) participated in cognitive interviews exploring various sunscreen products and intervention techniques. Participants were knowledgeable about health risks and protection benefits regarding sun exposure. Generally, males had positive attitudes and normative beliefs about using sunscreen. A barrier to sunscreen re-application was lack of adequate time to reapply sunscreen during the open field activity. Males preferred a towelette application method, but were unfamiliar with its efficacy and proper use. Thus, they were more likely to use the more familiar sunscreen spray. To increase sun protection behaviors and lower skin cancer risk for males participating in open-field activities, breaks must be allotted every 2 h and have sufficient time to allow sunscreen application. Future development and research into delivery systems that rapidly and evenly apply sunscreen may help lower exposure in this population. PMID:23912201

  1. Lead Exposure in Adult Males in Urban Transvaal Province, South Africa during the Apartheid Era

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Catherine A.; Cooper, Matthew J.; Smith, Martin J.; Trueman, Clive N.; Schutkowski, Holger

    2013-01-01

    Human exposure to lead is a substantial public health hazard worldwide and is particularly problematic in the Republic of South Africa given the country’s late cessation of leaded petrol. Lead exposure is associated with a number of serious health issues and diseases including developmental and cognitive deficiency, hypertension and heart disease. Understanding the distribution of lifetime lead burden within a given population is critical for reducing exposure rates. Femoral bone from 101 deceased adult males living in urban Transvaal Province (now Gauteng Province), South Africa between 1960 and 1998 were analyzed for lead concentration by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Of the 72 black and 29 white individuals sampled, chronic lead exposure was apparent in nearly all individuals. White males showed significantly higher median bone lead concentration (ME = 10.04 µg·g−1), than black males (ME = 3.80 µg·g−1) despite higher socioeconomic status. Bone lead concentration covaries significantly, though weakly, with individual age. There was no significant temporal trend in bone lead concentration. These results indicate that long-term low to moderate lead exposure is the historical norm among South African males. Unexpectedly, this research indicates that white males in the sample population were more highly exposed to lead. PMID:23505462

  2. Leptin inhibits the reproductive axis in adult male Syrian hamsters exposed to long and short photoperiod.

    PubMed

    Boggio, Veronica; Cutrera, Rodolfo; Carbone, Silvia; Scacchi, Pablo; Ponzo, Osvaldo J

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of acute leptin treatment of adult Syrian hamsters exposed to a long (LP, eugonadal males) and short photoperiod (SP, hypogonadal males). Animals were exposed to LP (L:D 14:10) or SP (L:D 10:14) for 10 weeks. Afterwards, both LP and SP hamsters were allocated to a control (SP-C, LP-C) or leptin-treated group (SP 3, SP 10, SP 30 or LP3, LP 10, LP 30). One hour before sacrifice, a single dose of leptin (3, 10 or 30 μg/kg) or vehicle was administered (i.p.) to the males. Testis weight, serum and pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH) concentrations, as well as the hypothalamic concentration of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) were recorded. Histological analysis of the testis was performed and GnRH concentration in the culture medium of hypothalamic explants was examined. A dramatic regression of testicular weight and histological atrophy of seminiferous tubules, as well as a decrease in serum and pituitary LH concentrations were found in SP males. All doses of leptin significantly reduced serum LH levels and medium GnRH concentrations in both photoperiod groups. Pituitary LH and hypothalamic GnRH concentrations were not affected by leptin. In conclusion, we demonstrated that leptin inhibited the reproductive axis of Syrian male hamsters exposed to LP and SP and fed ad libitum. PMID:24011191

  3. Adult Male Circumcision: Effects on Sexual Function and Sexual Satisfaction in Kisumu, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Krieger, John N.; Mehta, Supriya D.; Bailey, Robert C.; Agot, Kawango; Ndinya-Achola, Jeckoniah O.; Parker, Corette; Moses, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Male circumcision is being promoted for HIV prevention in high-risk heterosexual populations. However, there is a concern that circumcision may impair sexual function. Aim To assess adult male circumcision’s effect on men’s sexual function and pleasure. Methods Participants in a controlled trial of circumcision to reduce HIV incidence in Kisumu, Kenya were uncircumcised, HIV negative, sexually active men, aged 18–24 years, with a hemoglobin ≥9.0 mmol/L. Exclusion criteria included foreskin covering less than half the glans, a condition that might unduly increase surgical risks, or a medical indication for circumcision. Participants were randomized 1:1 to either immediate circumcision or delayed circumcision after 2 years (control group). Detailed evaluations occurred at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Main Outcome Measures (i) Sexual function between circumcised and uncircumcised men; and (ii) sexual satisfaction and pleasure over time following circumcision. Results Between February 2002 and September 2005, 2,784 participants were randomized, including the 100 excluded from this analysis because they crossed over, were not circumcised within 30 days of randomization, did not complete baseline interviews, or were outside the age range. For the circumcision and control groups, respectively, rates of any reported sexual dysfunction decreased from 23.6% and 25.9% at baseline to 6.2% and 5.8% at month 24. Changes over time were not associated with circumcision status. Compared to before they were circumcised, 64.0% of circumcised men reported their penis was “much more sensitive,” and 54.5% rated their ease of reaching orgasm as “much more” at month 24. Conclusions Adult male circumcision was not associated with sexual dysfunction. Circumcised men reported increased penile sensitivity and enhanced ease of reaching orgasm. These data indicate that integration of male circumcision into programs to reduce HIV risk is unlikely to adversely

