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Sample records for adult nigerian subjects

  1. Sexuality in Nigerian older adults

    PubMed Central

    Olatayo, Adeoti Adekunle; Kubwa, Ojo Osaze; Adekunle, Ajayi Ebenezer

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Oftentimes the older adults are assumed to be asexual as few studies explore into the sexuality of this age group worldwide and even in Nigeria. It is an important aspect of quality of life which is often neglected by people in this age group, attending physicians and the society as a whole. The study was aimed at determining the perception of older adults about sexuality, identify the factors that could militate against sexuality and fill any void in information in this regard. Methods Descriptive study conducted in one hundred older adults. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to consenting participants between 1st of September 2013 and 31st of March 2014. Results Mean age of respondents was 66.42± 5.77 years. Seventy-eight percent of the male respondents considered engaging in sexual activity as safe compared to 45.8% of the female respondents. More of the women (33.3%) regarded sexuality in the older adults as a taboo when compared to the men (5.4%). However, the men were more favourably disposed to discussing sexual problems than the women with their spouses (42% vs 20%) and Physicians (23.2% vs 0.0%). Major factors responsible for sexual inactivity were participants’ medical ailments (65%), partners’ failing health (15%) as well as anxiety about sexual performance (25%) in the men and dyspareunia (25%) in women. Conclusion There is an urgent need to correct the misconception about sexuality in this age group especially among the women and for the physicians to explore the sexual history of every patient. PMID:26977224

  2. Photometric facial analysis of the Igbo Nigerian adult male

    PubMed Central

    Ukoha, Ukoha Ukoha; Udemezue, Onochie Okwudili; Oranusi, Chidi Kingsley; Asomugha, Azuoma Lasbrey; Dimkpa, Uchechukwu; Nzeukwu, Lynda Chinenye

    2012-01-01

    Background: A carefully performed facial analysis can serve as a strong foundation for successful facial reconstructive and plastic surgeries, rhinoplasty or orthodontics. Aim: The purpose of this study is to determine the facial features and qualities of the Igbo Nigerian adult male using photometry. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty subjects aged between 18 and 28 years were studied at the Anambra State University, Uli, Nigeria. The frontal and right lateral view photographs of their faces were taken and traced out on tracing papers. On these, two vertical distances, nasion to subnasal and subnasale to menton, and four angles, nasofrontal (NF), nasofacial, nasomental (NM) and mentocervical, were measured. Results: The result showed that the Igbo Nigerian adult male had a middle face that was shorter than the lower one (41.76% vs.58.24%), a moderate glabella (NF=133.97°), a projected nose (NM=38.68°) and a less prominent chin (NM=125.87°). Conclusion: This study is very important in medical practice as it can be used to compare the pre- and post-operative results of plastic surgery and other related surgeries of the face. PMID:23661886

  3. Massive Pleural Fluid Collection in Adult Nigerians

    PubMed Central

    Okoh, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    Background. There are no available literatures on massive pleural effusions (MPE) in our country. Aim. To determine the aetiology of MPE and compare the mortality rate between malignant and nonmalignant MPE in adult Nigerians. Methods. A prospective study of all the patients diagnosed with nontraumatic pleural fluid collections for one year in two tertiary federal hospitals in Southern Nigeria. A total of 101 consecutive patients with pleural fluid collections were studied. Diagnoses were made by clinical features and laboratory and radiological investigations. Results. Forty-eight patients (47.5%) had MPE with a mean age of 43 years ± 14.04 and 35 were females. Thirty patients (62.5%) were diagnosed with nonmalignant conditions (21 from pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and 9 from other causes). Haemorrhagic pleural collections were from malignancy in 12 (30.8%) and from PTB in 6 (15.4%). Straw-coloured collections were from malignancy in 9 (23.1%), from PTB in 8 (20.1%), and from posttraumatic exudative effusion in 3 (7.7%). Compared with nonmalignant MPE, patients with malignant collections had higher mortality within 6 months (8/18 versus 0/30 with a P value of 0.000). Conclusion. The presentation of patients with nontraumatic haemorrhagic or straw-coloured MPE narrows the diagnosis to PTB and malignancy with MPE cases being a marker for short survival rate. PMID:27437443

  4. Subjective Wellbeing, Work-School Conflict and Proactive Coping among Nigerian Non-Traditional Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adebayo, D. O.; Sunmola, A. M.; Udegbe, I. B.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of participating in two domains, work and school, on the subjective wellbeing (SWB) and work-school conflict (WSC), as well as the moderating role of proactive coping between WSC and SWB among Nigerian nontraditional students. Design/methodology/approach: Using a cross-sectional survey,…

  5. Plasma cadmium and zinc and their interrelationship in adult Nigerians: potential health implications

    PubMed Central

    Ogbonnaya, Lawrence Ulu; Uro-Chukwu, Henry; Obuna, Johnson Akuma; Ogiji, Emeka; Ezenkwa, Simon Uchenna

    2015-01-01

    Zinc (an essential trace element) and cadmium (a ubiquitous environmental pollutant with acclaimed toxicity) have been found to occur together in nature, with reported antagonism between the two elements. The present study aimed at determination of plasma levels of zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) and their interrelationship in adult Nigerians. The series comprised adults (n=443) aged ≥18 yrs (mean ± SD 38.4±13.7 yrs), consisting of 117 males, 184 non-pregnant and 140 pregnant females. Sociodemographic data were collected by questionnaire while anthropometrics were determined using standard methods. Plasma Cd and Zn were determined by using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The mean plasma zinc and cadmium were 94.7±18.1 μg/dl and 0.150±0.548 μg/dl, respectively. Age, sex, pregnancy, and parity had no effect on either plasma Zn or Cd. Although educational level had no effect on plasma Zn, it had a significant effect on Cd; subjects possessing either secondary or tertiary education had significantly lower plasma Cd than subjects without formal education. Moreover, there seemed to be an inverse relationship between Cd and Zn, but this was not statistically significant (r=–0.089; p=0.061). Although plasma Zn was not related to BMI (r=0.037; p=0.432), Cd was significantly negatively correlated with BMI (r=–0.124; p=0.009). It may be concluded that adult Nigerians in Ebonyi State have elevated plasma levels of Cd, with apparent impact on the levels of plasma Zn. This has important public health implications considering the essential roles of Zn in the protection of Cd mediated adverse health effects. While food diversification is recommended to improve plasma Zn, efforts should be made to reduce exposure to Cd to mitigate partially its possible adverse effects. PMID:27486364

  6. Body Size Perceptions and Weight Status of Adults in a Nigerian Rural Community

    PubMed Central

    Akinpelu, AO; Oyewole, OO; Adekanla, BA

    2015-01-01

    Background: Overweight and obesity are now recognized worldwide as increasing public health problems throughout the life course and wrong perception of one's body size may reduce the motivation for an overweight person to lose weight. Aim: This study was conducted to investigate how Nigerian rural dwellers perceive their body size and how their perception agrees with their body mass index (BMI). Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional sample of 183 adults living in a rural community, South-West Nigeria was randomly recruited into the study. Their verbal and visual body size perceptions were assessed through structured questions and body images. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. Results: Thirty-five percent (64/183) of participants were classified as either overweight or obese by BMI. More than half of the participants perceived themselves as normal weight. More women perceived themselves to be obese than men in both verbal and visual perceptions. Based on BMI classification, 43% (79/183) and 54% (98/183) of participants misperceived themselves in verbal and visual perception, respectively. Underestimation of body size was higher in men (38.3%, 36/94) while overestimation was higher in women (9.0%, 8/89). Men had consistently higher values of kappa coefficient which indicate greater agreement than women in both types of perception. Conclusion: We found considerable gender differences in body weight perception of adults in the Nigerian rural community. A large proportion of these rural dwellers could not appropriately classify their weight status; and over 30% (64/183) and nearly 50% (92/183) of them underestimated their own body weight in verbal and visual perceptions respectively. PMID:26500794

  7. Anaemia in Relation to Body Mass Index (BMI) and Socio-Demographic Characteristics in Adult Nigerians in Ebonyi State

    PubMed Central

    Ogbonnaya, Lawrence Ulu; Obuna, Akuma Johnson; Awelegbe, Femi; Uro-Chukwu, Henry

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Anaemia, a multifactorial health challenge has been found to affect every stage of human development with negative health impacts. Providing information on the factors associated with Anaemia will help in formulating mitigating strategies against this important public health problem. Objective: To determine the prevalence of Anaemia and its relationship with body mass index (BMI) and sociodemographic characteristics in adult Nigerians in Ebonyi State, South-eastern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Adults (n=428) aged ≥ 18 y (mean=38.4±13.7 y) randomly selected from 130 political wards from the 13 Local Government Areas of the state were studied. Sociodemographic data was collected with questionnaire while blood samples were collected for hemoglobin determination using colorimetric cyanmethemoglobin method. Data was analysed using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS® for Windows® ver. 16). Results: In general, 21.7% of the subjects were anemic with Anaemia prevalence of 9.9%, 15.8% and 39.8% in male, non-pregnant and pregnant female, respectively. About four percent (3.7%) of the subjects were underweight, while 37.6% had excess weight with hemoglobin concentration having no relationship with BMI and sociodemographic parameters. Conclusion: It may be conclude that the Anaemia in adult Nigerians in Ebonyi State has no definite relationship with BMI and sociodemographic characteristics studied. Further studies are needed to document other factors that may be associated with Anaemia among adults in the State. PMID:25738011

  8. Plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines in adult Nigerians with the metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Christiana, Udenze Ifeoma; Casimir, Amadi E.; Nicholas, Awolola Awodele; Christian, Makwe C.; Obiefuna, Ajie I.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study is to determine the plasma levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrotic factor alpha (TNF-α, and C-reactive protein (CRP) in adult Nigerians with the metabolic syndrome and to determine the relationship between components of the metabolic syndrome and CRP in adult Nigerians. Subjects and Methods: This was a case–control study of fifty adult men and women with the metabolic syndrome, and fifty age- and sex-matched males and females without the metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome was defined based on the National Cholesterol Education Programme-Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Written informed consent was obtained from the participants. Blood pressure and anthropometry measurements were taken and venous blood was collected after an overnight fast. The Ethics Committee of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria, approved the study protocol. Comparisons of continuous variables and categorical variables were done using the Student's t-test and Chi-square test, respectively. Regression analysis was used to determine the associations between variables. Statistical significance was set at P< 0.05. Results: The age- and sex-matched males and females with and without the metabolic syndrome did not differ in their sociodemographic characteristics. They however differed in some clinical and laboratory parameters such as diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.048), waist circumference (P = 0.002), body mass index (P = 0.012), waist/hip ratio (P = 0.023), high density lipoprotein (HDL) (P = 0.012), and insulin resistance (IR) (P = 0.042). There was a statistically significant increase in the inflammatory marker, CRP (P = 0.019), the cytokines, IL6 (P = 0.040), and TNF-α (P = 0.031) between the subjects with and without metabolic syndrome. There was also a significant association between CRP, waist circumference, IR, and HDL in the metabolic syndrome (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines are raised in

  9. Informed consent in human subject research: a comparison of current international and Nigerian guidelines.

    PubMed

    Fadare, Joseph O; Porteri, Corinna

    2010-03-01

    Informed consent is a basic requirement for the conduct of ethical research involving human subjects. Currently, the Helsinki Declaration of the World Medical Association and the International Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical Research of the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS) are widely accepted as international codes regulating human subject research and the informed consent sections of these documents are quite important. Debates on the applicability of these guidelines in different socio-cultural settings are ongoing and many workers have advocated the need for national or regional guidelines. Nigeria, a developing country, has recently adopted its national guideline regulating human subject research: the National Health Research Ethics Committee (NHREC) code. A content analysis of the three guidelines was done to see if the Nigerian guidelines confer any additional protection for research subjects. The concept of a Community Advisory Committee in the Nigerian guideline is a novel one that emphasizes research as a community burden and should promote a form of "research friendship" to foster the welfare of research participants. There is also the need for a regular update of the NHREC code so as to address some issues that were not considered in its current version. PMID:20235864

  10. Impact of prehypertension on left ventricular mass and QT dispersion in adult black Nigerians

    PubMed Central

    Ale, OK; Ajuluchukwu, JN; Oke, DA; Mbakwem, AC

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Prehypertension has been associated with target-organ damage. This study sought to determine the impact of prehypertension (PHT) on QT dispersion and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in adult black Nigerians. Methods One hundred and one subjects with office blood pressure (BP) < 140/90 mmHg were categorised according to their office BP into normotensive (BP < 120/80 mmHg, n = 57) and prehypertensive (BP 120–139/80–89 mmHg, n = 44) groups. Echocardiography and electrocardiography (ECG) were performed on the subjects. Results Thirty-four males aged 53.65 ± 16.33 years and 67 females aged 52.42 ± 12.00 years were studied. The mean QT interval dispersion (QTd) of the normotensive (38.96 ± 11.06 ms) and prehypertensive (38.41 ± 11.81 ms) groups were similar (p = 0.81). Prehypertensive subjects had higher left ventricular mass (LVM) (165.75 ± 33.21 vs 144.54 ± 35.55 g, p = 0.024), left ventricular mass index 1 (LVMI-1) (91.65 ± 16.84 vs 80.45 ± 18.65 g/m2, p = 0.021) and left ventricular mass index 2 (LVMI-2) (54.96 ± 10.84 vs 47.51 ± 12.00 g/m2.7, p = 0.017). QTd was independent of echocardiographic and electrocardiographic LVH (p > 0.05). Conclusion Compared with normotension, prehypertension is associated with higher LVM but similar QTd. This suggests that structural remodelling precedes electrical remodelling in prehypertension. PMID:24844553

  11. Pattern of dietary carbohydrate intake among urbanized adult Nigerians

    PubMed Central

    AKAROLO-ANTHONY, SALLY N.; ODUBORE, FOLAKE O.; YILME, SUSAN; ARAGBADA, OMOLOLA; ODONYE, GEORGE; HU, FRANK; WILLETT, WALTER; SPIEGELMAN, DONNA; ADEBAMOWO, CLEMENT A.

    2013-01-01

    As the nutrition transition continues in Africa, it is crucial to identify population-specific dietary patterns. Healthy diets may then be promoted for prevention and alleviation of the chronic disease burden associated with nutrition. Using a semi-quantitate food frequency questionnaire, we conducted a cross-sectional study and computed the proportions of foods commonly consumed, and collected data on anthropometric characteristics. The median total energy intake per day from these carbohydrate sources was 1034 kcal (interquartile range (IOR) 621.5–1738.6 kcal). The main carbohydrate food eaten was rice (48.6%) followed by fufu (30.5%) and bread (13.1%). The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 63%, and 73% of the women in the study were either overweight or obese compared to 56% of men. Our study showed that parboiled long grain white rice is now the most commonly consumed carbohydrate by urbanized Nigerians. Other traditional carbohydrate foods are still consumed frequently and remain quite popular. PMID:23198770

  12. Cardiovascular Response to Manual Acupuncture Needle Stimulation among Apparently Healthy Nigerian Adults.

    PubMed

    Sokunbi, Ganiyu; Maduagwu, Stanley; Jaiyeola, Olabode; Gambo, Hassan; Blasu, Cephas

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated experience with acupuncture needle stimulation of apparently healthy adult Nigerians and the responses of the systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure, heart rate (HR), and rate pressure products (RPP) to acupuncture at both real acupuncture points relevant to the treatment of cardiovascular disorder and sham acupuncture points not relevant to the treatment of cardiovascular disorder. Seventy-eight participants were randomly placed into three groups: the real acupuncture group (RAG); the sham acupuncture group (SAG); and the control group, with 26 participants per group. Data were collected preintervention, 15 minutes into acupuncture stimulation, postintervention, and 15 minutes after intervention. Changes (postintervention - preintervention scores) in the SBP, HR, and RPP were statistically lower in the RAG than in the SAG. Changes in the DBP showed a significant difference between the SAG and the RAG (p > 0.05). Findings from this study showed that among apparently healthy Nigerian adults, acupuncture needle stimulation at acupoints relevant to cardiovascular disorders was more effective than sham intervention in reducing the SBP, HR, and RPP. Participants reported heaviness, numbness, and increasing pain, but no dizziness, fainting and/or life-threatening side effects, during and after the acupuncture needle stimulation. PMID:27342888

  13. Accuracy of subjective assessment of fever by Nigerian mothers in under-5 children

    PubMed Central

    Odinaka, Kelechi Kenneth; Edelu, Benedict O.; Nwolisa, Emeka Charles; Amamilo, Ifeyinwa B.; Okolo, Seline N.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Many mothers still rely on palpation to determine if their children have fever at home before deciding to seek medical attention or administer self-medications. This study was carried out to determine the accuracy of subjective assessment of fever by Nigerian mothers in Under-5 Children. Patients and Methods: Each eligible child had a tactile assessment of fever by the mother after which the axillary temperature was measured. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 19 (IBM Inc. Chicago Illinois, USA, 2010). Result: A total of 113 mother/child pairs participated in the study. Palpation overestimates fever by 24.6%. Irrespective of the surface of the hand used for palpation, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of tactile assessment were 82.4%, 37.1%, 51.9% and 71.9%, respectively. The use of the palmer surface of the hand had a better sensitivity (95.2%) than the dorsum of the hand (69.2%). The use of multiple sites had better sensitivity (86.7%) than the use of single site (76.2%). Conclusion: Tactile assessment of childhood fevers by mothers is still a relevant screening tool for the presence or absence fever. Palpation with the palmer surface of the hand using multiple sites improves the reliability of tactile assessment of fever. PMID:25114371

  14. Anorectal diseases in Western Nigerian adults. A field survey.

    PubMed

    Ani, A N

    1983-06-01

    A survey of anorectal diseases in parts of Western Nigeria was performed by examining 336 adults in various locations. It was concluded that anorectal diseases are more common among the population than is suggested in reviews of hospital cases--a fact largely due to poor health awareness and consequently poor hospital attendance. The fairly generally high prevalence of these diseases does, in fact, mirror holoendemic conditions such as schistosomiasis, amebiasis, and intestinal tuberculosis. In spite of known western influence on food preparation and dietary habits, particularly among the urban dwellers, it is probably too early to expect any impact on bowel habits and large-bowel and anorectal diseases. In view of the significant association, the author suggests than any disturbance in bowel action should prompt a thorough investigation for anorectal diseases. PMID:6851798

  15. Artemether-Lumefantrine Exposure in HIV-Infected Nigerian Subjects on Nevirapine-Containing Antiretroviral Therapy.

    PubMed

    Parikh, Sunil; Fehintola, Fatai; Huang, Liusheng; Olson, Alexander; Adedeji, Waheed A; Darin, Kristin M; Morse, Gene D; Murphy, Robert L; Taiwo, Babafemi O; Akinyinka, Olusegun O; Adewole, Isaac F; Aweeka, Francesca T; Scarsi, Kimberly K

    2015-12-01

    Coadministration of nevirapine-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) and artemether-lumefantrine is reported to result in variable changes in lumefantrine exposure. We conducted an intensive pharmacokinetic study with 11 HIV-infected adults who were receiving artemether-lumefantrine plus nevirapine-based ART, and we compared the results with those for 16 HIV-negative adult historical controls. Exposure to artemether and lumefantrine was significantly lower and dihydroartemisinin exposure was unchanged in subjects receiving nevirapine-based ART, compared with controls. Nevirapine exposure was unchanged before and after artemether-lumefantrine administration. PMID:26392500

  16. Ischemic stroke following abuse of Marijuana in a Nigerian adult male.

    PubMed

    Oyinloye, Olalekan; Nzeh, Donald; Yusuf, Ayodeji; Sanya, Emmanuel

    2014-10-01

    Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug among adolescents and young adults. Despite its widespread use, only a few reports exist on the association of cannabis use and stroke. A 26-year-old Nigerian male, developed right-sided ischemic stroke few hours after smoking three wraps of cannabis. He had smoked cannabis consistently for the past 4 years prior to the development of the stroke. Known stroke etiology and abuse of other illicit drugs were ruled out from history and investigations. Neuroimaging studies of the brain revealed infarcts in basal ganglia secondary to occlusion of blood flow in the left anterior and middle cerebral arteries. The mechanism of stroke in this patient was thought to be a cannabis-induced vasculopathy. Many cases of stroke in the young are increasingly being seen in hospitals in resource scarce countries. There seems to be a predilection for the basal ganglia in ischemic stroke following cannabis abuse. Therefore, cannabis abuse should be considered in young adults with basal ganglia infarcts, after excluding other known etiologies. PMID:25288854

  17. Study of the Location and Morphology of the Pterion in Adult Nigerian Skulls

    PubMed Central

    Adejuwon, Sunday A.; Olopade, Funmilayo E.; Bolaji, Modupe

    2013-01-01

    The pterion which marks the union of 4 bones of the cranium is located superior to the zygomatic arch and posterior to the frontozygomatic suture. It is an important neurosurgical landmark for the lateral/pterional approach and has racial differences in both its location and pattern of union of the bones. This study aims to analyze the location and types of pterion in adult Nigerian skulls. Bilateral sides of 37 adult dry skulls were studied. The pterion types were classified; linear distances from the centre of the pterion to the midpoint of the zygomatic arch and to the frontozygomatic suture were measured; these were analyzed for side and gender differences. Sphenoparietal was the most common pterion type (86.1%) followed by frontotemporal (8.3%), stellate (5.6%), and epipteric types (0%). The mean distances from the pterion to the midpoint of zygomatic arch were 39.74 ± 0.505 mm and 37.95 ± 0.657 mm in males and females, respectively, while the distances to the frontozygomatic suture were 31.87 ± 0.642 mm and 30.35 ± 0.836 mm. The vertical position of the pterion was significantly higher in males than females. Bilateral occurrence is statistically insignificant. This information will be of neurosurgical and anthropological importance. PMID:25938098

  18. Assessment of Potential Herb-Drug Interactions among Nigerian Adults with Type-2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ezuruike, Udoamaka; Prieto, Jose M

    2016-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly evident that patients with diabetes do not rely only on prescription drugs for their disease management. The use of herbal medicines is one of the self-management practices adopted by these patients, often without the knowledge of their healthcare practitioners. This study assessed the potential for pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions (HDIs) amongst Nigerian adult diabetic patients. This was done through a literature analysis of the pharmacokinetic profile of their herbal medicines and prescription drugs, based on information obtained from 112 patients with type-2 diabetes attending two secondary health care facilities in Nigeria. Fifty percent of the informants used herbal medicines alongside their prescription drugs. Worryingly, 60% of the patients taking herbal medicines did not know their identity, thus increasing the risk of unidentified HDIs. By comparing the pharmacokinetic profile of eight identified herbs taken by the patients for the management of diabetes against those of the prescription drugs, several scenarios of potential HDIs were identified and their clinical relevance is discussed. The lack of clinical predictors points toward cultural factors as the influence for herb use, making it more difficult to identify these patients and in turn monitor potential HDIs. In identifying these possible interactions, we have highlighted the need for healthcare professionals to promote a proactive monitoring of patients' use of herbal medicines. PMID:27559312

  19. Assessment of Potential Herb-Drug Interactions among Nigerian Adults with Type-2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ezuruike, Udoamaka; Prieto, Jose M.

    2016-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly evident that patients with diabetes do not rely only on prescription drugs for their disease management. The use of herbal medicines is one of the self-management practices adopted by these patients, often without the knowledge of their healthcare practitioners. This study assessed the potential for pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions (HDIs) amongst Nigerian adult diabetic patients. This was done through a literature analysis of the pharmacokinetic profile of their herbal medicines and prescription drugs, based on information obtained from 112 patients with type-2 diabetes attending two secondary health care facilities in Nigeria. Fifty percent of the informants used herbal medicines alongside their prescription drugs. Worryingly, 60% of the patients taking herbal medicines did not know their identity, thus increasing the risk of unidentified HDIs. By comparing the pharmacokinetic profile of eight identified herbs taken by the patients for the management of diabetes against those of the prescription drugs, several scenarios of potential HDIs were identified and their clinical relevance is discussed. The lack of clinical predictors points toward cultural factors as the influence for herb use, making it more difficult to identify these patients and in turn monitor potential HDIs. In identifying these possible interactions, we have highlighted the need for healthcare professionals to promote a proactive monitoring of patients' use of herbal medicines. PMID:27559312

  20. Awareness level of kidney functions and diseases among adults in a Nigerian population

    PubMed Central

    Okwuonu, C. G.; Chukwuonye, I. I.; Ogah, S. O.; Abali, C.; Adejumo, O. A.; Oviasu, E.

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of kidney diseases is on the increase in Nigeria. The cost of its management is far beyond the reach of an average patient. Prevention is thus of paramount importance and awareness of kidney diseases will help in its prevention. The aim of this study is to assess the level of awareness of kidney functions and diseases among adults in a Nigerian population. A semi-structured, researcher – administered questionnaire was the tool for data collection. Four hundred and thirty-five questionnaires were analyzed. There were 160 males (36.8%) and 275 females (63.2%). The mean age was 42.8 ± 14 years with a range of 18–78 years. Among these, 82.1% were aware of the kidneys' involvement in waste removal from the body through urine while 36% and 29% were aware of kidneys' role in blood pressure regulation and blood production, respectively. Only 26.6% correctly identified at least two basic functions of the kidneys. Also, 32.6% of the respondents were aware of at least three common causes of kidney diseases in our environment. Majority of the respondents (70.7%) did not know that kidney diseases could be inherited. Furthermore, belief in alternative therapy for kidney disease was documented in 83.2%, while unawareness of dialysis as a treatment modality was recorded in 68% of the respondents. The awareness of kidney functions and diseases among the population is poor. Measures are needed to improve this to stem the rising prevalence of chronic kidney disease in Nigeria. PMID:26060365

  1. Comprehensive Reference Ranges for Hematology and Clinical Chemistry Laboratory Parameters Derived from Normal Nigerian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Miri-Dashe, Timzing; Osawe, Sophia; Tokdung, Monday; Daniel, Nenbammun; Choji, Rahila Pam; Mamman, Ille; Deme, Kurt; Damulak, Dapus; Abimiku, Alash’le

    2014-01-01

    -pregnant females and during pregnancy. This is the first of such comprehensive study to establish reference values among adult Nigerians and difference observed underscore the need to establish reference values for different populations. PMID:24832127

  2. Some determinants of postprandial lipaemia in Nigerian diabetic and non-diabetic subjects.

    PubMed

    Akanji, A O; Nzegwu, A A; Agbedana, E O

    1992-07-01

    The efficiency of clearance of plasma triacylglycerols (TAG) after fatty meals in non-diabetic Caucasian subjects is believed to determine the plasma level of high-density-lipoproteins-cholesterol (HDL-C). It is unknown if this observation holds in diabetic subjects and in other racial groups. In assessing the factors that determine TAG responses to acute fat loading in a tropical African population with a low prevalence of atherosclerotic disease, twenty (nine obese) non-insulin-dependent diabetic (NIDDM) patients with optimal glycaemic control and twelve (six obese) age-matched non-diabetic subjects were given meals containing 50 g fat (in butter) and 75 g carbohydrate (in white bread) over 15 min in the morning after a 12 h overnight fast. The fasting plasma levels of glucose, TAG, total cholesterol (total-C), HDL-C, low-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol, insulin and glycosylated haemoglobin (HBAlc) were estimated; glucose and TAG levels were also measured postprandially for 8 h at 2 h intervals. Postprandial lipaemia was consistently higher in the diabetic patients (about 50-100% more than values obtained in the non-diabetic subjects, even when corrected for differences in body mass) and correlated positively with age and postprandial glycaemia. This defect in TAG clearance was even worse (by about 50%) when glucose tolerance became further impaired after ten of the diabetic patients stopped oral hypoglycaemic treatment for 1 week and the fat-tolerance test was repeated. In the obese non-diabetic subjects, but not those of normal weight, there were significant negative relationships between the postprandial lipaemia and fasting plasma levels of HDL-C and HDL-C: total-C ratio, as reported in Caucasians. It is concluded that age and the ambient glucose concentration appear to be the important determinants of the efficiency of TAG clearance in diabetic subjects. This accords with clinical observations of increased atherogenic liability with increasing age and poorer

  3. Stature estimation formulae for Nigerians.

    PubMed

    Didia, Blessing C; Nduka, Ethelbert C; Adele, Okechukwu

    2009-01-01

    In stature estimation, long limbs and the stature formula of Trotter and Gleser easily come to mind. In the recent past, a lot of workers have established formulae specific to their populations using whole length of limbs, fragmented bones, circumference of long bones, and even length of the vertebrae. We have in this work used tibia length, height of subjects, and the regression models to establish formulae specific to Nigerians. We measured height and tibia length of 200 (96 male and 104 female) adult Nigerians. The tibia length was measured from upper limit of the medial condoyle to the tip of medial malleolus using a measuring tape calibrated in meters while the height of individuals were also measured using meter scales. All measurements were made by one person, to avoid interobserver error, and repeatedly until a constant value is obtained. We obtained general formulae for males and females which compares favorably with that of Duyar and Pelin, and can be relied upon. PMID:19018931

  4. Detection of Urinary Tract Pathology in Some Schistosoma haematobium Infected Nigerian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Onile, O. S.; Awobode, H. O.; Oladele, V. S.; Agunloye, A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Screening for Schistosoma haematobium infection and its possible morbidity was carried out in 257 adult participants in Eggua community, Ogun State, Nigeria. Parasitological assessment for the presence of ova of S. haematobium in urine and abdominopelvic ultrasonographic examination for bladder and secondary kidney pathology were carried out. S. haematobium prevalence of 25.68% (66/257) was recorded among the participants. There was a significantly higher prevalence of 69.2% of urinary schistosomiasis in the females than the prevalence of 31.8% in males (P = 0.902). The intensity of infections was mostly light (55) (21.8%) compared to heavy (10) (3.9%) with the mean intensity of 16.7 eggs/10 mL urine. Structural bladder pathology prevalence among participants was 33.9%. The bladder and kidney pathologies observed by ultrasound in subjects with S. haematobium infections included abnormal bladder wall thickness (59%), abnormal bladder shape (15.2%), bladder wall irregularities (15.2%), bladder masses (1.5%), bladder calcification (1.5%), and hydronephrosis (3%). Infection with S. haematobium was associated with bladder pathology. Higher frequencies of bladder abnormalities were observed more in the participants with light intensity of S. haematobium infection than in those with heavy infection. More bladder pathology was also seen in women than in men, although this was not statistically significant. In conclusion, there is evidence that the development of bladder pathology may be associated with S. haematobium infection.

  5. Giftedness and Subjective Well-Being: A Study with Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wirthwein, Linda; Rost, Detlef H.

    2011-01-01

    Studies on the well-being of gifted adults are rare, and the available studies are often limited by methodological shortcomings. In a longitudinal project 101 intellectually gifted adults (mean IQ = 136) were compared to 91 adults of average intelligence (mean IQ = 103). Subjective well-being was operationalized by positive and negative…

  6. The Making of Entrepreneurial Subjectivity in Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siivonen, Päivi; Brunila, Kristiina

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the idea of entrepreneurial subjectivity and the ways in which it is shaped by the entrepreneurial discourse in adult education. As a result, we argue that educational practices related to adults form a particular kind of ideal subjectivity that we refer to as entrepreneurial. In order to understand how this entrepreneurial…

  7. Relation of electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy to blood pressure, body mass index, serum lipids and blood sugar levels in adult Nigerians.

    PubMed

    Opadijo, O G; Omotoso, A B O; Akande, A A

    2003-12-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is considered an independent risk factor even in the absence of systemic hypertension. Electrocardiographic (ECG) LVH with repolarisation changes has been found in some countries to carry more coronary risk than LVH alone. How far this observation is true among adult Nigerians is not known. We therefore decided to study adult Nigerians with ECG-LVH with or without ST-T waves changes and compare them with normal age matched controls (without ECG-LVH) in relation with established modifiable risk factors such as systemic hypertension (BP), body mass index (BMI), fasting blood sugar (FBS) and serum lipids such as total cholesterol (Tc), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglyceride (TG). Adult Nigerians who were consecutively referred to the ECG laboratory were randomly recruited. Three hundred patients were studied. Their blood pressures (BP) as well as body mass indices were recorded after recording their resting 12 read ECG using portable Seward 9953 ECG machine. Their waist-hip ratio (WHR) was also recorded. Blood samples were taken to determine their fasting blood sugar and serum lipids. Their ECG tracings were read by the cardiologists involved in the study while the blood samples were analysed by the chemical pathologist also involved in the study. At the end of the ECG reading, the patients were divided into 3 groups according to whether there was no ECG-LVH (control group A), ECG-LVH alone (group B), and ECG-LVH with ST-T waves changes (group C). One hundred and fifty (50%) patients belonged to group A, 100 (33.3%) patients to group B and 50 (16.7%) group C. Group B patients were found to have higher modifiable risk factors in form of systemic BP. Tc, LDL-C, and WHR compared to group A. However, the group C patients had increased load of these coronary risk factors in terms of BP elevation, higher BMI, FBS, and scrum cholesterol compared to group B. In addition

  8. Reassessing Subjectivity, Criticality, and Inclusivity: Marcuse's Challenge to Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookfield, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    Although Herbert Marcuse did not write as an adult educator, his analysis of subjectivity, criticality, and inclusivity has implications for adult education. He demonstrated how apparently humanistic tolerance for diversity can be manipulated to reinforce dominant ideology, and he made a case for aesthetic education as a site for critical…

  9. Lifetime prevalence and incidence of parasomnias in a population of young adult Nigerians.

    PubMed

    Oluwole, O S A

    2010-07-01

    Lifetime prevalence, incidence, and risk factors for parasomnias were determined. Past experiences of non-REM, REM, and sleep-transition parasomnias were recorded. Diaries of night sleep duration, parasomnias, perception of aliens, levels of physical activity, headaches and intake of all substances, drugs, and tobacco were kept for 14 consecutive days. A total of 276 subjects were studied. Lifetime prevalences (95% CI) were 725 (668-776) for occurrence of any parasomnia, 43 (25-74) for sleepwalking, 112 (80-155) for sleep terror, 475 (416-533) for nightmares, 225 (179-277) for sleep paralysis, 43 (25-74) for sleep starts, 322 (270-380) for sleep talking, and 344 (291-402) for enuresis. Incidences (95% CI) were 210 (166-262) for occurrence of any parasomnia, 14 (6-37) for sleepwalking, 11 (4-31) for sleep terror, 170 (131-219) for confusional arousal, 18 (8-42) for nightmares, 14 (6-37) for sleep paralysis, 33 (17-61) for sleep starts, and 4 (1-20) for sleep enuresis. Multivariate analysis showed associations of increase occurrence of parasomnias and duration of sleep >7 h (p < 0.05) and intake of alcohol (p < 0.001), but heavy workload before sleep was associated with decreased occurrence of parasomnias (p < 0.01). Gender, smoking, caffeinated drinks, hypnotics, and headaches were not associated with parasomnias. Incidence of presence of aliens (95% CI) in the room was 25(0/infinity) (12-51). This study shows that more than 70% of the population have experienced parasomnias at any time in the past. Nightmares, enuresis, sleep paralysis and night terrors are the commonest parasomnias experienced in the past, while confusional arousal, sleep starts, and nightmares are the commonest parasomnias currently experienced. Incidence estimates show that all parasomnias persist into adulthood at reduced rates, but reduction of occurrence was greatest for enuresis. Long duration of night sleep and intake of alcohol predisposed subjects to higher occurrence of parasomnias. PMID

  10. Correlation Between Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference in Nigerian Adults: Implication as Indicators of Health Status

    PubMed Central

    Chinedu, Shalom Nwodo; Ogunlana, Olubanke O.; Azuh, Dominic E.; Iweala, Emeka E.J.; Afolabi, Israel S.; Uhuegbu, Chidi C.; Idachaba, Mercy E.; Osamor, Victor C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Anthropometric measures have been widely used for body weight classification in humans. Waist circumference has been advanced as a useful parameter for measuring adiposity. This study evaluated the correlation between body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference and examined their significance as indicators of health status in adults. Design and methods The subject included 489 healthy adults from Ota, Nigeria, aged between 20 and 75 years, grouped into early adulthood (20-39 years), middle adulthood (40-59 years) and advanced adulthood (60 years and above). Weight, height and abdominal circumference were measured. BMI was calculated as weight kg/height2 (m2) and World Health Organization cut-offs were used to categorize them into normal, underweight, overweight and obese. Results Abnormal weight categories accounted for 60 % of the subjects (underweight 11 %, overweight 31%, and obese 18%). The waist circumference of overweight and obese categories were significantly (P<0.05) higher than the normal weight category. There was no significant difference between waist circumference of underweight and normal subjects. The correlation coefficient values of BMI with waist circumference (r=0.63), body weight (r=0.76) and height (r=-0.31) were significant (P<0.01) for the total subjects. Conclusions The study indicates that waist circumference can serve as a positive indicator of overweight and obesity in the selected communities; however, it may not be used to determine underweight in adults. Regular BMI and waist circumference screening is recommended as an easy and effective means of assessing body weight and in the prevention of weight related diseases in adults. Significance for public health This manuscript describes the correlation between body mass index, waist circumference and body weight of two communities in Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria and the use of these anthropometric measures for body weight classification in human populations of the selected

  11. Subjective benefit of communication aids evaluated by postlingually deaf adults.

    PubMed

    Rihkanen, H

    1990-06-01

    Three groups of postlingually deaf adults were selected, trained and followed for about 2 years. The subjects with residual hearing were fitted with a powerful hearing aid (HA group, N = 10), the rest were given a single channel vibrotactile aid (V group, N = 8) or received a single channel cochlear implant (CI group, N = 10). The subjects were asked to evaluate the subjective benefit, disadvantage and magnitude of hearing impairment after the rehabilitation. Although the HA group achieved the highest scores in the audiological tests, the interviews revealed that the CI group found the implant quite beneficial in everyday life and in changing their attitude towards the handicap. After 2 years of use, this group reported the highest index of benefit, the best discrimination of everyday sounds and used the device most frequently. The V group were not as satisfied with their devices as the CI and HA groups. PMID:2364187

  12. Assessment of food chemical intolerance in adult asthmatic subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Hodge, L.; Yan, K. Y.; Loblay, R. L.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Identification of food chemical intolerance in asthmatic subjects can be reliably assessed by changes in the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) in response to double blind, placebo controlled challenges on a strict elimination diet. However, this method is cumbersome and time consuming. A study was undertaken to determine whether changes in bronchial responsiveness to histamine following food chemical challenge without an elimination diet might be a faster, more convenient method. METHODS: Eleven adult asthmatic subjects were challenged twice with metabisulphite, aspirin, monosodium glutamate, artificial food colours, sodium nitrite/ nitrate, 0.5% citric acid solution (placebo), and sucrose (placebo) on separate days. During the first set of challenges subjects consumed a normal diet. Bronchial responsiveness to histamine was assessed 90 minutes after each challenge. A greater than twofold increase in bronchial responsiveness was considered positive. For one month prior to and during the second set of challenges subjects followed a strict elimination diet and FEV1 was monitored during and for two hours after each challenge. A fall in FEV1 of 20% or more was considered positive. RESULTS: Of the 77 food chemical challenges performed on an unmodified diet, 20 were positive (six placebo responses). In two subjects it was not possible to perform a histamine test after one of the chemical challenges because of poor spirometric function. Of the 77 food chemical challenges performed on an elimination diet, 11 were positive (no placebo responses). Excluding the two challenges in which there were no corresponding histamine tests, only on two occasions did the positive responses in both methods coincide, giving the unmodified diet method a sensitivity of 22%. CONCLUSIONS: Strict dietary elimination and measurement of FEV1 after double blind food chemical challenge remains the most reliable method for the detection of food chemical intolerance in

  13. Clues of subjective social status among young adults.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, François; Roos, J Micah; Combs, R M

    2015-07-01

    We investigate determinants of subjective social status (SSS) as measured by respondents placing themselves on a ten-rung ladder from least to most "money", "education" and "respected job", in a large sample of young adults. The most potent clues of SSS are proximate in the life course, reflecting educational attainment and current socioeconomic and job situation, rather than distal characteristics such as family background, although relatively distal High school GPA has a lingering effect. Additional analyses reveal that College selectivity has a substantial impact on SSS, net of other variables in the model; Currently married does not significantly contribute to SSS, but contrary to some expectations Number of children significantly lowers SSS. We find no evidence of greater "status borrowing" by women as associations of SSS with shared household characteristics (Household income, Household assets, Home ownership) do not differ by gender. Our findings for these young adults support the conclusion of earlier research that SSS reflects a "cognitive averaging" of standard dimensions of socioeconomic status. PMID:26004468

  14. Guilty or Not Guilty? How Nigerian Families Impede the Aspirations of Nigerian Girls for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onochie, Okeke Chinedu Ifedi

    2010-01-01

    The females' relatively low participation in higher education is discussed within the Nigerian society in a way that such issues are discursively placed in often contradictory, as well as extremely complicated contexts. Dominant discussions draw on the interplay between gender and students' performance across subjects, as well as on the influences…

  15. Nigerian Journalists' Perceptions of Editorial Ethics and of the Role of Editorials in National Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Cornelius B.; McLaughlin, Gerald W.

    A study examined Nigerian journalists' self-reported perceptions of editorial ethics and of the role of editorials in national development, comparing data with an earlier content analysis of the ethics of newspaper editorials. Subjects, 348 full-time, salaried Nigerian journalists on nine national newspapers in two newspaper ownership groups,…

  16. Effect of Non-Surgical Periodontal Therapy on the Concentration of Volatile Sulfur Compound in Mouth Air of a Group of Nigerian Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ehizele, AO; Akhionbare, O

    2013-01-01

    Background: The major goal of non-surgical periodontal therapy is to reduce or eliminate the subgingival pathogenic microbial flora that is known to be associated with volatile sulfur compounds (VSC). Aim: The aim of this study was, therefore, to determine the effect of non-surgical periodontal therapy on the concentration of VSC in mouth air of young adults. Subjects and Methods: Four hundred subjects, grouped into two based on the absence or presence of periodontal diseases, were involved in this study. Basic periodontal examination was used for the grouping. The measurement of the concentration of the VSC in the mouth air of the subjects was done objectively, using the Halimeter, before and after the therapy, and at recall visits 2 weeks and 6 weeks after therapy. Chi-square and Paired t-test were used to find statistical significance. Results: The results revealed that at baseline, 78.7% (48/61) of the subjects who had VSC concentration more than 250 parts per billion (ppb) were from the group with periodontal disease. Immediately after non-surgical periodontal therapy, only 8.5% (17/200) of the subjects with periodontal disease had VSC concentration of more than 250 ppb while all the subjects with no periodontal disease had VSC concentration less than 181 ppb. The same pattern of reduction in the concentration of the VSC and improvement in oral hygiene was also obtained 2 weeks and 6 weeks after therapy. Conclusion: It can be concluded that non-surgical periodontal therapy brought about reduction in the concentration of volatile sulfur compounds in mouth air of young adults. PMID:24116328

  17. Leucocyte migration inhibitory factor assay in Nigerians with urinary schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Arinola, O G; Salimonu, L S

    1999-01-01

    Schistosome antigens (soluble egg antigen and adult worm antigen) and non-schistosome antigens (Bacille Calmette Guerin vaccine antigen and measles virus vaccine antigen) were used to assay for leucocyte migration inhibitory factors (LMIF) in Nigerian children with and without Schistosoma haematobium infection. The severity of S. haematobium infection was graded into light infection (1-49 eggs/ 10 ml urine) or heavy infection (more than or equal to 50 eggs/10 ml urine). The mean percentage migration indices were significantly reduced in heavily infected urinary schistosomiasis (USS) subjects compared with the controls or lightly infected subjects when non-antigens were used to stimulate LMIF production. When Schistosome antigens were used to stimulate LMIF production, there were no significant decreases in the % migration indices in heavily infected USS subjects compared with the light USS subjects. The mean percentage migration index was significantly increased when schistosome antigen was used to stimulate LMIF production in treated USS subjects compared with untreated USS subjects but the increase was not significant when non-schistosome antigen was used. The conclusion that could be drawn from this study is that LMIF assay using schistosome antigen(s) has epidemiological value in schistosomiasis. PMID:10504865

  18. Nigerian Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adeyemi, Michael B.

    1986-01-01

    Provides a brief history of Nigeria and describes the origin and development of present-day social studies instruction. Concludes that while Nigerian social studies instruction appears to be changing from the traditional passive approach to modern activity methods, instruction continues to be organized by traditional disciplines and motivated by…

  19. Interrelations between Subjective Health and Episodic Memory Change in Swedish and Canadian Samples of Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahlin, Ake; Maitland, Scott B.; Backman, Lars; Dixon, Roger A.

    2003-01-01

    Recent research has documented associations between subjective health ratings and objective indicators of disease and death. Less is known about relations between subjective health ratings and level of cognitive performance in older adults. In this study, we explored whether subjective health ratings are related to episodic memory performance,…

  20. Aspartame metabolism in normal adults, phenylketonuric heterozygotes, and diabetic subjects.

    PubMed

    Filer, L J; Stegink, L D

    1989-01-01

    This study reviews clinical studies testing the effects of various doses of aspartame on blood levels of phenylalanine, aspartate, and methanol in normal subjects and known phenylketonuric heterozygotes. The effect of aspartame on the phenylalanine-to-large neutral amino acid ratio under various feeding situations is shown. The clinical studies of aspartame in diabetic subjects are limited to observations of its effects on blood levels of glucose, lipids, insulin, and glucagon. These studies clearly demonstrate the safety of this high-intensity sweetener for use by humans. PMID:2653751

  1. Adult Female Victims of Child Sexual Abuse: Multitype Maltreatment and Disclosure Characteristics Related to Subjective Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonzon, Eva; Lindblad, Frank

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the impact of child sexual abuse and disclosure characteristics on adult psychological and psychosomatic symptoms. Data on abuse characteristics, disclosure-related events, and subjective health were collected through semistructured interviews and questionnaires from 123 adult women reporting having been sexually abused in…

  2. Adult Biography Reviews in "Booklist": Have the Subjects Changed in Twenty Years?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Timothy R.

    All adult biographies reviewed in "Booklist" in 1960 through 1964 and 1987 through 1989 were examined to see if the gender, racial or ethnic background, geographic setting, and occupation of the subjects changed over time. A total of 879 reviews from the 1960s and 1,103 reviews from the 1980s were examined. The analysis shows that subjects of…

  3. Assessing Subjective Well-Being in Chinese Older Adults: The Chinese Aging Well Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ku, Po-Wen; Fox, Kenneth R.; McKenna, Jim

    2008-01-01

    Subjective well-being has increasingly been used as a key indicator of quality of life in older people. Existing evidence shows that it is likely that eastern cultures carry different life values and so the Chinese Aging Well Profile was devised for measuring subjective well-being in Chinese adults (50+). Data was collected from 1,906…

  4. Thyroid autoimmunity in pregnant Nigerians

    PubMed Central

    Kayode, Oluwatosin O.; Odeniyi, Ifedayo A.; Iwuala, Sandra; Olopade, Oluwarotimi B.; Fasanmade, Olufemi A.; Ohwovoriole, Augustine E.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Thyroid autoimmunity is a recognized disorder in pregnancy and is associated with a number of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Aim: This study set out to determine the relationship between pregnancy and thyroid autoimmunity in Nigerian women. Settings and Design: This was an analytical cross-sectional study carried out in a tertiary hospital in South Western Nigeria with a total study population of 108 pregnant and 52 nonpregnant women. Subjects and Methods: Serum thyroid stimulating hormone, free thyroxine and thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO-Ab) were quantitatively determined using enzyme linked immuno-assays. Pregnant women were grouped into three categories (<14 weeks, 14–28 weeks and > 28 weeks). The relationship between pregnancy and thyroid autoimmunity was determined using Spearman correlation. Analysis of variance was used in comparison of means, Chi-square test used in analyzing proportions while P ≤ 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The mean age of the pregnant women was 30.4 ± 6.0 years while the mean gestational age of all pregnant women was 20.6 ± 9.6 weeks. The mean TPO-Ab of 11.58 IU/ml in the pregnant was significantly higher than that of the controls of 7.23 IU/ml (P < 0.001). Out of 108 pregnant women, 27 (25%) had elevated TPO-Ab as against about 2% of the nonpregnant women levels P < 0.001. The number of pregnant women with elevated TPO-Ab levels decreased from 33.3% in the first group to 25.6% and 15.2% in the second and third groups. Conclusion: Thyroid autoimmunity expressed by the presence of TPO-Ab is high among pregnant Nigerian women and the frequency of autoimmunity appears to decline with advancing gestational age. PMID:26425470

  5. The impact of psychosocial factors on subjective well-being among homeless young adults.

    PubMed

    Barczyk, Amanda N; Thompson, Sanna J; Rew, Lynn

    2014-08-01

    Homeless young adults are one of this country's most vulnerable populations, and information surrounding issues of subjective well-being among this particularly diverse population is scarce. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact social support, future expectations, and homeless cultural factors have on subjective well-being among homeless young adults. A purposive sample of 185 homeless young people, ages 18 to 23, and known to use alcohol or drugs, participated in the study. Multiple regression analyses showed that participants who had a higher level of subjective well-being reported significantly higher levels of social support, more optimistic expectations of the future, and a better perception of the flow of time. More fatalistic views of the future significantly predicted lower levels of subjective well-being. Findings suggest that service providers should focus on understanding the strengths of individuals and, specifically, gain a deeper understanding of homeless young adults' support networks and views of the future. PMID:25095630

  6. Measuring sleep quality in older adults: a comparison using subjective and objective methods

    PubMed Central

    Landry, Glenn J.; Best, John R.; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Sleep quality decreases with aging and thus sleep complaints are prevalent in older adults, particularly for those with cognitive impairment and dementia. For older adults, emerging evidence suggests poor sleep quality increases risk of developing cognitive impairment and dementia. Given the aging population—and the impending economic burden associated with increasing numbers of dementia patients—there is pressing need to improve sleep quality among older adults. As such, research efforts have increased focus on investigating the association between age-related sleep changes and cognitive decline in older adults. Sleep quality is a complex construct to evaluate empirically, and yet the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) is commonly used in studies as their only measure of sleep quality. Furthermore, the PSQI may not be the best sleep quality measure for older adults, due to its reliance on the cognitive capacity to reflect on the past month. Further study is needed to determine the PSQI's validity among older adults. Thus, the current study examined sleep quality for 78 community dwelling adults 55+ to determine the PSQI's predictive validity for objective sleep quality (as measured by actigraphy). We compared two subjective measures of sleep quality—the PSQI and Consensus Sleep Diary (CSD)—with actigraphy (MotionWatch 8©; camntech). Our results suggest perceived sleep quality is quite different from objective reality, at least for adults 55+. Importantly, we show this difference is unrelated to age, gender, education, or cognitive status (assessed using standard screens). Previous studies have shown the PSQI to be a valuable tool for assessing subjective sleep quality; however, our findings indicate for older adults the PSQI should not be used as a substitute for actigraphy, or vice versa. Hence, we conclude best practice is to include both subjective and objective measures when examining sleep quality in older adults (i.e., the PSQI, CSD, and

  7. Measuring sleep quality in older adults: a comparison using subjective and objective methods.

    PubMed

    Landry, Glenn J; Best, John R; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Sleep quality decreases with aging and thus sleep complaints are prevalent in older adults, particularly for those with cognitive impairment and dementia. For older adults, emerging evidence suggests poor sleep quality increases risk of developing cognitive impairment and dementia. Given the aging population-and the impending economic burden associated with increasing numbers of dementia patients-there is pressing need to improve sleep quality among older adults. As such, research efforts have increased focus on investigating the association between age-related sleep changes and cognitive decline in older adults. Sleep quality is a complex construct to evaluate empirically, and yet the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) is commonly used in studies as their only measure of sleep quality. Furthermore, the PSQI may not be the best sleep quality measure for older adults, due to its reliance on the cognitive capacity to reflect on the past month. Further study is needed to determine the PSQI's validity among older adults. Thus, the current study examined sleep quality for 78 community dwelling adults 55+ to determine the PSQI's predictive validity for objective sleep quality (as measured by actigraphy). We compared two subjective measures of sleep quality-the PSQI and Consensus Sleep Diary (CSD)-with actigraphy (MotionWatch 8©; camntech). Our results suggest perceived sleep quality is quite different from objective reality, at least for adults 55+. Importantly, we show this difference is unrelated to age, gender, education, or cognitive status (assessed using standard screens). Previous studies have shown the PSQI to be a valuable tool for assessing subjective sleep quality; however, our findings indicate for older adults the PSQI should not be used as a substitute for actigraphy, or vice versa. Hence, we conclude best practice is to include both subjective and objective measures when examining sleep quality in older adults (i.e., the PSQI, CSD, and actigraphy). PMID

  8. Sleep Pattern Differences Between Older Adult Dementia Caregivers and Older Adult Noncaregivers Using Objective and Subjective Measures

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Meredeth A.; McCrae, Christina S.; Campbell, Judy M.; Pe Benito, Andrea; Cheng, Jing

    2008-01-01

    Study Objectives: Informal caregivers of persons with dementia often complain about poor quality sleep; however, studies on caregivers have mixed results when examining sleep values. The purpose of this study was to describe the sleep patterns in a subset of dementia caregivers who provide care during the night, and compare those patterns to noncaregiving adults. Methods: Data from a study on dementia caregivers and from a study of sleep in older adults were used. Both studies used objective and subjective methods to measure sleep in the home setting over a 7-day period. Participants were over 60 years old and relatively healthy. Results: Older dementia caregivers had worse objectively measured sleep than noncaregiving older adults, characterized by fewer minutes asleep and longer time to fall asleep. For subjectively measured sleep, depressive symptoms were the only predictive factor, with depressed participants reporting longer total sleep time, greater sleep onset latency, and wake after sleep onset. Caregivers' sleep had greater night-to-night variability. Conclusions: Caregivers consistently report poorer quality sleep and greater fatigue than noncaregivers. However, when sleep is measured objectively and subjectively, a mixed picture emerges regarding sleep deficits. Thus sleep changes are caused by a multitude of factors affecting sleep in a variety of ways. It is important for health care providers to assess sleep adequacy and depression in caregivers. Citation: Rowe MA; McCrae CS; Campbell JM; Benito AP; Cheng J. Sleep pattern differences between older adult dementia caregivers and older adult noncaregivers using objective and subjective measures. J Clin Sleep Med 2008;4(4):362–369. PMID:18763429

  9. Single-dose pharmacokinetics of bupropion hydrobromide and metabolites in healthy adolescent and adult subjects.

    PubMed

    Oh, D Alexander; Crean, Christopher S

    2015-09-01

    Data from 2 pediatric single-dose studies, conducted at the same center, were combined to evaluate exposure levels of bupropion and metabolites in adolescents 12-17 years old, compared with adults > 18 years. Pharmacokinetic analyses of bupropion and its metabolites were performed using normalization and pharmacological/convulsive weighting methods on exposure. When compared with adults (>18 years), subjects 12-14 years had an increase in weight-normalized exposure to bupropion (ie, Cmax , 78%; AUC0-t , 83%; and AUCinf , 85%). Variability in this younger age group was also higher, with observations of a 3- to 4-fold increase in exposure. When the changes in metabolites were accounted within pharmacological and convulsive-weighted exposures, the relative ratio of 12-14 years to adults in body weight-normalized Cmax was 127% and 110%, respectively. Subjects 15-17 years did not exhibit a difference in exposure compared with adults. The influence of age on bupropion pharmacokinetics demonstrates that, in general, healthy adolescent subjects cannot be considered smaller healthy adult subjects; the increase in exposure is inversely related to age and appears to be solely associated with bupropion, not with its metabolites. Because there are no clinical safety and efficacy data of bupropion in adolescents, this data may shift its risk-benefit profile. PMID:27137143

  10. False Memories in Children and Adults: Age, Distinctiveness, and Subjective Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghetti, Simona; Qin, Jianjian; Goodman, Gail S.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated developmental trends associated with the Deese/Roediger-McDermott false-memory effect, the role of distinctive information, and subjective experience of true/false memories. Found that 5-year-olds recalled more false memories than adults but no age differences in recognition of critical lures. Distinctive information reduced false…

  11. Culture, Parental Conflict, Parental Marital Status, and the Subjective Well-Being of Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gohm, Carol L.; Oishi, Shigehiro; Darlington, Janet; Diener, Ed

    1998-01-01

    Study 1 found that subjective well-being was negatively associated with marital conflict among offspring of never-divorced and remarried parents. Study 2 found that the negative association of divorce and of marital conflict with the life satisfaction of the offspring did not differ for adopted young adults. (Author/MKA)

  12. Neighborhood Disadvantage, Social Comparisons, and the Subjective Assessment of Ambient Problems among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schieman, Scott; Pearlin, Leonard I.

    2006-01-01

    Using data from adults age 65 and older in the District of Columbia and two adjoining counties in Maryland, we examine the association between community-level structural disadvantage and individuals' subjective assessments of neighborhood problems. In addition, we test whether or not perceptions of relative financial equality or inequality with…

  13. Help-Seeking Response to Subjective Memory Complaints in Older Adults: Toward a Conceptual Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Begum, Aysha; Whitley, Rob; Banerjee, Sube; Matthews, David; Stewart, Robert; Morgan, Craig

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Subjective memory complaint is a term used to refer older adults who report memory problems. Extensive literature exists on its etiology and impact on long-term cognitive decline, and some physicians consider it important in the early detection of dementia. Despite the salient features reported by both patients and clinicians, few people…

  14. Objective and Subjective Quality of Life in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders in Southern Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saldana, David; Alvarez, Rosa M.; Lobaton, Silvia; Lopez, Ana M.; Moreno, Macarena; Rojano, Miguel

    2009-01-01

    Subjective and objective measures of quality of life (QoL) were obtained for adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) living in Andalusia (Spain). Seventy-four families responded to questionnaires about objective QoL indicators such as employment, health, adaptive behaviour and social network, and were asked to act as proxies for subjective…

  15. Revisiting the Structure of Subjective Well-Being in Middle-Aged Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chmiel, Magda; Brunner, Martin; Martin, Romain; Schalke, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    Subjective well-being is a broad, multifaceted construct comprising general satisfaction with life, satisfaction with life domains (health, family, people, free time, self, housing, work, and finances), positive affect, and negative affect. Drawing on representative data from middle-aged adults (N = 738), the authors used three different…

  16. Examples of Lesson Plans in Elementary Subjects for Adults. Content Materials in Education for Adult Responsibilities. California Adult Basic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Bureau of Adult Education.

    Lesson plans prepared by Adult Basic Education teachers who attended one-day mini-workshops and the participants of a six-session course held at the University of Southern California are presented. The plans are in outline format. The content areas covered are: Consumer Education (Buying Foods, Bank Checking Accounts, Telephone and Directory,…

  17. Loneliness and depressive symptoms among older adults: The moderating role of subjective life expectancy.

    PubMed

    Bodner, Ehud; Bergman, Yoav S

    2016-03-30

    Loneliness and depressive symptoms are closely related, and both are indicators of reduced physical and mental well-being in old age. In recent years, the subjective perception of how long an individual expects to live (subjective life expectancy) has gained importance as a significant predictor of future psychological functioning, as well as of physical health. The current study examined whether subjective life expectancy moderates the connection between loneliness and depressive symptoms in a representative sample of older adults. Data was collected from the Israeli component of the fifth wave of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE-Israel). Participants (n=2210; mean age=70.35) completed measures of loneliness, depressive symptoms, and life expectancy target age. A hierarchical regression analysis predicting depressive symptoms yielded a significant interaction of loneliness and subjective life expectancy. Further analyses demonstrated that low subjective life expectancy mitigated the loneliness-depressive symptoms connection. Findings are discussed in light of the potential burden of higher subjective life expectancy for lonesome older adults, and practical implications are suggested. PMID:26921056

  18. Objective but not subjective sleep predicts memory in community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Cavuoto, Marina G; Ong, Ben; Pike, Kerryn E; Nicholas, Christian L; Bei, Bei; Kinsella, Glynda J

    2016-08-01

    Research on the relationship between habitual sleep patterns and memory performance in older adults is limited. No previous study has used objective and subjective memory measures in a large, older-aged sample to examine the association between sleep and various domains of memory. The aim of this study was to examine the association between objective and subjective measures of sleep with memory performance in older adults, controlling for the effects of potential confounds. One-hundred and seventy-three community-dwelling older adults aged 65-89 years in Victoria, Australia completed the study. Objective sleep quality and length were ascertained using the Actiwatch 2 Mini-Mitter, while subjective sleep was measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Memory was indexed by tests of retrospective memory (Hopkins Verbal Learning Test - Revised), working memory (n-back, 2-back accuracy) and prospective memory (a habitual button pressing task). Compared with normative data, overall performance on retrospective memory function was within the average range. Hierarchical regression was used to determine whether objective or subjective measures of sleep predicted memory performances after controlling for demographics, health and mood. After controlling for confounds, actigraphic sleep indices (greater wake after sleep onset, longer sleep-onset latency and longer total sleep time) predicted poorer retrospective (∆R(2)  = 0.05, P = 0.016) and working memory (∆R(2)  = 0.05, P = 0.047). In contrast, subjective sleep indices did not significantly predict memory performances. In community-based older adults, objectively-measured, habitual sleep indices predict poorer memory performances. It will be important to follow the sample longitudinally to determine trajectories of change over time. PMID:26868539

  19. False memories in children and adults: age, distinctiveness, and subjective experience.

    PubMed

    Ghetti, Simona; Qin, Jianjian; Goodman, Gail S

    2002-09-01

    This study investigated developmental trends associated with the Deese/Roediger-McDermott false-memory effect, the role of distinctive information in false-memory formation, and participants' subjective experience of true and false memories. Children (5- and 7-year-olds) and adults studied lists of semantically associated words. Half of the participants studied words alone, and half studied words accompanied by pictures. There were significant age differences in recall (5-year-olds evinced more false memories than did adults) but not in recognition of critical lures. Distinctive information reduced false memory for all age groups. Younger children provided with distinctive information, and older children and adults regardless of whether they viewed distinctive information, expressed higher levels of confidence in true than in false memories. Source attributions did not significantly differ between true and false memories. Implications for theories of false memory and memory development are discussed. PMID:12220049

  20. Subjective Memory Complaint and Depressive Symptoms among Older Adults in Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Mónica; Costa, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Background. Older adults report subjective memory complaints (SMCs) but whether these are related to depression remains controversial. In this study we investigated the relationship between the SMCs and depression and their predictors in a sample of old adults. Methods. This cross-sectional study enrolled 620 participants aged 55 to 96 years (74.04 ± 10.41). Outcome measures included a sociodemographic and clinical questionnaire, a SMC scale (QSM), a Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), a Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE), and a Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Results. The QSM mean total score for the main results suggests that SMCs are higher in old adults with depressed symptoms, comparatively to nondepressed old adults. The GDS scores were positively associated with QSM but negatively associated with education, MMSE, and MoCA. GDS scores predicted almost 63.4% of variance. Scores on QSM and MoCA are significantly predicted by depression symptomatology. Conclusion. Depression symptoms, lower education level, and older age may be crucial to the comprehension of SMCs. The present study suggested that depression might play a role in the SMCs of the older adults and its treatment should be considered. PMID:26880907

  1. Association between subjective actual sleep duration, subjective sleep need, age, body mass index, and gender in a large sample of young adults

    PubMed Central

    Kalak, Nadeem; Brand, Serge; Beck, Johannes; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Wollmer, M Axel

    2015-01-01

    Background Poor sleep is a major health concern, and there is evidence that young adults are at increased risk of suffering from poor sleep. There is also evidence that sleep duration can vary as a function of gender and body mass index (BMI). We sought to replicate these findings in a large sample of young adults, and also tested the hypothesis that a smaller gap between subjective sleep duration and subjective sleep need is associated with a greater feeling of being restored. Methods A total of 2,929 university students (mean age 23.24±3.13 years, 69.1% female) took part in an Internet-based survey. They answered questions related to demographics and subjective sleep patterns. Results We found no gender differences in subjective sleep duration, subjective sleep need, BMI, age, or feeling of being restored. Nonlinear associations were observed between subjective sleep duration, BMI, and feeling of being restored. Moreover, a larger discrepancy between subjective actual sleep duration and subjective sleep need was associated with a lower feeling of being restored. Conclusion The present pattern of results from a large sample of young adults suggests that males and females do not differ with respect to subjective sleep duration, BMI, or feeling of being restored. Moreover, nonlinear correlations seemed to provide a more accurate reflection of the relationship between subjective sleep and demographic variables. PMID:25657583

  2. Subjective-objective sleep discrepancy among older adults: associations with insomnia diagnosis and insomnia treatment.

