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Sample records for adult obesity risk

  1. Overweight Status, Obesity, and Risk Factors for Coronary Heart Disease in Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, C. Michael; Robinson, Laura M.; Davidson, Philip W.; Haveman, Meindert; Janicki, Matthew P.; Albertini, Giorgio

    2008-01-01

    Research indicates that adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) have high rates of overweight status/obesity (OSO). OSO is associated with several important risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD). This study focused on assessing whether such risk factors are being identified in adults with ID who are receiving their healthcare in…

  2. Managing Overweight and Obesity in Adults to Reduce Cardiovascular Disease Risk

    PubMed Central

    Ebbert, Jon O.; Elrashidi, Muhamad Y.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a leading preventable cause of death and disability worldwide. Obesity increases the risk for clinically identifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) as well as a host of other metabolic, sleep, and orthopedic disorders. Coordinated and systematic interventions are needed to manage obesity and reduce these risks. The Obesity 2 Expert Panel updated previous guidelines and produced the “Guideline for the Management of Overweight and Obesity in Adults.” The Panel used data from publications from years 1999 to 2011 to address five critical questions, provide evidence statements, and recommend creation of a treatment algorithm to guide decision making about clinical care. The current review discusses the evidence statements pertaining to CVD risk in the assessment and management of patients who are overweight and obese. We summarize the FDA-approved medications for the treatment of overweight and obesity and their impact on CVD risk and risk factors, as well as ongoing clinical trials which will further inform clinical practice. PMID:25092581

  3. Prevalence of obesity and its associated risk factors among Chinese adults in a Malaysian suburban village

    PubMed Central

    Chew, Wai Fong; Masyita, Mamot; Leong, Pooi Pooi; Boo, Nem Yun; Zin, Thaw; Choo, Kong Bung; Yap, Sook Fan

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Obesity is a major modifiable risk factor associated with most chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of obesity, and its associated risk factors, among apparently healthy Chinese adults in a Malaysian suburban village. METHODS This was a cross-sectional study conducted among the Chinese residents in Seri Kembangan New Village, Klang Valley, Selangor, Malaysia. Convenience sampling was used for the selection of participants. Body weight, height, waist and hip circumferences, and blood pressure were measured. Fasting venous plasma was drawn for the measurement of fasting glucose level and lipid profile. Data on sociodemographic factors, dietary habits, physical activity, perceived stress level and sleep duration were collected using interviewer-administered, pretested and validated questionnaires. RESULTS Among the 258 Chinese residents (mean age 41.4 ± 10.0 years) recruited, the prevalence of obesity was 40%. The obese participants had significantly higher mean blood pressure, and triglyceride and fasting plasma glucose levels than the non-obese participants (p < 0.05). The obese participants also had a significantly lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level than the non-obese participants. Logistic regression analysis showed that drinking soy milk (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.447; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.253–0.787; p < 0.05) and the perception that a balanced diet consists mainly of vegetables (adjusted OR 0.440; 95% CI 0.215–0.900; p < 0.05) were associated with a reduced risk of obesity. The risk of obesity was higher in younger participants (adjusted OR 2.714; 95% CI 1.225–6.011; p < 0.05). CONCLUSION The prevalence of obesity was high among the apparently healthy suburban Chinese. Our findings suggest that soy milk consumption and the perception that a balanced diet consists mainly of vegetables are associated with a lower risk of developing obesity in this population. PMID:24570317

  4. Risk factors of obesity in a cohort of 1001 Cypriot adults: An epidemiological study

    PubMed Central

    Andreou, E; Hajigeorgiou, PG; Kyriakou, K; Avraam, Th; Chappa, G; Kallis, P; Lazarou, Ch; Philippou, Ch; Christoforou, C; Kokkinofta, R; Dioghenous, C; Savva, SC; Kafatos, A; Zampelas, A; Papandreou, D

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims: To measure the prevalence of overweight and obesity in adults in the Republic of Cyprus, and to evaluate and relate possible obesity risk factors of the adult Cypriot population. Methods: This is an epidemiological cross-sectional study on a stratified random sample of 1001 (48.5% males-51.5% females) subjects, aged 18-80 years old. Anthropometric, biochemical, and dietary/lifestyle characteristics included in the study. Results: The prevalence of overweight (Ow) and obesity (Ob) was 46.9% and 28.8% for males and 26% and 27% for females, respectively. Overweight and obese subjects were found to have statistically significant higher levels of Body Mass Index (p<0.001), Waist circumference (p<0.001), Total serum cholesterol (p<0.001), Low density lipoprotein (p<0.005), Glucose (p<0.007) and Triglycerides (p<0.001) compared to normal peers. In addition, Ow and Ob participants consumed significantly lower levels of fruits and vegetables (p<0.001), exercised less time/d (p<0.001) and smoke more cigarettes/d (p<0.001), compared to normal subjects, respectively. In multiple regression analysis of factors associated with overweight and obesity, Waist Circumference (beta: 1.132, p<0.001), Glucose (beta: 0.892, p<0.045), alcohol consumption (beta: 0.563, p<0.001), and exercise levels (beta: -0.444, p<0.001), were the most significant ones. Conclusion: The prevalence of overweight and obesity is very high in Cypriot adults. The current study also revealed a significant positive relation of Ow and Ob with waist circumference, high blood glucose levels and increased consumption of alcohol and a negative one with decreased levels of exercise. PMID:23935294

  5. Diabetes and obesity risks in African American young adult freshmen attending a historically black college/university.

    PubMed

    Owens, Chequita Smith

    2008-11-01

    Convincing African American and other young adults that obesity increases their risk for diabetes and its complications is challenging for health educators and clinicians. At a historically Black university (HBCU) this question was examined, Do overweight and obese African American freshmen have higher risks for diabetes through low physical activity or toning and poor nutritional habits? Survey data found 40% of the 101 respondents sampled there were obese (defined as body mass index of 30 or more kg/m2), which is a higher proportion of obesity than found in other college health surveys. Scores reflecting higher risks of diabetes mellitus were significantly related to higher BMI values and low aerobic physical activity. Students had low levels of physical activity and toning than reported in general college populations. To reduce diabetes-disparity risks and obesity-related behaviors, African American younger adult freshmen may benefit from effective intervention strategies targeting them. PMID:19029739

  6. Fat brains, greedy genes, and parent power: a biobehavioural risk model of child and adult obesity.

    PubMed

    Carnell, Susan; Kim, Yale; Pryor, Katherine

    2012-06-01

    We live in a world replete with opportunities to overeat highly calorific, palatable foods - yet not everyone becomes obese. Why? We propose that individuals show differences in appetitive traits (e.g. food cue responsiveness, satiety sensitivity) that manifest early in life and predict their eating behaviours and weight trajectories. What determines these traits? Parental feeding restriction is associated with higher child adiposity, pressure to eat with lower adiposity, and both strategies with less healthy eating behaviours, while authoritative feeding styles coincide with more positive outcomes. But, on the whole, twin and family studies argue that nature has a greater influence than nurture on adiposity and eating behaviour, and behavioural investigations of genetic variants that are robustly associated with obesity (e.g. FTO) confirm that genes influence appetite. Meanwhile, a growing body of neuroimaging studies in adults, children and high risk populations suggests that structural and functional variation in brain networks associated with reward, emotion and control might also predict appetite and obesity, and show genetic influence. Together these different strands of evidence support a biobehavioural risk model of obesity development. Parental feeding recommendations should therefore acknowledge the powerful - but modifiable - contribution of genetic and neurological influences to children's eating behaviour. PMID:22724640

  7. Body Mass Index Categories and Mortality Risk in US Adults: The Effect of Overweight and Obesity on Advancing Death

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, Lalitha

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the association of body mass index with all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD)–specific mortality risks among US adults and calculated the rate advancement period by which death is advanced among the exposed groups. Methods. We used data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988–1994) linked to the National Death Index mortality file with follow-up to 2006 (n = 16 868). We used Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate the rate of dying and rate advancement period for all-cause and CVD-specific mortality for overweight and obese adults relative to their normal-weight counterparts. Results. Compared with normal-weight adults, obese adults had at least 20% significantly higher rate of dying of all-cause or CVD. These rates advanced death by 3.7 years (grades II and III obesity) for all-cause mortality and between 1.6 (grade I obesity) and 5.0 years (grade III obesity) for CVD-specific mortality. The burden of obesity was greatest among adults aged 45 to 64 years for all-cause and CVD-specific mortality and among women for all-cause mortality. Conclusions. These findings highlight the impact of the obesity epidemic on mortality risk and premature deaths among US adults. PMID:24432921

  8. Sedentary Behavior Is Not Associated with Cardiometabolic Risk in Adults with Abdominal Obesity

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, K. Ashlee; Ross, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Objective The primary aim of this study was to determine whether time spent in sedentary behaviors (SED) was associated with 2-hour glucose and insulin resistance in adults with abdominal obesity. We also examined the association between light physical activity (LPA) and sporadic (accumulated in bouts <10 minutes in duration) moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) with glucose metabolism. Methods Participants were 135 inactive, abdominally obese adults recruited from Kingston, Canada. SED and physical activity were determined by accelerometry over 7 days and summarized as SED (accelerometer counts/min <100), LPA (counts/min 100–1951), and MVPA (counts/min ≥1952). A 75 g oral glucose tolerance test was used to ascertain 2-hour glucose; the homeostasis model of assessment was used to determine insulin resistance (HOMA-IR); lipid, lipoproteins and blood pressure were determined using standard protocols. Secondary analyses considered the association between SED and physical activity with other cardiometabolic risk factors. Results Participants spent 627.2±82.9 min/d in SED, 289.0±91.7 min/d in LPA and 19.2±13.5 min/d in MVPA. Neither SED nor the physical activity variables were associated with 2-hour glucose or HOMA-IR (p>0.05). In secondary analyses, SED was not associated with any cardiometabolic risk factor (p>0.1); with the exception of blood pressure (p<0.05), LPA was not associated with any cardiometabolic risk factor (p>0.1); and MVPA was independently associated with total cholesterol and triglycerides (p<0.05). Conclusions Objectively measured SED was not associated with 2-hr glucose or HOMA-IR. Our findings also suggest that the accumulation of LPA and sporadic MVPA is not associated with glucose metabolism in adults with abdominal obesity. PMID:21695179

  9. Dietary patterns in Mexican adults are associated with risk of being overweight or obese.

    PubMed

    Flores, Mario; Macias, Nayeli; Rivera, Marta; Lozada, Ana; Barquera, Simón; Rivera-Dommarco, Juan; Tucker, Katherine L

    2010-10-01

    Our objective was to identify and describe the major dietary patterns in the Mexican adult population and their association with being overweight or obese. Dietary intake was evaluated by a FFQ that was completed by 15,890 Mexican adults who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006. Dietary patterns were generated by cluster analysis based on the percent contribution to total energy intake from 30 food groups. We identified 3 major dietary patterns: refined foods and sweets (RS), traditional (T), and diverse (D). The T pattern was characterized by low dietary diversity, with maize and maize foods accounting for ~47% of energy intake. This pattern had the lowest contribution of most food groups, with the exception of beans (~4.0%). The RS pattern had the highest contribution of alcohol (9.4%), soft drinks (9.4%), white bread (7.7%), fast food, sweets, and snacks. The D pattern had the lowest contribution of maize (15.5%) and the highest contribution of whole-fat dairy (8.0%), rice and pasta, meat, poultry, eggs, saturated fat, fruits, and vegetables. After adjusting for age, gender, physical activity, socioeconomic status, area, and region, the RS and D dietary patterns were associated with 14 and 17% increased risk of being overweight (P < 0.01) and 20% increased risk of being obese, respectively, compared with the T dietary pattern (P < 0.001). These findings support an association of dietary patterns with being overweight or obese in a nationally representative sample of Mexican adults. PMID:20739452

  10. Obesity and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer screening among obese adults. National Collaborative on Childhood Obesity Research (NCCOR) NCCOR brings together four of the nation’s leading funders of childhood obesity research: the CDC, NIH, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, ...

  11. Sarcopenic obesity and risk of new onset depressive symptoms in older adults: English Longitudinal Study of Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Hamer, M; Batty, G D; Kivimaki, M

    2015-01-01

    Background: We examined the role of sarcopenic obesity as a risk factor for new-onset depressive symptoms over 6-year follow-up in a large sample of older adults. Methods: The sample comprised 3862 community dwelling participants (1779 men, 2083 women; mean age 64.6±8.3 years) without depressive symptoms at baseline, recruited from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. At baseline and 4-year follow-up, handgrip strength (kg) of the dominant hand was assessed using a hand-held dynamometer, as a measure of sarcopenia. The outcome was new onset depressive symptoms at 6-year follow-up, defined as a score of ⩾4 on the 8-item Centre of Epidemiological Studies Depression scale. Sarcopenic obesity was defined as obese individuals (body mass index ⩾30 kg m−2) in the lowest tertile of sex-specific grip strength (<35.3 kg men; <19.6 kg women). Results: Using a multivariable logistic regression model, the risk of depressive symptoms was greatest in obese adults in the lowest tertile of handgrip strength (odds ratio (OR), 1.79, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.10, 2.89) compared with non-obese individuals with high handgrip strength. Participants who were obese at baseline and had a decrease of more than 1 s.d. in grip strength over 4-year follow-up were at greatest risk of depressive symptoms (OR=1.97, 95% CI, 1.22, 3.17) compared with non-obese with stable grip strength. Conclusions: A reduction in grip strength was associated with higher risk of depressive symptoms in obese participants only, suggesting that sarcopenic obesity is a risk factor for depressive symptoms. PMID:26122029

  12. Increased Eating Frequency Is Associated with Lower Obesity Risk, But Higher Energy Intake in Adults: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue-Qiao; Zhang, Yun-Quan; Zhang, Fei; Zhang, Yi-Wen; Li, Rui; Chen, Guo-Xun

    2016-01-01

    Body weight is regulated by energy intake which occurs several times a day in humans. In this meta-analysis, we evaluated whether eating frequency (EF) is associated with obesity risk and energy intake in adults without any dietary restriction. Experimental and observational studies published before July 2015 were selected through English-language literature searches in several databases. These studies reported the association between EF and obesity risk (odd ratios, ORs) in adults who were not in dietary restriction. R software was used to perform statistical analyses. Ten cross-sectional studies, consisting of 65,742 participants, were included in this analysis. ORs were considered as effect size for the analysis about the effect of EF on obesity risk. Results showed that the increase of EF was associated with 0.83 time lower odds of obesity (i.e., OR = 0.83, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.70-0.99, p = 0.040). Analysis about the effect of EF on differences in participants' energy intake revealed that increased EF was associated with higher energy intake (β = 125.36, 95% CI 21.76-228.97, p = 0.017). We conclude that increased EF may lead to lower obesity risk but higher energy intake. Clinical trials are warranted to confirm these results and to assess the clinical practice applicability. PMID:27322302

  13. Increased Eating Frequency Is Associated with Lower Obesity Risk, But Higher Energy Intake in Adults: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yue-Qiao; Zhang, Yun-Quan; Zhang, Fei; Zhang, Yi-Wen; Li, Rui; Chen, Guo-Xun

    2016-01-01

    Body weight is regulated by energy intake which occurs several times a day in humans. In this meta-analysis, we evaluated whether eating frequency (EF) is associated with obesity risk and energy intake in adults without any dietary restriction. Experimental and observational studies published before July 2015 were selected through English-language literature searches in several databases. These studies reported the association between EF and obesity risk (odd ratios, ORs) in adults who were not in dietary restriction. R software was used to perform statistical analyses. Ten cross-sectional studies, consisting of 65,742 participants, were included in this analysis. ORs were considered as effect size for the analysis about the effect of EF on obesity risk. Results showed that the increase of EF was associated with 0.83 time lower odds of obesity (i.e., OR = 0.83, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.70–0.99, p = 0.040). Analysis about the effect of EF on differences in participants’ energy intake revealed that increased EF was associated with higher energy intake (β = 125.36, 95% CI 21.76–228.97, p = 0.017). We conclude that increased EF may lead to lower obesity risk but higher energy intake. Clinical trials are warranted to confirm these results and to assess the clinical practice applicability. PMID:27322302

  14. Obesity-Related Behaviors among Poor Adolescents and Young Adults: Is Social Position Associated with Risk Behaviors?

    PubMed Central

    Ritterman Weintraub, Miranda Lucia; Fernald, Lia C.; Goodman, Elizabeth; Guendelman, Sylvia; Adler, Nancy E.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights Different measures of social position capture unique dimensions of relative rank among youth. Youth-specific measures of social position may be important in identifying the most at-risk for obesity. Lower social status youth are more likely to be at-risk for obesity-related behaviors compared to those with a higher rank. This cross-sectional study examines multiple dimensions of social position in relation to obesity-related behaviors in an adolescent and young adult population. In addition to using conventional measures of social position, including parental education and household expenditures, we explore the usefulness of three youth-specific measures of social position – community and society subjective social status and school dropout status. Data are taken from a 2004 house-to-house survey of urban households within the bottom 20th percentile of income distribution within seven states in Mexico. A total of 5,321 Mexican adolescents, aged 12–22 years, provided information on obesity-related behaviors (e.g., diet, physical activity, sedentary behavior) and indicators of subjective and objective social position. A parent in each household provided information on socioeconomic status of the parent and household. Ordinal logistic regressions are used to estimate the associations of parental, household and adolescent indicators of social position and obesity-related risk behaviors. Those adolescents with the highest odds of adopting obesity risk behaviors were the ones who perceived themselves as lower in social status in reference to their peer community and those who had dropped out of school. We found no significant associations between parental education or household expenditures and obesity-related risk behaviors. Immediate social factors in adolescents’ lives may have a strong influence on their health-related behaviors. This study provides evidence for the usefulness of two particular measures, both of which are youth

  15. Obesity-Related Behaviors among Poor Adolescents and Young Adults: Is Social Position Associated with Risk Behaviors?

    PubMed

    Ritterman Weintraub, Miranda Lucia; Fernald, Lia C; Goodman, Elizabeth; Guendelman, Sylvia; Adler, Nancy E

    2015-01-01

    HighlightsDifferent measures of social position capture unique dimensions of relative rank among youth.Youth-specific measures of social position may be important in identifying the most at-risk for obesity.Lower social status youth are more likely to be at-risk for obesity-related behaviors compared to those with a higher rank. This cross-sectional study examines multiple dimensions of social position in relation to obesity-related behaviors in an adolescent and young adult population. In addition to using conventional measures of social position, including parental education and household expenditures, we explore the usefulness of three youth-specific measures of social position - community and society subjective social status and school dropout status. Data are taken from a 2004 house-to-house survey of urban households within the bottom 20th percentile of income distribution within seven states in Mexico. A total of 5,321 Mexican adolescents, aged 12-22 years, provided information on obesity-related behaviors (e.g., diet, physical activity, sedentary behavior) and indicators of subjective and objective social position. A parent in each household provided information on socioeconomic status of the parent and household. Ordinal logistic regressions are used to estimate the associations of parental, household and adolescent indicators of social position and obesity-related risk behaviors. Those adolescents with the highest odds of adopting obesity risk behaviors were the ones who perceived themselves as lower in social status in reference to their peer community and those who had dropped out of school. We found no significant associations between parental education or household expenditures and obesity-related risk behaviors. Immediate social factors in adolescents' lives may have a strong influence on their health-related behaviors. This study provides evidence for the usefulness of two particular measures, both of which are youth-specific. Adolescents and

  16. Sedentary behaviours and obesity in adults: the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study

    PubMed Central

    Heinonen, I; Helajärvi, H; Pahkala, K; Heinonen, O J; Hirvensalo, M; Pälve, K; Tammelin, T; Yang, X; Juonala, M; Mikkilä, V; Kähönen, M; Lehtimäki, T; Viikari, J; Raitakari, O T

    2013-01-01

    Objective Sedentary behaviour may contribute to the development of obesity. We investigated the relations between different types of sedentary behaviour and adiposity markers in a well-characterised adult population after controlling for a wide range of potential confounders. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Multicenter Study. Participants Sedentary time (TV viewing, computer time, reading, music/radio listening and other relaxation) was assessed with a questionnaire for 1084 women and 909 men aged 30–45 years. Other study variables included occupational and leisure-time physical activity, sleep duration, socioeconomic status, smoking, alcohol consumption, energy intake, adherence to the recommended diet, multiple individual food items, age and genetic variants associated with body mass index (BMI). Primary outcome measures BMI in kg/m2 and waist circumference (WC in cm). Results Of the different sedentary behaviour types, TV viewing was most consistently related to higher BMI and WC, both in men and women. One additional daily TV hour was associated with a 1.81±0.44 cm larger WC in women and 2 cm±0.44 cm in men (both p<0.0001). The association with TV was diluted, but remained highly significant after adjustments with all measured covariates, including several potentially obesogenic food items associated with TV viewing. The intakes of food items such as sausage, beer and soft drinks were directly associated with TV viewing, while the intakes of oat and barley, fish, and fruits and berries were associated indirectly. After these adjustments, non-TV sedentary behaviour remained associated with adiposity indices only in women. Conclusions Out of the different types of sedentary behaviour, TV viewing was most consistently associated with adiposity markers in adults. Partial dilution of these associations after adjustments for covariates suggests that the obesogenic effects of TV viewing are partly mediated by

  17. Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption and Risk of General and Abdominal Obesity in Iranian Adults: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

    PubMed Central

    MIRMIRAN, Parvin; EJTAHED, Hanieh-Sadat; BAHADORAN, Zahra; BASTAN, Sara; AZIZI, Fereidoun

    2015-01-01

    Background: General and abdominal obesity are major global health problems. This cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the association between consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and body mass index and waist circumference status in 5852 Iranian adults within the framework of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS). Methods: Intakes of SSBs including carbonated drinks and synthetic fruit juices were measured using a validated food frequency questionnaire. The association between body mass index, waist circumference and body adiposity index in each quartile category of SSB consumption were determined using the multivariable linear regression models. The odds ratio (OR) of general and abdominal obesity in each quartile of SSB consumption was also determined using the multivariable logistic regression models. Results: Mean dietary intake of SSBs was 48.9 g/d or 0.25 servings/d. After adjustment for all potential confounding variables, significant associations were observed between SSB consumption and BMI (β: 0.49, 95% CI: 0.13–0.86), and waist circumference (β: 1.28, 95% CI: 0.40–2.16) in the fourth quartile. There was no significant association between SSB consumption and body adiposity index. Participants who consumed > 57.1 g/d of SSBs had 22% higher risk of general obesity (OR: 1.22, 95% CI: 1.00–1.48) and 35% higher risk of abdominal obesity (OR: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.12–1.61), compared with those in the lowest quartile of SSB consumption. Conclusion: Higher intakes of SSBs were associated with the higher risk of general and abdominal obesity in adults suggesting that limiting the consumption of SSBs may be a practical approach to prevent and manage obesity. PMID:26744712

  18. Combined early and adult life risk factor associations for mid-life obesity in a prospective birth cohort: assessing potential public health impact

    PubMed Central

    Pinto Pereira, Snehal M; van Veldhoven, Karin; Li, Leah; Power, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Objective The combined effect of life-course influences on obesity development and thus their potential public health impact is unclear. We evaluated combined associations and predicted probabilities for early and adult life risk factors with central and general obesity in mid-adulthood. Setting 1958 British birth cohort. Participants 4629 males and 4670 females with data on waist circumference. Outcome measures 45 year obesity measured via waist circumference, waist–hip ratio (WHR) and BMI. Results At 45 years, approximately a third of the population were centrally obese and a quarter were generally obese. Three factors (parental overweight, maternal smoking during pregnancy and adult inactivity) were consistently associated with central and general obesity. Predicted probabilities for waist obesity increased from those with none to all three risk factors (0.15–0.33 in men; 0.19–0.39 in women (ptrend<0.001)), with a similar trend for general obesity. Additional factors (adult smoking, low fibre and heavy alcohol consumption) were associated with WHR obesity, although varying by gender. Prevalence of risk factors was higher in manual than non-manual groups: for example, in men 38% versus 25%, respectively, had ≥2 risk factors for waist and general obesity. Conclusions Early-life and adult factors that are amenable to change are highly prevalent and accumulate in association with central and general obesity in mid-adulthood. The increase in probabilities for mid-adult obesity associated with cumulative levels of risk factors suggests the potential for public health impact. PMID:27072572

  19. Obesity as a Risk Factor for Poor Neurocognitive Outcomes in Older Adults with Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Alosco, Michael L.; Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Gunstad, John

    2016-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) has reached epidemic proportions and is a significant contributor to poor outcomes. HF is an established risk factor for Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, and abnormalities on neuroimaging. Moreover, up to 80% of HF patients also exhibit milder impairments on cognitive tests assessing attention, executive function, memory, and language. The mechanisms of cognitive impairment in HF are not entirely clear and involve a combination of physiological processes that negatively impact the brain. Cerebral hypoperfusion and common comorbid conditions in HF are among the most commonly proposed contributors to poor neurocognitive outcomes in this population. Obesity is another likely risk factor for adverse brain changes and cognitive impairment in HF, as it is a known contributor to neurocognitive outcomes in healthy and patient samples. This paper reviews the literature on HF and cognitive function and introduces obesity as a significant risk factor for poor neurocognitive outcomes in this population. PMID:23743688

  20. Dyslipidemia, obesity and other cardiovascular risk factors in the adult population in Senegal

    PubMed Central

    Doupa, Dominique; Seck, Sidy Mohamed; Dia, Charles Abdou; Diallo, Fatou Agne; Kane, Modou Oumy; Kane, Adama; Gueye, Pape Madieye; Mbaye, Maimouna Ndour; Gueye, Lamine; Jobe, Modou

    2014-01-01

    Introduction According to the WHO, 50% of deaths worldwide (40.1% in developing countries) are due to chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Of these chronic NCDs, cardiovascular diseases remain the leading cause of death and disability in developed countries. The Framingham study has shown the importance of hypercholesterolemia as a primary risk factor. In Senegal, the epidemiology of dyslipidemia and obesity are still poorly understood due to the lack of comprehensive studies on their impact on the general population. This motivated this study to look into the key epidemiologic and socio-demographic determinants of these risk factors. Methods It was a cross-sectional descriptive epidemiological survey which included 1037 individuals selected by cluster sampling. Data were collected using a questionnaire following the WHO STEPwise approach. Socio-demographic, health and biomedical variables were collected. P value <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results The average age was 48 years with a female predominance (M: F of 0.6). The literacy rate was 65.2% and 44.7% of participants were from rural areas. The prevalence of hypercholesterolemia, hyperLDLemia, hypoHDLemia, hypertriglyceridemia and mixed hyperlipidemia were 56%, 22.5%, 12.4%, 7.11% and 1.9% respectively. One in four was obese (BMI> 30kg/m2) and 34.8% had abdominal obesity. The main factors significantly associated with dyslipidemia were obesity, urban dwelling, physical inactivity and a family history of dyslipidemia. Conclusion The prevalence of dyslipidemia, obesity and other risk factors in the population was high needing immediate care for those affected and implementation of prevention strategies. PMID:25815102

  1. Randomised Controlled Feasibility Trial of an Evidence-Informed Behavioural Intervention for Obese Adults with Additional Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Sniehotta, Falko F.; Dombrowski, Stephan U.; Avenell, Alison; Johnston, Marie; McDonald, Suzanne; Murchie, Peter; Ramsay, Craig R.; Robertson, Kim; Araujo-Soares, Vera

    2011-01-01

    Background Interventions for dietary and physical activity changes in obese adults may be less effective for participants with additional obesity-related risk factors and co-morbidities than for otherwise healthy individuals. This study aimed to test the feasibility and acceptability of the recruitment, allocation, measurement, retention and intervention procedures of a randomised controlled trial of an intervention to improve physical activity and dietary practices amongst obese adults with additional obesity related risk factors. Method Pilot single centre open-labelled outcome assessor-blinded randomised controlled trial of obese (Body Mass Index (BMI)≥30 kg/m2) adults (age≥18 y) with obesity related co-morbidities such as type 2 diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance or hypertension. Participants were randomly allocated to a manual-based group intervention or a leaflet control condition in accordance to a 2∶1 allocation ratio. Primary outcome was acceptability and feasibility of trial procedures, secondary outcomes included measures of body composition, physical activity, food intake and psychological process measures. Results Out of 806 potentially eligible individuals identified through list searches in two primary care general medical practices N = 81 participants (63% female; mean-age = 56.56(11.44); mean-BMI = 36.73(6.06)) with 2.35(1.47) co-morbidities were randomised. Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation (SIMD) was the only significant predictor of providing consent to take part in the study (higher chances of consent for invitees with lower levels of deprivation). Participant flowcharts, qualitative and quantitative feedback suggested good acceptance and feasibility of intervention procedures but 34.6% of randomised participants were lost to follow-up due to overly high measurement burden and sub-optimal retention procedures. Participants in the intervention group showed positive trends for most psychological, behavioural and body

  2. The relation of leptin and insulin with obesity-related cardiovascular risk factors in US adults.

    PubMed

    Reis, Jared P; Macera, Caroline A; Wingard, Deborah L; Araneta, Maria Rosario G; Lindsay, Suzanne P; Marshall, Simon J

    2008-09-01

    Previous studies of leptin with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors have been limited by clinical samples or lack of representation of the general population. This cross-sectional study, designed to examine whether leptin or insulin may mediate the endogenous relation of obesity with metabolic, inflammatory, and thrombogenic cardiovascular risk factors, included 522 men and 514 women aged >or=40 years who completed a physical examination during the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Participants were free of existing CVD, cancer (except non-melanoma skin cancer), diabetes, or respiratory disease. In multivariable analyses adjusted for race/ethnicity and lifestyle factors, waist circumference (WC) was positively associated with blood pressure, triglyceride, LDL cholesterol, total cholesterol:HDL ratio, apolipoprotein B, C-reactive protein (CRP), and fibrinogen concentrations, and negatively associated with HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein A1 levels. The associations of WC with the metabolic CVD risk factors were largely attenuated after adjustment for insulin levels, while the associations of WC with the inflammatory and thrombogenic factors (CRP and fibrinogen, respectively) were largely explained by adjustment for leptin concentrations. However, leptin levels were not independently associated with CRP and fibrinogen in men and CRP in women when adjusted for WC. Positive associations of leptin and insulin with fibrinogen in women, independent of WC, were noted. These results suggest that insulin may be an important mediator of the association of obesity with metabolic but not inflammatory or thrombogenic CVD risk factors, while leptin does not appear to influence cardiovascular risk through a shared association with these risk factors. However, we cannot rule out the possibility that leptin and insulin influence cardiovascular risk in women through independent effects on fibrinogen concentrations. PMID:18160070

  3. Obesity-related asthma in adults.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Nikunj A; Lazarus, Angeline

    2016-08-01

    Obesity as a risk factor for asthma has been identified in previous studies. Additionally, a disproportionate number of patients with severe or difficult-to-control asthma are obese. Patients with obesity-related asthma tend to have worse asthma control and quality of life disproportionate to their pulmonary function tests, are less responsive to corticosteroid therapy, and are more likely to have obesity-related comorbidities such as obstructive sleep apnea and gastroesophageal disease that complicate asthma treatment. With the increasing prevalence of obesity, the prevalence of asthma is anticipated to grow proportionally. Addressing weight loss and encouraging activity is essential in the management of obesity-related asthma. This article briefly overviews the epidemiology, unique distinguishing features, potential mechanisms, and approach to management of patients with obesity-related asthma in adults. PMID:27336439

  4. Obesity Prevention in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Volpe, Stella Lucia; Sukumar, Deeptha; Milliron, Brandy-Joe

    2016-06-01

    The number of older adults living in the USA, 65 years of age and older, has been steadily increasing. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2007-2010, indicate that more than one-third of older adults, 65 years of age and older, were obese. With the increased rate of obesity in older adults, the purpose of this paper is to present research on different methods to prevent or manage obesity in older adults, namely dietary interventions, physical activity interventions, and a combination of dietary and physical activity interventions. In addition, research on community assistance programs in the prevention of obesity with aging will be discussed. Finally, data on federal programs for older adults will also be presented. PMID:27107762

  5. 100% Orange juice consumption is associated with better diet quality, improved nutrient adequacy, decreased risk for obesity, and improved biomarkers of health in adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumption of 100% orange juice (OJ) has been positively associated with nutrient adequacy and diet quality, with no increased risk of overweight/obesity in children; however, no one has examined these factors in adults. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of 100% orange juice ...

  6. Television viewing and obesity in adult males.

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, L A; Friedman, G M

    1989-01-01

    We estimated the extent to which time spent watching television is associated with obesity and super-obesity among 6,138 employed adult males. After adjustment for age, smoking status, length of work week, measured physical fitness, and reported weekly hours of exercise, people who viewed TV more than three hours/day were twice as likely to be obese as those who viewed less than 1 hour/day. Those who viewed for 1 to 2 hours daily had a relative risk of 1.60 (1.21, 2.11). Physical fitness consistently confounded the associations between TV viewing and obesity/super-obesity, but the other control variables did not do so. PMID:2929820

  7. European Guidelines for Obesity Management in Adults.

    PubMed

    Yumuk, Volkan; Tsigos, Constantine; Fried, Martin; Schindler, Karin; Busetto, Luca; Micic, Dragan; Toplak, Hermann

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a chronic metabolic disease characterised by an increase of body fat stores. It is a gateway to ill health, and it has become one of the leading causes of disability and death, affecting not only adults but also children and adolescents worldwide. In clinical practice, the body fatness is estimated by BMI, and the accumulation of intra-abdominal fat (marker for higher metabolic and cardiovascular disease risk) can be assessed by waist circumference. Complex interactions between biological, behavioural, social and environmental factors are involved in regulation of energy balance and fat stores. A comprehensive history, physical examination and laboratory assessment relevant to the patient's obesity should be obtained. Appropriate goals of weight management emphasise realistic weight loss to achieve a reduction in health risks and should include promotion of weight loss, maintenance and prevention of weight regain. Management of co-morbidities and improving quality of life of obese patients are also included in treatment aims. Balanced hypocaloric diets result in clinically meaningful weight loss regardless of which macronutrients they emphasise. Aerobic training is the optimal mode of exercise for reducing fat mass while a programme including resistance training is needed for increasing lean mass in middle-aged and overweight/obese individuals. Cognitive behavioural therapy directly addresses behaviours that require change for successful weight loss and weight loss maintenance. Pharmacotherapy can help patients to maintain compliance and ameliorate obesity-related health risks. Surgery is the most effective treatment for morbid obesity in terms of long-term weight loss. A comprehensive obesity management can only be accomplished by a multidisciplinary obesity management team. We conclude that physicians have a responsibility to recognise obesity as a disease and help obese patients with appropriate prevention and treatment. Treatment should be based on

  8. Eating habits of preschool children and the risk of obesity, insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome in adults.

    PubMed

    Kostecka, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    Background & Objective : Nutrient excess and nutrient deficiency in the diets of preschool children can lead to permanent modification of metabolic pathways and increased risk of diet-dependent diseases in adults. Children are most susceptible to the adverse consequences of bad eating habits.The objective of this study was to evaluate the eating habits and the diets of preschool children as risk factors for excessive weight, obesity, insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome. Methods : The study was conducted on 350 randomly selected preschool children attending kindergartens in south-eastern Poland. Three-day dietary recalls were processed and evaluated in the Dieta 5 application. Results : The analyzed diets were characterized by low diversity and a high share of processed foods, such as pate, sausages, ketchup, mayonnaise, fried meat, French fries and fast-food. The dietary content of vegetables, raw fruit, dairy products and whole grain products was alarmingly low. Conclusions : Diets characterized by excessive energy value and nutritional deficiency can lead to health problems. In most cases, excessive weight gain in children can be blamed on parents and caretakers who are not aware of the health consequences of high-calorie foods rich in fats and sugar. PMID:25674127

  9. Rising Blood Sugar Hitting More Obese Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159853.html Rising Blood Sugar Hitting More Obese Adults To curb diabetes, researchers ... HealthDay News) -- Among obese American adults, control of blood sugar is worsening, leading to more diabetes and heart ...

  10. Comparing measures of overall and central obesity in relation to cardiometabolic risk factors among US Hispanic/Latino adults

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Qibin; Strizich, Garrett; Hanna, David B.; Giacinto, Rebeca E.; Castañeda, Sheila F.; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Pirzada, Amber; Llabre, Maria M.; Schneiderman, Neil; Aviles-Santa, Larissa; Kaplan, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective US Hispanics/Latinos have high prevalence of obesity and related comorbidities. We compared overall and central obesity measures in associations with cardiometabolic outcomes among US Hispanics/Latinos. Methods Multivariable regression assessed cross-sectional relationships of six obesity measures with cardiometabolic outcomes among 16,415 Hispanics/Latinos aged 18-74 years. Results BMI was moderately correlated with waist-to-hip ratio (WHR; women, r=0.37; men, r=0.58) and highly correlated with other obesity measures (r≥0.87) (P<0.0001). All measures of obesity were correlated with unfavorable levels of glycemic traits, blood pressure, and lipids, with similar r-estimates for each obesity measure (P<0.05). Multivariable-adjusted prevalence ratios (PRs) for diabetes (women, 6.7 [3.9, 11.5]; men, 3.9 [2.2, 6.9]), hypertension (women, 2.4 [1.9, 3.1]; men, 2.5 [1.9, 3.4]), and dyslipidemia (women, 2.1 [1.8, 2.4]; men, 2.2 [1.9, 2.6]) were highest for individuals characterized as overweight/obese (BMI≥25kg/m2) and abnormal WHR (women, ≥0.85; men, ≥0.90), compared to those with normal BMI and WHR (P<0.0001). Among normal-weight individuals, abnormal WHR was associated with increased cardiometabolic condition prevalence (P<0.05), particularly diabetes (women, PR=4.0 [2.2, 7.1]; men, PR=3.0 [1.6, 5.7]). Conclusions Obesity measures were associated with cardiometabolic risk factors to a similar degree in US Hispanics/Latinos. WHR is useful to identify individuals with normal BMI at increased cardiometabolic risk. PMID:26260150

  11. Physical Activity Attenuates the Influence of FTO Variants on Obesity Risk: A Meta-Analysis of 218,166 Adults and 19,268 Children

    PubMed Central

    Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O.; Qi, Lu; Brage, Soren; Sharp, Stephen J.; Sonestedt, Emily; Demerath, Ellen; Ahmad, Tariq; Mora, Samia; Kaakinen, Marika; Sandholt, Camilla Helene; Holzapfel, Christina; Autenrieth, Christine S.; Hyppönen, Elina; Cauchi, Stéphane; He, Meian; Kutalik, Zoltan; Kumari, Meena; Stančáková, Alena; Meidtner, Karina; Balkau, Beverley; Tan, Jonathan T.; Mangino, Massimo; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Song, Yiqing; Zillikens, M. Carola; Jablonski, Kathleen A.; Garcia, Melissa E.; Johansson, Stefan; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L.; Wu, Ying; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V.; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Zimmermann, Esther; Rivera, Natalia V.; Tanaka, Toshiko; Stringham, Heather M.; Silbernagel, Günther; Kanoni, Stavroula; Feitosa, Mary F.; Snitker, Soren; Ruiz, Jonatan R.; Metter, Jeffery; Larrad, Maria Teresa Martinez; Atalay, Mustafa; Hakanen, Maarit; Amin, Najaf; Cavalcanti-Proença, Christine; Grøntved, Anders; Hallmans, Göran; Jansson, John-Olov; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kähönen, Mika; Lutsey, Pamela L.; Nolan, John J.; Palla, Luigi; Pedersen, Oluf; Pérusse, Louis; Renström, Frida; Scott, Robert A.; Shungin, Dmitry; Sovio, Ulla; Tammelin, Tuija H.; Rönnemaa, Tapani; Lakka, Timo A.; Uusitupa, Matti; Rios, Manuel Serrano; Ferrucci, Luigi; Bouchard, Claude; Meirhaeghe, Aline; Fu, Mao; Walker, Mark; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Dedoussis, George V.; Fritsche, Andreas; Ohlsson, Claes; Boehnke, Michael; Bandinelli, Stefania; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Ebrahim, Shah; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Harris, Tamara B.; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.; Mohlke, Karen L.; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, André G.; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Lehtimäki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli; Isomaa, Bo; Njølstad, Pål R.; Florez, Jose C.; Liu, Simin; Ness, Andy; Spector, Timothy D.; Tai, E. Shyong; Froguel, Philippe; Boeing, Heiner; Laakso, Markku; Marmot, Michael; Bergmann, Sven; Power, Chris; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Chasman, Daniel; Ridker, Paul; Hansen, Torben; Monda, Keri L.; Illig, Thomas; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Hu, Frank B.; Groop, Leif C.; Orho-Melander, Marju; Ekelund, Ulf; Franks, Paul W.; Loos, Ruth J. F.