  4. Constancy of Adult Personality Structure in Males: Longitudinal, Cross-Sectional and Times-of-Measurement Analyses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrae, Robert R.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The invariance of factor structures in the Guilford Zimmerman Temperament Survey is clearly evident. Basic personality structure appears little affected by social and historical change. Results favor the stability model for objectively measured personality traits in adult males. (JAC)

  5. Low dose 4-MBC effect on neuroendocrine regulation of reproductive axis in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Carou, Maria E; Ponzo, Osvaldo J; Cardozo Gutierrez, Romina P; Szwarcfarb, Berta; Deguiz, Maria L; Reynoso, Roxana; Carbone, Silvia; Moguilevsky, Jaime A; Scacchi, Pablo

    2008-09-01

    4-Methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC) is an ultraviolet absorbent. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the effect of 4-MBC low-dose exposure on the neuroendocrine reproductive regulation in male rats. Wistar male adult rats were injected sc. with 4-MBC during 5 days with a dose of 2 and 10mg/kg or during 2 days with a dose of 2 and 20mg/kg. In all rats serum prolactin, LH and FSH concentration were assayed. The hypothalamus of rats injected during 2 days were also dissected to study GnRH release. Rats that received 2 and 10mg/kg of 4-MBC during 5 days showed a decrease in the LH and FSH serum concentration. In rats injected during 2 days, serum LH decreased with 2 and 20mg/kg and FSH decreased with 2mg/kg of 4-MBC. In vitro hypothalamic GnRH release also decreased in these animals. These results show that low doses of 4-MBC inhibit the reproductive axis in adult male rats. PMID:21783915

  6. Demographic response of black bears at Cold Lake, Alberta, to the removal of adult males

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sargeant, G.A.; Ruff, R.L.

    2001-01-01

    Previous reports described an increase in population density following the removal of 23 adult male black bears (Ursus americanus) from a 218-km2 study area near Cold Lake, Alberta (the CLSA). This finding plays a central role in continuing debates over population regulation in bears, but has recently been criticized because density estimates were based on assumptions that were not met. Moreover, subsequent discussion has been predicated on conjecture that human exploitation had minimal influence on population dynamics. Our reanalysis supports previous descriptions of trends in bear density at Cold Lake. However, survival records revealed heavier exploitation than previously suspected. An underlying assumption of previous interpretationsCthat the Cold Lake bear population was naturally regulated near carrying capacityCno longer seems reasonable. Adult males deterred bears in other sex-age groups from using the CLSA; however, we found no evidence that birth or death rates were affected. The observed increase in local density should not be construed as a density-dependent response. Abrupt changes in local density might not have occurred if males had been removed from a larger area encompassing the CLSA

  7. Subacute toxicity assessment of diflubenzuron, an insect growth regulator, in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    de Barros, Aline Lima; Cavalheiro, Gabriela Finoto; de Souza, Alexsandra Vila Maior; Traesel, Giseli Karenina; Anselmo-Franci, Janete A; Kassuya, Cândida Aparecida Leite; Arena, Arielle Cristina

    2016-04-01

    Diflubenzuron (DFB), an insecticide and acaricide insect growth regulator, can be used in agriculture against insect predators and in public health programs, to control insects and vectors, mainly Aedes aegypti larvae. Due to the lack of toxicological assessments of this compound, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the toxicological effects of subacute exposure to the DFB insecticide in adult male rats. Adult male rats were exposed (gavage) to 0, 2, 4, or 8 mg/kg of DFB for 28 days. No clinical signs of toxicity were observed in the DFB-treated animals of the experimental groups. However, there was an increase in serum levels of alanine aminotransferase in the group that received 8 mg/kg/DFB/day and urea at doses of 4 and 8 mg/kg/DFB/day, without altering other biochemical or hematological parameters. The subacute exposure to the lowest dose of DFB caused significant decrease in testis weight, daily sperm production, and in number of sperm in the epididymis in relation to the control group. However, no alterations were observed in the sperm morphology, testicular, epididymis, liver and kidney histology, or testosterone levels. These findings unveiled the hazardous effects of DFB on male reproduction after the subacute exposure and special attention should be addressed to the effects of low doses of this pesticide. PMID:25266294