    PubMed

    Kay, Daniel B; Buysse, Daniel J; Germain, Anne; Hall, Martica; Monk, Timothy H

    2015-02-01

    Discrepancy between subjective and objective measures of sleep is associated with insomnia and increasing age. Cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia improves sleep quality and decreases subjective-objective sleep discrepancy. This study describes differences between older adults with insomnia and controls in sleep discrepancy, and tests the hypothesis that reduced sleep discrepancy following cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia correlates with the magnitude of symptom improvement reported by older adults with insomnia. Participants were 63 adults >60 years of age with insomnia, and 51 controls. At baseline, participants completed sleep diaries for 7 days while wearing wrist actigraphs. After receiving cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia, insomnia patients repeated this sleep assessment. Sleep discrepancy variables were calculated by subtracting actigraphic sleep onset latency and wake after sleep onset from respective self-reported estimates, pre- and post-treatment. Mean level and night-to-night variability in sleep discrepancy were investigated. Baseline sleep discrepancies were compared between groups. Pre-post-treatment changes in Insomnia Severity Index score and sleep discrepancy variables were investigated within older adults with insomnia. Sleep discrepancy was significantly greater and more variable across nights in older adults with insomnia than controls, P ≤ 0.001 for all. Treatment with cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia was associated with significant reduction in the Insomnia Severity Index score that correlated with changes in mean level and night-to-night variability in wake after sleep onset discrepancy, P < 0.001 for all. Study of sleep discrepancy patterns may guide more targeted treatments for late-life insomnia. PMID:25219802

  3. Subjective-objective sleep discrepancy among older adults: Associations with insomnia diagnosis and insomnia treatment

    PubMed Central

    Kay, Daniel B.; Buysse, Daniel J.; Germain, Anne; Hall, Martica; Monk, Timothy H.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Discrepancy between subjective and objective measures of sleep is associated with insomnia and increasing age. Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia improves sleep quality and decreases subjective-objective sleep discrepancy. This study describes differences between older adults with insomnia and controls in sleep discrepancy, and tests the hypothesis that reduced sleep discrepancy following cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia correlates with the magnitude of symptom improvement reported by older adults with insomnia. Participants were 63 adults >60 years of age with insomnia, and 51 controls. At baseline, participants completed sleep diaries for 7 days while wearing wrist actigraphs. After receiving cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia, insomnia patients repeated this sleep assessment. Sleep discrepancy variables were calculated by subtracting actigraphic sleep onset latency and wake after sleep onset from respective self-reported estimates, pre- and post-treatment. Mean level and night-to-night variability in sleep discrepancy were investigated. Baseline sleep discrepancies were compared between groups. Pre- to post-treatment changes in Insomnia Severity Index score and sleep discrepancy variables were investigated within older adults with insomnia. Sleep discrepancy was significantly greater and more variable across nights in older adults with insomnia than controls, p ≤.001 for all. Treatment with cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia was associated with significant reduction in Insomnia Severity Index score that correlated with changes in mean level and night-to-night variability in wake after sleep onset discrepancy, p <.001 for all. Study of sleep discrepancy patterns may guide more targeted treatments for late-life insomnia. PMID:25219802

  4. The interplay of subjective social status and essentialist beliefs about cognitive aging on cortisol reactivity to challenge in older adults.

    PubMed

    Weiss, David; Weiss, Mona

    2016-08-01

    Older adults are more likely than younger adults to experience stress when confronted with cognitive challenges. However, little is known about individual differences that might explain why some older adults exhibit stronger stress responses than others. We examined the interplay of two social-cognitive factors to explain older adults' cortisol reactivity: (1) subjective social status, and (2) essentialist beliefs about cognitive aging. We hypothesized that, depending on whether older adults believe that aging-related cognitive decline is inevitable versus modifiable, low subjective social status should lead to stronger or weaker cortisol reactivity. Using longitudinal data, we assessed the impact of cognitive challenges on stress reactivity in a sample of older adults (N = 389; 61-86 years). As predicted, regression analyses confirmed that 44 min after cognitively challenging tasks, older adults exhibited a significantly different cortisol reactivity depending on their subjective social status and their essentialist beliefs about cognitive aging. Specifically, older adults with low subjective social status and high essentialist beliefs showed a significantly elevated cortisol reactivity. We discuss the role of essentialist beliefs about cognitive aging to predict when and why high versus low subjective social status leads to stress responses in older adults. PMID:27159187

  5. Periodontal Disease Awareness and Knowledge among Nigerian Primary School Teachers

    PubMed Central

    Azodo, CC; Umoh, AO

    2015-01-01

    Background: Teacher-led oral health education is equally effective in improving the oral health knowledge and oral hygiene status of adolescents as dentist-led and peer-led strategies. Aim: The aim was to determine periodontal disease awareness and knowledge among Nigerian primary school teachers. Subjects and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among primary school teachers in Edo State, Nigeria. A self-administered questionnaire which elicited information on demography, awareness of the periodontal disease and source of information, knowledge of etiology, and symptoms of the periodontal disease, was the data collection tool.. The test of association was done using either Chi-square or Fisher's exact statistics. P value was set at 0.05 for significance level. Results: Out of 180 teachers recruited from seven public primary schools in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria, 151 of them fully participated by filling the study questionnaires giving a 83.9% (151/180) response rate. The majority 74.2% (112/151) of the participants reported having heard of the periodontal disease and the leading source of information was television. A total of 29.8% (45/151) of participants considered periodontal disease as the main cause of tooth loss among adult Nigerian. Only 12.6% (19/151) of the participants knew dental plaque as soft debris on teeth and 29.1% (44/151) attested that plaque can cause periodontal disease. The majority of the participants were not aware of age 81.5% (123/151) and gender 96.7% (146/151) predisposition to periodontal disease. The perceived manifestations of the periodontal disease reported by were mainly gum bleeding 35.1% (53/151) and swollen gum 20.5% (31/151). A total of 70.2% (106/151) of the participants considered periodontal disease as a preventable disease and about half 49.0% (74/151) of the participants considered daily mouth cleaning as the best preventive method. The majority 95.4% (144/151) of the participants expressed interest in

  6. Dimensions of subjective well-being and effects of physical activity in Chinese older adults.

    PubMed

    Ku, Po-Wen; McKenna, Jim; Fox, Kenneth R

    2007-10-01

    Subjective well-being (SWB) and its relationship with physical activity have not been systematically investigated in older Chinese people. This study explored these issues using qualitative interviews with a purposive sample of 23 community-dwelling Chinese older adults (age 55-78 y, 12 women); 16 were physically active and 7 physically inactive. Using cross-case analyses, 7 dimensions of SWB emerged: physical, psychological, developmental, material, spiritual, sociopolitical, and social. Although elements of SWB may be shared across cultures, specific distinctions were identified. Active respondents reported the unique contributions of physical activity to the physical, psychological, developmental, and social elements of SWB. The findings suggest that physical activity could enhance the quality of life in Chinese older adults. PMID:18048943

  7. A comparison of older adults' subjective experiences with virtual and real environments during dynamic balance activities.

    PubMed

    Proffitt, Rachel; Lange, Belinda; Chen, Christina; Winstein, Carolee

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the subjective experience of older adults interacting with both virtual and real environments. Thirty healthy older adults engaged with real and virtual tasks of similar motor demands: reaching to a target in standing and stepping stance. Immersive tendencies and absorption scales were administered before the session. Game engagement and experience questionnaires were completed after each task, followed by a semistructured interview at the end of the testing session. Data were analyzed respectively using paired t tests and grounded theory methodology. Participants preferred the virtual task over the real task. They also reported an increase in presence and absorption with the virtual task, describing an external focus of attention. Findings will be used to inform future development of appropriate game-based balance training applications that could be embedded in the home or community settings as part of evidence-based fall prevention programs. PMID:24334299

  8. A comparison of older adults' subjective experience with virtual and real environments during dynamic balance activities

    PubMed Central

    Proffitt, Rachel; Lange, Belinda; Chen, Christina; Winstein, Carolee

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the subjective experience of older adults interacting with both virtual and real environments. Thirty healthy older adults engaged with real and virtual tasks of similar motor demands: reaching to a target in standing and stepping stance. Immersive tendencies and absorption scales were administered before the session. Game engagement and experience questionnaires were completed after each task, followed by a semi-structured interview at the end of the testing session. Data were analyzed respectively using paired t-tests and grounded theory methodology. Participants preferred the virtual task over the real task. They also reported an increase in presence and absorption with the virtual task, describing an external focus of attention. Findings will be used to inform future development of appropriate game-based balance training applications that could be embedded in the home or community settings as part of evidence-based fall prevention programs. PMID:24334299

  9. Prevalence and Cognitive Bases of Subjective Memory Complaints in Older Adults: Evidence from a Community Sample

    PubMed Central

    McClendon, McKee J.; Wallendal, Maggie S.; Hyde, Trevor F.; Larsen, Janet D.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To estimate the prevalence of subjective memory complaints (SMCs) in a sample of community-dwelling, older adults and to examine cognitive bases of these complaints. Participants. 499 community-dwelling adults, 65 and older. Measurements. A telephone survey consisting of cognitive tests and clinical and sociodemographic variables. SMCs were based on subjects' evaluations and subjects' perceptions of others' evaluations. Analysis. Logistic regression was used to model the risk for SMCs as a function of the cognitive, clinical, and sociodemographic variables. We tested for interactions of the cognitive variables with age, education, and gender. Results. 27.1% reported memory complaints. Among the younger age, better objective memory performance predicted lower risk for SMCs, while among the older age, better memory had no effect on risk. Among the better-educated people, better global cognitive functioning predicted lower risk for SMCs, while among the less-educated people, better global cognitive functioning had no effect on SMC risk. When predicting others' perceptions, better objective memory was associated with lower risk for SMCs. Conclusion. Objective memory performance and global cognitive functioning are associated with lower risk for SMCs, but these relationships are the strongest for the younger age and those with more education, respectively. Age and education may affect the ability to accurately appraise cognitive functioning. PMID:26317004

  10. Objective and subjective measurement of energy expenditure in older adults: A doubly-labeled water study

    PubMed Central

    Calabro, Miguel Andres; Kim, Youngwon; Franke, Warren D.; Stewart, Jeanne M.; Welk, Gregory J.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives Objective and subjective measurement instruments have been used to estimate energy expenditure as alternatives to the doubly labeled water (DLW) methodology, but their relative validity for older adults remains uncertain. The purpose of this study was to validate an objective monitor (Sense Wear Mini Armband) and a self-report instrument (7-Day Physical Activity Recall) relative to the doubly-labeled water (DLW) under free-living conditions in older adults. Subjects/Methods Twenty-nine older adults (60–78 yrs) each wore the Mini for 14 consecutive days, and completed two 7D-PARs after each week. For each measurement method, activity energy expenditure (AEE) was calculated as total energy expenditure (TEE) – measured resting metabolic rate –diet induced thermogenesis (10% of TEE). TEE and AEE from the Mini and 7D-PAR were each compared to values from the DLW. Results Equivalence testing indicated that estimates of TEE from the Mini and the 7D-PAR were statistically equivalent to those measured with DLW; however, differences were evident for estimates of AEE. The Mini had smaller mean absolute percent error for TEE (8.0%) and AEE (28.4%) than the 7D-PAR (13.8% and 84.5%, respectively) and less systematic bias in the estimates. Conclusions The Mini and 7D-PAR provided reasonably valid estimates of TEE but large errors in estimating AEE. The Mini and 7D-PAR have the potential to accurately estimate TEE for older adults. PMID:25351651

  11. Mood Influences the Concordance of Subjective and Objective Measures of Sleep Duration in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Baillet, Marion; Cosin, Charlotte; Schweitzer, Pierre; Pérès, Karine; Catheline, Gwenaëlle; Swendsen, Joel; Mayo, Willy

    2016-01-01

    Objective/Background: Sleep plays a central role in maintaining health and cognition. In most epidemiologic studies, sleep is evaluated by self-report questionnaires but several reports suggest that these evaluations might be less accurate than objective measures such as polysomnography or actigraphy. Determinants of the discrepancy between objective and subjective measures remain to be investigated. The aim of this pilot-study was to examine the role of mood states in determining the discrepancy observed between objective and subjective measures of sleep duration in older adults. Patients/Methods: Objective sleep quantity and quality were recorded by actigraphy in a sample of 45 elderly subjects over at least three consecutive nights. Subjective sleep duration and supplementary data, such as mood status and memory, were evaluated using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Results: A significant discrepancy was observed between EMA and actigraphic measures of sleep duration (p < 0.001). The magnitude of this difference was explained by the patient’s mood status (p = 0.020). No association was found between the magnitude of this discrepancy and age, sex, sleep quality or memory performance. Conclusion: The discrepancy classically observed between objective and subjective measures of sleep duration can be explained by mood status at the time of awakening. These results have potential implications for epidemiologic and clinical studies examining sleep as a risk factor for morbidity or mortality. PMID:27507944

  12. Genetic Influences on Physiological and Subjective Responses to an Aerobic Exercise Session among Sedentary Adults

    PubMed Central

    Karoly, Hollis C.; Stevens, Courtney J.; Magnan, Renee E.; Harlaar, Nicole; Hutchison, Kent E.; Bryan, Angela D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To determine whether genetic variants suggested by the literature to be associated with physiology and fitness phenotypes predicted differential physiological and subjective responses to a bout of aerobic exercise among inactive but otherwise healthy adults. Method. Participants completed a 30-minute submaximal aerobic exercise session. Measures of physiological and subjective responding were taken before, during, and after exercise. 14 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that have been previously associated with various exercise phenotypes were tested for associations with physiological and subjective response to exercise phenotypes. Results. We found that two SNPs in the FTO gene (rs8044769 and rs3751812) were related to positive affect change during exercise. Two SNPs in the CREB1 gene (rs2253206 and 2360969) were related to change in temperature during exercise and with maximal oxygen capacity (VO2 max). The SLIT2 SNP rs1379659 and the FAM5C SNP rs1935881 were associated with norepinephrine change during exercise. Finally, the OPRM1 SNP rs1799971 was related to changes in norepinephrine, lactate, and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) during exercise. Conclusion. Genetic factors influence both physiological and subjective responses to exercise. A better understanding of genetic factors underlying physiological and subjective responses to aerobic exercise has implications for development and potential tailoring of exercise interventions. PMID:22899923

  13. Third Generation Nigerian University Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agboola, A. T.

    1993-01-01

    Examines the development of Nigerian University libraries and the political factors that created them and continue to effect their development, with a focus on those established between 1980 and 1984. Users, governance, finance, buildings, staffing, collection development, services, cataloging and classification, and automation are described.…

  14. Prevalence of low back pain and associated risk factors amongst adult patients presenting to a Nigerian family practice clinic, a hospital-based study

    PubMed Central

    Adebusoye, Lawrence A.; Alonge, Temitope O.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Low back pain (LBP) is a common health problem with concomitant disability which has assumed a public health importance in our setting. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of LBP and associated risk factors amongst adult patients attending the General Outpatients’ Clinic of the University College Hospital in Ibadan, Nigeria. Method This was a cross-sectional study of 485 respondents. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to obtain information on socio-demography, lifestyle, occupation and other risk factors associated with LBP. Results There were 288 (59.4%) female and 197 (40.6%) male respondents. The point prevalence of LBP was 46.8%. Occupational activities, previous back injury and tobacco smoking were significant associated factors for the total population. For the female respondents, logistic regression analysis showed that a waist circumference of 88 cm or more, dysmenorrhea, previous back injury and being engaged in an occupation were the most significant factors associated with LBP. However, previous back injury was the most significant factor associated with LBP for the male respondents. Conclusion The prevalence of LBP amongst adult patients in our setting is high, with preventable and treatable predisposing factors. Public health efforts should be directed at educating people on occupational activities and lifestyle habits.

  15. Facial soft tissue thickness among various vertical facial patterns in adult Pakistani subjects.

    PubMed

    Jeelani, Waqar; Fida, Mubassar; Shaikh, Attiya

    2015-12-01

    Facial reconstruction techniques are used to obtain an approximation of an individual's appearance thus helping identification of unidentified decedents from their dried skeletal remains. Many of these techniques rely on the sets of average facial soft tissue thickness (FST) values at different anatomical landmarks provided by the previous studies. FST is influenced by the age, sex, ethnicity and the body mass index of the individual. Recent literature has shown that the anthropological variations of the skull may also affect FST at certain points. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of such variations in vertical skull morphology on FST as around one third of different population groups have either a long or short facial pattern as compared to the average facial pattern. Moreover, this study also provides a FST database for the adult Pakistani subjects that may have potential implications in the facial reconstruction of the local subjects. A retrospective analysis of 276 lateral cephalograms of adult subjects having normal sagittal facial pattern was performed. Subjects were categorized into three vertical facial patterns (long face=95, average face=102, short face=79) according to the vertical dimensions of the skull and the FST was measured at 11 midline points. To compare the FST between males and females Mann-Whitney U test was used. Kruskal-Wallis test was applied to compare FST among three vertical facial patterns. The results of our study revealed significant differences in FST at nine landmarks between males and females. These sex-based differences were more pronounced in the long and short facial patterns as compared to the average facial pattern. FST at stomion, pogonion, gnathion and menton was significantly greater in the short facial pattern as compared to the long facial pattern in both the sexes. The results of the present study highlight the importance of anthropological analysis of the skull and taking the vertical skeletal dimension

  16. "Feeling younger, walking faster": subjective age and walking speed in older adults.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Yannick; Sutin, Angelina R; Terracciano, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    Walking speed is a key vital sign in older people. Given the implications of slower gait speed, a large literature has identified health-related, behavioral, cognitive, and biological factors that moderate age-related decline in mobility. The present study aims to contribute to existing knowledge by examining whether subjective age, how old or young individuals experience themselves to be relative to their chronological age, contributes to walking speed. Participants were drawn from the 2008 and 2012 waves of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS, N = 2970) and the 2011 and 2013 waves of the National Health and Aging Trends Study (NHATS, N = 5423). In both the HRS and the NHATS, linear regression analysis revealed that a younger subjective age was associated with faster walking speed at baseline and with less decline over time, controlling for age, sex, education, and race. These associations were partly accounted for by depressive symptoms, disease burden, physical activity, cognition, body mass index, and smoking. Additional analysis revealed that feeling younger than one's age was associated with a reduced risk of walking slower than the frailty-related threshold of 0.6 m/s at follow-up in the HRS. The present study provides novel and consistent evidence across two large prospective studies for an association between the subjective experience of age and walking speed of older adults. Subjective age may help identify individuals at risk for mobility limitations in old age and may be a target for interventions designed to mitigate functional decline. PMID:26296609

  17. Adult Daughters' Influence on Mothers' Health-Related Decision Making: An Expansion of the Subjective Norms Construct

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Pamela K.; Burke, Nancy J.; Joseph, Galen; Guerra, Claudia; Pasick, Rena J.

    2009-01-01

    This study of mother-adult daughter communication uses qualitative methods to explore the appropriateness of including adult daughters as referents in the measurement of subjective norms (a behavioral theory construct) related to the use of mammography and other health-related tests and services. The methods were chosen to approximate as closely…

  18. Factors Associated with Subjective Quality of Life of Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Self-Report versus Maternal Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Jinkuk; Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Smith, Leann E.; Greenberg, Jan S.; Mailick, Marsha R.

    2016-01-01

    We examined factors related to subjective quality of life (QoL) of adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) aged 25-55 (n = 60), using the World Health Organization Quality of Life measure (WHOQOL-BREF). We used three different assessment methods: adult self-report, maternal proxy-report, and maternal report. Reliability analysis showed that…

  19. Short, Subjective Measures of Numeracy and General Health Literacy in an Adult Emergency Department Setting

    PubMed Central

    Wallston, Kenneth A.; Rothman, Russell L.; Marcovitz, David E.; Storrow, Alan B.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the reliability and validity of brief subjective measures of numeracy and general health literacy in the adult emergency department setting. Methods A convenience sample of adult emergency department patients completed subjective measures of general health literacy (Short Literacy Screening questions, SLS) and numeracy (Subjective Numeracy Scale, SNS). These patients also completed two objective tests of literacy (the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults, S-TOFHLA; and the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine, REALM) and an objective test of numeracy (WRAT4). Internal reliability of the subjective measures was assessed using Cronbach’s alpha. Construct validity of the subjective measures was assessed by correlating them against the S-TOFHLA, REALM, and WRAT4, using Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients, receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves, and hierarchical, multiple linear regression with adjustment for patient age, gender, race, and education. Results The median age of the 207 patients surveyed was 46 (interquartile range 32, 59); twenty-seven percent were African American. Sixty-one percent of patients reported their highest level of education was high school or below. As measured by the S-TOFHLA and REALM, most patients had adequate literacy levels (89% and 80%, respectively), while 44% of patients had below average numeracy skills on the WRAT4. Median SLS was 14 (IQR 12, 15) on a scale of 3 to 15; median SNS was 36 (IQR 30, 42) on a scale of 6 to 48. The SLS and SNS had good internal reliability, with Cronbach’s alphas of 0.74 and 0.82, respectively. The SLS Spearman’s rank order correlation coefficient was 0.33 (95% confidence interval 0.20, 0.45) for the S-TOFHLA, with a standardized beta coefficient of 0.36 (p<0.05) after adjustment for patient demographics. The SLS correlation coefficient was 0.26 (95% CI 0.13, 0.38) for the REALM, with a standardized beta coefficient of 0.38 (p<0.05) after

  20. Attentional Control and Subjective Executive Function in Treatment-Naive Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Grane, Venke Arntsberg; Endestad, Tor; Pinto, Arnfrid Farbu; Solbakk, Anne-Kristin

    2014-01-01

    We investigated performance-derived measures of executive control, and their relationship with self- and informant reported executive functions in everyday life, in treatment-naive adults with newly diagnosed Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; n = 36) and in healthy controls (n = 35). Sustained attentional control and response inhibition were examined with the Test of Variables of Attention (T.O.V.A.). Delayed responses, increased reaction time variability, and higher omission error rate to Go signals in ADHD patients relative to controls indicated fluctuating levels of attention in the patients. Furthermore, an increment in NoGo commission errors when Go stimuli increased relative to NoGo stimuli suggests reduced inhibition of task-irrelevant stimuli in conditions demanding frequent responding. The ADHD group reported significantly more cognitive and behavioral executive problems than the control group on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version (BRIEF-A). There were overall not strong associations between task performance and ratings of everyday executive function. However, for the ADHD group, T.O.V.A. omission errors predicted self-reported difficulties on the Organization of Materials scale, and commission errors predicted informant reported difficulties on the same scale. Although ADHD patients endorsed more symptoms of depression and anxiety on the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA) than controls, ASEBA scores were not significantly associated with T.O.V.A. performance scores. Altogether, the results indicate multifaceted alteration of attentional control in adult ADHD, and accompanying subjective difficulties with several aspects of executive function in everyday living. The relationships between the two sets of data were modest, indicating that the measures represent non-redundant features of adult ADHD. PMID:25545156

  1. Attentional control and subjective executive function in treatment-naive adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Grane, Venke Arntsberg; Endestad, Tor; Pinto, Arnfrid Farbu; Solbakk, Anne-Kristin

    2014-01-01

    We investigated performance-derived measures of executive control, and their relationship with self- and informant reported executive functions in everyday life, in treatment-naive adults with newly diagnosed Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; n = 36) and in healthy controls (n = 35). Sustained attentional control and response inhibition were examined with the Test of Variables of Attention (T.O.V.A.). Delayed responses, increased reaction time variability, and higher omission error rate to Go signals in ADHD patients relative to controls indicated fluctuating levels of attention in the patients. Furthermore, an increment in NoGo commission errors when Go stimuli increased relative to NoGo stimuli suggests reduced inhibition of task-irrelevant stimuli in conditions demanding frequent responding. The ADHD group reported significantly more cognitive and behavioral executive problems than the control group on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version (BRIEF-A). There were overall not strong associations between task performance and ratings of everyday executive function. However, for the ADHD group, T.O.V.A. omission errors predicted self-reported difficulties on the Organization of Materials scale, and commission errors predicted informant reported difficulties on the same scale. Although ADHD patients endorsed more symptoms of depression and anxiety on the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA) than controls, ASEBA scores were not significantly associated with T.O.V.A. performance scores. Altogether, the results indicate multifaceted alteration of attentional control in adult ADHD, and accompanying subjective difficulties with several aspects of executive function in everyday living. The relationships between the two sets of data were modest, indicating that the measures represent non-redundant features of adult ADHD. PMID:25545156

  2. Obesity in young-adult Nigerians: variations in prevalence determined by anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance analysis, and the development of % body fat prediction equations

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Overweight/obesity is a growing global public health concern. The variations in the prevalence of overweight/obesity, defined by Body Mass Index (BMI), Waist Circumference (WC), Waist-to-Height Ratio (WHtR), Waist-to-Hip Ratio (WHpR) and Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA), were studied and a prediction equation for % body fat (%BF) developed. Methods A total of 1584 subjects (56.4% males) were recruited for the study. Data on age, gender, height, weight, hip circumference and WC were collected from the subjects using standard protocols. BMI, WHtR and WHpR were derived using standard equations. %BF was measured using a BIA device (Omron BF-400). Appropriate statistical tools were used for the data analysis. Results The prevalence of overweight/obesity in the population was 28.4% (36.3% for males; 22.6% for females) (BIA); 20.7% (17.5% for males; 24.8% for females) (BMI); 7.5% (1.3% for males; 16.1% for females) (WC); 2.9% (4.3% for males; 1.2% for females) (WHpR); and 15.4% (14.8% for males; 16.2% females) (WHtR). Taking BIA as the reference point, WC misclassified overweight/obesity the most for males (35%), while for the females, WHpR misclassified both disorders the most (21.4%). Correlation studies showed that only BMI correlated significantly, albeit weakly, with %BF among the males, whereas all the anthropometric measures, but WHpR correlated significantly with % body fat in females. Two prediction equations for %BF were generated, and %BF predicted with the two equations correlated significantly (P < 0.001) with that measured by BIA. Conclusion The prevalence of overweight/obesity in this population vary widely depending on the definition used. The developed prediction equations could be useful in resource-poor settings, but require validation. PMID:22818201

  3. Evaluating the subject-performed task effect in healthy older adults: relationship with neuropsychological tests

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Ana Rita; Pinho, Maria Salomé; Souchay, Céline; Moulin, Christopher J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background An enhancement in recall of simple instructions is found when actions are performed in comparison to when they are verbally presented – the subject-performed task (SPT) effect. This enhancement has also been found with older adults. However, the reason why older adults, known to present a deficit in episodic memory, have a better performance for this type of information remains unclear. In this article, we explored this effect by comparing the performance on the SPT task with the performance on other tasks, in order to understand the underlying mechanisms that may explain this effect. Objective We hypothesized that both young and older adult groups should show higher recall in SPT compared with the verbal learning condition, and that the differences between age groups should be lower in the SPT condition. We aimed to explore the correlations between these tasks and known neuropsychological tests, and we also measured source memory for the encoding condition. Design A mixed design was used with 30 healthy older adults, comparing their performance with 30 healthy younger adults. Each participant was asked to perform 16 simple instructions (SPT condition) and to only read the other 16 instructions (Verbal condition – VT). The test phase included a free recall task. Participants were also tested with a set of neuropsychological measures (speed of processing, working memory and verbal episodic memory). Results The SPT effect was found for both age groups; but even for SPT materials, group differences in recall persisted. Source memory was found to be preserved for the two groups. Simple correlations suggested differences in correlates of SPT performance between the two groups. However, when controlling for age, the SPT and VT tasks correlate with each other, and a measure of episodic memory correlated moderately with both SPT and VT performance. Conclusions A strong effect of SPT was observed for all but one, which still displayed the expected aging

  4. Factors Associated with Subjective Quality of Life of Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Self-Report vs. Maternal Reports

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jinkuk; Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Smith, Leann; Greenberg, Jan S.; Mailick, Marsha R.

    2015-01-01

    We examined factors related to subjective quality of life (QoL) of adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) aged 25 to 55 (n = 60), using the World Health Organization Quality of Life measure (WHOQOL-BREF). We used three different assessment methods: adult self-report, maternal proxy-report, and maternal report. Reliability analysis showed that adults with ASD rated their own QoL reliably. QoL scores derived from adult self-reports were more closely related to those from maternal proxy-report than from maternal report. Subjective factors such as perceived stress and having been bullied frequently were associated with QoL based on adult self-reports. In contrast, level of independence in daily activities and physical health were significant predictors of maternal reports of their son or daughter’s QoL. PMID:26707626

  5. Factors Associated with Subjective Quality of Life of Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Self-Report Versus Maternal Reports.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jinkuk; Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Smith, Leann E; Greenberg, Jan S; Mailick, Marsha R

    2016-04-01

    We examined factors related to subjective quality of life (QoL) of adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) aged 25-55 (n = 60), using the World Health Organization Quality of Life measure (WHOQOL-BREF). We used three different assessment methods: adult self-report, maternal proxy-report, and maternal report. Reliability analysis showed that adults with ASD rated their own QoL reliably. QoL scores derived from adult self-reports were more closely related to those from maternal proxy-report than from maternal report. Subjective factors such as perceived stress and having been bullied frequently were associated with QoL based on adult self-reports. In contrast, level of independence in daily activities and physical health were significant predictors of maternal reports of their son or daughter's QoL. PMID:26707626

  6. [A survey of dental-periodontal pathology in a sample of blind adult subjects].

    PubMed

    Campisi, G; Cumbo, V

    1994-01-01

    The authors, after a short inquiry into the Italian epidemiological reality of blind subjects, explain the results of a study made on a sample of 105 blind adults (average age: 60.3 years) in order to check their oral health conditions. In particular, they have pointed out the DMFT index, the average number of permanent teeth present, the OHI-S index in its two components ID and IC, the CPITN index. The results of this study point is a high DMFT index, mainly owing to teeth extracted for periodontal disease. A high OHI-S index and the prevalence of the codes 2 e 3 of the CPITN index direct the therapeutical choice towards a professional oral hygiene and oral preventive protocols adequate to their sensorial deficiency. PMID:8170450

  7. Executive Functions in Older Adults With Autism Spectrum Disorder: Objective Performance and Subjective Complaints.

    PubMed

    Davids, Roeliena C D; Groen, Yvonne; Berg, Ina J; Tucha, Oliver M; van Balkom, Ingrid D C

    2016-09-01

    Although deficits in Executive Functioning (EF) are reported frequently in young individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), they remain relatively unexplored later in life (>50 years). We studied objective performance on EF measures (Tower of London, Zoo map, phonetic/semantic fluency) as well as subjective complaints (self- and proxy reported BRIEF) in 36 ASD and 36 typically developed individuals (n = 72). High functioning older adults with ASD reported EF-impairments in metacognition, but did not deviate in EF task performance, except for a longer execution time of the Tower of London. The need for additional time to complete daily tasks may contribute to impairments in daily life and may be correlated to a higher level of experienced EF-difficulties in ASD. PMID:27278313

  8. EEG anomalies in adult ADHD subjects performing a working memory task.

    PubMed

    Missonnier, P; Hasler, R; Perroud, N; Herrmann, F R; Millet, P; Richiardi, J; Malafosse, A; Giannakopoulos, P; Baud, P

    2013-06-25

    Functional imaging studies have revealed differential brain activation patterns in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) adult patients performing working memory (WM) tasks. The existence of alterations in WM-related cortical circuits during childhood may precede executive dysfunctions in this disorder in adults. To date, there is no study exploring the electrophysiological activation of WM-related neural networks in ADHD. To address this issue, we carried out an electroencephalographic (EEG) activation study associated with time-frequency (TF) analysis in 15 adults with ADHD and 15 controls performing two visual N-back WM tasks, as well as oddball detection and passive fixation tasks. Frontal transient (phasic) theta event-related synchronization (ERS, 0-500 msec) was significantly reduced in ADHD as compared to control subjects. Such reduction was equally present in a task-independent manner. In contrast, the power of the later sustained (∼500-1200 msec) theta ERS for all tasks was comparable in ADHD and control groups. In active WM tasks, ADHD patients displayed lower alpha event-related desynchronization (ERD, ∼200-900 msec) and higher subsequent alpha ERS (∼900-2400 msec) compared to controls. The time course of alpha ERD/ERS cycle was modified in ADHD patients compared to controls, suggesting that they are able to use late compensatory mechanisms in order to perform this WM task. These findings support the idea of an ADHD-related dysfunction of neural generators sub-serving attention directed to the incoming visual information. ADHD cases may successfully face WM needs depending on the preservation of sustained theta ERS and prolonged increase of alpha ERS at later post-stimulus time points. PMID:23518223

  9. Condylar volume and condylar area in class I, class II and class III young adult subjects

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Aim Aim of this study was to compare the volume and the shape of mandibular condyles in a Caucasian young adult population, with different skeletal pattern. Material and methods 200 Caucasian patients (15–30 years old, 95 male and 105 females) were classified in three groups on the base of ANB angle: skeletal class I (65 patients), skeletal class II (70 patients) and skeletal class III (65 patients). Left and right TMJs of each subject were evaluated independently with CBCT (Iluma). TMJ evaluation included: condylar volume; condylar area; morphological index (MI). Condylar volumes were calculated by using the Mimics software. The condylar volume, the area and the morphological index (MI) were compared among the three groups, by using non-parametric tests. Results The Kruskal-Wallis test and the Mann Whitney test revealed that: no significant difference was observed in the whole sample between the right and the left condylar volume; subjects in skeletal class III showed a significantly higher condylar volume, respect to class I and class II subjects (p < 0.05); significantly lower condylar volume was observed in class II subjects, respect to class I and class III (p < 0.05). In the whole sample condylar volume (699.8 ± 63.07 mm3 in males and 663.5 ± 81.3 mm3 in females; p < 0.01) as well as condylar surface (423.24 ± 63.03 mm2 in males and 389.76 ± 61.15 mm2 in females; p < 0.01) were significantly higher in males than in females. Conclusion Skeletal class appeared to be associated to the mandibular condylar volume and to the mandibular condylar area in the Caucasian orthodontic population. PMID:23241136

  10. Successful Aging and Subjective Well-Being Among Oldest-Old Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jinmyoung; Martin, Peter; Poon, Leonard W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: This research integrates successful aging and developmental adaptation models to empirically define the direct and indirect effects of 2 distal (i.e., education and past life experiences) and 5 proximal influences (i.e., physical functioning, cognitive functioning, physical health impairment, social resources, and perceived economic status) on subjective well-being. The proximal influences involved predictors outlined in most extant models of successful aging (e.g., Rowe & Kahn, 1998 [Rowe, J. W., & Kahn, R. L. (1998). Successful aging. New York: Pantheon Books.]). Our model extends such models by including distal impact as well as interactions between distal and proximal impacts. Design and Methods: Data were obtained from 234 centenarians and 72 octogenarians in the Georgia Centenarian Study. Structural equation modeling was conducted with Mplus 6.1. Results: Results showed significant direct effects of physical health impairment and social resources on positive aspects of subjective well-being among oldest-old adults. We also found significant indirect effects of cognitive functioning and education on positive affect among oldest-old adults. Social resources mediated the relationship between cognitive functioning and positive affect; and cognitive functioning and social resources mediated the relationship between education and positive affect. In addition, physical health impairment mediated the relationship between cognitive functioning and positive affect; and cognitive functioning and physical health impairment mediated the relationship between education and positive affect. Implications: Integrating 2 different models (i.e., successful aging and developmental adaptation) provided a comprehensive view of adaptation from a developmental perspective. PMID:25112594

  11. Differences in physical fitness and subjectively rated physical health in Vietnamese and German older adults.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hung M; Cihlar, Volker

    2013-06-01

    This cross-sectional study aims to investigate the differences in physical fitness and subjectively rated physical health of Vietnamese and German older adults in a community dwelling. The Vietnamese sample was a random sample of 96 community-dwelling individuals aged 60 to 80 years; 50 % were women. Education is 0 % less than 5 years, 23.95 % 5 to 9 years, 47.91 % 10 to 12 years, and 28.12 % more than 12 years. The German sample was a random sample of 159 community-dwelling persons aged 59 to 90 years; 79.8 % were women. Education is 1.25 % less than 5 years, 40.25 % 5 to 9 years, 38.84 % 10 to 12 years, and 21.38 % more than 12 years. Senior Fitness Test and Short Form-36 were used as outcome measures. The Vietnamese sample shows significantly higher performance levels in motor abilities, i.e., aerobic fitness, strength, and flexibility. The Vietnamese sample indicates a lower difference in performance levels between age groups than the German sample. No differences in subjectively rated physical health factors were found. The higher performance levels of the Vietnamese sample might reflect a more active lifestyle throughout the life span, especially in socially mediated domains like living arrangements or labor work. Lower performance levels in the studied age groups of the German sample might lead to higher risks of cardiovascular diseases and proneness of falls. A more active lifestyle after retirement could contribute to a healthier, more capable, and more independent individual and collective aging. Subjectively rated health stated is a culturally mitigated domain and therefore might be independent of actual physical fitness levels. PMID:23666598

  12. Conceptions of traditional cosmological ideas among literate and nonliterate Nigerians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogunniyi, M. B.

    This paper examines the nature of selected traditional cosmological concepts among literate and nonliterate Nigerians. An analysis of the data reveals that the subjects, irrespective of their level of education, class, sex, age, religion, tribe, or locality, hold in varying degrees certain traditional as well as scientific concepts about the natural phenomena. An exposure of some of the subjects to an history/philosophy of science course appears to enhance their preference for a scientific worldview vis a vis a traditional point-of-view. The implications of these findings for traditional societies deserve a closer consideration.

  13. An Interleukin 13 Polymorphism Is Associated with Symptom Severity in Adult Subjects with Ever Asthma.

    PubMed

    Accordini, Simone; Calciano, Lucia; Bombieri, Cristina; Malerba, Giovanni; Belpinati, Francesca; Lo Presti, Anna Rita; Baldan, Alessandro; Ferrari, Marcello; Perbellini, Luigi; de Marco, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Different genes are associated with categorical classifications of asthma severity. However, continuous outcomes should be used to catch the heterogeneity of asthma phenotypes and to increase the power in association studies. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to evaluate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in candidate gene regions and continuous measures of asthma severity, in adult patients from the general population. In the Gene Environment Interactions in Respiratory Diseases (GEIRD) study (www.geird.org), 326 subjects (aged 20-64) with ever asthma were identified from the general population in Verona (Italy) between 2007 and 2010. A panel of 236 SNPs tagging 51 candidate gene regions (including one or more genes) was analysed. A symptom and treatment score (STS) and pre-bronchodilator FEV1% predicted were used as continuous measures of asthma severity. The association of each SNP with STS and FEV1% predicted was tested by fitting quasi-gamma and linear regression models, respectively, with gender, body mass index and smoking habits as potential confounders. The Simes multiple-test procedure was used for controlling the false discovery rate (FDR). SNP rs848 in the IL13 gene region (IL5/RAD50/IL13/IL4) was associated with STS (TG/GG vs TT genotype: uncorrected p-value = 0.00006, FDR-corrected p-value = 0.04), whereas rs20541 in the same gene region, in linkage disequilibrium with rs848 (r2 = 0.94) in our sample, did not reach the statistical significance after adjusting for multiple testing (TC/CC vs TT: uncorrected p-value = 0.0003, FDR-corrected p-value = 0.09). Polymorphisms in other gene regions showed a non-significant moderate association with STS (IL12B, TNS1) or lung function (SERPINE2, GATA3, IL5, NPNT, FAM13A) only. After adjusting for multiple testing and potential confounders, SNP rs848 in the IL13 gene region is significantly associated with a continuous measure of symptom severity in adult subjects with ever asthma

  14. An Interleukin 13 Polymorphism Is Associated with Symptom Severity in Adult Subjects with Ever Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Accordini, Simone; Calciano, Lucia; Bombieri, Cristina; Malerba, Giovanni; Belpinati, Francesca; Lo Presti, Anna Rita; Baldan, Alessandro; Ferrari, Marcello; Perbellini, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Different genes are associated with categorical classifications of asthma severity. However, continuous outcomes should be used to catch the heterogeneity of asthma phenotypes and to increase the power in association studies. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to evaluate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in candidate gene regions and continuous measures of asthma severity, in adult patients from the general population. In the Gene Environment Interactions in Respiratory Diseases (GEIRD) study (www.geird.org), 326 subjects (aged 20–64) with ever asthma were identified from the general population in Verona (Italy) between 2007 and 2010. A panel of 236 SNPs tagging 51 candidate gene regions (including one or more genes) was analysed. A symptom and treatment score (STS) and pre-bronchodilator FEV1% predicted were used as continuous measures of asthma severity. The association of each SNP with STS and FEV1% predicted was tested by fitting quasi-gamma and linear regression models, respectively, with gender, body mass index and smoking habits as potential confounders. The Simes multiple-test procedure was used for controlling the false discovery rate (FDR). SNP rs848 in the IL13 gene region (IL5/RAD50/IL13/IL4) was associated with STS (TG/GG vs TT genotype: uncorrected p-value = 0.00006, FDR-corrected p-value = 0.04), whereas rs20541 in the same gene region, in linkage disequilibrium with rs848 (r2 = 0.94) in our sample, did not reach the statistical significance after adjusting for multiple testing (TC/CC vs TT: uncorrected p-value = 0.0003, FDR-corrected p-value = 0.09). Polymorphisms in other gene regions showed a non-significant moderate association with STS (IL12B, TNS1) or lung function (SERPINE2, GATA3, IL5, NPNT, FAM13A) only. After adjusting for multiple testing and potential confounders, SNP rs848 in the IL13 gene region is significantly associated with a continuous measure of symptom severity in adult subjects with ever

  15. Assessment of the pharmacokinetic interaction between eltrombopag and lopinavir-ritonavir in healthy adult subjects.

    PubMed

    Wire, Mary B; McLean, Heidi B; Pendry, Carolyn; Theodore, Dickens; Park, Jung W; Peng, Bin

    2012-06-01

    Eltrombopag is an orally bioavailable thrombopoietin receptor agonist that is approved for the treatment of chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. It is being developed for other medical disorders that are associated with thrombocytopenia. Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may suffer from thrombocytopenia as a result of their HIV disease or coinfection with hepatitis C virus (HCV). HIV medications, particularly ritonavir (RTV)-boosted HIV protease inhibitors, are involved in many drug interactions. This study evaluated the potential drug-drug interaction between eltrombopag and lopinavir (LPV)/RTV. Forty healthy adult subjects enrolled in this open-label, three-period, single-sequence crossover study received a single 100-mg dose of eltrombopag (period 1), LPV/RTV at 400/100 mg twice daily (BID) for 14 days (period 2), and LPV/RTV at 400/100 mg BID (2 doses) with a single 100-mg dose of eltrombopag administered with the morning LPV/RTV dose (period 3). There was a 3-day washout between periods 1 and 2 and no washout between periods 2 and 3. Serial pharmacokinetic samples were collected during 72 h in periods 1 and 3 and during 12 h in period 2. The coadministration of 400/100 mg LPV/RTV BID with a single dose of 100 mg eltrombopag decreased the plasma eltrombopag area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero extrapolated to infinity (AUC(0-∞)) by 17%, on average, with no change in plasma LPV/RTV exposure. Adverse events (AEs) reported in period 2 were consistent with known LPV/RTV AEs, such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, rash, and fatigue. No subjects withdrew due to AEs, and no serious AEs were reported. These study results suggest that platelet counts should be monitored and the eltrombopag dose adjusted accordingly if LPV/RTV therapy is initiated or discontinued. PMID:22391553

  16. Assessment of the Pharmacokinetic Interaction between Eltrombopag and Lopinavir-Ritonavir in Healthy Adult Subjects

    PubMed Central

    McLean, Heidi B.; Pendry, Carolyn; Theodore, Dickens; Park, Jung W.; Peng, Bin

    2012-01-01

    Eltrombopag is an orally bioavailable thrombopoietin receptor agonist that is approved for the treatment of chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. It is being developed for other medical disorders that are associated with thrombocytopenia. Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may suffer from thrombocytopenia as a result of their HIV disease or coinfection with hepatitis C virus (HCV). HIV medications, particularly ritonavir (RTV)-boosted HIV protease inhibitors, are involved in many drug interactions. This study evaluated the potential drug-drug interaction between eltrombopag and lopinavir (LPV)/RTV. Forty healthy adult subjects enrolled in this open-label, three-period, single-sequence crossover study received a single 100-mg dose of eltrombopag (period 1), LPV/RTV at 400/100 mg twice daily (BID) for 14 days (period 2), and LPV/RTV at 400/100 mg BID (2 doses) with a single 100-mg dose of eltrombopag administered with the morning LPV/RTV dose (period 3). There was a 3-day washout between periods 1 and 2 and no washout between periods 2 and 3. Serial pharmacokinetic samples were collected during 72 h in periods 1 and 3 and during 12 h in period 2. The coadministration of 400/100 mg LPV/RTV BID with a single dose of 100 mg eltrombopag decreased the plasma eltrombopag area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero extrapolated to infinity (AUC0-∞) by 17%, on average, with no change in plasma LPV/RTV exposure. Adverse events (AEs) reported in period 2 were consistent with known LPV/RTV AEs, such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, rash, and fatigue. No subjects withdrew due to AEs, and no serious AEs were reported. These study results suggest that platelet counts should be monitored and the eltrombopag dose adjusted accordingly if LPV/RTV therapy is initiated or discontinued. PMID:22391553

  17. Intra- and inter-subject variation in lower limb coordination during countermovement jumps in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Raffalt, Peter C; Alkjær, Tine; Simonsen, Erik B

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the coordination pattern and coordination variability (intra-subject and inter-subject) in children and adults during vertical countermovement jumps. Ten children (mean age: 11.5±1.8years) and ten adults (mean age: 26.1±4.9years) participated in the experiment. Lower body 3D-kinematics and kinetics from both legs were obtained during 9 vertical jumps of each subject. Coordination pattern and coordination variability of intra-limb and inter-limb coupling were established by modified vector coding and continuous relative phase. The adult group jumped higher and with less performance variability compared to the children. Group differences were mainly observed in the right-left foot coupling. The intra-subject coordination variability was higher in coupling of proximal segments in children compared to adults. No group differences were observed in inter-subject variability. Based on these results, it was concluded that the same movement solutions were available to both age groups, but the children were less able to consistently utilize the individually chosen coordination pattern. Thus, this ability appears to be developed through normal ontogenesis. PMID:26724430

  18. So You Think You Look Young? Matching Older Adults' Subjective Ages with Age Estimations Provided by Younger, Middle-Aged, and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotter-Gruhn, Dana; Hess, Thomas M.

    2012-01-01

    Perceived age plays an important role in the context of age identity and social interactions. To examine how accurate individuals are in estimating how old they look and how old others are, younger, middle-aged, and older adults rated photographs of older target persons (for whom we had information about objective and subjective age) in terms of…

  19. Subjective well-being in older adults: folate and vitamin B12 independently predict positive affect.

    PubMed

    Edney, Laura C; Burns, Nicholas R; Danthiir, Vanessa

    2015-10-28

    Vitamin B12, folate and homocysteine have long been implicated in mental illness, and growing evidence suggests that they may play a role in positive mental health. Elucidation of these relationships is confounded due to the dependence of homocysteine on available levels of vitamin B12 and folate. Cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between vitamin B12, folate, homocysteine and subjective well-being were assessed in a sample of 391 older, community-living adults without clinically diagnosed depression. Levels of vitamin B12, but not folate, influenced homocysteine levels 18 months later. Vitamin B12, folate and their interaction significantly predicted levels of positive affect (PA) 18 months later, but had no impact on the levels of negative affect or life satisfaction. Cross-sectional relationships between homocysteine and PA were completely attenuated in the longitudinal analyses, suggesting that the cross-sectional relationship is driven by the dependence of homocysteine on vitamin B12 and folate. This is the first study to offer some evidence of a causal link between levels of folate and vitamin B12 on PA in a large, non-clinical population. PMID:26346363

  20. Gender Issues in the Implementation of Social Studies Curriculum in Nigerian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mezieobi, Dan I.; Oyeoku, E. K.; Ezegbe, B. N.; Igbo, Janeth

    2012-01-01

    The study investigated gender issues in the implementation of social studies curriculum in Nigerian universities. The subjects for the study comprised of all the 200 final-year sandwich social studies students of University of Port-Harcourt in the 2009 contact session. Five research questions guided the study. Researchers developed questionnaire…

  1. A Survey of Marital Success and Failure Among Sampled Educated Nigerians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odebunmi, Akin

    In Nigeria, various forms of polygamy and monogamy are practiced; however, monogamy is more or less practiced by many Christians and a greater percentage of younger men. A survey of marital success and failure was conducted with samples of Nigerian Diploma students and selected educated community members. Subjects completed two instruments, the…

  2. How Manipulatives Affect the Mathematics Achievement of Students in Nigerian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aburime, F. Ehi.

    2007-01-01

    Mathematics is a very important subject in Nigeria. Yet, for more than twenty years, mathematics education in Nigeria has been in a sorry state. Mathematics achievement has been very low and frustrating. So far, every effort made to save Nigerian education from the devastating effect of persistent poor mathematics achievement has failed. An…

  3. Adult Daughters’ Influence on Mothers’ Health-Related Decision Making: An Expansion of the Subjective Norms Construct

    PubMed Central

    Washington, Pamela K.; Burke, Nancy J.; Joseph, Galen; Guerra, Claudia; Pasick, Rena J.

    2010-01-01

    This study of mother–adult daughter communication uses qualitative methods to explore the appropriateness of including adult daughters as referents in the measurement of subjective norms (a behavioral theory construct) related to the use of mammography and other health-related tests and services. The methods were chosen to approximate as closely as possible the mother–adult daughter relationship in the context of daily life. This inductive approach contrasts with the deductive origins of the construct. A sample of nine Mexican and Filipina immigrant and U.S.-born mothers and their adult daughters was recruited. Data were collected in two phases: (a) videotaped observations of mother–daughter dyads discussing health-related topics and (b) follow-up interviews designed to obtain an emic (insider) perspective of the videotaped interaction. Results show that adult daughters influence their mothers’ ability to navigate the health care system and contribute to health-related decision making and behavior, suggesting that it may be appropriate to include adult daughters in the assessment of subjective norms. PMID:19805795

  4. Air pollution and lung function among susceptible adult subjects: a panel study

    PubMed Central

    Lagorio, Susanna; Forastiere, Francesco; Pistelli, Riccardo; Iavarone, Ivano; Michelozzi, Paola; Fano, Valeria; Marconi, Achille; Ziemacki, Giovanni; Ostro, Bart D

    2006-01-01

    Background Adverse health effects at relatively low levels of ambient air pollution have consistently been reported in the last years. We conducted a time-series panel study of subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and ischemic heart disease (IHD) to evaluate whether daily levels of air pollutants have a measurable impact on the lung function of adult subjects with pre-existing lung or heart diseases. Methods Twenty-nine patients with COPD, asthma, or IHD underwent repeated lung function tests by supervised spirometry in two one-month surveys. Daily samples of coarse (PM10–2.5) and fine (PM2.5) particulate matter were collected by means of dichotomous samplers, and the dust was gravimetrically analyzed. The particulate content of selected metals (cadmium, chrome, iron, nickel, lead, platinum, vanadium, and zinc) was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Ambient concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), and sulphur dioxide (SO2) were obtained from the regional air-quality monitoring network. The relationships between concentrations of air pollutants and lung function parameters were analyzed by generalized estimating equations (GEE) for panel data. Results Decrements in lung function indices (FVC and/or FEV1) associated with increasing concentrations of PM2.5, NO2 and some metals (especially zinc and iron) were observed in COPD cases. Among the asthmatics, NO2 was associated with a decrease in FEV1. No association between average ambient concentrations of any air pollutant and lung function was observed among IHD cases. Conclusion This study suggests that the short-term negative impact of exposure to air pollutants on respiratory volume and flow is limited to individuals with already impaired respiratory function. The fine fraction of ambient PM seems responsible for the observed effects among COPD cases, with zinc and iron having a potential role via oxidative stress. The respiratory function

  5. Individual differences in the neural signature of subjective value among older adults.

    PubMed

    Halfmann, Kameko; Hedgcock, William; Kable, Joseph; Denburg, Natalie L

    2016-07-01

    Some healthy older adults show departures from standard decision-making patterns exhibited by younger adults. We asked if such departures are uniform or if heterogeneous aging processes can designate which older adults show differing decision patterns. Thirty-three healthy older adults with varying decision-making patterns on a complex decision task (the Iowa Gambling Task) completed an intertemporal choice task while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. We examined whether value representation in the canonical valuation network differed across older adults based on complex decision-making ability. Older adults with advantageous decision patterns showed increased activity in the valuation network, including the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) and striatum. In contrast, older adults with disadvantageous decision patterns showed reduced or absent activation in the VMPFC and striatum, and these older adults also showed greater blood oxygen level dependent signal temporal variability in the striatum. Our results suggest that a reduced representation of value in the brain, possibly driven by increased neural noise, relates to suboptimal decision-making in a subset of older adults, which could translate to poor decision-making in many aspects of life, including finance, health and long-term care. Understanding the connection between suboptimal decision-making and neural value signals is a step toward mitigating age-related decision-making impairments. PMID:26089342

  6. Protein and calorie intakes in adult and pediatric subjects with urea cycle disorders participating in clinical trials of glycerol phenylbutyrate☆

    PubMed Central

    Hook, Debra; Diaz, George A.; Lee, Brendan; Bartley, James; Longo, Nicola; Berquist, William; Le Mons, Cynthia; Rudolph-Angelich, Ingrid; Porter, Marty; Scharschmidt, Bruce F.; Mokhtarani, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Background Little prospectively collected data are available comparing the dietary intake of urea cycle disorder (UCD) patients to UCD treatment guidelines or to healthy individuals. Objective To examine the protein and calorie intakes of UCD subjects who participated in clinical trials of glycerol phenylbutyrate (GPB) and compare these data to published UCD dietary guidelines and nutritional surveys. Design Dietary data were recorded for 45 adult and 49 pediatric UCD subjects in metabolic control during participation in clinical trials of GPB. Protein and calorie intakes were compared to UCD treatment guidelines, average nutrient intakes of a healthy US population based on the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and Recommended Daily Allowances (RDA). Results In adults, mean protein intake was higher than UCD recommendations but lower than RDA and NHANES values, while calorie intake was lower than UCD recommendations, RDA and NHANES. In pediatric subjects, prescribed protein intake was higher than UCD guidelines, similar to RDA, and lower than NHANES data for all age groups, while calorie intake was at the lower end of the recommended UCD range and close to RDA and NHANES data. In pediatric subjects height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) Z-scores were within normal range (− 2 to 2). Conclusions Pediatric patients treated with phenylbutyrate derivatives exhibited normal height and weight. Protein and calorie intakes in adult and pediatric UCD subjects differed from UCD dietary guidelines, suggesting that these guidelines may need to be reconsidered. PMID:27014577

  7. Nike Twins Seven Seven: Nigerian Batik Artist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaDuke, Betty

    1987-01-01

    Chronicles the personal and professional life of Nike Twins Seven Seven (born 1951), a Nigerian batik artist, and her husband, Twins Seven Seven, a musician-artist, both of whom have received international acclaim. (BJV)

  8. Preformed volatile nitrosamines in some Nigerian foodstuffs.

    PubMed

    Atawodi, S E; Maduagwu, E N; Preussmann, R; Spiegelhalder, B

    1993-11-01

    Some common Nigerian foodstuffs were assessed for their content of preformed volatile nitrosamine by chemiluminescence detection following gas chromatographic separation. Nitrosodimethylamine levels of between 0.4 and 4.6 ppb were detected in 75% of the samples analysed. The highest value was found in Brassica oleraceae, while Vernonia amygdalina contained the lowest detectable level. These data suggest that Nigerians may be exposed to chronic but very low levels of carcinogenic nitrosamines in their foods. PMID:8258415

  9. 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in healthy young adult Anglo, Hispanic, and African-American subjects.

    PubMed

    Chase, H P; Garg, S K; Icaza, G; Carmain, J A; Walravens, C F; Marshall, G

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare office and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) values for adolescent and young adult males and females of Anglo, Hispanic, and African-American descent. One hundred and eighteen healthy subjects (62 females, 56 males) participated, with an ethnic distribution of 50 Anglo, 32 Hispanic, and 36 African-American subjects. All subjects came to the clinic for height, weight, sitting blood pressure (BP), and to begin 24-h ABP monitoring using the SpaceLabs model 90207 automatic noninvasive monitor. The monitor recorded readings every 0.5 h from 06:00 to 22:00 and every hour at night from 22:00 to 06:00. Office systolic and diastolic BP values were higher for all males compared to all females. Mean 24-h, nighttime, and daytime systolic ABP values were also significantly higher for males compared to females. The 24-h mean and daytime systolic ABP values were significantly different by ethnic groups. The African-American subjects always had the highest readings. Mean 24-h diastolic ABP was also significantly different by ethnic groups, with the African-American subjects being higher than the Anglos or the Hispanics. Diastolic ABP (24-h mean, daytime, and nighttime) values (for all subjects combined) increased gradually and varied significantly with age. This study provides preliminary normative data about ABP in an understudied population (ie, teenagers and young adults of different ethnic backgrounds). It also shows that higher blood pressures are present among males and among subjects of African-American descent in the teenage and young adult population. PMID:9008244

  10. Memory for Medication Side Effects in Younger and Older Adults: The Role of Subjective and Objective Importance

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Michael C.; McGillivray, Shannon; Murayama, Kou; Castel, Alan D.

    2014-01-01

    Older adults often experience memory impairments, but can sometimes use selective processing and schematic support to remember important information. The current experiments investigate to what degree younger and healthy older adults remember medication side effects that were subjectively or objectively important to remember. Participants studied a list of common side effects, and rated how negative these effects were if they were to experience them, and were then given a free recall test. In Experiment 1, the severity of the side effects ranged from mild (e.g., itching) to severe (e.g., stroke), and in Experiment 2, certain side effects were indicated as critical to remember (i.e., “contact your doctor if you experience this”). There were no age differences in terms of free recall of the side effects, and older adults remembered more severe side effects relative to mild effects. However, older adults were less likely to recognize critical side effects on a later recognition test, relative to younger adults. The findings suggest that older adults can selectively remember medication side effects, but have difficulty identifying familiar but potentially critical side effects, and this has implications for monitoring medication use in older age. PMID:25331278

  11. Socioemotional selectivity in older adults: Evidence from the subjective experience of angry memories.

    PubMed

    Uzer, Tugba; Gulgoz, Sami

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have compared the phenomenological properties of younger and older adults' memories for emotional events. Some studies suggest that younger adults remember negative information more vividly than positive information whereas other studies suggest that positive emotion yields phenomenologically richer memories than negative emotion for both younger and older adults. One problem with previous studies is a tendency to treat emotion as a dichotomous variable. In contrast, emotional richness demands inclusion of assessments beyond just a positive and negative dimension (e.g., assessing specific emotions like anger, fear and happiness). The present study investigated different properties of autobiographical remembering as a function of discrete emotions and age. Thirty-two younger and thirty-one older adults participated by recalling recent and remote memories associated with six emotional categories and completed the Memory Characteristics Questionnaire for each. Results demonstrated that older adults' angry memories received lower ratings on some phenomenological properties than other emotional memories whereas younger adults' angry memories did not show this same pattern. These results are discussed within the context of socioemotional selectivity theory. PMID:25029295

  12. (Un)veiling Desire: Re-Defining Relationships between Gendered Adult Education Subjects and Adult Education Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chopra, Priti

    2011-01-01

    This paper challenges constructions of the "gendered illiterate Indian villager" as a homogenous group of people who are empowered through acquiring literacy. I strive to displace homogeneous representations of gendered "illiterate" subjects through ethnographic accounts of diverse people's realities in different villages in Bihar, India. I argue…

  13. Comparative Cognitive and Subjective Side Effects of Immediate Release Oxycodone in Healthy Middle Age and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cherrier, M.; Amory, J.; Ersek, M.; Risler, L.; Shen, D.

    2009-01-01

    This study measured the objective and subjective neurocognitive effects of a single 10mg dose of immediate-release oxycodone in healthy, older (>65 years) and middle age (35 – 55 years) adults who were not suffering from chronic or significant daily pain. Seventy-one participants completed two separate study days and were blind to medication condition (placebo, 10 mg oxycodone). Plasma oxycodone concentration peaked between 60 and 90 min post dose (p<0.01) and pupil size, an indication of physiological effects of the medication peaked at approximately 90 to 120 min post dose (p<0.01). Significant declines in simple and sustained attention, working memory and verbal memory were observed at one hour post dose compared to baseline for both age groups with a trend toward return to baseline by five hours post dose. For almost all cognitive measures there were no medication by age interaction effects, which indicates that the two age groups exhibited a similar responses to the medication challenge. This study suggests that for healthy older adults who are not suffering from chronic pain, neurocognitive and pharmacodynamic changes in response to a 10 mg dose of immediate release oxycodone are similar to those observed for middle age adults. Perspective Study findings indicate that the metabolism, neurocognitive effects, and physical side effects of oral oxycodone are similar for healthy middle-age and older adults. Therefore, clinicians should not avoid prescribing oral opioids to older adults based on the belief that older adults are at higher risk for side effects than younger adults. PMID:19729346

  14. Subjects to Citizens: Adult Learning and the Challenges of Democracy in the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welton, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Theme 1 of the "Hamburg Declaration on Adult Learning" boldly proclaimed that active citizenship and full participation of all citizens was the necessary foundation for "the creation of a learning society committed to social justice and general well-being" (UNESCO, 1997, p. 4). The "Declaration" advocated that future societies create "greater…

  15. Feeling Caught between Parents: Adult Children's Relations with Parents and Subjective Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amato, Paul R.; Afifi, Tamara D.

    2006-01-01

    Research on divorce has found that adolescents' feelings of being caught between parents are linked to internalizing problems and weak parent-child relationships. The present study estimates the effects of marital discord, as well as divorce, on young adult offspring's feelings of being caught in the middle (N=632). Children with parents in…

  16. Analysis of Exposure-Dose Variation of Inhaled Particles in Adult Subjects.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although internal dose is a key factor for determining the health risk of inhaled pollutant particles, available dose information is largely limited to young healthy adults under a few typical exposure conditions. Extrapolation of the limited dose information to different populat...