    2011-01-01

    Background The FTO gene harbors the strongest known susceptibility locus for obesity. While many individual studies have suggested that physical activity (PA) may attenuate the effect of FTO on obesity risk, other studies have not been able to confirm this interaction. To confirm or refute unambiguously whether PA attenuates the association of FTO with obesity risk, we meta-analyzed data from 45 studies of adults (n = 218,166) and nine studies of children and adolescents (n = 19,268). Methods and Findings All studies identified to have data on the FTO rs9939609 variant (or any proxy [r2>0.8]) and PA were invited to participate, regardless of ethnicity or age of the participants. PA was standardized by categorizing it into a dichotomous variable (physically inactive versus active) in each study. Overall, 25% of adults and 13% of children were categorized as inactive. Interaction analyses were performed within each study by including the FTO×PA interaction term in an additive model, adjusting for age and sex. Subsequently, random effects meta-analysis was used to pool the interaction terms. In adults, the minor (A−) allele of rs9939609 increased the odds of obesity by 1.23-fold/allele (95% CI 1.20–1.26), but PA attenuated this effect (pinteraction  = 0.001). More specifically, the minor allele of rs9939609 increased the odds of obesity less in the physically active group (odds ratio  = 1.22/allele, 95% CI 1.19–1.25) than in the inactive group (odds ratio  = 1.30/allele, 95% CI 1.24–1.36). No such interaction was found in children and adolescents. Conclusions The association of the FTO risk allele with the odds of obesity is attenuated by 27% in physically active adults, highlighting the importance of PA in particular in those genetically predisposed to obesity. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:22069379

  12. Indicated prevention of adult obesity: reference data for weight normalization in overweight children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Pediatric obesity is a major risk factor for adult obesity. Indicated prevention--that is, helping overweight or obese youth attain non-overweight status--has been suggested to prevent adult obesity. This study aimed to support the notion of indicated prevention by demonstrating that rel...

  13. Regular consumption of pulses for 8 weeks reduces metabolic syndrome risk factors in overweight and obese adults.

    PubMed

    Mollard, R C; Luhovyy, B L; Panahi, S; Nunez, M; Hanley, A; Anderson, G H

    2012-08-01

    Pulses are low in energy density, supporting their inclusion in the diet for the management of risk factors of the metabolic syndrome (MetSyn). The aim of the present study was to describe the effects of frequent consumption (five cups/week over 8 weeks) of pulses (yellow peas, chickpeas, navy beans and lentils), compared with counselling to reduce energy intake by 2093 kJ/d (500 kcal/d), on risk factors of the MetSyn in two groups (nineteen and twenty-one subjects, respectively) of overweight or obese (mean BMI 32·8 kg/m2) adults. Body weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting blood parameters and 24 h food intakes were measured at weeks 1, 4 and 8. Blood glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and ghrelin were measured after a 75 g oral glucose load at weeks 1 and 8. At week 8, both groups reported reductions in energy intake, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, glycosylated Hb (HbA1c) and glucose AUC and homeostasis model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) following the glucose load (P < 0·05). However, HDL, fasting C-peptide and insulin AUC responses were dependent on diet (P < 0·05). HDL and C-peptide increased by 4·5 and 12·3 %, respectively, in the pulse group, but decreased by 0·8 and 7·6 %, respectively, in the energy-restricted group. Insulin AUC decreased in both females and males on the energy-restricted diet by 24·2 and 4·8 %, respectively, but on the pulse diet it decreased by 13·9 % in females and increased by 27·3 % in males (P < 0·05). In conclusion, frequent consumption of pulses in an ad libitum diet reduced risk factors of the MetSyn and these effects were equivalent, and in some instances stronger, than counselling for dietary energy reduction. PMID:22916807

  14. Targeting Binge Eating for the Prevention of Excessive Weight Gain: Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Adolescents at High-Risk for Adult Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Wilfley, Denise E.; Young, Jami F.; Mufson, Laura; Yanovski, Susan Z.; Glasofer, Deborah R.; Salaita, Christine G.

    2007-01-01

    The most prevalent disordered eating pattern described in overweight youth is loss of control (LOC) eating, during which individuals experience an inability to control the type or amount of food they consume. LOC eating is associated cross-sectionally with greater adiposity in children and adolescents, and appears to predispose youth to gain weight or body fat above that expected during normal growth, thus likely contributing to obesity in susceptible individuals. No prior studies have examined whether LOC eating can be decreased by interventions in children or adolescents without full-syndrome eating disorders, or whether programs reducing LOC eating prevent inappropriate weight gain attributable to LOC eating. Interpersonal psychotherapy, a form of therapy that was designed to treat depression and has been adapted for the treatment of eating disorders, has demonstrated efficacy in reducing binge eating episodes and inducing weight stabilization among adults diagnosed with binge eating disorder. In this paper, we propose a theoretical model of excessive weight gain in adolescents at high-risk for adult obesity who engage in LOC eating and associated overeating patterns. A rationale is provided for interpersonal psychotherapy as an intervention to slow the trajectory of weight gain in at-risk youth, with the aim of preventing or ameliorating obesity in adulthood. PMID:17557971

  15. Obesity Among Chronically Homeless Adults: Is It a Problem?

    PubMed Central

    Rosenheck, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective We examined rates of obesity and associated characteristics in the chronically homeless population to explore how a range of factors, including sociodemographics, housing, food source, physical and mental health, and health service use, were related to being overweight or obese. Methods We conducted multivariate regression analyses on a community sample of 436 chronically homeless adults across 11 U.S. cities to examine the prevalence of obesity. Results The majority (57%) of chronically homeless adults were overweight or obese. Chronically homeless adults who were female or Hispanic appeared to be at particular risk for obesity. There were few differences on physical and mental health by weight group. Although overweight and obese chronically homeless adults were more likely to discuss exercise with a health-care provider, they reported engaging in less exercise than those who were underweight or normal weight. Conclusion These findings underscore the need for greater attention to obesity in chronically homeless adults and demonstrate a food insecurity-obesity paradox or poverty-obesity link. PMID:23277657

  16. Causes and risks for obesity - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... and may become obese. No single factor or behavior causes obesity . Obesity is caused by many things, ... we are children may strongly affect our eating behaviors as adults. When we repeat these behaviors over ...

  17. An observational study identifying obese subgroups among older adults at increased risk of mobility disability: do perceptions of the neighborhood environment matter?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Obesity is an increasingly prevalent condition among older adults, yet relatively little is known about how built environment variables may be associated with obesity in older age groups. This is particularly the case for more vulnerable older adults already showing functional limitation...

  18. An observational study identifying obese subgroups among older adults at increased risk of mobility disability: do perceptions of the neighborhood environment matter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Obesity is an increasingly prevalent condition among older adults, yet relatively little is known about how built environment variables may be associated with obesity in older age groups. This is particularly the case for more vulnerable older adults already showing functional limitation...

  19. Redrawing the US Obesity Landscape: Bias-Corrected Estimates of State-Specific Adult Obesity Prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Zachary J.; Long, Michael W.; Resch, Stephen C.; Gortmaker, Steven L.; Cradock, Angie L.; Giles, Catherine; Hsiao, Amber; Wang, Y. Claire

    2016-01-01

    Background State-level estimates from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) underestimate the obesity epidemic because they use self-reported height and weight. We describe a novel bias-correction method and produce corrected state-level estimates of obesity and severe obesity. Methods Using non-parametric statistical matching, we adjusted self-reported data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) 2013 (n = 386,795) using measured data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) (n = 16,924). We validated our national estimates against NHANES and estimated bias-corrected state-specific prevalence of obesity (BMI≥30) and severe obesity (BMI≥35). We compared these results with previous adjustment methods. Results Compared to NHANES, self-reported BRFSS data underestimated national prevalence of obesity by 16% (28.67% vs 34.01%), and severe obesity by 23% (11.03% vs 14.26%). Our method was not significantly different from NHANES for obesity or severe obesity, while previous methods underestimated both. Only four states had a corrected obesity prevalence below 30%, with four exceeding 40%–in contrast, most states were below 30% in CDC maps. Conclusions Twelve million adults with obesity (including 6.7 million with severe obesity) were misclassified by CDC state-level estimates. Previous bias-correction methods also resulted in underestimates. Accurate state-level estimates are necessary to plan for resources to address the obesity epidemic. PMID:26954566

  20. Is Plate Clearing a Risk Factor for Obesity? A Cross-Sectional Study of Self-Reported Data in US Adults

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Eric; Aveyard, Paul; Jebb, Susan A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Identifying eating behaviors which contribute to excess weight gain will inform obesity prevention strategies. A tendency to clear one’s plate when eating may be a risk factor for obesity in an environment where food is plentiful. Whether plate clearing is associated with increased body weight in a cohort of US participants was examined. Methods Nine hundred and ninety-three US adults (60% male, 80% American European, mean age = 31 years) completed self-report measures of habitual plate clearing together with behavioral and demographic characteristics known to be associated with obesity. Results Plate clearing tendencies were positively associated with BMI and remained so after accounting for a large number of other demographic and behavioral predictors of BMI in analyses (β = 0.18, 95% CIs = 0.07, 0.29, P < 0.001); an increased tendency to plate clear was associated with a significantly higher body weight. Conclusions The tendency to clear one’s plate when eating is associated with increased body weight and may constitute a risk factor for weight gain. PMID:25521278

  1. Health risks of obesity

    MedlinePlus

    ... medical condition in which a high amount of body fat increases the chance of developing medical problems. People ... can be used to determine if a person's body fat gives them a higher chance of developing obesity- ...

  2. Laboratory assessment of cardiometabolic risk in overweight and obese children.

    PubMed

    Sypniewska, Grazyna

    2015-04-01

    Childhood obesity has been identified as one of the most important risk factors of developing cardiovascular diseases. The global prevalence of overweight and obesity among children shows an increasing tendency. Many of overweight or obese children will become obese adults with enhanced risk for cardiovascular diseases. Childhood obesity is often accompanied by serious consequences such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, pro-inflammatory state and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Hypertension, high LDL-cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, insulin resistance, inflammation and disturbances in adipocytokines secretion are associated with endothelial dysfunction which precedes the development of atherosclerosis. Obese children and adolescents with a clinically-proven non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which is currently recognized as the hepatic component of metabolic syndrome, are at more severe cardiovascular risk compared with normal-weight. Obesity-related insulin resistance is highly prevalent in children and adolescents, and is associated with the increased lifetime risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Adipokines contribute to obesity-atherosclerosis relationships yet among several recently discovered adipokines only few (adiponectin, resistin, chemerin, fibroblast growth factor 21, apelin) have been partly studied in obese pediatric population. The aim of this review was to describe the spectrum of cardiovascular abnormalities observed in children with overweight and obesity and the role of laboratory in the assessment of cardiometabolic risk in order to differentiate between healthy obese and those at risk to most effectively prevent progression of cardiovascular disease in childhood. PMID:25583095

  3. Polygenic Risk, Rapid Childhood Growth, and the Development of Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Belsky, Daniel W.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Houts, Renate; Bennett, Gary G.; Biddle, Andrea K.; Blumenthal, James A.; Evans, James P.; Harrington, HonaLee; Sugden, Karen; Williams, Benjamin; Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom

    2012-01-01

    Objective To test how genomic loci identified in genome-wide association studies influence the development of obesity. Design A 38-year prospective longitudinal study of a representative birth cohort. Setting The Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, Dunedin, New Zealand. Participants One thousand thirty-seven male and female study members. Main Exposures We assessed genetic risk with a multilocus genetic risk score. The genetic risk score was composed of single-nucleotide polymorphisms identified in genome-wide association studies of obesity-related phenotypes. We assessed family history from parent body mass index data collected when study members were 11 years of age. Main Outcome Measures Body mass index growth curves, developmental phenotypes of obesity, and adult obesity outcomes were defined from anthropometric assessments at birth and at 12 subsequent in-person interviews through 38 years of age. Results Individuals with higher genetic risk scores were more likely to be chronically obese in adulthood. Genetic risk first manifested as rapid growth during early childhood. Genetic risk was unrelated to birth weight. After birth, children at higher genetic risk gained weight more rapidly and reached adiposity rebound earlier and at a higher body mass index. In turn, these developmental phenotypes predicted adult obesity, mediating about half the genetic effect on adult obesity risk. Genetic associations with growth and obesity risk were independent of family history, indicating that the genetic risk score could provide novel information to clinicians. Conclusions Genetic variation linked with obesity risk operates, in part, through accelerating growth in the early childhood years after birth. Etiological research and prevention strategies should target early childhood to address the obesity epidemic. PMID:22665028

  4. Association between perceived insufficient sleep, frequent mental distress, obesity and chronic diseases among US adults, 2009 behavioral risk factor surveillance system

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although evidence suggests that poor sleep is associated with chronic disease, little research has been conducted to assess the relationships between insufficient sleep, frequent mental distress (FMD ≥14 days during the past 30 days), obesity, and chronic disease including diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease, stroke, high blood pressure, asthma, and arthritis. Methods Data from 375,653 US adults aged ≥ 18 years in the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were used to assess the relationships between insufficient sleep and chronic disease. The relationships were further examined using a multivariate logistic regression model after controlling for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, and potential mediators (FMD and obesity). Results The overall prevalence of insufficient sleep during the past 30 days was 10.4% for all 30 days, 17.0% for 14–29 days, 42.0% for 1–13 days, and 30.6% for zero day. The positive relationships between insufficient sleep and each of the six chronic disease were significant (p < 0.0001) after adjustment for covariates and were modestly attenuated but not fully explained by FMD. The relationships between insufficient sleep and both diabetes and high blood pressure were also modestly attenuated but not fully explained by obesity. Conclusions Assessment of sleep quantity and quality and additional efforts to encourage optimal sleep and sleep health should be considered in routine medical examinations. Ongoing research designed to test treatments for obesity, mental distress, or various chronic diseases should also consider assessing the impact of these treatments on sleep health. PMID:23360346

  5. Obesity, diabetes, and coronary risk in women.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Aruna D; Skerrett, Patrick J; Manson, JoAnn E

    2002-12-01

    The latter half of the twentieth century has witnessed rapid advances in cardiovascular epidemiology and medicine. Concurrently, secular trends in lifestyle practices and general improvements in standards of living have resulted in several alarming trends for cardiovascular disease prevention and health promotion. The adoption of unhealthy dietary patterns, growing socio-economic and racial disparities in chronic disease prevalence, low levels of physical activity, and other as yet unidentified genetic and environmental determinants have led to burgeoning rates of both pediatric and adult obesity and diabetes mellitus. Women appear to be at particular risk as the gender advantage for coronary heart disease (CHD) is counterbalanced by an increased incidence of obesity and diabetes. In order to further examine these complex associations, we review the available epidemiological data regarding the impact of obesity and diabetes on cardiovascular health in women. PMID:12478201

  6. [Primary prevention of adult obesity. an interdisciplinary analysis].

    PubMed

    Hilbert, Anja; Ried, Jens; Schneider, Daniel; Juttner, Clemens; Sosna, Marc; Dabrock, Peter; Lingenfelder, Michael; Voit, Wolfgang; Rief, Winfried; Hebebrand, Johannes

    2007-10-01

    The primary prevention of adult obesity requires combined efforts by stakeholders at various societal levels, based on the knowledge from multiple disciplines. The goal of the present study was, therefore, to analyze current preventive approaches and delineate implications for future prevention research and practice by integrating knowledge from genetics, law, economics, psychology, and social ethics (Figure 1). Inconclusive evidence on the etiology of obesity, a complex, multifactorial condition, likely complicates prevention, contributing to a lack of specificity regarding target groups, focus, and techniques of prevention. Given the urgency and significance of the "obesity problem" that requires immediate and effective solutions, it is recommended that the various existing and developing prevention programs are evaluated to ensure orientation at current risk factor research. Results from genetic risk factor research can be used as a rationale to increase specificity of preventive measures regarding identification of high-risk groups, timing, and goals of prevention. Further, it is important to evaluate prevention programs for systematic application of behavior modification techniques and consideration of individual risk factors and resources to ensure promotion of long-term behavior change that leads to weight maintenance and a reduction of incidence rates of obesity in adults (Figure 3). Although the primary prevention of childhood obesity may lead to a reduction of incidence rates of obesity in adults, high rates of adult-onset obesity and the related medical and psychosocial sequelae in adulthood underscore the necessity of preventive efforts for adults. Concerning the environmental basis of obesity prevention, in many countries, the institutional and legal framework of preventive approaches requires further examination in order to improve funding, coordination between multiple stakeholders, and implementation of prevention in the health-care system. Evidence

  7. Relation between local food environments and obesity among adults

    PubMed Central

    Spence, John C; Cutumisu, Nicoleta; Edwards, Joy; Raine, Kim D; Smoyer-Tomic, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Background Outside of the United States, evidence for associations between exposure to fast-food establishments and risk for obesity among adults is limited and equivocal. The purposes of this study were to investigate whether the relative availability of different types of food retailers around people's homes was associated with obesity among adults in Edmonton, Canada, and if this association varied as a function of distance between food locations and people's homes. Methods Data from a population health survey of 2900 adults (18 years or older) conducted in 2002 was linked with geographic measures of access to food retailers. Based upon a ratio of the number of fast-food restaurants and convenience stores to supermarkets and specialty food stores, a Retail Food Environment Index (RFEI) was calculated for 800 m and 1600 m buffers around people's homes. In a series of logistic regressions, associations between the RFEI and the level of obesity among adults were examined. Results The median RFEI for adults in Edmonton was 4.00 within an 800 m buffer around their residence and 6.46 within a 1600 m buffer around their residence. Approximately 14% of the respondents were classified as being obese. The odds of a resident being obese were significantly lower (OR = 0.75, 95%CI 0.59 – 0.95) if they lived in an area with the lowest RFEI (below 3.0) in comparison to the highest RFEI (5.0 and above). These associations existed regardless of the covariates included in the model. No significant associations were observed between RFEI within a 1600 m buffer of the home and obesity. Conclusion The lower the ratio of fast-food restaurants and convenience stores to grocery stores and produce vendors near people's homes, the lower the odds of being obese. Thus the proximity of the obesogenic environment to individuals appears to be an important factor in their risk for obesity. PMID:19538709

  8. Prevalence of Overweight, Obesity, and Abdominal Obesity in a Representative Sample of Portuguese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sardinha, Luís B.; Santos, Diana A.; Silva, Analiza M.; Coelho-e-Silva, Manuel J.; Raimundo, Armando M.; Moreira, Helena; Santos, Rute; Vale, Susana; Baptista, Fátima; Mota, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    This study determined the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and abdominal obesity in the Portuguese adults and examined the relationship between above mentioned prevalences and educational level. Body mass, stature, and waist circumference were measured in a representative sample of the Portuguese population aged 18–103 years (n = 9,447; 18–64 years: n = 6,908; ≥65 years: n = 2,539). Overweight and obesity corresponded to a body mass index ranging between 25–29.9 kg/m2 and ≥30 kg/m2, respectively. Abdominal obesity was assessed as >102 cm for males and >88 cm for females. After adjusting for educational level, the combined prevalences of overweight and obesity were 66.6% in males and 57.9% in females (18–64 years). Respective values in older adults (≥65 years) were 70.4% for males and 74.7% for females. About 19.3% of adult males and 37.9% of adult females presented abdominal obesity. Correspondent values in older adults were 32.1%, for males, and 69.7%, for females. In adults, low educational level was related to an increased risk for overweight (OR = 2.54; 95% CI: 2.08–3.09), obesity (OR = 2.76; 95% CI: 2.20–3.45), and abdominal obesity (OR = 5.48; 95% CI: 4.60–6.52). This reinforces the importance of adjusting public health strategies for educational level. PMID:23118905

  9. Lorcaserin. In obesity: unacceptable risks.

    PubMed

    2014-05-01

    Treatment of obesity and overweight is based primarily on dietary measures and physical exercise.There are still no drugs with a favourable harm-benefit balance in this setting. Lorcaserin, a "selective" 5HT2C serotonin receptor agonist, has been refused marketing authorisation in the European Union despite approval in the United States. Clinical evaluation of lorcaserin is based on three placebo-controlled trials, each lasting one year, in a total of about 6000 patients. Two trials involved obese patients, and one obese patients with type 2 diabetes. The results of these trials are undermined by the large proportion (40% to 50%) of patients who were lost to follow-up before the end of the trial. None of the trials examined the impact of lorcaserin on the clinical complications of obesity. From an average initial weight of about 100 kg, patients taking lorcaserin lost only about 3 kg more than those in the placebo groups.The patients put on weight again after lorcaserin was discontinued. Adverse effects observed in clinical trials were mainly gastrointestinal (dry mouth, nausea) and neuropsychiatric (dizziness, fatigue, headache, euphoria). The incidence of cardiac valve disorders was higher with lorcaserin than with placebo. These trials were too short in duration to exclude a risk of cancer (breast cancer and astrocytoma) that was reported in experimental animals. This serotonin agonist is metabolised by the liver, creating a risk of multiple drug interactions. In practice, lorcaserin has not been shown to prevent complications of obesity or even lead to substantial weight loss.There is therefore no justification for exposing patients to the risk of adverse effects. PMID:24926508

  10. Understanding Adult Overweight and Obesity

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the column is the BMI for that height and weight. Pounds are rounded off. You may also go ... of the column is the BMI at that height and weight. Pounds have been rounded off. Normal Overweight Obese ...

  11. The relationship of breakfast skipping and type of breakfast consumed with overweight/obesity, abdominal obesity, other cardiometabolic risk factors and the metabolic syndrome in young adults. NHANES 1999-2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of this study was to examine the association between breakfast skipping and type of breakfast consumed with overweight /obesity, abdominal obesity, other cardiometabolic risk factors and the metabolic syndrome. Three breakfast groups were identified (breakfast skippers, ready-to-eat-cereal ...

  12. Alcohol, Obesity Could Raise Esophageal Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160133.html Alcohol, Obesity Could Raise Esophageal Cancer Risk A third of ... at the American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR). "Obesity is now linked to 11 types of cancer ...

  13. The food environment and adult obesity in US metropolitan areas.

    PubMed

    Michimi, Akihiko; Wimberly, Michael C

    2015-01-01

    This research examines the larger-scale associations between obesity and food environments in metropolitan areas in the United States (US). The US Census County Business Patterns dataset for 2011 was used to construct various indices of food environments for selected metropolitan areas. The numbers of employees engaged in supermarkets, convenience stores, full service restaurants, fast food restaurants, and snack/coffee shops were standardised using the location quotients, and factor analysis was used to produce two uncorrelated factors measuring food environments. Data on obesity were obtained from the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Individual level obesity measures were linked to the metropolitan area level food environment factors. Models were fitted using generalised estimating equations to control for metropolitan area level intra-correlation and individual level sociodemographic characteristics. It was found that adults residing in cities with a large share of supermarket and full-service restaurant workers were less likely to be obese, while adults residing in cities with a large share of convenience store and fast food restaurant workers were more likely to be obese. Supermarkets and full-service restaurant workers are concentrated in the Northeast and West of the US, where obesity prevalence is relatively lower, while convenience stores and fast-food restaurant workers are concentrated in the South and Midwest, where obesity prevalence is relatively higher. The food environment landscapes measured at the metropolitan area level explain the continental-scale patterns of obesity prevalence. The types of food that are readily available and widely served may translate into obesity disparities across metropolitan areas. PMID:26618317

  14. Obesity in pregnancy: risks and management

    PubMed Central

    Fitzsimons, Kate J; Modder, Jo; Greer, Ian A

    2009-01-01

    Maternal obesity is now considered one of the most commonly occurring risk factors seen in obstetric practice. Compared with women with a healthy pre-pregnancy weight, women with obesity are at increased risk of miscarriage, gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, venous thromboembolism, induced labour, caesarean section, anaesthetic complications and wound infections, and they are less likely to initiate or maintain breastfeeding. Babies of obese mothers are at increased risk of stillbirth, congenital anomalies, prematurity, macrosomia and neonatal death. Intrauterine exposure to obesity is also associated with an increased risk of developing obesity and metabolic disorders in childhood. This article reviews the prevalence of obesity in pregnancy and the associated maternal and fetal complications. Recommendations and suggestions for pre-conception, antenatal and postnatal care of women with obesity are presented, and current research in the UK and future research priorities are considered.

  15. Risks and consequences of childhood and adolescent obesity.

    PubMed

    Must, A; Strauss, R S

    1999-03-01

    This report reviews the risks and consequences associated with childhood and adolescent obesity. Although no consensus definition of childhood obesity exists, the various measures encountered in the literature are moderately well correlated. The paper is organized in three parts. The first section reviews childhood obesity sequelae that occur during childhood. These short-term risks, for orthopedic, neurological, pulmonary, gasteroenterological, and endocrine conditions, although largely limited to severely overweight children, are becoming more common as the prevalence of severe overweight rises. The social burden of pediatric obesity, especially during middle childhood and adolescence, may have lasting effects on self-esteem, body image and economic mobility. The second section examines the intermediate consequences, such as the development of cardiovascular risk factors and persistence of obesity into adulthood. These mid-range effects of early obesity presage later adult disease and premature mortality. In the final section, the small body of research on the long-term morbidity and mortality associated with childhood obesity is reviewed. These studies suggest that risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality is elevated among those who were overweight during childhood. The high prevalence and dramatic secular trend toward increasing childhood obesity suggest that without aggressive approaches to prevention and treatment, the attendant health and social consequences will be both substantial and long-lasting. PMID:10340798

  16. Relationship between N-Terminal Pro-Brain Natriuretic Peptide, Obesity and the Risk of Heart Failure in Middle-Aged German Adults

    PubMed Central

    Wirth, Janine; Buijsse, Brian; di Giuseppe, Romina; Fritsche, Andreas; Hense, Hans W.; Westphal, Sabine; Isermann, Berend; Boeing, Heiner; Weikert, Cornelia

    2014-01-01

    Background Both high concentrations of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and obesity are related to higher heart failure risk. However, inverse relationships between NT-proBNP and obesity have been reported. Therefore, it was investigated whether the association between NT-proBNP and the risk of heart failure differed according to obesity status. Methods A case-cohort study was conducted within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam, comprising a random sub-cohort (non-cases = 1,150, cases = 13, mean age: 50.5±9.0 years) and heart failure cases outside the sub-cohort (n = 197). Weighted Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine the association between NT-proBNP and heart failure risk during a mean follow-up time of 8 years. Stratified analyses were performed according to obesity status as defined by body mass index (<30 kg/m2 versus ≥30 kg/m2). Results Overall, NT-proBNP was associated with higher risk of heart failure after multivariable adjustment (hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.56 (1.49–4.41) for the top versus bottom tertile of NT-proBNP, ptrend:<0.01). In stratified analyses, the shape of association was linear in non-obese and U-shaped in obese participants: HRs (95%CI) from the first to the third tertile of NT-proBNP for non-obese: reference, 1.72 (0.85–3.49), 2.72 (1.42–5.22), and for obese: 3.29 (1.04–10.40), reference, 3.74 (1.52–9.21). Conclusions Although high circulating concentrations of NT-proBNP were positively associated with incident heart failure in the entire sample, the association differed according to obesity status. In obese, an increased risk of heart failure was also observed in those with low NT-proBNP concentrations. If confirmed, this observation warrants further investigation to understand underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. PMID:25423197

  17. [Nonsurgical management of obesity in adults].

    PubMed

    Quilliot, Didier; Roché, Gaelle; Mohebbi, Halle; Sirvaux, Marie-Aude; Böhme, Philip; Ziegler, Olivier

    2010-09-01

    General practitioners are placed in an ideal position to manage obesity. First, they have to consider the motivation of the obese patient to change his habits. When the patient is not motivated to loss weight, their role is to identify and treat co-morbidities, to evaluate the risk related to the obesity and to establish a therapeutic diagnosis to evaluate motivation and ability to change. If the patient is motivated, the therapeutic choices have to be adapted individually to each patient. An inadequate management may not only result in a failure but may increase obesity. The objectives in obesity treatment are to achieve weight loss in order to reduce health risk as far as possible, to maintain that weight loss, to restore quality of life. Goals and methods must be realistic. Even a modest weight loss (5-10 % of initial weight) will improve health indices in an obese patient. Dietary treatment and physical activity are fundamental to the management of obesity. Compliance with the diet is the major problem, especially during the phase of weight maintenance after the excess weight loss has been lost. Initial weight reduction depends on the level of energy deficit and weight maintenance on compliance to a low fat diet and a physical activity programme. Cognitive behavioural approaches should be an integral part of the management of a chronic disease. This treatment is very useful to improve body image, self-esteem, management of stress and control of disordered eating patterns. A psychotherapeutic approach is often necessary, especially when the obesity is psycho-determined. Obesity drugs should be used for carefully selected patients, as an adjunct to diet therapy and lifestyle modifications, under medical supervision. PMID:20674258

  18. Nutrition Promotion to Prevent Obesity in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Allman-Farinelli, Margaret A.

    2015-01-01

    Young adulthood is a vulnerable period for weight gain and the health consequences of becoming obese during this life-stage of serious concern. Some unhealthy dietary habits are typical of young adults in many developed nations encountering the obesity epidemic. These include high sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, lower vegetable intake and greater consumption of foods prepared outside the home including fast foods. Each of these dietary behaviours may place young adults at increased risk for overweight and obesity. Evidence suggests many young adults with unhealthy nutrition behaviours are not considering nor preparing to make changes. To improve their nutrition and health as they progress through the lifecycle requires approaches specifically targeted to this age group. Strategies and programs should include both individual level and population approaches. The evidence base for prevention of weight gain and halting overweight and obesity in young adulthood is currently small with few studies of high quality. Studies modifying food environments in colleges and universities are also of limited quality, but sufficiently promising to conduct further research employing better, more sophisticated, study designs and additionally to include health outcome measures. More research into programs tailored to the needs of young adults is warranted with several studies already underway. PMID:27417798

  19. Nutrition Promotion to Prevent Obesity in Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Allman-Farinelli, Margaret A

    2015-01-01

    Young adulthood is a vulnerable period for weight gain and the health consequences of becoming obese during this life-stage of serious concern. Some unhealthy dietary habits are typical of young adults in many developed nations encountering the obesity epidemic. These include high sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, lower vegetable intake and greater consumption of foods prepared outside the home including fast foods. Each of these dietary behaviours may place young adults at increased risk for overweight and obesity. Evidence suggests many young adults with unhealthy nutrition behaviours are not considering nor preparing to make changes. To improve their nutrition and health as they progress through the lifecycle requires approaches specifically targeted to this age group. Strategies and programs should include both individual level and population approaches. The evidence base for prevention of weight gain and halting overweight and obesity in young adulthood is currently small with few studies of high quality. Studies modifying food environments in colleges and universities are also of limited quality, but sufficiently promising to conduct further research employing better, more sophisticated, study designs and additionally to include health outcome measures. More research into programs tailored to the needs of young adults is warranted with several studies already underway. PMID:27417798

  20. Effects of high-intensity interval training and moderate-intensity continuous training on endothelial function and cardiometabolic risk markers in obese adults.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, Brandon J; Tucker, Wesley J; Bhammar, Dharini M; Ryder, Justin R; Sweazea, Karen L; Gaesser, Glenn A

    2016-07-01

    We hypothesized that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) would be more effective than moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) at improving endothelial function and maximum oxygen uptake (V̇o2 max) in obese adults. Eighteen participants [35.1 ± 8.1 (SD) yr; body mass index = 36.0 ± 5.0 kg/m(2)] were randomized to 8 wk (3 sessions/wk) of either HIIT [10 × 1 min, 90-95% maximum heart rate (HRmax), 1-min active recovery] or MICT (30 min, 70-75% HRmax). Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) increased after HIIT (5.13 ± 2.80% vs. 8.98 ± 2.86%, P = 0.02) but not after MICT (5.23 ± 2.82% vs. 3.05 ± 2.76%, P = 0.16). Resting artery diameter increased after MICT (3.68 ± 0.58 mm vs. 3.86 ± 0.58 mm, P = 0.02) but not after HIIT (4.04 ± 0.70 mm vs. 4.09 ± 0.70 mm; P = 0.63). There was a significant (P = 0.02) group × time interaction in low flow-mediated constriction (L-FMC) between MICT (0.63 ± 2.00% vs. -2.79 ± 3.20%; P = 0.03) and HIIT (-1.04 ± 4.09% vs. 1.74 ± 3.46%; P = 0.29). V̇o2 max increased (P < 0.01) similarly after HIIT (2.19 ± 0.65 l/min vs. 2.64 ± 0.88 l/min) and MICT (2.24 ± 0.48 l/min vs. 2.55 ± 0.61 l/min). Biomarkers of cardiovascular risk and endothelial function were unchanged. HIIT and MICT produced different vascular adaptations in obese adults, with HIIT improving FMD and MICT increasing resting artery diameter and enhancing L-FMC. HIIT required 27.5% less total exercise time and ∼25% less energy expenditure than MICT. PMID:27255523

  1. Obesity-related cardiovascular risk factors: intervention recommendations to decrease adolescent obesity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calderon, Kristine S.; Yucha, Carolyn B.; Schaffer, Susan D.

    2005-01-01

    The incidence of adolescent obesity is increasing dramatically in the United States with associated risks of hypertension, adverse lipid profiles, and Type II diabetes. Unless reversed, this trend predicts an epidemic of adult cardiovascular disease. Interventions at home, at school, and in the community are required to empower teens to increase physical activity and to modify eating habits. This article describes assessment for obesity-related health problems as well as scientific guidelines and research-based intervention strategies to decrease obesity in adolescents.

  2. EFFECT OF PROTEIN SOURCE DURING WEIGHT LOSS ON BODY COMPOSITION, CARDIOMETABOLIC RISK AND PHYSICAL PERFORMANCE IN ABDOMINALLY OBESE, OLDER ADULTS: A PILOT FEEDING STUDY

    PubMed Central

    BEAVERS, K.M.; GORDON, M.M.; EASTER, L.; BEAVERS, D.P.; HAIRSTON, K.G.; NICKLAS, B.J.; VITOLINS, M.Z.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this pilot study was to begin to examine the effect of dietary protein source (soy protein versus non-soy protein) during weight loss on body composition, and cardiometabolic and functional decline risk factors in older, abdominally obese adults. Design Two-arm, single-blind, randomized, controlled trial. Setting Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem NC 27157, USA. Participants 25 older (68.4±5.5 years, 88% female), abdominally obese (BMI: 35.1±4.3 kg/m2; WC: 101.4±13.1 cm) men and women were randomized to participate in the study. Intervention A 12-week weight loss intervention, with participants randomized to consume soy protein-based meal replacements (S; n=12) or non-soy protein-based meal replacements (NS; n=12), in addition to prepared meals, and all participants targeted to receive an individualized caloric deficit of 500 kcal/day. Measurements Body weight and composition (assessed via DXA and CT), conventional biomarkers of cardiometabolic risk, and physical performance measures were assessed pre- and post-intervention. Additional endpoints of feasibility (accrual, participation, retention, compliance, and safety) are reported. Results A total of 24 participants (87% female) completed the study (96% retention) and lost an average of 7.8±3.0 kg over the 12-week period, with no difference seen between groups (p=0.83). Although nearly all measures of global and regional body composition were significantly reduced following the 12-week intervention, differences were not observed between groups. Among cardiometabolic risk factors and physical performance measures, only diastolic blood pressure was significantly lower in the NS group compared to the S group (66.7±2.7 mmHg vs 73.5±2.7 mmHg, respectively; p=0.04). Interestingly, in groups combined, despite significant reductions in body weight and lean mass, no significant changes in 400-meter walk time (+5.3±43.4 s), short physical performance battery score (+0.1±1

  3. Carbohydrate Intake and Overweight and Obesity among Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    MERCHANT, ANWAR T.; VATANPARAST, HASSANALI; BARLAS, SHAHZAIB; DEHGHAN, MAHSHID; SHAH, SYED MAHBOOB ALI; DE KONING, LAWRENCE; STECK, SUSAN E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Little is known about the dietary habits of people with optimal body weight in communities with high overweight and obesity prevalence. Objective To evaluate carbohydrate intake in relation to overweight and obesity in healthy, free-living adults. Design We used a cross-sectional analysis. Subjects/setting The Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 2.2 is a cross-sectional survey of Canadians conducted in 2004–2005. There were 4,451 participants aged 18 years and older with anthropometric and dietary data and no comorbid conditions in this analysis. Main outcome measures Outcome variables were body mass index (BMI; calculated as kg/m2) and overweight or obesity status (dichotomous) defined as BMI ≥25 compared with BMI <25 based on measured height and weight. Diet was evaluated by 24-hour dietary recall based on the Automated Multi-Pass Method. Statistical analyses performed Weighted regression models with bootstrapping and cubic splines were used. Outcome variables were BMI and overweight or obesity, and predictors were daily nutrient intake. Adjustment for total energy intake, age, leisure time energy expenditure, sex, smoking, education, and income adequacy was performed. Results Risk of overweight and obesity was decreased in all quartiles of carbohydrate intake compared to the lowest intake category (multivariate odds ratio quartile 2=0.63; 95% confidence interval: 0.49 to 0.90; odds ratio quartile 3=0.58; 95% confidence interval: 0.41 to 0.82; odds ratio quartile 4=0.60; 95% confidence interval: 0.42 to 0.85). Spline analyses revealed lowest risk among those consuming 290 to 310 g/day carbohydrates. Conclusions Consuming a low-carbohydrate (approximately <47% energy) diet is associated with greater likelihood of being overweight or obese among healthy, free-living adults. Lowest risk may be obtained by consuming 47% to 64% energy from carbohydrates. PMID:19559132

  4. Obesity and Life Expectancy Among Long-Lived Black Adults

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background. In samples of African Americans and the elderly adults, obesity is often not found to be a risk factor for mortality. These data contradict the evidence linking obesity to chronic disease in these groups. Our objective was to determine whether obesity remains a risk factor for mortality among long-lived black adults. Methods. The Adventist Health Study 2 is a large prospective cohort study of Seventh-day Adventist church members who are encouraged by faith-based principles to avoid tobacco, alcohol, and meat consumption. We conducted an attained age survival analysis of 22,884 U.S. blacks of the cohort—half of whom attained an age of 58–108 years during the follow-up (adult life expectancy of 84 years in men, 89 years in women). Results. Women in the highest body mass index quintile (>33.8) experienced a significant 61% increase (hazard ratio [95% CI] = 1.62 [1.23, 2.11] relative to the middle quintile) in mortality risk and a 6.2-year (95% CI = 2.8–10.2 years) decrease in life expectancy. Men in the highest body mass index quintile (>30.8) experienced a significant 87% increase (hazard ratio [95% CI] = 1.87 [1.28, 2.73] relative to the middle quintile) in mortality risk and 5.9-year (95% CI = 2.1– 9.5 years) decrease in life expectancy. Obesity (>30) was a significant risk factor relative to normal weight (18.5–24.9) in never-smokers. Instantaneous hazards indicated excess risk from obesity was evident through at least age 85 years. The nonobese tended to follow plant-based diets and exercise vigorously. Conclusions. Avoiding obesity promotes gains in life expectancy through at least the eighth decade of life in black adults. Evidence for weight control through plant-based diets and active living was found in long-lived nonobese blacks. PMID:23682156

  5. Obese, Mexican-American children have elevated non-traditional metabolic risk factors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a health disparity for obesity amongst Mexican-Americans compared to other race/ethnic groups. In particular Mexican-American children who are obese are likely to become obese adults. The purpose of this study was to examine traditional and non-traditional risk factors in a subset of Mexica...