  8. A Descriptive Study of Gambling Among Emerging Adult Males in French-Speaking Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Tomei, Alexander; Tichelli, Emmanuel; Ewering, Neil; Nunweiler-Hardegger, Sophie; Simon, Olivier

    2015-09-01

    The aims were twofold: to examine the gambling habits of emerging adult males in the French-speaking regions of Switzerland and to what extent these habits predict problem gambling within this population. We also evaluated problem gambling rates and provided data concerning variables such as gambling location, level of information about problem gambling and awareness of treatment centers. 606 Swiss male conscripts, aged 18-22 years, completed a self-report questionnaire. This was administered during their army recruitment day in 2012. Problem gambling was assessed through the Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI) (Ferris and Wynne 2001). 78.5% of the respondents were lifetime gamblers, 56.1% were past-year gamblers. Four out of ten past-year gamblers played in private spaces and in back rooms. The PGSI indicated that 10.8% of past-year gamblers presented with moderate gambling problems, whilst 1.4% appeared to be problem gamblers. The majority of respondents had never received information about problem gambling. Moreover, they were unaware of the existence of treatment centers for problem gambling in their region. PGSI scores were significantly predicted by the variety of games played. Problem gambling rates among young men appear to be higher than those of the general Swiss population. This confirms that emerging adult males are a particularly vulnerable population with regards to gambling addiction. The implications of this are considered for youth gambling-prevention programs. PMID:24584952

  9. Motoneurons of the adult marmoset can grow axons and reform motor endplates through a peripheral nerve bridge joining the locally injured cervical spinal cord to the denervated biceps brachii muscle.

    PubMed

    Emery, E; Rhrich-Haddout, F; Kassar-Duchossoy, L; Lyoussi, B; Tadié, M; Horvat, J C

    2000-12-15

    Reconnection of the injured spinal cord (SC) of the marmoset with the denervated biceps brachii muscle (BB) was obtained by using a peripheral nerve (PN) bridge. In 13 adult males, a 45 mm segment of the peroneal nerve was removed: one end was implanted unilaterally into the cervical SC of the same animal (autograft), determining a local injury, although the other end was either directly inserted into the BB (Group A) or, alternatively, sutured to its transected motor nerve, the musculocutaneous nerve (Group B). From 2-4 months post-surgery, eight out of the 10 surviving animals responded by a contraction of the BB to electrical stimulations of the PN bridge. All ten were then processed for a morphological study. As documented by retrograde axonal tracing studies using horse radish peroxidase or Fast Blue (FB), a mean number of 314 (Group A) or 45 (Group B) spinal neurons, mainly located close to the site of injury and grafting, re-expressed a capacity to grow and extend axons into the PN bridge. Most of these regenerated axons were able to grow up to the BB and form or reform functional motor endplates. Many of the spinal neurons that were retrogradely labeled with FB simultaneously displayed immunoreactivity for choline acetyl-transferase and consequently were assumed to be motoneurons. Reinnervation and regeneration of the BB were documented by methods revealing axon terminals, endplates and myofibrillary ATPase activity. Our results indicate that motoneurons of the focally injured SC of a small-sized primate can, following the example of the adult rat, re-establish a lost motor function by extending new axons all the way through a PN bridge connected to a denervated skeletal muscle. PMID:11107167

  10. Organ doses for reference adult male and female undergoing computed tomography estimated by Monte Carlo simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Choonsik; Kim, Kwang Pyo; Long, Daniel; Fisher, Ryan; Tien, Chris; Simon, Steven L.; Bouville, Andre; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: To develop a computed tomography (CT) organ dose estimation method designed to readily provide organ doses in a reference adult male and female for different scan ranges to investigate the degree to which existing commercial programs can reasonably match organ doses defined in these more anatomically realistic adult hybrid phantomsMethods: The x-ray fan beam in the SOMATOM Sensation 16 multidetector CT scanner was simulated within the Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNPX2.6. The simulated CT scanner model was validated through comparison with experimentally measured lateral free-in-air dose profiles and computed tomography dose index (CTDI) values. The reference adult male and female hybrid phantoms were coupled with the established CT scanner model following arm removal to simulate clinical head and other body region scans. A set of organ dose matrices were calculated for a series of consecutive axial scans ranging from the top of the head to the bottom of the phantoms with a beam thickness of 10 mm and the tube potentials of 80, 100, and 120 kVp. The organ doses for head, chest, and abdomen/pelvis examinations were calculated based on the organ dose matrices and compared to those obtained from two commercial programs, CT-EXPO and CTDOSIMETRY. Organ dose calculations were repeated for an adult stylized phantom by using the same simulation method used for the adult hybrid phantom. Results: Comparisons of both lateral free-in-air dose profiles and CTDI values through experimental measurement with the Monte Carlo simulations showed good agreement to within 9%. Organ doses for head, chest, and abdomen/pelvis scans reported in the commercial programs exceeded those from the Monte Carlo calculations in both the hybrid and stylized phantoms in this study, sometimes by orders of magnitude. Conclusions: The organ dose estimation method and dose matrices established in this study readily provides organ doses for a reference adult male and female for different