  17. Daily Variations in Objective Nighttime Sleep and Subjective Morning Pain in Older Adults with Insomnia: Evidence of Covariation Over Time

    PubMed Central

    Dzierzewski, Joseph M.; Williams, Jacob M.; Roditi, Daniela; Marsiske, Michael; McCoy, Karin; McNamara, Joseph; Dautovich, Natalie; Robinson, Michael E.; McCrae, Christina S.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To examine the relationship between objectively measured nocturnal sleep and subjective report of morning pain in older adults with insomnia. The goal of the paper was to not only examine the sleep-pain association between-persons (mean-level over 14 days), but also to investigate the within-person, day-to-day association. Design Cross-sectional. Setting North-Central Florida. Participants Fifty community-dwelling older adults (Mage = 69.10 years, SDage = 7.02 years, range = 60 – 90 years) with insomnia participated in the study. Measurements This study employed daily home-based assessment utilizing nightly actigraphic measurement of sleep and daily self-report of pain. Measures were completed over fourteen consecutive days. Results Between persons, average sleep over 14 days was not associated with average levels of rated pain. However, following a night in which an older adult with insomnia experienced above-average total sleep time s/he subsequently reported below-average pain ratings. The model explained approximately 24% of the within-person and 8% of the between-person variance in pain ratings. Conclusions Sleep and pain show day-to-day associations (i.e., covary over time) in older adults with insomnia. Such associations may suggest that common physiological systems underlie both the experience of insomnia and pain. Future research should examine the crossover effects of sleep treatment on pain and of pain treatment on sleep. PMID:20406316

  18. Subjective Sexual Well-Being in Chilean Adults: Evaluation of a Predictive Model.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Daniela; Lillo, Sebastián; Vera-Villarroel, Pablo

    2016-05-18

    Research on sexuality has traditionally focused on sexual satisfaction, with studies into subjective sexual well-being being a recent phenomenon. This study sought to evaluate the relationship between sexual behavior, happiness, health, and subjective sexual well-being. The data were collected from 862 people aged between 18 and 50 years in Santiago, Chile, and were analyzed by logistic regression analysis. The results showed that sexual behavioral indicators (sexual frequency, sexual caresses, and touching), happiness, and perception of health taken as a whole predicted 47.4% of subjective sexual well-being (SSWB). Analysis of the four items of subjective sexual well-being separately showed that the dimension of physical satisfaction was associated with three variables of sexual behavior indicators with a prediction percentage of 33.5%, whereas emotional satisfaction was associated with three variables of sexual behavior indicators and happiness, with a percentage of prediction of 43.3%. Satisfaction with sexual function was associated with perception of health and one sexual behavior indicator, with a prediction percentage of 29.2% of this variable. The importance of sex was associated with three sexual behavior variables that predicted 26.2% of this variable. The results confirm that subjective sexual well-being can be predicted and that its four dimensions present a different behavior compared to the study predictors. PMID:26020732

  19. Coping flexibility in young adults: comparison between subjects with and without schizotypal personality features.

    PubMed

    Zong, Ji-gang; Chan, Raymond C K; Stone, William S; Hsi, Xiaolu; Cao, Xiao-yan; Zhao, Qing; Shi, Yan-fang; Wang, Yu-na; Wang, Ya

    2010-09-01

    The current study examined characteristics of coping patterns adopted by college students in mainland China. In particular, it examined the coping strategies adopted by subjects with schizotypal personality (SPD) features compared to those without SPD features, and compared the relative effectiveness of their coping. Four types of coping flexibility were identified among the college sample (n=427), including active-inflexible, passive-inflexible, active-inconsistent, and passive-inconsistent styles. The passive-inconsistent style was related to the worst outcomes. When comparing subjects with SPD features with those without SPD features, subjects with SPD features endorsed significantly more emotion-focused strategies in uncontrollable situations than those without SPD features. The SPD group experienced higher levels of trait anxiety, depression, paranoid ideation and general health problems. The SPD group also generally perceived more, less controllable stress than the non-SPD group and randomly used all four categories of coping strategies. PMID:20510586

  20. Gender, Internet use, and sexual behavior orientation among young Nigerians.

    PubMed

    Adebayo, D O; Udegbe, I B; Sunmola, A M

    2006-12-01

    This study examined the influence of gender and Internet use on the sexual behavior orientation of young adults in Nigeria. Using an ex-post-facto design, data were collected from a total of 231 participants. Results of the hierarchical regression model provided support for the influence of gender and Internet use on sexual behavior orientation among young Nigerians. Further, results also revealed an interaction effect; as the use of the Internet increased, male participants reported a greater extent of risky sexual behavior orientation than their female counterparts. The findings were explained in the context of the theoretical foundations of the study, while practical implications for combating youths' risky sexual behavior orientation were highlighted. PMID:17201600

  1. Population aging in local areas and subjective well-being of older adults: Findings from two studies in Japan.

    PubMed

    Saito, Tami; Sugisawa, Hidehiro; Harada, Ken; Kai, Ichiro

    2016-05-23

    Subjective well-being (SWB) of older adults could be affected by both individual and community characteristics. However, the effect of community characteristics, such as population aging in local areas, remains unclear. This study examined the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between the area-level population aging and SWB of older individuals from two distinct surveys. Those analyzed were 572 respondents aged 75 years and older for a cross-sectional survey in a metropolitan area in Tokyo, Japan (Study 1) and 1,257 and 859 respondents for a cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis, respectively, for a 2-year longitudinal survey project in urban and rural areas of Fukui Prefecture (Study 2). Area-level population aging was assessed by the number of people aged 65 years or older per 100 residents. SWB was assessed with the Life Satisfaction Index-A (LSIA). Multilevel analysis was performed to examine unconditional and conditional associations between the area-level number of older adults per 100 residents and the individual-level LSIA scores. The area-level number of older adults per 100 residents was significantly and positively associated with the LSIA scores in Study 1 (p = 0.042), even after controlling for the area- and individual-level covariates. In Study 2, we also found a significant effect of the area-level number of older adults per 100 residents on LSIA scores in the longitudinal multivariate analysis (p = 0.049). Findings from two survey projects suggested cross-validity in the positive effect of area-level population aging on older adults' SWB. Policymakers should consider older citizens' SWB in the recent urban-to-rural migration governmental policy as well as in urban renovation planning. PMID:26983399

  2. The Influence of Executive Functioning on Facial and Subjective Pain Responses in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive decline is known to reduce reliability of subjective pain reports. Although facial expressions of pain are generally considered to be less affected by this decline, empirical support for this assumption is sparse. The present study therefore examined how cognitive functioning relates to facial expressions of pain and whether cognition acts as a moderator between nociceptive intensity and facial reactivity. Facial and subjective responses of 51 elderly participants to mechanical stimulation at three intensities levels (50 kPa, 200 kPa, and 400 kPa) were assessed. Moreover, participants completed a neuropsychological examination of executive functioning (planning, cognitive inhibition, and working memory), episodic memory, and psychomotor speed. The results showed that executive functioning has a unique relationship with facial reactivity at low pain intensity levels (200 kPa). Moreover, cognitive inhibition (but not other executive functions) moderated the effect of pressure intensity on facial pain expressions, suggesting that the relationship between pressure intensity and facial reactivity was less pronounced in participants with high levels of cognitive inhibition. A similar interaction effect was found for cognitive inhibition and subjective pain report. Consequently, caution is needed when interpreting facial (as well as subjective) pain responses in individuals with a high level of cognitive inhibition. PMID:27274618

  3. Facial soft tissue thickness in individuals with different occlusion patterns in adult Turkish subjects.

    PubMed

    Kurkcuoglu, Ayla; Pelin, Can; Ozener, Bariş; Zagyapan, Ragiba; Sahinoglu, Zahira; Yazici, Ayse Canan

    2011-08-01

    Knowledge of variation in facial soft tissue thickness is important for forensic anthropologists, dentists, and plastic surgeons. Forensic anthropologists use such information as a guide in facial reconstruction and superimposition methods. The purpose of this study was to measure facial tissue thicknesses of adult males and females of Turkish origin across different types of occlusion, and to compare the results with each other and with values obtained for other populations. The study was conducted on 200 healthy individuals. The analysis of facial tissue thickness included 20 landmarks (10 dentoskeletal and 10 soft tissue) and 10 linear variables. Sex-based variation in facial tissue thickness was noted. The highest soft tissue thickness values were observed in the group with Class III occlusion type at Sn-A point for both the females (16.9, SD=2.4) and the males (17.8, SD=3.3). In the Class I group, the highest tissue depth was observed at Sn-A point (15.3, SD=2.1) in females, and at Li-Id point (17.1, SD=1.9) in males. In the Class II group, contrary to the findings for Class I, the highest soft tissue depth was at Li-Id point (16.0, SD=1.4) in females, and at Sn-A point (18.1, SD=2.6) in males. In conclusion, facial tissue thickness varied in adults depending on the sex and on the type of occlusion. PMID:21741647

  4. Accreditation Role of the National Universities Commission and the Quality of the Educational Inputs into Nigerian University System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibijola; Yinka, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The Accreditation role of the National Universities Commission (NUC) and the quality of the educational inputs into Nigerian university system was investigated in this work, using a descriptive research of survey design. The population consisted of public Universities in South-West, Nigeria. The sample was made up of 300 subjects, consisting of 50…

  5. Macro-Language Policy and Planning and Lack of Proficiency in Language Learning and Use by Nigerian Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adegbite, Wale

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the problem of non-proficiency in language learning and use among Nigerian students is investigated. Using empirical data and information from available literature on the subject as evidence, it was observed that the language deficiencies of the students could be attributed to the lack of fit between the formulation of the national…

  6. The Use of Management Information Systems (MIS) in Decision Making in the South-West Nigerian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajayi, I. A.; Omirin, Fadekemi F.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the use of Management Information Systems (MIS) in decision-making on long-term planning, short-term planning and budgeting in the South-West Nigerian Universities. The study used the descriptive research design of the survey type. Data were collected from a sample of 600 subjects consisting of 400 academic staff holding…

  7. Association of body fat distribution with proinflammatory gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from young adult subjects.

    PubMed

    Hermsdorff, Helen Hermana Miranda; Puchau, Blanca; Zulet, María Angeles; Martínez, José Alfredo

    2010-06-01

    Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) measurements have proved useful in recent studies to discern peripheral biomarkers for common complex diseases and for understanding host responses to drugs and nutrition in personalized medicine. Despite the initial promising data from PBMC, there is little information, however, on inflammatory and immune gene regulation in the context of body fat distribution and metabolic features in healthy adults. We investigated the putative association of body fat distribution and related-metabolic features with mRNA levels of proinflammatory markers in PBMC. This study enrolled 136 healthy subjects (85 females/51 males; age: 21.5 +/- 2.5 years). Anthropometrical, clinical, metabolic, and proinflammatory variables were assessed with validated tools. Interestingly, in normal-weight subjects with lower truncal fat (TF) values, mRNA levels of ICAM1, IL1R1, IL6, and TNF-alpha in PBMC were lower (p < 0.05), compared to normal-weight individuals with higher TF (>58.5/50.2% for men/women, respectively) and overweight/obese subjects [body mass index (BMI) >25 kg/m(2)]. After regression analyses were performed, individuals with the highest tertiles of TF and waist circumference displayed higher mRNA gene expressions as well as circulating proinflammatory (C-reactive protein and IL6) and metabolic (blood pressure, HOMA-IR, and LDL-c:HDL-c ratio) variables values (p < 0.05), independent from gender. Our findings collectively suggest that the mRNA expression of certain proinflammatory markers in PBMC is associated with body fat distribution in healthy adult subjects, which in turn, was also related to metabolic features and plasma proinflammatory markers concentrations. PMID:20450441

  8. The effect of inhaled bronchoconstrictors on transcutaneous gas tensions in normal adult subjects.

    PubMed

    Gray, B; Barnes, N

    1987-01-01

    The administration of histamine and leukotriene D4 (LTD4) by nebulised aerosol in logarithmically increasing doses to normal subjects resulted in significant bronchoconstriction. Transcutaneous oxygen tension (tcPO2) was monitored during and after the bronchial challenge tests. Following histamine challenge there was significant hypoxaemia in all subjects (mean fall in tcPO2, 20 mmHg). However, following LTD4 administration, there was a small and insignificant fall in tcPO2. Transcutaneous carbon dioxide tension (tcPCO2) was also monitored throughout bronchial challenge, but showed no significant change. We suggest that the hypoxaemia following histamine challenge was due to increased ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) mismatching in the lung induced by histamine deposition. PMID:3673787

  9. Condylar growth after non-surgical advancement in adult subject: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Cuccia, Antonino Marco; Caradonna, Carola

    2009-01-01

    Background A defect of condylar morphology can be caused by several sources. Case report A case of altered condylar morphology in adult male with temporomandibular disorders was reported in 30-year-old male patient. Erosion and flattening of the left mandibular condyle were observed by panoramic x-ray. The patient was treated with splint therapy that determined mandibular advancement. Eight months after the therapy, reduction in joint pain and a greater opening of the mouth was observed, although crepitation sounds during mastication were still noticeable. Conclusion During the following months of gnatologic treatment, new bone growth in the left condyle was observed by radiograph, with further improvement of the symptoms. PMID:19619334

  10. Record Management in Nigerian Secondary School Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakpodia, E. D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examined the usefulness of record management in Nigerian Secondary Schools. Record keeping is one of the administrative principles in secondary school administration and it cannot be overemphasized in any organisation. The continuity of any school organisation depends on availability of useful records of past activities. In a complex…

  11. New Directions in the Nigerian Educational System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajeyalemi, Duro; Ogunleye, Ayodele O.

    2009-01-01

    In recent times, the Nigerian educational system has witnessed some drastic reforms. This paper highlights some of the major reforms that have taken place especially in response to a number of international human rights instruments that provide for education as a fundamental human right to all. The paper further discusses some of the challenges…

  12. Matriculation Related Wastage in Nigerian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ofoegbu, Felicia I.; Ojogwu, Chiaka

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the study was to provide substantial evidence on the rate of matriculation related wastage in Nigerian universities. Five federal universities were used for the study. The Joint Admission Matriculation Board (JAMB) admission list and the university matriculation clearance documents of the 2002/2003 and 2003/2004 admission years…

  13. Word Stress in Cameroon and Nigerian Englishes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobda, Augustin Simo

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the strategies used by Cameroonians and Nigerians to cope with the notorious complexity of English word stress. Stress placement is similar among these two groups, but differs significantly from what obtains in traditional native English speech, received pronunciation (RP), for example. Some of the stress…

  14. Development and validation of a computer crash simulation model of an occupied adult manual wheelchair subjected to a frontal impact.

    PubMed

    Dsouza, R; Bertocci, G

    2010-04-01

    Wheelchairs are primarily designed for mobility and are not necessarily intended for use as motor vehicle seats. However, many wheelchairs serve as vehicle seats for individuals unable to transfer to a vehicle seat. Subjecting wheelchairs to sled testing, in part establishes the crashworthiness of wheelchairs used as motor vehicle seats. Computer simulations provide a supplemental approach for sled testing, to assess wheelchair response and loading under crash conditions. In this study a nonlinear, dynamic, computer model was developed and validated to simulate a wheelchair and occupant subjected to a frontal impact test (ANSI/RESNA WC19). This simulation model was developed utilizing data from two frontal impact 20 g/48 km/h sled tests, which consisted of identical, adult manual wheelchairs secured with 4-point tiedowns, occupied with a 50th percentile adult male anthropomorphic test device (ATD), restrained with a 3-point occupant restraint system. Additionally, the model was validated against sled data using visual comparisons of wheelchair and occupant kinematics, along with statistical assessments of outcome measures. All statistical evaluations were found to be within the acceptance criteria, indicating the model's high predictability of the sled tests. This model provides a useful tool for the development of crashworthy wheelchair design guidelines, as well as the development of transit-safe wheelchair technologies. PMID:19251461

  15. Facebook Use Predicts Declines in Subjective Well-Being in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kross, Ethan; Verduyn, Philippe; Demiralp, Emre; Park, Jiyoung; Lee, David Seungjae; Lin, Natalie; Shablack, Holly; Jonides, John; Ybarra, Oscar

    2013-01-01

    Over 500 million people interact daily with Facebook. Yet, whether Facebook use influences subjective well-being over time is unknown. We addressed this issue using experience-sampling, the most reliable method for measuring in-vivo behavior and psychological experience. We text-messaged people five times per day for two-weeks to examine how Facebook use influences the two components of subjective well-being: how people feel moment-to-moment and how satisfied they are with their lives. Our results indicate that Facebook use predicts negative shifts on both of these variables over time. The more people used Facebook at one time point, the worse they felt the next time we text-messaged them; the more they used Facebook over two-weeks, the more their life satisfaction levels declined over time. Interacting with other people “directly” did not predict these negative outcomes. They were also not moderated by the size of people's Facebook networks, their perceived supportiveness, motivation for using Facebook, gender, loneliness, self-esteem, or depression. On the surface, Facebook provides an invaluable resource for fulfilling the basic human need for social connection. Rather than enhancing well-being, however, these findings suggest that Facebook may undermine it. PMID:23967061

  16. Facebook use predicts declines in subjective well-being in young adults.

    PubMed

    Kross, Ethan; Verduyn, Philippe; Demiralp, Emre; Park, Jiyoung; Lee, David Seungjae; Lin, Natalie; Shablack, Holly; Jonides, John; Ybarra, Oscar

    2013-01-01

    Over 500 million people interact daily with Facebook. Yet, whether Facebook use influences subjective well-being over time is unknown. We addressed this issue using experience-sampling, the most reliable method for measuring in-vivo behavior and psychological experience. We text-messaged people five times per day for two-weeks to examine how Facebook use influences the two components of subjective well-being: how people feel moment-to-moment and how satisfied they are with their lives. Our results indicate that Facebook use predicts negative shifts on both of these variables over time. The more people used Facebook at one time point, the worse they felt the next time we text-messaged them; the more they used Facebook over two-weeks, the more their life satisfaction levels declined over time. Interacting with other people "directly" did not predict these negative outcomes. They were also not moderated by the size of people's Facebook networks, their perceived supportiveness, motivation for using Facebook, gender, loneliness, self-esteem, or depression. On the surface, Facebook provides an invaluable resource for fulfilling the basic human need for social connection. Rather than enhancing well-being, however, these findings suggest that Facebook may undermine it. PMID:23967061

  17. Trail Making Test performance contributes to subjective judgment of visual efficiency in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Loughman, James; Savva, George M.; Kenny, RoseAnne

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The determinant factors that influence self-reported quality of vision have yet to be fully elucidated. This study evaluated a range of contextual information, established psychophysical tests, and in particular, a series of cognitive tests as potentially novel determinant factors. Materials & Methods. Community dwelling adults (aged 50+) recruited to Wave 1 of The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing, excluding those registered blind, participated in this study (N = 5,021). Self-reports of vision were analysed in relation to visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, ocular pathology, visual (Choice Response Time task; Trail Making Test) and global cognition. Contextual factors such as having visited an optometrist and wearing glasses were also considered. Ordinal logistic regression was used to determine univariate and multivariate associations. Results and Discussion. Poor Trail Making Test performance (Odds ratio, OR = 1.36), visual acuity (OR = 1.72) and ocular pathology (OR = 2.25) were determinant factors for poor versus excellent vision in self-reports. Education, wealth, age, depressive symptoms and general cognitive fitness also contributed to determining self-reported vision. Conclusions. Trail Making Test contribution to self-reports may capture higher level visual processing and should be considered when using self-reports to assess vision and its role in cognitive and functional health. PMID:26664798

  18. Cerebrospinal fluid norepinephrine and cognition in subjects across the adult age span.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lucy Y; Murphy, Richard R; Hanscom, Brett; Li, Ge; Millard, Steven P; Petrie, Eric C; Galasko, Douglas R; Sikkema, Carl; Raskind, Murray A; Wilkinson, Charles W; Peskind, Elaine R

    2013-10-01

    Adequate central nervous system noradrenergic activity enhances cognition, but excessive noradrenergic activity may have adverse effects on cognition. Previous studies have also demonstrated that noradrenergic activity is higher in older than younger adults. We aimed to determine relationships between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) norepinephrine (NE) concentration and cognitive performance by using data from a CSF bank that includes samples from 258 cognitively normal participants aged 21-100 years. After adjusting for age, gender, education, and ethnicity, higher CSF NE levels (units of 100 pg/mL) are associated with poorer performance on tests of attention, processing speed, and executive function (Trail Making A: regression coefficient 1.5, standard error [SE] 0.77, p = 0.046; Trail Making B: regression coefficient 5.0, SE 2.2, p = 0.024; Stroop Word-Color Interference task: regression coefficient 6.1, SE 2.0, p = 0.003). Findings are consistent with the earlier literature relating excess noradrenergic activity with cognitive impairment. PMID:23639207

  19. [Subjective memory complaints in young adults: the influence of the emotional state].

    PubMed

    Pellicer-Porcar, Olga; Mirete-Fructuoso, Marcos; Molina-Rodríguez, Sergio; Soto-Amaya, Johnathan

    2014-12-16

    INTRODUCTION. Many young people today display memory complaints that are not linked to their real cognitive performance. A number of studies have sought to identify the factors involved in this problem, such as anxious-depressive symptoms, the variables of anxiety traditionally being measured as somatic or cognitive manifestations with an activation that is unspecific or not linked to any particular stimulus. AIMS. To perform an exploratory analysis to determine the role played by symptoms of depression and of various subtypes of specific and unspecific anxiety in memory complaints in young adults. PATIENTS AND METHODS. The sample used in this study was made of 193 university students, 71% of whom were females, with a mean age of 22.22 ± 3.67 years. The variable 'Memory complaints' was measured with the Memory Failures Questionnaire, and the Brief Symptom Check List was used to measure the variables 'Depression', 'Social anxiety', 'Obsessive-compulsive anxiety', 'Agoraphobic anxiety', 'Somatisation' and 'Insomnia'. RESULTS. The variables of specific anxiety show a greater correlation with memory complaints than unspecific anxiety. Multiple regression analysis explained 34.9% of the variance of memory complaints, although the only variable that made a significant contribution was 'Social anxiety', which alone explains 34.4%. CONCLUSIONS. A distinct influence between the different types of anxiety and memory complaints has been observed. The findings obtained are a novelty in this area of knowledge by pointing to a greater relevance of the variables of specific anxiety in comparison to unspecific anxiety in explaining memory complaints and the need to take a personalised approach. PMID:25501452

  20. The pattern of isolated sleep paralysis among Nigerian nursing students.

    PubMed

    Ohaeri, J U; Adelekan, M F; Odejide, A O; Ikuesan, B A

    1992-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study of the pattern of isolated sleep paralysis among the entire population of nursing students at the Neuropsychiatric Hospital in Abeokuta, Nigeria (consisting of 58 males and 37 females), 44% admitted having experienced this phenomenon. The findings largely supported the results of a similar study of Nigerian medical students, except that there was a slight male preponderance among those who had the experience. Visual hallucination was the most common perceptual problem associated with the episodes, and all the affected subjects were most distressed by the experience. Whereas sleep paralysis in this country has not been found to be significantly associated with psychosocial distress or differences in personality profile, the popular view in Africa and the United States is that it is caused by witchcraft. PMID:1602503

  1. The relation between overweight and subjective health according to age, social class, slimming behavior and smoking habits in Dutch adults.

    PubMed Central

    Seidell, J C; Bakx, K C; Deurenberg, P; Burema, J; Hautvast, J G; Huygen, F J

    1986-01-01

    Subjective health status was assessed in relation to overweight by administering a list of 51 health complaints to adult men and women who were either chronically overweight as defined by Body Mass Index (BMI) or not overweight, in a continuous morbidity registration in four general practices during the period 1967-83. Responses were received from 455 men (182 overweight) and 790 women (386 overweight), ages 26-66 years. Response rate (71 per cent) and age distribution (mean age 48) were similar in overweight and non-overweight groups of both sexes. BMI was correlated with the total number of complaints in women (r = 0.15) but not in men (r = 0.07). Multiple regression analysis revealed, however, that age was an effect modifier in this relation, there being a negative association between BMI and subjective health in younger men and a positive association in older men, whereas in women the association between BMI and subjective health was much more pronounced at younger ages than at older ages. In addition, current smoking habits and social class (in men and women) and reported slimming behavior (in women) had an independent relation to the total number of health complaints. BMI was also related to specific complaints and groups of complaints, particularly in women. PMID:3777287

  2. Pattern of arrhythmias among Nigerians with congestive heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Ajayi, Olufemi E; Abiodun, Olugbenga O; Akintomide, Anthony O; Adebayo, Rasaaq A; Ogunyemi, Suraj A; Balogun, Michael O; Bamikole, Olaniyi J; Ajibare, Adeola O; Ajayi, Adesuyi A

    2015-01-01

    Background In patients with heart failure, death is often sudden due to life-threatening arrhythmias. This work was carried out to evaluate the pattern of arrhythmias in Nigerians with heart failure. Materials and methods Thirty subjects with congestive heart failure (CHF), 30 subjects with hypertensive heart disease, and 15 normal subjects with no obvious features of heart disease were evaluated with resting and 24-hour electrocardiographic monitoring and transthoracic echocardiography. Data were analyzed with one-way analysis of variance with post hoc Duncan’s analysis, Fisher’s exact test, and linear regression analysis using SPSS version 16. Results CHF subjects had more instances of supraventricular tachycardia (P=0.005), ventricular extrasystoles (P<0.001), bigeminy (P<0.001), trigeminy (P<0.001), couplets (P<0.001), triplets (P<0.001), and nonsustained ventricular tachycardia (VT) (P=0.003) than the other two control groups. They also showed a significantly longer VT duration (4.6±5.6 seconds) compared with the other groups (P<0.001). Linear regression analysis showed a significant direct relationship between VT and the maximum number of ventricular extrasystoles per hour (P=0.001). Conclusion Cardiac arrhythmias are common in subjects with CHF and are more frequent when compared with patients with hypertensive heart disease and normal subjects. PMID:25870514

  3. Pharmacokinetics of dolutegravir when administered with mineral supplements in healthy adult subjects.

    PubMed

    Song, Ivy; Borland, Julie; Arya, Niki; Wynne, Brian; Piscitelli, Stephen

    2015-05-01

    All commercially available integrase inhibitors are 2-metal binders and may be affected by co-administration with metal cations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of calcium and iron supplements on dolutegravir pharmacokinetics and strategies (dose separation and food) to attenuate the effects if significant reductions in dolutegravir exposure were observed. This was an open-label, crossover study that randomized 24 healthy subjects into 1 of 2 cohorts to receive 4 treatments: (1) dolutegravir alone, fasting; (2) dolutegravir with calcium carbonate or ferrous fumarate, fasting; (3) dolutegravir with calcium carbonate or ferrous fumarate with a moderate-fat meal; (4) dolutegravir administered 2 hours before calcium carbonate or ferrous fumarate, fasting. Plasma dolutegravir AUC(0-∞), Cmax , and C24 were reduced by 39%, 37%, and 39%, respectively, when co-administered with calcium carbonate while fasting and were reduced by 54%, 57%, and 56%, respectively, when co-administered with ferrous fumarate while fasting. Dolutegravir administration 2 hours before calcium or iron supplement administration (fasted), as well as administration with a meal, counteracted the effect. Dolutegravir and calcium or iron supplements can be co-administered if taken with a meal. Under fasted conditions, dolutegravir should be administered 2 hours before or 6 hours after calcium or iron supplements. PMID:25449994

  4. A phase I randomized, multicenter trial of CPX in adult subjects with mild cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Nael A; Standaert, Thomas A; Teresi, Mary; Tuthill, Cynthia; Launspach, Janice; Kelley, Thomas J; Milgram, Laura J H; Hilliard, Kathleen A; Regelmann, Warren E; Weatherly, Mark R; Aitken, Moira L; Konstan, Michael W; Ahrens, Richard C

    2002-02-01

    CPX (8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine) is a novel compound currently under development as a potential treatment for cystic fibrosis (CF). The drug has been shown to increase chloride efflux and CFTR trafficking in vitro in CF airway cells. This phase I multicenter, single-dose, placebo-controlled trial was performed at four institutions. Thirty-seven subjects homozygous for the Delta F(508) allele were studied in an escalating dose protocol of seven single-dose cohorts (1, 3, 10, 30, 100, 300, and 1,000 mg) to evaluate the safety, pharmacokinetics, and efficacy of CPX. Efficacy was determined using nasal transepithelial potential difference and sweat chloride measurements prior to dosing and at 1, 2, and 4 hr postdose. The incidence of adverse events in the treatment group was similar to that with placebo, indicating safety of the single doses studied. One serious adverse event (an acute pulmonary exacerbation) occurred 13 days after dosing, and was not considered related to the study drug. The maximal plasma CPX concentration and total amount of CPX absorbed appeared to be linearly related to dose, but was highly variable throughout the dose range studied, suggesting inconsistent absorption. There was no apparent effect of single-dose administration on either nasal transepithelial potential difference or sweat chloride measurements. The positive safety and pharmacokinetic findings of this study support continued development of CPX as a potential therapeutic for CF. PMID:11802244

  5. Effect of 6-month caloric restriction on Cu bound to ceruloplasmin in adult overweight subjects.

    PubMed

    Piacenza, Francesco; Malavolta, Marco; Basso, Andrea; Costarelli, Laura; Giacconi, Robertina; Ravussin, Eric; Redman, Leanne M; Mocchegiani, Eugenio

    2015-08-01

    In a randomized clinical trial of calorie restriction (CR), we demonstrated that important cardiovascular disease (CVD) biomarkers were favorably influenced by CR alone and in conjunction with physical exercise. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of CR with or without exercise on copper bound to ceruloplasmin (CuCp), a well-known biomarker for CVD, in overweight men and women enrolled in the CALERIE phase 1 study. Forty-six individuals were randomized to one of four groups for 6 months: control, healthy weight maintenance; CR, 25% CR from baseline energy requirements; CR+exercise, 12.5% CR and 12.5% through aerobic exercise; and low-calorie diet, low-calorie diet until 15% reduction in body weight followed by weight maintenance diet. CuCp was determined in fasting blood samples by a high-performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry methodology and compared with changes in body composition and markers of CVD. After 6 months, CR combined with exercise induced a decrease in plasma concentration of CuCp. CuCp was inversely correlated with insulin sensitivity at baseline and after 6 months of intervention. A cluster analysis showed that the percent change of weight after 6 months of intervention was the most important variable that could discriminate the intervention groups. The percent change of CuCp was the only other variable selected by the analysis. Decreased CuCp in overweight subjects by CR combined with exercise suggests a positive effect of this intervention on metabolic health. Further studies to explain the relationship between weight loss and CuCp and its relevance for cardiovascular health are needed. PMID:26001545

  6. Multidimensional Voice Program (MDVP) and amplitude variation parameters in euphonic adult subjects. Normative study.

    PubMed

    Nicastri, M; Chiarella, G; Gallo, L V; Catalano, M; Cassandro, E

    2004-12-01

    The introduction, in the late 70s, of the first digital spectrograph (DSP Sonograph) by Kay Elemetrics has improved the possibilities of spectroacoustic voice analysis in the clinical field. Thanks to the marketing, in 1993, of the Multi Dimensional Voice Program (MDVP) advanced system, it is now possible to analyse 33 quantitative voice parameters which, in turn, allow evaluation of fundamental frequency, amplitude and spectral energy balance and the presence of any sonority gap and diplophony. Despite its potentials, the above-mentioned system is not widely used yet, partly on account of the lack of a standard procedure. Indeed, there are still only a few case reports in the literature taking into consideration prescriptive aspects related both to procedure and analysis. This study aims to provide the results of amplitude perturbation parameter analysis in euphonic adult patients. In our opinion, these are the most significant parameters in determining the severity of a phonation disorder. The study has been carried out on 35 patients (24 female, 11 male, mean age 31.6 years, range 19-59). The voice signal has been recorded using a 4300 B Kay Computer Speech Lab (CSL) supported by a personal computer including a SM48 Shure-Prolog microphone located at a distance of 15 cm and angled at 45 degrees. Input microphone saturation has been adjusted to 6/9 of the CH1 channel. The voice sample consisted in a held /a/ and the analysis has been carried out on the central 3 seconds of the recording. The analysis has been carried out using a 5105 MDVP software version 2.3 and the signal digitalised at a 50 kHz sample rate. In order for the sample to be as free from intensity or frequency changes as possible, each patient underwent a training session (including at least 3 phonation tests) before the recording. The study included only emissions between 55 and 65 dB and with spectrum stability. Environmental noise has constantly been monitored and maintained below 30 dB. Data

  7. Prevalence and Determinants of Masked Hypertension Among Black Nigerians Compared With a Reference Population.

    PubMed

    Odili, Augustine N; Thijs, Lutgarde; Hara, Azusa; Wei, Fang-Fei; Ogedengbe, John O; Nwegbu, Maxwell M; Aparicio, Lucas S; Asayama, Kei; Niiranen, Teemu J; Boggia, José; Luzardo, Leonella; Jacobs, Lotte; Stergiou, George S; Johansson, Jouni K; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Jula, Antti M; Imai, Yutaka; O'Brien, Eoin; Staessen, Jan A

    2016-06-01

    Hitherto, diagnosis of hypertension in sub-Saharan Africa was largely based on conventional office blood pressure (BP). Data on the prevalence of masked hypertension (MH) in this region is scarce. Among individuals with normal office BP (<140/90 mm Hg), we compared the prevalence and determinants of MH diagnosed with self-monitored home blood pressure (≥135/85 mm Hg) among 293 Nigerians with a reference population consisting of 3615 subjects enrolled in the International Database on Home Blood Pressure in Relation to Cardiovascular Outcomes. In the reference population, the prevalence of MH was 14.6% overall and 11.1% and 39.6% in untreated and treated participants, respectively. Among Nigerians, the prevalence standardized to the sex and age distribution of the reference population was similar with rates of 14.4%, 8.6%, and 34.6%, respectively. The mutually adjusted odds ratios of having MH in Nigerians were 2.34 (95% confidence interval, 1.39-3.94) for a 10-year higher age, 1.92 (1.11-3.31) and 1.70 (1.14-2.53) for 10- or 5-mm Hg increments in systolic or diastolic office BP, and 3.05 (1.08-8.55) for being on antihypertensive therapy. The corresponding estimates in the reference population were similar with odds ratios of 1.80 (1.62-2.01), 1.64 (1.45-1.87), 1.13 (1.05-1.22), and 2.84 (2.21-3.64), respectively. In conclusion, MH is as common in Nigerians as in other populations with older age and higher levels of office BP being major risk factors. A significant proportion of true hypertensive subjects therefore remains undetected based on office BP, which is particularly relevant in sub-Saharan Africa, where hypertension is now a major cause of death. PMID:27067719

  8. An Appraisal of Globalisation and Nigerian Educational Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ifedili, Chika Josephine A.; Ojogwu, C. N.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines globalisation and Nigerian Educational Policies. Different Educational Policies that the Nigerian Government had previously embarked upon were assessed. The failures of various policies were looked into based on who originated the policies; drew up the policies; the budgetary allocation to education; other sources of funds…

  9. Academic Quality Control in Nigerian Universities: Exploring Lecturers' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obiekezie, E. O.; Ejemot-Nwadiaro, R. I.; Essien, M. I.; Timothy, A. Essien

    2014-01-01

    The level of job performance, international comparability and competitiveness of Nigerian university graduates are burning issues. Consequently, the academic quality of Nigerian universities has come under severe criticism. Since university lecturers are key players in quality control in universities, this study explored their perceptions of…

  10. Nigerian University Libraries and the World Bank Loan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balarabe, Ahmed Abdu

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the development of Nigerian federal universities and their libraries. Topics include library funding; the Nigerian economic crisis and the university library system; rationale for the World Bank Federal Universities Adjustment Loan Project that was used for library materials, staff development, and equipment; and problems with the…

  11. Empowering Nigerian Pidgin: A Challenge for Status Planning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Igboanusi, Herbert

    2008-01-01

    In spite of the fact that Nigerian Pidgin (NP) is probably the language with the highest population of users in Nigeria, it does not enjoy official recognition and is excluded from the education system. It lacks prestige because it is seen by many Nigerians as a "bad" form of English and associated with a socially deprived set of people. This…

  12. Academic Quality Assurance Variables in Nigerian Universities: Exploring Lecturers' Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obiekezie, Eucharia O.; Ejemot-Nwadiaro, Regina I.; Timothy, Alexander E.; Essien, Margaret I.

    2016-01-01

    The level of job performance, international comparability and competitiveness of Nigerian university graduates are burning issues. Consequently, the academic quality of Nigerian universities has come under severe criticism. Since university lecturers are key players in quality assurance in universities, this study explored their perceptions of…

  13. Evaluating an Educational Program for Parents: A Nigerian Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ofoha, Dorothy; Saidu, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Despite the evidence pointing to its detrimental child outcomes, physical punishment remains one of the most commonly used techniques to discipline children in many Nigerian homes. Research has revealed that a majority of Nigerian parents are not aware of the negative consequences. They are also not aware of nonaversive ways to discipline…

  14. Comparison between treadmill and bicycle ergometer exercise tests in mild-to-moderate hypertensive Nigerians

    PubMed Central

    Abiodun, Olugbenga O; Balogun, Michael O; Akintomide, Anthony O; Adebayo, Rasaaq A; Ajayi, Olufemi E; Ogunyemi, Suraj A; Amadi, Valentine N; Adeyeye, Victor O

    2015-01-01

    Background Comparative cardiovascular responses to treadmill and bicycle ergometer (bike) exercise tests in hypertensive Nigerians are not known. This study compared cardiovascular responses to the two modes of exercise testing in hypertensives using maximal exercise protocols. Methods One hundred and ten male subjects with mild-to-moderate hypertension underwent maximal treadmill and bike test one after the other at a single visit in a simple random manner. Paired-sampled t-test was used to compare responses to both exercise tests while chi-squared test was used to compare categorical variables. Results The maximal heart rate (P<0.001), peak systolic blood pressure (P=0.02), rate pressure product (P<0.001), peak oxygen uptake (P<0.001), and exercise capacity (P<0.001) in metabolic equivalents were signifcantly higher on the treadmill than on the bike. Conclusion Higher cardiovascular responses on treadmill in Nigerian male hypertensives in this study, similar to findings in non-hypertensives and non-Nigerians in earlier studies, suggest that treadmill may be of better diagnostic utility in our population. PMID:26316811

  15. Determinants of journal choice among Nigerian medics

    PubMed Central

    Olusegun, Nwhator Solomon; Olayinka, Agbaje Maarufah; Modupe, Soroye; Ikenna, Isiekwe Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Despite the well-known maxim "publish or perish" among academicians, productivity remains low in Nigeria. There are barriers to academic writing which must be identified and addressed. Even after addressing those barriers, authors are faced with another dilemma-where to publish. It was the concern of the authors to evaluate perceived barriers to academic writing and the determinants of journal choice among Nigerian academics. They also attempted to evaluate the determinants of journal choice and perceived barriers to academic writing among Nigerian academicians. Respondents were academicians used in the context of this study to mean anyone involved in academic writing. Such persons must have written and published at least one paper in a peer-reviewed journal in the preceding year to be included in the survey. An online-based self-administered questionnaire. Methods An online structured and self-administered questionnaire-based cross sectional survey of Nigerian medical academicians was conducted over a period of one year using a Google-powered questionnaire. The questionnaire assessed the determinants of journal choice, perceived barriers to publications, number of publications in the preceding year as a measure of academic productivity and the highest publication fee authors were willing to pay. Results Of the over 500 email request sent, a total of 200 academicians responded (response rate of 40%). The male and female distribution was 120 and 80 respectively. The highest number of respondents were lecturer 1 and senior lecturers (or junior faculty) (69.5%) however the senior faculty had the higher number of publications in the preceding year. Indexing (35.5%) was the most important determinant of journal choice whilst ease of submission (2.1%) was the least. Unfriendly environment (46%) was the most perceived barrier to publication. Though, majority (88.5%) of the respondents were willing to pay up $300 as publication fees, twice as many junior

  16. Subjective and Objective Napping and Sleep in Older Adults: Are Evening Naps ‘Bad’ for Nighttime Sleep?

    PubMed Central

    Dautovich, Natalie D.; McCrae, Christina S.; Rowe, Meredeth

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To compare objective and subjective measurements of napping, and to examine the relationship between evening napping and nocturnal sleep in older adults. Design For twelve days, participants wore actigraphs and completed sleep diaries. Setting Community Participants 100 individuals who napped, 60–89 years (including good and poor sleepers with typical age-related medical comorbidities). Measurements Twelve days of sleep diary and actigraphy provided subjective and objective napping and sleep data. Results Evening naps (within 2 hours of bedtime) were characteristic of the sample with peak nap time occurring between 20:30–21:00 (average nap time occurred between 14:30–15:00). Two categories of nappers were identified: 1) day/evening – those who took both daytime and evening naps, and 2) daytime-only. Interestingly, no participants napped during the evening only. Day/evening nappers significantly underreported evening napping and demonstrated lower objectively measured sleep onset latencies (20 vs 26.5 minutes), less wake after sleep onset (51.4 vs 72.8 minutes), and higher sleep efficiencies (76.8 vs 82%) than daytime-only nappers. Conclusion Day/evening napping was prevalent amongst this sample of community-dwelling good/poor sleepers, but was not associated with impaired nocturnal sleep. Although the elimination or restriction of napping is a common element of cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBTi), these results suggest that a uniform recommendation to restrict/eliminate napping (particularly evening napping) may not meet the needs of all older individuals with insomnia. PMID:18691289

  17. Subjective Cognitive Decline in Older Adults: An Overview of Self-Report Measures Used Across 19 International Research Studies.

    PubMed

    Rabin, Laura A; Smart, Colette M; Crane, Paul K; Amariglio, Rebecca E; Berman, Lorin M; Boada, Mercé; Buckley, Rachel F; Chételat, Gaël; Dubois, Bruno; Ellis, Kathryn A; Gifford, Katherine A; Jefferson, Angela L; Jessen, Frank; Katz, Mindy J; Lipton, Richard B; Luck, Tobias; Maruff, Paul; Mielke, Michelle M; Molinuevo, José Luis; Naeem, Farnia; Perrotin, Audrey; Petersen, Ronald C; Rami, Lorena; Reisberg, Barry; Rentz, Dorene M; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G; Risacher, Shannon L; Rodriguez, Octavio; Sachdev, Perminder S; Saykin, Andrew J; Slavin, Melissa J; Snitz, Beth E; Sperling, Reisa A; Tandetnik, Caroline; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Wagner, Michael; Wolfsgruber, Steffen; Sikkes, Sietske A M

    2015-09-24

    Research increasingly suggests that subjective cognitive decline (SCD) in older adults, in the absence of objective cognitive dysfunction or depression, may be a harbinger of non-normative cognitive decline and eventual progression to dementia. Little is known, however, about the key features of self-report measures currently used to assess SCD. The Subjective Cognitive Decline Initiative (SCD-I) Working Group is an international consortium established to develop a conceptual framework and research criteria for SCD (Jessen et al., 2014, Alzheimers Dement 10, 844-852). In the current study we systematically compared cognitive self-report items used by 19 SCD-I Working Group studies, representing 8 countries and 5 languages. We identified 34 self-report measures comprising 640 cognitive self-report items. There was little overlap among measures- approximately 75% of measures were used by only one study. Wide variation existed in response options and item content. Items pertaining to the memory domain predominated, accounting for about 60% of items surveyed, followed by executive function and attention, with 16% and 11% of the items, respectively. Items relating to memory for the names of people and the placement of common objects were represented on the greatest percentage of measures (56% each). Working group members reported that instrument selection decisions were often based on practical considerations beyond the study of SCD specifically, such as availability and brevity of measures. Results document the heterogeneity of approaches across studies to the emerging construct of SCD. We offer preliminary recommendations for instrument selection and future research directions including identifying items and measure formats associated with important clinical outcomes. PMID:26402085

  18. Subjective Cognitive Decline in Older Adults: An Overview of Self-Report Measures Used Across 19 International Research Studies

    PubMed Central

    Rabin, Laura A.; Smart, Colette M.; Crane, Paul K.; Amariglio, Rebecca E.; Berman, Lorin M.; Boada, Mercè; Buckley, Rachel F.; Chételat, Gaël; Dubois, Bruno; Ellis, Kathryn A.; Gifford, Katherine A.; Jefferson, Angela L.; Jessen, Frank; Katz, Mindy J.; Lipton, Richard B.; Luck, Tobias; Maruff, Paul; Mielke, Michelle M.; Molinuevo, José Luis; Naeem, Farnia; Perrotin, Audrey; Petersen, Ronald C.; Rami, Lorena; Reisberg, Barry; Rentz, Dorene M.; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G.; Risacher, Shannon L.; Rodriguez, Octavio; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Slavin, Melissa J.; Snitz, Beth E.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Tandetnik, Caroline; van der Flier, Wiesje M.; Wagner, Michael; Wolfsgruber, Steffen; Sikkes, Sietske A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Research increasingly suggests that subjective cognitive decline (SCD) in older adults, in the absence of objective cognitive dysfunction or depression, may be a harbinger of non-normative cognitive decline and eventual progression to dementia. Little is known, however, about the key features of self-report measures currently used to assess SCD. The Subjective Cognitive Decline Initiative (SCD-I) Working Group is an international consortium established to develop a conceptual framework and research criteria for SCD (Jessen et al., 2014, Alzheimers Dement 10, 844–852). In the current study we systematically compared cognitive self-report items used by 19 SCD-I Working Group studies, representing 8 countries and 5 languages. We identified 34 self-report measures comprising 640 cognitive self-report items. There was little overlap among measures—approximately 75% of measures were used by only one study. Wide variation existed in response options and item content. Items pertaining to the memory domain predominated, accounting for about 60% of items surveyed, followed by executive function and attention, with 16% and 11% of the items, respectively. Items relating to memory for the names of people and the placement of common objects were represented on the greatest percentage of measures (56% each). Working group members reported that instrument selection decisions were often based on practical considerations beyond the study of SCD specifically, such as availability and brevity of measures. Results document the heterogeneity of approaches across studies to the emerging construct of SCD. We offer preliminary recommendations for instrument selection and future research directions including identifying items and measure formats associated with important clinical outcomes. PMID:26402085

  19. Influence of gender on muscle strength, power and body composition in healthy subjects and mobility-limited older adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To explore the influence of gender on the cross-sectional differences in lower-limb strength, power and body composition among 31 healthy middle-aged adults (mean age: 47.2 +/- 5 yrs, 17 females), 28 healthy older adults (74 +/- 4 yrs, 12 females), and 34 older adults with mobility impair...

  20. The pattern of dreams of a sample of Nigerians.

    PubMed

    Ohaeri, J U; Sunmola, A M

    1994-07-01

    In order to highlight the pattern of dreams, the psychosocial factors associated with it, and the meaning attributed to dream contents, 431 Nigerians were interviewed, consisting of undergraduates and government workers. While 6.9% could not recall ever having had a dream experience, over one-third of subjects had had at least three dream experiences in the previous three months. The most important factors associated with increase in frequency of dreams were conditions involving a high degree of expectation, emotional disturbance and happiness. About one-half of subjects claimed their dreams were predictive of what would happen in real life, while 61% claimed that their dreams related to what they were thinking about. The more highly educated and younger subjects dreamt significantly more frequently. Although life events and GHQ-12 scores were not significantly associated with frequency of dreams, those who reported recurrent disturbing dreams had significantly higher GHQ-12 scores. Relating the dream reports to life experiences, we were able to discern the following themes: expectation of positive material rewards; sexual themes; religious themes; sickness and death themes; disappointment and general guilt themes; and abstract manifest contents. Guilt themes were the least frequent. The social and clinical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:7928656

  1. Meropenem-RPX7009 Concentrations in Plasma, Epithelial Lining Fluid, and Alveolar Macrophages of Healthy Adult Subjects.

    PubMed

    Wenzler, Eric; Gotfried, Mark H; Loutit, Jeffrey S; Durso, Stephanie; Griffith, David C; Dudley, Michael N; Rodvold, Keith A

    2015-12-01

    The steady-state concentrations of meropenem and the β-lactamase inhibitor RPX7009 in plasma, epithelial lining fluid (ELF), and alveolar macrophage (AM) concentrations were obtained in 25 healthy, nonsmoking adult subjects. Subjects received a fixed combination of meropenem (2 g) and RPX7009 (2 g) administered every 8 h, as a 3-h intravenous infusion, for a total of three doses. A bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage were performed once in each subject at 1.5, 3.25, 4, 6, or 8 h after the start of the last infusion. Meropenem and RPX7009 achieved a similar time course and magnitude of concentrations in plasma and ELF. The mean pharmacokinetic parameters ± the standard deviations of meropenem and RPX7009 determined from serial plasma concentrations were as follows: Cmax = 58.2 ± 10.8 and 59.0 ± 8.4 μg/ml, Vss = 16.3 ± 2.6 and 17.6 ± 2.6 liters; CL = 11.1 ± 2.1 and 10.1 ± 1.9 liters/h, and t1/2 = 1.03 ± 0.15 and 1.27 ± 0.21 h, respectively. The intrapulmonary penetrations of meropenem and RPX7009 were ca. 63 and 53%, respectively, based on the area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 8 h (AUC0-8) values of ELF and total plasma concentrations. When unbound plasma concentrations were considered, ELF penetrations were 65 and 79% for meropenem and RPX7009, respectively. Meropenem concentrations in AMs were below the quantitative limit of detection, whereas median concentrations of RPX7009 in AMs ranged from 2.35 to 6.94 μg/ml. The results from the present study lend support to exploring a fixed combination of meropenem (2 g) and RPX7009 (2 g) for the treatment of lower respiratory tract infections caused by meropenem-resistant Gram-negative pathogens susceptible to the combination of meropenem-RPX7009. PMID:26349830

  2. Validation of the Subjective and Objective Family Burden Interview (SOFBI/ECFOS) in Primary Caregivers to Adults with Intellectual Disabilities Living in the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martorell, A.; Pereda, A.; Salvador-Carulla, L.; Ochoa, S.; Ayuso-Mateos, J. L.

    2007-01-01

    Background: There is little information on the psychometric properties of instruments for assessing family care burden in adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). The aim of this study is therefore to analyse the usefulness of the 'Subjective and Objective Family Burden Interview' (SOFBI) in the assessment of principal caregivers in Spain.…

  3. Serodiagnosis of Acute Typhoid Fever in Nigerian Pediatric Cases by Detection of Serum IgA and IgG Against Hemolysin E and Lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Davies, D Huw; Jain, Aarti; Nakajima, Rie; Liang, Li; Jasinskis, Algis; Supnet, Medalyn; Felgner, Philip L; Teng, Andy; Pablo, Jozelyn; Molina, Douglas M; Obaro, Stephen K

    2016-08-01

    Inexpensive, easy-to-use, and highly sensitive diagnostic tests are currently unavailable for typhoid fever. To identify candidate serodiagnostic markers, we have probed microarrays displaying the full Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) proteome of 4,352 different proteins + lipopolysaccharides (LPSs), with sera from Nigerian pediatric typhoid and other febrile cases, Nigerian healthy controls, and healthy U.S. adults. Nigerian antibody profiles were broad (∼500 seropositive antigens) and mainly low level, with a small number of stronger "hits," whereas the profile in U.S. adults was < 1/5 as broad, consistent with endemic exposure in Nigeria. Nigerian profiles were largely unaffected by clinical diagnosis, although the response against t1477 (hemolysin E) consistently emerged as stronger in typhoid cases. The response to LPS was also a strong discriminator of healthy controls and typhoid, although LPS did not discriminate between typhoid and nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) disease. As a first step toward the development of a point-of-care diagnostic, t1477 and LPS were evaluated on immunostrips. Both provided good discrimination between healthy controls and typhoid/NTS disease. Such a test could provide a useful screen for salmonellosis (typhoid and NTS disease) in suspected pediatric cases that present with undefined febrile disease. PMID:27215295

  4. The strength of strong ties for older rural adults: regional distinctions in the relationship between social interaction and subjective well-being.

    PubMed

    Mair, Christine A; Thivierge-Rikard, R V

    2010-01-01

    Classic and contemporary sociological theories suggest that social interaction differs in rural and urban areas. Intimate, informal interactions (strong ties) are theorized to characterize rural areas while urban areas may possess more formal and rationalized interactions (weak ties). Aging and social support literature stresses social interaction as a predictor of health among the aged. Using data from Wave III of the Americans' Changing Lives (ACL) study, this study examines the hypothesized differences between informal strong ties and formal weak ties on the subjective well-being of older adults in rural, urban, and suburban areas. Visiting with friends, neighbors, or relatives has a stronger positive effect on subjective well-being for rural older adults than urban. These findings highlight that: a) informal strong ties increase subjective well-being; and b) the effect of informal strong ties differs by region. We discuss the potential of our findings for policy and urge continued attention to regional variation in aging studies. PMID:20405586

  5. High circulating irisin levels are associated with insulin resistance and vascular atherosclerosis in a cohort of nondiabetic adult subjects.

    PubMed

    Sesti, G; Andreozzi, F; Fiorentino, T V; Mannino, G C; Sciacqua, A; Marini, M A; Perticone, F

    2014-10-01

    Irisin, a novel myokine, was proposed to be able to regulate glucose homeostasis and obesity in mice. Whether irisin levels are associated with cardio-metabolic variables, insulin sensitivity, and vascular atherosclerosis in humans remain unsettled. To determine the associations between circulating irisin levels, cardio-metabolic variables, insulin sensitivity, and common carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), an indicator of vascular atherosclerosis, a cross-sectional evaluation of circulating irisin levels and cardio-metabolic variables in 192 White adults was conducted. Insulin sensitivity and insulin clearance were assessed by euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. Common carotid IMT was measured by ultrasound. After adjusting for age and gender, irisin levels were positively correlated with body fat mass (r = 0.12, P < 0.05), fasting (r = 0.17, P < 0.01), 2 h post-load insulin (r = 0.15, P < 0.02) levels, and IMT (r = 0.29, P < 0.0001) and were negatively correlated with insulin-stimulated glucose disposal (r = -0.18, P = 0.007), Matsuda index (r = -0.13, P < 0.04), disposition index (r = -0.278, P < 0.0001), and insulin clearance (r = -0.26, P < 0.0001). After adjusting for age, gender, and BMI, individuals in the highest tertile of irisin levels exhibited higher body fat mass (P < 0.01), fasting (P < 0.05), 2 h post-load (P < 0.01) insulin levels, carotid IMT (P < 0.001), lower insulin-stimulated glucose disposal (P < 0.001), Matsuda index (P < 0.01), disposition index (P < 0.01), and insulin clearance (P < 0.001) as compared with subjects in the lowest tertile of circulating irisin levels. Irisin is inversely associated with insulin sensitivity and positively associated with carotid IMT in humans, suggesting either increased release by adipose/muscle tissue in response to deterioration of insulin sensitivity or a compensatory increase in irisin to overcome an underlying irisin resistance. PMID:24619655

  6. Toothache among dental patients attending a Nigerian secondary healthcare setting.

    PubMed

    Azodo, Clement Chinedu; Ololo, Oritseweyemi

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION. Pain intensity and oral health practices among patients with toothache, a major dental public health problem is necessary information for the formulation of preventive and interventional oral health policies. OBJECTIVE. To assess the pain intensity and oral health practices among dental patients attending a Nigerian secondary healthcare setting with toothache. MATERIALS AND METHODS. This study was a prospective study of adult patients attending the dental clinic of Rasheed Shekoni Specialist Hospital, Dutse, Jigawa State, Nigeria. Interviewer-administered questionnaire which elicited information include demography, pain intensity using visual analogue, tooth brushing behaviour and previous dental treatment was the tool of data collection. RESULTS. The majority of the respondents were males and young adults. More than half (60.5%) of the respondents reported pain of moderate to severe intensity and 42.6% have engaged in self medication for the toothache. More than one-third (34.2%) had experienced the pain for ≥ four weeks and the major factor that prompted the decision to visit dentist were unbearable nature of the pain and sleep disturbances. Almost half (46.2%) of the respondents had previously visited the dentist and the common received treatment was tooth extraction. A total of 57.9% of the respondents indulge in twice-daily tooth cleaning. CONCLUSION. Data from this study revealed that respondents with toothache had history of dental visit and visited dental clinic when the pain is unbearable and disturbed sleep. There is a need for proper patient education at any encounter with dentist. PMID:24589637

  7. Clinical experience with adolescent diabetes in a Nigerian teaching hospital.

    PubMed Central

    Akanji, A. O.

    1996-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus presenting in adolescents age 10 to 20 years accounts for less than 5% of all diabetes in tropical African countries. Consequently, inadequate attention is paid to the medical and psychosocial problems attendant on adolescent diabetes in those countries. This article highlights our clinical experience in the management of 30 adolescent diabetic subjects who presented consecutively in the diabetic clinic of a major Nigerian teaching hospital. In these patients, adolescent diabetes appeared heterogeneous, comprising classical insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) in approximately 80%; the remaining fraction (20%) was contributed variably by malnutrition-related diabetes (MRDM) and an "atypical" form of IDDM. The most common medical complications were recurrent hypoglycemia, ketoacidosis, and infections. About 80% of the patients were poor, and up to two thirds had to withdraw from school or trade because of recurrent illness. One third of the girls had a history of unwanted pregnancies. Almost all (93%) had a history of general rebelliousness and clinic truancy. Therefore, the high prevalence of acute metabolic decompensation may be related to the increased frequency of psychosocial problems, especially poverty, in these patients. It is suggested that agencies in tropical Africa increase welfare facilities for adolescent chronic disease, and also establish and encourage clinics dedicated to adolescent diabetes care. PMID:8776066

  8. Clinical experience with adolescent diabetes in a Nigerian teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Akanji, A O

    1996-02-01

    Diabetes mellitus presenting in adolescents age 10 to 20 years accounts for less than 5% of all diabetes in tropical African countries. Consequently, inadequate attention is paid to the medical and psychosocial problems attendant on adolescent diabetes in those countries. This article highlights our clinical experience in the management of 30 adolescent diabetic subjects who presented consecutively in the diabetic clinic of a major Nigerian teaching hospital. In these patients, adolescent diabetes appeared heterogeneous, comprising classical insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) in approximately 80%; the remaining fraction (20%) was contributed variably by malnutrition-related diabetes (MRDM) and an "atypical" form of IDDM. The most common medical complications were recurrent hypoglycemia, ketoacidosis, and infections. About 80% of the patients were poor, and up to two thirds had to withdraw from school or trade because of recurrent illness. One third of the girls had a history of unwanted pregnancies. Almost all (93%) had a history of general rebelliousness and clinic truancy. Therefore, the high prevalence of acute metabolic decompensation may be related to the increased frequency of psychosocial problems, especially poverty, in these patients. It is suggested that agencies in tropical Africa increase welfare facilities for adolescent chronic disease, and also establish and encourage clinics dedicated to adolescent diabetes care. PMID:8776066

  9. Spirituality, gender and age factors in cybergossip among Nigerian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Oluwole, David Adebayo

    2009-06-01

    This study investigated the patterns of spirituality, gender, and age in cybergossip practices among Nigerian adolescents. The study utilized a descriptive survey method. Five hundred thirty adolescent students, randomly selected from four major cities in Nigeria, participated in the study. Their age range was 16 to 21. General Spirituality and Gossip Purpose scales were used to collect data from the participants. Data collected were subjected to t test statistics. Findings showed that there is no significant difference in the cybergossiping practices of adolescents based on their levels of spirituality. This reveals that spirituality is not an inhibiting factor in cybergossiping practices among the adolescents. However, there is significant difference between male and female youths in their cybergossiping practices. The results showed that females are more likely than males to be involved in cybergossiping activities. There is also significant difference between early and late adolescents' cybergossiping activities. The implication is that gossip and cybergossip is a natural tendency that involves communicative expression with a pleasure-seeking purpose. It is a habit that excludes no one despite spiritual, gender, or age factors. Therefore, this behavior should be positively directed away from abusive computing and communication. This work is unique because of the need for parents, guardians, and psychologists to design measures to identify and manage various moderating variables in children's computing practices for optimal positive outcomes. PMID:19445634

  10. Intranasal Oxytocin Lessens the Attentional Bias to Adult Negative Faces: A Double Blind within-Subject Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Seung-Min; Corfield, Freya; Jeong, Da-Woon; Jang, Eun-Young; Treasure, Janet

    2014-01-01

    Objective Oxytocin is a neuropeptide that is involved in social emotional processing. A leading hypothesis is that oxytocin facilitates positive prosocial behaviors; the peptide may also play a more general role in inhibiting withdrawal-related social behaviors. The present study examined these possibilities. Methods A double-blind, placebo controlled crossover design was used with 31 healthy women. Forty-five minutes following the administration of 40 IU of intranasal oxytocin or a placebo, the participants were presented with two dot probe tests with pairs of face stimuli depicting emotional and neutral faces in adults. Results Oxytocin specifically reduced the attention bias toward the location of the faces of adults showing negative emotions, particularly in the case of disgust. Oxytocin did not enhance the attentional bias toward adult happy faces. The effect of oxytocin toward adult negative emotion was correlated with the sensitivity of the drive in the behavioral motivational system. Conclusion Oxytocin reduces attention to negative social emotions in adults, which supports oxytocin serves to inhibit withdrawal-related social behaviour. PMID:24843371

  11. Cytotoxic activity of selected Nigerian plants.

    PubMed

    Sowemimo, A; van de Venter, M; Baatjies, L; Koekemoer, T

    2009-01-01

    Cancer is one of the most prominent human diseases which has stimulated scientific and commercial interest in the discovery of new anticancer agents from natural sources. The current study investigates the cytotoxic activity of ethanolic extracts of sixteen Nigerian plants used locally for the treatment of cancer using the MTT assay on the HeLa cell line. Sapium ellipticum leaves showed activity comparable to the reference compound Cisplatin and greater cytotoxic activity than Combretum paniculatum, Celosia trigyna, Drymaria cordata, Cyathula achyranthoides and Cyathula prostata. Justica extensa, Pupalia lappacea, Hedranthera barteri leaves, Alternanthera sessilis, Ethulia conyzoides leaves, Combretum zenkeri root, Sapium ellipticum stembark and Lannea nigritana stembark showed very low activity while Combretum molle, Adenanthera parvoniana and Lannea acida showed no activity. The results justify the use of Sapium, Combretum, Celosia, Drymaria and Cyathula in traditional treatment of cancer. PMID:20606772

  12. Pattern of Retropharyngeal Abscess in Nigerian Children

    PubMed Central

    Ijaduola, Taiwo G.A.

    1986-01-01

    A study of cases of retropharyngeal abscess in Nigerian children was carried out. It occurred most commonly in children under the age of 6 months and in more male children than female in a ratio of 5:3. Most children seen at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital were brought in late with the upper airway already obstructed. A diagnostic tool of soft-tissue x-ray examination of the neck is not foolproof. In fact, 22.58 percent of soft-tissue x-ray examinations of the neck in this study produced false-positive results. Factors contributing to these results are discussed. Bacteriology showed the main organisms to be Hemophilus influenzae (45.84 percent) and Streptococcus pyogenes (33.33 percent). All cases were found to be secondary to upper respiratory tract infection. PMID:3950981

  13. Nigerian refineries strive for product balance

    SciTech Connect

    Obuasi, P.A.

    1985-06-17

    This article discusses the growth patterns of the Nigerian refining industry. Production and consumption are expected to follow the pattern of consumption of fuel products by the domestic market, Presently, however, production and consumption are not evenly balanced for most fuel products, and non-fuel products are domestically consumed but not produced. Some progress has been made in the effort to match production and consumption of fuel products. But the progress that would have been made to balance non-fuel products has been nullified by 50% of the Daduna refinery being idle. This is due to problems associated with importation of heavy crude oil into Nigeria and also a weak market for asphalt in Nigeria.

  14. Study of lip print types among Nigerians.

    PubMed

    Adamu, L H; Taura, M G; Hamman, W O; Ojo, S A; Dahiru, A U; Sadeeq, A A; Umar, K B

    2015-12-01

    Lip prints in a narrow sense are normal lines and fissures in the form of wrinkles and grooves present in the zone of transition of lips. The aims of this study were to determine the types and association of lip prints as well as the role of the lip print as genetic marker in ethnic differentiation in multi-ethnic population of Nigeria. A total of 820 individuals (414 males and 406 females) participated. The study sample was drawn from different ethnic groups of Nigeria. The three major ethnic groups were identified and the minor groups were lumped together. This was to provide clear evidence on the ethnic differentiation based on lip print types among Nigerians. The lip prints were collected on microscopic glass slides and developed using carbon black powder. Each print was then divided into 10 compartments and analyzed using a magnifying lens. Chi-squared test was used for association between ethnicity and lip print types; p<0.05 was set as a level of significance. The result of the study showed the following lip print pattern in Nigerian population where Type V (31.39%) was predominant, followed by Type III (24.18%), Type IV (18.70%), Type I (14.87%), Type II (10.29%) and least frequent was Type I' (0.57%). Statistically significant association (p<0.05) of lip print types with ethnicity was found in upper left lateral compartments (ULL). It was concluded that lip prints show ethnic differences. Hence, they may hold potential promise as a supplementary tool in ethnic differentiation and in personal identification. PMID:26421606

  15. Productive Activities and Subjective Well-Being among Older Adults: The Influence of Number of Activities and Time Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Lindsey A.; Cahalin, Lawrence P.; Gerst, Kerstin; Burr, Jeffrey A.