  6. Consumption and acceptability of whole grain staples for lowering markers of diabetes risk among overweight and obese Tanzanian adults

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dietary changes characterized by a reduction in carbohydrate quality are occurring in developing countries and may be associated with a higher prevalence of obesity and chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus. We assessed the preferences and acceptability of unrefined whole grain carbohydrate staples (i.e., brown rice, unrefined maize and unrefined sorghum ugali) as substitutes for commonly consumed refined carbohydrates in Tanzania. Methods A questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic information and dietary habits, and pre-and post-tasting questionnaires were administered for test foods. A 10-point LIKERT scale was used to rate attributes of the three test foods. Results White rice and refined maize ugali were the most commonly consumed carbohydrate staples in this population; 98% and 91%, respectively. Occasional consumption of unrefined maize and sorghum ugali was reported by 32% and 23% of the participants, respectively. All of the test foods were highly rated for smell, taste, color, appearance and texture. Taste was rated highest for unrefined maize ugali. Almost all of the participants were willing to participate in a future dietary intervention involving regular consumption of these unrefined carbohydrates for at least six months duration. Conclusions These findings suggest that whole grain carbohydrates are highly acceptable, and that there is a promising potential for their use in future dietary intervention studies in Tanzania. PMID:23800295

  7. Treatment of adult obesity with bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Robin; Garrison, Jordan M; Johnson, Mark S

    2011-10-01

    Bariatric surgery procedures, including laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding, laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy, and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, result in an average weight loss of 50 percent of excess body weight. Remission of diabetes mellitus occurs in approximately 80 percent of patients after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Other obesity-related comorbidities are greatly reduced, and health-related quality of life improves. The Obesity Surgery Mortality Risk Score can help identify patients with increased mortality risk from bariatric surgery. Complications and adverse effects are lowest with laparoscopic surgery, and vary by procedure and presurgical risk. The Roux-en-Y procedure carries an increased risk of malabsorption sequelae, which can be minimized with standard nutritional supplementation. Outcomes are also influenced by the experience of the surgeon and surgical facility. Overall, these procedures have a mortality risk of less than 0.5 percent. Although there have been no long-term randomized controlled trials, existing studies show that bariatric surgery has a beneficial effect on mortality. The family physician is well positioned to care for obese patients by discussing surgery as an option for long-term weight loss. Counseling about the procedure options, risks and benefits of surgery, and the potential reduction in comorbid conditions is important. Patient selection, presurgical risk reduction, and postsurgical medical management, with nutrition and exercise support, are valuable roles for the family physician. PMID:22010619

  8. Other Risks/Possible Benefits of Obesity.

    PubMed

    Weeth, Lisa P

    2016-09-01

    Obesity is not a cosmetic or social issue; it is an animal health issue. The metabolic effects of obesity on insulin resistance and development of hyperlipidemia and the mechanical stress excess weight places on the musculoskeletal system are well established in the literature. Additional health risks from obesity, such as fatty accumulation in the liver, intestinal bacterial dysbiosis, and changes to renal architecture, are less well understood, but have been demonstrated to occur clinically in obese animals and may lead to deleterious long-term health effects. Keeping dogs and cats lean lowers their risk for development of certain diseases and leads to a longer and better quality of life. PMID:27267439

  9. Does the Method of Weight Loss Effect Long-Term Changes in Weight, Body Composition or Chronic Disease Risk Factors in Overweight or Obese Adults? A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Washburn, Richard A.; Szabo, Amanda N.; Lambourne, Kate; Willis, Erik A.; Ptomey, Lauren T.; Honas, Jeffery J.; Herrmann, Stephen D.; Donnelly, Joseph E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Differences in biological changes from weight loss by energy restriction and/or exercise may be associated with differences in long-term weight loss/regain. Objective To assess the effect of weight loss method on long-term changes in weight, body composition and chronic disease risk factors. Data Sources PubMed and Embase were searched (January 1990-October 2013) for studies with data on the effect of energy restriction, exercise (aerobic and resistance) on long-term weight loss. Twenty articles were included in this review. Study Eligibility Criteria Primary source, peer reviewed randomized trials published in English with an active weight loss period of >6 months, or active weight loss with a follow-up period of any duration, conducted in overweight or obese adults were included. Study Appraisal and Synthesis Methods Considerable heterogeneity across trials existed for important study parameters, therefore a meta-analysis was considered inappropriate. Results were synthesized and grouped by comparisons (e.g. diet vs. aerobic exercise, diet vs. diet + aerobic exercise etc.) and study design (long-term or weight loss/follow-up). Results Forty percent of trials reported significantly greater long-term weight loss with diet compared with aerobic exercise, while results for differences in weight regain were inconclusive. Diet+aerobic exercise resulted in significantly greater weight loss than diet alone in 50% of trials. However, weight regain (∼55% of loss) was similar in diet and diet+aerobic exercise groups. Fat-free mass tended to be preserved when interventions included exercise. PMID:25333384

  10. Increased Circulating ANG II and TNF-α Represents Important Risk Factors in Obese Saudi Adults with Hypertension Irrespective of Diabetic Status and BMI

    PubMed Central

    Al-Daghri, Nasser M.; Bindahman, Lotfi S.; Al-Attas, Omar S.; Saleem, Tahia H.; Alokail, Majed S.; Alkharfy, Khalid M.; Draz, Hossam M.; Yakout, Sobhy; Mohamed, Amany O.; Harte, Alison L.; McTernan, Philip G.

    2012-01-01

    Central adiposity is a significant determinant of obesity-related hypertension risk, which may arise due to the pathogenic inflammatory nature of the abdominal fat depot. However, the influence of pro-inflammatory adipokines on blood pressure in the obese hypertensive phenotype has not been well established in Saudi subjects. As such, our study investigated whether inflammatory factors may represent useful biomarkers to delineate hypertension risk in a Saudi cohort with and without hypertension and/or diabetes mellitus type 2 (DMT2). Subjects were subdivided into four groups: healthy lean controls (age: 47.9±5.1 yr; BMI: 22.9±2.1 Kg/m2), non-hypertensive obese (age: 46.1±5.0 yr; BMI: 33.7±4.2 Kg/m2), hypertensive obese (age: 48.6±6.1 yr; BMI: 36.5±7.7 Kg/m2) and hypertensive obese with DMT2 (age: 50.8±6.0 yr; BMI: 35.3±6.7 Kg/m2). Anthropometric data were collected from all subjects and fasting blood samples were utilized for biochemical analysis. Serum angiotensin II (ANG II) levels were elevated in hypertensive obese (p<0.05) and hypertensive obese with DMT2 (p<0.001) compared with normotensive controls. Systolic blood pressure was positively associated with BMI (p<0.001), glucose (p<0.001), insulin (p<0.05), HOMA-IR (p<0.001), leptin (p<0.01), TNF-α (p<0.001) and ANG II (p<0.05). Associations between ANG II and TNF-α with systolic blood pressure remained significant after controlling for BMI. Additionally CRP (p<0.05), leptin (p<0.001) and leptin/adiponectin ratio (p<0.001) were also significantly associated with the hypertension phenotype. In conclusion our data suggests that circulating pro-inflammatory adipokines, particularly ANG II and, TNF-α, represent important factors associated with a hypertension phenotype and may directly contribute to predicting and exacerbating hypertension risk. PMID:23251471

  11. Physical Inactivity and Incidence of Obesity among South Australian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Montgomerie, Alicia M.; Chittleborough, Catherine R.; Taylor, Anne W.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the association of physical inactivity with incidence of obesity in the South Australian adult population. Two representative data sources were used – the South Australian Monitoring and Surveillance System (SAMSS), a monthly surveillance system, and the North West Adelaide Health Study (NWAHS), a biomedical cohort study. There were 75.3% (n = 12873) SAMSS participants and 72.8% (n = 1521) of NWAHS participants that were not obese at baseline. The cumulative incidence of obesity for SAMSS participants from the previous year to the current year was 2.7%. The cumulative incidence of obesity for NWAHS participants between baseline and stage 3 was 14.4%. Physical inactivity was associated with incident obesity (RR 1.48, 95% CI 1.14–1.90 [SAMSS] and RR 1.41, 95% CI 1.03–1.93 [NWAHS]). This association remained, but was attenuated after adjustment for chronic conditions, risk factors and socio-demographic factors. However, physical activity should be continued to be encouraged in the population for its known additional health benefits. PMID:25383626

  12. Lifetime cardiovascular risk of childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Raghuveer, Geetha

    2010-05-01

    An increase in the incidence and an earlier onset of coronary artery disease is expected because of the increased prevalence of childhood obesity. Comorbidities of obesity, such as dyslipidemia, insulin resistance syndrome, hypertension, associated nutritional deficiencies, and a sedentary lifestyle or associated lifestyle factors such as tobacco smoke exposure, are likely to account for this increase because these are all independent risk factors for accelerated atherosclerosis. Because clinical atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease does not manifest in obese children, assessment of the subclinical markers of atherosclerosis may help in the evaluation of the progression of atherosclerosis, in further stratification of risk, and in monitoring the effects of intervention. Furthermore, because multiple risk factors with poorly understood interplay might be present in obese children, assessment of the vasculature directly, and perhaps the assignment of a "vascular age," may be a useful method to quantify the "end organ" effect of exposure to these various risks. Obese children may show favorable changes in their behaviors that result in an improvement in clinically measurable risk factors with various clinic-based and behavior modification therapies, but the vascular benefits of such interventions need to be studied further. Broad social, cultural, legislative, and policy changes that support healthy lifestyles within families and communities need to be implemented to decrease the prevalence of childhood obesity and its cardiovascular consequences in communities. The effect of risk factor modification on the vasculature will continue to be a resource for the direction of evidence-based therapy in obese children. PMID:20335556

  13. Novel therapeutic strategies for adult obese asthmatics

    PubMed Central

    Linderholm, Angela; Bratt, Jennifer; Schuster, Gertrud; Zeki, Amir; Kenyon, Nicholas J.

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis Asthma is a complex syndrome that affects an estimated 26 million people in the United States but gaps exist in the recognition and management of asthmatic subgroups. In this manuscript, we propose alternative approaches for future treatments of adult obese asthmatics that do not respond to standard controller therapies of inhaled corticosteroids, bronchodilators, and anti-leukotriene drugs. We draw parallels between seemingly disparate therapeutics through their common signaling pathways. Specifically, we describe how metformin and statins can potentially improve airway inflammation and suggest supplements, for example L-arginine, which can be used in combination with conventional therapies. A move towards more targeted therapies for asthma subgroups is needed. These therapies address asthma and the comorbidities that accompany obesity and metabolic syndrome to provide the greatest therapeutic potential. PMID:25282293

  14. Characteristics of Physician Office Visits for Obesity by Adults Aged 20 and Over: United States, 2012.

    PubMed

    Talwalkar, Anjali; McCarty, Frances

    2016-03-01

    In 2011–2014, current asthma prevalence was higher among adults with obesity compared with adults in lower weight categories. This pattern was consistent across most demographic subgroups, except among men, for whom no statistically significant difference in current asthma prevalence by weight status was observed. Other epidemiologic studies of asthma prevalence have shown conflicting results about whether obesity is a risk factor for asthma among males. By race and Hispanic origin, current asthma prevalence was highest among adults with obesity for all groups. Patterns differed slightly among groups. For non-Hispanic black and Hispanic adults, prevalence for those with obesity was higher than for those in the normal weight and overweight categories. For non-Hispanic white adults, there was no signficant difference in asthma prevalence between the obese and overweight categories. For all age groups, current asthma prevalence was highest among adults with obesity, and there was no significant difference in asthma prevalence between those in the normal weight and overweight categories. There was an increasing trend in asthma prevalence as weight increased that was observed most clearly in the 60 and over age group. From 2001 to 2014, there was an increasing trend in current asthma prevalence among adults overall and among overweight adults. However, no significant trend was observed among adults in other weight categories. Findings from an American Thoracic Society workshop on obesity and asthma concluded that obesity is a major risk factor for asthma, and that obesity-related asthma is likely different from other types of asthma (e.g., allergic, occupational, exercise-induced, nocturnal, aspirin-sensitive, and severe asthma). PMID:27018815

  15. [Obesity and cardiovascular risk in children].

    PubMed

    Shashaj, Blegina; Graziani, Maria Pia; Tozzi, Alberto Eugenio; Manco, Melania

    2014-12-01

    Prevalence of overweight and obesity in childhood has substantially increased worldwide in recent decades with children becoming obese at progressively younger ages. Obesity in children carries a wide range of serious complications, and contributes to an increased prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension, hypertrygliceridema, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), impaired glucose metabolism and early atherosclerotic changes not only in adulthood but since in very early pediatric age. In the ORIGIN study (Outcome Reduction with an Initial Glargine Intervention), cardiometabolic risk factors including fatty liver were already detectable in preschoolers at the onset of overweight/obesity despite short-term exposure to excess weight and fairly reduced insulin sensitivity. These facts together with the evidence that early cardiometabolic impairment reverts with lifestyle intervention in pediatric age, emphasize the need to start prevention of childhood obesity and screening of cardiometabolic co-morbities at the earliest stage with multidisciplinary strategies. PMID:25533232

  16. Candidate Genes from Molecular Pathways Related to Appetite Regulatory Neural Network and Adipocyte Homeostasis and Obesity: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study

    PubMed Central

    Friedlander, Yechiel; Li, Guo; Fornage, Myriam; Williams, O. Dale; Lewis, Cora E.; Schreiner, Pamela; Pletcher, Mark J.; Enquobahrie, Daniel; Williams, Michelle; Siscovick, David S.

    2010-01-01

    Background Appetite regulatory neural network and adipocyte homeostasis molecular pathways are critical to long-term weight maintenance. Genetic variation in these pathways may explain variability of obesity in the general population. Aims The associations of four genes in these pathways (leptin (LEP), leptin receptor (LEPR), neuropeptide Y2 receptor (NPY2R) and peptide YY (PYY)) with obesity-related phenotypes were examined among participants in the CARDIA Study. Participants were 18-30 years old upon recruitment (1985-86). Weight, BMI and waist circumference were measured at baseline and at years 2, 5, 7, 10, 15, and 20. Genotyping was conducted using tag SNPs that characterize the common pattern of genetic variation in these genes. Race-specific linear regression models were used to examine associations of the various SNPs with obesity-related measurements, controlling for sex and age. The overall association based on the 7 repeated anthropometric measurements was tested with GEE. False discovery rate was used to adjust for multiple testing. Results In African-Americans, SNPs across the LEP gene demonstrated significant overall associations with obesity-related phenotypes. The associations between rs17151919 in LEP gene with weight tended to increase with time (SNP × time interaction p=0.0193). The difference in weight levels associated with each additional minor allele ranged from 2.6 kg at entry to 4.8 kg at year 20. Among African-American men, the global tests indicated that SNPs across the NPY2R gene were also associated with waist circumference measurements (p=0.0462). In Caucasians, SNPs across the LEP gene also tended to be associated with weight measurements (p=0.0471) and rs11684664 in PYY gene was associated with obesity-related phenotypes (p= 0.010-0.026) in women only. Conclusions Several SNPs in the LEP, NPY2R and PYY but not the LEPR genes were associated with obesity-related phenotypes in young adults. The associations were more prominent for the

  17. Cardiovascular Risk Factor Levels in Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimmer, James H.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Comparison of cardiovascular risk factors (blood lipids, obesity, and smoking) in 329 adults with mental retardation residing in various settings with subjects in the Framingham Offspring Study found that adults with mental retardation had cardiovascular risk profiles similar to those of individuals without mental retardation. (Author/DB)

  18. Altered Decision-Making under Risk in Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Navas, Juan F.; Vilar-López, Raquel; Perales, José C.; Steward, Trevor; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Verdejo-García, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Background The negative consequences of energy dense foods are well known, yet people increasingly make unhealthy food choices leading to obesity (i.e., risky decisions). The aims of this study were: [1] to compare performance in decision-making tasks under risk and under ambiguity between individuals with obesity, overweight and normal weight; [2] to examine the associations between body mass index (BMI) and decision-making, and the degree to which these associations are modulated by reward sensitivity. Methods Seventy-nine adults were recruited and classified in three groups according to their BMI: obesity, overweight and normal-weight. Groups were similar in terms of age, education and socio-economic status, and were screened for comorbid medical and mental health conditions. Decision-making under risk was measured via the Wheel of Fortune Task (WoFT) and decision-making under ambiguity via the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). Reward sensitivity was indicated by the Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire (SPSRQ). Results Individuals with obesity made riskier choices in the WoFT, specifically in choices with an expected value close to zero and in the propensity to risk index. No differences were found in IGT performance or SPSRQ scores. BMI was associated with risk-taking (WoFT performance), independently of reward sensitivity. Conclusions Obesity is linked to a propensity to make risky decisions in experimental conditions analogous to everyday food choices. PMID:27257888

  19. Crowdsourcing Novel Childhood Predictors of Adult Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Swain, Robert; Dohle, Simone; Bongard, Josh C.; Hines, Paul D. H.; Wansink, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Effective and simple screening tools are needed to detect behaviors that are established early in life and have a significant influence on weight gain later in life. Crowdsourcing could be a novel and potentially useful tool to assess childhood predictors of adult obesity. This exploratory study examined whether crowdsourcing could generate well-documented predictors in obesity research and, moreover, whether new directions for future research could be uncovered. Participants were recruited through social media to a question-generation website, on which they answered questions and were able to pose new questions that they thought could predict obesity. During the two weeks of data collection, 532 participants (62% female; age  =  26.5±6.7; BMI  =  29.0±7.0) registered on the website and suggested a total of 56 unique questions. Nineteen of these questions correlated with body mass index (BMI) and covered several themes identified by prior research, such as parenting styles and healthy lifestyle. More importantly, participants were able to identify potential determinants that were related to a lower BMI, but have not been the subject of extensive research, such as parents packing their children’s lunch to school or talking to them about nutrition. The findings indicate that crowdsourcing can reproduce already existing hypotheses and also generate ideas that are less well documented. The crowdsourced predictors discovered in this study emphasize the importance of family interventions to fight obesity. The questions generated by participants also suggest new ways to express known predictors. PMID:24505310

  20. Biochemical effect of a ketogenic diet on the brains of obese adult rats.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Hoda E; El-Swefy, Sahar E; Rashed, Leila A; Abd El-Latif, Sally K

    2010-07-01

    Excess weight, particularly abdominal obesity, can cause or exacerbate cardiovascular and metabolic disease. Obesity is also a proven risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Various studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of a ketogenic diet (KD) in weight reduction and in modifying the disease activity of neurodegenerative disorders, including AD. Therefore, in this study we examined the metabolic and neurodegenerative changes associated with obesity and the possible neuroprotective effects of a KD in obese adult rats. Compared with obese rats fed a control diet, obese rats fed a KD showed significant weight loss, improvement in lipid profiles and insulin resistance, and upregulation of adiponectin mRNA expression in adipose tissue. In addition, the KD triggered significant downregulation of brain amyloid protein precursor, apolipoprotein E and caspase-3 mRNA expression, and improvement of brain oxidative stress responses. These findings suggest that a KD has anti-obesity and neuroprotective effects. PMID:20395146

  1. High salt intake: independent risk factor for obesity?

    PubMed

    Ma, Yuan; He, Feng J; MacGregor, Graham A

    2015-10-01

    High salt intake is the major cause of raised blood pressure and accordingly leads to cardiovascular diseases. Recently, it has been shown that high salt intake is associated with an increased risk of obesity through sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. Increasing evidence also suggests a direct link. Our study aimed to determine whether there was a direct association between salt intake and obesity independent of energy intake. We analyzed the data from the rolling cross-sectional study-the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey 2008/2009 to 2011/2012. We included 458 children (52% boys; age, 10±4 years) and 785 adults (47% men; age, 49±17 years) who had complete 24-hour urine collections. Energy intake was calculated from 4-day diary and misreporting was assessed by Goldberg method. The results showed that salt intake as measured by 24-hour urinary sodium was higher in overweight and obese individuals. A 1-g/d increase in salt intake was associated with an increase in the risk of obesity by 28% (odds ratio, 1.28; 95% confidence interval, 1.12-1.45; P=0.0002) in children and 26% (odds ratio, 1.26; 95% confidence interval, 1.16-1.37; P<0.0001) in adults, after adjusting for age, sex, ethnic group, household income, physical activity, energy intake, and diet misreporting, and in adults with additional adjustment for education, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Higher salt intake was also significantly related to higher body fat mass in both children (P=0.001) and adults (P=0.001) after adjusting for age, sex, ethnic group, and energy intake. These results suggest that salt intake is a potential risk factor for obesity independent of energy intake. PMID:26238447

  2. Contribution of Common Genetic Variants to Obesity and Obesity-Related Traits in Mexican Children and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Villalobos-Comparán, Marisela; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; López-Contreras, Blanca; Gutiérrez-Vidal, Roxana; Vega-Badillo, Joel; Jacobo-Albavera, Leonor; Posadas-Romeros, Carlos; Canizalez-Román, Adrián; Río-Navarro, Blanca Del; Campos-Pérez, Francisco; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    Background Several studies have identified multiple obesity-associated loci mainly in European populations. However, their contribution to obesity in other ethnicities such as Mexicans is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to examine 26 obesity-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in a sample of Mexican mestizos. Methods 9 SNPs in biological candidate genes showing replications (PPARG, ADRB3, ADRB2, LEPR, GNB3, UCP3, ADIPOQ, UCP2, and NR3C1), and 17 SNPs in or near genes associated with obesity in first, second and third wave GWAS (INSIG2, FTO, MC4R, TMEM18, FAIM2/BCDIN3, BDNF, SH2B1, GNPDA2, NEGR1, KCTD15, SEC16B/RASAL2, NPC1, SFRF10/ETV5, MAF, PRL, MTCH2, and PTER) were genotyped in 1,156 unrelated Mexican-Mestizos including 683 cases (441 obese class I/II and 242 obese class III) and 473 normal-weight controls. In a second stage we selected 12 of the SNPs showing nominal associations with obesity, to seek associations with quantitative obesity-related traits in 3 cohorts including 1,218 Mexican Mestizo children, 945 Mexican Mestizo adults, and 543 Indigenous Mexican adults. Results After adjusting for age, sex and admixture, significant associations with obesity were found for 6 genes in the case-control study (ADIPOQ, FTO, TMEM18, INSIG2, FAIM2/BCDIN3 and BDNF). In addition, SH2B1 was associated only with class I/II obesity and MC4R only with class III obesity. SNPs located at or near FAIM2/BCDIN3, TMEM18, INSIG2, GNPDA2 and SEC16B/RASAL2 were significantly associated with BMI and/or WC in the combined analysis of Mexican-mestizo children and adults, and FTO locus was significantly associated with increased BMI in Indigenous Mexican populations. Conclusions Our findings replicate the association of 8 obesity-related SNPs with obesity risk in Mexican adults, and confirm the role of some of these SNPs in BMI in Mexican adults and children. PMID:23950976

  3. Breakfast patterns and their likelihood of increased risk of overweight/obesity and risk factors for metabolic syndrome in adults 19+ years: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known about the relationship of specific types of breakfast consumed and the risk of overweight/obesity or risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Cluster analysis using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2008 data identified 12 breakfast clusters—including no breakfast, in...

  4. Treatment of Adult Obesity with Bariatric Surgery.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Robin; Harrison, T Daniel; McGraw, Shaniqua L

    2016-01-01

    In 2013, approximately 179,000 bariatric surgery procedures were performed in the United States, including the laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (42.1%), Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (34.2%), and laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (14.0%). Choice of procedure depends on the medical conditions of the patient, patient preference, and expertise of the surgeon. On average, weight loss of 60% to 70% of excess body weight is achieved in the short term, and up to 50% at 10 years. Remission of type 2 diabetes mellitus occurs in 60% to 80% of patients two years after surgery and persists in about 30% of patients 15 years after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Other obesity-related comorbidities are greatly reduced, and health-related quality of life improves. The Roux-en-Y procedure carries an increased risk of malabsorption sequelae, which can be minimized with nutritional supplementation and surveillance. Overall, these procedures have a mortality risk of less than 0.5%. Cohort studies show that bariatric surgery reduces all-cause mortality by 30% to 50% at seven to 15 years postsurgery compared with patients with obesity who did not have surgery. Dietary changes, such as consuming protein first at every meal, and regular physical activity are critical for patient success after bariatric surgery. The family physician is well positioned to counsel patients about bariatric surgical options, the risks and benefits of surgery, and to provide long-term support and medical management postsurgery. PMID:26760838

  5. Obesity Linked to Higher Asthma Risk in Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157808.html Obesity Linked to Higher Asthma Risk in Women Experts ... have a higher risk." It is clear that "obesity is the risk for asthma, not the other ...

  6. Weight for gestational age and metabolically healthy obesity in adults from the Haguenau cohort

    PubMed Central

    Matta, Joane; Carette, Claire; Levy Marchal, Claire; Bertrand, Julien; Pétéra, Mélanie; Zins, Marie; Pujos-Guillot, Estelle; Comte, Blandine; Czernichow, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    Background An obesity subphenotype, named ‘metabolically healthy obese’ (MHO) has been recently defined to characterise a subgroup of obese individuals with less risk for cardiometabolic abnormalities. To date no data are available on participants born with small weight for gestational age (SGA) and the risk of metabolically unhealthy obesity (MUHO). Objective Assess the risk of MUHO in SGA versus appropriate for gestational age (AGA) adult participants. Methods 129 young obese individuals (body mass index ≥30 kg/m²) from data of an 8-year follow-up Haguenau cohort (France), were identified out of 1308 participants and were divided into 2 groups: SGA (n=72) and AGA (n=57). Metabolic characteristics were analysed and compared using unpaired t-test. The HOMA-IR index was determined for the population and divided into quartiles. Obese participants within the first 3 quartiles were considered as MHO and those in the fourth quartile as MUHO. Relative risks (RRs) and 95% CI for being MUHO in SGA versus AGA participants were computed. Results The SGA-obese group had a higher risk of MUHO versus the AGA-obese group: RR=1.27 (95% CI 1.10 to 1.6) independently of age and sex. Conclusions In case of obesity, SGA might confer a higher risk of MUHO compared with AGA. PMID:27580829

  7. Obese older adults suffer foot pain and foot-related functional limitation.

    PubMed

    Mickle, Karen J; Steele, Julie R

    2015-10-01

    There is evidence to suggest being overweight or obese places adults at greater risk of developing foot complications such as osteoarthritis, tendonitis and plantar fasciitis. However, no research has comprehensively examined the effects of overweight or obesity on the feet of individuals older than 60 years of age. Therefore we investigated whether foot pain, foot structure, and/or foot function is affected by obesity in older adults. Three hundred and twelve Australian men and women, aged over 60 years, completed validated questionnaires to establish the presence of foot pain and health related quality of life. Foot structure (anthropometrics and soft tissue thickness) and foot function (ankle dorsiflexion strength and flexibility, toe flexor strength, plantar pressures and spatiotemporal gait parameters) were also measured. Obese participants (BMI >30) were compared to those who were overweight (BMI=25-30) and not overweight (BMI <25). Obese participants were found to have a significantly higher prevalence of foot pain and scored significantly lower on the SF-36. Obesity was also associated with foot-related functional limitation whereby ankle dorsiflexion strength, hallux and lesser toe strength, stride/step length and walking speed were significantly reduced in obese participants compared to their leaner counterparts. Therefore, disabling foot pain and altered foot structure and foot function are consequences of obesity for older adults, and impact upon their quality of life. Interventions designed to reduce excess fat mass may relieve loading of the foot structures and, in turn, improve foot pain and quality of life for older obese individuals. PMID:26260010

  8. [Childhhood obesity, insulin resistance and increased cardiovascular risk].

    PubMed

    Carlone, Angela; Venditti, Chiara; Cipolloni, Laura; Zampetti, Simona; Spoletini, Marialuisa; Capizzi, Marco; Leto, Gaetano; Buzzetti, Raffaella

    2012-10-01

    Excess fat is one of the major risk factors for insulin resistance predisposing to the development of cardiovascular diseases in western countries. We know that obese patients are strongly at risk of cardiovascular diseases, like myocardial infarction or stroke. These diseases are the most frequent cause of death in the adult population, representing a social and economic problem. Today there are not available and useful markers for screening and diagnosis of insulin- resistance in young people. "Easy-to-detect" clinical markers must be found to identify young subjects at risk of cardiovascular diseases. Very interesting the relationship between wrist circumference, its bone composition and insulin resistance. PMID:23114400

  9. Association between rs9930506 polymorphism of the fat mass & obesity-associated (FTO) gene & onset of obesity in Polish adults

    PubMed Central

    Wrzosek, Małgorzata; Zakrzewska, Anna; Ruczko, Lech; Jabłonowska-Lietz, Beata; Nowicka, Grażyna

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: The fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene is known to be associated with obesity. However, no data are available on the relation between FTO rs9930506 polymorphism and obesity in Polish population. The aim of this study was to evaluate an association between rs9930506 variants of the FTO gene and obesity in Polish adults. Methods: The study group consisted of 442 adults, aged 33.9 ±12.7 yr, with mean BMI 27.2 ± 5.4 kg/m2. The following variables were determined for each subject: fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides. Real-time PCR was used to detect the A/G alleles of the rs9939506 polymorphism in the FTO gene. An association between the rs9930506 polymorphism and obesity was determined using codominant, dominant, and recessive models. The odds ratio (OR) was calculated to determine the risk of obesity associated with this polymorphism. Results: It was observed that the presence of FTO rs9939506 G allele was associated with increased risk for obesity and this association was found significant in both recessive (OR = 1.72, P = 0.014) and co-dominant (OR = 1.36, P = 0.031) models of inheritance. The FTO rs9939506 GG homozygotes had a significantly higher BMI than those with other genotypes. Interpretation & conclusions: This study shows that FTO rs9939506 GG genotype is related to higher BMI and is associated with obesity in Polish adults. PMID:27241640

  10. [Time trend in adult obesity indicators in Brazilian state capitals, 2006-2013].

    PubMed

    Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Santos, Maria Aline Siqueira; Andrade, Silvania Suely Caribé de Araújo; Oliveira, Taís Porto; Stopa, Sheila Rizzato; Oliveira, Max Moura de; Jaime, Patrícia

    2016-04-01

    The scope of this article is to analyze time trends in excess weight (overweight, obesity and class III obesity) among adults (≥ 18 years of age) in Brazilian capitals between 2006 and 2013. It is a study of temporal trends in excess weight indicators using data from the telephone-based Surveillance System of Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases (Vigitel). The Prais regression model was performed. In 2013, the following statistics were observed in the adult population: overweight in 32.2%; obesity in 17.5%, and class III obesity in 1.5%. From 2006 to 2013, there was a significant increase in major indicators, for sex, age group, level of schooling (years) and regions. Overweight and obesity indicators demand attention since they result in a burden on the individual, society and health services. PMID:27076005

  11. Xanthine Oxidase and Cardiovascular Risk in Obese Children

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Harrison K.; Kelly, Aaron S.; Metzig, Andrea M.; Steinberger, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Pathological mechanisms of how childhood obesity leads to increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) are not fully characterized. Oxidative-stress–related enzymes, such as xanthine oxidase (XO), have been linked to obesity, endothelial dysfunction, and CVD in adults, but little is known about this pathway in children. The aim of this study was to determine whether differential XO activity is associated with endothelial dysfunction, CVD risk factors, or cytokine levels. Methods: Fasting plasma samples were obtained from obese (BMI ≥95th percentile; n=20) and age- and gender-matched healthy weight (BMI >5th and <85th percentile; n=22) children and adolescents (mean age, 12±3 years) to quantify XO activity. In addition, fasting cholesterol, insulin, glucose, blood pressure, endothelial function, and cytokine levels were assessed. Results: We observed a 3.8-fold increase in plasma XO activity in obese, compared to healthy weight, children (118±21 vs. 31±9 nU/mg of protein; p<0.001). Plasma XO activity was correlated with BMI z-score (r=0.41), waist circumference (r=0.41), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r=−0.32), oxidized low-density lipoprotein (r=0.57), adiponectin (r=−0.53), and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (r=−0.59). Conclusion: XO activity is highly elevated in obese children and correlates with CVD risk factors, suggesting that XO may play a role in increasing cardiovascular risk early in life in the context of obesity. PMID:24568669

  12. Results of a 2-year randomized, controlled obesity prevention trial: Effects on diet, activity and sleep behaviors in an at-risk young adult population.

    PubMed

    Laska, Melissa N; Lytle, Leslie A; Nanney, Marilyn S; Moe, Stacey G; Linde, Jennifer A; Hannan, Peter J

    2016-08-01

    Excess weight gain tends to occur in young adulthood. However, research examining effective weight-related interventions for this age group has been limited. As one of seven trials in the EARLY Trials consortium (Early Adult Reduction of weight through LifestYle intervention), the CHOICES Study (Choosing Healthy Options in College Environments and Settings) tested effects of a technology-integrated, young adult weight gain prevention intervention. It was a randomized controlled trial with assessments at baseline (2011) and 4-, 12- and 24-months post-intervention initiation and included 441 participants (ages 18-35) who were students at three Minnesota community colleges. The 24-month intervention included a 1-credit academic course and social networking and support online intervention. This analysis examined effects on 12 secondary behavioral outcomes across three domains: diet (fast food, sugary beverages, breakfast, at-home meal preparation), physical activity/screen time (minutes and energy expenditure in leisure time physical activity, television viewing, leisure time computer use) and sleep (hours of sleep, time required to fall asleep, days not getting enough rest, difficulty staying awake). The intervention resulted in significant reductions in fast food (p=0.007) but increases in difficulty staying awake (p=0.015). There was limited evidence of other behavior changes at 4months (0.05obesity prevention among young adults, particularly when addressing multiple weight-related outcomes. PMID:27283096

  13. Effects of exercise on mobility in obese and nonobese older adults.

    PubMed

    Manini, Todd M; Newman, Anne B; Fielding, Roger; Blair, Steven N; Perri, Michael G; Anton, Stephen D; Goodpaster, Bret C; Katula, Jeff A; Rejeski, Walter J; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Pahor, Marco; King, Abby C

    2010-06-01

    Coupled with an aging society, the rising obesity prevalence is likely to increase the future burden of physical disability. We set out to determine whether obesity modified the effects of a physical activity (PA) intervention designed to prevent mobility disability in older adults. Older adults at risk for disability (N = 424, age range: 70-88 years) were randomized to a 12 month PA intervention involving moderate intensity aerobic, strength, balance, and flexibility exercise (150 min per week) or a successful aging (SA) intervention involving weekly educational workshops. Individuals were stratified by obesity using a BMI >or=30 (n = 179). Mobility function was assessed as usual walking speed over 400 m and scores on a short physical performance battery (SPPB), which includes short distance walking, balance tests, and chair rises. Over 12 months of supervised training, the attendance and total amount of walking time was similar between obese and nonobese subjects and no weight change was observed. Nonobese participants in the PA group had significant increases in 400-m walking speed (+1.5%), whereas their counterparts in the SA group declined (-4.3%). In contrast, obese individuals declined regardless of their assigned intervention group (PA: -3.1%; SA: -4.9%). SPPB scores, however, increased following PA in both obese (PA: +13.5%; SA: +2.5%) and nonobese older adults (PA: +18.6%; SA: +6.1%). A moderate intensity PA intervention improves physical function in older adults, but the positive benefits are attenuated with obesity. PMID:19834467

  14. The Association between Sarcopenic Obesity and Depressive Symptoms in Older Japanese Adults.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Shinya; Chang, Chang; Tanaka, Tomoki; Kuroda, Aki; Tsuji, Tetsuo; Akishita, Masahiro; Iijima, Katsuya

    2016-01-01

    The effects of sarcopenic obesity, the co-existence of sarcopenia and obesity, on mood disorders have not been studies extensively. Our objective was to examine the association of depressive symptoms with sarcopenia and obesity status in older Japanese adults. We analyzed data from 1731 functionally-independent, community-dwelling Japanese adults aged 65 years or older (875 men, 856 women) randomly selected from the resident register of Kashiwa city, Chiba, Japan in 2012. Sarcopenia was defined based on appendicular skeletal muscle mass, grip strength and usual gait speed. Obesity was defined as the highest sex-specific quintile of the percentage body fat. Depressive symptoms were defined as a Geriatric Depression Scale 15-item score ≥ 6. Multiple logistic regression was employed to examine the association of depressive symptoms with four groups defined by the presence/absence of sarcopenia and obesity. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 10.1% and the proportions of sarcopenia/obesity, sarcopenia/non-obesity, non-sarcopenia/obesity, non-sarcopenia/non-obesity were 3.7%, 13.6%, 16.9% and 65.8%, respectively. After adjustment for potential confounders, sarcopenia/obesity was positively associated with depressive symptoms compared with non-sarcopenia/non-obesity, whereas either sarcopenia or obesity alone was not associated with depressive symptoms. The association was particularly pronounced in those aged 65 to 74 years in age-stratified analysis. We conclude that our findings suggest a synergistic impact exerted by sarcopenic obesity on the risk of depressive symptoms, particularly in those aged 65 to 74 years. PMID:27627756

  15. Age plays an important role in the relationship between smoking status and obesity risk: a large scale cross-sectional study of Chinese adults

    PubMed Central

    Su, Pu; Hong, Liu; Sun, Hang; Zhao, Yi Fan; Li, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study the role of age plays in the relationship between smoking status and obesity in both Chinese men and women. Methods: From Chinese Physical and Psychological Database, participants were divided into non-smokers, current smokers, and former smokers. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), fat percentage, fat mass, and fat free mass were measured. The mean, standard deviation and frequency of these indicators were calculated for each age bracket. One-way ANOVA and post-hoc test analyses were used to detect the difference among these three groups. Results: In men, from 19 to 24 years old, BMI, WC and fat free mass of current smokers were higher than that of non-smokers (P<0.01). However, fat mass and fat percentage of current smokers were lower than that of non-smokers but higher than that of former smokers (P<0.01). From 25 to 34 years old, BMI and fat mass of former smokers were higher than non-smokers and current smokers (P<0.01). In addition, WC and fat free mass of non-smokers were lower than that of current smokers and former smokers (P<0.01). From 45 to older, BMI, WC, fat mass, fat free mass and fat percentage of former smokers were higher than that of current smokers (P<0.01). From 55 to older, BMI, WC, fat mass, fat free mass and fat percentage of current smokers were lower than that of non-smokers (P<0.01). In women, smoking status might not be significantly related to obesity (P>0.05). Conclusion: For young men, smoking might have an effect on increasing fat free mass, BMI and WC, and decreasing fat mass and fat percentage. For middle and older men, smoking might have an effect on decreasing fat free mass, fat mass, BMI, WC, and fat percentage. Obesity risk should be paid more attention in smoking cessation programs for those former smokers. PMID:26770514

  16. Association between socioeconomic status and obesity in a Chinese adult population

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Existing studies which regarding to the association between individual socioeconomic status (SES) and obesity are still scarce in developing countries. The major aim of this study is to estimate such association in an adult population which was drawn from an economically prosperous province of China. Methods Study population was determined by multilevel randomized sampling. Education and income were chosen as indicators of individual SES, general obesity and abdominal obesity were measured by body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). Descriptive statistical methods were used to depict overall and factor-specific distributions of general and abdominal obesity among 16,013 respondents. Two-step logistic regression models were fitted on gender basis. Results The age-and-sex adjusted rates of general overweight, general obesity, abdominal overweight and abdominal obesity in study population were 28.9% (95%CI: 27.9%-29.9%), 7.5% (95%CI: 7.0%-8.1%), 32.2% (95%CI: 31.2%-33.3%) and 12.3% (95%CI: 11.6%-13.1%), respectively. Based on model fitting results, a significant inverse association between education and obesity only existed in women, while in men, income rather than education was positively related to obesity. Conclusions The atypical SES-obesity relationship we found reflected the on-going social economy transformation in affluent regions of China. High-income men and poorly-educated women were at higher risk of obesity in Zhejiang province, thus merit intense focuses. PMID:23590682

  17. Excess vitamin intake: An unrecognized risk factor for obesity

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Shi-Sheng; Zhou, Yiming

    2014-01-01

    Over the past few decades, food fortification and infant formula supplementation with high levels of vitamins have led to a sharp increase in vitamin intake among infants, children and adults. This is followed by a sharp increase in the prevalence of obesity and related diseases, with significant disparities among countries and different groups within a country. It has long been known that B vitamins at doses below their toxicity threshold strongly promote body fat gain. Studies have demonstrated that formulas, which have very high levels of vitamins, significantly promote infant weight gain, especially fat mass gain, a known risk factor for children developing obesity. Furthermore, ecological studies have shown that increased B vitamin consumption is strongly correlated with the prevalence of obesity and diabetes. We therefore hypothesize that excess vitamins may play a causal role in the increased prevalence of obesity. This review will discuss: (1) the causes of increased vitamin intake; (2) the non-monotonic effect of excess vitamin intake on weight and fat gain; and (3) the role of vitamin fortification in obesity disparities among countries and different groups within a country. PMID:24567797

  18. Effects of exercise on mobility limitation in obese and non-obese older adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Coupled with an aging society, the rising obesity prevalence is likely to increase the future rates of physical disability. We set out to determine whether the effects of a physical activity intervention aimed to improve mobility function in older adults is modified by obesity. Method...