  11. Organ doses for reference adult male and female undergoing computed tomography estimated by Monte Carlo simulations

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Choonsik; Kim, Kwang Pyo; Long, Daniel; Fisher, Ryan; Tien, Chris; Simon, Steven L.; Bouville, Andre; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a computed tomography (CT) organ dose estimation method designed to readily provide organ doses in a reference adult male and female for different scan ranges to investigate the degree to which existing commercial programs can reasonably match organ doses defined in these more anatomically realistic adult hybrid phantoms Methods: The x-ray fan beam in the SOMATOM Sensation 16 multidetector CT scanner was simulated within the Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNPX2.6. The simulated CT scanner model was validated through comparison with experimentally measured lateral free-in-air dose profiles and computed tomography dose index (CTDI) values. The reference adult male and female hybrid phantoms were coupled with the established CT scanner model following arm removal to simulate clinical head and other body region scans. A set of organ dose matrices were calculated for a series of consecutive axial scans ranging from the top of the head to the bottom of the phantoms with a beam thickness of 10 mm and the tube potentials of 80, 100, and 120 kVp. The organ doses for head, chest, and abdomen∕pelvis examinations were calculated based on the organ dose matrices and compared to those obtained from two commercial programs, CT-EXPO and CTDOSIMETRY. Organ dose calculations were repeated for an adult stylized phantom by using the same simulation method used for the adult hybrid phantom. Results: Comparisons of both lateral free-in-air dose profiles and CTDI values through experimental measurement with the Monte Carlo simulations showed good agreement to within 9%. Organ doses for head, chest, and abdomen∕pelvis scans reported in the commercial programs exceeded those from the Monte Carlo calculations in both the hybrid and stylized phantoms in this study, sometimes by orders of magnitude. Conclusions: The organ dose estimation method and dose matrices established in this study readily provides organ doses for a reference adult male and female for

  12. Reactions to First Postpubertal Male Same-Sex Sexual Experience in the Kinsey Sample: A Comparison of Minors With Peers, Minors With Adults, and Adults With Adults.

    PubMed

    Rind, Bruce; Welter, Max

    2016-10-01

    Rind and Welter (2014) examined first postpubertal coitus using the Kinsey sample, finding that reactions were just as positive, and no more negative, among minors with adults compared to minors with peers and adults with adults. In the present study, we examined first postpubertal male same-sex sexual experiences in the Kinsey same-sex sample (i.e., participants mostly with extensive postpubertal same-sex behavior), comparing reactions across the same age categories. These data were collected between 1938 and 1961 (M year: 1946). Minors under age 18 years with adults (M ages: 14.0 and 30.5, respectively) reacted positively (i.e., enjoyed the experience "much") often (70 %) and emotionally negatively (e.g., fear, disgust, shame, regret) infrequently (16 %). These rates were the same as adults with adults (M ages: 21.2 and 25.9, respectively): 68 and 16 %, respectively. Minors with peers (M ages: 13.3 and 13.8, respectively) reacted positively significantly more often (82 %) and negatively nominally less often (9 %). Minors with adults reacted positively to intercourse (oral, anal) just as often (69 %) as to outercourse (body contact, masturbation, femoral) (72 %) and reacted emotionally negatively significantly less often (9 vs. 25 %, respectively). For younger minors (≤14) with adults aged 5-19 years older, reactions were just as positive (83 %) as for minors with peers within 1 year of age (84 %) and no more emotionally negative (11 vs. 7 %, respectively). Results are discussed in relation to findings regarding first coitus in the Kinsey sample and to the cultural context particular to Kinsey's time. PMID:27178172

  13. Visual patch clamp recording of neurons in thick portions of the adult spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Munch, Anders Sonne; Smith, Morten; Moldovan, Mihai; Perrier, Jean-François

    2010-07-15

    The study of visually identified neurons in slice preparations from the central nervous system offers considerable advantages over in vivo preparations including high mechanical stability in the absence of anaesthesia and full control of the extracellular medium. However, because of their relative thinness, slices are not appropriate for investigating how individual neurons integrate synaptic inputs generated by large numbers of neurons. Here we took advantage of the exceptional resistance of the turtle to anoxia to make slices of increasing thicknesses (from 300 to 3000 microm) from the lumbar enlargement of the spinal cord. With a conventional upright microscope in which the light condenser was carefully adjusted, we could visualize neurons present at the surface of the slice and record them with the whole-cell patch clamp technique. We show that neurons present in the middle of the preparation remain alive and capable of generating action potentials. By stimulating the lateral funiculus we can evoke intense synaptic activity associated with large increases in conductance of the recorded neurons. The conductance increases substantially more in neurons recorded in thick slices suggesting that the size of the network recruited with the stimulation increases with the thickness of the slices. We also find that that the number of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) is higher in thick slices compared with thin slices while the number of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) remains constant. These preliminary data suggest that inhibitory and excitatory synaptic connections are balanced locally while excitation dominates long-range connections in the spinal cord. PMID:20488203

  14. Environment and activity affect skin temperature in breeding adult male elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris).