    2005-01-01

    This study examines relationships among three measures of subjective well-being (life satisfaction, happiness and depressive symptoms), and two global measures of productive activity (number of activities and time commitment). We argue that participation in multiple productive activities should increase subjective well-being because these…

  16. The Female Sexual Subjectivity Inventory: Development and Validation of a Multidimensional Inventory for Late Adolescents and Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horne, Sharon; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J.

    2006-01-01

    Three studies were conducted to develop and validate a theoretically derived multidimensional inventory of females' sexual self-conceptions ("sexual subjectivity"). Study 1 revealed five factors on the Female Sexual Subjectivity Inventory (FSSI): sexual body-esteem, three factors of conceptions and expectations of sexual desire and pleasure (self,…

  17. Risk Factors and Protective Factors in Relation to Subjective Health among Adult Female Victims of Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonzon, Eva; Lindblad, Frank

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationships between risk and protective factors and health outcome in a sample of adult females who had been victims of child sexual abuse. Method: Both person- and variable-oriented analyses were applied to questionnaire data from a non-clinical group of women (n=152) reporting sexual abuse during childhood.…

  18. Prevalence of acne vulgaris in Chinese adolescents and adults: a community-based study of 17,345 subjects in six cities.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yiwei; Wang, Tinglin; Zhou, Cheng; Wang, Xiaoyan; Ding, Xiaolan; Tian, Shan; Liu, Ying; Peng, Guanghui; Xue, Shuqi; Zhou, June; Wang, Renli; Meng, Xuemei; Pei, Guangde; Bai, Yunhua; Liu, Qing; Li, Hang; Zhang, Jianzhong

    2012-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a common skin condition in adolescents. The prevalence of acne is thought to vary between ethnic groups and countries. A large-scale community-based study was performed in six cities in China to determine the prevalence and possible risk factors for acne in the Chinese population. A total of 17,345 inhabitants were included in this study. Of these, 1,399 were found to have acne. No acne was found in subjects under 10 years of age, and only 1.6% in the 10-year-old group had acne. Prevalence then increased rapidly with age, up to 46.8% in the 19-year-old group. After that, it declined gradually with age. Acne was rare in people over 50 years of age. In subjects in their late teens and 20s, acne was more prevalent in males, while in those over 30 years of age it was more prevalent in females. In subjects with acne, 68.4% had mild; 26.0% had moderate and 5.6% had severe acne. In adult acne, persistent acne was much more common (83.3%) than late-onset acne (16.7%). Smoking and drinking were found to be associated with adolescent acne, while no association was found between diet and acne. These results suggest that the prevalence of acne in the Chinese population is lower than that in Caucasian populations, and that adult acne is not uncommon in Chinese subjects. PMID:21710106

  19. Quality of life of Nigerians living with human immunodeficiency virus

    PubMed Central

    Akinboro, Adeolu Oladayo; Akinyemi, Suliat Omolola; Olaitan, Peter B; Raji, Ajani Adeniyi; Popoola, Adetoun Adetayo; Awoyemi, Opeyemi Roseline; Ayodele, Olugbenga Edward

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Few reports from Nigeria have examined the quality of life (QOL) of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) despite the fact that Nigeria has the second largest number of PLWHA in the world. This study evaluated the QOL of Nigerians living with HIV/AIDS using the World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire for HIV-Brief Version (WHOQOL-BREF) instrument and assessed the impact of demographic, laboratory and disease-related variables on QOL. Methods This cross-sectional study involved 491 consecutive PLWHA aged ≥ 18 years attending the dedicated clinic to PLWHA in South-west Nigeria. Results The lowest mean QOL scores were recorded in the environment and social domains. Participants aged ≥ 40 years had better QOL in the environment (p = 0.039) and spirituality (p = 0.033) domains and those in relationships had better QOL in the social relationship domain (p = 0.002). Subjects with no or primary education and those who rated their health status as good gave significantly higher ratings in all QOL domains. Participants with AIDS had significant lower QOL in the level of independence domain (p = 0.018) and those with CD4 count ≥ 350 cells /mm3 had better QOL scores in the physical, psychological and level of independence domains. Subjects without tuberculosis co-infection and those on antiretroviral therapy (ART) reported significantly better QOL in the physical, psychological, level of independence and spirituality domains. Conclusion Marital relationship, absence of tuberculosis, CD4 count ≥ 350 cells /mm3 and use of ART positively impacted QOL of our patients. PMID:25426192

  20. Body size preference among Yoruba in three Nigerian communities.

    PubMed

    Okoro, E O; Oyejola, B A; Etebu, E N; Sholagberu, H; Kolo, P M; Chijioke, A; Adebisi, S A

    2014-03-01

    Following our previous observation of an aversion to weight reduction in Nigerians with type 2 diabetes, we measured several parameters of body dimensions and preferences in otherwise healthy adults in three communities to study the phenomenon further. The study population of 524 participants (304 F) was 99.8% of Yoruba ethnic origin with a mean age of 43.9 ± 17.2 years. Females had a significantly (p > 0.001) higher body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, hip circumference compared to the males; the values being 24.55 ± 5.5 vs. 21.75 ± 3.71 kg/m(2); 84.98 ± 12.67 vs. 80.92 ± 9.85 cm; 96.32 ± 12.94 vs. 89.36 ± 8.06 cm, respectively. There was a high level of satisfaction amongst respondents with their body size (Kendall's t = 0.52, p < 0.001) which they also predicted with a high degree of certainty even without the prior use of a weighing scale. The relationship between current body size (CBI) and BMI emerged as CBI = 1.22 + 0.32 BMI. In the 41% of respondents who expressed unhappiness with their current body size, there was a strong aversion for a smaller body size and the preference was often for a bigger body figure. Strikingly, many more women than men were less dissatisfied with their bigger body sizes. Stepwise regression indicated that CBI and gender were the two most important variables that best related to casual blood sugar (RBS) among the factors entered. The mathematical relationship between these variables that emerged was: [Formula: see text] where gender = 0 for male and 1 for female. The results suggest that larger body sizes were positively viewed in these communities consistent with our previous observations in type 2 diabetes. PMID:24174319

  1. Thyroid gland morphology in young adults: normal subjects versus those with prior low-dose neck irradiation in childhood

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, G.A.; Komorowski, R.A.; Cerletty, J.M.; Wilson, S.D.

    1983-12-01

    Thyroid glands obtained at autopsy from young adults were studied to establish more accurately the ''normal'' morphology in the groups 20 to 40 years of age. A total of 56 autopsy specimens (many obtained from trauma victims) were examined in detail by totally embedding and sectioning the thyroid glands. The morphology of these thyroid glands also was compared to that of surgically removed thyroid glands from 47 young adult patients with prior low-dose neck irradiation. The ''normal'' thyroid specimens frequently showed morphologic features, such as thyroid tissue outside the recognizable capsule of the gland (40 of 56 patients) and in the strap muscles of the neck (six of 56 patients), which are conditions commonly considered as evidence for invasive thyroid carcinoma. The thyroid glands from the ''normal'' young adult population were significantly different from those thyroid glands surgically removed from patients who had received irradiation. The irradiated thyroid glands invariably showed multiple nodules of a wide variety of histologic types, extensive lymphocytic infiltrates, and distorting fibrosis as well as a high incidence of malignancy (27 of 47 patients). A single 0.1 cm focus of papillary carcinoma was found in one specimen in the nonirradiated thyroid group. This study suggests that ''occult'' thyroid carcinomas in the group 20 to 40 years of age are rare and are significantly fewer in number than in the older population (P less than 0.02).

  2. Cognitive Determinants of Academic Performance in Nigerian Pharmacy Schools.

    PubMed

    Ubaka, Chukwuemeka M; Sansgiry, Sujit S; Ukwe, Chinwe V

    2015-09-25

    Objective. To evaluate cognitive factors that might influence academic performance of students in Nigerian pharmacy schools. Methods. A cross-sectional, multi-center survey of Nigerian pharmacy students from 7 schools of pharmacy was conducted using 2 validated questionnaires measuring cognitive constructs such as test anxiety, academic competence, test competence, time management, and strategic study habits. Results. Female students and older students scored significantly better on time management skills and study habits, respectively. Test anxiety was negatively associated with academic performance while test competence, academic competence, and time management were positively associated with academic performance. These 4 constructs significantly discriminated between the lower and higher performing students, with the first 2 contributing to the most differences. Conclusion. Test and academic competence, test anxiety, and time management were significant factors associated with low and high academic performance among Nigerian pharmacy students. The study also demonstrated the significant effects of age, gender, and marital status on these constructs. PMID:27168614

  3. Cognitive Determinants of Academic Performance in Nigerian Pharmacy Schools

    PubMed Central

    Sansgiry, Sujit S.; Ukwe, Chinwe V.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate cognitive factors that might influence academic performance of students in Nigerian pharmacy schools. Methods. A cross-sectional, multi-center survey of Nigerian pharmacy students from 7 schools of pharmacy was conducted using 2 validated questionnaires measuring cognitive constructs such as test anxiety, academic competence, test competence, time management, and strategic study habits. Results. Female students and older students scored significantly better on time management skills and study habits, respectively. Test anxiety was negatively associated with academic performance while test competence, academic competence, and time management were positively associated with academic performance. These 4 constructs significantly discriminated between the lower and higher performing students, with the first 2 contributing to the most differences. Conclusion. Test and academic competence, test anxiety, and time management were significant factors associated with low and high academic performance among Nigerian pharmacy students. The study also demonstrated the significant effects of age, gender, and marital status on these constructs. PMID:27168614

  4. Resources for Educators of Adults. Annotated Bibliography for the Education of Public Offenders: by Descriptive Subject Headings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Michael J.; And Others

    This bibliography is presented to assist educators who are engaged in research activities with inmate or ex-inmate populations. The first part contains entries under descriptive subject headings (alphabetically by author); the second part contains abstracts of the material listed in part 1 (alphabetically by title). The descriptive headings…

  5. Association of Enjoyable Childhood Mealtimes with Adult Eating Behaviors and Subjective Diet-Related Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainuki, Tomomi; Akamatsu, Rie; Hayashi, Fumi; Takemi, Yukari

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study examined whether the experience of enjoyable mealtimes at home during childhood was related to eating behaviors and subjective diet-related quality of life in adulthood. Methods: The study used data (n = 2,936) obtained from a research program about "Shokuiku" (food and nutrition education) conducted by the Cabinet Office in…

  6. Prevalence and Correlates of Alcohol Use among a Sample of Nigerian Semirural Community Dwellers in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To determine the prevalence and correlates of alcohol use among a sample of Nigerian semirural community dwellers in Nigeria. Methods. In a single arm nonrandomized intervention study, the assessment of baseline hazardous and harmful alcohol use and associated risk factors was conducted in two semirural local government areas of Oyo State, Nigeria, with the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST). Participants included 1203 subjects 15 years and older, recruited between October 2010 and April 2011. ASSIST score of 0–10 was classified as lower risk scores, 11–26 as moderate risk, and 27+ as high risk. Results. Prevalence of lifetime alcohol use was 57.9% and current alcohol use was 23.7%. Current alcohol use was more prevalent among the younger age group p = 0.02, male gender p = 0.003, unmarried p < 0.01, low educational level p = 0.003, low socioeconomic class p = 0.01, unemployed p < 0.001, and the Christians p < 0.01. Of the current drinkers, the majority (69.1%) were at either moderate or high health risk from alcohol use. Conclusion. Alcohol consumption is prevalent in semirural communities in Nigeria and the majority of these drinkers are at moderate or high health risk. Screening, brief intervention, and referral for treatment for unhealthy alcohol use should be integrated into community care services in Nigerian rural communities. PMID:27195170

  7. Evaluation of Five Formulae for Estimating Body Surface Area of Nigerian Children

    PubMed Central

    Orimadegun, AE; Omisanjo, AO

    2014-01-01

    Background: Physiological functions are often assessed by standardizing for body surface area (BSA) to avoid excessive variation in calculations in pediatric practice. Aim: To explore the suitability of existing formulae for estimating the BSA of Nigerian children. Subjects and Methods: This cross-sectional study involved healthy children in a Local Government Area, Oyo State, Nigeria. The BSAs of 2745 children were calculated using the formulae by Boyd, Mosteller, Gehan and George, Haycock, and Dubois-DuBois, and the sixth arithmetic mean of these five formulae (mean-BSA) was performed. The outcome of interest was agreement between estimated BSA and mean-BSA for each method. The performance of each BSA estimation method was compared using bias, root mean square error and Bland-Altman plots of agreement. Results: The study participants comprised of 1229 males and 1246 females with mean (standard deviation) ages of 6.3 (3.0) years and 6.6 (3.1) years respectively (P = 0.01). Reference values for BSA estimates by gender were proposed each age group. Furthermore, BSA estimates from Boyd's and Mosteller's formulae were most similar to the mean-BSA with mathematically perfect correlations. The degree of deviation of BSA estimates from DuBois was largest with a remarkable increase at ages <6 years. Conclusion: Formulae by Boyd and Mosteller are the best BSA estimate for Nigerian children among the existing formulae. PMID:25506482

  8. Breast Cancer: The Perspective of Northern Nigerian Women

    PubMed Central

    Azubuike, Samuel O.; Celestina, U Onuoha

    2015-01-01

    Background: The rising incidence of breast cancer is complicated by late presentation, which marks breast cancer diagnosis in Nigeria with about 70% of cases presenting at advanced stages of the disease. The aim of this study is to determine the general level of awareness of breast cancer, breast cancer risk factors, signs/symptoms as well as preventive measures nothern Nigerian women. It also aimed at determining their attitudes toward breast cancer cure, prevention and cause. Finally, it aims to determine their practices toward breast cancer and its associated factors. Methods: A cross-sectional community survey was used to study 230 women aged 15–60 years in Chikun Local Government Area. The subjects were selected based on nonprobability sampling. Data collected using self-administered questionnaire were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science students (version 16). Test of associations employed Chi-square statistical tool with the level of significance taken at 0.05. Results: About 75.2% knew about breast cancer with health facility (29.13%) being the greatest source of information. An average of 29.35% had knowledge of the risk factors tested. Mean knowledge of the signs and symptoms was 50.1% Average knowledge of breast cancer screening methods was 34.26% with breast self-examination (BSE) (46.1%) being the most recognized. In relation to perception, about 21.7% strongly agreed with the fact that breast cancer is treatable following early detection while 18.3% strongly agreed that screening is effective in detecting breast cancer. Concerning practice, an average of 10.2% practiced any of the screening methods, with BSE (17.4%) being the most practiced. Strongest reasons for nonpractice was ignorance (17.4%). An association was established between knowledge and practice of all the screening methods (P = 0.001 respectively). Conclusions: There is insufficient knowledge, as well as poor practices in relation to important factors associated with

  9. Nigerian foodstuffs with prostate cancer chemopreventive polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Atawodi, Sunday Eneojo

    2011-09-23

    Dietary polyphenols are antioxidants that can scavenge biological free radicals, and chemoprevent diseases with biological oxidation as their main etiological factor. In this paper, we review our laboratory data vis-ὰ-vis available literature on prostate cancer chemopreventive substances in Nigerian foodstuffs. Dacryodes edulis fruit, Moringa oleifera and Syzygium aromaticum contained prostate active polyphenols like ellagic acid, gallate, methylgallate, catechol, kaempferol quercetin and their derivatives. Also Canarium schweinfurthii Engl oil contained ten phenolic compounds and lignans, namely; catechol, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, tyrosol, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, dihydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, phloretic acid, pinoresinol, secoisolariciresinol. In addition, tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) which contains the powerful antioxidant and anti-prostate cancer agent, lycopene; cabbage (Brassica oleracea) containing indole-3-carbinol; citrus fruits containing pectin; Soursop (Annona muricata) containing annonaceous acetogenins; soya beans (Glycine max) containing isoflavones; chilli pepper (Capsicum annuum) containing capsaicin, and green tea (Camellia sinensis) containing (-) epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), (-) epicatechin, (-) epicatechin-3-gallate and (-) epigallocatechin -3-gallate which are widely reported to posses prostate cancer chemopreventive compounds are also grown in Nigeria and other African countries. Thus, the high incidence of prostate cancer among males of African extraction can be dramatically reduced, and the age of onset drastically increased, if the population at risk consumes the right kinds of foods in the right proportion, beginning early in life, especially as prostate cancer has a latency period of about 50 years. PMID:21992488

  10. Nigerian CSM project ready to roll.

    PubMed

    1985-01-01

    Nigeria's contraceptive social marketing (CSM) project is ready to be launched. Population Services Intenational (PSI) had completed the groundwork for the project, funded primarily by a $200,000 grant from the nonpofit D.K. Tyagi Fund. The Population Crisis Committee also provided support for the new project. At presstime, PSI was negotiating for continued project funding from the US Agency for International Development (USAID) and The Futures Group. PSI already has identified suitable products, researched brand names, arranged for distribution, appointed an advertising agency, designed packaging, written a marketing plan, and taken steps to create a local, nonprofit marketing organization to manage the project. PSI has named Tim Barton as the resident manager. He will take up his post once the issue of future funding is resolved. Contraceptives now available are distributed through the private sector and by the Planned Parenthood Federation of Nigeria, the Local International Planned Parenthood Federation affiliate. Nigeria's annual rate of population growth is about 3% and the country is urbanizing rapidly. A 1983 fertility report revealed that only 14% of Nigerian women had ever used any type of contraception; 6% of married women were using a contraceptive method at the time of the survey. PMID:12267254

  11. Textural characteristics of the Nigerian tar sands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enu, E. I.

    1985-05-01

    Extensive tar sands with reserves of about 41 billion barrels of oil are known to occur in Cretaceous terrigenous sediments in Ondo and Ogun States of Nigeria. The hydrocarbon occurs in two predominantly sandy zones separated by an 8 m thick oil shale. The lower (Horizon Y) is mostly quartz sand, 3-26 m thick. It shows an upward fining of grains and increased consolidation updip. The upper Horizon X is 10-22 m of sandstone with interbedded shales and siltstones. The sands are loosely consolidated. Cementing material is lacking, the grains being held together largely by the tarry oil. Porosity is about 30% and mean oil saturation in both zones is 12%. The recorded clay content (2-7%) is considerably lower than the average for Athabasca, Canada (10-25%) and may enhance the settling properties of the tailing ponds. The sands are water-wet, fine- to medium-grained, moderately well sorted, mesokurtic and positively skewed to near symmetrical. The Nigerian tar sands compare closely with the Athabasca sands in all the above textural parameters. They would thus be expected to show identical response to mining processing, except for the influence of higher ground-water table and the high humidity and ambient temperatures in Nigeria.

  12. Nigerian foodstuffs with prostate cancer chemopreventive polyphenols

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Dietary polyphenols are antioxidants that can scavenge biological free radicals, and chemoprevent diseases with biological oxidation as their main etiological factor. In this paper, we review our laboratory data vis-ὰ-vis available literature on prostate cancer chemopreventive substances in Nigerian foodstuffs. Dacryodes edulis fruit, Moringa oleifera and Syzygium aromaticum contained prostate active polyphenols like ellagic acid, gallate, methylgallate, catechol, kaempferol quercetin and their derivatives. Also Canarium schweinfurthii Engl oil contained ten phenolic compounds and lignans, namely; catechol, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, tyrosol, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, dihydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, phloretic acid, pinoresinol, secoisolariciresinol. In addition, tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) which contains the powerful antioxidant and anti-prostate cancer agent, lycopene; cabbage (Brassica oleracea) containing indole-3-carbinol; citrus fruits containing pectin; Soursop (Annona muricata) containing annonaceous acetogenins; soya beans (Glycine max) containing isoflavones; chilli pepper (Capsicum annuum) containing capsaicin, and green tea (Camellia sinensis) containing (-) epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), (-) epicatechin, (-) epicatechin-3-gallate and (-) epigallocatechin -3-gallate which are widely reported to posses prostate cancer chemopreventive compounds are also grown in Nigeria and other African countries. Thus, the high incidence of prostate cancer among males of African extraction can be dramatically reduced, and the age of onset drastically increased, if the population at risk consumes the right kinds of foods in the right proportion, beginning early in life, especially as prostate cancer has a latency period of about 50 years. PMID:21992488

  13. The Relieving Effects of BrainPower Advanced, a Dietary Supplement, in Older Adults with Subjective Memory Complaints: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jingfen; Shi, Rong; Chen, Su; Dai, Lihua; Shen, Tian; Feng, Yi; Gu, Pingping; Shariff, Mina; Nguyen, Tuong; Ye, Yeats; Rao, Jianyu; Xing, Guoqiang

    2016-01-01

    Subjective memory complaints (SMCs) are common in older adults that can often predict further cognitive impairment. No proven effective agents are available for SMCs. The effect of BrainPower Advanced, a dietary supplement consisting of herbal extracts, nutrients, and vitamins, was evaluated in 98 volunteers with SMCs, averaging 67 years of age (47–88), in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Subjective hypomnesis/memory loss (SML) and attention/concentration deficits (SAD) were evaluated before and after 12-week supplementation of BrainPower Advanced capsules (n = 47) or placebo (n = 51), using a 5-point memory questionnaire (1 = no/slight, 5 = severe). Objective memory function was evaluated using 3 subtests of visual/audio memory, abstraction, and memory recall that gave a combined total score. The BrainPower Advanced group had more cases of severe SML (severity ⩾ 3) (44/47) and severe SAD (43/47) than the placebo group (39/51 and 37/51, < 0.05, < 0.05, resp.) before the treatment. BrainPower Advanced intervention, however, improved a greater proportion of the severe SML (29.5%)(13/44) (P < 0.01) and SAD (34.9%)(15/43)(P < 0.01) than placebo (5.1% (2/39) and 13.5% (5/37), resp.). Thus, 3-month BrainPower Advanced supplementation appears to be beneficial to older adults with SMCs. PMID:27190539

  14. The Relieving Effects of BrainPower Advanced, a Dietary Supplement, in Older Adults with Subjective Memory Complaints: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jingfen; Shi, Rong; Chen, Su; Dai, Lihua; Shen, Tian; Feng, Yi; Gu, Pingping; Shariff, Mina; Nguyen, Tuong; Ye, Yeats; Rao, Jianyu; Xing, Guoqiang

    2016-01-01

    Subjective memory complaints (SMCs) are common in older adults that can often predict further cognitive impairment. No proven effective agents are available for SMCs. The effect of BrainPower Advanced, a dietary supplement consisting of herbal extracts, nutrients, and vitamins, was evaluated in 98 volunteers with SMCs, averaging 67 years of age (47-88), in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Subjective hypomnesis/memory loss (SML) and attention/concentration deficits (SAD) were evaluated before and after 12-week supplementation of BrainPower Advanced capsules (n = 47) or placebo (n = 51), using a 5-point memory questionnaire (1 = no/slight, 5 = severe). Objective memory function was evaluated using 3 subtests of visual/audio memory, abstraction, and memory recall that gave a combined total score. The BrainPower Advanced group had more cases of severe SML (severity ⩾ 3) (44/47) and severe SAD (43/47) than the placebo group (39/51 and 37/51, < 0.05, < 0.05, resp.) before the treatment. BrainPower Advanced intervention, however, improved a greater proportion of the severe SML (29.5%)(13/44) (P < 0.01) and SAD (34.9%)(15/43)(P < 0.01) than placebo (5.1% (2/39) and 13.5% (5/37), resp.). Thus, 3-month BrainPower Advanced supplementation appears to be beneficial to older adults with SMCs. PMID:27190539

  15. [A case in which the subject was affected by Listeia meningoencephalitis during administration of infliximab for steroid-dependent adult onset Still's disease].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Motohisa; Takahashi, Hiroki; Miyamoto, Chie; Ohara, Mikiko; Suzuki, Chisako; Naishiro, Yasuyoshi; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Shinomura, Yasuhisa; Nonaka, Michio; Imai, Kohzoh

    2006-06-01

    The subject was a 22-year-old woman who developed high fever and arthralgias and eruptions in the extremities around June 2005. She sought medical advice at a nearby dermatology clinic, where hepatic dysfunction was noted on blood testing. The patient was thus hospitalized the next day. Although CRP levels were significantly high, no sign of infection was observed and bone marrow cell differentiation was normal. Adult onset Still's disease was diagnosed based on the observation of persistent high fever >39 degrees C, eruptions, increased leukocytes, pharyngeal pain, splenomegaly, hepatic dysfunction, negative autoantibody results from blood testing, and high serum ferritin levels. Administration of prednisolone 30 mg/day was initiated, but proved ineffective. Steroid pulse therapy was conducted, and the subject was transferred to our medical facility for continued treatment. Attempts were made to control the disease using combined steroid and cyclosporine administration; but exacerbation of high serum ferritin levels and hepatic dysfunctions were observed, so a second course of steroid pulse therapy was conducted. Symptoms improved temporarily, but steroid levels were difficult to reduce. Cyclosporine was therefore replaced by methotrexate, and administration of infliximab was initiated. In the course of treatment, administration of a sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim combination was initiated, but was discontinued due to suspicion of drug-induced hepatic injury. A second administration of infliximab was conducted in late August, and rapid improvements in clinical symptoms and abnormal test values was observed. However, high fever and headache developed suddenly in early September. Based on the results of spinal fluid testing, blood and spinal fluid cultures and MRI of the head, Listeria meningoencephalitis was diagnosed. Diplopia and impaired consciousness occurred during the disease course, and formation of a brain abscess was observed on imaging. However, symptoms

  16. Effects of meal type on the oral bioavailability of the ALK inhibitor ceritinib in healthy adult subjects.

    PubMed

    Lau, Yvonne Y; Gu, Wen; Lin, Tiffany; Song, Dongweon; Yu, Richard; Scott, Jeffrey W

    2016-05-01

    Ceritinib is a potent inhibitor of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), which has shown acceptable safety and substantial antitumor activity in ALK-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Two food-effect studies were conducted in healthy adults to investigate the influence of food on the oral bioavailability of ceritinib: a study with low- or high-fat meals at 500 mg and a study with a light snack at 750 mg. Compared with the fasted state, AUC0-∞ (90%CI) of ceritinib was increased by 58% (34%, 86%) after the intake of a low-fat meal, by 73% (46%, 105%) after the intake of a high-fat meal, and by 54% (19%, 99%) after the intake of a light snack. Safety assessments also suggested that food may improve gastrointestinal (GI) tolerability after a single ceritinib dose. Based on the pharmacokinetic results, it is essential to avoid any type of meal during dosing of ceritinib because the intake of food may increase the occurrence of exposure-dependent, non-GI toxicities at the labeled dose of 750 mg daily during fasting. A randomized trial is ongoing to determine an alternative way to give ceritinib (450 mg or 600 mg with food) that may enhance GI tolerability in ALK-positive NSCLC patients. PMID:26272586

  17. Perceived Efficacy Beliefs of Prospective Nigerian Science Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arigbabu, Abayomi A.; Oludipe, Daniel I.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess differences between Nigerian junior and senior preservice teachers' science teaching efficacy beliefs. Data in this study were collected from a total number of 221 preservice teachers enrolled in junior and senior secondary science teacher education programs in Nigeria using Science Teaching Efficacy Belief…

  18. Level of Perceived Stress Among Lectures in Nigerian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ofoegbu, Felicia; Nwadiani, Mon

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to provide empirical evidence on the level of stress among lecturers in Nigerian universities. On the whole eight universities were used for the study. A sample of 228 (123 male and 105 female) lecturers was selected according to the variables of age, sex, marital status, experience, domicile, areas of specialization,…

  19. The Semantics of "Okay" (OK) in Nigerian English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adegbija, Efurosibina; Bello, Janet

    2001-01-01

    Investigates the contexts in which "okay" is used in Nigerian English. Discusses how differences in usage of the term should be recognized, respected, and accepted and raises the question of whether or not current theories of learning are powerful enough to accommodate new norms of meanings that inevitably develop in language contact situations.…

  20. Stimulant Use as Correlate of Abusive Behavior among Nigerian Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egbochuku, E. O.; Akerele, J. O.

    2007-01-01

    Stimulant use and abusive behaviour have been associated with the phenomenon of "out of control" tendency with the potential for self-destruction. This study presents a report on frequency of use by Nigerian undergraduates of five stimulants: amphetamine, caffeine, cocaine, cola-nut and tobacco. The population of the study was made up of all the…

  1. Modes of Funding Nigerian Universities and the Implications on Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogbogu, Christiana O.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examined the modes of funding Nigerian universities with a view to assessing their adequacy and effectiveness. The implications of the mechanisms of funding on university performance were investigated. The history of university funding in Nigeria was explored in order to determine the causes of shift in financing the system since 1948…

  2. Interactive Digital Technologies' Use in Southwest Nigerian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agbatogun, Alaba Olaoluwakotansibe

    2013-01-01

    The interactive digital technologies in education is an effective means used to widen educational opportunities. However, many faculty members do not use or adopt digital technologies as instructional tools. The purpose of this study was to predict faculty members' use of digital technologies in Nigerian Universities. 492 university lecturers from…

  3. Nigerian University and Manpower Development in a Changing World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anyebe, Adam Adem

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines Nigerian university system in relation to manpower development in a rapidly changing world of work. This is for purposes of identifying areas that need urgent attention in order to reposition the system to produce high quality manpower. The study reveals that the expansion in the university system is characterized by a mixed…

  4. Public-Private Partnership and Infrastructural Development in Nigerian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oduwaiye, R. O.; Sofoluwe, A. O.; Bello, T. O.; Durosaro, I. A.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the degree to which Public-Private Partnership (PPP) services are related to infrastructural development in Nigerian Universities. The research design used was descriptive survey method. The population for the study encompassed all the 20 universities in South-west Nigeria. Stratified random sampling was used to select 12…

  5. E-Training Adoption in the Nigerian Civil Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zainab, Bello; Bhatti, Muhammad Awais; Pangil, Faizuniah Bt; Battour, Mohamed Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to highlight the factors that aid e-training adoption in the Nigerian civil service. Design/methodology/approach: This paper is based on a review of past literature from databases, reports, newspapers, magazines, etc. The literature recognised the role of perceived cost, computer self-efficacy, availability of…

  6. Gender Analysis of Student Enrollment in Nigerian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adeyemi, Kola; Akpotu, Nelson

    2004-01-01

    The paper analysed the trend and pattern of gender enrollment in Nigerian Universities between 1989 and 1997. It critically examined the gender disparity in university enrollment generally, as well as among some selected disciplines and the country's Geo-political zones. The analysis revealed that gap existed between female and male in the…

  7. Statistical Evaluation of the Impact of ICT on Nigerian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babatunde, Iwasokun Gabriel; Kayode, Alese Boniface; Aderonke, Thompson; Bethy, Favour; Ola, Aranuwa Felix

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes twenty-four performance indices that were freely considered by the authors as relevant for the conceptualization and evaluation of the impact of ICT on the Nigerian Universities. The indices are contained in the questionnaire that was administered on forty five out of sixty three public universities that span the six…

  8. Dialogue and Discourse in a Nigerian English Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akindele, Femi

    Although many studies have been undertaken by literary critics and stylisticians on African English literary texts generally and Nigerian English prose fiction specifically, there has been little or no analysis of dialogue and discourse in such texts. An examination of the phenomenon of speech as manifested in conversational pieces in Nigerian…

  9. Alternative Model of Funding for Academic Research in Nigerian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olayiwola, Shina

    2010-01-01

    Funding of academic research in Nigerian universities by Government (5 per cent recurrent grants) is a policy dictated by the National Universities Commission (NUC) as the central body for allocating research funds. This research fund, little as it is, is irregular and inadequate and to make it worse is difficult to access. These aforementioned…

  10. Lecturers' Perception of Student Evaluation in Nigerian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iyamu, Ede O. S.; Aduwa-Oglebaen, Sam E.

    2005-01-01

    The need for improvement in undergraduate instruction in Nigerian Universities necessitated this investigation. The survey used a random sample of 200 lecturers drawn from five of the public universities in Nigeria. It sought to find out how lecturers perceive the importance of student evaluation, both for formative and summative purposes. The…

  11. Retention of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Skills in Nigerian Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onyeaso, Adedamola Olutoyin

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objective: For effective bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), retention of CPR skills after the training is central. The objective of this study was to find out how much of the CPR skills a group of Nigerian secondary school students would retain six weeks after their first exposure to the conventional CPR training. Materials…

  12. Academic Utilization of Government Publications in Three Nigerian University Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okwor, Roseline Ngozi; Mole, Austin J. C.; Ihekwoaba, Emmanuel Chukwudi

    2015-01-01

    This paper seeks to examine the current state of academic utilization of government publications in Nigerian university libraries. Using a descriptive survey, the study focused on three academic libraries in Southeastern Nigeria serving a population of 11,996 undergraduate and postgraduate student library users, 592 of whom answered a…

  13. Quality Standards for Nigerian Pre-Primary Centres.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ate, Delthyea Gautt

    Proposing quality standards for Nigerian pre-primary centers, this paper argues that the first concern must be the provision of adequate care in the form of high quality health, safety, and nutritional conditions. Care is discussed in terms of illness policy, routines for good health, physical characteristics of centers, personal hygiene,…

  14. Nigerian Medical Students' Opinions about the Undergraduate Curriculum in Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Bawo; Omoaregba, Joyce; Okogbenin, Esther; Buhari, Olubunmi; Obindo, Taiwo; Okonoda, Mayowa

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The number of psychiatrists in Nigeria is inadequate to meet the treatment needs for neuropsychiatric disorders. Developing mental health competency in the future Nigerian physician workforce is one approach to filling the treatment gap. The authors aimed to assess medical students' attitudes to this training and its relevance to their…

  15. Demonstrating Functional Interactive Language Teaching in the Nigerian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bello, Rachael O.; Oni-Buraimoh, Olawunmi O.

    2014-01-01

    Applied linguistics affords Linguists the opportunity of solving language related problems using various methods. In this paper, we x-ray the Nigerian University classroom situation in the teaching of the English language viz-a-viz the use of functional interactive method. Following Littlewood (1981) and Krashen (1982), we posit that the teaching…

  16. Employability of Nigerian Graduates, the Role of Stakeholders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abiodun-Oyebanji, Olayemi Jumoke

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the worrisome issue of employability of Nigerian university graduates in recent times, which have become a great concern to all and sundry. Certain indices such as, lack of complementary life skills, low moral standards, low employment generating capacity of the Nigerina economy, and the certification mentality, are discussed.…

  17. An Intrinsic Analysis of the New Nigerian Science Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamu, Abdalla Uba

    1989-01-01

    Describes and analyzes the Nigerian Secondary Schools Science Project which was adapted for use in the school system by the University of Lagos, Nigeria. Found that imprecision and lack of coherence in stating performance objectives led to confusion in interpretation by teachers. (KO)

  18. Zanamivir pharmacokinetics and pulmonary penetration into epithelial lining fluid following intravenous or oral inhaled administration to healthy adult subjects.

    PubMed

    Shelton, Mark J; Lovern, Mark; Ng-Cashin, Judith; Jones, Lori; Gould, Elizabeth; Gauvin, Jennifer; Rodvold, Keith A

    2011-11-01

    Zanamivir serum and pulmonary pharmacokinetics were characterized following intravenous (i.v.) or oral inhaled administration. I.v. zanamivir was given as intermittent doses of 100 mg, 200 mg, and 600 mg every 12 h (q12h) for two doses or as a continuous infusion (6-mg loading dose followed by 3 mg/h for 12 h). Oral inhaled zanamivir (two 5-mg inhalations q12h for two doses) was evaluated as well. Each zanamivir regimen was administered to six healthy subjects with serial pharmacokinetic sampling. In addition, a single bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid sample was collected at various time points and used to calculate epithelial lining fluid (ELF) drug concentrations for each subject. For intermittent i.v. administration of 100 mg, 200 mg, and 600 mg zanamivir, the median zanamivir concentrations in ELF collected 12 h after dosing were 74, 146, and 419 ng/ml, respectively, each higher than the historic mean 50% inhibitory concentrations for the neuraminidases of wild-type strains of influenza A and B viruses. Median ELF/serum zanamivir concentration ratios ranged from 55 to 79% for intermittent i.v. administration (when sampled 12 h after the last dose) and 43 to 45% for continuous infusion (when sampled 6 to 12 h after the start of the infusion). For oral inhaled zanamivir, the median zanamivir concentrations in ELF were 891 ng/ml for the first BAL fluid collection and 326 ng/ml for subsequent BAL fluid collections (when sampled 12 h after the last dose); corresponding serum drug concentrations were undetectable. This study demonstrates zanamivir's penetration into the human pulmonary compartment and supports the doses selected for the continuing development of i.v. zanamivir in clinical studies of influenza. PMID:21896909

  19. Number concentration and size of particles in urban air: effects on spirometric lung function in adult asthmatic subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Penttinen, P; Timonen, K L; Tiittanen, P; Mirme, A; Ruuskanen, J; Pekkanen, J

    2001-01-01

    Daily variations in ambient particulate air pollution are associated with variations in respiratory lung function. It has been suggested that the effects of particulate matter may be due to particles in the ultrafine (0.01-0.1 microm) size range. Because previous studies on ultrafine particles only used self-monitored peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), we assessed the associations between particle mass and number concentrations in several size ranges measured at a central site and measured (biweekly) spirometric lung function among a group of 54 adult asthmatics (n = 495 measurements). We also compared results to daily morning, afternoon, and evening PEFR measurements done at home (n = 7,672-8,110 measurements). The median (maximum) 24 hr number concentrations were 14,500/cm(3) (46,500/cm(3)) ultrafine particles and 800/cm(3) (2,800/cm(3)) accumulation mode (0.1-1 microm) particles. The median (maximum) mass concentration of PM(2.5) (particulate matter < 2.5 microm) and PM(10) (particulate matter < 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter) were 8.4 microg/m(3) (38.3 microg/m(3)) and 13.5 microg/m(3) (73.7 microg/m(3)), respectively. The number of accumulation mode particles was consistently inversely associated with PEFR in spirometry. Inverse, but nonsignificant, associations were observed with ultrafine particles, and no associations were observed with large particles (PM(10)). Compared to the effect estimates for self-monitored PEFR, the effect estimates for spirometric PEFR tended to be larger. The standard errors were also larger, probably due to the lower number of spirometric measurements. The present results support the need to monitor the particle number and size distributions in urban air in addition to mass. PMID:11335178

  20. Assessment of Antero-Posterior Skeletal and Soft Tissue Relationships of Adult Indian Subjects in Natural Head Position and Centric Relation

    PubMed Central

    Latif, Vishnu Ben; Keshavaraj; Rai, Rohan; Hegde, Gautham; Shajahan, Shabna

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to verify the intra-individual reproducibility of natural head position (NHP) in centric relation (CR) position, to prove the inter-individual differences in the Frankfort horizontal plane and sella-nasion line compared with the true horizontal line, and to establish linear norms from A-point, B-point, Pog as well as soft tissue A-point, soft tissue B-point, and soft tissue Pog to nasion true vertical line (NTVL) in adult Indian subjects. Methods: Lateral cephalograms (T1) of Angle’s Class I subjects were taken in NHP and with bite in CR. A second lateral cephalogram (T2) of these subjects with ANB angle in the range 1-4° were taken after 1 week using the same wax bite and both the radiographs were analyzed based on six angular parameters using cephalometric software (Do-it, Dental studio NX version 4.1) to assess the reproducibility of NHP. Linear values of six landmarks were taken in relation to NTVL, and the mean values were calculated. A total of 116 subjects were included in this study. Results: When the cephalometric values of T1 and T2 were analyzed, it was found that, the parameters showed a P < 0.001, indicating the reproducibility of NHP in CR. Mean values for point A, point B, Pog and their soft tissue counterparts were also obtained. Conclusion: The study proved that NHP is a reproducible and accurate when recorded with the mandible in CR. Linear norms for skeletal Class I subjects in relation to NTVL were established. PMID:26124598

  1. Cytokine profile in Nigerians with tubal infertility

    PubMed Central

    Charles-Davies, Mabel A.; Bello, Folashade A.; Taiwo, Victor O.; Bin, Li; Oni, Anthony A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Immune response to genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection is involved in both immunity and pathology. The cytokine profile during infection has been implicated in the disease outcome, either resolution or severe sequelae. Serum cytokines of Chlamydia positive Nigerian women with tubal infertility were assessed to determine their possible relationship with tubal occlusion. Material and methods One hundred and fifty age-matched consenting women (100 fertile and 50 with tubal infertility) were recruited based on C. trachomatis antibody positivity and grouped into infertile Chlamydia positive (CTpos) women (n = 50), fertile Chlamydia positive women (n = 50) and fertile Chlamydia negative (CTneg) women as controls (n = 50). High vaginal swabs and endo-cervical swabs were collected for microscopy, culture and gram staining. Cytokines [transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), interferon γ (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10 and IL-17A] were estimated by ELISA in sera. Data were analyzed using ANOVA, χ 2 and Spearman's correlation at p = 0.05. Results Lower IFN-γ levels were observed in infertile women compared to fertile women. Fertile CTneg women had significantly higher TNF-α, and TGF-β1 compared to fertile and infertile CTpos women, respectively. Lower IL-10 levels were seen in fertile CTpos women compared to the infertile CTpos group. Vaginal discharge was negatively correlated with TNF-α and IFN-γ and positively with IL-4 in Chlamydia positive women. Conclusions Chlamydia positive women with tubal infertility have higher IL-10 and lower IFN-γ levels than controls, which may contribute to their development of tubal pathology. PMID:27095929

  2. A randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study on acceptability, safety and efficacy of oral administration of sacha inchi oil (Plukenetia volubilis L.) in adult human subjects.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Gustavo F; Gonzales, Carla

    2014-03-01

    The study was designed to assess acceptability and side-effects of consumption of sacha inchi oil, rich in α-linolenic acid and sunflower oil, rich in linoleic acid, in adult human subjects. Thirty subjects received 10 or 15ml daily of sacha inchi or sunflower oil for 4months. Acceptability was assessed with daily self-report and with a Likert test at the end of the study. Safety was assessed with self- recording of side-effects and with hepatic and renal markers. Primary efficacy variables were the change in lipid profile. Subjects reported low acceptability of sacha inchi oil at week-1 (37.5%). However, since week-6, acceptability was significantly increased to 81.25-93.75%. No differences were observed in acceptability with respect to sex or oil volume (P>0.05). Most frequent adverse effects during first weeks of consuming sacha inchi oil or sunflower oil were nauseas. The side-effects were reduced with time. Biochemical markers of hepatic and kidney function were maintained unchanged. Serum total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels and arterial blood pressure were lowered with both oils (P<0.05). Higher HDL-cholesterol was observed with sacha inchi oil at month-4. In conclusion, sacha inchi oil consumed has good acceptability after week-1 of consumption and it is safety. PMID:24389453

  3. Increased objectively assessed vigorous-intensity exercise is associated with reduced stress, increased mental health and good objective and subjective sleep in young adults.

    PubMed

    Gerber, Markus; Brand, Serge; Herrmann, Christian; Colledge, Flora; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Pühse, Uwe

    2014-08-01

    The role of physical activity as a factor that protects against stress-related mental disorders is well documented. Nevertheless, there is still a dearth of research using objective measures of physical activity. The present study examines whether objectively assessed vigorous physical activity (VPA) is associated with mental health benefits beyond moderate physical activity (MPA). Particularly, this study examines whether young adults who accomplish the American College of Sports Medicine's (ACSM) vigorous-intensity exercise recommendations differ from peers below these standards with regard to their level of perceived stress, depressive symptoms, perceived pain, and subjective and objective sleep. A total of 42 undergraduate students (22 women, 20 men; M=21.24years, SD=2.20) volunteered to take part in the study. Stress, pain, depressive symptoms, and subjective sleep were assessed via questionnaire, objective sleep via sleep-EEG assessment, and VPA via actigraphy. Meeting VPA recommendations had mental health benefits beyond MPA. VPA was associated with less stress, pain, subjective sleep complaints and depressive symptoms. Moreover, vigorous exercisers had more favorable objective sleep pattern. Especially, they had increased total sleep time, more stage 4 and REM sleep, more slow wave sleep and a lower percentage of light sleep. Vigorous exercisers also reported fewer mental health problems if exposed to high stress. This study provides evidence that meeting the VPA standards of the ACSM is associated with improved mental health and more successful coping among young people, even compared to those who are meeting or exceeding the requirements for MPA. PMID:24905432

  4. Gastric digestion of α-lactalbumin in adult human subjects using capsule endoscopy and nasogastric tube sampling.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Louise M; Kehoe, Joseph J; Barry, Lillian; Buckley, Martin J M; Shanahan, Fergus; Mok, K H; Brodkorb, André

    2014-08-28

    In the present study, structural changes in the milk protein α-lactalbumin (α-LA) and its proteolysis were investigated for the potential formation of protein-fatty acid complexes during in vivo gastric digestion. Capsule endoscopy allowed visualisation of the digestion of the test drinks, with nasogastric tubes allowing sampling of the gastric contents. A total of ten healthy volunteers had nasogastric tubes inserted into the stomach and ingested test drinks containing 50 g/l of sucrose and 25 g/l of α-LA with and without 4 g/l of oleic acid (OA). The samples of gastric contents were collected for analysis at 3 min intervals. The results revealed a rapid decrease in the pH of the stomach of the subjects. The fasting pH of 2·31 (SD 1·19) increased to a pH maxima of pH 6·54 (SD 0·29) after ingestion, with a subsequent decrease to pH 2·22 (SD 1·91) after 21 min (n 8). Fluorescence spectroscopy and Fourier transform IR spectroscopy revealed partial protein unfolding, coinciding with the decrease in pH below the isoelectric point of α-LA. The activity of pepsin in the fasting state was found to be 39 (SD 12) units/ml of gastric juice. Rapid digestion of the protein occurred: after 15 min, no native protein was detected using SDS-PAGE; HPLC revealed the presence of small amounts of native protein after 24 min of gastric digestion. Mirocam® capsule endoscopy imaging and video clips (see the online supplementary material) revealed that gastric peristalsis resulted in a heterogeneous mixture during gastric digestion. Unfolding of α-LA was observed during gastric transit; however, there was no evidence of a cytotoxic complex being formed between α-LA and OA. PMID:24967992

  5. Fecal carriage of vancomycin- and ampicillin-resistant Enterococci observed in Swedish adult patients with diarrhea but not among healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Olofsson, M B; Pörnull, K J; Karnell, A; Telander, B; Svenungsson, B

    2001-01-01

    During a 1-y prospective study between 1 October 1996 and 30 September 1997, fecal samples from 786 adult patients with diarrhea and 203 healthy control subjects were screened for vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE) and ampicillin-resistant Enterococci (ARE). The carriage rates of VRE and ARE were 0.4% and 6%, respectively among patients and 0% among controls. The 3 VRE isolates were all VanA and were obtained from patients who had been abroad (Thailand, Spain, France) within the previous 3 months. Thirteen of the 45 patients with ARE (29%) had been abroad within 2 weeks of the onset of diarrhea. These findings suggest a potential risk of introduction of antibiotic-resistant Enterococci in Swedish hospitals by patients receiving treatment for diarrhea after traveling abroad. PMID:11669222

  6. Integration in the Vocational World: How Does It Affect Quality of Life and Subjective Well-Being of Young Adults with ASD

    PubMed Central

    Gal, Eynat; Selanikyo, Efrat; Bar-Haim Erez, Asnat; Katz, Noomi

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to assess whether the perception of quality of life (QOL) and subjective well-being (SWB) of young adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is affected by participation in a comprehensive program. Participants included 25 young adults with ASD who participated in the “Roim Rachok Program” (RRP), where they were trained to become aerial photography interpreters. Following the training period, they served in a designated army unit where they practiced their newly acquired profession. The participants filled out two questionnaires, (a) Quality of Life (QOL-Q) and (b) Personal Well-being Index (PWI), at three points of the intervention: (a) before the course, (b) at the end of the course, and (c) six months after integrating in the designated army unit. Wilcoxon signed ranks tests were used to assess the differences between the reported QOL and SWB at the three points of time. The results suggest that there were no significant differences at the end of the course, compared to its beginning. However, there were significantly improved perception of QOL and SWB during the period between the end of the course and six months after starting work. The results of this study highlight the importance of tailored vocational programs that are adapted to the unique needs and strengths of individuals with ASD. PMID:26404341

  7. Integration in the Vocational World: How Does It Affect Quality of Life and Subjective Well-Being of Young Adults with ASD.

    PubMed

    Gal, Eynat; Selanikyo, Efrat; Erez, Asnat Bar-Haim; Katz, Noomi

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to assess whether the perception of quality of life (QOL) and subjective well-being (SWB) of young adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is affected by participation in a comprehensive program. Participants included 25 young adults with ASD who participated in the "Roim Rachok Program" (RRP), where they were trained to become aerial photography interpreters. Following the training period, they served in a designated army unit where they practiced their newly acquired profession. The participants filled out two questionnaires, (a) Quality of Life (QOL-Q) and (b) Personal Well-being Index (PWI), at three points of the intervention: (a) before the course, (b) at the end of the course, and (c) six months after integrating in the designated army unit. Wilcoxon signed ranks tests were used to assess the differences between the reported QOL and SWB at the three points of time. The results suggest that there were no significant differences at the end of the course, compared to its beginning. However, there were significantly improved perception of QOL and SWB during the period between the end of the course and six months after starting work. The results of this study highlight the importance of tailored vocational programs that are adapted to the unique needs and strengths of individuals with ASD. PMID:26404341

  8. Non-cycloplegic spherical equivalent refraction in adults: comparison of the double-pass system, retinoscopy, subjective refraction and a table-mounted autorefractor

    PubMed Central

    Vilaseca, Meritxell; Arjona, Montserrat; Pujol, Jaume; Peris, Elvira; Martínez, Vanessa

    2013-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the accuracy of spherical equivalent (SE) estimates of a double-pass system and to compare it with retinoscopy, subjective refraction and a table-mounted autorefractor. METHODS Non-cycloplegic refraction was performed on 125 eyes of 65 healthy adults (age 23.5±3.0 years) from October 2010 to January 2011 using retinoscopy, subjective refraction, autorefraction (Auto kerato-refractometer TOPCON KR-8100, Japan) and a double-pass system (Optical Quality Analysis System, OQAS, Visiometrics S.L., Spain). Nine consecutive measurements with the double-pass system were performed on a subgroup of 22 eyes to assess repeatability. To evaluate the trueness of the OQAS instrument, the SE laboratory bias between the double-pass system and the other techniques was calculated. RESULTS The SE mean coefficient of repeatability obtained was 0.22D. Significant correlations could be established between the OQAS and the SE obtained with retinoscopy (r=0.956, P<0.001), subjective refraction (r=0.955, P<0.001) and autorefraction (r=0.957, P<0.001). The differences in SE between the double-pass system and the other techniques were significant (P<0.001), but lacked clinical relevance except for retinoscopy; Retinoscopy gave more hyperopic values than the double-pass system -0.51±0.50D as well as the subjective refraction -0.23±0.50D; More myopic values were achieved by means of autorefraction 0.24±0.49D. CONCLUSION The double-pass system provides accurate and reliable estimates of the SE that can be used for clinical studies. This technique can determine the correct focus position to assess the ocular optical quality. However, it has a relatively small measuring range in comparison with autorefractors (-8.00 to +5.00D), and requires prior information on the refractive state of the patient. PMID:24195036

  9. Examining the independent protective effect of subjective well-being on severe psychological distress among Canadian adults with a history of child maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Baiden, Philip; Tarshis, Sarah; Antwi-Boasiako, Kofi; den Dunnen, Wendy

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the independent protective effect of subjective well-being on severe psychological distress among adult Canadians with a history of child maltreatment. Data for this study were obtained from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey-Mental Health (CCHS-MH). A sample of 8126 respondents aged 20-69 years old who experienced at least one child maltreatment event was analyzed using binary logistic regression with severe psychological distress as the outcome variable. Of the 8126 respondents with a history of child maltreatment, 3.9% experienced severe psychological distress within the past month. Results from the multivariate logistic regression revealed that emotional and psychological well-being each had a significant effect on severe psychological distress. For each unit increase in emotional well-being, the odds of a respondent having severe psychological distress were predicted to decrease by a factor of 28% and for each unit increase in psychological well-being, the odds of a respondent having severe psychological distress were predicted to decrease by a factor of 10%, net the effect of demographic, socioeconomic, and health factors. Other factors associated with psychological distress included: younger age, poor self-perceived physical health, and chronic condition. Having post-secondary education, having a higher income, and being non-White predicted lower odds of severe psychological distress. Although, child maltreatment is associated with stressful life events later in adulthood, subjective well-being could serve as a protective factor against severe psychological distress among adults who experienced maltreatment when they were children. PMID:27372801

  10. Comparison of Compositions and Metabolic Activities of Fecal Microbiotas in Young Adults and in Antibiotic-Treated and Non-Antibiotic-Treated Elderly Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Woodmansey, Emma J.; McMurdo, Marion E. T.; Macfarlane, George T.; Macfarlane, Sandra

    2004-01-01

    The colonic microbiota mediates many cellular and molecular events in the host that are important to health. These processes can be affected in the elderly, because in some individuals, the composition and metabolic activities of the microbiota change with age. Detailed characterizations of the major groups of fecal bacteria in healthy young adults, in healthy elderly people, and in hospitalized elderly patients receiving antibiotics were made in this study, together with measurements of their metabolic activities, by analysis of fecal organic acid and ammonia concentrations. The results showed that total anaerobe numbers remained relatively constant in old people; however, individual bacterial genera changed markedly with age. Reductions in numbers of bacteroides and bifidobacteria in both elderly groups were accompanied by reduced species diversity. Bifidobacterial populations in particular showed marked variations in the dominant species, with Bifidobacterium angulatum and Bifidobacterium adolescentis being frequently isolated from the elderly and Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium catenulatum, Bifidobacterium boum, and Bifidobacterium infantis being detected only from the healthy young volunteers. Reductions in amylolytic activities of bacterial isolates in healthy elderly subjects and reduced short-chain fatty acid concentrations supported these findings, since bifidobacteria and bacteroides are important saccharolytic groups in the colon. Conversely, higher numbers of proteolytic bacteria were observed with feces samples from the antibiotic-treated elderly group, which were also associated with increased proteolytic species diversity (fusobacteria, clostridia, and propionibacteria). Other differences in the intestinal ecosystem in elderly subjects were observed, with alterations in the dominant clostridial species in combination with greater numbers of facultative anaerobes. PMID:15466557

  11. Psychiatric referrals during peace and wartimes: a Nigerian experience.

    PubMed

    Okulate, Gbenga T

    2005-07-01

    Using a questionnaire administered by us, we sought to investigate the differences between patients referred to the psychiatric department of a Nigerian military general hospital during peacetime and those referred during the civil war in Liberia in which Nigerian soldiers were involved as peacekeepers. Referrals to psychiatry in peacetime were quite few but increased considerably during the period of combat in direct relation to the increase in the number of surgical wounded in action cases. Organic mental disorders and anxiety disorders were more frequently referred in peacetime than in war, whereas substance abuse disorders were more frequent during the combat period. Non-psychotic psychiatric conditions were less referred in the wartime group, partly because of nonrecognition at the mission areas and also because of recovery in front-line areas or consideration of their evacuation as a nonpriority. Mental health workers engaged at the mission areas require more training in the identification of such cases. PMID:16130633

  12. Prevalence and correlates of leisure-time physical activity among Nigerians

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity levels are rising in many countries with major implications for the prevalence of non-communicable diseases and the general health of the population worldwide. We conducted this study to examine leisure-time physical activity levels among African adults in an urban setting. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study among a random sample of 1,058 adults at a government worksite, in Abuja, an urban Nigerian city. We used log-binomial regression models to estimate the multivariable-adjusted associations of correlates of physical activity. Results The mean age of the study population was 42 ± 9.3 years, 60% were men and 40% were women. The mean metabolic equivalent hours per week for all the participants was 6.8 ± 7.2. In univariate analysis comparing the lowest to highest tertiles of physical activity, the prevalence ratio (PR) and (95% confidence interval, CI) was 0.95 (0.81-1.11) p = 0.49, comparing women to men; compared to those aged <30 years the PR (95% CI) was 0.70 (0.57-0.86), 0.70 (0.58-0.85) and 0.78 (0.63-0.96) for age 30–39, 40–49 and ≥50 years respectively, p for trend = 0.03; compared to those who were normal weight, the PR was 0.93 (0.79-1.10) and 0.90 (0.74-1.09) for overweight and obese persons respectively, p = 0.26. The PR for age was attenuated to non-significant levels in multivariable analyses. Being married was a statistically significant correlate of higher physical activity levels, the PR comparing unmarried to married persons in multivariate analysis was 0.81 (0.67-0.97), p = 0.03. Conclusions More than 80% of urban, professional Nigerian adults do not meet the WHO recommendations of physical activity. Urbanized Africans in this study population had low levels of leisure-time physical activity, independent of age, sex and body-mass index. This has major implications for the prevalence of non-communicable diseases in this population. PMID:24885080

  13. Best Macular Dystrophy in a Nigerian: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    S. Oluleye, Tunji

    2012-01-01

    Best macular dystrophy is reported to be rare in Africans. It is a hereditary disease that starts in childhood and progresses through some stages before visual symptoms occur. This case report presents a 43-year-old Nigerian with the disease and stresses the importance of regular eye exams of patients and relatives to detect changes such as choroidal neovascular membrane amenable to treatment. PMID:22740832

  14. Best macular dystrophy in a nigerian: a case report.

    PubMed

    S Oluleye, Tunji

    2012-05-01

    Best macular dystrophy is reported to be rare in Africans. It is a hereditary disease that starts in childhood and progresses through some stages before visual symptoms occur. This case report presents a 43-year-old Nigerian with the disease and stresses the importance of regular eye exams of patients and relatives to detect changes such as choroidal neovascular membrane amenable to treatment. PMID:22740832

  15. Severe clinical nutritional neurological damage in a young Nigerian detainee.

    PubMed

    Olubodun, J O; Jayesimi, A E; Olasode, O A; Sobowale, A B

    1991-01-01

    The case of a 22-year-old Nigerian detainee with features of severe clinical malnutrition, is reported. Within 2 years of prison confinement and undernutrition, he developed features of severe malnutrition, with severe sensory and motor neuropathy of the lower limbs, and pulmonary tuberculosis. Despite intensive nutritional rehabilitation, patient did not regain the use of his lower limbs. The initial economic constraint in the management is highlighted. PMID:1750121

  16. Acute and subchronic effects of nefazodone and imipramine on highway driving, cognitive functions, and daytime sleepiness in healthy adult and elderly subjects.

    PubMed

    van Laar, M W; van Willigenburg, A P; Volkerts, E R

    1995-02-01

    The acute and subchronic effects of two dosages of a new serotonergic antidepressant, nefazodone, and those of the tricyclic imipramine were examined in a double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled study. Twenty-four healthy subjects from two age groups (12 adults and 12 elderly from both sexes) received the four treatments (nefazodone, 100 and 200 mg twice daily; imipramine, 50 mg twice daily; and placebo) for 7 days with a 7-day washout period. Measurements were performed after the morning doses on day 1 and day 7. These included a standard over-the-road highway driving test, a psychomotor test battery, and sleep latency tests. Blood samples were taken on both days and analyzed to determine concentrations of parent drugs and their major metabolites. The main results showed that the reference drug, imipramine, had a detrimental effect after a single dose on lateral position control in the driving test, primarily in the adult group, that diminished after repeated dosing. Minor impairment on psychomotor test performance was found with both days. On the other hand, a single administration of both doses of nefazodone did not impair highway driving performance (even showed some improvement) and had no or only minor effects on psychomotor performance. After repeated dosing, nefazodone 200 mg twice daily (but not the 100-mg dose) produced slight impairment of lateral position control; dose-related impairment of cognitive and memory functions was found. The effects of nefazodone were generally in the same direction in both age groups. Significant correlations were found between steady-state concentrations of nefazodone in plasma (200-mg, twice-daily condition) as well as imipramine, and reaction time changes in a memory scanning task. Neither drug appeared to induce daytime sleepiness as measured by the sleep latency tests. PMID:7714226

  17. The Growth and Development of Nigerian Universities. Overseas Liaison Committee Paper No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fafunwa, A. Babatunde

    Higher education in Nigeria has experienced a phenomenal rate of growth since independence in 1960. The number of students enrolled in Nigerian universities grew from 1,396 in 1960, to approximately 25,000 in 1974, and the Nigerian universities commission has projected that the number will double by 1979-80. The quantum jump in student enrollment…

  18. Analysis of Factors Enhancing Pitfall in Research and Teaching of the Nigerian University System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Tafida; Umar, Kasim; Paul, Chima

    2015-01-01

    The paper analyses factors enhancing pitfall in research and teaching in the Nigerian university system. Using data generated from secondary sources, it was found that so many factors are responsible for the constant decay in teaching and research in the Nigerian universities. The paper however found from literature that the high rate of pitfalls…

  19. Enlightenment and Attitudes of the Nigerian Elite on the Roles of Languages in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adegbite, Wale

    2003-01-01

    This study describes the effect of enlightenment on attitudes of the Nigerian elite to the roles assigned to English and indigenous languages in Nigeria. From the results of a preliminary investigation into the attitudes of undergraduate students in a Nigerian University, it was presumed that enlightenment of citizens on the importance of…

  20. Prepositional Intraference in ESL and Its Teaching: The Educated Nigerian English Examples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekundayo, Omowumi Steve Bode

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the linguistic habit of "prepositional intraference" in Educated Nigerian English (ENE) with a view to establishing why and how Nigerians produce prepositional intraference variations and how the variations distinguish ENE morphosyntax from native English morphosyntax, particularly Standard British English (SBE).…

  1. Towards Improved Teaching Effectiveness in Nigerian Public Universities: Instrument Design and Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archibong, Ijeoma Aniedi; Nja, Mbe Egom

    2011-01-01

    This research is conducted to examine what is currently evaluated with respect to teaching in Nigerian public universities and to produce instruments that would be useful for examining the course and teaching effectiveness of course lecturers. Telephone interview of ten (10) professors in ten public Nigerian Universities is used to elicit…

  2. Twelve Nigerian Languages. A Handbook on Their Sound Systems for Teachers of English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunstan, Elizabeth, Ed.

    This book sets out the sound systems of twelve Nigerian languages and English (both British and American) in order to give teachers a better understanding of why students who are speakers of these languages have difficulty in certain areas of English pronunciation. The Nigerian languages are: Efik, Etsako, Fula, Hausa, Ibgo, Ijo, Isoko, Itsekiri,…

  3. Global Digital Revolution and Africa: Transforming Nigerian Universities to World Class Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isah, Emmanuel Aileonokhuoya; Ayeni, A. O.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the global digital revolution and the transformation of Nigerian universities. The study overviewed university developments world wide in line with what obtains in Nigeria. The study highlighted the several challenges that face Nigerian universities inclusive of poor funding, poor personnel and the poor exposure to global…

  4. Attitude of Nigerian Secondary School Teachers to Peer Evaluation of Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joshua, Monday T.; Joshua, Akon M.; Bassey, Bassey A.; Akubuiro, Idorenyin M.