  19. Advising Obese Adults about Diet and Physical Activity in Sousse, Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    Maatoug, Jihene; Harrabi, Imed; Hmad, Sonia; Belkacem, Mylene; Nouira, Asma; Ghannem, Hassen

    2013-01-01

    Background. To our knowledge no study has been conducted in Tunisia to describe practice of health care providers towards chronic disease risk factors, particularly among obese adults. Aim. This study is aimed at assessing the level of giving advice on diet and physical activity by health care providers for obese adults comparing to nonobese adults in Tunisia. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in 2010 for adults aged from18 to 65 years living in the region of Sousse. The questionnaires were administered by an interview made by trained data collectors to standardize the administration of the questionnaire. Anthropometric measurements of height and weight were obtained using a standardized protocol from each participant. Results. The findings from this study indicate that obesity is frequent among adults essentially among women and aged categories. It also shows that obese adults are not adequately diagnosed with few proportion of anthropometric measure evaluation among all the participants. Even if obese participants were significantly more advised than nonobese participants with, respectively, 28.5% to lose weight and 23.8% to increase physical activity, this proportion remains low. PMID:24555147

  20. Obesity and type 2 diabetes: which patients are at risk?

    PubMed

    Garber, A J

    2012-05-01

    An estimated 72.5 million American adults are obese, and the growing US obesity epidemic is responsible for substantial increase in morbidity and mortality, as well as increased health care costs. Obesity results from a combination of personal and societal factors, but is often viewed as a character flaw rather than a medical condition. This leads to stigma and discrimination towards obese individuals and decreases the likelihood of effective intervention. Conditions related to obesity are increasingly common, such as metabolic syndrome, impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), all of which indicate high risk for type 2 diabetes (T2DM). This paper reviews the progression from obesity to diabetes, identifying physiological changes that occur along this path as well as opportunities for patient identification and disease prevention. Patients with prediabetes (defined as having IFG, IGT or both) and/or metabolic syndrome require interventions designed to preserve insulin sensitivity and β-cell function, both of which start to deteriorate prior to T2DM diagnosis. Lifestyle modification, including both healthy eating choices and increased physical activity, is essential for weight management and diabetes prevention. Although sustained weight loss is often considered by patients and physicians as being impossible to achieve, effective interventions do exist. Specifically, the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) and programs modelled along its parameters have shown repeated successes, even with long-term maintenance. Recent setbacks in the development of medications for weight loss further stress the importance of lifestyle management. By viewing obesity as a metabolic disorder rather than a personal weakness, we can work with patients to address this increasingly prevalent condition and improve long-term health outcomes. PMID:22074144

  1. Effect of a Web-Based Behavior Change Program on Weight Loss and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Overweight and Obese Adults at High Risk of Developing Cardiovascular Disease: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Sinead; Woodside, Jayne V; Ware, Lisa J; Hunter, Steven J; McGrath, Alanna; Cardwell, Christopher R; Appleton, Katherine M; Young, Ian S

    2015-01-01

    Background Web-based programs are a potential medium for supporting weight loss because of their accessibility and wide reach. Research is warranted to determine the shorter- and longer-term effects of these programs in relation to weight loss and other health outcomes. Objective The aim was to evaluate the effects of a Web-based component of a weight loss service (Imperative Health) in an overweight/obese population at risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) using a randomized controlled design and a true control group. Methods A total of 65 overweight/obese adults at high risk of CVD were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 groups. Group 1 (n=32) was provided with the Web-based program, which supported positive dietary and physical activity changes and assisted in managing weight. Group 2 continued with their usual self-care (n=33). Assessments were conducted face-to-face. The primary outcome was between-group change in weight at 3 months. Secondary outcomes included between-group change in anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, lipid measurements, physical activity, and energy intake at 3, 6, and 12 months. Interviews were conducted to explore participants’ views of the Web-based program. Results Retention rates for the intervention and control groups at 3 months were 78% (25/32) vs 97% (32/33), at 6 months were 66% (21/32) vs 94% (31/33), and at 12 months were 53% (17/32) vs 88% (29/33). Intention-to-treat analysis, using baseline observation carried forward imputation method, revealed that the intervention group lost more weight relative to the control group at 3 months (mean –3.41, 95% CI –4.70 to –2.13 kg vs mean –0.52, 95% CI –1.55 to 0.52 kg, P<.001), at 6 months (mean –3.47, 95% CI –4.95 to –1.98 kg vs mean –0.81, 95% CI –2.23 to 0.61 kg, P=.02), but not at 12 months (mean –2.38, 95% CI –3.48 to –0.97 kg vs mean –1.80, 95% CI –3.15 to –0.44 kg, P=.77). More intervention group participants lost ≥5% of their baseline body

  2. Effects on Physical Health of a Multicomponent Programme for Overweight and Obesity for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martínez-Zaragoza, Fermín; Campillo-Martínez, José M.; Ato-García, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Background: Overweight and obesity are major health risk factors in people with intellectual disabilities. The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of a multicomponent programme (physical activity, diet and motivation) for overweight and obesity in adults with intellectual disabilities. Material and Methods: A quasi-experimental design…

  3. HLA ASSOCIATIONS IN OBESE WHITE AND BLACK ADULTS

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Merlin G.; Walton, Dominique; Zhu, Weitong; Niblack, Gary

    2016-01-01

    We summarized HLA-A and -B data from 1095 black and white adult men and women with or without obesity to determine if specific HLA tissue types are overrepresented in obese individuals compared with nonobese. None of the three HLA types (Aw30, B18, Bw35) previously reported to relate to obesity was overrepresented in obese subjects in our study. However, B14 and B41 haplotypes were overrepresented in obese white men compared with nonobese men, and B7 was overrepresented in obese black men compared with nonobese men. Additional research will be required to confirm the HLA associations we found and to determine if methodologic differences could account for the differences among the previous studies.

  4. Changes in serum aldosterone are associated with changes in obesity-related factors in normotensive overweight and obese young adults.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Jennifer N; Fried, Linda; Tepper, Ping; Barinas-Mitchell, Emma; Conroy, Molly B; Evans, Rhobert W; Mori Brooks, Maria; Woodard, Genevieve A; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim

    2013-10-01

    Recent data suggest excess circulating aldosterone promotes cardiometabolic decline. Weight loss may lower aldosterone levels, but little longitudinal data is available in normotensive adults. We aimed to determine whether, independent of changes in sodium excretion, reductions in serum aldosterone are associated with favorable changes in obesity-related factors in normotensive overweight/obese young adults. We studied 285 overweight/obese young adult participants (body mass index ≥ 25 and<40 kg m⁻², age 20-45 years) in a clinical trial examining the effects of a 1-year diet and physical activity intervention with or without sodium restriction on vascular health. Body weight, serum aldosterone, 24-h sodium and potassium excretion and obesity-related factors were measured at baseline, 6, 12 and 24 months. Weight loss was significant at 6 (7%), 12 (6%) and 24 months (4%; all P<0.0001). Decreases in aldosterone were associated with decreases in C-reactive protein, leptin, insulin, homeostasis assessment of insulin resistance, heart rate, tonic cardiac sympathovagal balance and increases in adiponectin (all P<0.05) in models adjusting for baseline age, sex, race, intervention arm, time since baseline, and sodium and potassium excretion. Weight loss and reductions in thigh intermuscular fat (intermuscular adipose tissue area; IMAT) were associated with decreases in aldosterone in the subgroup (n=98) with metabolic syndrome (MetS) at baseline (MetS × weight loss, P=0.04; MetS × change in IMAT, P=0.04). Favorable changes in obesity-related factors are associated with reductions in aldosterone in young adults with no risk factors besides excess weight, an important finding, given aldosterone's emergence as an important cardiometabolic risk factor. PMID:23657296

  5. An Analysis of Adult Obesity and Hypertension in Appalachia

    PubMed Central

    Herath, Janaranjana; Brown, Cheryl

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a major health problem in the United States, and the burden associated is high. Hypertension seems to be the most common obesity-related health problem. Studies show that hypertension is approximately twice as prevalent among the obese as in the non-obese population. This study has two main objectives. First, to examine the association between obesity and hypertension within the context of economic growth in Appalachia, and second to estimate the cost of hypertension linked to obesity in Appalachia. The study uses simultaneous equations and Logit analysis for estimations. Data are from Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance Systems (BRFSS) surveys of 2001 and 2009. Results for simultaneous analysis show that hypertension decreases with decreasing obesity, increasing employment growth, and increasing income. Logit analysis highlights the importance of controlling obesity, income growth, employment growth, education, and exercises in mitigating hypertension in Appalachia. Ageing indicates a high potential of getting hypertension. Total economic cost of hypertension linked to obesity is $9.35 billion, significantly a high cost to Appalachia. Overall, results reveal the impacts of obesity on hypertension and some possible ways of mitigation. Thus, results suggest a comprehensive set of policies to Appalachia which sufficiently improve employment opportunities, educational facilities, and healthcare facilities with adequately addressed to obesity and hypertension. PMID:23618482

  6. Identifying 'at risk' women and the impact of maternal obesity on National Health Service maternity services.

    PubMed

    Heslehurst, Nicola

    2011-11-01

    Obesity is a public health concern worldwide, arising from multifaceted and complex causes that relate to individual choice and lifestyle, and the influences of wider society. In addition to a long-standing focus on both childhood and adult obesity, there has been more recent concern relating to maternal obesity. This review explores the published evidence relating to maternal obesity incidence and associated inequalities, the impact of obesity on maternity services, and associated guidelines. Epidemiological data comprising three national maternal obesity datasets within the UK have identified a significant increase in maternal obesity in recent years, and reflect broad socio-demographic inequalities particularly deprivation, ethnicity and unemployment. Obese pregnancies present increased risk of complications that require more resource intensive antenatal and perinatal care, such as caesarean deliveries, gestational diabetes, haemorrhage, infections and congenital anomalies. Healthcare professionals also face difficulties when managing the care of women in pregnancy as obesity is an emotive and stigmatising topic. There is a lack of good-quality evidence for effective interventions to tackle maternal obesity. Recently published national guidelines for the clinical management and weight management of maternal obesity offer advice for professionals, but acknowledge the limitations of the evidence base. The consequence of these difficulties is an absence of support services available for women. Further evaluative research is thus required to assess the effectiveness of interventions with women before, during and after pregnancy. Qualitative work with women will also be needed to help inform the development of more sensitive risk communication and women-centred services. PMID:21854697

  7. Causes and risks for obesity - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... become obese. No single factor or behavior causes obesity . Obesity is caused by many things, including a person’s ... image. Examples of eating disorders are: Anorexia Bulimia Obesity and eating disorders often occur at the same ...

  8. Severe Obesity May Boost Infection Risk After Heart Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159143.html Severe Obesity May Boost Infection Risk After Heart Surgery Excess ... new study suggests. The researchers found that severe obesity was linked to much higher odds of developing ...

  9. Severe Obesity May Boost Infection Risk After Heart Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159143.html Severe Obesity May Boost Infection Risk After Heart Surgery Excess ... new study suggests. The researchers found that severe obesity was linked to much higher odds of developing ...

  10. Associations of Sarcopenic Obesity and Dynapenic Obesity with Bone Mineral Density and Incident Fractures Over 5-10 Years in Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Scott, David; Chandrasekara, Sahan D; Laslett, Laura L; Cicuttini, Flavia; Ebeling, Peter R; Jones, Graeme

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether low muscle mass (sarcopenia) or strength (dynapenia), in the presence of obesity, are associated with increased risk for osteoporosis and non-vertebral fracture over 5-10 years in community-dwelling older adults. N = 1089 volunteers (mean ± SD age 62 ± 7 years; 51 % female) participated at baseline and 761 attended follow-up clinics (mean 5.1 ± 0.5 years later). Total body, total hip and spine BMD, and appendicular lean and total fat mass were assessed by DXA. Sarcopenic obesity and dynapenic obesity were defined as the lowest sex-specific tertiles for appendicular lean mass or lower-limb strength, respectively, and the highest sex-specific tertile for total fat mass. Fractures were self-reported on three occasions over 10.7 ± 0.7 years in 563 participants. Obese alone participants had significantly higher BMD at all sites compared with non-sarcopenic non-obese. Sarcopenic obese and dynapenic obese men had lower spine and total body BMD, respectively, and sarcopenic obese women had lower total hip BMD, compared with obese alone (all P < 0.05). Sarcopenic obese men had higher non-vertebral fracture rates compared to non-sarcopenic non-obese (incidence rate ratio: 3.0; 95 % CI 1.7-5.5), and obese alone (3.6; 1.7-7.4). Sarcopenic obese women had higher fracture rates compared with obese alone (2.8; 1.4-5.6), but this was non-significant after adjustment for total hip BMD. Sarcopenic and dynapenic obese older adults may have increased risk of osteoporosis and non-vertebral fracture relative to obese alone counterparts. Sarcopenic and dynapenic obese individuals potentially represent a subset of the obese older adult population who require closer monitoring of bone health during ageing. PMID:26939775

  11. A community-based exercise intervention transitions metabolically abnormal obese adults to a metabolically healthy obese phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Dalleck, Lance C; Van Guilder, Gary P; Richardson, Tara B; Bredle, Donald L; Janot, Jeffrey M

    2014-01-01

    Background Lower habitual physical activity and poor cardiorespiratory fitness are common features of the metabolically abnormal obese (MAO) phenotype that contribute to increased cardiovascular disease risk. The aims of the present study were to determine 1) whether community-based exercise training transitions MAO adults to metabolically healthy, and 2) whether the odds of transition to metabolically healthy were larger for obese individuals who performed higher volumes of exercise and/or experienced greater increases in fitness. Methods and results Metabolic syndrome components were measured in 332 adults (190 women, 142 men) before and after a supervised 14-week community-based exercise program designed to reduce cardiometabolic risk factors. Obese (body mass index ≥30 kg · m2) adults with two to four metabolic syndrome components were classified as MAO, whereas those with no or one component were classified as metabolically healthy but obese (MHO). After community exercise, 27/68 (40%) MAO individuals (P<0.05) transitioned to metabolically healthy, increasing the total number of MHO persons by 73% (from 37 to 64). Compared with the lowest quartiles of relative energy expenditure and change in fitness, participants in the highest quartiles were 11.6 (95% confidence interval: 2.1–65.4; P<0.05) and 7.5 (95% confidence interval: 1.5–37.5; P<0.05) times more likely to transition from MAO to MHO, respectively. Conclusion Community-based exercise transitions MAO adults to metabolically healthy. MAO adults who engaged in higher volumes of exercise and experienced the greatest increase in fitness were significantly more likely to become metabolically healthy. Community exercise may be an effective model for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. PMID:25120373

  12. Plasma matrix metalloproteinase-9 levels, MMP-9 gene haplotypes, and cardiovascular risk in obese subjects.

    PubMed

    Luizon, Marcelo R; Belo, Vanessa A; Fernandes, Karla S; Andrade, Vanessa L; Tanus-Santos, Jose E; Sandrim, Valeria C

    2016-06-01

    Plasma matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 is a predictor of cardiovascular mortality, and MMP-9 polymorphisms affect plasma MMP-9 levels. However, no study examined whether MMP-9 haplotypes affect MMP-9 levels in obese adults. We examined whether MMP-9 polymorphisms and haplotypes are associated with obesity, and whether they affect MMP-9 levels in obese subjects. We examined the plasma levels of MMP-9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 in 105 subjects with normal weight (controls), 100 obese subjects, and 156 obese subjects with ≥3 metabolic risk factors (MRFs). We determined genotypes for three polymorphisms: C-1562T (rs3918242), Q279R (A>G, rs17576), and R668Q (G>A, rs17577). MMP-9 levels and activity (MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio) were higher in obese subjects than in controls (P < 0.05). However, MMP-9 levels were higher in obese subjects with ≥3 MRFs than in obese subjects (P < 0.05). Obese subjects with ≥3 MRFs carrying the GA+AA genotypes for R668Q (G>A) polymorphism had higher MMP-9 levels than subjects carrying the AA genotype (P < 0.05). The "T, G, A" haplotype was more common in both groups of obese subjects than in controls (OR 3.95 and 4.39, respectively; P < 0.01). Notably, obese subjects with ≥3 MRFs carrying the "T, G, A" haplotype had higher MMP-9 levels than subjects carrying the "C, A, G" reference haplotype (P < 0.05). The "T, G, A" haplotype was associated with an increased risk of obesity and affected MMP-9 levels in obese subjects with ≥3 MRFs. Our findings suggest that plasma MMP-9 levels and MMP-9 haplotypes may help to discriminate obese subjects at an increased cardiovascular risk. PMID:27146834

  13. Sleep Duration and Obesity in Adults: What Are the Connections?

    PubMed

    Theorell-Haglöw, Jenny; Lindberg, Eva

    2016-09-01

    Collectively, cross-sectional and longitudinal studies on self-reported sleep duration and obesity do not show a clear pattern of association with some showing a negative linear relationship, some showing a U-shaped relationship, and some showing no relationship. Associations between sleep duration and obesity seem stronger in younger adults. Cross-sectional studies using objectively measured sleep duration (actigraphy or polysomnography (PSG)) also show this mixed pattern whereas all longitudinal studies to date using actigraphy or PSG have failed to show a relationship with obesity/weight gain. It is still too early and a too easy solution to suggest that changing the sleep duration will cure the obesity epidemic. Given novel results on emotional stress and poor sleep as mediating factors in the relationship between sleep duration and obesity, detection and management of these should become the target of future clinical efforts as well as future research. PMID:27372108

  14. Linking sleep duration and obesity among black and white US adults

    PubMed Central

    Donat, Margaret; Brown, Clinton; Williams, Natasha; Pandey, Abhishek; Racine, Christie; McFarlane, Samy I; Jean-Louis, Girardin

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Aims The effect of race/ethnicity on the risk of obesity associated with short or long sleep durations is largely unknown. This study assessed whether the sleep–obesity link differentially affects black and whites. Methods Analysis was based on data obtained from 29,818 adult American respondents from the 2005 National Health Interview Survey, a cross-sectional household interview survey. Results Multivariate-adjusted odds ratios for obesity associated with short sleep (≤6 h) among blacks and whites were 1.98 (95% CI: 1.69–2.30) and 1.20 (95% CI: 1.10–1.31), respectively, and with long sleep (≥9 h) for blacks and whites were 1.48 (95% CI: 1.14–1.93) and 0.77 (95% CI: 0.67–0.89), respectively (all p < 0.001). Conclusion Race/ethnicity may have significantly influenced the likelihood of reporting obesity associated with short and long sleep durations. Relative to white respondents, an excess of 78% of black respondents showed increased obesity odds associated with short sleep. Black long sleepers also showed increased odds for obesity, but white long sleepers may be at a reduced obesity risk. PMID:24340171

  15. Maternal obesity in females born small: Pregnancy complications and offspring disease risk.

    PubMed

    Mahizir, Dayana; Briffa, Jessica F; Hryciw, Deanne H; Wadley, Glenn D; Moritz, Karen M; Wlodek, Mary E

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a major public health crisis, with 1.6 billion adults worldwide being classified as overweight or obese in 2014. Therefore, it is not surprising that the number of women who are overweight or obese at the time of conception is increasing. Obesity during pregnancy is associated with the development of gestational diabetes and preeclampsia. The developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis proposes that perturbations during critical stages of development can result in adverse fetal changes that leads to an increased risk of developing diseases in adulthood. Of particular concern, children born to obese mothers are at a greater risk of developing cardiometabolic disease. One subset of the population who are predisposed to developing obesity are children born small for gestational age, which occurs in 10% of pregnancies worldwide. Epidemiological studies report that these growth-restricted children have an increased susceptibility to type 2 diabetes, obesity, and hypertension. Importantly during pregnancy, growth-restricted females have a higher risk of developing cardiometabolic disease, indicating that they may have an exacerbated phenotype if they are also overweight or obese. Thus, the development of early pregnancy interventions targeted to obese mothers may prevent their children from developing cardiometabolic disease in adulthood. PMID:26173914

  16. Increasing trends in central obesity among Chinese adults with normal body mass index, 1993–2009

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Central obesity is thought to be more pathogenic than overall obesity and studies have shown that the association between waist circumference (WC) and mortality was strongest in those with a normal body mass index (BMI). The objective of our study was to determine secular trends in the prevalence of central obesity (WC ≥ 90 cm for men and ≥ 80 cm for women) among Chinese adults with normal BMI from 1993 to 2009 and to examine the impact of performance of combined BMI and WC on the prevalence of obesity in Chinese adults. Methods We used data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) conducted from 1993 to 2009. From which we included a total of 52023 participants aged ≥ 18 years. Results The age-standardized prevalence of central obesity among Chinese adults with BMI < 25 kg/m2 increased from 11.9% in 1993 to 21.1% in 2009 (P for linear trend <0.001). The upward trends were noted in both genders, all ages, rural/urban settings, and education groups (all P for linear trend <0.001), with greater increments in men, participants aged 18–64 years, and rural residents (P for interaction terms survey × sex, survey × age, and survey × rural/urban settings were 0.042, 0.003, and < 0.001, respectively). Trends in the prevalence of central obesity were similar when a more stringent BMI < 23 kg/m2 cut point (Asian cut point) was applied. Central obesity is associated with a higher risk of incident hypertension within normal BMI category. More than 65% individuals with obesity would be missed if solely BMI was measured. Conclusions We observed an upward trend in the prevalence of central obesity among participants with normal BMI irrespective of sex, age, rural/urban settings, and education level. Central obesity is associated with a higher risk of incident hypertension within normal BMI category. Approximately two thirds of the individuals with obesity would be missed if WC was not measured. It is, therefore, urgent to emphasize the importance of

  17. Effects of Low-Fat Diets Differing in Protein and Carbohydrate Content on Cardiometabolic Risk Factors during Weight Loss and Weight Maintenance in Obese Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Nerylee; Dyer, Kathryn; Buckley, Jonathan; Brinkworth, Grant; Coates, Alison; Parfitt, Gaynor; Howe, Peter; Noakes, Manny; Murphy, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Despite evidence for the benefits of higher-protein (HP) diets in weight loss, their role in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) management and weight maintenance is not clear. This randomised study compared the effects of a HP diet (38% carbohydrate, 30% protein, 29% fat) to a isocaloric higher-carbohydrate diet (HC: 53%:21%:23%) on cardiometabolic risk factors for 12 weeks in energy restriction (~30% reduction) followed by 12 weeks of energy balance whilst performing regular exercise. Outcomes were measured at baseline and the end of each phase. Sixty-one overweight/obese adults (BMI (body mass index) 34.3 ± 5.1 kg/m2, aged 55 ± 8 years) with T2DM who commenced the study were included in the intention-to-treat analysis including the 17 participants (HP n = 9, HC n = 8) who withdrew. Following weight loss (M ± SEM: −7.8 ± 0.6 kg), there were significant reductions in HbA1c (−1.4% ± 0.1%, p < 0.001) and several cardiometabolic health risk factors. Improvements were sustained for 12 weeks when weight was stabilised and weight loss maintained. Both the HP and HC dietary patterns with concurrent exercise may be effective strategies for weight loss and weight maintenance in T2DM although further studies are needed to determine the longer term effects of weight maintenance. PMID:27187457

  18. Effects of Low-Fat Diets Differing in Protein and Carbohydrate Content on Cardiometabolic Risk Factors during Weight Loss and Weight Maintenance in Obese Adults with Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Watson, Nerylee; Dyer, Kathryn; Buckley, Jonathan; Brinkworth, Grant; Coates, Alison; Parfitt, Gaynor; Howe, Peter; Noakes, Manny; Murphy, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Despite evidence for the benefits of higher-protein (HP) diets in weight loss, their role in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) management and weight maintenance is not clear. This randomised study compared the effects of a HP diet (38% carbohydrate, 30% protein, 29% fat) to a isocaloric higher-carbohydrate diet (HC: 53%:21%:23%) on cardiometabolic risk factors for 12 weeks in energy restriction (~30% reduction) followed by 12 weeks of energy balance whilst performing regular exercise. Outcomes were measured at baseline and the end of each phase. Sixty-one overweight/obese adults (BMI (body mass index) 34.3 ± 5.1 kg/m², aged 55 ± 8 years) with T2DM who commenced the study were included in the intention-to-treat analysis including the 17 participants (HP n = 9, HC n = 8) who withdrew. Following weight loss (M ± SEM: -7.8 ± 0.6 kg), there were significant reductions in HbA1c (-1.4% ± 0.1%, p < 0.001) and several cardiometabolic health risk factors. Improvements were sustained for 12 weeks when weight was stabilised and weight loss maintained. Both the HP and HC dietary patterns with concurrent exercise may be effective strategies for weight loss and weight maintenance in T2DM although further studies are needed to determine the longer term effects of weight maintenance. PMID:27187457

  19. Prevalence of Obesity Among Male Adolescents in Arar Saudi Arabia: Future Risk of Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Alenazi, Shehab A; Koura, Hala M; Zaki, Sherif M; Mohamed, Ayman H

    2015-01-01

    Background: Obesity in adolescence is crucial as it represents an important stage in human life. Dietary habits are greatly associated with lifestyle. Many reports suggested direct relationship between adolescent fatness and increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) which will be found in young adult population. Aim: Determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among male adolescents in Arar city, Saudi Arabia (KSA). We estimated the future risk of developing cardiovascular diseases in this age‐group and its possible correlation to different lifestyles and dietary habits. Results: A total of 523 male students with a mean age of 16.7 ± 0.9 years participated in the current study in which 30.4% of those students were obese and 17.2% were overweight. A direct relationship was found between body weight and different dietary and lifestyle habits. The risk of CVD based on waist height ratio (WHtR) was found in 33.5% of participants (30.4% obese, 2.1% overweight and 1% normal weight); moreover, the risk of CVD was strongly related to different dietary and lifestyle habits. Conclusion: Overweight and obesity were high among adolescent male students in Arar, who became susceptible to the risk of CVD. Arar showed the highest rate of obesity all over KSA. Both obesity and risk of CVD were strongly related to bad dietary habits and lifestyle. PMID:26170543

  20. Overweight, Obesity, Youth, and Health-Risk Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Farhat, Tilda; Iannotti, Ronald J.; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Background The prevalence and severity of obesity have increased among children and adolescents. While the medical and psychosocial consequences of youth obesity have been well-documented, less information exists on the association of overweight/obesity with health risk behaviors, which are considered to be a primary threat to adolescent health. Objectives This study examined the association of overweight and obesity with health-risk behaviors among U.S. youth. Methods Self-reported height and weight, substance use, violence and bullying were assessed in a nationally representative sample of students aged 11 to 17 years (N=7825) who participated in the 2005/6 Health Behaviors in School-Aged Children survey. Data were analyzed in 2009. Results Significant gender and age differences in the relationship of overweight/obesity with risk behaviors were observed. Overweight and obesity were significantly associated with substance use among girls only: frequent smoking and drinking were associated with overweight and obesity among younger girls, whereas they were associated with obesity among older girls. Frequent smoking and cannabis use were associated with overweight among younger girls only. Relationships between violent behavior and overweight/obesity were mainly observed among boys: Younger obese boys were more likely to be victims of bullying, whereas older obese boys were more likely to carry weapons, compared to boys of normal weight. Conclusions Overweight and obese youth are at risk of developing health compromising behaviors which may compound medical and social problems associated with excess weight. PMID:20171527

  1. Food patterns measured by principal component analysis and obesity in the Nepalese adult

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Archana; Koju, Rajendra Prasad; Beresford, Shirley A A; Gary Chan, Kwun Chuen; Karmacharya, Biraj Man; Fitzpatrick, Annette L

    2016-01-01

    Objective About one-fourth of Nepalese adults are overweight or obese but no studies have examined their risk factors, especially pertaining to diet. The present study aimed to identify dietary patterns in a suburban Nepalese community and assess their associations with overweight and obesity prevalence. Methods This cross-sectional study used data from 1073 adults (18 years or older) participating in the baseline survey of the Dhulikhel Heart Study. We derived major dietary patterns from a principal component analysis of reported intake from a Food Frequency Questionnaire. Overweight was defined as Body Mass Index (BMI) of 25 kg/m2 or higher and obesity was defined as BMI of 30 kg/m2 or higher. Statistical analysis was conducted using generalised estimating equations with multivariate logistic regression (with household as cluster) adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, religion, marital status, income, education, alcohol consumption, smoking, physical activity and systolic blood pressure. Results Four dietary patterns were derived: mixed, fast food, refined grain–meat–alcohol and solid fats–dairy. The refined grain–rice–alcohol pattern was significantly associated with overweight (adjusted OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.39; p=0.02) after adjusting for demographic and traditional cardiovascular risk factors. In adults of 40 years or older, the fast food pattern was associated with obesity controlling for demographic and traditional risk factors (adjusted OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.19 to 2.39; p value=0.003). Conclusions Our results suggest that refined grains–meat–alcohol intake is associated with higher prevalence of overweight, and fast food intake is associated with higher prevalence of obesity in older adults (40 years or above) in suburban Nepalese adults. PMID:27326232

  2. Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Severely Obese Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Michalsky, Marc P.; Inge, Thomas H.; Simmons, Mark; Jenkins, Todd M.; Buncher, Ralph; Helmrath, Michael; Brandt, Mary L.; Harmon, Carroll M.; Courcoulas, Anita; Chen, Michael; Horlick, Mary; Daniels, Stephen R.; Urbina, Elaine M.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Severe obesity is increasingly common in the adolescent population but, as of yet, very little information exists regarding cardiovascular disease (CVD) risks in this group. OBJECTIVE To assess the baseline prevalence and predictors of CVD risks among severely obese adolescents undergoing weight-loss surgery. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A prospective cohort study was conducted from February 28, 2007, to December 30, 2011, at the following 5 adolescent weight-loss surgery centers in the United States: Nationwide Children’s Hospital in Columbus, Ohio; Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center in Cincinnati, Ohio; Texas Children’s Hospital in Houston; University of Pittsburgh Medical Center in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; and Children’s Hospital of Alabama in Birmingham. Consecutive patients aged 19 years or younger were offered enrollment in a long-term outcome study; the final analysis cohort consisted of 242 participants. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES This report examined the preoperative prevalence of CVD risk factors (ie, fasting hyperinsulinemia, elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels, impaired fasting glucose levels, dyslipidemia, elevated blood pressure, and diabetes mellitus) and associations between risk factors and body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared), age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Preoperative data were collected within 30 days preceding bariatric surgery. RESULTS The mean (SD) age was 17 (1.6) years and median body mass index was 50.5. Cardiovascular disease risk factor prevalence was fasting hyperinsulinemia (74%), elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels (75%), dyslipidemia (50%), elevated blood pressure (49%), impaired fasting glucose levels (26%), and diabetes mellitus (14%). The risk of impaired fasting glucose levels, elevated blood pressure, and elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels increased by 15%, 10%, and 6%, respectively, per 5-unit

  3. Effects of protocol and obesity on dose conversion factors in adult body CT

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiang; Samei, Ehsan; Williams, Cameron H.; Segars, W. Paul; Tward, Daniel J.; Miller, Michael I.; Ratnanather, J. Tilak; Paulson, Erik K.; Frush, Donald P.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In computed tomography (CT), organ dose, effective dose, and risk index can be estimated from volume-weighted CT dose index (CTDIvol) or dose-length product (DLP) using conversion coefficients. Studies have investigated how these coefficients vary across scanner models, scan parameters, and patient size. However, their variability across CT protocols has not been systematically studied. Furthermore, earlier studies of the effect of patient size have not included obese individuals, which currently represent more than one-third of U.S. adults. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of protocol and obesity on dose and risk conversion coefficients in adult body CT. Methods: Whole-body computational phantoms were created from clinical CT images of six adult patients (three males, three females), representing normal-weight patients and patients of three obesity classes. Body CT protocols at our institution were selected and categorized into ten examination categories based on anatomical region examined. A validated Monte Carlo program was used to estimate organ dose. Organ dose estimates were normalized by CTDIvol and size-specific dose estimate (SSDE) to obtain organ dose conversion coefficients (denoted as h and hss factors, respectively). Assuming each phantom to be 20, 40, and 60 years old, effective dose and risk index were calculated and normalized by DLP to obtain effective dose and risk index conversion coefficients (denoted as k and q factors, respectively). Coefficient of variation was used to quantify the variability of each conversion coefficient across examination categories. The effect of obesity was assessed by comparing each obese phantom with the normal-weight phantom of the same gender. Results: For a given organ, the variability of h factor across examination categories that encompassed the entire organ volume was generally within 15%. However, k factor varied more across examination categories (15%–27%). For all three ages, the

  4. Ghrelin signaling in heart remodeling of adult obese mice.

    PubMed

    Lacerda-Miranda, Glauciane; Soares, Vivian M; Vieira, Anatalia K G; Lessa, Juliana G; Rodrigues-Cunha, Alessandra C S; Cortez, Erika; Garcia-Souza, Erica P; Moura, Anibal S

    2012-05-01

    Ghrelin, an endogenous ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R), has been suggested to be associated to obesity, insulin secretion, cardiovascular growth and homeostasis. GHS-R has been found in most of the tissues, and among the hormone action it is included the regulation of heart energy metabolism. Therefore, hypernutrition during early life leads to obesity, induces cardiac hypertrophy, compromises myocardial function, inducing heart failure in adulthood. We examined ghrelin signaling process in cardiac remodeling in these obese adult mice. The cardiomyocytes (cmy) of left ventricle were analyzed by light microscopy and stereology, content and phosphorilation of cardiac proteins: ghrelin receptor (growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a, GHSR-1a), protein kinase B (AKT and pAKT), phosphatidil inositol 3 kinase (PI3K), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK and pAMPK) and actin were achieved by Western blotting. GHSR-1a gene expression was analyzed by Real Time-PCR. We observed hyperglycemia and higher liver and visceral fat weight in obese when compared to control group. Obese mice presented a marked increase in heart weight/tibia length, indicating an enlarged heart size or a remodeling process. Obese mice had increased GHSR-1a content and expression in the heart associated to PI3K content and increased AKT content and phosphorylation. In contrast, AMPK content and phosphorylation in heart was not different between experimental groups. Ghrelin plasma levels in obese group were decreased when compared to control group. Our data suggest that remodeled myocardial in adult obese mice overnourished in early life are associated with higher phosphorylation of GHSR-1a, PI3K and AKT but not with AMPK. PMID:22407166

  5. Fall and Fracture Risk in Sarcopenia and Dynapenia With and Without Obesity: the Role of Lifestyle Interventions.

    PubMed

    Scott, David; Daly, Robin M; Sanders, Kerrie M; Ebeling, Peter R

    2015-08-01

    Due to their differing etiologies and consequences, it has been proposed that the term "sarcopenia" should revert to its original definition of age-related muscle mass declines, with a separate term, "dynapenia", describing muscle strength and function declines. There is increasing interest in the interactions of sarcopenia and dynapenia with obesity. Despite an apparent protective effect of obesity on fracture, increased adiposity may compromise bone health, and the presence of sarcopenia and/or dynapenia ("sarcopenic obesity" and "dynapenic obesity") may exacerbate the risk of falls and fracture in obese older adults. Weight loss interventions are likely to be beneficial for older adults with sarcopenic and dynapenic obesity but may result in further reductions in muscle and bone health. The addition of exercise including progressive resistance training and nutritional strategies, including protein and vitamin D supplementation, may optimise body composition and muscle function outcomes thereby reducing falls and fracture risk in this population. PMID:26040576

  6. Which Food Patterns Are Predictors of Obesity in Tehranian Adults?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosseini-Esfahani, Firoozeh; Djazaieri, Seyed-Abolghasem; Mirmiran, Parvin; Mehrabi, Yadollah; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To determine whether changes in food patterns over a period of 6 years were related to obesity in Tehranian adults. Design: Data on dietary intake, using the food frequency questionnaire, and anthropometry were obtained in 2 periods of the survey (1999-2001 and 2005-2007). Setting: Participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.…

  7. Management of obesity in children differs from that of adults.

    PubMed

    Hoey, Hilary

    2014-11-01

    Obesity in childhood is a very common disorder with an increasing prevalence. It is one of the most serious public health challenges. The objectives of the present paper are to increase the awareness of the problem of obesity in childhood, its serious complications and the need for prevention. Overweight and obese children are likely to remain obese into adulthood and more likely to develop serious complications including health problems such as diabetes and CVD, as well as psychological and social challenges. Overweight and obesity are largely preventable. In adults it is difficult to reduce excessive weight gain once it has become established, thus children should be considered the priority population for intervention strategies and prevention. Nutrition, exercise, weight gain in infancy, genetic and environmental factors, all contribute to the aetiology. Prevention and treatment of obesity in childhood requires education and empowerment of families relating to diet and exercise, along with the regulation and control of food marketing and clear nutritional labelling. The eating and physical activity behaviour of a child is strongly influenced by environmental and social factors. Therefore treatment will have only limited success in an environment where adequate physical activity is inhibited and the consumption of high-energy food is stimulated. Government investment in a health promotion programme addressing the issue of obesity in the population as a whole, with particular emphasis on the prevention and management of obesity in childhood is vital. The family doctor and multidisciplinary team play an important role. Regular visits to the family doctor, including growth assessment, will help motivate the family to restrict energy intake and to increase exercise. Therefore the prevention of childhood obesity needs high priority. PMID:25115345

  8. [Obesity as a risk factor for atrial fibrillation].