    PubMed

    Norris, A L; Houser, D S; Crocker, D E

    2010-12-15

    The large body size and high rates of metabolic heat production associated with male mating success in polygynous systems creates potential thermoregulatory challenges for species breeding in warm climates. This is especially true for marine predators carrying large blubber reserves intended for thermoregulation in cold water and fuel provision during extended fasts. Thermographic images were used to measure changes in skin temperature (T(S)) in adult male northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) over the breeding season. Environmental variables, primarily ambient temperature and solar radiation, were the principal determinants of mean and maximum T(S). When controlled for environmental variables, dominance rank significantly impacted mean T(S), being highest in alpha males. Behavioral activity significantly influenced T(S) but in a counter-intuitive way, with inactive males exhibiting the highest T(S). This was likely due to strong impacts of environmental variables on the kinds of behavior exhibited, with males being less active on warm, humid days at peak solar radiation. We classified thermal windows as areas in which T(S) was one standard deviation greater than mean T(S) for the individual seal within a thermograph. Thermal features suggest active physiological thermoregulation during and after combat and significant circulatory adaptations for heat dumping, as evidenced by recurring locations of thermal windows representing widely varying T(S) values. Frequent observations of localized T(S) above 37°C, particularly after combat, suggest the production of thermoregulatory stress during breeding behavior. Our findings demonstrate the importance of environmental drivers in shaping activity patterns during breeding and provide evidence for thermoregulatory costs of successful breeding in large polygynous males. PMID:21113001

  15. Embryonic Atrazine Exposure Elicits Alterations in Genes Associated with Neuroendocrine Function in Adult Male Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Wirbisky, Sara E; Sepúlveda, Maria S; Weber, Gregory J; Jannasch, Amber S; Horzmann, Katharine A; Freeman, Jennifer L

    2016-09-01

    The developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) hypothesis states that exposure to environmental stressors early in life can elicit genome and epigenome changes resulting in an increased susceptibility of a disease state during adulthood. Atrazine, a common agricultural herbicide used throughout the Midwestern United States, frequently contaminates potable water supplies and is a suspected endocrine disrupting chemical. In our previous studies, zebrafish was exposed to 0, 0.3, 3, or 30 parts per billion (μg/l) atrazine through embryogenesis, rinsed, and allowed to mature to adulthood. A decrease in spawning was observed with morphological alterations in offspring. In addition, adult females displayed an increase in ovarian progesterone and follicular atresia, alterations in levels of a serotonin metabolite and serotonin turnover in brain tissue, and transcriptome changes in brain and ovarian tissue supporting neuroendocrine alterations. As reproductive dysfunction is also influenced by males, this study assessed testes histology, hormone levels, and transcriptomic profiles of testes and brain tissue in the adult males. The embryonic atrazine exposure resulted in no alterations in body or testes weight, gonadosomatic index, testes histology, or levels of 11-ketotestosterone or testosterone. To further investigate potential alterations, transcriptomic profiles of adult male testes and brain tissue was completed. This analysis demonstrated alterations in genes associated with abnormal cell and neuronal growth and morphology; molecular transport, quantity, and production of steroid hormones; and neurotransmission with an emphasis on the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal and hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axes. Overall, this data indicate future studies should focus on additional neuroendocrine endpoints to determine potential functional impairments. PMID:27413107

  16. Male and Female Adult Population Health Status in China: A Cross-Sectional National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jing; Liu, Meina; Zhang, Qiuju; Lu, Mingshan; Quan, Hude