    2006-01-01

    The study investigated the general attitude of Nigerian secondary school teachers toward peer evaluation of teachers. It also sought to determine whether teacher characteristics such as gender, school geographical location, academic qualification and teaching experience affected Nigerian teachers' attitude toward peer evaluation of teachers. To…

  5. Interest in neurology during medical clerkship in three Nigerian medical schools

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background This study sought to ascertain perception of Nigerian medical students of neurology in comparison with 7 other major medical specialties. To also determine whether neurology was the specialty students consider most difficult and the reasons for this and to appraise their opinion on how neurosciences and neurology were taught in their different universities. Methods Self-administered questionnaires were used to obtain information from randomly selected clinical students from 3 medical colleges in Nigeria (University of Ibadan, Ibadan; University of Ilorin, Ilorin; Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Osogbo). Results Of 320 questionnaires sent out, 302 were returned given 94% response rate. Students felt they knew neurology least of all the 8 medical specialties, and were not confident of making neurological diagnoses. About 82% of the students indicated they learnt neurology best from bedside teaching, followed by use of medical textbooks. Close to 15% found online resources very useful for learning neurology and 6% indicated that group discussion was quite useful in the acquisition of knowledge on neurology. Histology and biochemistry were the preclinical subjects participants opined were least useful in learning neurology. The most frequent reasons students felt neurology was difficult were problems with understanding neuroanatomy (49%), insufficient exposure to neurological cases (41%), too many complex diagnoses (32%) and inadequate neurology teachers (32%). Conclusions Nigerian medical students perceived neurology as the most difficult medical specialty and are not interested in specializing in it. Neurology education could be improved upon by provision of more bedside tutorials and increased availability of online resources to enhance learning. There is need to emphasize increased frequency of small group discussions amongst students so that they will be used to teamwork after graduation. PMID:20487554

  6. Sleep pattern and practice among adolescents school children in Nigerian secondary schools

    PubMed Central

    Maduabuchi, Josephat Chinawa; Obu, Herbert Anayo; Chukwu, Barthlomew Friday; Aronu, Ann Ebele; Manyike, Pius Chukwuka; Chinawa, Awoere Tamunosiki

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Some adolescents may have sleep disorder at some point during adolescence. Determining the pattern and practice of sleep among adolescents could be useful to establish a lasting sleep hygiene program among adolescents. The objectives of this study are to describe sleep pattern and practice among adolescent in Nigerian secondary schools. Methods Sleep habits were investigated using a random sampling of adolescents from secondary schools from February to April 2013. A self-administered questionnaire was developed based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) IV criteria. Epworth Daytime Sleepiness Scale and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) were used. Results A total of 443 subjects, comprising 263 (59.4%) females and 180 (40.6%) males completed the questionnaire. The mean duration of night sleep of the subjects during weekday was 7.84 (1.9) hours and 8.65 (2.07) hours during the weekend. 22.8% (101/443) had abnormal sleep onset latency (< 5 minutes and > 30 minutes). The gender of the subjects did not influence the sleep onset latency (χ2 = 32.89, p= 0.57). Twenty six (5.9%)of the subjects reported difficulty falling asleep. Conclusion Adolescents have varying degrees of sleeping practice and hygiene. PMID:25883740

  7. Factors Associated with Prevalent Tuberculosis Among Patients Receiving Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in a Nigerian Tertiary Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Iroezindu, MO; Ofondu, EO; Mbata, GC; van Wyk, B; Hausler, HP; DH, Au; Lynen, L; Hopewell, PC

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tuberculosis (TB) causes significant morbidity/mortality among human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals in Africa. Reducing TB burden in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is a public health priority. Aim: We determined the factors associated with prevalent TB among patients receiving HAART. Subjects and Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of adult patients who had received HAART for ≥12 weeks in a Nigerian tertiary hospital. Patients whose TB diagnosis predated HAART were excluded from the study. Pre-HAART data were collected from the clinic records, whereas post-HAART data were obtained through medical history, physical examination, and laboratory investigations. Standard TB screening/diagnostic algorithms as applicable in Nigeria were used. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine factors independently associated with prevalent TB. Results: about 65.8% (222/339) were women. The mean age was 41.1 (10.0) years and 23.6% (73/339) had past history of TB. The prevalence of active TB was 7.7% (26/339). Among these patients, 42.3% (11/26) had pulmonary TB, 34.6% (9/26) had disseminated TB, whereas 23.1% (6/26) had only extra-pulmonary disease. Only 45% (9/20) of patients with pulmonary involvement had positive sputum smear. Factors independently associated with prevalent TB were lower social class (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 31.7; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1–1417.3), HAART non-adherence (aOR125.5; 95% CI: 9.6–1636.3), baseline CD4 <200cells/μl (aOR31.0; 95%CI: 1.6–590.6), previous TB (aOR13.8; 95% CI: 2.0–94.1), and current hemoglobin <10 g/dl (aOR10.3; 95% CI: 1.1–99.2). Conclusion: Factors associated with prevalent TB were a lower social class, HAART non-adherence, severe immunosuppression before HAART initiation, previous TB, and anemia post-HAART. TB case finding should be intensified in these high-risk groups. PMID:27213096

  8. Average ambulatory measures of sound pressure level, fundamental frequency, and vocal dose do not differ between adult females with phonotraumatic lesions and matched control subjects

    PubMed Central

    Van Stan, Jarrad H.; Mehta, Daryush D.; Zeitels, Steven M.; Burns, James A.; Barbu, Anca M.; Hillman, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Clinical management of phonotraumatic vocal fold lesions (nodules, polyps) is based largely on assumptions that abnormalities in habitual levels of sound pressure level (SPL), fundamental frequency (f0), and/or amount of voice use play a major role in lesion development and chronic persistence. This study used ambulatory voice monitoring to evaluate if significant differences in voice use exist between patients with phonotraumatic lesions and normal matched controls. Methods Subjects were 70 adult females: 35 with vocal fold nodules or polyps and 35 age-, sex-, and occupation-matched normal individuals. Weeklong summary statistics of voice use were computed from anterior neck surface acceleration recorded using a smartphone-based ambulatory voice monitor. Results Paired t-tests and Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests resulted in no statistically significant differences between patients and matched controls regarding average measures of SPL, f0, vocal dose measures, and voicing/voice rest periods. Paired t-tests comparing f0 variability between the groups resulted in statistically significant differences with moderate effect sizes. Conclusions Individuals with phonotraumatic lesions did not exhibit differences in average ambulatory measures of vocal behavior when compared with matched controls. More refined characterizations of underlying phonatory mechanisms and other potentially contributing causes are warranted to better understand risk factors associated with phonotraumatic lesions. PMID:26024911

  9. Psychological characteristics and subjective intolerance for xenobiotic agents of normal young adults with trait shyness and defensiveness. A parkinsonian-like personality type?

    PubMed

    Bell, I R; Schwartz, G E; Amend, D; Peterson, J M; Kaszniak, A W; Miller, C S

    1994-07-01

    The present study examines the psychological characteristics and self-reported responses to xenobiotic agents such as tobacco smoke and pesticide of normal young adults with personality traits similar to those claimed for Parkinsonian patients. Previous research, though controversial, has suggested that persons with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) have premorbid personality traits that may include shyness and repressive defensiveness. Other epidemiological evidence indicates that PD patients may have premorbidly increased prevalence of anxiety, affective, and/or somatoform disorders; decreased rates of smoking and alcohol consumption; and elevated exposure to herbicides or pesticides. A total of 783 college students enrolled in an introductory psychology course completed the Cheek-Buss Scale (shyness), the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (defensiveness), Symptom Checklist 90 (revised), the Mastery Scale, a health history checklist, and rating scales for frequency of illness from alcohol and 10 common environmental chemicals. Subjects were divided into four groups on the basis of above- versus below-median scores on the Cheek-Buss and Marlowe-Crowne scales (persons high in shyness and defensiveness, those high only in shyness, those high only in defensiveness, and those low in both shyness and defensiveness). The group high in shyness but low in defensiveness had the highest, whereas the group low in shyness but high in defensiveness had the lowest, total scores on the SCL-90-R; the two shyest groups were lowest in sense of mastery.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8021635

  10. Evaluation of the Safety, Tolerability, and Immunogenicity of an Oral, Inactivated Whole-Cell Shigella flexneri 2a Vaccine in Healthy Adult Subjects.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Subhra; Harro, Clayton; DeNearing, Barbara; Bream, Jay; Bauers, Nicole; Dally, Len; Flores, Jorge; Van de Verg, Lillian; Sack, David A; Walker, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Shigellacauses high morbidity and mortality worldwide, but there is no licensed vaccine for shigellosis yet. We evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of a formalin-inactivated whole-cellShigella flexneri2a vaccine, Sf2aWC, given orally to adult volunteers. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 82 subjects were randomized to receive three doses of vaccine in dose escalation (2.6 ± 0.8 × 10(8), × 10(9), × 10(10), and × 10(11)vaccine particles/ml). Vaccine safety was actively monitored, and antigen-specific systemic and mucosal immune responses were determined in serum, antibody in lymphocyte supernatant (ALS), and fecal samples. Cytokines were measured in the serum. Sf2aWC was well tolerated and generally safe at all four dose levels. The vaccine resulted in a dose-dependent immune response. At the highest dose, the vaccine induced robust responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in both serum and ALS samples. The highest magnitude and frequency of responses occurred after the first dose in almost all samples but was delayed for IgG in serum. Fifty percent of the vaccinees had a >4-fold increase in anti-LPS fecal antibody titers. Responses to invasion plasmid antigens (Ipa) were low. The levels of interleukin-17 (IL-17), IL-2, gamma interferon (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and IL-10 were increased, and IL-8 was decreased immediately after first dose, but these changes were very transient. This phase I trial demonstrated that the Sf2aWC vaccine, a relatively simple vaccine concept, was safe and immunogenic. The vaccine elicited immune responses which were comparable to those induced by a live, attenuatedShigellavaccine that was protective in prior human challenge studies. PMID:26865592

  11. Genotyping Informatics and Quality Control for 100,000 Subjects in the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Kvale, Mark N.; Hesselson, Stephanie; Hoffmann, Thomas J.; Cao, Yang; Chan, David; Connell, Sheryl; Croen, Lisa A.; Dispensa, Brad P.; Eshragh, Jasmin; Finn, Andrea; Gollub, Jeremy; Iribarren, Carlos; Jorgenson, Eric; Kushi, Lawrence H.; Lao, Richard; Lu, Yontao; Ludwig, Dana; Mathauda, Gurpreet K.; McGuire, William B.; Mei, Gangwu; Miles, Sunita; Mittman, Michael; Patil, Mohini; Quesenberry, Charles P.; Ranatunga, Dilrini; Rowell, Sarah; Sadler, Marianne; Sakoda, Lori C.; Shapero, Michael; Shen, Ling; Shenoy, Tanu; Smethurst, David; Somkin, Carol P.; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K.; Walter, Lawrence; Wan, Eunice; Webster, Teresa; Whitmer, Rachel A.; Wong, Simon; Zau, Chia; Zhan, Yiping; Schaefer, Catherine; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Risch, Neil

    2015-01-01

    The Kaiser Permanente (KP) Research Program on Genes, Environment and Health (RPGEH), in collaboration with the University of California—San Francisco, undertook genome-wide genotyping of >100,000 subjects that constitute the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) cohort. The project, which generated >70 billion genotypes, represents the first large-scale use of the Affymetrix Axiom Genotyping Solution. Because genotyping took place over a short 14-month period, creating a near-real-time analysis pipeline for experimental assay quality control and final optimized analyses was critical. Because of the multi-ethnic nature of the cohort, four different ethnic-specific arrays were employed to enhance genome-wide coverage. All assays were performed on DNA extracted from saliva samples. To improve sample call rates and significantly increase genotype concordance, we partitioned the cohort into disjoint packages of plates with similar assay contexts. Using strict QC criteria, the overall genotyping success rate was 103,067 of 109,837 samples assayed (93.8%), with a range of 92.1–95.4% for the four different arrays. Similarly, the SNP genotyping success rate ranged from 98.1 to 99.4% across the four arrays, the variation depending mostly on how many SNPs were included as single copy vs. double copy on a particular array. The high quality and large scale of genotype data created on this cohort, in conjunction with comprehensive longitudinal data from the KP electronic health records of participants, will enable a broad range of highly powered genome-wide association studies on a diversity of traits and conditions. PMID:26092718

  12. Characterizing Race/Ethnicity and Genetic Ancestry for 100,000 Subjects in the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) Cohort.

    PubMed

    Banda, Yambazi; Kvale, Mark N; Hoffmann, Thomas J; Hesselson, Stephanie E; Ranatunga, Dilrini; Tang, Hua; Sabatti, Chiara; Croen, Lisa A; Dispensa, Brad P; Henderson, Mary; Iribarren, Carlos; Jorgenson, Eric; Kushi, Lawrence H; Ludwig, Dana; Olberg, Diane; Quesenberry, Charles P; Rowell, Sarah; Sadler, Marianne; Sakoda, Lori C; Sciortino, Stanley; Shen, Ling; Smethurst, David; Somkin, Carol P; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K; Walter, Lawrence; Whitmer, Rachel A; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Schaefer, Catherine; Risch, Neil

    2015-08-01

    Using genome-wide genotypes, we characterized the genetic structure of 103,006 participants in the Kaiser Permanente Northern California multi-ethnic Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging Cohort and analyzed the relationship to self-reported race/ethnicity. Participants endorsed any of 23 race/ethnicity/nationality categories, which were collapsed into seven major race/ethnicity groups. By self-report the cohort is 80.8% white and 19.2% minority; 93.8% endorsed a single race/ethnicity group, while 6.2% endorsed two or more. Principal component (PC) and admixture analyses were generally consistent with prior studies. Approximately 17% of subjects had genetic ancestry from more than one continent, and 12% were genetically admixed, considering only nonadjacent geographical origins. Self-reported whites were spread on a continuum along the first two PCs, indicating extensive mixing among European nationalities. Self-identified East Asian nationalities correlated with genetic clustering, consistent with extensive endogamy. Individuals of mixed East Asian-European genetic ancestry were easily identified; we also observed a modest amount of European genetic ancestry in individuals self-identified as Filipinos. Self-reported African Americans and Latinos showed extensive European and African genetic ancestry, and Native American genetic ancestry for the latter. Among 3741 genetically identified parent-child pairs, 93% were concordant for self-reported race/ethnicity; among 2018 genetically identified full-sib pairs, 96% were concordant; the lower rate for parent-child pairs was largely due to intermarriage. The parent-child pairs revealed a trend toward increasing exogamy over time; the presence in the cohort of individuals endorsing multiple race/ethnicity categories creates interesting challenges and future opportunities for genetic epidemiologic studies. PMID:26092716

  13. Complementary and alternative medicine in the management of hypertension in an urban Nigerian community

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Hypertension is a common non communicable condition worldwide. In developing countries (including Nigeria), the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is common. This study investigated the frequency and factors associated with use of CAM among hypertensive subjects in an urban Nigerian community. Perspectives about the management of hypertension were obtained from CAM practitioners in the community. Methods Four hundred and forty hypertensive subjects in Idikan community, Ibadan, were interviewed using a semi-structured survey instrument. Association between categorical variables was tested using the chi-square test. Logistic regression analysis was done to identify independent predictor variables of CAM use, with CAM use as the outcome variable and the demographic and belief items as predictor variables. In-depth interviews were conducted with all known CAM practitioners in the community on issues relating to their beliefs, knowledge, practice and experiences in managing patients with hypertension in the community. Results In the study sample, 29% used CAM in the management of their hypertension. Among those using CAM, the most common forms used were herbs (63%) and garlic (21%). Logistic regression analysis revealed that four variables were independent predictors of CAM use: being male (OR 2.58, p < 0.0001), belief in supernatural causes of hypertension (OR 2.11, p = 0.012), lack of belief that hypertension is preventable (OR 0.57, p = 0.014) and having a family history of hypertension (OR1.78, p = 0.042). Other factors such as age, educational level and occupation were not independent predictors of CAM use. Interviews with CAM practitioners revealed that they believed hypertension was caused by evil forces, stress or "too much blood in the body". They also thought they could cure hypertension but that reduced costs (compared to hospitals) was one of the reasons most of their clients consult them. Conclusions The use of CAM is common

  14. Some Nigerian Anti-Tuberculosis Ethnomedicines: A Preliminary Efficacy Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Ibekwe, Nneka N.; Nvau, John B.; Oladosu, Peters O.; Usman, Auwal M.; Ibrahim, Kolo; Boshoff, Helena I.; Dowd, Cynthia S.; Orisadipe, Abayomi T.; Aiyelaagbe, Olapeju; Adesomoju, Akinbo A.; Barry, Clifton E.; Okogun, Joseph I.

    2014-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological significance Nigerian herbalists possess indigenous ethnomedicinal recipes for the management of tuberculosis and related ailments. Aim of the study To carry out a collaborative preliminary modern scientific evaluation of the efficacy of some Nigerian ethnomedicines used by traditional medicine practitioners (TMPs) in the management of tuberculosis and related ailments Materials and methods Ethnomedicinal recipes (ETMs) were collected from TMPs from locations in various ecological zones of Nigeria under a collaborative understanding. The aqueous methanolic extracts of the ETMs were screened against Mycobacterium bovis, BCG and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb.) strain H37Rv using the broth microdilution method. Results Extracts of ETMs screened against BCG showed 69% activity against the organism. The activities varied from weak, ≤ 2500μg /mL to highly active, 33μg /mL 64% of the extracts were active against M. tb. The activities of the extracts against M.tb. varied from weak, ≤ 2500μg /mL to highly active, 128μg/mL. There was 77% agreement in results obtained using BCG or M. tb. as test organisms Conclusion The results show clear evidence for the efficacy of the majority of indigenous Nigerian herbal recipes in the ethnomedicinal management of tuberculosis and related ailments. BCG may be effectively used, to a great extent, as the organism for screening for potential anti-M. tb. agents. A set of prioritization criteria for the selection of plants for initial further studies for the purpose of antituberculsis drug discovery research is proposed. PMID:24911338

  15. HUMAN RIGHTS AND NIGERIAN PRISONERS--ARE PRISONERS NOT HUMANS?

    PubMed

    Joshua, I A; Dangata, Y Y; Audu, O; Nmadu, A G; Omole, N V

    2014-12-01

    In Nigeria, just like in many other parts of the world, one of the most extensively discussed issues on the public agenda today is the increase in prison population. The aims of imprisonment are protection, retribution, deterrence, reformation and vindication. Investigations revealed that the prison services have been,neglected more than any other criminal justice agency in Nigeria. For example, most of the prisons were built during the colonial era for the purpose of accommodating a small number of inmates. Human Rights are the basic guarantees for human beings to be able to achieve happiness and self-respect; consequently, in most jurisdictions, the Human Rights Act confirms that these Rights do not stop at the prison gates. However, most States fail to meet the Human Rights obligations of their prisoners. As regards to health, for example, every prison should have proper health facilities and medical staff to provide dental and psychiatric care among others. This article discusses the Nigerian Prison System and challenges, trends and the related Human Rights and Ethical issues in Nigerian prisons. Some of the unmet needs of Nigerian prisoners which include, inter alia, living in unwholesome cells, delayed trial of inmates, lack of voting rights, access to information, lack of conjugal facilities for married prisoners, poor and inadequate nutrition, poor medical care, torture, inhumane treatment and the need to protect prisoners in a changing world. The present report has policy implications for reforming prison services in Nigeria, and countries that sing from the same song sheet with Nigeria on prison services, to conform to the Fundamental Human Rights of prisoners in the 21St century. PMID:27351045

  16. Gastrodiscoides hominis infection in a Nigerian-case report.

    PubMed

    Dada-Adegbola, H O; Falade, C O; Oluwatoba, O A; Abiodun, O O

    2004-01-01

    Gastrodiscoides hominis is a large fluke of pig and human and constitutes an important parasite of human in Assam, Indian, the Philippines and Southeast Asia. This parasite has not been reported in Nigeria and possibly other parts of Africa. This is a case report of a seven year old Nigerian child who presented with features of malnutrition and anaemia and was found to have Gastrodiscoides hominis and Ascaris lumbricoides. Following clearance of the worms there was tremendous improvement of the health status of the child. The detailed epidemiology of this parasite still remains to be studied in this environment. PMID:15287303

  17. Studies on Nigerian crudes. 3; Analysis of sulfurized asphalts

    SciTech Connect

    Oyekunle, L.O.; Onyehanere, L.N. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the residual asphalts obtained from three Nigerian medium crudes chemically treated with elemental sulfur at 210 to 250{degrees} C. The course of the reaction was followed by monitoring the growth of the asphaltene content of the products. The sulfurization reaction led to 5- to 10-fold increases in the asphaltene content of the products. The asphaltene content of one of the samples initially increased with temperature from 210 to 240{degrees}C. and then dropped sharply. The results obtained revealed that the optimum temperature of the sulfurization reaction was 240{degrees}C.

  18. The pattern of isolated sleep paralysis among Nigerian medical students.

    PubMed

    Ohaeri, J U; Odejide, A O; Ikuesan, B A; Adeyemi, J D

    1989-07-01

    In a cross-sectional study of the patterns of isolated sleep paralysis among 164 Nigerian medical students, 26.1% admitted having experienced this phenomenon. About 31% of the females and 20% of the males had had this experience. Of those with sleep paralysis, 32.6% had hypnogenic hallucinations during the episode, mainly visual. Sleep paralysis was not significantly associated with psychosocial distress or differences in personality profile. Although the rate differs across cultures, the myths associated with sleep paralysis are similar. PMID:2787863

  19. Stress and Minor Psychiatric Morbidity among Nigerian Executives: Some Socio-demographic and Biological Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Adebowale, TO; Adelufosi, AO

    2013-01-01

    Background: Stress among “the executives” often arises from the demands of leadership and other social responsibilities. Aim: This study aims to determine factors associated with stress and minor psychiatric morbidities among Nigerian executives. Subjects and Methods: A total of 337 management cadre staff attending a health workshop, from various private organizations and belonging to different professional groups participated in this study. They completed the general health questionnaire-12 and a proforma for basic demographic and work data. The data was analyzed using SPSS for Windows, version 15 (Chicago IL, USA). The distribution of the outcome measure (GHQ Likert Score) was skewed and so data obtained was analyzed using non-parametric tests. Results: Certain cardiovascular and biochemical assessments were also carried out. Low overall stress level and a psychiatric morbidity prevalence of 14.2% (48/337) were found. The female and the unmarried executives were more vulnerable to stress. Subject's pulse rate and blood cholesterol level appeared to be valuable as stress indicators. Conclusion: The overall stress level is low, and it is associated with certain biological measures (pulse rate and blood cholesterol). The author suggested that the need for mental health services in the workplace for the entire workforce. PMID:24116324

  20. Nigerian bonny light crude oil induces endocrine disruption in male rats.

    PubMed

    Adedara, Isaac A; Ebokaiwe, Azubike P; Mathur, Premendu P; Farombi, Ebenezer O

    2014-04-01

    Exposure to Nigerian bonny light crude oil (BLCO) in the southern part of Nigeria has been reported to be associated with reproductive toxicity, but there is paucity of information on its interference with steroidogenesis. This study investigated the influence of BLCO on testicular steroidogenesis and plasma levels of hormones from the pituitary and thyroid components of the brain-pituitary-testicular axis. Adult male Wistar rats were orally treated with BLCO dissolved in corn oil at 0, 200 and 800 mg/kg for 7 days. Immunoblot analysis revealed that BLCO exposure suppressed steroid acute regulatory protein and androgen-binding protein expression with concomitant decrease in 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activities. BLCO exposure significantly decreased plasma concentrations of follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, prolactin and intratesticular testosterone, but elevated thyrotropin, triiodothyronine and thyroxine above the control values. The data presented herein indicate that undue exposure to BLCO has an inhibitory effect on testicular steroidogenesis. The underlying mechanisms for BLCO-induced testicular dysfunction may involve its disruptive effect on the brain-pituitary-testicular axis. These observations highlight the potential risk to public health for a population where, unfortunately, oil spillages occur frequently. PMID:24171665

  1. Sex Determination Using Inion-Opistocranium-Asterion (IOA) Triangle in Nigerians' Skulls

    PubMed Central

    Orish, C. N.; Didia, B. C.; Fawehinmi, H. B.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Determination of sex is an important concern to the forensic anthropologists as it is critical for individual identification. This study has investigated the existence of sexual dimorphism in the dimensions and the area of the IOA triangle. Methods. A total of 100 adult dry skulls, (78 males; 22 females) from departments of anatomy in Nigerian universities were used for this study. Automatic digital calliper was used for the measurement. Coefficient of variation, correlation, linear regression, percentiles, and sexual dimorphism ratio were computed from the IOA triangle measurements. The IOA triangle area was compared between sexes. Results. The male parameters were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than female parameters. The left opistocranium-asterion length was 71.09 ± 0.56 and 61.68 ± 3.35 mm and the right opistocranium-asterion length was 69.73 ± 0.49 and 60.92 ± 2.10 mm for male and female, respectively. A total area of IOA triangle of 1938.88 mm2 and 1305.68 mm2 for male and female, respectively, was calculated. The left IOA indices were 46.42% and 37.40% in males and females, respectively, while the right IOA indices for males and females were 47.19% and 38.87%, respectively. Conclusion. The anthropometry of inion-opistocranium-asterion IOA triangle can be a guide in gender determination of unknown individuals. PMID:24949204

  2. Correlates of psychiatric morbidity in typhoid fever in a Nigerian general hospital setting.

    PubMed

    Aghanwa, H S; Morakinyo, O

    2001-01-01

    This study explored factors associated with psychiatric morbidity in typhoid fever in a Nigerian general hospital. Information such as sociodemographic characteristics, symptom manifestations, results of investigations, neuropsychiatric symptoms, outcome and disposal were obtained from the case files of patients admitted for typhoid fever over a period of six years. The patients with psychiatric morbidity conspicuous enough to be documented by the attending physicians-mostly internists-were compared with those with no documented psychiatric morbidity on sociodemographic and clinical indices. Of the 136 cases, 26 (19.1%) had psychiatric morbidity. This included delirium (73.1%), generalized anxiety disorder (3.8%), depressive episode (3.8%), schizophrenia like disorder (3.8%) and monosymptomatic neuropychiatric manifestations such as apathy, hallucinations and irrelevant talking (15.5%). The clinical and sociodemographic indices that were significantly associated with psychiatric morbidity were diarrhea, blood biochemical imbalance and age (P<.05). Adolescents and young adults were more predisposed to developing psychiatric complications. Some factors potentially associated with psychiatric morbidity in typhoid fever have been identified. There is the need to prospectively assess the burden from psychiatric morbidity and identify interventions that may reduce it. PMID:11427249

  3. Heart rate variability and arrhythmic patterns of 24-hour Holter electrocardiography among Nigerians with cardiovascular diseases

    PubMed Central

    Adebayo, Rasaaq Ayodele; Ikwu, Amanze Nkemjika; Balogun, Michael Olabode; Akintomide, Anthony Olubunmi; Ajayi, Olufemi Eyitayo; Adeyeye, Victor Oladeji; Mene-Afejuku, Tuoyo Omasan; Bamikole, Olaniyi James; Ogunyemi, Suraj Adefabi; Ajibare, Adeola Olubunmi; Oketona, Omolola Abiodun

    2015-01-01

    Background Facilities for Holter electrocardiography (ECG) monitoring in many Nigerian hospitals are limited. There are few published works in Nigeria on the use of 24-hour Holter ECG in cardiac arrhythmic evaluation of patients with cardiovascular diseases. Objective To study the clinical indications, arrhythmic pattern, and heart rate variability (HRV) among subjects referred for 24-hour Holter ECG at our Cardiac Care Unit. Methods Three-hundred and ten patients (134 males and 176 females) were studied consecutively over a 48-month period using Schiller type (MT-101) Holter ECG machine. Results Out of the 310 patients reviewed, 134 were males (43.2%) and 176 were females (56.8%). The commonest indication for Holter ECG was palpitation followed by syncope in 71 (23%) and 49 (15.8%) of subjects, respectively. Premature ventricular complex and premature atrial complex were the commonest types of arrhythmia in 51.5% and 15% subjects, respectively. Ventricular arrhythmia was more prevalent in dilated cardiomyopathy patients (85.7%). The HRV of subjects with palpitation, stroke, and diabetes mellitus with autonomic neuropathy, using standard deviation of normal to normal intervals average (milliseconds), were 107.32±49.61, 79.15±49.15, and 66.50±15.54, respectively. The HRV, using standard deviation of averages of normal to normal intervals average (milliseconds), of patients with palpitation, stroke, and diabetes mellitus with autonomic neuropathy were 77.39±62.34, 57.82±37.05, and 55.50±12.71, respectively. Conclusion Palpitation and syncope were the commonest indications for Holter ECG among our subjects. The commonest arrhythmic patterns were premature ventricular complex and premature atrial complex, with ventricular arrhythmia being more prevalent in dilated cardiomyopathy. There was a reduction in HRV in patients with stroke and diabetic autonomic neuropathy. PMID:26170685

  4. Selenium status of idiopathic infertile Nigerian males.

    PubMed

    Akinloye, Oluyemi; Arowojolu, A O; Shittu, O B; Adejuwon, C A; Osotimehin, Babatunde

    2005-04-01

    Selenium concentration in the sera and seminal plasma of 60 infertile males (40 oligospermia and 20 azoospermia) and 40 males with proven evidence of fertility (normospermia; control group) were estimated using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results were correlated with spermatogram and hormonal levels in order to determine their relationship and significance in male infertility. The mean serum concentrations of selenium was found to be significantly increased in oligospermic compared to azoospermic subjects and controls (p < 0.01), whereas the seminal plasma level was significantly higher in azoospermic compared to oligospermic subjects and controls (p < 0.001). Thus, the ratio of serum selenium to seminal plasma selenium was 1: 1 in controls, 4: 1 in oligospermia, and 1: 2 in azoospermic subject.A significant inverse correlation was observed between serum selenium level and sperm count (p < 0.01). Similarly, seminal plasma selenium correlated with spermatozoa motility, viability, and morphology. Serum selenium level shows positive correlation with the serum testosterone level (p < 0.01). In conclusion, there appears to be a physiological balance in the distribution of selenium in serum and seminal plasma compartment of control males. A disturbance in this balance has a significant influence on spermatogenesis. Selenium appears to have a positive influence on Leydig cells, thus influencing the secretion of testosterone. PMID:15851828

  5. The impact of cigarette branding and plain packaging on perceptions of product appeal and risk among young adults in Norway: A between-subjects experimental survey

    PubMed Central

    Scheffels, Janne; Lund, Ingeborg

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study examined the perceptions of cigarette packaging and the potential impact of plain packaging regulations. The hypothesis was that the branded cigarette packages would be rated more positively than the corresponding plain packs with and without descriptors. Design Between-subjects experimental online survey. Male and female participants were separately randomised to one of the three experimental conditions: fully branded cigarette packs, plain packs with descriptors and plain packs without descriptors; participants were asked to evaluate 12 individual cigarette packages. The participants were also asked to compare five pairs of packs from the same brand family. Setting Norway. Participants 1010 youths and adults aged 15–22. Primary outcome measures Ratings of appeal, taste and harmfulness for individual packages. Ratings of taste, harm, quality, ‘would rather try’ and ‘easier to quit’ for pairs of packages. Results Plain with and without descriptors packs were rated less positively than the branded packs on appeal (index score 1.63/1.61 vs 2.42, p<0.001), taste (index score 1.21/1.12 vs 1.70, p<0.001) and as less harmful (index score 1.0.34/0.36 vs 0.82, p<0.001) among females. Among males, the difference between the plain with and without descriptors versus branded condition was significant for appeal (index score 2.08/1.92 vs 2.58, p<0.005) and between the plain without descriptors versus branded condition for taste (index score 1.18 vs 1.70, p<0.00). The pack comparison task showed that the packs with descriptors suggesting a lower content of harmful substances, together with lighter colours, were more positively rated in the branded compared with the plain condition on dimensions less harmful (β −0.77, 95% CI −0.97 to −0.56), would rather try (β −0.32, 95% CI −0.50 to −0.14) and easier to quit (β −0.58, 95% CI −0.76 to −0.39). Conclusions The results indicate that a shift from branded to plain cigarette

  6. Tobacco-specific nitrosamines in some Nigerian cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Atawodi, S E; Preussmann, R; Spiegelhalder, B

    1995-10-20

    Ten popular brands of cigarettes on the Nigerian market were analyzed for tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNA) in tobacco and in mainstream smoke, as well as nitrate in tobacco. TSNA was analyzed using a gas chromatography/thermal energy analyzer (GC-TEA), while nitrate was determined spectrophotometrically as nitrite following on-line reduction with copper, diozatization with sulfanilamide and coupling with N-(1-naphthyl) ethylene diamine to form an azo dye. In mainstream smoke, the concentration of NNN, NAB/NAT and NNK were respectively, between 8 and 90 ng, 10 and 65 ng, and between 15 and 72 ng/cigarette. Preformed NNN ranged between 64 and 565 ng/cigarette, while preformed NAB/NAT and NNK ranged respectively from 109 to 476 ng/cigarette, and from 55 to 317 ng/cigarette. Nitrate levels ranged between 1.5 and 6.1 mg/g tobacco. In general, the results indicate that the TSNA content of Nigerian cigarettes are within the range found for European and American cigarettes. PMID:7585468

  7. Stem cells in Dentistry: knowledge and attitude of Nigerian Dentists

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Several controversies exist about the methods of harvesting and eventual utilization of stem cells in Medicine and Dentistry. The objective of the study was to investigate the awareness, attitude and knowledge of the use of stem cells in Dentistry among Nigerian Dentists. Methods This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted among dentists selected from both private and public health sectors, in some of the major cities in Nigeria. Results The majority of the participants were ≤35 years in age, male, Pentecostal Christians, possessed a postgraduate qualification, had practiced for ≤5 years and were specialists or specializing. In this study, 153(81.0%) of the participants reported awareness about the use of stem cells in dentistry which was significantly associated with qualification and type of practice. Most of the respondents 114 (60.3%) had a poor knowledge of the use of stem cells in Dentistry. This was significantly associated with type of practice and awareness about stem cell use in dentistry but binary logistic regression showed awareness as the only determinant of knowledge. About three-quarters 142 (75.1%) of the participants exhibited positive attitude towards stem cell use. This had a positive non-significant association with knowledge and reported awareness. Conclusion Data from this study revealed a high level of awareness, positive attitude to and poor knowledge of the use of stem cells in Dentistry among a cross section of Nigerian Dentists. PMID:23767980

  8. Weaning practices among some Nigerian women: implication on oral health.

    PubMed

    Bankole, O O; Aderinokun, G A; Odenloye, O; Adeyemi, A T

    2006-03-01

    The objective of this study was to document the various weaning diets given by some Nigerian women and consider their implication on the oral health of their children. A cross sectional survey was conducted among 700 volunteer mothers of young children aged between 6-18 months in Ibadan, a city in south-western Nigerian. Results revealed that pap was the most frequently given food to the infants as 607 (86.7%) of them ate it. Chocolate beverages, natural fruit juice and soft drinks were the most commonly given drinks as 88.1%, 79.9% and 70.3% babies were said to be given these respectively. Over 57% of mothers sweetened pap with sugar. Forty seven percent of mothers added glucose to children's drinking water. Over two-third (64.9%) of children ate biscuits several times a day. Soft drinks, commercial fruit juices and squash were consumed by 16.1%, 9.6% and 7.7% of the infants respectively on a daily basis. Judging by the findings of this study, it is evident that many infants are being exposed to a highly cariogenic diet at an early age. In the light of the harmful effect of these foods and drinks on the body and teeth, it is important that oral health care workers initiate moves to discourage this habit via health education programmes. Nurses, community health workers at various levels, pregnant women and mothers of young children should be the targets of such intervention. PMID:16704022

  9. Radiological ageing process in the cervical spine of Nigerian women.

    PubMed

    Obisesan, K A; Obajimi, M O

    1999-01-01

    The study was designed to determine the age of commencement of ageing process in Nigerian women Four hundred (400) consecutive women requesting for cervical spine radiographs where recruited for this study. A study chart was made showing different variables like osteoarthrosis, detached osteophytes, postural ulterations and disk degenerations in a four year period from 1st January, 1993 to 31st December, 1996 the modified Kellgren and Lawrence grading system was used to assess radiographic changes. The highest rate of osteoarthrosis (31.13%) was found in the fifth decade. Incidence of postural alterations of the cervical spine rose sharply in the 5th and 6th decades of life. Grade 2 osteoarthrosis (Kellgren and Lawrence) was commonest (61.3%); Grades 3 and 4 had the lowest incidence (3.45%). Disc degeneration was commonest in the 5th; the most involved disc was C5/C6 and the least involved was C2/C3. It is concluded that the ageing process in the Nigerian women commences in the fourth decade of life, and apparently shows no difference with caucasian women. PMID:11205829

  10. Significant asymptomatic bacteriuria among Nigerian type 2 diabetics.

    PubMed Central

    Alebiosu, C. O.; Osinupebi, O. A.; Olajubu, F. A.

    2003-01-01

    Significant asymptomatic bacteriuria is a risk factor for symptomatic urinary infection and septicemia among predisposed individuals such as diabetics. We investigated the pattern of asymptomatic bacteriuria among our type 2 diabetics with a view to documenting the prevalence, type of organisms responsible and the antibiotic susceptibility pattern. One hundred and twenty-four type 2 Nigerian diabetics (55 males and 69 females) submitted midstream urine specimens for culture. Thirty-three patients had significant bacteriuria (9 males and 24 females), showing the frequency of occurrence of asymptomatic bacteriuria to be 26.6%. The most common organism isolated was Klebsiella pneumonia at 42.4%. Gram-negative bacilli made up about 23 (69.7%) of the isolates. Isolates were poorly sensitive to the readily available antibiotics (ampicillin, tetracycline and cotrimoxazole), but a large number of the organisms isolated were sensitive to nitrofurantoin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin. Sensitivity to erythromycin, nalidixic acid and cefuroxime was moderate. Asymptomatic bacteriuria is, thus, more prevalent among the Nigerian diabetic population than in the non-diabetics. A changing pattern of disease is observed with Klebsiella sp. now accounting for the majority of asymptomatic bacteriuria among diabetics. The organisms are not sensitive to the commonly available antibacterial agents. PMID:12793791

  11. The natural radioactivity in some Nigerian foodstuffs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olomo, James B.

    1990-12-01

    The average activity concentrations of seven locally produced food commodities that form the total diets of a baby, a teenager or an adult male in Nigeria were measured by means of a well-calibrated high-resolution lithium-drifted germanium (Ge(Li)) spectrometer system. The food commodities were collected at several centers such as a nuclear research center as well as metropolitan and industrial areas. The emission lines identified with reliable regularity belonged to the 238U and 232Th decay series. The other isotope is a non-related naturally occurring radionuclide, 40K. Average total specific-activity values of 7.29 ± 1.08, 6.27 ± 1.01 and 11.23 ± 1.64 Bq/kg for 238U, 232Th and 40K, respectively, were obtained for the seven food commodities studied. The food samples were also checked for fission-product residues ( 137Cs and 90Sr) from atmospheric weapons tests which are slowly being purged from the food chain. Their estimation revealed that they were below the minimum detectable limit determined at a two-standard deviation analytical error.

  12. Malocclusion and early orthodontic treatment requirements in the mixed dentitions of a population of Nigerian children

    PubMed Central

    daCosta, Oluranti Olatokunbo; Aikins, Elfleda Angelina; Isiekwe, Gerald Ikenna; Adediran, Virginia Efunyemi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aims of this study were to establish the prevalence of dental features that indicate a need for early intervention and to ascertain the prevalence of different methods of early treatment among a population of Nigerian children in mixed dentition. Methods: Occlusal relationships were evaluated in 101 children in mixed dentition between the ages of 6 and 12 years who presented at the Orthodontic Unit, Department of Child Dental Health, Lagos University Teaching Hospital over a 2 years period. The need for different modes of early orthodontic treatment was also recorded. Results: Anterior tooth rotations (61.4%) and increased overjet (44.6%) were the most prevalent occlusal anomalies. Others included deep bite (31.7%), reverse overjet (13.9%), and anterior open bite (14.8%). Severe maxillary spacing and crowding were exhibited in 12.0% and 5.0%, respectively. About a third (35.7%) of the subjects presented with crossbite while lip incompetence was observed in 43.6% of the subjects. About 44% of the subjects also presented with various oral habits with digit (15.8%) and lip sucking (9.9%) being the most prevalent. Subjects were recommended for treatment with 2 by 4 fixed orthodontic appliances (22.3%), habit breakers (20.7%), removable orthodontic appliances (16.5%), and extractions (15.7%). Conclusions: Increased overjet and anterior tooth rotation were the majority of occlusal anomalies seen, which are not only esthetically displeasing but may also cause an increased susceptibility to trauma to these teeth. Treatment options varied from extractions only to the use of appliance therapy. PMID:27556019

  13. Body composition of adult cystic fibrosis patients and control subjects as determined by densitometry, bioelectrical impedance, total-body electrical conductivity, skinfold measurements, and deuterium oxide dilution

    SciTech Connect

    Newby, M.J.; Keim, N.L.; Brown, D.L. )

    1990-08-01

    This study contrasts body compositions (by six methods) of eight cystic fibrosis (CF) subjects with those of eight control subjects matched for age, height, and sex. CF subjects weighed 84% as much as control subjects. Densitometry and two bioelectrical impedance-analysis methods suggested that reduced CF weights were due to less lean tissue (10.7, 9.5, and 10.4 kg). Total-body electrical conductivity (TOBEC) and skinfold-thickness measurements indicated that CF subjects were leaner than control subjects and had less fat (5.4 and 3.6 kg) and less lean (5.2 and 7 kg) tissue. D2O dilution showed a pattern similar to TOBEC (8.3 kg less lean, 2.7 kg less fat tissue). Densitometry estimates of fat (mass and percent) were not correlated (r less than 0.74, p greater than 0.05) with any other method for CF subjects but were correlated with all other methods for control subjects. CF subjects contained less fat and lean tissue than did control subjects. Densitometry by underwater weighing is unsuitable for assessing body composition of CF patients.

  14. Effect of dehusked Garcinia kola seeds on the overall pharmacokinetics of quinine in healthy Nigerian volunteers.

    PubMed

    Igbinoba, Sharon I; Onyeji, Cyprian O; Akanmu, Moses A; Soyinka, Julius O; Pullela, Srirama Sarma V V; Cook, James M; Nathaniel, Thomas I

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the effect of concurrent ingestion of Garcinia kola seed on the pharmacokinetics of quinine. In a randomized crossover study, 24 healthy Nigerian volunteers were assigned into 2 groups (A and B; n = 12 per group) on the basis of G. kola dose orally ingested. Each subject received 600 mg quinine sulfate before and after ingesting 12.5 g of G. kola once daily for 7 days (group A) or 12.5 g twice daily for 6 days and once on the seventh day (group B). Blood samples were collected and analyzed for plasma quinine and its metabolite (3-hydroxyquinine) using a validated high performance liquid chromatography method. Concurrent administration of quinine with G. kola reduced quinine tmax by 48% (group A), mean Cmax by 19% and 26% in groups A and B, respectively, and slight reduction in mean AUC0- ∞ of quinine in both groups. 3-hydroxyquinine Cmax also reduced by 29% and 32%; AUC0-∞ by 13% and 9%, respectively. The point estimates of the T/R ratio of the geometric means for all Cmax obtained and only the AUC0-∞ at a higher dose of G. kola were outside the 80%-125% bioequivalence range. In conclusion, an herb-drug interaction was noted with concurrent quinine and G. kola administration. PMID:25328082

  15. Effect of dehusked Garcinia kola seed on the overall pharmacokinetics of quinine in healthy Nigerian volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Igbinoba, Sharon I.; Onyeji, Cyprian O.; Akanmu, Moses A.; Soyinka, Julius O.; Pullela, Srirama Sarma V.V; Cook, James M.; Nathaniel, Thomas I.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effect of concurrent ingestion of Garcinia kola seed on the pharmacokinetics of quinine. In a randomized crossover study, 24 healthy Nigerian volunteers were assigned into two groups (A and B; n = 12 per group) on the basis of G. kola dose orally ingested. Each subject received 600mg quinine sulphate before and after ingesting 12.5g of G. kola once daily for seven days (Group A) or 12.5g twice daily for six days and once on the seventh day (Group B). Blood samples were collected and analyzed for plasma quinine and its metabolite, (3-hydroxyquinine) using a validated HPLC method. Concurrent administration of quinine with G. kola reduced quinine tmax by 48% (group A), mean Cmax by 19% and 26% in groups A and B, and slight reduction in mean AUC0–∞ of quinine in both groups. 3-hydroxyquinine Cmax also reduced by 29% and 32%; AUC0–∞ by 13% and 9% respectively. The point estimates of the T/R ratio of the geometric means for all Cmax obtained and only the AUC0–∞ at a higher dose of G. kola were outside the 80–125% bioequivalence range. In conclusion, an herb-drug interaction was noted with concurrent quinine and G. kola administration. PMID:25328082

  16. A study of fatal injuries in Nigerian factories.

    PubMed

    Ezenwa, A O

    2001-12-01

    A study of the pattern of occupational injury mortality rates by industry and cause of death was undertaken to indicate the high-risk types of industry and the major causes of death, which could subsequently be used in developing cost-effective strategies for prevention. This is the first such study of accidental mortality factors in Nigerian factories. This paper reports the outcome of the study of mortality in Nigerian factories over a 10 year period (1987-1996). Between 1987 and 1996, a total of 3183 injuries were reported, of which 71 (2.2%) were fatal. The annual case fatality rate ranged from 0.94 per 100 injured workers in 1990 to 5.41 in 1994, with an overall fatality rate of 2.23 per 100 injured workers. Of the 71 deaths, 12 (16.9%) were associated with power-driven machinery. Ten (14.1%) deaths were associated with explosions, while people falling accounted for nine (12.6%) of the deaths. Eleven deaths (15.4%) occurred in the chemical/pharmaceuticals industry, nine (12.6%) occurred in the basic metal industry and seven (9.8%) occurred in the food, beverage and tobacco industry. There were seven (9.8%) deaths in the textile manufacturing industry. The highest case fatality rate per injured worker (16.6%) occurred in the coal-petroleum industry, followed by 5.9% in the wood and wood products industry. A rate of 5.8% occurred in the non-metallic manufacturing industry. The case fatality rates in Nigerian factories are compared with those of other predominantly African countries. Accident prevention programmes tailored to the work activities and specific causal factors in the high-risk types of industries are recommended following a detailed study of work situations and risk factors in these types of industries. Accident prevention programmes, including the use of protective equipment, safety education, machine guarding, a work permit system, effective supervision at work sites and the enforcement of factory laws and regulations, are recommended to improve

  17. A Discourse of Disconnect: Young People from the Eastern Cape Talk about the Failure of Adult Communications to Provide Habitable Sexual Subject Positions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jearey-Graham, Nicola; Macleod, Catriona

    2015-01-01

    Face-to-face adult communication with young people about sexuality is, for the most part, assigned to two main groups of people: educators tasked with teaching school-based sexuality education that is provided as part of the compulsory Life Orientation (LO) learning area, and parents. In this paper, we report on a study conducted with Further…

  18. Survival of adult Tamarixia radiata subjected to different short-term storage methods prior to field releases for biological control of Asian citrus psyllid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tamarixia radiata is regarded as one of the Asian citrus psyllid’s most important natural enemies and is thus currently being mass-reared and released by a number of laboratories in North America. It may not always be possible to immediately release newly-emerged adults, in which case it would be a...

  19. Wilson disease in a Nigerian child: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Wilson disease is rarely reported among African children. This report describes the second case report of a Nigerian child with Wilson disease in three decades. Case presentation An eight-year-old African boy presented with generalized oedema and ascites and proteinuria. Over the next three weeks he developed conjugated hyperbilirubinaemia, severe coagulopathy and prominent extrapyramidal features consisting of rigidity, tremors at rest and in action, shuffling gait, slurred speech and emotional lability. Slit-lamp examination of his eyes revealed Kayser-Fleischer rings and sunflower cataracts. His serum caeruloplasmin level was 5mg/dL. Using the scoring system proposed by the 8th International Meeting of Wilson Disease and Menkes Disease, a diagnosis of Wilson disease was made. Conclusions Wilson disease does occur in African children, although the diagnosis is rarely made. A diagnosis of Wilson disease should be entertained in the evaluation of African children presenting with liver dysfunction and/or extrapyramidal neurological features. PMID:22800610

  20. Age and sex graded helminth infections in a Nigerian village.

    PubMed

    Arinola, O; Fawole, O

    1995-02-01

    Prevalence of helminth parasites was carried out in both male and female villagers graded into three age groups (5-14 years, 15-25 years, 26-55 years). Children between 5 and 14 years of age had the highest prevalence of Ascaris, Schistosoma haematobium and Trichuris while the villagers between 26-55 years of age had lowest prevalence of these parasites. However, hookworms were highly common among the villagers aged between 26 and 55 years and least common among the school children aged between 5 and 14 years. Female children between the ages of 5 and 14 years and males of the same age group were highly infested with Ascaris and Trichuris. This finding in a Nigerian village suggested that helminth infestation is age and sex dependent which is therefore a factor of the frequency in host-parasite contact determined by mode of life of the parasites and the hosts. PMID:7796748

  1. Screening of some Nigerian plants for molluscicidal activity.

    PubMed

    Kela, S L; Ogunsusi, R A; Ogbogu, V C; Nwude, N

    1989-01-01

    Methanolic (MEOH), evaporated crude water (ECW) and unevaporated crude water (UECW) extracts of 25 Nigerian plants, used for different medicinal and domestic purposes were screened for molluscacidal activity on laboratory-reared Lymnaea natalensis Krauss. Seven of the plants were not active; extracts from 18 (72 per cent) of the plants, some of which are renowned fish poisons, had molluscicidal activity. These were Acacia nilotica, Aristolochia albida, Balanites aegyptiaca, Blighia sapida, Boswellia dalzielii, Detarium microcarpum, Gnidia kraussiana, Kigelia africana, Nauclea latifolia, Opilia celtidefolia, Parkia clappertoniana, Polygonum limbatum, Pseudocedrela kotschyi, Sclerocarya birrea, Securidaca longipedunculata, Ximenia americana, Vetiveria nigritana and Ziziphus abyssinica. The LC50 of these extracts were determined. It is strongly recommended that the toxic effects of these extracts against fish, cercariae, snail eggs and mammals be further investigated so as to determine the right concentration, especially for use in fish ponds. PMID:2626572

  2. A report of heat stroke in two Nigerian siblings.

    PubMed

    Asani, M; Kabir, H; Adamu, H

    2015-01-01

    Infants and children are at higher risk of heat stroke for several reasons. We report these cases to highlight the danger of leaving children unsupervised in vehicles, aid prompt diagnosis, and management of heat stroke. Two Nigerian siblings aged ranges 5 and 3 years old, were trapped inside an unlocked vehicle and subsequently developed heat stroke. Both children presented with hyperthermia, severe dehydration, convulsions, and loss of consciousness. One of them also had hematuria. They were treated by spraying water onto their bodies to bring down the temperature, intravenous fluid resuscitation, oxygen therapy, and anticonvulsants. Both eventually recovered and were discharged with no obvious neurologic sequalae, but are being followed-up. PMID:25511359

  3. Antitrypanosomal activity of some medicinal plants from Nigerian ethnomedicine.

    PubMed

    Abiodun, Oyindamola O; Gbotosho, Grace O; Ajaiyeoba, Edith O; Brun, Reto; Oduola, Ayoade M

    2012-02-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease with complex clinical presentation, diagnosis, and difficult treatment. The available drugs for the treatment of trypanosomiasis are old, expensive, and less effective, associated with severe adverse reactions and face the problem of drug resistance. This situation underlines the urgent need for the development of new, effective, cheap, and safe drugs for the treatment of trypanosomiasis. The search for new antitrypanosomal agents in this study is based on ethnomedicine. In vitro antitrypanosomal activity of 36 plant extracts from 10 plant species from Nigerian ethnomedicine was evaluated against bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense STIB 900. Cytotoxic activity was determined against mammalian L6 cells. Alamar blue assay was used to measure the endpoint of both antitrypanosomal and toxicity assays. The ethyl acetate extract of leaves of Ocimum gratissimum Linn. (Labiatae) showed the highest antitrypanosomal activity (IC(50) of 2.08 ± 0.01 μg/ml) and a high selective index of 29. Furthermore, the hexane, ethyl acetate, or methanol extracts of Trema orientalis (L.) Blume (Ulmaceae), Pericopsis laxiflora (Benth. ex Baker) Meeuwen, Jatropha curcas Linn. (Euphorbiaceae), Terminalia catappa Linn. (Combretaceae), and Vitex doniana Sweet (Verbenaceae) displayed remarkable antitrypanosomal activity (IC(50) 2.1-17.2 μg/ml) with high selectivity indices (20-80) for trypanosomes. The antitrypanosomal activity of T. catappa and T. orientalis against T. brucei rhodesiense (STIB 900) is being reported for the first time in Nigerian ethnomedicine, and these plants could be a potential source of antitrypanosomal agents. PMID:21789586

  4. Lead and other metals in dried fish from Nigerian markets

    SciTech Connect

    Okoye, C.O.B. )

    1994-06-01

    The Nigerian economy had remarkable industrial growth between 1970 and 1980 and industrialization and urbanization have been sustained albeit at a slower rate. Nevertheless, waste management remains grossly underdeveloped. Environmental concern is only a recent phenomenon, resulting thus far in the launching of a monthly clean-up campaign in 1984 and the establishment of the Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA) in 1988. The level of public awareness has not been encouraging. The indiscriminate discharge of largely untreated factory and urban effluents has continued. Streets and home surroundings become littered soon after clean-up exercises. Inadequate facilities contribute to the unwholesome situation. Refuse collecting centers are mostly without any holding containers, and solid wastes, the focus of the monthly clean-up, are left on the bare ground. Heavy automobile traffic and high lead content of the local automobile fuels have not helped matters. Heavy metals in the human environment are of global concern. In developed countries, limits of concentrations in fish and other foods have been set to safeguard public health, but Nigeria has yet to set any standards because of lack of baseline data. Within the last decade, scientists have been reporting on heavy metal levels in fish from the aquatic environment of Nigeria. Among the metals, lead was the most prominent, with a mean value comparable to the set limits in Great Britain and New Zealand. The present study was aimed at further establishing the levels of contamination in fish by lead and other metals in the Nigerian aquatic systems. Smoke-dried fish, being the most consumed by the local population, was chosen for the survey on the levels of cadmium, cobalt, copper, chromium, iron, manganese, lead and zinc. Possible surface contamination arising from observed poor handling practices was also investigated. 18 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  5. Two deaths, one blind eye, one imprisonment: child abuse in the guise of corporal punishment in Nigerian schools.

    PubMed

    Chianu, E

    2000-07-01

    An examination of reported cases of child abuse in Nigerian schools was carried out against the backdrop of the legal framework for the protection of pupils. The objective was to highlight the deficiency in Nigerian law on child protection in the light of UN Conventions which Nigeria has ratified. PMID:10905423

  6. Analysis of Application of 1:3 Ratio in Employments of Academic and Non-Academic Staff in Nigerian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aghaji Ifedili, Chika Josephine

    2006-01-01

    The study examined the application of 1:3 in employments of academic and non-academic staff in Nigerian Universities, as recommended by the National Universities Commission (N.U.C.), following the general feeling that Nigerian Universities were highly bureaucratised; non-teaching staff was over employed while some universities lacked…

  7. The Relevance of Art Education and the Education of the Nigerian Child: Implications for the Universal Basic Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emeji, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines relevant government policy documents on education and culture and discovers that Nigerian education authorities do not "discriminate" against art and culture in its articulation of educational policies per se, but lack of administrative machinery or political will has resulted in the deprivation of the Nigerian child in the…

  8. On the expression of psychosis in different cultures: schizophrenia in an Indian and in a Nigerian community.

    PubMed

    Katz, M M; Marsella, A; Dube, K C; Olatawura, M; Takahashi, R; Nakane, Y; Wynne, L C; Gift, T; Brennan, J; Sartorius, N

    1988-09-01

    This sub-study of the WHO Determinants of Outcome of Severe Mental Disorders research project was aimed at characterizing the behavioral and expressive qualities of schizophrenia in two highly diverse cultures. Early research has indicated that the core elements involving affect, perceptual and cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia are highly similar in form in most cultures of the world. Much of the cross-cultural literature emphasizes, however, strong differences in the ways in which schizophrenia is actually expressed and manifested in different settings. The basic methodology for psychiatric description and diagnosis in the WHO program was the Present State Examination. In five of the field centers a method for investigating the expressive quality and the social behavior of patients in their own communities through the eyes of significant others was applied. This method was then subjected to psychometric tests of cross-cultural applicability and found to be valid for comparing behavior across settings. The expressive patterns of the Indian and Nigerian patients were studied from two perspectives. Indian schizophrenics were described by family members as manifesting a more affective and "self-centered" orientation; the Nigerian patients presented with a highly suspicious, bizarre, anxious quality to the basic behavioral pattern. The main features of pathology were in general accord with the descriptions of indigenous psychiatrists. The special qualities of the psychosis in the two cultures were interpreted against the background of traditional psychopathological and anthropologic theories concerning the psychodynamics and the influence of differing social conflictual themes in the two cultures. Analysis of psychopathology in this manner was found to enhance understanding of underlying mechanisms and the role of cultural conflicts in its expression. PMID:3234016

  9. Sperm chromatin structure assay results in Nigerian men with unexplained infertility

    PubMed Central

    Kolade, Charles Oluwabukunmi

    2015-01-01

    Objective Several publications have established a relationship between sperm DNA damage and male factor infertility, based on data from America, Europe, and Asia. This study aimed to compare the extent of sperm DNA damage in sperm samples from Nigerian men with unexplained infertility and in sperm samples from a fertile group composed of sperm donors who had successfully impregnated a female partner naturally or through assisted conception. Methods A total of 404 men underwent male fertility evaluation at Androcare Laboratories and Cryobank participated in this study. Semen analysis and a sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA) were performed on all subjects. Results The men in the unexplained infertility group were slightly older than the men in the fertile sperm group (36±10 years vs. 32±6 years, p=0.051). No significant difference was observed between the two groups in semen analysis parameters (p≥0.05). Men in the unexplained infertility group with normal semen parameters had a significantly higher DNA fragmentation index (DFI) than men in the fertile sperm group (27.5%±7.0% vs. 14.1%±5.3%, p<0.05). In the unexplained infertility group, 63% of the men had a DFI greater than 20%, compared to 4% in the fertile sperm group. In the unexplained infertility group, 15.2% of the subjects had a DFI greater than 30%, compared to 1% in the fertile sperm group. Conclusion Our study showed that the SCSA may be a more reliable predictor of fertility potential than traditional semen analysis in cases of unexplained infertility. PMID:26473109

  10. Cluster subtypes of the Spanish version of the California Verbal Learning Test in a sample of adults with subjective memory complaints.

    PubMed

    Campos-Magdaleno, María; Facal, David; Juncos-Rabadán, Onésimo; Braña, Teresa; Pereiro, Arturo Xosé

    2014-01-01

    We examined subtypes of learning and memory by administering the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) to a sample of adults with memory complaints that included a subsample of healthy controls and another of participants with amnesic mild cognitive impairment. We performed two-stage cluster analyses for CVLT variables representing three main factors-General Verbal Learning, Inaccurate Memory, and Serial Effect. Four, three, and two reliable subtypes were differentiated in the total sample and in the two subsamples, respectively. Gender, age, education, reading habits, vocabulary, memory complaints, and general cognitive performance were meaningfully related to variability in the performance of the subtypes. PMID:24597836

  11. Age, Cumulative Trauma and Stressful Life Events, and Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms among Older Adults in Prison: Do Subjective Impressions Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maschi, Tina; Morgen, Keith; Zgoba, Kristen; Courtney, Deborah; Ristow, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Background: The aging prison population in the United States presents a significant public health challenge with high rates of trauma and mental health issues that the correctional system alone is ill-prepared to address. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of age, objective, and subjective measures of trauma and stressful…

  12. Total antioxidant capacity of the diet is inversely and independently related to plasma concentration of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in adult Italian subjects.

    PubMed

    Brighenti, Furio; Valtueña, Silvia; Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Ardigò, Diego; Del Rio, Daniele; Salvatore, Sara; Piatti, PierMarco; Serafini, Mauro; Zavaroni, Ivana

    2005-05-01

    Inflammation, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, is associated with low plasma levels of antioxidant vitamins. In addition to vitamins, other antioxidants modulate the synthesis of inflammatory markers in vitro and contribute to the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of a diet. However, the relationship between dietary TAC and markers of inflammation has never been evaluated in vivo. We investigated the relationship between dietary TAC and markers of systemic (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), leucocytes) and vascular (soluble intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1) inflammation in 243 non-diabetic subjects. General Linear Model (GLM) analysis showed a significant (P=0.005) inverse relationship between hs-CRP and quartiles of energy-adjusted dietary TAC, even when recognized modulating factors of inflammation, namely alcohol, fibre, vitamin C, alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene, BMI, waist circumference, HDL-cholesterol, hypertension, insulin sensitivity and plasma beta-carotene, were included in the model as covariates (P=0.004). The relationship was stronger for subjects with hypertension (P=0.013 v. P=0.109 for normotensive individuals). Among dietary factors, TAC was significantly higher (5.3 (sd 3.0) v. 4.9 (sd 2.7) mmol Trolox/d; P=0.026) in subjects with low plasma hs-CRP (range: 0.0-4.1 mg/l) than in subjects with high plasma hs-CRP (range: 4.2-27.8 mg/l). We conclude that dietary TAC is inversely and independently correlated with plasma concentrations of hs-CRP and this could be one of the mechanisms explaining the protective effects against CVD of antioxidant-rich foods such as fruits, whole cereals and red wine. This could be of particular significance for subjects with high blood pressure. PMID:15975160

  13. A Multilevel Approach on Self-Reported Dental Caries in Subjects of Minority Ethnic Groups: A Cross-Sectional Study of 6440 Adults.

    PubMed

    Ardila, Carlos M; Posada-López, Adriana; Agudelo-Suárez, Andrés A

    2016-02-01

    Regional contextual factors and dental caries using multilevel modeling related to adults in minority ethnic groups have been scantily explored. The influence of the socioeconomic context on self-reported dental caries (SRDC) in individuals of minority ethnic groups (IEG) in Colombia was studied. Data from the 2007 National Public Health Survey were collected in 34,843 participants of the population. The influence of different factors on SRDC in IEG was investigated with logistic and multilevel regression analyses. A total of 6440 individuals belonged to an ethnic group. Multilevel analysis showed a significant variance in SRDC that was smaller in IEG level than between states. Multilevel multivariate analysis also associated SRDC with increasing age, lower education level, last dental visit >1 year, unmet dental need and low Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Minority ethnic groups were at risk to report higher dental caries, where low GDP was an important variable to be considered. PMID:25963050

  14. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in Nigerian children.