    PubMed

    Duraj, Iwona; Broncel, Marlena

    2016-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) and obesity is a growing problem of public health both in Poland and in the whole world. AF risk factors may be summarized as elderliness, male sex, smoking, hypertension, diabetes, obesity, coronary heart disease, heart failure, valvular heart disease, cardiac surgery. Once obesity is an independent, potentially modifiable risk factor for AF. The connection between obesity and atrial fibrillation is very up-to-date because of incremental prevalence, almost epidemic of obesity in the whole world. The probability of AF among obese patients increases with concomitant obstructive sleep apnea. Regardless many researches it hasn't been assessed yet how obesity itself predisposes to AF. It could be an effect of change in the atrial anatomy, the rise of atrial pressure, mechanical stretch, interstitial atrial fibrosis and disruption of atrial electric integrity. A great role is ascribed to inflammation, especially proinflammatory cytokines increased by adipocites of left atrial epicardial adiposity. PMID:26891428

  9. Childhood obesity: the impact on long-term risk of metabolic and CVD is not necessarily inevitable.

    PubMed

    McMullen, Sarah

    2014-08-01

    The worldwide prevalence of overweight and obesity in the adult population is estimated to be 35%. These trends are reflected in childhood obesity prevalence, and the potential impact of early-onset obesity is of great concern. The aim of this review was to investigate the long-term implications of childhood obesity for metabolic and cardiovascular health, focusing on the independent contribution of childhood obesity to adult disease risk, as distinct from associations mediated by tracking of obesity across the lifespan. The data systematically reviewed provide little evidence to suggest that childhood overweight and obesity are independent risk factors for metabolic and cardiovascular risk during adulthood. Instead, the data demonstrate that the relationships observed are dependent on tracking of BMI between childhood and adulthood, alongside persistence of dietary patterns and physical activity. Adjustment for adult BMI uncovers unexpected negative associations between childhood BMI and adult disease, suggesting a protective effect of childhood obesity at any given level of adult BMI. Further work is required to explain these findings, both in terms of pathways and statistical artefacts. To conclude, it must be stressed that it is not suggested that childhood obesity is without negative consequence. Childhood obesity is clearly associated with a range of adverse physical and psychological outcomes. However, the data are important in supporting a positive message that the long-term consequences of childhood obesity are avoidable; and that there remains opportunity for intervention across the lifespan. This nuance in understanding long-term risk is important when considering the effectiveness of interventions at different stages of the lifespan. PMID:25027289

  10. Prevalence of Central Obesity among Adults with Normal BMI and Its Association with Metabolic Diseases in Northeast China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng; Wang, Rui; Gao, Chunshi; Jiang, Lingling; Lv, Xin; Song, Yuanyuan; Li, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of central obesity among adults with normal BMI and its association with metabolic diseases in Jilin Province, China. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012 in Jilin Province of China. Information was collected by face to face interview. Descriptive data analysis and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of prevalence/frequency were conducted. Log-binomial regression analyses were used to find the independent factors associated with central obesity and to explore the adjusted association between central obesity and metabolic diseases among adults with normal BMI. Results Among the adult residents with normal BMI in Jilin Province, 55.6% of participants with central obesity self-assessed as normal weight and 27.0% thought their body weight were above normal. 12.7% of central obesity people took methods to lose weight, while 85.3% didn’t. Female, older people and non-manual worker had higher risk to be central obesity among adults with normal BMI. Hypertension, diabetes and hyperlipidemia were significantly associated with central obesity among adults with normal BMI, the PRs were 1.337 (1.224–1.461), 1.323 (1.193–1.456) and 1.261 (1.152–1.381) separately when adjusted for gender, age and BMI. Conclusions Hypertension, diabetes and hyperlipidemia were significantly associated with central obesity among adults with normal BMI in Jilin Province, China. The low rates of awareness and control of central obesity among adults with normal BMI should be improved by government and health department. PMID:27467819

  11. Obesity and Health Risk of Children in the Mississippi Delta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamble, Abigail; Waddell, Dwight; Ford, M. Allison; Bentley, John P.; Woodyard, Catherine D.; Hallam, Jeffrey S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Mississippi (MS) Delta adults and youth report obesity rates far exceeding those of the state and nation. State law requires in-school physical activity and nutrition practices to address childhood obesity but does not require evaluation of outcomes, specifically the impact on weight-related outcomes. This paper offers 3 things: (1)…

  12. Obesity in the intensive care unit: risks and complications.

    PubMed

    Selim, Bernardo J; Ramar, Kannan; Surani, Salim

    2016-08-01

    The steady growing prevalence of critically ill obese patients is posing diagnostic and management challenges across medical and surgical intensive care units. The impact of obesity in the critically ill patients may vary by type of critical illness, obesity severity (obesity distribution) and obesity-associated co-morbidities. Based on pathophysiological changes associated with obesity, predominately in pulmonary reserve and cardiac function, critically ill obese patients may be at higher risk for acute cardiovascular, pulmonary and renal complications in comparison to non-obese patients. Obesity also represents a dilemma in the management of other critical care areas such as invasive mechanical ventilation, mechanical ventilation liberation, hemodynamic monitoring and pharmacokinetics dose adjustments. However, despite higher morbidity associated with obesity in the intensive care unit (ICU), a paradoxical lower ICU mortality ("obesity paradox") is demonstrated in comparison to non-obese ICU patients. This review article will focus on the unique pathophysiology, challenges in management, and outcomes associated with obesity in the ICU. PMID:27098774

  13. Survey of abdominal obesities in an adult urban population of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Kasiam Lasi On’kin, JB; Longo-Mbenza, B; Okwe, A Nge; Kabangu, N Kangola

    2007-01-01

    Summary Background The prevalence of overweight/obesity, which is an important cardiovascular risk factor, is rapidly increasing worldwide. Abdominal obesity, a fundamental component of the metabolic syndrome, is not defined by appropriate cutoff points for sub-Saharan Africa. Objective To provide baseline and reference data on the anthropometry/body composition and the prevalence rates of obesity types and levels in the adult urban population of Kinshasa, DRC, Central Africa. Methods During this cross-sectional study carried out within a random sample of adults in Kinshasa town, body mass index, waist circumference and fatty mass were measured using standard methods. Their reference and local thresholds (cut-off points) were compared with those of WHO, NCEP and IFD to define the types and levels of obesity in the population. Results From this sample of 11 511 subjects (5 676 men and 5 835 women), the men presented with similar body mass index and fatty mass values to those of the women, but higher waist measurements. The international thresholds overestimated the prevalence of denutrition, but underscored that of general and abdominal obesity. The two types of obesity were more prevalent among women than men when using both international and local thresholds. Body mass index was negatively associated with age; but abdominal obesity was more frequent before 20 years of age and between 40 and 60 years old. Local thresholds of body mass index (≥ 23, ≥ 27 and ≥ 30 kg/m2) and waist measurement (≥ 80, ≥ 90 and ≥ 94 cm) defined epidemic rates of overweight/general obesity (52%) and abdominal obesity (40.9%). The threshold of waist circumference ≥ 94 cm (90th percentile) corresponding to the threshold of the body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2 (90th percentile) was proposed as the specific threshold of definition of the metabolic syndrome, without reference to gender, for the cities of sub-Saharan Africa. Conclusion Further studies are required to define the

  14. Prevalence and determinants of overweight, obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus in adults in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Jan Mohamed, Hamid Jan B; Yap, Roseline Wai Kuan; Loy, See Ling; Norris, Shane A; Biesma, Regien; Aagaard-Hansen, Jens

    2015-03-01

    This systematic review aimed to examine trends in overweight, obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among Malaysian adults, and to identify its underlying determinants. A review of studies published between 2000 and 2012 on overweight, obesity, and T2DM was conducted. The Cochrane library of systematic reviews, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Biosis, Scopus, and MyJurnal digital database were searched. According to national studies, the prevalence of overweight increased from 26.7% in 2003 to 29.4% in 2011; obesity prevalence increased from 12.2% in 2003 to 15.1% in 2011, and T2DM prevalence was reported as 11.6% in 2006 and 15.2% in 2011. Distal determinants of increased risk of overweight, obesity, and T2DM were as follows: female, Malay/Indian ethnicity, and low educational level. The limited number of studies on proximal determinants of these noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) indicated that an unhealthy diet was associated with increased risk, whereas smoking was associated with decreased risk. However, more studies on the proximal determinants of overweight, obesity, and T2DM within the Malaysian context are needed. Overall, our findings provide insights for designing both future investigative studies and strategies to control and prevent these NCDs in Malaysia. PMID:25524952

  15. Diet and obesity among Chamorro and Filipino adults on Guam

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero, Rachael T Leon; Paulino, Yvette C; Novotny, Rachel; Murphy, Suzanne P

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the body mass index (BMI) and dietary intakes of Chamorro (n=66) and Filipino (n=61) adults, ages 25–65 years, living in Guam. Participants were recruited via community-based sampling; however, recruitment was targeted to ensure approximately equal numbers from each ethnic group, equal numbers of men and women within each ethnic group, and proportional representation of the main geographic areas of the island. In addition, subjects were recruited and stratified based on the 2000 Guam Census Data to assure proportional distribution by age. Dietary energy density (ED) was calculated as kcal/g and compared by gender, ethnicity, and obesity status. Mean BMI for Chamorros was significantly higher than for Filipinos, and a significantly higher proportion of Chamorros (49%) were obese compared to Filipinos (20%). Chamorros reported higher ED than Filipinos (1.9 kcal/g versus 1.6 kcal/g), although the difference was significant among males only. Non-obese subjects had a lower ED than obese subjects (1.9 versus 2.3 kcal/g). Overweight and obese subjects both reported a significantly higher % energy consumed as sugar-sweetened beverages than healthy weight subjects (8% and 9% versus 3%). Differences in ED may contribute to differences in obesity rates between Chamorros and Filipinos in Guam, particularly among men, and lowering ED may be an appropriate goal for nutrition interventions. PMID:18586639

  16. Association of major dietary patterns with obesity risk among Mongolian men and women.

    PubMed

    Dugee, Otgontuya; Khor, Geok Lin; Lye, Munn-Sann; Luvsannyam, Lhagva; Janchiv, Oyunbileg; Jamyan, Batjargal; Esa, Norhaizan

    2009-01-01

    Mongolia is experiencing changes in its unique nomadic lifestyle and dietary habits in the last two decades with accompanying increase in obesity rate. The dietary pattern approach, which investigates the overall diet in relation to obesity risks, has become appealing in nutrition epidemiology. The aim of this study was to identify major dietary patterns of the Mongolian adults in relation to the risk of having obesity. Dietary intake of a total 418 adults aged ? 25 years was assessed by using a food frequency questionnaire with 68 items. An exploratory factor analysis resulted in three dietary patterns: transitional high in processed meat and potato, traditional rich in whole milk, fats and oils and healthy with greater intake of whole grains, mixed vegetables and fruits. Individuals in the upper quintile of the transitional pattern had significantly greater risk of obesity (BMI > or =25 kg/m2: OR=2.47; 95% CI=1.04-5.86) while subjects in the highest quintile of the healthy dietary pattern were found to have significantly decreased risk of obesity (OR: 0.49; 95% CI=0.25-0.95). Men in the highest quintile of the transitional pattern had greater risk of abdominal obesity WC > or =90 cm: OR= 4.08; 95% CI=1.11-14.97) than those in the lowest quintile. Women in the top quintile of the traditional pattern had a greater odds of having abdominal obesity (WC > or =80 cm: OR=4.59; 95% CI=1.58-13.30) than those in the lowest quintile. The study suggests that public health efforts be targeted at adults in Mongolia to address the undesirable aspects of the transitional and the traditional dietary patterns. PMID:19786392

  17. Parental neglect during childhood and increased risk of obesity in young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Lissau, I; Sørensen, T I

    1994-02-01

    The association of various features of family life with obesity in childhood is well established, but less is known about the effect of these influences on the risk of later obesity. In this prospective, population-based study, we examined the influence of parental care in childhood on the risk of obesity in the offspring in young adulthood. In 1974, 1258 pupils aged 9-10 years were randomly selected from the third grade of Copenhagen schools. Information on 987 pupils was obtained from the form teachers on family structure and the perceived support from the parents; school medical services reported on the child's general hygiene. 756 (86%) of the 881 eligible participants were followed up 10 years later. The influence of family factors in childhood on the risk of obesity (body-mass index > 95th centile) in young adulthood was estimated by odds ratios with control for age and body-mass index in 1974, sex, and social background. Family structure (biological or other parents and number of siblings) did not significantly affect the risk of adult obesity. Parental neglect greatly increased the risk in comparison with harmonious support (odds ratio 7.1 [95% CI 2.6-19.3]). Dirty and neglected children had a much greater risk of adult obesity than averagely groomed children (9.8 [3.5-28.2]). However, being an only child, receiving overprotective parental support, or being well-groomed had no effect. Parental neglect during childhood predicts a great risk of obesity in young adulthood, independent of age and body-mass index in childhood, sex, and social background. PMID:7905145

  18. Unevenly distributed: a systematic review of the health literature about socioeconomic inequalities in adult obesity in the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is a growing literature documenting socioeconomic inequalities in obesity risk among adults in the UK, with poorer groups suffering higher risk. Methods In this systematic review, we summarize and appraise the extant peer-reviewed literature about socioeconomic inequalities in adult obesity risk in the UK published between 1980 and 2010. Only studies featuring empirical assessments of relations between socioeconomic indicators and measures of obesity among adults in the UK were included. Results A total of 35 articles met inclusion criteria, and were reviewed here. Conclusion Socioeconomic indicators of low socioeconomic position (SEP), including occupational social class of the head-of-household at birth and during childhood, earlier adulthood occupational social class, contemporaneous occupational social class, educational attainment, and area-level deprivation were generally inversely associated with adult obesity risk in the UK. Measures of SEP were more predictive of obesity among women than among men. We outline important methodological limitations to the literature and recommend avenues for future research. PMID:22230643

  19. Secondhand Smoke is Associated with Hearing Threshold Shifts in Obese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yuan-Yung; Wu, Li-Wei; Kao, Tung-Wei; Wu, Chen-Jung; Yang, Hui-Fang; Peng, Tao-Chun; Lin, Yu-Jen; Chen, Wei-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Hearing loss resulted from multiple intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Secondhand smoke (SHS) and obesity had been reported to be related to hearing loss. This study explored the possible associations of SHS and obesity with the hearing threshold. The relations between SHS and the hearing threshold in subjects from three different body mass index classes were analyzed. Our study included data from 1,961 subjects aged 20–69 years that were obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the years 1999–2004. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, the subjects with the higher tertiles of serum cotinine levels tended to have higher hearing thresholds than those with the lowest tertile of serum cotinine levels (for both trends, p < 0.05). Notably, the obese subjects with the higher tertiles of serum cotinine levels had significantly higher hearing thresholds for high frequencies and low frequencies than those with the lowest tertile of serum cotinine levels (for both trends, p < 0.05). Our study showed a significant positive association between SHS exposure and hearing thresholds in the adult population, especially in obese individuals. Based on our findings, avoiding exposure to SHS, especially in obese adults, may decrease the risk of hearing loss. PMID:27605137

  20. Secondhand Smoke is Associated with Hearing Threshold Shifts in Obese Adults.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuan-Yung; Wu, Li-Wei; Kao, Tung-Wei; Wu, Chen-Jung; Yang, Hui-Fang; Peng, Tao-Chun; Lin, Yu-Jen; Chen, Wei-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Hearing loss resulted from multiple intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Secondhand smoke (SHS) and obesity had been reported to be related to hearing loss. This study explored the possible associations of SHS and obesity with the hearing threshold. The relations between SHS and the hearing threshold in subjects from three different body mass index classes were analyzed. Our study included data from 1,961 subjects aged 20-69 years that were obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the years 1999-2004. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, the subjects with the higher tertiles of serum cotinine levels tended to have higher hearing thresholds than those with the lowest tertile of serum cotinine levels (for both trends, p < 0.05). Notably, the obese subjects with the higher tertiles of serum cotinine levels had significantly higher hearing thresholds for high frequencies and low frequencies than those with the lowest tertile of serum cotinine levels (for both trends, p < 0.05). Our study showed a significant positive association between SHS exposure and hearing thresholds in the adult population, especially in obese individuals. Based on our findings, avoiding exposure to SHS, especially in obese adults, may decrease the risk of hearing loss. PMID:27605137

  1. Mothers' guilt responses to children's obesity risk feedback.

    PubMed

    Persky, Susan; McBride, Colleen M; Faith, Myles S; Wagner, Laura K; Ward, Dianne S

    2015-05-01

    This study explored the influence of family health history-based obesity risk feedback for their child on 147 overweight mothers' guilt related to children's lifestyle behaviors and passing down a genetic propensity for overweight. Mothers were randomized to receive, or not, obesity risk feedback for their 4- to 5-year-old child and then made food choices for them using a virtual reality-based buffet. Receipt of risk information increased lifestyle- and genetics-related guilt. Choosing fewer unhealthful foods for the child attenuated both types of guilt. Work in this area may aid in development of obesity risk feedback strategies that enhance child feeding. PMID:25903251

  2. Calcium intake and hypertension among obese adults in United States: associations and implications explored.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y; Strasser, S; Cao, Y; Wang, K-S; Zheng, S

    2015-09-01

    sample including all of 14,408 obese adults. The protective effect of calcium intake and hypertension was found significantly in obese non-diabetic adults (OR: OR=0.77, 95% CI: 0.67-0.89, P<0.0001) not in obese diabetic adults. SBP, DBP and calcium intake were log transformed for both ordinary linear regression analysis and logistic regression analysis. Our study findings underscore the need to explore the physiological mechanism between calcium intake and hypertension. In this study, increased calcium intake was associated with the lowest risk of hypertension. Future studies utilizing longitudinal research designs are needed to quantify therapeutic levels of calcium for control of hypertension among obese adults. Increasing calcium intake among American adults may offer promise as a cost-effective strategy to improve hypertension among obese adults; however, further scientific exploration is warranted. PMID:25589211

  3. Paternalism, Obesity, and Tolerable Levels of Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merry, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity describes an abnormally high fat accumulation that impairs health. It is crudely measured by a body mass index (BMI) of greater than 30 kg/sq meters. Obesity now ranks among the highest of concerns by the World Health Organization (WHO) and not only in countries of affluence; the figures of obesity worldwide have doubled since 1980 and the…

  4. Microalbuminuria in Obese Young and Middle Aged Population: A Potential Marker of Cardiovascular Risk.

    PubMed

    Purohit, Purvi; Garg, Kunal; Singh, Vikram; Dwivedi, Shailendra; Sharma, Praveen

    2016-07-01

    Microalbuminuria is an established cardiovascular risk indicator in diabetes, hypertension and the general population. There is lack of information on MAU in healthy obese Indian adults and an ongoing debate whether obese adults deserve targeted identification and clinical intervention for MAU and prediabetes. We aimed to screen the healthy obese, young (group I) and middle aged (group II) adults for prevalence of MAU and prediabetes and study its association with Framingham risk score. The study included 50 healthy obese young (20-30 years) and middle aged adults (31-50 years), attending the outpatient clinic of Dept. of Medicine for a duration of 2 months (July-August). The patients were screened for fasting blood sugar, lipid profile and MAU. Of the total patients 28 % had MAU, 32.14 % of which had prediabetes and 33.33 % had diabetes whereas 10 % were normoglycemic. The group I patients had 50 % cases of MAU and group II had 25 % patients with MAU. Group II 63.63 % pre-diabetics. The values of MAU obtained were correlated with age, gender, body mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, FBS, waist to hip ratio using Pearson's Coefficient (p < 0.05). The 10 year CVD risk calculated using FRS in subjects with MAU was higher as compared to those without MAU. Thus we conclude that Indian, young and middle aged obese adults to be at a risk of prediabetes, MAU and CV risk warranting their routine screening for better clinical outcomes. PMID:27382209

  5. Muscle Strength, Physical Activity, and Functional Limitations in Older Adults with Central Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Germain, Cassandra M.; Batsis, John A.; Vasquez, Elizabeth; McQuoid, Douglas R.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Obesity and muscle weakness are independently associated with increased risk of physical and functional impairment in older adults. It is unknown whether physical activity (PA) and muscle strength combined provide added protection against functional impairment. This study examines the association between muscle strength, PA, and functional outcomes in older adults with central obesity. Methods. Prevalence and odds of physical (PL), ADL, and IADL limitation were calculated for 6,388 community dwelling adults aged ≥ 60 with central obesity. Individuals were stratified by sex-specific hand grip tertiles and PA. Logistic models were adjusted for age, education, comorbidities, and body-mass index and weighted. Results. Overall prevalence of PL and ADL and IADL limitations were progressively lower by grip category. Within grip categories, prevalence was lower for individuals who were active than those who were inactive. Adjusted models showed significantly lower odds of PL OR 0.42 [0.31, 0.56]; ADL OR 0.60 [0.43, 0.84], and IADL OR 0.46 [0.35, 0.61] for those in the highest grip strength category as compared to those in the lowest grip category. Conclusion. Improving grip strength in obese elders who are not able to engage in traditional exercise is important for reducing odds of physical and functional impairment. PMID:27034833

  6. Childhood obesity, bone development, and cardiometabolic risk factors.

    PubMed

    Pollock, Norman K

    2015-07-15

    Osteoporosis and obesity are both major public health concerns. It has long been considered that these are distinct disorders rarely found in the same individual; however, emerging evidence supports an important interaction between adipose tissue and the skeleton. Whereas overweight per se may augment bone strength, animal studies suggest that the metabolic impairment that accompanies obesity is detrimental to bone. Obesity during childhood, a critical time for bone development, likely has profound and lasting effects on bone strength and fracture risk. This notion has received little attention in children and results are mixed, with studies reporting that bone strength development is enhanced or impaired by obesity. Whether obesity is a risk factor for osteoporosis or childhood bone health, in general, remains an important clinical question. Here, we will focus on clarifying the controversial relationships between childhood obesity and bone strength development, and provide insights into potential mechanisms that may regulate the effect of excess adiposity on bone. PMID:25817542

  7. Major Dietary Patterns in Relation to General and Central Obesity among Chinese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Canqing; Shi, Zumin; Lv, Jun; Du, Huaidong; Qi, Lu; Guo, Yu; Bian, Zheng; Chang, Liang; Tang, Xuefeng; Jiang, Qilian; Mu, Huaiyi; Pan, Dongxia; Chen, Junshi; Chen, Zhengming; Li, Liming

    2015-01-01

    Limited evidence exists for the association between diet pattern and obesity phenotypes among Chinese adults. In the present study, we analyzed the cross-sectional data from 474,192 adults aged 30–79 years from the China Kadoorie Biobank baseline survey. Food consumption was collected by an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Three dietary patterns were extracted by factor analysis combined with cluster analysis. After being adjusted for potential confounders, individuals following a traditional southern dietary pattern had the lowest body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC); the Western/new affluence dietary pattern had the highest BMI; and the traditional northern dietary pattern had the highest WC. Compared to the traditional southern dietary pattern in multivariable adjusted logistic models, individuals following a Western/new affluence dietary pattern had a significantly increased risk of general obesity (prevalence ratio (PR): 1.06, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03–1.08) and central obesity (PR: 1.07, 95% CI: 1.06–1.08). The corresponding risks for the traditional northern dietary pattern were 1.05 (1.02–1.09) and 1.17 (1.25–1.18), respectively. In addition, the associations were modified by lifestyle behaviors, and the combined effects with alcohol drinking, tobacco smoking, and physical activity were analyzed. Further prospective studies are needed to elucidate the diet-obesity relationships. PMID:26184308

  8. Major Dietary Patterns in Relation to General and Central Obesity among Chinese Adults.

    PubMed

    Yu, Canqing; Shi, Zumin; Lv, Jun; Du, Huaidong; Qi, Lu; Guo, Yu; Bian, Zheng; Chang, Liang; Tang, Xuefeng; Jiang, Qilian; Mu, Huaiyi; Pan, Dongxia; Chen, Junshi; Chen, Zhengming; Li, Liming

    2015-07-01

    Limited evidence exists for the association between diet pattern and obesity phenotypes among Chinese adults. In the present study, we analyzed the cross-sectional data from 474,192 adults aged 30-79 years from the China Kadoorie Biobank baseline survey. Food consumption was collected by an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Three dietary patterns were extracted by factor analysis combined with cluster analysis. After being adjusted for potential confounders, individuals following a traditional southern dietary pattern had the lowest body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC); the Western/new affluence dietary pattern had the highest BMI; and the traditional northern dietary pattern had the highest WC. Compared to the traditional southern dietary pattern in multivariable adjusted logistic models, individuals following a Western/new affluence dietary pattern had a significantly increased risk of general obesity (prevalence ratio (PR): 1.06, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03-1.08) and central obesity (PR: 1.07, 95% CI: 1.06-1.08). The corresponding risks for the traditional northern dietary pattern were 1.05 (1.02-1.09) and 1.17 (1.25-1.18), respectively. In addition, the associations were modified by lifestyle behaviors, and the combined effects with alcohol drinking, tobacco smoking, and physical activity were analyzed. Further prospective studies are needed to elucidate the diet-obesity relationships. PMID:26184308

  9. The Prevalence and Determinants of Obesity in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melville, C. A.; Cooper, S. -A.; Morrison, J.; Allan, L.; Smiley, E.; Williamson, A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a major public health concern internationally and this study aimed to measure the prevalence of obesity in adults with intellectual disabilities in comparison with general population data, and examine the factors associated with obesity. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of all adults with intellectual disabilities,…

  10. A Common Variant in the FTO Gene Is Associated with Body Mass Index and Predisposes to Childhood and Adult Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Frayling, Timothy M.; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Weedon, Michael N.; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Freathy, Rachel M.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Perry, John R. B.; Elliott, Katherine S.; Lango, Hana; Rayner, Nigel W.; Shields, Beverley; Harries, Lorna W.; Barrett, Jeffrey C.; Ellard, Sian; Groves, Christopher J.; Knight, Bridget; Patch, Ann-Marie; Ness, Andrew R.; Ebrahim, Shah; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Ring, Susan M.; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Sovio, Ulla; Bennett, Amanda J.; Melzer, David; Ferrucci, Luigi; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Barroso, Inês; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Karpe, Fredrik; Owen, Katharine R.; Cardon, Lon R.; Walker, Mark; Hitman, Graham A.; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Doney, Alex S. F.; Morris, Andrew D.; Smith, George Davey; Hattersley, Andrew T.; McCarthy, Mark I.

    2009-01-01

    Obesity is a serious international health problem that increases the risk of several common diseases. The genetic factors predisposing to obesity are poorly understood. A genome-wide search for type 2 diabetes–susceptibility genes identified a common variant in the FTO (fat mass and obesity associated) gene that predisposes to diabetes through an effect on body mass index (BMI). An additive association of the variant with BMI was replicated in 13 cohorts with 38,759 participants. The 16% of adults who are homozygous for the risk allele weighed about 3 kilograms more and had 1.67-fold increased odds of obesity when compared with those not inheriting a risk allele. This association was observed from age 7 years upward and reflects a specific increase in fat mass. PMID:17434869

  11. Maternal Obesity at Conception Programs Obesity in the Offspring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The risk of obesity in adult-life is subject to programming during gestation. To examine whether in utero exposure to maternal obesity increases the risk of obesity in the offspring, we have developed an overfeeding-based model of maternal obesity in rats utilizing intragastric feeding of diets via ...

  12. Maternal Obesity at Conception Programs Obesity in the Offspring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The risk of obesity in adult life is subject to programming during gestation. To examine whether in utero exposure to maternal obesity increases the risk of obesity in the offspring, we have developed an overfeeding-based model of maternal obesity in rats utilizing intragastric feeding of diets via ...

  13. Risk for obesity in adolescence starts in early childhood

    PubMed Central

    Shankaran, S; Bann, C; Das, A; Lester, B; Bada, H; Bauer, CR; La Gasse, L; Higgins, RD

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to assess the predictive value of body mass index (BMI) at earlier ages on risk of overweight/obesity at age of 11 years. Study Design This is a longitudinal study of 907 children from birth to age of 11 years. Predictors include BMI at earlier ages and outcome is overweight/obesity status at age of 11 years. Analyses were adjusted for covariates known to affect BMI. Result At 11 years, 17% were overweight and 25% were obese. Children whose BMI was measured as ≥85th percentile once at preschool age had a twofold risk for overweight/obesity at 11 years of age. Risk increased by 11-fold if a child's BMI measured was noted more than once during this age. During early elementary years, if a child's BMI was>85th percentile once, risk for overweight/obesity at 11 years was fivefold and increased by 72-fold if noted more than two times. During late elementary years, if a child's BMI was>85th percentile once, risk for overweight/obesity was 26-fold and increased by 351-fold if noted more than two times. Risk of overweight/obesity at 11 years was noted with higher maternal prepregnancy weight, higher birth weight, female gender and increased television viewing. Conclusion Children in higher BMI categories at young ages have a higher risk of overweight/obesity at 11 years of age. Effect size was greater for measurements taken closer to 11 years of age. Pediatricians need to identify children at-risk for adolescent obesity and initiate counseling and intervention at earlier ages. PMID:21415836

  14. Challenges in the Management of Geriatric Obesity in High Risk Populations

    PubMed Central

    Porter Starr, Kathryn N.; McDonald, Shelley R.; Weidner, Julia A.; Bales, Connie W.

    2016-01-01

    The global prevalence of obesity in the older adult population is growing, an increasing concern in both the developed and developing countries of the world. The study of geriatric obesity and its management is a relatively new area of research, especially pertaining to those with elevated health risks. This review characterizes the state of science for this “fat and frail” population and identifies the many gaps in knowledge where future study is urgently needed. In community dwelling older adults, opportunities to improve both body weight and nutritional status are hampered by inadequate programs to identify and treat obesity, but where support programs exist, there are proven benefits. Nutritional status of the hospitalized older adult should be optimized to overcome the stressors of chronic disease, acute illness, and/or surgery. The least restrictive diets tailored to individual preferences while meeting each patient’s nutritional needs will facilitate the energy required for mobility, respiratory sufficiency, immunocompentence, and wound healing. Complications of care due to obesity in the nursing home setting, especially in those with advanced physical and mental disabilities, are becoming more ubiquitous; in almost all of these situations, weight stability is advocated, as some evidence links weight loss with increased mortality. High quality interdisciplinary studies in a variety of settings are needed to identify standards of care and effective treatments for the most vulnerable obese older adults. PMID:27153084

  15. Challenges in the Management of Geriatric Obesity in High Risk Populations.

    PubMed

    Porter Starr, Kathryn N; McDonald, Shelley R; Weidner, Julia A; Bales, Connie W

    2016-01-01

    The global prevalence of obesity in the older adult population is growing, an increasing concern in both the developed and developing countries of the world. The study of geriatric obesity and its management is a relatively new area of research, especially pertaining to those with elevated health risks. This review characterizes the state of science for this "fat and frail" population and identifies the many gaps in knowledge where future study is urgently needed. In community dwelling older adults, opportunities to improve both body weight and nutritional status are hampered by inadequate programs to identify and treat obesity, but where support programs exist, there are proven benefits. Nutritional status of the hospitalized older adult should be optimized to overcome the stressors of chronic disease, acute illness, and/or surgery. The least restrictive diets tailored to individual preferences while meeting each patient's nutritional needs will facilitate the energy required for mobility, respiratory sufficiency, immunocompentence, and wound healing. Complications of care due to obesity in the nursing home setting, especially in those with advanced physical and mental disabilities, are becoming more ubiquitous; in almost all of these situations, weight stability is advocated, as some evidence links weight loss with increased mortality. High quality interdisciplinary studies in a variety of settings are needed to identify standards of care and effective treatments for the most vulnerable obese older adults. PMID:27153084

  16. [Obesity in children and adolescents. Risks, causes, and therapy from a psychological perspective].

    PubMed

    Mata, J; Munsch, S

    2011-05-01

    The proportion of overweight and obese children and adolescents in Germany and Europe has increased dramatically since the 1990s. About a third of obese preschool children and half of obese school children will become obese adults; the economic, medical, and psychosocial consequences are substantial. This article presents an overview of psychological risk factors and causes of obesity in children and adolescents, including comorbidity with psychological disorders, stigmatization, and relationships with peers, family, and other environment factors, as well as interactions between genes and behavior. Understanding risk factors and causes for obesity is the basis for adequate psychological interventions. We provide an overview of psychological aspects of obesity, such as motivation and impulsivity, and present components of cognitive behavioral therapy and modalities of intervention. A better understanding of psychological factors is necessary to achieve more effective interventions and long-term success of behavior change. This also holds true for changes in the social, media, and physical environment structures with the goal of promoting healthy eating and physical activity. PMID:21547645

  17. Mitochondrial Haplogroup T Is Associated with Obesity in Austrian Juveniles and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ebner, Sabine; Mangge, Harald; Langhof, Helmut; Halle, Martin; Siegrist, Monika; Aigner, Elmar; Paulmichl, Katharina; Paulweber, Bernhard; Datz, Christian; Sperl, Wolfgang; Kofler, Barbara; Weghuber, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent publications have reported contradictory data regarding mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation and its association with body mass index. The aim of the present study was to compare the frequencies of mtDNA haplogroups as well as control region (CR) polymorphisms of obese juveniles (n = 248) and obese adults (n = 1003) versus normal weight controls (njuvenile = 266, nadults = 595) in a well-defined, ethnically homogenous, age-matched comparative cohort of Austrian Caucasians. Methodology and Principal Findings Using SNP analysis and DNA sequencing, we identified the nine major European mitochondrial haplogroups and CR polymorphisms. Of these, only the T haplogroup frequency was increased in the juvenile obese cohort versus the control subjects [11.7% in obese vs. 6.4% in controls], although statistical significance was lost after adjustment for sex and age. Similar data were observed in a local adult cohort, in which haplogroup T was found at a significantly higher frequency in the overweight and obese subjects than in the normal weight group [9.7% vs. 6.2%, p = 0.012, adjusted for sex and age]. When all obese subjects were considered together, the difference in the frequency of haplogroup T was even more clearly seen [10.1% vs. 6.3%, p = 0.002, OR (95% CI) 1.71 (1.2–2.4), adjusted for sex and age]. The frequencies of the T haplogroup-linked CR polymorphisms C16294T and the C16296T were found to be elevated in both the juvenile and the adult obese cohort compared to the controls. Nevertheless, no mtDNA haplogroup or CR polymorphism was robustly associated with any of several investigated metabolic and cardiovascular parameters (e.g., blood pressure, blood glucose concentration, triglycerides, cholesterol) in all obese subjects. Conclusions and Significance By investigation of this large ethnically and geographically homogenous cohort of Middle European Caucasians, only mtDNA haplogroup T was identified as an obesity risk factor. PMID:26322975

  18. PCSK1 rs6232 Is Associated with Childhood and Adult Class III Obesity in the Mexican Population

    PubMed Central

    Villalobos-Comparán, Marisela; Villamil-Ramírez, Hugo; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Larrieta-Carrasco, Elena; León-Mimila, Paola; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; Jacobo-Albavera, Leonor; Liceaga-Fuentes, Adriana E.; Campos-Pérez, Francisco J.; López-Contreras, Blanca E.; Tusié-Luna, Teresa; del Río-Navarro, Blanca E.; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A.; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Background Common variants rs6232 and rs6235 in the PCSK1 gene have been associated with obesity in European populations. We aimed to evaluate the contribution of these variants to obesity and related traits in Mexican children and adults. Methodology/Principal Findings Rs6232 and rs6235 were genotyped in 2382 individuals, 1206 children and 1176 adults. Minor allele frequencies were 0.78% for rs6232 and 19.99% for rs6235. Rs6232 was significantly associated with childhood obesity and adult class III obesity (OR = 3.01 95%CI 1.64–5.53; P = 4×10−4 in the combined analysis). In addition, this SNP was significantly associated with lower fasting glucose levels (P = 0.01) and with increased insulin levels and HOMA-B (P = 0.05 and 0.01, respectively) only in non-obese children. In contrast, rs6235 showed no significant association with obesity or with glucose homeostasis parameters in any group. Conclusion/Significance Although rs6232 is rare in the Mexican population, it should be considered as an important risk factor for extreme forms of obesity. PMID:22737226

  19. Prevalence of unhealthy lifestyle patterns among overweight and obese adults.

    PubMed

    Kushner, Robert F; Choi, Seung W

    2010-06-01

    This study determined the prevalence of unhealthy eating, exercise, and coping pattern traits among a large sample of overweight and obese adults. We analyzed responses to a 53-item lifestyle pattern questionnaire posted on a commercial weight loss program Web site collected from 2004 through 2008. Subjects included 446,608 healthy weight, overweight, and obese adults, 18-65 years old, average age 31.9 (s.d. = 11.8), average BMI 30.5 kg/m(2) (s.d. = 7.5). Categorically, 25.5% were healthy weight, 29.0% were overweight, 33.7% were class I-II obesity, and 11.8% class III obesity. A stratified random sample was used to estimate the prevalence of the 21 lifestyle patterns (7 eating, 7 exercise, and 7 coping) in the general population, and the prevalence of patterns in the complete dataset was further analyzed by gender, age, and BMI. Finally, we analyzed the odds ratio of the pattern prevalence for each BMI category. We found that unhealthy lifestyle patterns in diet, exercise, and coping were highly prevalent among this population. In general, the prevalence of these patterns rose with increasing BMI and is correlated with advancing age. Gender differences were seen with many of the patterns, most noticeably among the coping patterns. The odds ratio for 18 of the 21 patterns was >1.0 and steadily increased with higher BMI categories. We conclude that unhealthy lifestyle patterns in diet, exercise, and coping are highly prevalent among the overweight and obese population. Pattern recognition represents a new method to analyze the cluster of behaviors, attitudes, and traits seen among this population. PMID:19875995

  20. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among adult Malaysians: an update.

    PubMed

    Mohamud, Wan Nazaimoon-Wan; Musa, Kamarul Imran; Khir, Amir Sharifuddin-Md; Ismail, Aziz Al-Safi; Ismail, Ikram Shah; Kadir, Khalid Abdul; Kamaruddin, Nor Azmi; Yaacob, Nor Azwany; Mustafa, Norlaila; Ali, Osman; Isa, Siti Harnida-Md; Bebakar, Wan Mohamad-Wan

    2011-01-01

    A total of 4428 adults (>18 years old) from 5 different selected regions in Peninsular and East Malaysia participated in this health survey. Using World Health Organization recommendations for body mass index (BMI), the prevalence of overweight and obesity were found to be 33.6% (95% CI= 32.2, 35.0) and 19.5% (95% CI= 18.3, 20.7) respectively. There were more females who were obese (22.5%, 95% CI=20.9, 24.0) compared to males (14.1%, 95% CI=12.3, 15.9). Highest prevalence of obesity were among the Indians (24.6%, 95% CI=20.3, 29.3), followed closely by the Malays (23.2%, 95% CI=21.6, 24.8%) and lowest prevalence was among the Chinese subjects (8.2%, 95% CI=6.2, 10.6). More than 43% of the 531 younger subjects (<30 years old) were either overweight (20%, 95% CI=16.6, 23.6) or obese (13.9%, 95% CI=11.1, 17.2%). All subjects who claimed to be non-diabetes were required to undergo 75 g glucose tolerance test. Compared to subjects with normal BMI (18.5-24.9 kg/m2), there was a 3- and 2-folds increase in the prevalence of newly diagnosed diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance respectively, among obese subjects (BMI>30 kg/m2) who initially claimed to have no diabetes. This study highlights a need for more active, inter-sectoral participation advocating a health-promoting environment in order to combat obesity in this country. PMID:21393108

  1. Prevalence and risk factors of metabolic syndrome in obese children and adolescents: the role of the severity of obesity.

    PubMed

    Sen, Yasar; Kandemir, Nurgun; Alikasifoglu, Ayfer; Gonc, Nazli; Ozon, Alev

    2008-10-01

    The present study was performed to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) and its risk factors in obese children and adolescents. The study included 352 obese children and adolescents (body mass index [BMI] > or = 95th percentile) aged between 2 and 19 years. The diagnosis of MS was made according to the criteria adapted from the World Health Organization (WHO) and the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) guidelines. BMI z-scores were calculated to assess the degree of obesity. The prevalence of MS and risk factors were determined. Determinants of MS were examined using regression analysis. The prevalence of MS was 41.8%. The age at onset of obesity, sedentary life-span, fasting blood levels of glucose, insulin, triglyceride, very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were higher, while levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and the number of actively spent hours were lower in cases with MS (p < 0.05). The most important determinant of MS was BMI z-score (r = 0.31, p < 0.0001). A one-point increase in BMI z-score yielded a 2-fold increase in the prevalence of MS. The prevalence of MS increased from 27.6% to 60.7% when the BMI z-score increased from 2.3 to 3.3. The risk of developing MS was 2.6-fold higher in cases with BMI z-score > 3 when compared to those with z-scores between 2 and 3. The results from this study indicate that, although the correlation between MS and the BMI z-score was weak, the BMI z-score may be an effective parameter in identifying obese children and adolescents at risk for MS. Screening the cases with BMI z-scores > or = 2 for MS is important for establishing an early diagnosis. PMID:18205011

  2. Removing the Bedroom Television Set: A Possible Method for Decreasing Television Viewing Time in Overweight and Obese Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Katherine E.; Otten, Jennifer J.; Johnson, Rachel K.; Harvey-Berino, Jean R.