    2008-01-01

    Background With rapid economic growth and globalization, lifestyle in China has been changing dramatically. This study aimed to describe the male and female adult Chinese population health status. Methods The Chinese Third National Health Services Survey was conducted in 2003 to collect information about health status and quality of life from randomly selected residents. Of the 193,689 respondents to the survey (response rate 77.8%), 139,831 (69,748 male and 70,083 female) respondents who were 18 years of age or older were analyzed. Results Among the respondents, fewer males than females rated their overall wellbeing as being poor or very poor (4.8% versus 6.2%), reported illness in the last 2 weeks (14.1% versus 17.4%), presence of physician diagnosed chronic disease (15.0% versus 17.7%) and at least one functional problem in seven items of the quality of life (26.9% versus 32.8%). More males than females were currently smoking (52.4% versus 3.4%) and drank alcohol more than three times per week (16.5% versus 1.1%). Physically inactive rate was similar between males and females (85.8% versus 87.0%). Fewer rural respondents reported chronic disease than urban respondents (13.0% versus 19.9% for males and 15.5% versus 22.8% for females). In all seven items of the quality of life measured, rural respondents reported less problems than urban respondents (26.2% versus 28.7% for males and 32.0% versus 34.7% for females). Conclusion Males had better health status than females in terms of self-perceived wellbeing, presence of illness, chronic disease, and quality of life. However, smoking and frequent alcohol drinking was more prevalent among males than that among females. In contrast with the social-economic gradient in health commonly found in the literature, the wealthier urban population in China was not found to be healthier than the rural population in terms of physician diagnosed chronic disease. PMID:18681978

  17. Impairment of male reproduction in adult rats exposed to hydroxyprogesterone caproate in utero

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pushpalatha, T.; Ramachandra Reddy, P.; Sreenivasula Reddy, P.

    Hydroxyprogesterone caproate is one of the most effective and widely used drugs for the treatment of uterine bleeding and threatened miscarriage in women. Hydroxyprogesterone caproate was administered to pregnant rats in order to assess the effect of intraperitoneal exposure to supranormal levels of hydroxyprogesterone caproate on the male reproductive potential in the first generation. The cauda epididymal sperm count and motility decreased significantly in rats exposed to hydroxyprogesterone caproate during embryonic development, when compared with control rats. The levels of serum testosterone decreased with an increase in follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone in adult rats exposed to hydroxyprogesterone caproate during the embryonic stage. It was suggested that the impairment of male reproductive performance could be mediated through the inhibition of testosterone production.

  18. Best Clinical Practices for Male Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse: “Do No Harm”

    PubMed Central

    Gallo-Silver, Les; Anderson, Christopher M; Romo, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    The health care literature describes treatment challenges and recommended alterations in practice procedures for female survivors of childhood sexual abuse, a subtype of adverse childhood experiences. Currently, there are no concomitant recommendations for best clinical practices for male survivors of childhood sexual abuse or other adverse clinical experiences. Anecdotal information suggests ways physicians can address the needs of adult male survivors of childhood sexual abuse by changes in communication, locus of control, and consent/permission before and during physical examinations and procedures. The intent of this article is to act as a catalyst for improved patient care and more research focused on the identification and optimal responses to the needs of men with adverse childhood experiences in the health care setting. PMID:25106042

  19. Lack of Reproductive Toxicity in Adult Male Rats Exposed to Interferon-Alpha.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Josiane de Lima; Cavariani, Marilia Martins; Borges, Cibele dos Santos; Leite, Gabriel Adan Araújo; Anselmo-Franci, Janete Aparecida; Kempinas, Wilma De Grava

    2015-01-01

    Interferon-alpha (IFN- α), a type I IFN, is a protein with antiviral, antiproliferative, and immunoregulatory activities, widely used in the treatment of several types of cancers as well as hepatitis B and C. Decrease of libido and erectile dysfunction are commonly reported by male patients during treatment of chronic hepatitis C with IFN- α . However, IFN therapy-associated underlying factors attributed to sexual dysfunction are still not well defined. Currently, there are few studies investigating the effects of IFN on male reproductive system functions. Given that, the aim of the present investigation was to examine effects of subchronic exposure to IFN- α (5 × 10(4) U/kg and 10 × 10(4) U/kg, 30 d) on serum hormones, sperm parameters, fertility, and testicular and epididymal hystopathology and morphometry in adult male Wistar rats. None of the evaluated parameters was markedly altered by IFN- α . Thus, our results suggest that exposure to IFN- α , in this experimental design, did not adversely affect sperm quality and fertile capacity of male rats. PMID:26488366

  20. Antiandrogenic pesticides disrupt sexual characteristics in the adult male guppy Poecilia reticulata.

    PubMed Central

    Baatrup, E; Junge, M

    2001-01-01

    Environmental contaminants have been identified as endocrine disruptors through their antiandrogenic activity. Thus, as androgen receptor antagonists, the fungicide vinclozolin and the principal DDT metabolite p,p'-DDE have been demonstrated to induce demasculinization in rats. Whether this is also the case in fish remains to be demonstrated. For a period of 30 days, groups of adult male guppies were exposed to vinclozolin, p,p'-DDE, or the therapeutic antiandrogen flutamide (used as positive control) applied to the fodder at concentrations between 0.1 and 100 microg/g fodder. Subsequently, sexual characteristics of relevance to the male reproductive capacity were measured and compared with untreated control fish. All three chemicals caused profound alterations at increasing levels of biological organization, even in these fully matured males. At the cellular level, the three compounds induced a significant reduction in the number of ejaculated sperm cells. At the organ level, the sexually attractive orange-yellow coloration was reduced in area and discolored, and treated fish also had smaller testes. Further, at the organismal level, computer-aided behavior analyses demonstrated a severe disruption in male courtship behavior. We conclude that this demasculinization is consistent with an antiandrogenic action of vinclozolin and p,p'-DDE and is likely to compromise reproductive capability in this fish. PMID:11675272