    PubMed

    Williams, Olatundun; Gbadero, Daniel; Edowhorhu, Grace; Brearley, Ann; Slusher, Tina; Lund, Troy C

    2013-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the most common human enzymopathy and in Sub-Saharan Africa, is a significant cause of infection- and drug-induced hemolysis and neonatal jaundice. Our goals were to determine the prevalence of G6PD deficiency among Nigerian children of different ethnic backgrounds and to identify predictors of G6PD deficiency by analyzing vital signs and hematocrit and by asking screening questions about symptoms of hemolysis. We studied 1,122 children (561 males and 561 females) aged 1 month to 15 years. The mean age was 7.4 ± 3.2 years. Children of Yoruba ethnicity made up the largest group (77.5%) followed by those Igbo descent (10.6%) and those of Igede (10.2%) and Tiv (1.8%) ethnicity. G6PD status was determined using the fluorescent spot method. We found that the overall prevalence of G6PD deficiency was 15.3% (24.1% in males, 6.6% in females). Yoruba children had a higher prevalence (16.9%) than Igede (10.5%), Igbo (10.1%) and Tiv (5.0%) children. The odds of G6PD deficiency were 0.38 times as high in Igbo children compared to Yoruba children (p=0.0500). The odds for Igede and Tiv children were not significantly different from Yoruba children (p=0.7528 and 0.9789 respectively). Mean oxygen saturation, heart rate and hematocrit were not significantly different in G6PD deficient and G6PD sufficient children. The odds of being G6PD deficient were 2.1 times higher in children with scleral icterus than those without (p=0.0351). In conclusion, we determined the prevalence of G6PD deficiency in Nigerian sub-populations. The odds of G6PD deficiency were decreased in Igbo children compared to Yoruba children. There was no association between vital parameters or hematocrit and G6PD deficiency. We found that a history of scleral icterus may increase the odds of G6PD deficiency, but we did not exclude other common causes of icterus such as sickle cell disease or malarial infection. PMID:23874768

  15. Effects of aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa on the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system of Nigerians with mild to moderate essential hypertension: A comparative study with lisinopril

    PubMed Central

    Nwachukwu, Daniel Chukwu; Aneke, Eddy Ikemefuna; Obika, Leonard Fidelis; Nwachukwu, Nkiru Zuada

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The present study investigated the effects of aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) on the three basic components of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system: Plasma renin, serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), and plasma aldosterone (PA) in mild to moderate essential hypertensive Nigerians and compared with that of lisinopril, an ACE inhibitor. Materials and Methods: A double-blind controlled randomized clinical study was used. Seventy-eight newly diagnosed but untreated mild to moderate hypertensive subjects attending Medical Outpatients Clinic of Enugu State University Teaching Hospital, Enugu were recruited for the study. Those in Group A received placebo (150 mg/kg/day), Group B were given lisinopril (10 mg once daily) while those in Group C received aqueous extract of HS (150 mg/kg/day). After 4 weeks of treatment, the levels of plasma renin, serum ACE, and PA were determined. Results: HS and lisinopril significantly (P < 0.001) reduced PA compared to placebo by 32.06% and 30.01%, respectively. Their effects on serum ACE and plasma renin activity (PRA) were not significant compared to placebo; they reduced ACE by 6.63% and 5.67% but increased plasma PRA by 2.77% and 5.36%, respectively. Conclusion: HS reduced serum ACE and PA in mild to moderate hypertensive Nigerians with equal efficacy as lisinopril. These actions are possibly due to the presence of anthocyanins in the extract. PMID:26600645

  16. QT/QTc study conducted in Japanese adult healthy subjects: a novel xanthine oxidase inhibitor topiroxostat was not associated with QT prolongation.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Atsushi; Hashimoto, Hiroya; Nakamura, Yuji; Fujita, Tomoe; Kumagai, Yuji

    2014-04-01

    A QT/QTc study was conducted in compliance with ICH E14 guideline to evaluate the effects of a new xanthine oxidase inhibitor topiroxostat in Japanese healthy subjects. Forty-eight Japanese healthy subjects (males 24; females 24) received a single oral dose of topiroxostat (60 or 180 mg), moxifloxacin (400 mg) or placebo in a single-center, double-blind, four-period crossover design. Fridericia's formula (QTcF = QT/RR(0.33) ) was used as a primary method for QT-interval correction. The mean QTcF was prolonged by moxifloxacin, of which largest time-matched difference from placebo administration was 13.6 milliseconds with 90% confidence interval (CI) of 11.2 and 15.9 milliseconds at 4 hours post-dose. The mean QTcF was hardly affected by either dose of topiroxostat, of which largest time-matched difference from placebo administration was 2.9 milliseconds with 90% CI of 0.6 and 5.3 milliseconds at 4 hours post-dose for 60 mg, and 2.3 milliseconds with 90% CI of 0 and 4.7 milliseconds at 1 hour post-dose for 180 mg. The results were essentially the same in the sex subgroup analysis. Moxifloxacin can be used as a positive control for QT/QTc studies in Japanese subjects; and topiroxostat may not cause QT-interval prolongation in males as well as females. PMID:24214189

  17. Prevalence, Clinical Profile, Iron Status, and Subject-Specific Traits for Excessive Erythrocytosis in Andean Adults Living Permanently at 3,825 Meters Above Sea Level

    PubMed Central

    De Ferrari, Aldo; Miranda, J. Jaime; Gilman, Robert H.; Dávila-Román, Victor G.; León-Velarde, Fabiola; Rivera-Ch, Maria; Huicho, Luis; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Wise, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Excessive erythrocytosis (EE) is a prevalent condition in populations living at high altitudes (> 2,500 m above sea level). Few large population-based studies have explored the association between EE and multiple subject-specific traits including oxygen saturation, iron status indicators, and pulmonary function. METHODS: We enrolled a sex-stratified and age-stratified sample of 1,065 high-altitude residents aged ≥ 35 years from Puno, Peru (3,825 m above sea level) and conducted a standardized questionnaire and physical examination that included spirometry, pulse oximetry, and a blood sample for multiple clinical markers. Our primary objectives were to estimate the prevalence of EE, characterize the clinical profile and iron status indicators of subjects with EE, and describe subject-specific traits associated with EE. RESULTS: Overall prevalence of EE was 4.5% (95% CI, 3.3%-6.0%). Oxygen saturation was significantly lower among EE than non-EE group subjects (85.3% vs 90.1%, P < .001) but no difference was found in iron status indicators between both groups (P > .09 for all values). In multivariable logistic regression, we found that age ≥ 65 years (OR = 2.45, 95% CI, 1.16-5.09), male sex (3.86, 1.78-9.08), having metabolic syndrome (2.66, 1.27-5.75) or being overweight (5.20, 1.95-16.77), pulse oximetry < 85% (14.90, 6.43-34.90), and % predicted FVC < 80% (13.62, 4.40-41.80) were strongly associated with EE. Attributable fractions for EE were greatest for being overweight (26.7%), followed by male sex (21.5%), pulse oximetry < 85% (16.4%), having metabolic syndrome (14.4%), and % predicted FVC < 80% (9.3%). CONCLUSIONS: We found a lower prevalence of EE than in previous reports in the Peruvian Andes. Although the presence of hypoxemia and decreased vital capacity were strongly associated with excessive erythrocytosis, being overweight or having metabolic syndrome were associated with an important fraction of cases in our study population. PMID

  18. Antibacterial activities of extracts from Nigerian chewing sticks.

    PubMed

    Taiwo, O; Xu, H X; Lee, S F

    1999-12-01

    Ten aqueous extracts from wooden chewing sticks widely used in Nigeria for teeth cleaning were studied for antibacterial activities against 25 different bacteria using an agar diffusion assay. The extracts from five sticks, namely Garcinia kola, Anogeissus leiocarpus, Terminalia glaucescens, Sorindeia warneckei and Vitex doniana, exhibited strong activities against a wide spectrum of bacteria including medically and dentally relevant bacteria. Notably, these five chewing stick extracts showed potent activities against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, and multidrug-resistant Burkholderia cepacia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Extracts from Vernonia amygdalina, Fagara zanthoxyloides and Massularia acuminata also showed activities against bacteria significant to periodontal disease. Methanol extracts prepared from G. kola, A. leiocarpus and V. doniana were further fractionated by solvent extraction. Results showed that the antibacterial activities were distributed into different fractions suggesting that the sticks contain different active antibacterial principles. In conclusion, the results showed that most of the Nigerian chewing sticks do contain antibacterial activities which may contribute to the reported anticaries effect of chewing sticks. These sticks may be sources for new lead antibacterial agents for therapeutic or preventive applications. PMID:10594937

  19. Giant parotid pleomorphic adenoma in a Nigerian male.

    PubMed

    Akintububo, O B; Ogundipe, O K; Kaltungo, Z Y; Guduf, M I; Pindiga, U H; Abdullahi, Y M

    2016-01-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma (PA) is the most common benign salivary gland tumor, accounting for up to 60% of all tumors of the salivary gland and 75-80% of all parotid tumors. It has a slow but progressive growth pattern and if untreated can become greatly enlarged in size. However, giant PA is uncommon. We report a case of giant parotid PA of more than 10 years duration in a 60-year-old male Nigerian. A 60-year-old male patient with 10-year history of painless, massive, and pedunculated swelling in the left side of lower face measuring 25 cm × 23 cm × 17 cm in dimension. Computerized tomographic scan and percutaneous fine needle aspiration cytology returned a preliminary diagnosis of PA. Superficial parotidectomy with facial nerve preservation via the transcervical approach was performed. The excised mass weighed 5.5 kg while the postoperative healing was satisfactory. Benign PAs may attain a giant size if left untreated. Socioeconomic problems are some of the reasons for late presentation. Adequate excision of the tumor sparing the facial nerve is possible but intraoperative and reactionary hemorrhage are likely complications. PMID:27538561

  20. Adjusting flow station job to remote Nigerian location yields savings

    SciTech Connect

    Wooten, R.; Williams, E.C. )

    1994-05-02

    In September 1991, Chevron Nigeria Ltd. and Nigerian National Petroleum Crop. contracted Offshore Pipelines to design, procure, construct, install, and commission the Opuekeba 30,000 b/d crude-oil flow station on an offshore platform near Olero Creek, Nigeria, approximately 22 miles from the nearest deepwater access. Chevron's original project plan included bringing the flow station to the site in small packages and then assembling it in a lengthy field hook-up process. Offshore Pipelines developed a plan early in the project to maximize construction and hook-up in the fabrication yard, then transport the nearly complete structures to site by way of a newly dredged canal. What proved to be most difficult was the site location in Nigeria. Job planning and communication were important in the successful completion of the project. Keeping the components of the large and complex facility simple proved to be effective and efficient and played a key role in completing the project on time and within budget. The paper discusses overcoming obstacles, lift and depth constraints, dredging, fabrication, installation, and large-time problems.

  1. Ethical challenges of containing Ebola: the Nigerian experience.

    PubMed

    Maduka, Omosivie; Odia, Osaretin

    2015-11-01

    Responding effectively to an outbreak of disease often requires routine processes to be set aside in favour of unconventional approaches. Consequently, an emergency response situation usually generates ethical dilemmas. The emergence of the Ebola virus in the densely populated cities of Lagos and Port Harcourt in Nigeria brought bleak warnings of a rapidly expanding epidemic. However, these fears never materialised largely due to the swift reaction of emergency response and incident management organisations, and the WHO has now declared Nigeria free of Ebola. However, numerous ethical issues arose in relation to the response to the outbreak. This paper discusses some of these ethical challenges and the vital lessons learned. Ethical challenges relating to confidentiality, the dignity of persons, non-maleficence, stigma and the ethical obligations of health workers are examined. Interventions implemented to ensure that confidentiality and the dignity of persons improved and stigma was reduced, included community meetings, knowledge communication and the training of media personnel in the ethical reporting of Ebola issues. In addition, training in infection prevention and control helped to allay the fears of health workers. A potential disaster was also averted when the use of an experimental medicine was reconsidered. Other countries currently battling the epidemic can learn a lot from the Nigerian experience. PMID:26091816

  2. Toxicity and mutagenic activity of some selected Nigerian plants.

    PubMed

    Sowemimo, A A; Fakoya, F A; Awopetu, I; Omobuwajo, O R; Adesanya, S A

    2007-09-25

    The toxicity and mutagenic potential of most African plants implicated in the management of cancer have not been investigated. The ethanolic extracts of selected Nigerian plants were subsequently studied using the brine shrimp lethality tests, inhibition of telomerase activity and induction of chromosomal aberrations in vivo in rat lymphocytes. Morinda lucida root bark, Nymphaea lotus whole plant and Garcinia kola root were active in the three test systems. Bryophyllum calycinum whole plant, Annona senegalensis root, Hymenocardia acida stem bark, Erythrophleum suaveolens leaves and Spondiathus preussii stem bark were toxic to brine shrimps and caused chromosomal damage in rat lymphocytes. Ficus exasperata leaves, Chrysophyllum albidum root bark and Hibiscus sabdariffa leaves were non-toxic to all the three test systems. Chenopodium ambrosioides whole plant was non-toxic to brine shrimps and rat lymphocyte chromosomes but showed inhibition in the conventional telomerase assay indicating a possible selectivity for human chromosomes. The result justified the use of the first eight plants and Chenopodium ambrosioides in the management of cancer in south west Nigeria although they appear to be non-selective and their mode of action may be different from plant to plant. All these plants except Chenopodium ambrosioides are also mutagenic and cytotoxic. PMID:17707603

  3. Tolerance of nitrobacter to toxicity of some Nigerian crude oils

    SciTech Connect

    Okpokwasili, G.C.; Odokuma, L.O. )

    1994-03-01

    Crude oil spillage in aquatic systems affects thousands of aquatic species including bacteria. Some of the crude oil components are rapidly evaporated or biologically degraded. Other components continue to remain for several months and perhaps several years. Some of these components may be toxic to microorganisms, while some may stimulate microbial activity especially at low concentrations. The use of bacteria as bioassay organisms is now gaining wide acceptance. It offers a number of advantages such as ease of handling, economy of space, short life cycles and low cost. Their uses in bioassays are based on cell lysis, mutagenic properties and the inhibition of physiological processes such as respiration. Recently, a number of workers have proposed the use of Nitrobacter as a test organism. The organism has a number of advantages in toxicity testing: obligate autotrophy, its sensitivity to various toxicants and its predominance in wastewater environments are some of them . Of recent, the inhibition of bacterial enzyme biosynthesis have been suggested in bacterial assays. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of six Nigerian crude oils on the cell reproduction rate (LC, lethal concentration), cellular respiration (EC, effective concentration) and biosynthesis of enzyme responsible for nitrite oxidation (IC, inhibition concentration) in Nitrobacter. In addition, the goal was to identify which of these was the most sensitive to crude oil and which may thus be used for detecting the toxicity of these chemicals. 18 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Subjective Sleep Quality as a Possible Mediator in the Relationship between Personality Traits and Depressive Symptoms in Middle-Aged Adults.

    PubMed

    Huang, Vivian; Peck, Katlyn; Mallya, Sasha; Lupien, Sonia J; Fiocco, Alexandra J

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the mediating role of sleep in the relationship between personality traits and depressive symptoms in a group of community-dwelling men and women (Mage = 57.92, SD = 4.00). Participants completed the short form NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). High neuroticism and low conscientiousness was associated with poor sleep, as well as greater depressive symptom severity. Partial indirect mediation effects were found between personality traits (i.e., neuroticism and conscientiousness) and depressive symptoms through self-report sleep measures. An alternative model was also explored, entering depression as the mediator; however a smaller portion of the variance was explained by this model, compared with the hypothesized model. The current study provides preliminary information regarding the mechanisms that influence the relationship between personality traits, sleep, and depression among a group of community-dwelling middle-aged adults. Implications and future directions are discussed. PMID:27285159

  5. Subjective Sleep Quality as a Possible Mediator in the Relationship between Personality Traits and Depressive Symptoms in Middle-Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Peck, Katlyn; Mallya, Sasha; Lupien, Sonia J.

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the mediating role of sleep in the relationship between personality traits and depressive symptoms in a group of community-dwelling men and women (Mage = 57.92, SD = 4.00). Participants completed the short form NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). High neuroticism and low conscientiousness was associated with poor sleep, as well as greater depressive symptom severity. Partial indirect mediation effects were found between personality traits (i.e., neuroticism and conscientiousness) and depressive symptoms through self-report sleep measures. An alternative model was also explored, entering depression as the mediator; however a smaller portion of the variance was explained by this model, compared with the hypothesized model. The current study provides preliminary information regarding the mechanisms that influence the relationship between personality traits, sleep, and depression among a group of community-dwelling middle-aged adults. Implications and future directions are discussed. PMID:27285159

  6. Psychological Distress and Emotional Pain Among Adult Attendees of a Dental Clinic: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Erinfolami, Adebayo Rasheed; Olagunju, Andrew Toyin; Oshodi, Yewande Olufunmilayo; Akinbode, Abiola Adelphine; Fadipe, Babatunde; Adeyemo, Wasiu Lanre

    2016-05-18

    We set out to carry out a case-control evaluation of psychological distress and emotional pain among adult attendees of a Nigerian dental clinic. A total of 201 subjects, made up of 101 dental patients (test group) matched with age and sex with 100 normal subjects (controls), was recruited into the study. All participants completed a designed socio-demographic questionnaire. General Health Question naire and Psyche ache Assessment Schedule were also administered to assess psychological distress based on cut-off scores ≥3 and emotional pain based on cut-off scores ≥28 respectively. The mean ages of study and control group were 33 (±12) and 36 (±13) years respectively, and both study and control groups were not significantly different in all the assessed socio-demographic parameters. Overall, 21.8% (n=22) of the subjects had psychological distress, while only 7% of the control group had psychological distress. This difference was statistically significant (P=0.003). Similarly, there was significant difference in the experience of psyche ache (unbearable psychological pain) as over a third of the dental patients (37.6%, n=38) had emotional pain, while only 13% of the controls experienced psych ache (P<0.001). In this study, the burden of psychological distress and emotional pain was many-fold in dental patients when compared with the controls. PMID:27403272

  7. Psychological Distress and Emotional Pain Among Adult Attendees of a Dental Clinic: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Erinfolami, Adebayo Rasheed; Olagunju, Andrew Toyin; Oshodi, Yewande Olufunmilayo; Akinbode, Abiola Adelphine; Fadipe, Babatunde; Adeyemo, Wasiu Lanre

    2016-01-01

    We set out to carry out a case-control evaluation of psychological distress and emotional pain among adult attendees of a Nigerian dental clinic. A total of 201 subjects, made up of 101 dental patients (test group) matched with age and sex with 100 normal subjects (controls), was recruited into the study. All participants completed a designed socio-demographic questionnaire. General Health Question naire and Psyche ache Assessment Schedule were also administered to assess psychological distress based on cut-off scores ≥3 and emotional pain based on cut-off scores ≥28 respectively. The mean ages of study and control group were 33 (±12) and 36 (±13) years respectively, and both study and control groups were not significantly different in all the assessed socio-demographic parameters. Overall, 21.8% (n=22) of the subjects had psychological distress, while only 7% of the control group had psychological distress. This difference was statistically significant (P=0.003). Similarly, there was significant difference in the experience of psyche ache (unbearable psychological pain) as over a third of the dental patients (37.6%, n=38) had emotional pain, while only 13% of the controls experienced psych ache (P<0.001). In this study, the burden of psychological distress and emotional pain was many-fold in dental patients when compared with the controls. PMID:27403272

  8. Evaluation of the pharmacokinetic interaction between repeated doses of rifapentine or rifampin and a single dose of bedaquiline in healthy adult subjects.

    PubMed

    Winter, Helen; Egizi, Erica; Murray, Stephen; Erondu, Ngozi; Ginsberg, Ann; Rouse, Doris J; Severynse-Stevens, Diana; Pauli, Elliott

    2015-02-01

    This study assessed the effects of rifapentine or rifampin on the pharmacokinetics of a single dose of bedaquiline and its M2 metabolite in healthy subjects using a two-period single-sequence design. In period 1, subjects received a single dose of bedaquiline (400 mg), followed by a 28-day washout. In period 2, subjects received either rifapentine (600 mg) or rifampin (600 mg) from day 20 to day 41, as well as a single bedaquiline dose (400 mg) on day 29. The pharmacokinetic profiles of bedaquiline and M2 were compared over 336 h after the administration of bedaquiline alone and in combination with steady-state rifapentine or rifampin. Coadministration of bedaquiline with rifapentine or rifampin resulted in lower bedaquiline exposures. The geometric mean ratios (GMRs) and 90% confidence intervals (CIs) for the maximum observed concentration (Cmax), area under the concentration-time curve to the last available concentration time point (AUC0-t), and AUC extrapolated to infinity (AUC0-inf) of bedaquiline were 62.19% (53.37 to 72.47), 42.79% (37.77 to 48.49), and 44.52% (40.12 to 49.39), respectively, when coadministered with rifapentine. Similarly, the GMRs and 90% CIs for the Cmax, AUC0-t, and AUC0-inf of bedaquiline were 60.24% (51.96 to 69.84), 41.36% (37.70 to 45.36), and 47.32% (41.49 to 53.97), respectively, when coadministered with rifampin. The Cmax, AUC0-t, and AUC0-inf of M2 were also altered when bedaquiline was coadministered with rifapentine or rifampin. Single doses of bedaquiline, administered alone or with multiple doses of rifapentine or rifampin, were well tolerated, with no safety concerns related to coadministration. Daily administration of rifapentine to patients with tuberculosis presents the same drug interaction challenges as rifampin and other rifamycins. Strong inducers of the cytochrome P450 isoenzyme CYP3A4 should be avoided when considering the use of bedaquiline. (This study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov under identifier NCT02216331

  9. Subjective Response to Alcohol and ADH Polymorphisms in a Select Sample of Young Adult Male East Indians and Africans in Trinidad and Tobago

    PubMed Central

    Montane Jaime, Lazara Karelia; Shafe, Samuel; Liang, Tiebing; Wills, Derek N; Berg, Greta I; Ehlers, Cindy L

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Level of response to alcohol has been associated with risk of alcohol dependence in a number of ethnic groups. In the present study, subjective and objective responses to alcohol were evaluated in Indo-Trinidadians (Indo-T) and Afro-Trinidadians (Afro-T). Associations of alcohol dehydrogenase polymorphisms with response to alcohol, using the Subjective High Assessment Scale (SHAS), and breath alcohol concentrations (BrAC) were tested. Method: Regular male drinkers without alcohol dependence (n = 112) ages 18–25 years participated in alcohol challenge sessions consisting of placebo and two doses of alcohol (target BrAC: 0 g/dl for placebo, .04 g/dl low dose, and .08 g/dl high dose) and genotyped for variants in ADH1B*3 and ADH1C*2. Results: Indo-T had significantly higher BrAC, pulse rates, and cortisol levels when compared with Afro-T but did not have significantly higher SHAS values. Higher responses on the SHAS items muddle/confused and nauseated were significantly associated with the presence of at least one ADH1B*3 allele following the high dose of alcohol in Afro-T. Indo-T with at least one ADH1C*2 allele displayed significantly different Drug × Time interactions for the SHAS item effects of alcohol at the low dose and for the SHAS items clumsy, muddle/confused, effects of alcohol, floating, drunk, and total at the high dose from Indo-T with two ADH1C*1 alleles. Conclusions: This is the first study that has investigated individual sensitivity to alcohol in a Caribbean population and in people of East Indian descent. Indo-T with at least one ADH1C*2 allele may be at higher risk for heavy drinking by feeling less of the effects of alcohol, including nausea. In Afro-T, having at least one ADH1B*3 allele appears to exert a protective effect by enhancing the unpleasant effects of alcohol, such as nausea and confusion. PMID:25208201

  10. Carotid Intima Media Thickness as a Measure of Cardiovascular Disease Burden in Nigerian Africans with Hypertension and Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Okeahialam, Basil N.; Alonge, Benjamin A.; Pam, Stephen D.; Puepet, Fabian H.

    2011-01-01

    As part of a larger study of cardiovascular risk factors in nonhypertensive type 2 diabetes patients, we subjected a cohort of diabetics to B mode ultrasonography of the carotid artery to measure the intima media thickness (IMT) and compared it with values in hypertensives and apparently normal controls matched reasonably for gender and age. All groups were comparable in terms of age and gender representation. The mean (SD) of carotid IMT right and left was 0.94 mm (0.12), 0.94 mm (0.16); 0.93 mm (0.21), 0.93 mm (0.15); 0.91 mm (0.17), 0.91 mm (0.13) for diabetic, hypertensive, and normal groups, respectively. There was a nonsignificant tendency to raised IMT for the disease groups from the normal ones. Diabetic and hypertensive Nigerians are equally burdened by cardiovascular disease risk factors. Apparently normal subjects have a reasonable degree of burden suggesting the need to evaluate them for other traditional and emerging risk factors. PMID:21748020

  11. Severity of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms among Middle Aged and Elderly Nigerian Men: Impact on Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Adebayo, Philip Babatunde

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To compare the severity of LUTS among middle aged and elderly Nigerian men and determine the influence of LUTS severity on QoL. Methods. This cross-sectional study was conducted among new patients presenting with LUTS attending Urology clinic between 2011 and 2015. Assessment of symptoms was based on IPSS and bother score completed by the eligible subjects on the same day of their clinic visits. Results. Four hundred patients were studied comprising 229 middle aged and 171 elderly men. Interquartile range (IQR) of IPSS scores for men <65 years and those ≥65 years was 14.0 (16.0) and 19 (15.0), respectively (p < 0.001). Mild LUTS was significantly associated with best, good, and poor quality of life while moderate LUTS was associated with poor QoL. Severe LUTS was significantly associated with all the categories of QoL (Best-Worst). Among the cohort of subjects with poor QoL, elderly patients had a significantly higher median IPSS score (p < 0.05). Conclusions. There is no level of severity of LUTS in which patients' QoL is not impaired although mild symptomatology may be associated with better QoL and severe symptomatology with poor QoL. Careful attention to QoL may help identify patients who require early and prompt treatment irrespective of the IPSS. PMID:27413368

  12. Evaluation of the effect of food and gastric pH on the single-dose pharmacokinetics of cabozantinib in healthy adult subjects.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Linh; Holland, Jaymes; Mamelok, Richard; Laberge, Marie-Kristine; Grenier, Julie; Swearingen, Dennis; Armas, Danielle; Lacy, Steven

    2015-11-01

    Cabozantinib is a small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor that has been approved for the treatment of patients with progressive, metastatic medullary thyroid cancer. Cabozantinib exhibits a pH-dependent solubility profile in vitro. Two phase 1 clinical pharmacology studies were conducted in healthy subjects to evaluate whether factors that may affect cabozantinib solubility and gastric pH could alter cabozantinib bioavailability: a food effect study (study 1) and a drug-drug interaction (DDI) study with the proton pump inhibitor (PPI) esomeprazole (study 2). Following a high-fat meal (study 1), cabozantinib Cmax and AUC were increased (40.5% and 57%, respectively), and the median tmax was delayed by 2 hours. Cabozantinib should thus not be taken with food (patients should not eat for at least 2 hours before and at least 1 hour after administration). In the DDI study (study 2), the 90% confidence intervals (CIs) around the ratio of least-squares means of cabozantinib with esomeprazole versus cabozantinib alone for AUC0-inf were within the 80%-125% limits; the upper 90%CI for Cmax was 125.1%. Because of the low apparent risk of a DDI, concomitant use of PPIs or weaker gastric pH-altering agents with cabozantinib is not contraindicated. PMID:25907407

  13. The Effect of Intra- and Intergenerational Caregiving on Subjective Well-Being – Evidence of a Population Based Longitudinal Study among Older Adults in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Hajek, André; König, Hans-Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine whether intra- and intergenerational caregiving affect subjective well-being (SWB) of the caregivers longitudinally. Methods Data were drawn from the German Ageing Survey (DEAS), which is a population-based longitudinal study of individuals living in Germany aged 40 and over. The waves in 2002, 2008 and 2011 were used (with 10,434 observations). SWB was examined in a broad sense, covering affective (AWB) and cognitive well-being (CWB), positive (PA) and negative affect (NA) as well as functional and mental health. While intragenerational caregiving was defined as providing care for spouse/partner, intergenerational caregiving was defined as providing care for mother, father, mother-in-law, father-in-law, partner’s mother or partner’s father. Results Fixed effects regressions adjusting for sociodemographic factors, social network, self-efficacy and morbidity showed that intergenerational informal care did not affect the various SWB outcome measures. Intragenerational caregiving affected CWB (women) and mental health (total sample and men), whereas it did not affect the other outcome variables. Conclusion Our findings highlight the importance of intragenerational caregiving for mental health (men) and cognitive well-being (women). Consequently, interventions to avoid mental illness due to intragenerational caregiving are urgently needed. PMID:26859511

  14. Perceived crime and traffic safety is related to physical activity among adults in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Neighborhood safety is inconsistently related to physical activity, but is seldom studied in developing countries. This study examined associations between perceived neighborhood safety and physical activity among Nigerian adults. Methods In a cross-sectional study, accelerometer-based physical activity (MVPA), reported walking, perceived crime and traffic safety were measured in 219 Nigerian adults. Logistic regression analysis was conducted, and the odds ratio for meeting health guidelines for MVPA and walking was calculated in relation to four safety variables, after adjustment for potential confounders. Results Sufficient MVPA was related to more perception of safety from traffic to walk (OR=2.28, CI=1.13- 6.25) and more safety from crime at night (OR=1.68, CI=1.07-3.64), but with less perception of safety from crime during the day to walk (OR=0.34, CI=0.06- 0.91). More crime safety during the day and night were associated with more walking. Conclusions Perceived safety from crime and traffic were associated with physical activity among Nigerian adults. These findings provide preliminary evidence on the need to provide safe traffic and crime environments that will make it easier and more likely for African adults to be physically active. PMID:22520066

  15. Factors Which Influence the Development of Intelligence and Performance Among Nigerian Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odebunmi, Akin

    Several themes relevant to the personality development and intellectual functioning of children are presented in this position paper. Inferences for the education of Nigerian children are also drawn. Among general factors considered influential in children's intellectual development, three are emphasized: the way in which intelligence is defined,…

  16. Formal Body Bequest Program in Nigerian Medical Schools: When Do We Start?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akinola, Oluwole Busayo

    2011-01-01

    Human body dissection is a prerequisite for the training of health professionals and the conduct of medical research. However, most Nigerian medical schools experience difficulty obtaining an adequate and regular supply of human tissue. Presently, the major source of anatomical material comes from unclaimed bodies collected from hospital…

  17. Students' Perceived Effectiveness in the Use of Library Resources in Nigerian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edem, Nkoyo; Ani, Okon; Ocheibi, Jonathan A.

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted on students' perceived effectiveness in the use of library resources in some selected Nigerian Universities. Questionnaire was the main instrument for collecting data. 600 copies of questionnaires were distributed, 530 were returned. The overall response was 88.3%. The responses showed that, majority of the users source…

  18. Prevalence of bovine virus diarrhoea and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis antibodies in Nigerian sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Taylor, W P; Okeke, A N; Shidali, N N

    1977-08-01

    Neutralising antibodies to bovine virus diarrhoea virus were commoner in Nigerian sheep than goats while precipitating antibodies offered an alternative but less reliable indicator of previous infection. In contrast, neutralising antibodies to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus were more common in goats than sheep. These findings are discussed in relation to infectivity rates in cattle and general husbandry practices. PMID:410130

  19. Environmental Education and Nigerian Students' Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices (KAP): Implications for Curriculum Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansaray, A.; Ajiboye, J. O.

    1997-01-01

    Nigerian secondary students were surveyed regarding selected environmental issues to determine prevailing knowledge, attitudes, and practices. Students performed very poorly in the knowledge component of the questionnaire and demonstrated negative attitudes towards issues. Students also indicated practices that were harmful to a healthy…

  20. Effective Teaching with ICT in Nigerian Higher Institutions: A Solution to Graduates' Unemployability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Femi, Sunday Akinwumi; Yemisi, Etomi Edwin

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated effective teaching with the aid of ICT in Nigerian higher education institutions as a proposed solution to graduates' unemployability. The survey method was utilized for this study. Respondents were randomly selected from students and teachers of selected higher institutions in Nigeria. The findings reveal that, even though…

  1. Age, Levels of Education and Training and the Vocational Interests of Nigerian Prisoners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uche, Greg N.; Harries-Jenkins, Gwyn

    1994-01-01

    Results of a vocational interest inventory completed by 203 Nigerian prisoners were as follows: preferred trades were vehicle driving, appliance repair, furniture making, and motor mechanics; least preferred were masonry, sheet metal work, and barbering. Aligning of prison trades with prisoners' vocational interests was recommended. (SK)

  2. Narratives of Nigerian Educated Women Pursuing Higher Education Degrees in Western Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulus, Vincent Hassan

    2012-01-01

    The impetus for conducting this research is near and dear to my heart along with desiring to make a change for the better. In conducting interviews of Nigerian women's experiences, struggles and accessibility to secondary education, the research shows significant barriers to secondary education in their narrative experiences that their male…

  3. Strategies for Enhancing Quality Assurance in Business Teacher Education Programme in Nigerian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okoro, James

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the strategies for enhancing quality assurance in business teacher education programme in Nigerian universities. Two research questions and four hypotheses guided the study. This study adopted a descriptive survey design. The population of the study comprised 129 Business Education lecturers in state and federal…

  4. Managing Research Output for Knowledge Creation in South-South Nigerian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akuegwu, B. A.; Edet, A. O.; Uchendu, C. C.

    2012-01-01

    This ex-post facto designed study investigated the extent of Deans and Heads of Departments' effectiveness in managing research output for knowledge creation in South-South Nigerian universities. One research question and one hypothesis were drawn along the four dimensions of knowledge creation namely: socialization, combination, externalization…

  5. A Factor-Analytic Study of Some of the Nigerian Science Teachers' Needs Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osokoya, Modupe M.

    2005-01-01

    The study set out to assess the needs of Nigerian science teachers, which the teachers believe are militating against their desired productivity. It seeks to find out the special needs and wants of science teachers in trying to discharge their duties well, and to find out the underlying relationship among these specials needs and wants. Six…

  6. Activities of Nigerian chewing stick extracts against Bacteroides gingivalis and Bacteroides melaninogenicus.

    PubMed

    Rotimi, V O; Laughon, B E; Bartlett, J G; Mosadomi, H A

    1988-04-01

    The in vitro activities of extracts of Nigerian chewing sticks against Bacteroides gingivalis and B. melaninogenicus are presented. The greatest inhibitory action was produced by Serindeia werneckei, whereas Fagara zanthoxyloides produced no appreciable inhibitory effect. A generally good correlation was found between the killing curves and MICs. Only extracts of Anogeissus leiocarpus showed acute toxicity in mice. PMID:2897830

  7. Activities of Nigerian chewing stick extracts against Bacteroides gingivalis and Bacteroides melaninogenicus.

    PubMed Central

    Rotimi, V O; Laughon, B E; Bartlett, J G; Mosadomi, H A

    1988-01-01

    The in vitro activities of extracts of Nigerian chewing sticks against Bacteroides gingivalis and B. melaninogenicus are presented. The greatest inhibitory action was produced by Serindeia werneckei, whereas Fagara zanthoxyloides produced no appreciable inhibitory effect. A generally good correlation was found between the killing curves and MICs. Only extracts of Anogeissus leiocarpus showed acute toxicity in mice. PMID:2897830

  8. Effects of Non Indigene Discrimination on Contemporary Nigerian Society: Christian Religious Knowledge Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Njoku, Nkechi C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper was designed to look into the non-indigene discrimination that migrated into Nigerian society from European countries. Non-indigene saga is a new trend that has threatened the unity, peace and progress of Nigeria as a pluralistic nation. The paper further explores the causes, forms and effects of non-indigene discrimination. It also…

  9. Parent-Child Interaction in Nigerian Families: Conversation Analysis, Context and Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Annabel; Radford, Julie

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses a conversation analysis (CA) approach to explore parent-child interaction (PCI) within Nigerian families. We illustrate how speech and language therapists (SLTs), by using CA, can tailor recommendations according to the interactional style of each individual family that are consonant with the family's cultural beliefs. Three…

  10. Validation of the Domains of Creativity Scale for Nigerian Preservice Science, Technology, and Mathematics Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awofala, Adeneye O. A.; Fatade, Alfred O.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Investigation into the factor structure of Domains of Creativity Scale has been on for sometimes now. The purpose of this study was to test the validity of the Kaufman Domains of Creativity Scale on Nigerian preservice science, technology, and mathematics teachers. Method: Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were performed…

  11. Promoting Peace and Culture in Nigerian Higher Institutions through the Use of Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekwueme, L. U.; Odunuga, A. F.; Ogunrinade, D. O. A.

    2013-01-01

    Tracing the history of education in Nigerian higher Institutions presents series of student's unrest, riots, cultism, and violence, vandalisation of school's properties in reaction to inadequacies and neglect of certain vital elements needed for the smooth running of educational programmes. Music as an art that attracts students of all…

  12. "Elections" or "Selections"? Blogging and Twittering the Nigerian 2007 General Elections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ifukor, Presley

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the linguistic construction of textual messages in the use of blogs and Twitter in the Nigerian 2007 electoral cycle comprising the April 2007 general elections and rerun elections in April, May, and August 2009. A qualitative approach of discourse analysis is used to present a variety of discursive acts that blogging and…

  13. Water Source Pollution and Disease Diagnosis in a Nigerian Rural Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sangodoyin, A. Y.

    1991-01-01

    Samples from five water sources (spring, borehole, pond, stream, and well) in rural Nigerian communities were tested. Results include source reliabilities in terms of water quality and quantity, pollution effects upon water quality, epidemiological effects related to water quantity and waste disposal, and impact of water quality improvement upon…

  14. Revitalising the Nigerian University System: The Imperatives of a Market Driven Funding Mechanism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiemeka, Nnorom; Nwagwu, Nwakaire Onuzuruike

    2015-01-01

    The needs assessment report of Nigerian public universities (2012) exposed a disturbing level of decay in public universities in Nigeria. The report, among other things advocated better financial management as a panacea for revitalising the university system. This paper compared the direct funding allocation mechanism (which is the major way of…

  15. Environmental Literacy among Preservice Social Studies Teachers: A Review of the Nigerian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogunyemi, Biodun; Ifegbesan, Ayodeji

    2011-01-01

    This mini-survey assessed the environmental literacy level of preservice teachers in a Nigerian university through 199 social studies teacher-trainees. It found a high level of awareness/knowledge on local environmental problems but low level on global environmental issues. Although a positive disposition toward environmental issues was…

  16. Critical Multimodal Literacy: How Nigerian Female Students Critique Texts and Reconstruct Unequal Social Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajayi, Lasisi

    2015-01-01

    This research investigates how three female Nigerian high school students were taught to deploy critical multimodal literacy to interrogate texts and reconstruct unequal social structures. A class of ninth-grade students in an all-women school was given instruction through the analysis of how multiple modes were used to represent meanings in…

  17. The Cyber-Framing of Nigerian Nationhood: Diaspora and the Imagined Nation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odutola, Kole Ade

    2010-01-01

    Postings generated during "natural" online interactions among geographically dispersed/diasporic Nigerians contain ideas from different intellectual sources. A few of the ideas encapsulated within texts produced were brought to the fore, discussed, and analyzed. The consequent search for the presence of indigenous knowledge within the postings…

  18. Re-Engineering Values Education in Nigerian Schools as Catalyst for National Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enu, Donald Bette; Esu, A. E. O.

    2011-01-01

    The decay in the Nigerian society has affected the standard of values and moral character formation. This has manifested in so many anti-social vices. Anti-social behaviour exhibited include corruption, dishonesty, greed, violent crimes, lack of accountability, indiscipline, disrespect to constituted authorities, laziness, low moral courage among…

  19. Academic Motivation and Self-Determination among Three Ethnic Groups of Nigerian Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olagbami, Abiola Olabisi

    2013-01-01

    The need related behavioral dynamics that are revealed in self-determination and academic motivation research control factors which pinpoint and examine settings that facilitate self-motivation and well-being. This study examined differences in motivational and self-determination behaviors among three ethnic groups of Nigerian university students…

  20. A Comparative Analysis of NOSS Profiles on Nigerian and American Preservice, Secondary Science Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobern, William W.

    1989-01-01

    American preservice science teachers' responses on Kimball's Nature of Science Survey (NOSS) were used as a basis for analyzing the sense of the nature of science held by a group of Nigerian preservice science teachers. The differences between the two groups and implications for international scientific cooperation are discussed. (Author/YP)

  1. Small Can Be Beautiful: Automation Efforts at the Nigerian Institute of International Affairs Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adeniran, O. R.

    1992-01-01

    The Nigerian Institute of International Affairs Library began a small automation project when complete library automation was not possible. Despite limitations, the library has successfully integrated technology into its daily operations, including computer literacy programs for the staff, maintaining offline circulation records, and producing…

  2. Defining Traditional Forms of Communication in Nigerian Culture within the Context of Nonverbal Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogbondah, Chris; Siddens, Paul J., III

    Drum language, gong language, masquerades, and puppet theater, the traditional forms of communication found in Nigerian culture, reflect tensions that exist between oral and literate cultures. Drum language ranges from simple signals to elaborately coded messages and is learned through both formal and informal educational processes. Formal…

  3. A Conceptual Model for School-Based Management Operation and Quality Assurance in Nigerian Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayeni, Adeolu Joshua; Ibukun, Williams Olusola

    2013-01-01

    This paper examined the School-Based Management Committee's (SBMC) involvement and effectiveness in school governance, curriculum implementation and students' learning outcomes in Nigerian secondary schools; the major challenges facing effective operation of SBMCs were identified as low capacity of key members of the SBMCs; poor attendance of…

  4. Spleen in sickle cell anemia: comparative studies of Nigerian and U.S. patients.

    PubMed

    Adekile, A D; McKie, K M; Adeodu, O O; Sulzer, A J; Liu, J S; McKie, V C; Kutlar, F; Ramachandran, M; Kaine, W; Akenzua, G I

    1993-03-01

    Anecdotal reports have attributed persistent splenomegaly in African sickle cell anemia (SS) patients to the effects of malaria. However, no comparative studies of patients in malarial and nonmalarial regions have been conducted, and few studies of malaria antibody titers have been reported. In the present study, age- and sex-matched Nigerian patients (n = 310), while it was found only in 8% of U.S. patients (n = 100) from Georgia. There was significant linear correlation between spleen size and Hb levels and with serum immunoglobulins in the Nigerian group. However, serum complement levels (C3 and C4) were not affected by spleen size. In both groups, patients with splenomegaly had fewer circulating pitted red cells than their counterparts without splenomegaly. The mean +/- SE of IgG-specific malaria antibody titer among the Nigerian patients without palpable spleens was 9,386 +/- 2,036; 9,334 +/- 2,980 in those with spleens between 1 and 5 cm, 16,201 +/- 4,502 in those with spleens between 6 and 10 cm, and 22,445 +/- 8,456 in those with spleens above 10 cm. Coexistent alpha-thalassemia did not influence the prevalence of splenomegaly among the Nigerian SS patients. This study provides additional evidence that malaria plays a significant role in the persistence of splenomegaly in African patients. PMID:8438905

  5. The Roles of Higher Education in Economic Development: Challenges and Prospects of Nigerian Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Njoku, Chimezie; Anyanwu, Jerome; Kaegon, Lies Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this paper was on the roles of Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) especially universities in economic development, paying particular attention to the challenges and prospects of the Nigerian Universities. The role of higher education as a major driver of economic development is well established, and this role will increase as…

  6. Open-Distance Education as a Mechanism for Sustainable Development: Reflections on the Nigerian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aderinoye, Rashid; Ojokheta, Kester

    2004-01-01

    This article examines open-distance learning in Nigeria and the role it plays in personal, community, and national development. Following consultation with existing literature, a qualitative survey was conducted using questionnaires, interviews, and participatory experience. Although particular emphasis was paid to the Nigerian context, the…

  7. A Nigerian Notebook. Units and Resources for Teachers and Parents. Early Childhood and Elementary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harkless, Necia; And Others

    This book, developed by the Nigerian Curriculum Development Project at the University of Kentucky, presents resources and suggested units for teaching about Nigeria. The resources section includes outlined background readings for teachers in the primary grades and bibliographies for teachers and parents. Four suggested units of instruction are…

  8. Training School Librarians for the Nigerian School System: A New Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elaturoti, David F.

    This paper provides a brief history and background on Nigeria and its educational system; school libraries in Nigeria; and increased recognition by the government of the importance of libraries in education and resultant legislation. The majority of teacher-librarians in the Nigerian school system do not have professional qualifications in…

  9. Meals and dephytinization affect calcium and zinc absorption in Nigerian children with rickets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutritional rickets resulting from calcium insufficiency is common in Nigeria, and high dietary phytate is thought to inhibit calcium and zinc absorption. We compared the effects of a high-phytate meal and enzymatic dephytinization on calcium and zinc absorption in Nigerian children with and without...

  10. Readability of Igbo Language Textbook in Use in Nigerian Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eze, Nneka Justina

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the readability of Igbo language textbook in use in Nigerian secondary schools. Five Igbo Language textbook were evaluated. The study employed an evaluation research design. The study was conducted in South Eastern Geopolitical zone of Nigeria which is predominantly the Igbo tribe of Nigeria. Four hundred secondary school…

  11. A Comparison of Reversal and Extra Dimensional Shifts in Igbo (Nigerian) Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozioko, Julius O. C.

    1983-01-01

    A total of 72 Nigerian (Igbo) children learned reversal or extradimensional shifts under one of two conditions of locality (urban or rural) and one of three conditions of age (4, 7, or 10 years). Results showed significant main effects for shift, age, and locality and were interpreted as being consistent with the Kendlers' (1962) mediational…

  12. Secret Cults in Nigerian Institutions of Higher Learning: Need for a Radical Intervention Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popoola, B. I.; Alao, K. A.

    2006-01-01

    The paper appraises the phenomenon of campus secret cults in Nigeria. Specifically, the paper sets off by exploring various definitions of secret cults before tracing the history of campus cults in Nigerian higher institutions. The paper identifies various reasons for the emergence of secret cults and discusses the consequences of cult activities…

  13. Effects of Age, Gender, School Class on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Skills of Nigerian Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onyeaso, Adedamola Olutoyin; Onyeaso, Chukwudi Ochi

    2016-01-01

    Background: The need for training of schoolchildren on cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) as potential bystander CPR providers is growing globally but Nigeria is still behind and lacks basic necessary data. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of age, gender and school class on CPR skills of Nigerian secondary school…

  14. College Lecturers' Perspectives on the Role of Nigerian Creole in Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ukwuoma, Collins U.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the philosophical teaching perspectives of lecturers in teacher preparatory colleges in the Niger Delta of Nigeria as it relates to their choice of the language for classroom instruction. Specifically, the study explored the lecturers' perceptions regarding the role of Nigerian Creole in teacher…

  15. Agricultural communication and the African non-literate farmer: the Nigerian experience.

    PubMed

    Soola, E O

    1988-01-01

    In Nigeria, there lies a relatively untapped potential for great agricultural growth. Since the 1960's, Nigeria's "days of agricultural glory," there has been great obstacles in the exchange of information between scientists and Nigerian farmers. There has been a great trend in rural-urban migration and a rise in unemployment; crime and school drop outs have ensued. The Nigerian non-literate farmer is in a neglected class who has suffered the scrutiny and non-support of government and financial institutions. His growth has been limited because he is considered a poor credit risk. Because of his illiteracy, he is limited to traditional methods of farming. However, the Nigerian farmer is not uneducable. He is information-conscious and can be instructed if a communicator is sensitive to the farmer's culture, tradition and farming practices. An agriculture extension agent must not only assess the farmer's needs but also convey relevant information in a manner that is amenable to the farmer's framework of communication. Working with opinion leaders, the mass media, a regional library, audio tapes and by portraying new information and farming practices through festivals and ceremonies are methods available to the extension agent or communicator in his work with the non-literate Nigerian farmer. PMID:12342253

  16. Socio-Economic Factors in the Application of Information and Communication Technologies in Nigerian Print Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehikhamenor, Fabian A.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses information and communication technologies (ICT) in Nigerian print media and explores socioeconomic factors associated with the adoption and use of ICT by the media. Topics include ICT in the Third World; organizational goals; profitability; organizational communication; productivity; openness of workers to change; inflation; wages;…

  17. Fostering Emotional Adjustment among Nigerian Adolescents with Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adomeh, Ilu O. C.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of Albert Ellis' Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy (REBT) in fostering emotional adjustment among Nigerian adolescents. Fifty senior secondary school students were randomly selected and divided equally into experimental and control groups. The experimental group was treated with REBT twice a week for six weeks.…

  18. Conditions Restraining the Teaching of Major Nigerian Languages in Secondary School in Ebonyi State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chidi-Ehiem, Ugochi Ijeoma

    2015-01-01

    This descriptive survey was carried out in order to determine the conditions handicapping the teaching of major Nigerian languages in secondary schools in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. A random sample of 953 students and 602 language teachers completed a corresponding copies of questionnaire designed for the study. Out of 1555 copies of questionnaire…

  19. Investigating a Nigerian XXL-Cohort Wiki-Learning Experience: Observation, Feedback and Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aborisade, Peter

    2009-01-01

    A regular feature of the Nigerian tertiary education context is large numbers of students crammed into small classrooms or lecture theatres. This context had long begged for the creation of innovative learning spaces and adoption of engaging pedagogies. Recourse to technology support and experimenting with the WIKI as a learning tool at the…

  20. Strategies for School Environmental Management in Nigerian Secondary Schools: A Case of Calabar, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obong, Linus Beba; Okey, Stella-Maris; Aniah, E. J.; Okaba, Lydia A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper on strategies for school environmental management in Nigerian secondary schools was carried out in Calabar, Nigeria. To guide the study three research questions were formulated. This was achieved through administration of structured questionnaires in three randomly sampled schools. Findings show regular grass clearing, sweeping of the…

  1. Ordeals of Physics Instruction in Nigerian Secondary Schools: Way Forward for the Attainment of Global Competitiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aderonmu, Temitope S. B.; Obafemi, Deborah T. A.

    2015-01-01

    Physics instruction in secondary schools is a fundamental panacea towards achieving scientific knowledgeable citizens which can propel a nation in the realization of a sustainable economic force. This paper therefore x-rayed ordeals of physics instruction in Nigerian secondary schools and the way forward for the attainment of global…

  2. Adaptation of calcium absorption during treatment of nutritional rickets in Nigerian children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutritional rickets in Nigerian children has been effectively treated with Ca supplementation. High values of Ca absorption efficiency have been observed in untreated children, but whether Ca absorption efficiency changes during treatment with Ca is unknown. Our objective in conducting this study wa...

  3. Restructuring as a Panacea for the Sustainable Development of the Nigerian University System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arikewuyo, M. Olalekan

    2009-01-01

    The Nigerian university system, in spite of its astronomical growth in size, has been beset by a barrage of problems, which are threatening its ability to perform the traditional roles of teaching, research and services. Such problems as highlighted in this paper include: unplanned expansion leading to proliferation of both private and public…

  4. A Sociolinguistic Study of Meaning-Making in a Nigerian Linguistic Landscape: The Example of Ibadan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adetunji, Akinbiyi

    2013-01-01

    Although much research has gone into the sociolinguistics of the linguistic landscape (space for and language of public signs) in the "peripheral," non-native contexts of English Language use and users, none has been specifically devoted to a Nigerian context. This dissertation is intended to fill this wide gap. Focusing on the Ibadan…

  5. Print and Broadcast Mass Media Factors as Predictors of Nigerian Teachers' Political Awareness and Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agbatogun, A. Olaoluwakotansibe

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which the use of print and broadcast mass media could predict the level of awareness and participation of secondary school teachers in political activities and its implications on the quality of Nigerian education system. Eight hundred and two secondary school teachers from South West states of Nigeria served as…

  6. Knowledge of medical ethics among Nigerian medical doctors

    PubMed Central

    Fadare, Joseph O.; Desalu, Olufemi O.; Jemilohun, Abiodun C.; Babatunde, Oluwole A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The knowledge of medical ethics is essential for health care practitioners worldwide. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the knowledge of medical doctors in a tertiary care hospital in Nigeria in the area of medical ethics. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study involving 250 medical doctors of different levels was carried out. The questionnaire, apart from the bio-data, also sought information on undergraduate and postgraduate training in medical ethics, knowledge about the principles of biomedical ethics and the ethical dilemmas encountered in daily medical practice. Results: One hundred and ninety (190) respondents returned the filled questionnaire representing a response rate of 76%. One hundred and fifty-two respondents (80%) have had some sort of medical ethics education during their undergraduate level in the medical education. The median duration of formal training or exposure to medical ethics education was 3.00 hours (range: 0-15). One hundred and twenty-nine respondents have read at least once the code of medical ethics of the Medical and Dental Council of Nigeria while 127 (66.8%) have some general knowledge of the principles of biomedical ethics. The breakdown of the identified ethical dilemmas shows that discharge against medical advice was the most identified by the respondents (69.3%) followed by religious/cultural issues (56.6%) while confidentiality was recognized by 53.4%. Conclusion: The knowledge of medical ethics by Nigerian medical doctors is grossly inadequate. There is an urgent need for enhancement of the teaching of the discipline at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels in Nigeria. PMID:23661883

  7. Early Experience with Stapled Gastrointestinal Anastomoses in a Nigerian Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Adisa, AO; Olasehinde, O; Arowolo, OA; Alatise, OI; Agbakwuru, EA

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hand-sewn gastrointestinal anastomoses has been the traditional approach to gastrointestinal anastomosis in Nigeria while stapled anastomoses are infrequently performed in few centers. Objectives: To describe the outcome of our initial experience with stapled gastrointestinal anastomoses in a semi-urban patient population. Patients and Methods: Consecutive patients who had stapled gastrointestinal anastomoses between January 2011 and June 2014 in a Nigerian tertiary hospital were prospectively evaluated. Indications for operation, procedures performed and anastomoses constructed and postoperative outcome of each patient were documented. Results: Nineteen patients including seven males and 12 females had stapled anastomoses within the period. Their ages ranged between 41 and 68 (mean 52.5) years. Six (31.6%) Roux-en-Y gastrojejunostomies, 6 (31.6%) ileo-colic, 3 (15.8%) ileo-ileal, 2 (10.5%) colo-colic, and 2 (10.5%) colo-anal anastomoses were performed. Indications include antral gastric cancer in 4 (21.1%), right colon cancer 4 (21.1%), ileal perforations in 3 (15.8%) while 2 (10.5%) each had left colon cancer, common bile duct obstruction, rectal cancer and ruptured appendix. Mean duration of operation was 108 ± 46 min and mean duration of postoperative stay was 5 ± 2.6 days. No intraoperative complications were recorded and no anastomotic leakage occurred. At a median follow-up of 5 months no staple related stricture had occurred. Conclusions: Stapled gastrointestinal anastomoses are associated with a good outcome in our center. We propose a prospective, large-population randomized comparison of the technique with hand-sewn anastomoses. PMID:26425069

  8. Molecular characteristics and prognostic features of breast cancer in Nigerian compared with UK women.

    PubMed

    Agboola, A J; Musa, A A; Wanangwa, N; Abdel-Fatah, T; Nolan, C C; Ayoade, B A; Oyebadejo, T Y; Banjo, A A; Deji-Agboola, A M; Rakha, E A; Green, A R; Ellis, I O

    2012-09-01

    Although breast cancer (BC) incidence is lower in African-American women compared with White-American, in African countries such as Nigeria, BC is a common disease. Nigerian women have a higher risk for early-onset, with a high mortality rate from BC, prompting speculation that risk factors could be genetic and the molecular portrait of these tumours are different to those of western women. In this study, 308 BC samples from Nigerian women with complete clinical history and tumour characteristics were included and compared with a large series of BC from the UK as a control group. Immunoprofile of these tumours was characterised using a panel of 11 biomarkers of known relevance to BC. The immunoprofile and patients' outcome were compared with tumour grade-matched UK control group. Nigerian women presenting with BC were more frequently premenopausal, and their tumours were characterised by large primary tumour size, high tumour grade, advanced lymph node stage, and a higher rate of vascular invasion compared with UK women. In the grade-matched groups, Nigerian BC showed over representation of triple-negative and basal phenotypes and BRCA1 deficiency BC compared with UK women, but no difference was found regarding HER2 expression between the two series. Nigerian women showed significantly poorer outcome after development of BC compared with UK women. This study demonstrates that there are possible genetic and molecular differences between an indigenous Black population and a UK-based series. The basal-like, triple negative and BRCA1 dysfunction groups of tumours identified in this study may have implications in the development of screening programs and therapies for African patients and families that are likely to have a BRCA1 dysfunction, basal like and triple negative. PMID:22842985

  9. Serum calcitriol concentrations measured with a new direct automated assay in a large population of adult healthy subjects and in various clinical situations.

    PubMed

    Souberbielle, Jean-Claude; Cavalier, Etienne; Delanaye, Pierre; Massart, Catherine; Brailly-Tabard, Sylvie; Cormier, Catherine; Borderie, Didier; Benachi, Alexandra; Chanson, Philippe

    2015-12-01

    The measurement of calcitriol [1,25(OH2)D], is important for the differential diagnosis of several disorders of calcium/phosphorus metabolism but is time-consuming and tricky. We measured serum calcitriol with a new automated direct assay on the Liaison XL platform in 888 healthy French Caucasian subjects aged 18-89 years, 32 patients with a surgically-proven PHPT, 32 pregnant women at the end of the first and at the end of the third trimester, and 24 dialysis patients before and after one year of supplementation with vitamin D3 or placebo. The mean calcitriol concentration (±SD) in the healthy population was 52.9±14.5 ng/L with a 95% CI interval of 29-83.6 ng/L. In PHPT patients, calcitriol concentration was 81.6±29.0 ng/L, 15 of them (46.9%) having a concentration >83.6 ng/L. In pregnant women, calcitriol was 80.4±26.4 ng/L at the end of the first trimester, and 113.1±33.0 ng/L at the end of the third trimester, 12 (37.5%) and 26 (81.3%) of them having a calcitriol concentration >83.6 ng/L at the first and third trimesters respectively. In 14 dialysis patients, calcitriol was 9.5±7.7 ng/L and rose to 19.3 ng/L after one year of supplementation with 50,000 IU vitamin D3/month. In 10 other dialysis patients, calcitriol was 9.9±2.9 ng/L and remained stable (12.4±3.7 ng/L) after one year of placebo. In conclusion, this new automated calcitriol assay, in addition to presenting excellent analytical performances, gives the expected variations in patients compared to "normal" values obtained in an extensive reference population. PMID:26409159

  10. Canadian Adult Basic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooke, W. Michael, Comp.

    "Trends," a publication of the Canadian Association for Adult Education, is a collection of abstracts on selected subjects affecting adult education; this issue is on adult basic education (ABE). It covers teachers and teacher training, psychological factors relating to the ABE teacher and students, manuals for teachers, instructional materials,…

  11. Prevalence and Socio-Demographic Determinants of Overweight and Obesity in a Nigerian Population

    PubMed Central

    Maruf, Fatai A.; Udoji, Nwannedimma V.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This survey explored prevalence of overweight and obesity and their associations with socio-demographic variables in a Nigerian population. Methods This cross-sectional survey involved 1521 adults in Nnewi. Age, sex, educational and occupational status, and BMI were recorded. Results Prevalence of overweight was higher in males (32.3%; 95% CI, 29.5%–35.2%) than in females (29.8%; 95% CI, 26.8%–33.0%); the reverse was the case for prevalence of obesity (19.6%; 95% CI, 17.3%–22.2% in males and 36.0%; 95% CI, 32.8%–39.4% in females). Higher odds ratios (ORs) for overweight and obesity were observed in participants aged 41–60 years (OR 2.03; 95% CI, 1.57–2.61 for overweight and OR 4.29; 95% CI, 3.25–5.67 for obesity) and those >60 years (OR 1.72; 95% CI, 1.21–2.43 for overweight and OR 4.21; 95% CI, 2.86–6.19 for obesity) compared to those aged 18–40 years. Female sex was associated with higher ORs for overweight (OR 1.20; 95% CI, 0.96–1.51) and obesity (OR 2.21; 95% CI, 1.73–2.83). Participants with secondary education had marginally higher ORs for overweight (OR 1.15; 95% CI, 0.88–1.51) and obesity (OR 1.17; 95% CI, 0.86–1.59) than those with tertiary education, and so were those with primary education for obesity (OR 1.19; 95% CI, 0.74–1.89) but higher OR for overweight (OR 1.44; 95% CI, 0.98–2.13). Unskilled participants had about the same OR for overweight and obesity as professionals, and while skilled participants had about the same OR for overweight as professionals, their OR for obesity (OR 1.27; 95% CI, 0.67–2.43) was fairly higher than that for professionals. Conclusions Prevalence of overweight is higher in males than in females, but the reverse is the case for prevalence of obesity. Older age and female sex are associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity, while working at a skilled occupation is associated with obesity, and tertiary educational attainment is associated with overweight. PMID:26005065

  12. Definitions and the Experience of Fertility Problems: Infertile and Sub-fertile Women, Childless Mothers, and Honorary Mothers in Two Southern Nigerian Communities

    PubMed Central

    Whitehouse, Bruce; Hollos, Marida

    2015-01-01

    Although infertility causes women considerable grief, social stigma, and economic deprivation, scholars have paid little attention to infertility’s definitions that may depart from the standard Western usage and how such definitions influence the way women experience the condition. This article, by listening to individual women’s experiences of infertility in two Nigerian communities, examines these definitions and differentiates between culturally salient categories of infertility. In distinguishing between different kinds of childless women and those with low fertility, we intend to enhance understandings of infertility by considering women’s subjective understandings of the condition and thus moving beyond the current medical definition. By comparing women’s experiences in two different ethnic groups in Nigeria, we show how distinct forms of kinship structures and social organizations shape the ways low fertility is defined, managed, and experienced. PMID:24578250

  13. Accuracy and the Effect of Possible Subject-Based Confounders of Magnitude-Based MRI for Estimating Hepatic Proton Density Fat Fraction in Adults, Using MR Spectroscopy as Reference

    PubMed Central

    Heba, Elhamy R.; Desai, Ajinkya; Zand, Kevin A.; Hamilton, Gavin; Wolfson, Tanya; Schlein, Alexandra N.; Gamst, Anthony; Loomba, Rohit; Sirlin, Claude B.; Middleton, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine the accuracy and the effect of possible subject-based confounders of magnitude-based magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for estimating hepatic proton density fat fraction (PDFF) for different numbers of echoes in adults with known or suspected nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, using MR spectroscopy (MRS) as a reference. Materials and Methods In this retrospective analysis of 506 adults, hepatic PDFF was estimated by unenhanced 3.0T MRI, using right-lobe MRS as reference. Regions of interest placed on source images and on six-echo parametric PDFF maps were colocalized to MRS voxel location. Accuracy using different numbers of echoes was assessed by regression and Bland–Altman analysis; slope, intercept, average bias, and R2 were calculated. The effect of age, sex, and body mass index (BMI) on hepatic PDFF accuracy was investigated using multivariate linear regression analyses. Results MRI closely agreed with MRS for all tested methods. For three- to six-echo methods, slope, regression intercept, average bias, and R2 were 1.01–0.99, 0.11–0.62%, 0.24–0.56%, and 0.981–0.982, respectively. Slope was closest to unity for the five-echo method. The two-echo method was least accurate, underestimating PDFF by an average of 2.93%, compared to an average of 0.23–0.69% for the other methods. Statistically significant but clinically nonmeaningful effects on PDFF error were found for subject BMI (P range: 0.0016 to 0.0783), male sex (P range: 0.015 to 0.037), and no statistically significant effect was found for subject age (P range: 0.18–0.24). Conclusion Hepatic magnitude-based MRI PDFF estimates using three, four, five, and six echoes, and six-echo parametric maps are accurate compared to reference MRS values, and that accuracy is not meaningfully confounded by age, sex, or BMI. PMID:26201284

  14. Prevalence of risk factors for chronic kidney disease among adults in a university community in southern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Wachukwu, Chinyere Mmanwanyi; Emem-Chioma, Pedro Chimezie; Wokoma, Friday Samuel; Oko-Jaja, Richard Ishmeal

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The rising prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) remains a global public health challenge particularly in developing countries, including our local environment, where subjects with the disease present late and may already be in need of renal replacement therapy. Early detection of modifiable risk factors of CKD is a plausible strategy to reduce its prevalence and burden. The 2014 World Kidney Day (WKD) exercise provided a veritable opportunity to identify CKD risk factors among adult Nigerians for early intervention. Methods Subjects were mobilized from the University community for the 2014 WKD exercise. The parameters assessed were demographics, Body mass index (BMI), blood pressures, proteinuria, glycosuria, serum creatinine and fasting plasma glucose. Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) was estimated using the Cockcroft-Gault equation. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 17.0. Results A total of 259 volunteers were studied, mean age of 28.3±9.7years (16-66years). Males comprised 135(52.1%) while 124(47.9%) were females. The frequency of risk factors of CKD observed were obesity in 31(12.2%) subjects, proteinuria and glycosuria in 32(12.4%) and 7(2.7%) subjects respectively. Hypertension and hyperglycaemia were seen in 54(20.8%) and 11(4.3%) of subjects respectively. Five subjects (1.9%) had e-GFR < 60mls/min/1.73m2. Conclusion Prevalence of CKD risk factors in this study population was high. There is need for continuous education, regular screening for early detection and early intervention by risk factor modification to prevent and/or reduce the growing burden of CKD and its sequelae in Nigeria. PMID:26327957

  15. Molecular Detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae on Dried Blood Spots from Febrile Nigerian Children Compared to Culture

    PubMed Central

    Iroh Tam, Pui-Ying; Hernandez-Alvarado, Nelmary; Schleiss, Mark R.; Hassan-Hanga, Fatimah; Onuchukwu, Chuma; Umoru, Dominic; Obaro, Stephen K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Nigeria has one of the highest burdens of pneumococcal disease in the world, but accurate surveillance is lacking. Molecular detection of infectious pathogens in dried blood spots (DBS) is an ideal method for surveillance of infections in resource-limited settings because of its low cost, minimal blood volumes involved, and ease of storage at ambient temperature. Our study aim was to evaluate a Streptococcus pneumoniae real-time polymerase chain reaction (rt-PCR) assay on DBS from febrile Nigerian children on Whatman 903 and FTA filter papers, compared to the gold standard of culture. Methods Between September 2011 to May 2015, blood was collected from children 5 years of age or under who presented to six hospital study sites throughout northern and central Nigeria with febrile illness, and inoculated into blood culture bottles or spotted onto Whatman 903 or FTA filter paper. Culture and rt-PCR were performed on all samples. Results A total of 537 DBS specimens from 535 children were included in the study, of which 15 were culture-positive for S. pneumoniae. The rt-PCR assay detected S. pneumoniae in 12 DBS specimens (2.2%). One positive rt-PCR result was identified in a culture-negative specimen from a high-risk subject, and two positive rt-PCR results were negative on repeat testing. Six culture-confirmed cases of S. pneumoniae bacteremia were missed. Compared to culture, the overall sensitivities of Whatman 903 and FTA DBS for detection of S. pneumoniae were 57.1% (95% CI 18.4–90.1%) and 62.5% (95% CI 24.5–91.5%), respectively. Nonspecific amplification was noted in an additional 22 DBS (4.1%). Among these, six were positive for a non-S. pneumoniae pathogen on culture. Conclusions Rt-PCR was able to detect S. pneumoniae from clinical DBS specimens, including from a culture-negative specimen. Our findings show promise of this approach as a surveillance diagnostic, but also raise important cautionary questions. Several DBS specimens were detected as

  16. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Determination of Normal Pituitary Gland Dimensions in Zaria, Northwest Nigerian Population

    PubMed Central

    Ibinaiye, Philip Oluleke; Olarinoye-Akorede, Sefia; Kajogbola, Olugbenga; Bakari, Adamu Girei

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the dimensions of normal pituitary gland using T1-weighted magnetic resonance images (MRI) and to determine their relationship with age and sex. Materials and Methods: Cranial MRI scans of 100 individuals with clinically normal pituitary function (58 males and 42 females) and in the age range 14–82 years were reviewed in order to obtain volumetric measurements of the pituitary gland. The height, width, and depth of the pituitary were obtained from mid-sagittal and coronal planes, while the volume was calculated from these measured parameters. The data obtained were stratified based on age and sex for analysis. Statistical tests applied included Student's t-test and Pearson correlation. A minimum level of statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: The mean pituitary volumes were 334.1 ± 145.8 mm3 and 328.1 ± 129.2 mm3 while the mean pituitary heights were 6.45 ± 1.7 mm and 6.46 ± 1.57 mm in males and females, respectively. Although there was no statistically significant difference between pituitary height and pituitary volume in both sexes, they correlated negatively with increasing age (r = −202, P = 0.04 and r = −410, P = 0.000, respectively). Both parameters were highest in pubertal subjects and declined steadily with age, with a second peak occurring only for pituitary height in the sixth decade. The mean pituitary widths (9.08 ± 2.59 mm and 9.21 ± 1.86 mm) and depths (10.59 ± 1.71 mm and 10.49 ± 1.57 mm) in males and females, respectively, did not show remarkable changes with age and sex in the individuals studied. Conclusion: With this study, we have provided reference values in Nigerian population for the dimensions of normal pituitary gland, in order to facilitate assessment and diagnosis in patients with abnormalities of the hypothalamic–pituitary axis. PMID:26167387

  17. Psycho-educational Therapy among Nigerian Adult Patients with Epilepsy: A Controlled Outcome Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olley, B. O.; Osinowo, H. O.; Brieger, W. R.