    2010-01-01

    U.S. adults watch television (TV) for an average of 5 hours per day, an amount associated with increased obesity risk. Studies in children have found bedroom TV sets, which result in greater time spent by watching TV and shorter sleep durations, both of which increase a child's odds of becoming overweight. The authors examined associations between…

  3. Differences in Amounts and Types of Physical Activity by Obesity Status in US Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spees, Colleen K.; Scott, Jonathan M.; Taylor, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the physical activity patterns across levels of obesity among US adults. Methods: The frequency, intensity, and duration of physical activities were compared across obesity status in 7695 adults from NHANES, 1999-2006. Results: Significantly more normal-weight adults engaged in moderate- and vigorous- intensity activities…

  4. Neighbourhood environments and obesity among adults: A multilevel analysis of an urban Brazilian context.

    PubMed

    Matozinhos, Fernanda Penido; Gomes, Crizian Saar; Andrade, Amanda Cristina de Souza; Mendes, Larissa Loures; Pessoa, Milene Cristine; Friche, Amélia Augusta de Lima; Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    Objective. This study identified environmental variables associated with obesity in the adult population of a city in Brazil. Methods. It was conducted using the Surveillance System for Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Diseases by Telephone Survey from 2008 to 2010. The body mass index (BMI) was calculated from the participants' self-reported weight and height. Obesity was defined as a BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2. The food establishments, georeferenced areas conducive to physical activity, total income of the neighbourhood, homicide rate and population density were used to characterise the environment. In addition, individual variables were considered. A multilevel logistic regression was performed. Results. A total of 5273 individuals were evaluated. The odds of obesity was found to be significantly decreased with increases in the number of establishments that sell healthy food, number of restaurants, number of places for physical activity and total income - in different models. In addition, these associations remained significant after adjustment for age, gender, education and consumption of meat with visible fat. Conclusions. This study contributes to a better understanding of the complex interaction between environmental and individual determinants of obesity and may aid in the development of effective interventions, such as the expansion of obesity control programmes. PMID:26844089

  5. Evaluation of neck circumference as a predictor of central obesity and insulin resistance in Chinese adults

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuhong; Zhang, Ning; Yu, Caiguo; Ji, Zhili

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate whether neck circumference (NC) could be used as a valid and effective method for identifying obesity and insulin resistance (IR) in Chinese adults. Methods: A total of 3307 adults aged 20-65 years were randomly recruited from two communities of Tongzhou, Beijing. Height, weight, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), neck circumference (NC), blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting serum insulin (FINS), total cholesterol (TC), serum triglyceride (TG), High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and Urinary albumin (UAlb) were measured. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to explore the relationship between NC and other measurements. Furthermore, the best cutoff values of NC for central obesity identification were determined by applying the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Results: NC correlated positively with BMI, SBP and WC In both sexes. Both WC and NC correlated significantly positively with IR. A positive correlation between NC and FPG as well as a negative correlation between NC and HDL were found in obese men. NC≥38.5 cm for men and ≥34.5 cm for women were determined to be the best cutoff levels for identifying subjects with central obesity, with 82.9% accuracy for men and 79.9% accuracy for women. Conclusions: NC correlated positively with BMI and WC in both genders, indicating that NC could be used as a valid marker for both overall obesity and central obesity. In addition, measuring NC was shown to be a useful test for IR identification. Large number of NC is suggested to be associated with high risk of developing metabolic disorders, such as diabetes and dyslipidemia. PMID:26770540

  6. Association between Smoking Status and Obesity in a Nationwide Survey of Japanese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Taku; Tsujino, Ichizo; Konno, Satoshi; Ito, Yoichi M.; Takashina, Chisa; Sato, Takahiro; Isada, Akira; Ohira, Hiroshi; Ohtsuka, Yoshinori; Fukutomi, Yuma; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Kawagishi, Yukio; Okada, Chiharu; Hizawa, Nobuyuki; Taniguchi, Masami; Akasawa, Akira; Nishimura, Masaharu

    2016-01-01

    Objective A positive association between the number of cigarettes smoked per day and obesity has been reported, whereas how other smoking-related indices, such as pack-years and duration of smoking, are related with obesity has been less investigated. We analyzed the age-adjusted cross-sectional association between smoking and obesity in a general Japanese population. Methods We used data from a nationwide epidemiological study of Japanese adults (N = 23,106). We compared the prevalence of obesity (defined as body mass index ≥ 25kg/m2) among groups classified by smoking behavior, pack-years, number of cigarettes per day, duration of smoking, and duration and time of smoking cessation. Results In men, current smokers had a lower odds ratio (OR) for obesity of 0.80 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.72–0.88) compared to non-smokers, whereas past smokers had a higher OR of 1.23 (95% CI: 1.09–1.37) compared to current smokers. In women, there were no differences in obesity between the three groups classified by smoking behavior. However, in both sexes, the prevalence of obesity tended to increase with pack-years and the number of cigarettes per day, but not with duration of smoking in current and past smokers. Further, in male smokers, the risks for obesity were markedly higher in short-term heavy smokers compared with long-term light smokers, even with the same number of pack-years. Regarding the impact of smoking cessation, female past smokers who quit smoking at an age > 55-years had an elevated OR of 1.60 (95% CI:1.05–2.38) for obesity. Conclusions In a general Japanese population, obesity is progressively associated with pack-years and number of cigarettes per day, but not with the duration of smoking. When investigating the association between obesity and cigarette smoking, the daily smoking burden and the duration of smoking require to be independently considered. PMID:27007232

  7. Obesity, metabolic health, and mortality in adults: a nationwide population-based study in Korea.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hae Kyung; Han, Kyungdo; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Park, Yong-Moon; Cho, Jae-Hyoung; Yoon, Kun-Ho; Kang, Moo-Il; Cha, Bong-Yun; Lee, Seung-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    BMI, metabolic health status, and their interactions should be considered for estimating mortality risk; however, the data are controversial and unknown in Asians. We aimed to investigate this issue in Korean population. Total 323175 adults were followed-up for 96 (60-120) (median [5-95%]) months in a nationwide population-based cohort study. Participants were classified as "obese" (O) or "non-obese" (NO) using a BMI cut-off of 25 kg/m(2). People who developed ≥1 metabolic disease component (hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia) in the index year were considered "metabolically unhealthy" (MU), while those with none were considered "metabolically healthy" (MH). The MUNO group had a significantly higher risk of all-cause (hazard ratio, 1.28 [95% CI, 1.21-1.35]) and cardiovascular (1.88 [1.63-2.16]) mortality, whereas the MHO group had a lower mortality risk (all-cause: 0.81 [0.74-0.88]), cardiovascular: 0.73 [0.57-0.95]), compared to the MHNO group. A similar pattern was noted for cancer and other-cause mortality. Metabolically unhealthy status was associated with higher risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality regardless of BMI levels, and there was a dose-response relationship between the number of incident metabolic diseases and mortality risk. In conclusion, poor metabolic health status contributed more to mortality than high BMI did, in Korean adults. PMID:27445194

  8. The association between childhood sexual and physical abuse with incident adult severe obesity across 13 years of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Andrea S.; Dietz, William H.; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2013-01-01

    Background Severe obesity has increased yet childhood antecedents of adult severe obesity are not well understood. Objective Estimate adult-onset severe obesity risk in individuals with history of childhood physical and/or sexual abuse compared to those who did not report abuse. Methods Longitudinal analysis of participants from the U.S. National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N=10,774) Wave II (1996; aged 12–22 years) followed through Wave IV (2008–09; aged 24–34 years). New cases of adult-onset severe obesity (BMI≥40 kg/m2 using measured height and weight) in individuals followed over 13 years who were not severely obese during adolescence (BMI <120% of 95th percentile CDC/NCHS growth curves). Results The combined occurrence of self-reported sexual and physical abuse during childhood was associated with an increased risk of incident severe obesity in adulthood in non-minority females (Hazard Ratio=2.5; 1.3, 4.8) and males (Hazard Ratio=3.6; 1.5, 8.5) compared to individuals with no history of abuse. Conclusion In addition to other social and emotional risks, exposure to sexual and physical abuse during childhood may increase risk of severe obesity later in life. Consideration of the confluence of childhood abuse might be considered as part of preventive and therapeutic approaches to address severe obesity. PMID:24115589

  9. Childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Dean, Erin

    2016-08-31

    Essential facts Nearly one third of children aged 2-15 in England are overweight or obese. Younger generations are becoming obese at earlier ages and staying so for longer. Reducing obesity levels is a major public health challenge as the condition doubles the risk of dying prematurely. Obese adults are more likely to develop health conditions such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes and depression. Treating conditions related to obesity is a major financial burden on the NHS, costing more than £5 billion a year. PMID:27577286

  10. The Infant Gut Microbiome: Evidence for Obesity Risk and Dietary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Koleva, Petya T.; Bridgman, Sarah L.; Kozyrskyj, Anita L.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing globally, particularly in children, obesity is a serious public health issue and risk factor for overweight and metabolic disease in later life. Both in experimental animal and human studies, advances in gene sequencing technologies have yielded intriguing possibilities for the role of the gut microbiome in later development of overweight status. Before translating study findings into practice, we must first reconcile inconsistencies between animal experimentation, and human adult and infant studies. Recent evidence for associations with gut microbiota and infant weight gain or child weight status, implicate Bacteroides and Lactobacillus species. Dietary manipulation with human milk and pre/probiotic formulations holds promise for preventing obesity. PMID:25835047

  11. Obesity and depression in adolescence and beyond: Reciprocal risks

    PubMed Central

    Marmorstein, Naomi R.; Iacono, William G.; Legrand, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Objective Obesity and Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) are associated, but evidence about how they relate over time is conflicting. The goal of this study was to examine prospective associations between depression and obesity from early adolescence through early adulthood. Methods Participants were drawn from a statewide, community-based, Minnesota sample. MDD and obesity with onsets by early adolescence (by age 14), late adolescence (between 14 and 20), and early adulthood (ages 20 to 24) were assessed via structured interview (depression) and study-measured height and weight. Results Cross-sectional results indicated that depression and obesity with onsets by early adolescence were concurrently associated, but the same was not true later in development. Prospective results indicated that depression by early adolescence predicted the onset of obesity (odds ratio=3.76, confidence interval= 1.33–10.59) during late adolescence among females. Obesity that developed during late adolescence predicted the onset of depression (odds ratio=5.89, confidence interval= 2.31–15.01) during early adulthood among females. Conclusions For girls, adolescence is a high risk period for the development of this comorbidity, with the nature of the risk varying over the course of adolescence. Early adolescent-onset depression is associated with elevated risk of later onset obesity, and obesity, particularly in late adolescence, is associated with increased odds of later depression. Further investigation into the mechanisms of these effects and the reasons for the observed gender and developmental differences is needed. Prevention programs focused on early-onset cases of depression and adolescent-onset cases of obesity, particularly among females, may help in reducing risk for this form of comorbidity. PMID:24480863

  12. [WHAT IS THE RISK FOR CHILDHOOD OBESITY?].

    PubMed

    Nicolino, Marc; Villanueva, Cahine

    2015-12-01

    The complications of obesity may be observed during childhood. They include multiple and varied anomalies that are found in all major organ systems. These abnormalities occur in the more or less long term. In this context, the question of the impact of early development of obesity on overall health status and mortality is asked. The most frequent comorbidities are described and the different clinical and para-clinical indicators that allow to detect them. PMID:26979020

  13. Comparison of Novel Coronary Artery Disease Risk Factors between Obese and Normal Adolescent

    PubMed Central

    Kouzehgaran, Samaneh; Vakili, Rahim; Nematy, Mohsen; Safarian, Mohamad; Ghayour-Mobarhan, Majid; Khajedaluee, Mohamad

    2015-01-01

    Background Coronary artery disease is considered as the most common cause of death in all societies including Iran. This study seeks to compare the new risk factors of coronary-artery diseases in obese adolescents and control group. Methods In this cross-sectional study, amongst the obese adolescents registered in the nutrition clinic of Ghaem Hospital, 80 individuals were selected. As the control group, additional 80 adolescent students having the same gender and age as the obese group, but with normal weight were selected. These two groups were selected randomly and their serum level of vitamin D, anti-heat shock protein27 (HSP27), balance of oxidants and antioxidants, and homocysteine were determined and compared. Results In this study, 42 (53.2%) and 37 (46.8%) of the obese and normal weight groups were male, respectively. The mean value of triglyceride, cholesterol, and LDL in the obese group was higher than the normal group, but the mean value for HDL, vitamin D, homocysteine, PAB (Preoxidant and Antioxidants Balance), and anti-HSP27 was not significantly different between the groups. In the base of homocysteine >15 µmol/l, 26.6% of the obese group had hyperhomocysteinemia, therefore homocysteine may be a new risk factor for coronary artery disease in obese adolescents (χ2=4.072; P value=0.091). Conclusion The findings of this study showed that despite the presence of obesity in adolescence and adolescents, new risk factors are not present among them more than the control group. This was in contrast to what was seen in adults. PMID:26170518

  14. Parental Midlife Body Shape and Association with Multiple Adult Offspring Obesity Measures: North West Adelaide Health Study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    There is compelling evidence that parental weight is a strong determinant of offspring weight status. The study used cross-sectional self-reported and measured data from a longitudinal cohort of Australian adults (n = 2128) from Stage 3 (2008–10) of the North West Adelaide Health Study (1999–2003, baseline n = 4056) to investigate the association between midlife parental body shape and four indicators of obesity and fat distribution. The analysis used measured body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist hip ratio (WHR) and waist height ratio (WHtR) of adult offspring, together with pictograms for recall of parental body shape. Compared to both parents being a healthy weight, offspring were more likely to be overweight or obese if both parents were an unhealthy weight at age 40 (OR 2.14, 95% CI 1.67–2.76) and further, those participants whose mother was an unhealthy weight were more likely to be overweight or obese themselves (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.14–1.98). There were similar but lower results for those with an overweight/obese father (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.08–1.93). The effect of one or both parents being overweight or obese tended to be stronger for daughters than for sons across BMI, WC and WHtR. BMI showed the strongest association with parental body shape (OR 2.14), followed by WC (OR 1.78), WHtR (OR 1.71) and WHR (OR 1.45). WHtR (42–45%) and BMI (35–36%) provided the highest positive predictive values for overweight/obesity from parental body shape. Parental obesity increases the risk of obesity for adult offspring, both for overall body shape and central adiposity, particularly for daughters. Pictograms could potentially be used as a screening tool in primary care settings to promote healthy weight among young adults. PMID:26355742

  15. Association between socioeconomic status and overweight and obesity among Inuit adults: International Polar Year Inuit Health Survey, 2007–2008

    PubMed Central

    Zienczuk, Natalia; Egeland, Grace M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the socio-economic correlates of overweight and obesity among Inuit undergoing rapid cultural changes. Study design A cross-sectional health survey of 2,592 Inuit adults from 36 communities in the Canadian Arctic. Methods Main outcome measures were overweight and obesity (BMI>25 kg/m2 and >30 kg/m2, respectively) and as characteristics were similar, groups were combined into an at-risk BMI category (BMI>25 kg/m2). Logistic regression was used to determine the association between various sociodemographic characteristics and physical activity with overweight and obesity. Results The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 28 and 36%, respectively, with a total prevalence of overweight and obesity of 64%. In analyses of sociodemographic variables adjusted for age, gender and region, higher education, any employment, personal income, and private housing were all significantly positively correlated with an at-risk BMI (p≤0.001). Smoking, Inuit language as primary language spoken at home, and walking were inversely associated with overweight and obesity. Conclusions The current findings highlight the social disparities in overweight and obesity prevalence in an ethnically distinct population undergoing rapid cultural changes. PMID:22584513

  16. Residential segregation and obesity among a national sample of Hispanic adults.

    PubMed

    Corral, Irma; Landrine, Hope; Zhao, Luhua

    2014-04-01

    We explored the role of residential segregation in obesity among a national sample of Hispanics for the first time. Data on the 8785 Hispanic adults in the 2000 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were linked to 2000 census data on the segregation of 290 metropolitan statistical areas. Multilevel modeling revealed that after controlling for individual-level variables, the odds of being obese for Hispanics residing in high-segregated metropolitan statistical areas were 26.4 percent higher than for those residing in low-segregated metropolitan statistical areas. This segregation effect might be mediated by the obesogenic features (e.g. paucity of recreational facilities and abundance of fast-food outlets) of segregated Hispanic neighborhoods. PMID:23460679

  17. Phenotypes, Risk Factors, and Mechanisms of Adult-Onset Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Ilmarinen, Pinja; Tuomisto, Leena E.; Kankaanranta, Hannu

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is a heterogeneous disease with many phenotypes, and age at disease onset is an important factor in separating the phenotypes. Genetic factors, atopy, and early respiratory tract infections are well-recognized factors predisposing to childhood-onset asthma. Adult-onset asthma is more often associated with obesity, smoking, depression, or other life-style or environmental factors, even though genetic factors and respiratory tract infections may also play a role in adult-onset disease. Adult-onset asthma is characterized by absence of atopy and is often severe requiring treatment with high dose of inhaled and/or oral steroids. Variety of risk factors and nonatopic nature of adult-onset disease suggest that variety of mechanisms is involved in the disease pathogenesis and that these mechanisms differ from the pathobiology of childhood-onset asthma with prevailing Th2 airway inflammation. Recognition of the mechanisms and mediators that drive the adult-onset disease helps to develop novel strategies for the treatment. The aim of this review was to summarize the current knowledge on the pathogenesis of adult-onset asthma and to concentrate on the mechanisms and mediators involved in establishing adult-onset asthma in response to specific risk factors. We also discuss the involvement of these mechanisms in the currently recognized phenotypes of adult-onset asthma. PMID:26538828

  18. Behavioral risk factors for obesity during health transition in Vanuatu, South Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Dancause, Kelsey Needham; Vilar, Miguel; Wilson, Michelle; Soloway, Laura E; DeHuff, Christa; Chan, Chim; Tarivonda, Len; Regenvanu, Ralph; Kaneko, Akira; Lum, J Koji; Garruto, Ralph M

    2012-01-01

    The South Pacific archipelago of Vanuatu, like many developing countries, is currently experiencing a shift in disease burdens from infectious to chronic diseases with economic development. A rapid increase in obesity prevalence represents one component of this “health transition.” We sought to identify behaviors associated with measures of obesity in Vanuatu. We surveyed 534 adults from three islands varying in level of economic development. We measured height; weight; waist and hip circumferences; triceps, subscapular and suprailiac skinfolds; and percent body fat (%BF) by bioelectrical impedance. We assessed diet through 24-hour dietary recall and physical activity patterns using a survey. We calculated prevalence of obesity and central obesity based on multiple indicators (body mass index, %BF, waist circumference, and waist-to-height ratio), and analyzed differences among islands and associations with behavioral patterns. Obesity prevalence was lowest among rural and highest among suburban participants. Prevalence of central obesity was particularly high among women (up to 73.9%), even in rural areas (ranging from 14.7% to 41.2% depending on the measure used). Heavier reliance on animal protein and incorporation of Western foods in the diet – specifically, tinned fish and instant noodles – was significantly associated with increased obesity risk. Even in rural areas where diets and lifestyles remain largely traditional, modest incorporation of Western foods in the diet can contribute to increased risk of obesity. Early prevention efforts are thus particularly important during health transition. Where public health resources are limited, education about dietary change could be the best target for prevention. PMID:23505203

  19. Obesity and risk of vascular disease: importance of endothelium-dependent vasoconstriction

    PubMed Central

    Barton, Matthias; Baretella, Oliver; Meyer, Matthias R

    2012-01-01

    Obesity has become a serious global health issue affecting both adults and children. Recent devolopments in world demographics and declining health status of the world's population indicate that the prevalence of obesity will continue to increase in the next decades. As a disease, obesity has deleterious effects on metabolic homeostasis, and affects numerous organ systems including heart, kidney and the vascular system. Thus, obesity is now regarded as an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis-related diseases such as coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction and stroke. In the arterial system, endothelial cells are both the source and target of factors contributing to atherosclerosis. Endothelial vasoactive factors regulate vascular homeostasis under physiological conditions and maintain basal vascular tone. Obesity results in an imbalance between endothelium-derived vasoactive factors favouring vasoconstriction, cell growth and inflammatory activation. Abnormal regulation of these factors due to endothelial cell dysfunction is both a consequence and a cause of vascular disease processes. Finally, because of the similarities of the vascular pathomechanisms activated, obesity can be considered to cause accelerated, ‘premature’ vascular aging. Here, we will review some of the pathomechanisms involved in obesity-related activation of endothelium-dependent vasoconstriction, the clinical relevance of obesity-associated vascular risk, and therapeutic interventions using ‘endothelial therapy’ aiming at maintaining or restoring vascular endothelial health. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on Fat and Vascular Responsiveness. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2012.165.issue-3 PMID:21557734

  20. Parental smoking during pregnancy and risk of overweight and obesity in the daughter

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Holly R.; Willett, Walter C.; Michels, Karin B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Emerging evidence suggests that prenatal exposures may affect long-term health outcomes. In utero exposure to smoking is associated with an increased risk of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. However, few studies have examined how prenatal exposure to parental smoking influences risk of obesity in adulthood and whether these associations are independent of childhood and adolescent adiposity. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether prenatal exposure to parental smoking influences body size in adulthood and whether any association may be mediated by childhood and adolescent body size. Methods We investigated the association between parental smoking during pregnancy and risk of overweight and obesity in adulthood and at age 18, and adiposity during childhood among 35,370 participants in the Nurses’ Health Study II. Data on smoking during pregnancy and socioeconomic variables were provided by the mothers, and anthropometric data and adult risk factors were reported by participants. Results After adjustment for socioeconomic and behavioral variables, maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with adiposity at ages 5–10, age 18, and during adulthood. For age 18 overweight the ORs (95% CIs) for 1–14, 15–24, and 25+cigarettes/day were 1.13 (1.18–1.50), 1.40 (1.20–1.64), and 1.15 (0.79–1.69) and for obesity were 1.41 (1.14–1.75), 1.69 (1.31–2.18), and 2.36 (1.44–3.86). The corresponding ORs (95% CIs) for obesity in adulthood were 1.26 (1.16–1.37), 1.46 (1.30–1.63), and 1.43 (1.10–1.86). Risk of adiposity was not increased among daughters whose mothers stopped smoking during the first trimester (OR [95% CI] for overweight (1.03 [95% CI 0.90–1.17] and obesity (1.12 [95% CI 0.97–1.30]). Women whose fathers smoked during pregnancy were also at increased risk of overweight and obesity in adulthood with covariate-adjusted ORs (95% CIs) for obesity of 1.19 (1.11–1.29) for 1–14 cigarettes/day, 1

  1. Effects of Soy Flour Fortified Bread Consumption on Cardiovascular Risk Factors According to APOE Genotypes in Overweight and Obese Adult Women: A Cross-over Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Sharifi-Zahabi, Elham; Maracy, Mohammad R

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that inclusion of soy product in the diet may have favorable effects on relief of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and risk factors. These effects might be associated with the presence of specific polymorphism in gene. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of consumption of soy flour fortified bread on cardiovascular risk factors in overweight and obese women according to APOE genotype. In a randomized cross-over clinical trial 30 overweight and obese women received a mild weight loss diet and assigned to a regular diet and a soy bread diet, each for 6 weeks and a washout period for 20 days. Subjects in the soy bread diet were asked to replace 120 grams of their daily usual bread intake with equal amount of soy bread. No significant effects of soy bread on serum lipid, systolic blood pressure and anthropometric indices were observed compared to the regular diet (p > 0.05). For diastolic blood pressure (DBP), comparison of mean differences between two groups showed a marginally significant effect of soy bread (p = 0.06). Compared to regular diet, soy bread had a significant effect on DBP in E2 genotype group (ε2/ε2) (p = 0.03). Having ε2 allele may influences responses of CVD risk factor to soy bread consumption. However more nutrigenetic studies are required. PMID:26566517

  2. Association Between Obesity, Abdominal Obesity, and Adiposity and the Prevalence of Atopic Dermatitis in Young Korean Adults: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2010

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Han, Kyung Do; Jung, Han mi; Youn, Young Hoon; Lee, Jun Young; Park, Yong Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Whether obesity is a risk factor for atopic dermatitis (AD) remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between obesity and AD in Korean young adults. Methods We included nationally representative data of 5,202 Korean adults aged 19-40 years, obtained from the cross-sectional Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2010. Results Single (unmarried) status was more frequently observed in AD patients (male, [P=0.0002] and female, [P<0.0001]). AD prevalence exhibited a U-shape trend in relation to body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and total body fat (BF) percentage, especially in young adult women. Women with BMI ≥25 kg/m2, WC ≥80 cm, and highest quartile (Q4) of total BF percentage had the highest prevalence of AD. The odds ratio (OR) for participants with both BMI ≥25 kg/m2 and WC ≥80 cm was 3.29 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.71-3.55); therefore, having both general and abdominal obesity was considered a prominent risk factor for AD in young women. After adjustment for confounding factors, including age, smoking, alcohol drinking, exercise, vitamin D, income level, and single status, high BMI (≥30 kg/m2) (OR=4.08, 95% CI: 1.53-10.93), high WC (≥80 cm) (OR=2.05, 95% CI: 1.07-3.94), and high BF percentage (Q4) (OR=2.10, 95% CI: 1.24-3.57) were shown to be significantly associated with AD in young adult women. Conclusions In this large-scale nation-wide study of Korean adults, obesity was positively related to the presence of AD in women. Our findings suggest that weight management may help prevent AD. PMID:26739403

  3. Cardiovascular Disease Risk of Abdominal Obesity versus Metabolic Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Wildman, Rachel P.; McGinn, Aileen P.; Lin, Juan; Wang, Dan; Muntner, Paul; Cohen, Hillel W.; Reynolds, Kristi; Fonseca, Vivian; Sowers, MaryFran R.

    2011-01-01

    It remains unclear whether abdominal obesity increases cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk independent of the metabolic abnormalities which often accompany it. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to evaluate the independent effects of abdominal obesity versus metabolic syndrome and diabetes on the risk for incident coronary heart disease and stroke. The Framingham Offspring, Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities, and Cardiovascular Health studies were pooled to assess the independent effects of abdominal obesity (waist circumference >102 cm for men and >88 cm for women) versus metabolic syndrome (excluding the waist circumference criterion) and diabetes on risk for incident coronary heart disease and stroke in 20,298 men and women aged ≥45 years. The average follow-up was 8.3 (standard deviation 1.9) years. There were 1,766 CVD events. After adjustment for demographic factors, smoking, alcohol intake, number of metabolic syndrome components and diabetes, abdominal obesity was not significantly associated with an increased risk of CVD (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval] 1.09 [0.98, 1.20]). However, after adjustment for demographics, smoking, alcohol intake, and abdominal obesity, having 1–2 metabolic syndrome components, the metabolic syndrome, and diabetes were each associated with a significantly increased risk of CVD (2.12 [1.80, 2.50], 2.82 [1.92, 4.12] and 5.33 [3.37, 8.41], respectively). Although abdominal obesity is an important clinical tool for identification of individuals likely to possess metabolic abnormalities, these data suggest that the metabolic syndrome and diabetes are considerably more important prognostic indicators of CVD risk. PMID:20725064

  4. Mid- and Late-Life Obesity: Risk of Dementia in the Cardiovascular Health Cognition Study

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, Annette L.; Kuller, Lewis H.; Lopez, Oscar L.; Diehr, Paula; O’Meara, Ellen S.; Longstreth, W.T.; Luchsinger, José A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate associations between mid- and late-life obesity and risk of dementia. Design Prospective cohort followed 5.4 years from 1992/4 through 1999. Setting Community-dwelling sample in four US sites recruited from Medicare eligibility files. Participants 2,798 adults without dementia, mean age 74.7 years, 59.1% women, participating in the Cardiovascular Health Cognition Study completing a magnetic resonance image, measured for height and weight at baseline (late-life) and self-reporting weight at age 50 (mid-life). Body mass index (BMI) was calculated at both times. Main Outcome Measures Dementia, Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) classified by a multidisciplinary committee using standardized criteria. Results Classification resulted in 480 persons with incident dementia, 245 with AD (no VaD) and 213 with VaD (with or without AD). In evaluations of mid-life obesity, an increased risk of dementia was found for obese (BMI >30) compared to normal (BMI 20-25) persons adjusted for demographics (HR: 1.39, 95% CI: 1.03-1.87) and for caradiovascularl risk factors (HR: 1.36, 95% CI: 0.94-1.95). The risk estimates reversed in assessments of late-life BMI. Underweight persons (BMI < 20) had an increased risk of dementia (HR: 1.62, 95% CI: 1.02-2.64) while being overweight (BMI 25-30) was not associated (HR: 0.92, 95% CI: 0.72-1.18) and being obese reduced the risk of dementia (HR: 0.63, 95% CI: 0.44-0.91) compared to those with normal BMI. Conclusions These results help explain the “obesity paradox” as differences in dementia risk over time are consistent with physical changes in the trajectory toward disability. PMID:19273752

  5. Differences in Health Care Costs and Utilization among Adults with Selected Lifestyle-Related Risk Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Larry A.; Clegg, Alan G.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the relationship between lifestyle-related health risks and health care costs and utilization among young adults. Data collected at a primarily white collar worksite in over 2 years indicated that health risks, particularly obesity, stress, and general lifestyle, were significant predictors of health care costs and utilization among these…

  6. Waist circumference and cardiovascular risk factors among rural older adults: gender differences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Overweight and obese patients present with a greater risk for CVD. The purpose of this study was to explore how weight status relates to cardiovascular risk factor in older adults in the Geisinger Rural Aging Study (114 male, 158 female mean age 78. 5). Anthropometric and health data, along with a f...

  7. Sugar-Sweetened and Artificially-Sweetened Beverages in Relation to Obesity Risk123

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this review was to critically evaluate the scientific evidence in humans on the potential effect of sweetened beverages on weight gain and risk of obesity in youth and adults. Two categories of these beverages were reviewed. Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) include soft drinks, colas, other sweetened carbonated beverages, and fruit drinks with added sugar. Artificially sweetened beverages (ASBs), also referred to as non-nutritive sweetened beverages, are marketed and used as a replacement for SSBs for those who want to reduce sugar and caloric intake. The totality of evidence to date demonstrates a pattern across observational and experimental studies of an increased risk of weight gain and obesity with higher intake of SSBs. However, it remains difficult to establish the strength of the association and the independence from other potentially confounding factors. The primary reason for unclear conclusions regarding the robustness of any effect of SSBs is due to the heterogeneity and methodologic limitations of both observational and experimental studies on this topic. Although some observational studies have suggested that ASBs may cause increased risk of obesity and cardiometabolic diseases, there is no clear mechanism for this pathway, and the epidemiologic studies are highly inconsistent. An important issue with the observational studies on ASBs and obesity or disease risk is reverse causality bias, with higher-quality studies demonstrating this possibility. The field needs higher-quality experimental studies in humans, with relevant direct comparisons between sweetened beverages and their sweetened solid-food alternatives. PMID:25398745

  8. Sugar-sweetened and artificially-sweetened beverages in relation to obesity risk.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Mark A

    2014-11-01

    The goal of this review was to critically evaluate the scientific evidence in humans on the potential effect of sweetened beverages on weight gain and risk of obesity in youth and adults. Two categories of these beverages were reviewed. Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) include soft drinks, colas, other sweetened carbonated beverages, and fruit drinks with added sugar. Artificially sweetened beverages (ASBs), also referred to as non-nutritive sweetened beverages, are marketed and used as a replacement for SSBs for those who want to reduce sugar and caloric intake. The totality of evidence to date demonstrates a pattern across observational and experimental studies of an increased risk of weight gain and obesity with higher intake of SSBs. However, it remains difficult to establish the strength of the association and the independence from other potentially confounding factors. The primary reason for unclear conclusions regarding the robustness of any effect of SSBs is due to the heterogeneity and methodologic limitations of both observational and experimental studies on this topic. Although some observational studies have suggested that ASBs may cause increased risk of obesity and cardiometabolic diseases, there is no clear mechanism for this pathway, and the epidemiologic studies are highly inconsistent. An important issue with the observational studies on ASBs and obesity or disease risk is reverse causality bias, with higher-quality studies demonstrating this possibility. The field needs higher-quality experimental studies in humans, with relevant direct comparisons between sweetened beverages and their sweetened solid-food alternatives. PMID:25398745

  9. Obesity-related abnormalities couple environmental triggers with genetic susceptibility in adult-onset T1D.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, K Hoa; Ande, Sudharsana R; Mishra, Suresh

    2016-01-29

    The incidence of adult-onset T1D in low-risk non-HLA type has increased several folds, whereas the contemporaneous incidence in high-risk HLA-type remains stable. Various factors behind this selective increase in T1D in young adults remain unclear. Obesity and its associated abnormalities appear to be an important determinant; however, the underlying mechanism involved is not understood. Recently, we have developed two novel transgenic obese mice models, Mito-Ob and m-Mito-Ob, by expressing a pleiotropic protein prohibitin (PHB) and a phospho mutant form of PHB (Y114F-PHB or m-PHB) from the aP2 gene promoter, respectively. Both mice models develop obesity in a sex-neutral manner, independent of diet; but obesity associated chronic low-grade inflammation and insulin resistance in a male sex-specific manner. Interestingly, on a high fat diet (HFD) only male m-Mito-Ob mice displayed marked mononuclear cell infiltration in pancreas and developed insulitis that mimic adult-onset T1D. Male Mito-Ob mice that share the metabolic phenotype of male m-Mito-Ob mice, and female m-Mito-Ob that harbor m-PHB similar to male m-Mito-Ob mice, did not develop insulitis. Thus, insulitis development in male m-Mito-Ob in response to HFD requires both, obesity-related abnormalities and m-PHB. Collectively, this data provides a proof-of-concept that obesity-associated abnormalities couple environmental triggers with genetic susceptibility in adult-onset T1D and reveals PHB as a potential susceptibility gene for T1D. PMID:26766792

  10. Development and Evaluation of a Genetic Risk Score for Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Belsky, Daniel W.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Sugden, Karen; Williams, Benjamin; Houts, Renate; McCarthy, Jeanette; Caspi, Avshalom

    2013-01-01

    Background Results from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) represent a potential resource for etiological and treatment research. GWAS of obesity-related phenotypes have been especially successful. To translate this success into a research tool, we developed and tested a “genetic risk score” (GRS) that summarizes an individual’s genetic predisposition to obesity. Methods Different GWAS of obesity-related phenotypes report different sets of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as the best genomic markers of obesity risk. Therefore, we applied a 3-stage approach that pooled results from multiple GWAS to select SNPs to include in our GRS: The 3 stages are (1) Extraction. SNPs with evidence of association are compiled from published GWAS; (2) Clustering. SNPs are grouped according to patterns of linkage disequilibrium; (3) Selection. Tag SNPs are selected from clusters that meet specific criteria. We applied this 3-stage approach to results from 16 GWAS of obesity-related phenotypes in European-descent samples to create a GRS. We then tested the GRS in the Atherosclerosis Risk in the Communities (ARIC) Study cohort (N=10,745, 55% female, 77% white, 23% African American). Results Our 32-locus GRS was a statistically significant predictor of body mass index (BMI) and obesity among ARIC whites (for BMI, r=0.13, p<1×10−30; for obesity, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC)=0.57 [95% CI 0.55–0.58]). The GRS improved prediction of obesity (as measured by delta-AUC and integrated discrimination index) when added to models that included demographic and geographic information. FTO- and MC4R-linked SNPs, and a non-genetic risk assessment consisting of a socioeconomic index (p<0.01 for all comparisons). The GRS also predicted increased mortality risk over 17 years of follow-up. The GRS performed less well among African Americans. Conclusions The obesity GRS derived using our 3-stage approach is not useful for clinical risk prediction, but

  11. Emerging Comorbidities in Adult Asthma: Risks, Clinical Associations, and Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Kankaanranta, Hannu; Kauppi, Paula; Tuomisto, Leena E.; Ilmarinen, Pinja

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is a heterogeneous disease with many phenotypes, and age at disease onset is an important factor in separating the phenotypes. Most studies with asthma have been performed in patients being otherwise healthy. However, in real life, comorbid diseases are very common in adult patients. We review here the emerging comorbid conditions to asthma such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2), and cardiac and psychiatric diseases. Their role as risk factors for incident asthma and whether they affect clinical asthma are evaluated. Obesity, independently or as a part of metabolic syndrome, DM2, and depression are risk factors for incident asthma. In contrast, the effects of comorbidities on clinical asthma are less well-known and mostly studies are lacking. Cross-sectional studies in obese asthmatics suggest that they may have less well controlled asthma and worse lung function. However, no long-term clinical follow-up studies with these comorbidities and asthma were identified. These emerging comorbidities often occur in the same multimorbid adult patient and may have in common metabolic pathways and inflammatory or other alterations such as early life exposures, systemic inflammation, inflammasome, adipokines, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, lung mechanics, mitochondrial dysfunction, disturbed nitric oxide metabolism, and leukotrienes. PMID:27212806

  12. Overweight and General and Abdominal Obesity in a Representative Sample of Spanish Adults: Findings from the ANIBES Study.

    PubMed

    López-Sobaler, Ana M; Aparicio, Aránzazu; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Ortega, Rosa M

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To analyze the anthropometric parameters from a representative sample of Spanish adults participating in ANIBES study and the prevalence of general and abdominal obesity. Methods. This cross-sectional study focused on 1655 adults aged 18-64 years. Weight, height, and waist circumference (WC) were evaluated, and body mass index (BMI) and waist to height ratio (WHtR) were calculated. A composite index combining BMI and WHtR was designed to establish five groups with different anthropometric status. Results. The prevalence of overweight (OW) was 35.8% and that of obesity was 19.9%. Obesity (OB) was higher among men (OR 1.725, 1.415-2.104; p = 0.000) and each year of age increased the risk of obesity (OR 1.054, 1.045-1.064; p = 0.000). The prevalence of abdominal obesity (WHtR ≥ 0.5) was 58.4%. Only 36.1% of the population had an optimal anthropometric situation (BMI < 25 kg/m(2), WHtR < 0.5), whereas 50.1% had weight excess and high WHtR (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2), WHtR ≥ 0.5). Conclusions. More than half of Spanish population has weight excess and cardiometabolic risk. The results of this study provide an understanding of the current anthropometric situation in the Spanish population, as a first step toward planning interventions and assessing their effectiveness in the future. PMID:27382572

  13. The CHANGE trial: no superiority of lifestyle coaching plus care coordination plus treatment as usual compared to treatment as usual alone in reducing risk of cardiovascular disease in adults with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and abdominal obesity.