  1. Wandering spleen with gastric volvulus and intestinal non-rotation in an adult male patient.

    PubMed

    Ooka, Minako; Kohda, Eiichi; Iizuka, Yuo; Nagamoto, Masashi; Ishii, Tomotaka; Saida, Yoshihisa; Shimizu, Norikazu; Gomi, Tatsuya

    2013-01-01

    We report an extremely rare case of wandering spleen (WS) complicated with gastric volvulus and intestinal non-rotation in a male adult. A 22-year-old man who had been previously treated for Wilson disease was admitted with severe abdominal pain. Radiological findings showed WS in the midline of the pelvic area. The stomach was mesenteroaxially twisted and intestinal non-rotation was observed. Radiology results did not show any evidence of splenic or gastrointestinal (GI) infarction. Elective emergency laparoscopy confirmed WS and intestinal non-rotation; however, gastric volvulus was not observed. It was suspected that the stomach had untwisted when gastric and laparoscopic tubes were inserted. Surgery is strongly recommended for WS because of the high risk of serious complications; however, some asymptomatic adult patients are still treated conservatively, such as the patient in this study. The present case is reported with reference to the literature. PMID:24349711

  2. Wandering spleen with gastric volvulus and intestinal non-rotation in an adult male patient

    PubMed Central

    Kohda, Eiichi; Iizuka, Yuo; Nagamoto, Masashi; Ishii, Tomotaka; Saida, Yoshihisa; Shimizu, Norikazu; Gomi, Tatsuya

    2013-01-01

    We report an extremely rare case of wandering spleen (WS) complicated with gastric volvulus and intestinal non-rotation in a male adult. A 22-year-old man who had been previously treated for Wilson disease was admitted with severe abdominal pain. Radiological findings showed WS in the midline of the pelvic area. The stomach was mesenteroaxially twisted and intestinal non-rotation was observed. Radiology results did not show any evidence of splenic or gastrointestinal (GI) infarction. Elective emergency laparoscopy confirmed WS and intestinal non-rotation; however, gastric volvulus was not observed. It was suspected that the stomach had untwisted when gastric and laparoscopic tubes were inserted. Surgery is strongly recommended for WS because of the high risk of serious complications; however, some asymptomatic adult patients are still treated conservatively, such as the patient in this study. The present case is reported with reference to the literature. PMID:24349711

  3. Adolescent and young adult male sex offenders: understanding the role of recidivism.

    PubMed

    Riser, Diana K; Pegram, Sheri E; Farley, Julee P

    2013-01-01

    The current review explores the complex paths that can lead to adolescent and young adult males becoming sexually abusive. Because sexual abuse is an ongoing issue in our society that is often oversimplified, this article distinguishes between the various risk factors that predict sexually abusive behavior and types of sex offenders, particularly recidivistic offenders. It is imperative to focus on adolescents and young adults who sexually abuse because they represent a particularly important intervention point in preventing sexual abuse in comparison to older age groups and address the importance of differentiating among youths who sexually abuse, particularly between one-time offenders and recidivistic offenders. Implications for addressing these differences are discussed. PMID:23350537

  4. Adult Attachment, Perceived Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation, and Depression in Gay Males: Examining the Mediation and Moderation Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zakalik, Robyn A.; Wei, Meifen

    2006-01-01

    This study examined perceived discrimination as both a mediator and moderator between adult attachment (anxiety and avoidance) and levels of depression in a gay male sample. Survey data were collected from 234 self-identified gay males through the Internet and in person through community resources across several states. Results from structural…

  5. REPRODUCTIVE TOXICITY OF A SINGLE DOSE OF 1,3-DINITROBENZENE IN TWO AGES OF YOUNG ADULT MALE RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    These studies evaluated the reproductive response and the possible influence of testicular maturation on the reproductive parameters, in male rats treated with 1,3-Dinitrobenzene (M-DNB). oung adult male rats (75 or 105 days of age) were given a single oral dose of 0, 8, 16, 24, ...

  6. Asperger Syndrome in Adolescent and Young Adult Males. Interview, Self- and Parent Assessment of Social, Emotional, and Cognitive Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cederlund, Mats; Hagberg, Bibbi; Gillberg, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Descriptive and comparative follow-up studies of young adult males with Asperger syndrome (AS) diagnosed in childhood, using both interview, self- and parent assessment instruments for the study of aspects of emotional well-being, social functioning, and cognitive-practical skills have not been performed in the past. One-hundred males with AS…

  7. Reproductive toxicity of a single dose of 1,3-dinitrobenzene in two ages of young adult male rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    These studies evaluated the reproductive response and the possible influence of testicular maturation on the reproductive parameters, in male rats treated with 1,3-dinitrobenzene (m-DNB). Young adult male rats (75 or 105 days of age) were given a single oral dose of 0, 8, 16, 24,...