    2001-01-01

    Evaluates the efficacy of a two-day psychoeducational program among patients with epilepsy in Nigeria. Results reveal that participants showed a substantial significant decrease in level of depression; a significant increase in the knowledge about epilepsy; and significant decrease in all measures of neurotic disorders except for hysterical…

  18. Is Rape in the Eye or in the Mind of the Offender? A Survey of Rape Perception among Nigerian University Stakeholders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elegbeleye, O. S.

    2006-01-01

    The issue of the escalating incidents of rape in Nigerian higher institutions has, not unexpectedly, agitated the minds of both students and university workers on the one hand, and the general public, on the other. This development has forced the hands of the authorities in some of the Nigerian universities to give priority to finding a solution…

  19. A Cross-Cultural, Nature of Science Investigation: A Comparative Analysis of NOSS Profiles on Nigerian and American Pre-Service, Secondary Science Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobern, William W.

    In this study, American pre-service teachers' responses on Kimball's Nature of Science Survey (NOSS) were used as a basis for analyzing the sense of "the nature of science" held by a group of Nigerian pre-service science teachers. In comparing the responses it was apparent that the Nigerian students were much more inclined to see science as a way…

  20. A comparative analysis of noss profiles on nigerian and American preservice, secondary science teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobern, William W.

    In this study American preservice science TEACHERS' responses on Kimball's Nature of Science Survey (NOSS) were used as a basis for analyzing the sense of the nature of science held by a group of Nigerian preservice science teachers. From an item-by-item comparison two salient differences were noted. These differences are quite interesting and important, and one would expect to see replication attempts in the near future. The primary difference was that the Nigerian students were much more inclined to see science as a way of producing useful technology. Given the national interests of a developing nation this is an understandable perception and one common among government policy makers. Nevertheless, it is a view with potential long-range dangers if this view of science is effectively transferred from teacher to student. For example, such a view is likely to raise false expectations in the general population, which when not achieved could result in widespread rejection of science. The second distinctive of the Nigerian students' sense of the nature of science had to do with the openness of science. These students perceived scientists as nationalistic and secretive about their work. This finding is troubling and indicates an important line of investigation: What image of science, especially Western science, is carried in the international media? How is that image understood in non-Western nations? What are the implications for international scientific cooperation?

  1. A comparative study of two communication models in HIV/AIDS coverage in selected Nigerian newspapers

    PubMed Central

    Okidu, Onjefu

    2013-01-01

    The current overriding thought in HIV/AIDS communication in developing countries is the need for a shift from the cognitive model, which emphasises the decision-making of the individual, to the activity model, which emphasises the context of the individual. In spite of the acknowledged media shift from the cognitive to the activity model in some developing countries, some HIV/AIDS communication scholars have felt otherwise. It was against this background that this study examined the content of some selected Nigerian newspapers to ascertain the attention paid to HIV/AIDS cognitive and activity information. Generally, the study found that Nigerian newspapers had shifted from the cognitive to the activity model of communication in their coverage of HIV/AIDS issues. The findings of the study seem inconsistent with the theoretical argument of some scholars that insufficient attention has been paid by mass media in developing countries to the activity model of HIV/AIDS communication. It is suggested that future research replicate the study for Nigerian and other developing countries’ mass media. PMID:23394854

  2. Depression and Nigerian-born immigrant women in the United States: a phenomenological study.

    PubMed

    Ezeobele, I; Malecha, A; Landrum, P; Symes, L

    2010-04-01

    This phenomenological study, using the Husserlian philosophy, explored the perceptions of Nigerian-born immigrant women in the United States and their portrayal of depression. Through face-to-face, semi-structured, audio-taped interviews incorporating open-ended questions and probes to facilitate discussion, the study examined a purposive sample of 19 Nigerian-born immigrant women's perception of depression. Data were analysed using Colaizzi's seven step method of data analysis. The findings from the study uncovered six themes: (1) craziness and madness; (2) curse and evil spirit possession; (3) denial and secrecy; (4) isolation and rejection; (5) spirituality and religion; and (6) need for education. Findings indicated that Nigerian-born women were not able to differentiate depression from other types of mental illnesses. The women described depression as something that affects others and not them. The women's perception provided insight into why the clergy was preferred for treatment of depression rather than health care professionals. The findings of the study should increase the awareness of nurses and other health care professionals of the need to focus on evidence-based, culturally specific research, and illuminate issues surrounding depression in this population. PMID:20465767

  3. Effect of oxidative stress on DNA damage and beta-amyloid precursor proteins in lymphoblastoid cell lines from a Nigerian population.

    PubMed

    Lahiri, D K; Xu, Y; Klaunig, J; Baiyewu, O; Ogunniyi, A; Hall, K; Hendrie, H; Sahota, A

    1999-01-01

    The epsilon 4 allele of apolipoprotein E (APOE) is strongly associated with late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) in Caucasian populations, but our studies suggest that APOE epsilon 4 is not a risk factor for AD in Nigerian blacks and is a weak risk factor in African-Americans. The prevalence of AD is lower in Nigerians than in African-Americans. Increased oxidative damage to macromolecules in brain tissue by reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been reported in AD. Here we examined the effects of endogenous and induced oxidative stress on total (nuclear and mitochondrial) DNA damage in lymphoblastoid cell lines (5 probable AD and 3 controls) from Ibadan, Nigeria. Cells were exposed to 200 microM t-butyl peroxide (a generator of ROS) for 4 hours. Total DNA was isolated and digested with nuclease P1 and alkaline phosphatase. DNA fragments were separated by HPLC and the levels of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (OH8dG, an indicator of DNA damage) and deoxyguanosine (dG) determined. We did not detect a significant difference in the OH8dG/dG ratio in untreated or treated cell lines in the two groups, and this was independent of APOE genotype. We also examined, by Western blotting, the level of beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP) which is involved in AD. The level of the heat shock protein (HSP-70) was examined as a control. There was a slight decrease in levels of APP and HSP-70 following treatment. Studies in cell lines from Caucasian subjects have shown an increase in mitochondrial DNA damage following oxidative challenge. Our preliminary results suggest that African populations are less vulnerable to chemical-induced oxidative DNA damage. PMID:10672260

  4. Small Satellites and the Nigerian National Space Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borroffice, Robert; Chizea, Francis; Sun, Wei; Sweeting, Martin, , Sir

    2002-01-01

    of natural and man-made disasters but will also be used for monitoring rapidly changing and dynamic aspect of agriculture, the environment, pipeline oil spillages and other national remote sensing requirements. Commercial exploitation of this unique 24hr revisit EO data is planned to offset the government investment. The second national project is NigeriaSAT-2, which is a geostationary communications minisatellite that has been selected specifically to address the lack of communications infrastructure in Nigeria. Both NigeriaSAT-1 and NigeriaSAT-2 projects are being carried out in co-operation with the Surrey Space Centre (UK), combined with a detailed space know-how transfer and training to build up an indigenous Nigeria capability in space technology, EO and communications. While the acquisition and development space technology is the prime focus of the national space programme, an application center, education center and various space research centers are being formed to draw the maximum benefit of space activities for Nigeria. The paper will present the experience of Nigeria in examining the cost/benefit of an affordable space programme based upon small satellites with real applications that will benefit the people of the country. The Nigerian space policy and programme and its first two small satellite projects (NigeriaSAT-1/DMC and NigeriaSAT-2/GEMINI) will also be presented. This paper focuses on how a developing country can take advantage of a cheap and efficient means of gaining access to space and using space technology in achieving its socio-economic development plans.

  5. What Does It Take to Be an Adult in Austria? Views of Adulthood in Austrian Adolescents, Emerging Adults, and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirsch, Ulrike; Dreher, Eva; Mayr, Eva; Willinger, Ulrike

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the defining features of emerging adulthood, subjects' conceptions of the transition to adulthood, and the perceived adult status in Austria. The sample consisted of 775 subjects (226 adolescents, 317 emerging adults, 232 adults). Results showed that most Austrian emerging adults feel themselves to be between adolescence…

  6. Satisfaction with Quality of Care Received by Patients without National Health Insurance Attending a Primary Care Clinic in a Resource-Poor Environment of a Tertiary Hospital in Eastern Nigeria in the Era of Scaling up the Nigerian Formal Sector Health Insurance Scheme

    PubMed Central

    Iloh, GUP; Ofoedu, JN; Njoku, PU; Okafor, GOC; Amadi, AN; Godswill-Uko, EU

    2013-01-01

    Background: The increasing importance of the concept of patients’ satisfaction as a valuable tool for assessing quality of care is a current global healthcare concerns as regards consumer-oriented health services. Aim: This study assessed satisfaction with quality of care received by patients without national health insurance (NHI) attending a primary care clinic in a resource-poor environment of a tertiary hospital in South-Eastern Nigeria. Subject and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study carried out on 400 non-NHI patients from April 2011 to October 2011 at the primary care clinic of Federal Medical Centre, Umuahia, Nigeria. Adult patients seen within the study period were selected by systematic sampling using every second non-NHI patient that registered to see the physicians and who met the selection criteria. Data were collected using pretested, structured interviewer administered questionnaire designed on a five points Likert scale items with 1 and 5 indicating the lowest and highest levels of satisfaction respectively. Satisfaction was measured from the following domains: patient waiting time, patient–staff communication, patient-staff relationship, and cost of care, hospital bureaucracy and hospital environment. Operationally, patients who scored 3 points and above in the assessed domain were considered satisfied while those who scored less than 3 points were dissatisfied. Results: The overall satisfaction score of the respondents was 3.1. Specifically, the respondents expressed satisfaction with patient–staff relationship (3.9), patient–staff communication (3.8), and hospital environment (3.6) and dissatisfaction with patient waiting time (2.4), hospital bureaucracy (2.5), and cost of care (2.6). Conclusion: The overall non-NHI patient's satisfaction with the services provided was good. The hospital should set targets for quality improvement in the current domains of satisfaction while the cost of care has implications for government

  7. Cell Proliferation (KI-67) Expression Is Associated with Poorer Prognosis in Nigerian Compared to British Breast Cancer Women.

    PubMed

    Agboola, Ayodeji O J; Banjo, Adekumbiola A F; Anunobi, Charles C; Salami, Babatunde; Agboola, Mopelola Deji; Musa, Adewale A; Nolan, Christopher C; Rakha, Emad A; Ellis, Ian O; Green, Andrew R

    2013-01-01

    Background. Black women with breast cancer (BC) in Nigeria have higher mortality rate compared with British women. This study investigated prognostic features of cell proliferation biomarker (Ki-67) in Nigerian breast cancer women. Materials and Methods. The protein expression of Ki-67 was investigated in series of 308 Nigerian women, prepared as a tissue microarray (TMA), using immunohistochemistry. Clinic-pathological parameters, biomarkers, and patient outcome of tumours expressing Ki-67 in Nigerian women were correlated with UK grade-matched series. Results. A significantly larger proportion of breast tumours from Nigerian women showed high Ki-67 expression. Those tumours were significantly correlated with negative expression of the steroid hormone receptors (ER and PgR), p21, p27, E-cadherin, BRCA-1, and Bcl-2 (all P < 0.001), but positively associated with EGFR (P = 0.003), p53, basal cytokeratins: CK56, CK14, triple negative, and basal phenotype using Nielsen's classification (all P < 0.001) compared to UK women. Multivariate analyses showed that race was also associated with BCSS independent of tumour size, lymph node status, and ER status. Conclusion. Ki-67 expression was observed to have contributed to the difference in the BCSS in Nigerian compared with British BC women. Therefore, targeting Ki-67 in the indigenous black women with BC might improve the patient outcome in the black women with BC. PMID:23691362

  8. Frames of mental illness in the Yoruba genre of Nigerian movies: implications for orthodox mental health care.

    PubMed

    Atilola, Olayinka; Olayiwola, Funmilayo

    2013-06-01

    This study examines the modes of framing mental illness in the Yoruba genre of Nigerian movies. All Yoruba films on display in a convenient sample of movie rental shops in Ibadan (Nigeria) were sampled for content. Of the 103 films studied, 27 (26.2%) contained scenes depicting mental illness. Psychotic symptoms were the most commonly depicted, while effective treatments were mostly depicted as taking place in unorthodox settings. The most commonly depicted aetiology of mental illness was sorcery and enchantment by witches and wizards, as well as other supernatural forces. Scenes of mental illness are common in Nigerian movies and these depictions-though reflecting the popular explanatory models of Yoruba-speaking Nigerians about mental illness- may impede utilization of mental health care services and ongoing efforts to reduce psychiatry stigma in this region. Efforts to reduce stigma and improve service utilization should engage the film industry. PMID:23670966

  9. The Colonial Adult Educator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Huey B.

    1975-01-01

    The adult evening schools of colonial America served a mixed clientele and provided instruction in a variety of subjects. Although most historians have described evening schoolmasters as incompetent frauds, research indicates that such descriptions are generally unjust and unfounded. (NHM)

  10. Adult Education. Annual Report, National Advisory Council on Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Advisory Council on Adult Education, Washington, DC.

    Recommendations of the President's National Advisory Council on Adult Education are the subject of this first annual report. The activities of the Council during its first year are listed. Recommendations for Action are: (1) a higher budget priority for adult education in Fiscal Year 1973, and the development of a Comprehensive Adult Education…

  11. Drug leads agents from methanol extract of Nigerian bee (Apis mellifera) propolis

    PubMed Central

    Lawal, Bashir; Shittu, Oluwatosin Kudirat; Abubakar, Asmau Niwoye; Olalekan, Ibrahim Azeez; Jimoh, Adisa Mohammed; Abdulazeez, Adeniyi Kamoru

    2016-01-01

    Background: Propolis is a bee (Apis mellifera) product of plant origin with varied chemical composition depending on the ecology of the botanical origin. It has been reported in literature to possess various therapeutic effects both traditionally, clinical trial, and animal study. Objectives: In the present study bioactive principle in methanol extract of Nigerian bee (A. mellifera) propolis was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) study. Materials and Methods: The methanol extract of Nigerian bee (A. mellifera) propolis was characterized for its chemical composition by preliminary phytochemicals screening and GC/MS analysis using standard procedures and methods. Results: Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, alkaloids, tannins, cardiac glycosides, anthraquinones phlobatannins, and steroids while GC/MS chromatogram revealed nineteen peaks representing 60 different chemical compounds. The first compounds identified with less retention time (RT) (13.33s) were methyl tetradecanoate, tridecanoic acid, methyl ester, decanoic acid, methyl ester while squalene, all-trans-squalene, 2,6,10-dodecatrien-1-ol, 3,7,11-trimethyl-, (E,E)- and farnesol isomer a took longest RT (23.647s) to identify. Methyl 14-methylpentadecanoate, hexadecanoic acid methyl ester, methyl isoheptadecanoate, and methyl tridecanoate were the most concentrated constituent as revealed by there peak height (26.01%) while eicosanoic acid was the least concentrated (peak height 0.81%) constituent of Nigerian bee propolis. Conclusion: The presence of these chemical principles is an indication that methanol extract of Nigeria bee propolis, if properly screened could yield a drug of pharmaceutical importance. PMID:27069724

  12. Potential of endogenous formation of volatile nitrosamines from Nigerian vegetables and spices.

    PubMed

    Atawodi, S E; Maduagwu, E N; Preussmann, R; Spiegelhalder, B

    1991-05-24

    Nitrosatability of dried Nigerian vegetables and spices was investigated under simulated gastric conditions. N-Nitroso-dimethylamine (NDMA) was the only volatile nitrosamine found above the preformed level except in ugwu where N-nitroso-piperidine (2.3 ppb) was also detected. The lowest NDMA value of 0.4 ppb was found in bitterleaf while onions had the highest level (14.7 ppb) of nitrosation. The results suggest that, under endogenous conditions, nitrosation of these foodstuffs could be an important contributory factor in cancer aetiology. PMID:2032210

  13. Detection of methylating activity due to nitrosamide in some nitrosated Nigerian foodstuffs.

    PubMed

    Atawodi, S E; Mende, P; Preussmann, R; Spiegelhalder, B

    1996-02-01

    Popular vegetables, condiments and some Nigerian staple foods were evaluated for their relative methylating potential due to nitrosamide formation following nitrosation under standardized conditions. Methylating activity of nitrosated foodstuffs, expressed as N-nitroso-N-methylurea equivalents, was determined by gas chromatography-thermal energy analysis. In positive samples (detection limit 10 microgram/kg) methylating activity detected was in the range of 50-1200 microgram/kg, the highest activity being found in Telfairia occidentalis (ugwu). This value constitutes the highest amount ever detected for a fresh vegetable. The data suggest that some commonly consumed local foodstuffs might contribute to overall human burden of environmental carcinogens in Nigeria. PMID:8606030

  14. Effect of different preservative treatments on the microbial population of Nigerian orange juice.

    PubMed

    Sodeko, O O; Izuagbe, Y S; Ukhun, M E

    1987-01-01

    The effect of different preservative treatments on the microbial load of Nigerian orange juice was studied over a period of 1 month. Results obtained indicated that pasteurization at 60 degrees and 80 degrees C for 20 to 40 min, freezing at -5 degrees C, and addition of sodium benzoate at a concentration of 0.1 to 0.4% (w/v) could form a microbiological basis for the preservation of the juice for 1 month. Leuconostoc mesenteroides, L. paramesenteroides, Streptococcus avium, Lactobacillus plantarum, L. fermentum, L. fructivorans, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were the micro-organisms isolated from the untreated and treated juice samples. PMID:3316936

  15. Follicular Bronchiolitis in a Nigerian Female Child: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Umerah, Godwin O.; Ugwu, Christopher Emeka; Olusoji, Olugbenga; Adeyomoye, Adekunle

    2016-01-01

    Small airways diseases are not uncommon in childhood. They account for about 28.4% of hospital admissions for lower respiratory tract infections in South West Nigeria, most of which are due to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. Noninfectious causes of small airways diseases, on the other hand, are poorly recognized and rarely feature in the differential diagnoses of chronic/recurrent lower respiratory tract disease in our environment. We present a case of follicular bronchiolitis in a 2.5-year-old Nigerian female who had left upper lobectomy on account of recurrent cough and progressive shortness of breath. PMID:27313935

  16. Sodium and oxygen in Nigerian coals: Possible effects on ash fouling

    SciTech Connect

    Ewa, I.O.B.; Elegbe, S.B.; Adetunji, J.

    1996-09-01

    Ash fouling during heat transfers in coal power-plants has been known to be an engineering problem caused by high sodium levels of the feed-coals. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) was used in determining the concentration of some alkali elements (Na, Ca, Mg) associated with ash fouling for eight Nigerian coals mined at Onyeama, Ogbete, Enugu, Gombe, Okaba, Afikpo, Lafia and Asaba. Sodium levels were generally low (0.001-0.036%). Oxygen concentrations considered as an indicative measure of the wettability of each of the coals were determined. The possible effects of the concentration of these elements on ash fouling were discussed. 8 refs., 3 tabs.

  17. Acceptability, Safety, and Efficacy of Oral Administration of Extracts of Black or Red Maca (Lepidium meyenii) in Adult Human Subjects: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Gonzales-Arimborgo, Carla; Yupanqui, Irma; Montero, Elsa; Alarcón-Yaquetto, Dulce E; Zevallos-Concha, Alisson; Caballero, Lidia; Gasco, Manuel; Zhao, Jianping; Khan, Ikhlas A; Gonzales, Gustavo F

    2016-01-01

    The plant maca, grown at 4000 m altitude in the Peruvian Central Andes, contains hypocotyls that have been used as food and in traditional medicine for centuries. The aim of this research was to provide results on some health effects of oral administration of spray-dried extracts of black or red maca (Lepidium meyenii) in adult human subjects living at low (LA) and high altitude (HA). A total of 175 participants were given 3 g of either placebo, black, or red maca extract daily for 12 weeks. Primary outcomes were changes in sexual desire, mood, energy, health-related quality of life score (HRQL), and chronic mountain sickness (CMS) score, or in glycaemia, blood pressure, and hemoglobin levels. Secondary outcomes were acceptability and safety, assessed using the Likert test and side effect self-recording, respectively, and the effect of altitude. At low altitude, 32, 30, and 32 participants started the study receiving placebo, red maca, or black maca, respectively. At high altitudes, 33, 35, and 31 participants started the study receiving placebo, red maca, and black maca, respectively. Consumption of spray-dried extracts of red and black maca resulted in improvement in mood, energy, and health status, and reduced CMS score. Fatty acids and macamides were higher in spray-dried extracts of black maca than in red maca. GABA predominated in spray-dried extracts of red maca. Effects on mood, energy, and CMS score were better with red maca. Black maca and, in smaller proportions, red maca reduced hemoglobin levels only in highlanders with abnormally high hemoglobin levels; neither variety of maca reduced hemoglobin levels in lowlanders. Black maca reduced blood glucose levels. Both varieties produced similar responses in mood, and HRQL score. Maca extracts consumed at LA or HA had good acceptability and did not show serious adverse effects. In conclusion, maca extract consumption relative to the placebo improved quality of life parameters. Differences in the level of

  18. Comparison of the benefits of cochlear implantation versus contra-lateral routing of signal hearing aids in adult patients with single-sided deafness: study protocol for a prospective within-subject longitudinal trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Individuals with a unilateral severe-to-profound hearing loss, or single-sided deafness, report difficulty with listening in many everyday situations despite having access to well-preserved acoustic hearing in one ear. The standard of care for single-sided deafness available on the UK National Health Service is a contra-lateral routing of signals hearing aid which transfers sounds from the impaired ear to the non-impaired ear. This hearing aid has been found to improve speech understanding in noise when the signal-to-noise ratio is more favourable at the impaired ear than the non-impaired ear. However, the indiscriminate routing of signals to a single ear can have detrimental effects when interfering sounds are located on the side of the impaired ear. Recent published evidence has suggested that cochlear implantation in individuals with a single-sided deafness can restore access to the binaural cues which underpin the ability to localise sounds and segregate speech from other interfering sounds. Methods/Design The current trial was designed to assess the efficacy of cochlear implantation compared to a contra-lateral routing of signals hearing aid in restoring binaural hearing in adults with acquired single-sided deafness. Patients are assessed at baseline and after receiving a contra-lateral routing of signals hearing aid. A cochlear implant is then provided to those patients who do not receive sufficient benefit from the hearing aid. This within-subject longitudinal design reflects the expected care pathway should cochlear implantation be provided for single-sided deafness on the UK National Health Service. The primary endpoints are measures of binaural hearing at baseline, after provision of a contra-lateral routing of signals hearing aid, and after cochlear implantation. Binaural hearing is assessed in terms of the accuracy with which sounds are localised and speech is perceived in background noise. The trial is also designed to measure the impact of

  19. Death Education in the Nigerian Home: The Mother's Role.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okafor, Tr. Reuben Uche

    1993-01-01

    Notes that, in Nigeria, the death-awareness movement is new and the subject of death is still taboo. Sees women as occupying middle place between life and death. Offers rationale for death education in home and delineates role of mother with regard to death. Identifies likely problems mother may encounter in course of discharging her death duties.…

  20. Cardiac morbidity in subjects referred for echocardiographic assessment at a tertiary medical institution in the Nigerian savanna zone.

    PubMed

    Sani, M U; Karaye, K M; Ibrahim, D A

    2007-06-01

    Cardiovascular diseases constitute a major public health problem both in the developed and developing countries. The profile of morbidity and mortality however, varies between regions and countries and even within countries. The importance of recognizing the cardiovascular conditions that prevail in a particular area is very important in health planning and for improving healthcare services. We therefore set out to describe the cardiac morbidity pattern from our echocardiographic data. Between August 2002 and September 2004 (24 months), we reviewed the echocardiographic diagnosis of all patients aged 15 years referred for echocardiography. Information obtained from the records included age, gender, names of referring hospital/physician, clinical diagnosis and echocardiogram findings. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 10.0 software. A total of 594 persons were referred for echocardiographic examination in the 2 year study period. Of these, 489 (82.3%) had an abnormal echocardiogram. We analyzed those with abnormal echocardiograms. There were 272 males and 217 females. The male to female ratio was 1.3:1. Hypertensive heart disease was the commonest echocardiographic diagnosis, present in 228 (46.6%) of the patients. This is followed by dilated cardiomyopathy seen in 82 (16.8%) and then rheumatic heart disease in 55 (11.2%). Other findings were Non dilated cardiomyopathy (6.1%), Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (5.7%), pericardial diseases (3.7%), Ischemic heart disease (4.7%), Cor pulmonale (1.4%) and Endomyocardial fibrosis (0.4%) of patients. It was noted that majority of the cases were advanced with irreversible myocardial damage. Systemic hypertension remains the most important cause of CVD morbidity in savanna region of Nigeria. Addressing the major cardiovascular risk factors especially systemic hypertension will go a long way in reducing the burden of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:19205577

  1. Lecturers' and Students' Perception on Educational Policy Implementation Factors as Predictors for Quality Education in Nigerian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oredein, Afolakemi O.; Durojaye, Toluwase G.

    2012-01-01

    This study is based on lecturers' and students' perception on educational policy implementation factors and quality education in Nigerian universities. Educational policies have always been formulated purposely to guide the present and future thinking, actions and decisions of managers. The potency of policy is not in formulation but in its proper…

  2. The Effect of Gender, Socio-Economic Status and School Location on Students Performance in Nigerian Integrated Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okoye, N. S.

    2009-01-01

    The study examined the effects of gender, socio-economic status and school location, on Nigerian students performance in Integrated Science. The method used for the study was a three variable analysis of variance experimental design consisting of three independent variables at two levels each and one dependent variable. Six hundred junior…

  3. Nigerian Students' Perceptions and Cultural Meaning Construction Regarding Academic Integrity in the Online International Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szilagyi, Annamaria

    2014-01-01

    By presenting perceptions of Nigerian students enrolled in the online international postgraduate programmes of the University of Liverpool regarding academic integrity, this paper aims to explore Western ideas, such as originality and plagiarism that are extraneous in the students' local cultures. Different historical and cultural…

  4. Digital Divide in the Utilization of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Counsellor Education in Nigerian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eyo, Mfon

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated digital divide in the utilization of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in counsellor education in Nigerian universities. It had two research questions and two hypotheses tested at 0.05 level of significance. It adopted a survey design and used ICT Utilization Questionnaire (IUQ) in gathering data from the…

  5. Educational Experiences of Nigerian Scientists and Engineers: Problems of Technological Skill-Formation for National Self-Reliance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ukaegbu, Chikwendu C.

    1985-01-01

    Summarizes data on educational experiences from a study exploring the effective job utilization of 266 Nigerian scientists and engineers. Compares experiences of foreign and locally trained personnel. Discusses existing notions about science and technology education in developing countries in general and Nigeria in particular. (NEC)

  6. The Views of Nigerian Teachers in Public and Private Primary Schools on the Teaching of Early Literacy in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okebukola, Foluso

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on the bilingual policies and biliteracy programmes of African nations, this paper discusses the context of literacy education in Nigeria and examines Nigerian early literacy teachers' attitudes to teaching literacy and literacy teaching practices as informed by the National Policy on Education, Primary English Language Curriculum and the…

  7. Self-Concept, Computer Anxiety, Gender and Attitude towards Interactive Computer Technologies: A Predictive Study among Nigerian Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agbatogun, Alaba Olaoluwakotansibe

    2010-01-01

    Interactive Computer Technologies (ICTs) have crept into education industry, thus dramatically causing transformation in instructional process. This study examined the relative and combined contributions of computer anxiety, self-concept and gender to teachers' attitude towards the use of ICT(s). 454 Nigerian teachers constituted the sample. Three…

  8. The Organization and Administration of Nigerian Universities and the Satisfaction and Motivation of Lecturers in Some of These Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagbamiye, E. O.

    The extent to which the academic staff in the five oldest Nigerian universities expressed job satisfaction and motivation, in view of the seeming powerlessness of their Governing Councils, was studied. These universities are the University of Nigeria, Ibadan, Ahmadu Bello, Nsukka, and Ife and Lagos. A total of 157 teachers returned usable…

  9. The 12-Month Prevalence of DSM-IV Anxiety Disorders among Nigerian Secondary School Adolescents Aged 13-18 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adewuya, Abiodun O.; Ola, Bola A.; Adewumi, Tomi A.

    2007-01-01

    Aims: To estimate the 12-month prevalence of DSM-IV-specific anxiety disorders among Nigerian secondary school adolescents aged 13-18 years. Method: A representative sample of adolescents (n=1090) from senior secondary schools in a semi-urban town in Nigeria was assessed for the 12-month prevalence of DSM-IV-specific anxiety. Results: The 12-month…

  10. Gender Differences in Forestalling Anti-Social Behaviours among Student Fitness Aspirants and Recreationists in Nigerian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okunbor, A. O.; Agwubike, E. O.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the research was quadrupled. It investigated the prevalence of anti-social behaviours in campuses of Nigerian universities. Several student fitness aspirants and recreationists perceived examination malpractices (85%), stealing (83%), armed robbery (81%), prostitution (82%), drunkenness (80%), smoking (79%), hard drug consumption…

  11. Examining Personalisation of Instruction, Attitudes toward and Achievement in Mathematics Word Problems among Nigerian Senior Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awofala, Adeneye O. A.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of a personalised print-based instruction versus a non-personalised print-based instruction on the attitudes toward mathematics word problems of 350 senior secondary school year one Nigerian students within the blueprint of a quantitative research of pre-treatment-intervention-post-treatment non-equivalent…

  12. Enhancing Students' Attitude towards Nigerian Senior Secondary School Physics through the Use of Cooperative, Competitive and Individualistic Learning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akinbobola, Akinyemi Olufunminiyi

    2009-01-01

    The study was conducted to find out the attitude of students towards the use of cooperative, competitive and individualistic learning strategies in Nigerian senior secondary school physics. The design selected for this study was quasi-experimental. A total of 140 students took part in the study and they were selected by a random sampling…

  13. Effects of Full and Quasi-Participatory Learning Strategies on Nigerian Senior Secondary Students' Environmental Knowledge: Implications for Classroom Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajiboye, Josiah O.; Ajitoni, S. O.

    2008-01-01

    Environmental education is considered an appropriate intervention for creating awareness of, and an understanding of the challenges of environmental degradation. The introduction of EE into the Nigerian school curricular creates a challenge of how to teach it. A majority of the teachers still employ the old, traditional "chalk and talk" method.…

  14. Enhancement of Pedagogical Skills in Nigerian Schools through Information and Communication Technology (ICT): Issues for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aluede, Oyaziwo

    2013-01-01

    The history of information and communication technology (ICT) in Nigerian schools is patchy. The first experience of Internet services started about 1990 with University of Ilorin through the assistance of McMaster University in Canada. Currently, though, many staff members of universities in Nigeria have email accounts, and over forty-four…

  15. The Use of Teaching Methods and Styles in the Nigerian University System: The Curriculum and Policy Implications for Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakare, Tewo V.

    2011-01-01

    Teaching methods at the University level are supposed to emanate from the Nigerian National Policy on Education and stated curriculum, which have been found to affect learning outcomes significantly. This study surveyed popular teaching methods at the undergraduate level in Universities within the South-West geo-political zone of Nigeria. Six…

  16. Assessing the Internal Consistency of the Self-Image Questionnaire for Young Adolescents (SIQYA): A Nigerian Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adegoke, Alfred A.

    Noting the lack of self-concept research in nonwestern cultures and the need to determine if a western measure of self-image is embedded in the same network of constructs in another culture, this study examined the appropriateness of using the Self Image Questionnaire for Young Adolescents (SIQYA) with Nigerian students. Participating in the study…

  17. The Effect of Concept Mapping and Problem Solving Teaching Strategies on Achievement in Biology among Nigerian Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okoye, Nnamdi S.; Okechukwu, Rose N.

    2010-01-01

    The study examined the effect of concept-mapping and problem-solving teaching strategies on achievement in biology among Nigerian secondary school students. The method used for the study was a quasi-experimental pre-test treatment design. One hundred and thirteen senior secondary three (S.S. 111) students randomly selected from three mixed…

  18. Nigerian Library Staff and Their Perceptions of Health Risks Posed by Using Computer-Based Systems in University Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uwaifo, Stephen Osahon

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The paper seeks to examine the health risks faced when using computer-based systems by library staff in Nigerian libraries. Design/methodology/approach: The paper uses a survey research approach to carry out this investigation. Findings: The investigation reveals that the perceived health risk does not predict perceived ease of use of…

  19. Prospects and problems of women sanitarians justifying their inclusion in the environmental health profession: the Nigerian situation.

    PubMed

    Emeharole, P O

    1991-10-01

    THE HISTORY of the Nigerian political arena, has vindicated the great political impact made by Nigerian women. This Nigerian 'Women Impact Continuum' did not terminate with the achievement of political independence 30 years ago. The inclusion of Nigerian women in what was hitherto men's special profession has already begun to yield tremendous fruitful socio-economic development dividends. Contemporary Nigeria is witnessing the emergence of a spectrum of women achievers who have excelled in their various professions. Women in the Environmental Health Profession may not be an exception. The paper opines that if the current 'women impact continuum' permeates the Environmental Health Profession female sanitarians could justify their inclusion in the Profession, if: (i) there is strength in their number; (ii) the Federal Government grants the Environmental Health Profession a statutory Regulatory Board; (iii) Women Sanitarians are given opportunities for in-service training; and (iv) the women's wing of the Association is recognized and integrated into the National Council of Women's Societies (NCWS) of Nigeria and shown a sense of belonging by the Better Life Programme for Rural Women (BELPRW). PMID:1795354

  20. Developing a New Framework for Integration and Teaching of Computer Aided Architectural Design (CAAD) in Nigerian Schools of Architecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uwakonye, Obioha; Alagbe, Oluwole; Oluwatayo, Adedapo; Alagbe, Taiye; Alalade, Gbenga

    2015-01-01

    As a result of globalization of digital technology, intellectual discourse on what constitutes the basic body of architectural knowledge to be imparted to future professionals has been on the increase. This digital revolution has brought to the fore the need to review the already overloaded architectural education curriculum of Nigerian schools of…

  1. Women Empowerment and Participation in Economic Activities: Indispensable Tools for Self-Reliance and Development of Nigerian Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    E. N., Ekesionye; A. N., Okolo

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to examine women empowerment and participation in economic activities as tools for self-reliance and development of the Nigerian society. Research questions and hypothesis were used to guide the study. Structured questionnaire was used as the major instrument for data collection. Copies of questionnaires were…

  2. Nigerian Honey Ameliorates Hyperglycemia and Dyslipidemia in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Erejuwa, Omotayo O; Nwobodo, Ndubuisi N; Akpan, Joseph L; Okorie, Ugochi A; Ezeonu, Chinonyelum T; Ezeokpo, Basil C; Nwadike, Kenneth I; Erhiano, Erhirhie; Abdul Wahab, Mohd S; Sulaiman, Siti A

    2016-03-01

    Diabetic dyslipidemia contributes to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Hence, its treatment is necessary to reduce cardiovascular events. Honey reduces hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia. The reproducibility of these beneficial effects and their generalization to honey samples of other geographical parts of the world remain controversial. Currently, data are limited and findings are inconclusive especially with evidence showing honey increased glycosylated hemoglobin in diabetic patients. It was hypothesized that this deteriorating effect might be due to administered high doses. This study investigated if Nigerian honey could ameliorate hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. It also evaluated if high doses of honey could worsen glucose and lipid abnormalities. Honey (1.0, 2.0 or 3.0 g/kg) was administered to diabetic rats for three weeks. Honey (1.0 or 2.0 g/kg) significantly (p < 0.05) increased high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol while it significantly (p < 0.05) reduced hyperglycemia, triglycerides (TGs), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, coronary risk index (CRI) and cardiovascular risk index (CVRI). In contrast, honey (3.0 g/kg) significantly (p < 0.05) reduced TGs and VLDL cholesterol. This study confirms the reproducibility of glucose lowering and hypolipidemic effects of honey using Nigerian honey. However, none of the doses deteriorated hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia. PMID:26927161

  3. Plasma lipid, lipoprotein and apolipoprotein profiles in Nigerian university athletes and non-athletes.

    PubMed Central

    Oyelola, O O; Rufai, M A

    1993-01-01

    The fasting plasma lipid, lipoprotein and apolipoprotein profiles were determined in 14 healthy Nigerian male athletes and controls matched for sex and anthropometric parameters. The mean levels of total cholesterol (P < 0.05), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, apolipoprotein (apo) AII and E were significantly lower (P < 0.01) in the athletes than in the controls. However, there were no statistically significant differences (P > 0.05) between the mean values of the plasma triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol, apo AI, B, Lp(a), LpA1 and CIII:NonB respectively for the athletes and controls. A priori, the potential effect on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk was also compared using three predictor ratios - total cholesterol: HDL cholesterol (TC:HDL), LDL cholesterol: HDL cholesterol and apo B:AI. The mean of the three ratios was lower in the athletes than in the controls; however, the differences were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Based on our data, exercise appears to decrease the TC:HDL ratio in the athletes by lowering LDL-cholesterol, while the HDL-cholesterol is unaffected. We conclude that physical activity has salutary effects on the lipid, lipoprotein and apolipoprotein profiles of healthy Nigerian men. PMID:8130968

  4. Distribution of genetic variants of transcobalamin II in Nigerian black populations.

    PubMed Central

    Porck, H J; Fleming, A F; Frants, R R

    1984-01-01

    Transcobalamin II ( TC2 ) phenotyping was performed in Nigerian black males from several ethnic groups, using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in combination with autoradiography. The TC2 gene frequencies in the total Nigerian sample amounted to .064 (X), .124 (S), .498 (M), and .313 (F). Compared to white populations, the frequency of TC2 *X is low while the frequencies of TC2 *S and TC2 *F are high, which confirms previous studies on blacks. In some of the rare phenotypes we found, in addition to common TC2 variants, TC2 gene products with an electrophoretic mobility intermediary to X and S, and to M and F, indicative of further microheterogeneity in the genetic system of TC2 . The TC2 gene frequency data indicate interpopulation heterogeneity for this marker. Major differences were found between the Sudan and Guinea Savanna Group ( SGSG ) and the Middle Belt Group, and between the SGSG and the Ibos . The results of our comparative study confirm to some extent similar surveys, which have been based on the distribution of the ABO blood groups. Images Fig. 2 PMID:6731442

  5. Some Correlates of Electronic Health Information Management System Success in Nigerian Teaching Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Ojo, Adebowale I; Popoola, Sunday O

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, an electronic health information management system (EHIMS) is crucial for patient care in hospitals. This paper explores the aspects and elements that contribute to the success of EHIMS in Nigerian teaching hospitals. The study adopted a survey research design. The population of study comprised 442 health information management personnel in five teaching hospitals that had implemented EHIMS in Nigeria. A self-developed questionnaire was used as an instrument for data collection. The findings revealed that there is a positive, close relationship between all the identified factors and EHIMS’s success: technical factors (r = 0.564, P < 0.05); social factors (r = 0.616, P < 0.05); organizational factors (r = 0.621, P < 0.05); financial factors (r = 0.705, P < 0.05); and political factors (r = 0.589, P < 0.05). We conclude that consideration of all the identified factors was highly significant for the success of EHIMS in Nigerian teaching hospitals. PMID:25983557

  6. Nigerian Honey Ameliorates Hyperglycemia and Dyslipidemia in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Erejuwa, Omotayo O.; Nwobodo, Ndubuisi N.; Akpan, Joseph L.; Okorie, Ugochi A.; Ezeonu, Chinonyelum T.; Ezeokpo, Basil C.; Nwadike, Kenneth I.; Erhiano, Erhirhie; Abdul Wahab, Mohd S.; Sulaiman, Siti A.

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic dyslipidemia contributes to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Hence, its treatment is necessary to reduce cardiovascular events. Honey reduces hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia. The reproducibility of these beneficial effects and their generalization to honey samples of other geographical parts of the world remain controversial. Currently, data are limited and findings are inconclusive especially with evidence showing honey increased glycosylated hemoglobin in diabetic patients. It was hypothesized that this deteriorating effect might be due to administered high doses. This study investigated if Nigerian honey could ameliorate hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. It also evaluated if high doses of honey could worsen glucose and lipid abnormalities. Honey (1.0, 2.0 or 3.0 g/kg) was administered to diabetic rats for three weeks. Honey (1.0 or 2.0 g/kg) significantly (p < 0.05) increased high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol while it significantly (p < 0.05) reduced hyperglycemia, triglycerides (TGs), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, coronary risk index (CRI) and cardiovascular risk index (CVRI). In contrast, honey (3.0 g/kg) significantly (p < 0.05) reduced TGs and VLDL cholesterol. This study confirms the reproducibility of glucose lowering and hypolipidemic effects of honey using Nigerian honey. However, none of the doses deteriorated hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia. PMID:26927161

  7. Environmental profile and milk production of Friesian-Zebu crosses in Nigerian Guinea Savanna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igono, M. O.; Aliu, Y. O.

    1982-06-01

    A 10-year meteorologic data have been collated to enable delienation of the environmental profile of the Nigerian Guinea Savanna zone. Three distinct seasons are defined: a hot-dry season which lasts from March to April; a hot-humid season (May to October); and the harmattan season (November to February). The effects of these seasons on milk production by half and three-quarter Friesian-Zebu crosses were evaluated during the first 100 days of lactation over a 2-year period. There were no significant differences in milk yield between the genotypes, but at heat intensities above 27‡C, the half cross gave more milk than the three-quarter cross. It is thus recommended that the half Friesian-Zebu cross be selected for milk production in the Nigerian Guinea Savanna and that suitable husbandry and managerial adjustments such as provision of adequate clean water, shelter, good quality and silage and night grazing should be evolved to ameliorate the adverse effects of thermal stress and nutritional deficiency during the drier and hotter months of the year.

  8. The antimicrobial activities of processed Nigerian and South African black tea.

    PubMed

    Ojo, O A; Yunusa, A O; Akindele, S K; Vera, V N; Fowora, N

    2010-12-01

    The antibacterial activity of processed Nigerian Lipton Tea and South African 5 Roses Tea, extracted using distilled water, chloroform and 70% ethanol were determined against nine (9) enteropathogenic bacteria which includes; Bacillus subtilis, Proteus sp, Enterobacter sp., Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Salmonella paratyphi A, Salmonella arizona and Staphylococcus aureus. The 2 tea bags, Nigerian Lipton tea bag and the South African 5 Roses tea bag were extracted through Solvent extraction method using 3 extraction solvents; Distilled water, Chloroform and 70% Ethanol and then inoculated onto the Mueller-Hinton agar plates containing the standard isolates at 6 different points on each plate. The zones of inhibition of the bacterial isolates produced by each of these tea - extracts were determined while meaningful antibacterial activities against five (5) of the standard isolates; Enterobacter sp., K. pneumoniae, S. paratyphi A, B. subtilis and S. aureus were observed. Lipton tea water-extract was a more effective antibacterial agent than water-extract of 5 Roses tea. While the 70% ethanol-extract of 5 Roses tea had the greatest antibacterial activity of all the different tea-extract used for the study, the chloroform-extracts of the tea bags had no antimicrobial effect on all the test organisms used. PMID:22416657

  9. Toxic and essential elements in Nigerian rice and estimation of dietary intake through rice consumption.

    PubMed

    Adedire, Chris O; Adeyemi, Joseph A; Paulelli, Ana Carolina; da Cunha Martins-Junior, Airton; Ileke, Kayode D; Segura, Fabiana Roberta; de Oliveira-Souza, Vanessa C; Batista, Bruno L; Barbosa, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    In this study, levels and estimated daily intake (EDI) of two toxic elements, Cd and Pb, and eight essential elements: Ca, P, Zn, Mn, Co, Cu, Se and Mo, were determined in Nigerian rice samples. The mean levels of Cd, Pb and Co were 5.43±0.88, 38.66±5.42, 25.8±3.18 ng/g. The mean levels of Ca, P, Zn, Mn, Cu, Se and Mo were 71.5±7.31, 951±52.0, 10.2±0.63, 8.5±0.47, 3.07±0.18, 40.1±9.2 and 0.39±0.05 µg/g, respectively. The percentage contribution to the reference values for each element was 0.54, 7.71, 0.38, 9.51, 8.97, 31.3, 30.7, 5.1 and 60.7% for Cd, Pb, Ca, P, Zn, Mn, Cu, Se and Mo, respectively. The elemental nutrient levels in Nigerian rice samples are comparable to those obtained from other regions and their consumption does not pose any serious health risk to consumers. PMID:26368023

  10. Introduction of sex education into Nigerian schools: the parents', teachers' and students' perspectives.

    PubMed

    Orji, E O; Esimai, O A

    2003-03-01

    To assess parents', teachers' and students' knowledge of sex education and their level of acceptance of its introduction into the school curriculum in Nigeria, questionnaires were sent to teachers, students and parents of eight secondary schools located within Ile-Ife town. The responses of individual groups were collated, analysed and compared. A total of 1000 respondents (400 students, 400 parents and 200 teachers) returned the completed questionnaires. All the teachers and parents and 60% of the students had heard of sex education. A majority of the parents (92%), teachers (90%) and students (78%) supported its introduction into the school curriculum and believed that it would prevent unwanted pregnancies, enhance healthy relationships between opposite sex, prevent transmission of HIV infections and STDs, provide the knowledge of sexual interactions, consequences and responsibilities and to educate the students on the basic processes of human reproduction. One hundred and fifty-four (15.4%) of the respondents opposed the introduction of sex education because they believed that it would corrupt the students, it might lead to experimentation and that it should be the responsibility of the parents at home. Adolescent sex education should be incorporated into Nigerian schools. It is probably the most cost-effective intervention that could be made to ensure the future reproductive health of the Nigerian community. PMID:12745568

  11. Gambian-British and Nigerian-British Children's and Families' Experiences of Migration "Back" to West Africa. Research Briefing No. 13

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts-Holmes, Guy

    2013-01-01

    This research looks at the factors motivating Gambian-British and Nigerian-British parents to send their children "back" to West Africa and what this means for parents, children and families on both continents.

  12. Antelope Predation by Nigerian Forest Baboons: Ecological and Behavioural Correlates.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Volker; Lowe, Adriana; Jesus, Gonçalo; Alberts, Nienke; Bouquet, Yaëlle; Inglis, David M; Petersdorf, Megan; van Riel, Eelco; Thompson, James; Ross, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Baboons are well studied in savannah but less so in more closed habitats. We investigated predation on mammals by olive baboons (Papio anubis) at a geographical and climatic outlier, Gashaka Gumti National Park (Nigeria), the wettest and most forested site so far studied. Despite abundant wildlife, meat eating was rare and selective. Over 16 years, baboons killed 7 bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus) and 3 red-flanked duiker (Cephalophus rufilatus), mostly still-lying 'parked' infants. Taking observation time into account, this is 1 predation per group every 3.3 months - far lower than at other sites. Some features of meat eating resemble those elsewhere; predation is opportunistic, adult males monopolize most prey, a targeted killing bite is lacking and begging or active sharing is absent. Carcass owners employ evasive tactics, as meat is often competed over, but satiated owners may tolerate others taking meat. Other features are unusual; this is only the second study site with predation records for bushbuck and the only one for red-flanked duiker. The atypical prey and rarity of eating mammals probably reflects the difficulty of acquiring prey animals when vegetation cover is dense. Our data support the general prediction of the socioecological model that environments shape behavioural patterns, while acknowledging their intraspecific or intrageneric plasticity. PMID:27287424

  13. Incidence of pelvic organ prolapse in Nigerian women.

    PubMed Central

    Okonkwo, J. E. N.; Obiechina, N. J. A.; Obionu, C. N.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To establish the incidence and types of utero-vaginal prolapse. METHODS: Retrospective medical records analyses of women who were subjected to reconstructive pelvic surgery for various types of pelvic relaxation at the Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi and the University Of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria was carried out. The study was conducted from January 1996 to December 1999 during which there were 7515 surgical admissions. The inclusion criteria were those women who complained of feeling a mass in the vagina with demonAstrable descent of the anterior and/or posterior and/or apical vaginal walls and/or perineal descent. Excluded were patients who had other symptoms other than utero-vaginal prolapse and those whose grades and sites of prolapse were not determinable from the clinical or surgical notes. Also excluded were patients with nerve injury or disease, connective tissue disorders and neuromuscular diseases. The subjects were divided into two groups. Group I consisted of 54 women (age < or = 40 years), and group II included 105 women (age > or = 40 years). The findings between those two groups were compared with reference to sites, types and degree of prolapse. Also, coexistence of pelvic relaxation and underlying medical conditions were evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 159 subjects out of 492 charts studied met the inclusion criteria for the study. In group I, mean age was 32.839 with a standard deviation (SD) of +/- 6.012 years; and in group II the mean age was 56.543 with a SD of 8.094. Hypertrophic (elongated) cervix was determined in 15 (6.3%) subjects in group I for an incidence of 1.58% per year, cystocele (vaginal anterior wall descent) was present in 21 (8.9%) women for an incidence of 2.2% per year; rectocele (posterior vaginal wall descent) was identified in 15 (6.3%) women for an incidence of 1.58% per year; vaginal cough prolapse (apical descent) was present 21 (8.9%) women for an incidence of 2.2% per year

  14. Microbial inciters of acute asthma in urban Nigerian children.

    PubMed Central

    Gbadero, D. A.; Johnson, A. W.; Aderele, W. I.; Olaleye, O. D.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND--In tropical Africa the role of microbial agents of acute respiratory infections in acute exacerbations of bronchial asthma remains largely unexplored. However, empirical antibacterial therapy is frequently initiated in moderate to severe cases of acute asthma with symptoms of acute respiratory infection. A study was set up to determine how often acute respiratory infection is associated with acute asthma, to identify the associated pathogens, and to proffer appropriate therapeutic suggestions. METHODS--Over a 16 month period, 86 episodes of acute asthma were studied for clinical and laboratory features of acute respiratory infection at the University College Hospital (UCH), Ibadan. Virological diagnosis was based on immunofluorescence studies of nasopharyngeal aspirates and/or serological tests using the microtitre complement fixation technique. Throat swabs and blood were cultured for bacterial agents. RESULTS--Of the 64 cases who presented with rhinorrhoea, 51 (79.7%) were pyrexial (T > or = 37.6 degrees C). Inflammatory changes (frequently interstitial streakiness) were identified in 10 (19.6%) of the 51 chest radiographs; only two of these had lobar shadowing. Significant bacterial isolates were made in only three (3.5%) of the throat swabs and two (2.4%) of the blood cultures from the 86 cases; none had clinical septicaemia. On the other hand, 55 viral agents were identified from 39 (53%) of the 74 subjects studied; 16 (41.0%) had dual viral identifications. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) accounted for 20 (36.4%) identifications, parainfluenza virus (PIV) type 3 for 15 (27.3%), and influenza type A (Flu A) for 12 (21.8%). Viral identifications were significantly higher in infants and preschool subjects (< 5 years) and in those presenting with either rhinorrhoea or pyrexia. CONCLUSIONS--The results of this study underscore the importance of viral upper respiratory infections in asthma exacerbations in a tropical setting. The paucity of clinical

  15. Drug Abuse Among Medical Students at a Nigerian University: Part 1. Prevalence and Pattern of Use

    PubMed Central

    Ihezue, U. H.

    1988-01-01

    Using a structured pro forma, 728 out of 775 medical undergraduates at a Nigerian university were surveyed for the prevalence and pattern of drug use. An operational definition of substance abuse was made, and 28 percent of students fell within that criterion. Male abusers (81 percent) exceeded female abusers (19 percent). Substances most commonly abused were alcohol (60 percent), minor tranquilizers (48 percent), tobacco (35 percent), and narcotics (29 percent), particularly codeine. Only 11 percent abused cannabis. While most students were polydrug users, there was a low frequency of daily drug use. A general lifetime (occasional use) prevalence of substance use of 56 percent was found. Drugs consumed on a daily basis were alcohol (2 percent) and tobacco (6 percent). The prevalence of drug use was highest among the fourth and final year students. The majority of students were occasional abusers; there was no evidence of physical dependence. PMID:3257527

  16. Hydrometallurgical application for treating a Nigerian chalcopyrite ore in chloride medium: Part I. Dissolution kinetics assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baba, Alafara A.; Ayinla, Kuranga I.; Adekola, Folahan A.; Bale, Rafiu B.; Ghosh, Malay K.; Alabi, Abdul G. F.; Sheik, Abdul R.; Folorunso, Ismael O.

    2013-11-01

    The dissolution kinetics of a Nigerian chalcopyrite ore in hydrochloric acid was studied in this article. Acid concentration, reaction temperature, and ore particle size were chosen as experimental parameters. The chemical and morphological studies of the ore before and after leaching at optimal conditions were carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It is revealed that increasing the acid concentration and system temperature and decreasing the ore particle size greatly enhances the dissolution rate. The dissolution kinetics was found to follow the shrinking core model for the diffusion control mechanism where the activation energy ( E a) of 32.92 kJ·mol-1 was obtained for the process and supported by morphological changes at a higher dissolution of 91.33%.

  17. Youth Restiveness in Niger Delta rural areas: Lesson for .Contemporary Nigerian Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nlerum, F. E.

    2012-12-01

    This study reviewed the youth restiveness in Niger Delta rural areas as lesson for the contemporary Nigerian society. The study was based on secondary sources of information. The study identified youths in the area as people between the ages of 15 ñ 40 years. Youths possess viable characteristics for rural development which if mismanaged results into restiveness. The study showed that the primary causes of youth restiveness in the area were proliferation of arms, misuse of the military to suppress protests, misappropriation of benefits from crude oil, youth unemployment and environmental degradation. Consequences of youth restiveness among others included loss of life and properties, rural-urban migration of the farm families, breeding defective future leaders, disruption of oil and gas activities and food insecurity. In order to eradicate youth restiveness, the contemporary Nigeria society should check the rate of arm proliferation, misuse of the military to suppress youth protests, misappropriation of benefits accruing to the communities, youth unemployment and environmental degradation.

  18. IRI-vTEC versus GPS-vTEC for Nigerian SCINDA GPS stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okoh, Daniel; McKinnell, Lee-Anne; Cilliers, Pierre; Okere, Bonaventure; Okonkwo, Chinelo; Rabiu, Babatunde

    2015-04-01

    Following the recent proliferation of dual-frequency GPS (Global Positioning System) receiver systems across the African continent, there is a growing number of papers that compare vertical Total Electron Content (vTEC) values derived from the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) model with those obtained from the GPS receiver measurements. In this work we report an investigation of IRI-vTEC versus GPS-vTEC comparisons for three Nigerian SCINDAGPS stations (Nsukka, Ilorin, and Lagos) for which data are available in the year 2012, and present a further review of the differences/similarities observed between them. Since a major interest in this work is to use the GPS measurements to improve the predictions of the IRI model for the region, we present a detailed regression analysis of differences between the two sources in a manner that will benefit this application.

  19. Equivalent circuit modeling and vibrometry measurements of the Nigerian-origin Udu Utar drum.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Brian E; Hilton, C Beau; Giorgini, Frank

    2013-03-01

    The Udu drum, sometimes called the water pot drum, is a traditional Nigerian instrument. Musicians who play the Udu exploit its aerophone and idiophone resonances. This paper will discuss an electrical equivalent circuit model for the Udu Utar, a modern innovation of the traditional Udu, to predict the low frequency aerophone resonances and will also present scanning laser vibrometer measurements to determine the mode shapes of the dominant idiophone resonances. These analyses not only provide an understanding of the unique sound of the Udu instrument but may also be used by instrument designers to create instruments with resonance frequencies at traditional musical intervals for the various tones produced and to create musical harmonic ratios. The information, specifically the laser vibrometry measurements, may also be useful to musicians in knowing the best places to strike the Udu to excite musical tones. PMID:23464041

  20. Study of uptake of zinc into blood from a Nigerian diet using INAA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojo, J. O.; Osoniyi, R. O.; Aboderin, A. O.

    2003-01-01

    This work describes our on-going investigations on the study of uptake of zinc from dietary intakes, into blood. The aim is to evaluate the possibility of successful application of dietary zinc therapy in the management of Sickle Cell Anaemia (SCA). Seven adult subjects were involved in the current study. After the ingestion of an experimental diet, blood samples were withdrawn from the subjects at various time intervals. The blood samples were further separated into erythrocytes and plasma. Both blood components and the ingested diet were analysed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) for zinc. Significant increases in the levels of plasma zinc were recorded in the subjects within 2 hours after the ingestion of the diet and were sustained till about the fourth hour. We were not able to detect significant uptake of zinc in the erythrocytes. Either the levels of ingested zinc were too low or there were inhibitions of the absorption by the diet. Better response is expected in SCA patients since they are known to be frequently zinc-deficient.