    PubMed

    Speyer, Helene; Christian Brix Nørgaard, Hans; Birk, Merete; Karlsen, Mette; Storch Jakobsen, Ane; Pedersen, Kamilla; Hjorthøj, Carsten; Pisinger, Charlotta; Gluud, Christian; Mors, Ole; Krogh, Jesper; Nordentoft, Merete

    2016-06-01

    Life expectancy in patients with schizophrenia is reduced by 20 years for men and 15 years for women compared to the general population. About 60% of the excess mortality is due to physical illnesses, with cardiovascular disease being dominant. CHANGE was a randomized, parallel-group, superiority, multi-centre trial with blinded outcome assessment, testing the efficacy of an intervention aimed to improve cardiovascular risk profile and hereby potentially reduce mortality. A total of 428 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and abdominal obesity were recruited and centrally randomized 1:1:1 to 12 months of lifestyle coaching plus care coordination plus treatment as usual (N=138), or care coordination plus treatment as usual (N=142), or treatment as usual alone (N=148). The primary outcome was 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease assessed post-treatment and standardized to age 60. At follow-up, the mean 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease was 8.4 ± 6.7% in the group receiving lifestyle coaching, 8.5 ± 7.5% in the care coordination group, and 8.0 ± 6.5% in the treatment as usual group (p=0.41). We found no intervention effects for any secondary or exploratory outcomes, including cardiorespiratory fitness, physical activity, weight, diet and smoking. In conclusion, the CHANGE trial did not support superiority of individual lifestyle coaching or care coordination compared to treatment as usual in reducing cardiovascular risk in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and abdominal obesity. PMID:27265706

  14. The CHANGE trial: no superiority of lifestyle coaching plus care coordination plus treatment as usual compared to treatment as usual alone in reducing risk of cardiovascular disease in adults with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and abdominal obesity

    PubMed Central

    Speyer, Helene; Christian Brix Nørgaard, Hans; Birk, Merete; Karlsen, Mette; Storch Jakobsen, Ane; Pedersen, Kamilla; Hjorthøj, Carsten; Pisinger, Charlotta; Gluud, Christian; Mors, Ole; Krogh, Jesper; Nordentoft, Merete

    2016-01-01

    Life expectancy in patients with schizophrenia is reduced by 20 years for men and 15 years for women compared to the general population. About 60% of the excess mortality is due to physical illnesses, with cardiovascular disease being dominant. CHANGE was a randomized, parallel‐group, superiority, multi‐centre trial with blinded outcome assessment, testing the efficacy of an intervention aimed to improve cardiovascular risk profile and hereby potentially reduce mortality. A total of 428 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and abdominal obesity were recruited and centrally randomized 1:1:1 to 12 months of lifestyle coaching plus care coordination plus treatment as usual (N=138), or care coordination plus treatment as usual (N=142), or treatment as usual alone (N=148). The primary outcome was 10‐year risk of cardiovascular disease assessed post‐treatment and standardized to age 60. At follow‐up, the mean 10‐year risk of cardiovascular disease was 8.4 ± 6.7% in the group receiving lifestyle coaching, 8.5 ± 7.5% in the care coordination group, and 8.0 ± 6.5% in the treatment as usual group (p=0.41). We found no intervention effects for any secondary or exploratory outcomes, including cardiorespiratory fitness, physical activity, weight, diet and smoking. In conclusion, the CHANGE trial did not support superiority of individual lifestyle coaching or care coordination compared to treatment as usual in reducing cardiovascular risk in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and abdominal obesity. PMID:27265706

  15. Residential Segregation and Overweight/Obesity Among African-American Adults: A Critical Review.

    PubMed

    Corral, Irma; Landrine, Hope; Hall, Marla B; Bess, Jukelia J; Mills, Kevin R; Efird, Jimmy T

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between residential segregation and overweight/obesity among African-American adults remains unclear. Elucidating that relationship is relevant to efforts to prevent and to reduce racial disparities in obesity. This article provides a critical review of the 11 empirical studies of segregation and overweight/obesity among African-American adults. Results revealed that most studies did not use a valid measure of segregation, many did not use a valid measure of overweight/obesity, and many did not control for neighborhood poverty. Only four (36% of the) studies used valid measures of both segregation and overweight/obesity and also controlled for area-poverty. Those four studies suggest that segregation contributes to overweight and obesity among African-American adults, but that conclusion cannot be drawn with certainty in light of the considerable methodologic problems in this area of research. Suggestions for improving research on this topic are provided. PMID:26191522

  16. Endocrine and Metabolic Biomarkers Predicting Early Childhood Obesity Risk.

    PubMed

    Socha, Piotr; Hellmuth, Christian; Gruszfeld, Dariusz; Demmelmair, Hans; Rzehak, Peter; Grote, Veit; Weber, Martina; Escribano, Joaquin; Closa-Monasterolo, Ricardo; Dain, Elena; Langhendries, Jean-Paul; Riva, Enrica; Verduci, Elvira; Koletzko, Berthold

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence of long-term effects of early dietary intervention in infancy on later obesity risk. Many studies showed reduced risk of obesity with breastfeeding in infancy, which could be related to the reduced protein intake with human milk compared to infant formula. In a randomized controlled trial (Childhood Obesity Project), we were able to show that infant formula with reduced protein content results in lower BMI both at 2 and 6 years. These effects seem to be mediated mainly by branched-chain amino acids which stimulate the insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 axis and insulin release. In this trial, we also showed an influence of high-protein diet on larger kidney size, which seems to be partly explained by a significant effect of free IGF-1 on kidney volume. The IGF-1 axis was shown to regulate early growth, adipose tissue differentiation and early adipogenesis in animals and in humans. Leptin and adiponectin can also be regarded as important endocrine regulators of obesity. These markers were tested in observational studies. Leptin seems to be closely correlated with BMI but changes in adiponectin require further exploration. Still, there is a lack of good data or some results are contradictory to indicate the role of either leptin or adiponectin in infancy for determining later obesity risk. PMID:27088335

  17. Ecological momentary assessment of eating episodes in obese adults

    PubMed Central

    Goldschmidt, Andrea B.; Crosby, Ross D.; Cao, Li; Engel, Scott G.; Durkin, Nora; Beach, Heather M.; Berg, Kelly C.; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Crow, Scott J.; Peterson, Carol B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The context of eating episodes in obesity is poorly understood. This study examined emotional, physiological, and environmental correlates of pathological and non-pathological eating episodes in a heterogeneous sample of obese adults. Methods Community-based participants [n=50; 84% female (n=42); M body mass index=40.3±8.5; M age=43.0±11.9] with (n=5; 10%) and without binge eating disorder (BED; n=45; 90%) recorded all eating episodes and their associated emotional, physiological, and environmental factors via ecological momentary assessment for two weeks. Generalized estimating equations examined relations between these variables and eating episodes characterized by both self-identified loss of control while eating and overeating (binge eating; BE), loss of control only (LOC), overeating only (OE), and neither loss of control nor overeating (non-pathological eating; NE). Results Episodes involving loss of control (BE and LOC) were associated with the highest levels of pre- and post-episode negative affect (Wald chi-square range=15.67–24.39; ps≤.001), while those involving overeating (BE and OE) were associated with the lowest levels of pre- and post-episode hunger (Wald chi-square range=18.14–39.75; ps<.001). LOC episodes were followed by the highest level of post-episode cravings (Wald chi-square=25.87; p<.001) and were most likely to occur when participants were alone (Wald chi-square=13.20; p=.004). Conclusion Binge and loss of control eating were more consistently associated with emotional and physiological cues than overeating and non-pathological eating, while most environmental variables did not differ among eating episode types. Results support distinctions among the different objective and subjective constructs characterizing aberrant eating, and should be used to inform interventions for obesity and related eating pathology. PMID:25373891

  18. Regulation of leptin synthesis and secretion before birth: implications for the early programming of adult obesity.

    PubMed

    McMillen, I C; Edwards, L J; Duffield, J; Muhlhausler, B S

    2006-03-01

    A series of epidemiological, clinical and experimental studies have shown that there are associations between the fetal and neonatal nutritional environment and the amount and distribution of adipose tissue in adult life. This review considers the evidence for these relationships and discusses the potential impact of the prenatal nutritional experience on the development of the endocrine and neuroendocrine systems that regulate energy balance, with a particular emphasis on the role of the adipocyte-derived hormone, leptin. In the rodent, leptin derived from the mother may exert an important influence on the development of the appetite regulatory neural network and on the subsequent regulation of leptin synthesis and the risk for obesity in the offspring. In species such as the human and sheep, there is also recent evidence that the synthesis and secretion of adipocyte-derived hormones, such as leptin, are regulated in fetal life. Furthermore, the hypothalamic neuropeptides that regulate energy intake and expenditure in adult life are also present within the fetal brain and may be regulated by the prevailing level of maternal and hence fetal nutrient and hormonal signals, including leptin. This work is important in determining those initiating mechanisms within the 'fat-brain' axis in early life that precede the development of adult obesity. PMID:16514185

  19. Nutrient Intakes in Early Life and Risk of Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Rolland-Cachera, Marie Françoise; Akrout, Mouna; Péneau, Sandrine

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that environmental factors in early life predict later health. The early adiposity rebound recorded in most obese subjects suggests that factors promoting body fat development have operated in the first years of life. Birth weight, growth velocity and body mass index (BMI) trajectories seem to be highly sensitive to the environmental conditions present during pregnancy and in early life (“The first 1000 days”). Particularly, nutritional exposure can have a long-term effect on health in adulthood. The high protein-low fat diet often recorded in young children may have contributed to the rapid rise of childhood obesity prevalence during the last decades. Metabolic programming by early nutrition could explain the development of later obesity and adult diseases. PMID:27275827

  20. Nutrient Intakes in Early Life and Risk of Obesity.

    PubMed

    Rolland-Cachera, Marie Françoise; Akrout, Mouna; Péneau, Sandrine

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that environmental factors in early life predict later health. The early adiposity rebound recorded in most obese subjects suggests that factors promoting body fat development have operated in the first years of life. Birth weight, growth velocity and body mass index (BMI) trajectories seem to be highly sensitive to the environmental conditions present during pregnancy and in early life ("The first 1000 days"). Particularly, nutritional exposure can have a long-term effect on health in adulthood. The high protein-low fat diet often recorded in young children may have contributed to the rapid rise of childhood obesity prevalence during the last decades. Metabolic programming by early nutrition could explain the development of later obesity and adult diseases. PMID:27275827

  1. Birth weight, early life course BMI, and body size change: Chains of risk to adult inflammation?

    PubMed

    Goosby, Bridget J; Cheadle, Jacob E; McDade, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines how body size changes over the early life course to predict high sensitivity C-reactive protein in a U.S. based sample. Using three waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), we test the chronic disease epidemiological models of fetal origins, sensitive periods, and chains of risk from birth into adulthood. Few studies link birth weight and changes in obesity status over adolescence and early adulthood to adult obesity and inflammation. Consistent with fetal origins and sensitive periods hypotheses, body size and obesity status at each developmental period, along with increasing body size between periods, are highly correlated with adult CRP. However, the predictive power of earlier life course periods is mediated by body size and body size change at later periods in a pattern consistent with the chains of risk model. Adult increases in obesity had effect sizes of nearly 0.3 sd, and effect sizes from overweight to the largest obesity categories were between 0.3 and 1 sd. There was also evidence that risk can be offset by weight loss, which suggests that interventions can reduce inflammation and cardiovascular risk, that females are more sensitive to body size changes, and that body size trajectories over the early life course account for African American- and Hispanic-white disparities in adult inflammation. PMID:26685708

  2. Childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Qazi Iqbal; Ahmad, Charoo Bashir; Ahmad, Sheikh Mushtaq

    2010-01-01

    Obesity is increasing at an alarming rate throughout the world. Today it is estimated that there are more than 300 million obese people world-wide. Obesity is a condition of excess body fat often associated with a large number of debilitating and life-threatening disorders. It is still a matter of debate as to how to define obesity in young people. Overweight children have an increased risk of being overweight as adults. Genetics, behavior, and family environment play a role in childhood overweight. Childhood overweight increases the risk for certain medical and psychological conditions. Encourage overweight children to expand high energy activity, minimize low energy activity (screen watching), and develop healthful eating habits. Breast feeding is protective against obesity. Diet restriction is not recommended in very young children. Children are to be watched for gain in height rather than reduction in weight. Weight reduction of less than 10% is a normal variation, not significant in obesity. PMID:21448410

  3. Childhood Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Qazi Iqbal; Ahmad, Charoo Bashir; Ahmad, Sheikh Mushtaq

    2010-01-01

    Obesity is increasing at an alarming rate throughout the world. Today it is estimated that there are more than 300 million obese people world-wide. Obesity is a condition of excess body fat often associated with a large number of debilitating and life-threatening disorders. It is still a matter of debate as to how to define obesity in young people. Overweight children have an increased risk of being overweight as adults. Genetics, behavior, and family environment play a role in childhood overweight. Childhood overweight increases the risk for certain medical and psychological conditions. Encourage overweight children to expand high energy activity, minimize low energy activity (screen watching), and develop healthful eating habits. Breast feeding is protective against obesity. Diet restriction is not recommended in very young children. Children are to be watched for gain in height rather than reduction in weight. Weight reduction of less than 10% is a normal variation, not significant in obesity. PMID:21448410

  4. Association Between Obesity and Falls Among Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, So Young; Kim, Min-Su; Sim, Songyong; Park, Bumjung; Choi, Hyo Geun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between falls and obesity using Asian body mass index (BMI) classifications. Using the data from the Korean community health survey in 2011, a total of 229,226 participants ranging from 19 to 106 years old were included in this study. The BMI groups were classified as underweight (<18.5), healthy (18.5 ≤ BMI < 23), overweight (23 ≤ BMI <25), and obese (≥25) using Asian BMI classifications. The associations between BMI groups and falls (≥1 time or ≥2 times per year) were analyzed using multiple logistic regression analyses with complex sampling. A subgroup analysis was conducted according to age (19–40, 41–60, and ≥61 years) and the location of the fall (indoor and outdoor). Physical activity, household income, education level, alcohol consumption, smoking, stress level, and medical comorbidities were adjusted as confounders. In total, 16.8% and 6.1% of the participants experienced falls ≥1 time and ≥2 times per year, respectively. Compared to the healthy weight group, the other BMI groups showed a significant U-shaped relationship with falls ≥1 time (AOR underweight = 1.12, 95% CI [confidence interval] = 1.05–1.19; AOR obese = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.02–1.10, P < 0.001) and ≥2 times (AOR underweight = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.04–1.26; AOR obese = 1.04, 95% CI = 0.99–1.10, P < 0.001). Obese status was significantly associated with falls (≥1 fall per year) in all age groups, whereas being underweight was significantly associated with falls in the 19 to 40 year age group only. In conclusion, both underweight and obese statuses were significantly associated with falls in this adult Korean population. However, the relationship between BMI group and falls varied according to age and the location of the falls. PMID:27015190

  5. Global, regional and national prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adults 1980-2013: A systematic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Marie; Fleming, Tom; Robinson, Margaret; Thomson, Blake; Graetz, Nicholas; Margono, Christopher; Mullany, Erin C; Biryukov, Stan; Abbafati, Cristiana; Abera, Semaw Ferede; Abraham, Jerry P; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen ME; Achoki, Tom; AlBuhairan, Fadia S; Alemu, Zewdie A; Alfonso, Rafael; Ali, Mohammed K; Ali, Raghib; Guzman, Nelson Alvis; Ammar, Walid; Anwari, Palwasha; Banerjee, Amitava; Barquera, Simon; Basu, Sanjay; Bennett, Derrick A; Bhutta, Zulfiqar; Blore, Jed; Cabral, Norberto; Nonato, Ismael Campos; Chang, Jung-Chen; Chowdhury, Rajiv; Courville, Karen J; Criqui, Michael H; Cundiff, David K; Dabhadkar, Kaustubh C; Dandona, Lalit; Davis, Adrian; Dayama, Anand; Dharmaratne, Samath D; Ding, Eric L; Durrani, Adnan M; Esteghamati, Alireza; Farzadfar, Farshad; Fay, Derek FJ; Feigin, Valery L; Flaxman, Abraham; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H; Goto, Atsushi; Green, Mark A; Gupta, Rajeev; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Hankey, Graeme J; Harewood, Heather C; Havmoeller, Rasmus; Hay, Simon; Hernandez, Lucia; Husseini, Abdullatif; Idrisov, Bulat T; Ikeda, Nayu; Islami, Farhad; Jahangir, Eiman; Jassal, Simerjot K; Jee, Sun Ha; Jeffreys, Mona; Jonas, Jost B; Kabagambe, Edmond K; Khalifa, Shams Eldin Ali Hassan; Kengne, Andre Pascal; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Khang, Young-Ho; Kim, Daniel; Kimokoti, Ruth W; Kinge, Jonas M; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Kosen, Soewarta; Kwan, Gene; Lai, Taavi; Leinsalu, Mall; Li, Yichong; Liang, Xiaofeng; Liu, Shiwei; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Lotufo, Paulo A; Lu, Yuan; Ma, Jixiang; Mainoo, Nana Kwaku; Mensah, George A; Merriman, Tony R; Mokdad, Ali H; Moschandreas, Joanna; Naghavi, Mohsen; Naheed, Aliya; Nand, Devina; Narayan, KM Venkat; Nelson, Erica Leigh; Neuhouser, Marian L; Nisar, Muhammad Imran; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Oti, Samuel O; Pedroza, Andrea; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Roy, Nobhojit; Sampson, Uchechukwu; Seo, Hyeyoung; Sepanlou, Sadaf G; Shibuya, Kenji; Shiri, Rahman; Shiue, Ivy; Singh, Gitanjali M; Singh, Jasvinder A; Skirbekk, Vegard; Stapelberg, Nicolas JC; Sturua, Lela; Sykes, Bryan L; Tobias, Martin; Tran, Bach X; Trasande, Leonardo; Toyoshima, Hideaki; van de Vijver, Steven; Vasankari, Tommi J; Veerman, J Lennert; Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo; Vlassov, Vasiliy Victorovich; Vollset, Stein Emil; Vos, Theo; Wang, Claire; Wang, Sharon XiaoRong; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Werdecker, Andrea; Wright, Jonathan L; Yang, Y Claire; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Yoon, Jihyun; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Zhao, Yong; Zhou, Maigeng; Zhu, Shankuan; Lopez, Alan D; Murray, Christopher JL

    2015-01-01

    Background In 2010, overweight and obesity were estimated to cause 3.4 million deaths, 3.9% of years of life lost, and 3.8% of DALYs globally. The rise in obesity has led to widespread calls for regular monitoring of changes in overweight and obesity prevalence in all populations. Comparative, up-to-date information on levels and trends is essential both to quantify population health effects and to prompt decision-makers to prioritize action. Methods We systematically identified surveys, reports, and published studies (n = 1,769) that included information on height and weight, both through physical measurements and self-reports. Mixed effects linear regression was used to correct for the bias in self-reports. Age-sex-country-year observations (n = 19,244) on prevalence of obesity and overweight were synthesized using a spatio-temporal Gaussian Process Regression model to estimate prevalence with 95% uncertainty intervals. Findings Globally, the proportion of adults with a body mass index (BMI) of 25 or greater increased from 28.8% (95% UI: 28.4-29.3) in 1980 to 36.9% (36.3-37.4) in 2013 for men and from 29.8% (29.3-30.2) to 38.0% (37.5-38.5) for women. Increases were observed in both developed and developing countries. There have been substantial increases in prevalence among children and adolescents in developed countries, with 23.8% (22.9-24.7) of boys and 22.6% (21.7-23.6) of girls being either overweight or obese in 2013. The prevalence of overweight and obesity is also rising among children and adolescents in developing countries as well, rising from 8.1% (7.7-8.6) to 12.9% (12.3-13.5) in 2013 for boys and from 8.4% (8.1-8.8) to 13.4% (13.0-13.9) in girls. Among adults, estimated prevalence of obesity exceeds 50% among men in Tonga and women in Kuwait, Kiribati, Federated States of Micronesia, Libya, Qatar, Tonga, and Samoa. Since 2006, the increase in adult obesity in developed countries has stabilized. Interpretation Because of the established health risks

  6. Risk Factors Associated with Overweight and Obesity in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desai, Melissa N.; Miller, William C.; Staples, Betty; Bravender, Terrill

    2008-01-01

    College obesity is increasing, but to the authors' knowledge, no researchers to date have evaluated risk factors in this population. Objective: The authors assessed whether abnormal eating perceptions and behaviors were associated with overweight in college students. Participants and Methods: A sample of undergraduates (N = 4,201) completed an…

  7. Developmental Trajectories of Childhood Obesity and Risk Behaviors in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, David Y. C.; Lanza, H. Isabella; Wright-Volel, Kynna; Anglin, M. Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Using group-based trajectory modeling, this study examined 5156 adolescents from the child sample of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to identify developmental trajectories of obesity from ages 6-18 and evaluate associations of such trajectories with risk behaviors and psychosocial health in adolescence. Four distinctive obesity…

  8. Physical Activity Protects against the Health Risks of Obesity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welk, Gregory J.; Blair, Steven N.

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews the relationships between physical fitness and body composition and their combined effect on health. After discussing the epidemiologic evidence for a protective effect of physical fitness on the health risks associated with obesity, it describes the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study, an ongoing observational study that…

  9. Longitudinal relationship between physical activity and cardiometabolic factors in overweight and obese adults.

    PubMed

    Choo, Jina; Elci, Okan U; Yang, Kyeongra; Turk, Melanie W; Styn, Mindi A; Sereika, Susan M; Music, Edvin; Burke, Lora E

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have reported longitudinal relationships between physical activity (PA) and cardiometabolic risk factors over time using repeated assessments in overweight or obese adults. We conducted a longitudinal study in 127 participants (81% with body mass index > 30 kg/m(2)) who completed a 12-month behavioral intervention for weight loss between 2003 and 2005 in Pittsburgh, PA, USA. Using absolute change scores from baseline to each time point (i.e., 6 and 12 months) for all studied variables (Delta = time point - baseline), we performed mixed effects modeling to examine relationships between PA and cardiometabolic risk factors, after adjusting for body weight, energy intake and other covariates (i.e., age, gender, and ethnicity). PA was assessed as energy expenditure (kcal/week) using the Paffenbarger activity questionnaire. Over the 12-month period, energy expenditure increased (Delta1,370 kcal/week at 6 months vs. Delta886 kcal/week at 12 months); body weight decreased (Delta8.9 kg at 6 months vs. Delta8.4 kg at 12 months). The average increase in energy expenditure over 12 months was significantly and independently related to reductions in total cholesterol (F = 6.25, p = 0.013), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (F = 5.08, p = 0.025) and fasting blood glucose (F = 5.10, p = 0.025), but not to other risk factors (i.e., fasting insulin, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and waist circumference). In conclusion, among overweight and obese adults undergoing a weight loss intervention, increased energy expenditure over 12 months may improve total cholesterol and LDL-C, important coronary risk factors, and fasting blood glucose, a metabolic risk factor. PMID:19806358

  10. Obesity, Diabetes, the Cardiorenal Syndrome, and Risk for Cancer.

    PubMed

    Forte, Victoria; Pandey, Abhishek; Abdelmessih, Rita; Forte, Giovanna; Whaley-Connell, Adam; Sowers, James R; McFarlane, Samy I

    2012-05-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies confirm that the prevalence of obesity and the cardiorenal metabolic syndrome (CRS) is extraordinarily high and that the rates have increased dramatically in the last three decades. In addition, epidemiological data demonstrate that obesity, the CRS, and diabetes are inextricably linked and are all associated with an increased incidence of a number of solid tissue cancers. The mechanisms for this association have been examined, including, but not limited to, higher levels of insulin and free levels of insulin-like growth factor and insulin resistance in obesity and the CRS. Mortality, morbidity, and the associated health care costs which are the link between obesity, the CRS, and diabetes are just beginning to be examined. In addition, we review the advantages of implementing lifestyle and surgical changes to modify obesity, lessening the development of the CRS, diabetes, and associated cancers. Epidemiological data regarding the general mechanisms of the pathogenesis of cancers associated with obesity, the CRS, and diabetes (specifically colon, pancreas, esophageal, liver, breast, prostate, thyroid, and renal carcinomas) are reviewed. The mechanisms by which obesity and other components of the CRS contribute to the pathogenesis of these cancers, such as hormone alterations and insulin- and insulin-like growth factor-dependent pathways of tumor pathogenesis, include the attending roles of inflammation and oxidative stress. Emphasis has been placed on obesity as a modifiable risk factor which, when addressed, provides a reduction in the rate of cancer deaths. In a second part to be published in the next issue of this journal, the relationship between diabetes and cancer will be reviewed in detail. PMID:22851963

  11. Obesity, Diabetes, the Cardiorenal Syndrome, and Risk for Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Forte, Victoria; Pandey, Abhishek; Abdelmessih, Rita; Forte, Giovanna; Whaley-Connell, Adam; Sowers, James R.; McFarlane, Samy I.

    2012-01-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies confirm that the prevalence of obesity and the cardiorenal metabolic syndrome (CRS) is extraordinarily high and that the rates have increased dramatically in the last three decades. In addition, epidemiological data demonstrate that obesity, the CRS, and diabetes are inextricably linked and are all associated with an increased incidence of a number of solid tissue cancers. The mechanisms for this association have been examined, including, but not limited to, higher levels of insulin and free levels of insulin-like growth factor and insulin resistance in obesity and the CRS. Mortality, morbidity, and the associated health care costs which are the link between obesity, the CRS, and diabetes are just beginning to be examined. In addition, we review the advantages of implementing lifestyle and surgical changes to modify obesity, lessening the development of the CRS, diabetes, and associated cancers. Epidemiological data regarding the general mechanisms of the pathogenesis of cancers associated with obesity, the CRS, and diabetes (specifically colon, pancreas, esophageal, liver, breast, prostate, thyroid, and renal carcinomas) are reviewed. The mechanisms by which obesity and other components of the CRS contribute to the pathogenesis of these cancers, such as hormone alterations and insulin- and insulin-like growth factor-dependent pathways of tumor pathogenesis, include the attending roles of inflammation and oxidative stress. Emphasis has been placed on obesity as a modifiable risk factor which, when addressed, provides a reduction in the rate of cancer deaths. In a second part to be published in the next issue of this journal, the relationship between diabetes and cancer will be reviewed in detail. PMID:22851963

  12. Obesity.

    PubMed

    Callaway, C W

    1987-01-01

    Obesity is not a single disease, but a variety of conditions resulting from different mechanisms and associated with various types and degrees of risks. To determine who should lose weight, how much weight should be lost, and how to undertake weight loss, the following types of information are needed: personal-demographic data, developmental patterns, family history, energy balance, body composition/fat distribution, psychological/behavioral measures, endocrine/metabolic measures, complications and associated conditions. Weight reduction should be undertaken by women with morbid obesity, with complications secondary to the obesity, with a strong family history of conditions associated with obesity, or with increased abdomen:hip ratios. In contrast, women who have excess weight localized in the hips and thighs and no personal or family history of associated conditions may not benefit from dietary restriction. Low calorie diets result in adaptive changes, "designed" to prolong survival in the face of famine. These include changes in water balance, metabolic rate, and appetite. Metabolic rate declines, allowing the individual to burn fewer and fewer calories. Each time a woman diets she tends to lose weight less rapidly than the time before. "Restrained eating" predisposes binge eating. Indeed, bulimia rarely occurs in the absence of prior caloric restrictions. Current medical definitions of obesity do not consider these nuances. Existing definitions "over-diagnose" obesity in women, in general, and in older women and nonwhite women, in particular. For example, by existing standards, more than 60 percent of black women more than 45 years of age are considered obese. In contrast, the health risks of similar degrees of obesity are substantially greater for men than for women. Part of the problems lies in the fact that many women have pear-shaped fat distribution,a pattern which is not associated with increased health risks.Current cultural definitions of obesity for

  13. Early Life Factors Influencing the Risk of Obesity

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The obesity epidemic is a worldwide problem. Factors predisposing to obesity include genetics, race, socioeconomic conditions, birth by cesarean section, and perinatal antibiotic use. High protein (HP) content in infant formulas has been identified as a potential culprit predisposing to rapid weight gain in the first few months of life and leading to later obesity. In a large multicountry study the effects of lower protein (LP) formula (1.77 and 2.2 g protein/100 kcal, before and after the 5th month, respectively) were compared to those of higher protein (2.9 and 4.4 g protein/100 kcal, respectively). Results indicated that at 24 months, the weight-for-length z score of infants in the LP formula group was 0.20 (0.06, 0.34) lower than that of the HP group and was similar to that of the breastfed reference group. The authors concluded that a HP content of infant formula is associated with higher weight in the first 2 years of life but has no effect on length. LP intake in infancy might diminish the later risk of overweight and obesity. At 6 years of age HP children had a significantly higher body mass index (by 0.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.13-0.90; p=0.009) and a 2.43 (95% CI, 1.12-5.27; p=0.024) fold greater risk of becoming obese than those who received the LP. In conclusion, several factors may influence development of metabolic syndrome and obesity. Breastfeeding should always be encouraged. An overall reduction of protein intake in formula non breastfed infants seems to be an additional way to prevent obesity. PMID:26770895

  14. Relative deprivation and risk factors for obesity in Canadian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Elgar, Frank J.; Xie, Annie; Pförtner, Timo-Kolja; White, James; Pickett, Kate E.

    2016-01-01

    Research on socioeconomic differences in overweight and obesity and on the ecological association between income inequality and obesity prevalence suggests that relative deprivation may contribute to lifestyle risk factors for obesity independently of absolute affluence. We tested this hypothesis using data on 25,980 adolescents (11–15 years) in the 2010 Canadian Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study. The Yitzhaki index of relative deprivation was applied to the HBSC Family Affluence Scale, an index of common material assets, with more affluent schoolmates representing the comparative reference group. Regression analysis tested the associations between relative deprivation and four obesity risk factors (skipping breakfasts, physical activity, and healthful and unhealthful food choices) plus dietary restraint. Relative deprivation uniquely related to skipping breakfasts, less physical activity, fewer healthful food choices (e.g., fruits, vegetables, whole grain breads), and a lower likelihood of dieting to lose weight. Consistent with Runciman's (1966) theory of relative deprivation and with psychosocial interpretations of the health consequences of income inequality, the results indicate that having mostly better off schoolmates can contribute to poorer health behaviours independently of school-level affluence and subjective social status. We discuss the implications of these findings for understanding the social origins of obesity and targeting health interventions. PMID:26851410

  15. Toddler self-regulation skills predict risk for pediatric obesity

    PubMed Central

    Graziano, Paulo A.; Calkins, Susan D.; Keane, Susan P.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role of early self-regulation skills, including emotion regulation, sustained attention, and inhibitory control/reward sensitivity, in predicting pediatric obesity in early childhood. Method Participants for this study included 57 children (25 girls) obtained from three different cohorts participating in a larger ongoing longitudinal study. At 2 years of age, participants participated in several laboratory tasks designed to assess their self-regulation abilities. Height and weight measures were collected when children were 2 and 5.5 years of age. Results Self-regulation skills in toddlerhood were predictive of both normal variations in BMI development and pediatric obesity. Specifically, emotion regulation was the primary self-regulation skill involved in predicting normative changes in BMI as no effects were found for sustained attention or inhibitory control/reward sensitivity. However, both emotion regulation and inhibitory control/reward sensitivity predicted more extreme weight problems (i.e., pediatric obesity), even after controlling for 2yr BMI. Thus, toddlers with poorer emotion regulation skills and lower inhibitory control skills/higher reward sensitivity were more likely to be classified as overweight/at risk at 5.5 years of age. Conclusion Early self-regulation difficulties across domains (i.e., behavioral, and emotional) represent significant individual risk factors for the development of pediatric obesity. Mechanisms by which early self-regulation skills may contribute to the development of pediatric obesity are discussed. PMID:20065961

  16. Relative deprivation and risk factors for obesity in Canadian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Elgar, Frank J; Xie, Annie; Pförtner, Timo-Kolja; White, James; Pickett, Kate E

    2016-03-01

    Research on socioeconomic differences in overweight and obesity and on the ecological association between income inequality and obesity prevalence suggests that relative deprivation may contribute to lifestyle risk factors for obesity independently of absolute affluence. We tested this hypothesis using data on 25,980 adolescents (11-15 years) in the 2010 Canadian Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study. The Yitzhaki index of relative deprivation was applied to the HBSC Family Affluence Scale, an index of common material assets, with more affluent schoolmates representing the comparative reference group. Regression analysis tested the associations between relative deprivation and four obesity risk factors (skipping breakfasts, physical activity, and healthful and unhealthful food choices) plus dietary restraint. Relative deprivation uniquely related to skipping breakfasts, less physical activity, fewer healthful food choices (e.g., fruits, vegetables, whole grain breads), and a lower likelihood of dieting to lose weight. Consistent with Runciman's (1966) theory of relative deprivation and with psychosocial interpretations of the health consequences of income inequality, the results indicate that having mostly better off schoolmates can contribute to poorer health behaviours independently of school-level affluence and subjective social status. We discuss the implications of these findings for understanding the social origins of obesity and targeting health interventions. PMID:26851410

  17. Objectively-measured sedentary time and cardiometabolic health in adults with severe obesity.

    PubMed

    King, Wendy C; Chen, Jia-Yuh; Courcoulas, Anita P; Mitchell, James E; Wolfe, Bruce M; Patterson, Emma J; Inabnet, William B; Dakin, Gregory F; Flum, David R; Cook, Brian; Belle, Steven H

    2016-03-01

    It is unknown whether sedentary behavior is independently associated with the cardiometabolic health of adults with severe obesity. Additionally, there is debate regarding how best to derive meaningful indices of sedentary time (ST) from activity monitor data. A convenience sample of adults with severe obesity (N=927; 79% female, median age 45y, median body mass index (BMI) 46kg/m(2)) completed a research assessment at one of ten US hospitals in 2006-2009 prior to bariatric surgery. Cardiometabolic health was assessed via physical measures, fasting blood samples and medication use. Indices of ST were derived from StepWatch™ activity monitor data with minimum bout durations of 1min, 10min and 30min. Cross-sectional associations were examined. Median (25th, 75th percentile) ST was 9.3h/d (8.1, 10.5) in ≥1min bouts, 6.5h/d (5.2, 8.0) in ≥10min bouts, or 3.2h/d (2.1, 4.5) in ≥30min bouts. Associations with ST were generally strongest with the ≥10min bout duration. Independent of moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity, BMI and other potential confounders, 1h/day ST in ≥10min bouts was associated with higher odds of diabetes by 15% (95%CI: 1.05-1.26), metabolic syndrome by 12% (95%CI: 1.01-1.24) and elevated blood pressure by 14% (95%CI: 1.02-1.26), and was associated with 1.4cm (95%CI: 0.9-1.9) larger waist circumference. Findings indicate the importance of considering ST as a distinct health risk among adults with severe obesity, and suggest a 10min minimum duration may be preferable to 1min or 30min for establishing ST from activity monitor data. PMID:26724517

  18. Insulin resistance modifies the association between obesity and current asthma in adults.

    PubMed

    Cardet, Juan Carlos; Ash, Samuel; Kusa, Tope; Camargo, Carlos A; Israel, Elliot

    2016-08-01

    Insulin resistance potentiates the association between obesity and childhood asthma, but this relationship appears inconsistent in relatively small studies of adults. We investigated effect modification in adults using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2012, a large, nationally representative database.Insulin resistance and a history of physician-diagnosed current asthma were obtained from 12 421 adults, ages 18-85 years. We used logistic regression to determine associations between obesity and current asthma, adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, poverty income ratio and smoking status. An interaction term evaluated effect modification by insulin resistance of the obesity-asthma association.As expected, obesity was positively associated with current asthma. Insulin resistance modified this association, with obesity measured as body mass index, waist circumference or waist-to-height ratio. The relationship between obesity and current asthma was stronger with increasing insulin resistance tertiles (OR 2.05, 95% CI 2.76-3.00; p-value for interaction 0.03). This association was robust to adjustments for other components of the metabolic syndrome (hypertriglyceridaemia, hypertension, hyperglycaemia and systemic inflammation). None of these components were themselves effect modifiers of the obesity-asthma association.In this large, nationally representative sample, insulin resistance modified the association between obesity and current asthma in adults. Targeting insulin resistance may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for obese patients with asthma. PMID:27103388

  19. Metabolic Syndrome and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Obese Adolescent

    PubMed Central

    Mansour, Manal; Nassef, Yasser E.; Shady, Mones Abu; Aziz, Ali Abdel; Malt, Heba A. El

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Childhood and adolescent obesity is associated with insulin resistance, abnormal glucose metabolism, hypertension, dyslipidemia, inflammation, liver disease, and compromised vascular function. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factor abnormalities and metabolic syndrome in a sample of obese adolescent as prevalence data might be helpful in improving engagement with obesity treatment in future. The high blood lipid levels and obesity are the main risk factors for cardio vascular diseases. Atherosclerotic process begins in childhood. AIM: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between obesity in adolescent and their blood lipids levels and blood glucose level. METHODS: This study was conducted with 100 adolescents of both gender age 12-17 years and body mass index (BMI) greater than 95th percentiles and 100 normal adolescents as control group. The blood samples were collected from all adolescents after overnight fasting (10 hours) to analyze blood lipids (Total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein) and hematological profile (Hemoglobin, platelets and red blood cell, C reactive protein and fasting blood glucose. RESULTS: There were statistical difference between the two groups for red blood cells (P<0.001), Hemoglobin (P < 0.001) and platelets (P = 0.002), CRP (P = 0.02). Positive correlation was found between the two groups as regards total cholesterol (P = 0.0001), P value was positive for HDL (P = 0.005 and Atherogenic index P value was positive (P = 0.002). Positive correlation was found between the two group as regards fasting blood glucose (P = 0.001). CONCLUSION: Saturated fat was associated with elevated lipid levels in obese children. These results reinforce the importance of healthy dietary habits since child-hood in order to reduce the risks of cardiovascular diseases in adulthood.

  20. Secular Trends in Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity among Adults in Rural Tianjin, China from 1991 to 2011: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Ning, Xianjia; Zhan, Changqing; Yang, Yihe; Yang, Li; Tu, Jun; Gu, Hongfei; Su, Ta-Chen; Wang, Jinghua

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Obesity is associated with cardiovascular diseases and has become the main public health issue in western countries and urban China. However, the prevalence and secular trends of obesity in rural China are currently unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate secular trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among rural adults in northern China between 1991 and 2011. Method The prevalence of overweight and obesity was assessed in adults aged 35–74 years living in a rural area in northern China by comparing two surveys that were conducted in 1991 and 2011, respectively. Result The age-adjusted prevalence of overweight increased from 24.5% in 1991 to 42.0% in 2011, and the prevalence of obesity increased from 5.7% in 1991 to 19.6% in 2011. Over the 21-year period, there were significant increases in the prevalence of overweight and obesity for both men and women in all age groups; however, the greatest increase was observed in men aged 35–44 years, with an 10.3-fold increase in obesity prevalence. The prevalence of obesity increased significantly in all risk factors categories, including education levels, blood pressure categories, diabetes previous history, current smoking situation and alcohol drinking situation over the past 21 years overall (p<0.05). The greatest increase in obesity prevalence appeared among those who consumed alcohol (increased by 8.0-fold). Next, there was a 5.3-fold increase in the prevalence of obesity in illiterate residents. Conclusion The prevalence of overweight and obesity has increased rapidly among rural adults in Tianjin over the past 21 years, with the most dramatic increase observed in young men. Therefore, the burden of obesity should serve as a call for action. PMID:25544990

  1. Relationship between overall and abdominal obesity and periodontal disease among young adults.

    PubMed

    Amin, H El-Sayed

    2010-04-01

    To assess overall and abdominal obesity and their relation to periodontal disease among young adults, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were measured and clinical attachment loss (CAL), gingival index (GI) and Community Periodontal Index (CPI) were estimated. The sample comprised 380 adults (170 males and 210 females) aged 20-26 years. There was a significant correlation between both BMI and WC and CAL, GI and CPI in females. In males, a significant correlation was only recorded between WC and GI and CPI. Overall and abdominal obesity in young adult females and abdominal obesity in males were significantly associated with periodontal disease. PMID:20795429

  2. The effects of community environmental factors on obesity among Korean adults: a multilevel analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Nan-He; Kwon, Soonman

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study explored multidimensional factors related to obesity by dividing them into individual and environmental factors, and performed multilevel analysis to investigate community environmental effects. METHODS: Data from the 2011 and 2012 Community Health Surveys were used for the analysis. Community-level variables, constructed from various regional statistics, were included in the model as environmental factors. Respondents with body mass index (BMI)≥25 were defined as obese, and a multilevel logistic regression analysis was conducted to analyze individual and environmental factors related to obesity. Moreover, a stratified analysis was conducted to compare factors related to obesity between men and women. RESULTS: Of 337,136 samples, 82,887 (24.6%) were obese, with BMI≥25. Sociodemographic characteristics at the individual level were mostly significantly related to obesity; however, while there were more obese men subjects among those with high socioeconomic status, there were more obese women among those with low socioeconomic status. There were fewer obese respondents among those who regularly walked and more obese respondents among those who reported short sleep duration or were highly stressed. At the community level, people living in areas with high socioeconomic status, high satisfaction with safety and public transportation, and high accessibility to sports facilities in their community had lower obesity risks. CONCLUSIONS: Community-level environmental factors affected obesity, especially perceived community environment, more significant than physical environment. Thus, it is necessary to develop effective obesity prevention and management strategies by considering potential community environmental factors that affect obesity. PMID:25666167

  3. Chronic Sleep Fragmentation Promotes Obesity in Young Adult Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yang; Carreras, Alba; Lee, SeungHoon; Hakim, Fahed; Zhang, Shelley X.; Nair, Deepti; Ye, Honggang; Gozal, David

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Short sleep confers a higher risk of obesity in humans. Restricted sleep increases appetite, promotes higher calorie intake from fat and carbohydrate sources, and induces insulin resistance. However, the effects of fragmented sleep (SF), such as occurs in sleep apnea, on body weight, metabolic rates, and adipose tissue distribution are unknown. Design and Methods C57BL/6 mice were exposed to SF for 8 weeks. Their body weight, food consumption, and metabolic expenditure were monitored over time, and their plasma leptin levels measured after exposure to SF for 1 day as well as for 2 weeks. In addition, adipose tissue distribution was assessed at the end of the SF exposure using MRI techniques. Results Chronic SF induced obesogenic behaviors and increased weight gain in mice by promoting increased caloric intake without changing caloric expenditure. Plasma leptin levels initially decreased and subsequently increased. Furthermore, increases in both visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue volumes occurred. Conclusions These results suggest that SF, a frequent occurrence in many disorders and more specifically in sleep apnea, is a potent inducer of obesity via activation of obesogenic behaviors and possibly leptin resistance, in the absence of global changes in energy expenditure. PMID:24039209

  4. Association of Unhealthy Exercise Patterns with Overweight and Obesity in Kuwaiti Adults

    PubMed Central

    R ALLAFI, Ahmad; WASLIEN, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Our aim was to investigate the frequency of the behaviors that are most often associated with excess weight gain in Kuwaitis and to determine which gender and age groups are at highest risk for each behavior. Methods A questionnaire developed to identify barriers to exercise in western populations was modified for use with Kuwaitis and posted online during September through December 2012. Data from 1370 adults 18 to 59 years old with BMIs ranging from 15.1–70.8 was collected. The prevalence of seven behavior patterns was examined for age, BMI, and gender groups as well as the odds ratio of each behavior for each BMI group. Results Both individual unhealthy exercise behaviors and the sum of all such behaviors were more frequent in over-weight and obese individuals. For all behaviors the odds ratio was significantly greater for those with BMIs of 30-39 than for those with BMIs below 25 (P< 0.05). Some exercise avoidance behaviors were more frequent in older age groups and in overweight females. Conclusion Unhealthy exercise behavior patterns were highly prevalent in obese individuals. Tailoring programs and counseling to the most common of these patterns in Kuwaiti obese should facilitate greater success in weight management. PMID:26060716

  5. A review of evidence-based strategies to treat obesity in adults.

    PubMed

    Laddu, Deepika; Dow, Caitlin; Hingle, Melanie; Thomson, Cynthia; Going, Scott

    2011-10-01

    Obesity, with its comorbidities, is a major public health problem. Population-based surveys estimate 2 of every 3 U.S. adults are overweight or obese. Despite billions of dollars spent annually on weight loss attempts, recidivism is high and long-term results are disappointing. In simplest terms, weight loss and maintenance depend on energy balance, and a combination of increased energy expenditure by exercise and decreased energy intake through caloric restriction is the mainstay of behavioral interventions. Many individuals successfully lose 5%-10% of body weight through behavioral approaches and thereby significantly improve health. Similar success occurs with some weight loss prescriptions, although evidence for successful weight loss with over-the-counter medications and supplements is weak. Commercial weight loss programs have helped many individuals achieve their goals, although few programs have been carefully evaluated and compared, limiting recommendations of one program over another. For the very obese, bariatric surgery is an option that leads to significant weight loss and improved health, although risks must be carefully weighed. Lifestyle changes, including regular physical activity, healthy food choices, and portion control, must be adopted, regardless of the weight loss approach, which requires ongoing support. Patients can best decide the appropriate approach working with a multidisciplinary team, including their health care provider and experts in nutrition, exercise, and behavioral intervention. PMID:21947634

  6. Is Acculturation Related to Obesity in Hispanic/Latino Adults? Results from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos

    PubMed Central

    Isasi, Carmen R.; Ayala, Guadalupe X.; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Penedo, Frank; Loria, Catherine M.; Elder, John P.; Daviglus, Martha L.; Barnhart, Janice; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Schneiderman, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Background. The study examined the association of obesity with acculturation in a large and diverse sample of US Hispanic/Latino adults. Methods. The Hispanic Community Health Study (HCHS)/Study of Latinos (SOL) is a community-based cohort study of Hispanic/Latino adults aged 18–74 years (N = 16,415) from four urban areas. Height and weight were directly measured using a standardized protocol. Acculturation was assessed by the Short Acculturation Scale for Hispanics (SASH). Other immigration related variables included place of birth, length of residency in the US, and age at immigration. Odds ratios were calculated to assess the association of overweight, moderate obesity, and extreme obesity (≥40 kg/m2) with acculturation and sociodemographic variables. Results. The prevalence of obesity was 42.4% for women and 36.5% for men and varied by field center and Hispanic/Latino background. The strongest predictor of moderate and extreme obesity was length of residency in mainland US. This association was consistent across Hispanic/Latino backgrounds. Acculturation was not significantly associated with obesity. Discussion. The burden of obesity is high among Hispanic/Latino adults. The study findings suggest that prolonged exposure to the environments in these communities, rather than acculturation, is an important risk factor for obesity in this population. PMID:25893114

  7. Benefits and risks of weight-loss treatment for older, obese women

    PubMed Central

    Rossen, Lauren M; Milsom, Vanessa A; Middleton, Kathryn R; Daniels, Michael J; Perri, Michael G

    2013-01-01

    Background A key issue in the treatment of obesity in older adults is whether the health benefits of weight loss outweigh the potential risks with respect to musculoskeletal injury. Objective To compare change in weight, improvements in metabolic risk factors, and reported musculoskeletal adverse events in middle-aged (50–59 years) and older (65–74 years), obese women. Materials and methods Participants completed an initial 6-month lifestyle intervention for weight loss, comprised of weekly group sessions, followed by 12 months of extended care with biweekly contacts. Weight and fasting blood samples were assessed at baseline, month 6, and month 18; data regarding adverse events were collected throughout the duration of the study. Results Both middle-aged (n = 162) and older (n = 56) women achieved significant weight reductions from baseline to month 6 (10.1 ± 0.68 kg and 9.3 ± 0.76 kg, respectively) and maintained a large proportion of their losses at month 18 (7.6 ± 0.87 kg and 7.6 ± 1.3 kg, respectively); there were no significant differences between the two groups with respect to weight change. Older women further experienced significant reductions in systolic blood pressure, HbA1c, and C-reactive protein from baseline to month 6 and maintained these improvements at month 18. Despite potential safety concerns, we found that older women were no more likely to experience musculoskeletal adverse events during the intervention as compared with their middle-aged counterparts. Conclusion These results suggest that older, obese women can experience significant health benefits from lifestyle treatment for obesity, including weight loss and improvements in disease risk factors. Further investigation of the impact of weight loss on additional health-related parameters and risks (eg, body composition, muscular strength, physical functioning, and injuries) in older adults is needed. PMID:23430455

  8. The juvenile-onset, adolescent-onset and adult-onset obese.

    PubMed

    Garn, S M; Sullivan, T V; Hawthorne, V M

    1991-02-01

    As shown in more than 8000 proband-parent pairs derived from a total-community sample and followed in longitudinal fashion, the 5-year incidence of obesity (new cases per 5-year period) approximates 8 percent for the juvenile-onset, adolescent-onset and adult-onset obese alike. Parents of juvenile-onset (ages 5-9), adolescent-onset (10-19) and adult-onset obese (20-39) tend to be of above-average fatness level, +0.25Z scores, overall, regardless of the age at onset of obesity in their progeny. Except for the parents of the juvenile-onset obese, educational level of the parents tends to be below average for the sample as a whole. These new data acquired in longitudinal context and explored in retrospective-prospective fashion do not substantiate the notion that different onset ages of obesity indicate separate etiologies and different family constellations. PMID:2040547

  9. Preserved Microvascular Endothelial Function in Young, Obese Adults with Functional Loss of Nitric Oxide Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Harrell, John W.; Johansson, Rebecca E.; Evans, Trent D.; Sebranek, Joshua J.; Walker, Benjamin J.; Eldridge, Marlowe W.; Serlin, Ronald C.; Schrage, William G.