  8. A Rare Case of Primary Anterior Mediastinal Yolk Sac Tumor in an Elderly Adult Male

    PubMed Central

    Nakhla, Sammy G.; Sundararajan, Srinath

    2016-01-01

    Mediastinal germ cell tumors are extragonadal germ cell tumors (EGGCTs) commonly seen in children and young adults. They are more common in men. Clinically they are classified as teratomas, seminomas, and nonseminomatous germ cell tumors. Primary mediastinal yolk sac neoplasm is an extremely rare tumor. We present here a very rare case of primary yolk sac tumor of the anterior mediastinum in a 73-year-old male. Mediastinal germ cell tumors have a worse prognosis than gonadal germ cell tumors. Chemotherapy followed by adjuvant surgery improves overall response in EGGCTs. However, comorbidities can render treatment with chemotherapy and surgery challenging in elderly patients. PMID:27144043

  9. Early Outcomes of Minimally Invasive Anterior Longitudinal Ligament Release for Correction of Sagittal Imbalance in Patients with Adult Spinal Deformity

    PubMed Central

    Deukmedjian, Armen R.; Dakwar, Elias; Ahmadian, Amir; Smith, Donald A.; Uribe, Juan S.

    2012-01-01

    The object of this study was to evaluate a novel surgical technique in the treatment of adult degenerative scoliosis and present our early experience with the minimally invasive lateral approach for anterior longitudinal ligament release to provide lumbar lordosis and examine its impact on sagittal balance. Methods. All patients with adult spinal deformity (ASD) treated with the minimally invasive lateral retroperitoneal transpsoas interbody fusion (MIS LIF) for release of the anterior longitudinal ligament were examined. Patient demographics, clinical data, spinopelvic parameters, and outcome measures were recorded. Results. Seven patients underwent release of the anterior longitudinal ligament (ALR) to improve sagittal imbalance. All cases were split into anterior and posterior stages, with mean estimated blood loss of 125 cc and 530 cc, respectively. Average hospital stay was 8.3 days, and mean follow-up time was 9.1 months. Comparing pre- and postoperative 36′′ standing X-rays, the authors discovered a mean increase in global lumbar lordosis of 24 degrees, increase in segmental lumbar lordosis of 17 degrees per level of ALL released, decrease in pelvic tilt of 7 degrees, and decrease in sagittal vertical axis of 4.9 cm. At the last followup, there was a mean improvement in VAS and ODI scores of 26.2% and 18.3%. Conclusions. In the authors' early experience, release of the anterior longitudinal ligament using the minimally invasive lateral retroperitoneal transpsoas approach may be a feasible alternative in correcting sagittal deformity. PMID:23304089

  10. Prophylactic effects of alpha-blockers, Tamsulosin and Alfuzosin, on postoperative urinary retention in male patients undergoing urologic surgery under spinal anaesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Akkoc, Ali; Aydin, Cemil; Topaktas, Ramazan; Kartalmis, Mahir; Altin, Selcuk; Isen, Kenan; Metin, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose Postoperative urinary retention (POUR) is one of the most common complications after surgical procedures under spinal anaesthesia. Recent studies have shown the beneficial effects of alpha-adrenergic blockers in preventing POUR. The aim of this prospective study was to investigate and compare the prophylactic effects of tamsulosin and alfuzosin on POUR after urologic surgical procedures under spinal anaesthesia. Materials and Methods A total of 180 males who underwent elective urologic surgery were included in this study. The patients were randomly allocated into three Groups. The Group I received placebo. Patients in Group II were given 0.4mg of tamsulosin orally 14 and 2 hours before surgery. Patients in Group III were given 10mg of alfuzosin ER orally 10 and 2 hours before surgery. All patients were closely followed for 24 hours postoperatively and their episodes of urinary retentions were recorded. Results There were 60 patients in each Group. Their mean age was 35.95±15.16 years. Fifteen patients in Group I (25%), 3 patients in Group II (5%) and 4 patients in Group III (6.7%) required catheterization because of urinary retention. In tamsulosin group and alfuzosin group, there were a significantly lower proportion of patients with POUR compared with the placebo Group (p=0.002 and p=0.006). The beneficial effects of tamsulosin and alfuzosin on POUR were similar between both Groups (p=0.697). Conclusion This study suggests that the use of prophylactic tamsulosin or alfuzosin can reduce the incidence of urinary retention and the need for catheterization after urologic surgical procedures under spinal anaesthesia. PMID:27286124