  1. Prioritizing hazardous pollutants in two Nigerian water supply schemes: a risk-based approach

    PubMed Central

    Etchie, Ayotunde T; Etchie, Tunde O; Krishnamurthi, Kannan; SaravanaDevi, S; Wate, Satish R

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To rank pollutants in two Nigerian water supply schemes according to their effect on human health using a risk-based approach. Methods Hazardous pollutants in drinking-water in the study area were identified from a literature search and selected pollutants were monitored from April 2010 to December 2011 in catchments, treatment works and consumer taps. The disease burden due to each pollutant was estimated in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) using data on the pollutant’s concentration, exposure to the pollutant, the severity of its health effects and the consumer population. Findings The pollutants identified were microbial organisms, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, lead and zinc. All were detected in the catchments but only cadmium, cobalt, chromium, manganese and lead exceeded World Health Organization (WHO) guideline values after water treatment. Post-treatment contamination was observed. The estimated disease burden was greatest for chromium in both schemes, followed in decreasing order by cadmium, lead, manganese and cobalt. The total disease burden of all pollutants in the two schemes was 46 000 and 9500 DALYs per year or 0.14 and 0.088 DALYs per person per year, respectively, much higher than the WHO reference level of 1 × 10−6 DALYs per person per year. For each metal, the disease burden exceeded the reference level and was comparable with that due to microbial contamination reported elsewhere in Africa. Conclusion The estimated disease burden of metal contamination of two Nigerian water supply systems was high. It could best be reduced by protection of water catchment and pretreatment by electrocoagulation. PMID:23940402

  2. Screening for body-weight disorders in Nigerian children using contrasting definitions.

    PubMed

    Goon, D T; Toriola, A L; Shaw, B S

    2010-07-01

    Several indices for body-weight disorders exist in scientific literature, but it is inconclusive whether or not they can yield comparable results when applied to Nigerian children. The prevalence of weight disorders in Nigerian children was examined using the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) body mass index (BMI) for age charts and the International Obesity Task Force's (IOTF) age- and sex-specific BMI cut-off points. Participants were 2015 pupils (979 boys and 1036 girls) aged 9-12 years, attending 19 public primary schools in Makurdi, Nigeria. Stature and body mass were measured using standard techniques. Results were analysed using student t-test and Chi-squared statistics, with the probability level set at

  3. Plasma homocysteine and B vitamins levels in Nigerian children with nephrotic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Orimadegun, Bose Etaniamhe; Orimadegun, Adebola Emmanuel; Ademola, Adebowale Dele; Agbedana, Emmanuel Oluyemi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Available data on plasma homocysteine level in patients with nephrotic syndrome (NS) are controversial with increased, decreased and unchanged values reported. Therefore, plasma homocysteine and serum B vitamins in Nigerian children with NS were assessed in this study Methods Fasting blood samples were analysed for plasma homocysteine, serum folate and B vitamins in 42 children with NS and 42 age and sex-matched healthy controls in this case control study. Data were compared between NS and control using t test and Chi square. Relationships were tested with regression analysis with p set at 0.05. Results Prevalence of hyperhomocysteinaemia, low folate and cyanocobalamin in NS was 57.1%, 14.3% and 9.5% respectively. The mean homocysteine level was significantly higher in NS than control (11.3±2.6µmol/L versus 5.5±2.3µmol/L). Also, NS had lower folate and cyanocobalamin than control: 9.1±3.9ng/mL versus 11.2±3.1ng/dL and 268.5±95.7pg/mL versus 316±117.2pg/mL respectively. Weak but significant correlation between homocysteine and serum albumin (r = 0.347), folate (r = -0.607) and vitamin B12 (r = -0.185) were found in the NS group. Significant relationship was also found between homocysteine and vitamin B12 (ß = -0.64, 95% CI = -1.20, -0.08) after controlling for folate and vitamin B6 levels. Conclusion Clinically important hyperhomocysteinaemia and low B vitamins occur in Nigerian children with nephrotic syndrome. This data suggest that potential usefulness of folate and vitamin B supplementation for reducing high homocysteine levels in nephrotic syndrome need to be further investigated PMID:25404967

  4. Dual indices for prioritizing investment in decentralized HIV services at Nigerian primary health care facilities.

    PubMed

    Fronczak, Nancy; Oyediran, Kola' A; Mullen, Stephanie; Kolapo, Usman M

    2016-04-01

    Decentralizing health services, including those for HIV prevention and treatment, is one strategy for maximizing the use of limited resources and expanding treatment options; yet few methods exist for systematically identifying where investments for service expansion might be most effective, in terms of meeting needs and rapid availability of improved services. The Nigerian Government, the United States Government under the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) program and other donors are expanding services for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV to primary health care facilities in Nigeria. Nigerian primary care facilities vary greatly in their readiness to deliver HIV/AIDS services. In 2012, MEASURE Evaluation assessed 268 PEPFAR-supported primary health care facilities in Nigeria and developed a systematic method for prioritizing these facilities for expansion of PMTCT services. Each assessed facility was scored based on two indices with multiple, weighted variables: one measured facility readiness to provide PMTCT services, the other measured local need for the services and feasibility of expansion. These two scores were compiled and the summary score used as the basis for prioritizing facilities for PMTCT service expansion. The rationale was that using need and readiness to identify where to expand PMTCT services would result in more efficient allocation of resources. A review of the results showed that the indices achieved the desired effect-that is prioritizing facilities with high need even when readiness was problematic and also prioritizing facilities where rapid scale-up was feasible. This article describes the development of the two-part index and discusses advantages of using this approach when planning service expansion. The authors' objective is to contribute to development of methodologies for prioritizing investments in HIV, as well as other public health arenas, that should improve cost-effectiveness and

  5. Dual indices for prioritizing investment in decentralized HIV services at Nigerian primary health care facilities

    PubMed Central

    Oyediran, Kola’ A; Mullen, Stephanie; Kolapo, Usman M

    2016-01-01

    Decentralizing health services, including those for HIV prevention and treatment, is one strategy for maximizing the use of limited resources and expanding treatment options; yet few methods exist for systematically identifying where investments for service expansion might be most effective, in terms of meeting needs and rapid availability of improved services. The Nigerian Government, the United States Government under the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) program and other donors are expanding services for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV to primary health care facilities in Nigeria. Nigerian primary care facilities vary greatly in their readiness to deliver HIV/AIDS services. In 2012, MEASURE Evaluation assessed 268 PEPFAR-supported primary health care facilities in Nigeria and developed a systematic method for prioritizing these facilities for expansion of PMTCT services. Each assessed facility was scored based on two indices with multiple, weighted variables: one measured facility readiness to provide PMTCT services, the other measured local need for the services and feasibility of expansion. These two scores were compiled and the summary score used as the basis for prioritizing facilities for PMTCT service expansion. The rationale was that using need and readiness to identify where to expand PMTCT services would result in more efficient allocation of resources. A review of the results showed that the indices achieved the desired effect—that is prioritizing facilities with high need even when readiness was problematic and also prioritizing facilities where rapid scale-up was feasible. This article describes the development of the two-part index and discusses advantages of using this approach when planning service expansion. The authors' objective is to contribute to development of methodologies for prioritizing investments in HIV, as well as other public health arenas, that should improve cost-effectiveness and

  6. Chronic Myeloid Leukemia in Nigerian Patients: Anemia is an Independent Predictor of Overall Survival

    PubMed Central

    Oyekunle, Anthony A.; Durosinmi, Muheez A.; Bolarinwa, Ramoni A.; Owojuyigbe, Temilola; Salawu, Lateef; Akinola, Norah O.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The advent of the tyrosine kinase inhibitors has markedly changed the prognostic outlook for patients with Ph+ and/or BCR-ABL1+ chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). This study was designed to assess the overall survival (OS) of Nigerian patients with CML receiving imatinib therapy and to identify the significant predictors of OS. METHODS All patients with CML receiving imatinib from July 2003 to June 2013 were studied. The clinical and hematological parameters were studied. The Kaplan–Meier technique was used to estimate the OS and median survival. P-value of <0.05 was considered as statistically significant. RESULTS The median age of all 527 patients (male/female = 320/207) was 37 (range 10–87) years. There were 472, 47, and 7 in chronic phase (CP), accelerated phase, and blastic phase, respectively. As at June 2013, 442 patients are alive. The median survival was 105.7 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 91.5–119.9); while OS at one, two, and five years were 95%, 90%, and 75%, respectively. Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that OS was significantly better in patients diagnosed with CP (P = 0.001, odds ratio = 1.576, 95% CI = 1.205–2.061) or not in patients with anemia (P = 0.031, odds ratio = 1.666, 95% CI = 1.047–2.649). Combining these variables yielded three prognostic groups: CP without anemia, CP with anemia, and non-CP, with significantly different median OS of 123.3, 92.0, and 74.7 months, respectively (χ2 = 22.042, P = 0.000016). CONCLUSION This study has clearly shown that for Nigerian patients with CML, the clinical phase of the disease at diagnosis and the hematocrit can be used to stratify patients into low, intermediate, and high risk groups. PMID:27375361

  7. Nigerian Population Research on Environment, Gene and Health (NIPREGH) – objectives and protocol

    PubMed Central

    Odili, Augustine N.; Ogedengbe, John O.; Nwegbu, Maxwell; Anumah, Felicia O.; Asala, Samuel; Staessen, Jan A

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Sub-Saharan Africa is currently undergoing an epidemiological transition from a disease burden largely attributable to communicable diseases to that resulting from a combination of both communicable and chronic non-communicable diseases. Data on chronic disease incidence, lifestyle, environmental and genetic risk factors are sparse in this region. This report aimed at providing relevant information in respect to risk factors that increase blood pressure and lead to development of intermediate cardiovascular phenotypes. We presented the rationale, objectives and key methodological features of the Nigerian Population Research on Environment, Gene and Health (NIPREGH) study. The challenges encountered in carrying out population study in this part of the world and the approaches at surmounting them were also presented. The preliminary data as at 20 November 2013 showed that out of the 205 individuals invited starting from early April 2013, 160 (72 women) consented and were enrolled; giving a response rate of 78%. Participants' age ranged from 18 to 80 years, with a mean (SD) of 39.8 (12.4) years and they were of 34 different ethnic groups spread over 24 states out of the 36 states that constitute Nigeria. The mean (SD) of office and home blood pressures were 113.0 (15.2) mm Hg systolic, 73.5 (12.5) mm Hg diastolic and 117.3 (15.0) mm Hg systolic, and 76.0 (9.6) mm Hg diastolic, respectively. Forty-three (26.8%) participants were hypertensive and 8 (5.0%) were diabetic. In addition to having the unique potential of recruiting a cohort that is a true representative of the entire Nigerian population, NIPREGH is feasible and the objectives realisable. PMID:25332707

  8. Adult educators' core competences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne

    2016-05-01

    Which competences do professional adult educators need? This research note discusses the topic from a comparative perspective, finding that adult educators' required competences are wide-ranging, heterogeneous and complex. They are subject to context in terms of national and cultural environment as well as the kind of adult education concerned (e.g. basic education, work-related education etc.). However, it seems that it is possible to identify certain competence requirements which transcend national, cultural and functional boundaries. This research note summarises these common or "core" requirements, organising them into four thematic subcategories: (1) communicating subject knowledge; (2) taking students' prior learning into account; (3) supporting a learning environment; and (4) the adult educator's reflection on his or her own performance. At the end of his analysis of different competence profiles, the author notes that adult educators' ability to train adult learners in a way which then enables them to apply and use what they have learned in practice (thus performing knowledge transfer) still seems to be overlooked.

  9. Adult educators' core competences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne

    2016-06-01

    Which competences do professional adult educators need? This research note discusses the topic from a comparative perspective, finding that adult educators' required competences are wide-ranging, heterogeneous and complex. They are subject to context in terms of national and cultural environment as well as the kind of adult education concerned (e.g. basic education, work-related education etc.). However, it seems that it is possible to identify certain competence requirements which transcend national, cultural and functional boundaries. This research note summarises these common or "core" requirements, organising them into four thematic subcategories: (1) communicating subject knowledge; (2) taking students' prior learning into account; (3) supporting a learning environment; and (4) the adult educator's reflection on his or her own performance. At the end of his analysis of different competence profiles, the author notes that adult educators' ability to train adult learners in a way which then enables them to apply and use what they have learned in practice (thus performing knowledge transfer) still seems to be overlooked.

  10. Neuropsychological Assessment of Adult Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marceau, Roger; Meghani, Rehana; Reddon, John R.

    2008-01-01

    This report is primarily concerned with reporting on the normative results obtained on a large sample of serious adult offenders. An expanded Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery was administered to 584 adult offenders (OF), 132 normal controls (NC), and 494 acute psychiatric patients (PP). Subjects were between 18 and 44 years of age.…

  11. Just How Adult Is This Young Adult Book: Young Adult Books for the Junior High Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Charlotte

    1999-01-01

    Discusses young adult novels and presents a bibliography to acquaint librarians with titles and authors that are suitable for emerging young adult readers in grades five through nine. Subject categories include realistic fiction, in the news, historical fiction, short stories, legendary characters, mysteries, science fiction/fantasy/horror, and…

  12. Adult Compacts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Further Education Unit, London (England).

    This bulletin focuses on adult compacts, three-way agreements among employers, potential employees, and trainers to provide the right kind of quality training to meet the employers' requirements. Part 1 is an executive summary of a report of the Adult Compacts Project, which studied three adult compacts in Birmingham and Loughborough, England, and…

  13. Recent perspectives on the anticancer properties of aqueous extracts of Nigerian Vernonia amygdalina

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Carolyn Bingham; Johnson, William K; Pervin, Shehla; Izevbigie, Ernest B

    2016-01-01

    Innovative developments are necessary for treating and defeating cancer, an oftentimes deadly group of diseases characterized by the uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells. Breast cancer (BC) is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths of women in the USA, and prostate cancer (PC) is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths of American men. Although some efficacious BC drugs are pharmaceutically marketed, they affect the quality of life for some patients because they are toxic in that their usages have been accompanied by side effects such as stroke, thrombosis, slow heart rate, seizure, increased blood pressure, nausea, emesis, and more. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the discovery of molecular markers for early detection of this disease and discovery of targets for the development of novel, less toxic therapeutics. A botanical plant Vernonia amygdalina has been widely used in Nigerian and other Central and West African cultures for centuries as an herbal medicine. Mounting evidence suggests that treatment with low concentrations of aqueous leaf extracts of the edible Nigerian V. amygdalina plant (Niger-VA) arrests the proliferative activities and induces apoptosis in estrogen receptor-positive, estrogen receptor-negative, and triple-negative human breast cancerous cells and in androgen-independent human PC-3. Also, in athymic mice, Niger-VA potentiates increased efficacies and optimizes treatment outcomes when given as a cotreatment with conventional chemotherapy drugs. Evidence of its noticeable cytostatic activities ranging from changes in DNA synthesis to growth inhibition, mechanisms of inducing apoptosis in different cancer cell lines, and in vivo antitumorigenic activities and chemopreventive efficacy reinforce the idea that Niger-VA deserves increased attention for further development as a phytoceutical, anticancer drug entity. Hence, the present review article highlights impactful published literature on the anticancer

  14. Cranial computed tomographic findings in Nigerian women with metastatic breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Obajimi, Millicent O.; Ogbole, Godwin Inalegwu; Adeniji-Sofoluwe, Adenike T.; Adeleye, Amos O.; Elumelu, Theresa N.; Oluwasola, Abideen O.; Akute, O. O.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Brain metastases (BM) occur in up to one-fifth of patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC). Imaging plays a key role in diagnosis. The pattern and distribution of these changes are also crucial to their management. These patterns have not been fully studied in Nigerian women. Materials and Methods: Retrospective analysis of the findings on the cranial Computed Tomography (CT) scans performed in 59 breast cancer patients with suspected BM treated at the University Teaching Hospital in Ibadan, between 2005 and 2010. The imaging features were evaluated in relation to their clinical characteristics. Results: In the 59 patients studied (mean age 50.9 years ± 11.75 SD), headache (40.7%) and hemiparesis/hemiplegia (16.9%) were the commonest clinical presentation. Lytic skull lesions were seen in 15 patients (25.4%), most commonly in the parietal bones. Thirty-nine patients (66.1%), had parenchymal brain lesions, and only 8 (20.5%) of these were single lesions. Most of the lesions were isodense (19/39; 51.4%) the parietal lobe was the most common site with 50.8% (30/59) occurrence and the leptomeninges the least with 13.6% (8/59). Orbital or sellar region involvement occurred in only two patients. The size of the lesions, was <2 cm in 17 (28.8%), 2-5 cm in 14 (23.7%) and >5 cm in 5 patients. Sixteen (27.1%) patients were free of any lesion either in the skull or brain. Patient presenting with multiple brain lesions were more likely to have skull lesions though this was not statistically significant (P = 0.584). Conclusion: The brain continues to be a sanctuary site for breast cancer metastases and CT imaging remains an invaluable tool in the clinical evaluation and therapeutic management of Nigerian women with BM from MBC. It also appears that the demographic and imaging findings in these patients are similar to other racial groups. PMID:23798799

  15. Difference in growth hormone response to growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) testing following GHRH subacute treatment in normal aging and growth hormone-deficient adults: possible perspectives for therapeutic use of GHRH or its analogs in elderly subjects?

    PubMed

    Iovino, M; Triggiani, V; Giagulli, V A; Iovine, N; Licchelli, B; Resta, F; Sabbà, C; Tafaro, E; Solimando, A; Tommasicchio, A; Guastamacchia, E

    2011-06-01

    The somatotroph axis function shows a decline in the elderly (somatopause). In particular growth hormone (GH) response to GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) is reduced in aged man but less than that observed in GH-deficient adults (GHDAs). Plasma GH response to GHRH (1 µg/kg BW) was significantly lower in four GHDAs than in seven healthy aged men 30, 60, and 90 min after acute GHRH administration. To verify whether a priming regimen might be able to increase the reduced GH response to GHRH, both healthy aged men and GHDA patients underwent repetitive administration of GHRH (100 µg GHRH intravenously as a single morning dose, every 2 days for 12 days). After the GHRH-priming regimen, plasma GH values 30, 60, and 90 min after the acute GHRH test were significantly higher than values at the corresponding time points before priming regimen in healthy aged men but not in GHDA patients. These findings confirmed that somatotroph cells become less sensitive to GHRH with normal aging and demonstrate that repetitive administration of GHRH restores the attenuated response only in healthy aged men but not in GHDA patients. This could support the possible use of GHRH or its analogs instead of recombinant human GH in elderly patients with the advantage of preserving the endogenous pulses of GH with the secretion of the different isoforms of GH. However, concerns arise about the possible role of these molecules in tumorigenesis and tumor growth promotion. PMID:20843274

  16. A Source Book on Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, S. Y., Ed.

    Intended for policy planners, administrators, and scholars, this document contains summaries and excerpts of official government of India documents published since 1939 on adult education. The document is in three parts. The first part contains government documents that deal exclusively with adult education. Their subjects include adult education…

  17. Interview Schedule for Studying Why Adults Learn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tough, Allen

    Designed for use in a 1968 study of why adults learn, this interview schedule contains situation-description and question sheets for use by the interviewer and subject for examining thirteen reasons why adults begin and why they continue a learning project. (The study, "Why Adults Learn: A Study of the Major Reasons for Beginning and Continuing a…

  18. Sero-prevalence and factors associated with Hepatitis B and C co-infection in pregnant Nigerian women living with HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Ezechi, Oliver Chukwujekwu; Kalejaiye, Olufunto Olufela; Gab-Okafor, Chidinma Vivian; Oladele, David Ayola; Oke, Bamidele Oludare; Musa, Zaidat Adesola; Ekama, Sabdat Ozichu; Ohwodo, Harry; Agahowa, Endurance; Gbajabiamilla, Titilola; Ezeobi, Paschal Mbanefo; Okwuraiwe, Azuka; Audu R, Rosemary Ajuma; Okoye, Rosemary Nwakaego; David, Agatha Nkiru; Odunukwe, Nkiruka Nonyelum; Onwujekwe, Dan Ifeanyi; Ujah, Innocent Achanya

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Perinatal and horizontal transmission of Hepatitis B occur in areas of high endemicity as most infections are acquired in the first 5 years of life. Unless Hepatitis B and C infected pregnant women identified, and appropriate treatment provided, children born to these women are at high risk of chronic Hepatitis B (and C) virus infection. The objecive of this study was to determined the prevalence and the factors associated with Hepatitis B and C Virus infection in pregnant HIV positive Nigerians. Methods A cross sectional study among HIV Positive pregnant women seen at a large PMTCT clinic in Lagos Nigeria. The women were screened for Hepatitis B and C Virus infection at enrollment. HIV viral load, CD4 count, liver transaminases and hemoglobin levels were also determined. Data were managed with SPSS for windows version. Ethical approval was obtained from the Institutions Ethical Review Board. Results Of the 2391 studied subjects, 101(4.2%) and 37(1.5%) respectively were seropositive for Hepatitis B and C Virus infection. Twowomen (0. 08%) had triple infections. blood transfusion, (cOR: 2.3; 95% CI:1.1 - 4.6), history of induced abortion (cOR:2. 2;95% CI:1.3 - 3.6), and elevated baseline ALT (cOR:2. 2; 95%CI:2. 2;4.2) were significantly associated with HBV. History of induced abortion was the only factor found to be associated with HIV/ HCV (cOR: 1.9;95%CI:1. 3-3.9). Conclusion Hepatitis B Virus infection (4.2%) is relatively common in our environment and associated with induced abortion, blood transfusion and elevated baseline transaminase. Hepatitis C Virus infection (1.5%) is less common and associated with only history of induced abortion. PMID:25396023

  19. Dietary Exposure of Nigerians to Mutagens and Estrogen-Like Chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Omoruyi, Iyekhoetin Matthew; Ahamioje, Derek; Pohjanvirta, Raimo

    2014-01-01

    Food and drinking water are poorly delineated sources of human exposure to chemical food mutagens and endocrine-disrupting chemicals. In this study, we investigated the presence of mutagens and chemicals exhibiting estrogenic activity in the daily diet of Nigerians, using in vitro assays. Commercially processed foods or snacks and various brands of pure water sachets were extracted by solid-phase extraction and liquid-liquid extraction, respectively. Mutagenicity was determined by the conventional Ames test and two complementary assays on two strains of Salmonella (TA 100 and TA 98), while the estrogenic activity was assessed by a yeast bioluminescent assay, using two recombinant yeast strains (Saccharomyces cerevisiae BMAEREluc/ERα and S. cerevisiae BMA64/luc). A third of the food varieties investigated (chin-chin, hamburger, suya and bean cake) were mutagenic in all three assays, either in the presence or absence of S9 mix. Of the packed water samples, five out of the sixteen investigated (31%), were found to be estrogenic, with estradiol and bisphenol A equivalents ranging from 0.79 to 44.0 ng/L and 124.2 to 1,000.8 ng/L, respectively. Hence, although the current situation in Nigeria does not appear to be substantially worse than, e.g., in Europe, regular monitoring is warranted in the future. PMID:25153465

  20. In vivo evaluation of iron bioavailability in some Nigerian peasant meals by haemoglobin regeneration technique.

    PubMed

    Udo, U F; Ifon, E T; Umoh, I B; Eka, O U

    1993-07-01

    The bioavailability of iron in three different rural Nigerian peasant meals was studied. The meals were: pounded yam (Discorea spp) with 'afia efere'--(plain soup); 'ekpang nkukwo'--grated cocoyam (Xanthosoma maffafa Schott) and cocoyam leaves with pepper and plantain porridge (Musa paradisiaca) with water leaf (Talinum triangulare). Analyses of the meals showed the protein content to range from 8.58 +/- 0.01 mg/100 g DM to 11.38 +/- 0.08/100g DM. Iron content ranged from 17.50 +/- 2.50 mg/100 DM to 23.94 +/- 3.56 mg/100g DM. The rehabilitation of mildly anaemic rats with test meals showed the percentage of the ingested iron utilised for haemoglobin synthesis as: 48.08 +/- 0.51 pc; 18.09 +/- 0.41 pc; 19.09 +/- 0.36 pc for the test diets respectively and 60.80 +/- 0.22 pc for the control group. A comparison of the utilization of iron between the test and the control groups showed that there was a significant difference (p < 0.01) between the test and the control groups. The low level of iron enhancers in the meals has been suggested as the possible cause of the marginal level of iron availability from the meals to the test animals. PMID:8205607

  1. Mobilizing men as partners: the results of an intervention to increase dual protection among Nigerian men

    PubMed Central

    Exner, Theresa M.; Mantell, J. E.; Adeokun, L. A.; Udoh, I. A.; Ladipo, O. A.; Delano, G. E.; Faleye, J.; Akinpelu, K.

    2009-01-01

    This quasi-experimental, proof-of-concept study evaluated the effects of an intervention designed to help Nigerian men decrease risk for HIV/sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancy. The intervention was delivered in groups during two 5-hour workshops, with a monthly 2-hour check-in session. A comparison condition consisted of a group-based half-day didactic workshop. Based on recruitment area, 149 men were assigned to the intervention and 132 to the comparison. Men were evaluated at baseline and 3-month post-intervention. At follow-up, men assigned to the intervention were almost four times more likely than comparison men to report condom use at last intercourse (P < 0.001) and to report fewer unprotected vaginal sex occasions, greater self-efficacy for negotiation, a more egalitarian power dynamic in their primary relationship, more positive expectations for condom use and greater intention for future consistent condom use (all P values < 0.05). Findings suggest that this intervention is both feasible and effective. PMID:19359352

  2. Klippel Trenaunay Syndrome: A Case Report in an Adolescent Nigerian Boy

    PubMed Central

    Ikpeme, Anthonia Asanye; Usang, Usang Edet; Inyang, Akan Wilson; Ani, Nchiewe

    2015-01-01

    AIM: This is to report a case of Klippel Trenauay Weber syndrome in a fifteen year old Nigerian boy. This is a rare syndrome and it is the first case to be reported in UCTH Calabar. CASE PRESENTATION: Product of a full term uneventful pregnancy, delivered to non-consanguineous apparently healthy parents. At birth was noted to gradually develop swelling on the right leg, worse at the right foot. There was crossed hemi-hypertrophy with right leg bigger than the left. As child grew symptoms worsened, parents separated and eventually he was abandoned to the streets. He presented at University of Calabar Teaching Hospital for medical care at the age of fifteen years with lymphatic obstruction, persistent foul smelling drainage, lipodermatosclerosis of right foot as well psycho-social and financial constraints. The diagnosis was made with x-rays and Doppler studies of the lower limb vessels. He is currently being managed conservatively with compression dressings on the affected limbs, Antibiotics for the infection and analgesics. De-bulking surgery is being anticipated at this time. CONCLUSION: This is a case of KTWS presenting in adolescence and due to its rarity in Nigeria, this report is to increase awareness.

  3. Use of an oxygen concentrator in a Nigerian neonatal unit: economic implications and reliability.

    PubMed

    Mokuolu, Olugbenga A; Ajayi, Oluade A

    2002-09-01

    A 3-year experience of using an oxygen concentrator in a Nigerian newborn unit and economic appraisal of its effectiveness is reported. The oxygen concentrator is a device that absorbs nitrogen from ambient air, with a resultant oxygen concentration of 85 to 95% at different flow rates. The oxygen concentrator met our oxygen needs which averaged 18 hours a day, and had a huge cost advantage over the oxygen cylinders. The cost of oxygen via cylinder for just one patient for a year exceeds the initial capital outlay for a concentrator. The Puritan-Bennett oxygen concentrator has a lifespan of at least 7 years and is virtually maintenance-free for the 1st 26,400 hours of use, after which some major components might need replacement. We conclude that in developing countries oxygen concentrators are a more cost-effective, reliable and convenient means of oxygen supply than oxygen cylinders, and recommend their use where there is a high demand for oxygen. PMID:12369483

  4. Knowledge and Attitude of Nigerian Pregnant Women towards Antenatal Exercise: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Mbada, Chidozie E.; Adebayo, Olubukayomi E.; Adeyemi, Adebanjo B.; Arije, Olujide O.; Dada, Olumide O.; Akinwande, Olabisi A.; Awotidebe, Taofeek O.; Alonge, Ibidun A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Engagement in physical exercise in pregnancy is hamstrung by safety concerns, skepticism about usefulness, and limited individualized prescription guidelines. This study assessed knowledge and attitude of pregnant women towards antenatal exercises (ANEx). Methods. The cross-sectional study recruited 189 pregnant women from six selected antenatal clinics in Ile-Ife, South-West, Nigeria. Data were obtained on maternal characteristics, knowledge, and attitude towards ANEx. Results. Relaxation and breathing (59.8%), back care (51.3%), and muscle strengthening (51.3%) exercises were the most commonly known ANEx. Prevention of back pain risk (75.9%) and excess weight gain (69.1%) were perceived as benefits, while lower extremities swelling (31.8%) and extreme weight gain or loss (30.7%) were considered as contraindications to ANEx. 15.8% of the respondents had negative attitude towards ANEx resulting from insufficient information on exercise (83.3%) and tiredness (70.0%). Age significantly influences knowledge about contraindications to ANEx (P = 0.001), while attitude was influenced by age and occupation, respectively (P < 0.05). There was significant association between attitude and knowledge about benefits and contraindications to ANEx (P < 0.05). Conclusion. A majority of Nigerian pregnant women demonstrated inadequate knowledge but had positive attitude towards ANEx. Knowledge about benefits and contraindications to ANEx significantly influenced the attitude towards exercise in pregnancy. PMID:25006478

  5. Gross morphometric study of the eyeball and tongue of the Nigerian local dog.

    PubMed

    Igado, Olumayowa Olawumi

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the morphometry of two sense organs, the eyeball and tongue, of the Nigerian local dog (11 males, 14 females), all aged 2 years and above. The samples were grouped according to gender and weight (up to 12 kg or above that weight). The average values obtained for the weights of the left and right eyeballs and the tongue were 3.77 +/- 0.51 g, 3.68 +/- 0.74 g and 2.96 +/- 0.38 g respectively, while the length of the tongue, its thickness and width at the root and apex were 14.20 +/- 2.29 cm, 0.87 +/- 0.30 cm, and 0.21 +/- 0.05 cm respectively. The circumferences of the eyeballs (antero-posterior, mediolateral and peri-orbital) were all found to be higher in females, except the antero-posterior circumference of left eye, in spite of heavier eyeballs in males. Also, the females showed a wider rima oris and higher values for most of the tongue measurements. A positive correlation existed between the weight of the animal and that of the head and tongue, while a negative correlation was observed between the body weight and the weight of the eyeballs. This report highlights the presence of sexual dimorphism and mild lateral asymmetry in this rarely reported breed of dog. The data obtained from this study may find application in feeding physiology, ophthalmic clinical manipulations and comparative anatomy. PMID:22303638

  6. Prevalence of and factors associated with extramarital sex among Nigerian men.

    PubMed

    Oyediran, Kola; Isiugo-Abanihe, Uche C; Feyisetan, Bamikale J; Ishola, Gbenga P

    2010-06-01

    This study used data on currently married and cohabiting men aged 15 to 64 years from the 2003 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey to examine the prevalence of and factors associated with extramarital sex. The results show that 16% engaged in extramarital sex in the 12 months preceding the survey and had an average of 1.82 partners. The results also show statistically significant association between extramarital sex and ethnicity, religion, age, age at sexual debut, education, occupation, and place of residence. Based on the study results, it could be concluded that significant proportions of Nigerians are exposed to HIV infection through extramarital sex. A fundamental behavioral change expected in the era of HIV/AIDS is the inculcation of marital fidelity and emotional bonding between marital partners. The promotion of condom use among married couples should be intensified to protect women, a large number of whom are exposed to HIV infection from their spouses who engage in unprotected extramarital sex. And, because of gender-based power imbalances within the family, a large number of the women are unable to negotiate consistent condom use by their partners. PMID:19477757

  7. Effect of crossbreeding on fertility, hatchability and embryonic mortality of Nigerian local chickens.

    PubMed

    Adeleke, Matthew Adekunle; Peters, Sunday Olusola; Ozoje, Michael O; Ikeobi, Christian O N; Bamgbose, Adeyemi M; Adebambo, Olufunmilayo Ayoka

    2012-03-01

    A total of 970 eggs were collected from matings involving three genotypes of Nigerian local chickens (Normal-feathered, Frizzle-feathered and Naked neck) and one exotic broiler breeder strain (Anak Titan) to evaluate the effect of crossbreeding on fertility, hatchability and embryonic mortality. Mating was achieved through artificial insemination. Sire genotype significantly (P < 0.05) affected percent fertility and percent dead-in-shell. Naked neck sire genotype had the highest dead-in-shell (19.5%) with the least being 7.5% for Frizzle-feathered chickens. Frizzle-feathered sire genotype had the highest fertility (90.5%) and hatchability (91.4%). Dam genotype had a significant effect (P < 0.01) on fertility and hatchability, with Anak Titan dam having the highest fertility and hatchability of 88.2% and 94.6%, respectively. Fertility and hatchability were significantly (P < 0.05) influenced by the interactive effect of sire and dam genotypes with Frizzle-feathered × Anak Titan having 98.5% fertility and 96.8% hatchability. Both straight and reciprocal crosses involving Frizzle-feathered genotype and Anak Titan resulted in higher mean values for fertility and hatchability when compared to crosses involving the other two local chicken genotypes. This result suggests that the use of the Frizzle-feathered genotype appears to be more desirable in fertility and hatchability trials. PMID:21786049

  8. Lung fluke (Paragonimus africanus) infects Nigerian red-capped mangabeys and causes respiratory disease

    PubMed Central

    Friant, Sagan; Brown, Kelsey; Saari, Mason T.; Segel, Nicholas H.; Slezak, Julia; Goldberg, Tony L.

    2015-01-01

    Eggs of the lung fluke genus Paragonimus were detected in red-capped mangabeys (Cercocebus torquatus) in Nigeria. We assess the role of these primates as potential sylvatic hosts and the clinical effects of the parasite on monkeys. DNA sequenced from eggs in feces were 100% identical in the ITS2 region to Paragonimus africanus sequences from humans in Cameroon. Paragonimus-positive monkeys coughed more than uninfected monkeys. Experimental de-worming led to reduction in parasite intensity and a corresponding reduction of coughing to baseline levels in infected monkeys. This report provides the first evidence of Paragonimus sp. in C. torquatus, of P. africanus in Nigerian wildlife, and the first molecular evidence of the parasite in African wildlife. Coughing, sometimes interpreted as a communication behavior in primates, can actually indicate infection with lung parasites. Observations of coughing in primates may, in turn, provide a useful mechanism for surveillance of Paragonimus spp, which are re-emerging human pathogens, in wildlife reservoirs. PMID:26543803

  9. Orofacial injuries associated with prehospital management of febrile convulsion in Nigerian children.

    PubMed

    Ndukwe, Kizito C; Folayan, Morenike O; Ugboko, Vincent I; Elusiyan, Jerome B E; Laja, Olajumoke O

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to determine in a population of pediatric patients with febrile convulsions the prevalence and pattern of orofacial and dental injuries caused by traditional remedies used in a suburban Nigerian community. Over the study period of 28 months, 75 cases of febrile convulsion presented to the Children's Emergency unit of our hospital. Of these, 27 children (36%) sustained orofacial injuries caused by forceful insertion of a spoon into the mouth (96.3%) or a bite (3.7%) during convulsive episodes. The ages of the patients ranged from 12 to 84 months with a mean 39.8 +/- 18.3 months. There were 15 males and 11 females with a male to female ratio of 1.4:1. The orofacial and dental injuries sustained from prehospital treatment at home were lacerations and bruising of soft tissues including lips, tongue, mucosa and commissures and tooth subluxation, displacement or avulsion. Other injuries sustained outside the mouth include second-degree burns to the feet, a chin laceration and facial bruises resulting from a fall. Many oral injuries were overlooked by pediatricians. Prompt recognition and appropriate management of febrile convulsion would be of great benefit to the pediatric patients. PMID:17367452

  10. Antioxidative polyphenols from Nigerian mistletoe Loranthus micranthus (Linn.) parasitizing on Hevea brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Agbo, Matthias Onyebuchi; Lai, Daowan; Okoye, Festus B C; Osadebe, Patience O; Proksch, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Two new phenolic glycosides, linamarin gallate (1) and walsuraside B (2), together with nine known compounds, catechin (3), epicatechin (4), epicatechin 3-O-gallate (5), epicatechin 3-O-(3-O-methyl)gallate (6), epicatechin 3-O-(3,5-O-dimethyl)gallate (7), epicatechin 3-O-(3,4,5-O-trimethyl)gallate (8), quercetin 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (9), rutin (10), and peltatoside (11), were isolated from the leafy twigs of Nigerian mistletoe Loranthus micranthus (Linn.) parasitic on Hevea brasiliensis. Compound 1 was characterized as an unusual cyanogenic glycoside, while compound 8 was isolated for the first time from a natural source. This is the first report of a cyanogenic glycoside from mistletoes. The structures of the new compounds were unambiguously elucidated by 1D ((1)H, (13)C), 2D NMR (COSY, HSQC, and HMBC) and by mass spectroscopy. The antioxidant activities of the isolated compounds (1-11) were evaluated using the 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. PMID:23422225

  11. Towards using space technology( satellite information) for the attainment of sustainable economic development- Nigerian Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akeh, L. E.; Okpara, J. N.

    This paper attempts to x-ray the important role NigeriaSat1 and Meteorological satellites in constellation with other satellites have played in the recent time in attaining sustainable economic development in Nigeria Instead of the usual discrete observations scattered all over the surface of the earth especially the more populated areas and major trading routes or inferring to the shape and movement of weather systems from few widely scattered observations scientists in Nigeria can now enjoy a bird s eye view of the planet and see the movement and evolution of the storm system in animated sequences on computer screen as well as the continuous surveillance of the entire planet With satellite data Nigerian Meteorological Agency NIMET is able to determine the location and intensity of storms diagnose weather producing system heavy rainfall and tracking of meso-scale convective systems This have been very helpful in improving the quality of short and medium range weather forecast specialized forecasts also have greatly increased public confidence in the usage of our products Also with launching of NigeriaSat 1 by the National Space Research and Development Agency NASRDA there has been improved Famine Early Warning System FEWS and appropriate decision- making in the country coupled with thorough environmental monitoring

  12. Sex of preceding child and birth spacing among Nigerian ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Fayehun, O A; Omololu, O O; Isiugo-Abanihe, U C

    2011-06-01

    In seeking for more effective ways of fertility control and improvement of maternal and child health through birth spacing in a predominantly patrilineal society like Nigeria, this study explores how the sex of a previous child affects birth interval among ethnic groups, controlling for demographic and socioeconomic variables. The study utilized birth history data from the 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey. The findings showed that the effect of sex of prior births on the birth interval is slightly significant among the Igbo and the Southern minorities, who tend to desire to have a male child sooner if preceding births were female. Among all the ethnic groups, women who are yet to meet their ideal sex preference have a shorter birth interval than those who have. Apart from the evident sex preferences, these results suggest that Nigerian parents also undertake sex balancing among their children. There is a consistent and strong relationship between the survival of a child and subsequent birth interval, which suggest that women have a short birth interval, and hence a large family size, because they are not certain that their children would survive. PMID:22590895

  13. Perceptions of Nigerian Women about Human Papilloma Virus, Cervical Cancer, and HPV Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Akanbi, Olusola Anuoluwapo; Iyanda, Abiodun; Osundare, Folakemi; Opaleye, Oluyinka Oladele

    2015-01-01

    Background. Cervical cancer caused by human papilloma virus (HPV) though preventable has claimed the lives of many women worldwide. This study was embarked upon to evaluate the general knowledge and perceptions of Nigerian women on HPV, cervical cancer, and HPV vaccine. Methods. Structured questionnaires were administered to a cross section of 737 women randomly selected from the general population in two southwestern States of Nigeria. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS computer software version 16. A P value >0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. One hundred and seventy-six (23.9%) of the respondents had knowledge of HPV; 474 (64.3%) are aware of cervical cancer but only 136 (18.5%) know that HPV causes cervical cancer. 200 (27.1%) are aware that there is an HPV vaccine while 300 (40.7%) had knowledge of Pap smear test. Two hundred and sixty (35.3%) of the respondents know that early detection of HPV can prevent cervical cancer and in spite of this, only 110 (14.9%) have taken the Pap smear test before while 151 (20.5%) are not willing to go for the test at all. Conclusions. There is therefore the need to create proper awareness on the HPV and its possible consequence of cervical carcinoma. PMID:26550522

  14. Climate impacts on palm oil yields in the Nigerian Niger Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okoro, Stanley U.; Schickhoff, Udo; Boehner, Juergen; Schneider, Uwe A.; Huth, Neil

    2016-04-01

    Palm oil production has increased in recent decades and is estimated to increase further. The optimal role of palm oil production, however, is controversial because of resource conflicts with alternative land uses. Local conditions and climate change affect resource competition and the desirability of palm oil production. Based on this, crop yield simulations using different climate model output under different climate scenarios could be important tool in addressing the problem of uncertainty quantification among different climate model outputs. Previous studies on this region have focused mostly on single experimental fields, not considering variations in Agro-Ecological Zones, climatic conditions, varieties and management practices and, in most cases not extending to various IPCC climate scenarios and were mostly based on single climate model output. Furthermore, the uncertainty quantification of the climate- impact model has rarely been investigated on this region. To this end we use the biophysical simulation model APSIM (Agricultural Production Systems Simulator) to simulate the regional climate impact on oil palm yield over the Nigerian Niger Delta. We also examine whether the use of crop yield model output ensemble reduces the uncertainty rather than the use of climate model output ensemble. The results could serve as a baseline for policy makers in this region in understanding the interaction between potentials of energy crop production of the region as well as its food security and other negative feedbacks that could be associated with bioenergy from oil palm. Keywords: Climate Change, Climate impacts, Land use and Crop yields.

  15. Machado–Joseph disease in a Nigerian family: mutational origin and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Ogun, Shamsideen Abayomi; Martins, Sandra; Adebayo, Philip B; Dawodu, Clara O; Sequeiros, Jorge; Finkel, Michael F

    2015-01-01

    Machado–Joseph disease (MJD) has been described in Africans, but no cases have been reported from Nigeria. Current MJD global distribution results from both the ancestral populations-of-origin and the founder effects of mutations, some as a consequence of the Portuguese sea travels in the 15th to 16th century. Two main ancestral haplotypes have been identified: the Machado lineage, which is more recent, predominant in families of Portuguese extraction, and the Joseph lineage, which is much older and worldwide spread, postulated to have an Asian origin. We report a Nigerian family with MJD from Calabar, once settled by Portuguese slave traders, and assessed its mutational origin. The proband was a 33-year-old man with progressive unsteady gait, weakness of all limbs, dysphagia, dysarthria, urinary frequency and diaphoresis. He had end-of-gaze nystagmus, spastic quadriparesis and atrophic small muscles of the hand. He showed fibrillation potentials on EMG, and nerve conduction studies suggested a central axonopathy without demyelination. This family bears the Joseph haplotype, which has a founder effect in the island of Flores, in the Azores (and their descendants in North-America), but is also the most common in non-Portuguese populations worldwide, with an estimated mutation age of around 7000 years. PMID:24781759

  16. Effect of steeping conditions on the amylolytic development of some Nigerian improved sorghum cultivars.

    PubMed

    Ukwuru, M U

    2010-01-01

    Nigerian improved sorghum cultivars 'L538', 'YG5760', 'L1499', 'SSH1' and 'SSH3' were investigated for the effect of steeping conditions on their amylolytic development. The grains were steeped using 3 steep regimes SR 1, SR 2 and SR 3 which involved steeping and re-steeping in cold distilled and de-ionized water for 36, 45 and 54 h respectively. Grains in each SR were divided into 4 portions and further steeped for 6 h using final warm steep temperatures (FWST) of 30, 35, 40 and 45°C. α-and β-Amylase as well as diastatic activity were determined at different FWST. SR and FWST were correlated with enzyme development. Steeping conditions significantly (p<0.05) affected amylolytic development of the sorghum malts. Optimum moisture content (48%) was obtained at FWST of 35°C. α-Amylase was the predominant enzyme. All enzyme activities were at a peak at FWST of 30 and 35°C and at SR 2. The highest enzyme activity was recorded by cultivar 'YG5760' malt-(α-amylase 272, β-Amylase 169 μg equivalent glucose). High relationship existed between α-amylase and moderate relationship between β-Amylase and SR. Similar relationship existed between enzyme development and FWST. PMID:23572602

  17. NASO-ORBITO-ETHMOID FRACTURES: PERSPECTIVE AND PRACTICES OF NIGERIAN SURGEONS

    PubMed Central

    Akadiri, O.A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The study was to appraise the level of expertise in the management of Naso-Orbito-Ethmoid (NOE) fractures and to provide recommendation for necessary improvement in an African population. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was designed and electronically mailed to Nigerian Oral & Maxillofacial surgeons, Plastic and Reconstructive surgeons, and Ear, Nose and Throat surgeons to assess their perspectives and practices in the diagnosis and management of NOE fractures. Further administration of questionnaire was done at the AO (Association of Osteosynthesis) principle course in Lagos, January, 2010. Information generated were coded and processed with statistical package for Social Sciences version 15.0, Chicago Illinois, USA. Results: The questionnaire was delivered to 214 surgeons, there were 112 respondents out of which 78 expressed no interest in the management of NOE fractures and 34 had interest and so completed the questionnaire. Diagnosis is largely based on plain radiographs; only 22 surgeons perform NOE trauma surgery, majority (63.9%) use existing laceration or more conservative approaches like Lynch or open sky incisions. Mini and micro-plates are employed by only 31.8% of the surgeons. Bone grafting is rarely performed but when required, the iliac crest is preferred. Repair of the nasolacrimal duct system is rarely done. Conclusion: The management of NOE fractures in Nigeria, falls short of the current best evidence in the world literature. International collaboration for improvement is recommended. PMID:25161412

  18. Comparison of Peribulbar with Posterior Sub-Tenon's Anesthesia in Cataract Surgery Among Nigerians

    PubMed Central

    Iganga, Ogbonnaya N.; Fasina, Oluyemi; Bekibele, Charles O.; Ajayi, Benedictus G. K.; Ogundipe, Ayobade O.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the akinetic and the analgesic effects of peribulbar and posterior sub-Tenon's anesthesia in patients undergoing cataract surgery. Methods: In a hospital-based randomized comparative interventional study, patients aged 50 years and above who underwent elective surgery for uncomplicated cataract were randomized to receive either peribulbar block or posterior sub-Tenon block. Pain during injection, surgery, and after surgery was assessed using numerical reporting scale (NRS). Limbal excursion was measured with a transparent meter rule. Result: A total of 152 eyes of 152 patients were studied. Peribulbar and sub-Tenon regional blocks provided comparable adequate akinesia (P = 0.06) and similar levels of analgesia (P = 0.10) during cataract surgery. Both techniques also provided similar levels of analgesia to the patient during injection and in the immediate postoperative period. Ninety-two percent of patients who had peribulbar and 97% of those who had sub-Tenon blocks reported either mild pain or no pain at all during surgery (P = 0.49). There was no report of severe pain in all patients during the stages of the surgery. Occurrence of chemosis and subconjunctival hemorrhage was more common in sub-Tenon than peribulbar anesthesia. Conclusions: This study shows that peribulbar and posterior sub-Tenon routes of administering anesthetic substances is comparable in providing adequate akinesia and analgesia for cataract surgery with minimal complications. Therefore, both techniques are effective and safe for cataract surgery among Nigerians. PMID:27162452

  19. Dietary exposure of Nigerians to mutagens and estrogen-like chemicals.

    PubMed

    Omoruyi, Iyekhoetin Matthew; Ahamioje, Derek; Pohjanvirta, Raimo

    2014-08-01

    Food and drinking water are poorly delineated sources of human exposure to chemical food mutagens and endocrine-disrupting chemicals. In this study, we investigated the presence of mutagens and chemicals exhibiting estrogenic activity in the daily diet of Nigerians, using in vitro assays. Commercially processed foods or snacks and various brands of pure water sachets were extracted by solid-phase extraction and liquid-liquid extraction, respectively. Mutagenicity was determined by the conventional Ames test and two complementary assays on two strains of Salmonella (TA 100 and TA 98), while the estrogenic activity was assessed by a yeast bioluminescent assay, using two recombinant yeast strains (Saccharomyces cerevisiae BMAEREluc/ERα and S. cerevisiae BMA64/luc). A third of the food varieties investigated (chin-chin, hamburger, suya and bean cake) were mutagenic in all three assays, either in the presence or absence of S9 mix. Of the packed water samples, five out of the sixteen investigated (31%), were found to be estrogenic, with estradiol and bisphenol A equivalents ranging from 0.79 to 44.0 ng/L and 124.2 to 1,000.8 ng/L, respectively. Hence, although the current situation in Nigeria does not appear to be substantially worse than, e.g., in Europe, regular monitoring is warranted in the future. PMID:25153465

  20. A review of cleft lip and palate management: Experience of a Nigerian Teaching Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Efunkoya, Akinwale Adeyemi; Omeje, Kelvin Uchenna; Amole, Ibiyinka Olushola; Osunde, Otasowie Daniel; Akpasa, Izegboya Olohitae

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cleft lip (CL) and palate (CLP) management is multidisciplinary. A cleft team was formed in a Nigerian Tertiary Hospital to address the health needs of cleft patients in the centre. Aim: This paper aims at documenting the Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital (AKTH) management protocol for orofacial clefts and also to review our experience with CLP surgeries performed at AKTH since our partnering with Smile Train. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of all the cleft patients surgically treated from January 2006 to December 2014 under Smile Train sponsorship was undertaken. A descriptive narrative of the cleft team protocol was also given. Results: One hundred and fifty-five patients (80 males, 75 females) had surgical repairs of either the lip or palate. CL patients were 83 (53.55%), while CLP patients were 45 (29.03%) and isolated cleft palate patients were 27 (17.42%). Conclusion: The inclusion of various specialities in the cleft team is highly desirable. Poverty level amongst our patients frequently limits our management to surgical treatment sponsored by the Smile Train, despite the presence of other residual problems. PMID:26712291

  1. SUFFERING INFERTILITY: THE IMPACT OF INFERTILITY ON WOMEN’S LIFE EXPERIENCES IN TWO NIGERIAN COMMUNITIES

    PubMed Central

    LARSEN, ULLA; HOLLOS, MARIDA; OBONO, OKA; WHITEHOUSE, BRUCE

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the experiences of women with infertility in two Nigerian communities with different systems of descent and historically different levels of infertility. First, the paper focuses on the life experiences of individual women across the two communities and second, it compares these experiences with those of their fertile counterparts, in each community. In doing this, women who are childless are distinguished from those with subfertility and compared with high-fertility women. The research is based on interdisciplinary research conducted among the Ijo and Yakurr people of southern Nigeria, which included a survey of approximately 100 childless and subfertile women and a matching sample of 100 fertile women as well as in-depth ethnographic interviews with childless and subfertile women in two communities: Amakiri in Delta State and Lopon in Cross River State. The findings indicate that while there are variations in the extent to which childlessness is considered to be problematic, the necessity for a woman to have a child remains basic in this region. PMID:20561392

  2. Differential protein clearances and response to treatment in Nigerian nephrotic children.

    PubMed Central

    Adeniyi, A; Hendrickse, R G; Soothill, J F

    1976-01-01

    Remission followed prednisolone therapy in 9 out of 21 Nigerian children with the nephrotic syndrome who had highly selective proteinuria (CG/CA less than 15%). Of these, 5 patients have remained well off all treatment during a follow-up of nearly 5 years, 4 have relapsed more than once but have responded to further courses of prednisolone. 3 of 21 with less selective proteinuria also remitted but all relapsed and only one of these has responded again. The other two have relapsed and further courses of prednisolone have not totally abolished their proteinuria though they are asymptomatic and in good health. Toxicity (hypertension, sometimes with encephalopathy and infection) was commoner in the patients with less selective proteinuria treated with steroids than in those with highly selective proteinuria. 3 steroid-sensitive patients who had had repeated relapses became free from relapse off all treatment after a course of cyclophosphamide, given during steroid-maintained remission. All but 2 of the renal biopsies taken were regarded as abnormal. The lesions were less severe in those who responded than in those who did not. There is some evidence to suggest that Plasmodium malariae may be a cause of some of the steroid-sensitive disease, as well as the steroid-resistant. PMID:793539

  3. Successful Isolation of Viable Adipose-Derived Stem Cells from Human Adipose Tissue Subject to Long-Term Cryopreservation: Positive Implications for Adult Stem Cell-Based Therapeutics in Patients of Advanced Age

    PubMed Central

    Devitt, Sean M.; Carter, Cynthia M.; Dierov, Raia; Weiss, Scott; Percec, Ivona

    2015-01-01

    We examined cell isolation, viability, and growth in adipose-derived stem cells harvested from whole adipose tissue subject to different cryopreservation lengths (2–1159 days) from patients of varying ages (26–62 years). Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue was excised during abdominoplasties and was cryopreserved. The viability and number of adipose-derived stem cells isolated were measured after initial isolation and after 9, 18, and 28 days of growth. Data were analyzed with respect to cryopreservation duration and patient age. Significantly more viable cells were initially isolated from tissue cryopreserved <1 year than from tissue cryopreserved >2 years, irrespective of patient age. However, this difference did not persist with continued growth and there were no significant differences in cell viability or growth at subsequent time points with respect to cryopreservation duration or patient age. Mesenchymal stem cell markers were maintained in all cohorts tested throughout the duration of the study. Consequently, longer cryopreservation negatively impacts initial live adipose-derived stem cell isolation; however, this effect is neutralized with continued cell growth. Patient age does not significantly impact stem cell isolation, viability, or growth. Cryopreservation of adipose tissue is an effective long-term banking method for isolation of adipose-derived stem cells in patients of varying ages. PMID:25945096

  4. Biodegradation of Selected Nigerian Fruit Peels by the use of a Non-pathogenic Rhizobium species CWP G34B.

    PubMed

    Esther Boboye, Bolatito; Ajayi, George Olarewaju

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the ability of Rhizobium species CWP G34B to degrade the peels of selected Nigerian fruits. The potential of the bacterium to digest some carbon sources (lactose, maltose, sucrose and mannitol) and peels of some Nigerian fruits (pineapple, orange, plantain, banana, pawpaw and mango fruits) was investigated by growing the organism on the substances separately after which DNSA reagent method was used to quantify glucose released into the medium. The results showed that the bacterium was able to degrade all the carbohydrates with the highest and the lowest glucose concentrations of 5.52 mg/ml for lactose and 0.50 mg/ml for mannitol. The carbohydrate-catabolic-enzyme (CCE) activity ranged from 0.169 mg/ml to 1.346 mg/ml glucose per mg/ml protein. Mannitol exhibited the highest CCE activity while the lowest activity was observed in the presence of sucrose. The amount of extracellular protein synthesized was highest (9.803 mg/ml) in the presence of maltose and lowest (0.925 mg/ml) in mannitol. The mean polygalacturonase activity was 0.54 unit/ml when the bacterium was grown in pectin in contrast to 0.28 unit/ml when it was grown in mannitol. The bacterium showed ability to breakdown the peels of the Nigerian fruits with the highest capability in banana and pineapple (0.42 and 0.41 mg/ml glucose per mg/ml protein respectively). The fruit-peel-degrading enzyme activity was lowest in orange peel (0.75 unit/ml). PMID:23166567

  5. Risk perception of sexually transmitted infections and HIV in Nigerian commercial sex workers in Barcelona: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Coma Auli, Núria; Mejía-Lancheros, Cília; Berenguera, Anna; Pujol-Ribera, Enriqueta

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to determine in detail the risk perception of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV, and the contextual circumstances, in Nigerian commercial sex workers (CSWs) in Barcelona. Design A qualitative study with a phenomenological approach. Setting Raval area in Barcelona. Participants 8 CSWs working in Barcelona. Methods A phenomenological study was carried out with Nigerian CSWs in Barcelona. Sampling was theoretical, taking into account: different age ranges; women with and without a partner; women with and without children; and women participating or not in STI/HIV-prevention workshops. Information was obtained by means of eight semistructured individual interviews. An interpretative content analysis was conducted by four analysts. Results Illegal immigrant status, educational level, financial situation and work, and cultural context had mixed effects on CSW knowledge of, exposure to, and prevention and treatment of STI and HIV. CSWs were aware of the higher risk of STI associated with their occupation. They identified condoms as the best preventive method and used them during intercourse with clients. They also implemented other preventive behaviours such as personal hygiene after intercourse. Control of sexual services provided, health education and healthcare services had a positive effect on decreasing exposure and better management of STI/HIV. Conclusions Nigerian CSWs are a vulnerable group because of their poor socioeconomic status. The perception of risk in this group and their preventive behaviours are based on personal determinants, beliefs and experiences from their home country and influences from the host country. Interventions aimed at CSWs must address knowledge gaps, risk behaviours and structural elements. PMID:26078307

  6. Gendered Subjectivities of Spacetimematter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juelskjaer, Malou

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates enactments of human subjectivities with a focus on how subjectivities may be studied if spatiality and temporality are taken up as constituting forces in the production of subjectivities. By reading poststructuralist feminist theorising, agential realism and empirical material diffractively through each other I re-situate…

  7. The Subject of Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bansel, Peter

    2015-01-01

    I work selectively with poststructuralist theories in order to give an account of the subject of policy as a constitutive relationship between social policy and the embodied human subject. Drawing on theories of subjectivity, narrative and governmentality, I articulate possibilities for analysing narrated accounts of experience as a mode of…

  8. Urinary tract infection - adults

    MedlinePlus

    Bladder infection - adults; UTI - adults; Cystitis - bacterial - adults; Pyelonephritis - adults; Kidney infection - adults ... to the hospital if you: Are an older adult Have kidney stones or changes in the anatomy ...

  9. Measuring Teachers' Competencies in Constructing Classroom-Based Tests in Nigerian Secondary Schools: Need for a Test Construction Skill Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agu, Ngozi N.; Onyekuba, Chika; Anyichie, Aloysius C.

    2013-01-01

    Classroom-based achievement tests have been extensively used in Nigerian secondary schools especially after the introduction of continuous assessment in 1985. These achievement tests have been criticized by over the years for lack of proper psychometric properties of a test. These views bother on teachers' possession or non possession of…

  10. 78 FR 68500 - In the Matter of the Designation of Boko Haram Also Known as Nigerian Taliban Also Known as Jama...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE In the Matter of the Designation of Boko Haram Also Known as Nigerian Taliban Also Known as Jama'atu Ahlus-Sunnah Lidda'Awati Wal Jihad Also Known as Jama'atu Ahlis Sunna Lidda'awati wal-Jihad Also Known as People Committed to the Prophet's Teachings...

  11. World Bank Development Sector Adjustment Operation Life Line to Nigerian Universities: Impact on Information Demand and Supply in the University of Agriculture, Makurdi Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozowa, Vincent Nnamdi

    1995-01-01

    Provides an overview of the rationale behind the World Bank credit line to Nigerian universities and examines the impact of the credit facility on the information demand and supply in the University of Agriculture, Makurdi Library (Nigeria). Discusses problems, such as poor quantity and quality of books and journals, lack of equipment, and lack of…

  12. Nigerian propolis improves blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin A1c, very low-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein levels in rat models of diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Oladayo, Mustafa Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Objective: According to our previous studies, propolis of Nigerian origin showed some evidence of hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activities in addition to its ability to ameliorate oxidative-stress-induced organ dysfunction. This study was carried out to determine whether an ethanolic extract of Nigerian propolis (EENP) improves glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) concentrations in rats that have alloxan diabetes. Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced with alloxan (110 mg/kg). Animals were divided into 5 groups (n = 5); Group 1 was non-diabetic receiving normal saline and Group 2 was diabetic but also received only normal saline. Groups 3, 4, and 5 were diabetic receiving 200 mg/kg propolis, 300 mg/kg propolis, and 150 mg/kg metformin, respectively, for 42 days. Results: Hyperglycemia, elevated serum level of VLDL, elevated plasma level of HbA1c, and decreased levels of HDL were observed in the diabetic untreated animals. Nigerian propolis decreased blood glucose level and serum level of VLDL but elevated HDL level. These changes were significant (P < 0.05). The levels of plasma HbA1c were also reduced in the propolis-treated groups, and the reduction was significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Nigerian propolis contains compounds exhibiting hypoglycemic, antihyperlipidemic, and HbA1c reducing activities. PMID:27366348

  13. The Effect of the Young Child-Carrying Practices of Nigerian Woman: On Gross Motor and Language Development in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suskind, Diana; Iseghohimhen, Tony Onon; Aondo-Akaa, Patricia Ashi

    This study examined the effect of the young child-carrying practices of Nigerian women on gross motor and language development in young children. The data collected were designed to help ascertain if and how these practices affect the child's later development. The data documented a variety of factors, including: general medical background,…

  14. Influence of College Clubs in Increasing Students' Interest and Achievement in Nigerian Post-Primary Schools as Perceived by Science Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwankwo, Madeleine C.; Okoye, K. R. E.

    2015-01-01

    The perceived influence of college club in increasing students' interest and achievement in Nigerian post-primary schools in Anambra State was studied using a survey research design. The population of the study comprised all senior secondary school science students in Anambra State totaling 9322 as at 2007. From this population, a sample of 140…

  15. Effects of Computer-Assisted STAD, LTM and ICI Cooperative Learning Strategies on Nigerian Secondary School Students' Achievement, Gender and Motivation in Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambrari, Isiaka Amosa; Yusuf, Mudasiru Olalere; Thomas, David Akpa

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of computer-assisted instruction on Student Team Achievement Division (STAD) and Learning Together Model (LTM) cooperative learning strategies on Nigerian secondary students' achievement and motivation in physics. The efficacy of Authors developed computer assisted instructional package (CAI) for teaching…

  16. Attitude of Academic Staff in Nigerian Tertiary Educational Institutions to Student Evaluation of Instruction (SEI): A Case Study of Cross River State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaka, Idaka I.; Joshua, Monday T.

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the attitude of academic staff in Nigerian tertiary educational institutions to student evaluation of instruction (SEI) and to find out the variable factors that influenced the expressed attitude of members of the academic staff, using Cross River State University as a case study. The study was a survey and so a…

  17. 78 FR 68500 - In the Matter of the Designation of Boko Haram Also Known as Nigerian Taliban Also Known as Jama...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE In the Matter of the Designation of Boko Haram Also Known as Nigerian Taliban Also Known as Jama'atu Ahlus... Nationality Act, as amended (hereinafter ``INA'') (8 U.S.C. 1189), exist with respect to Boko Haram,...

  18. Effects of Computer-Assisted STAD, LTM and ICI Cooperative Learning Strategies on Nigerian Secondary School Students' Achievement, Gender and Motivation in Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambari, Amosa Isiaka; Yusuf, Mudasiru Olalere; Thomas, David Akpa

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of computer-assisted instruction on Student Team Achievement Division (STAD) and Learning Together (LT) cooperative learning strategies on Nigerian secondary students' achievement and motivation in physics. The effectiveness of computer assisted instructional package (CAI) for teaching physics concepts in…

  19. Some aspects of the craniofacial indices and macro neurometrics of the Nigerian local pig (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Olopade, James O; Igado, O O; Nwafor, C I; Alamu, A O; Onwuka, S K

    2011-01-01

    This study is about the craniofacial indices and neuromorphometrics of the Nigerian local pig and has been performed on twelve males and fourteen females of ages one and a half to two years. The average values obtained for the tongue length, tongue weight, rasp length, left pinna length, right pinna length, left pinna width, right pinna width, height of left external nares, height of right external nares and the rima oris length were 17 +/- 1.3 cm, 90 +/- 16 g, 4.6 +/- 0.58 cm, 13 +/- 1.3 cm, 13 +/- 1.3 cm, 8.7 +/- 1.5 cm, 8.7 +/- 1.4 cm, 0.98 +/- 0.12 cm, 0.96 +/- 0.13 cm and 19.51 +/- 2.89 cm respectively, while the mean brain weight, mean brain length, cerebrum and cerebellum lengths, brain and cerebellar heights were 84 +/- 12 g, 6.9 +/- 1.5 cm, 4.9 +/- 1.7 cm, 2.2 +/- 1.0 cm, 5.2 +/- 0.88 cm and 3.0 +/- 1.1 cm respectively. There was a negative correlation between the weight of the animal and the height of the cerebellum, the length of cerebrum and length of the cerebellum and between the weight of the head and height of the cerebellum. A positive correlation was however observed between the length of brain and the weight of brain, and between the length of the cerebrum and weight of brain. The cerebral length was statistically longer (P < 0.01) in the males than the females. The data obtained from this study will provide added information in the field of comparative anatomy and porcine neuroanatomy research. PMID:21898972

  20. Evaluation of Ten Wild Nigerian Mushrooms for Amylase and Cellulase Activities

    PubMed Central

    Adeoyo, Olusegun Richard

    2011-01-01

    Amylases and cellulases are important enzymes that can be utilized for various biological activities. Ten different wild Nigerian mushrooms (Agaricus blazei, Agaricus sp., Corilopsis occidentalis, Coriolus versicolor, Termitomyces clypeatus, Termitomyces globulus, Pleurotus tuber-regium, Podoscypha bolleana, Pogonomyces hydnoides, and Nothopanus hygrophanus) were assayed for production of these secondary metabolites. The results revealed that most of the tested wild fungi demonstrated very good amylase and cellulase activities. With the incorporation of carboxymethyl-cellulose (a carbon source) into the culture medium, Agaricus blazei had the highest amylolytic activity of 0.60 unit/mL (at 25℃, pH 6.8). This was followed in order by P. tuber-regium and Agaricus sp. with 0.42 and 0.39 unit/mL, respectively (p ≤ 0.05). Maltose and sucrose supplementation into the submerged liquid medium made N. hygrophanus and P. hydnoides to exhibit very low amylase activities of 0.09 and 0.11 unit/mL, respectively. Introducing peptone (an organic nitrogen source) into the basal medium enhanced the ability of C. versicolor to produce a cellulase value of 0.74 unit/mL. Other organic nitrogen sources that supported good cellulase activities were yeast extract and urea. Sodium nitrate (inorganic nitrogen source) generally inhibited cellulase production in all mushrooms. The best carbon source was carboxymethyl-cellulose, which promoted very high cellulase activity of 0.67 unit/mL in C. versicolor, which was followed in order by P. tuber-regium, T. chypeatus, and C. occidentalis (p ≤ 0.05). Sucrose was the poorest carbon compound, supporting the lowest values of 0.01, 0.01, and 0.14 unit/mL in P. hydnoides, A. blazei, and Agaricus sp., respectively. PMID:22783085