    2015-01-01

    Data indicate endothelium-dependent dilation (EDD) may be preserved in the skeletal muscle microcirculation of young, obese adults. Preserved EDD might be mediated by compensatory mechanisms, impeding insight into preclinical vascular dysfunction. We aimed to determine the functional roles of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX) toward EDD in younger obese adults. We first hypothesized EDD would be preserved in young, obese adults. Further, we hypothesized a reduced contribution of NOS in young, obese adults would be replaced by increased COX signaling. Microvascular EDD was assessed with Doppler ultrasound and brachial artery infusion of acetylcholine (ACh) in younger (27 ± 1 year) obese (n = 29) and lean (n = 46) humans. Individual and combined contributions of NOS and COX were examined with intra-arterial infusions of l-NMMA and ketorolac, respectively. Vasodilation was quantified as an increase in forearm vascular conductance (ΔFVC). Arterial endothelial cell biopsies were analyzed for protein expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). ΔFVC to ACh was similar between groups. After l-NMMA, ΔFVC to ACh was greater in obese adults (p < 0.05). There were no group differences in ΔFVC to ACh with ketorolac. With combined NOS-COX inhibition, ΔFVC was greater in obese adults at the intermediate dose of ACh. Surprisingly, arterial endothelial cell eNOS and phosphorylated eNOS were similar between groups. Younger obese adults exhibit preserved EDD and eNOS expression despite functional dissociation of NOS-mediated vasodilation and similar COX signaling. Compensatory NOS- and COX-independent vasodilatory mechanisms conceal reduced NOS contributions in otherwise healthy obese adults early in life, which may contribute to vascular dysfunction. PMID:26733880

  10. Overweight, obesity, oxidative stress and the risk of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Kruk, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    There is growing scientific evidence linking excess body weight to breast cancer risk. However, there is no common consensus on this relation due partly to methodologies used, populations studied and the cancer subtype. We report here a summary of the present state of knowledge on the role of overweight and obesity in pathogenesis of breast cancer and possible mechanisms through which excess body weight might influence the risk, focusing on the role of oxidative stress in breast cancer etiology. The findings demonstrate duality of excess body weight action in dependence on menopausal status: a statistically significant increased risk in postmenopausal overweight/ obese women and non-significant preventive effect among premenopausal women. Due to several gaps in the literature on this topic, additional studies are needed. Future research should address factors influencing the excess body weight - breast cancer relationship, such as race/ethnicity, tumor subtype, receptor status, the most appropriate measure of adiposity, reproductive characteristics, and lifestyle components. PMID:25520070

  11. Common variants near MC4R are associated with fat mass, weight and risk of obesity.

    PubMed

    Loos, Ruth J F; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Li, Shengxu; Wheeler, Eleanor; Zhao, Jing Hua; Prokopenko, Inga; Inouye, Michael; Freathy, Rachel M; Attwood, Antony P; Beckmann, Jacques S; Berndt, Sonja I; Jacobs, Kevin B; Chanock, Stephen J; Hayes, Richard B; Bergmann, Sven; Bennett, Amanda J; Bingham, Sheila A; Bochud, Murielle; Brown, Morris; Cauchi, Stéphane; Connell, John M; Cooper, Cyrus; Smith, George Davey; Day, Ian; Dina, Christian; De, Subhajyoti; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T; Doney, Alex S F; Elliott, Katherine S; Elliott, Paul; Evans, David M; Sadaf Farooqi, I; Froguel, Philippe; Ghori, Jilur; Groves, Christopher J; Gwilliam, Rhian; Hadley, David; Hall, Alistair S; Hattersley, Andrew T; Hebebrand, Johannes; Heid, Iris M; Lamina, Claudia; Gieger, Christian; Illig, Thomas; Meitinger, Thomas; Wichmann, H-Erich; Herrera, Blanca; Hinney, Anke; Hunt, Sarah E; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Johnson, Toby; Jolley, Jennifer D M; Karpe, Fredrik; Keniry, Andrew; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Luben, Robert N; Mangino, Massimo; Marchini, Jonathan; McArdle, Wendy L; McGinnis, Ralph; Meyre, David; Munroe, Patricia B; Morris, Andrew D; Ness, Andrew R; Neville, Matthew J; Nica, Alexandra C; Ong, Ken K; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Owen, Katharine R; Palmer, Colin N A; Papadakis, Konstantinos; Potter, Simon; Pouta, Anneli; Qi, Lu; Randall, Joshua C; Rayner, Nigel W; Ring, Susan M; Sandhu, Manjinder S; Scherag, André; Sims, Matthew A; Song, Kijoung; Soranzo, Nicole; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; Syddall, Holly E; Teichmann, Sarah A; Timpson, Nicholas J; Tobias, Jonathan H; Uda, Manuela; Vogel, Carla I Ganz; Wallace, Chris; Waterworth, Dawn M; Weedon, Michael N; Willer, Cristen J; Wraight; Yuan, Xin; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Strachan, David P; Ouwehand, Willem H; Caulfield, Mark J; Samani, Nilesh J; Frayling, Timothy M; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Mooser, Vincent; Deloukas, Panos; McCarthy, Mark I; Wareham, Nicholas J; Barroso, Inês; Jacobs, Kevin B; Chanock, Stephen J; Hayes, Richard B; Lamina, Claudia; Gieger, Christian; Illig, Thomas; Meitinger, Thomas; Wichmann, H-Erich; Kraft, Peter; Hankinson, Susan E; Hunter, David J; Hu, Frank B; Lyon, Helen N; Voight, Benjamin F; Ridderstrale, Martin; Groop, Leif; Scheet, Paul; Sanna, Serena; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Albai, Giuseppe; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Schlessinger, David; Jackson, Anne U; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Collins, Francis S; Boehnke, Michael; Mohlke, Karen L

    2008-06-01

    To identify common variants influencing body mass index (BMI), we analyzed genome-wide association data from 16,876 individuals of European descent. After previously reported variants in FTO, the strongest association signal (rs17782313, P = 2.9 x 10(-6)) mapped 188 kb downstream of MC4R (melanocortin-4 receptor), mutations of which are the leading cause of monogenic severe childhood-onset obesity. We confirmed the BMI association in 60,352 adults (per-allele effect = 0.05 Z-score units; P = 2.8 x 10(-15)) and 5,988 children aged 7-11 (0.13 Z-score units; P = 1.5 x 10(-8)). In case-control analyses (n = 10,583), the odds for severe childhood obesity reached 1.30 (P = 8.0 x 10(-11)). Furthermore, we observed overtransmission of the risk allele to obese offspring in 660 families (P (pedigree disequilibrium test average; PDT-avg) = 2.4 x 10(-4)). The SNP location and patterns of phenotypic associations are consistent with effects mediated through altered MC4R function. Our findings establish that common variants near MC4R influence fat mass, weight and obesity risk at the population level and reinforce the need for large-scale data integration to identify variants influencing continuous biomedical traits. PMID:18454148

  12. Common variants near MC4R are associated with fat mass, weight and risk of obesity

    PubMed Central

    Loos, Ruth J F; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Li, Shengxu; Wheeler, Eleanor; Zhao, Jing Hua; Prokopenko, Inga; Inouye, Michael; Freathy, Rachel M; Attwood, Antony P; Beckmann, Jacques S; Berndt, Sonja I; Bergmann, Sven; Bennett, Amanda J; Bingham, Sheila A; Bochud, Murielle; Brown, Morris; Cauchi, Stéphane; Connell, John M; Cooper, Cyrus; Smith, George Davey; Day, Ian; Dina, Christian; De, Subhajyoti; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T; Doney, Alex S F; Elliott, Katherine S; Elliott, Paul; Evans, David M; Farooqi, I Sadaf; Froguel, Philippe; Ghori, Jilur; Groves, Christopher J; Gwilliam, Rhian; Hadley, David; Hall, Alistair S; Hattersley, Andrew T; Hebebrand, Johannes; Heid, Iris M; Herrera, Blanca; Hinney, Anke; Hunt, Sarah E; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Johnson, Toby; Jolley, Jennifer D M; Karpe, Fredrik; Keniry, Andrew; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Luben, Robert N; Mangino, Massimo; Marchini, Jonathan; McArdle, Wendy L; McGinnis, Ralph; Meyre, David; Munroe, Patricia B; Morris, Andrew D; Ness, Andrew R; Neville, Matthew J; Nica, Alexandra C; Ong, Ken K; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Owen, Katharine R; Palmer, Colin N A; Papadakis, Konstantinos; Potter, Simon; Pouta, Anneli; Qi, Lu; Randall, Joshua C; Rayner, Nigel W; Ring, Susan M; Sandhu, Manjinder S; Scherag, André; Sims, Matthew A; Song, Kijoung; Soranzo, Nicole; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; Syddall, Holly E; Teichmann, Sarah A; Timpson, Nicholas J; Tobias, Jonathan H; Uda, Manuela; Vogel, Carla I Ganz; Wallace, Chris; Waterworth, Dawn M; Weedon, Michael N; Willer, Cristen J; Wraight, Vicki L; Yuan, Xin; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Strachan, David P; Ouwehand, Willem H; Caulfield, Mark J; Samani, Nilesh J; Frayling, Timothy M; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Mooser, Vincent; Deloukas, Panos; McCarthy, Mark I; Wareham, Nicholas J; Barroso, Inês; Jacobs, Kevin B; Chanock, Stephen J; Hayes, Richard B; Lamina, Claudia; Gieger, Christian; Illig, Thomas; Meitinger, Thomas; Wichmann, H-Erich; Kraft, Peter; Hankinson, Susan E; Hunter, David J; Hu, Frank B; Lyon, Helen N; Voight, Benjamin F; Ridderstrale, Martin; Groop, Leif; Scheet, Paul; Sanna, Serena; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Albai, Giuseppe; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Schlessinger, David; Jackson, Anne U; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Collins, Francis S; Boehnke, Michael; Mohlke, Karen L

    2009-01-01

    To identify common variants influencing body mass index (BMI), we analyzed genome-wide association data from 16,876 individuals of European descent. After previously reported variants in FTO, the strongest association signal (rs17782313, P = 2.9 × 10−6) mapped 188 kb downstream of MC4R (melanocortin-4 receptor), mutations of which are the leading cause of monogenic severe childhood-onset obesity. We confirmed the BMI association in 60,352 adults (per-allele effect = 0.05 Z-score units; P = 2.8 × 10−15) and 5,988 children aged 7–11 (0.13 Z-score units; P = 1.5 × 10−8). In case-control analyses (n = 10,583), the odds for severe childhood obesity reached 1.30 (P = 8.0 × 10−11). Furthermore, we observed overtransmission of the risk allele to obese offspring in 660 families (P (pedigree disequilibrium test average; PDT-avg) = 2.4 × 10−4). The SNP location and patterns of phenotypic associations are consistent with effects mediated through altered MC4R function. Our findings establish that common variants near MC4R influence fat mass, weight and obesity risk at the population level and reinforce the need for large-scale data integration to identify variants influencing continuous biomedical traits. PMID:18454148

  13. Risk of obesity and metabolic syndrome associated with FTO gene variants discloses clinically relevant gender difference among Turks.

    PubMed

    Guclu-Geyik, Filiz; Onat, Altan; Yuzbasıogulları, Ayse Berna; Coban, Neslihan; Can, Gunay; Lehtimäki, Terho; Erginel-Unaltuna, Nihan

    2016-06-01

    Gene variations in the fat mass- and obesity-associated gene (FTO) have shown controversial associations with obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in several populations. We explored the association of FTO gene with obesity, MetS, and insulin-related parameters separately in men and women. Two SNPs in the FTO, gene rs9939609 and rs1421085, were genotyped by the Taqman System in 1967 adults (mean age of the whole group 50.1 ± 12.0; 48.4 % male). A random sample of the Turkish Adult Risk Factor cohort was cross-sectionally analyzed. Both SNPs exhibited strong linkage disequilibrium (r(2) = 0.85) and minor alleles were associated with risk of obesity in women and of MetS in men. Carriers of the rs1421085 C-allele exhibited higher body mass index (BMI) in each gender. Adjusted fasting insulin and HOMA index were significantly higher in C-allele carriers in men alone. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated significantly increased likelihood for obesity in female C-risk allele carriers (OR 1.61; 95 % CI 1.19-2.18), after adjustment for age, smoking status, alcohol usage, physical activity grade and presence of diabetes mellitus. Male C-allele carriers were at increased risk for MetS (OR 1.44; 95 % CI 1.07-1.95), adjusted for age, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and physical activity. Further adjustment for BMI attenuated the MetS risk, indicating interaction between C-allele, gender and BMI. The FTO gene in Turkish adults contributes independently to obesity in women and-by interacting with BMI-to MetS and insulin resistance in men. PMID:27146691

  14. Hepatic fat content is a determinant of metabolic phenotypes and increased carotid intima-media thickness in obese adults

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huijie; Ma, Zhimin; Pan, Lingling; Xu, Yanfang; Shao, Jin; Huang, Zhufeng; Chen, Zheng; Sun, Qian; Liu, Changqin; Lin, Mingzhu; Yang, Shuyu; Li, Xuejun

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with metabolically healthy obesity (MHO) are at relatively low risk for the development of metabolic abnormalities and subclinical atherosclerosis. This study aims to examine whether hepatic fat accumulation determines metabolic phenotype of obesity and associated with subclinical atherosclerosis. A total of 485 obese adults (aged 40–65 years) who received magnetic resonance spectroscopy were divided into metabolically abnormally obesity (MAO) and MHO groups according to metabolic status. MHO individuals had lower levels of intrahepatic triglyceride (IHTG) content and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) than MAO individuals. In multivariable linear regression analyses, IHTG content was independently associated with metabolic syndrome components and CIMT. Based on receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the IHTG content displayed a higher area under the curve (AUC) for detecting the MAO phenotype (AUC = 0.70, 95%CI = 0.65–0.75) and increased CIMT (AUC = 0.60, 95%CI = 0.54–0.66) than BMI, waist circumference, and body fat percent. MHO individuals were 1.9 times (p < 0.001) more likely to have metabolic syndrome per 1 SD change in IHTG content in multivariable-adjusted models. Likewise, the risk for high CIMT increased 29% per 1 SD change in IHTG content [OR (95% CI):1.29(1.01–1.64)]. These findings suggest that hepatic fat is a potential predictor of metabolically unhealthy obesity phenotype and subclinical atherosclerosis. PMID:26902311

  15. Hepatic fat content is a determinant of metabolic phenotypes and increased carotid intima-media thickness in obese adults.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huijie; Ma, Zhimin; Pan, Lingling; Xu, Yanfang; Shao, Jin; Huang, Zhufeng; Chen, Zheng; Sun, Qian; Liu, Changqin; Lin, Mingzhu; Yang, Shuyu; Li, Xuejun

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with metabolically healthy obesity (MHO) are at relatively low risk for the development of metabolic abnormalities and subclinical atherosclerosis. This study aims to examine whether hepatic fat accumulation determines metabolic phenotype of obesity and associated with subclinical atherosclerosis. A total of 485 obese adults (aged 40-65 years) who received magnetic resonance spectroscopy were divided into metabolically abnormally obesity (MAO) and MHO groups according to metabolic status. MHO individuals had lower levels of intrahepatic triglyceride (IHTG) content and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) than MAO individuals. In multivariable linear regression analyses, IHTG content was independently associated with metabolic syndrome components and CIMT. Based on receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the IHTG content displayed a higher area under the curve (AUC) for detecting the MAO phenotype (AUC = 0.70, 95%CI = 0.65-0.75) and increased CIMT (AUC = 0.60, 95%CI = 0.54-0.66) than BMI, waist circumference, and body fat percent. MHO individuals were 1.9 times (p < 0.001) more likely to have metabolic syndrome per 1 SD change in IHTG content in multivariable-adjusted models. Likewise, the risk for high CIMT increased 29% per 1 SD change in IHTG content [OR (95% CI):1.29(1.01-1.64)]. These findings suggest that hepatic fat is a potential predictor of metabolically unhealthy obesity phenotype and subclinical atherosclerosis. PMID:26902311

  16. Fetal Programming of Children’s Obesity Risk

    PubMed Central

    Stout, Stephanie A; Espel, Emma V.; Sandman, Curt A.; Glynn, Laura M.; Davis, Elysia Poggi

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Childhood obesity affects nearly 17% of children and adolescents in the United States. Increasing evidence indicates that prenatal maternal stress signals influence fetal growth, child obesity, and metabolic risk. Children exhibiting catch-up growth, a rapid and dramatic increase in body size, within the first two years of life are also at an increased risk for developing metabolic disorder and obesity. We evaluate the potential role of the maternal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and placental axis in programming risk for child obesity. METHOD This prospective longitudinal study measured placental corticotropin-releasing hormone (pCRH) and maternal plasma cortisol at 15, 19, 25, 30, and 37 gestational weeks and collected child body mass index (BMI) at birth, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. Participants included 246 mothers and their healthy children born full term. Each child’s BMI percentile (BMIP) was determined using World Health Organization (WHO) standards based on age and sex. Child BMIP profiles from birth to two years of age were characterized using General Growth Mixture Modeling (GGMM). We evaluated whether fetal exposure to placental CRH and maternal cortisol are associated with BMIP profiles. RESULTS Placental CRH at 30 gestational weeks was highly associated with both BMIP (p <.05) and weight (p <.05) at birth when accounting for gestational age at birth and used as a predictor in modeling BMIP profiles. Maternal cortisol was not associated with child BMIP. GGMM analyses identified four distinct BMIP profiles: Typical, Rapid Increase, Delayed Increase, and Decreasing (See Figure 2). The Typical profile comprised the majority of the sample and maintained BMIP across the first two years. The Rapid and Delayed Increase profiles each exhibit a period of reduced body size followed by BMI catch-up growth. The Rapid Increase profile exhibited catch-up within the first 3 months while the Delayed group showed an initial decrease in BMIP at 3 months

  17. Abdominal fat and metabolic risk in obese children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Revenga-Frauca, J; González-Gil, E M; Bueno-Lozano, G; De Miguel-Etayo, P; Velasco-Martínez, P; Rey-López, J P; Bueno-Lozano, O; Moreno, L A

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate fat distribution, mainly abdominal fat, and its relationship with metabolic risk variables in a group of 126 children and adolescents (60 males and 66 females) aged 5.0 to 14.9. According to IOTF criteria, 46 were classified as normal weight, 28 overweight and 52 obese. Weight, height, waist (WC) and hip circumferences were measured. The body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Total body fat, trunkal and abdominal fat were also assessed by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Glucose, insulin, HDL-Cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), ferritine, homocystein and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured. Obesity status was related with insulin concentrations, CRP, TG and HDL. Obese patients had higher abdominal fat and higher CRP values than overweight and normal subjects. All markers of central body adiposity were related with insulin and lipid metabolism; however, they were not related with homocystein or ferritin. A simple anthropometric measurement, like waist circumference, seems to be a good predictor of the majority of the obesity related metabolic risk variables. PMID:20358355

  18. Ecological Risk Model of Childhood Obesity in Chinese Immigrant Children

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Nan; Cheah, Charissa S. L.

    2015-01-01

    Chinese Americans are the largest and fastest growing Asian American subgroup, increasing about one-third during the 2000s. Despite the slender Asian stereotype, nearly one-third of 6-to-11 years old Chinese American children were found to be overweight (above the 85th percentile in BMI). Importantly, unique and severe health risks are associated with being overweight/obese in Chinese. Unfortunately, Chinese immigrant children have been neglected in the literature on obesity. This review aimed to identify factors at various levels of the ecological model that may place Chinese immigrant children at risk for being overweight/obese in the U.S. Key contextual factors at the micro-, meso-, exo-, macro- and chronosystem were identified guided by Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems theory. The corresponding mediating and moderating processes among the factors were also reviewed and proposed. By presenting a conceptual framework and relevant research, this review can provide a basic framework for directing future interdisciplinary research in seeking solutions to childhood obesity within this understudied population. PMID:25728887

  19. Ecological risk model of childhood obesity in Chinese immigrant children.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Nan; Cheah, Charissa S L

    2015-07-01

    Chinese Americans are the largest and fastest growing Asian American subgroup, increasing about one-third during the 2000s. Despite the slender Asian stereotype, nearly one-third of 6-to-11 year old Chinese American children were found to be overweight (above the 85th percentile in BMI). Importantly, unique and severe health risks are associated with being overweight/obese in Chinese. Unfortunately, Chinese immigrant children have been neglected in the literature on obesity. This review aimed to identify factors at various levels of the ecological model that may place Chinese immigrant children at risk for being overweight/obese in the U.S. Key contextual factors at the micro-, meso-, exo-, macro- and chronosystem were identified guided by Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory. The corresponding mediating and moderating processes among the factors were also reviewed and proposed. By presenting a conceptual framework and relevant research, this review can provide a basic framework for directing future interdisciplinary research in seeking solutions to childhood obesity within this understudied population. PMID:25728887

  20. Modern obesity pharmacotherapy: weighing cardiovascular risk and benefit.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Jonathan W; Wiviott, Stephen D

    2014-11-01

    Obesity is a major correlate of cardiovascular disease. Weight loss improves cardiovascular risk factors and has the potential to improve outcomes. Two drugs, phentermine plus topiramate and lorcaserin, have recently been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the indication of obesity; a third, bupropion plus naltrexone, is under consideration for approval. In clinical trials, these drugs cause weight loss and improve glucose tolerance, lipid profile, and, with the exception of bupropion plus naltrexone, blood pressure. However, their effect on cardiovascular outcomes is unknown. In defining appropriate roles for these drugs in preventive cardiology, it is important to remember the checkered history of drugs for obesity. New weight-loss drugs share the serotonergic and sympathomimetic mechanisms that proved harmful in the cases of Fen-Phen and sibutramine, respectively, albeit with significant differences. Given these risks, randomized cardiovascular outcomes trials are needed to establish the safety, and potential benefit, of these drugs. This review will discuss the history of pharmacotherapy for obesity, existing efficacy and safety data for the novel weight-loss drugs, and issues in the design of postapproval clinical trials. PMID:25223901

  1. Novel Risk Factors of Cardiovascular Disease and Their Associations Between Obesity, Physical Activity And Physical Fitness

    PubMed Central

    Buchan, Duncan S.; Thomas, Non E.; Baker, Julien S.

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is increasing around the globe and is the leading cause of death around the world. Though once thought of as an adult problem, it is now recognised that the early manifestations of disease may occur during childhood. Numerous risk factors have been linked to CVD with much of the research focusing on understanding the prevalence and relationship of traditional risk factors such as dyslipidemia, smoking, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, obesity, psychosocial stress, poor diet, physical inactivity and alcohol consumption to the early etiology of disease. While this line of investigation has greatly enhanced our understanding of the relationship between these risk factors and disease, they do not fully explain all cardiovascular events. To enhance our understanding and help with the management of CVD, investigations that involve the measurement of traditional as well as novel risk factors may be necessary. Public health strategies that aim to reduce the prevalence of obesity and overweight encourage youth to increase their physical activity levels as a means of protecting against poor cardiometabolic profiles. Interventions that increase physical activity levels and improve cardiorespiratory fitness cause a reduction in certain CVD risk factors but the lack of agreement between findings makes it impossible to give precise recommendations that will ensure CVD risk reduction. Yet it is important that research continues in order to establish the most appropriate means of improving the health and well-being of those at most risk of future CVD. PMID:25170447

  2. Tackling inequalities in obesity: a protocol for a systematic review of the effectiveness of public health interventions at reducing socioeconomic inequalities in obesity among adults

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Socioeconomic inequalities in obesity and associated risk factors for obesity are widening throughout developed countries worldwide. Tackling obesity is high on the public health agenda both in the United Kingdom and internationally. However, what works in terms of interventions that are able to reduce inequalities in obesity is lacking. Methods/Design The review will examine public health interventions at the individual, community and societal level that might reduce inequalities in obesity among adults aged 18 years and over, in any setting and in any country. The following electronic databases will be searched: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Social Science Citation Index, ASSIA, IBSS, Sociological Abstracts, and the NHS Economic Evaluation Database. Database searches will be supplemented with website and gray literature searches. No studies will be excluded based on language, country or publication date. Randomized and non-randomized controlled trials, prospective and retrospective cohort studies (with/without control groups) and prospective repeat cross-sectional studies (with/without control groups) that have a primary outcome that is a proxy for body fatness and have examined differential effects with regard to socioeconomic status (education, income, occupation, social class, deprivation, poverty) or where the intervention has been targeted specifically at disadvantaged groups or deprived areas will be included. Study inclusion, data extraction and quality appraisal will be conducted by two reviewers. Meta-analysis and narrative synthesis will be conducted. The main analysis will examine the effects of 1) individual, 2) community and 3) societal level public health interventions on socioeconomic inequalities in adult obesity. Interventions will be characterized by their level of action and their approach to tackling inequalities. Contextual information on how such public health interventions are organized, implemented and delivered will also

  3. Prevalence of obesity and associated cardiovascular risk: the DARIOS study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity in the Spanish population as measured with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist to height ratio (WHtR) and to determine the associated cardiovascular risk factors. Methods Pooled analysis with individual data from 11 studies conducted in the first decade of the 21st century. Participants aged 35–74 years were asked about the history of cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, diabetes and hypercholesterolemia. Height, weight, WC, blood pressure, glycaemia, total cholesterol, low-density and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and coronary risk were measured. The prevalence of overweight (BMI 25–29.9 kg/m2), general obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m2), suboptimal WC (≥ 80 cm and < 88 in women, ≥ 94 and < 102 in men), abdominal obesity (WC ≥88 cm ≥102 cm in women and men, respectively) and WHtR ≥0.5 was estimated, standardized for the European population. Results We included 28,743 individuals. The prevalence of overweight and suboptimal WC was 51% and 30% in men and 36% and 22% in women, respectively; general obesity was 28% in both sexes and abdominal obesity 36% in men and 55% in women. The prevalence of WHtR ≥0.5 was 89% and 77% in men and women, respectively. All cardiovascular risk factors were significantly associated with abnormal increased values of BMI, WC and WHtR. Hypertension showed the strongest association with overweight [OR = 1.99 (95% confidence interval 1.81-2.21) and OR = 2.10 (1.91-2.31)]; suboptimal WC [OR = 1.78 (1.60-1.97) and OR = 1.45 (1.26-1.66)], with general obesity [OR = 4.50 (4.02-5.04), and OR = 5.20 (4.70-5.75)] and with WHtR ≥0.5 [OR = 2.94 (2.52-3.43), and OR = 3.02 (2.66-3.42)] in men and women respectively, besides abdominal obesity in men only [OR = 3.51 (3.18-3.88)]. Diabetes showed the strongest association with abdominal obesity in women [OR = 3,86 (3,09-4,89). Conclusions The

  4. Socioeconomic inequalities in adult obesity prevalence in South Africa: a decomposition analysis.

    PubMed

    Alaba, Olufunke; Chola, Lumbwe

    2014-03-01

    In recent years, there has been a dramatic increase in obesity in low and middle income countries. However, there is limited research in these countries showing the prevalence and determinants of obesity. In this study, we examine the socioeconomic inequalities in obesity among South African adults. We use nationally representative data from the South Africa National Income Dynamic Survey of 2008 to: (1) construct an asset index using multiple correspondence analyses (MCA) as a proxy for socioeconomic status; (2) estimate concentration indices (CI) to measure socioeconomic inequalities in obesity; and (3) perform a decomposition analysis to determine the factors that contribute to socioeconomic related inequalities. Consistent with other studies, we find that women are more obese than men. The findings show that obesity inequalities exist in South Africa. Rich men are more likely to be obese than their poorer counterparts with a concentration index of 0.27. Women on the other hand have similar obesity patterns, regardless of socioeconomic status with CI of 0.07. The results of the decomposition analysis suggest that asset index contributes positively and highly to socio-economic inequality in obesity among females; physical exercise contributes negatively to the socio-economic inequality. In the case of males, educational attainment and asset index contributed more to socio-economic inequalities in obesity. Our findings suggest that focusing on economically well-off men and all women across socioeconomic status is one way to address the obesity problem in South Africa. PMID:24662998

  5. Risk factors and outcomes of childhood obesity in Hong Kong: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ho, S Y; Lai, Y K; Lam, T H; Chan, V; Mak, K K; Lo, W S

    2013-06-01

    1. Onset of obesity is related to age, gender, pubertal stage, dietary habits, and parental occupation. Targeting the high riskgroups may help curb obesity in children. 2. Obesity may lead to poor self-esteem and potential psychosocial risk. The psychosocial impact of obesity could be more pronounced in girls than boys. 3. The association between obesity and psychosocial health could be bi-directional. Improving psychosocial health could be beneficial in weight management for normal-weight and obese children. 4. Obesity is associated with higher blood pressures. PMID:23775188

  6. Obese Women on Birth Control Pills May Face Higher Risk of Rare Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_157758.html Obese Women on Birth Control Pills May Face Higher Risk of Rare ... suggests. Dutch researchers found that obese women on birth control pills were nearly 30 times more likely ...

  7. A comparison of slow, uphill and fast, level walking on lower extremity biomechanics and tibiofemoral joint loading in obese and nonobese adults.

    PubMed

    Haight, Derek J; Lerner, Zachary F; Board, Wayne J; Browning, Raymond C

    2014-02-01

    We determined if slow, uphill walking (0.75 m/s, 6°) reduced tibiofemoral (TF) loading compared to faster, level walking (1.50 m/s) in obese and nonobese adults. We collected kinematic, kinetic, and electromyographic data as 9 moderately obese and 10 nonobese participants walked on a dual-belt instrumented treadmill. We used OpenSim to scale a musculoskeletal model and calculate joint kinematics, kinetics, muscle forces, and TF forces. Compressive TF forces were greater in the obese adults during both speed/grade combinations. During level walking, obese participants walked with a straighter leg than nonobese participants, resulting in early stance vasti muscle forces that were similar in the obese and nonobese participants. Early stance peak compressive TF forces were reduced by 23% in obese (2,352 to 1,811 N) and 35% in nonobese (1,994 to 1,303 N) individuals during slow, uphill walking compared to brisk level walking. Late stance peak TF forces were similar across speeds/grades, but were greater in obese (∼2,900 N) compared to nonobese (∼1,700 N) individuals. Smaller early stance TF loads and loading rates suggest that slow, uphill walking may be appropriate exercise for obese individuals at risk for musculoskeletal pathology or pain. PMID:24127395

  8. Obese older adults report high satisfaction and positive experiences with care

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Obese, older adults often have multiple chronic conditions resulting in multiple health care encounters. However, their satisfaction and experiences with care are not well understood. The objective of this study was to examine the independent impact of obesity on patient satisfaction and experiences with care in adults 65 years of age and older with Medigap insurance. Methods Surveys were mailed to 53,286 randomly chosen adults with an AARP® Medicare Supplement Insurance Plan insured by UnitedHealthcare Insurance Company (for New York residents, UnitedHealthcare Insurance Company of New York) in 10 states. Following adjustment for non-response bias, multivariate regression modeling was used to adjust for demographic, socioeconomic and health status differences to estimate the independent impact of weight on satisfaction and experiences with care. Outcome variables included four global and four composite measures of satisfaction and experiences with care. Results 21.4% of the respondents were obese. Relative to normal weight, obesity was significantly associated with higher patient satisfaction and better experiences with care in seven of the eight ratings measured. Conclusions Obese individuals were more satisfied and had better experiences with care. Obese individuals had more office visits and discussions about nutrition, exercise and medical checks. This may have led to increased attentiveness to care, explaining the increase in satisfaction and better experiences with care. Given the high level of satisfaction and experiences with care in older, obese adults, opportunities exist for clinicians to address weight concerns in this population. PMID:24885429

  9. Combined effect of hyperuricemia and overweight/obesity on the prevalence of hypertension among US adults: result from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Han, G-M; Gonzalez, S; DeVries, D

    2014-10-01

    Hypertension is a large and growing public health problem worldwide. Hyperuricemia and overweight/obesity are two of the most important risk factors for hypertension. However, their combined effect on the risk of hypertension is not known. Participants aged 20 years and older from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 1999-2012 were used to evaluate the separate and combined effects of hyperuricemia and overweight/obesity on the risk of prevalent hypertension among different race, gender and age groups. Participants (31,473) were used to estimate separate and combined effects on the prevalence of hypertension. The overall prevalence of hypertension among adults with a combination of hyperuricemia and overweight/obesity (50.2%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 48.3-52.1%) was significantly higher than separate hyperuricemia (41.7%, 95% CI 37.2-46.2%) and overweight/obesity (30.6%, 95% CI 29.5-31.8%). The magnitude of odds ratio (OR) from the combination of hyperuricemia and overweight/obesity (OR=4.53, 95% CI 4.05-5.07) was significantly higher than both hyperuricemia (OR=2.62, 95% CI 2.07-3.32) and overweight/obesity (OR=2.08, 95% CI 1.89-2.30). Combined effect of hyperuricemia and overweight/obesity on the risk of hypertension is much stronger than any separate one. These data can provide important information for identification of target populations for future intervention and patient management. PMID:24785975

  10. Different risk factors for advanced colorectal neoplasm in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Yeon; Jung, Yoon Suk; Park, Jung Ho; Kim, Hong Joo; Cho, Yong Kyun; Sohn, Chong Il; Jeon, Woo Kyu; Kim, Byung Ik; Choi, Kyu Yong; Park, Dong Il

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To compare the risk of developing advanced colorectal neoplasm (ACRN) according to age in Koreans. METHODS: A total of 70428 Koreans from an occupational cohort who underwent a colonoscopy between 2003 and 2012 at Kangbuk Samsung Hospital were retrospectively selected. We evaluated and compared odds ratios (OR) for ACRN between the young-adults (YA < 50 years) and in the older-adults (OA ≥ 50 years). ACRN was defined as an adenoma ≥ 10 mm in diameter, adenoma with any component of villous histology, high-grade dysplasia, or invasive cancer. RESULTS: In the YA group, age (OR = 1.08, 95%CI: 1.06-1.09), male sex (OR = 1.26, 95%CI: 1.02-1.55), current smoking (OR = 1.37, 95%CI: 1.15-1.63), family history of colorectal cancer (OR = 1.46, 95%CI: 1.01-2.10), diabetes mellitus related factors (OR = 1.27, 95%CI: 1.06-1.54), obesity (OR = 1.23, 95%CI: 1.03-1.47), CEA (OR = 1.04, 95%CI: 1.01-1.09) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (OR = 1.01, 95%CI: 1.01-1.02) were related with an increased risk of ACRN. However, age (OR = 1.08, 95%CI: 1.06-1.09), male sex (OR = 2.12, 95%CI: 1.68-2.68), current smoking (OR = 1.38, 95%CI: 1.12-1.71), obesity (OR = 1.34, 95%CI: 1.09-1.65) and CEA (OR = 1.05, 95%CI: 1.01-1.09) also increased the risk of ACRN in the OA group. CONCLUSION: The risks of ACRN differed based on age group. Different colonoscopic screening strategies are appropriate for particular subjects with risk factors for ACRN, even in subjects younger than 50 years. PMID:27053853